Notes and Queries, Number 235, April 29, 1854 A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc. by Various

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early Journals.)




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 235.] SATURDAY, APRIL 29. 1854. [Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

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NOTES:-- Page Curious Old Pamphlet 391 Errata in Printed Bibles 391 Impossibilities of History 392 Unregistered Proverbs, by C. Mansfield Ingleby 392 Mr. Justice Talfourd, by H. M. Bealby and T. J. Buckton 393 The Screw Propeller 394 Ancient Chattel-Property in Ireland, by James F. Ferguson 394 Bishop Atterbury 395

MINOR NOTES:--"Milton Blind"--Hydropathy--Cassie--The Duke of Wellington--Romford Jury--Edward Law (Lord Ellenborough), Chief Justice--Chamisso--Dates of Maps--Walton--Whittington's Stone on Highgate Hill--Turkey and France 395

QUERIES:-- A Female Aide-Major 397

MINOR QUERIES:--"Chintz Gowns"--"Noctes Ambrosianæ"--B. Simmons--Green Stockings--Nicholas Kieten--Warwickshire Badge--Armorial--Lord Brougham and Horne Tooke--Rileys of Forest Hill--Fish "Lavidian"--"Poeta nascitur, non fit"--John Wesley and the Duke of Wellington--Haviland-- Byron--Rutabaga--A Medal--The Black Cap--The Aboriginal Britons 397

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"Gossip"--Humphry Repton-- "Oriel"--"Orchard"--"Peckwater"--Richard III.--Binding of old Books--Vessel of Paper 399

REPLIES:-- King James's Irish Army List, 1689, by John D'Alton 401 Quotations Wanted, by G. Taylor, &c. 402 Oaths, by James F. Ferguson, &c. 402 Remuneration of Authors, by Alexander Andrews 404 Occasional Forms of Prayer, by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, &c. 404

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:-- Photographic Query--Improvement in Collodion--Printing Positives--Photographic Excursions 406

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--"To Garble"--"Lyra Apostolica"-- John Bale, Bishop of Ossory--Burial in an erect Posture-- "Carronade"--"Largesse"--Precious Stones--"A Pinch of Snuff"--Darwin on Steam--Gale of Rent--Cobb Family--"Aches" --"Meols"--Polygamy--Wafers 407

MISCELLANEOUS:-- Notes on Books, &c. 410 Books and Odd Volumes Wanted 410 Notices to Correspondents 411

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In consequence of the Advertisement Duty having been taken off, the customary charges for Advertisements in "The Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette" have been reduced.

Advertisements appear in both Editions without extra charge.

s. d. Space of Four lines and under (body type) 2 6 Each additional line up to Twenty 0 6

From the Official Stamp Returns published April 5, 1854, it appears that during the three preceding years, 1851, 1852, and 1853, the Stamps supplied to each of the undermentioned Journals gave them an average sale of--

GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE 6277 Era 5500 Wesleyan Times 5094 Magnet 4705 Examiner 4694 Mark Lane Express 4500 Evening Mail 4488 Field 4409 Morning Herald 4021 Daily News 3910 Guardian 3904 Economist 3837 British Banner 3798 Record 3736 Watchman 3681 Nonconformist 2987 Spectator 2856 St. James's Chronicle 2844 Morning Post 2652 Sun 2539 Morning Chronicle 2364 Britannia 2329 Express 2235 Leader 2140 Herapath's Journal 2066 John Bull 2020 Globe 1926 Weekly News 1709 United Service Gazette 1708 Railway Times 1641 Atlas 1479 Standard 1456 Naval and Military Gazette 1313 Patriot 1304 Gardeners' and Farmers' Journal 752


5. Upper Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London.

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SECOND-HAND BOOKS.--Gratis and Post Free, a New Catalogue of Good and Cheap Books, on Sale by SOTHERAN & CO., 331. Strand (opposite Somerset House). Libraries purchased.

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This Day, Cheaper Edition, Two Volumes, fcap. 8vo., 9s.,


London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

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THE CAMDEN SOCIETY for the Publication of Early Historical and Literary Remains.

The ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING will be held at the FREEMASON'S TAVERN, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, on TUESDAY, MAY 2, at Four o'clock. LORD BRAYBROOKE, the President, in the Chair.

WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary.

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The following are the Publications of the Society which have been issued during the past year:--


II. REGULÆ INCLUSARUM: THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the Rules and Duties of Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the 13th Century. Edited by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., Prebendary of Lincoln.



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The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due on the 1st of May.

Communications from gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be addressed to the Secretary, or to MESSRS. NICHOLS, No. 25. Parliament Street, Westminster; by whom the Subscriptions are received.

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Just published, with ten coloured Engravings, price 5s.,


Also, in 8vo., pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s., or coloured, 36s.,

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, Living and Fossil, containing Descriptions of every species, British and Foreign, the methods of procuring and viewing them, &c., illustrated by numerous Engravings. By ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

"There is no work extant in which so much valuable information concerning Infusoria (Animalcules) can be found, and every Microscopist should add it to his library."--_Silliman's Journal._

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

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SMEE'S BINOCULAR PERSPECTIVE PHOTOGRAPHS.--A full account of the mode of taking these extraordinary Likenesses in "Smee on the Eye," just published, price 5s.

HORNE, THORNTHWAITE & WOOD, 123. Newgate Street, London.

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JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

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Now ready, No. VI., 2s. 6d., published Quarterly.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series); consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses of, and Extracts from, Curious, Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books.

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436, cloth 10s. 6d., is also ready.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

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Edinburgh: W. P. KENNEDY. London: HAMILTON, ADAMS, & CO. Dublin: J. McGLASHAN.

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THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, from the Fall of Napoleon to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in Five Vols. 8vo. Price 15s. each. Vols. I. and II. are published.

The THIRD VOLUME, to be published in May, will contain:

Asia Minor, Greece, Turkey, in 1821--The Greek Revolution, Battle of Navarino, and Establishment of Greek Independence--The war between Russia and Turkey, 1827-1829--France to the Revolution of 1830, &c. &c.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

* * * * *


This Day is published, a Second Edition of Vols. I. and II. of


The Volumes published contain:--1. Life of Margaret Tudor, Magdalene of France, and Mary of Lorraine. 2. Continuation of Mary of Lorraine, Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox. 3. and 4. Life of Mary Stuart.

Price 10s. 6d. each, with Portraits and Historical Vignettes.

The Fifth Volume will be published early in Summer.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

* * * * *

MURRAY'S BRITISH CLASSICS.--The new Volume of this Series of STANDARD EDITIONS of ENGLISH AUTHORS, contains the Third Volume of CUNNINGHAM'S EDITION OF GOLDSMITH'S WORKS, and is now published; and the Fourth Volume, completing the Work, will be ready early in May.

ALBEMARLE STREET, _April 29th, 1854_.

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Evangelia Augustini Gregoriana. By the REV. J. GOODWIN, B.D. 20s.

An Historical Inquiry touching St. Catherine of Alexandria, illustrated by a Semi-Saxon Legend. By the REV. C. HARDWICK, M.A. 12s.


I. Anglo-Saxon Legends of St. Andrew and St. Veronica. By C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 3s. 6d.

II. Græco-Egyptian Fragment on Magic. By C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 3s. 6d.

III. Ancient Cambridgeshire. By C. C. BABINGTON, M.A. 3s. 6d.

Reports and Communications, Nos. I. and II. 1s. each.

Index to Baker Manuscripts. 7s. 6d.



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LOCKE'S PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS, containing the "Essay on the Human Understanding," the "Conduct of the Understanding," &c., with Preliminary Discourse and Notes, by J. A. ST. JOHN, ESQ. In Two Volumes. With Portrait. Vol. I. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

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ADDISON'S WORKS, with the Notes of BISHOP HURD. With Portrait and Engravings on Steel. Vol. III. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

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CATULLUS, TIBULLUS and THE VIGIL OF VENUS. A literal Prose Translation. To which are added Metrical Versions by LAMB, GRAINGER, and others. With Frontispiece. Post 8vo. cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

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THEODORET AND EVAGRIUS. Histories of the Church, from A.D. 322 to A.D. 427, and from A.D. 431 to A.D. 544. Translated from the Greek, with General Index. Post 8vo. cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

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Just published, in 8vo., with Views, price, in cloth, 6s. 6d.; or, large paper (royal 8vo.), price, in cloth, 12s.

DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL NOTICES of NORTHUMBRIAN CASTLES, CHURCHES, and ANTIQUITIES. By WILLIAM SIDNEY GIBSON, Esq., F.S.A.--THIRD SERIES: Comprising Visits to Naworth Castle, Lanercost Priory, and Corby Castle, in Cumberland: the ruined Monasteries of Brinkburn, Jarrow, and Tynemouth; Bishop Middleham, and the Town of Hartlepool; Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Durham Cathedral.


* * * * *

Now ready, in 16mo., price 1s.

MOROCCO, its PRESENT STATE: A Chapter of Mussulman Civilisation. By XAVIER DURRIEU. Forming Part 60 of the "Traveller's Library."


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Just published, in fcp. 8vo., price, in cloth, 6s.

THE STATISTICAL COMPANION for 1854: exhibiting the most interesting Facts in Moral and Intellectual, Vital, Economical, and Political Statistics, at Home and Abroad. Compiled by T. C. BANFIELD, Esq.


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ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

* * * * *

CHUBB'S LOCKS, with all the recent improvements. Strong fire-proof safes, cash and deed boxes. Complete list of sizes and prices may be had on application.

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool; 16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.

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ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE. MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY, Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City. LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street. MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place. DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree. GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street. DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay. BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall. SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical Profession, may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the most RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

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Grubbing among old pamphlets, the following has turned up:

"A Fragment of an Essay towards the most ancient Histories of the Old and New Worlds, connected. Intended to be carried on in four Parts or Æras. That is, from the Creation of all Things to the Time of the Deluge: thence to the Birth of Abraham: from that Period to the Descent of Jacob and his Family into Egypt: and, lastly, to the Time of the Birth of Moses. Attempted to be executed in Blank Verse, 8vo. pp. 59. Printed in the year 1765."

This Miltonic rhapsody supposes Adam, when verging on his nine hundreth year, to have assembled his descendants to a kind of jubilee, when sacrifices, and other antediluvian solemnities, being observed, "Seth, the pious son of his comfort, gravely arose, and, after due obedience to the first of men, humbly beseeched the favour to have their memories refreshed by a short history of the marvellous things in the beginning." Then Adam thus:--Hereupon the anonymous author puts into the mouth of the great progenitor of the human race a history of the Creation, in blank verse, in accordance with the Mosaic and orthodox account. Concluding his revelations without reference to the Fall, Seth would interrogate their aged sire upon what followed thence, when Adam excuses himself from the painful recital by predicting the special advent in after times of a mind equal to that task:

"But of this Fall, this heart-felt, deep-felt lapse, This Paradise thus lost, no mortal man Shall sing which lives on earth. Far distant hence In farther distant times, fair Liberty Shall reign, queen of the Seas, and lady of The Isles; nay, sovereign of the world's repose. And Peace! In her a mighty genius shall Arise, of high ethereal mould, great in Renown, sublime, superior far to praise Of sublunary man--or Fame herself. Though blind to all things here on earth below, The heav'ns of heav'ns themselves shall he explore, And soar on high with strong, with outstretched wings! There sing of marvels not to be conceived, Express'd, or thought by any but himself!"

This curious production is avowedly from the other side of the Tweed, and I would ask if its paternity is known to any of your antiquarian correspondents there or here.

The Fragment is preceded by a very remarkable Preface, containing "some reasons why this little piece has thus been thrown off in such a loose and disorderly manner;" among which figure the desire "to disperse a parcel of them gratis,--because they are, perhaps, worth nothing; that nobody may pay for his folly but himself; that, if his Fragment is damned, which it probably may be, he will thenceforth drop any farther correspondence with Adam, Noah, Abraham, &c.; and, lastly, that he may be benefited by the criticisms upon its faults and failings, while he himself lurks cunningly behind the curtain. But if, after all," says the facetious author, "this little northern urchin shall chance to spring forward under the influence of a more southern and warmer sun, the author will then endeavour to bring his goods to market as plump, fresh, and fair as the soil will admit."

I presume, however, the public did not call for any of the farther instalments promised in the title.

J. O.

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Mr. D'Israeli, in his _Curiosities of Literature_, has an article entitled "The Pearl Bibles and Six Thousand Errata," in which he gives some notable specimens of the blunders perpetrated in the printing of Bibles in earlier times. The great demand for them prompted unscrupulous persons to supply it without much regard to carefulness or accuracy; and, besides, printers were not so expert as at the present day.

"The learned Ussher," Mr. D'Israeli tells us, "one day hastening to preach at Paul's Cross, entered the shop of one of the stationers, as booksellers were then called, and inquiring for a Bible of the London edition, when he came to look for his text, to his astonishment and his horror he discovered that the verse was omitted in the Bible! This gave the first occasion of complaint to the king, of the insufferable negligence and incapacity of the London press; and first bred that great contest which followed between the University of Cambridge and the London stationers, about the right of printing Bibles."

