A Plain and Easie Method for Preserving (by God's Blessing) Those That Are Well from the Infection of the Plague, or Any Contagious Distemper, in City, Camp, Fleet, Etc., and for Curing Such as Are Infected with It. by Willis, Thomas
Transcriber's Note: Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and blackletter text by =equal signs=.
_Libellum hunc de Peste, dignum judicamus, qui Imprimatur._
Gualt. Charleton, _Præses Collegii Regalis Medicor. Londinens_. Tho. Burwel.} J. Gordon. } _Censores._ Wil. Dawes. } Tho. Gill. }
Dat. _Sepemb. 5. 1690_.
_In Comitiis Censoriis ex Edibus Collegii nostri._
[Illustration: _Thomas Willis M.D._]
Plain and Easie Method
Preserving [by God's Blessing] those that are WELL from the Infection of the
CITY, CAMP, FLEET, _&c._ AND
For Curing such as are Infected with it.
Written in the Year 1666.
By _Tho. Willis_, M. D. late Sidney Professor in _Oxford_, and a Member of the Royal Society and Colledge of Physicians in _London_.
Never before Printed.
_LONDON_, Printed for _W. Crook_, at the _Green-Dragon_, without _Temple-Bar_. 1691.
Having been hitherto very averse from Publishing any of Dr. _Willis_'s Posthumous Works, because it may be presum'd that they want his last Hand to compleat them; and for that Reason, giving no ear till now to any Entreaties of that kind, though never so powerful, or never so importunate: I think my self oblig'd to give the World some Account why I alter'd my mind as to this particular, and did at length suffer my self to be prevail'd with to Print the following Treatise, it being now Fifteen Years after his Death; and it is briefly this: A worthy Friend and an old Acquaintance of mine, desiring if I knew of, or could procure any choice and approv'd Receipts against the Plague, that I would furnish him with some for a Friend of his, for the preservation of whose Health he had a singular concern, and who was going in the late Embassie to _Constantinople_, where that Distemper then was, and did frequently rage: I promis'd to use my utmost endeavours to supply him; and calling to mind this short Tract, which I transcrib'd from the Doctor's Papers in the Year 1666, being then his _Amanuensis_; I knew it would far exceed whatsoever I could elsewhere obtain, or pretend to collect upon this Subject: Whereupon I allow'd him to take a Copy of it for his Friend's use, upon condition he would not make it publick. But not long since a suspicious Sickness having seiz'd their Majesties Army in _Ireland_, the same Person was very much of opinion, that the Printing of it might do great service, should that Disease prove Pestilential; and urg'd such Arguments, as made me to be also of the same perswasion; especially, he having shew'd the Copy to several of the most eminent Physicians amongst us, whose opinion it was, as he assur'd me, that the Publishing of it might be of very great use, it being a charitable instruction in cases of great danger, for such as cannot procure the attendance of Physicians: I must needs own, that I could not withstand the judgment of such Persons.
The regard I have always had, and shall still have for the Reputation and Memory of my dear _Master_, and best _Friend_, will not, I presume, be thought to lessen, by my giving way upon these terms to this Publication; since it is so earnestly desir'd, and so well esteem'd of: And the Good that is aim'd at by it can be no ill Apology for
_Thy Friend and Servant_,
_St._ Martins-Lane, Sept. 1. 1690.
A Plain and Easie
In time of =Pestilence=, because a Physician cannot easily, or often, be consulted with; Therefore it behoveth all Persons, as well Poor as Rich, to be furnish'd with Remedies against that Contagious Disease; and certain Rules, or a Method how to use them: Which Method being very plain, and almost the same to all People, consists chiefly in these two Parts, _viz._ =How to preserve the Whole from taking Infection; And how to cure the Sick that are infected=.
Touching the First; Though the surest way is to fly from it, yet in regard this cannot be done by all, some Means should be us'd to secure [so far as it is possible] those that are forced to stay by it. Such Means of =Prevention=, either concern the Publick Magistrate, which are already sufficiently known, and commonly practis'd in all places that are infected, and it would be superfluous to repeat them here; Or else such as belong to private Persons, what ways every Man that lives in, or near an infected place, may arm himself against the danger of Contagion; Which should be endeavour'd, as well by purifying the Air we breathe, as also by fortifying our selves against taking the Infection at our Nostrils, Mouth, or Pores of the Body, which are the chiefest, if not the only parts the Poison creeps in at.
That the =Air= we breathe in may be wholesome, all Things, that may advance or add to the corruption of it, should diligently be removed; our Houses, and Streets kept clean; all Filth, and whatever may cause noisom smells, be taken away; and amongst other things, the smell of Sope Suds, and Lye, in the washing of Clothes, be avoided; this, Experience has taught to be very dangerous; as 'tis observed by =Diemerbroek= and =Vander Heyden=.
