Notes and Queries, Number 208, October 22, 1853 A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc. by Various

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early Journals.)

Transcriber's note: on page 399, "Yule College" in the original is corrected to "Yale College".

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{381}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 208.] SATURDAY, OCTOBER 22. 1853. [Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

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CONTENTS.

NOTES:-- Page

A Prophet 381

FOLK LORE:--Folk Lore in Cambridgeshire--New Brunswick Folk Lore--North Lincolnshire Folk Lore--Portuguese Folk Lore 382

Pope and Cowper, By J. Yeowell 383 Shakspeare Correspondence, by Patrick Muirson, &c. 383

MINOR NOTES:--Judicial Families--Derivation of "Topsy Turvy"--Dictionaries and Encyclopædias-- "Mary, weep no more for me"--Epitaph at Wood Ditton--Pictorial Pun 384

QUERIES:--

Sir Thomas Button's Voyage, 1612, by John Petheram 385

MINOR QUERIES:--The Words "Cash" and "Mob" --"History of Jesus Christ"--Quantity of the Latin Termination -anus--Webb and Walker Families-- Cawdrey's "Treasure of Similes"--Point of Etiquette --Napoleon's Spelling--Trench on Proverbs--Rings formerly worn by Ecclesiastics--Butler's "Lives of the Saints"--Marriage of Cousins--Castle Thorpe, Bucks--Where was Edward II. killed?--Encore-- Amcotts' Pedigree--Blue Bell: Blue Anchor-- "We've parted for the longest time"--Matthew Lewis--Paradise Lost--Colonel Hyde Seymour-- Vault at Richmond, Yorkshire--Poems published at Manchester--Handel's Dettingen Te Deum-- Edmund Spenser and Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. 386

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--The Ligurian Sage --Gresebrok in Yorkshire--Stillingfleet's Library-- The whole System of Law--Saint Malachy on the Popes--Work on the Human Figure 389

REPLIES:--

"Namby Pamby," and other Words of the same Form 390 Earl of Oxford 392 Picts' Houses 392 Pronunciation of "Humble" 393 School Libraries 395

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Albumenized Paper --Cement for Glass Baths--New Process for Positive Proofs 395

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--The Groaning Elmplank in Dublin--Passage in Whiston--"When Orpheus went down"--Foreign Medical Education --"Short red, good red"--Collar of SS.--Who first thought of Table-turning--Passage of Thucydides on the Greek Factions--Origin of "Clipper" as applied to Vessels--Passage in Tennyson--Huet's Navigations of Solomon--Sincere--The Saltpetre Man-- Major André--Longevity--Passage in Virgil--Love Charm from a Foal's Forehead--Wardhouse, where was?--Divining Rod--Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle-- Pagoda 397

MISCELLANEOUS:--

Books and Odd Volumes wanted 401 Notices to Correspondents 401 Advertisements 402

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Notes.

A PROPHET.

What a curious book would be "Our Prophets and Enthusiasts!" The literary and biographical records of the vaticinators, and the heated spirits who, after working upon the fears of the timid, and exciting the imaginations of the weak, have flitted into oblivion! As a specimen of the odd characters such a work would embrace, allow me to introduce to your readers Thomas Newans, a Shropshire farmer, who unhappily took it into his head that his visit to the lower sphere was on a special mission.

Mr. Newans is the author of a book entitled _A Key to the Prophecies of the Old and New Testament_; showing (among other impending events) "The approaching Invasion of England;" "The Extirpation of Popery and Mahometisme;" "The Restoration of the Jews," and "The Millennium." London: printed for the Author (who attests the genuineness of my copy by his signature), 1747.

In this misfitted key he relates how, in a vision, he was invested with the prophetic mantle:

"In the year 1723, in the night," says Mr. Newans, "I fell into a dream, and seemed to be riding on the road into the county of Cheshire. When I was got about eight miles from home, my horse made a stop on the road; and it seemed a dark night, and on a sudden there shone a light before me on the ground, which was as bright as when the sun shines at noon-day. In the middle of that bright circle stood a child in white. It spoke, and told me that I must go into Cheshire, and I should find a man with uncommon marks upon his feet, which should be a warning to me to believe; and that the year after I should have a cow that would calve a calf with his heart growing out of his body in a wonderful manner, as a token of what should come to pass; and that a terrible war would break out in Europe, and in fourteen years after the token it would extend to England."

In compliance with his supernatural communication, our farmer proceeded to Cheshire, where he found the man indicated; and, a year after, his own farm stock was increased by the birth of a calf with his heart growing out. And after taking his family, of seven, to witness to the truth of {382} what he describes, he adds with great simplicity: "So then I rode to London to acquaint the ministers of state of the approaching danger!"

This story of the calf with the heart growing out, is not a bad type of the worthy grazier himself, and his _hearty_ and burning zeal for the Protestant faith. Mr. Newans distinctly and repeatedly predicts that these "two beastly religions," _i. e._ the Popish and Mahomedan, will be totally extirpated within seven years! And "I have," says he, "for almost twenty years past, travelled to London and back again into the country, near fifty journies, and every journey was two hundred and fifty miles, to acquaint the ministers of state and several of the bishops, and other divines, with the certainty, danger, and manner of the war" which was to bring this about. Commenting on the story of Balaam, our prophet says: "And now the world is grown so full of sin and wickedness, that if a dumb ass should speak with a man's voice, they would scarce repent:" and I conclude that the said statesmen and divines did not estimate these prophetic warnings much higher than the brayings of that quadruped which they turned out to be. Mr. Newan professes to gave penned these vaticinations in the year 1744, twenty-one years after the date of his vision; so that he had ample time to mature them. What would the farmer say were he favoured with a peep at our world in 1853, with its Mussulman system unbroken; and its cardinal, archbishops, and Popish bishops firmly established in the very heart of Protestant England?

J. O.

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FOLK LORE.

_Folk Lore in Cambridgeshire._--About twenty years ago, at Hildersham, there was a custom of ringing the church bell at five o'clock in the leasing season. The cottagers then repaired to the fields to glean; but none went out before the bell was rung. The bell tolled again in the evening as a signal for all to return home. I would add a Query, Is this custom continued; and is it to be met with in any other place?

F. M. MIDDLETON.

_New Brunswick Folk Lore_:--_Common Notions respecting Teeth._--Among the lower orders and negroes, and also among young children of respectable parents (who have probably derived the notion from contact with the others as nurses or servants), it is here very commonly held that when a tooth is drawn, if you refrain from thrusting the tongue in the cavity, the second tooth will be golden. Does this idea prevail in England?

_Superstition respecting Bridges._--Many years ago my grandfather had quite a household of blacks, some of whom were slaves and some free. Being bred in his family, a large portion of my early days was thus passed among them, and I have often reverted to the weird superstitions with which they froze themselves and alarmed me. Most of these had allusion to the devil: scarcely one of them that I now recollect but referred to him. Among others they firmly held that when the clock struck twelve at midnight, the devil and a select company of his inferiors regularly came upon that part of the bridge called "the draw," and danced a hornpipe there. So firmly did they hold to this belief, that no threat nor persuasion could induce the stoutest-hearted of them to cross the fatal draw after ten o'clock at night. This belief is quite contrary to that which prevails in Scotland, according to which, Robin Burns being my authority, "neither witches nor any evil spirits have power to follow a poor wight any farther than the middle of the next running stream."[1]

C. D. D.

New Brunswick, New Jersey.

[Footnote 1:

"Now, do thy speedy utmost, Meg, And win the key-stane of the brig: There at them thou thy tail may toss, A running stream they dare na crass."--_Tam O'Shanter._

]

_North Lincolnshire Folk Lore._--Here follow some shreds of folk lore which I have not seen as yet in "N. & Q." They all belong to North Lincolnshire.

1. Death sign. If a swarm of bees alight on a dead tree, or on the dead bough of a living tree, there will be a death in the family of the owner during the year.

2. If you do not throw salt into the fire before you begin to churn, the butter will not come.

3. If eggs are brought over running water they will have no chicks in them.

4. It is unlucky to bring eggs into the house after sunset.

5. If you wear a snake's skin round your head you will never have the headache.

6. Persons called Agnes always go mad.

7. A person who is born on Christmas Day will be able to see spirits.

8. Never burn egg-shells; if you do, the hens cease to lay.

9. If a pigeon is seen sitting in a tree, or comes into the house, or from being wild suddenly becomes tame, it is a sign of death.

10. When you see a magpie you should cross yourself; if you do not you will be unlucky.

EDWARD PEACOCK.

Bottesford Moors.

_Portuguese Folk Lore._--

"The borderer whispered in my ear that he was one of the dreadful Lobishomens, a devoted race, held in mingled horror and commiseration, and never mentioned {383} without by the Portuguese peasantry. They believe that if a woman be delivered of seven male infants successively, the seventh, by an inexplicable fatality, becomes subject to the powers of darkness; and is compelled, on every Saturday evening, to assume the likeness of an ass. So changed, and followed by a horrid train of dogs, he is forced to run an impious race over the moors and through the villages; nor is allowed an interval of rest until the dawning Sabbath terminates his sufferings, and restores him to his human shape."--From Lord Carnarvon's _Portugal and Gallicia_, vol. ii. p. 268.

E. H. A.

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POPE AND COWPER.

In Cowper's letter to Lady Hesketh, dated January 18, 1787, occurs a notice for the first time of Mr. Samuel Rose, with whom Cowper subsequently corresponded. He informs Lady Hesketh that--

"A young gentleman called here yesterday, who came six miles out of his way to see me. He was on a journey to London from Glasgow, having just left the University there. He came, I suppose, partly to satisfy his own curiosity, but chiefly, as it seemed, to bring me the thanks of some of the Scotch professors for my two volumes. His name is Rose, an Englishman."

Prefixed to a copy of Hayley's _Life and Letters of William Cowper, Esq._, in the British Museum, is an extract in MS. of a letter from the late Samuel Rose, Esq., to his favourite sister, Miss Harriet Rose, written in the year before his marriage, at the age of twenty-two, and which, I believe, has never been printed. It may, perhaps, merit a corner of "N. & Q."

"Weston Lodge, Sept. 9, 1789.

"Last week Mr. Cowper finished the _Odyssey_, and we drank an unreluctant bumper to its success. The labour of translation is now at an end, and the less arduous work of revision remains to be done, and then we shall see it published. I promise both you and myself much pleasure from its perusal. You will most probably find it at first less pleasing than Pope's versification, owing to the difference subsisting between blank verse and rhyme--a difference which is not sufficiently attended to, and whereby people are led into injudicious comparisons. You will find Mr. Pope more refined: Mr. Cowper more simple, grand, and majestic; and, indeed, insomuch as Mr. Pope is more refined than Mr. Cowper, he is more refined than his original, and in the same proportion departs from Homer himself. Pope's must universally be allowed to be a beautiful poem: Mr. Cowper's will be found a striking and a faithful portrait, and a pleasing picture to those who enjoy his style of colouring, which I am apprehensive is not so generally acceptable as the other master's. Pope possesses the gentle and amiable graces of a Guido: Cowper is endowed with the bold sublime genius of a Raphael. After having said so much upon their comparative merits, enough, I hope, to refute your second assertion which was, that women, in the opinion of men, have little to do with literature. I may inform you, that the _Iliad_ is to be dedicated to Earl Cowper, and the _Odyssey_ to the Dowager Lady Spencer but this information need not be extensively circulated."

J. YEOWELL.

50. Burton Street.

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SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

_"As You Like It."_--Believing that whatever illustrates, even to a trifling extent, the great dramatic poet of England will interest the readers of "N. & Q.," I solicit their attention to the resemblance between the two following passages:

"All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players."