Even during the reign of Charles I., and in the time of the Commonwealth, the manufacture of spurious Bibles was carried on to an alarming extent. English Bibles were fabricated in Holland for cheapness, without any regard to accuracy. Twelve thousand of these (12mo.) Bibles, with notes, were seized by the King's printers as being contrary to the statute; and a large impression of these Dutch-English Bibles were burned, by order of the Assembly of Divines, for certain errors. The Pearl (24mo.) Bible, printed by Field, in 1653, contains some scandalous blunders;--for instance, Romans, vi. 13.: "Neither yield ye your members as instruments of _righteousness_ unto sin"--for _unrighteousness_. 1 Cor. vi. 9.: "Know ye not that {392} the unrighteous _shall inherit_ the kingdom of God?"--for _shall not inherit_.

The printer of Miles Coverdale's Bible, which was finished in 1535, and of which only two perfect copies, I believe, are known to exist--one in the British Museum, the other in the library of the Earl of Jersey--deserves some commendation for his accuracy. At the end of the New Testament is the following solitary erratum:

"A faute escaped in pryntyng the New Testament. Upon the fourth leafe, the first syde in the sixth chapter of S. Mathew, 'Seke ye first the kingdome of heaven,' read, 'Seke ye first the kingdome of God.'"


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"That unworthy hand."

I am not aware that the fact of Cranmer's holding his right hand in the flames till it was consumed has been questioned. Fox says:

"He stretched forth his right hand into the flames, and there held it so stedfast that all the people might see it burnt to a coal before his body was touched."--P. 927. ed. Milner, London, 1837, 8vo.

Or, as the passage is given in the last edition,--

"And when the wood was kindled, and the fire began to burn near him, he put his right hand into the flame, which he held so stedfast and immovable (saving that once with the same hand he wiped his face), that all men might see his hand burned before his body was touched."--_Acts and Monuments_, ed. 1839, vol. viii. p. 90.

Burnet is more circumstantial:

"When he came to the stake he prayed, and then undressed himself: and being tied to it, as the fire was kindling, he stretched forth his right hand towards the flame, never moving it, save that once he wiped his face with it, till it was burnt away, which was consumed before the fire reached his body. He expressed no disorder from the pain he was in; sometimes saying, 'That unworthy hand;' and oft crying out, 'Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.' He was soon after quite burnt."--_Hist. of the Reformation_, vol. iii. p. 429., ed. 1825.

Hume says:

"He stretched out his hand, and, without betraying either by his countenance or motions the least sign of weakness, or even feeling, he held it in the flames till it was entirely consumed."--Hume, vol. iv. p. 476.

It is probable that Hume believed this, for while Burnet states positively as a fact, though only inferentially as a miracle, that "the heart was found entire and unconsumed among the ashes," Hume says, "it was pretended that his heart," &c.

I am not about to discuss the character of Cranmer: a timid man might have been roused under such circumstances into attempting to do what it is said he did. The laws of physiology and combustion show that he could not have gone beyond the attempt. If a furnace were so constructed, that a man might hold his hand in the flame without burning his body, the shock to the nervous system would deprive him of all command over muscular action before the skin could be "entirely consumed." If the hand were chained over the fire, the shock would produce death.

In this case the fire was unconfined. Whoever has seen the effect of flame in the open air, must know that the vast quantity sufficient entirely to consume a human hand, must have destroyed the life of its owner; though, from a peculiar disposition of the wood, the vital parts might have been protected.

The entire story is utterly impossible. May we, guided by the words "as the fire was kindling," believe that he _then_ thrust his right hand into the flame--a practice I believe not unusual with our martyrs, and peculiarly suitable to him--and class the "holding it till consumed" with the whole and unconsumed heart?

I may observe that in the accounts of martyrdoms little investigation was made as to what was possible. Burnet, describing Hooper's execution, says, "one of his hands fell off before he died, with the other he continued to knock on his breast some time after." This, I have high medical authority for saying, could not be.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

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In Mr. Trench's charming little book on _Proverbs_, 2nd ed., p. 31., he remarks:

"There are not a few (proverbs), as I imagine, which, living on the lips of men, have yet never found their way into books, however worthy to have done so; either because the sphere in which they circulate has continued always a narrow one, or that the occasions which call them out are very rare, or that they, having only lately risen up, have not hitherto attracted the attention of any one who cared to record them. It would be well, if such as take an interest in the subject, and are sufficiently well versed in the proverbial literature of their own country to recognise such unregistered proverbs when they meet them, would secure them from that perishing, which, so long as they remain merely oral, might easily overtake them; and would make them at the same time, what all _good_ proverbs ought certainly to be, the common heritage of all."

"_Note._--The pages of the excellent _Notes and Queries_ would no doubt be open to receive such, and in them they might be safely garnered up," &c.

I trust this appeal of Mr. Trench's will be at once responded to by both the editor and correspondents of this periodical. With the former {393} must rest the responsibility of withholding from reproduction any proverbs, which though sent him as novelties, may be already registered in the recognised collections.

Mr. Trench's first contribution to this _bouquet_ of the wild flowers of proverbial lore is the following, from Ireland:

"'_The man on the dyke always hurls well._' The looker on," says Mr. Trench in explanation, "at a game of hurling, seated indolently on the wall, always imagines that he could improve on the strokes of the actual players, and if you will listen to him, would have played the game much better than they, a proverb of sufficiently wide application."--P. 32.

Each proverb sent in should be accompanied with a statement of the class among whom, or the locality in which, it is current. The index to "N. & Q." should contain a reference to every proverb published in its pages, under the head of _Unregistered Proverbs_, or _Proverbs_ only. Correspondents should bear in mind the essential requisite of a proverb, _currency_. Curt, sharp sayings might easily be multiplied; what is wanted, however, is a collection of such only as have that prerequisite of admission into the ranks of recognised proverbs. And while contributors should not lose sight of "the stamp of merit," as that which renders the diffusion of proverbs beneficial to mankind, still they should not reject a genuine proverb for want of that characteristic, remembering that,--

"'Tween man and man, they weight not every stamp; Though light, take pieces for the _figure's_ sake."

And that the mere _form_ of a proverb often affords some indication of its age and climate, even where the _matter_ is spurious. I have a large MS. collection of English proverbs by me, from which I doubt not I shall be able to extract some few which have never yet been admitted into any published collection. Of these at some future time.



[We shall be happy to do all in our power to carry out this very excellent suggestion.--Ed. "N. & Q."]

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The noble sentiments uttered by Justice Talfourd in his last moments gave a charm to his sudden death, and shed a hallowed beauty about the painfully closing scenes of this great man. I want them to have a niche in "N. & Q.," and along with them a passage from his beautiful tragedy of _Ion_, which may be considered as a transcript of those thoughts which filled his mind on the very eve of quitting the high and honourable duties of his earthly course. It forcibly illustrates the loving soul, the kind heart, and the amiable character of this deeply lamented judge.

After speaking of the peculiar aspect of crime in that part of the country where he delivered his last charge, he goes on to say:

"I cannot help myself thinking it may be in no small degree attributable to that separation between class and class, which is the great curse of British society, and for which we are all, more or less, in our respective spheres, in some degree responsible, and which is more complete in these districts than in agricultural districts, where the resident gentry are enabled to shed around them the blessings resulting from the exercise of benevolence, and the influence and example of active kindness. I am afraid we all of us keep too much aloof from those beneath us, and whom we thus encourage to look upon us with suspicion and dislike. Even to our servants we think, perhaps, we fulfil our duty when we perform our contract with them--when we pay them their wages, and treat then with the civility consistent with our habits and feelings--when we curb our temper, and use no violent expressions towards them. But how painful is the thought, that there are men and women growing up around us, ministering to our comforts and necessities, continually inmates of our dwellings, with whose affections and nature we are as much unacquainted as if they were the inhabitants of some other sphere. This feeling, arising from that kind of reserve peculiar to the English character, does, I think, greatly tend to prevent that mingling of class with class, that reciprocation of kind words and gentle affections, gracious admonitions and kind inquiries, which often, more than any book-education, tend to the culture of the affections of the heart, refinement and elevation of the character of those to whom they are addressed. And if I were to be asked what is the great want of English society--to mingle class with class--I would say, in one word, the want is the want of sympathy."

Act I. Sc. 2. After Clemanthe has told Ion that, forsaking all within his house, and risking his life with strangers, he can do but little for their aid, Ion replies:

"It is little: But in these sharp extremities of fortune, The blessings which the weak and poor can scatter Have their own season. 'Tis a little thing To give a cup of water; yet its draught Of cool refreshment, drain'd by fever'd lips, May give a shock of pleasure to the frame More exquisite than when nectarean juice Renews the life of joy in happiest hours. It is a little thing to speak a phrase Of common comfort, which, by daily use, Has almost lost its sense; yet, on the ear Of him who thought to die unmourn'd, 'twill fall Like choicest music; fill the glazing eye With gentle tears; relax the knotted hand To know the bonds of fellowship again; And shed on the departing soul a sense, More precious than the benison of friends About the honour'd death-bed of the rich, {394} To him who else were lonely, that another Of the great family is near and feels."

The analogy is as beautiful as it is true.


North Brixton.

Before this talented judge was advanced to the bench, he amused himself and instructed his clients by occasional _metrical_ notes, of which the annexed is a specimen. To make it intelligible to those whom it may _not_ concern, I must add an explanation by the attorney in the suit, who has obligingly placed the learned serjeant's notes at my disposal. This gentleman says: "These notes are in the margin of a brief held by the serjeant as leading counsel in an action of ejectment brought against a person named Rock, in 1842. In converting into rhyme the evidence of the witness Hopkins, as set out in the brief, he has adhered strictly to the statements, whilst he has at the same time seized the prominent points of the testimony as supporting the case."

John Hopkins will identify the spot, Unless his early sports are quite forgot, And from his youngest recollection show The house fell down some forty years ago. And then--a case of adverse claim to meet, Show how the land lay open to the street; And there the children held their harmless rambles, Till Robert Woolwich built his odious shambles, And never did the playmates fear a shock, From anything so hateful as a _Rock_.

Perhaps the above may elicit from other quarters similar contributions; indeed, any memorial of the friend of Charles Lamb must be precious to the Muse.



* * * * *


In 1781, when the steam engine, only recently improved by Watt, was merely applied to the more obvious purposes of mine drainage and the like, Darwin, in his _Botanic Garden_, wrote--

"Soon shall thy arm, unconquer'd Steam! afar Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car."

And in an appended note prophecies that the new agent might "in time be applied to the rowing of barges, and the moving of carriages along the road." The ingenious chronicler of the "loves of the plants," however, was in no doubt, when he wrote, aware of the experiments of D'Auxiron, Perier, and De Jouffroy; those prosecuted at Dalswinton and in America were some years later, about 1787-8 I think. But in another and less widely known poem by the same author, the _Temple of Nature_, published in 1802, there occurs a very complete anticipation of one of the most important applications of science to navigation, which may prove as novel and striking to some of your readers as it did to me. It is, indeed, a remarkable instance of scientific prevision. In a note to line 373, canto ii. of the poem, the author sets out with, "The progressive motion of fish beneath the water is produced principally by the undulation of their tails;" and after giving the _rationale_ of the process, he goes on to say that "this power seems to be better adapted to push forward a body in the water than the oars of boats;" concluding with the query, "Might not some machinery resembling the tails of fish be placed behind a boat so as to be moved with greater effect than common oars, by the force of wind or steam?"


* * * * *


The Memoranda Roll of the Exchequer, 4 & 5 Edward II., membrane 14., contains a list of the chattel-property of Richard de Fering, Archbishop of Dublin, which had been sold by Master Walter de Istelep, the custos of said See, for the sum of 112l. 10s. 9¾d. sterling, consisting, amongst other things, of--

iij affr', price xijs. xiij bobus, iiij_li_. vs. xlvij acr' warrectan' & rebinand' ibidem, lxxs. vjd. ij carucis cum apparatu, iiijs. v crannoc' frumenti ad semen & liberationes famulorum ibidem sibi venditis per predictum custodem, xxijs. vjd. xj crannoc', iij bussellis aven', xxxixs. iijd. iij carucis cum apparatu, vjs.

The chattel-property of Sir James Delahyde is set forth upon the Memoranda Roll 3 & 4 Rich. II., mem. 3. _dorso_, and is as follows:

"Unu' collobiu' de rubio scarleto duplucat' c[=u] panno rubio, unu' collobiu' duplex de sanguineto et Bukhorn', unu' collobi[=u] duplex, de sanguineto et nigro, unu' gip' de serico auro int'text furrat' c[=u] menivero, unu' gyp' de rubio et nigro furrat' cu' calibir', unu' gyp' furrat cu' grys, unu' paltok' de nigro serico, unu' paltok de nigro panno, unu' paltok' de nigro Bustian, duo cap'icia, una' pec' de rubio Wyrset, unam pec' de nigro Wyrset, una' pec' panni linei vocat' Westenale, quinq; pec' Aule pro camera & Aula, tres curtynis c[=u] uno celuro de rubio Wyrset, quinq; mappas, duas pelves c[=u] lavatorio & quatuor p'ia secular'."

Upon the attainder of William Fytzhenry of Dublin, "Capytayn," in the reign of Edward VI., it was found by inquisition that he had "unum torquem aureum ponder' septem uncias d[=i]," put in pledge for 20l., and worth 22l. sterling. In this reign "quinque vasa vocat' fyrkyns de prunis" each worth 6s. 8d.; a firkin of wine, 5s., "a fyrkyn de aceto," 6s. 8d.; "quinque tycks", worth 11s. 8d. each; and "duas duodenas cultellorum," worth 4s., {395} were brought to Dublin from St. Mallow in Brittany. In this reign also 200 "grossos arbores," near Drogheda, were valued at 16l.; 18 "porcos" were worth 40s.; 3 "modios frumenti" worth 20s.; and 5 "lagenas butteri," 20s. During this reign a sum of 300l. was paid out of the Treasury to Sir William Seyntloo, for the purpose of fortifying, &c. the Castle of Dyngham, called "The Governor of Offayley," of which sum he paid to Matthew Lynete, the Clerk of the Ordnance,--

For the hire of 4 carts from Dublin to the forte, 28th December, 71s. 1½d. ster.