Besides the suppressing of Vapours that may increase the infection of the =Air=, it is to be purg'd of that Malignity it brings with it from other infected places; and this is done by great Fires, which should be continually kept, except the Weather be too hot, and by Fumes of _Sulphur_, _Nitre_, _Frankincense_, _Pitch_, _Rosin_, _Tarr_, and the like, which every day should be burnt in the Room we most frequent, also before our Doors, and on the tops of our Houses. Of simple Medicines to be us'd for this purpose, _Brimstone_ is commended for the best that is; 'Tis likely that _Vitriol_, which partakes much of the like acid Spirit, may be very proper; but in regard 'tis not easily combustible, make this mixture, and strew of it on Coals in a hot Chafing-dish.
_Take green_ Vitriol _calcin'd_, Saltpeter, _and_ Sulphur, _of each a pound, beat them well together, and keep it for use_.
_In close Rooms, and in hot Weather_, Vinegar _with_ Rue, _or_ Wormwood, _chopt small, and evaporated in a perfuming Pot; or else Pestilential_ Vinegar [as we shall describe] _thrown on a hot Brick. Or take_ Myrrh, Galbanum, Ammoniac, _of each half an Ounce; boyl these in a Quart, or three Pints of_ White-Wine Vinegar, _'till they are all dissolv'd; put half a spoonful of this at a time on a hot Brick_.
Some commend Slakeing of _Lime_, supposing the fume that ariseth from it, may purifie the Air: 'Tis possible, if this be done with _Vinegar_, either simple, or impregnated with _Alexipharmacal_ Medicines, it may be more effectual.
Next to the Cure of the =Air=, to render that as wholesom as we can; we must arm our selves against taking in that Malignity, which [notwithstanding all means of purifying it] shall still remain mixt with it. Now because the Spirits are commonly the first that receive Infection; We must fortifie them, that they may not easily admit the approaches of their Enemy, which when they are in full vigour and expansion, they will repel, and as it were keep off at a distance; Therefore =Wine= and =Confidence= are a good =Preservative= against the =Plague=: But when the Spirits, through fear, or want of supply, do recede, and are forc'd to give back, the Enemy enters, and first seizeth them, and thence gets into the Blood and Humors; Therefore much =Fasting= and =Emptiness= are =bad=: But every one should Eat and Drink at convenient Hours, in such manner and measure, as may always keep the Spirits lively and chearful, and endeavour to compose his Mind and Affection against fear and sadness.
But besides keeping the Spirits in a good height, and more especially when that cannot be done, as in Persons that are naturally fearful, and of a tender Constitution, the Spirits should constantly, as it were, be kept arm'd with such Remedies as resist the Poyson; that is, the use of proper Antidotes against the =Plague=.
I shall set down some =Preservatives= to be taken of every Morning, and again at Night, by those that live in infected places.
_Take of Conserve of_ Wood-Sorrel _four Ounces_; Confectio Liberans, _and_ Mithridate, _of each half an Ounce; Salt of_ Wormwood _two Drams; Confection of_ Hyacinth _one Dram_; Tormentil _Roots, and fine_ Bole, _of each half a Dram; Pestilential_ Vinegar _half an Ounce; mix all with Syrup of_ Citron; _Take as much as a Nutmeg, Night and Morning_.
For the Poorer Sort, that Medicine of the Ancients, may be proper, _viz._
_Take of_ Rue _two handfuls_, Figs _and_ Walnut-Kernels, _of each twenty four, common Salt half an Ounce; Which beat all together in a Mortar, till it be well mix'd; Take of it as much as a Nutmeg every Morning and Night_.
This Medicine may be several ways advanc'd, by adding some _Alexipharmacal_ Remedies to it, as by putting Salt of _Wormwood_, instead of common Salt, and by adding an Ounce of _Venice Treacle_, to the whole Composition.
For those that cannot take an _Electuary_, these _Tablets_ may be proper to eat, about one Dram at a time, two or three times a day.
_Take of the Roots of_ Virginian-Snakeweed, Zedoary, Contrayerva, Species Liberans, _of each two Drams_; Camphire _two Drams; mix all finely pouder'd, then dissolve eight Ounces of fine Sugar in Pestilential_ Vinegar; _Boyl it Candy high, and adding the Pouder to it, make all into Lozenges_.
For some that are of a hotter Constitution, and a high Sanguine Temper, it may be proper to take every Morning a spoonful of Pestilential _Vinegar_ in a little _Carduus_ water, or plain _Wallnut_ water; or else drink a draught of _Posset-Drink_, made with a Spoonful of that _Vinegar_.
Let the =Pestilential Vinegar= be made thus.
_Take of the Roots of_ Angelica, Butter-Burr, Tormentil, Elecampane, _of each half an Ounce_, Virginian-Snakeweed, _choice_ Zedoary, Contrayerva, _of each three Drams; Leaves of_ Scordium, Rue, Goats-Rue, _of each one handful_; Marigold Flowers, Clove-gilloflowers, _of each half a handful; Seeds of_ Citron _and_ Carduus, _of each two Drams; Cut and bruise these, and put them in a Glass-Bottle, with three Pints of the best_ Vinegar, _to digest for ten days_.