"Si rectè aspicias, _vita hæc est fabula quædam_. _Scena autem, mundus versatilis_: _histrio et actor_ _Quilibet est hominum--mortales nam propriè cuncti_ _Sunt personati_, et falsâ sub imagine, vulgi Præstringunt oculos: _ita Diis, risumque jocumque_, _Stultitiis, nugisque suis per sæcula præbent_. . . . . . . . . "Jam mala quæ humanum patitur genus, adnumerabo. _Principiò_ postquam è latebris malè olentibus alvi Eductus tandem est, materno sanguine foedus, _Vagit, et auspicio lacrymarum nascitur infans_. . . . . . . . . "Vix natus jam vincla subit, tenerosque coërcet Fascia longa artus: præsagia dire futuri Servitii. . . . . . . . . "Post ubi jam valido se poplite sustinet, et jam Ritè loqui didicit, tunc servire incipit, atque Jussa pati, _sentitque minas ictusque magistri_, Sæpe patris matrisque manu fratrisque frequenter Pulsatur: facient quid vitricus atque noverca? _Fit juvenis, crescunt vires_: jam spernit habenas, Occluditque aures monitis, furere incipit, ardens Luxuriâ atque irâ: et temerarius omnia nullo Consilio aggreditur, dictis melioribus obstat, Deteriora fovens: _non ulla pericula curat_, Dummodo id efficiat, suadet quod coeca libido. . . . . . . . . "_Succedit gravior, melior, prudentior ætas_, Cumque ipsâ curæ adveniunt, durique labores; Tune homo mille modis, studioque enititur omni Rem facere, et nunquam sibi multa negotia desunt. Nunc peregrè it, nunc ille domi, nunc rure laborat, Ut sese, uxorem, natos, famulosque gubernet, Ac servet, solus pro cunctis sollicitus, nec Jucundis fruitur dapibus, nec nocte quietâ. Ambitio hunc etiam impellens, _ad publica mittit_ _Munia_: dumque inhiat vano malè sanus honori, Invidiæ atque odii patitur mala plurima: deinceps _Obrepit canis rugosa senecta capillis_, Secum multa trahens incommoda corporis atque Mentis: nam _vires abeunt, speciesque colorque_, Nec non _deficiunt sensus_: _audire, videre_ {384} _Languescunt, gustusque minor fit_: denique semper Aut hoc, aut illo morbo vexantur--_inermi_ _Manduntur vix ore cibi_, _vix crura bacillo_ _Sustentata meant_: animus quoque vulnera sentit. _Desipit, et longo torpet confectus ab ævo_."

It would have only occupied your space needlessly, to have transcribed at length the celebrated description of the seven ages of human life from Shakspeare's _As You Like It_; but I would solicit the attention of your readers to the Latin verses, and then to the question, Whether either poet has borrowed from the other? and, should this be decided affirmatively, the farther question would arise, Which is the original?

ARTERUS.

Dublin.

[These lines look like a modern paraphrase of Shakspeare; and our Correspondent has not informed us from what book he has _transcribed_ them.--Ed.]

_Passage in "King John" and "Romeo and Juliet."_--I am neither a commentator nor a reader of commentators on Shakspeare. When I meet with a difficulty, I get over it as well as I can, and think no more of the matter. Having, however, accidentally seen two passages of Shakspeare much ventilated in "N. & Q.," I venture to give my poor conjectures respecting them.

1. _King John._--

"It lies as sightly on the back of him, As great Alcides' _shows_ upon an ass."

I consider _shows_ to be the true reading; the reference being to the ancient _mysteries_, called also _shows_. The machinery required for the celebration of the mysteries was carried by _asses_. Hence the proverb: "Asinus portat mysteriæ." The connexion of Hercules--"great Alcides"--with the mysteries, may be learned from Aristophanes and many other ancient writers. And thus the meaning of the passage seems to be: The lion's skin, which once belonged to Richard of the Lion Heart, is as sightly on the back of _Austria_, as were the mysteries of Hercules upon an ass.

2. _Romeo and Juliet._--

"That runaways eyes may wink."

Here I would retain the reading, and interpret _runaways_ as signifying "persons going about on the watch." Perhaps _runagates_, according to modern usage, would come nearer to the proposed signification, but not to be quite up with it. Many words in Shakspeare have significations very remote from those which they now bear.

PATRICK MUIRSON.

_Shakspeare and the Bible._--Has it ever been noticed that the following passage from the Second Part of _Henry IV._, Act I. Sc. 3., is taken from the fourteenth chapter of St. Luke's Gospel?

"What do we then, but draw anew the model In fewer offices; or, at least, desist To build at all? Much more, in this great work, (Which is almost to pluck a kingdom down, And set another up) should we survey The plot, the situation, and the model; Consult upon a sure foundation, Question surveyors, know our own estate, How able such a work to undergo. A careful leader sums what force he brings To weigh against his opposite; or else We fortify on paper, and in figures, Using the names of men, instead of men: Like one that draws the model of a house Beyond his power to build it."

The passage in St. Luke is as follows (xiv. 28-31.):

"For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?

"Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him,

"Saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish.

"Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand?"

I give the passage as altered by Mr. Collier's Emendator, because I think the line added by him,

"A careful leader sums what force he brings,"

is strongly corroborated by the Scripture text.

Q. D.

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Minor Notes.

_Judicial Families._--In vol. v. p. 206. (new edition) of Lord Mahon's _History of England_, we find the following passage:

"Lord Chancellor Camden was the younger son of Chief Justice Pratt,--a case of rare succession in the annals of the law, and not easily matched, unless by their own cotemporaries, Lord Hardwicke and Charles Yorke."

The following case, I think, is equally, if not more, remarkable:--

The Right Hon. Thomas Berry Cusack-Smith, brother of the present Sir Michael Cusack-Smith, Bart., is Master of the Rolls in Ireland, having been appointed to that high office in January, 1846. His father, Sir William Cusack-Smith, second baronet, was for many years Baron of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland. And his grandfather, the Right Hon. Sir Michael Smith, first baronet, was, like his grandson at the present day, Master of the Rolls in Ireland.

Is not this "a case of rare succession in the annals of the law, and not easily matched?"

ABHBA.

{385}

_Derivation of "Topsy Turvy."_--When things are in confusion they are generally said to be turned "topsy turvy." The expression is derived from a way in which turf for fuel is placed to dry on its being cut. The surface of the ground is pared off with the heath growing on it, and the heath is turned downward, and left some days in that state that the earth may get dry before it is carried away. It means then top-side-turf-way.

CLERICUS RUSTICUS.

_Dictionaries and Encyclopædias._--Allow me to offer a suggestion to the publishers and compilers of dictionaries; first as to dictionaries of the language. A large class refer to these only to learn the meaning of words not familiar to them, but which may occur in reading. If the dictionaries are framed on the principle of displaying only the classical language of England, it is ten to one they will not supply the desired information. Let there be, besides classical dictionaries, glossaries which will exclude no word whatever on account of rarity, vulgarity, or technicality, but which may very well exclude those which are most familiar. As to encyclopædias, their value is chiefly as supplements to the library; but surely no one studies anatomy, or the differential calculus, or architecture, in them, however good the treatises may be. I want a dictionary of miscellaneous subjects, such as find place more easily in an encyclopædia than anywhere else; but why must I also purchase treatises on the higher mathematics, on navigation, on practical engineering, and the like, some of which I already may possess, others not want, and none of which are a bit the more convenient because arranged in alphabetical order in great volumes. Besides, they cannot be conveniently replaced by improved editions.

ENCYCLOPÆDICUS.

_"Mary, weep no more for me."_--There is a well-known ballad of this name, said to have been written by a Scotchman named "Low." The first verse runs thus:

"The moon had climbed the highest hill, Which rises o'er the source of Dee, And from the eastern summit sped Its silver light on tower and tree."

I find, however, amongst my papers, a fragment of a version of this same ballad, of, I assume, earlier antiquity, which so surpasses Low's ballad that the author has little to thank him for his interference. The first verse of what I take to be the original poem stands thus:

"The moon had climbed the highest hill, Where eagles big[2] aboon the Dee, And like the looks of a lovely dame, Brought joy to every body's ee."

No poetical reader will require his attention to be directed to the immeasurable superiority of this glorious verse: the high poetic animation, the eagles' visits, the lovely looks of female beauty, the exhilarating gladness and joy affecting the beholder, all manifest the genius of the master bard. I shall receive it as a favour if any of your correspondents will furnish a complete copy of the original poem, and contrast it with what "Low" fancied his "improvements."

JAMES CORNISH.

[Footnote 2: Build.]

_Epitaph at Wood Ditton._--You have recently appropriated a small space in your "medium of intercommunication" to the subject of epitaphs. I can furnish you with one which I have been accustomed to regard as a "grand climacterical absurdity." About thirty years ago, when making a short summer ramble, I entered the churchyard of Wood Ditton, near Newmarket, and my attention was attracted by a headstone, having inlaid into its upper part a piece of iron, measuring about ten inches by six, and hollowed out into the shape of a _dish_. I inquired of a cottager residing on the spot what the thing meant? I was informed that the party whose ashes the grave covered was a man who, during a long life, had a strange taste for sopping a slice of bread in a dripping-pan (a pan over which meat has been roasted), and would relinquish for this all kinds of dishes, sweet or savoury; that in his will he left a request that a dripping-pan should be fixed in his gravestone; that he wrote his own epitaph, an exact copy of which I herewith give you, and which he requested to be engraved on the stone:

"Here lies my corpse, who was the man That loved a sop in the dripping-pan; But now believe me I am dead,-- See here the pan stands at my head. Still for sops till the last I cried, But could not eat, and so I died. My neighbours they perhaps will laugh, When they read my epitaph."

J. H.

Cambridge.

_Pictorial Pun._--In the village of Warbleton, in Sussex, there is an old public-house, which has for its sign a War Bill in a tun of beer, in reference of course to the name of the place. It has, however, the double meaning, of "Axe for Beer."

R. W. B.

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Queries.

SIR THOMAS BUTTON'S VOYAGE, 1612.

I am about to print some information, hitherto I believe totally unknown, relative to the voyage of Sir Thomas Button in 1612, for the discovery of the north-west passage.

Of this voyage a journal was kept, which was in existence many years afterwards, being offered by {386} its author to Secretary Dorchester in 1629, then engaged in forwarding the projected voyage of "North-West" Foxe; it is remarkable, however, that no extended account of this voyage, so important in its objects, has ever been published. I am desirous of knowing if this journal is in existence, and where? Also, Lord Dorchester's letter to Button in February, 1629; of any farther information on the subject of the voyage, or of Sir Thomas Button.

What I possess already are, 1. "Motiues inducing a Proiect for the Discouerie of the North Pole terrestriall; the streights of Anian, into the South Sea, and Coasts thereof," anno 1610. 2. Prince Henry's Instructions for the Voyage, together with King James's Letters of Credence, 1612. 3. A Letter from Sir Thomas Button to Secretary Dorchester, dated Cardiff, 16th Feb., 1629 (from the State Paper Office). 4. Sir Dudley Digges' little tract on the N.-W. Passage, written to promote the voyage, and of which there were two distinct impressions in 1611 and 1612. 5. Extracts from the Carleton Correspondence, and from the Hakluyt Society's volume on Voyages to the North-West.

I shall be glad also to learn the date, and any other facts connected with the death of John Davis, the discoverer of the Straits bearing his name.

JOHN PETHERAM.

94. High Holborn.

* * * * *

Minor Queries.

_The Words "Cash" and "Mob."_--In Moore's _Diary_ I find the following remark. Can any of your numerous readers throw any light on the subject?

"Lord Holland doubted whether the word 'Cash' was a legitimate English word, though, as Irving remarked, it is as old as Ben Jonson, there being a character called Cash in one of his comedies. Lord Holland said Mr. Fox was of opinion that the word 'Mob' was not genuine English."--Moore's _Diary_, vol. iii. p. 247.

CLERICUS RUSTICUS.

_"History of Jesus Christ."_--G. L. S. will feel obliged by any correspondent of "N. & Q." stating who is the author of the following work?--

"The History of the Incarnation, Life, Doctrine and Miracles, the Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Our Blessed Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. In Seven Books; illustrated with Notes, and interspersed with Dissertations, theological, historical, geographical and critical.

"To which are added the Lives, Actions, and Sufferings of the Twelve Apostles; also of Saint Paul, Saint Mark, Saint Luke, and Saint Barnabas. Together with a Chronological Table from the beginning of the reign of Herod the Great to the end of the Apostolic Age. By a Divine of the Church of England.

"London: printed for T. Cooper, at the Globe, in Paternoster Row, 1737."

This work is in one folio volume, and all I can ascertain of its authorship is that it was _not_ written by Bishop Gibson, of "Preservative" fame.

_Quantity of the Latin Termination -anus._--Proper names having the termination _-anus_ are always long in Latin and short in Greek; thus, the Claudi[=a]nus, Luci[=a]nus, &c. of the Latins are [Greek: Klaudianos] and [Greek: Loukianos] in Greek. What is to be said of the word [Greek: Christianos]? Is it long or short, admitting it to be long in the Latin tongue?

While on the subject of quantities, let me ask, where is the authority for that of the name of the queen of the Ethiopians, Candace, to be found? We always pronounce it long, but all books of authority mark it as short.

ANTI-BARBARUS.

_Webb and Walker Families._--Perhaps you or some of your numerous readers could inform me if the Christian names of Daniel and Roger were used 160 or 180 years ago by any of the numerous families of _Webb_ or _Webbe_, resident in Wilts or elsewhere; and if so, in what family of that name? And is there any pedigree of them extant? and where is it to be found?

