The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening, Division 1; A to Car. A Practical and Scientific Encyclopædia of Horticulture by

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[Illustration: ARISTOLOCHIA ELEGANS.]

THE

ILLUSTRATED

DICTIONARY OF GARDENING,

A PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC

_Encyclopædia + of + Horticulture_

FOR

GARDENERS AND BOTANISTS.

EDITED BY

GEORGE NICHOLSON, _Of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew_.

ASSISTED BY PROFESSOR J. W. H. TRAIL, A.M., M.D., F.L.S., IN THE PARTS RELATING TO INSECTS AND FUNGI; AND J. GARRETT IN THE FRUIT, VEGETABLE, AND GENERAL GARDEN WORK PORTIONS.

DIVISION I.--A TO CAR.

PUBLISHED BY L. UPCOTT GILL, 170, STRAND, LONDON, W.C.

SOLE AGENT FOR THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, JAMES PENMAN, NEW YORK.

1887.

LONDON: PRINTED BY A. BRADLEY, 170, STRAND.

PREFACE.

THE ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY OF GARDENING aims at being the best and most complete Work on Gardening and Garden Plants hitherto published. The aim is, indeed, a high one; but the Publisher, whose taste for Flowers has rendered the production a labour of love, has, on his part, spared no expense that the Typography and Illustrations should be of a very high class. It is to be hoped that earnest efforts to attain accuracy, by consulting the best Authorities, combined with no small amount of original research, have contributed to render the _matter_ of the Work not unworthy of the _form_ in which it is presented to the reader. The large number of Illustrations is an important feature; and it is believed that the figures quoted, and the references given to various works--in which more detailed information is contained than is desirable, or, indeed, possible, in these pages, on account of space--will greatly add to the interest and value of the work. Considerable trouble has been taken in revising the tangled synonymy of many genera, and clearing up, as much as possible, the confusion that exists in garden literature in connection with so many plants, popular and otherwise. In the matter of generic names, Bentham and Hooker's recently-completed "Genera Plantarum" has, with few exceptions, been followed; that work being the one which will, for a long time to come, undoubtedly remain the standard authority on all that relates to generic limitation. With regard to the nomenclature of species, I have endeavoured to consult the latest and most trustworthy Monographs and Floras, and to adopt the names in accordance with them. Now and then, certain plants are described under their common garden names; but they will, in such cases, be also found mentioned under the genus to which they really belong. A case in point may be cited: _Anœctochilus Lowii_ is given under _Anœctochilus_, but the name it must now bear is _Dossinia_, and a reference to that genus will explain matters pretty fully, as far as the present state of knowledge goes.

I am greatly indebted to Professor J. W. H. TRAIL, M.D., F.L.S., &c., for his valuable contributions on Insects, Fungi, and Diseases of Plants, branches of science in which he has long been specially interested, and in which he is an undoubted authority.

Mr. J. GARRETT, of the Royal Gardens, Kew, late of the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens, is responsible for Fruit and Vegetable Culture, for most of what appertains to Florists' Flowers, and for General Gardening Work. For information on many special subjects--Begonias may be cited as an example--I am obliged for much assistance to Mr. W. WATSON, also of the Royal Gardens, Kew; in fact, the article _Begonia_, in its entirety, was written by him. Mr. W. B. HEMSLEY, A.L.S., has, throughout, given me aid and advice; and I have to acknowledge constant help from several other colleagues.

The Rev. PERCY W. MYLES, M.A., has taken no little trouble in working out the correct derivations of very many of the Generic Names; unfortunately, in a number of instances, lack of time prevented me from obtaining the benefit of his knowledge. I have to record my gratitude for help in so difficult a task, this special study being one to which Mr. MYLES has paid much attention.

GEORGE NICHOLSON.

ROYAL GARDENS, KEW.

[Illustration]

REFERENCE TO ILLUSTRATIONS OF PLANTS OTHER THAN THOSE FIGURED IN THIS WORK.

It has been suggested, by an eminent Authority, that many readers would be glad to be informed where reliable Illustrations could be found of those Plants which are not figured in this Work. To meet this want, references to the figures in Standard Authorities have been given, the titles of the Works referred to being, for economy of space, abbreviated as follows:

A. B. R. Andrews (H. C.). Botanist's Repository. London, 1799-1811. 10 vols. 4to.

A. E. Andrews (H. C.). Coloured Engravings of Heaths. London, 1802-30. 4 vols. 4to.

A. F. B. Loudon (J. C.). Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum.... London, 1838. 8 vols. 8vo.

A. F. P. Allioni (C.). Flora pedemontana. Aug. Taur., 1785. 3 vols. Fol.

A. G. Aublet (J. B. C. F.). Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Française. Londres, 1775. 4 vols. 4to.

A. H. Andrews (H. C.). The Heathery. London, 1804-12. 4 vols. 4to.

B. Maund (B.). The Botanist.... London, 1839. 8 vols. 4to.

B. F. F. Brandis (D.). Forest Flora of ... India. London, 1876, 8vo. Atlas, 4to.

B. F. S. Beddome (R. H.). Flora sylvatica. Madras [1869-73]. 2 vols. 4to.

B. H. La Belgique Horticole.... Ghent, 1850, &c.*

B. M. Botanical Magazine. London, 1787, &c. 8vo.*

B. M. Pl. Bentley (R.) and Trimen (H.). Medicinal Plants. London, 1875-80. 8vo.

B. O. Bateman (James). A Monograph of Odontoglossum. London, 1874. Fol.

B. R. Botanical Register. London, 1815-47. 33 vols. 8vo.

B. Z. Botanische Zeitung. Berlin, vols. i.-xiii. (1843-55). 8vo. Leipzig, vol. xiv. (1856).*

C. H. P. Cathcart's Illustrations of Himalayan Plants. London, 1855. Fol.

Enc. T. & S. Loudon (J. C.). Encyclopædia of Trees and Shrubs.... London, 1842. 8vo.

E. T. S. M. _See_ T. S. M.

F. A. O. Fitzgerald (R. D.). Australian Orchids. Sydney, 1876. Fol.*

F. D. Flora Danica--usually quoted as the title of the work, Icones plantarum ... Daniæ et Norvegiæ.... Havniæ. 1761 to 1883. Fol.

F. d. S. La Flore des Serres et des Jardins de l'Europe. 1845-82. 23 vols. 8vo.

Fl. Ment. Moggridge (J. T.). Contributions to the Flora of Mentone.... London, 1864-8.

Flora Flora oder allgemeine botanische Zeitung. 1818-42. 25 vols. 8vo. [New Series] 1843, &c.*

F. M. Floral Magazine. London, 1861-71, 8vo. 1872-81, 4to.

F. & P. Florist and Pomologist. London, 1868-84. 8vo.

G. C. The Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette. London, 1841-65. Fol.

G. C. n. s. The Gardeners' Chronicle. New Series, 1866, &c. Fol.*

G. G. Gray (A.). Genera floræ Americæ.... Boston, 1848-9. 2 vols. 8vo.

G. M. The Gardeners' Magazine. Conducted by Shirley Hibberd. London.

G. M. B. The Gardeners' Magazine of Botany.... London, 1850-1. 3 vols. 8vo.

Gn. The Garden. London, 1871, &c. 4to.*

G. W. F. A. Goodale (G. L.). Wild Flowers of America. Boston, 1877. 4to.

H. B. F. Hooker (W. J.). The British Ferns.

H. E. F. Hooker (W. J.). Exotic Flora. Edinburgh, 1823-7. 3 vols. 8vo.

H. F. B. A. Hooker (W. J.). Flora boreali-americana.... London, 1833-40. 2 vols. 4to.

H. F. T. Hooker (J. D.). Flora Tasmaniæ. London, 1860. 2 vols. 4to. This is Part 3 of "The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships _Erebus_ and _Terror_, in the years 1839-43."

H. G. F. Hooker (W. J.). Garden Ferns. London, 1862. 8vo.

H. S. F. Hooker (W. J.). Species Filicum.

I. H. L'Illustration horticole. Gand, 1850, &c. 8vo.*

I. H. Pl. _See_ C. H. P.

J. B. Journal of Botany.... London, 1863. 8vo.*

J. F. A. Jacquin (N. J.). Floræ austriacæ.... icones.... Viennæ, 1773-8. 5 vols. Fol.

J. H. Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener. Conducted by Dr. Robert Hogg. London.

J. H. S. Journal of the Horticultural Society. London, 1846. 8vo.*

K. E. E. Kotschy. Die Eiche Europas und des Orients.

L. B. C. Loddiges (C.). Botanical Cabinet. London, 1812-33. 20 vols. 4to.

L. C. B. Lindley (J.). Collectanea botanica.... London, 1821. Fol.

L. E. M. La Marck (J. B. P. A. de M. de). Encyclopédie methodique ... Botanique. Paris, 1783-1817. 13 vols. 4to.

L. J. F. Lemaire (C.). Le Jardin fleuriste. Gand, 1851-4. 4 vols. 8vo.

L. R. Lindley (J.). Rosarum Monographia. London, 1820. 8vo.

L. S. O. Lindley (J.). Sertum Orchidaceum.... London, 1838. Fol.

L. & P. F. G. Lindley (J.) and Paxton (J.). Flower Garden.... London.... 1851-3. 3 vols. 4to.

M. A. S. Salm-Dyck. Monographia generum Aloes et Mesembryanthemi. Bonnæ, 1836-63. 4to.

N. Burbidge (F. W.). The Narcissus: Its History and Culture. With a Scientific Review of the Genus by J. G. Baker, F.L.S. London, 1875. 8vo.

N. S. Nuttall (T.). North American Sylva.... Philadelphia, 1865. 3 vols. 8vo.

P. F. G. _See_ L. & P. F. G.

P. M. B. Paxton (J). Magazine of Botany. London, 1834-49. 16 vols. 8vo.

Ref. B. Saunders (W. W.) Refugium botanicum.... London, 1869-72. 8vo.

R. G. Regel (E.). Gartenflora. 1852, &c.*

R. H. Revue Horticole.... Paris, 1852.*

R. S. H. Hooker (J. D.). The Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya. London, 1849-51. Fol.

R. X. O. Reichenbach, _fil._ (H. G.). Xenia orchidacea. Leipzig, 1858. 4to.*

S. B. F. G. Sweet (R.). British Flower Garden. London, 1823-9. 3 vols. 8vo. Second Series. London, 1831-8. 4 vols. 8vo.

S. C. Sweet (R.). Cistineæ. London, 1825-30. 8vo.

S. E. B. Smith (J. E.). Exotic Botany.... London, 1804-5. 2 vols. 8vo.

S. F. A. Sweet (R.). Flora australasica.... London, 1827-8. 8vo.

S. F. d. J. Siebold (P. F. de) and Vriese (W. H. de). Flore des Jardins du Royaume des Pays-Bas. Leide, 1858-62. 5 vols. 8vo.

S. F. G. Sibthorp (J.). Flora græca.... London, 1806-40. 10 vols. Fol.

S. H. Ivy Hibberd (Shirley). The Ivy: a Monograph. London, 1872. 8vo.

Sw. Ger. Sweet (Robert). Geraniaceæ, the natural order of Gerania. 1828-1830.

Sy. En. B. Syme (J. T. B.), _now_ Boswell. English Botany.... Ed. 3. London, 1863-85. 12 vols. 8vo.

S. Z. F. J. Siebold (P. F. von) and Zuccarini (J. G.). Flora Japonica.... Lugd. Bat., 1835-44. Fol.

T. H. S. Transactions of the Horticultural Society. London, 1805-29. 7 vols. 4to.

T. L. S. Transactions of the Linnæan Society. London, 1791-1875. 30 vols. 4to.*

T. S. M. Emerson (G. B.). Trees and Shrubs ... of Massachusetts. Boston, Ed. 2, 1875. 2 vols. 8vo.

W. D. B. Watson (P. W.). Dendrologia Britannica. London. 1825. 2 vols. 8vo.

W. F. A. _See_ G. W. F. A.

W. O. A. Warner (R.) and Williams (B. S.). The Orchid Album. London, 1882. 4to.*

W. S. O. Warner (R.). Select Orchidaceous Plants. London, Series i, 1862-65. Fol. Series ii, 1865-75. Fol.

W. & F. Woods and Forests. 1883-4. 1 vol. 4to.

* Is still in course of publication.

THE

DICTIONARY OF GARDENING,

An Encyclopædia of Horticulture.

The following are the Abbreviations used:--_fl._ flowers; _fr._ fruit; _l._ leaves; _h._ height; _deg._ degrees; _rhiz._ rhizomes; _cau._ caudex; _sti._ stipes.

The Asterisks (*) indicate plants that are especially good or distinct.

=A.= In compound words from the Greek the initial _a_ has usually a privative meaning; as _aphyllus_, without leaves; _acaulis_, without a stem, &c.

=AARON'S BEARD.= _See_ =Hypericum calycinum= and =Saxifraga sarmentosa=.

=AARON'S ROD.= _See_ =Verbascum Thapsus=.

=ABELE TREE.= White Poplar. _See_ =Populus alba=.

=ABELIA= (named after Dr. Clarke Abel, Physician to Lord Amherst's Embassy to China, in 1817, and author of a "Narrative of a Journey to China" (1818); died 1826). ORD. _Caprifoliaceæ_. Very ornamental shrubs. Corolla tubular, funnel-shaped, five-lobed. Leaves petiolate, dentately crenated. Well suited for the cold greenhouse, either as trellis or pot plants; free-flowering when well grown, and of easy culture. May be treated in sheltered and warm climates as hardy; and can be grown out of doors during summer in less favoured spots. They thrive in a compost of peat and loam in equal parts, to which a small quantity of silver sand may be added. Increased by cuttings in summer, and by layers in spring, under a frame. Only two species, _floribunda_ and _rupestris_, are much grown in England.

=A. floribunda= (many-flowered).* _fl._ rosy-purple, about 2in. long, in axillary clusters. March. _l._ opposite, oblong. _h._ 3ft. Mexico, 1842. The best and freest flowering evergreen species.

=A. rupestris= (rock).* _fl._ sweet-scented, small, pink, in pairs at the ends of the branches; sepals of leafy texture, with a reddish tinge. September. _l._ small, oblong. _h._ 5ft. China, 1844. A deciduous, branching, hairy shrub.

=A. serrata= (serrate-leaved). _fl._ pretty pale red, sweet-scented, very large, in one-flowered terminal peduncles; sepals leafy. March. _h._ 3ft. China, 1844. A fine evergreen species.

=A. triflora= (three-flowered).* _fl._ pale yellow, tinged with pink, small, arranged in threes at the ends of the branches; sepals long and linear, clothed with long hairs. September. _l._ small, lanceolate. _h._ 5ft. Hindostan, 1847. A small evergreen branching shrub.

=ABERRANT.= Deviating from the natural or direct way; applied, in natural history, to species or genera that deviate from the usual characters of their allies.

=ABIES= (from _abeo_, to rise; alluding to the aspiring habit of growth of the tree; or, according to some, from _apios_, a Pear-tree, in allusion to the form of the fruit). Spruce Fir. The synonymy of this genus is much confused, plants belonging to several genera being frequently referred to _Abies_ in nurserymen's catalogues and gardening periodicals. ORD. _Coniferæ_. A genus of about twenty-five species, widely distributed over the mountainous regions of the Northern hemisphere. Cones cylindrical, or but slightly tapering, erect; catkins generally solitary; the carpels not thickened at the tip; and the leaves solitary, partially scattered in insertion, and more or less two-ranked in direction. Scales deciduous, falling off as soon as the seed is ripe, leaving the axis on the tree. All the species bear seeds at a comparatively early age; most are hardy. For culture, _see_ =Pinus=.

=A. amabilis= (lovely).* _shoots_ rather rigid, furrowed with elongated cushions, covered with numerous small dark hairs. _l._ scattered, crowded, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long; linear obtuse, dark green above, silvery beneath. The cones are described as cylindrical, and about 6in. long. _h._ 180ft. California, 1831. A magnificent conifer, very massive in appearance.

=A. baborensis.=* _l._ linear, dark green, silvery on the under surface, very numerous, those of the larger branches shortly pointed, and those of the branchlets more obtuse and pointless, 1/2in. to 1in. long. _cones_ erect, cylindrical, usually in clusters of four or five, 5in. to 8in. long, and about 2in. in diameter; scales reniform, greyish-brown, inclosing a thin, dry, and shrivelled bract. _h._ 40ft. to 60ft. Algiers, 1864. This is a very beautiful medium-sized tree. SYN. _A. Numidica_.

=A. balsamea= (Balm of Gilead or Balsam Fir).* _l._ silvery beneath, apex emarginate or entire, somewhat recurved and spreading, 3/4in. long. _cones_ cylindrical, violet-coloured, pointing upwards, 4in. to 5in. long, and 1/2in. broad; scales 3/4in. broad, and the same in length. _h._ 40ft. to 60ft. United States and Canada, &c., 1696. A medium-sized slender tree.

=A. bifida= (bifid). Identical with _A. firma_.

=A. brachyphylla= (short-leaved).* _l._ linear, spirally inserted round the branchlets, but pointing laterally in two directions, 3/4in. to 1-1/2in. in length; lower ones longest, obtusely pointed or emarginate, bright green above, with two silvery lines beneath. _cones_ 3in. to 4in. long, purple. _h._ 120ft. Japan, 1870. A recently introduced magnificent fir, with an erect stem, regularly whorled horizontal branches.

=A. bracteata= (bracted).* _l._ rigid, linear, flat, distichous, 2in. to 3in. long, bright glossy green above, and glaucous beneath. _cones_ about 4in. long, with the bracts developed into long rigid leaf-like linear spines, 2in. long, and slightly curved inwards. _h._ 25ft. Southern California, 1853. A very handsome tall slender tree, but, owing to its very early growth of new shoots, it is much injured by the spring frosts.

=A. Brunoniana= (Brown's). Synonymous with _Tsuga Brunoniana_.

=A. canadensis= (Canadian). A synonym of _Tsuga canadensis_.

=A. cephalonica= (Cephalonian).* _l._ subulate, flat, dark green above, and silvery beneath, acute. _cones_ erect, cylindrical, green when young, afterwards reddish, and brown when ripe, 5in. to 6in. in length, and about 1-1/2in. in diameter; scales broad, thin, and rounded, shorter than the bracts. _h._ 50ft. to 60ft. Mountains of Greece, 1824. A very desirable tree for growing in exposed situations.

=A. cilicica= (Cilician). _l._ linear, slightly curved or straight, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, dark green above, and glaucous beneath, crowded, in two ranks. _cones_ cylindrical, 6in. to 8in. long; scales broad, thin, entire, coriaceous. _h._ 40ft. to 60ft. Mount Taurus, in Asia Minor. This species seldom produces a good specimen tree in England, and cannot, therefore, be recommended for general cultivation.

=A. concolor= (one-coloured).* _l._ linear, flat, obtuse, glaucous green, distichously arranged in double rows, those in the lower rows 2in. to 3in. long, upper ones shorter, channelled above. _cones_ cylindrical, obtuse both at base and top, 3in. to 5in. long, 2in. to 2-1/2in. in diameter; scales numerous, imbricated, larger than the bracts. _h._ 80ft. to 150ft. California, &c., 1851. A very beautiful species, with yellow bark on the young branches. SYNS. _A. lasiocarpa_ and _A. Parsonii_.

=A. Douglasii= (Douglas'). A synonym of _Pseudotsuga Douglasii_.

=A. dumosa= (short-leaved). Synonymous with _Tsuga Brunoniana_.

=A. excelsa= (tall). A synonym of _Picea excelsa_.

=A. firma= (solid).* _l._ rigid, coriaceous, spirally arranged around the branchlets, but point laterally in two directions, 1in. to 1-1/4in. long, very variable in young and old trees. _cones_ cylindrical, obtuse at both ends, 3in. to 6in. long; scales imbricated, bearing protruding keeled bracts. _h._ 100ft. Japan, 1861. An erect tree, of great beauty.

=A. Fortunei= (Fortune's). It is said that in its native country, its aspect is peculiar rather than handsome, and that but one living representative is believed to be in existence in this country--at Veitch's Nursery. SYN. _Keteleeria Fortunei_.

=A. Fraseri= (Fraser's). Double Balsam Spruce Fir. _l._ linear, emarginate, silvery beneath. _cones_ oblong, squarrose, somewhat leafy, obcordate, mucronate, half exserted, reflexed. _h._ 30ft. to 40ft. North Carolina, 1811. This species closely resembles _A. balsamea_, from which it differs in having shorter and more erect leaves, and smaller cones.

=A. grandis= (splendid).* _l._ in double rows, on each side of the branchlets, flat, obtuse, emarginate, pectinate, silvery beneath, from 3/4in. to 1in. long. _cones_ lateral, solitary, cylindrical, obtuse at base and apex, 4in. to. 5in. long, 2in. wide; bracts ovate, acuminate, irregularly dentate, very short. _h._ 100ft. California, 1831. A handsome tree of symmetrical habit, and rapid growth.

=A. lasiocarpa= (woolly-coned). Synonymous with _A. concolor_.

=A. magnifica= (magnificent).* _l._ densely crowded, two-rowed, 1in. to nearly 2in. long, olive green, very glaucous on the upper surface when young, becoming duller with age, and marked with two silvery lines beneath. _cones_ 6in. to 7in. long, 2-1/2in. to 3in. in diameter; scales, outer edge incurved. _h._ 200ft. North California, 1851. A very tall and stately species, with, at successive intervals, whorls of horizontal branches.

=A. Mariesii= (Maries'). _l._ erect, evenly disposed around the stem, linear-oblong, obtuse; apex notched, 1/3in. to not quite 1in. long; bracts ovate, oblong, retuse. _cones_ erect, cylindrical, 3-1/2in. to 5-1/2in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. wide, narrowed at the base and apex, blackish purple; scales entire, nearly 1in. wide, not quite so long as wide. Japan, 1879. A tall, pyramidal tree.

=A. Mertensiana= (Merten's). Synonymous with _Tsuga Mertensiana_.

=A. miniata= (vermilion). Synonymous with _Picea eremita_.

=A. Morinda= (Morinda). Synonymous with _Picea Morinda_.

=A. nobilis= (noble).* _l._ linear, mostly on one side of the branches, falcate, short, acute, silvery beneath, 1-3/4in. long. _cones_ cylindrical, erect, sessile, 6-1/2in. long, 2-3/4in. broad, brownish; scales triangular, without the bractea, 1-1/4in. long, and the same in breadth; bractea spathulate, imbricated backwards, 5/8in. long. _h._ 200ft. to 300ft. California, 1831. A majestic tree.

=A. Nordmanniana= (Nordmann's).* _l._ linear, rigid, flat, and minutely bifid at the apex, on young trees spreading in two rows, with a half-twist at the base, 1in. long. _cones_ erect, slightly ovoid, pedunculate, 4in. to 6in. long, and 2-1/4in. to 2-3/4in. wide; bracts large, coriaceous, three-lobed, fringed, greatly exceeding the scales. _h._ 80ft. to 100ft. Crimea, &c., 1848. A magnificent and stately tree, of regular growth.

=A. Numidica= (Numidian). Synonymous with _A. baborensis_.

=A. obovata= (reversed-egg-coned). A synonym of _Picea obovata_.

=A. orientalis= (eastern). Synonymous with _Picea orientalis_.

=A. Parsonii= (Parson's). Synonymous with _A. concolor_.

=A. pectinata= (comb-like).* _l._ linear, solitary, flat, obtuse, stiff, turned-up at the points, two-ranked, 1/2in. to 1in. long, shining green above, with two lines of silvery white on each side of the midrib beneath. _cones_ axillary, cylindrical, erect, 6in. to 8in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, when ripe, brown; scales with a long dorsal bractea, 1/6in. to 1-1/4in. long, and 1-1/4in. broad. _h._ 80ft. to 100ft. A very noble silver fir, of slow growth when young only. Central Europe, 1603. There are several unimportant varieties of this splendid species.

=A. Pindrow= (Pindrow). In its native home, the Himalayas, this is a very beautiful tree, attaining the height of 150ft., but it has generally failed in England, in consequence of our late spring frosts destroying the young growth. It comes very near _A. Webbiana_, but is readily distinguished by its longer and more acutely bidented leaves, and smaller cones.

=A. Pinsapo= (Pinsapo).* The Spanish Silver Fir. _l._ linear, disposed around the branches, nearly terete, and entire at the apex, not quite 1/2in. long, bright green, with faint silvery lines on the inner side. _cones_ sessile, oval, or oblong, 4in. to 5-1/2in. long, about 2in. wide; bracts short, concealed by the broad rounded scales. _h._ 60ft. to 80ft. South Spain, 1839. A very magnificent species, very regular and symmetrical in habit. The one or two varieties offered for sale are not desirable.

=A. polita= (neat).* _l._ arranged spirally, short, erect, rigid, falcate, acute at the apex, tetragonal, but compressed. _cones_ ellipsoid, 3in. to 4in. long; scales light brown, coriaceous, minutely notched at the edge. Island of Nippon, 1861. This is a beautiful species, admirably adapted as a specimen tree for lawns.

=A. religiosa= (sacred). _l._ linear, acute, quite entire, 1-1/2in. long. _cones_ roundish-oval, 2-3/4in. long, and 2-1/2in. broad; scales trapezoided-cordate; bracts the length of the scapes, spathulate-oblong. _h._ 100ft. to 150ft. Mexico, 1839. A very handsome species, but not hardy in this country.

=A. sachalinensis= (Sachalin). _l._ in many rows, 1in. or very slightly more long, 1/12in. broad, twisted to one side, rigid, linear, obtuse. _cones_ sessile, erect, cylindrical, bluntly rounded at the apex, 3in. long, 1in. wide; scales transversely oblong, reniform; margin inflexed, denticulate; bracts 1/2in. wide, 1/4in. long, obovate, serrulate, terminating in a reflexed angular point, exceeding the scale. Japan, 1879. A tall pyramidal robust species.

=A. Schrenkiana= (Schrenk's). Synonymous with _Picea Schrenkiana_.

=A. sibirica= (Siberian). Like the last, this species is not recommended; its growth is very slow, even under the most favourable circumstances. Siberia.

=A. Smithiana= (Smith's). A synonym of _Picea Morinda_.

=A. subalpina= (sub-alpine).* On the high mountains of Colorado, &c., a tree 60ft. to 100ft. in height. Has not been long enough in English gardens for any decided opinion to be formed as to its merits as an ornamental tree.

=A. Tsuga= (Tsugan). A synonym of _Tsuga Sieboldi_.

=A. Veitchii= (Veitch's).* _l._ crowded, lateral ones spreading in a distichous manner, those on the upper side much shorter and pointing forwards, 1/2in. to 1in. long, linear, flat, glaucous above, silvery beneath; emarginate on the sterile branches, entire on the fertile ones. _cones_ erect, sub-cylindrical, purplish-brown, 2in. to 2-1/2in. long, 3/4in. to nearly 1in. wide; scales horizontal, reniform, densely packed, each enclosing a short, wedge-shaped bract as long as the scale. _h._ 120ft. to 140ft. Japan, 1860, and again in 1879. Described as a beautiful and interesting tree, as well as perfectly hardy; it should be planted on elevated spots open to the south or south-east.

=A. Webbiana= (Webb's).* _l._ two-rowed, linear, flat, obtusely emarginate, silvery beneath, 1-1/2in. to 2-1/2in. long. _cones_ cylindrical, 6-1/2in. to 7in. long, 2in. or more broad, deep purple; scales kidney-shaped, roundish, closely compressed, imbricated, about 1in. long, and 1-1/4in. broad; bracts oblong, apiculate. _h._ 70ft. to 90ft. Himalayan Mountains, 1822. A large handsome pyramidal tree, with numerous branches spreading horizontally, much divided, and densely clothed.

=A. Williamsoni= (Williamson's). A synonym of _Tsuga Pattoniana_.

=ABOBRA= (its Brazilian name). ORD. _Cucurbitaceæ_. A genus of stove or greenhouse plants, having solitary axillary diœcious flowers, and finely divided leaves. The only species in cultivation is a very pretty half-hardy climbing perennial, having a fleshy root about 1ft. or more beneath the surface of the soil. It thrives well in warm sunny spots, and in a light soil; seeds may be sown in pots or pans of light soil early in April; the young plants can be planted out about the middle of June. The fleshy tuberous roots may be stored during winter in a greenhouse or frame. _See_ also =Gourds=.

=A. viridiflora= (green-flowered). _fl._ pale green, fragrant; females succeeded by small oval scarlet fruits, which are about as large as a filbert. _l._ dark green, glossy, much divided into narrow segments. South America. A rapid growing plant, admirably adapted for training over arbours or trellis-work. It is a very pretty form of ornamental gourd.

=ABORTION.= An imperfect formation, or the non-formation of an organ; any fruit or produce that does not come to maturity, or anything which fails in its progress before it is matured, frequently from a defect in the male or female flowers.

=ABRAXAS GROSSULARIATA.= _See_ =Gooseberry or Magpie Moth=.

=ABRICOCK.= A former mode of writing Apricot.

=ABROMA= (from _a_, not, and _broma_, food; from its unwholesomeness). ORD. _Sterculiaceæ_. Handsome, free-flowering evergreen trees, with hairy lobed leaves, and extra axillary or terminal few-flowered peduncles. Of easy culture, in a stove temperature, in loam and peat soil. Propagated by seeds or cuttings, the former sown in March, the latter made in April from half-ripened wood, and placed under a bell glass.

=A. augusta= (smooth-stalked).* _fl._ dingy purple, drooping. August. _l._ lower, cordate, three to five lobed; upper, ovate-lanceolate, undivided. _h._ 10ft. East India, 1770.

=A. fastuosa= (prickly-stalked). _fl._ dark purple. June. _l._ lower, cordate, acutely five lobed; upper, ovate, entire. _h._ 10ft. New Holland, 1800.

=ABRONIA= (from _abros_, delicate; referring to its involucrum). Sand Verbena. ORD. _Nyctaginaceæ_. A small genus of seven species, mostly natives of California, four of which only are known in general cultivation. They are of a dwarf trailing habit, producing showy blossoms in dense verbena-like clusters. Corolla funnel-shaped; limb spreading. They succeed best in light sandy soil, in a position fully exposed; if well drained, the rockery is perhaps the best place. Increased by seeds, the outer skin of which should be peeled off before sowing; sow during autumn in pots of sandy soil, and keep in a frame until the following spring, when they may be placed in their flowering quarters; or by young cuttings, set in spring, and also in sandy soil.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. ABRONIA UMBELLATA, showing Flower and Habit.]

=A. arenaria= (sand-loving).* _fl._ lemon-yellow, about 1/2in. long, in dense clusters, with a honey-like fragrance. July. _l._ broadly ovate, or reniform, on short, thick petioles. _h._ 9in. to 18in. 1865. Half-hardy perennial. SYN. _A. latifolia_.

=A. fragrans= (fragrant).* _fl._ pure white, in terminal and axillary clusters, very delicately perfumed, expanding in the evening. May. 1865. A perennial, more or less erect in growth, forming large branching tufts from 1ft. to 2ft. high. Imported seeds only of this species will grow.

=A. latifolia= (broad-leaved). A synonym of _A. arenaria_.

=A. pulchella= (pretty). _fl._ pink. July. _h._ 6in. 1848.

=A. rosea= (rose-coloured). _fl._ rose-coloured. June. _h._ 6in. 1847. An unimportant species.

=A. umbellata= (umbel-flowered).* _fl._ rosy pink, in dense terminal clusters, slightly scented. April. _l._ oval or oblong. _h._ 6in. to 24in. 1823. An elegant prostrate half-hardy annual; but under greenhouse culture it is a perennial. SYN. _Tricratus admirabilis_. See Fig 1.

=ABRUPT.= Suddenly terminating, as abruptly pinnate; when pinnate leaves are without a terminal or odd leaflet.

=ABRUS= (from _abros_, soft, in reference to the extreme softness of the leaves). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A very ornamental and delicate much branched deciduous stove climber, whose roots have the virtues of the common liquorice. Leaves abruptly pinnate, bearing many pairs of leaflets. Requires a strong heat to keep it in a growing, healthy condition, and to flower it well; and thrives best in sandy loam. Increased by cuttings under a hand glass, in sand, or seeds raised in heat.

=A. precatorius= (prayer). _fl._ pale purple, butterfly-shaped, disposed in axillary clusters. Seeds bright scarlet, with a black spot at the base, used by the Buddhists for making rosaries, whence the specific name. March to May. _l._ leaflets ligulate, oblong. _h._ 12ft. East Indies, 1680. Varieties are now and then met with having rose coloured or white flowers.

=ABSORPTION.= The action by which liquids and gases become incorporated with various bodies, through molecular or other invisible means, to which function all parts of a growing plant contribute, the roots more especially.

=ABUTA= (native name). ORD. _Menispermaceæ_. A strong growing ornamental stove evergreen climber. Used medicinally in Cayenne. Flowers diœcious, fascicled, males racemosely panicled; females loose and simply racemose. It grows freely in a mixture of loam and peat. Cuttings will root readily if planted in a pot of sand, with a hand glass placed over them, in heat. About half-a-dozen species are known.

=A. rufescens= (rusty-coloured). _fl._ grey-velvety on the outside, dark purple on the inside. March. _l._ ovate; under surface brownish. _h._ 10ft. Cayenne, 1820.

=ABUTILON= (Arabic name for a plant analogous to the Marsh Mallow). ORD. _Malvaceæ_. Very showy, decorative, and free-growing shrubs, both for the greenhouse and outside culture. Calyx naked, five-cleft, usually angular; style multifid at apex. The many beautiful hybrids (of which Fig. 2 represents a group) now in cultivation, far supersede the true species. Cultivation: Few plants are more easily grown and worthy of liberal treatment than these. The best soil for them is equal parts turfy loam, peat, and leaf mould, with some gritty sand. They may either be grown in pots, or planted out; but in all cases thorough drainage is indispensable, as they require an abundance of water, and stagnancy must be guarded against. At the end of May they may be planted outside, when they will flower profusely through the summer. In a free growing and flowering state they enjoy weak manure water. From the latter part of autumn till early spring they may be kept almost dry without injury, though in a warm conservatory some of the later struck plants will go on flowering throughout the greater part of the winter; or plants may be specially prepared for winter flowering. They are admirably adapted for forming standards of various heights, from 2ft. to 6ft. Some of the taller sorts are very useful for training under roof rafters. As pillar plants, too, very loosely trained, so as to allow the upper and side branches to droop to a considerable distance from the pillar, they are very effective. Propagation: They strike readily from cuttings made of the young wood, at almost any season; the best time, however, is early spring and September. Inserted in pots, in a compost of equal parts peat, leaf mould, loam, and sand, and placed in a temperature of from 65deg. to 70deg., they will then quickly root, and form good plants. Seeds may be sown in pans filled with soil as recommended for cuttings, and placed in a similar temperature. Those followed by a dagger (†) are the best for training to pillars, roofs, &c.

=A. Bedfordianum= (Bedford's). _fl._ yellow and red. November. _l._ deeply-lobed. _h._ 15ft. Brazil, 1838.

=A. Darwini= (Darwin's).†* _fl._ bright orange, with darker veinings, fine cupped form. April. _l._ large, broad. _h._ 4ft. Brazil, 1871. A handsome species, of good habit, equally suitable as a stove or greenhouse plant during winter, and for outdoor culture during summer months. There are a great number of garden hybrids from this.

=A. globiflorum= (globe-flowered). _fl._ solitary, large, globose, cream-coloured. November. _l._ on long stalks, cordate, serrate. _h._ 4ft. to 5ft. Mauritius, 1825.

=A. igneum= (bright). Synonymous with _A. insigne_.

=A. insigne= (handsome-flowered).* _fl._ large, purplish crimson, with dark venation, in axillary pendulous racemes; petals short, broad, much reflexed. Winter. _l._ large, cordate, thick, rugose. Stem deep green, with short brown hairs. _h._ 6ft. New Grenada, 1851. SYN. _A. igneum_. See Fig. 3.

=A. megapotamicum= (big river).†* _fl._ small, bell-shaped, singularly beautiful, the sepals being dark red, petals pale yellow, and stamens dark brown. Autumn and winter. _l._ small, pointed. _h._ 3ft. Rio Grande, 1864. A free-flowering species, with a graceful drooping habit; the shoots should be well pressed in during spring. SYN. _A. vexillarium_.

=A. pæoniflorum= (pæony-flowered). _fl._ pink, smaller than those of _A. insigne_, but very distinct. January. _l._ large, ovate. _h._ 6ft. Brazil, 1845.

=A. pulchellum= (pretty).†* _fl._ white, on few-flowered axillary racemes. July. _l._ cordate, unequally crenated, downy beneath. _h._ 8ft. Habit very branching. New Holland, 1824.

=A. striatum= (striped).* _fl._ orange yellow, with a thick veining of blood-red, on long curving stalks. _l._ large, lobed, on long slender petioles. Brazil, 1837. A free grower, and makes an excellent greenhouse plant. In sheltered positions, in the south-west of England, this species proves to be almost hardy. It requires to be freely pinched. A very continuous bloomer.

=A. Thompsoni= (Thompson's). _fl._ striated yellow, large. Summer. _l._ small, vine-like, richly mottled with yellow and dark green. _h._ 3ft. or 4ft. Habit very neat and erect.

=A. venosum= (veined).†* _fl._ orange, with red veins, very large, bell shaped, 3in. long; pedicels nearly 12in. long. July. _l._ large, deeply palmate. _h._ 10ft. This splendid species is distinguished by its unusually large flowers.

=A. vexillarium= (standard). Synonymous with _A. megapotamicum_.

=A. vitifolium= (vine-leaved).* _fl._ porcelain blue, large, cupped. May. _l._ cordate, five to seven lobed, assuming, towards the autumn, a fine golden hue. _h._ 30ft. Chili, 1837. This fine shrub, or tree, is hardy in Ireland and the south of England, but should have a protection from frost. It is not a fast grower.

The following are some of the best varieties, which, although they do not include all the newest sorts, yet afford a good selection of first-rate kinds, which will give general satisfaction. They are arranged according to their respective colours. Those marked with a dagger (†) are best for roofs and pillars.

=Orange-flowered.= AUREUM GLOBOSUM,* flowers deep orange, heavily red shaded, of medium size, with good form and substance; DARWINI MAJUS,* bright orange, deeply veined, extremely free, and of good form and size; FLEUR D'OR,† light orange, veined pale red, very free and dwarf; GRANDIFLORUM,* deep orange, red shaded, deeply veined with red, a robust, large-flowered variety; LEO, flowers pale below, deeper above, red-veined, of medium size; PRINCE OF ORANGE,†* a strong grower, and very free.

=Ornamental-foliaged.= DARWINI TESSELATUM,†* foliage mottled with yellow, invaluable for sub-tropical bedding; SELLOWIANUM MARMORATUM,* very large maple-like foliage, heavily mottled with bright yellow, a most effective variety; THOMPSONI, leaves very freely blotched with yellow; VEXILLARIUM IGNEUM,†* very free, of good habit, prettily blotched. All these ornamental-foliaged varieties are invaluable for bedding purposes.

[Illustration: FIG. 2. GROUP OF ABUTILONS.]

=Purple-coloured.= EMPEROR,* flowers large, rich purple magenta shaded, habit vigorous; LOUIS VAN HOUTTE, very free, rosy purple; PURPUREA,* deep purple shaded lake, very attractive; SOUVENIR DE ST. MAURICE, flowers medium size, very profuse; VIOLET QUEEN,* bright violet purple, very distinct and free.

=Red and Crimson-flowered.= BRILLIANT,* flowers of good form and substance, brilliant red inside, rather paler outside, dwarf and free; CRIMSON BANNER,* rich crimson, dwarf, very floriferous; FIRE KING,* bright red, orange shaded, veined with crimson; LUSTROUS,* brilliant red crimson, large, most profusely produced, habit dwarf; NE PLUS ULTRA,* intense crimson, of excellent form; SCARLET GEM,* flowers medium sized, brilliant scarlet, habit dwarf and free.

=Rose-coloured.= ADMIRATION, light pink, shaded salmon, of good form and shape; ANNA CROZY,* deep pink, lilac shade, veined white, very showy; CLOCHETTE,* deep rosy pink, with crimson veins, very dwarf and free; DELICATUM, pale salmon rose, with deeper vein, flowers very large; KING OF THE ROSES,* rich deep rose, of good size and substance, habit dwarf and very free; LADY OF THE LAKE,* flowers medium sized, rich pink; LOUIS MARIGNAC, pale pink, veined white, splendid habit, a charming variety; PRINCESS MARIE,†* flowers rich rosy lake, very profuse, of excellent form; ROSÆFLORUM,†* pale salmon rose, veined with crimson.

=White-flowered.= BOULE DE NIEGE,†* very fine pure white flowers, the best in its class; PURITY,* very free, of good habit, and pure white; SERAPH,* dwarf, and very floriferous.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. FLOWER OF ABUTILON INSIGNE.]

=Yellow-flowered.= CANARY BIRD,†* similar in habit to Boule de Niege, bright primrose, very lovely; COURONNE D'OR,* bright yellow, of the finest form and substance, very bold foliage; GOLDEN GEM, rich canary yellow, extremely free, of dwarf habit; LEMOINEI,† very fine, pale yellow, good size; QUEEN OF THE YELLOWS,* very large, lemon yellow, good substance; YELLOW PRINCE,* rich golden yellow, of medium size, very profuse.

=ABYSSINIAN PRIMROSE.= A common name for =Primula Boveana= (which _see_).

=ACACIA= (from _ac_, a point, in Celtic; or from _akazo_, to sharpen; many of the species are furnished with spines). _See_ also _Albizzia_. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Shrubs or trees, very variable in habit and leaves. Flowers yellow, white, rarely red, disposed in globular heads or spikes, decandrous or polyandrous. Spines stipular, scattered, or wanting. This is a very polymorphous genus, and the majority of species described are known in this country only from herbarium specimens. It is very doubtful whether the entire genus is represented in our gardens by more than about fifty species, many of which are only to be found in botanic gardens; but this number is, without doubt, sufficiently characteristic. The number of species is close upon 400, and the genus one of the largest known. In our enumeration, we have strictly confined ourselves to describing such as are unquestionably in cultivation, and to this end we have adopted the only accurate method of deciding which are and which are not grown, viz., by consulting the trade lists of nurserymen, both in this country and on the Continent. Such lists, however, are not always correct, from a scientific point of view, in the matter of nomenclature. The species best deserving of cultivation are all natives of Australia, New South Wales, or other temperate regions, and are among the hardiest and most easily cultivated of all greenhouse plants. They are very floriferous. The greenhouse species are sufficiently hardy to withstand the winter in a temperature very little higher than freezing point. Cultivation: Some have a tendency to make long straight shoots; these should be selected for training upon rafters or pillars, on which they thrive well and form splendid ornaments in spring; whilst the more shrubby kinds will be equally at home in pots in the form of bushes. Roots and tops grow with great rapidity, and an abundance of water is required at all times. Immediately after flowering (usually about May) is the best time to prune Acacias; they may then be placed in the open air, and fully exposed to the sun, until October. They make a far healthier, cleaner growth, and ripen their wood much better outside than under glass; all they require is copious waterings, never allowing them to become dry, and keeping clear of weeds. In the first week in October house the plants, and winter in a temperature of 40deg. to 50deg. They delight in a light rich compost of equal parts turfy loam and leaf mould, freely intermixed with sand, or peat may be used instead of the leaf mould. Propagation: Cuttings of the half-ripened wood, put in with a heel, root readily during the summer. They do not bear heat well, nor do they require it. The soil should be equal parts peat and sand, covered with pure sand, thoroughly consolidated. Insert the cuttings as soon as made; water home, and leave them in the shade till dry. Then place the bell glasses over them, shade and water so as to prevent flagging. Pot off as soon as rooted, and keep in a close pit or house until the plants are thoroughly established. Seeds should be sown as soon as ripe, in sandy peat; about 1/4in. deep, or a little more, for large seeds. A temperature of 55deg. to 60deg. suits them well. Pot off when large enough to handle, and place in a cool close pit or house until quite established. The culture and propagation of the stove species are the same as for the greenhouse sorts, but the former require, of course, greater heat. Their flowers, however, are much less frequently produced than their more temperate congeners, consequently they are not so much grown.

=A. affinis.=* _fl._ yellow. May. _h._ 5ft. New Holland, 1822. Greenhouse species.

=A. albicans= (whitish).* _fl._ white; heads, two to five, aggregate, rising in racemes from the axils to the leaves. _l._ with eight to nine pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing nineteen to twenty-two pairs of oblong linear-leaflets. _h._ 5ft. Swan River.

=A. amœna= (pleasing). This closely resembles _A. heterophylla_.

=A. angustifolia= (narrow-leaved). _fl._ yellow, in heads two to four together, pedunculate. April. _l._ with fifteen to twenty pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing thirty to forty pairs of linear-acute, ciliated leaflets. _h._ 4ft. New South Wales, 1816. One of the numerous varieties of _A. longifolia_.

=A. arabica= (Arabian).* Gum Arabic. _fl._ white; heads pedunculate, axillary, usually in threes. _l._ with four to six pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing ten to twenty pairs of oblong-linear leaflets. _h._ 20ft. Arabia, East Indies, &c., 1820. Greenhouse species. See Fig. 4.

=A. argyrophylla= (silver-leaved). A synonym of _A. brachybotrya_.

=A. armata= (armed, simple leaved).* _fl._ yellow, in solitary globular heads. April. _l._ phyllodia obliquely ovate-oblong, quite entire, one-nerved. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. Australia, 1803.

=A. Benthami= (Bentham's). A synonym of _A. cochlearis_.

=A. brachybotrya= (short-bunched).* _fl._ yellow, in axillary stalked globular heads. April. _l._ phyllodia silvery silky, obliquely obovate, or oblong. _h._ 8ft. Swan River. SYN. _A. argyrophylla_.

=A. Catechu= (catechu). _fl._ yellow; spikes cylindrical, solitary, twin, or tern, axillary. March. _l._ with ten pairs of pinnæ, each of which bears forty to fifty pairs of linear pubescent leaflets. _h._ 20ft. to 40ft. East Indies, 1790.

=A. cavenia= (Cavenia).* _fl._ yellow, disposed in globose heads, peduncles, axillary, aggregate. _l._ with usually about five pairs of pinnæ, each of which bears nine to ten pairs of linear-oblong leaflets, clothed with scabrous pubescence. _h._ 20ft. Chili. Greenhouse species.

=A. cochlearis= (spoon-leaved). _fl._ yellow, in solitary globular heads. April. _l._ phyllodia linear lanceolate, many-nerved at the base, quite entire, mucronate. _h._ 4ft. West Australia, 1818. SYN. _A. Benthami_.

=A. cultriformis= (knife-formed).* _fl._ yellow, in crowded heads, disposed in either axillary or terminal racemes. April. _l._ phyllodia eight to ten lines long, four lines broad, cultriform, ending in an acute hooked point, which bears to one side. _h._ 4ft. New South Wales, 1820.

=A. cuneata= (wedge-shaped).* _fl._ yellow. April. Swan River, 1837. Greenhouse species.

=A. cyanophylla= (blue-leaved). _fl._ yellow; racemes axillary; heads globose. March. _l._ phyllodia lanceolate, often 1ft. long, glaucous green, almost blue; branches drooping. _h._ 18ft. Swan River, 1838. Arboreous.

=A. dealbata= (whitened).* The Silver Wattle. _fl._ yellow, in pedicellate heads, disposed in racemes along the axillary branches. July. _l._ from ten to twenty pairs of pinnæ, each of which bears thirty to thirty-five pairs of linear, much crowded pubescent leaflets. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. Australia and Tasmania, 1820.

=A. diffusa= (spreading). _fl._ yellow, in globular heads, which are usually twin. May. _l._ phyllodia linear, one-nerved, ending in an oblique acumen; branches diffusely procumbent, angular. _h._ 2ft. Victoria and Tasmania, 1814.

=A. Drummondi= (Drummond's).* _fl._ pale lemon; spikes axillary, drooping, cylindrical, simple. April. _l._ with two pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing two to three pairs of linear obtuse leaflets. Plant unarmed, silky. _h._ 10ft. Swan River. Very handsome and one of the best grown, forming a somewhat dwarf shrub.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. ACACIA ARABICA (_a_) Flowering Branch, (_b_) Seed-pod.]

=A. Farnesiana= (Farnesian). _fl._ yellow, sweet-scented, disposed in axillary, usually twin, unequally pedunculate heads. July. _l._ with five to eight pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing from fifteen to twenty pairs of linear glabrous leaflets. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. St. Domingo, 1656. Greenhouse species.

=A. glauca= (milky white).* _fl._ white; spikes globose, stalked, axillary, usually twin. July. _l._ with four to six pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing about twelve to fifteen pairs of linear, distant, acute leaflets, which are glaucous beneath. _h._ 5ft. to 10ft. South America, 1690.

=A. glaucescens= (greyish). _fl._ yellow; spikes twin, but solitary on the peduncles, axillary. June. _l._ phyllodia linear-lanceolate, attenuated at both ends, falcate, three-nerved. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. Queensland, 1822. SYN. _A. homomalla_.

=A. grandis= (great).* _fl._ yellow; heads globular; peduncles solitary or twin, axillary, one-headed. February to May. _l._ with one pair of pinnæ, each pinna bearing eight to ten pairs of linear-lanceolate leaflets; branches hairy. _h._ 6ft. West Australia, 1850. A variety of _A. pulchella_.

=A. heterophylla= (variable-leaved).* _fl._ yellow, in heads, disposed in a kind of raceme. May. _l._ phyllodia linear, attenuated at both ends, many-nerved. _h._ 5ft. Isle of Bourbon, 1824. _A. amœna_ is very like this.

=A. hispidissima= (hairiest). A variety of _A. pulchella_.

=A. holosericea= (all silky). _fl_. yellow, in axillary spikes, usually twin. May. _l._ 6in. long, oblong-lanceolate, ending in a soft point at the apex, three-nerved. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. Australia, 1818. The whole aspect of this tree is silky. SYN. _A. leucophylla_.

=A. homomalla= (equal-woolled). A synonym of _A. glaucescens_.

=A. Hugelii= (Baron Hugel's). _fl._ pale yellow. February. West Australia, 1846. Greenhouse species.

=A. ixiophylla= (Ixia-leaved). _fl._ yellow; heads about twenty-flowered; peduncles downy, shortly racemose or solitary. March. _l._ narrow, oblong-lanceolate, sub-falcate, obtuse, obliquely mucronate, much branched. _h._ 2ft. New South Wales, 1844.

=A. juniperina= (juniper-leaved). _fl._ yellow, in solitary heads. May. _l._ linear-subulate, ending in a pungent point; branches terete, pubescent. _h._ 6ft. Australia and Tasmania, 1790. Greenhouse.

=A. Lebbek= (Lebbek).* _fl._ yellow, sweet-scented; heads many-flowered, pedunculate, three or four together, from the crowded upper nodes. May. _l._ with two to four pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing about six to eight pairs of oval, somewhat dimidiate leaflets, which are obtuse at both ends. _h._ 20ft. East and West Indies, 1823. Stove species.

=A. leprosa= (leprous). _fl._ yellow, mostly five-parted, numerous in a globular head; peduncles mostly in pairs or clusters, 1/4in. long. May. _l._ narrow, linear-lanceolate, acute or obtuse with a small callous point, narrowed at base, 1-1/2in. to 3in. long, those of the barren shoots broader. Branchlets pendulous, more or less glutinous. Australia, 1817. (B. R. 1441.)

=A. leucophylla= (white-leaved). A synonym of _A. holosericea_.

=A. lineata= (lined). _fl._ yellow, mostly five-parted, ten to fifteen or rarely more in a small, globular head; peduncles slender, rarely exceeding the leaves. April. _l._ linear, with a small hooked point, about 1/2in., rarely 3/4in., long, one-nerved. Branches nearly terete, usually pubescent or villous. _h._ 6ft. Australia, 1824. (B. M. 3346.)

=A. l. longissima= (longest). Synonymous with _A. longissima_.

=A. longifolia= (long-leaved).* _fl._ yellow; spikes loose, axillary, cylindrical. March. _l._ phyllodia linear-lanceolate, narrowed at each end, three-nerved, striated. _h._ 10ft. Australia, 1792. A fine erect-growing greenhouse species.

=A. longissima= (longest-leaved). _fl._ yellow; spikes several, axillary, generally branched. May. _l._ phyllodia very long, filiform, one-nerved, spreading. _h._ 4ft. New South Wales, 1819. Stove species. SYN. _A. linearis longissima_.

=A. lunata= (half-moon).* _fl._ yellow; heads disposed in racemes, which are longer than the phyllodia. April. _l._ phyllodia obliquely oblong, rather falcate, narrowed at the base, terminating in an oblique callous mucrone. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Australia, 1810. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. oleæfolia_.

=A. melanoxylon= (black wooded). _fl._ yellow; heads few, disposed in a kind of raceme. April. _l._ phyllodia lanceolate-oblong, rather falcate, obtuse, quite entire, many-nerved. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. Australia, 1818. Greenhouse species.

=A. mollissima= (softest-leaved).* _fl._ yellow; heads pedicellate, disposed in racemes along the axillary peduncles. July. _l._ with eight to eighteen pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing thirty to forty pairs of linear, much crowded, pubescent leaflets, which are clothed with yellowish velvety down when young; branches and petioles angular. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. Van Diemens Land, 1810.

=A. oleæfolia= (olive-leaved). A synonym of _A. lunata_.

=A. oxycedrus= (sharp-cedrus).* _fl._ yellow; spikes axillary, solitary, elongated. April. _l._ phyllodia scattered, or somewhat verticillate, lanceolate-linear, ending in a pungent point, three-nerved. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. New South Wales, 1823. Greenhouse species.

=A. paradoxa= (paradoxical). _fl._ yellow, disposed in solitary heads. March. _l._ phyllodia obliquely oblong-lanceolate, entire, wavy, one-nerved; branches clammy, glabrous. _h._ 6ft. New Holland. Greenhouse species.

=A. penninervis= (feather-nerved). _fl._ yellow; heads about the size of a pea, racemose. April. _l._ phyllodia oblong, acuminated at both ends, straight, 2in. to 3in. long, 1/2in. broad, feather veined. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. New Holland, 1824.

=A. platyptera= (broad-winged).* _fl._ yellow; heads solitary, on short peduncles. March. _l._ phyllodia short, bifarious, decurrent, obliquely truncate, mucronate; branches broadly winged. _h._ 3ft., Swan River, 1840. Greenhouse species.

=A. pubescens= (downy).* _fl._ yellow; heads small, globose pedicellate, disposed in racemes along the axillary peduncles. March. _l._ with three to ten pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing six to eighteen pairs of linear glabrous leaflets. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. Branches terete, hairy. New Holland, 1790.

=A. pulchella= (pretty).* _fl._ yellow; heads solitary. April. _l._, pinnæ bearing five to seven pairs of oblong-ovate, obtuse leaflets. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. New Holland, 1803. Greenhouse species. The variety _hispidissima_ has white flowers.

=A. Riceana= (Rice's).* _fl._ pale yellow, in long, solitary, axillary spikes. May. _l._ linear, in clusters, dark green, scattered or whorled. _h._ 20ft. Tasmania. Habit graceful, like a weeping willow. Very handsome and distinct. SYN. _A. setigera_. See Fig. 5.

=A. rotundifolia= (round-leaved). _fl._ yellow; heads globose, solitary, on long peduncles. March. _l._ phyllodia on short petioles, obliquely rounded, obtuse or retuse, mucronate. Branches angular, puberulous. _h._ 6ft. New Holland, 1842.

=A. saligna= (willow-like). _fl._ yellow; heads solitary, on short peduncles. March. _l._ phyllodia linear, attenuated at both ends, quite entire, almost nerveless. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. New Holland, 1818. Greenhouse species.

=A. Senegal= (Senegal). Gum Senegal. _fl._ white, small, glabrous, distant; spikes axillary, solitary, slender. _l._ with five to eight pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing fifteen to eighteen pairs of oblong-linear, obtuse, glabrous leaflets; branches white; prickles sometimes wanting. _h._ 20ft. Arabia, 1823. Stove species.

=A. setigera= (bristly). Synonymous with _A. Riceana_.

=A. sophoræ= (sophora-podded). _fl._ yellow; spikes usually twin, axillary. May. _l._ phyllodia obovate, oblong or lanceolate, quite entire, many nerved; sometimes there are bipinnate leaves at the tops of the branches. _h._ 20ft. New Holland, 1805.

=A. sphærocephala= (round-headed).* _fl._ yellow; racemes axillary, usually twin, ovate-roundish. _l._ with numerous close-set linear falcate pinnules, which are usually tipped by a glandular yellow "food body;" spines twin, hollow. Mexico. A very remarkable stove species, inhabited by ants during certain seasons in its native country.

=A. uncinifolia= (hook-leaved). _fl._ yellow; spikes usually twin, dense, on short peduncles, cylindrical. March. _l._ phyllodia long, linear-subulate, flat, recurved, mucronate, three-nerved; branches angular. _h._ 6ft. Swan River, 1846.

=A. vera= (true). Egyptian Thorn; Gum Arabic. _fl._ white, usually in twin heads, pedunculate, axillary. July. _l._ with two pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing eight to ten pairs of oblong linear leaflets; branches and spines red. _h._ 20ft. Egypt, 1596.

[Illustration: FIG. 5. A FLOWERING BRANCH OF ACACIA RICEANA.]

=A. verticillata= (whorl-leaved).* _fl._ yellow; spikes axillary, solitary, oblong. March. _l._ phyllodia linear, ending in a pungent mucrone, disposed somewhat verticillately. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. A spreading, prickly, greenhouse species, of variable habit. New Holland, 1780.

=A. vestita= (clothed).* _fl._ yellow, in loosely racemose heads, along the peduncles; upper ones solitary. June. _l._ phyllodia obliquely elliptic-lanceolate, one-nerved, ending in an awnlike mucrone, hispid. _h._ 4ft. New Holland, 1820.

=A. viscidula= (clammy).* _fl._ yellow; heads globular, on short stalks, axillary, solitary or twin. February. _l._ linear, clammy; branches slender, clammy. _h._ 6ft., erect. New South Wales, 1844.

=ACÆNA= (from _akaina_, a thorn; in allusion to the slender spines on the calyx or fruit). ORD. _Rosaceæ_. A genus of dwarf sub-shrubby plants. Flowers capitate, or interruptedly spicate, uninteresting; petals absent. Leaves alternate, impari-pinnate. Excepting for rockwork, or as edgings to flower beds, they are not of much value; their habit is, however, very compact and neat. They require similar treatment to other hardy herbaceous plants, in ordinary soil. Increased by cuttings, creeping rootlets, divisions, and by seeds.

=A. microphylla= (small-leaved).* _fl._ green, small, in close heads, furnished with showy, long crimson spines. Summer. _l._ small, pinnate. _h._ 1in. to 2in. New Zealand. A neat evergreen with a compact and cushion-like growth; it is a very effective subject for the rock garden, and grows freely in most situations. The crimson globular heads of spine-formed calyces form a conspicuous and ornamental feature of the plant. SYN. _A. Novæ Zealandiæ_. See Fig. 6.

=A. millefolia= (myriad-leaved).* _fl._ inconspicuous. A very distinct species with finely-cut pale green leaves. The fruiting spikes of this are not collected in globular heads, as in the others, and their presence detract from its value as an ornamental plant. Otherwise, it is very graceful.

[Illustration: FIG. 6. ACÆNA MICROPHYLLA.]

=A. myriophylla= (many-leaved).* _fl._ green, small, in rounded spikes. June. _l._ pinnate; leaflets deeply cut. _h._ 6in. to 1ft. Chili, 1828. Small, fern-like.

=A. Novæ Zealandiæ= (New Zealand). A synonym of _A. microphylla_.

=A. ovalifolia= (oval-leaved). _fl._ green. Summer. _h._ 9in. Chili, 1868. Good for rock gardens.

=A. pulchella= (pretty).* _fl._ inconspicuous. A pretty bronzy-leaved species, admirably suited for rockwork crevices, where space is no object. It grows very rapidly, and forms handsome tufts.

=ACALYPHA= (the name given by Hippocrates to the Nettle). ORD. _Euphorbiaceæ_. Stove ornamental and variegated nettle-like leaved shrubs. Flowers greenish or reddish, inconspicuous, in erect or drooping bracted axillary or terminal spikes; those of the upper portion sterile, of the lower, fertile. The undermentioned only are those most worthy of cultivation. They are very easily grown, with ordinary stove treatment, and in a peat and loam compost. When well cultivated, the leaves of the hybridised varieties are highly coloured, but rather coarse than otherwise. Increased by cuttings under a glass in sandy soil, in stove heat, during April.

=A. Macafeeana= (Macafee's). _l._ red, blotched with bronzy crimson. 1877.

=A. macrophylla= (large-leaved).* _l._ cordate ovate, russet brown, blotched with paler spots. The best and handsomest stove species.

=A. marginata= (margined). _l._ large, very hairy, ovate-acuminate, centre brown, with a distinct margin of rosy carmine, about 1/4in. wide. Fiji Islands, 1875.

=A. musaica= (mosaic).* _l._ bronzy green, variegated with orange and dull red. Polynesia, 1877.

=A. torta= (twisted). _l._ dark olive, tinted green; margin cut into blunt, oblong segments. Samoan Islands. Remarkable for its curiously contorted foliage. It has erect stems, which are terete, and covered by the leaves in a very singular way.

=A. tricolor= (three-coloured). A synonym of _A. Wilkesiana_.

=A. Wilkesiana= (Wilkes').* _l._ ovate-acuminate, curiously blotched, mottled, and splashed with red and crimson; ground colour coppery green. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. New Hebrides, 1866. SYN. _A. tricolor_.

=A. W. marginata= (Wilkes's margined).* _l._ large, olive brown, margined with rosy carmine. Fiji Islands, 1875.

=ACANTHACEÆ.= A large order of soft-wooded, herbaceous plants, usually having gamopetalous axillary flowers; calyx composed of deeply imbricated scales; bracts large, leafy.

=ACANTHEPHIPPIUM= (the derivation of this word is not apparent). ORD. _Orchideæ_. A peculiar class of terrestrial stove orchids. Flowers rather large, racemose, few; sepals combined in a broad oblique pitcher, including the petals, which are adnate to the base of the column; column short, produced into a long foot. Pseudo-bulbs oblong. Leaves few, large, longer than the scapes. The best species are the two first-mentioned. They will thrive well in sandy peat, with a quantity of small stones, broken pots, or gravel. A great deal of heat and moisture are absolutely essential during the growing period. Propagated, as soon as growth commences, by dividing the pseudo-bulbs.

=A. bicolor= (two-coloured).* _fl._ purple and yellow, about 2in. long, campanulate, produced in clusters of three or four together; petals oblong-lanceolate, acutish; lateral lobes of lip rounded. June. _h._ 9in. Ceylon, 1833.

=A. Curtisii= (Curtis's).* _fl._ same shape as above (except the lip), with numerous purple spots, light rose, and flush; column white, nail of lip yellow, keels yellowish, laciniæ white with purple. Malay Archipelago, 1881. The five keels between the side laciniæ distinguish it from the foregoing species and _A. sylhetense_.

=A. javanicum= (Javanese).* _fl._ yellow and red, with distinct longitudinal stripes; petals triangular; lip three-lobed; lateral lobes truncate; intermediate lobe constricted in middle, ovate, and tuberculate at the apex, fleshy on both sides at base, with truncate emarginate inflexed teeth. September. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Java, 1843.

=A. sylhetense= (Sylhet). _fl._ white, with many irregular spots and blotches towards the extremities of the outer portions. June. _h._ 9in. Sylhet, 1837.

=ACANTHOLIMON= (from _akanthos_, a spine, and _limon_, sea lavender). ORD. _Plantagineæ_. Dwarf hardy tufted evergreen plants, distinguished from allied genera in having sharp-pointed rigid leaves. They are of rather slow growth, thriving best in a sandy soil, and sunny position, on rockwork more particularly. The flowers are similar to _Statice_ and _Armeria_. Increased by seeds (which germinate slowly), sown carefully on a warm but rather shaded border, and transplanted when large enough to handle; or by cuttings and very carefully made divisions. The cuttings should be made in late summer, and placed in a frame, to remain there during the winter.

=A. glumaceum= (prickly).* _fl._ rose, spicate, about 1/2in. across, six to eight in a spikelet. Summer. _l._ densely packed and sharply pointed with spines. _h._ 6in. Armenia, 1851. Very compact and distinct. SYN. _Statice Ararati_.

=A. Kotschyi= (Kotschy's). _fl._ white. A good species, but very rarely seen in British gardens.

[Illustration: FIG. 7. ACANTHOLIMON VENUSTUM.]

=A. venustum= (charming).* _fl._ rose, spicate, from twelve to twenty in each spike. Summer. _l._ broader than in the last, and glaucous. _h._ 6in. or 8in. Cilicia, 1873. A rare and handsome alpine. Larger than the preceding. See Fig. 7.

=ACANTHOPHŒNIX= (from _akantha_, a spine, and _phoinix_, the Date Palm). ORD. _Palmæ_. A very elegant stove palm, differing from _Areca_ principally in habit, and requiring a light sandy soil and a summer temperature of 65deg. to 80deg., winter 55deg. to 65deg. Increased by seeds only; these germinate best in a moist bottom heat, and a well decomposed compost of one part loam, one of peat, one of leaf mould, and the remainder of sand. They may remain in this soil for two or three years.

=A. crinita= (hairy).* _fl._ spirally arranged, in threes, the central one being female. _l._ the fronds are arched, broadly ovate in outline, pectinately pinnate in division, with long linear acuminate segments, paler beneath. The stem is densely armed with black, needle-shaped spines, and much swollen towards the base. Seychelles, 1868.

=ACANTHORHIZA= (from _akantha_, a spine, and _rhiza_, a root). ORD. _Palmæ_. A small genus of stove palms, differing from _Trithrinax_ by the aërial roots of the trunk hardening into spines (which are horizontal or pointed upwards), and by the blade of the leaf being divided down to the petiole. They delight in a rich loamy soil, and are propagated by seeds, in a moist, sweet hotbed, in spring.

=A. aculeata= (spiny).* _l._ orbicular, palmately slit into numerous linear-lanceolate, glabrous segments, deep-green above, silvery beneath; petioles slender; the trunk is covered with a network of branching spines. Mexico, 1879. SYN. _Chamærops stauracantha_.