When the Stomach, by frequent taking of one sort of =Antidote=, begins to loath it: In such Cases the use of it may be changed into some other: And if the Stomach withal should be ill, and defective, in Appetite and Digestion; let the Party take every Morning, ten or twelve Drops of =Elixir Proprietatis=, in plain _Wormwood_ Water, or else in _Wormwood_ Wine.
Those that have Coughs, and ill Lungs, may take five or six Drops of =Balsam= of =Sulphur=, made thus.
_Take Flower of_ Sulphur, _two Ounces, melt it in an Earthen Dish glaz'd on the fire, then put to it two Ounces of Salt of_ Wormwood; _stir it for a Quarter of an Hour, taking care that it does not catch fire; Then put into it of_ Aloes, Myrrh, Olibanum, _finely pouder'd, of each one Dram, of_ Saffron _half a Dram; Keep this stirring half a Quarter of an Hour; Take it off, and put half an Ounce of it pouder'd, to digest in five or six Ounces of good Spirit of Wine; It will take in a short time a very excellent Tincture: Which keep for use_.
Or else this Balsam may be made with _Spiritus Theriacalis Camphoratus_, and so will be more effectual against the =Plague=, Or which is more applicable to use,
_Put an Ounce of that Pouder newly made, into a pretty large Glass, and put to it a Quart of good Sack; Set it in a gentle heat, for three or four Hours, it will take a Tincture: And of this one may take half a Spoonful at a time: And I suppose two Spoonfuls in a convenient_ Vehicle, _may be a good_ Sudorifick _to be given one that is infected_.
Though Purging in time of Pestilence is not good, as =Diemerbroek= by frequent Examples has observ'd, yet in _Cachochymick_ Bodies, it may be convenient once in a fortnight, to take a Dose of _Pillulæ Ruffi_; Take half a Dram at Night, and next Morning take the wonted Antidote, as at other times.
Also for those that live in an infected Air, that there is suspicion that they may daily take in some pestiferous Vapours, which fermenting with the Blood and Humours, may insensibly at last break out in the =Plague=; it may not be amiss, once or twice a week, to take pretty large =Sweats= in their Beds: And this to be done, especially if the Party has had any occasion whereby he may suspect himself to have been more open to infection, or that he has taken any: After such Sweat he should keep his Chamber the forepart of the day, till the Pores are reduc'd to be as they were before.
_To provoke such a Sweat: Take of_ Venice Treacle, _one Dram; dissolve it in three Ounces of_ Carduus _Water, add a Spoonful of_ Syrup _of Pestilential_ Vinegar; _Or take a Draught of Posset-Drink, made with Pestilential_ Vinegar; _In which boyl a few_ Petasitis _Roots: To promote and continue the Sweat, take Posset-Drink with_ Meadow-Sweet, _or else with_ Carduus, _or_ Marigold-Flowers _boyl'd in it_.
Besides the daily and constant life of such _Alexipharmacal_ Remedies, there are other Means, which occasionally and sometimes continually should be taken. For in regard we always draw in the Air at our Nostrils and Mouth, these parts should be well guarded with some Antidotes, that may keep out the poysonous Vapours from entring in, and especially as often as upon occasion we are more nearly expos'd to danger of Infection. To this end, some things to smell to, others to be held in the Mouth, chew'd, and swallow'd down, are frequently to be insisted on.
That which seems at once to fulfil most of these intentions, is taking of Tobacco in a Pipe; the Smoke of this secures those parts which lye openest, and at once intercepts the Contagion from the Brain, Lungs, and Stomach: Nay more than this, it stirs the Blood and Spirits all the Body over, and makes them shake off any poysonous Matter that adher'd to them: Insomuch that =Diemerbroek= accounts it not only a Preservative, but tells us, that himself, when he was several times infected, by taking five or six Pipes of Tobacco together was presently cur'd. And amongst us in _England_ 'tis reported, That in the last great Plague, no Tobacco-Shop was infected: If 'tis not of so great virtue still amongst us, the reason is, because most Men have been accustomed to take it so excessively; wherefore it is grown so familiar to them, that it produceth no alteration when it should be us'd as an Antidote.
Besides the frequent use of Tobacco, which doubtless in time of Plague may be profitable for them that can take it; others, and also Tobacconists, at sometimes should be furnished with something to smell to when they pass through infected Places. _Wormwood_ and _Rue_, _Galbanum_, _Castor_ and _Vinegar_ are good: The vulgar practice of putting _Mithridate_, or _Treacle_, or _Tar_ in their Nostrils, may be very useful; or to have a _Pomander_ to carry in ones hand, or put into the top of a Staff.
_Take of the Roots of_ Contrayerva _and_ Virginian-Snakeweed _pouder'd, of each Two Drams; of the best_ Myrrh _pouder'd, half an Ounce; of_ Camphire _half a Dram. Let it be made a Pouder_.
Part of this may be enclos'd in a fine Silk Bag, and oftentimes dip it in _Pestilential Vinegar_, and so smell to it. To the other part of this, add _Oyl of Nutmegs_ by Expression, and Oyl of _Cap-ivy_, of each a Dram, or as much as will make it into a Mass; also add of _Balsam of Peru_ one Scruple. Dip Cotton Wool in _Elixir Proprietatis_, inclose it in fine Silk, and put it in the head of a Staff, or Civet Box, to smell to.