Was the Rev. Geo. Walker, the defender of Derry, connected with the Webbs? and if so, how, and with what family?

Is there any Webb mentioned in history at the siege of Derry? and if so, to what family of that name did he belong?

GULIELMUS.

_Cawdrey's "Treasure of Similes."_--I stumbled lately at a book-stall on a very curious old book entitled _A Treasurie or Store-house of Similes both pleasant, delightfull, and profitable_. The title-page is gone; but in an old hand on the cover it is stated to have been written by a certain "Cawdrey," and to have been printed in 1609, where I cannot discover. Can any of your correspondents oblige me with some information concerning him? The book is marked "scarce."

J. H. S.

_Point of Etiquette._--Will some of your numerous correspondents kindly inform me as to the rule in such a case as the following: when an elder brother has lost both his daughters in his old age, does the eldest daughter of the younger brother take the style of _Miss_ Smith, Jones, Brown, or Robinson, as the case may be?

F. D., M.R.C.S.

_Napoleon's Spelling._--Macaulay, in his _History of England_, chap. vii., quotes, in a foot-note, a passage from a letter of William III., written in French to his ambassador at Paris, and then makes this remark, "The spelling is bad, but not worse than Napoleon's." {387}

Can you refer me to some authentic proof of the fact that Napoleon was unable to spell correctly? It is well known that he affected to put his thoughts upon paper with great rapidity; and the consequence of this practice was, that in almost every word some letters were dropped, or their places indicated by dashes. But this was only one of those numerous contrivances, to which he was in the habit of resorting, in order to impress those around him with an idea of his greatness.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

_Trench on Proverbs._--Mr. Trench, in this excellent little work, states that the usual translation of Psalm cxxvii. 2. is incorrect:

"Let me remind you of such [proverbs] also as the following, often quoted or alluded to by Greek and Latin authors: _The net of the sleeping (fisherman) takes_[3]; a proverb the more interesting, that we have in the words of the Psalmist (Ps. cxxvii. 2.), were they accurately translated, a beautiful and perfect parallel; 'He giveth his beloved' (not 'sleep,' but) 'in their sleep;' his gifts gliding into their bosoms, they knowing not how, and as little expecting as leaving laboured for them."

The Hebrew is [Hebrew: YTN LYDYDW SHN'], the literal translation of which, "He giveth (or, He will give) to his beloved sleep," seems to me to be correct.

As Mr. Trench is a reader of "N. & Q.," perhaps he would have the kindness to mention in its pages the ground he has for his proposed translation.

E. M. B.

[Footnote 3: "[Greek: Heudonti kurtos hairei]. Dormienti rete trahit."]

_Rings formerly worn by Ecclesiastics._--In describing the finger-ring found in the grave of the Venerable Bede, the writer of _A brief Account of Durham Cathedral_ adds,--

"No priest, during the reign of Catholicity, was buried or enshrined without his ring."--P. 81.

I have seen a similar statement elsewhere, and wish to ask, 1st, Were priests formerly buried with the ring? 2ndly, If so, was it a mere custom, or was it ordered or authorised by any rubric or canon of our old English Church?

I am very strongly of opinion that such never was the custom, and that the statement above quoted has its origin in the confounding priests with bishops. Martene says, when speaking of the manner of burying bishops,--

"Episcopus debet habere annulum, quia sponsus est. Cæteri sacerdotes non, quia sponsi non sunt, sed amici sponsi vel vicarii."--_De Antiquis Ecclesiæ Ritibus_, lib. III. cap. xii. n. 11.

CEYREP.

_Butler's "Lives of the Saints."_--Can any of your correspondents supply a correct list of the various editions of this popular work? The notices in Watt and Lowndes are very unsatisfactory.

J. YEOWELL.

_Marriage of Cousins._--It was asserted to me the other day that marriage with a _second_ cousin is, by the laws of England, illegal, and that succession to property has been lately barred to the issue of such marriage, though the union of _first_ cousins entails no such consequences. Is there any foundation for this statement?

J. P.

_Castle Thorpe_[4], _Bucks._--A traditional rhyme is current at this place which says that--

"If it hadn't been for Cobb-bush Hill, Thorpe Castle would have stood there still."

or the last line, according to another version,--

"There would have been a castle at Thorpe still."

Now it appears from Lipscomb's _History_ of the county, that the castle was demolished by Fulke de Brent about 1215; how then can this tradition be explained?

Cobb-bush Hill, I am told, is more than half a mile from the village.

H. THOS. WAKE.

[Footnote 4: Pronounced _Thrup_.]

_Where was Edward II. killed?_--Hume and Lingard state that this monarch was murdered at Berkeley Castle. Echard and Rapin are silent, both as to the event and as to the locality. But an earlier authority, viz. Martyn, in his _Historie and Lives of Twentie Kings_, 1615, says:

"He was committed to the Castle of Killingworth, and Prince Edward was crowned king. And not long after, the king being removed to the Castle of Corff, was wickedly assayled by his keepers, who, through a horne which they put in his," &c.

What authority had Martyn for these statements?

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Encore._--Perhaps some correspondent of "N. & Q." can assign a reason why we use this French word in our theatres and concert rooms, to express our desire for the repetition of favourite songs, &c. I should also like to know at what period it was introduced.

A. A.

_Amcotts' Pedigree._--Can any of your correspondents supply me with a full pedigree of Amcotts of Astrop, co. Lincolnshire? I do not refer to the Visitations, but to the later descents of the family. The last heir male was, I believe, Vincent Amcotts, Esq., great-grandfather to the present Sir William Amcotts Ingilby, Bart. Elizabeth Amcotts, who married, 19th July, 1684, John Toller, Esq., of Billingborough Hall in Lincolnshire, was one of this family, and I suppose aunt to Vincent Amcotts. I may mention, the calendars {388} of the Will Office at Lincoln have no entries of the name of Amcotts between 1670 and 1753.

TEWARS.

_Blue Bell--Blue Anchor._--A bell painted blue is a common tavern sign in this country (United States); and the blue anchor is also to be met with in many places. As these signs evidently had their origin in England, and one of them is alluded to in the old Scotch ballad "The Blue Bell of Scotland," it seems to me that the best method to apply for information upon the subject is to ask "N. & Q." Are these signs of inns heraldic survivors of old time; are they corruptions of some other emblem, such as that which in London transformed _La Belle Sauvage_ into the _Bell Savage_, pictorialised by an Indian ringing a hand-bell; or is the choice of such improper colour as blue for a bell and an anchor a species of symbolism the meaning of which is not generally known?

[Old English W].

Philadelphia.

_"We've parted for the longest time."_--Would you insert these lines in your paper, the author of which I seek to know, as well as the remaining verses?

"We've parted for the longest time, we ever yet did part, And I have felt the last wild throb of that enduring heart: Thy cold and tear-wet cheek has lain for the last time to mine, And I have pressed in agony those trembling lips of thine."

R. JERMYN COOPER.

The Rectory, Chiltington Hunt, Sussex.

_Matthew Lewis._--Allow me to solicit information, through the medium of "N. & Q.," where I can see a pedigree of Matthew Lewis, Esq., Deputy Secretary of War for many years under the Right Hon. William Windham, then M.P. for Norwich, and other Secretaries-at-War. I rather think Mr. Lewis married a daughter of Sir Thomas Sewell, Kt., Master of the Rolls from 1764 to 1784; and had a son, Matthew Gregory Lewis, known as _Monk_ Lewis, who was M.P. for Hindon at the close of the last century: a very clever but eccentric young man. I also believe Lieut.-Gen. John Whitelocke, and Gen. Sir Thos. Brownrigg, G.C.B., who died in 1838, were connected by marriage with the Sewell or Lewis families.

C. H. F.

_Paradise Lost._--In _A Treatise on the Dramatic Literature of the Greeks_, by the Rev. J. R. Darley, I read the following remark:

"In our own literature also, the efforts of our early dramatists were directed to subjects derived from religion; even the _Paradise Lost_ is composed of a series of minor pieces, originally cast in dramatic form, of which the creation and fall of man, and the several episodes which were introduced subordinately to these grand events, were the subject-matter."

This statement being at variance with the received opinion, that Milton, from his early youth, had meditated the composition of an epic poem, I would inquire whether there is any evidence to support Mr. Darley's view? Milton has been charged with having borrowed the design of _Paradise Lost_ from some Italian author; and this allegation, coupled with that made by Mr. Darley, would, if founded, reduce our great national epic to what Hazlitt has described as "patchwork and plagiarism, the beggarly copiousness of borrowed wealth."

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

_Colonel Hyde Seymour._--Who was "Colonel Hyde Seymour?" I find his name written in a book, _The Life of William the Third_, 1703.

H. T. ELLACOMBE.

_Vault at Richmond, Yorkshire._--In Speed's plan of Richmond, in Yorkshire, is represented the mouth of a "vault that goeth under the river, and ascendeth up into the Castell." Was there ever such a vault, and how came it to be destroyed or lost sight of? One who knows Richmond well tells me that he never heard of it.

O. L. R. G.

_Poems published at Manchester._--Can any contributor to "N. & Q." inform me who was the author of a volume of _Poems on Several Occasions_, published by subscription at Manchester; printed for the author by R. Whitworth, in the year 1733? It is an 8vo. of 138 pages; has on the title-page a line from Ovid:

"Jure, tibi grates, candide lector, ago,"

and begins with an "Address to all my Subscribers;" after which follow several pages of subscribers' names, which consist chiefly of Staffordshire and Cheshire gentry. My copy (for the possession of which I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Bliss, the Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford) was formerly in the library of Mr. Heber, who has thus noted its purchase on the fly-leaf, "Feb. 1811, Ford, Manchester, 7s. 6d." Dr. Bliss has added, on the same fly-leaf, "Heber's fourth sale, No. 1908, not in the Bodleian Catalogue." The first poem in the book is "A Pastoral to the Memory of Sir Thomas Delves, Baronet." It is probably a scarce book; but possibly some of your book-learned correspondents may help me to the author's name.

W. SNEYD.

Denton.

_Handel's Dettingen Te Deum._--Any information as to the circumstances under which Handel composed this celebrated _Te Deum_, and the place {389} and occasion of its first public performance, will be welcome to

PHILO-HANDEL.

_Edmund Spenser and Sir Hans Sloane, Bart._--As I believe myself (morally speaking) to be _lineally_ descended from the former of these celebrated men, and _collaterally_ from the latter, may I request that information may be forwarded me, either through your columns or by correspondence, regarding the descendants of the great poet and his ancestry; and also whether, among the many thousand volumes bequeathed by Sir Hans to the nation, some record does not exist tending to prove his genealogical descent? At present I know of no other pedigree than that Mr. Burke has given of him in his _Extinct Baronetage_. I shall feel exceedingly gratified if any assistance can be given me relating to these two families.

W. SLOANE SLOANE-EVANS.

Cornworthy Vicarage, Totnes.

* * * * *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_The Ligurian Sage._--In Gifford's _Mæviad_, lines 313-316, I read,--

"Together we explored the stoic page Of the Ligurian, stern tho' beardless sage! Or trac'd the Aquinian thro' the Latin road, And trembled at the lashes he bestow'd."

The Aquinian is of course Juvenal; but I must confess me at fault with respect to the Ligurian.

W. T. M.

[The Ligurian sage is no doubt Aulus Persius Flaccus, who, according to ancient authors, was born at Volaterræ in Etruria; but some modern writers conclude that he was born at Lunæ Portus in Liguria, from the following lines (Sat. VI. 6.), which seem to relate to the place of his residence:

"Mihi nunc Ligus ora Intepet, hybernatque _meum_ mare, qua latus ingens Dant scopuli, et multa littus se valle receptat. _Lunai portum_ est operæ cognoscere, cives."

When approaching the verge of manhood, Persius became the pupil of Cornutus the Stoic, and his death took place before he had completed his twenty-eighth year.]

_Gresebrok in Yorkshire._--Can you or any of your correspondents give me any information as to what part of Yorkshire the manor of Gresebrok lies in? In Shaw's _History of Staffordshire_ (2 vols. folio), there is a "Bartholomew de Gresebrok" mentioned as witness to a deed of Henry III.'s times made between Robert de Grendon, Lord of Shenston, and Jno. de Baggenhall; which family of Gresebrok, it is said, "probably took their name from a _manor so called in Yorkshire_, and had property and residence in Shenstone, from this early period to the beginning of the century, many of whom are recorded in the registers from 1590 to 1722."

The above is quoted by Shaw from Sanders's _History of Shenstone_, p. 98., and perhaps some of your correspondents may possess that work, and will oblige me by transcribing the necessary information.