=A. Wallisii= (Wallis's).* A recent introduction from tropical America, and not yet much cultivated; it is a tall palm with orbicular palmate leaves.

=A. Warzcewiczii= (Warzcewicz's).* This differs from the preceding species by its more irregularly divided leaf blade, which is white below. Tropical America.

=ACANTHOSTACHYUM= (from _akanthos_, a spine, and _stachys_, a spike). ORD. _Bromeliaceæ_. A monotypic genus of stove evergreen herbaceous plants; of easy culture in a compost of equal parts sand, decayed wood, and rotten leaves. Propagated by suckers, which strike readily in bottom heat.

=A. strobilacea= (cone-fruited). _fl._ red and yellow; scape simple, long, scurfy; bracts coloured. June. _l._ radical, very long, incurved, narrow, thick, pungent, channelled, spiny-toothed, covered with white scurf. _h._ 4ft. Brazil, 1840.

=ACANTHUS= (from _akanthos_, a spine; several species being spiny or prickly). Bear's Breech. ORD. _Acanthaceæ_. A group of stately, ornamental perennial plants, mostly hardy, remarkable for their vigorous growth and beautiful foliage. Flowers sessile, crowded, spicate; corolla tubular, one-lipped; lip three lobed. To attain perfection they require a deep soil, and a situation fully exposed to the sun. They will, however, thrive moderately well in common soil and partial shade. The habit being generally a bold one, they are most suited for isolated tufts, backgrounds of mixed borders, and the wild garden. Propagated by seeds, sown in gentle heat, or by division of the roots, in autumn or early spring.

=A. carduifolius= (thistle-leaved). _fl._ blue. August. _h._ 3ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1816. Greenhouse species.

=A. hispanicus= (Spanish). _fl._ white. August. _l._ large, shining, and deeply cut. _h._ 2ft. Spain, 1700.

=A. longifolius= (long-leaved).* _fl._ purple, rose, in the axils of the bracts, which are oval, acuminate, spiny, of a reddish hue, forming a spike nearly 1ft. long. June. _l._ radical, 2ft. to 3ft. long; numerous. _h._ 3ft. to 4-1/2ft. Dalmatia, 1869.

=A. lusitanicus= (Portugal). Synonymous with _A. mollis latifolius_.

=A. mollis= (soft).* _fl._ white or rose, sessile in the axils of the deeply-toothed bracts; spikes about 1-1/2ft. Summer. _l._ sinuated, unarmed, heart-shaped in outline, 2ft. long by 1ft. broad. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Italy, 1548.

=A. m. latifolius= (broad-leaved).* A variety of _A. mollis_, but larger and more robust in every part. This very handsome form is probably the best grown; it is one of the most suitable for sub-tropical gardening. A warm sunny spot is needful. SYN. _A. lusitanicus_. See Fig. 8.

=A. montanus= (mountain).* _fl._ rose. August. _h._ 3ft. West Africa, 1865. A shrubby species.

=A. niger= (black). _fl._ purplish white. July to September. _l._ sinuated, unarmed, glabrous, shining green. _h._ 3ft. Portugal, 1759.

=A. spinosissimus= (most spiny).* _fl._ rosy, sessile, on a very handsome spike, with acute, recurved spines. Autumn. _l._ laciniate, pinnatifid, blistered, spiny; spines white. _h._ 3-1/2ft. South Europe, 1629.

[Illustration: FIG. 8. ACANTHUS MOLLIS LATIFOLIUS.]

=A. spinosus= (spiny).* _fl._ purplish, spicate; sepals spiny. Summer. _l._ deeply and regularly cut, each division terminated by a short spine. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. South Europe. See Fig. 9.

=ACAULESCENT.= With apparently no stem.

=ACCESSORY.= Something additional, not usually present.

=ACCRETE.= Fastened with another body, and growing with it.

=ACCUMBENT.= Lying against anything, in distinction to _incumbent_, or lying upon.

=ACER=, (from _acer_, hard or sharp; wood is extremely hard, and was formerly much used for making pikes and lances). Maple. ORD. _Sapindaceæ_. A genus comprised, for the most part, of handsome hardy deciduous shrubs, or trees, adapted for forming shrubberies, plantations, &c. Flowers greenish, except where mentioned. _A. Pseudo-platanus_ is one of our most useful forest trees. Several of the species produce very useful timber; sugar is one of the constituent parts of the sap of all of them, and is obtained in large quantities from _A. saccharinum_, in North America. They all prefer a somewhat sheltered position. The most satisfactory soil is one free, deep, loamy, and well drained; the latter is especially desirable with some of the Japanese varieties. The varieties of _A. japonicum_, and _palmatum_ are well worth growing in pots for conservatory decoration. Propagation: By seeds, sown either in autumn or spring, covering them not more than a 1/4in. deep; the common varieties may be sown outside, while the rarer ones should be sown in a frame. By layers, and by grafting; the latter method is adopted with many of the rarer species and varieties, especially the variegated kinds; they are also readily increased by budding in summer.

=A. austriacum= (Austrian). Synonymous with _A. campestre austriacum_.

=A. campestre= (field).* Common Maple. _fl._ on erect racemes. May. _fr._ wings of fruit much divaricated. _l._ small, cordate, with five-toothed lobes. _h._ 20ft. Britain. A small tree with rough bark, full of deep fissures; wood often beautifully veined, when it is highly valued.

=A. c. austriacum= (Austrian).* _fl._ much larger than those of the species. _fr._ smooth. Lobes of leaves somewhat acuminated. SYN. _A. austriacum_.

=A. c. collinum= (hill-loving).* _fl._ smaller. _fr._ smooth. Lobes of leaves obtuse. France.

=A. c. hebecarpum= (downy-fruited).* _fr._ clothed with velvety pubescence.

[Illustration: FIG. 9. LEAF AND FLOWER SPIKE OF ACANTHUS SPINOSUS.]

=A. c. lævigatum= (smooth-leaved). _l._ very smooth and shining.

=A. c. nanum= (dwarf). Dwarf habit.

=A. c. tauricum= (Taurian).* _l._ larger and less divided than in the species.

=A. c. variegatum= (variegated).* _l._ beautifully variegated with blotches and stripes of white or whitish yellow; very distinct.

=A. circinatum= (circinate).* _fl._ deep red, umbellate. April. _l._ seven to nine-lobed, serrulated. _h._ 5ft. to 6ft. North West America, 1827. A very beautiful species, having pendulous branches clothed with leaves, which change into a bright scarlet colour in the autumn.

=A. creticum= (Cretan). _fl._ on few-flowered erect corymbs. May. _fr._ smooth, with the wings hardly diverging. _l._ cuneated at the base, acutely three-lobed at the top. _h._ 4ft. Levant, 1752. Nearly evergreen.

=A. dasycarpum= (thick-fruited).* _fl._ conglomerate, on short pedicels, apetalous. April. _l._ truncate at the base, palmately five-lobed, with blunt recesses, and unequally and deeply-toothed lobes. _h._ 40ft. North America, 1725. SYNS. _A. eriocarpon_, _A. tomentosum_, _A. glaucum_, and _A. virginianum_.

=A. Douglasii= (Douglas). Synonymous with _A. glabrum_.

=A. eriocarpon= (hairy-fruited). Synonymous with _A. dasycarpum_.

=A. Ginnala= (Ginnalian).* _fl._ on compound, crowded, erect racemes. Amur River. This is generally classed as a variety of _A. tartaricum_, but its habit is much more graceful, and in this form the leaves are prettily cut and lobed, whilst the leafstalks and midrib are more deeply coloured.

=A. glabrum= (smooth).* _fl._ corymbose, on short two-leaved branchlets, greenish-yellow. June. _l._ roundish-cordate, deeply three to five-lobed, or partite; the lobes biserrate, of a light green. _h._ 15ft. to 30ft. North West America. SYNS. _A. Douglasii_, _A. tripartitum_.

=A. glaucum= (glaucous). Synonymous with _A. dasycarpum_.

=A. heterophyllum= (various-leaved).* _fl._ corymbose. May. _l._ small, ovate, entire, and three-lobed, slightly serrated, smooth. _h._ 4ft. Levant, 1759. An evergreen. SYN. _A. sempervirens_.

=A. ibericum= (Iberian). _fl._ corymbose. May. _l._ bluntly three-lobed; lobes with one or two teeth, lateral ones marked with the middle nerve to the insertion of the petiole. _h._ 20ft. Iberia, 1826.

=A. japonicum= (Japanese).* _fl._ deep purplish-red, large. April. _l._ many-lobed, in early spring very light green. _h._ 20ft. Japan, 1863. The varieties of this species, although not well fixed in many cases, rank amongst the most handsome of the deciduous small shrubs grown, but often change in character as they attain any considerable size. Plants from 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. high are very useful in cool conservatories, and in the highly kept grounds surrounding the house.

=A. laurifolium= (laurel-leaved). Synonymous with _A. oblongum_.

=A. Lobelii= (Lobel's). _l._ very slightly heart-shaped, irregularly toothed, five-lobed; lobes more or less abruptly pointed.

=A. macrophyllum= (large-leaved).* _fl._ on erect, compound, racemes. May. _l._ digitately five-palmate, with roundish recesses; lobes somewhat three-lobed. _h._ 60ft. Northern California, 1812.

=A. monspessulanum= (Montpelier).* _fl._ on few-flowered corymbs, erect. May. _l._ cordate, three-lobed; lobes almost or quite entire, equal. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. South Europe, 1739.

=A. montanum= (mountain). _fl._ on compound, erect racemes. May. _l._ cordate, three or slightly five-lobed, unequally and coarsely serrated. _h._ 18ft. Canada, 1750. SYN. _A. spicatum_.

=A. Negundo.= _See_ =Negundo fraxinifolium=.

=A. oblongum= (oblong). _fl._ on compound racemes, pale yellow. February. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acuminated, quite entire. _h._ 20ft. Nepaul, 1824. SYN. _A. laurifolium_.

=A. obtusifolium= (obtuse-leaved). _fl._ drooping, corymbose. May. _l._ rounded, bluntly three-lobed, crenately serrulate, about the length of the petioles. _h._ 15ft. Crete.

=A. Opalus= (Opalus). A synonym of _A. opulifolium_.

=A. opulifolium= (Guelder-rose-leaved).* _fl._ on nearly sessile corymbs. May. Ovaries and fruit smooth. _l._ cordate, five-lobed; lobes obtuse, bluntly and coarsely toothed. _h._ 8ft. France, 1823. SYN. _A. Opalus_.

=A. o. obtusatum= (bluntish).* A larger, strong growing, round-headed tree, with dark green leaves, which are covered with a whitish or rusty tomentum on the under surface.

=A. palmatum= (palmate-leaved).* _fl._ on five to seven-flowered umbels. May. _l._ palmately divided into five to seven lobes beyond the middle; lobes oblong, acuminated, serrated. _h._ 20ft. Japan, 1820.

=A. p. atropurpureum= (dark purple).* A vigorous handsome plant, with bold dark purple foliage. Japan.

=A. p. crispum= (crispy or waved).* _l._ green, with red stalked, convoluted edges. Japan, 1871. Very distinct, and like a miniature Lombardy poplar in habit of growth.

=A. p. dissectum= (finely-divided).* _fl._ red, on terminal-stalked racemes, five to six-flowered. May. _l._ nine to ten parted; lobes oblong, acuminated, deeply serrated. _h._ 30ft. Japan, 1845.

=A. p. ornatum= (beautiful).* Very ornamental, having finely cut deep red leaves, with lighter midribs. Japan, 1871. This variety is also known as _dissectum_.

=A. p. palmatifidum= (palmatifid).* _l._ very finely palmately divided, the lobes cut down quite to the midrib, of a beautiful light green colour. 1875.

=A. p. reticulatum= (netted).* _l._ palmately seven-lobed; lobes unequal, sharply serrate, emerald green, with dark green veins. Japan, 1875. A very elegant variety, with slender branches.

=A. p. roseo-marginatum= (rose-margined).* _l._ freely divided, the lobes deeply cut, light green, margined with rose. Japan, 1874. A very distinct and charming variety.

=A. p. sanguineum= (blood-red).* _l._ deeply five-lobed, the lobes serrated, of a deep reddish-crimson colour, much brighter than the variety _atropurpureum_. 1874. This presents a very striking contrast to the last.

=A. p. septemlobum= (seven-lobed).* _fl._ purplish, on numerous flowered umbels. Spring. _l._ varying much, from palmately five-lobed, with toothed undivided lobes, to deeply seven to nine-lobed, with more or less finely cut divisions. Japan, 1864. There are numerous beautiful forms of this variety.

There are many varieties of this much varying species, but we have only mentioned those best known; many are only known by their native names, and there is some doubt as to their distinctive characteristics. They are all extremely handsome.

=A. pennsylvanicum= (Pennsylvanian).* _fl._ in long drooping, simple racemes. May. _l._ cordate, three-lobed, acuminated, finely and acutely serrated. _h._ 20ft. Trunk elegantly striped with white lines. North America, 1755. SYN. _A. striatum_.

=A. pictum= (painted).* _fl._ corymbose, stalked. _l._ five to seven-lobed; lobes triangular or oblong, entire, acuminated. _h._ 15ft. to 20ft. Temperate Asia, 1840. _A. p. connivens_ (converging), _A. p. marmoratum_ (spotted), _A. p. rubrum_ (red), and _A. p. variegatum_ (variegated), are varieties differing principally in the colouring of the leaves. All are very desirable.

=A. platanoides= (plane-like).* The Norway Maple. _fl._ on nearly erect stalked corymbs. May, June. _l._ cordate, smooth, five-lobed; lobes acuminated, with a few coarse acute teeth. _h._ 50ft. Europe, 1683. A very ornamental hardy tree, growing with great rapidity when young. It prefers a deep, well-drained soil.

=A. p. aureo variegatum= (golden-variegated).* _l._ variegated with yellow. Europe, 1383. This, to retain the variegation, requires to be propagated by budding or grafting. The same remarks are equally applicable to the other varieties.

=A. p. laciniatum= (cut-leaved).* _l._ deeply and variously cut, green and yellow.

=A. p. Schwedleri= (Schwedler's).* _l._ very large, deep bronzy-red. A vigorous grower, and most effective.

=A. p. variegatum= (variegated).* _l._ variegated with white. There are several other varieties, but of less importance than the foregoing.

=A. Pseudo-platanus= (Mock-plane tree).* Sycamore. _fl._ on rather compound pendulous racemes. May. _l._ cordate, with five acuminated unequally-toothed lobes. _h._ 30ft. to 60ft. Europe. There are few deciduous trees so well adapted for standing singly in rough exposed situations. A deep, soft, dry soil is most suitable for it, but it will grow in soils of very opposite qualities.

=A. P. albo variegata= (white-variegated).* A very beautiful form, in spring especially. _l._ white and green.

=A. P. flavo variegata= (yellow-variegated). _l._ variegated with yellow.

=A. P. longifolia= (long-leaved).* _l._ more deeply cut, and the petioles much longer than in the species.

=A. P. purpureum= (purple).* _l._ purple underneath. The tree, when slightly ruffled by the wind, alternately appearing clothed in purple and pale green. Numerous other varieties of more or less excellence are grown.

=A. rubrum= (red).* Scarlet Maple. _fl._ scarlet, handsome, conglomerate, corymbose. _l._ cordate at the base, deeply and unequally toothed, palmately five-lobed, with acute recesses. Branches and fruit also scarlet. _h._ 20ft. Canada, 1656. A variety with leaves splashed with yellow is rare. An excellent species, thriving well in damp, swampy situations, and is commonly increased by layers.

=A. rufinerve= (red-nerved).* "The leaves vary both in size and outline, from 2-1/2in. to 4in. each way; three to five-lobed, with irregularly toothed margins, glabrous above, but with reddish hairs along the nerves beneath. The young branches are conspicuous on account of the bluish-grey glaucescence with which they are covered."

=A. r. albo-limbatum= (white-margined).* differs only from the species in having a very distinct white margin--not always constant. Japan, 1869.

=A. saccharinum= (Sugar Maple).* _fl._ yellow, on drooping corymbs, on short peduncles; pedicels pilose. April. _l._ cordate, smooth, palmately five-lobed; lobes accuminated, sinuately toothed. _h._ 40ft. N. America, 1735.

=A. s. nigrum= (blackish).* _fl._ on sessile corymbs, nodding. April, May. _l._ cordate, with the recess closed; palmately five-lobed. _h._ 40ft. North America, 1812.

=A. Semenovi= (Semenov's).* A slender and graceful species, with leaves closely resembling those of _A. Ginnala_, but smaller. Turkestan, 1879.

=A. sempervirens= (evergreen). Synonymous with _A. heterophyllum_.

=A. spicatum= (spiked). Synonymous with _A. montanum_.

=A. striatum= (striated). Synonymous with _A. pennsylvanicum_.

=A. tartaricum= (Tartarian).* _fl._ white, on crowded, erect, compound racemes. May. _l._ more or less cordate, acuminated, serrated, with obsolete lobes. _h._ 20ft. 1759. This species is one of the first to expand its leaves in spring.

=A. tomentosum= (tomentose). Synonymous with _A. dasycarpum_.

=A. tripartitum= (three-parted). Synonymous with _A. glabrum_.

=A. Van Volxemii= (Van Volxem's). _fl._ not known in England. _l._ palmately three to five-lobed, very large, light green above, silvery and quite glabrous beneath. Caucasus, 1877. Distinct and fine.

=A. villosum= (hairy). _fl._ fragrant, on lateral racemes. April. Buds, fruit, and young leaves, silky, villous. _l._ cordate, five-lobed, villous beneath as well as the petioles; lobes ovate acute. _h._ 50ft. Himalaya, at high elevations. Not hardy.

=A. virginianum= (Virginian). Synonymous with _A. dasycarpum_.

=ACERACEÆ.= An order of very ornamental hardy trees, of which the sycamore and maple are well-known representatives.

=ACERAS= (from _a_, without, and _keras_, a horn; the lip having no spur). ORD. _Orchidaceæ_. An interesting genus of terrestrial orchids. Calyx of three ovate, equal, converging sepals; petals two, narrow, oblong; lip spurless, much longer than the calyx, narrow, oblong, with four linear lobes. The most interesting species is the native one. Indigenous to dry, chalky pastures in the south-east of England, and it will only thrive in similar soils when grown in gardens. Propagated by careful divisions of tubers only.

[Illustration: FIG. 10. FLOWER OF ACERAS ANTHROPOPHORA.]

=A. anthropophora= (The Green Man Orchis). _fl._ greenish, on a long spike, lip longer than the ovary; lip and petals often margined with red. June. _l._ lanceolate. _h._ 1ft. See Fig. 10.

=ACERATIUM= (from _a_, not, and _keras_, a horn; the stamens being destitute of the terminal bristles so conspicuous in its near ally, _Elæocarpus_). ORD. _Tiliaceæ_. An interesting stove evergreen tree, very closely allied to _Tilia_. It thrives well in a mixture of loam and peat, and is increased by ripe cuttings, which root readily if placed in sand, under a hand glass, in heat.

=A. oppositifolium= (opposite-leaved).* _fl._ white, on terminal three-flowered peduncles. June. _l._ opposite, elliptic-oblong, furnished with a few mucronated teeth. _h._ 20ft. Amboyna, 1818.

=ACEROSE, ACEROSUS.= Needle-pointed, fine, and slender, with a sharp point.

=ACETARIOUS.= An adjective applied to plants used in salads.

=ACEUS.= A termination expressing a resemblance to the thing whose name it terminates--_foliaceus_, leaf-like, of the texture of a leaf or _folium_.

=ACHANIA.= _See_ =Malvaviscus=.

=ACHENE.= A hard, dry, one-seeded, superior seed-vessel.

=ACHERONTIA ATROPOS.= _See_ =Sphinx Atropos=.

=ACHILLEA= (named after Achilles, who is said to have first discovered the medicinal qualities of this plant). Including _Ptarmica_. Milfoil. ORD. _Compositæ_. A large genus (about fifty species), containing numerous hardy, border and alpine plants. Flower-heads small, corymbose; involucral scales oblong, often with a shrivelled appearance; receptacle with membranous scales, resembling chaff; ray florets few, sometimes rather large and showy; pappus none. Leaves ternate, simple or compound. All the species are easily cultivated in ordinary garden soil. _A. Eupatorium_ and other large-growing kinds are well suited for borders or groups, whilst the alpine section should be planted on the rockery. A great number of species, although excellent for naturalising in rough shrubberies, are totally unfitted for garden culture. Propagated, during spring, by root divisions, cuttings, and seeds.

=A. ægyptiaca= (Egyptian).* _fl.-heads_ rich bright yellow, in closely packed terminal corymbs, which are from 2in. to 4in. across. Summer. _l._ pinnate; leaflets obtusely lanceolate, serrate, silvery white, 6in. to 8in. long. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2-1/2ft. Levant, 1640. Handsome perennial, thriving best in a warm position.

=A. Ageratum= (ageratum-leaved).* _fl.-heads_ pure white, large, borne singly on stalks about 6in. or 8in. high. Summer. _l._ narrow, arranged in a dense silvery rosette, the margins prettily crimped. Greece. A pretty alpine, of compact habit.

=A. asplenifolia= (asplenium-leaved).* _fl.-heads_ rose-coloured, small, in a compound corymb. June to September. _l._ lower ones stalked, pinnatifid, lobes pinnate; upper ones pinnate. _h._ 18in. North America, 1803.

=A. atrata= (black-cupped).* _fl.-heads_ white. August. _l._ in a rosette, pinnatifid, deep shining green. Austria, 1596. A pretty alpine.

=A. aurea= (golden-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ golden yellow, borne singly on stems 18in. high. Summer and autumn. _l._ larger than in _A. ageratifolia_, with which species it is sometimes confused. Levant, 1739. Habit tufted. Requires a warm position.

[Illustration: FIG. 11. ACHILLEA CLAVENNÆ, showing Habit and detached Flower-heads.]

=A. Clavennæ= (Clavenna's).* _fl.-heads_ white, in neat and compact heads. Spring and summer. _l._ bipinnatifid; segments linear, obtuse, slightly denticulated at the apex. _h._ 10in. Austria, 1656. A very neat and pretty species, having dwarf tufted habit and a hoary appearance. See Fig. 11.

=A. decolorans= (staining). _fl.-heads_ whitish yellow. July. _l._ undivided. _h._ 1ft. Native country unknown. 1798.

[Illustration: FIG. 12. ACHILLEA EUPATORIUM, showing Habit and detached Flower-head.]

=A. Eupatorium= (fern-leaved).* _fl.-heads_ brilliant yellow, in dense convex, compound corymbs, which are often 5in. across, lasting two months in full beauty. June to September. _l._ numerous, linear, pinnate, lobed and serrated, hairy, rough. _h._ 4ft. to 5ft. Caucasus, 1803. This noble plant should be grown at the back of the border, and kept neatly staked. SYN. _A. filipendula_. See Fig. 12.

=A. filipendula= (dropwort-leaved). Synonymous with _A. Eupatorium_.

=A. Herba-rota= (Herba-rota).* _fl.-heads_ white, in lax corymbs, on slender stems. May. _l._ lanceolate, serrated. _h._ 6in. France, 1640. When touched, this pretty little plant gives off an agreeable aromatic perfume. To attain full beauty it requires sandy loam and a sunny position.

_A. macrophylla_ (large-leaved). _fl.-heads_ white. July. _l._ long and broad pinnate; leaflets horizontal. _h._ 3ft. Italy, 1810.

=A. Millefolium roseum= (rosy).* _fl.-heads_ rose-coloured, in small ovoid heads, which are produced continuously for several months. _l._ strap-shaped; segments very narrow. _h._ 1ft. to 3ft. England. It is well worth growing, both as a border plant, and for cutting purposes.

=A. mongolica= (Mongolian). _fl.-heads_ white. July. _l._ undivided. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Siberia, 1818.

=A. moschata= (musky).* _fl.-heads_ white, in lax corymbs. June. _h._ 6in. _l._ bright green, about 2in. long, pinnatifid. Italy, 1775. A pretty tufted alpine.

=A. nana= (dwarf). _fl.-heads_ white. June to August. _l._ pinnate; leaflets horizontal. _h._ 6in. Italy, 1759. A rockery species.

=A. odorata= (sweet-scented). _fl.-heads_ white, fragrant. June to August. _l._ bipinnate. _h._ 6in. Spain, 1729.

=A. pectinata= (comb-leaved).* _fl.-heads_ white. June. _l._ bright green, about 2in. long, pinnatifid. Italy, 1775. A pretty tufted alpine.

=A. Ptarmica flore-pleno= (double sneezewort).* _fl.-heads_ pure white, freely produced in terminal corymbs. All through the summer and autumn. _l._ lanceolate, serrulate. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. England. This is one of the most useful white border perennials grown, increasing very readily. When out of flower the stems should be cut down to the surface.

=A. santolinoides= (lavender-cotton-like). _fl.-heads_ white. July. _l._ pinnate; leaflets transverse. _h._ 1ft. Spain.

=A. serrata= (serrated).* _fl.-heads_ clear white, large, in small corymbose clusters, forming a somewhat spreading panicle. Summer. _l._ white, with adpressed hairs, sessile, lanceolate, deeply serrated. _h._ 15in. Switzerland, 1686.

[Illustration: FIG. 13. ACHILLEA TOMENTOSA, showing Habit and detached Portion of Inflorescence.]

=A. tomentosa= (downy).* _fl.-heads_ bright yellow, in repeatedly compound corymbs. Summer. _l._ woolly, bipinnatifid; segments linear, acute. _h._ 8in. to 12in. Europe. One of the best yellow-flowered species for the rock garden, having a dense habit. See Fig. 13.

=A. umbellata= (umbel-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ white, six to eight in a simple umbel. June. _l._ regularly lobed; lobes obovate, entire; clothed with a dense, silvery pubescence, on which account the plant is chiefly cultivated. _h._ 4in. to 5in. Greece. A very pretty, dwarf rock plant.

=A. vallesiaca= (Vallesian). _fl.-heads_ white. June to August. _l._ pinnate; leaflets horizontal. _h._ 1ft. Switzerland, 1819.

=ACHIMENES= (from _cheimaino_, to suffer from cold; alluding to the general tenderness of the species). Including _Scheeria_. ORD. _Gesneraceæ_. A large genus of handsome, stove or warm greenhouse, branched, generally hairy, herbaceous perennials, with scaly, catkin-like stolons underground (see Fig. 14), and sometimes from the axils of the leaves. Corolla funnel-shaped; tube rather oblique, gibbous behind at the base; pedicels one-flowered, axillary, solitary or fasciculated, bracteated. Leaves opposite, or three in a whorl, serrated.

[Illustration: FIG. 14. ROOT OF THE ACHIMENE, showing Tubercles.]

[Illustration: FIG. 15. BOUQUET OF VARIOUS ACHIMENES.]

To be successfully cultivated, they must be started and grown in stove heat till they commence flowering, when they may be removed to the conservatory or greenhouse, there to remain till after flowering. Batches of tubercles should be started in heat from February till the end of April, so as to give a succession of blossom. Shake each variety out of the old compost and insert separately in light, sandy soil; water sparingly at first, but when active they may receive more frequent supplies. When the shoots are about 2in. high, the tubercles may be transplanted to the pots, pans, or baskets in which it is intended to grow them, using as potting compost fibrous peat and leaf-soil in equal proportions, with about a sixth part of sheep's or rotten cow manure, and sufficient silver sand to make the whole porous and of a whitish appearance. Thorough drainage is indispensable, and a layer of the rougher soil, or sphagnum, should be placed over the potsherds, to prevent the loose soil stopping the drainage. Place the pans as near the glass as possible, and shade from bright sunshine. Give liberal supplies of water, with occasional doses of liquid manure; and, as the shoots lengthen, they may be pinched, to induce sturdy growth and a larger number of flowering branches. Place neat stakes to each stem, and keep well tied, arranging the stakes as symmetrically as possible, so as to ensure an even outline, but do not allow them to be seen. Light syringing with clear water, morning and evening, is beneficial. After the plants have done flowering, they should gradually have less water as the foliage and stems decay; a light airy situation is needed to mature and ripen the tubers. When the tops are quite dead, they may be removed, and the pots stored on the sides in any warm dry corner where the temperature will not fall below 50deg., keeping the plants quite dry until the time of starting again. Achimenes are liable to attacks of thrips, red-spider, and green-fly, especially if the atmosphere is kept dry; these are easily destroyed by fumigation with tobacco. This must only be done when the foliage is quite dry, otherwise the plants will suffer. Achimenes are especially beautiful when well arranged, especially if two or three varieties are mixed together, as white, red, and purple (Fig. 15). There are several methods of increasing these:--(1) By cuttings; these need not be cut off at a joint, as they will root from any portion of the stem. Insert them thickly in well-drained pots of sandy soil--say a mixture of equal parts of peat and sand--and place in bottom heat. (2) By leaves, which should be severed from the stems, and pricked in pots of similar soil to the cuttings, placing all the petiole below the surface; stand the pots in bottom heat. (3) By scales from the corms, which should be carefully rubbed off and sown, like seeds, in pots or pans of the same compost, barely covered with sand, and placed in bottom heat. (4) By seeds, which are very small, and, consequently, require to be carefully sown. The pans must be thoroughly drained and filled nearly to the rim, levelled, and well watered with a fine rose, after which the seed should be thinly scattered, covered very lightly with sand, and placed in a shady position. Keep nicely moist, and apply water very lightly, or the tiny germs will be disturbed. Place a sheet of glass over the seed-pans. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, they may be pricked off and afterwards treated like rooted cuttings. The best time for all modes of propagating is early spring.

[Illustration: FIG. 16. FLOWER OF ACHIMENES LONGIFLORA.]

=A. atrosanguinea= (dark-crimson).* _fl._ crimson; tube of corolla 1-1/2.in. long, cylindrical, saccate at base, pilose; limb small, spreading; peduncle one-flowered. July, August. _l._ pilose, oblong, sub-cordate, serrated, unequal. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Guatemala, 1848.

=A. candida= (white).* _fl._ white; tube of corolla gibbous at base; limb oblique, the front segment largest; peduncles axillary, pilose, three-flowered. June. _l._ unequal, oblique at base, serrated, pilose. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Guatemala, 1848.

=A. coccinea= (scarlet).* _fl._ scarlet; peduncles solitary, axillary. August. _l._ three in a whorl, ovate, acuminated, serrated, with minute leaves in the axils. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Jamaica, 1778.

=A. cupreata= (coppery). _fl._ scarlet; calyx spotted inside, with a fringed mouth; petals ciliately toothed; peduncles one-flowered. April. _l._ elliptic, serrated, wrinkled, coloured. _h._ 6in. Mexico, 1845. Plant creeping, downy.

=A. gloxiniæflora= (gloxinia-flowered).* _fl._ whitish, large, axillary; tube of corolla 2in. long; limb broad, spreading; lobes finely serrated, dotted with purple inside. June. _l._ serrated from middle to top. Stem slender, flexuous. _h._ 1ft. Mexico, 1845.

=A. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl._ violet purple, very large, solitary, axillary; limbs of corolla spreading. June. _l._ equal, ovate, oblique at base, sparingly serrated. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Mexico, 1842.

=A. heterophylla= (various-leaved). _fl._ solitary or twin; corolla scarlet; lobes ciliated. July. _l._ opposite, one smaller than the other, cordate ovate, acuminated, coarsely serrated. _h._ 1ft. Mexico. Plant rather hairy.

=A. hirsuta= (hairy). _fl._ reddish, with yellow eye; limb of corolla flat, with rounded serrulate segments; peduncles one-flowered. July. _l._ cordate, serrated. _h._ 2-1/2ft. Stem bulbiferous. Guatemala, 1842. Plant hairy.

=A. Kleei= (Klee's).* _fl._ lilac; corolla dark near the mouth, with a dash of yellow in the throat; calyx downy; peduncles one-flowered. August. _l._ ovate, acuminate, serrated. _h._ 6in. Guatemala, 1848. Plant hairy.

=A. longiflora= (long-flowered).* _fl._ violet; segments of calyx lanceolate, erect; corolla with a long tube, and an ample spreading limb; pedicels one-flowered. July and August. _l._ three to four in a whorl, ovate or oblong, coarsely serrated. _h._ 1ft. Guatemala, 1841. Plant hairy. See Fig. 16.

=A. multiflora= (many-flowered).* _fl._ pale lilac; sepals linear; corolla funnel-shape; tube curved; lobes roundish, lower one fringed; peduncles axillary, three to five-flowered. August. _l._ opposite, or three in a whorl, ovate, deeply and doubly serrated. _h._ 1ft. Brazil, 1843. Plant hairy.

=A. ocellata= (eye-spotted).* _fl._ reddish yellow, with dark spots, solitary, drooping; petals nearly equally spotted. Autumn. _l._ on longish petioles, ovate, acuminate, serrated, wrinkled, coloured beneath. _h._ 1-1/2ft. 1845. Plant hairy.

=A. patens= (spreading). _fl._ violet, blue; calyx downy; tube of corolla shorter than limb, which is spreading. June. _l._ ovate, acuminate, hispid above, serrate. _h._ 1ft. Mexico, 1845.

=A. pedunculata= (long-stalked).* _fl._ scarlet, with yellow eye; corolla drooping, gibbous at base; peduncles in the axils of the upper leaves. July. _l._ rather unequal, obliquely cordate, ovate, serrated. _h._ 2ft. Stem simple, downy. Guatemala, 1840.

=A. picta= (painted).* _fl._ scarlet, with yellow eye; tube of calyx turbinate; lobes of corolla roundish, three lower ones smallest; peduncles solitary or two-flowered, axillary one-flowered. July. _l._ opposite, or three in a whorl, cordate-ovate, coarsely serrated, velvety, and elegantly painted. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Mexico, 1843.

=A. rosea= (rosy). _fl._ rose, pilose; limb of corolla equal to tube; peduncles filiform, many-flowered. June. _l._ sometimes three in a whorl, pilose. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Guatemala, 1848.

The foregoing are the most important species known. Hybrid varieties are innumerable, and even surpass the species in beauty, the best of which are enumerated below in their respective colours.

=Blue and Purple Flowered.= ADVANCE,* flowers reddish-purple, lighter at the eye, dwarf, and free habit; ARGUS,* rich plum, with deep orange eye, large and free; DR. BUENZOD,* flowers rich crimson purple, spotted with orange in the centre, very free; EXCELSIOR, rich violet-purple, very large and free, with compact habit; GEM,* flowers small, of good form, rich carmine-purple; GIBSONI,* flowers very large, clear mauve, with the tube white outside; GRANDIS, rich violet purple, with large orange eye, carmine shaded, a charming variety; LADY SCARSDALE,* flowers of fair size, very free, rich plum purple, shaded carmine; LONGIFLORA MAJOR,* a stronger grower than the type, freely producing large rich blue flowers, one of the finest varieties grown; MADAME GEORGE, deep purple shaded crimson; MAUVE QUEEN,* flowers very large, of a distinct mauve, with a brownish eye-shade, very profuse, with a grand habit, one of the best; PURPUREA ELEGANS,* deep claret purple, orange throat with dark spots, a very attractive variety; ROLLISONII,* flowers large, deep lavender-blue, yellow throat, spotted with deep crimson, very effective; VIVICANS,* dark carmine-purple, with crimson eye, a few blue rays streaking from the eye, habit good, and very free.

=Crimson and Scarlet Flowered.= AURORA,* rich rosy-scarlet, with yellow throat, very large, fully 2in. across; CARL WOOLFORTH,* deep crimson, shaded lighter at the eye, very free; DAZZLE, flowers small, brilliant scarlet, pale yellow eye, very pretty and free; DIADEM,* crimson lake, shaded carmine, with deep yellow eye; ECLIPSE,* rich orange-scarlet, spotted with carmine, extremely floriferous, with a good habit; FIREFLY,* deep carmine red, golden eye, spotted with crimson, one of the best; HARRY WILLIAMS,* bright cerise red, yellow, maroon spotted, the edge prettily fringed, a very charming variety; LOVELINESS, rich magenta crimson, golden eye, spotted with maroon; METEOR, flowers rather large, bright crimson-scarlet, yellow eye, spotted carmine, very dwarf and free; SCARLET PERFECTION,* rich carmine-scarlet, deep orange eye, very beautiful; SIR TREHERN THOMAS,* deep crimson-lake, very profuse, with a good habit; STELLA, deep magenta, with orange eye, the margins fringed, very large and free, 2in. or more across; WILLIAMSII,* flowers large, stout, brilliant scarlet, orange throat, habit dwarf and free-branching, one of the finest varieties grown.

=Orange-Flowered.= GEORGIANA DISCOLOR, flowers large, bright orange, with a distinct yellow centre; HENDERSONI,* rich orange-salmon, with yellow eye; MAGNET,* deep orange, spotted with crimson, with a distinct carmine zone, a very free-flowering and beautiful variety; PARSONSI* is a decided improvement upon the last.

=Rose-Flowered.= ADMIRATION, deep rose, white throat, spotted with carmine; CARMINIATA SPLENDENS,* bright rose yellow, spotted in the centre, a charming variety; LEOPARD, bright magenta rose, freely spotted at the throat; LONGIFLORA ROSA,* rich lilac rose, deeper in centre, of medium size, very free and dwarf; MASTERPIECE,* deep rose, violet shaded, with a distinct white throat; _Pink Perfection_,* rich rose, the eye rich carmine and violet rayed, one of the best; ROSEA MAGNIFICA,* bright rose, with a yellow eye, very finely spotted, a very lovely variety; ROSE QUEEN,* flowers very large, rich rosy-lake, shaded deep purple, with a well defined orange throat; UNIQUE,* rosy-pink, deep yellow eye, spotted crimson, a very charming variety.

=White-Flowered.= AMBROSE VERSCHAFFELT,* flowers of good size, pure white, with a dark rayed centre; LONGIFLORA ALBA,* similar in form and habit to Longiflora, but with large white flowers, slightly marked in the centre; MADAME A. VERSCHAFFELT,* flowers large, pure white ground, heavily veined with purple, a very attractive variety; MARGARETTA,* flowers of medium size, pure white, and destitute of any markings whatever.

=ACHLAMYDEOUS.= Without floral envelope.

=ACHRAS.= _See_ =Sapota=.

=ACHYRANTHES.= _See_ =Chamissoa= and =Iresine=.

=ACHYRONIA.= Included under =Priestleya= (which _see_).

=ACHYROPAPPUS.= Included under =Schkuhria= (which _see_).

=ACICULAR.= Needle-shaped.

=ACINETA= (from _akineta_, immovable; the lip being jointless). ORD. _Orchideæ_. A small genus of cool house, robust, sub-terrestrial orchids allied to _Peristeria_. Flowers sub-globose, fleshy, arranged on stout, pendulous racemes. Leaves lanceolate, membranous, ribbed. Pseudo-bulbs angular, about as large as hens' eggs. The compost should consist of equal parts of fibrous peat and living sphagnum. In planting, first place a somewhat thick layer of the moss all round the inside of the basket, and press the soil firmly round the plant. During the growing season, the baskets should be taken down twice or three times a week and dipped into a tub of water, so that the whole may become saturated. In addition, the plants should be sprinkled with the syringe morning and evening, for they delight in an abundant supply of water and plenty of shade. When the growth is finished, they must be kept very dry, an occasional syringing, to keep the leaves from shrivelling, being all that is necessary.

=A. Arcei= (Arce's). _fl._ yellow. Central America, 1866.

=A. Barkeri= (Barker's).* _fl._ yellow and dark crimson, on stout scapes, produced from the base of the bulbs, and bearing fifteen to thirty fragrant flowers. Midsummer. _l._ broadly lanceolate, 2ft. long. Pseudo-bulbs 5in. to 7in. long. Mexico, 1837. SYN. _Peristeria Barkeri_.

=A. chrysantha= (yellow-flowered).* _fl._ yellow, white, and crimson, fragrant; lower part of the lip having a blunt, papillose horn; racemes erect. May. _h._ 2ft. Mexico, 1850.

=A. densa= (dense-flowered).* _fl._ sub-globose, and of a waxy consistence, lemon-yellow, dotted brown, sweet-scented; racemes rather short. Costa Rica, 1849. A robust-growing species, very like _A. Barkeri_. SYN. _A. Warczewiczii_.

=A. Humboldtii= (Humboldt's).* _fl._ straw-colour, dotted with brown; scapes 2ft. long. May. _l._ broadly lanceolate, generally four. Columbia, 1872. A handsome species, but the flowers speedily fade. SYNS. _Anguloa superba_, _Peristeria Humboldtii fulva_.

=A. sulcata= (grooved). _fl._ bright yellow. Columbia, 1879. Very like the last species, from which it differs in mere botanical detail.

=A. Warczewiczii= (Warczewicz's). A synonym of _A. densa_.

=ACINOS.= _See_ =Calamintha=.

=ACIOTIS= (from _akis_, a point, and _ous_, an ear; in allusion to the shape of the petals). ORD. _Melastomaceæ_. A small genus of pretty, stove, evergreen plants. Flowers small; panicles slender, loose, terminal; petals four, obliquely awned at the apex. Leaves thin, membranous. For culture, _see_ =Melastoma=..

=A. aquatica= (water-loving). _fl._ white, small, on loose, terminal, filiform panicles. June. _l._ cordate, ovate-oblong. _h._ 6in. to 12in. South America, 1793. The pots in which this species is grown should be kept in pans of water.

=A. discolor= (various-coloured).* _fl._ small, red, in spicate racemes. _l._ petiolate, elliptic-oblong, purple beneath, deep shining green above. _h._ 1ft. Trinidad, 1816.

=ACIPHYLLA= (from _ake_, a point, and _phyllon_, a leaf, referring to the sharply pointed segments of the leaf). ORD. _Umbelliferæ_. A genus of curious and remarkable erect hardy perennials, with densely fascicled, spicate, or panicled umbels of flowers; and pinnate or bi-tripinnate leaves. They are most suited for the rockwork, in a light sandy soil. Propagated by seeds or divisions in spring.

=A. Colensoi= (Colenso's).* _fl._ white. This extraordinary evergreen forms a circular bush, 5ft. or 6ft. in. diameter, of bayonet-like spines, having flowering stems 6ft. to 9ft. high, covered with spreading spinous leaflets. New Zealand, 1875.

=A. squarrosa= (rough-headed).* _fl._ white. _h._ 6ft. to 9ft. New Zealand. More frequently met with than the preceding, of very dense growth. Commonly known as the Bayonet Plant.

=ACIS= (named after Acis, shepherd of Sicily, son of Faunus and the nymph Simæthis). ORD. _Amaryllidaceæ_. A genus of very pretty dwarf bulbous plants, suitable for the rockery, in sunny sheltered situations. This genus was formerly included with _Leucojum_, from which it is distinguished by its dwarf slender habit, filiform style, and membranous capsule. All are delicate little plants, with narrow linear leaves and bell-shaped flowers. They require a free, open, rich soil, and should remain and bloom undisturbed for years; divide the clumps every three or four years, and renew the soil.

=A. autumnalis= (autumn-blooming).* _fl._, perianth white, delicate pink at the base, preceding the leaves; two to three on a stem. Autumn. _l._ few in number, very slender, sheathing the stems at the base. _h._ 4in. to 6in. Portugal, 1629. A charming species, and the only one at all common.

=A. grandiflorus= (large-flowered).* _fl._, perianth white, larger than those of the last. August. _h._ 6in. Numidia, 1820. Somewhat rare in cultivation.

=A. roseus= (rose-coloured).* _fl._, perianth rose red, not more than 1/4in. long; scape one to three-flowered. August. _l._ narrow, blunt, linear. _h._ 3in. Corsica, 1820. Very rare.

=A. tingitanum= (Tangiers). Of recent introduction; has a many-flowered umbel, and very long leaves.

=A. trichophyllus= (hair-leaved).* _fl._, perianth white, about 1/2in. long; segments loosely nerved, with a faint flush of red at the base. January. _h._ 6 in. Spain, 1820.

=ACISANTHERA= (from _akis_, a point, and _anthera_, an anther; anthers jointed). ORD. _Melastomaceæ_. A monotypic stove genus allied to Rhexia, of semi-shrubby habit. It grows well in a mixture of loam, sand, and peat; and cuttings root freely in the same soil in stove temperature.

=A. quadrata= (square-branched). _fl._ purple, ventricose, alternate, axillary, solitary. July. _l._ three-nerved, ovate, crenated; branches square. Habit erect, branched at the apex. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Jamaica, 1804. More curious than ornamental.

=ACMADENIA= (from _akme_, a point, and _aden_, a gland; in allusion to the anthers being terminated by pointed glands). ORD. _Rutaceæ_. A small genus of beautiful greenhouse shrubs. Flowers terminal, solitary, or few, furnished with imbricate sepal-like bracts; petals five, with long claws, which are bearded on the inside. Leaves imbricate, linear-oblong, or roundish. They thrive best in a mixture of peat and sand, with a little turfy loam; thorough drainage is also necessary. Young cuttings pricked in a pot of very sandy soil, covered with a bell glass, and shaded, will root freely in a cool house.

=A. tetragona= (four-angled).* _fl._ white, large, sessile, solitary. June. _l._ roundish-rhomboidal, with scabrous margins. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1798.

=ACMENA= (from _Acmenæ_, nymphs of Venus, who had an altar at Olympia). ORD. _Myrtaceæ_. A small genus of greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Flowers in dense trichotomous cymes, with five small distant petals, and very conspicuous and pretty berries. They grow well in an equal mixture of peat, loam, and sand. Propagated readily by placing half-ripened cuttings in sand, under a glass, without heat.

=A. floribunda= (many-flowered).* _fl._ white, in threes, disposed in a terminal panicled thyrse. May to September. _l._ full of pellucid dots, oval-lanceolate, acuminated at both ends. Berries globose, bright purple. _h._ 4ft. New Holland, 1790.

=A. ovata= (ovate-leaved).* A new species, having, according to Mr. W. Bull, ovate leaves, which, along with the stems and petioles, are dark purple, giving the plants, when making new growth, a striking appearance. It has a neat habit.

=ACOKANTHERA.= _See_ =Toxicophlœa=.

=ACONIOPTERIS.= _See_ =Acrostichum=.

=ACONITE.= _See_ =Aconitum=.

=ACONITE, WINTER.= _See_ =Eranthis=.

=ACONITUM= (from _Aconæ_, or _Acone_, a harbour of Heraclea, in Bithynia, near where it is said to abound). Aconite; Monk's Hood; Wolf's Bane. ORD. _Ranunculaceæ_. An extensive genus of very ornamental hardy perennials. Flowers in terminal racemes; sepals five, the upper one helmet shaped, the two sides broader than the two back ones; petals five, small, the two upper with long claws hooded at the tip; the three inferior smaller or undeveloped. Leaves palmate. They thrive well in any ordinary garden soil. If left undisturbed for several years, they will attain a goodly size, and produce fine panicles of handsome flowers. They are invaluable for growing beneath the shade of trees, where they succeed better than almost any other class of plants. All are very easily propagated by divisions of the roots and seeds; the latter should be sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Care should be taken not to leave pieces of the roots about, for, with but one exception, those of all the species are very poisonous. Although very unlike horse-radish, they have frequently been mistaken for it, with fatal results; and none of the species should be cultivated in or near the kitchen garden.

Sect. I. Roots Tuberous.

=A. acuminatum= (taper-pointed). _fl._ bluish purple; spur capitate; helmet closed, conical, beaked. July. _l._ with cuneate, bipinnate lobes. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Switzerland, 1819.

=A. album= (white-flowered).* _fl._ pure white, large, with erect helmet, very freely produced. _l._ dark green, with oblong-cuneate divisions. August. _h._ 4ft. to 5ft. Levant, 1752. This is a rare and very handsome species.

=A. alpinum= (alpine). Synonymous with _A. rostratum_.

=A. ampliflorum= (large-flowered). _fl._ bluish-purple, large; spur obtuse, straight. June. _l._ with blunt segments. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Austria, 1823.

=A. angustifolium= (narrow-leaved).* _fl._ deep blue, in spiked panicles; spur capitate; helmet closed, hemispherical; lip bifid. June. _l._ palmately cut into linear lobes. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Siberia, 1824.

=A. biflorum= (twin-flowered).* _fl._ pale blue, usually twin, sessile, the middle rather obscure and with yellowish edges, covered on the back with spreading down; spur truncate; helmet depressed; beak drawn out. June. _l._ lower ones on long stalks, with linear segments. _h._ 6in. Siberia, 1817. A very rare alpine species.

=A. Cammarum= (Cammarum). _fl._ rich deep purple, on rather loose spikes; spur capitate; helmet closed, hemispherical. July to September. _l._ with short, bluntish lobes. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Austria, 1752.

=A. cernuum= (drooping). _fl._ violet, large, on nodding, loose, hairy racemes; spur capitate, or a little hooked; helmet large, arched, beaked. July and August. _l._ with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. Branches axillary, spreading. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Europe, 1800.

=A. delphinifolium= (Delphinium-leaved).* _fl._ pale bluish purple, large, on loose racemes; spur a little hooked; helmet hemispherical. June. _l._ smooth, deeply cut into five parts. Stems slender. _h._ 6in. to 2ft. North America, 1820. A rare alpine species.

=A. elatum= (tall). _fl._ blue, very large, in loose panicled spikes; peduncles pubescent; spur capitate, inclining. June. _l._ with linear acute segments. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Europe, 1822.

=A. eminens= (eminent).* _fl._ blue, on erectly spreading pubescent peduncles; spur capitate; helmet closed; lip very long, refracted. June. _l._ with cuneate bipinnate lobes. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Europe, 1800.

=A. eriostemon= (woolly-stamened). _fl._ bluish-purple, disposed in long, beautiful, erect-spreading spikes; spur capitate; helmet closed, arched. June. _l._ with cuneate, bipinnate lobes. _h._ 4ft. Switzerland, 1821.

=A. exaltatum= (exalted). _fl._ blue, on loose panicles, with ascending stiff branches; spur thick, somewhat hooked; helmet conical; beak elongated. July. _l._ with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. _h._ 6ft. Pyrenees, 1819. SYN. _A. hamatum_.

=A. flaccidum= (flaccid). _fl._ pale violet, large, on erect spreading peduncles; racemes branched; spur hooked at the apex; helmet high, arched, inclining forwards, gaping. July and August. _l._ multifid, ciliated (as well as the petioles), when young. _h._ 6ft. Siberia, 1822.

=A. gibbosum= (swollen). Synonymous with _A. nasutum_.

=A. Gmelini= (Gmelin's). _fl._ cream-coloured, middle-sized, on very long loose racemes; spur straight, obtuse; bottom of the helmet rounded, cylindrical. July. _l._ on long stalks, villous beneath and shining above; lobes divided into narrow segments. _h._ 2ft. Siberia, 1817. SYN. _A. nitidum_.

=A. gracile= (slender).* _fl._ pale blue or violet, large, on loose racemes; spur erect, clavated-hooked; helmet with a middle sized beak. June. _l._ smooth, with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. Stems slender. _h._ 2ft. Italy, &c.

=A. Halleri= (Haller's).* _fl._ opaque violet, on elongated, loose racemes, with a few lateral ascending ones; spur capitate; helmet convex-hemispherical, gaping. June. _l._ lobes linear, dilated, very long. Stem straight, long, branched. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. Switzerland, 1821.

=A. H. bicolor= (two-coloured).* _fl._ white, variegated with blue, disposed in spikes or panicles. June.

[Illustration: FIG. 17. FLOWER OF ACONITUM NAPELLUS, nearly Full Size.]

=A. hamatum= (hooked). Synonymous with _A. exaltatum_.

=A. hebegynum= (blunt-styled). Synonymous with _A. paniculatum_.

=A. heterophyllum= (various-leaved). _fl._ pale yellow, and deep blue in front, large, numerous, dense. August. _l._ petiolate below, sessile above, broadly cordate, coarsely toothed at the edge, and deep green. _h._ 2ft. Himalayas, 1874. A new introduction, said to be non-poisonous, and used as a tonic in India.

=A. illinitum= (anointed). _fl._ pale or deep violet, on very loose and much branched panicles, large; spur thick, long, abruptly pointed; beak blunt; helmet sub-conical. July. _l._ with broad cuneiform lobes, and obtuse lobules. _h._ 4ft. 1821.

=A. intermedium= (intermediate). _fl._ blue, on a loose panicle, with ascending stiff branches; spur supine, somewhat hooked; helmet arched. June. _l._ with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Alps of Europe, 1820.

=A. japonicum= (Japanese).* _fl._ flesh-coloured, on loose panicles, with ascending branches; helmet exactly conical, abruptly mucronate; beak acute, straight. July to September. _l._ stalked, trifid; lateral lobes bifid, middle lobe trifid, all blunt and deeply toothed. Stem round, smooth. _h._ 6ft. Japan, 1790. One of the best species grown.

=A. j. cœruleum= (blue). _fl._ blue. Japan.

=A. laciniosum= (jagged). _fl._ pale blue, or with a white base, large, on somewhat contracted racemes; spur clavated-hooked; helmet arched, conical. June. _l._ with jagged, trapeziform pinnate lobes. _h._ 3ft. Switzerland, 1820.

=A. lycoctonum= (true Wolf's-bane).* _fl._ livid-violet, rather large; racemes more or less pubescent, branched at the base; bottom of helmet cylindrical; beak elongated. July. _l._ large, seven-parted. Stem slender, simple, upright. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. Europe, 1596.

=A. maximum= (largest). _fl._ pale blue; panicle loose, furnished with a few long distant, few-flowered, pubescent branches; spur short, incurved; helmet hemispherico-conical, obtuse. July. _l._ multifid, large, smooth. _h._ 6ft. Kamtschatka, 1823.

=A. meloctonum= (Badger's-bane). _fl._ cream-coloured, loose, pubescent; panicle large, with diverging branches; spur arched; bottom of helmet conico-cylindrical. July. _l._ five to seven-parted, deep green. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Piedmont, 1821.

=A. Meyeri= (Meyer's). _fl._ bluish purple, on pubescent peduncles; spur capitate, inclining. June. _l._ with cuneate bipinnate lobes. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Bavaria, 1823.

=A. molle= (soft). _fl._ violet, large, puberulous; racemes panicled, pubescent; helmet irregularly conical, obtuse; front erect; spur capitate, or a little hooked. June. _l._ smooth, with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. _h._ 2ft. to 6ft. 1820.

[Illustration: FIG. 18. ACONITUM NAPELLUS, showing Root, Seed-pod, Flower-spike, Leaf, and Flower with Sepals removed.]

=A. Napellus= (little turnip).* Common Monk's Hood. _fl._ blue, large, on a large terminal raceme; peduncles erect, pubescent; spur capitate; helmet convex-hemispherical, gaping, smoothish; lip revolute. Summer. _l._ pedately five-lobed. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. There are a great number of varieties of this species cultivated and introduced. The following are some of the names representing slightly varying forms which have, however, been regarded as species by Reichenbach and other authors: _acutum_, _amœnum_, _Bernhardianum_, _Braunii_, _callibotryon_, _Clusianum_, _commutatum_, _firmum_, _formosum_, _Funkianum_, _hians_, _Hoppeanum_, _Kœhleri_, _lætum_, _laxiflorum_, _laxum_, _Mielichhoferi_, _napelloides_, _neomontanum_, _neubergense_, _oligocarpus_, _rigidum_, _strictum_, _tenuifolium_, _venustum_, _virgatum_. One of the most virulent of poisonous plants, both to cattle as well as human beings; and, notwithstanding its eminently handsome appearance, it should only be planted in places where no danger is likely to arise from its presence. See Figs. 17 and 18.

=A. nasutum= (great-nosed). _fl._ violet; panicle contracted, quite smooth; spur elongated, arched; helmet conical, bending forward; beak short. June. _l._ with broad, trapeziform, pinnate lobes. _h._ 3ft. Caucasus, &c., 1818. SYN. _A. gibbosum_.

=A. nitidum= (shining). Synonymous with _A. Gmelini_.

=A. Ottonianum= (Otto's).* _fl._ blue, variegated with white; young peduncles nodding; spur supine, somewhat hooked; helmet arched. July, August. _l._ with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Carpathian Mountains, 1824.

=A. paniculatum= (paniculate).* _fl._ large, violet; panicle terminal, much branched, loose or contracted, more or less pubescent; helmet conical, beaked; front sinuate. June to September. _l._ smooth, with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. France and Switzerland, 1815. SYN. _A. hebegynum_.

=A. plicatum= (folded). Synonymous with _A. tauricum_.

=A. productum= (long-lipped). _fl._ violet, downy, on few-flowered, loose, pubescent racemes; helmet straight, irregularly convex-conical, with a drawn-out beak; spur capitate. June. _l._ on long stalks with three-parted lobes. _h._ 1ft. Siberia.

=A. rostratum= (beaked).* _fl._ violet; panicle rather loose; spur thick, depressed, globose; helmet conical, elongated, abruptly pointed in front; beak stretched out. June. _l._ with trapeziform, pinnate lobes. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Switzerland, 1752. SYN. _A. alpinum_.

=A. Schleicheri= (Schleicher's). _fl._ blue or violet, middle sized, on short racemes; spur capitate; helmet convex-hemispherical, gaping, smoothish. Summer. _l._ with finely jagged lobes. Stem straight (or infracted), simple, slender. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Europe. SYN. _A. vulgare_.

=A. semigaleatum= (half-helmeted). _fl._ pale blue, pubescent when young, on very loose racemes; peduncles elongated; spur hooked; helmet convex, navicular. June. _l._ multifid, few, membranous, smooth; root about the size and form of a pea. _h._ 6in. to 2ft. Kamtschatka, 1818.

=A. Sprengelii= (Sprengel's). _fl._ bluish purple; spur obtuse, straight. June. _l._ with blunt, bipinnate lobes. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Europe, 1820.

=A. tauricum= (Taurian).* _fl._ deep blue, disposed in dense racemes; peduncles erect, smooth; lateral sepals smooth inside; spur blunt; helmet closed, hemispherical. June. _l._ segments almost pedately disposed and divided into linear acuminate lobes. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Germany, 1752. SYN. _A. plicatum_.

=A. tortuosum= (twisting). _fl._ pale or deep violet, large; panicle loose, few flowered; spur thick, long, abruptly pointed (neither arched, nor convolute). July. _l._ smooth, with narrow wedge-shaped lobes, and acute lobules. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. North America, 1812.

=A. toxicum= (very poisonous). _fl._ violet, large, pubescent, on loose, also pubescent, racemes; spur hooked; helmet large, arched, with a blunt beak. June. _l._ smooth, with trapeziform pinnate lobes. Stem flexuous, almost simple. _h._ 2ft. America, 1825.

=A. uncinatum= (hooked).* _fl._ generally lilac, large, smooth; racemes loose, rather umbellate at the apex, very rarely panicled; spur somewhat spiral, inclined; helmet regularly conical, compressed. July. _l._ with trapeziform pinnate lobes. Stem with branches rising from the axils of the leaves. _h._ 4ft. to 8ft. North America, 1768.

[Illustration: FIG. 19. ACONITUM VARIEGATUM, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. variegatum= (variegated).* _fl._ blue, large, smooth; racemes panicled, loose; spur erect, clavated-hooked; helmet bent forward, inflated; beak ascending. July. _l._ lower, on long stalks; upper, sessile, smooth, thickish. _h._ 1ft. to 6ft. Europe, 1597. See Fig. 19.

=A. v. albiflorum= (white-flowered).* _fl._ white, small; helmet straight.

=A. v. bicolor= (two-coloured).* _fl._ white, edged with blue or lilac; helmet straight.

=A. vulgare= (common). A synonym of _A. Schleicheri_.

=A. Willdenovii= (Willdenow's).* _fl._ bluish-purple; peduncles pubescent; spur obtuse, straight. June. _l._ with blunt segments. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Carniola, 1823.

Sect. II. Roots Fibrous or Napiform.

=A. Anthora= (Anthora).* _fl._ pale yellow; panicles generally pubescent; spur refracted; lip obcordate; helmet arched. July. _l._ palmately cut into linear lobes. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Pyrenees, 1596. The following varieties of _A. Anthora_ are erroneously classed as species by some authors:

=A. a. Decandollii= (Decandolle's). _fl._ yellow; panicle and flowers pubescent; helmet rather conical, bent, with a short, abrupt, and acuminated beak. _l._ with rather large dark green lobes. Alps of Jura, 1873.

=A. a. eulophum= (well-crested). _fl._ yellow; panicles and flowers puberulous; helmet conical. Caucasus, 1821.

=A. a. grandiflorum= (large-flowered). _fl._ yellow, large; panicle, flowers, and fruit pubescent; helmet rather conical. Alps of Jura, 1821.

=A. a. Jacquinii= (Jacquin's). _fl._ yellow, smooth; helmet somewhat conical, drawn out into an elongated beak.

=A. a. nemorosum= (grove-loving).* _fl._ yellow; panicle and flowers pubescent; helmet somewhat conical, bent; beak short. _l._ with broad lobes.

=A. autumnale= (autumn-flowering).* _fl._ bluish-purple, in loose panicles; peduncles rigidly spreading; spur capitate; helmet closed; lip very long, refracted. July. _l._ with cuneate, bipinnate lobes. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Europe.

=A. barbatum= (bearded).* _fl._ cream coloured, middle sized; racemes dense, puberulous; spur straightish, obtuse; bottom of helmet conical; middle sepals densely bearded. July. _l._ opaque, with the lobes divided into many linear segments, on long stalks, which are villous as well as the nerves. _h._ 2ft. to 6ft. Siberia, 1807. SYN. _A. squarrosum_.

=A. chinense= (Chinese).* _fl._ intense and very bright blue, in large compound racemes; pedicels slightly hairy above. Summer. _l._ lower ones large, deeply cut into three wedge-shaped segments, tapering at the base; upper ones sessile, gradually becoming more entire. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. China, 1833.

=A. Lamarckii= (Lamarck's). _fl._ cream-coloured, pubescent; racemes long, cylindrical, crowded, branched at the base; spur spiral; helmet constricted, clavate. July. _l._ large, seven to nine-parted, with the lobes unequally cleft. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Pyrenees, 1800.

=A. lupicidum= (Wolf's-bane). Synonymous with _A. Vulparia_.

=A. macrophyllum= (large-leaved). _fl._ yellow, numerous, panicled; spur arched; helmet large, somewhat ventricose at the apex. July. _l._ large, more or less dissected. _h._ 4ft. to 8ft. Germany.

=A. Nuttallii= (Nuttall's). Synonymous with _A. ochroleucum_.

=A. ochroleucum= (yellowish-white).* _fl._ cream coloured, large; spur arched; bottom of helmet conico-cylindrical; middle sepals covered with short hairs; racemes puberulous, rather loose. July. _l._ five to seven-parted, deep green, the first ones are puberulous above. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Russia, 1794. SYNS. _A. Nuttallii_, _A. pallidum_.

=A. Pallasii= (Pallas'). Probably a mere variety, with a continuous spur, of _A. anthora_.

=A. pallidum= (pale). Synonymous with _A. ochroleucum_.

=A. pyrenaicum= (Pyrenean).* _fl._ yellow, rather large; spur hooked; bottom of helmet cylindrical, rounded; racemes elongated, dense, puberulous. June. _l._ parted almost to the base, with pinnatifid lobes, rather hispid beneath, but smooth above, on long stalks. _h._ 2ft. Pyrenees, &c., 1739.

=A. squarrosum= (rough). Synonymous with _A. barbatum_.

=A. vulparia= (Fox-bane).* _fl._ pale yellow, smooth; spur spiral; helmet cylindrical, large; beak stretched out, acute; racemes crowded. July. _l._ three or five-lobed, ciliated. _h._ 1ft. to 3ft. Europe, 1821. SYN. _A. lupicidum_. The principal varieties of this species are:--

=A. v. carpaticum= (Carpathian). _fl._ panicled, of a lurid colour, sometimes variegated with yellow; helmet conico-cylindrical, compressed; peduncles smooth. _l._ profoundly cut. Stems smooth. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Carpathian Mountains, 1810.

=A. v. Cynoctonum= (tall Dog's-bane). _fl._ (and stem) yellow, smoothish, numerous, panicled. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. France, 1820.

=A. v. moldavicum= (Moldavian). _fl._ violet, panicled; helmet cylindrical, compressed. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Moldavia.

=A. v. rubicundum= (reddish). _fl._ livid violet, panicled, villous, variegated with yellow; helmet conico-cylindrical, compressed. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Siberia, 1819.

=A. v. septentrionale= (northern).* _fl._ blue, panicled, villous; helmet conico-cylindrical, compressed. _h._ 4ft. North Europe, 1800.

=ACONTIAS.= _See_ =Xanthosoma=.

=ACORN.= The seed or fruit of the oak. _See_ =Quercus=.

=ACORUS= (from _a_, without, and _kore_, the pupil of the eye; in allusion to its reputed medicinal qualities). ORD. _Aroideæ_. A small genus of hardy herbaceous plants. Flowers on a sessile spadix; perianth six-cleft, inferior, persistent. They thrive best in a moist soil, and are very suitable for the banks of water, or even as aquatics in shallow water. Propagated easily by divisions during spring.

=A. Calamus= (sweet-flag).* _fl._ yellowish, small, borne on a cylindrical spadix 4in. to 6in. long. Summer. _l._ sword-shaped, erect, striated 3ft. long. The root is cylindrical, channelled, and very fragrant. Europe. The variety with gold-striped leaves is more useful as a decorative plant. See Fig. 20.

[Illustration: FIG. 20. ACORUS CALAMUS.]

=A. gramineus= (grass-leaved). China, 1796. This is much smaller in all its parts than the above, but very pretty.

=A. g. variegatus.=* A pretty variety with white striped leaves, forming handsome little tufts.

=ACOTYLEDONS.= Plants having no cotyledons, or seed leaves, as in _Cuscuta_, but usually applied to cryptogamic or flowerless plants, such as ferns, mosses, &c.

=ACRADENIA= (from _akra_, top, and _aden_, a gland; referring to the five glands on the top of the ovary). ORD. _Rutaceæ_. An excellent neat and compact evergreen bush, suitable for the cool conservatory. It requires a rich loam and leaf mould. Propagated by seeds and cuttings under a bell glass.

=A. Frankliniæ= (Lady Franklin's).* _fl._ white, produced in great profusion, in terminal clusters. August. _l._ fragrant, opposite, trifoliate, gland-dotted. _h._ 8ft. Tasmania, 1845.