For Medicines to hold in the Mouth, and chew on, Roots of _Zedoary_, _Contrayerva_, and _Snakeweed_ are very good; also Roots of _Enulacampane_, _Angelica_, and _Masterwort_; these either alone, or macerated in _Vinegar_, and dried again. _Myrrh_ is very excellent: Some commend Tobacco, and chew it almost continually.
These are the chiefest Remedies which help to keep Infection out of the Body. There is yet another sort which serves to let it out, and carry it away, before it grows to a head, _viz. Issues_, which have been found by often experience to be good Preservatives in time of Plague: For as much as Nature having a constant vent for excrementitious matter thrown off the Blood, by the same way expels poysonous Atoms soon after they are receiv'd into the Body.
Concerning Rules of Diet I need not say much, because such Precepts are commonly known: 'Tis to be observ'd in general, that only wholsome Food should be taken: Very salt Meats, as hang'd Beef, Bacon, Pork, salt Fish, also shell-Fish, most kind of Herbage and raw Fruit should be avoided. The Meals should be moderate, and eaten in due season. Some Antidotal Things may be taken with the Meat, or mix'd in the Sauce; _Clove Gilloflowers_ pickled, also _Citron_ Peel and Juice, _Rasberries_, _Currants_, _Pomegranate_ Juices, _Pestilential Vinegar_, and _Mustard_, made with the Seeds of _Thlaspi_, may be of some good effect.
These kind of Remedies, and manner of living, ought chiefly to be insisted on as Preservatives against the Plague. Those that are timorous and of tender Constitutions require a support from the use of more means; whereas Persons that are strong, and of a bold temper, have need of the less Remedies. But 'tis not safe for any to be so confident as to dare to converse with infected People, or live in the midst of Contagion without any Antidote at all.
In the use of means, caution is to be had, that strong and hot Cordials be not too often taken, nor yet indifferently by all People; for that will inflame the Blood, and make it apt to kindle a Fever, which at such times soon turns to the Plague.
The like caution is to be had against immoderate drinking of Wine; though a moderate proportion chears and fortifies the Spirits, yet too much greatly disorders them, and thereby People are more expos'd to take Infection.
Letting of Blood in time of Plague has been observ'd to be very pernicious; so also oft or strong Purging; for the Veins being emptied either way, will readily suck in whatever poysonous Atoms lurk in the outward Pores of the Body, which being admitted, become the more prevalent, because the Spirits being depauperated, are less able to subdue or repel them.
Thus much of the way of Preservation: Next we are to treat of the Cure of those that are infected.
The Cure of the Plague admits of no Delay; neither indeed is there need of any deliberation what ought to be done; but as soon as any one finds himself infected, let him forthwith take to his Bed, and having pray'd to Almighty God for his Blessing, begin to use the Means.
If the Party is much oppress'd at his Stomach, and strains to vomit, or else with vomiting throws up bitter and stinking Matter; let him presently take a large draught of _Carduus_, or _Camomile_ Posset-Drink, and in it either half a Dram of Salt of _Vitriol_, or two Ounces of Liquor of _Squills_, and with his finger or a Feather, fetch up what is contain'd in his Stomach; but take no Antimonial Medicine, that will work beyond the Stomach. As soon as he has vomited, [or if there is no occasion for this Evacuation] let him presently be put into a Sweat, and continue for twelve hours, more or less, according as his strength will hold out, and not sleep in it, or not till the latter end of it.
If when he begins to Sweat, or endeavours it, his Vomiting still persists, then apply to the pit of the Stomach a Toast of White-Bread, spread over with _Treacle_ or _Mithridate_, and dipt in _Claret-Wine_ or _Pestilential Vinegar_, made Scalding hot in a Peuter Dish; Wrap this in fine Linnen, and apply it very hot.
After a plentiful Sweat for twelve, fourteen, or eighteen hours, give him some Refective, as Broth, Caudle, Mace-drink, or the like; and a little while after suffer him to sleep if he can. Then give him temperate Cordials by way of Confection or Julep, or both; which repeat every third or fourth hour: Also at the time that the Party settles to sleep, lay _Vesicatory_ Plaisters behind the Ears, and under the Arm-pits, and also in the Groin.
After he has slept, or endeavour'd it, and his Spirits are pretty well refresh'd, at a moderate distance from the first sweating, _viz._ Eighteen, or Four and Twenty hours, sooner or later, according as Symptoms are more or less urgent, and his strength is able, repeat the Sweating again; and so proceed through the whole Cure; one while Sweating, and another while refreshing his Spirits by temperate Cordials and Sleep; betwixt whiles administring fit Nourishment, until such time as the Symptoms are abated wholly, and either the Disease terminated, or else the Malignity is driven all out in Boyls or Carbuncles; which how they must be order'd, shall be set down.