3 other carts from Dublin to the sayd forte, 27th March, 2 Edw. VI., 40s.

The carters that came from Dublin to the forte, 15th January and 19th April, 2 Edw. VI., for the hire of 4 cartes by the space of 6 dayes, 53s. 4d.

In the 6 Edward VI. the goods of Thomas Rothe of Kilkenny, merchant, which were seized by a searcher at Waterford, consisted of "30 pecias auri vocat' Crussades," and "un' wegge argenti ponderant' xvj uncias argenti precij cujuslibet uncie, 4s."

In the same year the property of Andrew Tyrrell, a merchant of Athboy, consisted of--

Unam fardellam sive paccam, containing _Sterling._ unam peciam de lychefeldkerfeys, price 36s. Unam peciam de greneclothe 4l. Di' duoden' pellium vocat' red leese 3s. 4d. 2 duoden' de orphell skynnes 8s. 4d. 6 duoden' de Rosell gyrdels 12s. Sex libr' de Brymstone 2s. 3 dudoen' de playng cardes 10s. Un' gross' de fyne knyves 48s. 26 libr' cerici voc' sylke 8l. 13s. 4d. Un' gross' de red poynts [104s. or 4s.] Un' duoden' de pennars [102s. or 2s.] Sex libr' de bykeres 102s. 1000 pynnes 20d. Sex rubeas crumenas 2s. Un' bagam de droggs 4s. Un' burden' de stele 3s. Sex boxes de comfetts 12s. 6 duoden' de lokyng glasses 18d. Un' bolte de threde 2s. 8d. Duas fyrkins de soketts 5s. Duas duoden' de combes 12d. 2 lb. of packethrede 6d. 1 doz. of great bells 16d. One payre of ballaunce 8d. One piece of red cloth 4l.

In Queen Mary's time, in Ireland, a yard of black velvet was valued at 20s. sterling; a yard of purple-coloured damask, at 13s. 4d. sterling; and a yard of tawny-coloured damask, at 10s. sterling.

The foregoing have been taken from the ancient records of the Irish Exchequer.



* * * * *


I have observed in some former Numbers of "N. & Q.," that an interest has been manifested in regard to the writings, and especially to the letters, of this prelate. It may therefore be interesting to your readers to be informed, that an original painting, and perhaps the only one, of the Bishop, is preserved at Trelawny House in Cornwall; and from its close resemblance to the engraved portrait which is found in his works, I have no doubt it is that from which that likeness was taken. There are also several letters in the handwriting of Bishop Atterbury among the documents preserved in the collection at that ancient mansion. That this portrait and the letters should be preserved at Trelawny, is explained by the fact, that before his elevation to the episcopal bench, Dr. Atterbury was chaplain to Bishop Trelawny.

J. C.

Lines by Bishop Atterbury on Mr. Harley being stabbed by Guiscard:

"Devotum ut cordi sensit sub pectore ferrum, Immoto Harlæus saucius ore stetit. Dum tamen huic læta gratatur voce senatus, Confusus subito pallor in ore sedet. O pudor! O virtus! partes quam dignus utrasque Sustinuit, vultu dispare, laude pari."

I found these lines written on the back of an odd volume of Atterbury's _Sermons_. Most likely they have already appeared in print.

E. H. A.

* * * * *

Minor Notes.

"_Milton Blind._"--A little poem bearing this title, and commencing,--

"Though I am old and blind,"

is said to have been included in an edition of the poet's works recently published at Oxford. It was written by Miss Lloyd, a lady of this city, a short time ago.



_Hydropathy._--For a long time, I believe in common with many others, I have imagined that the water cure is of late origin, and that we are indebted for it to Germany, to which we look for all novel quackeries (good and bad) in medicine and theology. This belief was put to flight a short time ago by a pamphlet which I discovered among others rare and curious. It is entitled _Curiosities of Common Water, or the Advantages thereof in preventing and curing many Distempers_. The price of the pamphlet was one shilling, and the author rejoices in the name of John Smith. After his name follows a motto, the doctrine of which it {396} is the duty of all licensed to kill according to law strenuously to protest against both by argument and practice:

"That's the best physick which doth cure our ills Without the charge of pothecaries pills."

E. W. J.


_Cassie._--MR. M. A. LOWER (a correspondent of "N. & Q."), in his _Essays on English Surnames_ (see vol. ii. p. 63.), quotes from a brochure on Scottish family names. He seems, from a footnote, to be in difficulty about the word _cassie._ May I suggest to him that it is a corruption of "causeway?"

The "causeway" is, in Scotch towns, an usual name for a particular street; and of a man's surname, his place of residence is a most common source of derivation.

W. T. M.

_The Duke of Wellington._--Lord de Grey, in his _Characteristics of the Duke of Wellington_, pp. 171, 172., gives the following extract from the despatches published by Colonel Gurwood, and refers to vol. viii. p. 292.

"It would undoubtedly be better if _language_ of this description were never used, and if officers placed as you were could correct errors and neglect in _language, which should not hurt the feelings_ of the person addressed, and without vehemence."

Compare this passage with the following advice which Don Quixote gives to Sancho Panza before he sets off to take possession of his government:

"Al che has de castigar con obras, no trates mal con palabras, pues le basta al desdichado la pena del suplicio sin la anadidura de las malas rezones."--Part II. ch. xlii.

See translation of _Don Quixote_ by Jarvis, vol. iv. b. III. ch. x. p. 76.[1]

The very depreciatory terms in which the Emperor Napoleon used to speak of the Duke of Wellington as a general is well known. The following extract from Forsyth's _Napoleon at St. Helena and Sir Hudson Lowe_, appears to me worthy of being brought under the notice of the readers of "N. & Q.:"

"After the governor had left the house (upon the death of Napoleon he had gone to the house of the deceased with Major Gorrequer to make an inventory of and seal up his papers), Count Montholon called back Major Gorrequer to ask him a question, and he mentioned that he had been searching for a paper dictated to him by Napoleon a long time previously, and which he was sorry he could not find, as it was a _eulogium on the Duke of Wellington_, in which Napoleon had spoken in the highest terms of praise of the military conduct of the Duke."--See vol. iii. p. 299.


[Footnote 1: Jarvis translates the passage in _Don Quixote_,--"Him you are to punish with deeds, do no evil; intreat with words, for the pain of the punishment is enough for the wretch to bear, without the addition of ill-language."]

_Romford Jury._--The following entry appears on the court register of the Romford Petty Sessions (in Havering Liberty) for the year 1730, relating to the trial of two men charged with an assault on Andrew Palmer. As a curious illustration of the manner in which justice was administered in country parts in "the good old times," I think it may be interesting to the readers of "N. & Q."

"The jury could not for several hours agree on their verdict, seven being inclinable to find the defendants guilty, and the others not guilty. It was therefore proposed by the foreman to put twelve shillings in a hat, and hustle most heads or tails, whether guilty or not guilty. The defendants, therefore, were acquitted, the chance happening in favour of not guilty."


_Edward Law (Lord Ellenborough), Chief Justice._--J. M.'s quotation of the song in the _Supplement to the Court of Sessions Garland_ (Vol. ix., p. 221.), reminds me of the lines on Mr. Law's being made Chief Justice:

"What signifies now, quirk, quibble, or flaw, Since _Law_ is made _Justice_, seek justice from _Law_."



_Chamisso._--Chamisso, in his poem of "The Three Sisters," who, crushed with misery, contended that each had the hardest lot, has this fine passage by the last speaker:

"In one brief sentence all my bitter cause Of sorrow dwells--thou arbiter! oh, pause Ere yet thy final judgment thou assign, And learn my better right--too clearly proved. Four words comprise it--I was never loved: The palm of grief thou wilt allow is mine."

"He knew humanity--there can be no grief like that grief. Death had bereaved one sister of her lover--the second mourned over her fallen idol's shame--the third exultingly says,--

'Have they not lived and loved?'"

The above is written in a beautiful Italian female hand on the fly-leaf-of the _Basia_, 1775.

E. D.

_Dates of Maps._--It is very much to be wished that map-makers would always affix to their maps the date of their execution; the want of this in the maps of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge has often been an annoyance to me, for it frequently happens that one or both of two maps including the same district are without date, {397} and when they differ in some of the minor details, it requires some time and trouble to find, from other sources, which is the most modern, and therefore likely to be the most accurate.


_Walton._--The following cotemporary notice of the decease and character of honest Isaac's son, is from a MS. Diary of the Rev. John Lewis, Rector of Chalfield and Curate of Tilbury:

"1719, Dec. 29. Mr. Canon Walton of Polshott died at Salisbury; he was one of the members of the clergy club that meets at Melksham, and a very pious, sober, learned, inoffensive, charitable, good man."

E. D.

_Whittington's Stone on Highgate Hill._--It is well that there is a "N. & Q." to record the removal and disappearance of noted objects and relics of antiquity, as one after another disappears before the destroying hand of Time, and more ruthless and relentless spirit of enterprise. I have to ask you on the present occasion to record the removal of Whittington's stone on Highgate Hill. I discovered it as I strolled up the hill a few days since. I was informed that it was removed about a fortnight since, and a public-house is now being built where it stood.


_Turkey and France._--The following fact, taken from the foreign correspondence of _The Times_, may suitably seek perpetuity in a corner of "N. & Q."

"I wish to mention a curious fact connected with the port of Toulon, and with the long existing relations between France and Turkey, and which I have not seen mentioned, although it is recorded in the municipal archives of this town. In the year 1543, the sultan, Selim II., at the request of the King of France, sent a large army and fleet to his assistance, under the command of the celebrated Turkish admiral Barbarossa, who, according to the record, was the grandson of a French renegade. This army and fleet occupied the town and port of Toulon at the express wish of Francis I., from the end of September 1543, to the end of March 1544. And on this day, the last of March 1854, a French army and fleet has sailed from the same port of Toulon to succour the descendant of the Sultan Selim in his distress. What a remarkable example of the rise and fall of empires!"

It will not invalidate the force of the foregoing extract to state, that Selim II. did not become sultan until 1566, and that it must have been his father Suleyman (whom he succeeded) who came to the rescue of France in 1543. The same Turkish fleet was afterwards nearly annihilated by the Venetians in 1571, at the battle of Lepanto.


* * * * *



The following is an extract from the letter of the French general, Custine, to the National Convention, June 14, 1793:

"My morality is attacked; it is found out that I have a _woman_ for my aide-de-camp. Without pretending to be a Joseph, I know too well how to respect myself, and the laws of public decency, ever to render myself guilty of such an absurdity. I found in the army a woman under the uniform of a volunteer bombardier, who, in fulfilling that duty at the siege of Liege, had received a musket-ball in the leg. She presented herself to the National Convention, desired to continue her military service, and was admitted to the honours of the sitting. She was afterwards sent by you, Representatives, to the Minister of War, who gave her the rank of aide-major to the army. On my arrival here, the representatives of the people, commissioners with this army, had dismissed her. Her grief was extreme; and the phrenzy of her imagination, and her love for glory, would have carried her to the last extremity. I solicited the representatives of the people to leave her that rank which her merit and wounds had procured her; and they consented to it. This is the truth. She is not my aide-de-camp, but _attached to the staff as aide-major_. Since that time I have never had any public or private conversation with her."--From the _Political State of Europe_, 1793, p. 164.

Can any of your readers furnish me with the name and history of this French heroine?



* * * * *

Minor Queries.

"_Chintz Gowns._"--Tuesday, Jan. 9, 1768:

"Two ladies were convicted before the Lord Mayor, in the penalty of 5l., for wearing chintz gowns."--_Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xxxviii. p. 395.

Can any other instances be given?


"_Noctes Ambrosianæ._"--Can any one inform me why the celebrated "Noctes Ambrosianæ" of Blackwood's _Magazine_ has never been printed in a separate form in this country (I understand it has been so in America)? I should think few republications would meet with a larger sale.


_B. Simmons._--Will you permit me to ask for a little information respecting B. Simmons? I believe he was born in the county of Cork: for he has sung, in most bewitching strains, his return to his native home on the banks of the Funcheon. He was the writer of that great poem on the "Disinterment of Napoleon," which appeared in _Blackwood_ some years ago. He was a regular {398} poetical contributor to its pages for many years. He held a situation in the Excise Office in London, and died there I believe in July, 1852.

What manner of man was he; young or old, married or single? Any information respecting such a child of genius and of song must be interesting to those who have ever read a line of his wondrous poems. To what other periodicals did he contribute?


_Green Stockings._--Is the custom of sending a pair of green stockings to the eldest unmarried daughter of a family, upon the occasion of the marriage of a younger sister, of English, Irish, or Scottish origin?

L. A.

_Nicholas Kieten._--In the thirteenth century, "there was a giant in Holland named Nicholas Kieten, whose size was so prodigious, that he carried men under his arms like little children. His shoe was so large, that four men together could put their feet in it. Children were too terrified to look him in the face, and fled from his presence." So says our author; but he does not give the dimensions of Kieten. May not such a real giant, in the thirteenth century, have laid the foundation of the fabulous stories of giants that have for so many years been the favourite romances of the nursery? Kieten appears to be the type of the giants of our modern pantomimes. Will he serve as a key, to disclose the origin of these marvellous stories and captivating absurdities?