=ACRE= (from _agros_, an open field). The English Statute acre consists of 160 square rods (perches, poles, roods, or lugs); or 4840 square yards; or 43,560 square feet. The following list shows the differentiation in the number of square yards per acre in the various districts of Great Britain and Ireland: Cheshire, 10,240; Cornish, 5760; Cunningham, 6250; Derby (W.), 9000; Devonshire, 4000; Herefordshire, 3226-2/3; Irish, 7840; Leicestershire, 2308-3/4; Scotch, 6150; Wales, North (customary), 3240; ditto (erw), 4320; Westmoreland, 6760; Wiltshire, 3630.

=ACRIDOCARPUS= (from _akris_, a locust; and _karpos_, fruit; meaning not obvious). ORD. _Malpighiaceæ_. A handsome sub-tropical or warm greenhouse climber, requiring plenty of water, and a very free drainage. Increased by imported seeds, and by cuttings in bottom heat.

=A. natalitius= (Natal).* _fl._ pale yellow; petals five, rounded, wedge-shaped, crenately-toothed at the edge; racemes simple, elongated, terminal. July. _l._ oblong or obovate, obtuse, leathery. Natal, 1867.

=ACRIOPSIS= (from _akros_, top, and _opsis_, eye). ORD. _Orchidaceæ_. A small genus of pretty stove epiphytal orchids, almost unknown to cultivation. Flowers small, arranged in loose panicles; lip adnate to the very curious column, from which it projects at right angles.

=A. densiflora= (crowded-flowered).* _fl._ green and pink. May. _l._ linear-lanceolate. _h._ 6in. Borneo, 1845.

=A. javanica= (Javanese). _fl._ yellow, green. May. _l._ linear-lanceolate. _h._ 3in. Java, 1840.

=A. picta= (painted).* _fl._ white, green, and purple. May. _l._ solitary, linear. _h._ 6in. Bantam, 1843.

=ACROCLINIUM= (from _akros_, top, and _kline_, a bed; referring to the open flowers). ORD. _Compositæ_. A small genus of elegant half hardy annuals with "everlasting" flower heads, which are solitary, terminal, and consist of tubular florets; involucrum many-leaved, imbricated. Leaves numerous, linear, smooth, acuminated. Stems numerous, erect. They thrive best in a loamy soil, and constitute very neat summer flowering annuals if sown out of doors in patches in June; they are also useful as winter decorative greenhouse plants if seed is sown in August in pots placed in a cold frame. The flower-heads should be gathered when young, if it is desired to preserve them.

[Illustration: FIG. 21. ACROCLINIUM ROSEUM, showing Habit and Flower-head.]

=A. roseum= (rosy).* _fl.-heads_ pretty rose, solitary, terminal, on erect, slender, and gracefully disposed branches. _l._ linear, acute. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. S. W. Australia, 1854. See Fig. 21.

=A. r. album= (rosy white).* A very pretty white form of the preceding.

=A. r. grandiflorum= (large-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ rose, larger than in the type.

=ACROCOMIA= (from _akros_, top, and _kome_, tuft; referring to the position of the leaves). ORD. _Palmeæ_. A genus of South American palms, containing about eleven species, which are not easily distinguished, but having the following general characteristics: Trunk from 20ft. to 50ft. high, and clad with long prickles. The flowers, which appear in the axils of the lower leaves, are greenish or yellow, and their drupes are much the same colour. Leaves pinnate, with seventy to eighty leaflets on each side of the pinnæ. They require a warm greenhouse and rich sandy loam. Increased by suckers. Two species only are in general cultivation.

=A. aculeata= (prickly). _h._ 40ft. West Indies, 1791.

=A. fusiformis= (spindle-shaped). _h._ 40ft. Trinidad, 1731.

=A. globosa= (globular). =h.= 20ft. St. Vincent, 1824.

=A. horrida= (horrid). _h._ 30ft. Trinidad, 1820.

=A. lasiospatha= (hairy spathed). _l._ drooping. Trunk about 40ft. high, smooth and ringed. Para, 1846.

=A. sclerocarpa= (hard-fruited).* A very elegant species bearing a head of spreading pinnate leaves, with the rachises and petioles aculeate, and the leaflets linear, taper-pointed, glaucous underneath, about 1ft. long. _h._ 40ft. West Indies, 1731. SYN. _Cocos fusiformis_.

=A. tenuifolia= (fine-leaved). _h._ 30ft. Brazil, 1824.

=ACROGENS.= Plants increasing at the summit, as Ferns, &c.

=ACRONYCHIA= (from _akron_, tuft, and _onux_, a claw; referring to the curved points of the petals). ORD. _Rutaceæ_. An ornamental rue-like greenhouse evergreen shrub. Petals and sepals four; stamens eight, inserted on a disk; fruit berry-like. It requires ordinary greenhouse treatment. Increased by cuttings in July in sand, under a bell glass.

=A. Cunninghami= (Cunningham's).* _fl._ white, in clusters, resembling those of an orange, with an exquisite fragrance. July. _h._ 7ft. Moreton Bay, 1838.

=ACROPERA.= _See_ =Gongora=.

=ACROPHORUS.= _See_ =Davallia=.

=ACROPHYLLUM= (from _akros_, top, and _phyllon_, a leaf; referring to the way in which the leaves are produced at the summit of the branches, above the flowers). ORD. _Cunoniaceæ_. Handsome greenhouse small, erect-growing, evergreen shrubs, flowering profusely during the spring months. They require a mixture of fibrous peat, a little loam, and sharp sand; thorough drainage, an airy situation, and as little artificial heat as possible, are important to its well-being. Re-pot in February. Propagated by cuttings of the half ripened shoots, which strike freely in a soil of sand and peat, if covered with a hand glass, and placed in a cool house. The roots should not be allowed to get dry, and light syringing during late spring and summer will be found beneficial in assisting to keep down thrips.

=A. verticillatum= (whorled). A synonym of _A. venosum_.

=A. venosum= (veined).* _fl._ pinkish white, in dense axillary spikes, which are borne on the upper part of the stems and branches. May and June. _l._ nearly sessile, oblong, cordate, acute, serrate, in whorls of threes. _h._ 6ft. New South Wales. SYN. _A. verticillatum_.

=ACROPTERIS.= _See_ =Asplenium=.

=ACROSTICHUM= (from _akros_, top, and _stichos_, order; meaning very obscure). ORD. _Filices_. This genus includes _Aconiopteris_, _Chrysodium_, _Egenolfia_, _Elaphoglossum_, _Gymnopteris_, _Olfersia_, _Photinopteris_, _Pœcilipteris_, _Polybotrya_, _Rhipidopteris_, _Soromanes_, _Stenochlæna_, _Stenosemia_. A large and almost entirely tropical genus; it includes groups with a wide range in venation and cutting. Sori spread over the whole surface of the frond or upper pinnæ, or occasionally over both surfaces. The species having long fronds, are admirably suited for growing in suspended baskets, and the dwarfer sorts do well in Wardian cases. A compost of peat, chopped sphagnum, and sand, is most suitable. For general culture, _see_ =Ferns=.

=A. acuminatum= (taper-pointed).* _rhiz._ thick, climbing. _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long, firm, erect, scaly throughout. _barren fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 1ft. or more broad, deltoid, bipinnate; upper pinnæ oblong-lanceolate, slightly lobed, truncate on the lower side at the base, 2in. to 3in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad; lower pinnæ, 6in. to 8in. long, 4in. to 5in. broad, with several small pinnules on each side; light green, with a firm texture. _fertile fronds_ 1ft. long, deltoid, tripinnate. Brazil. Stove species. SYN. _Polybotrya acuminatum_.

=A. alienum= (foreign). _rhiz._ woody. _sti._ 6in. to 18in. long, scaly downwards. _barren fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, often 1ft. broad, the upper part deeply pinnatifid, with lanceolate lobes, the lower part pinnate, with entire or deeply pinnatifid lower pinnæ. _fertile fronds_ much smaller, with distant narrow linear or pinnatifid leafy pinnæ. Tropical America. Stove species. SYN. _Gymnopteris aliena_.

=A. apiifolium= (parsley-leaved).* _cau._ stout, woody, erect. _sti._ of barren fronds 2in. to 3in. long, erect, densely clothed with tomentum. _barren fronds_ 4in. to 6in. each way, deltoid, tripinnate; pinnæ close, only the lowest pair with pinnatifid pinnules, ultimate divisions oblong-rhomboidal, 1/4in. to 1/3in. long, the base cuneate, the outer edge slightly toothed. _fertile fronds_ on a slender naked stem 6in. to 8in. long, the fronds panicled with a few distant, slender, simple, or compound branches. Philippine Islands, 1862. Stove species. SYN. _Polybotrya apiifolia_.

=A. apodum= (stemless).* _cau._ thick, woody, the scales dense, linear, brown, crisped. _sti._ tufted, very short, or obsolete. _barren fronds_ 1ft. or more long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, the apex acuminate, the lower part narrowed very gradually, the edge and midrib densely fringed with soft, short, brown hairs. _fertile fronds_ much smaller than the barren ones. West Indies to Peru, 1824. Stove species. SYN. _Elaphoglossum apodum_.

=A. appendiculatum= (appendaged).* _rhiz._ firm, woody. _barren fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, simply pinnate. _sti._ 3in. to 6in. long, erect, naked, or slightly scaly; pinnæ 2in. to 4in. long, 3/8in. to 3/4in. broad, the edge varying from sub-entire to cut half-way down to the midrib of the blunt lobes, the upper side often auricled, the lower one obliquely truncate, dark green. _fertile fronds_ narrower, on a longer spike, the pinnæ roundish or oblong, often distinctly stalked. India, &c., 1824. Stove species. SYN. _Egenolfia appendiculata_.

=A. aureum= (golden).* _cau._ erect. _sti._ erect, 1ft. to 2ft. long, strong. _fronds_ 2ft. to 6ft. long, 1ft. to 2ft. broad, the upper pinnæ fertile, rather smaller than the barren ones, which are usually stalked, ligulate oblong, 3in. to 1ft. long, 1/2in. to 3in. broad, acute or blunt, sometimes retuse with a mucro; edge quite entire, base sub-cuneate. Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, 1815. An evergreen aquatic stove species, requiring abundance of heat and moisture. SYN. _Chrysodium aureum_.

=A. auritum= (eared).* _cau._ erect, woody. _barren fronds_ with a stipe 6in. to 9in. long, deltoid, 8in. to 12in. each way, ternate, the central segments deeply pinnatifid, with lanceolate entire lobes; the lateral ones unequal sided, with lanceolate oblong-lobed lower pinnules. _fertile fronds_ with a stem 12in. to 18in. long, deltoid, with distant linear pinnæ half line broad; upper simple, lower pinnatifid. Philippine Islands. Stove species. SYN. _Stenosemia aurita_.

=A. axillare= (axillary). _rhiz._ slender, wide scandent. _barren fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, about 1in. broad, simple, the point bluntish, the edge entire, the lower half tapering very gradually to the base or short stem. _fertile fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, one to three lines broad, flexuose, on a stem 1in. to 6in. long. Himalayas. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Chrysodium axillare_.

=A. barbatum= (bearded). Synonymous with _A. scolopendrifolium_.

=A. bifurcatum= (twice-forked). _sti._ densely tufted, 2in. to 4in. long, slender, stramineous, naked. _fronds_ 3in. to 4in. long, about 1/2in. broad, pinnate; lower pinnæ of fertile fronds two or three cleft, with linear divisions; those of the barren pinnæ broader, and not so deep. St. Helena. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polybotrya bifurcata_.

=A. Blumeanum= (Blume's).* _rhiz._ woody, wide climbing. _sti._ of barren fronds 6in. long, scaly. _barren fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 1ft. or more broad, with numerous sessile pinnæ on each side, which are 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. broad; apex acuminate, the edge slightly toothed; base rounded. _fertile fronds_ with distant pinnæ 4in. to 8in. long, 1/8in. to 1/4in. broad. Assam. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Chrysodium Blumeanum_.

=A. callæfolium= (calla-leaved). A form of _A. latifolium_.

=A. canaliculatum= (channelled).* _rhiz._ woody, wide climbing, spinulose and scaly. _sti._ 1ft. or more long, scaly throughout. _fertile fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 12in. to 18in. broad, tripinnate; lower barren pinnæ, 6in. to 9in. long, 4in. to 5in. broad; pinnules lanceolate, stalked, with oblong segments, both surfaces naked; fertile pinnules close, the segments 1/4in. long, bearing three to four sessile balls of sori. Venezuela. Stove or greenhouse species. SYN. _Polybotrya canaliculata_.

=A. caudatum= (tailed). A synonym of _A. petiolosum_.

=A. cervinum= (stag-horned).* _rhiz._ woody, creeping, scaly. _sti._ 1ft. or more long, scaly. _barren fronds_ 2ft. to 4ft. long, pinnate; pinnæ 4in. to 9in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad, entire or nearly so, unequal at the base; fertile pinnæ distant, linear, lanceolate, bipinnate, with short spreading sub-cylindrical pinnules. Brazil, 1840. Stove species. SYN. _Olfersia cervina_.

=A. conforme= (conformed). _rhiz._ wide creeping, scaly. _sti._ 1in. to 12in. long, firm, erect, stramineous, naked or slightly scaly. _fronds_ 2in. to 9in. long, 1/2in. to 2in. broad, acute or bluntish, the base cuneate or spathulate, the edge entire. _barren fronds_ narrower than the fertile one. _A. laurifolium_, _A. obtusilobum_, and several others, are identical with the foregoing. Tropical America, also in the Old World. Stove species. SYN. _Elaphoglossum conforme_.

=A. crinitum= (hairy).* _cau._ woody, erect. _sti._ of barren fronds 4in. to 8in. long, densely clothed with long scales. _barren fronds_ 9in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 9in. wide, broadly oblong; apex blunt, base rounded, edge entire and ciliated, texture subcoriaceous, both sides scattered over with scales like those of the stipes. _fertile fronds_ like the others, but much smaller, the stipes longer. West Indies, &c., 1793. Stove species. SYNS. _Chrysodium_ and _Hymenodium crinitum_.

=A. cylindricum= (cylindrical). Synonymous with _A. osmundaceum_.

=A. Dombeyanum= (Dombey's). A form of _A. lepidotum_.

=A. flagelliferum= (rod-shaped). _rhiz._ woody, creeping. _sti._ of barren fronds 6in. to 12in. long, nearly naked. _barren fronds_ simple or with one to three pairs of pinnæ, the terminal one ovate lanceolate, entire or repand, often elongated and rooting at the point, the lateral ones 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad; fertile pinnæ 2in. to 3in. long, about 1/2in. broad. India, &c., 1828. Stove species. SYN. _Gymnopteris flagellifera_.

=A. fœniculaceum= (fennel-leaved).* _rhiz._ slender, creeping. _sti._ distant, slender, 2in. to 8in. long, scaly. _barren fronds_ 1in. to 2in. broad, usually dichotomously forked, with filiform divisions. _fertile fronds_ 3/8in. broad, two-lobed. Andes of Ecuador. Stove species. (For culture, see _A. peltatum_). SYN. _Rhipidopteris fœniculaceum_.

=A. Herminieri= (Herminier's).* _rhiz._ stout, creeping. _sti._ very short, or none. _barren fronds_ 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, simple, acuminate, the lower part narrowed very gradually. _fertile fronds_ short-stalked, 3in. to 4in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad. Tropical America, 1871. Stove species. SYN. _Elaphoglossum Herminieri_.

=A. heteromorphum= (various-formed). _rhiz._ slender, wide creeping, scaly. _sti._ 1in. to 3in. long, slender, slightly scaly. _barren fronds_ 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, simple, bluntish, the base rounded, both surfaces scattered over with linear dark castaneous scales. _fertile fronds_ much smaller, and the stipes much longer. Columbia and Ecuador. Stove species. SYN. _Elaphoglossum heteromorphum_.

=A. Langsdorffii= (Langsdorff's). Synonymous with _A. muscosum_.

=A. latifolium= (broad-leaved).* _rhiz._ thick, woody, creeping, scaly. _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, firm, erect, naked, or scaly. _barren fronds_ 9in. to 18in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, simple, acute, gradually narrowed below, entire; texture leathery. _fertile fronds_ considerably narrower than the barren ones. _A. longifolium_, _A. callæfolium_, &c., are only varieties of this species. Mexico, Brazil, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Elaphoglossum latifolium_.

=A. lepidotum= (scaly).* _rhiz._ thick, woody, very scaly. _sti._ 1in. to 3in. long, firm, scaly throughout. _barren fronds_ 3in. to 6in. long, about 1/2in. broad, simple, usually blunt, the base cuneate or rather rounded, both surfaces and midrib very scaly. _A. Dombeyanum_, of garden origin, is a varietal form of this, of which there are several others. Tropical America. Stove species. SYN. _Elaphoglossum lepidotum_.

=A. longifolium= (long-leaved). A form of _A. latifolium_.

=A. Meyerianum= (Meyer's). Synonymous with _A. tenuifolium_.

=A. muscosum= (mossy).* _rhiz._ woody, densely scaly. _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long, firm, clothed with large pale brown scales. _barren fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, simple, narrowed at both ends; upper surface slightly scaly; lower quite hidden by imbricated brownish scales. _barren fronds_ much smaller than the others, the stipes longer. Madeira. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. Langsdorffii_.

=A. Neitnerii.= Synonymous with _A. quercifolium_.

=A. nicotianæfolium= (tobacco-leaved).* _rhiz._ woody, wide creeping, scaly. _sti._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft., scaly below. _barren fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 1ft. or more broad, with a large terminal pinna, and one to three lateral pairs, which are 6in. to 9in. long, 1in. to 3in. broad, acuminate, entire, or nearly so, the base slightly rounded, fertile pinnæ distant, 3in. to 4in. long, 3/4in. broad. Cuba, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Gymnopteris nicotianæfolium_.

=A. osmundaceum= (osmunda-like).* _rhiz._ woody, wide scandent, scaly. _sti._ 12in. to 18in. long, firm, erect, scaly at the base. _barren fronds_ ample, bi- or tripinnate; the lower pinnæ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 8in. broad; pinnules stalked, lanceolate, with closely set sub-entire segments, of a light green colour; both surfaces naked. _fertile fronds_ nearly or quite as large as the barren ones; segments linear cylindrical, 1/4in. to 1/2in. long. Tropical America. Stove species. SYNS. _A. cylindricum_, and _Polybotrya osmundaceum_.

=A. paleaceum= (chaffy). Synonymous with _A. squamosum_.

[Illustration: FIG. 22. ACROSTICHUM PELTATUM.]

=A. peltatum= (peltate-leaved).* _rhiz._ slender, wide creeping. _sti._ distant, slender, 1in. to 4in. long, scaly throughout. _barren fronds_ 1in. to 2in. each way, repeatedly dichotomously forked, with narrow linear ultimate divisions, quarter to half line broad. _fertile fronds_ 1/2in. broad, often two-lobed. West Indies. Stove or greenhouse species. This elegant little fern requires a liberal supply of water all the year round, and is best grown in a well drained pan of good fibrous peat, leaf soil, and sand, with some nodules of sandstone raised above the rim of the pan; do not disturb it more than is necessary. SYN. _Rhipidopteris peltata_. See Fig. 22.

=A. petiolosum= (petioled). _rhiz._ woody, wide scandent. _sti._ woody, erect, scaly at the base. _fronds_ bipinnate, or tripinnatifid, 2ft. to 4ft. long, 1ft. to 3ft. broad, deltoid; the upper barren pinnæ lanceolate, pinnatifid, the longest sometimes 18in. long, and 6in. to 10in. broad; pinnules with long falcate lobes reaching half-way down to the midrib, both surfaces naked; fertile pinnules very narrow, and dangling, continuous or beaded. West Indies, Mexico, &c. Stove species. SYNS. _Polybotrya_ and _A. caudatum_.

=A. piloselloides= (mouse ear-leaved). Synonymous with _A. spathulatum_.

=A. platyrhynchos= (broad-beaked). _sti._ tufted, scarcely any. _fronds_ 12in. to 16in. long, 1in. broad, simple. _sori_ in a patch at the apex, 1in. to 2in. long, 3/8in. broad, which does not reach to the entire edge; the lower part narrowed gradually, with naked surfaces, and a coriaceous texture. Philippines. Stove species. SYN. _Hymenolepis platyrhynchos_.

=A. quercifolium= (oak-leaved).* _rhiz._ stout, wide creeping. _sti._ of barren fronds 1in. to 2in. long, clothed with brownish hairs. _barren fronds_ 3in. to 4in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, the terminal pinnæ with blunt rounded lobes. _fertile fronds_ with a terminal pinna, 1in. to 2in. long, one line broad, and a pair of smaller lateral ones, with slender stipes 6in. to 9in. long, hairy at the base. Ceylon. Stove species. SYNS. _A. Neitnerii_ (of gardens), _Gymnopteris quercifolia_.

=A. scandens= (climbing).* _rhiz._ woody, wide climbing. _sti._ 3in. to 4in. long, firm, erect, naked. _fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 1ft. or more broad, simply pinnate; barren pinnæ, 4in. to 8in. long, 3/4in. to 1-1/2in. broad, acuminate, the edge thickened and serrulate, the base cuneate, sessile, or slightly stalked, articulated; fertile pinnæ, 6in. to 12in. long, one and a half to two lines broad, the lower ones distant. Himalayas, &c., 1841. Stove or greenhouse species. SYN. _Stenochlæna scandens_.

=A. scolopendrifolium= (scolopendrium-leaved).* _rhiz._ woody, creeping, scaly. _sti._ 4in. to 12in. long, firm, erect, densely clothed with blackish scales. _barren fronds_ often 1ft. long, 1-1/2in. to 3in. broad, simple, acute, the base narrowed gradually; edge and midrib scaly. _fertile fronds_ much smaller than the barren ones. Guatemala, &c. Stove species. SYN. _A. barbatum_.

=A. serratifolium= (serrate-leaved). _rhiz._ woody, short creeping. _sti._ of barren fronds 12in. to 18in. long, slightly scaly. _barren fronds_ 2ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, with numerous sessile pinnæ on each side, 3in. to 6in. long, 3/4in. to 1-1/2in. broad, inciso-crenate, the base cuneate; fertile pinnæ distant, 2in. to 3in. long, 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, blunt, entire. Venezuela, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Chrysodium serratifolium_.

=A. simplex= (simple-leaved). _rhiz._ woody, creeping, scaly. _sti._ 1in. to 4in. long, firm, erect, naked. _barren fronds_ 4in. to 12in. long, about 1-1/2in. broad, very acute, the lower part narrowed very gradually. _fertile fronds_ narrower than the barren ones, with longer stipes. Cuba to Brazil, 1798. Stove species. SYN. _Elaphoglossum simplex_.

=A. sorbifolium= (service-leaved).* _rhiz._ thick, woody, often 30ft. to 40ft. long, clasping trees like a cable, sometimes prickly. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, simply pinnate; barren pinnæ 4in. to 6in. long, about 1/2in. broad, three to twenty on each side, articulated at the base, entire or toothed; fertile pinnæ 1in. to 2in. apart, 2in. to 4in. long, about 1/4in. broad. West Indies, 1793. There are several varieties of this species, chiefly differing in the number of pinnæ. Stove species. SYN. _Stenochlæna sorbifolia_.

=A. s. cuspidatum= (cuspidate).* This is only a variety of the above species with long-stalked, ligulate-cuspidate pinnæ; but it is usually regarded as a distinct species in gardens.

=A. spathulatum= (spoon-shaped). _sti._ tufted, 1in. to 2in. long, firm, erect, scaly. _barren fronds_ 1/2in. to 4in. long, 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, obovate-spathulate, blunt, tapering narrowly or gradually at the base, with a coriaceous texture; both surfaces and the margins copiously scaly. _fertile fronds_ smaller than the barren, with longer stipes. Tropical America, South Africa, &c. Stove species. SYN. _A. piloselloides_.

=A. spicatum= (spiked). _rhiz._ woody, short creeping. _sti._ 1in. to 2in. long, firm. _fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad, the upper part contracted and fertile, entire, the lower part narrowed very gradually. Himalayas, &c. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Hymenolepis brachystachys_.

=A. squamosum= (scaly).* _rhiz._ woody, densely scaly. _sti._ 2in. to 4in. long, densely clothed with pale or dark-coloured scales. _barren fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, about 1in. broad, simple, acute, the base narrowed gradually; both sides matted, and the edge densely ciliated with reddish scales. _fertile fronds_ as long as the barren ones, but much narrower, the stipes much longer. Widely distributed in both hemispheres. Stove or greenhouse species. SYN. _A. paleaceum_.

=A. subdiaphanum= (semi-transparent).* _cau._ woody, erect. _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 6in. long, firm, erect, scaly. _barren fronds_ 4in. to 8in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, simple, both ends narrowed, the edge entire. _fertile fronds_ much narrower, on longer stipes. St. Helena. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Aconiopteris subdiaphana_.

=A. subrepandum= (slighty-waved).* _rhiz._ woody, wide-creeping. _sti._ of barren fronds stout, erect, nearly naked. _barren fronds_ from 1ft. to 2ft. long, 2in. to 12in. broad, copiously pinnate, with linear-oblong entire or subrepand pinnæ on each side, which are sometimes 6in. to 8in. long, and 2in. broad. _fertile fronds_ like the others, but smaller. Isle of Luzon, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Gymnopteris subrepanda_.

=A. taccæfolium= (yew-leaved).* _cau._ woody, densely scaly. _sti._ of barren fronds 1in. to 4in. long, scaly. _barren fronds_ from 1ft. to 2ft. long, 3in. to 12in. broad, simple, oblong-lanceolate, entire, copiously pinnate, with oblong-lanceolate pinnæ, 1in. to 6in. long, 1/2in. to 1-1/2in. broad, the upper ones narrowly decurrent, the lower ones forked at the base on the under side. _fertile fronds_ simple, 6in. to 12in. long, 1/8in. broad, or pinnate, with forked linear pinnæ. The three-lobed form of this species is sometimes known as _A. trilobum_. Philippines. Stove species. SYN. _Gymnopteris taccæfolia_.

=A. tenuifolium= (narrow-leaved).* _rhiz._ wide scandent, woody, slightly scaly. _barren fronds_ simply pinnate, the stipes 4in. to 6in. long, naked, firm, erect, the fronds 3ft. to 5ft. long, 12in. to 18in. broad; pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long, 3/4in. to 1-1/2in. broad, acuminate, the edge thickened and serrulate, short-stalked. _fertile fronds_ bipinnate, with longer stipes; pinnæ long-stalked, with numerous distant pinnules. South Africa. Stove or greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. Meyerianum_ and _Stenochlæna tenuifolia_.

=A. trilobum= (three-lobed). A form of _A. taccæfolium_.

=A. villosum= (hairy).* _rhiz._ woody, densely scaly. _sti._ 2in. to 4in. long, slender, densely clothed with scales. _barren fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, acute, the lower part narrowed gradually; both surfaces scaly, and the edge more or less ciliated. _fertile fronds_ much smaller than the others. Mexico, &c. Stove species.

=A. viscosum= (clammy).* _rhiz._ woody, creeping, densely scaly. _sti._ 3in. to 6in. long, firm, erect, scaly, often viscous. _barren fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad, simple, acute, the lower part narrowed gradually; both surfaces more or less viscid, and minutely scaly. _fertile fronds_ smaller, with longer stipes. Tropical America and the tropics of the Old World, 1826. Very variable in form. Stove species.

=ACROTRICHE= (from _akros_, top, _i.e._, outermost--and _thrix_, a hair; the tips of the petals are bearded). ORD. _Epacridaceæ_. A genus of eight or nine species of dwarf, much branched, ornamental greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Flowers white or red; spikes axillary, short; corolla funnel-shaped; petals with deflexed hairs at apex. Cultivated in an equal mixture of sandy loam and peat, and propagated by cuttings made of the young shoots, pricked in sand, covered with a bell glass, and placed in a cool house; afterwards treated like _Epacris_.

=A. cordata= (heart-leaved).* _fl._ white, small, axillary, twin, or solitary. April. _l._ cordate, flat, striated below. _h._ 1ft. New Holland, 1823.

=A. divaricata= (straggling).* _fl._ white, small, in axillary spikes. May. _l._ lanceolate, mucronate, divaricate, flat, both surfaces green. _h._ 6in. to 1ft. New South Wales, 1824.

=A. ovalifolia= (oval-leaved). _fl._ white, small, in axillary spikes. March. _l._ ovate and oval, obtuse, flat, with smooth margins. _h._ 6in. to 1ft. New Holland, 1824.

=ACTÆA= (from _aktaia_, an Elder; in allusion to the resemblance of the foliage to that of the Elder). Baneberry. ORD. _Ranunculaceæ_. A small genus of perennial herbaceous plants, with bi- or triternate leaves, and long, erect racemes of whitish flowers, which are succeeded by poisonous berries. They are excellent subjects for shady places, beneath trees, or in the wild garden. Easily increased by division of the roots, and seed during spring.

=A. alba= (white).* _fl._ white; racemes simple. May, June. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, serrate or cut. Berries white, ovate-oblong, _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. N. America.

[Illustration: FIG. 23. ACTÆA SPICATA, showing Habit and Raceme of Flowers.]

=A. spicata= (spiked).* _fl._ white, or bluish; racemes ovate. Summer. _l._ bi- or triternate, serrated. Berries oblong, black, poisonous. _h._ 1ft. England. See Fig. 23.

=A. s. rubra= (red).* This differs from the type in having bright red berries, which are disposed in dense clusters on spikes overtopping the foliage. North America. A very handsome hardy perennial.

=ACTINELLA= (from _aktin_, a ray; small rayed). SYN. _Picradenia_. ORD. _Compositæ_. A small genus of hardy herbaceous plants, having radiate capitules. The only species worth cultivating is _A. grandiflora_. It thrives in an open border with a light soil. Increased by divisions of the root in spring.

=A. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, large, and handsome, 3in. in diameter. Summer. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Colorado. A very pretty branched perennial, suitable for the alpine garden.

=A. lanata= (woolly). _See_ =Eriophyllum cæspitosum=.

=ACTINIDIA= (from _aktin_, a ray; the styles radiate like the spokes of a wheel). ORD. _Ternstrœmiaceæ_. A genus of ornamental hardy deciduous climbing shrubs, with axillary corymbs of flowers; sepals and petals imbricate. Leaves entire. Excellent for trellis-work or walls, and thriving best in a light rich soil. Increased by seeds, layers, or cuttings; the latter should be put in under a hand light in autumn, in sandy soil.

[Illustration: FIG. 24. ACTINIDIA VOLUBILIS.]

=A. Kolomikta= (Kolomikta).* _fl._ white, solitary, axillary, or cymose, 1/2in. in diameter; peduncles about 1/2in. long. Summer. _l._ ovate-oblong, petiolate, rounded or sub-cordate at the base, and tapering into a long point, serrate; the autumnal tints are very handsome, changing to white and red. N. E. Asia, 1880. Rarely met with.

=A. polygama= (polygamous). _fl._ white, fragrant. Summer. _l._ cordate, serrate, petiolate. Japan, 1870. The berries of this species are edible.

=A. volubilis= (twining).* _fl._ white, small. June. _l._ oval on flowering branches, elliptic on climbing stems. Japan, 1874. A very free growing species. See Fig. 24.

=ACTINIOPTERIS= (from _aktin_, a ray, and _pteris_, a fern; the fronds are radiately cut into narrow segments). ORD. _Filices_. Sori linear-elongated, sub-marginal; involucres (= indusia) the same shape as the sorus, folded over it, placed one on each side of the narrow segments of the frond, opening towards the midrib. A small genus of beautiful and distinct stove ferns. They thrive in a compost of equal parts crocks and charcoal, about the size of peas, which must be mixed with silver sand and a very small portion of loam and peat. About half the pot should be filled with crocks, perfect drainage being necessary. A moist atmosphere is also essential, and the plants may be syringed two or three times a day. A mean summer temperature of 78deg. to 80deg., with a night one of not less than 65deg., is desirable. In winter, a mean temperature of about 73deg., and a night one of not less than 60deg., should be maintained.

=A. radiata= (rayed).* _sti._ densely tufted, 2in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ fan shaped, 1in. to 1-1/2in. each way, composed of numerous dichotomous segments, half line broad, those of the fertile frond longer than those of the barren one. India, &c. (very widely distributed), 1869. In form this elegant little species is a perfect miniature of the Fan Palm, _Latania borbonica_.

=A. r. australis= (southern).* _fronds_, segments fewer, larger, and subulate at the point. Plant much larger and more vigorous.

=ACTINOCARPUS= (from _aktin_, a ray, and _karpos_, fruit; referring to the curiously radiated fruit, resembling a star fish). ORD. _Alismaceæ_. Pretty little aquatic perennials, with habit and inflorescence of _Alisma_. Carpels six to eight, connate at base, spreading horizontally. Excellent for naturalising in bogs and pools. Increased by seeds and divisions during spring.

=A. Damasonium= (Damasonium). Ray Pod. _fl._ white, very delicate; each petal has a yellow spot at the base; scapes with a terminal umbel. June. _l._ radical, on long petioles, sometimes floating, elliptical, five-nerved. A native aquatic. The proper name of this plant is _Damasonium stellatum_.

=A. minor= (smaller).* This greenhouse species, also with white flowers, from New South Wales, is smaller.

=ACTINOMERIS= (from _aktin_, a ray, and _meris_, a part; referring to the radiated aspect of the plants). SYN. _Pterophyton_. ORD. _Compositæ_. A small genus of herbaceous perennials allied to _Helianthus_, but with compressed and winged achenes. Flower-heads corymbose, Coreopsis-like. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, serrate. They are hardy, ornamental plants, and of easy cultivation, in a loamy soil. Increased in spring, by seeds and division of the roots, on a warm border, with or without hand lights, or in cold frames. With the exception of _A. helianthoides_, they are but little known in this country.

=A. alata= (wing-stalked). _fl.-heads_ yellow. July. _h._ 3ft. America. 1803.

=A. helianthoides= (sunflower-like).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, 2in. across, July to September. _h._ 3ft. S. America, 1825.

=A. procera= (tall).* _fl.-heads_ yellow. September. _h._ 8ft. N. America, 1766.

=A. squarrosa= (rough-headed).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, in loose terminal panicles. July and August. _l._ decurrent, broadly lanceolate, coarsely toothed. Stem square, winged. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1640. SYN. _Verbesina Coreopsis_.

=ACTINOPHYLLUM.= _See_ =Sciadophyllum=.

=ACTINOSTACHYS.= Included under =Schizæa= (which _see_).

=ACTINOTUS= (from _actinotos_, furnished with rays; referring to the involucre). ORD. _Umbelliferæ_. An Australian genus of greenhouse herbaceous perennials. Flowers shortly pedicellate, numerously disposed in simple umbels; petals none. Leaves alternate, petiolate. They thrive best in loam and peat, and are increased by root division and seeds. The latter should be sown on a hotbed, in spring, and in May the seedlings may be transplanted out in the open border in a warm situation, where they will flower and seed freely.

=A. helianthus= (sunflower).* _fl._ white, in many-flowered capitate umbels; involucre many leaved, radiating, longer than the flowers. June. _l._ alternate, bipinnatifid; lobules bluntish. _h._ 2ft. 1821. SYN. _Eriocalia major_.

=A. leucocephalus= (white-headed). _fl._ white. June. _h._ 2ft. 1837.

[Illustration: FIG. 25. ADA AURANTIACA.]

=ACULEATUS.= Armed with prickles.

=ACULEOLATUS.= Armed with small prickles.

=ACULEUS.= A prickle; a conical elevation of the skin of a plant, becoming hard and sharp-pointed.

=ACUMEN.= An acute terminal angle.

=ACUMINATE.= Extended into an acute terminal angle; this word is confined to considerable extension.

=ACUNNA OBLONGA.= _See_ =Bejaria æstuans=.

=ACUTE.= Sharp-pointed.

=ACYNTHA.= A synonym of =Sanseviera= (which _see_).

=ADA= (a complimentary name). ORD. _Orchideæ_. An evergreen orchid, very closely allied to _Brassia_, from which it differs chiefly in having the lip parallel with, and solidly united to, the base of the column. Some authorities now refer the plant to the genus _Mesospinidium_. It requires to be potted in peat and sphagnum, in equal parts. The drainage must be perfect, and, during summer, the water supply profuse. Although in winter far less will suffice, the plant should not be allowed to become dry. Propagated by divisions as soon as the plant commences growth.

=A. aurantiaca= (orange).* _fl._ orange-scarlet, in long terminal nodding racemes, each bearing from six to ten blossoms; petals elongated, streaked with black inside. Winter and spring. _l._ two or three to each plant, linear, dark green, about 6in. in length. Habit erect, with somewhat cylindrical pseudo-bulbs, which taper upwards. See Fig. 25.

=ADAMIA= (named after John Adam, some time Governor-General of India, and a promoter of natural history). ORD. _Saxifrageæ_. A small genus of Hydrangea-like greenhouse evergreen shrubs, having many flowered terminal corymbs of flowers, and opposite, petiolate, oblong-lanceolate, serrated leaves. They thrive well in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand; and cuttings will root readily in a similar compost, under a hand glass.

=A. cyanea= (blue-berried). _fl._ whitish, or pink. June. _h._ 6ft. Nepaul, in rocky places, 1829.

=A. sylvatica= (wood). _fl._ blue; cymes nearly undivided, on short peduncles, disposed in a close panicle. June. _h._ 6ft. Java, 1846.

=A. versicolor= (many-coloured). _fl._ blue. August. China, 1844.

=ADAM'S APPLE.= _See_ =Citrus Limetta= and =Musa paradisiaca=.

=ADAMSIA.= _See_ =Geum=, =Puschkinia=, =Sieversia=.

=ADAM'S NEEDLE.= _See_ =Yucca=.

=ADANSONIA= (named after Michael Adanson, an eminent French botanist). Baobab Tree. ORD. _Sterculiaceæ_. This is reputed to be one of the largest trees in the world, as far as the girth of the trunk is concerned; but it is seldom seen in cultivation in this country.

=A. digitata= (finger-leaved). _fl._ white, about 6in. across, with purplish anthers, on long, axillary, solitary pedicels. _l._ palmate, with three leaflets in the young plants, and five to seven in adult ones. _h._ 40ft. Africa.

=ADDER'S FERN.= _See_ =Polypodium vulgare=.

=ADDER-SPIT.= _See_ =Pteris aquilina=.

=ADDER'S TONGUE.= _See_ =Ophioglossum=.

=ADELOBOTRYS= (from _adelos_, obscure, and _botrys_, a cluster). ORD. _Melastomaceæ_. Stove climbing shrubs with terete branches. Flowers white, crowded in cymose heads at the tops of the branches. Leaves clothed with rufous hairs on both surfaces when young, but in the adult state glabrous, except the nerves, petiolate, ovate, cordate, acuminated, ciliately serrated, five-nerved. For general culture, _see_ =Pleroma=.

=A. Lindeni= (Linden's).* _fl._ white, changing to purple. Brazil, 1866.

=A. scandens= (climbing).* This, the original species, possibly not now in cultivation, is a native of French Guiana.

=ADENANDRA= (from _aden_, a gland, and _aner_, a male; the anthers terminate in a globose gland). ORD. _Rutaceæ_. Very beautiful little greenhouse shrubs from the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers large, usually solitary at the tops of the branches; stamens ten, the five opposite the petals sterile, five fertile ones similar in form, but shorter. Leaves usually alternate, flat, glandularly dotted. They thrive in a mixture of sand and peat, with a little turfy loam. The young tops, before they begin to throw out their buds, made into cuttings, and planted in a pot of sand, with a bell glass placed over them, will root without bottom heat.

=A. acuminata= (acuminate). Synonymous with _A. amœna_.

=A. amœna= (pleasing).* _fl._ large, whitish above, and reddish beneath, solitary, sessile, terminal. June. _l._ scattered, oblong or oval, bluntish, smooth, dotted beneath. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1798. SYN. _A. acuminata_.

=A. coriacea= (leathery-leaved). _fl._ large, pink, usually solitary on the tops of the branches. June. _l._ scattered, oblong, obtuse, revolute, quite smooth. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1720.

=A. fragrans= (fragrant).* _fl._ rose colour, on long peduncles, fragrant; pedicels clammy, aggregate, umbellate. May. _l._ scattered, smooth, spreading very much, ovate-oblong, glandular, a little crenulated. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1812.

=A. linearis= (linear-leaved). _fl._ white, terminal, on long, usually solitary, pedicels. June. _l._ opposite, linear, obtuse, spreading; branches and pedicels smooth. _h._ 1ft. 1800.

=A. marginata= (margined).* _fl._ pale flesh-colour, on long peduncles; umbels terminal. June. _l._ scattered, smooth, transparent, cordate, lower ones ovate, upper ones lanceolate. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1806.

=A. umbellata= (umbel-flowered).* _fl._ pink, almost sessile, terminal, umbellate, petals fringed. June. _l._ oblong or obovate, dotted beneath, fringed on the edges. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1790.

=A. u. speciosa= (showy).* _fl._ large, pink, nearly sessile, terminal, umbellate. June. _l._ scattered, oblong or obovate, revolute, dotted beneath, smooth, but a little fringed on the edges. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1790.

=A. uniflora= (one-flowered).* _fl._ large, whitish inside, and pinkish outside, nearly sessile, solitary, terminal. June. _l._ scattered, oblong-lanceolate, somewhat pointed, revolute, smooth, dotted beneath. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1775.

=A. villosa= (shaggy).* _fl._ pink, nearly sessile, terminal, umbellate; sepals, petals, and stamens fringed. June. _l._ crowded, ovate-oblong, fringed, pubescent and glandular beneath. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1786.

=ADENANTHERA= (from _aden_, a gland, and _anthera_, an anther; in reference to the anthers, which are each terminated by a deciduous, pedicellate gland). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A small genus of stove evergreen trees, with racemose spikes of small flowers and bipinnate or decompound leaves. They thrive well in a mixture of peat and loam. Increased by cuttings, which should be taken off at a joint and planted in heat in a pot of sand, placing a bell glass over them.

=A. chrysostachys= (golden-spiked). _fl._ golden. _h._ 15ft. Mauritius, 1824.

=A. falcata= (sickle-shaped). _fl._ yellowish. _h._ 6ft. India, 1812.

=A. pavonina= (peacock-like).* Peacock Flower Fence. _fl._ white and yellow mixed. May. _l._ leaflets oval, obtuse, glabrous on both surfaces. _h._ 5ft. India, 1759.

=ADENANTHOS= (from _aden_, a gland, and _anthos_, a flower; referring to the glands on the flowers). ORD. _Proteaceæ_. Ornamental greenhouse evergreen pilose shrubs, thriving in sandy peat. Propagated in spring by cuttings, which should be placed in sandy soil under a bell glass, with a gentle bottom heat.

=A. barbigera= (bearded).* _fl._ red, axillary, solitary, pedunculate; perianth pilose, bearded at top; involucre spreading, villous. June. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, triple-nerved. _h._ 7ft. Swan River, 1845.

=A. cuneata= (wedge-leaved). _fl._ red. July. _h._ 5ft. New Holland, 1824.

=A. obovata= (obovate-leaved).* _fl._ red. July. _h._ 5ft. New Holland, 1826.

=ADENIUM= (from Aden, where it is found). ORD. _Apocynaceæ_. Greenhouse evergreen succulent shrubs. The species mentioned below is remarkable in having a globose thick caudex or stem; branches dichotomous; corolla salver-shaped. They require a well-drained compost of sand and loam. Half-ripened cuttings strike root readily in sand, under a hand glass. But little water is required when the plants are not in a growing state.

=A. obesum= (fat). _fl._ pinky-crimson, downy; corymbs terminal, many-flowered; pedicels short. June. _l._ close together at the tops of the branches, 3in. long, oblong, narrowed at the base, abruptly terminated by a hard, short point. _h._ 3ft. or 4ft. Aden, 1845.

=ADENOCALYMNA= (from _aden_, a gland, and _calymna_, a covering; referring to the conspicuous glands on the leaves and floral coverings). ORD. _Bignoniaceæ_. An elegant genus of stove evergreen climbers. Flowers racemose, trumpet-shaped, bracteate. Leaves ternate or binate. Stems slender. They require a hot and moist temperature to grow them successfully, and thrive best in a compost of loam and peat. Cuttings will root in sand, if placed under a bell glass, with bottom heat.

=A. comosum= (hairy).* _fl._ yellow; racemes spicate, axillary, and terminal; bracts comose. September. _l._ trifoliate and conjugate, tendrilled; leaflets ovate, leathery, glandular. _h._ 10ft. Brazil, 1841.

=A. longeracemosum= (long-racemed). _fl._ yellow. October. Brazil.

=A. nitidum= (shining).* _fl._ yellow; racemes axillary, nearly terminal, velvety; corolla velvety; bracts narrow, glandular. February. _l._ trifoliate or conjugate, tendrilled; leaflets elliptic, oblong. _h._ 10ft. Brazil, 1848.

=ADENOCARPUS= (from _aden_, a gland, and _karpos_, a fruit; in reference to the legumes being beset with pedicellate glands). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Shrubs, with numerous racemes of yellow flowers; divaricate branches, trifoliate usually aggregate leaves, having petiolar stipulas, and complicated leaflets. All the species are elegant when in flower, and well suited for ornamenting the fronts of shrubberies. Except where otherwise mentioned, all are hardy. They thrive best in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand; and may be readily increased by seeds or layers, or by grafting the rarer on the commoner kinds. Young cuttings will root freely in sand, covered by a hand glass, which should be taken off and wiped occasionally. Seeds may be sown in March, the hardy species out of doors, and the others in a cold house.

=A. foliolosus= (slightly-leaved).* _fl._ yellow; racemes terminal; calyx covered with glandless hairs, with the lower lip elongated and trifid at the apex; the segments equal. May. _l._ (and branches) much crowded, hairy, trifoliate. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. Canary Islands, 1629. A half-hardy evergreen species.

=A. frankenioides= (frankenia-like).* _fl._ yellow, crowded; racemes terminal; calyx beset with glandular pubescence, with the lower lip having the middle segment longer than the lateral ones, and exceeding the lower lip. April. _l._ trifoliate, much crowded, hairy; branches velvety. _h._ 1ft. to 3ft. Teneriffe, 1815. Requires protection in winter; an evergreen.

=A. hispanicus= (Spanish).* _fl._ yellow, crowded; racemes terminal; calyx beset with glands and hairs; lower lip of calyx with three equal segments, hardly longer than the upper lip. June. _l._ trifoliate, grouped; branchlets hairy. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Spain, 1816. Deciduous.

=A. intermedius= (intermediate).* _fl._ yellow, not crowded; racemes terminal; calyx beset with glandular pubescence, with the lower lip trifid, the lateral segments shorter than the middle ones, and much exceeding the upper lip. May. _l._ trifoliate, grouped; branches rather shaggy. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Sicily and Naples, on mountains, 1816. Deciduous.

=A. parvifolius= (small-leaved).* _fl._ yellow, not crowded; racemes terminal; calyx clothed with glandular pubescence, with the middle segment of the lower lip longer than the lateral ones, much exceeding the upper lip. May. _l._ trifoliate, grouped, small; branches glabrous. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. France, on exposed heaths, 1800. Deciduous.

=A. telonensis= (Toulon).* _fl._ yellow, not crowded; racemes terminal; calyx clothed with glandless pubescence, the segments of the lower lip about equal in length, a little longer than the upper lip. June. _l._ trifoliate, grouped; branchlets smoothish. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. South France, 1800. Deciduous.

=ADENOPHORA= (from _aden_, a gland, and _phoreo_, to bear; in reference to the cylindrical nectary which girds the base of the style). ORD. _Campanulaceæ_. A genus of elegant hardy border perennials, very similar in habit, shape of flower, &c., to _Campanula_, from which genus _Adenophora_ differs in having the style surrounded by a cylindrical gland. Flowers stalked, drooping, spicate. Leaves broad, stalked, somewhat whorled. They grow best in light rich garden soil, with a warm sunny position, and should be increased by seeds, as dividing the roots is the sure way to lose them. They are easily raised from seeds, which may be sown as soon as ripe, or in spring, in pots placed in a cold frame.

=A. coronopifolia= (buckhorn-leaved).* _fl._ blue, large, three to ten, racemose, at the top of the stem, on short pedicels. July. _l._ radical ones petiolate, ovate-roundish, cordate, crenately toothed; upper ones sessile, linear-lanceolate, nearly entire, quite glabrous. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Dahuria, 1822.

=A. denticulata= (toothed-leaved).* _fl._ blue, small, numerous, on short pedicels, disposed in a more or less loose elongated raceme. July. _l._ serrated, smoothish; radical ones petiolate, rounded; upper ones sessile, ovate-lanceolate. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Dahuria, 1817. SYN. _A. tricuspidata_.

=A. Fischeri= (Fischer's).* _fl._ blue, or whitish blue, numerous, sweet-scented, disposed in a more or less compound, elongated, and loose pyramidal panicle. August. _l._ radical ones petiolate, ovate-roundish, cordate, crenately toothed; upper ones sessile, ovate-lanceolate, coarsely serrated. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Siberia, 1784. SYN. _A. liliiflora_.

=A. Gmelini= (Gmelin's). _fl._ blue, secund, three to ten, on the top of each stem, rising from the axils of the upper leaves, disposed in a long raceme. July. _l._ upper ones erect, linear, very narrow, entire, glabrous. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Dahuria, in dry stony places, 1820.

=A. intermedia= (intermediate). _fl._ pale blue, small, racemose. May. _l._ radical ones petiolate, cordate, toothed; upper ones lanceolate, tapering to a point at the base, serrated, crowded. _h._ 3ft. Siberia, 1820.

=A. Lamarckii= (Lamarck's).* _fl._ blue; corolla funnel-shaped, disposed in an elongated, many-flowered, raceme, which is compound at the base. June. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, acutely serrated, ciliated, glabrous, except on the margins. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Eastern Europe, 1824.

=A. latifolia= (broad-leaved). Synonymous with _A. pereskiæfolia_.

=A. liliiflora= (lily-flowered).* _fl._ numerous, sweet-scented, in a loose pyramidal panicle. Central and Eastern Europe.

=A. pereskiæfolia= (pereskia-leaved).* _fl._ blue, rather numerous, scattered over the upper part of the stems, rarely subverticillate; peduncles one to two, or three-flowered. July. _l._ three to five in a whorl, ovate-oblong, acuminated, coarsely serrated, roughly ciliated. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Dahuria, 1821. SYN. _A. latifolia_.

=A. periplocæfolia= (periploca-leaved). _fl._ pale blue, at the top of the stem, sometimes only one. June. _l._ petiolate, ovate, acute, somewhat cordate, crenately serrated. Stem ascending. _h._ 3in. Siberia, 1824. Rockery species.

=A. stylosa= (long-styled).* _fl._ pale blue, small, few, disposed in a loose, naked, raceme. May. _l._ petiolate; lower ones obovate, sinuate; upper ones ovate, acuminated, glabrous. Stem ascending. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Eastern Europe, 1820.

=A. tricuspidata= (three-cusped). Synonymous with _A. denticulata_.

=A. verticillata= (whorl-leaved).* _fl._ pale blue, small, irregularly disposed at the tops of the stems; lower whorls many flowered, distant; peduncles one to three-flowered. June. _l._ in whorls, serrately toothed; radical ones petiolate, roundish; upper ones ovate-lanceolate; stems simple. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Dahuria, 1783.

=ADENOSTOMA= (from _aden_, a gland, and _stoma_, a mouth). ORD. _Rosaceæ_. Hardy shrubs, having small racemose, five-petalled flowers. They grow freely in rich loam and peat in equal proportions. Propagated in spring or autumn, by cuttings made of the young shoots, placed in sand, under glass.

=A. fasciculata= (fascicled).* _fl._ white, small, produced in terminal panicles. _h._ 2ft. California, 1848. A hardy, heath-like evergreen bushy plant, allied to _Alchemilla_.

=ADESMIA= (from _a_, without, _desmos_, a bond; in reference to the stamens being free). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Chiefly greenhouse evergreen shrubs, or trailers, from South America, with lanceolate stipulas, abruptly pinnate leaves, ending in a bristle; axillary one-flowered pedicels, or the flowers racemosely disposed at the tops of the branches, in consequence of the upper leaves being abortive. They will grow well in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. Propagated by cuttings placed in sand, covered by a hand glass, in a gentle heat; or by seeds, which are generally more satisfactory. The annual species--_A. muricata_, _A. papposa_, and _A. pendula_--are not worth growing. The following are fairly representative of the most ornamental species.

=A. glutinosa= (sticky).* _fl._ yellow; racemes elongated, terminal, simple, spinescent, and are (as well as the linear bracteas) clothed with white hairs. May. _l._ with about three pairs of elliptic, hairy leaflets; branches spreading, beset with glandular, glutinous hairs. Stem shrubby; legumes three-jointed, very long. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1831.

=A. Loudonii= (Loudon's). _fl._ yellow. May, _h._ 2ft. Valparaiso, 1830.

=A. microphylla= (small-leaved).* _fl._ yellow; racemes somewhat capitate, terminal, simple, spinescent. June. _l._ with six pairs of small orbicular leaflets, on short petioles, pubescent; branches spinose. Stem shrubby. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1830.

=A. Uspallatensis= (Uspallatan). _fl._ yellow. July. _h._ 1ft. China, 1832.

=A. viscosa= (clammy). _fl._ yellow. August. _h._ 12ft. Chili, 1831.

=ADHATODA= (its native name). ORD. _Acanthaceæ_. Allied to _Justicia_. Very ornamental stove shrubs, requiring a good fibrous peat and loam, with a moderate addition of silver sand. To grow them well, they require liberal treatment and plenty of heat, when the flowers will be produced in great profusion. Increased by young cuttings in spring, placed in sandy soil, in bottom heat. _See_ =Justicia=.

=A. cydoniæfolia= (quince-leaved).* _fl._ produced in rather dense clusters at the point of every branch; tube of corolla white, the upper lip white tipped with purple; the lower lip large, rich deep purple, with a white stripe down the centre. October. _l._ opposite, ovate, dark green, and are, as well as the branches, slightly downy. Brazil, 1855. This species is an excellent subject for training up pillars or rafters; and, when in bloom, makes a pretty basket plant. It has a somewhat straggling habit, but a little care only is needed in pruning and training to grow it into an elegant shape.

=A. vasica= (Vasica). _fl._ purple. July. _h._ 10ft. India, 1699.

=ADHERENT.= Strictly signifies sticking to anything, but is more commonly employed in the sense of adnate.

=ADHESION.= The union of parts usually distinct.

=ADIANTOPSIS.= _See_ =Cheilanthes=.

=ADIANTUM= (from _adiantos_, dry, as if plunged in water it yet remains dry). Maidenhair. ORD. _Filices_. A large genus of handsome tropical and temperate ferns. _Sori_ marginal, varying in shape from globose to linear, usually numerous and distinct, sometimes confluent and continuous. Involucre the same shape as the sorus, formed of the reflexed margin of the fronds, bearing the capsules on its upper side. None of the Adiantums are truly hardy except the American _A. pedatum_; even our own native species requires protection. The chief requirements of this handsome genus of ferns are good drainage, and a compost of fibrous peat, loam and sand. In most cases, plenty of pot room is essential, and a larger quantity of loam will be needed for strong-growing sorts. For general culture, _see_ =Ferns=.

=A. æmulum= (rival).* _sti._ slender, about 6in. long. _fronds_ slender, pyramidate, tri-subquadripinnate; pinnæ distinct, obliquely pyramidate, unequally-sided; pinnules rhomboid or oblong, tapering to the base, the terminal one distinctly cuneate, all sparingly lobate. _sori_, 2in. to 4in., circular, or nearly so. Brazil, 1877. Stove or greenhouse species.

=A. æthiopicum= (Æthiopian).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, rather slender, erect. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, deltoid, tri- or quadripinnate; lower pinnæ 3in. to 4in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, deltoid; ultimate segments 1/4in. to 1/2in. across, 1/4in. deep, suborbicular, the upper part broadly lobed; rachis and surfaces naked. _sori_ in several roundish patches. _A. Chilense_ (Chilian), _A. scabrum_ (scurfy), _A. sulphureum_ (sulphured) are mere forms of this species. Spain, and almost cosmopolitan. A very pretty greenhouse fern. SYNS. _A. assimile_, _A. emarginatum_.

=A. affine= (related).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, erect. _fronds_ with a terminal central pinna 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, and several smaller erecto-patent lateral ones, the lowest of which are again branched; pinnules, 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, 1/4in. deep, dimidiate, the lower edge straight, the upper nearly parallel with it, crenate, like the oblique or bluntly rounded outer edge. _sori_ numerous, roundish. New Zealand. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. Cunninghami_.

=A. amabile= (lovely). Synonymous with _A. glaucophyllum_. Also a garden name for _A. Moorei_.

=A. amœnum= (pleasing). Synonymous with _A. flabellulatum_.

=A. andicolum.= A synonym of _A. glaucophyllum_.

=A. aneitense= (Aneiteum).* _sti._ and _rachises_ castaneous, the latter glabrous beneath, ferrugino-pilose above; _fronds_ deltoid, three to four pinnate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, and broad; segments, about 1/2in. long, rhomboidal, ascending, nearly sessile, inner side close to rachis, lower erecto-patent, shallowly lobed. _sori_ round, reniform, in centre of lobes, four to six to a segment. Aneiteum Isles, 1880. Stove or greenhouse species.

=A. assimile= (assimilated). An Australian form of the widely-distributed _A. æthiopicum_.

=A. Bausei= (Bause's).* _fronds_ 1-1/2ft. to 2-1/2ft. long, spreading, triangular, tri-quadripinnate; pinnæ stalked, the lower ones obliquely triangular; pinnules broad, laterally deflexed, the basal ones obliquely ovate with a truncate base, the intermediate somewhat trapeziform, the terminal cuneate--all shallowly lobed and pedicellate. _sori_ oblong reniform, set across the apices of the lobes, 1879. A beautiful stove or greenhouse hybrid, between _A. trapeziforme_ and _A. decorum_.

=A. bellum= (handsome).* _fronds_ tufted, 3in. to 6in. high, bipinnate. ovate-lanceolate; pinnæ of three to six pinnules, 1/2in. to 1-1/2in. long, stalked; pinnules cuneate or irregular transverse-oblong, the somewhat larger terminal ones cuneate, lobed, the margin erose, all shortly stalked. _sori_ two to three on the smaller pinnules, roundish, or sublunate. Bermuda, 1879. Greenhouse or Wardian case species.

=A. Capillus-Veneris= (Venus's hair).* Common Maidenhair. _sti._ sub-erect, rather slender, 4in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ very variable in size, with short terminal and numerous erecto-patent lateral branches on each side, the lowest slightly branched again; segments 1/2in. to 1in. broad, deeply lobed, and the lobes again bluntly crenated. _sori_ placed in roundish sinuses of the crenation. Great Britain, and world-wide in its distribution. Greenhouse, case, or frame species.

=A. C.-V. cornubiense= (Cornish).* _fronds_ very numerous, and dwarf, more or less oblong in general outline, with large, broad pinnules of a deep green, with finely-waved margins, and an almost pellucid, but firm texture. One of the best forms, but somewhat delicate in constitution.

=A. C.-V. crispulum= (crisped).* _fronds_, with the stipes, from 6in. to 12in. long, more attenuated than those of the type, and narrower at the base; pinnules less numerous, but broad and thin, crisp, of a light green colour, more or less cut at the broadest part. A handsome variety, of vigorous growth.

[Illustration: FIG. 26. ADIANTUM CAPILLUS-VENERIS DAPHNITES.]

=A. C.-V. daphnites= (glistening).* _sti._ and _rachises_ dark brown, reaching a height of from 9in. to 14in. pinnæ and ultimate pinnules more or less confluent, the latter being broad, and of a dull green colour, usually forming a tufted crest at the extremities of the fronds. A charming subject for the Wardian case. Very distinct. See Fig. 26.

=A. C.-V. fissum= (divided). Very dwarf in habit, with pinnules rather broader than those of the type, which are deeply and variously cut, so as to give the plant a distinctive appearance from most of the forms.

=A. C.-V. Footi= (Foot's). Closely allied to the variety _fissum_, having fronds a foot or more long, with very ample pinnules deeply incised, light green. Vigorous.

=A. C.-V. incisum= (deeply cut). Very closely allied to _A. C.-V. fissum_, but rather more vigorous in growth; pinnules broad, and deeply slit into segments near the base.

=A. C.-V. magnificum= (magnificent).* _fronds_ from 9in. to 16in. long, more or less elongated in outline, 3in. to 4in. across; pinnules ample, rich green, with the margins finely cut and imbricated. The arching character gives this form a most distinct appearance. A very fine variety.

=A. C.-V. rotundum= (rounded). Pinnules usually round, without the cuneiform base of the normal form; neither are the fronds so broad. Isle of Man. Variable in its habit.

=A. C.-V. undulatum= (wavy).* _fronds_ dense, compact, having broad, roundish dark green pinnules, which are undulated at the edges. An elegant dwarf-growing form.

=A. cardiochlæna= (heart-form indusium). A synonym of _A. polyphyllum_.

=A. caudatum= (tailed).* _sti._ 2in. to 4in. long, tufted, wiry. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, simply pinnate, often elongated, and rooting at the extremity; pinnæ about 1/2in. long, 1/4in. deep, dimidiate, nearly sessile, the lower line straight and horizontal, the upper rounded, more or less cut, the point usually blunt, the lower ones slightly stalked. _sori_ roundish or transversely oblong on the edge of the lobes; _rachis_ and both sides of the frond villose. _A. ciliatum_ (of gardens) is probably a mere form, if not a synonym, of this species. Throughout the Tropics everywhere. Greenhouse or stove species; very fine for hanging baskets.

=A. colpodes= (deep hollow).* _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long, slender, slightly fibrillose. _fronds_ 9in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, deltoid, tripinnate, light green; lower pinnæ spreading at right angles from the rachis, 2in. to 4in. long, 1-1/2in. broad, slightly branched below; ultimate segments about 1/2in. long, 1/4in. broad, the lower line often straight, the upper rounded, lobed, and toothed, all nearly or quite sessile. _sori_ placed in distinct teeth of the outer edge. Ecuador and Peru, 1875. Greenhouse species.

=A. concinnum= (neat).* _sti._ 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, ovate-deltoid, tripinnate; pinnæ numerous, spreading, flexuous, the lowest 4in. to 6in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; segments 1/4in. to 3/8in. across, broadly cuneate at the base, the upper edge irregularly rounded, deeply lobed, the lobes crenate, the lowest segment of each pinna and pinnule large, sessile. _sori_ numerous, ob-reniform. Tropical America. A most elegant species for baskets and the rockery.

=A. c. Flemingi= (Fleming's). This variety, of garden origin, is also very handsome.

=A. c. latum= (broad).* Differs from the type in being more erect and robust in habit, and broader in all its parts. It constitutes an excellent stove plant.

=A. crenatum= (crenated).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ with a terminal central pinna 6in. to 9in. long and several large erecto-patent lateral ones on each side, the lowest of which are branched again; segments about 1/2in. long, 1/4in. deep, dimidiate, the lower line upcurved, the upper nearly straight, slightly crenate. _sori_ numerous, round, placed on the upper and sometimes outer edge. This is closely allied to _A. tetraphyllum_. Mexico. Stove species. SYN. _A. Wilesianum_.

[Illustration: FIG. 27. ADIANTUM DECORUM.]

=A. cristatum= (crested). _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, strong, erect, tomentose. _fronds_ 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. to 12in. broad, with a terminal central pinna 6in. to 9in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, and numerous rather distant lateral ones on each side, the lowest of which are sometimes again branched; segments 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad, dimidiate, the lower line nearly straight, the upper nearly parallel or rounded, the point blunt. _sori_ in several oblong or linear patches. West Indies and Venezuela, 1844. Stove species. SYN. _A. Kunzeanum_.

=A. cubense= (Cuba).* _sti._ 4in. to 8in. long, nearly black, erect. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, simply pinnate, or with a single pair of short branches; pinnæ 1in. to 2in. long, and about 3/4in. to 1in. broad, unilateral, the lower line slightly recurved, the upper rounded and broadly lobed, of a deep green colour, with a soft herbaceous texture. _sori_ in hollows of the lobes. Cuba and Jamaica. A very distinct stove species.

=A. cuneatum= (wedge-shaped).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, slender, erect. _fronds_ 9in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, deltoid, tri- or quadripinnate; lower pinnæ 4in. to 6in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; segments numerous, 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad, cuneate at the base, the upper edge deeply lobed. _sori_ four to six, obversely reniform. Brazil, 1820. This fine greenhouse species is more generally grown than any other; and a number of garden forms have received distinctive names.

=A. c. dissectum= (dissected).* A pretty variety, with the pinnules more deeply lobed than in the type.

=A. c. Lawsonianum= (Lawson's). This is a very abnormal form, curiously and finely cut, with the ultimate segments narrowly cuneate at the base, stalked, and distant. Of garden origin. Greenhouse variety.

=A. c. mundulum= (neat).* _sti._ 3in. to 4in. high. _fronds_ dwarf, tufted, erect, hardly 3in. broad, deltoid, tripinnate; pinnæ and pinnules crowded; pinnules narrowly cuneate, rarely three-parted, with narrow wedge-shaped lobes; apex slightly crenate, and bears a roundish sorus set in a notch of the lobe or crenature. Of garden origin, 1879. Greenhouse variety.

=A. Cunninghami= (Cunningham's). Synonymous with _A. affine_.

=A. curvatum= (curved).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ dichotomous, with main divisions again once or twice forked; pinnæ 8in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; pinnules 1-1/4in. to 1-1/2in. long, about 1/2in. deep, not truly dimidiate, but only the lower two-thirds of the under half cut away, the upper margin rounded and broadly lobed, with the lobes finely toothed and point often lengthened out. _sori_ linear, or transversely oblong. Tropical America, 1841. Stove species.

=A. decorum= (decorous).* _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ sub-deltoid, 9in. to 15in. long, three to four pinnate; lower pinnæ and pinnules stalked, deltoid; side segments rhomboid, 1/4in. to 3/8in. long; outer edge distinctly lobed; lower segments equilateral, imbricated over main rachis. _sori_ round, in final lobes, four to six to a segment. This greenhouse species ranks midway between _A. concinnum_ and _A. cuneatum_. Peru. SYN. _A. Wagneri_. See Fig. 27.