Though the same kind of Sudorificks may be given indifferently to most People, yet because there is variety of such Medicines, in respect both of the Matter and Form of them, therefore some choice may be had in the administration of them, that so we may comply with the Patient's taking them best in this or that kind of Form; and also that those that are hotter be given to Persons of a cold Temper, and those Medicines which are more temperate to such whose Constitutions are hot: I shall set down several Forms of Sweating Medicines, which are given either in =Potion=, =Bolus=, or =Pouder=.
_Take of_ Small Plague Water, _Two Ounces_; Pestilential Vinegar, _half an Ounce; of_ Venice Treacle, _one Dram; mingle them_.
_Take of Compound_ Scordium Water _two Ounces_; Treacle-Water _half an Ounce_, Venice Treacle _one Dram_, Salt of Wormwood _one Scruple_, Spirit of Vitriol _Six Drops_: Mingle them.
_Take of_ Butter Burr-Water _three Ounces_, Venice Treacle, Diascordium, _of each one Dram, Pestilential_ Vinegar _one Spoonful_: Mix them.
_Take of_ Carduus _Water Four Ounces, Pestilential_ Vinegar _One Ounce, Pestilential_ Extract _One Scruple_: Mix them.
_Or make some_ Posset-Drink _with Pestilential_ Vinegar; _in a Draught of it dissolve one Dram, or a Dram and a half, of any of these Confections, adding one Scruple of Salt of_ Wormwood.
_In a Spoonful or two of_ Treacle-Water, _or_ Vinegar, _or both mix'd; give fifteen or twenty Drops of_ Spirit of Harts-horn, _or of the simple Mixture from half a Dram to a Dram; or of_ Balsam of Sulphur, _from ten to twenty Drops, or fifteen Drops of_ Elixir Proprietatis.
For the Poorer sort, make _Posset-Drink_ with Pestilential _Vinegar_, and boyl in it some _Butter-Roots_, and give a Draught hot.
Or make this Potion which =Henricus a Bra= magnifies above all other Remedies, from the Experience of it in a great Plague once raging in his Country.
_Take_ Celandine _and_ Rue, _of each one handful_, Marigold Flowers _half a handful; boyl these in a Quart of_ White-Wine Vinegar; _strain it out, and keep it in a Glass Bottle; give two or three Spoonfuls; in which dissolve of_ Venice Treacle, _or_ Mithridate, _one Dram_. This will provoke Sweat very powerfully.
Some others commend a Decoction of _Guaiacum_, to provoke Sweat with it, as in the cure of the _French Pox_.
A plain Decoction of _Rue_ in _White Wine_, with a little _Vinegar_ added to it, is highly commended by others.
Seeds of _Rue_ pouder'd, and one Dram of it mix'd with half a Dram of _Treacle_, dissolv'd with _White-Wine_, is accounted an excellent Sudorifick.
Sudorifick Medicines may be given in =Pouder= thus.
_Take of_ Virginian Snakeweed, Contrayerva, _and_ Gascoigne _Pouder, or_ Lady Kent's _Pouder, of each one Scruple; give it in two Spoonfuls of Posset Drink, or of a Cordial Julep, or in_ Syrup of Gilloflowers.
_Take_ Pouder of prepar'd Toad _one Dram_, Pouder of Hyacinth _half a Dram_: Mingle them.
_Take of_ Bezoartica Mineralis _half an Ounce, of_ Species Liberans _two Scruples_, Camphire _eight Grains_: Mingle them.
_Take of the_ Flower of Sal Armoniac _half a Scruple, of_ Cerusse of Antimony _one Scruple, of_ Bole Armenick _one Scruple_: Mingle them.
Give any of these in a Spoonful or two of any Liquor, or in a Spoonful of _Sack_, with as much Pestilential _Vinegar_; half an hour after, drink a draught of Posset-Drink with _Medesweet_, or _Woodsorrel_ boyl'd in it.
_Take of the_ Pouder of Ivy Berries _one Dram; give it in a draught of warm_ White-Wine, _with a Spoonful of Pestilential_ Vinegar.
_Take_ Pouder of the Roots of Carline Thistle; _Give it in the same manner_.
_Likewise_ Pouder of Butter Burr Root, _given in the same manner, provoketh Sweat powerfully, and expelleth the Poyson of the Plague_.
_Take of_ Zedoary Root _that is gummy and sound, one Ounce_, Sugar Candy _one Ounce and an half_, Camphire _half an Ounce; mix all in a fine Pouder:_ The Dose is one Dram in some distill'd Water.
If the Patient can best take his Medicine in a =Bolus=.
_Take of_ Venice Treacle _one Dram_, Tormentile Roots, Bole prepar'd, _of each one Scruple_, Syrup of Gilloflowers _as much as sufficeth_.
_Take_ Diascordium, Confectio Liberans, _of each half a Dram, or two Scruples_, Salt of Wormwood _one Scruple_, Conserve of Roses _vitriolated half a Dram_, Syrup of Gilloflowers _as much as is sufficient_.
_Take of_ Conserve of Roses _half a Dram_, Balsam of Sulphur, _fifteen Drops; mix them_. Take Posset Drink half an hour, or an hour after any of these.