_Warwickshire Badge._--Will you permit me to ask, through your journal, if any of your readers can inform me whether the proper Warwickshire badge is "the antelope" or "the bear and ragged staff?" The former is borne by the 6th regiment of the line, they being the Royal First Warwickshire. The latter is borne by the 36th regiment of militia, they being the First Warwickshire. This latter badge is also borne by the retainers of the Earls of Warwick and Leicester; which latter county would seem to lay as much claim to the bear and ragged staff as Warwick does.

The county cannot well have both, or either; this makes me think that the bear and ragged staff is not a _county_ badge, but pertains more properly to the Earl of Warwick.


_Armorial._--Will any correspondent oblige me with the names to the following coats: 1. Arg., three hares (or conies) gu. 2. Arg., on a bend engrailed vert, between two bucks' heads cabossed sable, attired or, three besants; a canton erminois. 3. Quarterly, per fesse indented sable and or. 4. Per pale sable and or, a cheveron between three escallop shells, all counterchanged. 5. Gu., a lion rampant arg. Glover's _Ordinary of Arms_ would, I think, answer the above Query; and if any of your _numerous_ readers, who possess that valuable work, would refer to it in this case, they would be conferring a favour on your constant subscriber,


Would any correspondent help me to the solution of the following case?--A. was the _last_ and _only_ representative of an ancient family; he left at his decease, some years ago, a daughter and heiress who married B. Can the issue of B. (having no arms of their own) _legally_ use the arms, quarterings, crest, and motto of A., without a license from the Heralds' College?


_Lord Brougham and Horne Tooke._--In Lord Brougham's _Statesmen of the Time of George III._, he says of Mr. Horne Tooke:

"Thus he (H. T.) would hold that the law of libel was unjust and absurd, because _libel_ means a little book."

Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." say on what occasion Tooke maintained this strange doctrine, or where his Lordship obtained his information that Tooke did maintain it?



_Rileys of Forest Hill._--Can any of your correspondents inform me relative to the arms and motto of the Rileys of (Forest Hill) Windsor, Berks, their descent, &c.?

J. M. R.

_Fish "Lavidian."_--In some ancient acts of parliament mention is made of a fish called "lavidian," and from the regulations made concerning it, it appears to have been of such small size as to be capable of being caught in the meshes of an ordinary net. But I cannot find that this name is contained in any of the books of natural history, written by such authors as Gesner or Rondeletius. Is it at this time a common name anywhere? Or can any of your readers assist in determining the species?

J. C.

"_Poeta nascitur, non fit._"--Can any of your correspondents inform me who is the author of the well-known saying--

"Poeta nascitur, non fit"?

I have more than once seen it quoted as from Horace, but I have never been able to find it in any classical author whose works I have examined. Cicero expresses a similar sentiment in his oration for the poet Archias, cap. viii.:

"Atqui sic a summis hominibus eruditissimisque accepimus, ceterarum rerum studia, et doctrina, et præceptis, et arte constare: poëtam natura ipsa valere, et mentis viribus excitari, et quasi divino quodam spiritu inflari."

J. P.

Boston, U.S.A.


_John Wesley and the Duke of Wellington._--It has always been understood that the property bequeathed to the Colleys, who in consequence took the surname of Wesley, afterwards altered to Wellesley, was offered to and declined by the father of John Wesley, who would not allow his son to accept the condition, a residence in Ireland, and the being adopted by the legatee. Has there been a relationship ever proved between the founder of the Methodists and the victor of Waterloo?


_Haviland_--Can any of your Plymouth correspondents give any information, as tombs, in memory of persons of the name of Haviland, Havilland, or De Havilland, existing in the churches of that place, of a date prior to A.D. 1688? Mention is made of such tombs as existing in a letter of that date in my possession. Also, in what chronicle or history of the Conquest of England, mention is made of a Sieur de Havilland, as having accompanied Duke William from Normandy on that occasion?

D. F. T.

_Byron._--Will you kindly inform me, through the medium of your "N. & Q.," whence the line "All went merry as a marriage bell" (in Byron's _Childe Harold_) is derived?

C. B.

"_Rutabaga._"--What is the etymology of the word _rutabaga_? I have heard one solution of it, but wish to ascertain whether there is any other. The word is extensively used in the United States for Swedish turnips or "Swedes."


_A Medal._--A family in this city possesses a silver medal granted to Joseph Swift, a native of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, by the University of Oxford or of Cambridge, of which the following is a description. It is about two inches in diameter; on the face are the head and bust of Queen Anne in profile, with an inscription setting forth her royal title, and on the reverse a full-length figure of Britannia, with ships sailing and men ploughing in the background, and this motto, "Compositis venerantur Annis." The date is MDCCXIII. An explanation of the object of the medal is desired.



_The Black Cap._--Can any of your antiquarian legal readers inform me of the origin of the custom of the judges putting on a black cap when pronouncing sentence of death upon a criminal? I can find no illustration of this peculiar custom in Blackstone, Stephens, or other constitutional writers.

F. J. G.

_The Aboriginal Britons._--A friend of mine wants some information as to the history, condition, manners, &c. of the Britons, prior to the arrival of the Romans. What work, accessible to ordinary readers, supplies the best compendium of what is known on this subject? The fullest account of which I have, just now, any recollection, is contained in Milton's _History of England_, included in an edition of Milton's _Prose Works_, three vols. folio, Amsterdam, 1694. Is Milton's _History_ a work of any merit or authority?



* * * * *

Minor Queries with Answers.

"_Gossip._"--This word, in its obsolete sense, according no doubt to its Saxon origin, means a sponsor, one who answers for a child in baptism, a godfather. Its modern acceptation all know to be widely different. Can any of your correspondents quote a passage or two from old English authors, wherein its obsolete sense is preserved?

N. L. J.

[The word occurs in Chaucer, _The Wyf of Bathes Prologue_, v. 5825.:

"And if I have a _gossib_, or a friend, (Withouten gilt) thou chidest as a frend, If that I walke or play into his hous."

And in Spenser, _Faerie Queene_, b. i. c. 12.:

"One mother, when as her foole-hardy child Did come too neare, and with his talons play, Halfe dead through feare, her little babe reuil'd, And to her _gossips_ gan in counsell say."

Master Richard Verstegan is more to the point:

"Our Christian ancestors, understanding a spiritual affinity to grow between the parents and such as undertooke for the child at baptisme, called each other by the name of _Godsib_, which is as much as to say, that they were _sib_ together, that is, _of kin_ together through God. And the child, in like manner, called such his God-fathers, or God-mothers."--_Restitution of Decayed Intelligence_, ch. vii.

A quotation or two from that delightful old _gossip_, Mr. Pepys, will show its use in the middle of the seventeenth century:

"Lord's Day. With my wife to church. At noon dined nobly, ourselves alone. After dinner, my wife and Mercer by coach to Greenwich, to be _gossip_ to Mrs. Daniel's child. My wife much pleased with the reception she had, and she was godmother, and did hold the child at the font, and it is called John."--_Diary_, May 20, 1666.

"Lord's Day. My wife and I to Mr. Martin's, where I find the company almost all come to the christening of Mrs. Martin's child, a girl. After sitting long, till the church was done, the parson comes, and then we to christen the child. I was godfather, and Mrs. Holder (her husband, a good man, I know well) and a pretty lady that waits, it seems, on my Lady Bath at Whitehall, her name Mrs. Noble, were godmothers. After the christening comes in the wine {400} and sweetmeats, and then to prate and tattle, and then very good company they were, and I among them. Here was Mrs. Burroughs and Mrs. Bales (the young widow whom I led home); and having staid till the moon was up, I took my pretty _gossip_ to Whitehall with us, and I saw her in her lodging."--_Ibid._, Dec. 2, 1666.]

_Humphry Repton._--To snatch from utter oblivion the once highly reputed Humphry, the king of landscape gardeners, to whom many of our baronial parks owe much of their picturesque beauty, and who, by the side of Sir Joseph Paxton, would now most duly have taken knightful station in these go-ahead days, I ask, in what publication was it, that in 1780, or thereabouts, being an indefatigable attendant at all exhibitions and sales of art, he, the said Humphry, was accustomed (as well able he was) to enlighten the public upon what was passing in matters of art now nearly three quarters of a century ago? Was it the _Bee_? Again, did he not, at his death, leave two large volumes for publication, entitled _Recollections of my Past Life_? Where are these?


[The MS. collection of the late Humphry Repton, containing interesting details of his public and private life, has been used by Mr. Loudon in his biographical notice of Repton prefixed to the last edition of _The Landscape Gardening_, 8vo., 1840. Mr. Loudon states that 'these papers were left as a valued memorial for his children: it may be imagined, therefore, that they contain details of a private nature, which would be found devoid of interest to the world. Mr. Repton, indeed, possessed a mind as keenly alive to the ludicrous, as it was open to all that was excellent, in the variety of characters with whom his extensive professional connexions brought him acquainted; and he did not fail to observe and note down many curious circumstances and traits of character, in themselves highly amusing, but, for obvious reasons, unfit subjects for publication. Not one taint of satire or ill-nature, however, ever sullied the wit which flowed spontaneously from a mind sportive sometimes even to exuberance." His artistic critiques will be found in the following works: _The Bee_: or, a Critique on the Exhibition of Paintings at Somerset House, 1788, 8vo. _Variety_: a Collection of Essays, 1788, 12mo. _The Bee_: a Critique on the Shakspeare Gallery, 1789, 8vo. _Odd Whims_: being a republication of some papers in Variety, with a Comedy and other Poems, 2 vols. 12mo., 1804.]

"_Oriel._"--I should be glad if any of your correspondents could inform me of the origin of the term _oriel_, as applied to a window? It is not, I believe, necessarily to the East.

T. L. N.


[_Oriol_, or _Oriel_, is a portico or court; also a small room near the hall in monasteries, where particular persons dined. (Blount's _Glossog._) Du Cange says, "_Oriolum_, porticus, atrium;" and quotes Matthew Paris for it. Supposed by some to be a diminutive from _area_ or _areola_. "In modern writings," says Nares, "we meet with mention of _Oriel_ windows. I doubt the propriety of the expression; but, if right, they must mean those windows that project like a porch, or small room. At St. Albans was an _oriel_, or apartment for persons not so sick as to retire to the infirmary. (Fosbroke's _Brit. Monachism_, vol. ii. p. 160.) I may be wrong in my notion of _oriel_ window, but I have not met with ancient authority for that expression. Cowel conjectured that _Oriel_ College, in Oxford, took its name from some such room or portico. There is a remarkable portico, in the farther side of the first quadrangle, but not old enough to have given the name. It might, however, be only the successor of one more ancient, and more exactly an _oriel_." For articles on the disputed derivation of this term, which seems involved in obscurity, see Parker's _Glossary of Architecture_; a curious paper by Mr. Hamper, in _Archæologia_, vol. xxiii.; and _Gentleman's Magazine_ for Nov. 1823, p. 424., and March, 1824, p. 229.]

"_Orchard._"--Professor Martyn, in his Notes on Virgil's _Georgics_, seems to be of opinion that the English word "orchard" is derived from the Greek [Greek: orchatos], which Homer uses to express the garden of Alcinous; and he observes that Milton writes it _orchat_, thereby corroborating this impression. Is the word spelt according to Milton's form by any other writers?

N. L. J.

[It is spelt _orchat_ by J. Philips, _Cider_, book i.:

----"Else false hopes He cherishes, nor will his fruit expect Th' autumnal season, but in summer's pride, When other orchats smile, abortive fail."]

"_Peckwater._"--Why is the quadrangle at Christ Church, in Oxford, called "Peckwater?"

N. L. J.

[The Peckwater Quadrangle derives its name from an ancient hostle, or inn, which stood on the south-west corner of the present court; and was the property of Ralph, the son of Richard Peckwater, who gave it to St. Frideswide's Priory, 30th Henry III.; and about the middle of the reign of Henry VIII., another inn, called Vine Hall, was added to it; which, with other buildings, were reduced into a quadrangle in the time of Dean Duppa and Dr. Samuel Fell. The two inns were afterwards known by the name of Vine Hall, or Peckwater's Inn; and by this name were given to Christ Church, in 1547, by Henry VIII.]

_Richard III._--What became of the body after the battle of Bosworth Field? Was it buried at Leicester?



[After the battle of Bosworth Field, the body of Richard III. was stript, laid across a horse behind a pursuivant-at-arms, and conducted to Leicester, where, after it had been exposed for two days, it was buried with little ceremony in the church of the Grey Friars. In Burton's MS. of the History of Leicester, we read that, "within the town was a house of Franciscan or Grey Friars, built by Simon Montfort, Earl of {401} Leicester, whither (after Bosworth Field) the dead body of Richard III., naked, trussed behind a pursuivant-at-arms, all dashed with mire and blood, was there brought and homely buried; where afterward King Henry VII. (out of royal disposition) erected for him a fair alabaster monument, with his picture cut out, and made thereon."--Quoted in Nichols's _Leicestershire_, vol. i. p. 357.: see also pp. 298. 381.]