Any particulars of the above family will much oblige your constant reader

[Greek: Hêraldikos.]

[According to Sanders, the family of Greisbrook was formerly of some note at Shenstone. He says that "Greisbrook, whence the family had their name, is a manor in Yorkshire, which, in the reign of Henry III., was in the great House of Mowbray, of whom the Greisbrooks held their lands. Roger de Greisbrook (temp. Henry II.) is mentioned as holding of the fee of Alice, Countess of Augie, or Ewe, daughter of William de Albiney, Earl of Arundel, by Queen Alice, relict of Henry I." Then follow some particulars of various branches of the family, from the year 1580 to the death of Robert Greisbrook in 1718. Sanders's History is included in vol. ix. of _Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica_.]

_Stillingfleet's Library._--The extensive and valuable library of Edward Stillingfleet, the learned Bishop of Worcester, who died in 1699, is said to be contained in the library of Primate Marsh, St. Patrick's, Dublin. Can any of your correspondents state how it came there? Was it bequeathed by the bishop, or sold by his descendants? He died at Westminster, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral.

J. B. WHITBORNE.

[Bishop Stillingfleet's library was purchased by Archbishop Marsh for his public library in Dublin. A few years since Robert Travers, Esq., M.D., of Dundrum near Dublin, was engaged in preparing for publication a catalogue of Stillingfleet's printed books, amounting to near 10,000 volumes. The bishop's MSS. were bought by the late Earl of Oxford, and are now in the Harleian Collection. See _The Life of Bishop Stillingfleet_, 8vo., 1735, p. 135., and _Biog. Brit._ s. v.]

_The whole System of Law._--On December 26, 1651, the Long Parliament, stimulated by Cromwell to various important reforms in civil matters, resolved,--

"That it be referred to persons out of the House to take into consideration what inconveniences there are in the law, and how the mischiefs that grow from the delays, the chargeableness, and the irregularities in the proceedings of the law, may be prevented; and the speediest way to reform the same."

The commission thus appointed consisted twenty-one persons, among whom were Sir Mathew Hale, Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, and John Rushworth. They seem to have set to work with great vigour, and submitted a variety of important measures to Parliament, many of which were {390} adopted. They also prepared a document "containing the whole system of the law," which was read to the House on January 20 and 21, 1652; and it was resolved "That three hundred copies of the said book be forthwith printed, to be delivered to members of the Parliament only."

Is anything known of this work at the present day?

A LEGULEIAN.

[It appears doubtful whether this work was ever printed, for in a pamphlet published April 27, 1653, entitled _A Supply to a Draught of an Act or System proposed (as is reported) by the Committee for Regulations concerning the Law_, &c., the writer thus notices it:--"Having _lately heard_ of some propositions called 'The System of the Law,' which are said to be intended preparatives to several Acts of Parliament touching the regulation of the law, we cannot but with thankfulness acknowledge the care and industry of those worthy persons who contrived the same, it containing many good and wholesome provisions for the future perpetual good and quiet of the nation.... We know not, at present, wherein we could give a more visible testimony of our affections to the peaceable government of the free people here, than by offering to them and the supreme authority, what we humbly conceive prejudicial and inconvenient to well-government, in case that System (_as it is said to be now prepared_) should take effect." A week before the publication of this work, the Long Parliament had been turned out of doors by Cromwell.]

_Saint Malachy on the Popes._--Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, who flourished in the first half of the twelfth century, is said to be the author of a curious prophecy respecting the Popes. Some years ago I met with this prophecy in an old French almanack, and was particularly struck with its applicability to the life and character of the present Pope; but I omitted to make a Note.

Can you inform me where I may find a copy of this prophecy?

HENRY H. BREEN.

[St. Malachy's hieroglyphical descriptions or prophecy on the succession of Roman Pontiffs will be found in _Flosculi Historici delibati nunc delibatiores redditi, sive Historia Universalis_; Auctore Joanne de Bussières, Societatis Jesu Sacerdote, Oxon. 1668. An explanation of each prophecy is given from the pontificate of Celestus II. A.D. 1143, to that of Innocent X. A.D. 1644. The present Pope being the nineteenth from Innocent X., the following prophecy relates to him, "Crux de Cruce." We subjoin the remainder: 20. Lumen in coelo. 21. Ignis ardens. 22. Religio depopulata. 23. Fides intrepida. 24. Pastor angelicus. 25. Pastor et nauta. 26. Flos Florum. 27. De medietate lunæ. 28. De labore solis. 29 Gloria Olivæ. St. Malachy concludes his prophecy with the following prediction of the downfall of the Roman Church: "In persecutione extrema Sacræ Romanæ Ecclesiæ sedebit Petrus Romanus, qui pascet oves in multis tribulationibus; quibus transactis civitas septicollis diruetur, et Judex tremendus judicabit populum."]

_Work on the Human Figure._--A few years ago there was a little work published on _Dress and the Art of improving the Human Figure_, by (I believe) a nobleman's valet: I wish to consult this for a literary purpose, and should be much obliged to any of your readers who can favour me with the exact title and date.

CHARLES DEMAYNE.

[The following two works on dress appear in the _London Catalogue:--The Whole Art of Dress_, by a Country Officer, 12mo. Lond. 1830; and _The Art of Dress, or a Guide to the Toilette_, fcp. 8vo., Lond. 1839.]

* * * * *

Replies.

"NAMBY-PAMBY," AND OTHER WORDS OF THE SAME FORM.

(Vol. viii., p. 318.)

The origin of the word _namby-pamby_ is explained in the following passage of Johnson's _Life of Ambrose Philips_:

"The pieces that please best are those which from Pope and Pope's adherents procured him the name of _namby-pamby_, the poems of short lines, by which he paid his court to all ages and characters--from Walpole, 'the steerer of the realm,' to Miss Pulteney in the nursery. The numbers are smooth and sprightly, and the diction is seldom faulty. They are not loaded with much thought, yet, if they had been written by Addison, they would have had admirers. Little things are not valued but when they are done by those who can do greater."

In the _Treatise on the Bathos_, the _infantine_ style is exclusively exemplified by passages from Ambrose Philips:

"This [says Pope] is when a poet grows so very simple as to think and talk like a child. I shall take my examples from the greatest master in this way: hear how he fondles like a mere stammerer:

'Little charm of placid mien, Miniature of Beauty's queen, Hither, British Muse of mine, Hither, all ye Grecian nine, With the lovely Graces three, And your pretty nursling see. When the meadows next are seen, Sweet enamel, white and green; When again the lambkins play, Pretty sportlings full of May, Then the neck so white and round, (Little neck with brilliants bound) And thy gentleness of mind, (Gentle from a gentle kind), &c. Happy thrice, and thrice again, Happiest he of happy men,' &c.

And the rest of those excellent lullabies of his composition."--C. xi.

These verses are stated by Warburton, in his note on the passage, to be taken from a poem to {391} Miss Cuzzona. They are however in fact selected from two poems addressed to daughters of Lord Carteret, and are put together arbitrarily, out of the order in which they stand in the original poems. There is a short poem by Philips in the same metre, addressed to Signora Cuzzoni, and dated May 25, 1724, beginning, "Little syren of the stage;" but none of the verses quoted in the _Treatise on the Bathos_ are extracted from it.

_Namby-pamby_ belongs to a tolerably numerous class of words in our language, all formed on the same rhyming principle. They are all familiar, and some of them childish; which last circumstance probably suggested to Pope the invention of the word _namby-pamby_, in order to designate the infantine style which Ambrose Philips had introduced. Many of them, however, are used by old and approved writers; and the principle upon which they are formed must be of great antiquity in our language. The following is a collection of words which are all formed in this manner:

_Bow-wow._--A word coined in imitation of a dog's bark. Compare the French _aboyer_.

_Chit-chat._--Formed by reduplication from _chat_. A word (says Johnson) used in ludicrous conversation. It occurs in the _Spectator_ and _Tatler_.

_Fiddle-faddle._--Formed in a similar manner from _to fiddle_, in its sense of _to trifle_. It occurs in the _Spectator_.

_Flim-flam._--An old word, of which examples are cited from Beaumont and Fletcher, and Swift. It is formed from _flam_, which Johnson calls "a cant word of no certain etymology." _Flam_, for a lie, a cheat, is however used by South, Barrow, and Warburton, and therefore at one time obtained an admission into dignified style. See Nares' _Glossary_ in v.

_Hab or nab._--That is, according to Nares, have or have not; subsequently abridged into _hab, nab_. _Hob or nob_ is explained by him to mean "Will you have a glass of wine or not?" _Hob, nob_ is applied by Shakspeare to another alternative, viz. give or take (_Twelfth Night_, Act III. Sc. 4.). See Nares in v. _Habbe or Nabbe_.

_Handy-dandy._--"A play in which children change hands and places" (Johnson). Formed from hand. The word is used by Shakspeare.

_Harum-scarum._--"A low but frequent expression applied to flighty persons; persons always in a hurry" (Todd). Various conjectures are offered respecting its origin: the most probable seems to be, that it is derived from _scare_. The Anglo-Saxon word _hearmsceare_ means punishment (see Grimm, _Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer_, p. 681.); but although the similarity of sound is remarkable, it is difficult to understand how _harum-scarum_ can be connected with it.

_Helter-skelter._--Used by Shakspeare. Several derivations for this word are suggested, but none probable.

_Higgledy-piggledy._--"A cant word, corrupted from _higgle_, which denotes any confused mass, as _higglers_ carry a huddle of provisions together" (Johnson). It seems more probable that the word is formed from _pig_; and that it alludes to the confused and indiscriminate manner in which pigs lie together. In other instances (as _chit-chat_, _flim-flam_, _pit-a-pat_, _shilly-shally_, _slip-slop_, and perhaps _harum-scarum_), the word which forms the basis of the rhyming reduplication stands second, and not first.

_Hocus-pocus._--The words _ocus bochus_ appear, from a passage cited in Todd, to have been used anciently by Italian conjurers. The fanciful idea of Tillotson, that _hocus-pocus_ is a corruption of the words _hoc est corpus_, is well known. Compare Richardson _in v._

_Hoddy-doddy._--This ancient word has various meanings (see Richardson _in v._). As used by Ben Jonson and Swift, it is expressive of contempt. In Holland's translation of Pliny it signifies a snail. There is likewise a nursery rhyme or riddle:

"Hoddy-doddy, All legs and no body."

_Hodge-podge_ appears to be a corruption of _hotch-pot_. It occurs in old writers. (See Richardson in _Hotch-pot_.)

_Hoity-toity._--Thoughtless, giddy. Formed from the old word _to hoit_, to dance or leap, to indulge in riotous mirth. See Nares in _Hoit_ and _Hoyt_.

_Hubble-bubble._--A familiar word, formed from _bubble_. Not in the dictionaries.

_Hubbub._--Used by Spenser, and other good writers. Richardson derives it from _hoop_ or _whoop_, shout or yell. It seems rather a word formed in imitation of the confused inarticulate noise produced by the mixture of numerous voices, like _mur-mur_ in Latin.

_Hugger-mugger._--Used by Spenser, Shakspeare, and other old writers. The etymology is uncertain. Compare Jamieson in _Hudge-mudge_. The latter part of the word seems to be allied with _smuggle_, and the former part to be the reduplication. The original and proper sense of hugger-mugger is secretly. See Nares _in v._, who derives it from _to hugger_, to lurk about; but query whether such a word can be shown to have existed?

_Humpty-dumpty._--Formed from _hump_. This word occurs in the nursery rhyme:

"_Humpty-dumpty_ sat on a wall, _Humpty-dumpty_ had a great fall," &c.

_Hurdy-gurdy._--The origin of this word, which is quoted from no writer earlier than Foote, has not been explained. See Todd _in v._

_Hurly-burly._--This old word occurs in the well-known verses in the opening scene of _Macbeth_--

"When the _hurly burly's_ done, When the battle's lost and won"--

{392} where see the notes of the commentators for other instances of it. There are rival etymologies for this word, but all uncertain. The French has _hurlu-burlu_. Nares in _Hurly_.

_Hurry-scurry._--This word, formed from _hurry_, is used by Gray in his _Long Story_.

_Nick-nack._--A small ornament. Not in the dictionaries.

_Pic-nic._--For the derivation of this word, which seems to be of French origin, see "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., pp. 240. 387.

_Pit-pat, or Pit-a-pat._--A word formed from _pat_, and particularly applied to the pulsations of the heart, when accelerated by emotion. Used by Ben Jonson and Dryden. Congreve writes it _a-pit-pat_.

_Riff-raff._--The refuse of anything, "Il ne lui lairra rif ny raf." Cotgrave in _Rif_, where _rif_ is said to mean nothing.