=A. deltoideum= (deltoid).* _sti._ densely tufted, 3in. to 4in. long, wiry, erect. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, 3/4in. broad, with a terminal lobe and numerous sub-opposite pinnæ, the lower ones distant, distinctly stalked, 1/2in. long, 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad, hastate-deltoid, cordate or cuneate at the base. _sori_ in interrupted lines along the sides of the pinnæ. West Indian Islands. Stove species.

[Illustration: FIG. 28. ADIANTUM DIAPHANUM.]

=A. diaphanum= (transparent).* _sti._ 4in. to 8in. long, slender, erect. _fronds_ 6in. to 7in. long, simply pinnate, or with one to three branches at the base; pinnules 1/2in. long, 1/4in. broad, the lower line rather decurved, the upper nearly parallel with it, crenate like the blunt outer edge. _sori_ obversely reniform, numerous. S.E. China, New Zealand, &c. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. setulosum_. See Fig. 28.

=A. digitatum= (finger-leaved).* _sti._ 12in. to 18in. long, erect. _fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 6in. to 1ft. 6in. broad, furnished with numerous distant spreading or erecto-patent branches, gradually shortened upwards, the lowest of which are branched again; lower pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 4in. broad; segments 3/4in. to 1in. each way, varying from deflexed to cuneate at the base, the upper edge rounded, deeply cut, and the lobes again less deeply cut, the lower ones distinctly stalked. _sori_ in lines along the edge of the lobes. Peru. It is generally cultivated under the name of _A. speciosum_. Stove or greenhouse species.

=A. dolabriforme= (axe-shaped). Synonymous with _A. lunulatum_.

=A. dolosum= (deceiving). Synonymous with _A. Wilsoni_.

=A. Edgworthii= (Edgeworth's).* This differs from _caudatum_ by having more membranous texture, glabrous surfaces, and sub-entire pinnæ. Himalaya and China.

=A. emarginatum= (notched at the end). Synonymous with _A. æthiopicum_.

=A. excisum= (bluntly cut).* _sti._ 2in. to 3in. long, wiry, densely tufted. _fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, 3in. to 6in. broad, with numerous flexuose short pinnæ on each side, the lowest of which are slightly branched again; segments two to three lines broad, cuneate at the base, the upper edge rounded and bluntly lobed. _sori_ two to four, large, obversely reniform, placed in distinct hollows on the lobes. Chili.

=A. e. Leyi= (Ley's).* This is a very dwarf, copiously crested form, of garden origin, most suitable for case culture. Greenhouse variety.

=A. e. multifidum= (much-cut).* A handsome garden variety; the apex of every frond is frequently divided into several branches, which oftentimes are again divided and crested, thus forming a beautiful tassel 2in. to 3in. long. Greenhouse species.

=A. Feei= (Fee's).* _sti._ 12in. to 18in. long, strong, scandent. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 1ft. or more broad, tripinnate, the main and secondary rachises zigzag, all the branches firm and spreading at a right angle; lower pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 4in. broad; pinnules 1in. to 2in. long, 1/2in. broad, consisting of a terminal segment and several distant suborbicular-cuneate lateral ones. _sori_ marginal, roundish, more than half line deep. Tropical America. Stove species. SYN. _A. flexuosum_.

=A. flabellulatum= (small fan-leaved).* _sti._ erect, strong. _fronds_ dichotomously branched, and the divisions once or twice branched again; central pinnæ 4in. to 8in. long, 3/4in. broad; pinnules about 1/4in. broad and deep, dimidiate, the lower edge nearly straight, the upper rounded, the outer blunt, both entire or slightly toothed. _sori_ in several transversely oblong notches. Tropical Asia. Stove species. SYN. _A. amœnum_.

=A. flexuosum= (zigzagly-bent). Synonymous with _A. Feei_.

=A. formosum= (beautiful).* _sti._ 12in. to 18in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ 18in. to 24in. long, 12in. to 18in. broad, bi-, tri-, or quadripinnate; lower pinnæ 12in. to 15in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, deltoid; pinnules deltoid; ultimate segments 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad, one and a half to two lines deep, dimidiate, the lower edge straight, the upper and outer rather rounded and deeply lobed, the lower ones distinctly stalked. _sori_ numerous, between obreniform and transversely oblong. Australia, 1820. Greenhouse species.

=A. fovearum.= Synonymous with _A. intermedium_.

=A. fulvum= (tawny).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ 9in. to 12in. long, 6in. to 8in. broad, deltoid in general outline, with a terminal pinna 4in. to 6in. long, about 1-1/2in. broad, and several erecto-patent branches, the lower of which are branched again; pinnules about 3/4in. long, 1/4in. deep, dimidiate, the lower edge nearly straight, the upper almost parallel, sharply toothed like the oblique outer edge. _sori_ large, numerous. New Zealand. Greenhouse species.

=A. Ghiesbreghti= (Ghiesbreght's).* _fronds_ 18in. to 30in. long, ovate, deltoid, tripinnate; pinnules large, slightly crenate on the margins. A very fine stove fern, with the habit of _A. tenerum Farleyense_, but less dense. It is undoubtedly a variety of _tenerum_, having originated in Mr. Williams's nursery some years since. SYN. _A. scutum_.

=A. glaucophyllum= (grey-leaved).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, erect. _fronds_ 12in. to 24in. long, 9in. to 15in. broad, deltoid, quadripinnate; lower pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 6in. broad, deltoid, erecto-patent; segments 1/4in. broad, cuneate at the base, the upper edge irregularly rounded, more or less lobed. _sori_ four to six, obversely reniform, placed in distinct hollows in the apex of the lobes of the upper edge, deep green above, glaucous beneath. Closely allied to _A. cuneatum_. Mexico. Greenhouse. SYNS. _A. amabile_, _A. andicolum_, _A. mexicanum_.

=A. gracillimum= (most graceful).* _fronds_ deltoidly ovate, 9in. to 24in. long, and 6in. to 10in. across, decompound, rich green; ultimate pinnules distant, minute, distinctly stalked, obovate, emarginate, or two to three lobed, the sterile lobes blunt. _sori_ solitary on the entire pinnules, two to three on the larger lobed ones. One of the most graceful and beautiful of greenhouse ferns; the very numerous minute segments and the ramifications of the rachis impart to a well grown plant a very charming appearance. Of garden origin. A form of _A. cuneatum_.

=A. Henslovianum= (Henslow's).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, erect. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, ovate, tripinnate, furnished with numerous distant pinnæ on each side, the upper of which are simple, but the lowest slightly branched; segments 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, 1/4in. to 3/8in. deep, dimidiate, the lower line nearly straight, the upper rather rounded and lobed, the point bluntly rounded. _sori_ obversely reniform, placed in the hollows of the lobes. Columbia, Peru, &c., 1833. A most distinct and beautiful stove species. SYNS. _A. lætum_, _A. Reichenbachii_, _A. sessilifolium_.

=A. Hewardia= (Heward's). _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, erect. _fronds_ simply pinnate or bipinnate, with a terminal pinna and two to four lateral ones on each side, the lowest pair of which sometimes with two to four pinnules each; pinnules 3in. to 4in. long, about 1in. broad, nearly equal sided, ovate lanceolate, nearly entire. _sori_ in continuous lines along both edges. Jamaica, &c., occurring over a wide area. Stove species. SYN. _Hewardia adiantoides_.

=A. hispidulum= (hairyish).* _sti._ 6in. to 15in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ dichotomous, with the main divisions flabellately branched; central pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad; pinnules 3/8in. to 3/4in. long, two to four lines broad, dimidiate, subrhomboidal, the outer edge bluntly rounded, upper and outer margin finely toothed, slightly stalked. _sori_ roundish, numerous, contiguous. Tropics of Old World, 1822. Greenhouse. SYN. _A. pubescens_.

=A. intermedium= (intermediate). _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, erect, strong. _fronds_ with a terminal pinna 6in. to 9in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, and one to three small spreading lateral ones on each side; pinnules 1in. to 1-1/2in. long; 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, unequal sided, but not dimidiate, the point bluntish or acute, the inner edge nearly parallel with the stem, the upper nearly straight, scarcely toothed. _sori_ in interrupted marginal patches, one to two lines across, placed round the upper and lower edges. Stove. Tropical America, from the Antilles southwards to Peru and Rio Janeiro, 1824. SYNS. _A. fovearum_, _A. triangulatum_.

=A. Kunzeanum= (Kunze's). Synonymous with _A. cristatum_.

=A. lætum= (joyful). Synonymous with _A. Henslovianum_.

=A. Lathomi= (Lathom's).* A garden variety, said to be a sport from _A. Ghiesbreghti_, which it closely resembles, being between it and _A. Farleyense_. It is a magnificent plant, producing _fronds_ from 18in. to 24in. long, with imbricated deeply-cut pinnules. Stove variety.

=A. Legrandi= (Legrand's). Very closely allied to, if not identical with, _A. Pecottei_. Greenhouse variety, of garden origin.

=A. Lindeni= (Linden's).* _sti._ black, naked. _fronds_ erect, large, pentagonal, tripinnate; rachises pubescent above, naked beneath; segments sub-distant, 1-1/2in. long, oblong-rhomboidal, falcate, acuminate, outer margins closely but bluntly lobed, of a deep green colour, the lobes toothed. _sori_ oblong or reniform. Amazons, 1866. A magnificent stove species.

=A. lucidum= (shiny).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, simply pinnate, with a large terminal pinna and six to ten lateral ones on each side, or the lowest very slightly branched, 3in. to 4in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad, nearly equal sided, lanceolate acuminate, slightly serrated towards the point. _sori_ in a continuous row along each side. West Indian Islands and Tropical America. Stove species.

[Illustration: FIG. 29. ADIANTUM LUDDEMANNIANUM.]

=A. Luddemannianum= (Luddemann's).* A very striking variety of the common Maidenhair, _A. Capillus-Veneris_, of garden origin, with smooth, dark, almost black stipes, branching about a third of the way up, while the pinnules are crested, usually clustered, at the extremities of the branches, of a deep green, sub-glaucous character. It is a very elegant little greenhouse variety. See Fig. 29.

=A. lunulatum= (crescent-leaved).* _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long, tufted, wiry. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad, simply pinnate; pinnæ 3/4in. to 1in. broad, 1/2in. to 1in. deep, sub-dimidiate, the lower edge nearly in a line with the petiole, the upper edge rounded and, like the sides, usually more or less lobed. _sori_ in continuous lines along the edge. Hongkong, &c., widely distributed in both hemispheres. Stove species. SYN. _A. dolabriforme_.

=A. macrocladum= (long-branched). Synonymous with _A. polyphyllum_.

=A. macrophyllum= (long-leaved).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, strong, erect, nearly black. _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, simply pinnate; the lower pinnæ of the barren frond 3in. to 4in. long, 2in. broad, ovate, so broad at the base that the opposite ones frequently overlap, the margin rather deeply lobed; fertile ones narrower. _sori_ in long continuous, or slightly interrupted, marginal lines. Tropical America, 1793. One of the finest stove species in cultivation.

=A. macropterum= (long-winged). Synonymous with _A. Wilsoni_.

=A. mexicanum= (Mexican). Synonymous with _A. glaucophyllum_.

=A. microphyllum= (short-leaved). A synonym of _A. venustum_.

=A. monochlamys= (one-covered).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, wiry, erect, dark, chestnut brown; _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, ovate-deltoid, tripinnate, the pinnæ rather distantly placed; segments 1/4in. broad, cuneate at the base, the upper edge rounded, slightly toothed, of a light green colour, with a firm texture. _sori_ single, or very rarely two, in a hollow of the upper edge. Japan. A very distinct and pretty greenhouse species.

=A. monosorum= (uni-soriate). A pretty species, from Solomon Islands, not yet in cultivation.

=A. Moorei= (Moore's).* _sti._ 6in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ deltoid, 6in. to 15in. long, two to three pinnate; side segments about 1/2in. long, rhomboid, lower edge deflexed from tip of pedicel, outer lobed half way down. _sori_ round, placed in tip of lobes. Andes of Peru. Stove or greenhouse species. SYN. _A. amabile_, under which name it is frequently grown.

=A. Moritzianum= (Moritz's). This appears to be a stronger, more robust grower (fronds from 12in. to 18in. high), with thicker stipes and larger pinnules than the typical _A. Capillus-Veneris_. South America. Greenhouse species.

=A. neoguineense= (New Guinea).* _sti._ 6in. to 8in. long, chestnut brown, erect. _fronds_ spreading, deltoid, tri-quadripinnate, dark olive green with a glaucous tinge on both surfaces; pinnæ ovate; terminal pinnules cuneate, lateral ones trapezoid, about 1/2in. long, crenately lobed, the lobes rather large, entire. _sori_ small, 6in. to 8in., orbicular, entirely sunk in closed sinuses of the marginal lobes. New Guinea, 1877. A very charming stove species.

=A. obliquum= (oblique). _sti._ 3in. to 6in. long, erect, wiry, pubescent. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, with a terminal lobe and three to twelve pairs of alternate pinnæ, the lowest 1in. to 2in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, costate nearly to the apex, the upper half the largest, rounded at the base, the lower half obliquely truncate at the base, those of the barren frond slightly toothed. _sori_ in numerous interrupted marginal patches, one to two lines broad. West Indies, &c., 1826. Stove species.

=A. palmatum= (palmate).* _fronds_ with elongated zigzag rachises, elongate-oblong, narrowed to the apex, tripinnate, often reaching 3-1/2ft. long, 10in. broad; pinnules distinct; ultimate segments large, smooth, distant, distinctly stipitate, varying from obovate wedge-shaped to semi-orbicular in outline, but all deeply, palmately cut, 1in. to 1-3/4in. broad. _sori_ oblong, variable in length, situate at the tips of the segments, usually one to each. This is a very beautiful and graceful stove or greenhouse species. Peru, 1877.

=A. patens= (spreading). _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, erect. _fronds_ dichotomously divided and the branches once or twice divided again; central pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long, 1-1/2in. broad; pinnules 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, 1/4in. deep, dimidiate, the two sides nearly parallel, the upper and outer ones broadly and bluntly lobed. _sori_ placed round the upper and outer edge, obversely reniform. Brazil, &c., 1824. Stove species.

=A. Pecottei= (Pecot's).* This is a charming little variety, of garden origin, with short decompound fronds, imbricated segments, comparatively large, of a deep green colour, and likely to prove one of the most useful maidenhair ferns grown.

=A. pedatum= (pedate).* _sti._ 9in. to 24in. long, erect, polished. _fronds_ dichotomous, with the main divisions flabellately branched; central pinnæ 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad; pinnules 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, 1/4in. deep, dimidiate, broadest on the side nearest the stem, the upper and outer margin lobed, shortly stalked. _sori_ roundish, one to two lines broad. North Hindostan, the United States, &c. Hardy species. See Fig. 30.

=A. peruvianum= (Peruvian).* _sti._ 9in. to 18in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ simply pinnate, or with one to three branches at the base, some of the latter sometimes again slightly divided; pinnules 2in. or more broad, 1-1/2in. deep, unequally ovate, cuneate at base, finely toothed and lobed round the upper and outer edge. _sori_ in interrupted patches round the sides of the pinnules. Peru. This is one of the finest of the large growing, evergreen stove kinds.

=A. polyphyllum= (many-leaved).* _sti._ 12in. to 18in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 12in. to 18in. broad, the upper part simply pinnate; lower pinnæ sometimes 1ft. long; 6in. broad, with a long terminal and numerous lateral pinnules; segments 3/4in. to 1in. long, 1/4in. deep, dimidiate, with nearly parallel edges, the point obtuse, the upper edge sharply toothed. _sori_ in numerous sub-orbicular patches, placed in hollows in lobes along the upper edge. Columbia. A magnificent stove species. SYNS. _A. cardiochlæna_ and _A. macrocladum_.

=A. populifolium= (poplar-leaved). A synonym of _A. Seemanni_.

=A. princeps= (princely).* _sti._ 9in. to 12in. long, stout, nearly erect. _fronds_ large, 12in. to 24in. long, 9in. to 18in. across the base, deltoid, pendent, quadripinnate, pale greyish; lower pinnæ obliquely elongate, triangular, the posterior side tripinnate, the anterior bipinnate; upper ones pinnate, with a large cuneately flabellate terminal pinnule, apex of fronds pinnate; pinnules 1in. long, 3/4in. broad, roundish rhomboidal or shortly trapeziform, shortly stalked; basal margin entire, slightly concave, the anterior margins and apex lobate, the lobes serrulate in the sterile parts, and, where fertile, bearing each a concave sorus, so that the lobes appear two-horned. New Grenada, 1875. A magnificent stove species.

=A. prionophyllum= (saw-leaved). Synonymous with _A. tetraphyllum_.

=A. pubescens= (downy). Synonymous with _A. hispidulum_.

=A. pulverulentum= (covered with powder).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, strong, erect; _fronds_ with a terminal pinna and several spreading lateral ones on each side, which are 4in. to 8in. long, 1in. broad; pinnules 1/2in. long, one and a half to two lines deep, dimidiate, the lower line nearly straight, the upper one nearly parallel, both it and the outer edge finely toothed. _sori_ in a continuous line along the lower and upper edges. West Indies, &c. Stove species.

[Illustration: FIG. 30. ADIANTUM PEDATUM.]

=A. Reichenbachii= (Reichenbach's). Synonymous with _A. Henslovianum_.

=A. reniforme= (kidney-shaped).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ simple, orbicular, reniform, of a deep green colour, 1-1/2in. to 2-1/2in. across, with usually a broad, open sinus. _sori_ all around the edge, one and a half to three lines broad. Madeira, &c., 1699. Greenhouse species.

=A. r. asarifolium= (asarum-leaved). A rather larger growing variety of above species.

=A. rhomboideum= (rhomboid). S. America, 1820. Probably identical with _A. villosum_.

=A. rubellum= (reddish).* _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, deltoid, bipinnate; uppermost side of the pinnules cuneate, flabellate, nearly sessile, entire; lower rhomboid 1/2in. long, with lower border in a line with petiole, or rather decurved, inner produced over rachis, outer deeply lobed and finely toothed; end and lowest pinnules deltoid, 1/2in. broad. _sori_ round, placed in the tips of the lobes. This pretty species is purplish crimson when in a young state, changing to light green with age, but even then tinged with pink. Allied to _A. tinctum_ and _A. decorum_. Bolivia, 1868. Greenhouse species.

=A. scutum= (shield). Synonymous with _A. Ghiesbreghti_.

=A. Seemanni= (Seemann's).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, erect. _fronds_ 9in. to 20in. long, simply pinnate or the lower pinnæ compound; pinnæ 3in. to 4in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, ovate, acuminate; but rather unequally sided, the barren ones finely serrated, one side usually cordate at the base, the other obliquely truncate, petioles of the lowest, nearly an inch long. _sori_ in long continuous marginal lines. This is a very fine and distinct stove species. Central America, 1868. SYNS. _A. populifolium_, _A. Zahnii_ (of gardens).

=A. sessilifolium= (sessile-leaved). Synonymous with _A. Henslovianum_.

=A. setulosum= (bristly). Synonymous with _A. diaphanum_.

=A. speciosum= (showy). Synonymous with _A. digitatum_.

=A. subvolubile= (somewhat twining). _fronds_ subscandent, 2ft. to 4ft. long, oblong, tripinnate, 6in. to 8in. broad, with naked glossy castaneous stipes and zigzag rachises; central pinnæ lanceolate, with a few short spreading pinnules; side pinnules rhomboidal, about 1/4in. long, lower edge in a line with petiole, or deflexed, inner end touching or wrapped over rachis, outer shallowly lobed; lowest pinnules equilateral, much wrapped over rachis. _sori_ minute, round, six to twelve to a segment. E. Peru. Stove species.

=A. tenerum= (tender).* _sti._ 1ft. or more high, erect. _fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. to 18in. broad, deltoid, tri- or quadripinnate; segments 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, cuneate or tending towards rhomboidal, dimidiate in shape, the upper edge rounder or somewhat angular, broadly and deeply lobed, all stalked. _sori_ placed in numerous roundish patches in the lobes of the upper half. Mexico, &c., widely distributed. Stove species.

=A. t. Farleyense= (Farley's).* A subfertile, subcristate variety of the foregoing; but, is, nevertheless, one of the most magnificent of Adiantums. It is nearly always known under the name of _A. Farleyense_. Barbados, 1865. Stove variety.

=A. tetraphyllum= (four-leaved).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ nearly as broad as long, with a terminal pinna 6in. to 9in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, and numerous spreading lateral ones; segments 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, 1/4in. deep, subdimidiate, the lower line straight or somewhat decurved, the upper nearly parallel, finely toothed, the outer oblique. _sori_ interrupted, marginal. Tropical America. Stove species. SYN. _A. prionophyllum_.

=A. t. Hendersoni= (Henderson's). A stove variety with small blunt pinnules.

=A. tinctum= (tinted).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, deltoid, bipinnate; side pinnules rhomboid, three to four lines long, lower edge straight, inner parallel with rachis, or just wrapped over it, outer shallowly, bluntly lobed; lower pinnules equilateral, imbricated over main rachis; surfaces glabrous, when young of a delicate rose red colour, changing to a bright green. _sori_ round, placed in final lobes. Tropical America. Stove or greenhouse species.

=A. trapeziforme= (rhomb-leaved).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, firm, erect. _fronds_ 12in. to 24in. long, with a central pinna 4in. to 8in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, and two to four large spreading ones on each side, the lowest of which are often branched again; segments 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, dimidiate, the sides nearly parallel, the outer edge oblique, both it and the upper one bluntly lobed, the lowest on stalks 1/4in. to 1/2in. long. _sori_ numerous, contiguous, placed round the upper and outer edge. West Indies, 1793. Stove species.

=A. t. cultratum= (sharpened).* Outer edge of the segment bluntly rounded.

=A. t. pentadactylon= (five-fingered). Lower margin of the segments somewhat decurved obliquely from the petiole.

=A. t. Sanctæ Catherinæ= (of gardens).* This is a deeply cut, rather copiously divided variety of _A. trapeziforme_.

=A. t. S. C. Funcki= (Funck's).* A deeply lobed, drooping variety, of garden origin.

=A. triangulatum= (triangle-leaved). Synonymous with _A. intermedium_.

=A. varium= (various). Probably identical with _A. villosum_.

=A. Veitchianum= (Veitch's).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 9in. to 18in. long, deltoid, bipinnate in lower half, reddish when young; side pinnules rhomboid, about 1/2in. long, lower border straight, more or less deflexed from tip of pedicel, inner distant from rachis, upper and outer shallowly lobed; end segments 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, equilateral, rounded in upper, deltoid in lower half. _sori_ eight to ten to a segment, round, minute. Peruvian Andes, 1868. A very elegant and distinct stove species.

=A. velutinum= (velvety).* _sti._ as long as fronds, slightly velvety. _fronds_ deltoid, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, three to four pinnate; rachises densely pubescent on both sides; pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long; segments twenty to thirty-jugate, sub-sessile, sub-rhomboidal, 1in. long, 1/2in. broad, lower border decurved, outer blunt or sub-acute, upper straight, shallowly, bluntly lobed. _sori_ straight, one to one and a half lines long at tips of lobes of upper edge, four to six to a segment. Columbia, 1866. A magnificent stove species.

=A. venustum= (charming).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, wiry, erect, glossy. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, deltoid, tri-quadripinnate; ultimate segments about 1/4in. across, cuneate at the base, the upper edge rounded, and usually finely toothed, of a light green colour, with a firm texture. _sori_ one to three, roundish; in hollows of the upper edge. Himalayas, up to 8000ft. Greenhouse or frame, nearly hardy in sheltered places. SYN. _A. microphyllum_.

=A. villosum= (hairy stalked).* _sti._ 9in. to 12in. long, strong, erect. _fronds_ with a terminal central and several spreading pinnæ on each side, 6in. to 12in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad; pinnules dimidiate, about 1in. long, 1/2in. broad, the lower line nearly straight, the upper edge nearly parallel with it, but considerably larger, slightly toothed, and the outer edge auriculed at the base. _sori_ in a continuous line round the upper and outer edge. West Indies, &c., 1775. Stove species.

=A. Wagneri= (Wagner's). Synonymous with _A. decorum_.

=A. Wilesianum= (Wiles's). Synonymous with _A. crenatum_.

=A. Williamsii= (Williams's).* _sti._ 6in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 9in. to 18in. long, tripinnate, triangular; pinnæ ovate, distant, pinnules sub-rotund, slightly trapeziform, the basal line rather concave, the margin entire or slightly undulated, or divided into three to four lobes, crenately notched between the _sori_, the sterile portions with an erose diaphanous margin. _sori_ eight to ten, elongate reniform or lunate, occupying the whole of the semicircular outer edge. Mountains of Peru, 1877. In a young state, the stipes and fronds are dusted with a yellow powder. This is one of the most beautiful of the Maidenhair ferns. Greenhouse species.

=A. Wilsoni= (Wilson's).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, erect. _fronds_ 9in. to 12in. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, simply pinnate, with a large terminal pinna and two to six sub-sessile lateral ones on each side, which are 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, nearly entire. _sori_ in continuous lines along both edges. Jamaica. Stove species. SYNS. _A. dolosum_, _A. macropterum_.

=A. Zahnii= (Zahn's). Synonymous with _A. Seemanni_.

=ADIKE.= A synonym of =Pilea= (which _see_).

=ADINA= (from _adinos_, crowded; in reference to the flowers being disposed in heads). ORD. _Rubiaceæ_. A very pretty evergreen cool stove shrub, with opposite terete branches, and solitary, axillary peduncles. It thrives in a mixture of loam, sand, and peat. Propagated by cuttings, inserted in a rich, loamy soil, under a hand glass, in heat.

=A. globifera= (globe-bearing).* _fl._ yellowish, sessile, crowded, collected into globose heads; corolla funnel-shaped; peduncles axillary, rarely terminal, solitary. July. _l._ lanceolate, glabrous, longer than the peduncles. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. China, 1804.

=ADLUMIA= (from _adlumino_, to fringe with purple; flowers bordered with purple). ORD. _Fumariaceæ_. An interesting, delicate, and nearly hardy climber from North America. Flowers with four spongy, cohering petals. A warm, good soil is most suitable; sow seeds about May in a shady spot. It is a biennial, but in favourable spots is self-sowing, and thus may be treated as a perennial. If placed either against a wall or in the open it is a pretty subject for trailing over a shrub or twiggy branch. From its fragile character, it can only be seen to the best advantage under glass.

=A. cirrhosa= (tendrilled).* _fl._ pale rose-coloured, about 1/2in. long; peduncles axillary, generally four-flowered. June. _l._ triply pinnate, pale green. _h._ 15ft. 1788. The Maidenhair fern-like leaves are borne in profusion on the slender twining stems. SYN. _Corydalis fungosa_.

=ADNATE.= Grown to anything by the whole surface; anthers are said to be Adnate when they are attached to the filaments by their whole length.

=ADONIS= (name of classical derivation). ORD. _Ranunculaceæ_. Handsome hardy herbaceous plants. Flowers solitary, terminal; petals five to fifteen. Leaves divided into numerous linear segments. Some of the annuals are much inferior to the perennial species. The latter section constitute very ornamental subjects for rockwork, borders, margins of shrubberies, &c. All the species will grow freely in common soil, and are propagated by seeds. The perennials may be divided at the root.

=A. æstivalis= (summer).* Pheasant's Eye. _fl._ deep crimson; petals flat, oblong, obtuse, one-half longer than the calyx. June. Stem almost simple, elongated. _h._ 1ft. South Europe, 1629. Annual. See Figs. 31 and 32.

=A. autumnalis= (autumnal).* Pheasant's Eye; Red Morocco. _fl._ of an intense blood-red, with a black centre, rarely pale, globose from the six to eight concave conniving petals, which are scarcely larger than the calyx. May. Stems branched. _h._ 1ft. Britain. Annual.

=A. pyrenaica= (Pyrenean).* _fl._ almost sessile, yellow; petals eight to ten, smaller and more obtuse than in _A. vernalis_. July. _l._, lower ones on long stalks, with trifid petioles and many-parted segments; upper ones sessile, multifid, with linear very entire lobules. Stem 1ft. or more high, and usually much branched. Pyrenees, 1817. Perennial.

[Illustration: FIG. 31. FLOWER OF ADONIS ÆSTIVALIS.]

=A. vernalis= (spring).* _fl._ yellow, large; petals, ten to twelve, oblong, rather denticulated. March. _l._ lower ones abortive, or reduced to somewhat sheathing scales, the middle and upper ones sessile and multifid, with very entire lobes. _h._ 9in. to 1ft. Europe, 1629. Charming rock plant. This handsome species requires a rich moist sandy loam, and should not be disturbed for years. Perennial.

[Illustration: FIG. 32. ADONIS ÆSTIVALIS, showing Habit and Flowers.]

=A. v. sibirica= (Siberian) differs only in having larger flowers.

=A. volgensis= (Volga). An intermediate species between _A. vernalis_ and _A. pyrenaica_, differing from the first in the stems being branched, leaves more distant; from the last by the lower leaves being abortive, and formed like scales; and from both in the sepals being pubescent on the outside, not smooth. _fl._ yellow. _h._ 1ft. Russia, 1818.

=ADPRESSED.= Brought into close contact with anything without adhering.

=ADULT.= The full grown of anything. Full grown leaves are termed adult.

=ADVENTITIOUS.= Developed in an unusual position. Applied to buds, roots, &c.

=ADVENTURE BAY PINE.= _See_ _Phyllocladus rhomboidalis_.

=ADVERSE.= Opposite.

=ÆCHMEA= (from _aichme_, a point; in reference to the rigid points on the calyces, or flower-envelopes). Including _Pironneaua_. ORD. _Bromeliaceæ_. Very handsome stove plants. Flowers scapose, panicled; perianth six-cleft, three outer segments sepaloid, longer than the three inner or petaloid ones. Leaves ligulate or sword-shaped, sometimes with marginal spines. The species thrive best in a well-drained compost of rich fibrous loam and leaf mould. They like plenty of light, which may be afforded by standing them on inverted pots, so as to raise their heads well up above the surrounding plants. Propagation: When the flower-spikes, which are sent up from the heart or crown of the plant, die away, suckers or offsets are produced near the base, and from these other flowers appear the year after. If large plants are desired, these suckers should be left to grow and spread around; but to produce single plants, the suckers must be taken off and potted singly, in sharp soil, and then stood where they can get a moist heat till rooted. To enable them to do this it is necessary to strip off a few of the lower leaves, and trim the bottom with a sharp knife, in order that it may heal over and callus more readily than it otherwise would. When rooted, the plants may be shifted into larger-sized pots; but for single crowns 32-sized pots are large enough, as the plants, being epiphytal in their nature, do not require much soil or any great supply of water, except when growing freely or sending up their flower-spikes. In winter, they should be kept rather on the dry side, to induce partial rest; and an important point is to see that water is not allowed to lie for any length of time in the crown of the plant, as when that is the case it is likely to cause them to rot.

[Illustration: FIG. 33. ÆCHMEA FULGENS.]

=Æ. calyculata= (calycled).* _fl._ bright yellow, tubular, with red bracts, borne in close roundish heads at the top of an erect scape. _l._ strap-shaped, with the ends having the appearance of being cut off, but armed with a sharp spine. _h._ 9in. Brazil, 1862. SYN. _Hoplophytum calyculatum_.

=Æ. cœlestis= (heavenly blue).* _fl._ sky-blue, in close pyramidal panicles, on erect snipes. Winter. _l._ ligulate, concave, spiny-edged, scaly beneath. Brazil, 1874. SYN. _Hoplophytum cœleste_.

=Æ. cœrulescens= (bluish). _fl._ bluish. _h._ 1ft. South America, 1870. This pretty species is very attractive on account of the large dense head of deep blue and pure white berries which are produced in October. SYN. _Lamprococcus cœrulescens_.

=Æ. discolor= (two-coloured-leaved).* _fl._ scarlet, borne on a loose, branched panicle. June. _l._ broad, minutely toothed on the margin, deep green above, and rather purplish beneath. _h._ 2ft. Brazil, 1844.

=Æ. distichantha= (two-ranked-flowered).* _fl._ sepals rose-coloured; petals bright purple; spikes densely clothed with bright red bracts. _l._ long, glaucous, linear-oblong, tapering to a sharp point, and distinctly armed with reddish brown spines. _h._ 1ft. South Brazil, 1852. SYN. _Billbergia polystachya_.

=Æ. exudans= (exuding). _fl._ orange-coloured (exuding a white greasy substance, whence the specific name) interspersed with green bracts; scape erect, with scattered crimson lanceolate bracts, terminating in a dense head. _l._ oblong, spine-margined, grey-coated. _h._ 2ft. West Indies, 1824. SYN. _Hohenbergia capitata_.

=Æ. fasciata= (banded).* _fl._ scape upright, clothed with leafy bracts of a rosy-pink colour; each of the pink blossoms in the dense conical head is subtended by a narrow, spiny-edged, similarly-coloured bract, longer than its own. _l._ broad, recurved, banded with white. Rio Janeiro, 1826. SYN. _Billbergia fasciata_. Lasts in perfection for a considerable length of time.

=Æ. fulgens= (glowing).* _fl._ deep rich red, with a bluish tip, fifty or more in a large branching panicle; scape stout, erect, scarlet. August, September. _l._ somewhat sword-shaped, terminating rather abruptly. Cayenne, 1842. See Fig. 33.

=Æ. Furstenbergi= (Furstenberg's). _fl._ rose; flower spike dense, with overlapping showy pink bracts. _l._ tufted, linear, spinous at the edge, recurved. _h._ 1ft. Bahia, 1879.

=Æ. glomerata= (glomerate).* _fl._ violet; scape erect, stout, 8in. to 10in. high, with glomerate branches of crowded blood-red bracts. _l._ oblong-ligulate, cuspidate, about 18in. long, dull green; margin with short wide-set spines. Bahia, 1868. SYN. _Hohenbergia erythrostachys_.

=Æ. hystrix= (bristly).* _fl._ in very dense, oblong spikes; floral leaves and bracts scarlet. February. _l._ densely crowded, ascending, linear lanceolate, saw-toothed. _h._ 2-1/2ft. Cayenne, 1880.

=Æ. Legrelliana= (Legrell's). A synonym of _Portea Legrelliana_.

=Æ. Lindeni= (Linden's). _fl._ yellow, in dense terminal heads, with lanceolate red bracts, shorter than the flowers. _l._ linear-oblong, rounded, apiculate; margins saw-toothed; habit tufted. _h._ 1ft. South Brazil, 1864.

=Æ. Mariæ Reginæ= (Queen Maria's).* _fl._ tipped with blue, changing to salmon colour with age, arranged compactly upon the upper portion of the spike; scape erect, about 2ft. high; half the length is clothed with large boat-shaped bracts, some 4in. long, intensely rich rose-pink. June, July. _l._ 18in. long, with a tufted habit. Costa Rica, 1873. This is perhaps the best species.

=Æ. Melinoni= (Melinon's). _fl._ bright scarlet, tipped with pink, cylindric; panicle dense, terminal. _l._ oblong, leathery, about 18in. in length, dark green; margin spiny. South America.

=Æ. Ortgiesii= (Ortgies'). _fl._ red, on short spikes. _l._ numerous, channelled, recurved, spongy, broad at the base, and tapering to a point; stem short, gouty. Tropical America, 1860. SYN. _Ortgiesia tillandsioides_.

=Æ. paniculigera= (panicled). _fl._ rose-coloured; petals projecting beyond the sepals, deep bright purple; panicle large, compound, 1ft. to 2ft. long; scape reddish, downy; rachides and bracts rose-coloured. _l._ ligulate, shortly acuminate. West Indies, 1881.

=Æ. spectabilis= (showy).* _fl._ rosy; calyx fleshy, ovate; corolla 1in. long, rosy crimson. _l._ spreading, channelled, ligulate, 2-1/2ft. long, 3in. to 4in. broad. Guatemala, 1875.

=Æ. Veitchii= (Veitch's).* _fl._ scarlet; spike densely clothed with scarlet toothed bracts, closely investing flowers. _l._ tufted, leathery in texture, broadly strap-shaped, spotted, and minutely serrulate. _h._ 1ft. Columbia, 1877. SYN. _Chevalliera Veitchii_.

=ÆGICERAS= (from _aix_, a goat, and _keras_, a horn; alluding to the shape of its fruit). ORD. _Myrsineæ_. Small trees, with obovate entire leaves. Flowers white, fragrant, in terminal or axillary umbels. For culture, _see_ =Jacquinia=.

=Æ. fragrans= (fragrant). _fl._ white, fragrant; umbels pedunculate, axillary, terminal. April. _l._ obovate, margin undulated, and unequally dilated, veiny; upper surface covered with saline excrescence. _h._ 6ft. New Holland, 1824.

=ÆGILOPS.= _See_ =Quercus Ægilops=.

=ÆGIPHILA= (from _aix_, a goat, and _philos_, dear; a favourite with goats). ORD. _Verbenaceæ_. Stove ornamental evergreen shrubs, generally with ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, smooth leaves; and flowers in axillary and terminal panicles. They require a rich sandy loam. Propagated from cuttings, which will root in sand, under a glass, with bottom heat.

=Æ. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl._ yellow, terminal, corymbose; corolla downy. November. Berry compressed, blue. _l._ verticillate oblong, entire, sub-cordate at base. _h._ 3ft. Havannah, 1843. The other species are probably not now in cultivation, and this one is not generally so.

=ÆGLE= (from Ægle, one of the Hesperides). Bengal Quince. ORD. _Rutaceæ_. A stove evergreen tree, producing very large fruit, which much resembles an orange in general appearance, very delicious to the taste, and exquisitely fragrant. This genus differs principally from _Citrus_ by its numerous disunited stamens. The pulp of the fruit is an aperient, and a valuable remedy in dysentery, the thick rind and the dried unripe fruit are astringent. It thrives best in a rich loamy soil. Propagated by ripe cuttings, which, if not deprived of any of their leaves, will root in sand under a hand glass, in heat.

=Æ. Marmelos= (Marmelos). _fl._ white, very fragrant; panicles axillary, terminal. April. _fr._ fifteen-celled. _l._ trifoliate; leaflets toothletted. _h._ 10ft. India, 1759.

=ÆOLANTHUS= (from _aiollo_, to vary, and _anthos_, a flower; referring to the variableness of the flowers). ORD. _Labiatæ_. A genus of few herbs, with thickish leaves. Flowers loosely panicled. They thrive in sandy loam, and increase freely from seeds sown in a similar compost.

=Æ. Livingstonii= (Livingstone's). _fl._ brown. East Africa, 1859.

=Æ. suaveolens= (sweet-scented). _fl._ lilac, secund; cymes axillary and terminal, erect, usually trifid, with floral leaves under the divisions. July. _l._ nearly sessile, obovate, obsoletely denticulated, thickish, pale green. _h._ 1ft. Brazil, 1859. A pretty stove annual, with a sweet odour.

=AERANTHUS= (from _aer_, air, and _anthos_, a flower; referring to the habit). ORD. _Orchideæ_. A genus of a couple of species of remarkable stove orchids, requiring treatment similar to =Anguloa=, to which they are allied.

=Æ. arachnitis= (spider-like). _fl._ green. _l._ linear. _h._ 4in. Madagascar, 1850.

=Æ. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl._ yellowish-green, large, solitary, terminal. _h._ 8in. Madagascar, 1823.

=AERATION.= The exposure of the soil to the free action of the air, as essential to the growth of plants.

=AERIDES= (from _aer_, the air; in reference to the power the species have of deriving their sustenance from the atmosphere). ORD. _Orchideæ_. An extensive genus of epiphytal orchids, confined to the tropics of the Old World, including many large and showy-flowered species. The majority of them are extremely handsome. The thick fleshy leaves are noteworthy for their characteristically distichous arrangement--that is to say, they are arranged in two opposite rows. They are usually truncate at the apex, and for the most part deeply channelled down the centre, but in some species terete or nearly cylindrical. All of them throw out large fleshy roots from various parts of their stems, by which they absorb the moisture from the atmosphere; and, in order to grow them successfully, they must be fixed upon blocks of wood. But this method should be adopted only whilst the plants are young, as it is almost an impossibility for the cultivator to maintain a sufficient amount of atmospheric moisture to meet their requirements; and, unless this is managed, the leaves will shrivel and fall off, leaving only a few at the extremity. Therefore, as soon as the plants are established upon the blocks of wood, let them be removed and potted. Fill the pot three parts full of broken potsherds and lumps of charcoal, and then use nothing, but clean, living sphagnum, placing a few roots in the moss and leaving the others free. By this means a greater amount of moisture can be supplied to them, and thus beautiful and symmetrical specimens obtained. The Aerides are easily grown into handsome plants, which usually bloom profusely, and thus recommend themselves to all who cultivate orchids. From early spring until the end of September they should be treated liberally with water, at the same time taking care never to wet the flowers. After the above-named time, a gradual diminution in the water supply to the roots should take place; and the atmosphere, too, should be less densely charged with moisture. But drought should never be carried far enough to cause the leaves to shrivel, for, if this is done, the uniformity of the specimen is marred; and, although we are quite willing to admit the possibility of the plants producing a greater quantity of flower spikes after a thorough shrivelling, we prefer to advocate the system that gives a fair amount of flower coupled with good leafage. As before remarked, the Aerides are peculiarly eastern, and therefore are usually classed amongst the orchids which require the hottest houses. This is, in one sense, correct; yet they do not require the great amount of heat which many imagine, and which has, until recently, been given them. They must not, therefore, be excluded from the amateur's collection of orchids. During the winter season many of the species may be kept in a temperature of 58deg. to 60deg.; whilst during the growing season the temperature may run up by sun heat without limit, so long as a free circulation of air and a sufficiency of moisture are secured. The following status of temperature may be observed: In spring, from 65deg. in the night, to 70deg. or 80deg. by day; in summer, from 70deg. in the night, to 80deg. or 85deg. through the day; in winter, about 60deg. night, and 65deg. day.

=A. affine= (related).* _fl._ delicate rose, produced, in great profusion, on branching spikes, which are sometimes 2ft. in length, and continue in bloom two or three weeks; the sepals and petals equal, rounded at the apex; the lip is sharply rhomboid and three-lobed, with a short spur. _l._ light green, about 1ft. long. _h._ 3ft. A very handsome species from India, forming an excellent exhibition plant.

=A. a. superbum= (superb).* An improved variety, with larger and richer coloured flowers, and more compact habit.

=A. Brookii= (Sir A. Brooke's).* _fl._ purple and white; labellum bright purple; sepals and petals white, very fragrant. _l._ very ornamental, of a glaucous (milky green) hue. Bombay. This species, although one of the handsomest, is very rare.

=A. crassifolium= (thick-leaved).* This is a dwarf, densely-habited plant, with broad, thick, purple-dotted obliquely-bilobed leaves. The flowers, which are borne on long and drooping spikes, are bare--larger than those of _A. falcatum_, which they resemble in form, and have the segments tipped with rich purple or amethyst, the centre or throat of the flower being ivory-white. Compared with _A. falcatum_, the spur is here bent under at an angle, while in that plant it is straight; the side laciniæ of the lip are much broader and shorter in the present plant, and the two keels on the lip here stand close together at the base, and become divergent, whilst in _falcatum_ they are distant at the base, and become convergent near the middle of the lip. This species is described as being the best in the genus. It may be grown near the glass, suspended in a basket. Burmah, 1877.

[Illustration: FIG. 34. FLOWER OF AERIDES CRISPUM.]

=A. crispum= (curled).* _fl._ white, suffused with purplish rose, nearly 2in. in diameter; sepals and petals ovate, acute; lip three-lobed, the middle lobe being very large, toothed at the base, and fringed at the margin; the horn-like spur is slightly incurved; racemes ascending, more than double the length of the leaves, many-flowered. _l._ deep green, flat and broad, blunt at the ends, and two-lobed, about 4in. or 5in. long. Bombay, 1840. Lasts a long time in beauty. See Fig. 34.

=A. c. Lindleyanum= (Lindley's). A robust-growing variety, producing a large, much-branched panicle of flowers; sepals and petals white; lip large, bright rich rose-coloured.

=A. c. Warneri= (Warner's).* The leaves are smaller, and more slender than in the species; the sepals and petals are white, with a soft, rich, rose-coloured lip.

=A. cylindricum= (cylindric).* _fl._ white and pink, as large as those of _A. crispum_; sepals and petals crispy. _l._ elongate, subulate, terete, 4in. to 6in. long. East Indies. A very rare and distinct species. SYN. _A. vandarum_.

=A. dasycarpum= (thick-fruited). _fl._ brownish, rosy. India, 1865.

=A. dasypogon.= _See_ =Sarcanthus erinaceus=.

=A. difforme= (deformed). _fl._ green and brown. India, 1865.

=A. Dominiana= (Dominy's).* This is a garden hybrid between _A. Fieldingii_ and _A. affine_, with the colour of the former, but markings and shape of the latter. Very rare.

=A. falcatum= (sickle-leaved).* _fl._ sepals and petals white, dotted with reddish crimson, and tipped with soft rose; lip white at the sides, with a rosy-crimson centre; spur short, parallel with the lip; racemes pendulous, many flowered. _l._ closely set upon the stem, peculiar blue-green, coriaceous, obtuse and mucronate. This species is very closely allied to _A. crassifolium_. SYN. _A. Larpentæ_.

[Illustration: FIG. 35. AERIDES ODORATUM.]

=A. Fieldingii= (Fielding's).* The Fox-brush Ærides. _fl._ white, numerous, large, beautifully mottled with bright rose colour; the much branched racemes are 2ft. to 3ft. long, and continue blooming three or four weeks. _l._ 8in. to 10in. long, in some plants light green, and in others dark green; long, broad, thick, and fleshy, obliquely two-lobed at the apex. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Assam.

=A. Houlletianum= (Houllet's).* _fl._ sepals and petals buff, shading off into cream white at the base, with a purplish eye-spot at their tips; lip white; front part dark purplish, with some lines of the same colour on the sides; on densely crowded spikes. _l._ and growth similar to _A. virens_. Cochin China. SYN. _A. Mendelii_.

=A. japonicum= (Japanese).* _fl._ white, with the lateral sepals slightly barred with brown purple; several on the pendent racemes; lip purple, spotted, marked with a dark violet central ridge. _l._ short, linear-oblong, obtusely bilobed. Stems short, about 4in. high. A pretty cool house species from Japan, 1862.

=A. Larpentæ= (Lady Larpent's). Synonymous with _A. falcatum_.

=A. Lobbii= (Lobb's).* _fl._ white in the centre, slightly tinted with blush-rose towards the outside, somewhat spotted with violet; lip marked with a whitish central bar, and stained with a deep violet on either side; on long, dense, cylindrical, pendent spikes. _l._ ligulate, obliquely two-lobed at the apex, thick and fleshy in texture, about 18in. long, and of a light green hue. Moulmein, 1868. This elegant plant, of which many distinct varieties are in cultivation, is one of the most delicate of the genus.

=A. maculosum= (spotted). _fl._ large, with obtuse pale rose-coloured sepals and petals, which are spotted with purple; lip flat and undivided, bluntly ovate, and of a deep rosy-purple; racemes pendulous, proceeding from among the upper leaves, somewhat lax and branching. _l._ ligulate, thick, and fleshy, obtuse at the apex, 8in. or 9in. long, dark green. A somewhat slow growing species, with a rather stiff, dwarf habit. Bombay, 1840.

=A. m. Schrœderi= (Schrœder's).* _fl._ very delicate white, tinged with lilac and spotted with rose; labellum beautiful rose coloured. _l._ dark green, 10in. long. _h._ 18in. East Indies. A very free growing and handsome variety, superior to the species, but rare in cultivation.

=A. Mendelii= (Mendel's). Synonymous with _A. Houlletianum_.

=A. mitratum= (mitred).* _fl._ waxy-white; lip violet coloured, on numerous dense erect racemes. April. _l._ cylindrical, attenuated, about 2ft. long, dark green. Moulmein, 1864. A rare but elegant species.

=A. nobile= (noble).* _fl._ sepals and petals white tipped, and spotted with bright rose; lip three-lobed, the side lobes creamy yellow, and the middle lobe slightly bifid at the apex, white, dotted with rose-purple, very fragrant; racemes 2ft. to 3ft. long, pendulous, much branched, many flowered. _l._ strap-shaped, obliquely emarginate at the apex, light green, slightly spotted with brown. Not unlike _A. suavissimum_, but with larger and better coloured flowers, and more robust growth. East Indies.

=A. odontochilum= (tooth-lipped). _h._ 2ft. Sylhet, 1837.

=A. odoratum= (fragrant).* _fl._ sepals and petals creamy and white, tipped with pink; lip cucullate, with even side lobes, the middle lobe being ovate and inflexed, the spur conical and incurved, of the same colour as the sepals, very fragrant; racemes longer than the leaves, many-flowered, pendulous. _l._ oblique, obtuse, mucronate at the apex, and dark green. East Indies, 1800. See Fig. 35.

=A. o. cornutum= (horned). _fl._ pink and white. Distinct.

=A. o. majus= (greater).* Like _A. odoratum_ in growth, but with larger and longer spike of flowers.

=A. o. purpurascens= (purplish).* A very robust variety, with broad dark green leaves and massive spike of large flowers, which are white, tipped with bright pink.

=A. pachyphyllum= (thick-leaved). _fl._ light crimson lake; spur and column white, the small laciniæ of the blade of the lip on front part of spur painted with more or less warm purple (these laciniæ are just as insignificant as the spur is preponderant); raceme short, few-flowered. _l._ fleshy, short; apex obtuse, and unequally two-lobed. Burmah, 1880.

=A. quinquevulnerum= (five-wounded).* _fl._ fragrant; sepals and petals obtuse, white, marked with five reddish crimson blotches, and tipped with purple; lip cucullate and funnel-shaped, the side lobes being erect and the centre lobe oblong, incurved and serrated, of the same colour as the sepals; spur conical, green, large; racemes longer than the leaves, pendulous, and many-flowered. Late summer and early autumn. _l._ ligulate, about 12in. long, tightly clasping the stem at the base, obliquely mucronate at the apex, bright shining green. Philippines, 1838.

=A. q. Farmeri= (Farmer's).* A very rare variety of the above, with similar habit, but the flowers are pure white throughout, and fragrant.

=A. Reichenbachii= (Reichenbach's).* _fl._, sepals neatly striped (not blotched); lip deep orange colour; racemes densely crowded. Borneo, 1858. A very rare species.

=A. roseum= (rose-coloured).* _fl._, sepals and petals narrow, acute, pale rose colour, with darker spots; lip flat, entire, and acute, of a bright rose, freckled--like the sepals and petals--with spots of a darker hue; raceme pendulous, dense, and many-flowered, upwards of 1ft. in length. _l._ coriaceous, recurved, and channelled above with a blunt two-lobed apex. Moulmein, 1840. As this does not root freely, it requires less moisture than any other species.

=A. r. superbum= (superb).* A fine variety, with stronger growth and larger and richer-coloured flowers. The spikes of this, as well as the typical species, are apt to die off if much water is given.

=A. rubrum= (red). A synonym of _Sarcanthus erinaceus_.

=A. suavissimum= (sweetest). _fl._ sepals and petals obtusely ovate, white, tipped or tinged throughout with deep lilac; lip three-lobed, pressed to the column, the side lobes being oblong and denticulate, the middle lobe linear and bifid, the whole lip being of a pale lemon colour, and the spur rosy-eyed; the numerous racemes are half pendulous and branched, bearing a profusion of deliciously fragrant flowers. _l._ flaccid, about 10in. long, light green, profusely freckled with brown dots. Malacca, 1848. There are one or two varieties.

=A. tesselatum= (chequered). _fl._ lined and streaked with green, white, and purple. East Indies, 1838. A scarce species.

=A. testaceum= (testaceous). A synonym of _Vanda testacea_.

=A. Thibautianum= (Thibaut's). A synonym of _Saccolabium Huttoni_.

=A. vandarum= (Vanda). A synonym of _A. cylindricum_.

=A. virens= (vigorous). _fl._ deliciously fragrant; sepals and petals ovate, obtuse, soft white, tipped with rosy-purple; lip large; side lobes toothed at the apex, white, dotted with crimson; middle lobe bearing a red inflated tongue; racemes long, drooping, many-flowered, commencing to bloom early in April, and lasting until July. _l._ broad, oblique, rounded at the apex, with a depression in the centre, and very bright green, about 8in. long.

=A. v. Ellisii= (Ellis's).* _fl._ sepals and petals large, white, suffused with rose, and tipped with amethyst; the lower sepals very round and broad; lip large; side lobes white, beautifully freckled towards the base, with short lines of amethyst; middle lobe broad, and deep rich amethyst in colour; spur stout, curved upwards, and tipped with brown; racemes about 18in. long, bearing generally from thirty to forty, or more, large flowers. _l._ pale green. A splendid variety.

=A. Wightianum.= _See_ =Vanda testacea=.

=A. Williamsii= (Williams's).* _fl._ delicate pinkish white, produced in great abundance; spikes 2ft. to 3ft. long, and branched, _l._ broad, dark green, drooping. A very scarce and pretty species.

=AEROBION.= _See_ =Angræcum=.

=AEROPHYTES.= Plants that are grown entirely in the air.

=ÆSCHYNANTHUS= (from _aischuno_, to be ashamed, and _anthos_, a flower). ORD. _Gesneraceæ_. A genus of very beautiful twining, radicant or parasitical stove shrubs, with opposite, simple, entire leaves, and axillary, terminal, few flowered, umbellate peduncles. They possess all the qualifications worthy of extensive cultivation--handsome flowers, fine deep green leaves, an agreeable fragrance, and are easily grown on blocks, which must be covered with green moss, fastened on with small copper wire. Preparatory to fastening them on, the roots should be covered with moss, and the plants secured to the block also by wire. After this, but little attention is requisite, except duly syringing and occasionally dipping in tepid water. As pot plants they are very beautiful, and in this method perfection is only obtained by growing them on fast and strong by generous treatment, which consists in frequently repotting in light rich compost till they are large enough to be trained up a trellis, formed of slender rods of willow or hazel. Propagated by seeds and cuttings. The former are very unsatisfactory; the latter root readily during spring in a well-drained pot, filled with a light compost, and having a surface of pure white sand, about 1in. deep. The best are obtained from half-ripened wood, cut into 2in. or 3in. lengths, and all leaves, with the exception of one or two at the top, removed. The cuttings should then be covered over with a bell glass, and placed in moderate bottom heat. So soon as rooted, transfer them singly to small pots, and again place under hand glasses, until they are thoroughly established, then gradually harden off. When about twelve months old, place the plants in their permanent quarters. Baskets are commonly and very effectively employed. Line these with moss, and fill with a light rich compost; place the plant as near the centre as possible, and, to promote a uniform growth, fasten down the branches with small neat pegs, at equal distances. During the summer, give copious supplies of water, to produce a liberal growth, which is of the utmost importance the first season, when they should not be permitted to flower. The following winter they should be kept cool and rather dry, thus giving them a rest. The year following, if properly managed, they will bloom profusely.

=Æ. atrosanguinea= (dark-red).* _fl._ dark red; corolla 1-1/2in. long, cylindrical, saccate at base, pilose; peduncle one-flowered. July. _l._ pilose, oblong, sub-cordate, serrated, unequal. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Guatemala, 1848.

=Æ. Aucklandi.= (Lord Auckland's). Synonymous with _Æ. speciosus_.

=Æ. Boschianus= (Bosch's).* _fl._ scarlet, axillary, clustered; corolla tubular, with wide throat; calyx tubular, smooth, purplish-brown. July. _l._ ovate, obtuse, entire. _h._ 1ft. Java, 1844. See Fig. 36.

=Æ. cordifolius= (heart-leaved).* _fl._ deep red, striped with black, inside of the tube orange, axillary, clustered. Summer. _l._ cordate, quite smooth, dark green on the upper side, paler below. _h._ 1ft. Borneo, 1858.

=Æ. fulgens= (shining).* _fl._ bright crimson, very long; throat and the under side of the tube orange; lobes striped with black, disposed in terminal umbels. October. _l._ large, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, thick and fleshy, bright dark green. _h._ 1ft. East Indies, 1855.

=Æ. grandiflorus= (large-flowered).* _fl._ deep crimson and orange, large; corolla clavate; segments obtuse, with a dark mark at top, equal; umbels many-flowered. August. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acuminated, serrated, obscurely-nerved, fleshy, dark green, _h._ 5ft. East Indies, 1838.

=Æ. javanicus= (Java). _fl._ bright red, stained with yellow in the throat; corolla downy, tubular; corymbs terminal, bracteate. June. _l._ small, ovate, slightly toothed, with sunk veins. Java, 1848. Plant scandent.

=Æ. Lobbianus= (Lobb's).* _fl._ rich scarlet; calyx large, campanulate; corolla downy; corymbs terminal, bracteate. June. _l._ elliptic, entire or slightly serrated, glaucous. Java, 1845. Plant subscandent.

[Illustration: FIG. 36. ÆSCHYNANTHUS BOSCHIANUS.]

=Æ. longiflorus= (long-flowered).* _fl._ scarlet, erect, fascicled; corolla with a long clavate curved tube, and oblique constructed bilobed mouth; upper lobe bifid. Summer. _l._ broad-lanceolate, acuminate, entire. Java, 1845. Plant pendulous.

=Æ. miniatus= (vermilion).* _fl._ rich vermilion; corolla tomentose; upper lip bilobed, lower one tripartite; peduncles axillary, three-flowered. June. _l._ oval acute, entire. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Java, 1845. SYN. _Æ. radicans_.

=Æ. pulcher= (fair).* _fl._ bright scarlet; corolla three times larger than the calyx; corymbs terminal, bracteate. June. _l._ ovate, obscurely toothed. Java, 1845. Scandent.

=Æ. radicans= (stem-fibred). Synonymous with _Æ. miniatus_.

=Æ. speciosus= (showy).* _fl._ rich orange-coloured; corolla with long clavate curved tube, and obliquely four-lobed limb; upper lobe bifid, terminal, numerous, downy. Summer. _l._ upper ones always verticillate, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly serrate. _h._ 2ft. Java, 1845. SYN. _Æ. Aucklandi_.

=Æ. splendidus= (splendid).* _fl._ bright scarlet, spotted with black on the margins; corolla clavate, 3in. long, in terminal fascicles. Summer, lasting in perfection for a considerable time. _l._ elliptic lanceolate, acuminated, entire, rather undulated. _h._ 1ft. Hybrid.

=Æ. tricolor= (three-coloured).* _fl._ deep blood red, usually twin; throat and base of the lobes bright orange, the three upper lobes being striped with black. July. _l._ cordate, dark green above, paler on the under side; edges, under surface, and stem, slightly hairy. _h._ 1ft. Borneo, 1857.

=Æ. zebrinus= (zebra-marked). _fl._ green, brown. Autumn. Java, 1846.

=ÆSCHYNOMENE= (from _aischuno_, to be ashamed; in reference to the leaves of some of the species falling on the slightest touch, like those of the Sensitive plant). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Stove herbs and shrubs, with impari-pinnate leaves, having many pairs of leaflets, and axillary racemes of usually yellow flowers. They thrive well in a good rich loam. Propagated by cuttings, placed in sand under a bell glass, in a brisk heat. Seeds of the herbaceous species require a good heat to start them into growth. The annuals are not worth growing. There are about forty other species known besides those mentioned, some of which may prove worthy of cultivation when introduced.

=Æ. aristata= (awned). A synonym of _Pictatia aristata_.

=Æ. aspera= (rough-stemmed). _fl._ yellow; racemes compound; peduncles, bracteas, calyces, and corollas, hispid. June. _l._ with thirty to forty pairs of linear leaflets, which (as well as the legumes) are smooth. Stem herbaceous, erect. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. East Indies, 1759. Perennial.

=Æ. sensitiva= (sensitive).* _fl._ white; legumes and racemes glabrous; peduncles branched, few-flowered. June. _l._ with sixteen to twenty pairs of linear leaflets. Stem smooth. _h._ 3ft. to 6ft. Jamaica, 1733. This shrub requires a sandy soil.

=ÆSCULUS= (a name given by Pliny to a kind of oak having an edible fruit; derived from _esca_, nourishment). The Horse Chestnut. ORD. _Sapindaceæ_. A genus of hardy showy trees, well adapted for lawns or parks, having a beautiful appearance when in flower. They will do well in any soil, but the more loamy the better. Increased by layers, put down in the spring, or by grafting or budding on the common horse chestnut. Seeds, where procurable, should be sown singly in rows in spring, where they may remain until they are of sufficient size to be permanently planted out. This genus is distinguished from _Pavia_, in having its capsules echinated, _i.e._, covered with prickles, like a hedgehog; but this character is not always consistent.

=Æ. carnea= (flesh-coloured). Synonymous with _Æ. rubicunda_.

=Æ. glabra= (smooth-leaved).* _fl._ greenish yellow; corolla of four spreading petals, with their claws about the length of the calyx; stamens longer than the corolla. June. _l._ with five leaflets, very smooth; foliage larger than the common species. _h._ 20ft. North America, 1821. SYNS. _A. ohioensis_, _A. pallida_.

=Æ. Hippocastanum= (Common Horse-Chestnut). _fl._ white, tinged with red, on very handsome terminal racemes, which are produced in great profusion; petals five. April and May. _l._ with seven obovately-cuneated, acute, toothed leaflets. Asia, 1629. This, the common horse chestnut, is well known by the beautiful parabolic form in which it grows, and during the period of its flowering no tree possesses greater beauty. It has two or three unimportant varieties, differing in the variation of their leaves, and one also with double flowers. These are increased by grafting only.

=Æ. ohioensis= (Ohio). A synonym of _A. glabra_.

=Æ. pallida= (pale-flowered). A synonym of _A. glabra_.

=Æ. rubicunda= (red-flowered).* _fl._ scarlet, in very fine terminal racemes; petals four, having the claws shorter than the calyx; stamens eight. June. _l._ with five to seven obovately-cuneated, acute, unequally serrated leaflets. _h._ 20ft. North America, 1820. This is a very distinct and beautiful tree when in flower, and does not attain so large a size as _Æ. Hippocastanum_. SYN. _Æ. carnea_.

=ÆSTIVATION.= The manner of the folding of the calyx and corolla in the flower bud.

=ÆTHIONEMA= (from _aitho_, to scorch, and _nema_, a filament; apparently in allusion to some tawny or burnt appearance in the stamens). ORD. _Cruciferæ_. A genus of elegant little plants, distinguished from allied genera in having the four larger stamens winged, and with a tooth. Herbs or sub-shrubs, perennial or annual, branched from the base, diffuse or erect. Flowers in crowded terminal racemes. Leaves fleshy, sessile. They are well worth cultivating in sunny situations, where they form a freer flowering habit than when growing in a wild state. Some of the more hardy species may be planted on rock work, which, by their dwarf growth, they are well adapted for. The annual and biennial species may either be sown on rockwork or in the front of the flower-border. A light dry soil suits them best. The shrubby kinds of this genus should be kept in pots, which should be well drained with potsherds, and treated like other alpine plants. Propagated by seeds, sown in May; or by cuttings, planted in summer.

=Æ. Buxbaumii= (Bauxbaum's). _fl._ pale red; racemes crowded, aggregate. June. _l._ oblong-spathulate, glaucous. _h._ 6in. Thrace, 1823. A pretty annual, with erect branched stems. SYN. _Thlaspi arabicum_.

[Illustration: FIG. 37. ÆTHIONEMA CORIDIFOLIUM, showing Habit and Flowers.]

=Æ. coridifolium= (Coris-leaved).* _fl._ rosy lilac, small, in terminal dense rounded racemes. June. _l._ linear, glaucous, crowded. Asia Minor, 1871. A pretty perennial, shrubby below, with erect stems 6in. to 8in. high. See Fig. 37.

=Æ. gracile= (slender). _fl._ purplish; racemes crowded, terminal; when in fruit, loose. June. _l._ lanceolate, pointed. _h._ 8in. Branches and branchlets slender, elongated. Sandy hills in Carniola, 1820. Shrubby perennial.

[Illustration: FIG. 38. ÆTHIONEMA GRANDIFLORUM, showing Habit and Flowers.]

=Æ. grandiflorum= (large-flowered).* _fl._ of a warm shaded rose; racemes crowded, terminal, numerous. May to August. _l._ ovate-oblong, glaucous. Mount Lebanon, 1879. This perennial species forms a spreading bush about 1-1/2ft. high, and is perhaps the handsomest of the genus. It succeeds well in the ordinary border, but is far better suited for the rockery. See Fig. 38.

=Æ. membranaceum= (membranous-podded). _fl._ purplish, in terminal racemes. June. _l._ linear, distant, somewhat fleshy, strictly appressed. _h._ 3in. to 6in. Persia, 1828. A small shrub, with filiform branches.

=Æ. monospermum= (one-seeded). _fl._ purple, largish, in terminal racemes. July. _l._ oval or obovate, blunt, coriaceous; pods one-celled, one-seeded. _h._ 3in. to 6in. Spain, 1778. A pretty little biennial, with hardish branches.

=Æ. pulchellum= (pretty).* This is said to be a new species, but it much resembles _Æ. coridifolium_. It is scarcely in full cultivation yet, but it proves one of the hardiest as well as one of the most handsome kinds.

=Æ. saxatilis= (rock).* _fl._ purplish; racemes loose, terminal. May and June. _l._ lanceolate, acutish. _h._ 8in. Spain, 1820. A pretty annual.

=AFRICAN ALMOND.= _See_ =Brabejum=.

=AFRICAN BLADDER NUT.= _See_ =Royena lucida=.

=AFRICAN FLEABANE.= _See_ =Tarchonanthus=.

=AFRICAN HAREBELL.= _See_ =Roella ciliata=.

=AFRICAN LILY.= _See_ =Agapanthus=.

=AFRICAN LOTUS.= _See_ =Zizyphus=.

=AFRICAN MARIGOLD.= _See_ =Tagetes erecta=.

=AFRICAN OAK OR TEAK.= _See_ =Vitex Doniana=.

=AFRICAN SATIN-BUSH.= _See_ =Podalyria sericea=.

=AFZELIA= (named after Adam Afzelius, M.D., Professor of Botany in the University of Upsal, and for many years resident at Sierra Leone). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A pretty stove evergreen tree. For culture, _see_ =Ægiphila=.

=A. africana= (African).* _fl._ crimson, disposed in racemes; petals four (furnished with claws), upper one largest. June. Legume ligneus, many-celled; seeds black, with scarlet aril. _l._ abruptly pinnate. _h._ 30ft. Sierra Leone, 1821.