_Binding of old Books._--I shall feel obliged to any of your readers who will tell me how to polish up the covers of old books when the leather has got dry and cracked. Bookbinders use some composition made of glair, or white of egg, which produces a very glossy appearance. How is it made and used? and how do they polish the leather afterwards? Is there any little work on book-binding?


[Take white of an egg, break it with a fork, and, having first cleaned the leather with dry flannel, apply the egg with a soft sponge. Where the leather is rubbed or decayed, rub a little paste with the finger into the parts affected, to fill up the broken grain, otherwise the glair would sink in and turn it black. To produce a polished surface, a hot iron must be rubbed over the leather. The following is, however, an easier, if not a better, method. Purchase some "bookbinders' varnish," which may be had at any colour shop; clean the leather well, as before; if necessary, use a little water in doing so, but rub quite dry with a flannel before varnishing; apply your varnish with wool, lint, or a very soft sponge, and place to dry.]

_Vessel of Paper._--When I was at school in the north of Ireland, not very many years ago, a piece of paper, about the octavo size, used for writing "exercises," was commonly known amongst us as a vessel of paper. Can any of your correspondents tell me the origin of the phrase; and whether it is in use in other localities?


[Lemon, in his English _Etymology_, has the following remarks on this phrase:--"_Vessel of Paper_: The etymology of this word does not at first sight appear very evident; but a derivation has been lately suggested to me, which seems to carry some probability with it; viz. that _a vessel of paper_ may have derived its appellation from _fasciculus_, or _fasciola_; quasi _vassiola_; a vessel, or small slip of paper; a little winding band, or swathing cloth; a garter; a _fascia_, a small narrow binding. The root is undoubtedly _fascis_, a bundle, or anything tied up; also, the fillet with which it is bound."]

* * * * *



(Vol. ix., pp. 30, 31.)

My collections are arranged for illustrating, in the manner alluded to in the above notice, upwards of four hundred families. In Tyrconnel's _Horse_, I find a Dominick _Sheldon_, Lieut.-Colonel. His name appears in the "Establishment" of 1687-8 for a pension of 200l. Early in the campaign, he was actively opposed to the revolutionary party in Down and Antrim; and was afterwards joined in an unsuccessful negotiation for the surrender of Derry. At the battle of the Boyne he commanded the cavalry, and in a gallant charge nearly retrieved the day, but had two horses shot under him. When Tyrconnel left Ireland for France, to aid the cause of the Stuarts, he selected this colonel as one of the directory, who were to advise the young Duke of Berwick, to whom Tyrconnel had committed the command of the Irish army, and who was afterwards so distinguished in the wars of the brigades abroad. After the capitulation of Limerick in 1691, Sarsfield, then the beloved commander of the last adherents of the cause of the royal exile, intrusted to Colonel Sheldon the care of embarking all who preferred a foreign land to the new Government; and King James (for, in justice to my subject, I must still style him _King_) especially thanked him for his performance of that duty. When his own regiment was brigaded in France, it was called, _par excellence_, "the King's Regiment;" and Dominick Sheldon, "an Englishman," was gazetted its Colonel. The successes of his gallant band are recorded, in 1702, at the confluence of the Mincio and the Po; in 1703, against the Imperialists under Visconti, when he was wounded; in the army of the Rhine, and at the battle of Spire within the same year, &c. He appears, throughout his career, an individual of whom his descendants should be proud; but I cannot discover the house of this _Englishman_.

In the Outlawries of 1691, he is described on one as "of the city of Dublin," on another, as "of Pennyburn Mill, co. Derry." No other person of his name appears in my whole _Army List_; although the "Diary" preserved in the _Harleian Miscellany_ (old edit., vol. vii. p. 482.) erroneously suggests a subaltern of his name. In the titular Court of St. Germains, two of the name of Sheldon were of the Board of Green Cloth. Dr. Gilbert Sheldon was Archbishop of Canterbury in the middle of the seventeenth century; and the Sheldons are shown by Burke to be still an existing family at Brailes House in Warwickshire, previously in Oxfordshire, and _semble_ in Staffordshire. I have made application on the subject to Mr. Sheldon of Brailes House, the more confidently as the Christian name of "Ralph" is frequent in the pedigree of that family, and Colonel Dominick Sheldon had a brother Ralph; but Mr. Sheldon could not satisfy me.

One of the adventurers or soldiers in Cromwell's time, in Ireland, was a William Sheldon; who, on the Restoration, in the royal policy of that day, obtained a patent for the lands in Tipperary, which {402} the usurping powers had allotted for him by certificate. Could Colonel Dominick have been his relative?

I pray information on this subject, and any others connected with the _Army List_, with any documentary assistance which, or the inspection of which, the correspondents of "N. & Q." may afford me; and such services will be thankfully acknowledged. If I were aided with such by them, and by the old families of Ireland, the work should be a gem.


48. Summer Hill, Dublin.

* * * * *


(Vol. ix., pp. 247, 301.)

"The knights are dust, Their good swords are rust, Their souls are with the saints, we trust."

This seems to be an imperfect recollection of the concluding lines of a short poem by Coleridge, entitled "The Knight's Tomb." (See _Poems_ of S. T. Coleridge: Moxon, 1852, p. 306.)

The correct reading is as follows:

"The knight's bones are dust, And his good sword rust; His soul is with the saints, I trust."


Your correspondent's mutilated version I have seen on a china match-box, in the shape of a Crusader's tomb.


"Of whose omniscient and all-spreading love."

These lines are also Coleridge's (_Poems_, &c., p. 30., edit. 1852). He afterwards added the following note on this passage:

"I utterly recant the sentiment contained in the lines--

Of whose omniscient and all-spreading love Aught to _implore_ were impotence of mind;

it being written in Scripture, '_Ask_, and it shall be given you!' and my human reason being, moreover, convinced of the propriety of offering _petitions_, as well as thanksgivings, to Deity.--S. T. C., 1797."

H. G. T.


The line quoted (p. 247.) as having been applied by Twining to Pope's _Homer_, is from _Tibullus_, iii. 6. 56.


"A fellow feeling makes us wond'rous kind,"

is to be found in the epilogue written and spoken by Garrick on quitting the stage, 1776.[2]

A parallel passage appears in _Troilus and Cressida_, Act III. Sc. 3.:

"One touch of nature makes the whole world kin."


The following lines, and the accompanying paraphrase, probably those inquired after by X. Y., are in Davison's _Poems, or a Poetical Rhapsody_ (p. 50., 4th impression, 1621), where they form the third "device." I do not know who the writer was.

"Quid plumâ lævius? Pulvis. Quid pulvere? Ventus. Quid vento? Mulier. Quid muliere? Nihil."

"Dust is lighter than a feather, And the wind more light than either; But a woman's fickle mind More than a feather, dust, or wind."

F. E. E.

The lines quoted by L. are the first two (a little altered) in the opening stanza of a ballad entitled _The Berkshire Lady_. The correct version (I speak on the authority of a copy which I procured nearly thirty years ago in the great ballad-mart of those days, the Seven Dials) is,--

"Bachelors of every station, Mark this strange but true relation, Which in brief to you I bring; Never was a stranger thing."

The ballad is an account of "love at first sight," inspired in the breast of a young lady, wealthy and beautiful of course, but who, disdaining such adventitious aids, achieves at the sword's point, and covered with a mask, her marriage with the object of her passion. It is much too long, and not of sufficient merit, for insertion in "N. & Q."

F. E. E.

[Footnote 2: [See "N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 300.]]

* * * * *


(Vol. viii., no. 364, 605.; Vol. ix., p. 45.)

I am extremely obliged to your several correspondents who have replied to my Query.

I now send you "a remarkable case," which occurred in 1657, and throws considerable light upon the subject.

Dr. Owen, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, being a witness for the plaintiff in a cause, refused to be sworn in _the usual manner, by laying his right hand upon the book, and by kissing it afterwards_; but he caused the book to be held open before him, and he raised his right hand; whereupon the jury prayed the direction of the Court whether they ought to weigh such evidence as strongly as the evidence of another witness. Glyn, Chief Justice, answered them, that in his opinion he had taken {403} as strong an oath as any other of the witnesses; but he added that, if he himself were to be sworn, he would lay his right hand upon the book itself (_il voilt deponer sa maine dexter sur le liver mesme_). Colt _v._ Dutton, 2 Siderfin's _R._ 6.

This case shows that the usual practice at the time it was decided was, not to take the book in the hand, but to lay the hand upon it. Now, if a person laid his hand upon a book, which rested on anything else, he most probably would lay his fingers upon it, and, if he afterwards kissed it, would raise it with his fingers at the top, and his thumb under the book; and possibly this may account for the practice I mentioned of the Welsh witnesses, which, like many other usages, may have been once universally prevalent, but now have generally ceased.

With regard to kissing the book, so far from assuming that it was essential, I stated that "in none of these instances does kissing the book appear to be essential." Indeed, as, "upon the principles of the common law, there is no particular form essential to an oath to be taken by a witness; but as the purpose of it is to bind his conscience, every man of every religion should be bound by that form which he himself thinks will bind his own conscience most" (per Lord Mansfield, Chief Justice, Atcheson _v._ Everitt, Cowper's _R._ 389.), the form of the oath will vary according to the particular opinion of the witness.

Lord Mansfield, in the case just mentioned, referred to the case in Siderfin, and stated that "the Christian oath was settled in very ancient times;" and it may, perhaps, be inferred that he meant that it was so settled in the form there mentioned; but, as he inaccurately translates the words I have given thus, "If I were sworn, _I would kiss the book_," it may be doubtful whether he did not consider kissing the book as a part of the form of the oath so settled.

I cannot assent to the opinion of Paley, that the term _corporal_, as applied to oath, was derived from the corporale--the square piece of linen on which the chalice and host were placed. The term doubtless was adopted, in order to distinguish some oaths from others; and it would be very strange if it had become the invariable practice to apply it to all that large class of oaths, in every civil and criminal tribunal, to which it did not apply; and when it is remembered that in indictments (which have ever been construed with the strictest regard to the truth of the statements contained in them) this term has always been used where the book has been touched, and where the use of the term, if incorrect, would inevitably have led to an acquittal, no one I think can doubt that Paley is in error.

In addition to the authorities I before referred to, I may mention that Puffendorff clearly uses the term in the sense I attributed to it; and so does Mr. Barbeyrac, in his note to "corporal oath," as used by Puffendorff, where he says: "Juramentum corporale, or, as it is called in the code, juramentum _corporaliter_ præstitum;" and then refers to a rescript of Alexander, where the terms used are "jurejurando _corporaliter_ præstito." (Puffendorff, _Law of Nature and Nations_, lib. iv. ss. 11. and 16., pp. 345. and 350.: London, 1729.) And it seems very probable that the term came to us from the Romans; and as it appears from the books, referred to in the notes to s. 16., that there were some instances in which an oath had been taken by proxy, it may, perhaps, be that the term _corporal_ was originally used to distinguish such oaths as were taken by the party himself from such as were taken by proxy.

The word corporale plainly is the "_corporale_ Linteum," on which the sacred elements were placed, and by which they were covered; and no doubt were so used, because it covered or touched what was considered to be the very body of our blessed Lord. In fact, the term is the same, whether it be applied to oath or cloth; and when used with oath, it is used in the same sense as our immortal bard uses it in "corporal suffering" and "corporal toil."

S. G. C.

As the various forms in which oaths have been administered and taken is a question not altogether devoid of interest, I would wish to add a few words to what I have already written upon this subject. The earliest notice of this ceremony is probably that which is to be found in Genesis xxiv. 2, 3.:

"And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had. Put, I pray thee, _thy hand under my thigh_; And I will make thee swear," &c.

That at a very early period the soldier swore by his sword, is shown by the Anglo-Norman poem on the conquest of Ireland by Henry II., published by Thomas Wright, Esq.: London, 1837, p. 101.:

"Morice par sa espé ad juré, N' i ad vassal si osé."

In a charter of the thirteenth century, made by one Hugh de Sarnefelde to the Abbey of Thomascourt in Dublin, of a certain annuity, we find the passage:

"Et sciendum quod jam dictus Adam de Sarnefelde _affidavit in manu_ Magistri Roberti de Bedeford pro se et heredibus suis quod fideliter et absque omni fallacia persolvent, etc. redditum prenominatum."

And such clauses are probably of frequent occurrence in ancient charters. The expression "affidavit in manu" may be perhaps explained by referring to the mode in which the oath of homage was accustomed to be taken. This form, as it was of old time observed in England, is, I presume, {404} fully described in other publications; but as many of the most valuable of the ancient public records of Ireland have been, and are still, in a sadly neglected state, it is not probable that the following description of the manner in which certain of the Irish chieftains in the time of Richard II. performed their homage to Thomas Earl of Nottingham, his deputy, has been hitherto printed:

"Gerraldus O'Bryn predictus zonam, glaudium et capitium ipsius a se amovens, et genibus flexis ad pedes dicti domini comitis procedit, ambas manus suas palmis [adgremium] junctis erigens, et inter manus dicti domini comitis crectas tenens, protulit hec verba in lingua hibernicana," &c.--_Inquisition deposited in the Exchequer Record Office, Dublin; James I._ No. 84.



* * * * *


(Vol. viii., p. 81.)