_Rolly-pooly._--"A sort of game" (Johnson). It is now used as the name of a pudding rolled with sweetmeat.

_Rowdy-dowdy, and Rub-a-dub._--Words formed in imitation of the beat of a drum.

_Shilly-shally._--Used by Congreve, and formerly written "shill I, shall I."

_Slip-slop._--"Bad liquor. A low word, formed by reduplication of _slop_" (Johnson). Now generally applied to errors in pronunciation, arising from ignorance and carelessness, like those of Mrs. Malaprop in _The Rivals_.

_Tip-top._--Formed from _top_, like _slip-slop_ from _slop_.

_Tirra-lirra._--Used by Shakspeare:

"The lark that _tirra lirra_ chants."--_Winter's Tale_, Act IV. Sc. 2.

From the French, see Nares _in v._

The preceding collection is intended merely to illustrate the principle upon which this class of words are formed, and does not aim at completeness. Some of your correspondents will doubtless, if they are disposed, be able to supply other examples of the same mode of formation.

L.

* * * * *

EARL OF OXFORD.

(Vol. viii., p. 292.)

S. N. will find the Earl's answer in a volume, not very common now, entitled _A Compleat and Impartial History of the Impeachments of the Last Ministry_, London, 8vo., 1716. The charge respecting the creation of twelve peers in one day formed the 16th article of the impeachment. I inclose a copy of the answer, if not too long for your pages.

G.

"In answer to the 16th article, the said Earl doth insist, that by the laws and constitution of this realm, it is the undoubted right and prerogative of the Sovereign, who is the fountain of honor, to create peers of this realm, as well in time of Parliament as when there is no Parliament sitting or in being; and that the exercise of this branch of the prerogative is declared in the form or preamble of all patents of honor, to proceed _ex mero motu_, as an act of mere grace and favor, and that such acts are not done as many other acts of public nature are, by and with the advice of the Privy Council; or as acts of pardon usually run, upon a favorable representation of several circumstances, or upon reports from the Attorney-General or other officers, that such acts are lawful or expedient, or for the safety or advantage of the Crown; but flows entirely from the beneficent and gracious disposition of the Sovereign. He farther says, that neither the warrants for patents of honor, the bills or other engrossments of such patents, are at any time communicated to the council or the treasury, as several other patents are; and therefore the said Earl, either as High Treasurer or Privy Councillor, could not have any knowledge of the same: Nevertheless, if her late sacred Majesty had thought fit to acquaint him with her most gracious intentions of creating any number of peers of this realm, and had asked his opinion, whether the persons whom she then intended to create were persons proper to have been promoted to that dignity, he does believe he should have highly approved her Majesty's choice; and does not apprehend that in so doing he had been guilty of any breach of his duty, or violation of the trust in him reposed; since they were all persons of honor and distinguished merit, and the peerage thereby was not greatly increased, considering some of those created would have been peers by descent, and many noble families were then lately extinct: And the said Earl believes many instances may be given where this prerogative hath been exercised by former princes of this realm, in as extensive a manner; and particularly in the reigns of King Henry the Eighth, King James the First, and his late Majesty King William. The said Earl begs leave to add, that in the whole course of his life he hath always loved the established constitution, and in his private capacity as well as in all public stations, when he had the honor to be employed, has ever done his utmost to preserve it, and shall always continue so to do."

* * * * *

PICTS' HOUSES.

(Vol. viii., p. 264.)

The mention there made of the recent discovery of one of these subterranean vaults or passages in Aberdeenshire, induces me to ask a question in regard to two subterranean passages which have lately been discovered in Berwickshire, and which so far differ from all others that I have heard or read of, that whereas all of them seem to have been built at the sides with large flat stones, and roofed with similar ones, and then covered with earth, those which I am about to mention are both hewn out of the solid rock. They are both situated in the Lammermoor range of hills. Those persons who have seen them are at a loss to know for what {393} purpose they could have been excavated, unless for the purpose of sepulture in the times of the aborigines, or of very early inhabitants of Britain, as they in many respects resemble those stone graves which are mentioned in Worsaae's _Description of the Primæval Antiquities of Denmark_, translated and applied to the illustration of similar remains in England by Mr. Thoms.

One of these cavities is situated on a remote pasture farm, among the hills belonging to the Earl of Lauderdale, called Braidshawrigg; and was discovered by a shepherd very near his own house, within less than a quarter of a mile up a small stream which runs past it, and on the opposite side of the water, a few yards up the steep hill. The shepherd had observed for some time that one of his dogs was in the habit of going into what he supposed to be a rabbit hole at this place, and when he was missing and called, he generally came out of this hole. At last, curiosity led his master to take a spade and dig into it; and he soon found that, after digging down into the soil to the rock, the cavity became larger, and had evidently been the work of human hands. Information was given to Lord Lauderdale, and the rubbish was cleared away. It (the rubbish) did not extend far in, and after that the passage was clear. The excavation consists of a passage cut nearly north and south (the entrance being to the south) through various strata of solid rocks, partly grauwacke, (or what is there called _whinstone_), and partly grey slate: the strata lying east and west, and nearly vertical. The whole length of it is seventy-four feet. From the entrance the passage, for four or five yards, slopes downwards into the hill; it then runs horizontally the length of sixty-three feet from the entrance, when it changes its direction at right angles to the westward for a distance of eleven feet; when it ends with the solid rock. It is regularly from three feet four inches to three feet six inches wide, and about seven feet high, the ceiling being somewhat circular. The floor is the rock cut square. The time and labour must have been great to cut this passage, as not more than one man could conveniently quarry the rock at the same time. It might have been supposed that this was a level to a mine, as copper has been worked in this range farther eastward; but the passage does not follow any vein, but cuts across all the strata, and keeps a straight line, till it turns westward, and then in another straight line; and the floors, sides, and roof are all made quite regular and even with a pickaxe or a hammer. There does not appear to have been at any time any other habitation than the shepherd's house, and another cottage a little lower down the stream, in the neighbourhood. The discovery of this cavern recalled to the recollection of myself, and some of my family, that a few years ago, in cutting a road through the rock into a whinstone quarry, about four miles south of Braidshawrigg, near a mill, we had cut across the east end of a passage somewhat similar to the one before mentioned, but running east and west; that we had cleared it out for a short way, but as it then went under a corner of one of the houses belonging to the mill, we stopped, for fear of bringing down the building, as this passage, though cut out of the solid rock, was not a mine, but had been worked to the surface; and, if it ever had been used for purposes of sepulture, must have been roofed with flagstones, and then covered with earth like other Picts' houses. But these roof-stones must have been carried away, and the whole trench was filled with rubbish, and all trace of it on the surface was obliterated. This passage we have lately opened, and cleared out. To the westward it passes into the adjoining water-mill, which is itself in great part formed by excavation of the rock; and the east wall of the upper part of the mill is arched over the passage. Beyond the west wall of the mill which adjoins the stream, there is a continuation of the trench through the rock down to the water, which serves to take away that which passes over the millwheel at right angles to where the rock has been cut away to make room for the millwheel itself. That which has been cut away in making the trench, is a seam of clay slate about three feet six inches in breadth, between two solid whinstone rocks. The length of the passage, from the east end, which terminated in rock, to the mill, is sixty-three feet. The mill is thirty feet, and the cut beyond it twelve feet: in all, one hundred and five feet. The average depth is about twelve feet; but as it slopes down to the stream, some of it is sixteen feet deep. It has been suggested that it might have been dug out in order to obtain the coarse slate; but the difficulty of working a confined seam like this, in any other way than by picking it out piecemeal with immense labour, seems impossible. It can never have been meant to convey water to the mill, as the highest part begins in the solid rock, and the object must always have been to keep the water on the highest possible level, until it reached the top of the millwheel. Nothing was found in either of these excavations.--After this long discussion, Query, What can have been the purpose for which these laborious works can have been executed?

J. S. S.

* * * * *

PRONUNCIATION OF "HUMBLE."

(Vol. viii., pp. 229. 298.)

It is my misfortune entirely to differ from MR. DAWSON (p. 229.) and MR. CROSSLEY (p. 298.) as to the pronunciation of _humble_; and permit me to say (with all courtesy) that I was unfeignedly surprised at the latter's assertion, that sounding {394} the _h_ is "a recent attempt to introduce a mispronunciation," as I have known that mode of pronunciation all but universally prevalent for nearly the last forty years; and I have had pretty good opportunities for observing what the general usage in that respect was, as I was for some years at a very large public school, then at Oxford for more than the usual time, and have since resided in London more than twenty-five years, practising as a barrister in Westminster Hall, and on one of the largest circuits. If, therefore, I have not had ample means of judging as to the pronunciation of _humble_, I know not where the means are to be found; especially as I doubt whether _humble_ and _humbly_ are anywhere so frequently used as in courts: a counsel rarely making a speech without "_humbly_ submitting" or making a "_humble_ application." Now the result of my experience is, that the _h_ is almost universally sounded; and at this moment I cannot call to mind a single gentleman who omits it, who does not also omit it in many other instances where no doubt can exist that it ought to be sounded.

MR. DAWSON believes the sounding the _h_ to be "one of those, either Oxford, or Cambridge, or both, peculiarities of which no reasonable explanation can be given." Now I believe MR. DAWSON is right in supposing that that usage is general both at Oxford and Cambridge, and I rather think that not only an explanation of the fact may be given, but that the fact itself, that in both the Universities the _h_ is sounded, is extremely cogent evidence that it is correct. It cannot be doubted that the fact that a word is spelled with certain letters is clear proof that, at the time when that spelling was adopted, the word was so sounded as to give a distinct sound to each of the letters used, and that clearly must have been the case with words beginning with _h_ especially. When, therefore, the present spelling of _humble_ was adopted, the _h_ was sounded. Now, whilst I freely admit that the utterance of any word may be changed--"Si volet usus, quem penes arbitrium est, et jus et norma loquendi"--still it cannot be questioned that the usage must be so general, clear, and distinct among the better educated classes (where-ever they may have received their education) as to leave no reasonable doubt about the matter; and that it lies on those who assert that such a change has taken place, to show such a usage as I have mentioned. And when the number of the members of the Universities is considered, and their position as men of education, it must at least admit of doubt whether, if a general usage prevailed among them to pronounce a particular word in the manner in which it originally was pronounced, this would not alone prevent a different pronunciation among others from having that general prevalence, which would be sufficient to justify a change in the utterance of such word.

But let us consider whether the usage of the Universities is not very cogent evidence that the _h_ is generally sounded throughout England, 1. Each University contains a large number of the higher and better educated classes. 2. The members come from all parts of England indiscriminately. 3. Infinitely the majority come from schools; and some of the large schools have generally many members at each University. By such persons the pronunciation of the schools cannot fail to be represented. 4. Every one on entering the University is expected at least to know his own language. 5. There is no instruction, as far as I know (however much the fact may be to be regretted), ever given in English at either University. 6. There is a perpetual change of about a third of the members every year, few remaining above three years. Now can any one, who candidly considers these facts, doubt that a usage in pronouncing a particular word at _either_ University if generally prevalent, is very strong evidence that the same usage is generally prevalent throughout England; but if any one does entertain such a doubt, surely it must be done away, when he finds that the same usage prevails at _both_ Universities; though there exists such a degree of rivalry between them as would prevent the one from adopting from the other any usage which was liable to any the least doubt, and though there is no communication between them that could account for the same usage prevailing in both.

MR. CROSSLEY appeals to the Prayer Book as a decisive authority, and instances "an _humble_," &c. If any one will examine the Prayer Book, he will find that it is no authority at all; as "an" is at least as often used erroneously before _h_ as not. In reading over the first sixty-eight Psalms, I found the following instances--Ps. xxvii. 3. and Ps. xxxiii. 15., "An host of men;" Ps. xlvii. 4. and Ps. lxi. 5., "An heritage;" Ps. xlix. 18., "An happy man," Ps. lv. 5., "An horrible dread;" Ps. lxviii. 15., "An high hill." And in the same Psalms I only found _one_ instance of _a_ before _h_, viz. in Ps. xxxiii. 16., "A horse;" and in this case the Bible version has "An horse." In the first Lesson for the 19th Sunday after Trinity, Dan. iii. 4., "An herald," and 27., "An hair of their head," occur; and in the next chapter (iv. 13.), "An holy one." It is plain from these instances (and doubtless many others may be found), that the use of "an" before _h_, in the Bible or Prayer Book, can afford no test whatever whether the _h_ ought to be sounded or not.