=AGALMYLA= (from _agalma_, an ornament; and _hule_, a wood; the species are great ornaments to the woods in which they grow wild). ORD. _Gesneraceæ_. A small but very handsome genus of climbing or radicant herbs, with simple alternate leaves and axillary fascicles of flowers, something like the blooms of a Gesnera. Corolla limb oblique, five-lobed, scarcely two-lipped. _A. staminea_, the most generally cultivated species, is best grown in a basket, planted in a compost of rough peat, a little leaf soil, fresh sphagnum moss, and nodules of charcoal. Give an abundance of moisture when growing, which should be lessened after flowering, and allow the plant to rest during winter. It may be planted out on rockwork in the stove. Half-ripened cuttings will root freely in heat under a glass. The temperature in summer should not be less than 75deg. by day, and 65deg. by night.

=A. longistyla= (long-styled). _fl._ crimson. Java, 1873.

=A. staminea= (long-stamened).* _fl._ scarlet, disposed in axillary fascicles; corolla tubular, incurved, with a dilated throat. Summer. _l._ alternate, oblong, acuminated, denticulated, nearly equal at the base, downy beneath, and on the edges. Stem and petioles hairy. _h._ 2ft. Java, 1846. Stove species.

=AGANISIA= (from _aganos_, desirable; in reference to the beauty of these neat little plants). ORD. _Orchidaceæ_. A small genus of epiphytal orchids, requiring to be grown upon a block of wood suspended from the rafters of the stove. A damp atmosphere, syringing the roots and leaves freely when in a growing state, and shade during very bright sunshine, are primary points to be observed in their cultivation. Increased by dividing the pseudo-bulbs just previous to starting into new growth.

=A. cœrulea= (dark blue).* _fl._ peduncles axillary, few flowered. "The colour is the well known one of _Vanda cœrulea_. There are, however, darker blue blotches quasi-tesselated over the flower. The lip is veiled, and has two very small basilar teeth, and then a veiled middle lacinia, that is sacciform, bordered with most remarkable long bristles, and with a deep violet blotch on its middle part beneath. The white column has two cartilaginous quadrate arms close to the stigmatic hollow." _l._ cuneate, oblong, acuminate. Pseudo-bulbs distichous, depresso-ovoid. Brazil, 1876.

=A. fimbriata= (fringed).* _fl._ white; lip blue. Demerara, 1874. This species has also a sacciform, fimbriate lip, but, when compared with the foregoing, its flowers, leaves, and bulbs are much smaller, and the lip is not slit up to the apex, but the sac is round.

=A. graminea= (grass-leaved). A weedy looking species, of no garden value. Guiana, 1836.

=A. ionoptera= (violet-winged). The flowers, not very much larger than those of the lily of the valley, are white, with violet petals, and violet tips and streaks on the sepals. Peru, 1871.

=A. pulchella= (pretty).* _fl._ white, with a blotch of yellow in the centre of the lip; the spike is produced from the bottom of the bulb. _h._ 8in. Demerara, 1838. It blossoms at different times of the year, and lasts two or three weeks in perfection. This species is very rare and pretty, and is best grown in a pot, with peat, and good drainage; requires a liberal supply of water at the roots, and the hottest house.

=AGANOSMA= (from _aganos_, mild, and _osme_, a smell; scent of flowers). ORD. _Apocynaceæ_. A genus of showy stove or warm greenhouse shrubs, with opposite leaves and terminal corymbs of large funnel-shaped flowers, the coronet of which is cup-shaped or cylindrical, "having its parts so united that they appear only as lobes around the mouth of the cup." All the species mentioned are well worth cultivating. They thrive best in a mixture of loam, sand, and peat, in equal proportions. Propagated by cuttings in sand, under glass, and with bottom heat.

=A. acuminata= (pointed-leaved).* _fl._ large, white, fragrant; petals linear, falcate, curled; panicles axillary, longer than the leaves, scattered. _l._ from oblong to broad-lanceolate, acuminated, glabrous. Sylhet. Shrubby climber.

=A. caryophyllata= (clove scented).* _fl._ pale yellow, tinged with red, deliciously clove scented; corymbs terminal. October. _l._ oval, acutish at both ends, tomentose beneath as well as the branches. India, 1812. Shrubby twiner.

=A. cymosa= (cymose-flowered).* _fl._ small, whitish, fragrant; calyx and corolla hoary outside; cymes terminal, shorter than the leaves. _l._ elliptic, acuminated. Sylhet. Shrub.

=A. elegans= (elegant).* _fl._ small, purple; corolla downy outside, as well as the calyces, bracteas, and pedicels; sepals longer than the tube of the corolla; corymbs terminal, crowded. _l._ elliptic, short-acuminated, glabrous. India. Shrubby twiner.

=A. marginata= (bordered).* _fl._ numerous, large, white, fragrant; petals linear, falcate; panicles terminal, loose, corymbose, glabrous. _l._ lanceolate, smooth. Sylhet. Shrubby climber.

=A. Roxburghii= (Roxburgh's).* _fl._ pure white, large, fragrant; calyx and corolla hoary outside; petals triangular; corymbs terminal. October. _l._ ovate-cordate, acuminated; petioles and veins red, glabrous, pale beneath, and shining above. India, 1812. Shrubby twiner.

=A. Wallichii= (Wallich's).* _fl._ white, fragrant; calyx and corolla downy outside; corymbs terminal. _l._ elliptic-acuminated, shining above and pale beneath, glabrous. India. This species differs from the last in the veins of the leaves being parallel, not longitudinal, from the base to the apex. Shrubby twiner.

=AGAPANTHUS= (from _agape_, love, and _anthos_, a flower). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. African Lily. A genus, with numerous varieties, of very handsome greenhouse or conservatory herbaceous plants. Flowers large, scapose; perianth tubular, tube short; stamens six, having the filaments somewhat declinate. Leaves linear or lorate, arching, radical. They are of easy culture, and thrive best in strong turfy loam, leaf mould, decomposed manure, and river sand. They may be grown in large pots or tubs outside, to be removed in autumn, and placed under the stage in the greenhouse, or where they will be protected from frost, and kept moderately dry. If planted and left outside, the crowns should be well covered with cocoa-nut fibre in winter. During the summer, and especially in dry weather, the plants can hardly be over watered. They thrive admirably on the margins of lakes or running streams, and few plants, alike in flower and foliage, are more effective. Clear manure water may be given previous to or when the plants are in flower, and, after flowering, gradually lessen the quantity of water, until they are stowed away for the winter. They increase very rapidly, by offsets, and, if necessary, the old plants may be divided in early spring, to any extent required. In the more southern parts of this country they are quite hardy.

[Illustration: FIG. 39. AGAPANTHUS UMBELLATUS.]

=A. umbellatus= (umbelled).* _fl._ bright blue; perianth funnel-shaped, regular, deeply six-parted; tube short; scape tall, naked, bearing a many-flowered umbel. Summer and autumn. _l._ numerous, radical, linear, somewhat fleshy. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1692. See Fig. 39.

=A. u. albidus= (whitish).* _fl._ pure white, on large full-sized umbels, smaller than those of the species, but very showy. Cape of Good Hope. This requires carefully drying off during the winter.

=A. u. aureus= (golden). A variety in which the leaves are marked longitudinally with yellow. 1882.

=A. u. flore-pleno= (double-flowered).* Identical in all respects with the species, except that it has double flowers, which are therefore, much more lasting than the single ones. A very handsome variety.

=A. u. Leichtlinii= (Leichtlin's).* _fl._, perianth deep bright hyacinthine blue, 1-1/4in. long; scape about 1-1/2ft. long, with a more compact umbel than any other known form. June. _l._ similar in size to the species. Cape of Good Hope, 1878.

=A. u. maximus= (larger).* _fl._ bright blue, in immense umbels. This is larger in all its parts than the type, and when well grown is truly a noble plant. There is also a white-flowered form of this variety, which is most desirable, being equally as large.

=A. u. minor= (smaller).* This is smaller in all its parts, with narrow leaves, and slender scapes of deep blue flowers. A very elegant variety.

=A. u. Mooreanus= (Moore's).* _fl._ dark blue. _h._ 1-1/2ft. 1879. A new variety, with shorter, narrower, and more upright leaves than the species; it has a dwarf habit. Perfectly hardy.

=A. u. variegatus= (variegated).* Where variegated-leaved plants are desired, few could be more useful than this; its leaves are almost entirely white, with a few green bands, but they are neither so broad nor so long as in the type. It is an excellent subject for the domestic garden.

=AGAPETES= (from _agapetos_, beloved; in reference to the showy character of the plants). ORD. _Vacciniaceæ_. A genus containing about eighteen species of warm greenhouse or stove evergreen shrubs. Flowers corymbose and racemose; corolla tubular. Leaves alternate, coriaceous. They are all worthy of cultivation, but only two or three species are grown in England. Peat, turfy loam, and sand, in equal parts, is the best compost for them; and young hardened cuttings will strike in sandy soil, under a hand glass, in stove temperature.

=A. buxifolia= (box-leaved).* _fl._ bright red, about 1in. long, tubular, wax-like, disposed in corymbs. April. _l._ small, oval oblong, bright green, leathery; branches spreading, twiggy. _h._ 5ft. Bootan.

=A. setigera= (bristly). _fl._ red, about 1in. long, tubular, numerous, in lateral and corymbose racemes, furnished with bristly hairs. _l._ scattered, lanceolate, acuminated, on very short robust petioles. Pundua Mountains, 1837.

=A. variegata= (variegated). _fl._ scarlet, about 1in. long, tubular, lateral, corymbose. _l._ on short petioles, lanceolate, acuminated, denticulated, attenuated at the base, veiny. Khasia, 1837.

=AGARICUS= (derived from _Agaria_, the name of a town in Sarmentosa). Mushroom. ORD. _Fungi_. The most extensive genus known. It, however, contains but one or two species of cultural value. The most important ones are the common field mushroom, _A. campestris_ (Fig. 44), the Fairy Ring mushroom, _A. pratensis_, and _A. vaginatus_. Familiar species are the Parasol mushroom, _A. procerus_ (Fig. 43); St. George's mushroom, _A. gambosus_ (Fig. 42); and the deadly Fly Agaric, _A. muscarius_ (Fig. 41). For practical purposes the majority of this genus are poisonous, and many virulently so. Great care must be exercised in experimenting with unknown species, even by experienced fungologists. _See_ =Mushroom=.

=AGASTACHYS= (from _agastos_, admirable, and _stachys_, a spike). ORD. _Proteaceæ_. A greenhouse evergreen shrub, with four sepalled apetalous flowers, which are disposed in numerous spikes. It thrives in a compost of equal parts loam, sand, and peat. Cuttings of ripened wood will strike in sandy soil under a glass, in a cool house.

=A. odorata= (fragrant).* _fl._ pale yellow, sweet scented, crowded; spikes 4in. to 5in. long. April. _l._ bluntly lanceolate, sub-sessile, thickish, about 2in. long. _h._ about 3ft. New Holland, 1826.

=AGATHÆA= (from _agathos_, excellent; in reference to the beauty of the flowers). ORD. _Compositæ_. Allied to _Cineraria_, and requiring the same greenhouse treatment. It makes a very pretty object for summer decoration in the flower garden. Young cuttings root freely, in a gentle heat, at all times; and the plant may be had in bloom all the year round.

=A. cœlestis= (sky-blue).* _fl.-heads_ blue; peduncle one-headed. June. _l._ opposite, ovate, naked. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1753. Herbaceous perennial. See Fig. 40.

[Illustration: FIG. 40. AGATHÆA CŒLESTIS.]

=AGATHA ROSE.= _See_ =Rosa gallica Agatha=.

=AGATHIS.= _See_ =Dammara=.

=AGATHOPHYLLUM= (from _agathos_, pleasant, and _phyllon_, a leaf; referring to the pleasant clove-like smell of the leaf). Madagascar Nutmeg. ORD. _Lauraceæ_. A stove evergreen tree, of economic value only, having the fruit enclosed by the persistent calyx; thriving in peat and light rich loam. Of easy propagation by cuttings in sand, with a moderate bottom heat.

=A. aromaticum= (aromatic). _fl._ white. _l._ stalked, alternate, obovate, obtuse, leathery, entire, smooth. _h._ 30ft. Madagascar, 1823.

=AGATHOSMA= (from _agathos_, pleasant, and _osme_, smell; the plants contained in this genus have a pleasant smell). SYNS. _Bucco_, _Dichosma_. ORD. _Rutaceæ_. Beautiful small heath-like greenhouse shrubs, from the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers in terminal heads, or umbels; petals five, divided, with long claws, and scattered, short, narrow leaves, usually with revolute edges. They are of easy culture, thriving best in a mixture of sand and peat, with the addition of a little turfy loam. Young cuttings will strike root freely in a pot of sand, under a bell glass, in a cool house. They require to be shaded somewhat in the summer. Winter temperature, 40deg. to 45deg. About forty-six species are known.

=A. acuminata= (taper-pointed leaved).* _fl._ violet; calyces smooth, glandular, on terminal subcapitate heads. April. _l._ ovate, somewhat cordate, long acuminated, fringed, at length spreading. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1812.

=A. bruniades= (Brunia-like).* _fl._ lilac or white, on terminal sub-umbellate heads; peduncles fastigiate, elongated. April. _l._ scattered, linear-trigonal, awl-shaped, dotted, and a little fringed; branches hairy. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1820.

=A. cerefolia= (chervil-leaved). _fl._ white, small; pedicels and calyces beset with glandular hairs; heads terminal sub-umbellate. April. _l._ crowded, lanceolate, acute, spreading, keeled, fringed. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1794.

=A. ciliata= (ciliated).* _fl._ white; pedicels smoothish; heads terminal sub-umbellate. April. _l._ scattered, lanceolate, acute, with toothletted-fringed, revolute edges, dotted beneath, and bearing hairs on the middle nerve, becoming at length reflexed. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1774.

=A. erecta= (upright).* _fl._ pale violet, terminal, sub-umbellate; peduncles short, villous. April. _l._ imbricate, trigonal, blunt, dotted beneath, a little fringed. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1818.

=A. hirta= (hairy). _fl._ purple, densely capitate; petals bearded at the claws. April. _l._ somewhat imbricate, linear, awl-shaped, channelled, hairy on the back, decurrent. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1794.

[Illustration: FIG. 41. AGARICUS MUSCARIUS (FLY AGARIC).]

[Illustration: FIG. 42. AGARICUS GAMBOSUS (ST. GEORGE'S MUSHROOM).]

[Illustration: FIG. 43. AGARICUS PROCERUS (PARASOL MUSHROOM).]

[Illustration: FIG. 44. AGARICUS CAMPESTRIS (COMMON MUSHROOM).]

=A. hispida= (rough-haired). _fl._ violet, on terminal sub-umbellate heads; pedicels and sepals pubescent; petals quite smooth. May. _l._ crowded, linear, trigonal, blunt, spreading, hispid, keeled, and two-furrowed beneath. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1786.

=A. imbricata= (imbricated). _fl._ pale purple, in terminal sub-capitate heads; petals with a roundish limb; sepals smoothish; pedicels pubescent. April. _l._ imbricate, crowded, ovate, acuminated, dotted, fringed. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1774.

=A. orbicularis= (round-leaved). _fl._ white, on terminal sub-umbellate heads; stamens twice as long as the corolla; pedicels pubescent. April. _l._ scattered, spreading, orbicular, ovate, or reniform, smooth, reflexed, small, thickish, without any dots beneath; branches villous. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1790.

=A. prolifera= (proliferous). _fl._ white, on terminal sub-umbellate heads; sepals smooth; pedicels somewhat fastigiate, pubescent. April. _l._ spreading, lanceolate, cuspidate; keel and edges fringed, dotted; branches whorled, proliferous. _h._ 1ft. to 3ft. 1790.

=A. pubescens= (downy). _fl._ white; umbels terminal; peduncles and sepals villous. April. _l._ lanceolate, trigonal, pointless, with margins and rib ciliated. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1798.

=A. rugosa= (coarsely-wrinkled). _fl._ white, on terminal sub-umbellate heads; sepals pubescent; pedicels capillary, clothed with glandular hairs. April. _l._ spreading, oblong or ovate, blunt, keeled, wrinkled, villous beneath, reflexed. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1790.

=A. vestita= (clothed). _fl._ lilac, on terminal sub-capitate heads; pedicels quite smooth. May. _l._ closely imbricated, ovate, acuminated, keeled, fringed. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. 1824.

=AGATHYRSUS.= _See_ =Mulgedium=.

=AGATI= (its Sanscrit name). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Ornamental stove trees from India, with lanceolate stipulas, abruptly-pinnate leaves, having many pairs of leaflets. Flowers large, few, racemose. Legumes 1-1/2ft. long. A mixture of loam, peat, and sand is most suitable. Young cuttings will root in a pot of sand, with a hand glass over them, placed in heat.

=A. coccinea= (scarlet).* _fl._ red, rather smaller than the next species. Legumes rather terete. _l._ leaflets powdery. July. _h._ 20ft. to 30ft. 1768.

=A. grandiflora= (large-flowered). _fl._ rosy red. July. Legumes evidently compressed. _l._ leaflets glabrous. _h._ 14ft. to 26ft. 1768.

=A. g. flore-albo= (white flowered). _fl._ white, double. N. Australia, 1869.

=AGAVE= (from _agauos_, admirable; referring to the stately form in which some of them flower). ORD. _Amaryllidaceæ_. Flower-scape tall, proceeding from the centre of the rosette of leaves; perianth funnel-shaped, six-parted. Leaves large, fleshy, tufted. Mr. B. S. Williams describes them as follows: "They are noble, massive-growing plants, and form magnificent ornaments in the greenhouse or conservatory; whilst, from their slow growth, they do not rapidly get too large, even for a small greenhouse. Indeed, some of the real gems of this genus are neat, compact-growing plants, seldom exceeding 2ft. in height. Besides being fine ornamental plants for indoor decoration, the larger growing kinds are unquestionably the finest objects for the embellishment of terrace-walks, or surmounting flights of steps in the open air during the summer season, and also for plunging in rockwork, or about any rustic nooks in the pleasure-grounds, as, in such situations, they are quite in keeping, and thrive admirably. As is well known, they attain maturity very slowly; but when this condition is reached, the plant sends up a flower spike, and, after perfecting this, dies." _A. Sartorii_, and a few others are, however, exceptional, and go on flowering year after year. It is certainly fallacious to suppose it takes them a hundred years to flower. Agaves succeed well potted in good loam and river sand, to which may be added a little peat and leaf mould for some of the smaller-growing kinds. The drainage should be good, as they enjoy a liberal supply of water during the summer season, but during winter considerably less will be required. They can be increased by suckers when these are to be obtained, and also by seeds, to secure the production of which, in the species that do not yield suckers, the flowers should be carefully impregnated. In the following descriptive list of species, only those of horticultural value are mentioned, some of which are still rare; and in describing them we have availed ourselves of Mr. J. G. Baker's excellent monograph, which appeared in the columns of the _Gardener's Chronicle_. Many are omitted, not from any deficiency in horticultural beauty, but because, in several instances, only one plant of a species is known to exist in cultivation, and such cannot, therefore, hope to become in general cultivation for many years hence.

=A. albicans= (whitened). Probably a variety of _A. micrantha_.

[Illustration: FIG. 45. AGAVE AMERICANA.]

=A. americana= (American).* _fl._ yellowish green, 2in. to 3-1/2in. long; in very dense globose clusters, on pedicels 1/4in. to 1/2in. long; scape, including the thyrsoid panicle, 24ft. to 36ft. August. _l._ usually thirty to forty, sometimes more, in a rosette, oblanceolate-spathulate, 3ft. to 6ft. long, 6in. to 9in. broad above the middle, glaucous green, more or less concave all down the face, the outer leaves recurved, the dark brown pungent point 1in. to 2in. long; prickles brown tipped, 1/6in. to 1/4in. long. S. America, 1640. See Fig. 45.

=A. a. mexicana= (Mexican). A variety much shorter in the leaves than the species, of which it may be regarded as one of the many small forms.

=A. a. picta= (painted).* _l._ 2ft. to 3ft. long, about 4in. wide, lower ones recurved, upper ones erect, moderately thick, rich golden yellow on both sides, bordered with dark green. A very splendid variety. SYN. _A. ornata_.

=A. a. variegata= (variegated). _l._ 6ft. or more in length, 6in. or 8in. wide, dark green in the centre, broadly margined with rich yellow. A very desirable variety.

=A. amœna= (pleasing). Referred to _A. Scolymus_.

=A. amurensis= (Amur River). Synonymous with _A. xylacantha_.

=A. applanata= (plano-convex-leaved). _fl._ unknown. _l._ twenty to forty in a dense sessile rosette, reaching a couple of feet in diameter, oblong-spathulate, 8in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 3-1/2in. broad, the lower half of the face flat, the upper half concave, suddenly terminating in a pungent brown spine above 1in. long, blue-green bordered with brown; prickles 1/4in. to 1/3in. long, bright brown. Mexico, 1869.

=A. atrovirens= (dark-green). Synonymous with _A. Salmiana_.

=A. attenuata= (attenuated).* _fl._ greenish-yellow, 2in. long; pedicels about 1/4in. long, on a dense spike, 6ft. to 8ft. long, and 6in. in diameter; bracts overtopping the perianth. _l._ ten to twenty, in a dense rosette at the top of the stem, oblong-spathulate, 2ft. to 2-1/2ft. long, 8in. to 9in. broad two-thirds of the way up, narrowed to 2-1/2in. to 3in. above the base, persistently glaucous, one of the most fleshy of all in texture; face rather concave when young; tip not pungent, edge quite entire. Stem 4ft. to 7ft. high, 3in. to 4in. thick. Mexico, 1834. A most distinct species.

=A. Beaucarnei= (Beaucarne's). Synonymous with _A. Kerchovei_.

=A. Botterii= (Botteri's).* _fl._ greenish-yellow, about 1in. long, on a dense spike, longer than the leaves; primary bracts lanceolate, with a long point, the lower ones as long as the flowers; scape covered with adpressed lanceolate bracts. _l._ about fifty in a rosette, oblong-spathulate, about 2ft. long, 6in. broad above the middle, narrowed to 4-1/2in. above the base; pale green, concave in the centre; spine hard, pungent, about 1/2in. long; marginal teeth crowded, 1/8in., upcurved at the tip. Stemless. Mexico, about 1865.

=A. bulbifera= (bulb-bearing). Synonymous with _A. vivipara_.

=A. cæspitosa= (tufted). Synonymous with _A. Sartorii_.

=A. cantula.= Synonymous with _A. vivipara_.

[Illustration: FIG. 46. AGAVE CELSIANA.]

=A. Celsiana= (Cels's).* _fl._ tinged purplish-brown, 2in. long, in a dense spike, 1ft. or more long, and 6in. to 8in. in diameter when expanded; scape 4ft. long, the lower bract leaves lanceolate, the upper ones subulate. _l._ twenty to thirty in a rosette, oblong-spathulate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 5in. broad at the middle, narrowed to 2-1/2in. to 3in. above the base, persistently glaucous, the point hardly at all pungent; spines very unequal in size and shape, green, largest brown and horny at the top. Mexico, 1839. This is a beautiful species, the stem of which scarcely rises off the surface of the ground. See Fig. 46.

=A. coccinea= (scarlet). _fl._ unknown. _l._ twenty to thirty in a dense rosette, oblanceolate-spathulate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 6in. broad two-thirds of the way up, narrowed to 3in. above the dilated base, where it is 1in. to 1-1/4in. thick, deep heavy green; terminal spine 1-1/2in. or more in length, red; side prickles irregular, deltoid, unequal, nearly straight, 1/6in. to 1/4in. long, red. Mexico, 1859.

=A. cochlearis= (cochleate). _fl._ yellowish green, above 4in. long, in dense clusters. _l._ forming a sessile rosette 10ft. broad, oblong-spathulate, 5ft. to 6ft. long, above 1ft. broad, 5in. thick at the base, opaque green, with a deeply excavated face; terminal spine very stout, pungent; side prickles curved variously, middle sized, deltoid. Stems 26ft. high. Mexico, previous to 1867.

=A. Consideranti= (Considerant's). Synonymous with _A. Victoriæ Regina_.

=A. Corderoyi= (Corderoy's).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ forty to fifty in a dense rosette, rigidly erecto-patent, ensiform, 1-1/2ft. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, bright green; terminal spine hard, brown, 1in. long; side prickles moderately close, erecto-patent, dark brown, 1/6in. long. Mexico, 1868. A very distinct and pretty species.

=A. crenata= (crenated). Referred to _A. Scolymus_.

=A. cucullata= (hooded). Referred to _A. Scolymus_.

=A. dasylirioides= (Dasylirion-like).* _fl._ yellow, about 1-1/2in. long; spike as long as the scape, often decurved; lower bracts much longer than the flowers; pedicels obsolete; scape 6ft. long, densely clothed with spreading subulate bract leaves, the lower ones 1ft. long. _l._ eighty to a hundred in a dense rosette, linear-ensiform, 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. long, about 1in. broad, narrowing gradually from the middle to a short brown pungent point, pale glaucous green, rigidly leathery; edge minutely denticulate. Mexico, 1846.

=A. d. dealbata= (whitened). A variety of preceding, but with more glaucous foliage.

[Illustration: FIG. 47. AGAVE DENSIFLORA.]

=A. densiflora= (close-flowered).* _fl._ yellowish-red, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, on a dense spike, 2ft. long; pedicels very short; scape, including the spike, 6ft. long, the lower bracts ascending, the upper ones spreading. _l._ thirty to forty in a stemless rosette, oblanceolate-spathulate, 2ft. to 3ft. long, and 2-1/2in. to 5in. broad, bright green when mature; terminal spine 1/2in. long, thick, pungent, slightly decurrent; side spines crowded, short, bright chestnut brown. Mexico (previous to) 1857. See Fig. 47.

=A. Deserti= (Desert's).* _fl._ yellow, under 2in. long, on a thyrsoid panicle, the branches very short, the lower horizontal, the upper ascending; pedicels short; scape 4ft. to 10ft. high, 1in. to 2in. thick at the base, furnished with distant lanceolate acuminate toothed bracts. _l._ few, in a rosette, oblanceolate, 6in. to 12in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad above the middle, thick, fleshy, very glaucous; face deeply concave; terminal spine 1in. to 2in. long, slender; prickles crowded, strong, hooked, horny, nearly 1/4in. long. California, 1877.

=A. Desmetiana= (De Smet's). Probably synonymous with _A. miradorensis_.

=A. Elemeetiana= (Elemeet's).* _fl._ yellowish-green, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, in a dense spike 8ft. to 9ft. long, 7in. to 8in. in diameter when expanded; pedicels 1/4in. long; scape, including the spike, 12ft. to 13ft. high, stiffly erect, lower 3ft. to 4ft., barren, with squarrose lanceolate bracts. _l._ twenty to twenty-five in a rosette, lanceolate-oblong, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 3in. to 6in. wide, slightly glaucous; face flat above the middle terminal spine, not pungent, the margin pale and quite entire. Stemless. A very distinct species. Mexico, 1864.

=A. Fenzliana= (Fenzl's). Synonymous with _A. Hookeri_.

=A. ferox= (fierce). _fl._ unknown. _l._ about twenty in a rosette, oblong-spathulate, 4in. to 8in. broad; face nearly flat, except at the top, slightly glaucous green; terminal spine above 1in. long, hard, pungent; margin slightly wavy between the large dark brown teeth, which are about 1/4in. long, and curved at the top. Mexico, 1861.

=A. filifera= (thread-bearing).* _fl._ greenish, about 2in. long; pedicels very short and stout, in a dense spike 2ft. to 3ft. long; scape 3ft. to 4ft. long, its bract-leaves subulate, the lower ones ascending, the upper squarrose. _l._ sixty to a hundred in a dense rosette, stiff, straight, ensiform, 6in. to 9in. long, 1in. broad at the middle, gradually narrowing to a grey pungent tip; face flat, the continuous grey edge splitting off copiously into irregular spreading grey wiry threads; outer leaves of the rosette not all recurved, but spreading stiffly. Mexico.

=A. f. filamentosa= (thready).* A form with larger leaves and scape; including the spike, 10ft. to 12ft. high. A well-known, handsome variety.

=A. Galeotti= (Galeotti's). _fl._ unknown. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, 2ft. to 3ft. broad, oblong-spathulate, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long, 2in. to 6in. broad; face rather flat or convex, green; terminal spine hard, pungent; prickles close, straight, or slightly hooked, purplish-black. Mexico, 1877.

=A. Ghiesbreghtii= (Ghiesbreght's). _fl._ unknown. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, rigid, lanceolate, 9in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, bright glossy green; terminal spine 1/2in. long, pungent; border narrow, red-brown till a late stage; side prickles numerous, irregular, two to three lines long. Mexico, 1862. Very handsome dwarf species. _A. Rohanii_ and _A. Leguayana_ are mere varieties.

=A. heteracantha= (various-spined).* _fl._ greenish, 1-1/2in. long, on a dense spike 3ft. long; scape 3ft. to 4ft. long. _l._ fifty to eighty in a rosette, rigid, ensiform, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 2in. to 2-1/2in. broad in the middle, dull green, with numerous darker green lines on the back; terminal point 1in. long; side spines numerous, strongly hooked, lanceolate. Stemless. Mexico.

=A. Hookeri= (Hooker's).* _fl._ large, yellow, very numerous, in stalked panicled cymes. _l._ thirty to forty in a sessile rosette, 8ft. or 9ft. in diameter, oblanceolate-spathulate, bright green on the face, rather glaucous on the back, 4ft. to 5ft. long, 5in. to 9in. broad, 2in. to 3in. thick; terminal spine 2in. long, and decurrent for nearly half a foot; face flattish or slightly concave; side prickles irregular, brown and horny, about 1/4in. long, and curved in different directions. Mexico. SYN. _A. Fenzliana_. A rare and noble species, very massive.

=A. horrida= (horrid).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, rigid, lanceolate-spathulate, 8in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad, bright green; terminal spine pungent, nearly 1in. long; margin furnished with a continuous broad grey border, with copious prickles 3/8in. to 1/2in. long.

=A. h. Gilbeyi= (Gilbey's).* _l._ about thirty, 3in. to 4in. long, 2in. broad, dark green with a pale stripe down the middle, three to four large spines on each side. Mexico, 1873.

=A. h. lævior= (smoother). _l._ somewhat narrower, longer, with marginal spines less strongly developed, and of a paler colour. Mexico, 1870.

=A. h. macrodonta= (long-toothed). _l._ fifty to sixty, 2-1/2in. broad; spines larger than in the typical form. Mexico, 1876.

=A. h. micrantha= (small-toothed). Border of leaf narrower, and spines smaller, than in the typical form.

=A. Jacobiana= (Jacob's). Synonymous with _A. Salmiana_.

=A. Kerchovei= (Kerchove's).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ thirty to forty in a stemless rosette, stiff, rigid, typically ensiform, 6in. to 12in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, narrowing gradually to a pungent spine 1in. long, dull green, with a distinct pale central band, rounded on the back, without any stripes of dark green, the margin with a continuous moderately broad grey border; side prickles irregular, grey, lanceolate, curved, 1/6in. to 1/4in. long. SYN. _A. Beaucarnei_.

There are several varieties of _A. Kerchovei_, of which the following are the most important:--

=A. K. diplacantha= (double-spined).* With very few distant, small teeth, often collected or united in pairs.

=A. K. inermis= (unarmed). Dwarf, with spines entirely obsolete.

=A. K. macrodonta= (long-toothed). _l._ 1-1/2ft. long, without any distinct central band, and with copious irregular grey lanceolate prickles, about 1/3in. long.

=A. K. pectinata= (comb-like). _l._ 1ft. long, 2-1/4in. broad, without any central band.

=A. lophantha= (crest-flowered).* _fl._ greenish, arranged in a dense spike 4ft. to 5ft. long; scape 7ft. to 8ft. long, its leaves brown, the lower ones 6in. long. _l._ thirty to forty in a rosette, rigid, ensiform, 2ft. to 3ft. long, 1-1/2in. broad at the middle, rather concave down the face, rounded on the back, not marked with any lines, dull green; terminal spine 1in. long; margins bordered by a very narrow continuous grey hoary line, furnished with distant linear falcate teeth, about 1/12in. long, sessile. Mexico.

=A. l. cœrulescens= (bluish).* _l._ with a decided glaucous bloom.

=A. l. longifolia= (long-leaved). A mere variety of above species.

=A. macracantha= (long-spined).* _fl._ greenish, 2in. long, ten to twelve in a loose raceme 6in. long, all solitary on ascending pedicels 1/4in. to 1/2in. long; scape 2ft. to 3ft. long; bracts erect. _l._ thirty to fifty in a stiff rosette 1ft. to 2ft. broad, oblanceolate, 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, very stiff and rigid, very glaucous; face rather thicker in the lower half; terminal spine nearly black, very pungent, 1/2in. long; side prickles purplish-black, sub-distant, 1/8in. long, with a large point straight or slightly hooked. With a short stem, or stemless. Mexico, 1830. It has many varieties, among which are _A. Bessereriana_ and _A. flavescens_.

=A. Maximiliana= (Maximilian's).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ about twenty in a sessile rosette, oblanceolate-spathulate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 1-3/4in. to 3in. broad; face slightly glaucous green; terminal spine pungent, brown, 1in. broad; side prickles bright chestnut brown, larger and more irregular than in _A. americana_, more hooked, and furnished with longer and sharper points, reaching 1/4in. long. Mexico. A very distinct species.

=A. micracantha= (small-spined). _fl._ yellowish, 1-1/2in. long, in a dense spike 3ft. to 4ft. long, 6in. to 7in. broad when expanded. _l._ twenty to thirty in a shortly stalked rosette, oblanceolate oblong, 15in. to 18in. long, 3in. to 5in. broad above the middle, narrowed to 2in. to 3in. above the base, bright green; face flattish above the centre; terminal spine red brown, moderately firm; the copious close reddish-brown horny teeth about 1/12in. long, the upper ones ascending, the lower deflexed. Mexico, 1860.

=A. miradorensis= (Mirador).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ about thirty in a sessile rosette, oblanceolate-spathulate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 2in. to 2-1/2in. broad above the middle, thin but firm in texture, very glaucous, with a firm red-brown terminal spine 1in. long; side prickles very minute, crowded, colourless, five or six to an inch in the centre of the leaf. Mexico, 1869. SYN. (probably) _A. Desmetiana_.

=A. Noackii= (Noack's). A synonym of _A. Sartorii_.

=A. ornata= (adorned). A synonym of _A. americana picta_.

=A. Ortgiesiana= (Ortgies'). A dwarf form of _A. schidigera_ with a pale central band to the leaf. Mexico, 1861. A widely-distributed and desirable species.

=A. pendula= (pendulous). Synonymous with _A. Sartorii_.

=A. polyacantha= (many-spined).* _fl._ greenish-yellow, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long; flowering-stem 8ft. to 12ft. high, including the dense spike, which is 3ft. to 4ft. long. _l._ about thirty in a sessile rosette, oblanceolate-spathulate, rigid, 1ft. to 2ft. long, 2-1/2in. to 5in. broad above the middle, bright green, slightly glaucous when young; terminal spine dark brown, pungent, 1/2in. to 3/4in. long; side prickles crowded, deltoid, dark chestnut brown, irregular, 1/12in. or 1/8in. long, all sub-patent. Mexico, 1800. SYNS. _A. uncinata_, _A. xalapensis_.

=A. Poselgerii= (Poselger's). _fl._ purplish, rather more than 1in. long; scape, including the spike, 6ft. to 10ft. _l._ twenty to thirty in a dense rosette, rigid, ensiform, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long; 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad at the middle, dull green, with a broad pale band down to the face, rounded and marked with numerous distinct green lines down the back; margin furnished with a continuous straight, moderately broad edge; terminal spine 1in. long, brown, pungent; side prickles moderately close, lanceolate, hooked, 1/6in. long. Trunk, 4in. to 6in. long. Texas.

=A. potatorum= (drinkers'). _fl._ greenish yellow, 3in. long; scape 12ft. high, including the thyrsoid panicle, which is 4ft. to 5ft. long. _l._ about twenty in a dense sessile rosette, 4ft. to 5ft. broad, oblong-spathulate, 2ft. to 2-1/2ft. long, 7in. to 9in. broad above the middle, a dull glaucous green; face slightly concave; terminal spines hard, pungent, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long; side prickles deltoid-cuspidate, about 1/4in. long, with the edge slightly wavy between them. Mexico, 1830.

=A. pruinosa= (frosty).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ ten to twenty in a dense rosette, spreading, oblanceolate-oblong, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 5in. broad above the middle, soft and fleshy in texture, pale glaucous green; terminal spine very weak; edge furnished with minute irregular spreading deltoid serrations, not more than quarter line long. Mexico, 1863. A very distinct species.

=A. Roezliana= (Roezl's). _fl._ unknown. _l._ twenty to thirty in a sessile rosette, stiff, ensiform, 6in. to 7in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad at the middle, bright glossy green, with a distinct pale band down the centre, broadly rounded on the back, without any darker green lines, margined with a continuous moderately broad border, red brown at first, fading into grey when old; terminal spines bright reddish brown, pungent, 1/2in. to 3/4in. long; side prickles copious, spreading, lanceolate, curved, 1/4in. long. Mexico, 1869.

[Illustration: ACACIA LEPROSA (LEMON). A. LINEATA (ORANGE).]

=A. Salmiana= (Prince Salm-Dyck's).* _fl._ greenish yellow, 4in. long; panicle thyrsoid, 6ft. to 8ft. long, with erecto-patent branches and flowers in dense clusters; scape, exclusive of the panicle, 20ft. high. _l._ twelve to thirty in a dense rosette, which is often 5ft. to 6ft. broad, oblanceolate-spathulate, 2ft. to 4ft. long, 4in. to 6in. broad above the middle, a dull, slightly glaucous green; face more or less concave; terminal spine 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, hard and pungent; side prickles 1/4in. long, chestnut brown, hooked up or down. Mexico, 1860. SYNS. _A. atrovirens_, _A. Jacobiana_, _A. tehuacensis_.

=A. S. latissima= (very broad). _l._ 2ft. to 3ft. long, by 8in. to 9in. broad above the middle.

=A. Sartorii= (Sartor's). _fl._ greenish, 1-1/2in. long; pedicels very short, in a dense spike about 3ft. long, 5in. to 6in. broad when expanded; scape 3ft. to 4ft. long, the green linear ascending bracts 2in. to 4in. long. _l._ thirty to forty spaced out in a loose rosette, ensiform, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 3in. broad at the middle, bright green, with a pale band down the middle; face flat; terminal spine small, not pungent; side prickles minute, crowded, spreading, tipped with red-brown. Caudex 1ft. to 2ft. long, sometimes forked. SYNS. _A. cæspitosa_, _A. Noackii_, _A. pendula_.

=A. schidigera= (spine-bearing).* _fl._ almost identical with _A. filifera_. _l._ fifty to eighty in a dense sessile rosette, stiff, ensiform, 12in. to 15in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad at the middle, similar in colour and texture to those of _A. filifera_, but the grey marginal border, and splitting off into flat shavings, not mere threads.

=A. Schnittspahni= (Schnittspahn's). Referred to _A. Scolymus_.

=A. Scolymus= (Scolymus). _fl._ greenish yellow, 2-1/2in. to 3in. long; branches few, with the flowers at the end in very dense clusters; scape 14ft. to 16ft. high, including the thyrsoid panicle, which is 4ft. long and 2ft. broad, furnished with green bracts. _l._ twenty to thirty in a dense rosette 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. broad, oblong-spathulate, 9in. to 18in. long, 3in. to 6in. broad above the middle, very glaucous, abruptly terminating in a pungent spine, 1in. or more long; side prickles chestnut brown, about 1/4in. long; edge wavy between them; those on the lower half smaller and directed downwards. Mexico, 1830. Other so-called species referred to this are _A. amœna_, _A. crenata_, _A. cucullata_, _A. Schnittspahni_, and _A. Verschaffeltii_.

=A. S. Saundersii= (Saunders'). _fl._ about 1ft. long; teeth very large.

=A. Seemanni= (Seemann's).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ twenty in a sessile rosette, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. broad, oblong-spathulate, 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 3-1/2in. broad at the middle, narrowed to 2in. above the dilated base, slightly glaucous; face flat, except close to the top; terminal spine pungent, dark brown, 1/2in. long; side prickles large, moderately close, slightly curved upwards or downwards. Guatemala, 1868. There are two or three garden forms of this species.

=A. Shawii= (Shaw's).* _fl._ greenish yellow, 3in. to 3-1/2in. long; panicle thyrsoid, about 2ft. long and broad; clusters dense, composed of thirty to forty flowers, surrounded by large foliaceous fleshy bracts. _l._ fifty to sixty, or more, forming a dense globose sessile rosette 2ft. in diameter, oblong-spathulate, 8in. to 10in. long, 3-1/2in. to 4-1/2in. broad at the middle, deep green; terminal spine brown, 1in. long, the upper third or quarter entire, the rest furnished with crowded upcurved lanceolate prickles, 1/4in. to 1/2in. long. California, 1877. This species is very rare at present, but is a most distinct and handsome plant.

=A. sobolifera= (soboliferous). _fl._ greenish yellow, 2in. to 2-1/2in. long, in a deltoid panicle, of which the lower panicles are 9in. to 12in. long, and bear a hundred flowers each; pedicels 1/4in. to 1in. long; scape 8ft. to 10ft. high, 2-1/2in. thick at the base. _l._ twenty to forty in a shortly caulescent rosette, oblanceolate-oblong-spathulate, 2ft. to 3ft. long, 3in. to 5in. broad at the middle, very bright green; face deeply channelled, the border much raised and tip often recurved; terminal spine sub-pungent, chestnut brown, 1/2in. long; side prickles distant, brown, hooked, 1/12in. to 1/8in. long. West Indies, 1678.

=A. striata= (striated-leaved).* _fl._ brownish green outside, yellow inside, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long; pedicels very short; spike dense, 2ft. to 3ft. long; bracts linear, shorter than the flowers; scape 6ft. to 8ft. high, including the spike, furnished with numerous spreading subulate bracts, which are 2in. to 3in. long. _l._ 150 to 200 in a dense rosette, linear-ensiform, 2ft. to 2-1/2ft. long, 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad above the deltoid dilated base, where they are 1/4in. thick and 1in. broad, narrowed gradually from the top of the base to the point, rigid in texture, glaucous green; face rather keeled, and the back more so; point brown, pungent, 1/2in. long; edges minutely serrulate. Mexico, 1856.

=A. s. echinoides= (Echinus-like). _l._ about 6in. long, 1/3in. broad at the middle; face flat. Mexico, 1869. Dwarfer and stiffer in habit than the variety _stricta_.

=A. s. recurva= (recurved-leaved). _l._ longer than in the type, 3ft. to 4ft., more or less falcate, narrower, and decidedly convex on both surfaces.

=A. s. stricta= (upright). _l._ about 1ft. long, very stiff, 1/4in. broad at the middle, both faces convex. _A. Richardsii_ comes near to this variety.

=A. tehuacensis= (Tehuan). Synonymous with _A. Salmiana_.

=A. uncinata= (hooked). Synonymous with _A. polyacantha_.

=A. univittata= (one-striped).* _fl._ green, 1-1/2in. long (or less); spike 10ft. to 12ft. long, 6in. to 7in. thick; pedicels 1/4in. long; scape 4ft. long, exclusive of the spike, its bracts dense and squarrose. _l._ fifty to eighty in a stemless rosette, rigid, ensiform, 2ft. to 2-1/2ft. long, 2in. to 3in. broad at the middle, narrowed slightly downwards, and very gradually upwards, dull green, with a broad pale band down the face, faintly lineate on the back; margin bordered by a narrow, continuous grey horny line, furnished with hooked lanceolate prickles, 1/8in. long, from 1/2in. to 1in. apart; terminal spine brown, pungent, 1in. long. Mexico, 1830.

=A. utahensis= (Utahan).* _fl._ yellowish, about 1in. long; peduncles ultimately 1/4in. long; scapes, 5ft. to 7ft. high, including the 1ft. to 2ft. spike. _l._ stemless, ensiform, 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to nearly 2in. broad, thick, glaucous; terminal spine channelled, pungent, about 1in. long; marginal prickles, 1/8in. to 1/2in. long, white, with a darker base. Southern Utah, 1881. This is a true alpine species, perfectly hardy, and of very easy culture.

=A. Vanderdonckii= (Vanderdonck's). Synonymous with _A. xylacantha_.

=A. variegata= (variegated).* _fl._ greenish, about 1-1/2in. long; spike about 1ft. long, fifteen to twenty flowered; bracts minute, deltoid; scape 2ft. long, exclusive of the spike, bearing about twelve lanceolate bract leaves. _l._ fifteen to eighteen in a sessile rosette, spreading, ligulate-lanceolate, finally 12in. to 15in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad below the middle, narrowed slightly downwards, and gradually to the point, deeply channelled down the face, and copiously spotted with brown on a green ground; edge hard and tough, very obscurely serrulate. Texas, 1865. This very desirable variegated species is extremely rare in cultivation.

=A. Verschaffeltii= (Verschaffelt's). Referred to _A. Scolymus_.

=A. Victoriæ Regina= (Queen Victoria).* _l._ forty to fifty in a sessile rosette, stiff, rigid, lanceolate, 6in. long, 1-1/2in. to nearly 2in. broad above the dilated base, narrowed gradually to a rather obtuse point, dead green, margined with a continuous white border, like that of _A. filifera_, not splitting up into threads, but leaving distinct white vertical bands where it is pressed against the neighbouring leaves; terminal spine 1/2in. long, black, pungent, with usually one or two small spines on each side of it. Mexico, 1875. This is also much too rare a plant. SYN. _A. Consideranti_.

=A. virginica= (Virginian).* _fl._ greenish yellow, 1in. to 1-1/4in. long; spike very loose, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long; lower flowers with very short pedicels and lanceolate bracts, about 1/4in. long; scape 2ft. to 3ft. high, exclusive of the spike, with only a few distant small bract leaves. _l._ ten to fifteen in a sessile rosette, spreading, lanceolate, 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad below the middle, narrowed gradually to the point and a little downwards; face channelled, undulated, pale green, or mottled with brown spots, the narrow hard and tough margin very obscurely serrulate. North America, 1765. _A. conduplicata_ is said to be allied to this species.

=A. vivipara= (viviparous).* _fl._ greenish yellow, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, often changed into bulbillæ, which bear lanceolate leaves 6in. long before they fall and take root; inflorescence reaching a height of 20ft. or more, the deltoid panicle about a quarter of the length of the scape; corymbs on stout peduncles, pedicels short. _l._ twenty to fifty in a dense, shortly caulescent rosette, ensiform, 2ft. to 3ft. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad at the middle, whence it gradually narrows to the point, dull green when mature, thin but firm in texture, flat or channelled down the face; terminal spine firm, brown, 1/2in. long; side teeth brown, hooked, 1/12in. or less long. A very widely spread species throughout tropics of the Old World, 1731. SYNS. _A. cantula_, _A. bulbifera_.

=A. Warelliana= (Warell's).* _l._ about thirty in a rosette, oblong-spathulate, 9in. to. 10in. long, 3in. broad above the middle, narrowed to 2in. above the dilated base; face nearly flat, green, scarcely at all glaucous, tipped with a strong brown channelled spine 1in. long; border margined with close, very short teeth, dark purple when mature. Mexico. A rare but very handsome species.

=A. Wislizeni= (Wislizenius's). _fl._ 2-1/2in. long; panicle thyrsoid, its branches 3in. to 6in. long; pedicels very short; scape 12ft. high. _l._ about thirty in a dense, rigid, sessile rosette, which is under 2ft. broad, oblong-spathulate, 3in. to 3-1/2in. broad above the middle, very glaucous, concave in the upper part; terminal spine hard, pungent, dark brown, 1in. long, and decurrent down the border a little; side prickles 1/8in. long, dark purple, moderately close, those below the middle of the leaf smaller and curved downward. Mexico, 1847.

=A. xalapensis.= Synonymous with _A. polyacantha_.

=A. xylacantha= (woody-spined).* _fl._ green, 1-1/2in. long; spike dense, rather shorter than the scape, its bracts linear-subulate; scape 5ft. to 6ft. long, its bracts subulate, all ascending, the lower ones 6in. to 8in. long. _l._ not more than twenty in a stemless rosette, ensiform, diverging irregularly and often curving, 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. long, 2in. to 3in. (rarely 4in.) broad at the middle, narrowed gradually upwards, a slightly glaucous dead green, marked with a few darker green lines on the back, furnished with a broad continuous horny border and a few very large irregular hooked teeth, often united or collected in pairs, 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, and 3/8in. to 1/2in. broad; terminal spine brown, pungent, 1in. long. Mexico. A long-known, widely-spread, and distinct species. SYNS. _A. amurensis_ and _A. Vanderdonckii_.

=A. x. hybrida= is a striking dwarf variety with vittate leaves, and smaller, more crowded deltoid-cuspidate prickles than in the type. It is also commonly known as _A. x. vittata_ and _A. perbella_.

[Illustration: FIG. 48. AGAVE YUCCÆFOLIA.]

=A. yuccæfolia= (Yucca-leaved).* _fl._ greenish yellow, 1-1/4in. to 1-1/2in. long, in a dense spike 6in. to 15in. long, about 14in. in diameter, sessile, solitary, or in pairs; scape 12ft. to 20ft. high. _l._ twenty to forty in a dense, shortly-stemmed rosette, linear, much recurved, 1-1/2ft. to 2-1/2ft. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad at the middle; face deeply channelled, dull, rather glaucous green, with a pale band down the centre, the tip not at all pungent, the back broadly rounded, edge entire, or obscurely serrulate. Mexico, 1816. A most distinct species. See Fig. 48.

=AGERATUM= (from _a_, not, and _geras_, old; in reference to the flowers being always clear). SYN. _Cœlestina_. ORD. _Compositæ_. This genus includes several American species, for the most part half-hardy annuals and biennials; or, if the seed is not allowed to ripen, they become perennials. Involucre cup-shaped, of many imbricated linear bracts; receptacle naked. Leaves opposite. A light rich soil is most suitable. Very easily increased by cuttings or seeds; if required true, the former is the only sure method of propagation. To grow large plants for greenhouse decoration, sow the seeds in January, in heat, in sandy soil, barely covering them. As soon as the young plants are large enough, prick them off into thumb pots, and keep in heat till they grow freely, then place them into a cooler house. Transfer into larger pots as soon as the others are full of roots, until they are finally shifted into 10in. or 12in. pots. When these are full of roots, the plants should be watered with liquid manure twice a week, and they soon flower well, making fine specimens. During hot weather especially, they should be well syringed with clear water daily, to keep down red spider. The plants required for bedding (for which purpose the dwarf garden varieties are mostly used) should be raised about the same time, kept in small pots, gradually hardened off, and planted out in the middle or end of June. Cuttings of all the varieties strike readily in heat, treated like most soft-wooded plants, and, when rooted, may be managed as recommended for the seedlings.

=A. Lasseauxii= (Lasseaux's). _fl.-heads_ rose-coloured, small, disposed in corymbose heads. Summer. _l._ lanceolate-elliptic. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Monte Video, 1870. A much-branched plant, requiring greenhouse protection in winter, and suitable for planting out in summer.

=A. latifolium= (broad-leaved). A synonym of _Piqueria latifolia_.

=A. mexicanum= (Mexican).* The commonest and most useful species, with a profusion of lilac-blue flowers. _h._ 2ft. Mexico, 1822. When used for bedding purposes it may be pegged down like the Verbena, or be allowed to grow its full height. Several very dwarf varieties of it have originated under cultivation, which supersede the species for bedding, the best of which are:--CUPID,* rich blue, very dwarf and floriferous; IMPERIAL DWARF, about 9in. high, with porcelain blue flowers; LADY JANE, of the same colour, very free; QUEEN,* silvery grey, about 9in. high; SNOWFLAKE,* white, very free and showy; SWANLEY BLUE,* very deep blue, 6in. to 8in. high. There is also a white-flowered variety of _Mexicanum_, which is very showy; and a variegated form, sometimes grown for the sake of its pretty foliage.

=AGGLOMERATE, AGGLOMERATED.= Collected into a heap or head.

=AGGLUTINATED.= Glued together.

=AGGREGATE, AGGREGATED.= Gathered together; usually applied to the inflorescence.

=AGLAIA.= (mythological: from Aglaia, the name of one of the Graces, and given to this genus on account of its beauty and the sweet scent of the flowers). ORD. _Meliaceæ_. Stove evergreen trees or shrubs having very small flowers, disposed in branched axillary panicles. Leaves alternate, trifoliate, or impari-pinnate. There are several species, but the undermentioned is the only one worth growing yet introduced. It thrives well in a mixture of turfy loam and peat. Young cuttings ripened at the base, and taken off at a joint, will root in sand under a hand glass, in heat.

=A. odorata= (sweet-scented). _fl._ yellow, small, in axillary racemes, very sweet-scented, said to be used by the Chinese to scent their teas. February to May. _l._ pinnate, with five or seven glossy leaflets. _h._ 8ft. to 10ft. China, 1810.

=AGLAOMORPHA.= _See_ =Polypodium=.

=AGLAONEMA= (from _aglaos_, bright, and _nema_, a thread; supposed to refer to the shining stamens). ORD. _Aroideæ_. Stove perennials, allied to _Arum_, and requiring similar treatment to the stove species of that genus.

=A. commutatum= (changed).* _fl._ white. _l._ greyish-blotched. _h._ 1ft. Philippines, 1863. SYN. _A. marantæfolium maculatum_.

=A. Mannii= (Mann's).* _fl._, spathe 2in. long, whitish, with a spadix one-third shorter, bearing white anthers and scarlet ovaries. _l._ elliptic-oblong, dark green. Stems thickish, erect. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Victoria Mountains, 1868.

=A. marantæfolium maculatum= (Maranta-leaved, spotted). A synonym of _A. commutatum_.

=A. pictum= (painted).* _fl._, spathe pale creamy yellow, folded round so as to appear globular-oblong, opening at top; spadix projecting, white. August. _l._ elliptic-acuminate, light green, blotched irregularly with broadish angulate patches of grey. Stems slender, erect. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Borneo.

=AGNOSTUS.= _See_ =Stenocarpus=.

=AGRAPHIS.= Included under =Scilla= (which _see_).

=AGRIMONIA= (from _argos_, white; the cataract of the eye being white. Once reputed to contain medicinal qualities). Agrimony. ORD. _Rosaceæ_. A genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, with interruptedly pinnate leaves, each accompanied by a pair of stipules united to the petioles. Flowers small, numerous, spiked; calyx turbinate, involucrated by bristles; petals five. They are all of the easiest culture, growing in ordinary soil. Readily increased by root-division. The most showy species in cultivation are described below.

=A. Eupatoria= (Eupatoria). _fl._ yellow, on an elongated spike. _l._ with elliptic-oblong, coarsely serrated leaflets, odd one stalked. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Britain.

=A. nepalensis= (Nepaul). _fl._ yellow, on erect, slender racemes. _l._ with ovate, serrated leaflets, odd one stalked, villous. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Nepaul, 1820.

=A. odorata= (sweet-scented).* _fl._ yellow; spikes several. _l._ with oblong lanceolate, deeply crenate-toothed leaflets, hairy. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Italy, 1640.

=AGRIMONY.= _See_ =Agrimonia=.

=AGRIOTES.= _See_ =Wireworm=.

=AGROSTEMMA= (from _agros_, a field, and _stemma_, a crown; alluding to the beauty of the flowers, which were formerly made into crowns or garlands). Rose Campion. ORD. _Caryophyllaceæ_. Hardy evergreen perennials and annuals, with broadish leaves, and one-flowered peduncles. Of easy culture, and well adapted for borders. They will all grow freely in common garden soil. Increased by division of the roots, and seed. _A. cœli-rosa_, and _A. flos-Jovis_ are, perhaps, species of _Lychnis_, but the generic name which we have adopted is the most common one. All the species of this genus are exceedingly pretty free-flowering plants, and both annuals and perennials are well worth growing.

=A. cœli-rosa= (rose of Heaven).* _fl._ delicate rose, white, or bright purple, solitary, terminal. Summer. Levant, &c., 1713. An annual species about 1ft. high, not tomentose; should be grown in patches. Sow the seed in April.

[Illustration: FIG. 49. AGROSTEMMA CŒLI-ROSA FIMBRIATA.]

=A. c.-r. fimbriata= (fimbriate). A form having fimbriated petals. Known also as _nana_. _h._ 9in. See Fig. 49.

=A. c.-r. purpurea= (purple).* A very pretty form, having dark purple flowers, and compact habit. See Fig. 50.

=A. coronaria= (crowned).* _fl._ white, with the middle red; petals emarginate, crowned, serrated; peduncles elongated, one-flowered. July. _l._ lanceolate, very broad, leathery; plant woolly throughout. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. South Europe, 1596. This species is admirably adapted for naturalising on dry hill sides, and in the wild garden. There are several varieties seen in gardens with a great diversity of colour, including dark crimson, white, and sometimes double flowers. See Fig. 51.

[Illustration: FIG. 50. AGROSTEMMA CŒLI-ROSA PURPUREA.]

[Illustration: FIG. 51. AGROSTEMMA CORONARIA, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. flos-Jovis.=* Flower of Jove. _fl._ purple or scarlet, in umbellate heads; peduncles short, rather branched. July. _l._ lanceolate, stem-clasping, silky, tomentose. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Switzerland, 1726. Plant white from tomentum. See Fig. 52.

[Illustration: FIG. 52. AGROSTEMMA FLOS-JOVIS, showing Habit and Flower.]

=AGROSTIS= (from _agros_, a field; the Greek name for a kind of grass). Bent Grass. ORD. _Gramineæ_. Annual or perennial grasses. Panicle loose; spikelets compressed. Several of the species are very effective, and well worth growing; and the spikes are pretty objects, when dried, for window vases, &c. They are of easy culture, in ordinary garden soil. Sow seeds during spring in the open border, in tufts, among ferns, &c., or in pots for decorative purposes.

=A. elegans= (elegant). _h._ 1ft. Russia, 1834.

[Illustration: FIG. 53. AGROSTIS NEBULOSA.]

=A. nebulosa= (cloud).* Cloud Grass. _fl._ panicles resemble, when developed, a cloud resting over the ground. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Very light and elegant. Annual. See Fig. 53.

=A. pulchella= (pretty).* Dwarfer, and with a more rigid habit than _A. nebulosa_. It is, nevertheless, a most graceful plant, and valuable for bouquet making, and for winter decorative purposes. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Russia. Annual.

=A. spica-venti= (windward-spiked). _fl._ panicle large, silky looking, loosely spreading. England. Annual.

=AGROTIS.= _See_ =Pot-herb Moths= and =Turnip Moth=.

=AILANTUS= (from _ailanto_, referring to its lofty growth). Tree of Heaven. ORD. _Xanthoxylaceæ_. Tall deciduous trees. The stove species will grow freely in a mixture of loam and peat; and the best way to increase these is by pieces of the roots, planted in a pot with their points above the ground, and placed in a hotbed, where they will soon make fine plants.

=A. excelsa= (tall). _fl._ whitish green, disposed similar to the following. _l._ abruptly pinnate, 3ft. long, with ten to fourteen pairs of leaflets coarsely toothed at the base, without glands. _h._ 66ft. India, 1800. A stove tree.

=A. glandulosa= (glandulous).* _fl._ whitish green, disposed in large branched, terminal, fascicled panicles, exhaling a disagreeable smell. August. _l._ impari-pinnate; leaflets coarsely toothed at the base with glands. (The leaves on vigorous young trees are sometimes 6ft. in length.) _h._ 60ft. China, 1751. This tree grows with great rapidity for the first ten or twelve years, in favourable situations, afterwards its growth is much slower. It is quite hardy, and thrives in almost any soil, though one that is light and somewhat humid, and a sheltered situation, suits it best. It is a very desirable tree for plantations, or to stand singly on lawns, and is easily increased by slips of the roots.

=AINSLÆA= (in honour of Dr. Whitelaw Ainslie, author of a work on Indian drugs). ORD. _Compositæ_. Herbaceous perennials, of recent introduction. Although, no doubt, both species will prove tolerably hardy, they should have slight protection during winter. They thrive in light rich soil. Propagated by divisions of the root.

=A. aptera= (wingless). _fl.-head_ purple, disposed in an elongated spike-like panicle. _l._ deeply cordate, sinuately toothed; petioles wingless, whence the name. Sikkim Himalayas, 1882.

=A. Walkeræ= (Mrs. Walker's).* _fl.-heads_ slender, distant, shortly stalked, borne in erect or somewhat nodding racemes; the white corolla-lobes and the red purple anthers make a pretty contrast. _h._ about 1ft. Hong Kong, 1875. A very rare and graceful species.

=AIR.= Pure atmospheric air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and a very small quantity of carbonic acid gas, all of which are essential to the growth of plants. Air-giving is a term used by gardeners to lessen the temperature of a greenhouse, or to equalise it with that outside. _See_ =Ventilation=.

=AIRA= (from _aira_, applied by the Greeks to _Lolium temulentum_). Hair Grass. ORD. _Gramineæ_. Chiefly hardy grasses, of agricultural value. Panicle loose; spikelet compressed, with two perfect flowers, and sometimes a neuter. Of easy culture, in ordinary garden soil. Sow seeds in spring.

=A. flexuosa= (waved).* The Waved Hair Grass. _fl._ shining brown; panicle erect, spreading, with waved angular branches and flower-stalks. _l._ short. Stem upwards of 1ft. high, erect, smooth. England. A very pretty and graceful perennial.

[Illustration: FIG. 54. AIRA PULCHELLA.]

=A. pulchella= (pretty).* _fl._ panicles loose, very delicate and graceful. _l._ very short. _h._ 6in. to 8in. South Europe. An elegant plant, with tufted filiform stems. One of the best of dwarf-growing ornamental grasses. See Fig. 54.

=AIR-PLANT.= _See_ =Aerides=, also =Epiphytes=.

=AITONIA= (in honour of W. Aiton, once Head Gardener at Kew). ORD. _Meliaceæ_. A small and rather interesting greenhouse evergreen shrub from the Cape of Good Hope, and thriving well in an equal mixture of sandy loam and peat. Young cuttings will root in sand, under a bell glass, with bottom heat. The cuttings must not be put in very close together, and the glass should be wiped frequently, as they are apt to damp off.

=A. capensis= (Cape). _fl._ pink; petals four, shorter than the projecting stamens. July. _h._ 2ft. 1777.

=AIZOON= (from _aei_, always, and _zoos_, alive; tenacious of life). ORD. _Portulacaceæ_. Greenhouse annuals, biennials, or evergreen shrubs. Flowers apetalous; calyx five-cleft, coloured on the inner surface. The undermentioned species is the only one worth growing. It requires no shade, a dry atmosphere, and light sandy soil. Propagated by seeds and cuttings.

=A. sarmentosum= (sarmentose). _fl._ greenish, sessile. Summer. _l._ opposite, linear-filiform, rather connate, glabrous; branches rather villous, three-flowered at the apex, the two lateral flowers are bracteated, and spring from the sides of the middle one. Sub-shrub, erect, diffuse, glabrous, branched. South Africa, 1862.

=AJAVA SEED.= _See_ =Ptychotis=.

=AJAX MAXIMUS.= _See_ =Narcissus=.

=AJOWAN.= _See_ =Ptychotis=.

=AJUGA= (from _a_, not, and _zugon_, a yoke; in reference to the calyx being equal, not bilabiate). Bugle. ORD. _Labiatæ_. Hardy annual or perennial herbaceous plants, usually procumbent or ascending, sometimes stoloniferous. Whorls two or many flowered, dense, sometimes all axillary, when the floral leaves conform to those of the stem; sometimes the superior whorls are approximate into spikes, then the floral leaves are small, and of a different form from the stem ones. All the species are of easy cultivation in ordinary garden soil. Perennials increased by divisions, or by seeds sown in the open border, during spring or autumn. The seeds of annual kinds may be sown in the open border in spring, where they are intended to remain.

=A. alpina= (alpine). Synonymous with _A. genevensis_.

=A. australis= (southern). _fl._ blue; whorls six or more flowered; lower whorls remote, upper ones sub-spicate, floral leaves similar to the stem ones, exceeding the flowers. May to July. _l._ narrow-oblong, narrowed at the base, quite entire or sinuated, thickish, rather villous. Stem ascending, or erect. _h._ 6in. New Holland, 1822. Perennial.

=A. Chamæpitys= (ground-pine). _fl._ yellow, dotted with red, pubescent outside; whorls two-flowered; floral leaves similar to the others, exceeding the flowers. April. _l._ deeply trifid, with linear, quite entire, or trifid lobes. Stem procumbent at the base, much branched, beset with long hairs, like the leaves. _h._ about 6in. England (rare). Annual.

=A. genevensis= (Geneva).* _fl._ varying from blue to rose colour and white; upper whorls spicate, lower ones distant, six or more flowered. May. _l._ stem ones oblong-elliptic or obovate, narrowed at the base; lower ones petiolate; floral ones ovate or cuneated; superior ones scarcely equalling the flowers or shorter, all usually coarsely toothed, membranaceous, green on both surfaces, and beset with scattered hairs. Stem erect, pilose. _h._ 6in. to 1ft. Europe. A very variable species, admirably adapted as an alpine plant, and succeeds best in bog soil, where its roots will have plenty of room; it increases rapidly. Perennial. SYNS. _A. alpina_, _A. rugosa_.

=A. orientalis= (oriental).* _fl._ blue; whorls six or more flowered, distant, or the upper ones are approximate. May. _l._ lower ones large, petiolate; ovate, coarsely and sinuately toothed, narrowed at the base; floral ones sessile, broad ovate, deeply lobed or toothed, exceeding the flowers. Stem ascending, pilosely woolly. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Eastern Europe, 1732. This species should be grown in a dry, sunny spot.

=A. pyramidalis= (pyramidal).* _fl._ blue or purple; whorls many-flowered, upper ones or all spicate. May and June. _l._ stem ones approximate, scarcely petiolate, obovate; floral ones broad-ovate, clasping the flowers, tetragonally pyramidate; the upper ones often coloured, all quite entire or obscurely sinuated. Stem erect. _h._ 6in. Scotland. Perennial. Of this there are several handsome garden varieties.

[Illustration: FIG. 55. FLOWER OF AJUGA REPTANS.]