Some time ago I suggested, in the columns of "N. & Q.," a collection which might prove interesting, of the remuneration received by authors for their works, sending my first instalment thereof. A correspondent (W. R.) has since contributed to the stock; and I now beg to add a few more cases which have lately occurred to me. In the instances of plays, &c., I have confined myself to the sums paid for the copyright; any remuneration accruing to the author from the performance, a share of the profit, benefit, &c. &c. being too diffuse to bring into a tabular form; and, in the case of works published while that servile system was in vogue, I have not attempted to record the amounts paid for dedications by the inflated "patrons," nor even those raised by subscription, except in one or two cases, where such was (which was rarely the case) a genuine transaction:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Title of Work. |Author. |Price. |Publisher. |Authority. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- _Phædra_ |Edmund Smith |60l. |Lintot. |Dr. Johnson. _The Wanderer_ |Savage |10l. 10s. | -- |Ditto. _Beggar's Opera_ |Gay |400l. | -- |Spence. Poems |Ditto |1000l. |Subscription|Dr. Johnson. Translation of eight |W. Broome |600l. |Paid by Pope|Ditto. books of the _Odyssey_,| | | | and all the notes. | | | | Ditto of four books of |Fenton |300l. |Ditto |Ditto. ditto | | | | Edition of Shakspeare |Pope |217l. 12s.|Tonson |Ditto. _Amynta and Theodora_ |Mallet |120l. |Vaillant. |Ditto. _The Poor Gentleman_ |G Colman, sen.|150l. | -- |R. B. Peake. _Who wants a Guinea?_ |Ditto |150l. | -- |Ditto. _Tales from Shakspeare_|Charles Lamb |63l. | -- |Himself. |Mary Lamb | | | Contributions for two |Charles Lamb |170l. | -- |T. Moore, years to the _London | | | | Lord J. Magazine._ | | | | Russell. The King of Prussia's |Thos. Holcroft|1200l. | -- |Galt. works, translation of | | | | _Exchange no Robbery_ |Theodore Hook |60l. | -- |R. H. D. | | | | Barham. _Sayings and Doings_ |Ditto |600l. |Colburn |Ditto. (1st series) | | | | _Ditto_ (2nd series) |Ditto |1050l. |Ditto |Ditto. | |150l. | | | |200l. | | _Ditto_ (3rd series) |Ditto |1050l. |Ditto |Ditto. _Births, Marriages, and|Ditto |600l. |Ditto |Ditto. Deaths_ | | | | Editorship of Colburn's|Ditto |400l. per |Ditto |Ditto. _New Monthly_ | | annum. | | _Rejected Addresses_ |J. and H. |131l. |Murray |H. Smith. | Smith |after 16th| | | | edition | | _Country Cousins_ } | | |Paid for by |} _A Trip to Paris_ } |James Smith. |1000l. |C. Matthews |}Himself. _Air Ballooning_ } | | |for his Ent-|} _A Trip to America_} | | |ertainments.|


* * * * *


(Vol. viii., p. 535.)

The list of Occasional Forms of Prayer, recently contributed to your pages by the REV. THOMAS LATHBURY, contained no less than forty-eight items. All the forms which he enumerates, with one exception, are earlier than the year 1700. Using the same limitation of date, I send you herewith a farther list of such occasional forms: all these are to be found in the British Museum, and the press-marks by which they are designated in the catalogue are here added. The present list comprises fifty-one items, all of them, I think, different from those which have been already mentioned. Unless otherwise stated, the copies of the forms here referred to are printed at London, and they are for the most part in black-letter, without pagination.

A Psalme and Collect of Thankesgiving, not unmeet for the present Time [_i.e._ after the defeat of the Spanish Armada]. 1588. (3406. c.)


An Order for Prayer and Thanksgiving (necessary to be used in these dangerous Times) for the Safetie and Preservation of her Majestie and this Realm. 1598.

A revision of the form first issued in 1594. (3406. c.) 1.

Certain Prayers collected out of a Form of godly Meditations ... to be used at this Time in the present Visitation of God's heavy Hand, &c. With the Order of a Fast to be kept every Wednesday. 1603. (3406. c.)

Thanksgiving, August 5; being the Day of his Highnesse's happy Deliverance from the trayterous and bloody Attempt of the Earle of Gowry and his Brother, with their Adherents. 1606. (3406. c.)

Forme of Common Prayer, together with an Order of Fasting: for the averting of God's heavy Visitation upon many Places of this Kingdom [two editions, the second with a few MS. notes]. 1625. (3406. d.) 1. and (3406. d. 1.) 2.

Thanksgiving. March 27, 1626. (3406. d. 1.) 4.

Prayer for Safety and Preservation of his Majestie and this Realm. 1626. (3406. d. 1.) 5.

Thanksgiving. Safe Delivery of the Queen. 1631. Fol. (3406. e.) 1.

Thanksgiving. Safe Child-bearing of the Queene's Majestie. 1635. Fol. (3406. e.) 2.

Thanksgiving. November 5, 1636. (3406. c.)

Thanksgiving. November 5, 1638. (3406. d. 1.) 6.

Prayer for the King's Majestie, in the Northern Expedition. 1639. Fol. (3406. e.) 3.

A Form of Thanksgiving to be used September 7, 1640, thorowout the Diocese of Lincoln, and in the Jurisdiction of Westminster. 1640(?) (3407. c.)

Thanksgiving. March 27, 1640. (3406. d. 1.) 8.

Prayer for the King's Majestie, in his Expedition against the Rebels of Scotland. 1640. Fol. (3406. e.) 4.

Fast, February 5, 1644, for a Blessing on the Treaty now begunne. (3406. d. 1.) 9.

Thanksgiving for the late Defeat given unto the Rebells at Newarke (and A Prayer for the Queene's safe Delivery). 1644. Oxford, fol. (3406. e.) 5.

Prayer to be used upon January 15, 1661, in London and Westminster, &c.; and upon the 22nd of the said moneth in the rest of England and Wales. (3406. d. 2.) 1.

Prayer on June 12 and June 19, 1661 (as in the last form). (3406. d. 2.) 2.

Fast. July 12, 1665, in London, &c. (3406. d. 2.) 3.

Prayer. April 10, 1678. (3407. c.)

Fast. November 13, 1678. (3406. d. 2.) 5.

Prayer for King. 1684. (3407. c.)

Thanksgiving. July 26, 1685. Victories over the Rebels. (3406. d. 3.) 3.

Prayers ... during this time of Public Apprehension from the Danger of Invasion. 1688. (3407. c.)

Additional Prayers to be used, together with those appointed in the Service for November 5, 1689. (3406. d. 4.) 4.

Fast. March 12, 1689. Preservation of his Majestie's sacred Person, and the Prosperity of his Arms in Ireland, &c. (3406. d. 4.) 1.

Fast. June 5 and June 19, 1689. To implore Success in the War declared against the French King. (3406. d. 4.) 2.

Thanksgiving: Success towards the reducing of Ireland. October 19, 1690. (3406. d. 4.) 3.

Thanksgiving. November 5, 1690. (3406. d. 4.) 6.

A Prayer for the King, to be used instead of that appointed for his Majestie's present Expedition. 1690. (3406. d. 4.) 5.

A Prayer for the King, to be constantly used while his Majesty is abroad in the Wars. 1691. (3406. d. 4.) 7.

Fast. April 29, 1691. (3406. d. 4.) 8. Two editions.

Thanksgiving. Success in Ireland. November 26, 1691. (3406. d. 4.) 10.

Thanksgiving. 1692. (3406. d. 4.) 12.

Thanksgiving. 1692. (3406. d. 4.) 14.

Thanksgiving. October 27 and November 10, 1692. For the signal Victory vouchsafed to the Fleet. (3406. d. 4.) 15.

Prayer, during the Time of their Majesties' Fleet being at Sea. 1692. (3406. d. 4.) 18.

Fast. April 8, 1692. (3406. d. 4.) 11.

Prayer. May 10, 1693, and second Wednesday of every month following, &c. (3406. d. 4.) 16.

Thanksgiving. November 12 and November 26, 1693. (3406. d. 4.) 17.

Thanksgiving. December 9 and December 16, 1694. (3406. d. 5.) 3.

Prayers to be used during the Queen's Sickness, &c. 1694. (3406. d. 5.) 2.

Thanksgiving. April 16, 1695. (3406. d. 5.) 4.

Fast. June 19, 1695. (3406. d. 5.) 5.

Prayer. December 11 and December 18, 1695. (3406. d. 5.) 6.

Fast. June 26. (3406. d. 5.) 7.

Form of Prayer to be used Yearly on September 2, 1696, for the dreadful fire of London. (3406. d. 5.) 8.

Fast. April 28, 1697. (3406. d. 5.) 9.

Thanksgiving. December 2, 1697. (3406. d. 5.) 10.

Fast. April 5, 1699. (3406. d. 5.) 11.

It would occupy more space than "N. & Q." can afford to complete the list up to the present time. In the British Museum Catalogue alone, between the years 1700 and 1800, there are about 120 Forms of Prayer; and, between 1800 and 1850, about 113 more. Let me, before leaving the subject, draw the attention of your readers to the following extract from Straker's (Adelaide Street, West Strand) _Catalogue of Books_, printed in 1853, pp. 419.:

Article "1862. COMMON PRAYER. Forms of Prayer, an extensive collection of, issued by authority, on public occasions; such as War and Peace, Plague and Pestilence, Earthquakes, Treason and Rebellion, Accession of Kings, Birth of Princes, &c. &c., from A.D. 1550 to A.D. 1847, consisting of 45 in manuscript and 181 printed, together 226; many of which are of the greatest scarcity, with a detailed catalogue of the collection, 8l. 8s. 1550-1840 [_sic_].

"The late J. W. Niblock, D.D., F.S.A., was actively engaged for upwards of _thirty years_, (with {406} great trouble and expense) in forming this exceedingly interesting and valuable collection for his projected work, to be entitled 'FORMÆ PRECUM, or National State Prayers, issued by Authority, on Fast and Thanksgiving Days, and other public Occasions, from the Reformation to the present Time,' those in manuscript are copied with great care from the originals in public libraries and private collections."

This important collection may possibly be unknown to some of your readers who take an interest in matters liturgical.


Having made it a point, for some years past, to preserve at least one copy of each Occasional Form of Prayer, and wishing to comply with MR. LATHBURY'S request, I send a list of those in my own possession.

Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Prince. 1841.

Form and Thanksgiving for Preservation of the Queen "from the atrocious and treasonable Attempt against her sacred Person." 1842.

Form and Thanksgiving for abundant Harvest. 1842.

Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Princess. 1843.

Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of Prince. 1844.

Form and Thanksgiving for Victories in the Sutledge. 1846.

Form and Thanksgiving, for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Princess. 1846.

Form for Relief from Dearth and Scarcity. 1846.

Form for Removal of Dearth and Scarcity. Fast. 1847.

Form and Thanksgiving for abundant Harvest. 1847.

Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Princess. 1848.

Form for Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity. 1848.

Form for Removal of Disease. 1849.

Form and Thanksgiving for Removal of Disease. 1849.

Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Prince. 1850.


* * * * *


_Photographic Query._--Given the diameter and focal length of a simple achromatic lens; at what distance from it must a diaphragm of given diameter be placed to give the best possible image?


_Improvement in Collodion._--As there are many photographers who are not members of the Photographic Society, and who do not see the journal published by that body, a statement of what I think will be found a very material improvement in the manufacture of collodion may not be unacceptable to the readers of "N. & Q." To five drachms of pure _washed_ ether, add one drachm alcohol 60° over proof, and dissolve therein sufficient soluble cotton to make it of the consistence of oil (the exact quantity must depend rather upon the dexterity of the operator, as the thicker it is the more difficult to use) then add twenty minims of chloroform, dropping in the latter, which will fall to the bottom, but is readily dissolved on shaking the mixture for a few minutes.

To two drachms of the same alcohol add the iodizing material preferred, and mix with the other ingredients.

The above will be found to flow very evenly smoothly over the plate; is tough, intense, and _structureless_ in appearance. I have not yet determined what is the best iodizing mixture, but at present I prefer iodide of potassium _alone_, if pure, and twenty grains to the ounce of alcohol is the proportion I generally adopt; thus having five grains in each ounce of collodion.

Lastly, as regards the soluble cotton, I cannot find any better material than that produced according to the formula published by Mr. Hadow, in the March Number of the _Photographic Journal_, thus: "Take of nit. potash, five parts; sulphuric acid, ten parts; water, one part; _all by weight_. Add the water to the nitrate of potash, and then the acid, and immediately immerse as much cotton wool as can be thoroughly saturated by the mixture, leaving it in for _at least_ ten minutes, and wash with a great abundance of water. The object of adding the cotton immediately that the acid has been mixed with the nitrate of potash, is to expose it to the action of the chemicals while they are at a temperature of from 120° to 130°. For farther particulars on this head, I must refer to Mr. Hadow's paper.


[This application is not a novelty to us: DR. DIAMOND has for some time added a small portion of his amber varnish (which is prepared from chloroform) to his collodion, and with satisfactory results. It is a pity that so admirable a varnish is not to be procured at the generality of photographic warehouses. We have never yet been able to procure any which will bear comparison with some which DR. DIAMOND was good enough to prepare for us.--ED. "N. & Q."]

_Printing Positives._--I will venture to assure AMATEUR that,--if he will follow DR. DIAMOND'S formula for albumenizing Canson paper, either positive or negative, viz.,

Chloride of sodium (salt) 5 grs. Chloride of ammonium 5 grs. Water 1 oz. Albumen, or the white of one egg, which is near enough for the purpose 1 oz.

and will excite this paper by floating it for about two minutes on a solution of nitrate of silver twenty grains to the ounce, distilled water,--provided his chemicals are good, he will obtain perfectly satisfactory results.