S. G. C.

After the sensible Note of your correspondent E. H., it is perhaps hardly necessary to say more on the subject of aspirated and mute _h_. If these remarks, therefore, seem superfluous, they may easily be suppressed, and that too without any offence to the writer. {395}

It is very dangerous to dogmatise on the English language. We really have no authority to which we can confidently appeal, except the usage of good society: "Quem penes arbitrium est, et jus et norma loquendi." Unfortunately, however, every man is convinced, that in _his own_ society that usage is to be found; and your correspondents, who have agreed in approving the _Heapian_ pronunciation, will probably, on that ground, still retain the same opinion.

The only words in the English language, in which _h_ is written, but not pronounced, are words derived from Latin through the French; but of these, many in English retain the aspirate, though in French nearly all lose it. The exceptions collected by E. H. satisfactorily prove that we do not follow the French rule implicitly. They indeed carry the non-aspiration farther than to words of Latin derivation. They omit the aspirate to nearly all words derived from Greek. This we never do. I think that E. H.'s rule, of always aspirating _h_ before _u_, is not entirely without exceptions. Except in Ireland, I never heard _humour_ or _humorous_ aspirated, though in _humid_ and _humect_ the _h_ is always sounded. If this be right, it depends solely on the usage of good society, and not on rules laid down by Walker or Lindley Murray, whose authority we do _not_ acknowledge as infallible. I may here remark, that no arguments can be drawn from our Liturgy or translation of the Bible that would not prove too much. If, because we find in our Liturgy "an _humble_, lowly, and obedient heart," we are to read "an _'umble_," we must also read "an 'undred, an 'ouse, an 'eap, an 'eart;" for _an_ was prefixed in our Liturgy as well as in our translated Bible to _every_ word beginning with _h_, and not (as one of your correspondents supposes) only to words beginning with silent _h_. Among young clergymen there is a growing habit (derived I suppose from Walker, or other such sources) of indulging in the _Heapian_ dialect. I think Mr. Dickens will have done us more good by his ridicule, than will ever be effected by serious arguments; and I feel as much obliged to him as to E. H. To show how dangerous it is to be bound by a mere grammarian authority, a disciple of Vaugelas or Restaut (no insignificant names in French philology) would be led to read _les héros_ as if it were "les zéros."

E. C. H.

* * * * *

SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

(Vol. viii., p. 220.)

I can answer MR. WELD TAYLOR for at least one public school having no library, nor any books for other purposes than tasks, _i.e._ Christ's Hospital, London: whether any other metropolitan schools are provided with books I do not know. When I was at the above school, at all events, we had no books except for learning out of; whether reform has crept in since I was there, twenty-five years ago, I cannot say. I speak of then, not now.

I remember very well a dusty cupboard with "Read, Mark, Learn," painted in ostentatious letters on it. And these profound words were just like a park gate with high iron railings, where you may peep in and get no farther--no more could we: for we never saw the inside of it, and nobody could say where the key was, therefore what flowery _pleasaunce_ of knowledge it contained nobody perhaps knows to this day. I also remember how greedily any entertaining book was borrowed, begged, and circulated; and thumbed and dog's-eared to admiration. _Rasselas_ and _Gulliver's Travels_, _Robinson Crusoe_, or _Sandford and Merton_, poor things! they became at last what might be supposed a public arsenal of umbrellas would at the last.

When I reflect on that time, and the dreary winter's evenings, trundled to bed almost by daylight, my very heart sinks. What a luxury if some Christian had been allowed to read aloud for an hour, instead of lying awake studying the ghastly lamp that swung from the ceiling in the dormitory; or if some one with a modicum of information had given half an hour's lecture on some entertaining branch of science. Perhaps these antique schools are reformed in some measure, or perhaps they are waiting till their betters are.

I observe, however, that certain parish work-house schools have, within these few days, taken the hint. Perhaps our public schools, for some are very wealthy, may be able to afford to follow their example.

E. H.

Wimborne Minster, Dorset.

Marlborough College possesses a library of about four thousand volumes, entirely the munificent contribution of Mr. M^cGeachy, one of the council. The boys of the fifth and sixth forms are allowed access daily at certain fixed hours, the librarian being present. In addition to this, libraries are now being formed in each house, which are maintained by small half-yearly subscriptions, and which will contain books of a more amusing character, and better suited for the younger boys.

B. J.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Albumenized Paper._--If this subject be not already exhausted, the following account of my method of preparing the material in question, which differs in some few important particulars from any I have seen published, may be of interest to some of my brother operators. {396}

I have, after a very considerable number of experiments, succeeded in producing the _very highly_ varnished appearance so conspicuous in some of the foreign proofs; and although I cannot say I admire it in general, more especially as regards landscapes, yet it is sometimes very effective for portraits, giving a depth of tone to the shadows, and a roundness to the flesh, which is very striking. Moreover, a photographer may just as well be acquainted with every kind of manipulation connected with the art.

Having but a very moderate amount of spare time, and that at uncertain intervals, to devote to this seductive pursuit, I am always a great stickler for _economy of time_ in all the processes, as well as for economy of material, the former with me having, perhaps, a shade more influence than the latter.

As in all other processes, I find that the _kind of paper_ made use of has a most important bearing upon the result. That which I find the best is of French manufacture, known as Canson Frères' (both the thin and the thick sorts), probably in consequence of their being sized with starch. The thin sort (the same as is generally used for waxed-paper negatives) takes the highest polish, but more readily embrowns after being rendered sensitive, and the lights are not ever quite so white as when the positive paper is used.

In order to save both time and labour, I prepare my papers in the _largest_ sizes that circumstances will admit of, as it takes little or no more time to prepare and render sensitive a large sheet than a small one; and as I always apply the silver solution by means of the glass rod, I find that a half-sheet of Canson's paper (being seventeen inches by eleven inches the half-sheet) is the best size to operate on. If the whole sheet is used, it requires _more_ than double the quantity of solution to ensure its being properly covered, which additional quantity is simply so much waste.

A most convenient holder for the paper whilst being operated upon, is one suggested by Mr. Horne of Newgate Street, and consists of a piece of half-inch Quebec yellow pine plank (a soft kind of deal), eleven inches by seventeen inches, screwed to a somewhat larger piece of the same kind, but with the grain of the wood at right angles to the upper piece, in order to preserve a perfectly flat surface. On to the upper piece is glued a covering of japanned-flannel, such as is used for covering tables, taking care to select for the purpose that which has no raised pattern, the imitation of rosewood or mahogany being unexceptionable on that account. The paper can be readily secured to the arrangement alluded to by means of a couple of pins, one at each of two opposite angles, the wood being sufficiently soft to admit of their ready penetration.

_To prepare the Albumen._--Take the white of _one_ egg; this dissolve in one ounce of distilled water, two grains of chloride of sodium (common salt), and two grains of _grape_ sugar; mix with the egg, whip the whole to froth, and allow it to stand until it again liquefies. The object of this operation is to thoroughly incorporate the ingredients, and render the whole as homogeneous as possible.

A variety in the resulting tone is produced by using ten grains of sugar of milk instead of the grape sugar.

The albumen mixture is then laid on to the paper by means of a flat camel's-hair brush, about three inches broad, the mixture being first poured into a cheese plate, or other flat vessel, and all froth and bubbles carefully removed from the surface. Four longitudinal strokes with such a brush, if properly done, will cover the whole half-sheet of paper with an even thin film; but in case there are any lines formed, the brush may be passed very lightly over it again in a direction at right angles to the preceding. The papers should then be allowed to remain on a perfectly level surface until nearly dry, when they may be suspended for a few minutes before the fire, to complete the operation. In this condition the glass is but moderate, and as is generally used; but if, after the first drying before the fire, the papers are again subjected to precisely the same process, the negative paper will shine like polished glass. That is coated again with the albumenizing mixture, and dried as before.

One egg, with the ounce of water, &c., is enough to cover five half-sheets with two layers, or five whole sheets with one.

I rarely iron my papers, as I do not find any advantage therein, because the moment the silver solution is applied the albumen becomes coagulated, and I cannot discover the slightest difference in the final result, except that when the papers are ironed I sometimes find flaws and spots occur from some carelessness in the ironing process.

If the albumenized paper is intended to be kept for any _long_ time before use, the ironing may be useful as a protection against moisture, provided the _iron be sufficiently hot_; but the temperature ought to be considerable.

To render the paper sensitive, I use a hundred-grain solution of nitrate of silver, of which forty-five minims will exactly cover the sheet of seventeen inches by eleven inches, if laid on with the glass rod. A weaker solution will do, but with the above splendid tints may be produced. As to the ammonio-nitrate of silver, I have totally abandoned its use, and, after many careful experiments, I am satisfied that its extra sensitiveness is a delusion, while the rapid tendency of paper prepared with it to spoil is increased tenfold.

The fixing, of course, modifies considerably the tone of the proof, but almost any desired shade {397} may be attained by following the plan of MR. F. M. LYTE, published in "N. & Q.," provided the negative is sufficiently intense to admit of a considerable degree of over-printing.

It is a fact which appears to be entirely overlooked by many operators, that the _intensity_ of the negative is the chief agent in conducing to black tones in the positive proof; and it is almost impossible to produce them if the negative is poor and weak: and the same observation applies to a negative that has been _over_-exposed.

GEO. SHADBOLT.

_Cement for Glass Baths._--The best I have tried is Canada balsam. My baths I have had in use five years, and have used them for exciting, developing hypo. and cyanide, and are as good as when first used.

NOXID.

_New Process for Positive Proofs._--I have tried a method of preparing my paper for positive proofs, which, as I have not seen it mentioned as employed by others, and the results appear to me very satisfactory, I am induced to communicate to you, and to accompany by some specimens, which will enable you to judge of the amount of success.

I use a glass cylinder, with air-pump attached, such as that described by MR. STEWART as employed by him for iodizing his paper. I put in this the salt solution, and that I use is thus composed: 2 drachms of sugar of milk, dissolved in 20 ounces of water, adding--

Chloride of barium 15 grs. Chloride of sodium 15 grs. Chloride of ammonium 15 grs.

In this I plunge several sheets of paper rolled into a coil (taking care that they are covered by the solution), and exhaust the air. I leave them thus for a few minutes, then take them out and hang them up to dry; or as the sheets are rather difficult to pin, from the paper giving way, spread them on a frame, across which any common kind of coarse muslin or tarletan, such as that I inclose, is stretched.

I excite with ammonio-nitrate of silver, 30 grains to 1 ounce of water, applied with a flat brush.

I fix in a bath of plain hypo. of the strength of one-sixth. The bath in which the inclosed specimens were fixed has been in use for some little time, and therefore has acquired chloride of silver.

I previously prepared my paper by _brushing_ it with the same salt solution, and the difference of effect produced may be seen by comparing a proof so obtained, which I inclose, with the others. This latter is of rather a reddish-brown, and not very agreeable tint. I have inclosed the proofs as printed on paper of Whatman, Turner, and Canson Frères, so as to show the effect in each case. The advantages which the mode I have detailed possesses are, I think, these:

Greater sensitiveness in the paper,

A good black tint, and

Greater freedom from spots and blemishes, all very material merits.

C. E. F.

[Our Correspondent has forwarded five specimens, four of which are certainly very satisfactory, the fifth is the one prepared by brushing.]

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Groaning Elm-plank in Dublin_ (Vol. viii., p. 309.).--DR. RIMBAULT has given an account of the groaning-board, one of the popular delusions of two centuries ago: the following notice of it, extracted from my memoir of Sir Thomas Molyneux, Bart., M.D., and published in the _Dublin University_ for September, 1841, may interest your readers:

"In one of William Molyneux's communications he mentions the exhibition of 'the groaning elm-plank' in Dublin, a curiosity that attracted much attention and many learned speculations about the years 1682 and 1683. He was, however, too much of a philosopher to be gulled with the rest of the people who witnessed this so-called 'sensible elm-plank,' which is said to have groaned and trembled on the application of a hot iron to one end of it. After explaining the probable cause of the noise and tremulousness by its form and condition, and by the sap being made to pass up through the pores or tubuli of the plank which was in some particular condition, he says: 'But, Tom, the generality of mankind is lazy and unthoughtful, and will not trouble themselves to think of the reason of a thing: when they have a brief way of explaining anything that is strange by saying, "The devil's in it," what need they trouble their heads about pores, and matters, and motion, figure, and disposition, when the devil and a witch shall solve the phenomena of nature.'"

W. R. WILDE.

_Passage in Whiston_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--J. T. complains of not being able to find a passage in Whiston, which he says is referred to in p. 94. of _Taylor on Original Sin_, Lond. 1746. I do not know what Taylor he refers to. Jeremy Taylor wrote a treatise on original sin; but he lived before Whiston. I have looked into two editions of the _Scripture Doctrine of Original Sin_, by John Taylor, one of Lond. 1741, and another of Lond. 1750; but in neither of these can I find any mention of Mr. Whiston.