=A. reptans= (creeping).* _fl._ varying from blue to rose-colour; lower whorls remote; upper ones spicate, six to twenty flowered. May. _l._ ovate or obovate, quite entire or sinuated, and are, as well as the stem, nearly glabrous; radical one petiolate, stem ones nearly sessile. Stem creeping. The variegated and darkest leaved forms of this are superior to the type for horticultural purposes. Britain. Perennial. See Fig. 55.

=A. rugosa= (wrinkled). Synonymous with _A. genevensis_.

=AKEBIA= (its Japanese name). SYN. _Rajania_. ORD. _Lardizabalaceæ_. A pretty twining shrub, succeeding well in the south-western counties of England, or in Scotland, trained to a trellis, or rambling over other shrubs in the open; but, when so grown, it requires the protection of a mat in winter. It makes an excellent twiner for the cool greenhouse. Sandy loam, leaf soil, and peat are most suitable for its culture. Increased by root divisions and cuttings.

=A. quinata= (five-leafletted).* _fl._ purplish brown, small, in axillary racemes, very fragrant. March. _l._ on very slender petioles, and palmately divided into usually five distinct petiolulate oval or oblong emarginate leaflets, the bottom pair smallest. _h._ 10ft. Chusan, 1845.

=AKEE-TREE.= _See_ =Blighia sapida=.

=ALA.= A lateral petal of a papilionaceous flower.

=ALANGIACEÆ.= A very small order of trees or shrubs, usually with inconspicuous flowers, in axillary fascicles. Fruit succulent, eatable. The two genera best known in this country are _Alangium_ and _Nyssa_.

=ALANGIUM= (from _Alangi_, the Malabar name of the first species). ORD. _Alangiaceæ_. Very showy stove evergreen trees, with alternate, exstipulate, entire leaves. Flowers few, sessile, in axillary fascicles; calyx campanulate; petals linear, spreadingly reflexed. They thrive well in a mixture of loam and peat, or any light rich soil. Cuttings root readily if planted in a pot of sand, with a hand glass placed over them, in heat.

=A. decapetalum= (ten-petaled).* _fl._ pale purple, with a grateful scent, solitary, or two to three together in the axils of the leaves; petals ten or twelve. June. _l._ alternate, oblong-lanceolate, quite entire; branches glabrous, spinescent. _h._ 30ft. Malabar, 1779.

=A. hexapetalum= (six-petaled). _fl._ purple, six-petaled. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, velvety beneath. _h._ 30ft. Malabar, 1823.

=ALATUS.= Furnished with a membranous or thin wing or expansion.

=ALBESCENT.= Growing white.

=ALBICANT.= Growing whitish.

=ALBINISM.= A pale condition due to the absence of chlorophyl.

=ALBIZZIA= (named after an Italian). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Ornamental greenhouse or hardy trees or shrubs. For culture, _see_ =Acacia=, to which they are often referred.

=A. Julibrissin= (Julibrissin). _fl._ white; heads pedunculate, forming a terminal somewhat corymbose panicle. August. _l._ with eight to twelve pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing about thirty pairs of dimidiate-oblong, acute, rather ciliated leaflets. _h._ 30ft. to 40ft. Hardy. Levant, 1745. SYN. _A. Nemu_.

=A. lophantha= (crest-flowered).* _fl._ yellow; racemes ovate-oblong, axillary, twin. May. _l._ with eight to ten pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing twenty-five to thirty pairs of linear, bluntish leaflets; petioles and calyces clothed with velvety down. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. New Holland, 1803. A very distinct unarmed greenhouse species, and one of the best for window gardening.

=A. Nemu.= A synonym of _A. Julibrissin_.

=ALBUCA= (from _albicans_, or _albus_, white; the colour of the earlier species). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. A rather extensive genus of Cape of Good Hope bulbs, requiring ordinary greenhouse culture. Closely allied to _Ornithogalum_. Perianth six-cleft, three outer segments spreading; three inner ones closed over the stamens. They, however, succeed admirably when grown in a warm sunny position out of doors, if covered with a hand glass, or litter, during winter. A light loamy soil, with leaf mould and sand, suits them well. Propagated by offsets from the old bulb, or seeds. There are but few species worthy of cultivation.

=A. angolensis= (Angolan). _fl._ yellowish, large, in cylindrical racemes 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long. _l._ linear-lorate, sub-erect, fleshy, pale green, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long. _h._ 3ft. Angola.

=A. aurea= (yellow).* _fl._ pale yellow, upright; peduncle very long, erect, spreading. June. _l._ linear-lanceolate, flat. _h._ 2ft. 1818.

=A. fastigiata= (peaked).* _fl._ white; peduncle very long, spreading. May. _l._ linear, flattish, longer than the scape. _h._ 1-1/2ft. 1774.

=A. flaccida= (weak). _fl._ pale yellow, with a green keel, drooping, six to eight in a loose raceme; peduncles spreading at right angles. July. _l._ lanceolate-linear, obliquely bent. _h._ 2ft. 1791.

=A. Nelsoni= (Nelson's).* _fl._, perianth, 1-1/2in. long, ascending, white, with a dull red stripe down the back of each segment; scape stout, 4ft. to 5ft. high. Summer. _l._ bright green, very concave at the basal part, nearly flat in the upper part, 3ft. to 3-1/2ft. long, l-1/4in. to 2-1/4in. broad, at about one-third the way up, whence they are gradually narrowed to an acute point. Natal, 1880. This very handsome species is the best of the genus.

=ALBUMEN.= The substance under the inner coat of the testa of seeds, surrounding the embryo. It is sometimes absent.

=ALBUMINOUS.= Furnished with albumen.

=ALBURNUM.= The white wood of a tree; the younger wood, not choked up by sedimentary deposit, and therefore permeable to fluids.

=ALCHEMILLA= (from _Alkemelyeh_, the Arabic name of one of the species). Lady's Mantle. ORD. _Rosaceæ_. Hardy herbaceous perennials, with corymbose, apetalous flowers; calyx tubular, with the tube rather contracted at the apex. Leaves palmate or lobed. Of very easy culture, in common, but well drained soil. They are well adapted for rockwork and planting near the front of borders. Easily increased by divisions of the roots, and seeds. All here described are hardy, except _A. sibbaldiæfolia_.

=A. alpina= (alpine).* _fl._ greenish, small; corymbose. June. _l._ digitate; leaflets five to seven, lanceolate-cuneated, obtuse, serrated, clothed with white satiny down beneath. _h._ 6in. Britain.

=A. pubescens= (pubescent). _fl._ greenish; corymbs terminal, crowded, clothed with a coating of long weak hairs. June. _l._ roundish-reniform, seven-lobed, toothed, silky beneath. _h._ 6in. to 8in. Caucasus (Higher), 1813.

=A. sericea= (silky).* _fl._ greenish, corymbose. June. _l._ digitate; leaflets seven, lanceolate-obovate, obtuse, connected at the base, serrated at the apex, clothed with satiny down beneath. _h._ about 6in. Caucasus, 1813. Much larger in every part than _A. alpina_, to which it is closely allied.

=A. Sibbaldiæfolia= (Sibbaldia-leaved). _fl._ white, conglomerate; stem corymbosely many-flowered at the apex. July. _l._ deeply three-parted, clothed with adpressed pubescence beneath; segments deeply serrated, lateral ones bifid. _h._ 6in. Mexico, 1823. A greenhouse species, which should be grown in small well-drained pots, with a mixture of leaf soil and sandy loam.

=ALDEA.= A synonym of =Phacelia= (which _see_).

=ALDER.= _See_ =Alnus=.

=ALETRIS= (from _aletron_, meal; referring to the powdery appearance of the whole plant). The American Star Grass. SYN. _Tritonia_. ORD. _Hæmodoraceæ_. Interesting hardy herbaceous perennials, closely allied to the _Amaryllids_. Perianth half-inferior, tubular; limb spreading or funnel-shaped; stamens inserted at base of perianth segments, filaments flat. They delight in a sunny but damp situation, with peat, leaf mould, and sand, and are slowly increased by division of the roots.

=A. aurea= (golden).* _fl._ yellow, bell-shaped. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. North America, 1811. Similar in habit to _A. farinosa_.

=A. capensis= (Cape). _See_ =Veltheimia viridifolia=.

=A. farinosa= (mealy).* _fl._ white, bell-shaped, in a terminal spiked raceme, upon stems 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. high. _l._ lanceolate, ribbed. North America, 1768. A pretty species, forming a spreading tuft, and possessing intensely bitter properties.

=ALEURITES= (from the Greek word signifying floury; all the parts of the plant seeming to be dusted with a farinaceous substance). ORD. _Euphorbiaceæ_. A handsome stove evergreen tree, with small, white, clustered flowers. Leaves alternate, stalked, exstipulate. Of easy culture in a loamy soil. Ripe cuttings, with their leaves untouched, root readily in sand, under a hand-glass.

=A. triloba= (three-lobed).* Candleberry Tree. _l._ three-lobed, 4in. to 8in. long. _h._ 30ft. to 40ft. Moluccas and South Pacific Islands, 1793.

=ALEXANDERS.= _See_ =Smyrnium=.

=ALEXANDRIAN LAUREL.= _See_ =Ruscus racemosus=.

=ALGAROBA BEAN, or CAROB.= _See_ =Ceratonia=.

=ALGAROBIA.= Included under =Prosopis= (which _see_).

=ALHAGI= (its Arabian name). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Manna Tree. Greenhouse shrubs or sub-shrubs, with simple leaves, and minute stipulas. Flowers few, in clusters. They thrive in pots filled with a mixture of sand, loam, and peat. Young cuttings will root in sand, with a bell glass placed over them, in heat; but by seeds, if they can be procured, sown in a hotbed, is a preferable mode of increasing the plants. They may be placed out of doors during the summer months.

=A. camelorum= (camels). _fl._ red, few, disposed in racemes along the peduncles. July. _l._ lanceolate, obtuse, simple; stipulas minute. Stem herbaceous. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Caucasus, 1816.

=A. maurorum= (Moors'). _fl._ purple in the middle, and reddish about the edges, disposed in racemes along the axillary, spinose peduncles. July. _l._ obovate-oblong, simple; spines strong, and longer than those of the above species. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Egypt, &c. The Manna is a natural exudation from the branches and leaves of this shrub, which takes place only in very hot weather.

=ALIBERTIA= (in honour of M. Alibert, a celebrated French chemist, author of "Traite des Fievres Attaxiques," wherein he mentions the effects of Peruvian bark). ORD. _Cinchonaceæ_. A small stove evergreen tree, very ornamental when in flower. Flowers solitary or fascicled, diœcious; corolla leathery, tubular. A mixture of loam and peat is the best soil. Cuttings strike root freely, in a similar kind of soil, under a hand glass, in a moist heat.

=A. edulis= (edible). _fl._ cream-coloured, solitary or in fascicles, terminating the branches, almost sessile. June. _fr._ edible. _l._ opposite, leathery, oblong, acuminated, shining above, and bearded in the axils of the veins beneath. _h._ 12ft. Guiana, 1823.

=ALICANT SODA.= _See_ =Salsola=.

=ALISMA.= (from _alis_, the Celtic word for water). Water Plantain. SYN. _Actinocarpus_. ORD. _Alismaceæ_. A genus entirely composed of hardy aquatic species. Flowers three-petalled. Leaves parallel-veined. Increased by division or seeds. The latter should be sown in a pot immersed in water, filled with loam, peat, and sand, and the former root freely in a moist loamy soil. The British species are most easily grown.

[Illustration: FIG. 56. ALISMA NATANS.]

=A. natans= (floating).* _fl._ white; peduncles simple. July. _l._ elliptical-obtuse; stem ones floating, on long stalks, scarcely nerved; those at the base of the plant are long, linear-lanceolate, membranous scales, or abortive root leaves. North Wales and Cumberland, but very rare; abundant in other parts of Europe. See Fig. 56.

=A. Plantago= (plantain).* _fl._ delicate pale rose coloured; scape branched upwards. July. _l._ ovate, acute, all radical, on long stalks; branches all whorled, bracteated, compound. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Britain. A very handsome aquatic for naturalising. See Fig. 57.

[Illustration: FIG. 57. PORTION OF INFLORESCENCE OF ALISMA PLANTAGO.]

=A. P. lanceolata= (lance-shaped leaves). _fl._ pure white. July. _l._ lanceolate. Britain.

=A. ranunculoides= (ranunculus-like). In general appearance very like the last named species, but smaller. Britain.

=ALISMACEÆ.= A small order of aquatic or marsh plants, with three-petaled flowers, on leafless scapes, and simple radical leaves. The genera best known are _Alisma_ and _Sagittaria_.

=ALKANET.= _See_ =Anchusa tinctoria=.

=ALLAMANDA= (named in memory of Dr. Allamand, of Leyden, who first communicated seeds of this genus to Linnæus). ORD. _Apocynaceæ_. Elegant climbing evergreen stove plants. Peduncles terminal and many-flowered; corolla funnel-shaped, with a narrow tube, gamopetalous, large, inflated, five-cleft at the apex. Leaves verticillate. This genus differs from all others of the same order, in the figure of the corolla. Of comparatively easy culture. To obtain their beauty of foliage and flowers, the shoots should be tied to wires placed within 8in. or 9in. of the glass that forms the roof of the structure in which the plants are growing. Trained in this way, and the shoots allowed to ramble in a somewhat natural manner, the effect, when the plants are in flower, is grander and more pleasing in every respect than when the shoots are tied to a formal trellis, of whatever shape. When thoroughly established, they succeed admirably in a compost of three parts good fibry loam, and one part wood charcoal or coarse river sand, with some rotten cow manure added. When potting the plants, make the fresh compost firm round the old balls of soil, and do not fill the pots too full; leave room for plenty of water, as, when in active growth, they require a liberal daily supply. They must be pruned annually in January or February, cutting the previous year's shoots back to within a joint or two of the old wood. Allamandas should be exposed to the light as much as possible at all seasons of the year. In winter months they require but little water, but the drainage must always be perfect. They are remarkably free from insect attacks of any kind. It may be also observed that the temperature should never fall below 55deg. This genus is easily propagated by cuttings, which will root at any time of the year in a bottom heat of from 70deg. to 80deg. The usual time is, however, in spring, when the old plants are pruned back. Choose the tops of the shoots, retaining two or three joints to each cutting; place these in a compost of sand and peat or leaf mould in equal proportions, singly, in small pots. Press the soil firmly around each cutting, and, when all are inserted, give a good watering, and plunge the pots in the propagating bed. Attend to shading and watering, and in about three weeks' time they will have emitted roots, and started to grow at the tops. The pots should now be raised out of the plunging material, and placed upon the surface thereof, and there allowed to remain two or three weeks longer; when the young roots will have, by this time, filled the little pots, and a shift into the larger ones will be necessary. Return the plants to the propagating bed, but do not plunge them therein. As soon as it is certain that the roots have commenced growth in the fresh soil, pinch the point of each plant that is intended to be grown on a trellis. This will cause the remaining buds to push out fresh shoots; and these, as soon as they have made two joints or whorls of leaves each, should have their points pinched out also. By repotting the plants as often as they fill their pots with roots during the first season of their growth, and pinching the points out of the shoots twice or thrice in the same time, a good foundation will be formed, from which the future specimens will spring. In the case of plants intended to be trained up rafters or pillars, they should not have their points pinched out until they attain to the height where it is desirable they should have more than one shoot, and be repotted as recommended above, for the first year; but, after that, they will require to be repotted only once a year, and this should be done soon after the buds have started to grow afresh in the spring.

=A. Aubletii= (Aublet's).* _fl._ yellow, large. June. _l._ four to five in a whorl, broad-oblong, acuminated, rather hairy beneath. Guiana, 1848.

=A. cathartica= (purging).* _fl._ yellow, large. June. _l._ four in a whorl, obovate, obtuse, acutish, with sub-undulated edges, glabrous. Guiana, 1785. SYN. _A. Linnæi_.

=A. chelsoni= (Chelsea).* _fl._ yellow, large. Summer. This splendid plant is least suited of any for trellis training, from its wood being stiffer and harder, and is therefore best for the roof of a house; it is one of the best kinds for cutting. Garden hybrid.

=A. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl._ distinct pale yellow, rather large, very free bloomer. June. Brazil, 1844.

=A. Linnæi= (Linnæus's). Synonymous with _A. cathartica_.

=A. neriifolia= (oleander-leaved).* _fl._ deep golden yellow, elegantly streaked with orange, between funnel and bell shaped, the tube being wide, 1in. long; panicle many-flowered. June. _l._ oblong, on short petioles, acuminate. _h._ 3ft. South America, 1847. Shrub erect, glabrous.

=A. nobilis= (noble).* _fl._ bright yellow, rather deeper tinted in the throat, large, full circular form, but without streaks or any other markings. July. _l._ in whorls of four or of three, tapered to the base, sessile, oblong, abruptly acuminate, membranaceous, hairy on both surfaces, especially beneath and on the midrib. Brazil, 1867. One of the best species.

=A. Schottii= (Schott's).* _fl._ yellow, large, throat beautifully striped with rich brown. September. _l._ oblong, acuminated, four in a whorl, quite glabrous, on both surfaces. _h._ 10ft. Brazil, 1847. This species is a very strong grower, and suits the roof system best; it is also a very free bloomer.

=A. verticillata= (whorl-leaved). _fl._ yellow, large. June. _l._ usually six in a whorl, ovate-oblong, obtuse, quite glabrous. South America, 1812.

=A. violacea= (violet). _fl._ purple. Brazil, 1859.

=ALLANTODIA= (from _allantos_, a sausage; in reference to the cylindrical form of the indusium). ORD. _Filices_. A greenhouse monotypic genus, differing from _Asplenium_ in the dehiscence of the involucre, and it may receive similar treatment to the Spleenworts. Sori dorsal, linear-oblong, attached to the primary veins. Involucre the same shape as the sorus and quite inclosing it, bursting in an irregular line down to the centre.

=A. Brunoniana= (Brown's).* _fronds_ often 1ft. to 2ft. long, 1/2ft. to 1ft. broad; pinnæ 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. broad, entire. _sori_ confined to the anterior vein of the first fork. Himalayas, up to 6000ft., &c. SYN. _Asplenium javanicum_.

=ALLARDTIA.= _See_ =Tillandsia=.

=ALLEYS.= Small walks of various widths, but generally 1-1/2ft. or 2ft. wide, and formed in right lines, parallel to the main walks, or borders, sometimes covered with a thin coat of sand, gravel, or shells, or paved with flints, pebbles, &c. Spaces left between beds of seedling plants are generally meant when alleys are referred to.

=ALL-HEAL.= _See_ =Prunella vulgaris=.

=ALLIACEOUS.= Pertaining to the _Garlic_ family.

=ALLIARIA.= _See_ =Sisymbrium=.

=ALLIGATOR APPLE.= _See_ =Anona palustris=.

=ALLIGATOR PEAR.= _See_ =Persea gratissima=.

=ALLIUM= (from _all_, meaning hot or burning; in allusion to the well-known properties of the Onion tribe). Including _Porrum_, _Schœnoprasum_. ORD. _Liliaceæ_. Hardy bulbous plants, with flat or terete radical leaves, and capitate or umbellate flowers, enclosed in a membranous spathe at the summit of a slender, naked, or leafy scape; perianth spreading or campanulate. They are of very easy culture, increasing rapidly by offsets. The little bulbs, which are produced in clusters, may be separated and replanted, in autumn or early spring, about 4in. deep. Seeds are also easily obtainable. These may be sown thinly in light soil, in February or March, where they should remain until the autumn or following spring, when they may be transplanted to their flowering situations. During the growing season, all the attention required will be to keep the plants free of weeds, and place stakes to the tall-growing kinds.

=A. acuminatum= (taper-pointed).* _fl._ deep rose, 1/2in. to 1in. across, in many-flowered umbels. July and August. _l._ rather shorter than the stems, very narrow, only about a line wide. _h._ 6in. to 10in. North-West America, 1840.

=A. a. rubrum= (red). _fl._ deep red-purple; in other respects like the type. California.

=A. ascalonicum= (Eschallot). _fl._ purple; umbels globose; scape rounded. Summer. _l._ subulate. _h._ 9in. Palestine, 1546. For culture, _see_ =Eschallot=.

=A. azureum= (sky-blue).* _fl._ deep sky-blue, with a dark line through the middle of each division; umbels dense, globular, longer than the spathes which envelop them before expanding. Summer. _l._ triangular, from 6in. to 12in. long. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Siberia, 1830. One of the handsomest species grown.

=A. Bidwelliæ= (Mrs. Bidwell's).* _fl._ bright rose, about 1/2in. across, in few-flowered umbels. July. _l._ narrow, rather longer than the stem. _h._ 2in. to 3in. Sierra Nevada, 1880. A very charming little species for the rockery.

=A. Breweri= (Brewer's).* _fl._ deep rose, nearly or quite 1in. across, in few-flowered umbels. July. _l._ much longer than the flower-stem, 1/4in. or more broad. _h._ 1in. to 3in. California, 1882.

=A. Cepa= (common Onion). _fl._ white; scape ventricose, longer than the leaves. June, July. _l._ fistular, rounded. _h._ 3ft. For culture, _see_ =Onion=.

=A. C. aggregatum.= Aggregated, Tree, or Potato Onion. _See_ =Onion=.

=A. cœruleum= (blue-flowered).* _fl._ blue, in large compact globular heads. June. _h._ 8in. Russia, 1840. Very distinct.

=A. Douglasii= (Douglas'). Synonymous with _A. unifolium_.

=A. Erdelii= (Erdel's). _fl._ white, keeled with green, in compact umbels. _h._ 6in. Palestine, 1879. A rare but pretty species, and should be planted in a warm position on the rockery.

=A. falcifolium= (sickle-leaved).* _fl._ pale rose, 1/2in. to 3/4in. across, in few-flowered umbels. August. _l._ two in number, thick, broadly linear, falcate. _h._ 2in. to 3in. North-West America, 1880.

=A. falciforme= (sickle-formed). Probably a variety of _A. unifolium_, with pure white flowers, in several-flowered umbels. _h._ 6in. California, 1882.

=A. flavum= (golden). _fl._ yellow, bell-shaped, and somewhat drooping, in pretty umbels; scape leafy at the base. _l._ round, not hollow, flattish above the base. _h._ about 1ft. Italy, 1759. A slender species.

=A. fragrans.= _See_ =Nothoscordum=.

=A. karataviense= (Karatavian). _fl._ white, in dense globose heads. May. _l._ very broad, flat, glaucous, sometimes variegated. _h._ 6in. Turkestan, 1878.

=A. Macnabianum= (MacNab's).* _fl._ deep magenta, a colour quite unique in this family, in large umbels. _l._ nearly as long as the stem, channelled, about 1/4in. broad. _h._ 1ft. North America.

=A. magicum= (enchanting). Synonymous with _A. nigrum_.

[Illustration: FIG. 58. ALLIUM MOLY.]

=A. Moly= (Moly).* _fl._ bright yellow, numerous, in compact umbels. Spring. _l._ few, broadly lanceolate. Stem sub-cylindrical. _h._ 10in. to 15in. South Europe, 1604. A very old favourite; bright-flowered and very fine in masses. See Fig. 58.

=A. Murrayanum= (Murray's).* _fl._ rosy purple, in large heads. _l._ narrow, longer than the stem. _h._ 1ft. North America. A good variety of _A. acuminatum_.

=A. mutabile= (changeable). _fl._ white, changing to rose, in many-flowered umbels. July. _l._ shorter than the stem, narrow, channelled. _h._ 12in. to 24in. North America, 1824.

=A. neapolitanum= (Neapolitan).* _fl._ white, with green stamens, numerous, in a loose umbel, on stems exceeding the leaves in length; pedicels much longer than the flowers. Early summer. _l._ two or three, sheathing the flower stem, strap-shaped, about 1in. across. _h._ 15in. to 18in. South Europe, 1823. Probably the most ornamental white-flowered species.

=A. nevadense= (Sierra Nevada). _fl._ white, or pale rose, about 1/2in. across, in several-flowered umbels. July. _l._ flat, rather longer than the stem, about 1/4in. wide. _h._ 3in. to 6in. Sierra Nevada and Utah, 1882.

=A. nigrum= (blackish).* _fl._ dull violet, or whitish, with a green vein, very numerous, in a large umbel. Summer. _l._ thick, broadly lanceolate, acute, ciliated, toothed at the edges, at first erect and glaucescent, afterwards green and spreading, much shorter than the stem. _h._ 2-1/2ft. to 3-1/4ft. South of Europe. Very vigorous and free flowering. SYN. _A. magicum_.

=A. paradoxum= (wonderful). _fl._ white, gracefully pendulous, borne on long footstalks springing from little nests of yellow bulbils. Spring. _l._ one or two, as long as the scape, linear-lanceolate, acute, keeled, striated, smooth, 1/4in. broad, drooping and recurved. _h._ 9in. to 14in. Siberia, 1823.

=A. pedemontanum= (Piedmont).* _fl._ rosy-purple, large, bell-shaped, in large, graceful drooping clusters. July. _l._ lanceolate, shorter than the stem. Piedmont, 1817. A neat little plant for rockwork, or warm border. One of the handsomest species grown.

=A. reticulatum= (netted). _fl._ varying from pink to white. Summer. _l._ narrow, or almost filiform, shorter than the stem. _h._ 9in. to 15in. North-West America, 1882. A rare species.

=A. r. attenuifolium= (attenuate-leaved).* This may be regarded as an extremely handsome white-flowered variety. North-West America.

=A. roseum= (rose-coloured).* _fl._ pale lilac-rose, large, in umbels of ten or twelve; stems round, rather longer than the leaves. Summer. _l._ strap-shaped, channelled, rolled inwards at the top, not hairy. _h._ 12in. to 16in. South Europe, 1752.

=A. sativum= (cultivated). Garlic. _fl._ white; umbel bulbiferous. Summer. _l._ flat. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Sicily, 1548. For culture, _see_ =Garlic=.

=A. schœnoprasum= (rush-leaved onion). Chives. _fl._ purple; umbel many-flowered, globose, without bulbils. June and July. _l._ cylindrical, somewhat tapering towards the point; stem with one leaf, or naked. _h._ 1ft. England. For cultivation, _see_ =Chives=.

=A. Scorodoprasum.= Rocambole; Sand Leek. _fl._, perianth 1/3in. long, the segments red-purple, with white margins; head loose-flowered, with purple bulbils; scape slender. May to August. _l._ 6in. to 8in. long, flat, keeled, the edges scabrid. _h._ 3ft. Europe (Britain), 1596. _See also_ =Rocambole=.

=A. sphærocephalum= (globe-headed).* _fl._ densely packed in a subspherical head; in a bud state the upper ones are reddish-purple, the lower green. June. _l._ narrow, shorter than the long terete stems. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2-1/2ft. South Europe, 1759.

=A. stramineum= (straw-coloured). _fl._ yellow, in dense globular umbels. July. _l._ narrow, shorter than the stems. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Siberia.

=A. striatum= (striated). _See_ =Nothoscordum=.

=A. triquetrum= (three-cornered). _fl._ white, somewhat bell-shaped, with a narrow streak of pure green down each petal, in a loose, slightly drooping umbel, on erect triangular stems shorter than the leaves. Summer. _l._ green, broadly strap-shaped, keeled in a triangular manner, sometimes very long. _h._ 12in. to 18in. South Europe, 1789.

=A. unifolium= (one-leaved). _fl._ bright rose. July. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. California, 1873. A handsome species, from California, resembling _A. roseum_, but differing from all known species by the circumstance that its bulbs are developed at a distance from each other, and are connected by a thread-like rhizome, 1/2in. to 1in. long. SYN. _A. Douglasii_.

[Illustration: FIG. 59. ALLIUM URSINUM.]

=A. ursinum= (bear). Broad-leaved Garlic; Ramsons. _fl._ pure white, with acute perianth segments; umbel level at top; scape triangular. Summer. _l._ one or two, radical, ovate-lanceolate, stalked, large, bright green. _h._ 1ft. Britain. See Fig. 59.

=A. validum= (strong). _fl._ pure white or rose-coloured, in large, rather drooping umbels. Summer. _l._ 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, nearly as long as the stem. _h._ 12in. to 30in. Oregon and California, 1881. A pretty species.

=A. Victorialis= (Victoria's). _fl._ greenish-white, in many-flowered, spicate umbels. May. _l._ broadly ovate-oblong, channelled, shorter than the stem. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Southern and Eastern Europe, 1739. Conspicuous from its broad leaves. Rare.

=ALLOBROGIA.= A synonym of =Paradisia= (which _see_).

=ALLOCHLAMYS.= A synonym of =Pleuropetalum= (which _see_).

=ALLOPHYLLUS.= A synonym of =Schmidelia= (which _see_).

=ALLOPLECTUS= (from _allos_, diverse, and _pleco_, to plait; the calyx appears as if it was plaited in diverse directions). ORD. _Gesneraceæ_. Very handsome stove evergreen shrubs. Corolla tubular or club-shaped, straightish; calyx coloured. Leaves opposite, one in each pair smaller than the other, petiolate, fleshy, scattered or decumbent, or erect, the under surface generally reddish; branches opposite. For cultivation, _see_ =Gesnera=.

=A. bicolor= (two-coloured). _fl._ yellow, purple; corolla pilose; pedicels axillary, one-flowered. June. _l._ ovate, oblong, acuminate, denticulate, pilose above, downy beneath; branches tetragonal. _h._ 1ft. New Grenada, 1840. Plant erect, rather woody.

=A. capitatus= (headed). _fl._ capitate; sepals red, leafy; corolla silky, ventricose above the middle; peduncles axillary. March. _l._ large, ovate, serrated, downy, reddish beneath. Stem bluntly tetragonal, red. _h._ 2ft. South America, 1847.

=A. dichrous= (two-coloured). _fl._ purple, yellow, axillary, crowded, nearly sessile. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, quite entire, pubescent. Brazil, 1845. A climber.

=A. peltatus= (peltate-leaved).* _fl._ whitish, about 2in. long, in axillary tufts. August. _l._ opposite, one is 1in. to 2in. long, and the other 6in. to 9in. long, and 2in. wide, oblong, shortly acuminate, rounded, peltate at the base, and raised on stout footstalks, 1in. to 2in. long. _h._ 1ft. Costa Rica, 1877.

=A. repens= (creeping). _fl._ yellow; corolla with curved tube, four lobed; sepals ovate, spotted; peduncles axillary, solitary. February. _l._ ovate, rather fleshy, serrate, on short petioles. St. Martha, 1845. Plant downy; an evergreen trailer.

=A. vittatus= (striped). _fl._, calyx crimson; corolla pale yellow; terminal and fasciculate, surrounded by vivid red foliaceous bracts. _l._ large, shortly-stalked, broadly-ovate, of a deep velvety green, having a broad greyish-green band down the centre, branching off along the course of the principal veins. Stems erect, fleshy. Peru, 1870.

=A. zamorensis= (Zamora).* _fl._ yellow; sepals orange-red. _h._ 1ft. Columbia, 1875.

=ALLOSORUS.= _See_ =Cryptogramme= and =Pellæa=.

=ALLOTMENT GARDENS.= A system of assigning small portions of land to be cultivated by labourers after their ordinary day's work.

The following are the most important rules to be carried out; but, should occasion arise, other rules must be made to meet particular cases:--

1. Each Allotment should consist of a rood of land (=1/4 acre) to be let yearly at a rent of not more than 10s.

2. The Allotment to be let for one year only, to be re-let to the same occupier, provided his character has been satisfactory during the preceding year.

3. The rent shall be considered due at Michaelmas. If it remains unpaid for one month after that date, the Allotment shall be forfeited.

4. The Allotment to be cultivated solely by spade husbandry, and the same crop shall not be planted on the same part two years in succession.

5. Separate Allotments shall be divided by a space not less than 18in.

6. Any occupier trespassing on his neighbour's Allotment, or in any way interfering or damaging the same, shall not be allowed to hold his Allotment after the expiration of the year.

=ALLSPICE.= _See_ =Calycanthus=.

=ALLSPICE TREE.= _See_ =Pimenta=.

=ALMEIDEA= (in honour of J. R. P. de Almeida, a Brazilian, who was of great assistance to St. Hilaire while travelling in Brazil). ORD. _Rutaceæ_. Stove trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, entire, stalked leaves. Racemes terminal, divided at the apex into compound thyrse-like panicles. The undermentioned species will grow freely in a mixture of loam, sand, and peat. Partly ripened cuttings will root in sand under a hand glass, in heat.

=A. rubra= (red). _fl._ pink; petals very blunt; racemes compound. September. _l._ lanceolate, acute at base. _h._ 12ft. Brazil, 1849. Evergreen shrub.

=ALMOND.= _See_ =Amygdalus=.

=ALMOND-LEAVED WILLOW.= _See_ =Salix triandra=.

=ALNUS= (from _al_, near, and _lan_, the bank of a river; general habitat of the genus). The Alder Tree. ORD. _Betulaceæ_. A genus of deciduous trees and shrubs. Flowers monœcious; barren ones in long drooping autumnal catkins, lasting through the winter; fertile ones, produced in spring, in oval catkins, resembling a fir-cone in shape, the fleshy scales of which become indurated and ligneous as they approach maturity. Leaves stalked, roundish, blunt. Propagated usually by seeds, which are gathered towards the end of October; they require to be well dried, in order that the cones do not become mouldy. The seeds are sprinkled lightly on the ground with the slightest possible covering. Towards the end of the year, the seedlings will be about 10in. high. They are then planted in rows 1-1/2ft. apart, and 6in. from each other, where they may remain for two years, after which they can be placed out in the situations where they are intended to stand. Planting is best done in November or March; and, if it is designed to make a plantation of Alder, the young trees should be put in holes, made with an ordinary garden spade, about 9in. deep, and about 4ft. apart. They are also increased, but rarely, by cuttings, by suckers, and by grafting.

=A. cordifolia= (heart-shaped-leaved).* _fl._ greenish-brown. March and April, before the development of the leaves. _l._ heart-shaped, acuminate, dark green, and shining. _h._ 15ft. to 50ft. Calabria and Naples, 1820. A large, very distinct, and handsome round-headed tree. It grows rapidly in dry soil, and is one of the most interesting of ornamental trees.

=A. firma= (firm).* _l._ oval lanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrated, many-nerved. Japan. One of the most distinct of all the Alders.

[Illustration: FIG. 60. ALNUS GLUTINOSA, showing Catkins and Fruit.]

=A. glutinosa= (sticky).* _barren catkins_ long, large, and cylindrical, pendent, their footstalks branched. _fertile catkins_ small, ovate, with deep red scales. Spring. _l._ roundish-cuneiform, obtuse lobed at the margin, and serrated, somewhat glutinous, downy in the axils of the nerves beneath. _h._ 50ft. to 60ft. Britain. The Alder affects moist and damp situations, and, as it grows quickly, it is a useful tree to plant in bare situations. It is valuable as a nurse to other trees by the sea-side. See Fig. 60.

=A. g. aurea= (golden).* Foliage golden colour.

=A. g. incisa= (incised).* Compact form, with leaves quite like those of common hawthorn. SYN. _A. g. oxyacanthifolia_.

=A. g. laciniata= (cut).* _l._ oblong and pinnatifid, with the lobes acute. This has elegant drooping branches and fern-like leaves, and is one of the best.

=A. g. oxyacanthifolia= (sharp-prickled). Synonymous with _A. g. incisa_.

=A. g. quercifolia= (oak-leaved).* _l._ with a sinuate outline, like that of the common oak. A very distinct form. The variety _imperialis_ (=_asplenifolia_) slightly differs in its more or less lobed or cut foliage; _A. g. variegata_ is a variegated form.

=A. incana= (hoary).* _l._ broadly oval or ovate, rounded at the base, sharply serrate, whitened, and mostly downy beneath. _h._ 8ft. to 20ft. North Temperate regions. This affects drier situations than our native _A. glutinosa_.

=A. viridis= (green). _fertile catkins_ slender stalked, clustered, ovoid. _l._ round oval or slightly heart-shaped, glutinous and smooth or softly downy beneath, serrate, with very sharp and closely set teeth. Mountainous regions of northern hemisphere.

=ALOCASIA= (from _a_, without, and _Colocasia_). Allied to _Colocasia_. ORD. _Aroideæ_. Stove plants of great beauty, often with large and handsomely variegated, usually peltate, leaves, and shortly petiolate glaucous spathes. They are not difficult to grow, with a strong moist heat, and an abundant supply of water to the roots. The soil should consist of fibrous peat, with a little light fibry loam, in large lumps; to this add a good proportion of sphagnum and lumps of charcoal, with plenty of silver sand. Keep the bulbs and soil raised well above the rim of the pots, and finish off with a surfacing of either sphagnum or cocoa-nut fibre. The latter will soon encourage new rootlets. Crock the pot quite two-thirds up with clean, broken potsherds. Water freely when in good growth, and give liquid manure once or twice a week through the growing season. Shade during bright sunshine in the spring and summer months. Increased by seeds and division of the stems or rhizome. Winter temperature, 60deg. to 65deg.; summer, 75deg. to 85deg. _See also_ =Caladium= and =Colocasia=.

=A. alba= (white). _fl._ white. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Java, 1854.

=A. amabilis= (lovely). Synonymous with _A. longiloba_.

=A. chelsonii= (Chelsea).* An interesting hybrid between _A. cuprea_ and _A. longiloba_. _l._ large, upper surface deep green, glossy and metallic, under side purplish, as in _A. cuprea_.

=A. cucullata= (hood-leaved). _fl._ green, whitish. Spring. _h._ 2ft. India, 1826.

=A. cuprea= (coppery).* _fl._, spathe purplish-red, with short lamina. _l._ cordate-ovate, peltate, deflexed, 12in. to 18in. long, rich bronze colour, purple beneath. _h._ 2ft. Borneo, 1860. SYNS. _A. metallica_, _Xanthosoma plumbea_.

=A. gigantea= (gigantic). Synonymous with _A. longiloba_.

=A. guttata= (spotted). _fl._, spathe white, spotted with purple. _l._ leafstalk also spotted. _h._ 2-1/2ft. Borneo, 1879.

=A. hybrida= (hybrid).* A cross between _A. Lowii_ and _A. cuprea_. _l._ elliptic in outline, with a very short acuminate point, and very slightly parted at the base, deep olive-tinted green on the upper surface, having stout, well-defined ribs, and the margin of an ivory white; dull purple at the back.

=A. illustris= (bright). _l._ ovate-sagittate, rich green, with olive-black patches, deflexed, 1-1/2ft. long. India, 1873.

=A. Jenningsii= (Jennings's).* _l._ peltate, cordate-ovate, acuminate, with their blades deflexed from the top of the erect mottled stalks, ground colour green, surface marked with large wedge-shaped blotches of dark brown; veins bright green, 6in. to 8in. long. India, 1867. A very distinct and free growing species.

=A. Johnstoni= (Johnston's).* _l._ semi-erect, arrow-shaped, peltate, the front lobe being about 12in. long, and the two back lobes 14in. long and divergent, olive-green, prettily variegated and strikingly veined with bright rosy red. The leafstalks are furnished at intervals with irregular whorls of stiff spines, the points of which are turned upwards. Stem darkly mottled with flesh-coloured bands just above the spines. Solomon Isles, 1875. This plant has quite a unique appearance.

=A. Liervalii= (Lierval's). _l._ bright green. Philippines, 1869.

=A. longiloba= (long-lobed). _l._ large, sagittate, with the upper part spreading out, green, with silvery veins. _h._ 4ft. Java, 1864. SYNS. _A. amabilis_, _A. gigantea_.

=A. Lowii= (Low's). _fl._, spathe white. _l._ cordate-sagittate, 14in. to 16in. long, peltate, deflexed, olive-green, with thick white ribs, deep purple beneath. Borneo, 1862.

=A. macrorhiza= (long-rooted). _fl._ green, whitish. _h._ 5ft. Polynesia.

=A. m. variegata= (variegated). _l._ large, somewhat cordate, with slightly waved margins, bright green, blotched and marbled with white, sometimes nearly quite white; footstalks broadly streaked with pure white. Ceylon. A very striking and effective large growing plant.

=A. Marshallii= (Marshall's). _l._ green, with dark blotches, and broad central silvery band. India, 1811.

=A. metallica= (metallic). Synonymous with _A. cuprea_.

=A. navicularis= (boat-shaped spathe). _fl._, spathe boat-shaped, whitish. _h._ 1ft. India, 1855.

=A. Roezlii.= _See_ =Caladium marmoratum=.

=A. scabriuscula= (roughish).* _fl._, spathe entirely white; limb 3in. long, oblong, cuspidate. _l._ spreading, not deflexed, sagittate, not in the least peltate, deep shining green above, pale green beneath, extreme length 22in. to 31in. _h._ 4ft. to 4-1/2ft. North-West Borneo, 1878. Although this is not such an ornamental species as _A. Lowii_, _A. Thibautiana_, or _A. cuprea_, it has the merit of being a much larger and bolder plant than either of these, and is one of the largest species in the genus.

=A. Sedeni= (Seden's).* A hybrid between _A. Lowii_ and _A. cuprea_. _l._ oval, cordate, sagittate, deflexed, bronzy green, purple beneath, veins distinct ivory white.

=A. Thibautiana= (Thibaut's).* _l._ ovate-acute, deeply cordate; basal lobes rounded and not sharply pointed, deep olive greyish-green, traversed by numerous grey veinlets branching from the midrib, which is greyish-white, purple beneath. Borneo, 1878. This is said to be by far the finest of the genus.

=A. variegata= (variegated). _fl._ whitish. _l._ leafstalk mottled with violet. India, 1854.

=A. zebrina= (zebra).* _l._ erect, broadly sagittate, rich dark green borne upon stout footstalks, which are pale green, mottled and striped with zigzag bands of dark green. _h._ 4ft. or more. Philippine Isles, 1862.

=ALOE= (from _Alloeh_, its Arabic name). Allied genera: _Apicra_, _Haworthia_, _Pachidendron_, _Phylloma_. Including _Rhipodendron_. ORD. _Liliaceæ_. This hitherto much confused genus, and its allies, have been completely revised by Mr. J. G. Baker (_vide_ "Journal of the Linnean Society," vol. xxviii. pp. 152-182), to whose account we are indebted for many of the following particulars:--Plant with or without stems; shrubs or (rarely) trees; leaves thick, fleshy, frequently in a rosette; peduncles simple or racemed, endowed with few or many empty bracts. Flowers racemed; pedicels bracteated at base, solitary; perianth-tube straight or slightly recurved; segments elongated; stamens hypogynous, as long as the perianth, or longer. Mr. Baker describes over eighty species, many of which, for various and important reasons, have no claim upon our space. Natives of the Cape of Good Hope, except where otherwise stated. These very interesting and curious plants thrive well in a mixture of open loam and peat, together with a small quantity of well decomposed manure. If old brick rubbish, or any other similar material is mixed with the soil to ensure perfect and rapid drainage, so much the better. Water, especially during winter, must be carefully administered. They thrive in an ordinary greenhouse, and cannot have too much light at any time.

=A. abyssinica= (Abyssinian).* _fl._, perianth twelve to fifteen lines long; raceme dense-oblong, 3in. to 4in. long, and 2in. to 3in. broad; lower pedicels nine to twelve lines long; peduncle branched, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. _l._ about twenty in a rosette, ensiform, 1-1/2ft. to 2-1/2ft. long, acuminate, green, sometimes spotted, five to six lines thick in middle; back rounded; marginal prickles distant, deltoid, one to two lines long. Stem simple, 1ft. to 2ft. long, 2in. to 3in. in diameter. Abyssinia, 1777. SYN. _A. maculata_.

=A. a. Peacockii= (Peacock's). This is a rare variety.

=A. africana= (African). _fl._, perianth yellow, fifteen to eighteen lines long; racemes dense, 1ft. in length, 3in. in diameter; peduncle very strong, branched. _l._ in a dense rosette, ensiform, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 2-1/2in. to 3in. broad, slowly narrowing from base to the apex, channelled above the middle, where it is four to five lines thick; marginal prickles close, one and a half to two lines long. Stem simple, when fully grown, 20ft.

=A. albispina= (white-spined).* _fl._, perianth red, 1-1/2in. long; raceme dense, nearly 1ft. long, 4in. broad; lower pedicels fifteen to eighteen lines long; peduncles simple, 1-1/2ft. _l._ loosely disposed, lanceolate, ascending, 6in. to 8in. long, 2in. broad, green, without spots or lines; face concave upwards; middle three to four lines thick; back sparingly tubercled; marginal prickles white, horny, two lines long. Stem simple, short, 1in. to 1-1/2in. in diameter. 1796.

=A. albocincta= (white-banded).* _fl._, perianth brilliant red, ten to twelve lines long; racemes twenty or more, shortly capitate, 2in. to 2-1/2in. in diameter when expanded; pedicels ascending, six to nine lines long; scape stout, branched, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. _l._ twelve to twenty in a dense rosette, outer ones recurved, lanceolate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, glaucous, obscurely lined and spotted; middle three to four lines thick; margin red or white tinted. Stems in old specimens, 1ft. to 2ft. long, 3in. to 4in. in diameter. SYNS. _A. Hanburyana_, _A. paniculata_, and _A. striata_.

=A. arborescens= (tree-like).* _fl._, perianth red, fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme dense, about 1ft.; pedicels ascending, twelve to fifteen lines long; peduncles strong, 1-1/2ft., simple or branched. _l._ (rosette 3ft. to 4ft. in diameter) dense, aggregate, ensiform, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft.; base 2in. broad, thence to apex attenuated, acuminated, green, rather glaucous, without spots or lines; middle three to four lines long; base five to six lines thick; upper surface beyond the base channelled; marginal prickles close, one and a half to two lines long, horny. Stem simple, finally 10ft. to 12ft. long, 2in. to 3in. in diameter. 1700.

=A. a. frutescens= (shrubby). Dwarfer. _l._ often loose, and shorter, intensely glaucous; peduncle simple. Stem slender, sometimes racemosed.

=A. aristata= (awned). _fl._, perianth red, fourteen to sixteen lines long; raceme simple, loose, 4in. to 6in. long, and about 4in. broad; pedicels sub-patent, thirteen to eighteen lines long; scape simple, 1ft. _l._ about fifty in a dense rosette, ascending, lanceolate, 3in. to 4in. long, six to eight lines broad, without spots or lines; face flat, sparingly tubercled; middle one and a half lines thick; back copiously tubercled; apex bearded with a pellucid awn; marginal teeth diffuse, white, half line long. 1824.

=A. Bainesii= (Baines').* _fl._, perianth fifteen to sixteen lines long, yellowish red; raceme simple, dense, oblong, 3-1/2in. to 4in. in diameter when expanded; pedicels thick, two to three lines long; peduncles upright, strong, eight to nine lines in diameter. _l._ closely packed at the top of the branch, ensiform, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long, 2in. to 3in. in diameter, green, spotted, deeply channelled, recurved; middle two to three lines thick; marginal prickles pale, rather distant, one to one and a half lines long. Arborescent, branched. _h._ 40ft. to 60ft.; trunk 4ft. to 5ft. in diameter. SYNS. _A. Barberæ_, _A. Zeyheri_.

=A. barbadensis= (Barbadoes). Synonymous with _A. vera_.

=A. Barberæ= (Barber's). Synonymous with _A. Bainesii_.

=A. brevifolia= (short-leaved).* _fl._, perianth red, fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme dense, 6in. long, 2-1/2in. to 3in. in diameter; pedicels upright, six to twelve lines long; peduncles simple, hardly 1ft. long. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 3in. to 4in. long, and 1in. broad at the base, glaucous, without spots or lines; face unarmed, below swollen or flat; middle three to four lines thick; back convex, sparingly tubercled; marginal teeth whitish, one to one and a half lines long. Stem short, simple. SYN. _A. prolifera_.

=A. b. depressa= (depressed). _fl._ somewhat larger; peduncles 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long. _l._ 6in. long; bottom 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad; face sometimes sparingly tubercled.

=A. cæsia= (bluish-grey).* _fl._, perianth red, fifteen to sixteen lines long; racemes dense, nearly 1ft. long, 2in. to 3in. in diameter; pedicels twelve to fifteen lines long; scape simple, 6in. _l._ rather dense, lanceolate acuminate, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft.; bottom 2in. to 3in. broad, intensely glaucous, without spot or lines, slightly channelled upwards; middle 3in. to 4in. thick; marginal prickles red, one to one and a half lines long. Stem simple, finally, in old specimens, 12ft. to 14ft. 1815.

=A. Candollei= (De Candolle's). A mere form of _A. humilis_.

=A. chinensis= (Chinese). _fl._, perianth yellow, 1in. long; raceme loose, simple, 6in. to 8in. long, and 2in. broad; pedicels one and a half to two lines long; peduncle simple, 6in. to 12in. _l._ fifteen to twenty in a dense rosette, ensiform, 9in. to 12in. long, 1-1/2in. broad at the bottom, pale green, not lined; base nearly flat; middle three to four lines thick; upper surface channelled; marginal prickles distant, pale, one to one and a half lines long. Stem short, simple. China, 1817.

=A. ciliata= (ciliated).* _fl._, perianth brilliant red, twelve to fifteen lines long; raceme simple, loose, 2in. to 4in. long; pedicels three to four lines long; peduncles slender, simple. _l._ linear, widely spreading, amplexicaul, green, 4in. to 6in. long; base six to nine lines broad, slowly narrowing towards the apex, without spots or lines; middle one line thick; marginal teeth minute, white. Stems long, sarmentose; branches three to four lines in diameter; internodes six to twelve lines long, obscurely striated with green. 1826.

=A. Commelyni= (Commelin's). A mere form of _A. mitræformis_.

=A. consobrina= (related). _fl._, perianth yellowish red, twelve to fifteen lines long; raceme rather loose, oblong, cylindrical, 3in. to 4in. long, and 2in. in diameter; pedicels three to four lines long; scape 1-1/2ft., slender, branched. _l._ loosely disposed, ensiform, 6in. to 8in. long, and 1in. broad, green, spotted white; face channelled; middle three lines thick; marginal prickles minute, brownish; rosette 10in. to 12in. (sometimes 2ft.) in diameter; upper leaves ascending; central ones spreading half open; lower ones deflexed. Stem 2ft., simple, 1in. in diameter. South Africa, 1845.

=A. Cooperi= (Cooper's).* _fl._, perianth fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme close, 3in. to 6in. long, and 3in. to 4in. in diameter; lower pedicels 1in. to 2in. long; scape simple, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. _l._ when mature, 8in. to 10in. long, distichous, falcate, lined; outer ones 1-1/2ft. to 2ft., above the base six to eight lines broad, greenish, deeply channelled, sparingly spotted; middle one and a half to two lines thick; marginal teeth minute, close, white. Plant stemless. Natal, 1862. SYN. _A. Schmidtiana_.

=A. dichotoma= (two-branched).* Quiver-tree. _fl._, perianth oblong, ten to twelve lines long; raceme loose, 2in. to 4in. long, and 2in. in diameter; pedicels three to four lines long; peduncles stout, branched. _l._ closely packed, at the top of the branch, lanceolate, 8in. to 12in. long; bottom twelve to fifteen lines broad, glaucous, without spots or lines, slightly channelled above the base; middle three to four lines thick, narrow-margined with white; marginal prickles minute, pale. Trunk short, sometimes 3ft. to 4ft. in diameter. _h._ 20ft. to 30ft. 1781. Arborescent, branched.

=A. distans= (distant).* _fl._, perianth pale red, fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme densely capitate, 3in. to 4in. in diameter; lower pedicels twelve to fifteen lines long; peduncles 1-1/2ft., usually simple. _l._ ascending, loosely disposed, ovate-lanceolate, 3in. to 5in. long, and 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, green, slightly glaucous, without spots and lines; face concave; middle three to four lines thick; back sparingly tubercled; marginal prickles close, white, horny, one to one and a half lines long. Stem short, simple, 1in. in diameter; internodes pale, striated green. 1732.

=A. glauca= (milky-green).* _fl._, perianth pale red, fifteen to sixteen lines long; peduncles simple, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long, 3-1/2in. to 4in. in diameter; pedicels 1in. to 1-1/2in. long. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 6in. to 8in. long; at the base 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, slowly narrowing towards the apex, intensely glaucous, spotless, obscurely lined; middle three to four lines thick; face above the base slightly concave; back tubercled at apex; marginal teeth spreading, brownish, one to one and a half lines long. Stem simple, at length, about 1ft., 1-1/2in. to 2in. in diameter. 1731.

=A. gracilis= (graceful). _fl._, perianth yellow, straight, fourteen to sixteen lines long; raceme densely packed, simple, 2in. to 3in.; pedicels three to four lines long; peduncle simple, 6in. to 9in. long, two-edged at the base. _l._ loosely disposed, spreading, 6in. to 10in. long; base ten to twelve lines broad, ensiform, acuminated, glaucous, spotless and without lines; face slightly channelled; back rounded; marginal prickles close, minute. Stem leafy, simple. 1822.

=A. Greenii= (Green's).* _fl._, perianth pale red, fourteen to fifteen lines long; raceme oblong, 4in. to 8in. long, and 3in. in diameter; lower pedicels five to six lines long; scape 2ft. long. _l._ in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 15in. to 18in. long; bottom 2-1/2in. to 3in. broad, slowly narrowing from middle to the apex; middle three to four lines thick; face flat, shining green, obscurely lined and spotted white; marginal prickles spreading, one and a half to two lines long, horny. Stem short, simple, 1-1/2in. in diameter. South Africa, 1875.

=A. Hanburyana= (Hanbury's). Synonymous with _A. albocincta_.

=A. humilis= (humble).* _fl._, perianth brilliant red, eighteen lines long; raceme loose, simple, 6in. long, and 2in. to 2-1/2in. in diameter; pedicels nine to twelve lines long; peduncles about 1ft. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, ascending, lanceolate, acuminate, 3in. to 4in. long, six to eight lines broad, glaucous green, obscurely lined; face slightly concave above, sparingly tubercled; middle three lines thick; back convex; marginal prickles pale, one line long. Plant stemless. 1731.

=A. h. acuminata= (taper-pointed). _l._ ovate-lanceolate, 4in. to 5in. long, fifteen to eighteen lines broad; marginal prickles pale, two to two and a half lines long. _A. incurva_, _A. suberecta_, and _A. subtuberculata_, of Haworth; _A. Candollei_, and _A. macilenta_, of Baker, are mere forms of the foregoing species.

=A. incurva= (incurved). A mere form of _A. humilis_.

=A. latifolia= (broad-leaved).* _fl._, perianth brilliant golden scarlet, fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme dense, corymbose, terminal, 4in. to 5in. long and wide; lower pedicels 1-1/2in. to 2in. long; peduncle robust, 2ft., often branched. _l._ twelve to twenty in a dense rosette, ovate-lanceolate, 6in. long, 2-1/2in. to 3-1/2in. broad at bottom, slowly narrowing from below the middle upwards, green, not lined, but copiously spotted white; middle three to four lines thick; marginal prickles one and a half to two lines long, horny, brownish. Stem at length, 1ft. to 2ft., 1-1/2in. to 2in. in diameter, simple. 1795.

=A. lineata= (line-marked).* _fl._, perianth red, fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme dense, 6in.; pedicels hardly perpendicular, fifteen to eighteen lines long; scape simple, 1ft. _l._ in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 6in. long, 2in. broad at base, narrowing slowly from thence to the apex, pale green, spotless, lined; middle three lines thick, channelled upwards on both sides, unarmed; marginal teeth numerous, red, one and a half to two lines long. Stem finally 6in. to 1ft., simple, 2in. in diameter. 1789.

=A. macilenta= (thin). A mere form of _A. humilis_.

=A. macracantha= (long-spined). _fl._ unknown. _l._ fifteen to twenty in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 15in. to 20in. long, and 3in. to 4in. broad at the bottom, slightly narrowed from middle to apex; middle four lines thick; face flat, green, obscurely lined, spotted; marginal prickles horny, three to four lines long. Stem simple, 2ft. to 3ft., 1-1/2in. to 2in. in diameter. South Africa, 1862.

=A. macrocarpa= (large-fruited).* _fl._, perianth club-shaped, brilliant red, fifteen to sixteen lines long; raceme loose, terminal, 6in. long, and 2-1/2in. to 3in. in diameter; lower pedicels 1/2in. long; peduncles 2ft. _l._ twelve to twenty in a dense rosette, ovate-lanceolate, less than 1ft. long; bottom 3in. to 4in. broad; top channelled; middle three to four lines thick, green, copiously spotted; marginal prickles spreading, half line long. Stem short, simple. Abyssinia, 1870.

=A. maculata= (spotted). Synonymous with _A. abyssinica_.

=A. margaritifera= (pearl-bearing). _See_ =Haworthia margaritifera=.

=A. mitræformis= (mitre-shaped).* _fl._, perianth brilliant red, eighteen to twenty-one lines long; raceme dense, corymbose, 4in. to 6in. long, and nearly as much in diameter; pedicels ascending; lower ones fifteen to eighteen lines long; peduncles strong, 1-1/2ft., sometimes branched. _l._ rather loosely disposed, ascending, lanceolate, about 1ft. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; green, slightly glaucous, without spots or lines; face concave; middle three to four lines thick; back convex, sparingly tubercled; apex horny, pungent; marginal prickles rather close, pale, one to one and a half lines long. Stem finally 3ft. to 4ft., simple, 1in. to 2in. in diameter.

=A. m. flavispina= (yellow-spined). Differs from the type in having narrower and more lanceolate leaves, and yellow spines. _A. Commelyni_, _A. spinulosa_, _A. pachyphylla_, and _A. xanthacantha_, are also forms of this species.

=A. myriacantha= (many-spined). _fl._, perianth pale red, eight to nine lines long; racemes densely capitate, 2in. in diameter; pedicels four to six lines long; peduncles slender, simple, 1ft. _l._ ten to twelve, falcate, linear, 5in. to 6in. long, four to five lines broad, green, glaucous; face deeply channelled; back convex, spotted white; marginal teeth numerous, white. Plant stemless. 1823.

=A. nobilis= (noble).* _fl._, perianth red, fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme dense, 6 or more inches long, 4in. broad; lower pedicels 1-1/2in. to 2in. long; peduncles simple, 1-1/2ft. _l._ rather loosely disposed, lanceolate, 9in. to 12in. long, 2-1/4in. to 4in. broad; face green, without spots or lines, concave above the base; middle three to four lines thick; apex rather pungent; back prickly upwards; marginal prickles rather close, one and a half to two lines long, horny. Stem simple, at length 3ft. to 4ft. high, 1-1/2in. to 2in. in diameter. 1800.

=A. pachyphylla= (thick-leaved). A mere form of _A. mitræformis_.

=A. paniculata= (panicled). Synonymous with _A. albocincta_.

=A. Perryi= (Perry's).* _fl._, perianth greenish, nine to ten lines long; raceme dense, 3in. to 4in. long; pedicels three to four lines long; inflorescence 1-1/2ft. long, commonly two-headed. _l._ in a rosette, lanceolate, 7in. to 8in. long, and 2-1/2in. broad, from below the middle to the apex narrowed, pale glaucous green, spotless, obscurely lined, channelled above the base; middle three to four lines thick; marginal teeth close, horny, one line long. Stem simple, 1in. in diameter. Socotra, 1879.

=A. prolifera= (proliferous). Synonymous with _A. brevifolia_.

=A. purpurascens= (purplish). _fl._, perianth reddish, twelve to fifteen lines long; raceme dense, 6in. to 9in. long, and about 3in. in diameter; pedicels nine to twelve lines long; scape strong, simple, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. _l._ forty to fifty in a dense rosette, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long, ensiform, 2in. broad at the base, slowly narrowed towards the apex, green; base flat; middle three lines thick, slightly channelled upwards, sometimes spotted; marginal prickles small, white. Stem 2ft. to 3ft., sometimes forked. 1789.

=A. rhodocincta= (red-margined), of gardens, is probably a form of _A. albocincta_.

=A. saponaria= (soapy).* _fl._, perianth brilliant red, eighteen to twenty-one lines long; raceme dense, corymbose, 3in. to 4in. long and wide; lower pedicels 1-1/2in. to 2in. long; scape 1ft. to 2ft., simple, or sparingly branched. _l._ twelve to twenty in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 9in. to 12in. long, eighteen to twenty-four lines broad, narrowed from below the middle upwards; middle three to four lines broad; face flat at bottom; back swollen, green, copiously spotted, distinctly lined; marginal prickles adjoining, horny, one and a half to two lines long. Stem short, simple, 1-1/2in. to 2in. in diameter. 1727.

=A. Schimperi= (Schimper's).* _fl._, perianth bright red, eighteen to twenty-one lines long; racemes densely corymbose, 4in. in diameter; pedicels twelve to fifteen lines long; scape strong, 3ft. long, strongly branched above. _l._ twenty in a dense rosette, oblong-lanceolate, about 1ft. long, 4in. broad, glaucous green, lined, sometimes spotted, three to four lines thick at middle, above which they are channelled; teeth minute, spreading. Stem short, simple. Abyssinia, 1876.

=A. Schmidtiana= (Schmidt's). Synonymous with _A. Cooperi_.

=A. serra= (saw). _fl._, perianth brilliant red, eighteen lines long; raceme simple, dense, 6in. long or more, 3in. to 4in. in diameter; pedicels six to twelve lines long; scape simple, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 3in. to 5in. long, twelve to eighteen lines broad below, without spots and lines; base swollen, concave towards the apex; middle three to four lines thick, sparingly tubercled; marginal prickles close, one to one and a half lines long. Plant shortly stemmed. 1818.

=A. serratula= (finely-toothed).* _fl._, perianth red, fifteen to eighteen lines long; raceme rather dense, 6in. long; pedicels six to nine lines long; peduncles simple, about 1ft. _l._ twelve to twenty in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 6in. to 9in. long; bottom 1-1/2in. to 2-1/4in. broad, pale green; face below the top flat or slightly concave, obscurely lined, spotted; margin minutely denticulated. Stem simple, finally 1ft. to 2ft. high, 1-1/2in. to 2in. in diameter. 1789.

=A. spinulosa= (spiny). A mere form of _A. mitræformis_.

=A. striata= (striated). Synonymous with _A. albocincta_.

=A. striatula= (slightly striped).* _fl._, perianth yellow, twelve to fifteen lines long; raceme oblong, rather dense, simple, 3in. to 6in. long, and 2in. in diameter; pedicels short; peduncles simple, nearly 1ft. _l._ linear, spreading, green, 6in. to 9in. long; base not dilated, six to eight lines broad, above the base upwards narrowed, slightly channelled; middle one line thick; marginal prickles deltoid. Stem long, sarmentose; floral branches three to six lines in diameter; internodes 6in. to 12in. long. 1823.

=A. suberecta= (slightly erect). A mere form of _A. humilis_.

=A. subtuberculata= (slightly knobbed). A mere form of _A. humilis_.

=A. succotrina= (Socotrine).* _fl._, perianth reddish, fifteen lines long; raceme dense, about 1ft. long, 2-1/2in. to 3in. in diameter; lower pedicels nine to twelve lines long; peduncles simple, 1-1/2ft. _l._ thirty to forty in a dense rosette, ensiform, acuminate, falcate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long; base 2in.; middle 1in. broad, green, slightly glaucous, sometimes spotted, slightly channelled upwards; marginal prickles pale, one line long. Stem 3ft. to 5ft., often forked. Isle of Socotra. 1731.

=A. tenuior= (thinned). _fl._, perianth pale yellow, five to six lines long; racemes rather loose, simple, oblong, nearly 1ft. 2in. in diameter; pedicels three to four lines long; peduncles slender, simple, 4in. to 8in. _l._ loose, linear, 5in. to 8in. long, slowly narrowing from middle towards apex, green, spotless, slightly channelled; middle one line thick; marginal prickles minute, pale. Stem long, sarmentose. 1821.

=A. tricolor= (three-coloured).* _fl._, perianth coral red, fleshy; raceme loose, oblong, 3in. to 4in. long, and 2in. broad; pedicels ascending, three to four lines long; scape 1-1/2ft. long, glaucous purple; panicle deltoid. _l._ twelve to sixteen in a close rosette, lanceolate, 5in. to 6in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad at bottom, slowly narrowing from below the middle to apex; middle five to six lines thick; back rounded; face slightly swollen, copiously spotted, not lined; marginal prickles close, spreading, about one line long. Stem short, simple. South Africa, 1875.

=A. variegata= (variegated).* _fl._, perianth reddish, fifteen to sixteen lines long; raceme simple, loose, 3in. to 4in. long and about 3in. in diameter; pedicels three to four lines long; scape simple, tapering, 6in. to 8in. _l._ close, erecto-patent, lanceolate, 4in. to 5in. long, 1in. broad; face concave; back keeled, bright green, copiously spotted grey on both sides; margin whitish, denticulated. 1790. This is the variegated Aloe so frequently seen in cottage windows.

[Illustration: FIG. 61. ALOE VERA.]

=A. vera= (true).* _fl._, perianth yellow, cylindrical, 3/4in. to 1in. long; raceme dense, 6in. to 12in. long; scape strong, 2ft. to 3ft. long, simple or branched. _l._ ensiform, dense, aggregate, 2in. to 4in. broad, narrowing from the base to apex, pale green; middle about 1/2in. thick; face channelled above the base; marginal prickles subdistant, deltoid, horny. Stem rarely more than 1ft. or 2ft. 1596. SYNS. _A. barbadensis_, _A. vulgaris_. See Fig. 61.

=A. vulgaris= (common). Synonymous with _A. vera_.

=A. xanthacantha= (yellow-spined). A mere form of _A. mitræformis_.

=A. Zeyheri= (Zeyher's). A garden synonym of _A. Bainesii_.

=ALOMIA= (from _a_, not, and _loma_, a fringe). ORD. _Compositæ_. Allied to _Eupatoria_. An ornamental half-hardy evergreen plant. Grows freely in sandy loam, and may be propagated by cuttings.

=A. ageratoides= (ageratum-like). _fl.-heads_ white, many flowered; involucrum campanulate, imbricate; scales narrow, acute; receptacle naked, convex. July. _l._ opposite, or upper ones alternate, petiolate, denticulated. _h._ 1-1/2ft. New Spain, 1824.

=ALONA= (primitive name, _Nolana_--letters transposed; from _nola_, a little bell, in allusion to the shape of the flowers). ORD. _Nolanaceæ_. A genus of pretty evergreen shrubs closely allied to _Nolana_, but differing principally in having several ovaries from one to six-celled, whereas _Nolana_ has five four-celled ovaries. Leaves fasciculate; stems woody. They require ordinary greenhouse treatment, in a peat and loam compost. Cuttings root freely in sandy loam, with a very gentle bottom heat, in about a fortnight.