When many People are sick, and there is not leisure to compound every Dose of these Medicines severally, there should be a large mixture of each kind made up together, which may immediately, and without trouble be distributed into Doses.
_For Sweating Potions thus._
_Take a Quart of_ Small Plague _Water, of_ Compound _Water of_ Scordium _and Pestilential_ Vinegar, _of each a Quarter of a Pint, of_ Syrup of Gilloflowers _two Ounces_, Venice Treacle _one Ounce, of_ Diascordium _and_ Confectio Liberans, _of each half an Ounce_, Pestilential Extract, Salt of Wormwood, _of each two Drams; put all together in a large Glass, shake them well together, and after it has stood Four and Twenty Hours, make use of it: Pour out three Ounces of the clear, and two Ounces of it turbid or shaken just before:_ This may serve for fourteen or sixteen days.
_Mix a_ =Pouder= _thus_.
_Take of the_ Pouder of Confectio Liberans, _one Ounce_, Roots of Contrayerva, Virginian-Snakeweed, Tormentile, Bole prepar'd, _of each two Drams, of the_ Claws of Crabs _pouder'd, half an Ounce, mix all very well_. The Dose is from one Dram to one Dram and a half, or two Drams.
_Or take of the Pouders of Prepar'd_ Toad _one Ounce, and of_ Confectio Liberans _half an Ounce, mix them_. The Dose is from one Dram to one Dram and a half.
For an _Electuary_ to be distributed into several Doses, that of =Hermannus Vander Heyden= is a very good one, and as he asserts, approved by frequent Experience.
_Take of_ Diascordium _one Ounce and a half, of_ Venice Treacle _two Drams, of_ Confectio Hyacinthi _one Dram_, Pouder of Nutmegs, Rue _Seeds_, Root of Angelica, Enulacampane, _of each one Dram and a half_, Wine Vinegar (_or rather_ Pestilential Vinegar) _one Ounce_, Oyl of Sulphur _fifteen drops_, Syrup of Juice of Citron _as much as sufficeth: make up all together_. The Dose is from one Dram and a half to two Drams.
_Or take of_ Conserve of Wood Sorrel, _half a Pound, of_ Mithridate _four Ounces_. The Dose is two Drams.
In time of Sweating, give the Patient Posset Drink made with Pestilential _Vinegar_; boyl in the Milk _Scordium_ or _Marigold_ Flowers; if he is very dry, boyl _Medesweet_, or _Wood Sorrel_; if he is ill at Stomach, and apt to vomit or faint, give _Claret_ Wine burnt with _Cinnamon_ and _Zedoary_ Root, and _Mint_ Water mix'd with it: Or else give him _Beer_ boyl'd with a Crust of _Bread_ and _Mace_, and sweetn'd with _Sugar_. Besides, to the richer sort give now and then a draught of a _Cordial Julep_, and sometimes a Dose of a _Cordial Electuary_; which kind of Medicines should be given likewise after Sweating is over, once in three or four hours, of one or other, to refresh the Spirits, and to keep the Malignity from the Heart. Give him no cold _Beer_ in two or three days. After Sweating wash the Mouth with _White-wine Vinegar_ and _Rose Water_: Also dip a Spunge in the same warm, and gently stroke the Temples of the Head, and Nostrils with the same. Between whiles give of the Medicines following.
_Take_ Woodsorrel Water, _and_ Dragon-Water, _of each Four Ounces_; Scordium Water, _two Ounces_; Treacle Water (_or_ Plague Water) _one Ounce and a half;_ Syrup of Gilloflowers (_or of_ Juice of Citrons) _two Ounces_; Pearle finely pouder'd _one Scruple_; Spirit of Vitriol _twelve Drops: Mix them_.
_Or make a_ =Decoction= _thus._
_Take of_ Harts-Horn rasp'd, _and_ Ivory, _of each three Drams; a_ Pear main _sliced_, Woodsorrel _half an handful: Boyl these in three Pints of Water, till a third part is wasted; Strain it on two Ounces of_ Conserve _of_ Gilloflowers, _or_ Woodsorrel, _or_ Red Roses: _Let it infuse an hour: then stir it, and strain it out: Give a Quarter of a Pint warm_.
Whereas we give _Emulsions_ made with such a Decoction and _Almonds_, and cold Seeds in Fevers, =Diemerbroek= affirms, upon his frequent Observation, _Emulsions_ never do well in the Plague.
_Take of the_ Conserve of Woodsorrel _four ounces, of the_ Rob of Goosberries _or_ Rasberries _two Ounces_, Species Diarrhodon Abbatis _two Drams_, Confectionis Liberantis _one Dram and a half, of_ Prepar'd Pearl _half a Dram_, Red Coral prepar'd _one Dram, with a sufficient quantity of_ Syrup of Juice of Citron: Let it be made an Opiate: The Dose is one or two Drams often in a day.
Sometimes the Plague is accompanied with dangerous Symptoms, to which if Remedies are not suddenly applied, all we do besides is to little purpose. Such Accidents, which call for respective ways of Cure, are chiefly _Fluxes of Blood_, and _Loosness of the Belly_, and _Vomiting_.