Let his fixing bath be a saturated solution of hypo. soda, and if newly made let him, as recommended by DR. DIAMOND, add 40 grains of chloride of silver to every 8 ounces of the solution. The addition of a grain of sel d'or to every 8 ounces of solution will greatly improve the tones of colour; and if, after some {407} time, the positives become more of a brown tint than he likes, let him add a small quantity of sel d'or, half a grain to a bath of from 12 to 16 ounces, and he will find the dark tints restored.

I inclose a copy of the print of "Horse-shoeing," obtained precisely by the method described. It is rather overprinted; but if AMATEUR will give you his address, and you will forward it to him, it will show him what tones of colour and depth may be procured by following the foregoing directions.

C. E. F.

_Photographic Excursions._--A few Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries have formed themselves into a Photographic Club for the purpose of making periodical excursions into the country, and so securing accurate views of the objects of antiquarian interest in the different localities they may visit. As it is intended that a copy of every photograph so taken shall be deposited in the portfolios of the Society, the advantages likely to result from this little reunion, both to the Society of Antiquaries and to Archæology generally, are very obvious.

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

"_To Garble_" (Vol. ix., pp. 243. 359.).--I venture, with deference, to express a doubt as to whether E. S. T. T. has correctly defined either the former or the present meaning of the verb _to garble_, when he says "it meant a selection of the good and the discarding of the bad parts of anything: its present meaning is exactly the reverse of this." The statutes referred to by your correspondent, the first enacting that no bow staves shall be sold ungarbled, and the second imposing a penalty on the sale of spices and drugs not garbled, appear to me to indicate the former meaning of the word to have been the selection (picking out) of the _bad_ and the discarding of it. Experience shows that in all operations, involving the separation of objects worthless and of value, such as weeding, sifting, and winnowing, the former is removed from the latter and discarded. This view of the case seems to be supported by the fact of the dust and dross sifted from spices being called "garbles." The weeder removes weeds from flowers or plants, the garbler removes garbles from spices and bad bow staves from amongst good ones. Richardson's _Dictionary_ contains the following notes under the head _Garble_:

"Fr. _Grabeler_; It. _Garbellare_. Cotgrave says, Grabeller, to garble spices, &c., (and hence) also to examine precisely, sift nearly, look narrowly, search curiously into."

After giving some examples of its use, Richardson says:

"As usually applied in England, to garble is to pick out, sift out what may serve a particular purpose, and thus destroy or mutilate the fair character of the whole."

To go no farther, the reports of the parliamentary debates, when a "Blue Book" happens to furnish matter for discussion, amply confirm Richardson's definition, that _to garble_ is to pick out what may serve a purpose. In this sense, however, E. S. T. T. must admit that it would be as much garbling to quote all the _good_ passages of a work as to quote all the bad ones. May we not then assume the present meaning of the word _garble_ to be this--to quote passages with the view of conveying an impression of the ability or intention of a writer, which is not warranted by the general scope of the work?


_"Lyra Apostolica_" (Vol. ix., p. 304.).--There is, I believe, a slight inaccuracy in the rotation of the names given at the above page as the writers in the _Lyra Apostolica_. They go in alphabetical order, thus [alpha], Bowden; [beta], Froude; [gamma], Keble; [delta], Newman; [epsilon], Wilberforce; [zeta], Williams.

B. R. A. Y.

The poems signed [zeta]. were written by _Williams_, not by _Wilberforce_.

Can you explain the meaning of the motto on the title-page--

"[Greek: Gnoien d', hôs dê dêron egô polemoio pepaumai]"?

M. D.

[This motto is from Homer, _Iliad_, xviii. 125. Its literal translation is, They (the enemy) shall know that it was I who have long kept away from the war," and, by implication, that I have now returned to it; even I, the great hero Achilles; for he is the taunting speaker. Had it not been for my absence, he intimates, the Trojans had not gained so many and great victories. We must leave our correspondent to apply this Homeric verse to the Protestant dark ages of the Georgian era, and to the theological movement of 1833.]

_John Bale, Bishop of Ossory_ (Vol. ix., p. 324.).--A catalogue, professing to be a complete one, of this over-ardent reformer's voluminous works, with a portrait, may be seen in Holland's _Heroölogia Anglica_, fol. 165-7. There are some curious notices concerning him in Blomefield's _History of Norwich_ (fol. 1741), pp. 154, 155, 794., where reference is also made to his brother Robert as a learned man and great writer.



_Burial in an erect Posture_ (Vol. viii., pp. 5. 59. 233. 455. 630.; Vol. ix., p. 279.).--How strange it is that all of us should have forgotten Charlemagne. When his tomb at Aix-la-Chapelle was opened by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa in 1165, "he found the body of Charlemagne, not reclining in his coffin, as is the usual fashion of the dead, but seated in his throne, as one alive, clothed in the imperial robes, bearing the sceptre in his hand, and on his knees a copy of the gospels." (See Murray's {408} _Handbook to Belgium_.) The throne in which the body was seated, the sarcophagus (of Parian marble, the work of Roman or Greek artists, ornamented with a fine bas-relief of the Rape of Proserpine) in which the feet of the dead king were placed, are still preserved in the cathedral, where I saw them last year, together with some portions of the robes, and some curious ancient embroidery: these last are not usually exhibited to strangers.


"_Carronade_" (Vol. ix., p. 246.).--"The folk story," as to the derivation of this word (if such a comparatively modern invention deserves such an epithet, for the Carron works, I believe, did not exist a hundred years ago) is quite correct. This gun is said to have been invented in Ireland by General Melville; but having been perfected at Carron, it thence took its name.

Landmann (no mean authority at the beginning of this century), in his _Questions and Answers on Artillery_, says: "The carronade takes its name from being first made at Carron."


"_Largesse_" (Vol. v., p. 557.; Vol. ix., p. 209.).--The use of this word is not confined to Essex and Northamptonshire, but extends also to Norfolk. It is met with in many parishes in the western division of Norfolk: where, at the time of harvest, after accompanying the last load of corn home with the procession of the "Harvest Lady," it is customary that the labourers on the several farms should go round their respective parishes, and collect various sums of money, under the name of _largesse_, at the houses of the chief inhabitants, whether lay or clerical. Few were to be met with who refused this species of "black mail" thus levied on them; doubtless regarding it as one out of many means of testifying their thankfulness to the "Lord of the Harvest" for "filling their mouth with good things," and giving them an abundance of "corn and wine and oil."


This word is of common occurrence in Suffolk during the shooting season, where sportsmen are affrays greeted with it, for a donation, by the labourers on the land where game is sought for.

N. L. J.

_Precious Stones_ (Vol. viii., p. 539.; Vol. ix., pp. 37. 88. 284.).--As the titles of so many works on this subject have been already given in your pages, perhaps I may be of some service to your correspondents in farther completing the list, and referring them to the following in my own collection:

On the Origin of Gems, by the Hon. Robert Boyle: London, 12mo.

The Mirror of Stones, in which the Nature, Generation, &c., of more than 200 Jewels, &c., are distinctly described by Camillus Leonardus, 12mo.: London, 1750.

A Treatise on Diamonds and Pearls, by David Jeffries, 2nd edit., 8vo.: London, 1751. [This work, which was very scarce, has been recently reprinted by E. Lumley for 6s.]

Traité des Pierres précieuses et des Pierres fines, par L. Dutens, 12mo.: London, Paris, and Florence. [Reprinted, with additions, in "Les Oeuvres Mélés de Dutens:" Génève, 8vo., 1784.]

A Treatise on Diamonds and Precious Stones, by John Mawe, 2nd edit.: London, 8vo., 1823.

A Memoir of the Diamond, by John Murray, F.S.A., &c., 12mo.: London, 1831.

Besides these may be consulted, the treatise of Gemma, _Delle Gemme pretiose_, 2 vols. 4to., a ponderous map of obsolete puerilities; the _Minéralogie_ of M. de Bomare; the _Crystallographie_ of M. Romé Delisle; the essay of Wallerius, _De Lapidum Origine_; the learned researches of Bergman, _Sur les Pierres précieuses_, &c.

I may add, that a practical work on the nature and value of precious stones, comprehending the opinions and superstitions of the ancients respecting them, together with an essay upon engraved gems, an account of celebrated collections and specimens, &c., is much wanted, and would probably be well received.



"_A Pinch of Snuff_" (Vol. vi., p. 431.; Vol. vii., p. 268.).--This work is correctly attributed to Benson E. Hill, Esq. The companion volume, _A Paper of Tobacco_, of which F. R. A. speaks in just terms of commendation, was the production of Mr. W. A. Chatto, the ingenious author of a _History of Playing Cards_, &c. His son, Mr. Thomas Chatto, from whom I received this information, is a bookseller, at No. 25. Museum Street, Bloomsbury: where I hope his civility, and anxiety to serve his visitors, will ensure the success he merits.



_Darwin on Steam_ (Vol. ix., p. 271.).--The lines in question are not cited quite correctly by UNEDA. They run as follows:

"Soon shall thy arm, unconquer'd Steam, afar Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car; Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear, The flying-chariot through the fields of air."

They occur in the First Part of the _Botanic Garden_, p. 29., 2nd edit., 4to., London, 1791.

L. (1)

[We are also indebted to J. K. R. W. and other correspondents for similar replies.]

_Gale of Rent_ (Vol. viii., pp. 563. 655.).--The word _gale_ is used in the west of Philadelphia in the sense of an instalment. Thus, if land is {409} bought to be paid for in annual sums, one of these is called a yearly gale. I have supposed, I cannot now say why, that this was an Irish expression.


_Cobb Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 272).--I have much reason to believe that MR. ARTHUR PAGET will find a clue to his inquiries in the following particulars extracted from documents in my possession. The estate of St. Katharine's Hall, or St. Kattern's, near Bath, belonged to the family of Blanchard; and in 1748 the property passed to the family of Parry of St. Kattern's by marriage with the heiress of the Blanchards, who is thus described:

"Thomas Parry, and Querinah his wife, niece and heiress-at-law of William Blanchard, who was only son and heir of Henry Blanchard, and Querinah his wife," [only child of John Curle, Esq.].

In 1795 Thomas Parry devised the estate to his son John Parry, who was the rector of Sturmer, co. Essex; and by his will [May, 1797] his property went to his sisters, Elizabeth Knight, Querinah Cobb, and Hannah Parry. Elizabeth married, Aug. 1781, Henry Knight of Lansdown, near Bath. Querinah married, Nov. 1781, William Milles Cobb, of Ringwood, gentleman, third son of Christopher Cobb, merchant, and Sarah his wife.

I have in my possession some portraits of the Blanchard, Curle, and Parry families; two by Sir Peter Lely, which may afford MR. PAGET farther evidence of the consanguinity of Richard Cobb, Esq., and the Cobbs of Ringwood.



On the principle that every little helps, and out of gratitude for CRANMORE'S assistance in the Milton-Minshull controversy, I would offer the following suggestions, which may haply serve as finger-posts to direct him on his way. William Cobb, Esq., of Adderbury, Oxon, immediate ancestor of the baronets of that name and place, derived from the Cobbs of Sandringham, in the hundred of Freebridge, Norfolk. Blomefield's _History_ of the latter county might be consulted with advantage. The Cobbs of Adderbury bore "Sable, a chevron argent between three dolphins naiant embowed or, a chief of the last." Randle Holme, in his _Academy of Armory_, 1688, gives the following as the arms of Cobb,--"Per chevron sable and gules, two swans respecting each other and a herring cobb argent." Thomas Cobb, of Otterington, Yorkshire, a loyal subject of King Charles I., compounded for his estates in the sum of 472l. There is a brass in Sharnbrook Church, Bedfordshire, commemorating William Cobbe, who died in 1522, Alice his wife, a son Thomas, and other children.



"_Aches_" (Vol. ix., p. 351.).--I am not aware of any rhyme which fixes the pronunciation of _aches_ in the time of Shakspeare, but I think the following quite as decisive:

"_Of the Fallacie in the Accent or Pronunciation._--The fallacie of the accent is, when a false thing is affirmed under colour of pronouncing it as another thing that is true. For example:

'Where no _ache_ is, there needs no salve; In the gout there is no H, Therefore, in the gout, there needs no salve.'"

_The Elements of Logicke_, by Peter Dumoulin. Translated out of the French copie by Nathanael De-Lawne, with the Author's approbation: London, 1624, 24mo.

"_Anthony._ Thou bleedest apace. _Scarus._ I had a wound here that was like a T; But now 'tis made an H." _Ant. and Cleop._, Act IV. Sc. 7.

See also on the "aitch" question, _Letters of an Irish Student_, vol. i. p. 256., London, 1812; and _The Parlour Window_, by the Rev. Edward Mangin, p. 146., London, 1841.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

"_Meols_" (Vol. vii., pp. 208. 298.).--There is an extensive parish called North _Meols_ (the favourite watering-place of Southport being within it) in the sandy district to the south of the estuary of the Ribble, in Lancashire.