=A. cœlestis= (sky-blue).* _fl._ pale blue, very large, axillary, solitary; peduncle elongated. July. _l._ terete, fascicled; plant nearly glabrous. _h._ 2ft. Chili, 1843. This pretty species is an excellent one for growing out-of-doors during summer months.

=ALONSOA= (in honour of Z. Alonso, formerly Spanish secretary for Santa Fe de Bogota). ORD. _Scrophularineæ_. A genus of very pretty little half-hardy shrubs, herbaceous perennials, or annuals, with axillary, sub-racemose flowers, which are resupinate, with a sub-rotate five-cleft limb. Leaves opposite, or ternately whorled. They will grow freely in light rich soil; and are readily increased by cuttings in August or March, which should be placed in sandy soil in gentle heat, or by seeds sown in March. The herbaceous species may be treated as outdoor summer annuals, and should be raised in a little heat, and planted out early in May.

=A. albiflora= (white-flowered).* _fl._ pure white, with yellow eye, in long terminal spikes. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Mexico, 1877. This is recommended for pot culture, as in the conservatory it will provide a succession of flowers throughout the autumn and winter.

=A. caulialata= (wing-stemmed). _fl._ scarlet, racemose. June. _l._ ovate, acute, serrated. Stems and branches quadrangular, winged. _h._ 1ft. Peru, 1823. Half-hardy, herbaceous.

=A. incisifolia= (cut-leaved).* _fl._ scarlet; peduncles long, alternate, disposed in terminal racemes. May to October. _l._ opposite, ovate, acute, deeply toothed, or serrate. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Chili, 1795. Glabrous greenhouse shrub. SYN. _Hemimeris urticifolia_.

=A. linearis= (linear-leaved). _fl._ scarlet, with a dark bottom, like most of the species. May to October. _l._ opposite, or three in a whorl, linear, entire or remotely denticulated; young leaves fascicled in the axils of the old ones. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Peru, 1790. Greenhouse shrub. SYN. _Hemimeris coccinea_.

=A. linifolia= (flax-leaved).* _fl._ scarlet. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. New Holland. This is an elegant little annual, forming symmetrical, graceful, and very free flowering plants, either for pot or outdoor culture.

=A. Matthewsii= (Matthew's). _fl._ scarlet, in loose, terminal racemes. July. _l._ lanceolate, toothed, about 1in. long. Stem slender, quadrangular. _h._ 1ft. Peru, 1871. Greenhouse shrub.

=A. myrtifolia= (myrtle-leaved). _fl._ scarlet, very large. New and pretty species.

=A. Warscewiczii= (Warscewicz's).* _fl._ rosy scarlet. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Chili, 1858. This is probably a herbaceous variety of _A. incisifolia_, and one of the best annuals.

=ALOYSIA= (in honour of Maria Louisa, mother of Ferdinand VII., King of Spain). Sweet-scented Verbena. ORD. _Verbenaceæ_. This genus is nearly allied to _Verbena_, which _see_ for generic characters. A greenhouse deciduous shrub, with a very fine perfume and graceful habit. The most satisfactory plan of culture is to obtain well-grown thrifty young plants in spring, and grow them on for the season. As the wood ripens, give less water until they are at rest, when it must be nearly withheld. About the end of January, bring into the light and warmth, and water thoroughly. As soon as the plants break, cut back to three or four eyes; and when the young shoots are about an inch long, transfer into rich sandy soil, using pots a size or two smaller than those they were in before. When the pots are full of roots, transfer to those that are to hold the plants for the season. By this mode of culture, good plants are to be maintained for any length of time. Aloysias form excellent pillar subjects for either a cold greenhouse, or out-of-doors, in which latter situation they thrive remarkably well, but require thorough protection, with straw bands or mats, from November until March, and afterwards at night, until danger from severe frosts has passed. They require no summer training, their young growth being continually cut off for the many purposes of decoration to which they are applied, and to which they are so well adapted. They are easily increased by young cuttings in spring, which should be placed in sandy soil and gentle heat, when they will root in about three weeks.

=A. citriodora= (lemon-scented).* _fl._ whitish or lilac, very small, in terminal panicles. August. _l._ pale green, lanceolate, agreeably scented, arranged in whorls of threes; branches slender. Chili, 1781. SYNS. _Lippia citriodora_, _Verbena triphylla_.

=ALPINE GARDEN.= A very interesting style of gardening, which succeeds best by imitating Nature as closely as possible. The situation may be an open or a sheltered one. In building a Rock or Alpine Garden, it should be so arranged that all aspects are secured--shady and sunny--fully or in degree only. Pockets and crevices of various sizes may be made, and filled with soil suitable for the subjects to be planted therein, each one having a direct connection with the bulk of the soil; and the constructing material should be arranged with a gentle fall, so that moisture drains towards rather than from the roots. Alpine plants, as a rule, flourish better on a properly constructed rockery than if placed in any other position, because thorough drainage is effected, and the long and fine roots can run down in the crevices, where the soil is cool and moist. Although most alpine plants are naturally exposed to the full action of sun and wind, they should be placed out in early autumn, or early spring, so as to become thoroughly established before the approach of scorching summer weather. Failing materials necessary for the construction of a rockery, many alpines are easily grown in the ordinary border, in a naturally or artificially well drained situation. Excavate to the depth of 18in., put in a layer of stones, broken bricks, &c., 6in. deep; fill up with rich fibrous loam and leaf mould, adding sufficient sand to keep the soil porous. When the desired subjects are firmly planted, cover the surface with small gravel or stone chippings, which, while allowing the rain to penetrate the soil, effectually checks evaporation, and keeps it moist and cool, as well as giving the appearance of rocky _débris_. The effect will be better if the surface is slightly undulated.

=ALPINE ROSE.= _See_ =Rhododendron ferrugineum=.

=ALPINIA= (in honour of Prosper Alpinus, an Italian botanist). ORD. _Zingiberaceæ_. A rather large genus of stove herbaceous perennials, with considerable grace and beauty. Flowers disposed in terminal spikes. Leaves lanceolate, smooth, even, entire, sheathed at the base, and having transverse veins. Roots fleshy, branched, having much of the smell and taste of ginger. The soil can hardly be too rich for the successful culture of these plants. A mixture of equal parts loam, peat, leaf mould, or thoroughly rotted hotbed manure, freely mixed with sharp sand or fine charcoal dust, forms an excellent compost. During the growing season, a top dressing of rotten dung, and a frequent application of weak manure water, prove excellent stimulants. They grow rapidly and consume a great deal of food in the production of so much stem and so many leaves. Unless the former is vigorous and of considerable thickness, it will fail to be crowned with spikes of flower. Alpinias require a high temperature, a rich, light soil, abundance of water, and not a little space, to grow them well. Soon after flowering, the plants will assume the yellow leaf, when water may be gradually withheld; but no attempt should be made to dry them off too severely, even after the stems die down. Nor must they be stored when at rest in a low temperature; in fact, they require as much heat to preserve them in health when resting as at any other time. The best time to divide the plants is after the young shoots have made an inch of growth in spring.

=A. albo-lineata= (white-lined).* _l._ elliptic lanceolate, pale green, marked with oblique broad bands of white. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. New Guinea, 1880.

=A. mutica= (beardless). _fl._ in pairs on a spike-like raceme; calyx white; corolla duplex, consisting of three outer oblong white segments; upper lobe concave and projecting, broad; lip large, bright yellow, veined with crimson; mouth finely crispulate at the edge. Borneo, 1882. A very handsome species.

=A. nutans= (nodding).* _fl._ pink, sweetly-scented; racemes drooping. May. _l._ lanceolate, smooth, even, entire. _h._ 13ft. India, 1792. This species looks best in considerable masses, even larger than those shown in the illustration, grown in large pots or tubs, or planted out in borders of tropical houses. It should on no account be severely divided. See Fig. 62.

[Illustration: FIG. 62. ALPINIA NUTANS, showing Form of Individual Flower.]

=A. vittata= (striped).* _l._ 6in. to 8in. long, elliptic lanceolate, tapering to a long fine point, and also narrowed gradually towards the sheathing base, pale green, marked by broad stripes of dark green and creamy white, running off from the midrib in divergent lines, corresponding to the venation. South Sea Islands. See Fig. 63, for which we are indebted to Mr. Bull.

=ALSIKE.= _See_ =Trifolium hybridum=.

=ALSODEIA= (from _alsodes_, leafy; plants thickly beset with leaves). ORD. _Violarieæ_. Ornamental evergreen stove shrubs. Flowers small, whitish, racemose; petals equal; racemes axillary and terminal; pedicels bracteate jointed. Leaves usually alternate, feather-nerved; stipules small, deciduous. They thrive best in a mixture of loam and sand, and young cuttings root readily under a bell glass if planted in sand, in heat.

=A. latifolia= (broad-leaved).* _fl._ on dense, glabrous racemes. _l._ ovate, obtusely acuminated. _h._ 6ft. Madagascar, 1823.

=A. pauciflora= (few-flowered). _fl._ few, somewhat corymbose; pedicels reflexed. _l._ wedge-shaped, on short footstalks. _h._ 4ft. Madagascar, 1824.

=ALSOPHILA= (from _alsos_, a grove, and _phileo_, to love; in reference to the situation which they affect in Nature). ORD. _Filices_. A magnificent genus of tropical and temperate tree ferns. Sori globose, dorsal, on a vein or in the forking of a vein; receptacle mostly elevated, frequently villous; involucre none. The species of this genus require an abundant supply of water, particularly in summer, and the young fronds must be carefully shaded from solar heat. They thrive well in a peat and loam compost. For general culture, _see_ =Ferns=.

=A. aculeata= (prickly).* _fronds_ ample, tripinnate. _rachises_ brown-stramineous; pinnæ ovate-lanceolate, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long; pinnules sessile, ligulate, 3in. to 4in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad; segments close, ligulate, blunt, denticulate, often less than one line broad; both sides bright green, slightly hairy on the ribs, not scaly. _sori_ minute, medial; texture herbaceous. Tropical America; very common. A very effective stove species. SYN. _A. ferox_, &c. See Fig. 64.

=A. armata= (armed).* _fronds_ ample, tripinnatifid or tripinnate. _rachises_ stramineous, densely pilose; pinnæ oblong-lanceolate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long; pinnules ligulate-lanceolate, sessile, 3in. to 5in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad; segments falcate, blunt, one to one and a half lines broad, sub-entire or toothed; both sides densely pilose on the ribs, not scaly. _sori_ subcostular. Tropical America; extremely abundant. Stove species.

[Illustration: FIG. 63. ALPINIA VITTATA.]

=A. aspera= (rough).* _cau._ slender, 10ft. to 30ft. high. _sti._ and _rachises_ strongly aculeated; main and partial rachis above strigillose, slightly scaly beneath and on the costa, the rest glabrous, often glossy. _fronds_ bipinnate; pinnules shortly petiolate, oblong; apex acuminated, pinnatifid half or two-thirds of the way down to the costa; lobes oblong-ovate, often acutely serrulate; costa bearing small, deciduous, bullate scales beneath. _sori_ very deciduous. West Indies, &c. Stove species.

=A. australis= (southern).* _sti._ with very long, firm, subulate scales, 1-1/2ft. long, and as well as the main rachises, muricato-asperous, stramineous. _fronds_ ample, subglaucous beneath, more or less villous on the costæ and costule above, and very minutely bullato-paleaceous beneath, often quite naked, from 6ft. to 30ft. long; primary pinnæ 1-1/2ft. long, 6in. to 10in. wide; pinnules 3in. to 4in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. wide, oblong, acuminate, deeply pinnatifid, or towards the base even pinnate; ultimate pinnules or lobes oblong, acute, serrated, subfalcate. _sori_ copious, rather small. New Holland, &c., 1833. A very handsome greenhouse species.

=A. comosa= (hairy). Synonymous with _A. Scottiana_.

=A. contaminans= (contaminating).* _cau._ slender, growing from 20ft. to 50ft. high. _sti._ and _rachises_ purplish brown, glossy, aculeate. _fronds_ 6ft. to 10ft. long, ample, glabrous, deep green above, glaucous beneath; primary pinnæ 2ft. or more in length, oblong-ovate, acuminate; pinnules sessile, 4in. to 5in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. wide, deeply pinnatifid, linear-oblong, sub-falcate, entire. _sori_ nearer the costule than the margin. Java and Malaya. Stove species. SYN. _A. glauca_.

=A. Cooperi= (Cooper's).* _fronds_ ample, tripinnate. _rachises_ stramineous, muricated, glabrous beneath; basal scales large, linear, pale, spreading; pinnæ oblong-lanceolate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long; pinnules ligulate, 4in. to 5in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, lowest long-stalked; segments ligulate, blunt, toothed, one and a half to two and a half lines broad. _sori_ small. Queensland, &c. Greenhouse.

=A. excelsa= (tall).* _trunk_ about 30ft. high. _sti._ and main _rachises_ muricated. _fronds_ ample, dark green above, paler beneath; primary pinnæ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 6in. to 10in. wide; pinnules numerous, oblong-lanceolate, acuminated, deeply pinnatifid, often quite pinnate; ultimate divisions 1/4in. to 3/4in. long, oblong, acute or obtuse, falcate, the margins sub-recurved, serrated. _sori_ copious near the costules. Norfolk Island. This rapid-growing and splendid species proves nearly hardy in the neighbourhood of Cornwall; and is a most effective plant for sub-tropical gardening purposes generally. Greenhouse species.

=A. ferox= (fierce). Synonymous with _A. aculeata_.

=A. Gardneri= (Gardner's). Synonymous with _A. paleolata_.

=A. gigantea= (gigantic). _cau._ growing from 20ft. to 40ft. high. _sti._ asperous; _fronds_, primary pinnæ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. and more long, deeply pinnatifid at the apex; pinnules, upper ones sessile, lower ones petiolate, oblong-acuminate, 3in. to 6in. long, five to nine lines wide, deeply pinnatifid; lobes triangular or rounded, serrated. _sori_ copious. India, &c. Stove species. SYN. _A. glabra_.

=A. glabra= (glabrous). Synonymous with _A. gigantea_.

=A. glauca= (grey). Synonymous with _A. contaminans_.

=A. infesta= (troublesome). _fronds_ ample, tripinnatifid; pinnæ oblong-lanceolate, 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long; pinnules ligulate, 3in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad, cut down to a narrow wing; segments 1/8in. broad, ligulate, blunt, nearly entire; texture sub-coriaceous; colour deep green on both sides. Tropical America; widely distributed. Stove species.

=A. Leichardtiana= (Leichardt's).* _cau._ 10ft. to 20ft. high. _sti._ jointed upon the caudex; main and secondary rachises purple, deciduously powdery, spiny. _fronds_ 6ft. to 10ft. long, firm, dark green above, sub-glaucous beneath, naked and glaucous (or nearly so), tripinnate; primary pinnæ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, 8in. wide, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; pinnules oblong-acuminate, sessile, pinnatifid only at the apex; ultimate divisions linear-oblong, acute, spinulose-serrate. _sori_ copious, close to the costa. Australia, 1867. Greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. Macarthurii_, _A. Moorei_.

=A. lunulata= (moon-shaped pinnuled). _fronds_ ample, tripinnate. _rachises_ stramineous, glabrous below, densely muricated; pinnæ oblong-lanceolate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long; pinnules close, ligulate, sessile, 4in. to 5in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad; segments close, ligulate, falcate, blunt, one line broad, obscurely crenulate. _sori_ minute. _h._ 25ft. Polynesia. Greenhouse species.

=A. Macarthurii= (MacArthur's). Synonymous with _A. Leichardtiana_.

=A. Moorei= (Moore's). Synonymous with _A. Leichardtiana_.

=A. paleolata= (scaly).* _cau._ slender, 10ft. to 20ft. high. _fronds_ ample, tripinnatifid. _rachises_ stramineous, smooth, pubescent below; pinnæ oblong-lanceolate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long; pinnules ligulate, sessile or shortly stalked, 3in. to 4in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, deeply cut, the segments blunt and nearly entire; texture sub-coriaceous; colour deep green, both surfaces deeply pilose, the lower scaly on the ribs. _sori_ large, medial. Columbia, &c. Stove species. SYN. _A. Gardneri_.

=A. procera= (tall). _sti._ aculeated and paleaceous below, with large glossy, dark brown scales. _fronds_ bipinnate, glabrous, pinnatifid at the apex; primary pinnæ 1ft. or more long, the rachis winged above; pinnules 2in. to 3in. long, oblong-acuminate or obtuse, pinnatifid half way down to the costa; lobes short, sub-rotundate, often acute, mostly entire. _sori_ small on all the lobes, between the costule and the margin. Tropical America. Stove species.

=A. pruinata= (as if hoar-frosted).* _sti._ densely woolly at the base. _fronds_ glaucous, bi-tripinnate; primary pinnæ petiolate, 12in. to 18in. long, ovate-lanceolate; pinnules 3in. to 4in. long, 1in. wide, petiolulate, from a broad base, oblong-acuminate, deeply pinnatifid, or again pinnate; ultimate divisions 1/2in. long, lanceolate, very acute, deeply and sharply serrated. _sori_ solitary. Tropical America, extending to Chili. Stove or greenhouse species.

=A. radens= (rasping). _cau._ 3ft. high, 3in. diameter. _sti._ 2ft. to 3ft. long, clothed with ovate, pale brown scales. _fronds_ 6ft. to 8ft. long, lanceolate-ovate, bipinnatisect; primary segments 1-1/2ft. long, elongato-oblong, acuminate; secondary ones 2in. to 3in. long, petiolulate, linear-lanceolate, pinnati-partite; segments oblong, denticulate. _sori_ between the costule and the margin. Brazil. Stove species.

=A. Rebeccæ= (Rebecca's).* _cau._ slender, 8ft. high. _fronds_ ample, bipinnate; pinnules twenty to thirty on each side, the lower ones stalked, linear, 2in. to 3in. long, more or less inciso-crenate, apex acuminate. _sori_ principally in two rows between the midrib and edge. Queensland. Greenhouse species. See Fig. 65, for which we are indebted to Mr. Bull.

=A. sagittifolia= (arrow-leaved).* _fronds_ oblong-deltoid, 4ft. to 6ft. long, bipinnate. _rachises_ stramineous, muricated; pinnæ lanceolate, 3/4ft. to 1ft. long, the lower shorter, deflexed; pinnules sessile, ligulate, crenulate, cordate on both sides at the base, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, nearly 1/4in. broad. _sori_ large. Trinidad, 1872. Very handsome and distinct stove species.

[Illustration: FIG. 64. ALSOPHILA ACULEATA.]

=A. Scottiana= (Scott's).* _fronds_ ample, tripinnatifid. _rachises_ castaneous, naked and smooth beneath; pinnæ oblong-lanceolate, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long; pinnules sessile, 3in. to 4in. long, about 1/2in. broad, ligulate, cut down to a narrow wing on the rachis; segments ligulate, blunt, dentate, sub-falcate, not 1/8in. broad. _sori_ sub-costular. Sikkim, 1872. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. comosa_.

=A. Tænitis= (Tænitis-like).* _fronds_ 3ft. to 6ft. long, bipinnate; pinnules distant, 3in. to 5in. long, lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, sub-entire, petioled; petiole articulated on the rachis. _sori_ in a single series, equidistant between the costa and the margin, mixed with long, copious hairs. Brazil. An elegant stove species.

=A. villosa= (villous).* _cau._ 6ft. to 12ft. high. _sti._ 1ft. or more long, tubercular, densely clothed at the base with ferruginous scales. _fronds_ from 6ft. to 8ft. long, bi- or sub-tripinnate, broadly lanceolate in outline; pinnules 1in. to 3in. long, oblong-lanceolate, obtusely acuminate, deeply pinnatifid; lobes oblong, obtuse, entire or coarsely serrated. _sori_ copious. Tropical America. A very beautiful stove species.

=ALSTONIA= (in honour of Dr. Alston, once Professor of Botany at Edinburgh). ORD. _Apocynaceæ_. Usually tall, lactescent, or milk-bearing stove evergreen shrubs or trees, with small white flowers, which are disposed in terminal cymes. Leaves entire, opposite or often whorled. Of easy culture, thriving best in a mixture of peat, loam, and sand. Cuttings root readily in sand, in heat. Besides the one mentioned, there are eleven other species.

=A. scholaris= (school). _fl._, corolla salver-shaped, white; cymes on short peduncles. March to May. _l._ five to seven in a whorl, obovate-oblong, obtuse, ribbed; upper surface glossy, under white, and having the veins approximating the margin. _h._ 8ft. India, 1803. SYN. _Echites scholaris_.

[Illustration: FIG. 65. ALSOPHILA REBECCÆ.]

=ALSTRÖMERIA= (in honour of Baron Alströmer, a Swedish botanist and friend of Linnæus). ORD. _Amaryllidaceæ_. Tall handsome hardy or half-hardy tuberous rooted plants, with leafy stems and terminal umbels of richly-coloured flowers; perianth regular, six-parted, subcampanulate; inner segments narrower, two of which are somewhat tubulose at the base; stamens included within, and inserted with perianth; stigma trifid. Leaves linear, lanceolate, or ovate, and resupinate, or inverted in position by the twisting of the petiole. Cultivation: Few plants need less attention to grow them successfully, either in pots or planted out. The best position for those kinds which succeed outside is a deep and dry, sloping, sheltered border, in a compost of two-parts peat and leaf soil, and one loam with some sharp sand. Water freely if severe drought sets in; a surface covering of common moss, or cut fern in winter, will prove an advantage. They are very effective in masses. Propagation: They may be increased by seed or root division. Sow the former when ripe, or in early spring, thinly in pans, pots, or boxes, and place in a cool house or frame, so that they will receive some fostering in their early stages. The seedlings should be pricked out singly, when large enough to handle, and grown on till well established under glass. A mixture of peat, leaf mould, and sandy loam, is the best compost in which to sow the seeds and grow the young plants. When sufficiently established, they may be placed in a warm sheltered spot outside, and about 1ft. apart. The fasciculated masses of fleshy roots are readily separated into as many pieces as there are crowns; this operation may be performed during September or October, or February and March; but it must be done carefully. Except for the sake of increase, the less they are disturbed the better. They are excellent subjects for pot culture (some can only be managed thus, unless planted out in a house), and may be potted as early in the autumn as possible, in 8in., 10in., or 12in. pots. Thorough drainage is essential; arrange the crocks carefully, and place a layer of thin turfy loam over them. A compost of equal parts turfy loam, leaf mold, and fibrous peat, with an abundance of sand, will suit them admirably. Water sparingly at first, but when root-action is fully resumed, they must never be allowed to get dry. Support the stems by staking when they require it, and just previous to flowering, top-dress with some rotten manure and leaf soil. Occasional syringings will be necessary to keep down red spider, especially if the atmosphere is very dry. As the plants finish flowering, and the leaves fade, gradually diminish the supply of water until the stems are quite down, when they may be placed somewhere out of the way, free from frost, for the winter, but not kept dry enough to make them shrivel. In repotting, as much of the old soil as is practicable should be removed, without seriously disturbing the roots, and the plants shifted into larger or the same sized pots, according to their condition. Alströmerias were at one time much more largely grown than they are at present, and the genus was represented in nearly every garden.

[Illustration: FIG. 66. ALSTRÖMERIA AURANTIACA, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. aurantiaca= (golden).* _fl._ orange; two upper perianth segments lanceolate, streaked with red; arranged in a five to six stalked umbel, bearing ten to fifteen blooms. Summer and autumn. _l._ numerous, linear-elliptical, obtuse, glaucous, twisted and turned back at the base, about 4-1/2in. long. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Chili, 1831. A variable but very showy species, quite hardy. See Fig. 66.

=A. caryophyllæa= (clove-like scent).* _fl._ scarlet; very fragrant, perianth two-lipped; peduncles longer than the involucre. February and March. _l._ spathulate-oblong. Stem erect. _h._ 8in. to 12in. Brazil, 1776. This stove species requires perfect rest in winter. SYN. _A. Ligtu_.

[Illustration: FIG. 67. FLOWER OF ALSTRÖMERIA PELEGRINA.]

=A. chilensis= (Chilian).* _fl._ blood-red or pink, large, the two upper interior petals longer and narrower, variegated with yellow lines; in pairs on a five to six stalked umbel. Summer and autumn. _l._ scattered, obovate, spathulate; upper ones lanceolate, twisted at the base, minutely fringed on the edges, glaucescent. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Chili, 1849. Hardy. There are many varieties of this species, varying in colour from a rosy white to a deep orange or red.

=A. densiflora= (thickly-flowered).* _fl._, perianth scarlet, dotted with black spots inside towards the base; umbels many-flowered, dense; pedicels pubescent, rarely bracteated. _l._ alternate, ovate, shortly acuminate, pubescent underneath. Stem climbing, glabrous. Peru, 1865. Tender species.

=A. Flos Martini= (St. Martin's flower). Synonymous with _A. pulchra_.

=A. Hookeri= (Hooker's). Synonymous with _A. Simsii_.

=A. Ligtu= (Ligtu). Synonymous with _A. caryophyllæa_.

=A. Pelegrina= (the native name).* _fl._ white, or pale yellow, striped with rose, and yellow spot on each segment; pedicels one-flowered, on a six or more stalked umbel. Summer. _l._ lanceolate, twisted at the base. _h._ 1ft. Chili, 1754. Rather tender. See Fig. 67.

=A. p. alba= (white).* Lily of the Incas. _fl._ white. Perhaps this is the most chaste of all the Alströmerias, and more tender than many others; it should have a specially warm spot, or the protection of glass. 1877.

=A. peruviana= (Peruvian). Synonymous with _A. versicolor_.

=A. psittacina= (parrot-like).* _fl._ bright crimson at the base, greenish upwards, spotted with purple; upper perianth segments slightly hooded, hence the specific name; umbels many-flowered; peduncles angular. September. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acute, twisted at the base. Stem erect, spotted. _h._ 6ft. Mexico, 1829. Hardy.

=A. p. Erembaulti= (Erembault's). _fl._ white, spotted with purple. August. _h._ 2ft. 1833. A beautiful but rather tender hybrid.

=A. pulchella= (pretty). Synonymous with _A. Simsii_.

=A. pulchra= (fair).* St. Martin's Flower. _fl._ in umbels of from four to eight in each; the lower perianth segments purplish outside, and edges of a sulphur-white; the upper part of the upper segments of a fine yellow, dotted with deep red spots, the lower part of a flesh colour; pedicels twisted. _l._ linear lanceolate. Stem erect. _h._ 1ft. Chili, 1822. A beautiful species, but one requiring protection. SYNS. _A. Flos Martini_, _A. tricolor_.

=A. rosea= (rosy). A synonym of _A. Simsii_.

=A. Simsii= (Sims's).* _fl._ brilliant yellow, with red streaks, very showy; umbels many-flowered; peduncles two-flowered. June. _l._ spathulate, ciliated. Stem weak. _h._ 3ft. Chili, 1822. Tender species. SYNS. _A. Hookeri_, _A. pulchella_, _A. rosea_.

=A. tricolor= (three-coloured). A synonym of _A. pulchra_.

[Illustration: FIG. 68. ALSTRÖMERIA VERSICOLOR, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. versicolor= (various coloured).* _fl._ yellow, with purple marks; lowest segment the broadest; umbel of usually three shortly-stalked blooms, very floriferous. Late summer. _l._ linear-lanceolate, sessile, scattered. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Peru, 1831. This is a very robust species, with several beautiful varieties, which are both easily obtained and very cheap. SYN. _A. peruviana_. See Fig. 68.

=A. v. niveo-marginata= (snowy-margined).* _fl._ rose, crimson and white, with green tips and black spots. _l._ lanceolate, stalked, white-edged. 1875. A charming but scarce variety.

=ALTERNANTHERA= (in allusion to the anthers being alternately barren). ORD. _Amaranthaceæ_. Well known ornamental-leaved half-hardy plants, with inconspicuous flowers in axillary heads. Some of the undermentioned species and varieties belong, technically speaking, to _Telanthera_, in which genus the five stamens are inseparate below, and alternate with as many sterile filaments. They are so universally known in gardening under the present generic name, that we have here included them for convenience' sake. Where Alternantheras are used in large quantities (and if they are to be used effectively, a considerable number must be provided), their economical propagation becomes a matter of importance. A good colour can only be secured by growing them in some house or pit in the full light and warmth of the sun; for, unless so grown, green or badly coloured plants will be the result. The best and quickest way of producing this class of plants in large quantities, is to make up a special hotbed for them about the end of March or beginning of April. If a pit be used, it should be filled up within 6in. of the glass with leaves and manure, or any other material that will produce a steady bottom heat of 80deg. or 85deg., and will last for three weeks or so at that point; which, at this season, will be an easy matter. When the heat has become regular and steady, about 4in. or 5in. of light, rich, sandy soil should be placed all over the surface, adding, at the same time, a sprinkling of silver sand on the top, and pressing it moderately firm with a flat board. The cuttings may now be prepared and dibbled in, 1in. apart each way. If kept close, moist, and shaded from bright sunshine, in a few days they will be forming roots, and so soon as that takes place the shading should be discontinued, and the ventilation gradually increased until they are finally hardened off and planted out. If carefully lifted, and placed in trays or baskets, with a rhubarb leaf over them, they may be taken any distance, and planted without flagging; with this advantage-—that the plants being in good colour, the beds are effective at once. April is early enough to commence striking them, and these will be fit to plant out by the middle of June. The several species quoted in various dictionaries hitherto are unknown in English gardens.

=A. amabilis= (lovely).* _l._ elliptic, acuminate, greenish in some stages, with the principal ribs stained with red, but under free growth becoming almost entirely suffused with rose colour, mixed with orange, the midribs continuing to be of a deep red hue. Brazil, 1868.

=A. a. amœna= (charming).* _l._ small, spathulate, orange red and purple in colour, which is shaded with deep green and bronze. Brazil, 1865. A most elegant little plant, with a spreading habit.

=A. a. tricolor= (three-coloured).* _l._ broadly ovate, glabrous, dark green at the edge, and have a centre of vivid rose, traversed by purple veins, an irregular band of orange yellow intervening between the centre and margin. Brazil, 1862.

=A. Bettzichiana= (Bettzich's). _l._ olive and red. Brazil, 1862.

=A. B. spathulata= (spathulate-leaved). _l._ spathulate, but more elongated than the others; the principal colours are reddish pink and light brown; these are shaded with bronze and green. Brazil, 1865. A rather tall species.

=A. ficoidea= (fig-like).* _l._ variegated with green, rose, and red. India, 1865.

=A. paronychioides= (Paronychia-like).* _l._ narrow, spathulate, ground colour deep orange red, beautifully shaded with olive green. Dense and compact grower, forming a little clump about 4in. high.

=A. p. magnifica= (magnificent).* A very fine variety, with a much higher colour than the type.

=A. p. major= (greater).* _l._ bronze, with rich orange tips; very effective.

=A. p. m. aurea= (greater-golden).* _l._ bright golden yellow, which colour they retain all through the season.

=A. versicolor= (various-colour).* _l._ medium sized, ovate, bright rosy pink and crimson, shaded with bronzy green, branching freely, and making a compact and handsome plant. Brazil, 1865.

=ALTERNATE.= Placed on opposite sides of an axis on a different line, as in alternate leaves.

=ALTHÆA= (from _altheo_, to cure; in reference to the medicinal qualities of some of the species). Marsh Mallow. ORD. _Malvaceæ_. Hardy biennials or perennials, closely allied to _Malva_. Outer calyx six to nine-cleft, inner one five-cleft. Most species belonging to this genus are worthy of cultivation, particularly in woods, coppices, and shrubberies; they will thrive in almost any kind of soil. They may be either increased by dividing the plants at the roots, or by seeds; the biennial species must be raised from seed every year, which may be sown in spring where they are intended to remain, or in pans placed in a cold frame, from which the young plants may be removed when large enough.

=A. cannabina= (Hemp-leaved).* _fl._ rose-coloured; peduncles axillary, many-flowered, loose, longer than the leaves. June. _l._ pubescent, lower ones palmately-parted, upper ones three-parted; lobes narrow, and grossly toothed. _h._ 5ft. to 6ft. South France, 1597. Perennial.

=A. caribæa= (Caribean).* _fl._ rose coloured, with a yellow base, solitary, almost sessile. March. _l._ cordate, roundish, lobed, crenate-serrated. Stem straight, hispid. _h._ 3ft. Caribbee Islands, 1816. Biennial.

=A. ficifolia= (fig-leaved). Antwerp Hollyhock. _fl._ generally yellow or orange coloured, in terminal spikes, large, single or double. June. _l._ divided beyond the middle into seven lobes; lobes oblong, obtuse, irregularly toothed. _h._ 6ft. Siberia, 1597. Biennial.

=A. flexuosa= (zigzag).* _fl._ scarlet, axillary, solitary, stalked; petals obcordate. June. _l._ cordate, somewhat seven-lobed, obtuse, on long footstalks. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. North India, 1803. Perennial.

=A. frutex= (shrubby). Synonymous with _Hibiscus syriacus_.

=A. narbonensis= (Narbonne).* _fl._ pale red; peduncles many-flowered, loose, longer than the leaves. August. _l._ pubescent, lower ones five or seven-lobed, upper ones three-lobed. _h._ 3ft. to 6ft. France, 1780. Perennial.

[Illustration: FIG. 69. FLOWER AND BUDS OF ALTHÆA OFFICINALIS.]

=A. officinalis= (officinal). Common Marsh Mallow. _fl._ of a delicate, uniform blush colour; peduncles axillary, many-flowered, much shorter than the leaves. July. _l._ clothed with soft, white tomentum on both surfaces, cordate or ovate, toothed, undivided, or somewhat five-lobed. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Marshes, Britain. Perennial. See Fig. 69.

=A. rosea= (rose).* Hollyhock. _fl._ rose-coloured, large, axillary, sessile, somewhat spiked at the top. July. _l._ cordate, with five or seven angles, crenated, rough. Stem straight, hairy. _h._ 8ft. China, 1573. For special culture and varieties, _see_ =Hollyhock=.

=A. striata= (streaked). _fl._ white, 2-1/2in. in diameter, solitary, on short pedicels; calyx striped. July. _l._ cordate, bluntly three-lobed, crenated. Stem puberulous, and somewhat scabrous. _h._ 5ft. Biennial.

=ALUMINOUS.= Pertaining to, or containing alum, or alumina; as Aluminous soils.

=ALUM-ROOT.= _See_ =Heuchera=.

=ALYSSUM= (from _a_, not, and _lyssa_, rage; in reference to a fable that the plant allayed anger). Madwort. Including _Psilonema_, _Ptilotrichum_, _Schivereckia_. ORD. _Cruciferæ_. Annuals or dwarf, branching, shrubby perennials, often clothed with hoary, stellate hairs. Flowers small, cruciform, white or yellow. Leaves distant, or the radical ones tufted, usually entire. Several of the species are very much alike. They are excellent plants for the rockery, or for the front of borders, growing freely in common but well-drained garden soil. They may be increased by cuttings, by division of the roots, or by seed. The cuttings should be made from young shoots, 2in. to 3in. in length, inserted in sandy loam, early in the season, in a shady place. Seed may be raised outside, or in a frame in pans in sandy soil, most of them germinating in two or three weeks.

=A. alpestre= (alpine).* _fl._ yellow; raceme simple. June. _l._ obovate, hoary. Stem rather shrubby at the base, diffuse, greyish. _h._ 3in. South Europe, 1777. Perennial. A very neat little tufted species. _A. argenteum_ (silvery), _A. Bertolonii_ (Bertoloni's), and _A. murale_ (wall), are larger growing species allied to the above, but of less cultural merit.

[Illustration: FIG. 70. ALYSSUM SAXATILE.]

=A. a. obtusifolium= (obtuse-leaved). _fl._ yellow, corymbose. June. _l._ obovate-spathulate, blunt, silvery on the under surface. _h._ 3in. Tauria, 1828. A rare alpine.

[Illustration: FIG. 71. ALYSSUM SAXATILE VARIEGATUM, showing Flower and Habit.]

=A. atlanticum= (Atlantic). _fl._ yellow; raceme simple. June. _l._ lanceolate, hoary, and pilose. Stems shrubby at the base, erect. _h._ 6in. to 1ft. S. Europe, 1820. _A. Marschallianum_ is intermediate between _A. alpestre_ and _A. a. obtusifolium_; but is seldom met with under cultivation.

=A. gemonense= (German).* _fl._ yellow, in close corymbs. April to June. _l._ lanceolate, entire, greyish-velvety from stellate down. Stem shrubby at the base. _h._ 1ft. Italy, 1710. Closely allied to _A. saxatile_, but not so hardy; it is very desirable for rockeries.

=A. macrocarpum= (large-fruited). _fl._ white, racemose. June. _l._ oblong, blunt, silvery. Stem shrubby, branched, somewhat spiny. _h._ 8in. South of France, 1828. _A. spinosa_ (thorny), and _A. halimifolia_ (purslane-leaved), are very like this species. _A. dasycarpum_ (thick-fruited) is an annual with yellow flowers.

=A. maritimum.= _See_ =Kœniga=.

=A. montanum= (mountain). _fl._ yellow, sweet-scented; raceme simple. May to July. _l._ somewhat hoary; lower ones obovate; upper ones oblong. Stems rather herbaceous, diffuse, pubescent. _h._ 2in. or 3in. Europe, 1713. A distinct and charming species for the rockery, forming compact tufts of slightly glaucous green. _A. cuneifolium_ (wedge-leaved), _A. diffusum_ (diffuse), and _A. Wulfenianum_ (Wulfenius') come close to this species, the latter being the most desirable.

=A. olympicum= (Olympian). _fl._ deep yellow, small, in roundish corymbose heads. Summer. _l._ spathulate, sessile, very small, greyish. _h._ 2in. to 3in. Northern Greece.

=A. orientale= (Oriental).* _fl._ yellow, corymbose. May. _l._ lanceolate, repandly-toothed, waved, downy. Stems suffruticose at the base. _h._ 1ft. Crete, 1820. There is a variety with variegated leaves.

=A. saxatile= (rock).* _fl._ yellow, in close corymbose heads. April. _l._ lanceolate, entire, clothed with hoary tomentum. Stems shrubby at the base. _h._ 1ft. Eastern Europe, 1710. A very common and showy spring plant. See Fig. 70.

[Illustration: FIG. 72. FLOWER SPIKE OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS.]

=A. s. variegatum= (variegated).* A constant and prettily variegated form, which is even more handsome than the type. On the rockery it does well, as it requires a sunny, well drained, position. See Fig. 71.

=A. serpyllifolium= (Thyme-leaved).* _fl._ pale yellow, in simple racemes. April to June. _l._ very small, 1/4in. to 1/2in. long, ovate, scabrous, hoary. _h._ 3in. to 4in. Branches spreading, sub-woody at the base. South Europe, 1822.

=A. tortuosum= (twisted). _fl._ yellow; raceme corymbose. June. _l._ hoary, somewhat lanceolate. Stem shrubby at the base, twisted, diffuse. _h._ 6in. Hungary, 1804.

=A. Wiersbeckii= (Wiersbeck's).* _fl._ deep yellow, in close corymbose heads, about 1-1/2in. across. Summer. _l._ 2in. long, oval-oblong-pointed, sessile, attenuated at the base, roughish and hairy. Stems erect, scabrous, simple, rigid. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Asia Minor.

=AMARANTHACEÆ.= An extensive order of herbs or (rarely) shrubs, with opposite or alternate leaves, and inconspicuous apetalous flowers, which are spicately or capitately disposed. The majority of this order are weeds; well-known exceptions being many species of _Amaranthus_.

=AMARANTH, GLOBE.= _See_ =Gomphrena=.

[Illustration: FIG. 73. FLOWER SPIKE OF AMARANTHUS HYPOCHONDRIACUS.]

=AMARANTHUS= (from _a_, not, and _maraino_, to wither; in reference to the length of time some of the flowers retain their colour). ORD. _Amaranthaceæ_. Hardy or half-hardy annuals, with alternate entire leaves and small green or red flowers in large bracteate clustered spikes. Flowers polygamous, furnished with three bracts at the base of a three or five-lobed glabrous perianth. Stamens four or five. Of very easy culture; they thrive best in rich loamy soil, and are largely employed for sub-tropical and other bedding, for vases and conservatory decorations, being very ornamental. The seed should be sown in April in a hotbed, and the plants thinned out in the same situation when about 1/2in. high. About the end of May, they can be transplanted out of doors in their permanent situations. They are also very handsome when grown in pots. The young plants should be potted off early, and freely encouraged, allowing plenty of pot-room and moisture, and be kept near the glass, to bring out their brightest colouring. To develop their full beauty, plenty of room is required. There are about twelve species (indigenous to warm and tropical countries).

=A. bicolor= (two-coloured). _l._ green, variously streaked with light yellow. _h._ 2ft. India, 1802. This species is rather delicate, and must have a warm sunny situation.

=A. b. ruber= (red).* _l._ brilliant glistening scarlet, merging into a dark violet red, mixed with green. Hardier than the type.

=A. caudatus= (caudate).* Love Lies Bleeding. _fl._ dark purplish, collected in numerous whorls, which are disposed in handsome drooping spikes. August. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. India, 1596. A very common and vigorous growing hardy annual. There is a yellowish-flowered variety, which, though less ornamental, is an effective contrast. See Fig. 72.

=A. cruentus= (dark bloody). Synonymous with _A. hypochondriacus_.

=A. Henderi= (Hender's). _l._ lanceolate, undulated, intense rosy carmine, varying with orange buff, golden yellow, and olive green. _h._ 3ft. A garden hybrid, closely allied to _A. salicifolius_. Pyramidal habit.

=A. hypochondriacus= (hypochondriac).* Prince's Feather. _fl._ deep crimson, on densely packed, erect spikes. July. _l._ purplish beneath. _h._ 4ft. to 5ft. Asiatic, 1684. SYN. _A. cruentus_. See Fig. 73.

=A. h. atropurpureus= (dark purple).* An improved variety of above.

=A. melancholicus ruber= (melancholy-red).* _h._ about 1ft. Japan. A compact growing variety, with large shaded crimson leaves. Largely used for bedding purposes.

=A. salicifolius= (willow-leaved).* _l._ 7in. to 15in. long, willow-shaped, linear, and wavy, which, by their drooping outline, present a very elegant and effective appearance. When fully grown, the leaves are brilliantly banded and tipped with orange, carmine, and bronze. _h._ 3ft. Philippine Isles, 1871.

=A. s. Princess of Wales.=* _l._ carmine, orange green, and bright yellow, beautifully blended. _h._ 3ft. A garden hybrid.

=A. sanguineus= (bloody). _fl._ purple, disposed partly in small heads in the axils of the upper leaves, and partly in slender, flexible spikes, which form a more or less branching panicle. July. _l._ blood red. _h._ 3ft. Bahama, 1775.

[Illustration: FIG. 74. AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR.]

=A. speciosus= (showy).* _fl._ dark crimson purple, disposed in large erect spikes, forming a fine plumy panicle. July. _l._ suffused with a reddish tinge, which disappears at the time of flowering. _h._ 3ft. to 5ft. Nepaul, 1819.

=A. s. aureus= (golden). _fl._ of a fine brownish-golden hue. Very effective when grown in masses.

=A. tricolor= (three-coloured).* _l._ of a fine, transparent, purplish-red or dark carmine from the base to the middle; a large spot of bright yellow occupies the greater part of the upper end of the leaf; point generally green; leafstalks yellow. _h._ 1-1/2ft. East Indies, 1548. See Fig. 74. There are several garden varieties of this species, requiring a somewhat warmer situation.

=AMARYLLIDEÆ.= A large and important order of usually bulbous plants, sometimes with a stem. Flowers solitary, umbellate, or paniculate; perianth superior, six-lobed, often with a corona at the top of the tube. Leaves ensiform or linear. This order contains many very beautiful genera, including _Agave_, _Amaryllis_, _Crinum_, _Hæmanthus_, _Hippeastrum_, _Narcissus_, _Pancratium_, and several others.

=AMARYLLIS= (from _Amaryllis_, the name of a country-woman mentioned by Theocritus and Virgil). ORD. _Amaryllideæ_. Half-hardy or hardy, deciduous, bulbous plants. Flowers large, sweet-scented, pedicelled; spathe two-leaved; umbels few-flowered; perianth with a very short tube, funnel-shaped, six-parted, sub-regular or irregular; segments many-nerved, broad, undulate, spreading somewhat at the apices; stamens at the summit of the tube, unequal, declined; anthers fixed by the middle, incumbent, curved into a circular arch after bursting; style declined; stigma thickened, sub-three-lobed; scape tall, solid, compressed. Capsule obovate; seeds globose, fleshy. Leaves appearing at a different season from the scapes, numerous, strap-shaped. The following genera are sometimes arranged hereunder, but in this work are treated separately: _Brunsvigia_, _Crinum_, _Hippeastrum_, _Nerine_, _Sprekelia_, _Sternbergia_, _Vallota_, _Zephyranthes_. Warm, dry, and well-drained positions in front of hothouses, or at the base of south or south-west walls, are the most suitable sites for _A. Belladonna_ and its varieties. The soil should be composed of good, fibrous loam, leaf mould, and sand, in equal parts. Insert the bulbs 6in. to 8in. deep, and surround with sand, after which they may be covered with the compost, which should be pressed firmly about them; they should not be again disturbed for years, when they will ultimately establish themselves, and produce grand masses of blossom. The best time to plant a fresh stock is June or July, when they commence root-action, before the flower-stems are sent up. In their growing season, and in dry weather, an occasional soaking of clear water, or liquid manure, will be greatly beneficial. The extremely ornamental plants now largely grown, and frequently classed as _Amaryllis_ in nurserymen's catalogues, belong to the genus _Hippeastrum_. For pot-culture of the Belladonna Lily, _see_ =Hippeastrum=.

[Illustration: FIG. 75. AMARYLLIS BELLADONNA, showing Habit at Flowering Season.]

=A. Belladonna.=* Belladonna Lily. This splendid species is very variable, both in the size and colour of the flowers, frequently producing variously-shaded flowers, from almost white to a reddish or purplish hue. Autumn. West Indies, 1712. See Fig. 75. The leaves and flowers are not produced together. In Fig. 76 they are both shown in the same illustration for economy of space.

=A. B. pallida= (pale).* A pale-coloured variety. _h._ 2ft.

=AMASONIA= (named in honour of Thomas Amason, one of the earlier American travellers). SYN. _Taligalea_. ORD. _Verbenaceæ_. A genus comprising six species (which may be reduced to four) of stove sub-shrubs, natives of tropical America. Flowers yellow or sulphur-coloured, racemose or panicled; calyx five-cleft; corolla five-cleft, sub-bilabiate. Leaves alternate, toothed or rarely entire. For culture of the only species introduced, _see_ =Clerodendron=.

=A. punicea= (reddish-brown). _fl._ yellow, with pretty, brownish bracts; peduncles once or twice trifid, cymose or one-flowered. May and June. _l._ slender, 3in. to 2in. long, oblong- or elliptic-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, unequally toothed. Stem erect, simple or slightly branched. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Brazil, 1884.

=AMATEUR.= This term is usually meant to refer to one who has a taste for a particular pursuit, and who is, in a pecuniary point of view, independent of it. An Amateur gardener is one who rears and grows his plants, and cultivates his garden, for his own amusement--for mere love of horticulture.

[Illustration: FIG. 76. AMARYLLIS BELLADONNA, showing Bulb and Flower Spike.]

=AMBER, SWEET.= _See_ =Hypericum Androsæmum=.

=AMBER-TREE.= _See_ =Anthospermum=.

=AMBROSINIA= (commemorative of Professor Giacinti Ambrosini, of Bologna). ORD. _Aroideæ_ (_Araceæ_). A curious, half-hardy, tuberous perennial, thriving in any light soil, with protection in winter. Increased by seeds, and by divisions. The former should be sown, as soon as ripe, in a cool house; and the latter should be made just previous to new growth in spring.

=A. Bassii= (Bass's).* _fl._, spathes prolonged into a long tail, and a tongue-shaped spadix, with the male flowers on one side, and so placed as to preclude the access of pollen to the stigma on the other side of the spathe, save by insect agency. _l._ oblong, stalked. _h._ 4in. Corsica, Sardinia, 1879.

=AMBURY=, or =ANBURY=. The name given to galls of small Weevils (_Ceuthorhynchus sulcicollis_) which appear on the roots of Cabbages and Turnips, as well as of the Wild Mustard, and of other weeds belonging to the genus _Brassica_. The galls form swellings individually about the size of split peas, but often two or more are joined to form considerable masses. In each is a space inclosing a white grub. Anbury is usually not very hurtful. It is quite distinct from Clubbing. The galled roots should be collected, before the grubs emerge, and burned.

=AMELANCHIER= (Savoy name of the Medlar, to which this genus is closely allied). TRIBE _Pomaceæ_ of ORD. _Rosaceæ_. Hardy, deciduous shrubs or small trees, with racemes of white flowers, and simple, serrated leaves; bracteas linear-lanceolate. Pome, when mature, three to five-celled. They are of easy cultivation, in a somewhat rich, loamy soil, and are propagated by layers or cuttings, in autumn, in sheltered situations; by seeds, and by grafting, in early spring, on the Hawthorn or the Quince, or the weaker on the stronger-growing species.

=A. canadensis= (Canadian).* Grape Pear. _fl._ white. April. Pome purple. _l._ oblong-elliptic, cuspidate, when young rather villous, but at length glabrous. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. Canada, 1746. A very ornamental tree, having a profusion of flowers in early spring, and rich autumnal foliage. SYN. _Pyrus Botryapium_.

=A. c. florida= (flowery).* _fl._ white, numerous, in upright racemes. May. Pome purple. _l._ oblong, obtuse at both ends, coarsely serrate in the terminal portion, glabrous in every state. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. North America, 1826.

=A. c. ovalis= (oval-leaved). _fl._ white; racemes pressed together. April. _l._ roundish-elliptic, acute when rather young, velvety beneath, glabrous when mature. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. North America, 1800.

=A. c. parvifolia= (small-leaved). This has a dwarfer habit, and shorter leaves, than the type.

=A. sanguinea=, (bloody). _fl._ white; racemes capitate. April. Pome blackish-purple. _l._ oblong, rounded at both ends, sharply serrated, always naked. _h._ 4ft. to 8ft. North America, 1800. This form differs principally from _A. canadensis_ in the fewer flowers, much shorter raceme, and shorter, broader, and more ovate petals.

=A. vulgaris= (common).* _fl._ white. April. Pome darkish-purple. _l._ roundish-oval, bluntish, pubescent beneath, at length glabrous. _h._ 3ft. to 9ft. Europe, 1596. A desirable shrub, producing an abundance of flowers. SYN. _Mespilus Amelanchier_.

=AMELLUS= (a name employed by Virgil for a blue, Aster-looking plant growing on the banks of the river Mella). ORD. _Compositæ_. Pretty, branched, ascending or diffuse, perennial herbs. Flowers in solitary heads. Leaves hairy, lower ones opposite, upper alternate. Of very easy culture, in ordinary garden soil. Increased by divisions, or cuttings, inserted under glass, in spring.

=A. Lychnitis= (Lychnitis). _fl.-heads_ violet, solitary, terminal, and lateral. June. _l._ linear, lanceolate, entire, hoary. _h._ 6in. Cape of Good Hope. Evergreen, greenhouse trailer.

=AMENTUM.= A catkin. A deciduous spike of unisexual, apetalous flowers.

=AMERICAN ALMOND.= _See_ =Brabejum=.

=AMERICAN ALOE.= _See_ =Agave americana=.

=AMERICAN BLIGHT=, or =WOOLLY APHIS= (_Schizoneura lanuginosa_). The white, cottony-looking matter which is found upon the bark of the Apple and other trees of a similar nature, belongs to a species of Aphis, which has short legs: the females are wingless, while the males are winged; the latter appear in July and August. The insects belong to a group of Aphides unprovided with honey tubes on the hinder part of the body, and in which the third vein of the front wing shows only one fork The woolly coating also distinguishes them from true Aphides. The Blight is said to have been imported from America in 1787, but this is uncertain.

As these insects get into the cracks and under the bark of trees, they are hard to dislodge. The injury inflicted is not apparent for some time; but, in process of time, large, cankerous wounds are produced, which gradually (with the aid of the insects) destroy the branches, and render the tree useless. If young trees are attacked, they are rendered valueless in a very short time. The insects hide in crevices of the bark of the trees each autumn, and remain dormant during the winter, ascending to their old quarters as the weather becomes warm. Trees which are covered with moss and lichens probably serve as places for hybernation; hence, it is desirable to remove such hiding-places, as well as all pieces of dead bark. To their being left may be frequently attributed the severe attacks of Blight experienced where they exist on trees. So soon as the cottony substance makes its appearance, one of the following remedies should be applied, and, if persisted in for a few seasons, the trees will be quite cleared.

_Brushing and Scraping._ In winter, the trees should be thoroughly cleaned; and, so long as there is a chance of the insects being in the bark, all loose pieces, moss, &c., should be brushed off, and the parts affected should be thoroughly saturated with a strong solution of soft soap or of soft soap and lime-water, applied with a stiff brush, so as to enter all the crevices.

_Gas Liquor._ This is the ammoniacal liquor from gas works. It must be diluted with from eight to twelve times its bulk of water, or it is dangerous to the trees; in fact, after dilution, it is advisable to test it, previous to using to any great extent. As the woolly covering of the insects resists water, it is desirable that the liquor be applied with a brush, and forced amongst the Blight.

_Infusion of Tobacco Leaves_ (1/2lb. to 1 gallon) kills the insects on shoots dipped into it.

_Paraffin or Petroleum._ This is a simple and useful remedy. Obtain a painter's half-worn sash-tool, free from paint, and just moisten it in the oil. Then brush out each infested place as often as the Blight appears, and in one season the trees will be cleared.

_Spent Tan._ Collect spent tan into a heap a month or two before it is to be used, and if it has heated well and rotted, so much the better. In winter, clear away all leaves, rubbish, grass, &c., and spread the tan at the rate of about thirty loads to the acre, taking care that it surrounds the base of each tree infested with Blight. Practical proof of its utility has been given.

_Turpentine and other Spirits._ The mode of applying these is the same as for paraffin, but they frequently injure the bark, and sometimes kill young trees.

To kill insects on the roots, it is well to clear away the soil as far as possible from them, and to saturate the place with soapsuds or ammoniacal solutions; soot, quicklime, or other applications to the soil would also prove useful.

Other remedies that have been suggested are the drainings of stables, and grafting-clay plastered over the bark.

=AMERICAN CENTAURY.= _See_ =Sabbatia=.

=AMERICAN CHINA ROOT.= _See_ =Smilax=.

=AMERICAN COWSLIP.= _See_ =Dodecatheon=.

=AMERICAN CRANBERRY.= _See_ =Oxycoccus macrocarpus=.

=AMERICAN CRESS.= _See_ =Barbarea=.

=AMERICAN DEWBERRY.= _see_ =Rubus canadensis=.

=AMERICAN GOOSEBERRY.= _See_ =Pereskia aculeata=.

=AMERICAN GREAT LAUREL.= _See_ =Rhododendron maximum=.

=AMERICAN HIGH BLACKBERRY.= A common name for =Rubus villosus= (which _see_).

=AMERICAN MANDRAKE.= _See_ =Podophyllum peltatum=.

=AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH.= _See_ =Pyrus americana=.

=AMERICAN PLANTS=. This term includes _Rhododendron_, _Azalea_, and several others of similar habit and constitution; indeed, any hardy, flowering shrubs requiring a moist peat border.

=AMERICAN SPANISH OAK.= _See_ =Quercus falcata=.

=AMERICAN SWAMP LILY.= _See_ =Saururus cernuus=.

=AMERICAN WHITE OAK.= _See_ =Quercus alba=.

=AMERICAN WILD BLACK CURRANT.= _See_ =Ribes floridum=.

=AMERICAN WILD RED RASPBERRY.= _See_ =Rubus strigosus=.

=AMERIMNON= (from _a_, privative, and _merinna_, care; in allusion to the little attention the plant requires; name originally applied to the House-leek). SYN. _Amerimnum_. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Ornamental, evergreen, stove shrubs, with alternate, stalked, ovate, somewhat cordate, simple leaves. For culture, _see_ =Anona=.

=A. Brownei= (Browne's).* _fl._ white, sweet-scented; peduncles axillary, ten-flowered, glabrous or puberulous. May. _l._ ovate, somewhat cordate, acute, glabrous. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. Jamaica, 1793. Requires a trellis or other support.

=A. strigulosum= (strigulose). _fl._ white; racemes axillary, solitary, three times longer than the petioles. May. _l._ ovate, rather cordate, obtuse, clothed with adpressed hairs on both surfaces; branches and petioles clothed with light brown, dense, short hairs. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. Trinidad, 1817.

=AMERIMNUM.= A synonym of =Amerimnon= (which _see_).

=AMHERSTIA= (commemorative of Countess Amherst, a zealous promoter of natural history, particularly botany). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A stove, evergreen tree of almost unsurpassed magnificence and brilliancy, requiring a very high and moist temperature. It delights in a rich, strong loam, and may be propagated by cuttings of the half-ripened wood, inserted in sand, under a glass in bottom heat of about 80deg.; also by seeds.

=A. nobilis= (noble).* _fl._ of a fine vermilion colour, diversified with yellow spots, large; racemes long, pendulous, axillary. May. _l._ large, impari-pinnate, bearing six to eight pairs of leaflets. _h._ 30ft. to 40ft. India, 1837. The flowers are, unfortunately, somewhat ephemeral, lasting but a few days in perfection, during which period, however, no object in the whole range of the vegetable kingdom presents a more striking aspect than this tree.

=AMICIA= (commemorative of J. B. Amici, a celebrated French physician). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A pretty, greenhouse or half-hardy perennial, succeeding in any warm, sheltered spot. Young cuttings will root in sand, under a hand glass, in heat.

=A. Zygomeris= (two-jointed-podded).* _fl._ yellow, splashed with purple on the keel; peduncles axillary, five or six-flowered. Autumn. Legumes with two joints. _l._ abruptly pinnate, with two pairs of cuneate-obcordate, mucronate leaflets, which are full of pellucid dots; branches and petioles pubescent. _h._ 8ft. Mexico, 1826.

=AMMOBIUM= (from _ammos_, sand, and _bio_, to live; in reference to the sandy soil in which it is found). ORD. _Compositæ_. This well-known everlasting is closely allied to _Gnaphalium_, from which it differs principally in habit. Receptacle with oblong, pointed, toothed, chaffy scales; involucre of imbricated leaflets. It may be treated as a half-hardy annual, or as a biennial, if seeds are sown in September and kept in a cool greenhouse during the winter, and this is the best way to grow it. Any moderately good soil suits it.

=A. alatum= (winged). _fl.-heads_ about 1in. across, of a silvery whiteness, with the exception of the yellow disk florets, very numerous, in loose, corymbose panicles. May to September. _l._ oblong-lanceolate; radical ones in a tufted rosette. Stems winged--hence the specific name. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. New Holland, 1822. See Fig. 77.

=A. a. grandiflorum= (large-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ purer white, nearly twice the size of those in the type. This variety, which comes true from seed, is a great acquisition.

=AMMOCHARIS.= _See_ =Brunsvigia=.

=AMMODENDRON= (from _ammos_, sand, and _dendron_, a tree; in reference to its natural habitat). SYN. _Sophora_. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A small, neat, hardy evergreen, silky shrub, having the petioles hardening into spines; an excellent subject for shrubberies. It thrives in an ordinary soil, with good drainage, and is propagated by layers and seeds.

=A. Sieversii= (Sievers').* _fl._ purple, disposed in racemes. June. _l._ bifoliolate; leaflets lanceolate, silky-white on both surfaces. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Siberia, 1837.

=AMMYRSINE.= _See_ =Leiophyllum=.

=AMOMOPHYLLUM.= _See_ =Spathiphyllum=.

[Illustration: FIG. 77. INFLORESCENCE OF AMMOBIUM ALATUM.]

=AMOMUM= (from _a_, not, and _momos_, impurity; in reference to the quality of counteracting poison). ORD. _Zingiberaceæ_. Stove, deciduous, herbaceous perennials, chiefly aromatic, formerly used in embalming. Flowers produced close to the ground, in spikes or clusters, bracteate. Leaves distichous, sheathing at the base, lanceolate, entire. For culture, _see_ =Alpinia=.

=A. angustifolium= (narrow-leaved).* _fl._ sometimes of a uniform chrome-yellow, sometimes crimson, with the labellum of a yellow colour, more or less pale, and sometimes entirely crimson; scape naked, from 3in. to 8in. in length; spike capitate. July. _l._ linear-lanceolate. _h._ 8ft. Madagascar.

=A. Cardamomum= (Cardamom).* _fl._ brownish; lip three-lobed, spurred; scape compound, flexuous, procumbent. August. _h._ 8ft. East Indies, 1823.

=A. Danielli= (Daniel's). _fl._ 4in. across; outer sepals fine red; the spreading labellum whitish, tinged with rose and yellow; scape short, arising from the bottom of the stem. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, 9in. long. _h._ 2-1/2ft. Western Africa.

=A. grandiflorum= (large-flowered). _fl._ white, numerous, close; spike short. June. _l._ elliptic-lanceolate, pointed. _h._ 3ft. Sierra Leone, 1795.

=A. Granum Paradisi.=* Grains of Paradise. _fl._ white, tinged with yellow and rose. _l._ elliptic-lanceolate, long-pointed. Stems very red at base, and dull purplish-red above from the long, sheathing leafstalks. _h._ 3ft. West Africa.

=A. Melegueta= (Melegueta).* Grains of Paradise. _fl._ pale pink, solitary, with an orbicular, irregularly toothed lip. May. _l._ narrow, linear-elliptic, distichous, sessile. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Sierra Leone, 1869. Habit creeping.

=A. sceptrum= (sceptre). _fl._ bright rose purple, large, sub-erect; the most conspicuous portion is the lip, which is 2-1/2in. in diameter; flower-scapes 6in. high. January. _l._ narrow, oblong-lanceolate. _h._ 5ft. to 6ft. Old Calabar, 1863.

=A. vitellinum= (yolk-of-egg-coloured). _fl._ yellow; lip oblong, obtuse, toothed; spike oblong, sessile, rather loose. April. _l._ oval. _h._ 2ft. East Indies, 1846. Plant stemless, glabrous.

=AMORPHA= (from _a_, not, and _morphe_, form; incomplete formation of the flowers). Bastard Indigo. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A handsome genus of hardy deciduous shrubs with very graceful impari-pinnate leaves, and many pairs of leaflets, which are full of pellucid dots. Racemes spicate, elongated, usually in fascicles at the tops of the branches; corolla without wings and keel; vexillum or standard ovate, concave. They are well adapted for small shrubberies, requiring a sheltered situation, and thrive well in common garden soil. Increased by layers, or cuttings, taken off at a joint, and planted in a sheltered situation early in autumn; these should be allowed to remain undisturbed till the following autumn. Amorphas produce an abundance of suckers, from which they may be readily propagated.

=A. canescens= (hoary).* The Lead Plant. _fl._ dark blue. July. _l._, leaflets ovate-elliptic, mucronate. _h._ 3ft. Missouri, 1812. Whole plant clothed with hoary hairs.

=A. fruticosa= (shrubby).* The False Indigo. _fl._ very dark bluish purple. June. _l._, leaflets elliptic-oblong; lower ones distant from the stem. _h._ 6ft. Carolina, 1724. Shrub glabrous, or a little villous. There are several varieties, having mucronate, emarginate, or narrower leaflets, but all with purple flowers. A host of names, representing the merest forms of _A. fruticosa_, are to be found in nurserymen's catalogues. Amongst them are: _caroliniana_, _crocea_, _crocea-lanata_, _dealbata_, _fragrans_, _glabra_, _herbacea_, _nana_, _pubescens_, &c. These differ so slightly from the type and from each other, that it is impossible to distinguish them.

=AMORPHOPHALLUS= (from _amorphos_, deformed, and _phallos_, a mace; alluding to the inflorescence). SYN. _Pythion_. Including _Proteinophallus_. ORD. _Aroideæ (Araceæ)_. A very remarkable genus, closely allied to _Arum_, but distinguished therefrom by "their spreading, not convolute, spathes; by their anthers opening by pores, not by longitudinal slits; by the numerous cells to the ovary; and by the solitary, erect ovules, those of _Arum_ being horizontal." A soil consisting of two-thirds good rich loam, with the additional third of sweet manure, thoroughly rotted, suits them well. Other essentials are plenty of pot room, a genial atmosphere, and a temperature ranging from 55deg. to 65deg., or even 70deg. They require to be kept dry, and warm in winter, as nothing is more fatal to them than cold or damp. Beneath a shelf or stage in the stove is an excellent spot for them, or they may be stored in sand, and kept free from frost. They are difficult to increase; the corms of most of them are of great size, and rarely make offsets. Efforts should consequently be made to induce the plants to seed whenever practicable. All the species are strikingly effective in sub-tropical bedding. For fertilising and growth of seedlings, _see_ =Arum=.

=A. campanulatus= (bell-shaped).* Similar to _A. Rivieri_, but the flowers are brown, red, and black, and the scape is neither so stout nor so tall. _h._ 2ft. India, 1817. SYN. _Arum campanulatum_.

=A. grandis= (large). _fl._, spathe green, white inside; spadix purplish. _h._ 3ft. Java, 1865. Stove species.

=A. Lacourii= (Lacour's).* _l._ pedatisect, the ultimate segments lanceolate, yellow-spotted; petioles transversely mottled with yellow markings. Cochin China, 1879. Greenhouse. The correct name of this species is _Pseudodracontium Lacourii_.

=A. nivosus.= _See_ =Dracontium asperum=.

=A. Rivieri= (Rivier's).* _fl._, spadix, spathe, and scape, reaching 3ft. or more in height, appearing before the leaves; scape stout and strong, of a deep green colour, speckled or dotted with rose; spadix projecting, deep red; spathe of a rosy-green colour. March to May. _l._ solitary, decompound, 40in. to 50in. across, on tall marbled petioles. Cochin China. Perhaps the most useful species. SYN. _Proteinophallus Rivieri_. See Fig. 78.

[Illustration: FIG. 78. AMORPHOPHALLUS RIVIERI, Foliage and Inflorescence.]