The first use to happen several ways, _viz._ at the Nose and Mouth, by Stool or Urine, by the _Hæmorrhoids_, and in Women by Menstrual Purgations: Some of which, as by Urine always, and ofttimes by Stool, are mortal; none of them ever tend to good. Therefore in all such cases, Remedies must be administred which may stop Bleeding: And though Sweating and Refection of the Spirits be still the principal intention of Cure; yet the other must come in as collateral with both of them; and Medicines that restrain Fluxes of Blood be mixed both with Sudorificks and other Cordials, and also be administred with Diet too.
In all _Hæmorrhages_ Sudorificks must be compounded of Medicines that are temperate, and not astringent.
For =Potions= they be made thus.
_Take_ Pimpernel Water, _or_ Tormentil Water _two Ounces, of_ Scordium Water _six Drams, of_ Vinegar _that has_ Tormentil Roots infus'd _in it, two Drams_, Confection of Hyacinth _one Dram, of_ prepar'd Bole _half a Dram_, Extract of Tormentil _one Scruple, of_ Syrup of Coral _three Drams_.
_Or make_ Posset Drink _with_ Tormentil Vinegar, _boyl in it a_ Root of Tormentil _and_ Bistort; _in one draught of it dissolve of_ Venice Treacle _two Scruples_, Confection of Hyacinth, prepar'd Bole, _of each one Scruple_.
Make this _Apozeme_, and give two or three Ounces three or four times in a day.
_Take of_ Tormentil Roots _half an Ounce_, Bistort _three Drams_, Red Sanders _one Dram, of_ Pomegranate Peel _one Dram_, St. Johns Wort, Plantane _and_ Burnet, _of each half a handful;_ Flowers of Roses, _and_ Pomegranates, _of each one Dram and a half; of_ Plantane Seeds _one Dram: Boyl these in three Pints of Water till a Pint is wasted; strain it, and add to it of_ Syrup of Coral _two Ounces_, Confection of Hyacinth _two Drams_: Mingle them.
=Pouders= may be compounded thus.
_Take of_ Confectio Liberans, _or_ Confection of Hyacinth _half a Dram_; Tormentil Roots, Fine Bole, _of each one Scruple_; Pearl _and_ Coral prepar'd, _of each half a Scruple:_ Give it in a Spoonful of _Syrup_ of _Coral_, with a Spoonful of _Tormentil Vinegar_.
Make a =Bolus= thus.
_Take_ Confection of Hyacinth and Venice Treacle, _of each half a Dram;_ Tormentil Roots _and_ prepar'd Bole, _of each one Scruple; of_ Extract of Tormentil _half a Scruple, of_ prepar'd Pearl _six Grains, of_ Syrup of Coral _as much as is sufficient_.
For =Juleps= and =Confections=, to give in, and betwixt _Sweating_, they be compounded thus.
_Take of_ Medesweet _Water eight Ounces_, small Plague _Water_, Scordium Compound _Water, of each three Ounces; of_ Syrup of Coral _two Ounces_, Confection of Hyacinth _two Drams, of_ Tormentil Vinegar _half an Ounce_; Mix them: Give four or five Spoonfuls every third hour.
_Or take of_ Conserve of Red Roses _four Ounces, of_ prepar'd Coral _two Drams, of_ prepar'd Pearl _half a Dram_, Confection of Hyacinth and Alkermes, _of each one Dram, of_ Tormentil Vinegar _half an Ounce; or as much as is sufficient:_ Make it up into an Electuary: Give once in three or four hours as much as a Nutmeg.
These kinds of Remedies, which are proper in _Hæmorrhages_, are also to be used in _Fluxes_ of the Belly; likewise by Women with Child, because other more hot Medicines may provoke an Abortion.
Make =Tormentil Vinegar= thus.
_Take_ Roots of Tormentil, Bistort _dried and sliced, of each an Ounce_, Cinnamon _half an Ounce_, Red Sanders _one Dram: Bruise all very well, and put to it a Quart of_ White-Wine Vinegar; _digest it in a common Furnace for four days: At the same time take_ Red and White Coral finely pouder'd, _of each half an Ounce;_ Dragons Blood, Blood-Stone, _of each one Dram_; Fine Bole, _two Drams: Digest these in the same manner with a_ Quart of Vinegar: Then strain out both the Liquors, and mix them.
Let =Extract= of =Tormentil= Roots be made thus.
_Take_ Tormentil _and_ Bistort-Roots, _of each one Ounce_; of Cinnamon _half an Ounce_, of Red Sanders _two Drams_, Salt of Wormwood _half an Ounce; bruise all together, adding of_ Tormentil Vinegar _two Ounces; put it in a Vessel to digest with three Pints of_ Medesweet Water: _Strain it, and evaporate it with a gentle heat in_ Balneo Mariæ _to the Consistency of Honey_.