[Greek: Halieus].

Dublin.

"_When Orpheus went down_" (Vol. viii., pp. 196. 281.).--In addition to the information given upon this old song by MR. OLDENSHAW, I beg to add the following. It was written for and sung {398} by Mr. Beard, in a pantomimic entertainment entitled _Orpheus and Euridice_, acted at the theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1740. The author of the entertainment was Mr. Henry Sommer, but the song in question was "translated from the Spanish" by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Lisle, who died Rector of Burclere, Hants, 1767. It was long very popular, and is found in almost all the song-books of the latter half of the last century. Mr. Park, the editor of the last edition of Ritson's _English Songs_ (vol. ii. p. 153.), has the following note upon this song:

"An answer to this has been written in the way of echo, and in defence of the fair sex, whom the Spanish author treated with such libellous sarcasm."

As this "echo song" is not given by Ritson or his editor, I have transcribed it from a broadside in my collection. It is said to have been written by a lady.

"When Orpheus went down to the regions below, To bring back the wife that he lov'd, Old Pluto, confounded, as histories show, To find that his music so mov'd: That a woman so good, so virtuous, and fair, Should be by a man thus trepann'd, To give up her freedom for sorrow and care, He own'd she deserv'd to be damn'd.

"For punishment he never study'd a whit, The torments of hell had not pain Sufficient to curse her; so Pluto thought fit Her husband should have her again. But soon he compassion'd the woman's hard fate, And, knowing of mankind so well, He recall'd her again, before 'twas too late, And said, she'd be happier in hell."

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Foreign Medical Education_ (Vol. viii., p. 341.).--Your correspondent MEDICUS will find some information respecting _some_ of the foreign universities in the _Lancet_ for 1849, and the _Medical Times and Gazette_ for 1852. For France he will find all he wants in Dr. Roubaud's _Annuaire Médical et Pharmaceutique de la France_, published by Baillière, 219. Regent Street.

M. D.

"_Short red, good red_" (Vol. viii., p. 182.).--Sir Walter has probably borrowed this saying from the story of Bishop Walchere, when he related the murder of Adam, Bishop of Caithness. This tragical event is told in the _Chronicle of Mailros_, under the year 1222; also in _Forduni Scotichronicon_, and in Wyntoun's _Chronicle_, book vii. c. ix.; but the words "short red, good red," do not appear in these accounts of the transaction.

J. MN.

_Collar of SS._ (Vols. iv.-vii. _passim_).--At the risk of frightening you and your correspondents, I venture to resume this subject, in consequence of a circumstance to which my attention has just been directed.

In the parish church of Swarkestone in Derbyshire there is a monument to Richard Harpur, one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas in the reign of Elizabeth; on which he is represented in full judicial costume, with the collar of SS., which I am told by the minister of the parish is "distinctly delineated." It may be seen in Fairholt's _Costumes of England_, p. 278.

As far as I am aware, this is the only instance, either on monuments or in portraits, of a _puisne_ judge being ornamented with this decoration. Can any of your correspondents produce another example? or can they account, from any other cause, for Richard Harpur receiving such a distinction? or may I not rather attribute it to the blunder of the sculptor?

EDWARD FOSS.

_Who first thought of Table-turning_ (Vol. viii., p. 57.).--It is impossible to say who discovered the table-turning experiment, but it undoubtedly had its origin in the United States. It was practised here three years ago, and, although sometimes associated with spirit-rappings, has more frequently served for amusement. On this connexion it may be proper to say that Professor Faraday's theory of unconscious muscular force meets with no concurrence among those who know anything about the subject in this country. It is notorious that large tables have been moved frequently by five or six persons, whose fingers merely touched them, although upon each was seated a stout man, weighing a hundred and fifty or sixty pounds: neither involuntary nor voluntary muscular force could have effected _that_ physical movement, when there was no other _purchase_ on the table than that which could be gained by a pressure of the tips of the fingers.

[Old English W].

Philadelphia.

_Passage of Thucydides on the Greek Factions_ (Vol. vii., p. 594.; Vol. viii., pp. 44. 137.).--My attempt to find the passage attributed by Sir A. Alison to Thucydides in the real Thucydides was unsuccessful for the best of reasons, viz. that it does not exist there. He has probably borrowed it from some modern author, who, as it appears to me, has given a loose paraphrase of the words which I cited from _Thucyd._ III. 82., and has expanded the thought in a manner not uncommon with some writers, by adding the expression about the "sword and poniard." Some other misquotations of Sir A. Alison from the classical writers may be seen in the _Edinburgh Review_ for April last, No. CXCVIII. p. 275.

L.

_Origin of "Clipper" as applied to Vessels_ (Vol. viii., p. 100.).--For many years the fleetest sailing vessels built in the United States were {399} constructed at Baltimore. They were very sharp, long, low; and their masts were inclined at a much greater angle than usual with those in other vessels. Fast sailing pilot boats and schooners were thus rigged; and in the last war with England, privateers of the Baltimore build were universally famed for their swiftness and superior sailing qualities. "A Baltimore clipper" became the expression among shipbuilders for a vessel of peculiar make; in the construction of which, fleetness was considered of more importance than a carrying capacity. When the attention of naval architects was directed to the construction of swift sailing ships, they were compelled to adopt the clipper shape. Hence the title "Clipper Ship," which has now extended from America to England.

[Old English W].

Philadelphia.

_Passage in Tennyson_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--In the third edition of _In Memoriam_, LXXXIX., 1850, the last line mentioned by W. T. M. is "Flits by the sea-blue bird of March," instead of "blue sea-bird." This reading appears to be a better one. I would suggest that the bird meant by Tennyson was the Tom-tit, who, from his restlessness, may be said to flit among the bushes.

F. M. MIDDLETON.

_Huet's Navigations of Solomon_ (Vol. vii., p. 381.).--This work of the learned Bishop of Avranches was written in Latin, and translated into French by J. B. Desrockes de Parthenay. It forms part of the second volume of a collection of treatises edited by Bruzen de la Martinière, under the title of _Traités Géographiques et Historiques pour faciliter l'intelligence de l'Ecriture Sainte, par divers auteurs célèbres_, 1730, 2 vols. 12mo.

I am unable to reply to EDINA's second Query, as to the result of Huet's assertions.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

_Sincere_ (Vol. viii., pp. 195. 328.).--The derivation of this word from _sine cerâ_ appears very fanciful. If this were the correct derivation, we should expect to find _sinecere_, for the _e_ would scarcely be dropped; just as we have the English word _sinecure_, which is the only compound of the preposition _sine_ I know; and is itself _not a Latin word_, but of a later coinage. Some give as the derivation _semel_ and [Greek: keraô]--that is, once mixed, without adulteration; the [Greek: e] being lengthened, as the Greek [Greek: akêratos]. The proper spelling would then be _simcerus_, and euphonically _sincerus_: thus we have _sim-plex_, which does not mean without a fold, but (_semel plico_, [Greek: plekô]) once folded. So also _singulus_, semel and termination. The proper meaning may be from tablets, _ceratæ tabellæ_, which were "once smeared with wax" and then written upon; they were then _sinceræ_, without forgery or deception. If they were in certain places covered with wax again, for the purpose of adding something secretly and deceptively, they cease to be _sinceræ_.

J. T. JEFFCOCK.

[Pi]. [Beta]. asks me for some authority for the alleged practice of Roman potters (or crock-vendors) to rub wax into the flaws of their unsound vessels. This was the very burden of my Query! I am no proficient in the Latin classics: yet I think I know enough to predicate that [Pi]. [Beta]. is wrong in his version of the line--

"Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis acescit."

I understand this line as referring to the notorious fact, that some liquors turn sour if the air gets to them from without. "Sincerum vas" is a sound or air-tight vessel. In another place (_Sat._, lib. i. 3.), Horace employs the same figure, where he says that we "call evil good, and good evil," figuring the sentiment thus:

"At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus, atque Sincerum cupimus vas _incrustare_"--

meaning, of course, that we bring the vessel into suspicion, by treating it as if it were flawed. Dryden, no doubt, knew the radical meaning of _sincere_ when he wrote the lines cited by Johnson:

"He try'd a tough well-chosen spear; Th' inviolable body stood sincere."

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_The Saltpetre Man_ (Vol. viii., p. 225.).--In addition to the curious particulars of this office, I send you an extract from Abp. Laud's _Diary_:

"December 13, Monday. I received letters from Brecknock; that the _saltpeter man_ was dead and buried the Sunday before the messenger came. This _saltpeter man_ had digged in the Colledge Church for his work, bearing too bold upon his commission. The news of it came to me to London about November 26. I went to my Lord Keeper, and had a messenger sent to bring him up to answer that sacrilegious abuse. He prevented his punishment by death."

JOHN S. BURN.

_Major André_ (Vol. viii., p. 174.).--There is in the picture gallery of Yale College, New Haven, Conn., an original sketch of Major André, executed by himself with pen and ink, and without the aid of a glass. It was drawn in his guard-room on the morning of the day first fixed for his execution.

J. E.

_Longevity_ (Vol. viii., p. 182.).--A DOUBTER is informed that the _National Intelligencer_ (published at Washington, and edited by Messrs. Gales and Seaton) is the authority for my statement respecting Mrs. Singleton, and her advanced age. If A DOUBTER is desirous of satisfying himself more fully respecting its correctness, he has but {400} to write to the above-named gentlemen, or to the English Consul at Charleston, S. C., and his wish will doubtless be gratified. I cannot but hope that your correspondent's "fifty cents worth of reasons" for doubting my statement is now, or shortly will be, removed.

If A DOUBTER intends to be in New York while the present Exhibition is open, he will have an opportunity of seeing a negro of the age of _one hundred and twenty-four_, who once belonged to General Washington, and from whom he could very possibly obtain some information respecting the aged "nurse" of the first President of the United States mentioned in his note.

W. W.

Malta.

_Passage in Virgil_ (Vol. viii., p. 370.).--The passage for which your correspondent R. FITZSIMONS makes inquiry is to be found in the Eighth Eclogue, at the 44th and following lines:

"Nunc scio quid sit Amor," &c.

The application by Johnson seems to be so plain as to need no explanation.

F. B--W.

_Love Charm from a Foal's Forehead_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.).--Your correspondent H. P. will find the love charm, consisting of a fig-shaped excrescence on a foal's forehead, and called _Hippomanes_, alluded to by Juvenal, _Sat._ VI. 133.:

"Hippomanes, carmenque loquar, coctumque venenum, Privignoque datum?"

And again, 615.:

"ut avunculus ille Neronis, Cui totam tremuli frontem Cæsonia pulli Infudit."

It was supposed that the dam swallowed this excrescence immediately on the birth of her foal, and that, if prevented doing so, she lost all affection for it.

However, the name Hippomanes was applied to two other things. Theocritus (II. 48.) uses it to signify some herb which incites horses to madness if they eat of it.

And again, Virgil (_Geor._ III. 280.), Propertius, Tibullus, Ovid, &c., represent it as a certain _virus_:

"Hippomanes cupidæ stillat ab inguine equæ."

The subject is an unpleasant one, and H. P. is referred for farther information to Pliny, VIII. 42. s. 66., and XXVIII. 11. s. 80.

H. C. K.

This lump was called _Hippomanes_; which also more truly designated, according to Virgil, another thing. The following paragraphs from Mr. Keightley's excellent _Notes on Virgil's Bucolics and Georgics_ will fully explain both meanings:

"_Hippomanes_, horse-rage: the pale yellow fluid which passes from a mare at that season [_i. e._ when she is horsing] (cf. _Tibul._ II. 4. 58.), of which the smell (_aura_, v. 251.) incites the horse.

"_Vero nomine._ Because the bit of flesh which was said to be on the forehead of the new-born foal, and which the mare was supposed to swallow, was called by the same name (see _Æn._ IV. 515.); and also a plant in Arcadia (_Theocr._ II. 48.). With respect to the former Hippomanes, Pliny, who detailed truth and falsehood with equal faith, says (VIII. 42.) that it grows on the foal's forehead; is of the size of a dried fig (_carica_), and of a black colour; and that if the mare does not swallow it immediately, she will not let the foal suck her. Aristotle (_H. A._, VIII. 24.) says this is merely an old wives' tale. He mentions, however, the [Greek: pôlion], or bit of livid flesh, which we call the foal's bit, and which he says the mare ejects before the foal."--_Notes, &c._, p. 273. on _Georgic._ III. 280. ff.