_Polygamy_ (Vol. ix., p. 246.).--The practice of monogamy had been established among the Jews before the Christian era, as is shown by various expressions in the New Testament; but their law (like that of other oriental nations) still permitted polygamy, and they were expressly prohibited by an enactment of the Emperor Theodosius, of the year 393, from marrying several wives at the same time (Cod. 1. 9. 7.); so that the practice was not then extinct among them. Monogamy was the law and practice of all the Greek and Italian communities, so far back as our accounts reach. There is no trace of polygamy in Homer. Even in the incestuous marriages supposed by him in the mythical family of Æolus, the monogamic rule is observed, _Odyssey_, x. 7. The Roman law recognised monogamy alone, and hence polygamy was prohibited in the entire Roman empire. It thus became practically the rule of Christians, and was engrafted into the canon law of the Eastern and Western Churches.


_Wafers_ (Vol. ix., p. 376.).--I have in my possession a volume of original Italian letters, addressed to a Venetian physician (who appears to have been eminent in his profession), Michael Angelo Rota, written during the early part of the seventeenth century. Many of these letters have been sealed with red wafers, still adhering to the {410} paper, and precisely similar to those now in use. The earliest of the letters which I have found sealed is dated April, 1607, which is seventeen years earlier than the earliest known instance, mentioned by Beckmann (_History of Inventions_, Bohn's edit., vol. i. p. 146.), of a letter sealed with a wafer.



I have before me a reprieve from the Council, dated in 1599, sealed with a wafer, and am certain that I have earlier instances, had I time at this moment to look them up.

L. B. L.

* * * * *



The Northern Antiquaries set their brethren in this country a noble example. Every year sees one or more of them engaged in the production of carefully-edited volumes of early Scandinavian history. We have now to record the publication, by Professor Munch, of the old Norse text of _Kong Olaf Tryggvesön's Saga_ from a MS. in the Library at Stockholm which has not hitherto been made use of; and also, by the same gentleman, in conjunction with his friend Professor Unger, of an edition of the _Saga Olafs Konungs ens Helga_, from the earliest MS. in the library at Stockholm. Each work is introduced by a preface of great learning, and illustrated by a large body of valuable notes.

Those who have shared our regret, that the brilliant notices of books which occasionally appear in the columns of _The Times_ should be presented in a form which scarcely admits of their being preserved, and also our satisfaction when Mr. Murray put forth his selection from them under the title of _Essays from the Times_, will be glad that the same publisher has issued in his _Railway Reading_ a Second Series of them, comprising fourteen articles.

We may remind all lovers of beautiful illustrations of Mediæval Art, that Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell by auction on Monday next the entire stock of the magnificent publications of Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A., whose _Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages_ are a type of the whole. Such an opportunity of securing copies at a reasonable rate will never occur again. While on the subject of sales, we may mention that Messrs. Puttick and Simpson announce a sale of _Photographs_. This is the first instance; but we may be sure, with the growing taste for these accurate and, in many cases, also artistic transcripts of nature, every season will see many similar sales.

At the anniversary of the Society of Antiquaries on Monday last, Admiral Smyth moved a vote of thanks to MR. BRUCE, on his retirement from the Treasurership, for his zeal and indefatigable exertions in that office. The manner in which the gallant Admiral's remarks were received showed, first, that the reforms advocated by Mr. Bruce now meet the general approval of the Society; and secondly, that the warmth of feeling which they had called forth on both sides has entirely disappeared.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Condé's History of the Arabs in Spain, translated from the Spanish_, by Mrs. Jonathan Foster, in three volumes, Vol. I. Mr. Bohn deserves the best thanks of all lovers of history for this English translation--the first which has ever been made--of the admirable work of Condé. It is one of the most important volumes which he has published in his _Standard Library.--The Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay_, Vol. II. The second volume of this amusing, gossiping, and egotistical work, comprises the period 1781-1786.--_Pantomime Budgets, &c._, a clever pamphlet in favour of prepaid taxation.--_John Penry, the Pilgrim Martyr_, 1559-1593, by John Waddington. A violent anti-church biography of Penry, whose share in the Marprelate Controversy Mr. Waddington disbelieves on very insufficient grounds.

* * * * *


LINGARD'S ENGLAND. Foolscap 8vo. 1844. Vols. I. to V., and X. and XI.

THE WORKS OF DR. JONATHAN SWIFT. London, printed for C. Bathurst, in Fleet Street, 1768. Vol. VII. (Vol. VI. ending with "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift," written in Nov. 1731.)

BYRON'S WORKS. Vol. VI. of Murray's Edition. 1829.

The Volume of the LONDON POLYGLOTT which contains the Prophets. Imperfection in other parts of no consequence.


THE CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. London, 1828. 12mo. Two copies.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are given for that purpose:

Any of the occasional Sermons of the Rev. Charles Kingsley, of Eversley, more particularly THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH TO THE LABOURING CLASSES, and CLOTHES CHEAP AND NASTY, by Parson Lot.

Wanted by _H. C. Cowley_, Melksham, Wilts.

The Numbers of the BRITISH AND COLONIAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, published in 1846, by Smith and Elder, Cornhill, containing a review of a work on graduated, sliding-scale, Taxation. Also any work of the French School on the same subject, published from 1790 down to the end of the Revolution.

Wanted by _R. J. Cole_, 12. Furnival's Inn.


Wanted by _S. Hayward_, Bookseller, Bath.

J. G. AGARDH, SPECIES, GENERA ET ORDINES ALGARUM. Royal 8vo. London 1848-1853.


Wanted by the _Rev. Frederick Smithe_, Churchdown, Gloucester.


Wanted by _Hugh Owen, Esq._, Bristol.

PLATONIS OPERA OMNIA (Stallbaum). Gothæ et Erfordiæ, Sumptibus Guil. Hennings, 1832; published in Jacobs and Rost's Bibliotheca Græca. Vol. iv. Sect. 2., containing Menexenus, Lysis, Hippias uterque, Io.

Wanted by the _Rev. G. R. Mackarness_, Barnwell Rectory, near Oundle.


ANCIENT COMMERCE OF HINDOSTAN, forming Vol. VII. of "Maurice's Indian Antiquities, 1796."

Wanted by the _Rev. H. Atlay, B.-Casterton, Stamford_.


Wanted by _Lieut. Bruce_, Royal Horse Artillery, Chatham.

LATIMER'S SERMONS. Published by the Parker Society. Vol. I.

Wanted by _Mr. J. G. Nichols_, 25. Parliament Street.

PLANS OR MAPS OF ANCIENT LONDON, and Representations of Remarkable and Interesting Objects connected therewith--large size (such as Old St. Paul's, Paul's Cross, Old London Bridge, &c.).

A Copy of No. 1. (or early number) of "The Times" Newspaper.

A Copy of one of the "Broadsheets" issued during the Plague.

Wanted by _Mr. Joseph Simpson_, Librarian, Literary and Scientific Institution, Islington, London.

* * * * *

Notices to Correspondents.

SIGMA. _The Rev. Richard Warner, the Historian of Bath, we believe, is still living, and is Rector of Chadfield, Wilts, and Chelwood, Somersetshire._

F. S. A. _The origin as well as the demolition of Castell Dinâs, Bran, near Llangollen, have baffled our topographical antiquaries. For some notices of this fortress consult Pennant's_ Tour in Wales, p. 279., edit. 1778 (_with a plate of it_); _Leland's_ Itinerary, vol. v. p. 51.; _and_ Beauties of England and Wales, vol. xviii. p. 558.

RUSTICA. _The Dutch Gothic Church_, noticed in The Times _of the 5th inst., is in Austin Friars_.

J--G. _We did not succeed in getting the book._

NEISON ON RAILWAY ACCIDENTS _is published in the_ Journal of the Statistical Society _for December, 1853, and may be had of Parker, 445 Strand_.

B. T. A. _The line_ "England, with all thy faults I love thee still," _is by Cowper_ (The Task, book ii.).

REV. J. J. _We fear some injustice was done--unintentionally, but fear also that it is now too late to remedy it._

INQUIRER (Birmingham). _Some of our correspondents have met with great success from Mr. Crookes' process; but we are bound to say that it has not been universal._

G. W. E. _recommends that in immersing a collodion plate it should first be inserted horizontally, and then transversely in the nitrate of silver bath, as a sure means of avoiding spots_.

_He is informed that if the edges of his glass are roughed, it will greatly tend to the adhesion of the collodion. The nitrate of silver bath, used for exciting collodion plates, is not available for exciting albumenized paper or any other purpose._

H. C. C. _1. The addition of cyanide of potassium to the sensitive collodion not only prevents its decomposition, but appears to add to its general good qualities. 2. Protosulphate of iron mixed with your nitrate bath is quite fatal. 3. Good pictures are constantly taken when the temperature is below sixty; though there is no doubt all chemical action is quicker in warm weather._

B. (Manchester). _See_ "N. & Q.," No. 205, _October 1, 1853_.

W. BEATSON. _There are difficulties in the way of such an exchange of photographic pictures, which are very difficult to overcome. At present we believe the Photographic Society, with the aid of an energetic Council, have been unable to effect this, even to a limited extent._

ERRATUM.--Vol. ix., p. 220. col. 1. line 9, _for_ 1533-5 _read_ 1633-5.

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery, price_ 10s. 6d., _cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up, price_ 4l. 4s.--_For these early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

* * * * *

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Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography, Instruction in the Art.


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Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS. Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above, where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The Trade supplied.

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KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art. Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

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COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

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THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

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Sale of Photographic Pictures, Landscape Camera by Horne & Co.; Prints and Drawings.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, early in MAY, an important Collection of Photographic Pictures by the most celebrated Artists and Amateurs; comprising some _chefs d'oeuvre_ of the Art, amongst which are large and interesting Views taken in Paris, Rouen, Brussels, Switzerland, Rome, Venice, various parts of England and Scotland. Rustic Scenes, Architectural Subjects, Antiquities, &c. Also, some interesting Prints and Drawings.

Catalogues will be sent on Application (if at a distance, on Receipt of Two Stamps.)

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SALE of the REV. G. S. FABER'S LIBRARY.--MR. WHITE has received instructions to sell by Auction in the House No. 1. North Bailey (next door to the Exhibition Room), Durham, on Tuesday, May 9th, and three following days, the extensive and valuable Library of the late REV. G. S. FABER, Prebendary of Salisbury, and Master of Sherburn Hospital, Durham, consisting of editions of the Fathers, Works on Divinity, General Literature, &c.

Catalogues are now ready, and may be had of MESSRS. F. & J. RIVINGTON, No. 3. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, and of MR. S. LOW, 169. Fleet Street, London; MESSRS. BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh; of MR. ANDREWS, Bookseller, Durham, and of the Auctioneer.

Catalogues will be forwarded by Post by MR. ANDREWS, Bookseller, Durham, on receipt of Two Postage Stamps.

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PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square (established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25 guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial; signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the under-signed members of the musical profession, having carefully examined the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & Co., have great pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F. Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F. Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H. Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E. Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, Y. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

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W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or other Depositories of similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature, History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had considerable experience.


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Founded A.D. 1842.


H. E. Bicknell, Esq. | T. Grissell, Esq. T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P. | J. Hunt, Esq. G. H. Drew, Esq. | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq. W. Evans, Esq. | E. Lucas, Esq. W. Freeman, Esq. | J. Lys Seager, Esq. F. Fuller, Esq. | J. B. White, Esq. J. H. Goodhart, Esq. | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

_Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell, Esq. _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D. _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in three-fourths of the Profits:--

Age £ s. d. | Age £ s. d. 17 1 14 4 | 32 2 10 8 22 1 18 8 | 37 2 18 6 27 2 4 5 | 42 3 8 2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

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No. 3. Pall Mall East, and 7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

_Established_ A.D. 1844.

INVESTMENT ACCOUNTS may be opened daily, with capital of any amount.

Interest payable in January and July.

PETER MORRISON, Managing Director.

Prospectuses and Forms sent free on application.

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BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and Silver Cases in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 65. CHEAPSIDE.

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London Homoeopathic Hospital.


Founded by the British Homoeopathic Association, October 10, 1849; opened for the Reception of Patients, April 10, 1850.


Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cambridge.


Field-Marshal the Marquis of Anglesey, K.G., G.C.B.


His Grace the Archbishop of Dublin. His Grace the Duke of Beaufort. Right Hon. the Earl of Essex. Right Hon. the Viscount Sydney. Right Hon. the Lord Gray. The Viscount Maldon. Lord Francis Gordon. Captain Lord C. Paget, R.N., M.P. Captain Lord A. Paget, M.P Colonel Lord G. Paget, M.P. Colonel Wyndham. F. Foster Quin, Esq., M.D. Marmaduke B. Sampson, Esq.


Sir John Dean Paul, Bart., 217. Strand.

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(Instead of the Annual Dinner),

In Aid of the Funds of this Hospital, will be held at


On TUESDAY EVENING, May 2, at Eight o'clock.

Tickets may be had at the Hospital, 32. Golden Square of Messrs. Aylott & Jones, Paternoster Row; Mr. Bailliere, 219. Regent Street; Mr. Headland, 15. Princes Street, Hanover Square; Mr. Leath, Vere Street, Cavendish Square, and St. Paul's Churchyard; Mr. Walker, Conduit Street; Mr. James Epps, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury Square, and Broad Street, City; Mr. Turner, Piccadilly, Manchester; Mr. Thompson, Liverpool; and at all the Homoeopathic Chemists and Booksellers.

Single Tickets, 7s. 6d.; Family Tickets to admit Four, 1l. 4s.

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THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

£ s. d. A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent Process 1 1 0 Additional Copies (each) 0 5 0 A Coloured Portrait, highly finished (small size) 3 3 0 A Coloured Portrait, highly finished (larger size) 5 5 0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions, Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.


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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 29, 1854.