In the Cure of the Plague, if a course of Sweating, timely administred, do plentifully succeed, and withal other private Excretions be either prevented or presently supprest, the Patient may be judg'd to be in a hopeful condition; and sometimes the Venom is quite expell'd, without any other accident: But for the most part, because the Poyson, by fermenting the Blood and Humours, is soon greatly encreas'd; so that all of it, especially the grosser Particles, cannot easily evaporate, it settles in the outward Parts, and there causeth the swelling and breaking out of divers kinds: Those that require any application of Remedies, are =Boils= and =Carbuncles=.
The first of these commonly happen in Parts that are very Glandulous; as behind the Ears, under the Armpits, and in the Groin: They arise with a hard Swelling, which ought to suppurate and break, and the Corruption to be drawn all out, by the running of the Sore for some time: These Tumors call'd =Bubo's=, should be ordered thus.
If a Blister is not rais'd on, or near the place already, 'tis good to apply a _Vesicatory_ Plaister just below it, but on the Tumor it self to apply some drawing Medicine, to attract the Venom outward; as at first, the Fundament of some living Fowl, or else a _Colewort-Leaf_ dipt in scalding Water, and dried again, and smear'd over with _Oyl of Lillies_ or _Scorpions_. To ripen the Sore, lay on Pultises or Plaisters; or rather first Pultises, and then Plaisters, when it tends to suppuration; which should be renew'd every twelve hours at least.
_Take an_ Onion _and_ White Lilly Roots, _boyl them, or else wrap them in a wet Paper, and roast them in the Embers, afterward stamp both together, adding a little_ Treacle, _and_ Oyl of Lillies _as much as is sufficient: Or else roast a_ Fig _with either or both these above-nam'd, and make a Pultis in the same manner: Or else with either, or all above-named Remedies, add an handful of_ Scabious _or_ Sorrel _wash'd; and after beat all into a Pultis_.
_Take_ Pimpernel roasted on the Embers, _mollifie it with_ Oyl of Scorpions, _adding a little_ Pouder of Myrrh _and_ Venice Treacle, _and lay it to the Sore_.
_Some do commend_ live Frogs _to be applyed, and renew'd as oft as they die_.
_For a Plaister to break the Sore when it is open'd_, Diachylon _with_ Gums; _or else those two Emplaisters_, viz. Emplastrum Paracelsi, _and_ de Fuligine, _mention'd by_ =Diemerbroek=, _pag._ 213. =Paracelsus= his Plaister is there thus order'd to be made.
_Take of_ Gum Oppopanax _two Ounces_, Seraphin _or_ Sagapen _four Ounces_, Bdellium _three Ounces_, Galbanum _one Ounce_, Olibanum _two Drams; let them be dissolved in_ Vinegar, _and strain'd, and adding the_ Pouder of a dried Toad and Frog, _of_ Natural Brimstone _one Ounce, of_ Camphire _one Dram_: Let it be made a Plaister to be put upon the Tumor, and renewed every six hours.
=Emplastrum de Fuligine=, or =Plaister of Soot=, is thus made.
_Take of_ Chimney Soot _ten Drams_, Leaven, Turpentine, Butter, _of each one Ounce_, Venice Sope _one Ounce and a half, of_ Honey of Roses _six Drams_, Common Salt _half an Ounce, the_ Whites of two Eggs, Treacle _and_ Mithridate, _of each two Drams_: Let them be mixed. _For the Poorer sort_, Shoemakers Wax _is as good as any_.
If when the Tumor is ripen'd, it do not soon break of it self, it is best to open it by Incision; and when it is broken, put in a Pledget dipp'd in _Turpentine_ mix'd with the _Yolk of an Egg_; or dress it with _Basilicon_ alone, or the Liniment of _Arceus_.
A =Carbuncle=, which is the other kind of Plague-Sore, which requires the operation of the hand, happens but seldom in any of the Emunctories [and when it does it portends ill] but useth to be in most places else; It ariseth with angry _Pustules_, sometimes one, sometimes many; which soon grow discolour'd, and tend to Mortification, and the substance mortified must be cast out, and then the hollow Ulcer which remains must be healed.
When a _Carbuncle_ first appears, =Diemerbroek= commends to be applied to it for the first and second day, a _Red Colewort Leaf_, smear'd over with _Rape Oyl_: The same Author mentions a _Pultis_ which he us'd for the most part, renewing it three or four times in four and twenty hours, till the Core was taken out; and then Digestive Medicines, and others succeedingly are to be us'd, as in other _Ulcers_.
_Take_ Scabious _and_ Devils Bit, _of each two or three handfuls, stamp them, and then beat them with the_ Yolks of two Eggs, _and a little_ Salt; _lay it to the_ Carbuncle _warm, renewing it three times in a day at least_.
Original variations in hyphenation have been retained. Original spellings were also retained except in the cases of these apparent typographical errors:
Page 2, “takeing” changed to “taking.” (How to preserve the Whole from taking Infection)
Page 14, “Balsum” changed to “Balsam.” (five or six Drops of Balsam of Sulphur)
Page 31, “Medicins” changed to “Medicines.” (there is variety of such Medicines)