With regard to the plant called _Hippomanes_, commentators, as may be seen from Kiessling's note on Theocritus, ii. 48., are by no means agreed. Certainly Andrews, in his edition of Freund, is wrong in referring Virgil _Georgic._ III. 283. to that meaning. The use of _legere_ probably misled.

E. S. JACKSON.

_Wardhouse, where was?_ (Vol. viii., p. 78.).--It probably is the same as Wardoehuus or Vardoehus, a district and town in Norwegian Finmark, on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, inhabited principally by fishermen.

W. C. TREVELYAN.

Wallington.

_Divining Rod_ (Vol. viii., p. 293.).--The inquirer should read the statement made by Dr. Herbert Mayo, in his letters _On the Truths contained in Popular Superstitions_, 1851, pp. 3-21. To the facts there recorded I may add, that I have heard Mr. Dawson Turner relate that he himself saw the experiment of the divining rod satisfactorily carried out in the hands of Lady Noel Byron; and some account of it is to be found, I believe, in an article by Sir F. Palgrave, in the _Quarterly Review_.

[mu].

_Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle_ (Vol. viii., p. 271.).--His arms are engraved on a plate dedicated to him by Willis, in his _Survey of the Cathedrals of England_, 1742, vol. i. p. 284., and appear thus, _Argent, on a chevron gules, three besants_; but in a MS. collection by the late Canon Rowling of Lichfield, relating to bishops' arms, I find his coat thus given,--_Argent, on a chevron engrailed gules, three besants_. The variation may have arisen from an error of the engraver. It appears from Willis that Dr. Waugh was a fellow of Queen's College, Oxford; and the entry of his matriculation would no doubt show in what part of England his family resided. He was successively Rector of St. Peter's, Cornhill; Prebendary of Lincoln; Dean of Gloucester; and Bishop of {401} Carlisle; to which latter dignity he was promoted in August, 1723.

[mu].

_Pagoda_ (Vol. v., p. 415.).--The European word pagoda is most probably derived, by transposition of the syllables, from _da-go-ba_, which is the Pali or Sanscrit name for a Budhist temple. It appears probable that the Portuguese first adopted the word in Ceylon, the modern holy isle of Budhism.

PH.

Rangoon.

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Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.--An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra Copies for 10s.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 168. NEW BOND STREET.

* * * * *

DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes, Best and Cheapest. To be had in great variety at

M^cMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

* * * * *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

* * * * *

INDIGESTION, CONSTIPATION, NERVOUSNESS, &c.--BARRY, DU BARRY & CO.'S HEALTH-RESTORING FOOD for INVALIDS and INFANTS.

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal, liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted, dyspepsia (indigestion), habitual constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn, flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of the skin, rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at sea, and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants, fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

_A few out of 50,000 Cures_:--

Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefit from your Revalenta Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to authorise the publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia, nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness at the stomach and vomitings have been removed by Du Barry's excellent food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

Cure, No. 180:--"Twenty-five years' nervousness, constipation, indigestion, and debility, from which I had suffered great misery and which no medicine could remove or relieve, have been effectually cured by Du Barry's food in a very short time.--W. R. REEVES, Pool Anthony, Tiverton."

Cure, No. 4,208:--"Eight years' dyspepsia, nervousness, debility, with cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the advice of many, have been effectually removed by Du Barry's delicious food in a very short time. I shall be happy to answer any inquiries.--REV. JOHN W. FLAVELL, Ridlington Rectory, Norfolk."

_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

"Bonn, July 19, 1852.

"This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent, nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases, all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of body, as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys and bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp of the urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and hemorrhoids. This really invaluable remedy is employed with the most satisfactory result, not only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints, where irritation and pain are to be removed, but also in pulmonary and bronchial consumption, in which it counteracts effectually the troublesome cough; and I am enabled with perfect truth to express the conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

"DR. RUD WURZER,

"Counsel of Medicine, and practical M. D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s. 6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb. and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name BARRY, DU BARRY & Co., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which none is genuine_.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions (comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous Views and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

* * * * *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography. Instruction in the Art.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA, is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist, from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment, its extreme Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames, &c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road, Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, in Complete Sets, in Portable Cabinets, at moderate prices.

SMALL SET, price 7l. 7s., containing every requisite for taking Landscapes and Pictures of inanimate objects, to a size not exceeding 7 by 6 inches.

LARGE SET, price 11l., for Pictures up to 10 by 8 inches.--N. B. A Collodion Picture made by each set is given with it, to show the quality of the Lenses.

Every article for taking either Landscapes or Portraits on Silver, Paper, or Glass, may be had of the undersigned. An illustrated priced Catalogue of Photographic Apparatus, price 3d., Post Free.

JOHN J. GRIFFIN, Chemist and Optician. 10. Finsbury Square (Manufactory, 119. and 120. Bunhill Row), removed from Baker Street, London.

* * * * *

CYANOGEN SOAP, for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. Beware of purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable detergent. The genuine is made only by the inventor, and is secured with a red label pasted round each pot, bearing this signature and address:--

RICHARD W. THOMAS, Chemist, Manufacturer of Pure Photographic Chemicals, 10. Pall Mall, and may be procured of all respectable Chemists in pots at 1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard, and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents. {404}

* * * * *

CHEAP AND POPULAR EDITIONS OF STANDARD AUTHORS.

ABERCROMBIE'S INTELLECTUAL POWERS. 6s. 6d.

ABERCROMBIE ON THE MORAL FEELINGS. 4s.

DAVY'S SALMONIA. 6s.

DAVY'S CONSOLATIONS IN TRAVEL. 6s.

REV. GEORGE CRABBE'S LIFE. 3s.

COLERIDGE'S TABLE-TALK. 6s.

COLERIDGE'S GREEK CLASSIC POETS. 5s. 6d.

BELL ON THE HAND. 7s. 6d.

LAYARD'S POPULAR ACCOUNT OF NINEVEH. 5s.

WILKINSON'S POPULAR ACCOUNT OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. (Shortly.)

JESSE'S GLEANINGS IN NATURAL HISTORY. 6s. 6d.

JESSE'S SCENES AND OCCUPATIONS OF COUNTRY LIFE. (Shortly.)

PHILOSOPHY IN SPORT. 7s. 6d.

SOMERVILLE'S PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 10s. 6d.

SOMERVILLE'S PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 12s.

JAMES' EDITION OF ÆSOP'S FABLES. 2s. 6d.

HEBER'S POETICAL WORKS. 7s. 6d.

REJECTED ADDRESSES. 5s.

BYRON'S POETICAL WORKS. 8 vols. 2s. 6d. each.

MAHON'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 5 vols. 6s. each.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

* * * * *

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXVI., is published THIS DAY.

Contents:

I. THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. II. MURDER OF THOMAS A BECKET. III. THE DAUPHIN IN THE TEMPLE. IV. THE HOLY PLACES. V. DIARY OF CASAUBON. VI. ELECTRO-BIOLOGY, MESMERISM, AND TABLE-TURNING. VII. LIFE OF HAYDON.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

* * * * *

Now ready, MURRAYS MODERN DOMESTIC COOKERY BOOK. A New and Cheaper Edition, most carefully revised and improved. With 100 Woodcuts. Price FIVE SHILLINGS, strongly bound.

*** Of this Popular Work more than 210,000 Copies have been sold.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

* * * * *

NOTICE.

CHEAP RE-ISSUE OF EVELYN'S DIARY AND CORRESPONDENCE.

IN FOUR MONTHLY VOLUMES, price only 6s. each, bound, printed uniformly with the last edition of "Pepys' Diary."

On the 1st of November, with the Magazines, will be published, the First Volume of the Cheap Re-Issue of the New, Revised Edition of "THE DIARY AND CORRESPONDENCE OF JOHN EVELYN, F.R.S.;" comprising all the important additional Notes, Letters, and other Illustrations last made, consequent on the re-examination of the original MS.

"We rejoice to welcome this beautiful and compact edition of Evelyn--one of the most valuable and interesting works in the language--now deservedly regarded as an English classic."--_Examiner_.

"This work is a necessary companion to the popular histories of our country--to Hume, Hallam, Macaulay, and Lingard."--_Sun_.

Published for HENRY COLBURN, by his successors, HURST & BLACKETT, 13. Great Marlborough Street.

* * * * *

MURRAY'S RAILWAY READING.

This Day, with Woodcuts, fcap. 8vo., 1s.

HISTORY OF THE GUILLOTINE. By the RIGHT HON. JOHN WILSON CROKER. Reprinted, with Additions, from "The Quarterly Review."

The last Volume published, contained--

ANCIENT SPANISH BALLADS: HISTORICAL AND ROMANTIC. By J. G. LOCKHART.

To be followed by-- POPULAR ACCOUNT OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. By SIR J. G. WILKINSON. With 500 Woodcuts.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

* * * * *

Just published, demy 8vo. pp. 129, price 2s. 6d.

THE PRISON AND THE SCHOOL. The Chief ascertained Causes of Crime considered, with Suggestions for the Care, Relief, and Reformation of the Neglected, Destitute, and Criminal Children of the Metropolis. By EDMUND EDWARD ANTROBUS, F.S.A., Justice of the Peace for the County of Middlesex, and City and Liberty of Westminster; Visiting Justice of the House of Correction, Westminster.

London: STAUNTON & SONS, 9. Strand.

* * * * *

Now ready, post 8vo., cloth, price 6s. 6d.

CURIOSITIES OF LONDON LIFE; or Phases, Physiological and Social, of the Great Metropolis. By C. M. SMITH, Author of "The Working Man's Way in the World." May be had at all the Libraries.

Just published, post 8vo., cloth, price 5s.

THE WORKING MAN'S WAY IN THE WORLD; or the AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A JOURNEYMAN PRINTER.

London: W.& F. G. CASH, 5. Bishopsgate Street Without.

* * * * *

COMPLETION OF THE WORK, cloth 1s.; by post, 1s. 6d., pp. 192.--WELSH SKETCHES, THIRD (and last) SERIES. By the Author of "Proposals for Christian Union." Contents: 1. Edward the Black Prince. 2. Owen Glendower, Prince of Wales. 3. Mediæval Bardism. 4. The Welsh Church.

"Will be read with great satisfaction, not only by all sons of the principality, but by all who look with interest on that portion of our island in which the last traces of our ancient British race and language still linger."--_Notes and Queries_.

London: JAMES DARLING, 81. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

* * * * *

NEW EDITION OF THE ANABASIS BY ARNOLD AND BROWNE.

Now ready, in 12mo., price 6s. 6d.

XENOPHON'S ANABASIS. With ENGLISH NOTES, translated (with Additions) from the German of DR. HERTLEIN, by the late REV. T. K. ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and the REV. HENRY BROWNE, M.A., Canon of Chichester. (Forming a New Volume of Arnold's "School Classics.")

Books IV. to VII. of this Edition are contained in Mr. Arnold's "Fourth Greek Book."

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place.

Lately published, by the same Editor, VIRGILII ÆNEIS. With English Notes from Dübner. 6s.

* * * * *

BISHOP BUTLER'S REMAINS.

In 8vo., price 1s. 6d. (by post 1s. 10d.)

SOME REMAINS (hitherto unpublished) of JOSEPH BUTLER, LL.D., sometime Lord Bishop of Durham, Author of "The Analogy of Religion."

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place.

* * * * *

PIFFERI AND TURNER'S NEW INTRODUCTION TO ITALIAN.

In 12mo., price 5s. 6d.

THE FIRST ITALIAN BOOK: on the Plan of the REV. T. K. ARNOLD'S First French Book. By SIGNOR PIFFERI, Professor of Italian, and DAWSON W. TURNER, M.A., Head Master of the Royal Institution School, Liverpool.

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place.

Of whom may be had, by the late REV. T. K. ARNOLD, M.A.

1. THE FIRST FRENCH BOOK, on the Plan of Henry's First Latin Book. Third Edition. 5s. 6d.

2. THE FIRST GERMAN BOOK, upon the same Plan. Third Edition. 5s. 6d.

* * * * *

Just published, price 1s.

THE STEREOSCOPE,

Considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision. An Essay, by C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.

London: WALTON & MABERLEY, Upper Gower Street, and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row. Cambridge: J. DEIGHTON.

Also, by the same Author, price 1s.,

REMARKS on some of Sir William Hamilton's Notes on the Works of Dr. Thomas Reid.

"Nothing in my opinion can be more cogent than your refutation of M. Jobert."--_Sir W. Hamilton._

London: JOHN W. PARKER, West Strand. Cambridge: E. JOHNSON. Birmingham: H. C. LANGBRIDGE.

* * * * *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, October 22. 1853.