=A. Titanum= (Titan's).* _fl._, spadix 5ft. high, black purple; spathe nearly 3ft. in diameter, campanulate in shape, with patent and deeply toothed edges. The deeper portion of the interior is pale greenish, but the limb is of a bright black purple hue; the outside is pale green, smooth in the lower portion, but thickly corrugated and crisp above; scape about 1-1/2ft. long, green, marked with small whitish orbicular spots. _l._ the divided blade covers an area of 45ft. in circumference. West Sumatra, 1878. As will be seen from the above, this extraordinary plant is of gigantic proportions, and, in size of the flowers, eclipsing nearly all others in the vegetable kingdom. SYN. _Conophallus Titanum_.

=AMORPHOUS.= Without definite form.

=AMPELOPSIS= (from _ampelos_, a vine, and _opsis_, resemblance; resembling the Grape Vine in habit, and to which it is closely allied). SYN. _Quinaria_. ORD. _Ampelideæ_. A genus nearly allied to _Vitis_. Calyx slightly five toothed; petals concave, thick, expanding before they fall; disk none. Fast growing and ornamental climbing, hardy deciduous shrubs, of very easy culture in common garden soil. Cuttings, having a good eye, may be taken in September, and pricked either under handlights in sandy soil on the open border, or in pots stood on the stage or shelf in a greenhouse; they root readily, and will be fit for transplanting early in the spring. Or cuttings made from the young soft wood, expressly grown for the purpose, in spring, root freely in gentle heat. This applies especially to _A. tricuspidata_. They are also easily increased by layers. Most of the species will thrive with equal vigour in almost any position, however exposed.

=A. aconitifolia= (Aconite-leaved).* _l._ palmisect, with pinnatifid segments. China, 1868. A slender and very elegant free-growing species, with long reddish branches. There are two or more varieties. SYNS. _A. lucida_, _A. triloba_, _A. tripartita_, and _Vitis dissecta_. See Fig. 79.

=A. bipinnata= (bipinnate). _fl._ green, small; raceme stalked, twice bifid. Berries globose. June. _l._ bipinnate, smooth; leaflets deeply lobed. _h._ 10ft. Virginia, 1700.

=A. hederacea= (Ivy-leaved). Synonymous with _A. quinquefolia_.

=A. japonica= (Japanese). Synonymous with _A. tricuspidata_.

=A. lucida= (shining). Synonymous with _A. aconitifolia_.

=A. napiformis= (turnip-like).* Greenish. China, 1870. See Fig. 80.

=A. quinquefolia= (five-leaved).* Virginian Creeper. _fl._ greenish-purple; raceme corymbose. June. _l._ palmate, with three and five leaflets, smooth on both surfaces; leaflets stalked, oblong-acuminated, mucronately toothed; autumnal tint red. North America, 1629. SYN. _A. hederacea_.

=A. q. hirsuta= (hairy). _l._ downy on both surfaces.

=A. serjaniæfolia= (Serjania-leaved).* _l._ green, palmately five-parted, or the upper ones three-parted, the intermediate division being often ternate or pinnate; leaflets obovate acute, and incisely toothed or sublobate; the rachis is articulately winged. Japan, 1867. SYNS. _A. tuberosa_, _Cissus viticifolia_. Roots tuberous; see Fig. 81.

[Illustration: FIG. 79. STEM AND LEAVES OF AMPELOPSIS ACONITIFOLIA.]

=A. tricuspidata= (three-pointed).* _l._ very variable in shape; younger ones almost entire; older ones larger, roundish-cordate, divided to the middle into three deltoid lobes, which run into little tails, and are coarsely toothed at the margin. Japan, 1868. SYNS. _A. Veitchii_, _Vitis japonica_ (of gardens).

=A. triloba= (three-lobed). A synonym of _A. aconitifolia_.

=A. tripartita= (three-parted). A synonym of _A. aconitifolia_.

=A. tuberosa= (tuberous). A synonym of _A. serjaniæfolia_.

=A. Veitchii= (Veitch's). A synonym of _A. tricuspidata_.

=AMPHIBLEMMA CYMOSUM.= _See_ =Melastoma corymbosum=.

=AMPHIBLESTRA.= Included under =Pteris= (which _see_).

=AMPHICARPÆA= (from _amphi_, both, and _karpos_, a fruit; in allusion to the two kinds of pods--those of the upper flowers being scimitar-shaped, three or four-seeded; those of the lower, pear-shaped, fleshy, usually ripening but one seed; these lower pods bury themselves in the ground after fertilisation). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A genus of ornamental annuals, with herbaceous, twining stems, and sometimes apetalous flowers, allied to _Wistaria_. The species are of easy culture. Seeds should be sown in the open border, in spring, in a sunny situation.

=A. monoica= (monœcious). Hog Pea-nut. _fl._ with a pale violet vexillum, and white keel and wings; racemes axillary, pendulous. June to August. _l._ pinnately-trifoliate; leaflets ovate, glabrous. North America. 1781.

[Illustration: FIG. 80. TUBERS AND LEAF OF AMPELOPSIS NAPIFORMIS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 81. ROOTS OF AMPELOPSIS SERJANIÆFOLIA.]

=AMPHICOME= (from _amphi_, on both sides, and _kome_, a head of hair; in reference to the seeds being furnished with a tuft of hairs at both ends). ORD. _Bignoniaceæ_. Flowers axillary or terminal. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate. Very ornamental greenhouse or half-hardy rock herbaceous plants. If planted outside, they must be protected during the winter from wet and severe frosts. A mixture of loam, sand, and leaf soil suits them well. Increased by striking the young shoots in spring in sandy soil in gentle heat; or by seed, which should be sown in early spring, in pots of sandy soil placed in a greenhouse.

=A. arguta= (finely-cut).* _fl._ red, drooping; racemes axillary, terminal; corolla tubular near the base, ventricose above. August. _l._ alternate, impari-pinnate; leaflets opposite, on short petioles, three to four pairs, lanceolate, acuminated, deeply serrated. _h._ 3ft. Himalaya, 1837.

=A. Emodi= (Emodian).* _fl._ rose and orange, erect; racemes axillary; corolla 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, bell-shaped, slightly tubular below. August to October. _l._ impari-pinnate, with numerous leaflets. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. India, at high altitudes, 1852. A very beautiful plant.

=AMPHILOPHIUM= (from _amphilophos_, crested on all sides; limb of corolla much curled). SYN. _Amphilobium_. ORD. _Bignoniaceæ_. A handsome stove evergreen climber. Corolla somewhat coriaceous, with a short tube, and a large ventricose throat. Loam and peat, well mixed, suits it best; cuttings from young shoots root readily in sand, under a hand glass, with bottom heat, during the spring months.

=A. paniculatum= (panicled).* _fl._ rose-coloured; panicle terminal, composed of three-flowered peduncles. June. _l._ joined by pairs, opposite; leaflets ovate-roundish, acuminated, sub-cordate. West Indies, 1738.

=AMPLEXICAULIS.= Embracing the stem; usually applied to leaves.

=AMPULLACEOUS.= Resembling a bladder or flask.

=AMSONIA= (in honour of Charles Amson, a scientific traveller in America). ORD. _Apocynaceæ_. Very pretty hardy, herbaceous perennials, with alternate leaves, and terminal panicles of pale blue flowers; corolla with linear lobes, and a narrow funnel-shaped tube. They thrive in half shady positions in borders, or the edges of shrubberies, where they will not need to be frequently transplanted. Propagated by cuttings during the summer months, or by divisions of the roots in spring.

=A. latifolia= (broad-leaved). Synonymous with _A. Tabernæmontana_.

[Illustration: FIG. 82. AMSONIA SALICIFOLIA, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. salicifolia= (willow-leaved).* _fl._ light blue, in terminal corymbose cymes; corolla small, funnel-shaped, with a rounded tube; throat whitish, bearded. Summer. _l._ lanceolate, smooth, acute. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2-1/2ft. North America, 1812. Habit less erect than the following species. See Fig. 82.

=A. Tabernæmontana= (Tabernæmontanus).* _fl._ pale blue, in cymes; petals lanceolate, acute, slightly hairy on the outside; sepals also lanceolate, acute. Summer. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, acute, shortly stalked. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2-1/2ft. North America, 1759. SYNS. _A. latifolia_, _Tabernæmontana Amsonia_.

=AMYGDALUS= (from _amysso_, to lacerate; fissured channels in the stone of the fruit). Almond. ORD. _Rosaceæ_. TRIBE _Drupaceæ_. Well known, ornamental, deciduous spring flowering shrubs. Drupe clothed with velvety pubescence, with a fibrous dry rind, separating irregularly, having the stone of the fruit pitted or smooth. The larger-growing species are very excellent for shrubberies, or as specimen trees; being in blossom before most other trees, they make a fine appearance in early spring. The dwarfer kinds are also well fitted for small shrubberies or the fronts of large ones. For greenhouse culture they should be obtained in a small pyramidal shape; they are not, however, suited to a small house, as the plants, to bloom well and be effective, ought to be at least 2ft. or 3ft. high, and proportionately wide. Plenty of root room is essential. After potting, water thoroughly, and place the trees in an orchard house for a few weeks, when they may be removed to their permanent station. A temperature of about 50deg. or 55deg. is sufficient to hasten the flowering; a higher temperature is apt to frustrate the object in view. After flowering, gradually harden off the plants until about the end of May, when they may be plunged out of doors for the season. Repotting should be done as soon as the leaves fall. Increased by budding upon seedling plum-stocks in summer. The Almond is grown on the Continent for its fruit. _See also_ =Prunus=.

=A. argentea= (silvery). A synonym of _A. orientalis_.

=A. Besseriana= (Besser's). A synonym of _A. nana_.

=A. cochinchinensis= (Cochin China). _fl._ white; racemes small, sub-terminal. _fr._ ovate, ventricose, acute at the apex. March. _l._ oval, quite entire. _h._ 30ft. to 40ft. Cochin China, 1825. Greenhouse.

[Illustration: FIG. 83. FLOWERING BRANCH OF AMYGDALUS COMMUNIS.]

=A. communis= (common).* Common Almond. _fl._ white or rose coloured, solitary. March. _fr._ compressed, egg-shaped, tomentose. _l._ oblong lanceolate, serrulated. _h._ 10ft. to 30ft. Barbary, 1548. See Fig. 83.

=A. c. amara= (bitter).* Bitter Almond. _fl._ larger, white, but rose coloured at the base. April. Seeds bitter.

=A. c. dulcis= (sweet). Sweet Almond. _fl._ red, earlier; fruit ovate, compressed, acuminated. Seeds sweet. _l._ of a greyish green colour.

=A. c. flore-pleno= (double-blossomed).* _fl._ flesh colour, full double, rosy in the bud. _l._ oval-elliptic, acuminate.

=A. c. fragilis= (brittle). _fl._ pale rose coloured, rising with the leaves; petals broader, deeply emarginate. _l._ shorter than those of the type.

=A. c. macrocarpa= (large-fruited).* _fl._ whitish rose colour, large, rising before the leaves, with broadly obcordate undulated petals. _fr._ larger than that of the type, umbilicate at the base, but acuminated at the apex. _l._ broader than the type, acuminated. There are also numerous other varieties.

=A. incana= (hoary).* _fl._ red, solitary. April. Drupe compressed, pubescent. _l._ obovate, serrated, clothed with white tomentum beneath. _h._ 2ft. A handsome dwarf shrub. Caucasus, 1815.

=A. nana= (dwarf).* _fl._ rose coloured, solitary. March. _fr._ of the same form as that of _A. communis_, but much smaller. _l._ oblong-linear, attenuated at the base, serrated, quite glabrous. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Tartary, 1683. SYN. _A. Besseriana_.

=A. orientalis= (Oriental). _fl._ rose coloured. March. _fr._ mucronate. _l._ lanceolate, quite entire, almost permanent, clothed with silvery tomentum, as well as the branches. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Levant, 1756. SYN. _A. argentea_.

=AMYLACEOUS.= Starch-like.

=AMYRIDACEÆ.= _See_ =Burseraceæ=.

=AMYRIS= (from _a_, intensive, and _myron_, balm; the whole of the trees in this genus smell strongly of balm or myrrh). ORD. _Burseraceæ_. Ornamental stove evergreen trees, abounding in a resinous fluid. Flowers white, disposed in panicles. Leaves unequally pinnate. They thrive well in a mixture of loam and peat; and cuttings root freely in sand, under a hand glass with bottom heat, during the spring months.

=A. balsamifera= (balsam-bearing). Synonymous with _A. toxifera_.

=A. braziliensis= (Brazilian).* _fl._ white; panicles axillary, shorter than the leaves. August. _l._ with one to three pairs of opposite leaflets; leaflets lanceolate, tapering to the base, rounded at the apex, mucronate, quite entire, veiny, shining above, discoloured beneath. _h._ 20ft. Brazil, 1823.

=A. heptaphylla= (seven-leaved). _fl._ whitish yellow; panicles branched, axillary, and terminal. _l._ with three to four pairs of alternate, simple leaflets, which are stalked, obliquely-lanceolate, acuminated, entire. _h._ 16ft. India, 1823.

=A. Plumieri= (Plumier's).* Gum Elemi Tree. _fl._ white; panicles branched, terminal. The fruit of this species is the shape and size of an olive, but red, having an odoriferous pulp within it. _l._ leaflets three to five, all stalked, somewhat serrated, ovate, acuminate, villous beneath. _h._ 20ft. West Indies, 1820.

=A. toxifera= (poison-bearing).* _fl._ white; racemes simple, about the length of the petioles. _fr._ the shape of a pear, and of a purple colour, hanging in bunches. _l._, leaflets five to seven, stalked, ovate, somewhat cordate, acuminated. _h._ 50ft. West Indies, 1818. The wood, known as Rhodes Wood, bears a fine polish, and has a pleasant smell. SYN. _A. balsamifera_.

=ANACAMPSEROS= (from _anakampto_, to cause return, and _eros_, love). SYN. _Rulingia_. ORD. _Portulacaceæ_. Very dwarf greenhouse succulent herbs or sub-shrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers large, expanding only in the heat of the sun; petals five, very fugacious; sepals five, opposite, oblong, rather concrete at the base; pedicels one-flowered, short or elongated, disposed in racemes. Leaves ovate, fleshy. They grow freely in sandy loam, mixed with some lime rubbish; but little water is needed. Cuttings root freely if laid to dry a few days before planting. Leaves taken off close to the plants, and also left to dry for a short time before being planted, will take root. Seed, when obtainable, should be sown in the spring.

=A. arachnoides= (cobwebbed).* _fl._ white; petals lanceolate; racemes simple. July. _l._ ovate, acuminated, difformed, green, shining, cobwebbed. _h._ 6in. to 9in. 1790.

=A. filamentosa= (thready). _fl._ reddish, or deep rose coloured; petals oblong. August. _l._ ovate-globose, gibbous on both sides, and cobwebbed, rather rugged above. _h._ 6in. to 1ft. 1795.

=A. intermedia= (intermediate). Very like _A. filamentosa_, but has broader and more numerous leaves.

=A. rubens= (reddish).* _fl._ red; racemes simple. July. _l._ ovate, difformed, shining, dark green, somewhat reflexed at the apex. _h._ 6in. to 9in. 1796.

=A. rufescens= (rusty-coloured). _fl._ reddish, similarly disposed to _A. varians_. July. _l._ crowded, expanded and recurved, ovate, acute, thick, green, usually dark purple beneath. _h._ 6in. 1818.

=A. Telephiastrum= (Telephium-like). Synonymous with _A. varians_.

=A. varians= (varying).* _fl._ reddish; racemes few-flowered, sub-panicled. July. _l._ ovate, difformed, glabrous. _h._ 3in. 1813. SYN. _A. Telephiastrum_.

=ANACAMPTIS.= _See_ =Orchis=.

=ANACARDIACEÆ.= A rather large order of trees or shrubs, with a resinous, milky juice. Flowers inconspicuous. Leaves generally dotless. Ovary containing a single ovule. This order contains, among other genera, _Anacardium_, _Mangifera_, and _Rhus_.

=ANACARDIUM= (origin doubtful; probably from _ana_, like, and _kardia_, the heart; in reference to the form of the nut). ORD. _Anacardiaceæ_. An ornamental stove evergreen tree with entire, feather-nerved leaves and terminal panicles of flowers; nut reniform, umbilicated, seated laterally on a fleshy, wide, pear-shaped peduncle. It requires a light loamy soil. Ripened cuttings, with their leaves left on, root freely in sand under a hand glass, in heat.

=A. occidentale= (Western). Cashew Nut. _fl._ reddish, small, very sweet scented, succeeded by an edible pome-like fruit of a yellow or red colour. _l._ oval, cuneated, very blunt, somewhat emarginate, obovate-oblong, entire, smooth. _h._ 16ft. West Indies, 1699.

=ANADENIA.= _See_ =Grevillea=.

=ANAGALLIS= (from _anagelas_, to laugh; removing despondency: meaning doubtful). Pimpernel. ORD. _Primulaceæ_. Annual or perennial trailers with angular stems, opposite or verticillate leaves, and solitary pedunculate flowers; corolla rotate or funnel-shaped, deeply five-cleft. All are very pretty and free flowering plants, of easy culture. The annuals are raised from seed sown in a sunny spot in spring; the perennials are increased by striking cuttings of the young shoots, or division, at any time, either under a hand glass or in a close frame. Keep in the shade until well established, and gradually harden off. Plant outside in light rich soil for summer flowering, and each year secure a stock in frames during the winter. They require, if left out of doors, a protection during the winter, except _A. tenella_.

=A. fruticosa= (shrubby).* _fl._ axillary, large, vermilion, with a dark throat. May to August. _l._ verticillate, four in each whorl. _h._ 2ft. Morocco, 1803. A biennial.

=A. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl._ very variable, but intense blue and deep vermilion red are predominant. May to autumn. _h._ 4in. Habit very compact and neat, and very floriferous. There are several varieties. Annual.

=A. indica= (Indian). _fl._ deep blue, small. July. _h._ 1ft. Nepaul, 1824. Annual; trailing.

[Illustration: FIG. 84. ANAGALLIS LINIFOLIA, showing Habit and Flowers.]

=A. linifolia= (flax-leaved).* _fl._ brilliant blue, large, about 1/2in. in diameter. July. _l._ opposite. _h._ 9in. to 12in. Portugal, 1796. Perennial. There are many varieties, the best of which are the following. SYN. _A. Monelli_. See Fig. 84.

=A. l. Brewerii= (Brewer's).* _fl._ red. June. _h._ 9in. Known also as _Phillipsii_.

=A. l. Eugenie= (Eugenie's).* _fl._ blue, margined with white.

=A. l. lilacina= (lilac-flowered). _fl._ lilac. May. _h._ 1ft.

=A. l. Napoleon III.= (Napoleon's).* _fl._ crimson maroon, distinct and pretty.

=A. l. Parksii= (Parks'). _fl._ red, large.

=A. l. phœnicea= (Phœnician).* _fl._ scarlet. May. Morocco, 1803.

=A. l. sanguinea= (bloody). _fl._ bright ruby colour.

=A. l. Wilmoreana= (Wilmore's).* _fl._ bright blue purple, with yellow eye. _h._ 6in.

=A. Monelli= (Monell's). A synonym of _A. linifolia_.

=A. tenella= (delicate).* _fl._ delicate pink, with deeper veins; corolla bell-shaped. Summer. _l._ roundish, very small, opposite. A beautiful little native bog trailer, and one of the prettiest in the whole genus. Requires a boggy and wet soil.

=A. Webbiana= (Webb's). _fl._ blue; petals with their tops slightly denticulated. June to August. _l._ several, verticillate. _h._ 4in. Portugal, 1828.

=ANAGYRIS= (from _ana_, backwards, and _gyros_, a circle; the pods are curved backwards at their extremities). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. An ornamental greenhouse or half-hardy shrub, having the two stipules placed opposite the leaves. It thrives in a mixture of loam, sand, and peat in equal proportions. Young cuttings should be planted in July in a pot of sand, and placed under a hand glass.

=A. fœtida= (fœtid). _fl._ yellow, hairy, like those of the Laburnum; racemes short. May. _l._ trifoliate; leaflets lanceolate, acute, entire. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. South Europe, 1750. This shrub is fœtid in every part when bruised.

=ANALOGY.= Resembling a thing in form but not in function; or _vice versâ_. Corresponding with a thing in many points, but differing in more, or in points of more importance.

=ANANAS= (from _nanas_, the South American name for the Pine Apple). SYN. _Ananassa_. Pine Apple. ORD. _Bromeliaceæ_. Stove herbaceous perennials, having the berries collected with the bracts into a compound fruit. Leaves rigid; edges spiny. The variegated form is a useful plant for decorative purposes, and may be employed without the usual harmful consequences attending stove plants generally, but it must not be subjected to cold draughts. The soil should consist of two parts fibrous loam, one of peat, one of dung and leaf mould, and another of sand. Those propagated from suckers, which should be laid by a day or two and then inserted in a strong heat, have, as a rule, longer and lighter-coloured leaves. Offsets are often produced at the base of the fruit, and make stout plants, with high-coloured foliage. When the plants are potted in spring, plunge them in bottom heat, to hasten their growth; but this is not absolutely necessary. Should it be desired to fruit the variegated form, the plants may be submitted to the same process of culture as detailed under =Pine Apple= (which _see_).

=A. bracamorensis= (Bracamora). Brazil, 1879.

=A. bracteata= (bracted). _fl._ crimson. April. _h._ 3ft. Brazil, 1820.

=A. lucida= (shining). _fl._ pink. April. _h._ 3ft. South America, 1820.

=A. macrodonta= (large-toothed).* _fl._ reddish, tinted buff; spike elongate-ovoid, with imbricating dentate bracts. _fr._ conical, about 8in. long and 4in. wide, with conspicuous bracts, and highly perfumed. _l._ with conspicuous teeth. 1878. SYN. _Bromelia undulata_.

=A. Mordilona= (Mordilona; native name). _fr._ large, with a fine aroma. _l._ distinguished in being without spines. Columbia, 1869.

=A. Porteana= (Porter's).* _l._ armed on the margins with sharp spines, deep olive green, with a broad band of pale yellow running down the centre from base to apex. This species has a somewhat erect habit of growth. Philippines, 1866.

=A. sativa= (cultivated). Pine Apple. For culture, _see_ =Pine Apple=.

=A. s. variegata= (variegated).* _l._ rosulate, finely arched, 2ft. or 3ft. long, serrated on the edges; centre bright green, sometimes with a few lines of white, broadly margined with rich creamy-yellow, tinged with red towards the margins. A very elegant variegated plant for vases, &c.

=ANANASSA.= _See_ =Ananas=.

=ANANTHERIX= (from _a_, without, and _antherix_, an awn; there are no horn-formed processes from the base of the leaflets of the corona, as in _Asclepias_, to which it is closely allied). ORD. _Asclepiadeæ_. A small genus of pretty, hardy herbs. _A. viridis_ is of easy culture in an open situation, and light soil. Increased by division of the root; or by seeds, which ripen in abundance.

=A. viridis= (green). _fl._ purplish-green, large; corolla sub-campanulate, five-cleft; umbels proceeding from the stem, sub-panicled, few-flowered. August. _l._ opposite, sessile, obovate-oblong, pointed, smoothish. _h._ 1ft. North America, 1812.

=ANAPELTIS.= Included under _Polypodium_.

=ANARRHINUM= (from _a_, without, and _rhin_, a snout; the corolla being without a spur, or furnished with a very short one). ORD. _Scrophularineæ_. Elegant little half-hardy biennials or perennials allied to _Antirrhinum_. Flowers small, drooping, in long spike-formed, twiggy, and interrupted racemes. Radical leaves usually in a rosette; stem and branch leaves palmate-parted, or toothed at the apex; superior ones quite entire. They are of easy culture in ordinary garden soil; seed may be sown outside in spring, or they can be increased by growing cuttings, but they require protection during severe weather.

=A. bellidifolium= (Daisy-leaved).* _fl._ white, or pale blue; racemes slender, elongated. June. _l._ radical ones spathulate or obovate-lanceolate, deeply toothed; branch leaves deeply three to seven-parted. _h._ 2ft. South Europe, 1629.

=A. Duriminium= (Douro). A synonym of _A. hirsutum_.

=A. fruticosum= (shrubby). _fl._ white, without a spur. July. _l._ lower ones mostly tridentate at the apex; superior ones oblong, quite entire. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. South Europe, 1826. Shrubby.

=A. hirsutum= (hairy). _fl._ whitish, a little larger than those of _A. bellidifolium_, of which it is, perhaps, only a downy variety. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Portugal, 1818. SYN. _A. Duriminium_.

[Illustration: FIG. 85. DRY FRUITING PLANT OF ANASTATICA HIEROCHUNTINA.]

=ANASTATICA= (from _anastasis_, resurrection; plant recovering its original form, however dry it may be, on immersion in water). ORD. _Cruciferæ_. A very curious and interesting little annual, the leaves of which fall off from the plant after flowering, the branches and branchlets then become dry, hard, and ligneous, and rise upwards and bend inwards at their points. This plant has the remarkable property of resuming vitality on being placed in water, after being kept in a dry state for many years. Seeds should be sown in heat, in the spring, and the plants afterwards potted off and plunged again in heat to hasten their growth, which cannot otherwise be fully developed with our precarious and sunless summers.

[Illustration: FIG. 86. ANASTATICA HIEROCHUNTINA.]

=A. Hierochuntina.= Rose of Jericho. _fl._ small, white, sessile, disposed in spikes along the branches; petals obovate. July. _fr._, or silicle, ventricose, with the valves bearing each an appendage on the outer side at the end. _l._ obovate, with stellate hairs; lower ones entire, upper ones slightly toothed. Branches crowded lattice-wise into a globular form. _h._ 6in. Syria, &c., 1597. Supposed by some commentators to be the "_rolling thing_ before the whirlwind" mentioned by Isaiah. See Figs. 85 and 86.

=ANASTOMOSE.= Branching of one vein into another.

=ANBURY.= _See_ =Ambury=.

=ANCEPS.= Two-edged; as the stem of an Iris.

=ANCHIETEA= (named in honour of P. Anchietea, a celebrated Brazilian writer on plants). SYNS. _Lucinæa_, _Noisettia_. ORD. _Violarieæ_. An ornamental, stove, evergreen climber. Petals five, very unequal, two upper ones smallest, two intermediate ones longer, lowest one largest, with a spur at the base. The species thrives in a mixture of loam, sand, and peat. Young cuttings root freely under a bell glass if planted in sand, and placed in a moderate heat.

=A. pyrifolia= (pear-leaved). _fl._ whitish, veined with red at the base, in axillary fascicles; lower petal obovate. July. _l._ alternate, stalked, stipulate, ovate, acute, crenated. Brazil, 1826.

=ANCHOMANES= (name of doubtful origin). ORD. _Aroideæ_. A remarkable and beautiful stove tuberous-rooted perennial aroid, allied to _Amorphophallus_, and requiring somewhat similar treatment. As soon as the leaves die down, the plants should be repotted in rich sandy loam and leaf mould, with ample drainage. They will need scarce any water or attention until growth commences the following spring, when they must have an abundance of water, and a moist atmosphere. Summer temperature, 60deg. to 85deg.; winter, 55deg. to 60deg. Propagated by seeds and offsets.

=A. Hookeri= (Hooker's).* _fl._, spathe pale purple, appearing before the leaf, much expanded; spadix whitish; scape prickly, shorter than the petiole. June. _l._, petiole slender, prickly, bearing on its summit the horizontal blade, about 3ft. in diameter; this is divided into three primary divisions, which are again cut up into several leaflets, the largest of these being toothed. _h._ 3ft. Fernando Po, 1832. There is a variety with a paler coloured spathe. SYN. _Caladium petiolatum_.

=ANCHOVY PEAR.= _See_ =Grias cauliflora=.

[Illustration: FIG. 87. ANCHUSA CAPENSIS, showing Flower and Habit.]

=ANCHUSA= (from _anchousa_, paint for the skin; use of some species). ORD. _Boraginaceæ_. Very pretty hardy annuals, biennials, or perennials. Flowers in scorpoid racemes; corolla funnel-shaped; throat closed by erect, obtuse processes; nuts four, one-celled, inversely conical, with a contraction towards the point, fixed to the bottom of the calyx, perforated and concave at the base. Of easy culture, in ordinary soils, and preferring a sunny situation. Propagated by seeds, which should be sown in early spring in pots of sandy soil, when most of them will germinate in three or four weeks, some less. The honey-bee is very partial to this genus.

=A. Agardhii= (Agardh's). _fl._ purple, on short pedicels, distant, disposed in terminal racemes, which are generally conjugate. July. _l._ linear-lanceolate, tubercled, strigose. _h._ 1ft. Siberia, 1820. Perennial. Rare.

=A. azurea= (blue). Synonymous with _A. italica_.

=A. Barrelieri= (Barrelier's). _fl._ blue, with a white tube and yellow throat; racemes conjugate, panicled, bracteate. May. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, denticulated, hispid. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. South Europe, 1820. Perennial. SYNS. _Buglossum Barrelieri_, _Myosotis obtusum_.

=A. capensis= (Cape).* _fl._ blue; racemes terminal, panicled. July. _l._ linear lanceolate, hispid. Stem simple, hairy. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1800. Requires greenhouse protection in winter. Biennial. See Fig. 87.

[Illustration: FIG. 88. INFLORESCENCE OF ANCHUSA ITALICA.]

=A. italica= (Italian). _fl._ bright blue or purple, in panicled racemes. Summer. _l._ lanceolate, entire, shining; radical ones sometimes 2ft. long. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Caucasus, &c., 1810. One of the best. SYNS. _A. azurea_, _A. paniculata_. See Fig. 88.

=A. latifolia= (broad-leaved). Synonymous with _Nonnea rosea_.

=A. myosotidiflora= (Myosotideum-flowered). _fl._ fine blue; throat yellow; raceme terminal, panicled, bractless. July. _l._ large, radical ones on long petioles, reniformly cordate; those of the stem sessile, ovate, hairy. _h._ 1ft. Siberia, 1825. A pretty plant. SYN. _Myosotis macrophylla_.

=A. officinalis= (officinal). _fl._ blue or purple, sessile, imbricate; spikes joined by pairs, terminal. June to October. _l._ lanceolate, hispid; radical ones tufted. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Britain, naturalised here and there.

=A. o. incarnata= is a variety with flesh coloured flowers.

=A. paniculata= (panicled). Synonymous with _A. italica_.

=A. sempervirens= (evergreen). _fl._ rich blue, in short axillary spikes, generally leafy at the base. May. _l._ broadly ovate, lower ones upon long stalks. Stem erect. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Perennial; here and there naturalised in Britain. See Fig. 89.

=A. tinctoria= (dyers'). Alkanet. _fl._ deep blue; tube blood-colour; racemes usually twin, terminal, many-flowered. June. _l._ oblong, hispid. _h._ 6in. South Europe, 1596. A diffuse perennial.

=ANCYCLOGYNE.= A synonym of =Sanchezia= (which _see_).

=ANDERSONIA= (in honour of Messrs. Anderson, surgeons, great promoters of botany). ORD. _Epacridaceæ_. Elegant and delicate little greenhouse shrubs. Flowers terminal, solitary, or spicate; corolla sub-campanulate, hypocrateriform, five-lobed. The undermentioned, which is the only species yet introduced, grows freely in a sandy peat with perfect drainage, which latter is most essential. Cuttings from the tips of young shoots may be made in autumn, winter, or spring, and planted in sand in a gentle heat, with a bell glass placed over them.

=A. sprengelioides= (Sprengelia-like).* _fl._ pink, furnished with two small bracteas, spicate. March. _l._ spreading, bases curved inwards, so as to resemble a hood, ending in a flat point. _h._ 1ft. to 3ft. New Holland, 1803. Evergreen squarrose shrub. SYN. _Sprengelia Andersoni_.

=ANDIRA= (its Brazilian name). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Large ornamental stove evergreen trees, nearly allied to =Geoffroya= (which _see_ for cultivation). Flowers in axillary or terminal panicles. Pod drupaceous. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate.

=A. inermis= (unarmed). _fl._ purple, on short pedicels; panicles terminal. _l._ impari-pinnate; leaflets thirteen to fifteen, ovate-lanceolate, acute, glabrous on both surfaces. _h._ 20ft. to 30ft. Jamaica, 1773. Known as the Cabbage Tree.

=A. racemosa= (branchy). _fl._ purple, in panicled racemes. _l._ impari-pinnate; leaflets thirteen, ovate-oblong, acuminated, glabrous on both surfaces. _h._ 20ft. to 60ft. Brazil, 1818.

[Illustration: FIG. 89. ANCHUSA SEMPERVIRENS.]

=ANDROCYMBIUM= (from _aner_, a man, and _cymbos_, a cavity; the stamens are enclosed in a hollow formed by the folding of the limb of the petals). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. A peculiar greenhouse bulbous plant, requiring a light sandy soil, dry atmosphere, no shade, and a season of rest; during the latter period, scarcely any water is required. Propagated by seeds and offsets.

=A. punctatum= (dotted). _fl._ whitish, few, in a dense sessile umbel, surrounded by about four spreading lanceolate, acuminate leaves, which are 5in. to 6in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad above the base, channelled down the centre from base to tip. South Africa, 1874.

=ANDRœCIUM.= The male organ of the flower.

=ANDROGYNOUS.= Producing male and female flowers on the same spike.

=ANDROLEPIS= (from _aner_, a man, and _lepis_, a scale; referring to the scaly stamens). ORD. _Bromeliaceæ_. Stove evergreen epiphyte. For culture, _see_ =Æchmea=.

=A. Skinneri= (Skinner's). _fl._ white. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Guatemala, 1850. SYN. _Billbergia Skinneri_.

=ANDROMEDA= (named after the daughter of Cepheus, who was rescued from the sea monster by Perseus). ORD. _Ericaceæ_. A dwarf, hardy shrub, found in peaty bogs in the temperate and Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Sow seeds as soon as ripe in pots or pans, very thinly, in sandy peat soil, and place in a cool frame, giving plenty of air. Place the young plants out in spring. Layers, pegged carefully down during September, will generally take twelve months to make sufficient roots to allow of their being separated, and thus become independent plants. For other species often included under this genus in catalogues, _see_ =Cassandra=, =Cassiope=, =Leucothoë=, =Lyonia=, =Oxydendrum=, =Pieris=, and =Zenobia=.

=A. polifolia= (Polium-leaved). Wild Rosemary. _fl._ pinky white, drooping, sometimes tipped with red; corolla ovate, furnished with ovate, rather leafy imbricated bracteas, terminal, umbellate. June. _l._ linear-lanceolate, mucronulate, with the margins more or less revolute, quite entire, glaucous beneath, with an elevated rib, and reticulated veins. _h._ 1ft. The numerous varieties of this very beautiful native shrub principally differ in the colouring of the flowers.

=ANDROPOGON= (from _aner_, a man, and _pogon_, a beard; tufts of hair on flowers). ORD. _Gramineæ_. A large genus of grasses with polygamous flowers. The majority of species are of no horticultural value; several, however, are very ornamental subjects, and thrive well in a rich, deep soil. Easily propagated by seeds or by division of the roots. The South European kinds succeed in the open air if planted in a warm dry border.

=A. citratum= (Citrus-leaved). Synonymous with _A. Schœnanthus_.

=A. Schœnanthus.= Lemon Grass. _fl._ in threes; spikes imbricate, conjugate, panicled. A handsome species, the leaves of which emit a very fragrant odour when bruised. _h._ 2ft. India, 1786. Stove species. SYN. _A. citratum_.

Other species worth growing are _furcatus_, _halepensis_, _muricatus_, _pubescens_, _scoparius_, _squarrosus_, and _strictus_.

=ANDROSACE= (from _aner_, a man, and _sakos_, buckler; in reference to the resemblance of the anther to an ancient buckler). Including _Aretia_. ORD. _Primulaceæ_. Dwarf annuals or perennials, entirely alpine, agreeing in most characters with _Primula_, but having the tube of the corolla narrowed at the mouth. An airy, well-drained, and partially sunny position is essential in their culture. They thrive well between fissures of rocks or stones with a rich sandy peat soil. Drought and a sour soil are alike fatal, and both will be greatly obviated if small pieces of sandstone are mixed with the soil. The woolly species are best arranged beneath a jutting ledge of the rockery, which will afford them protection from the hottest sunshine, and from excessive wet in winter; additional comfort will be provided from the latter ill if a piece of glass is placed over them during the autumn and winter months. They can also be well grown, and make charming little specimens, in pots, with rich sandy soil and thorough drainage. Sprinkle sand among the small rosettes of leaves. They are increased by divisions, cuttings, or seed; the latter should be sown as early as possible, and raised in a frame.

=A. alpina= (alpine). _fl._ purplish rose; throat and tube yellow, solitary; peduncles about 1/2in. long. June. _l._ crowded, small, tongue-shaped, in small rosettes. _h._ 2in. to 3in. Switzerland, 1775. This species requires a rather shady aspect, and to be planted almost perpendicularly in a soil composed of leaf mould, peat, fibrous loam, and sharp sand. SYN. _A. glacialis_.

=A. Aretia= (Aretius'). Synonymous with _A. helvetica_.

=A. aretioides= (Aretia-like). Synonymous with _A. obtusifolia_.

=A. argentea= (silvery).* _fl._ white, sessile, very numerous. June. _l._ densely imbricated, lanceolate, oblong, covered with short hairs, forming very pretty silvery-grey rosettes. _h._ about 2in. Switzerland, 1826. This requires a well drained, sunny fissure. SYN. _A. imbricata_.

=A. carnea= (flesh-coloured).* _fl._ pink or rose, with a yellow eye, three to seven, on hairy stalked umbels. July. _l._ awl-shaped, smooth, acuminated, not forming rosettes. Stem somewhat elongated. _h._ 3in. or 4in. Switzerland, 1768. This forms charming little cushions if allowed to remain undisturbed; it is easily increased. SYNS. _A. Lachenalii_, _A. puberula_.

=A. c. eximia= (select).* Larger and more robust than the typical species, and a more rapid grower. Forms compact tufts of dense rosettes, bearing heads of rosy-crimson yellow-eyed flowers, on stems 2in. or 3in. high. Auvergne Alps, 1871. It requires moist sunny ledges and fissures of rockwork in peat, loam, and sand.

=A. Chamæjasme= (rock jasmine).* _fl._ blush, ultimately deep pink, with a yellow eye, umbellate. June. _l._ lanceolate, tapering to a point towards the base, in comparatively large, not dense, rosettes. _h._ about 2in. to 4in. Austria, &c., 1768. A very free flowering species, growing freely when established, ultimately forming large tufts. It thrives best in a deep, well drained and rich loam soil.

=A. ciliata= (ciliated). _fl._ deep carmine red, on stems double as long as the leaves. June. _l._ lanceolate-oblong, smooth on both surfaces, with ciliated margins, imbricated. _h._ 2in. to 3in., forming dense cushions. Pyrenees.

=A. coronopifolia= (buckhorn-leaved).* _fl._ pure white, on slender pedicels, umbellate on peduncles, about 6in. high. April to June. _l._ lanceolate, distantly serrated, smooth, in flattish rosettes. Russia, 1755. This is a charming little biennial, well worthy of a place on the rockery. A colony of it is extremely pretty; it seeds freely, and a batch of young plants almost invariably takes the place of the old ones. SYN. _A. septentrionalis_.

=A. glacialis= (glacial). Synonymous with _A. alpina_.

=A. helvetica= (Swiss).* _fl._ white, nearly sessile, with a yellow eye, larger than the little rosettes of leaves on the stalk from which they spring. May. _l._ lanceolate, obtuse, closely imbricated, small, ciliated. _h._ 1in., forming dense cushions. Switzerland, 1775. A rare little gem, requiring a partially shaded position, and very sandy soil. SYN. _A. Aretia_.

=A. imbricata= (imbricated). Synonymous with _A. argentea_.

=A. Lachenalii= (Lachenal's). Synonymous with _A. carnea_.

=A. lactea= (milk-white).* _fl._ pure white, with yellow throat, large, on long graceful stalks, umbellate. June. _l._ linear, or nearly so, in rosettes, sometimes scattered on the elongated branches. _h._ about 4in. Austria, 1752. Very floriferous and strong growing. Should have an eastern or western aspect, and be propagated from seeds. SYN. _A. pauciflora_.

[Illustration: FIG. 90. ANDROSACE LAGGERI.]

=A. Laggeri= (Lagger's).* _fl._ pink, sessile; when approaching maturity the stem becomes elongated, and bears a tuft of stalked flowers. March. _l._ awl-shaped, sharply pointed, in tiny rosettes. _h._ 3in. Pyrenees, &c., 1879. Very like _A. carnea_, but more delicate, earlier, and more abundant flowering, with deeper green foliage. It suffers from exposure to the sun, and therefore requires a partially shady position. Should be propagated from seeds or cuttings, which latter strike freely. See Fig. 90.

=A. lanuginosa= (woolly-leaved).* _fl._ delicate rose, with a small yellow eye, umbellate. June to October. _l._ nearly 1in. long, clothed with shiny silken hairs. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Himalaya, 1842. A very beautiful species, with spreading or trailing shoots, easily multiplied by cuttings or layers. It requires a warm sunny spot on the rockery, with a sandy peat soil. When planted so that its shoots drape the face of a rocky ledge, it is one of the most charming plants possible to grow.

A. obtusifolia (blunt-leaved). _fl._ white or rose, with yellow eye; umbels five or six-flowered. Spring. _l._ lanceolate or rather spathulate, in rather large rosettes. Stems downy. _h._ 2in. to 6in. European Alps. A very pretty form, closely allied to _A. Chamæjasme_, and differing principally in its somewhat larger rosette of leaves and stronger growth. SYN. _A. aretioides_.

=A. pauciflora= (few-flowered). Synonymous with _A. lactea_.

=A. penicillata= (finely hairy). Synonymous with _A. villosa_.

=A. puberula= (puberulous). Synonymous with _A. carnea_.

=A. pubescens= (downy). _fl._ white, with a faint yellow eye, solitary, at the ends of the branchlets, very numerous. June. _l._ oblong-ovate, ciliated, in a crowded rosette. Stem with a small swelling close to the flower. _h._ 2in. Alps, 1869. Treat like _A. Chamæjasme_.

=A. pyrenaica= (Pyrenean). _fl._ white, with yellowish eyes, on a scape about 1/4in high. Summer. _l._ narrow-oblong, ciliated, recurved, keeled at the back. _h._ 1in. Pyrenees. An exceedingly pretty and diminutive little alpine plant, grown, according to Mr. Robinson, "to great perfection in fissures between large rocks, with, however, deep rifts of sandy peat and loam in them. It will also grow on a level exposed spot, but in such a position should be surrounded by half-buried stones."

=A. sarmentosa= (trailing).* _fl._ bright rose, with a white eye, in umbels of ten to twenty, on an erect scape. May and June. _l._ very silvery, forming dense rosettes, whence spring a number of runners, bearing at their extremities other tufts, which should be pegged down and covered with soil, when they will root freely. Himalayas, 1876. It requires rich sandy loam, a sunny position, and to be wedged between pieces of sandstone. Cover the rosettes during winter with a sheet of glass. See Fig. 91.

=A. septentrionalis= (northern). Synonymous with _A. coronopifolia_.

=A. villosa= (hairy).* _fl._ rose or blush, with a deeper coloured eye, and a honey-like perfume, umbellate. May. _l._ narrow, oblong, covered with soft white down, chiefly on the under surface, in compact tufts. _h._ 2in. to 4in. Pyrenees, &c., 1790. When well grown, the flowers are produced in great abundance, almost covering the green cushions. Plant in a sunny fissure of the rockery, in sandy loam and leaf soil. SYN. _A. penicillata_.

[Illustration: FIG. 91. ANDROSACE SARMENTOSA, showing Habit, and the two kinds of Leaves, &c.]

=A. Vitaliana= (Vital's).* _fl._ rich yellow, comparatively large; tube inflated at the middle, almost nestling among the leaves. May to July. _l._ linear, acute, greyish. Stems numerous. _h._ 1in. to 2in. Pyrenees, &c., 1787. When well grown, it produces flowers in abundance, and is the only species in cultivation having yellow flowers. A well-drained, sunny pocket is desirable, with a calcareous soil, covering the surface with nodules of sandstone. SYN. _Gregoria Vitaliana_.

=A. Wulfeniana= (Wulfen's).* _fl._ rosy or crimson, large. Summer. _l._ oval, acuminated, in dense rosettes. _h._ 2in. Styria. A very rare species in cultivation in this country.

=ANDROSÆMUM.= _See_ =Hypericum=.

=ANDROSTEPHIUM= (from _aner_, a man, and _stephos_, a crown; some of the stamens are barren and petaloid, forming a corona). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. A very pretty little hardy bulb, of dwarf habit, allied to _Brodiæa_. It requires a rich sandy loam, in a sunny position, and may be propagated by offsets and seeds; the latter should be sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Plant 6in. deep, when it will require no protection in winter.

=A. violaceum= (violet). _fl._ violet blue, about 1in. long, three to six in an umbel, on pedicels about their own length; tube infundibuliform, about as long as the spreading segments; corona half as long. Spring. _l._ four to six, very narrow. _h._ 6in. Texas, 1874.

=ANDRYALA= (the meaning of this is unknown). ORD. _Compositæ_. These are pretty half-hardy evergreen herbaceous perennials, easily grown in ordinary well-drained garden soil. Increased by seeds and divisions in spring. Two species only are in cultivation.

=A. lanata= (woolly).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, Hieracium-like. May. _l._ white, woolly, thick, oblong-ovate; radical ones stalked; upper ones sessile. Stems with a leaf at each joint. _h._ about 1ft. South Europe, 1732.

=A. mogadorensis= (Mogador). _fl.-heads_ bright yellow, as large as a half-crown; disk bright orange. April. Morocco, 1871. This species is rare in cultivation.

=ANEILEMA= (from _a_, not, and _eilema_, involucre; in reference to the absence of the involucre). ORD. _Commelynaceæ_. Greenhouse and stove evergreen perennials, with generally a trailing habit. A genus resembling _Commelyna_, from which it is distinguished by the inflorescence being sub-paniculate, and the peduncles entirely exserted from the bracts at the branching of the panicle. Flowers without any involucre. They thrive in a compost of loam, peat, leaf mould, and sand, well mixed. Increased by seeds and root divisions. There are a large number of species known to botanists.

=A. biflora= (two-flowered).* _fl._ blue; floral stalks two-flowered. July. _l._ lanceolate. Stem creeping; plant smooth. New Holland, 1820. Greenhouse species.

=A. sinicum= (Chinese). _fl._ pale blue; racemes about seven-flowered, alternate, placed in a panicle form. May. _l._ ligulate, acuminate. Stems branched, diffuse. _h._ 1ft. China, 1820. Greenhouse species.

=ANEMIA= (from _aneimon_, naked; in reference to the naked panicles of sporangia). Including _Anemidictyon_. ORD. _Filices_. A well-marked genus of stove and greenhouse ferns, chiefly confined to Tropical America. Capsules small, very abundant, forming a copiously-branched panicle, quite distinct from the leafy part of the frond. This genus of handsome dwarf-growing ferns is of easy culture, in a compost of fibrous peat, leaf soil, and sand. Several species are exceedingly pretty for fern cases. For general culture, _see_ =Ferns=.

=A. adiantifolia= (maidenhair-leaved).* _sti._ 12in. to 18in. long, firm, naked. _fronds_, barren portion shortly-stalked, 6in. to 9in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, deltoid, bi-tripinnate; pinnæ close, lanceolate, the lowest the largest; ultimate divisions oblong or linear-cuneate, the outer toothed, with a firm texture; panicle 3in. to 4in. long, the peduncle 1in. to 3in. long. West Indies, 1793. A very handsome stove fern.

=A. ciliata= (ciliated). Synonymous with _A. hirsuta_.

=A. collina= (hill). _sti._ 8in. to 12in. long, firm, erect, densely clothed with fine ferruginous hairs. _fronds_, barren portion sessile, 6in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, with about twelve sessile pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, and about 1/2in. broad, unequal-sided, obliquely-truncate below, blunt, sub-entire, with a sub-coriaceous texture; panicle 2in. to 3in. long, close, the peduncle 4in. to 6in. long. Brazil, 1829. Very rare stove species. SYN. _A. hirta_.

=A. deltoidea= (deltoid-like). Synonymous with _A. tomentosa_.

=A. Dregeana= (Drege's).* _sti._ 8in. to 12in. long, firm, slightly villose. _fronds_, barren portion sub-sessile, 8in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, about equal in width in the lower half, with eight to twelve pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, ovate-deltoid, unequal at the base, the upper side sub-cordate, the edge inciso-crenate; panicle 3in. to 4in. long, the lower branches elongated; peduncle same length. Natal. Stove species.

=A. flexuosa= (wavy). Synonymous with _A. tomentosa_.

=A. hirsuta= (hairy). _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, slender, naked. _fronds_, barren portion 2in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 3in. broad, sessile, oblong-deltoid, bipinnatifid; pinnæ in six to eight opposite pairs, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/4in. to 3/4in. broad, varying from oblong, obtuse, sub-entire, truncate at the base on the lower side, to deeply pinnatifid with narrow divisions; panicle 1in. to 2in. long, close; peduncle 2in. to 6in. long, slender. Jamaica, 1704. Very handsome stove species. SYNS. _A. repens_ and _A. ciliata_.

=A. hirta= (hairy). Synonymous with _A. collina_.

=A. mandioccana= (Mandioccan).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, deciduously villose. _fronds_, barren portion 1ft. or more long, 2in. to 4in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, the lower half about equal in width; pinnæ in twenty or more close pairs, the point narrowed, but scarcely acute; edge finely serrulate, the upper base parallel with the stem, the lower obliquely truncate; rachis and surfaces finely pilose; texture sub-coriaceous; panicle very compound, 3in. to 4in. long: peduncle longer. Brazil. A very beautiful and distinct stove species.

=A. Phyllitidis= (Phyllitis-like).* _sti._ 6in. to 18in. long, stramineous, naked, or fibrillose. _fronds_, barren portion sessile, 4in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 8in. broad, ovate-oblong, simply pinnate; pinnæ in four to twelve sessile pairs, the lowest the largest, ovate, 1in. to 6in. long, 1/2in. to 2in. broad, the apex acute, the edge crenulate, the base rounded or cuneate, or unequal, with a firm texture; panicle dense, 3in. to 9in. long, the branches short; peduncles the same length. Cuba, Mexico, &c. SYN. _Anemidictyon Phyllitidis_. Greenhouse species.

=A. P. lineata= (lined). _fronds_ with a yellowish-green central stripe down the pinnæ. South America, 1868.

=A. P. plumbea= (leaden). Synonymous with _A. P. tessellata_.

=A. P. tessellata= (tessellated). Pinnæ dark green, with bright green centre and leaden-grey border. Brazil, 1875. The forms of this species are numerous: _fraxinifolia_ and _macrophylla_ are names often met with, but only show slight deviations. They all have a more hardy constitution than the other species, and grow well in the greenhouse. SYN. _A. P. plumbea_.

=A. repens= (creeping). Synonymous with _A. hirsuta_.

=A. tomentosa= (tomentose).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, strong, erect, clothed with ferruginous hairs. _fronds_, barren portion 6in. to 12in. long, half as broad, ovate-deltoid, bipinnatifid or bipinnate; lowest pinnæ the largest, the blunt lobes 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, 1/4in. broad, nearly entire; rachis and surfaces densely pilose, with a firm texture; panicle 4in. to 9in. long, loose; peduncle 1in. to 2in. long. Tropical America. Greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. deltoidea_, _A. flexuosa_, _A. villosa_.

=A. villosa= (hairy). Synonymous with _A. tomentosa_.

=ANEMIDICTYON.= _See_ =Anemia=.

=ANEMONE= (from _anemos_, wind; the greater part of the species grow in elevated places, much exposed to the wind). Wind Flower. ORD. _Ranunculaceæ_. An extensive genus of very ornamental hardy perennials. The generic characters of Anemone proper are: Involucre of three cut leaflets, distant from the flower; calyx of five to twenty petal-like sepals; petals absent. Of sub-genus Hepatica: Involucre of three entire leaflets, just under the flowers; calyx of six to nine petal-like sepals; petals absent. For botanical purposes, they are both now included under the one generic name of Anemone; but in gardens the Hepaticas are frequently regarded as a distinct genus. They delight in a rich sandy loam, but most will thrive in ordinary garden soil. Some are suitable for borders, while others thrive best on the rockery, most of them preferring a damp and partially shady position. For the numerous varieties of _A. coronaria_, both double and single flowered, the soil can hardly be too rich, and the position, though open, should be a sheltered one, and well drained. The tubers may be planted early in October, about 6in. apart, and 3in. deep, various colours being intermixed, when a splendid effect is produced in the following spring. After flowering, the tubers should be taken up--say in June--and spread out thinly, in a shady, airy situation, until they are dry, when they should be thoroughly cleaned, and, if necessary, divided, and finally stored away in a cool place, in pots or boxes of dry sand until the planting season. Anemones make admirable pot plants if placed in a compost of two parts turfy loam, and one of leaf mould or rotten hotbed or cow manure, with about a sixth part of sharp gritty sand; but, if so grown, they should be protected through severe weather, and brought into warmth as required. The herbaceous species are propagated by root divisions or root cuttings, or by seeds, in autumn or early spring; the seeds are better sown as soon as ripe in pans in a cold frame. Some, such as _A. japonica_, are freely increased by division; while others, such as _A. narcissiflora_, are very slow; and the tuberous rooted ones, by root division and seeds. The best and most rapid means of propagating the invaluable varieties of _A. coronaria_, and also of obtaining new ones, is by seed. A careful selection of flowers, and skilful hybridising, will produce results commensurate with the trouble incurred. So soon as the seed ripen, they should be gathered and sown at once in a warm sheltered situation outside, or in pans under glass, covering lightly with sandy soil, and keeping moist. They are somewhat difficult to sow on account of a mass of cotton-like down which adheres closely to them; they should be thoroughly separated therefrom by rubbing them in dry sand. Of course, if the seed are sown at different times, plants will be produced which will flower at different periods, and a succession of bloom may be had from April to November--indeed, nearly all the year.

=A. alba= (white). _fl._ white; pedicel solitary; sepals five, obovate, very blunt. June. _l._ ternate or quinate; segments deeply toothed at top; those of the involucre stalked. _h._ 6in. Siberia, 1820.

=A. alpina= (alpine).* _fl._ variously coloured, sometimes white, white with the back purple, cream, yellowish or yellow with their backs paler; sepals six, spreading, elliptical, rarely ovate. May. _l._ sometimes smooth, sometimes clothed with long crowded silky hairs, biternate; segments pinnate and deeply serrated; involucre of the same form. _h._ 6in. Middle Europe, 1658. Very handsome alpine. Plant on the rockery in rich deep soil, with a damp situation. SYN. _Pulsatilla alpina_.

=A. a. sulphurea= (sulphur).* _fl._ beautiful soft yellow, 2in. to 2-1/2in. across when expanded, but they are usually cup-shaped; sepals six, covered with a silky down outside; anthers of a rich golden colour. May and June. _l._ radical, stalked, drooping, more than 1ft. long; leaflets pinnatifid, deeply toothed. A very beautiful form, thriving in ordinary garden soil, and a rather moist situation. See Fig. 92.

[Illustration: FIG. 92. ANEMONE ALPINA SULPHUREA, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. americana= (American). A synonym of _A. Hepatica_.

=A. angulosa= (angled).* _fl._ fine sky blue, over 2in. across, with numerous black anthers surrounding a tuft of yellow styles; sepals eight to nine, elliptical, spreading. February. _l._ palmately five-lobed; lobes serrated. _h._ 8in. to 12in. East Europe. A very fine species, twice the size of _A. Hepatica_ in all its parts; it is well suited for the border or rockery, enjoying a deep rich soil. SYN. _Hepatica angulosa_.

=A. apennina= (Apennine).* _fl._ blue, 1-1/2in. across; sepals ten to fourteen, oblong, obtuse, erect; pedicel one-flowered. March. _l._ binately pinnate; segments lanceolate, deeply-toothed, acute. _h._ 6in. England (naturalised here and there), and Southern Europe. An exceedingly pretty plant, with soft-looking feathery foliage. It thrives best under the partial shade of trees, where the flowers retain their colour longer. Tuberous rooted.

=A. baldensis= (Mount Baldo).* _fl._ white, clothed with adpressed hairs on the outside, and reddish tinged with blue; sepals eight to ten, oblong-oval; pedicels one-flowered. May. _l._ biternate; segments many-parted; lobes linear; involucral leaves multifid. _h._ 6in. Switzerland, 1792. _A. cœrulea_ is probably identical with this species. Shady parts of the rockery. Rare. Tuberous rooted.

=A. blanda= (fair).* _fl._ deep blue, nearly 2in. across; sepals nine to fourteen, narrow. Winter or early spring. _l._ triternate; segments deeply cut and acute; involucral leaves stalked, trifid, deeply cut. _h._ 6in. Eastern Europe. A very handsome early flowering plant. It requires a rich, light, and well drained sandy loam, and a warm, sheltered position. It closely resembles _A. apennina_, of which it is merely a form, with deeper blue flowers. Tuberous rooted.

=A. caroliniana= (Carolina). _fl._ purple or whitish, pubescent on the outside, on a long one-flowered pedicel; sepals ten to twenty, oblong-linear. May. _l._ ternate, with three-parted, or cut acutely-toothed lobes; involucral leaves trifid, with cut lobes. _h._ 9in. Carolina, 1824. A very slender and delicate plant. Shady parts of the rockery. Tuberous rooted.

=A. cernua= (drooping). _fl._ somewhat drooping, dark purple; sepals six, spreading, elliptical-oblong. May. _l._ pinnate, villous underneath; segments pinnatifid; lobes cut, oblong; scapes, petioles, and peduncles clothed with downy hairs. _h._ 6in. Japan, 1806. Rare.

=A. coronaria= (garland).* Poppy Anemone. _fl._ very various in colouring, solitary; sepals six, oval, approximate. April to May. _l._ ternate; segments multifid; lobules linear, mucronated; involucral leaves sessile, multifid. South Europe, 1596. This is one of the species from which the majority of "florists' varieties" have originated, which can be purchased at such a cheap rate, either in named varieties, or in mixture, and are invaluable for spring flowering. It thrives best in a good loamy soil, and should be somewhat shaded from the mid-day sun. Tuberous rooted. See Fig. 93.

[Illustration: FIG. 93. ANEMONE CORONARIA FLORE-PLENO.]

[Illustration: FIG. 94. ANEMONE FULGENS.]

=A. decapetala= (ten-petaled).* _fl._ cream white or pale sulphur, about 1in. to 2in. across, erect; sepals eight to twelve, oblong, spreading. May to June. _l._ tripartite, and freely divided into numerous linear-acute segments, of a deep green colour. _h._ 12in. to 18in. North-West America, &c. A pretty free-flowering species, suitable for naturalising in woods, &c. It is less ornamental than many others, but is very distinct.

[Illustration: FIG. 95. ANEMONE HEPATICA.]

=A. dichotoma= (forked).* _fl._ white, with a tinge of red on the under side; sepals five, elliptical; pedicels many, usually bifid. May. _l._ three parted; lobes oblong, deeply-toothed at top; those of the involucrum sessile. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Siberia, North America, &c., 1768. Border, or for naturalising in woods. SYN. _A. pennsylvanica._

[Illustration: FIG. 96. FLOWER AND LEAF OF ANEMONE JAPONICA.]

=A. fulgens= (shining).* _fl._ of a dazzling vermilion or scarlet, with a black central patch of stamens, about 2in. across; sepals obovate. May. Greece, South Europe, &c., 1865. A very beautiful variety, much more showy than _A. hortensis_ (of which it is generally regarded as a variety), and a universal favourite. In "Hardy Perennials," Mr. Wood says of this splendid species: "It may be grown in pots for conservatory or indoor decoration. It needs no forcing for such purposes; a cold frame will prove sufficient to bring the flowers out in winter. Borders or the moist parts of rockwork are suitable for it; but perhaps it is seen to greatest advantage in irregular masses in the half shade of trees in front of a shrubbery; and, after all, it is impossible to plant this flower wrong as regards effect. To grow it well, however, it must have a moist situation and good loam." See Fig. 94.

=A. Halleri= (Haller's).* _fl._ purplish inside, large, erect; sepals six, oval-lanceolate. April. _l._ pinnate, very villous; segments three parted; lobes with lanceolate-linear, acuminated divisions. _h._ 6in. Switzerland, 1816. A sunny border or the rockery. SYN. _Pulsatilla Halleri_.

=A. Hepatica= (supposed remedy for liver diseases). Common Hepatica. _fl._ usually blue; sepals six to nine. February. _l._ cordate, three-lobed; lobes quite entire, ovate, acutish; petioles and scapes rather hairy. _h._ 4in. to 6in. There are numerous varieties of this species. England, &c. SYN. _Hepatica triloba_. Varieties: _alba_ has large pure white flowers; _cœrulea_ (blue), the double form of _cœrulea_ is scarce and very showy; _rubra_ produces reddish-pink flowers, and of which there is also a double variety, very bright and lasting; _Barlowi_ has large sky-blue flowers. Besides these there are many others. They are all charming early spring-flowering plants, preferring rich light soil, and to remain undisturbed for years, when they form grand clumps, often producing seedlings where they stand. SYN. _A. americana_. See Fig. 95.

=A. Honorine Jobert= (Honorine Jobert). Synonymous with _A. japonica alba_.

=A. hortensis= (garden). Nearly approaches _A. coronaria_, the parent of a large number of garden forms. _A. fulgens_ and _A. stellata_ are by competent authorities placed as varieties.

=A. Hudsoniana= (Hudson's). Synonymous with _A. multifida_.

=A. japonica= (Japanese).* _fl._ rosy carmine, from 2in. to 2-1/2in. across, on footstalks which spring from a whorl of three or four leaves; anthers golden yellow. Autumn. _l._ ternate, with unequally lobed, toothed segments. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Japan, 1844. See Fig. 96.

[Illustration: FIG. 97. ANEMONE JAPONICA ALBA.]

=A. j. alba= (white).* This is a splendid variety, with a profusion of large pure white flowers, which are produced from August to November. This white form is one of the handsomest of border flowers. The blooms are 2in. to 3in. across, with a centre of dense lemon coloured stamens. For cutting purposes the flowers are invaluable. It thrives best in deep soil. SYN. _A. Honorine Jobert_. See Fig. 97.

=A. j. elegans= (elegant).* Very like _A. japonica_, with broader leaves, and pale rose-coloured flowers, which are more than 3in. across. This is also called _rosea_ and _hybrida_. Japan.

=A. lancifolia= (lance-leaved). _fl._ white; sepals five, ovate-acute; scapes one-flowered. May. _l._ all stalked, ternate; segments lanceolate, crenate-toothed. _h._ 3in. Pennsylvania, 1823. Very rare. Rockery. Tuberous rooted.

=A. multifida= (many-cleft).* _fl._ red, whitish yellow, or citron colour, small; sepals five to ten, elliptical, obtuse; peduncles three, one-flowered, one of which is naked and earlier, the other two longer, and bearing two-leaved multifid involucels on their middle. June. _l._ radical ones ternate; segments cuneated, three parted, multifid, with linear lobes; those of the involucrum multifid, on short petioles. _h._ 6in. to 12in. North America. Border or rockery. SYN. _A. Hudsoniana_.

[Illustration: FIG. 98. ANEMONE NARCISSIFLORA, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. narcissiflora= (Narcissus-flowered).* _fl._ usually cream coloured, sometimes purplish on the outside; umbels generally many-flowered; pedicels in some instances twice or three times longer than the involucrum, and in others very short; sepals five or six, ovate or oval, blunt or acute. May. _l._ radical ones palmately three to five parted; lobes deeply toothed; lobules linear, acute; those of the involucrum three to five cleft. _h._ about 1ft. Europe, North America, 1773. An extremely variable and beautiful species. Rockery. See Fig. 98.

=A. nemorosa= (grove).* Wood Anemone. _fl._ generally white; sepals six, elliptical; scapes one-flowered. March. _l._ ternate; segments trifid, deeply toothed, lanceolate, acute; involucral leaves stalked. _h._ 6in. This species varies greatly in the colour of its flowers. It is a most beautiful little plant, frequent in our native woods, and suitable for planting in shaded shrubberies, &c. Tuberous rooted.

=A. n. cœrulea=, (blue),* from the North-west States of America, is very near, if not identical with, the variety _Robinsoniana_, of our native woods.

=A. n. flore-pleno= (double-flowered).* _fl._ pure white, over 1in. across, solitary, double. This is an exceedingly pretty plant, and remains in beauty considerably longer than the type. It should be grown in large clumps, and in rich loam.

=A. n. Robinsoniana= (Robinson's).* _fl._ bright azure blue, large, over 1-1/2in. in diameter. A charming variety for the rockery or border, and one of the prettiest in the whole genus.

=A. n. rosea= (rosy).* A very pretty form, with rose-coloured flowers, of which there is a double flowered sub-variety; there is also a double form of the type, named _bracteata_ _fl.-pl._, white flowers, surrounded with a large involucrum.

=A. obtusiloba= (blunt-lobed-leaved). _fl._ cream coloured; sepals five, obovate; peduncles two to three, one-flowered, villous, naked, or the lateral ones are bracteate. June. _l._ three lobed cordate, and are, as well as petioles, very villous; segments broadly cuneated, and deeply crenate; involucral leaves trifid. Himalaya, 1843. This species requires a warm and sheltered position.

=A. palmata= (palmate).* _fl._ golden yellow; sepals ten to twelve, oblong, obtuse; scape one, rarely two, flowered. May. _l._ cordate, sub-orbicular, bluntly three to five-lobed, toothed; involucral leaves trifid. South-west Europe, 1597. A white flowered variety, though scarce, is in cultivation, and is very pretty. True alpines, which should be grown on the rockery, where the soil is both rich and deep, with a somewhat damp situation. Tuberous rooted.

=A. patens= (spreading).* _fl._ purplish, or rarely yellow, erect, spreading, in the involucre almost sessile; sepals five to six. June. _l._ pinnate, rising after the flowers; segments three parted; lobes toothed at the top. Northern Europe, &c., 1752.

=A. p. Nuttalliana= (Nuttall's).* _fl._ purple, sometimes cream coloured, erect, villous on the outside; sepals five or six, erect, connivent. June. _l._ three parted; segments cuneate, trifid, cut; lobes linear-lanceolate, elongated; those of the involucre with linear lobes. _h._ 1ft. North America, 1826. A pretty border plant.

=A. pavonina= (peacock). Synonymous with _A. stellata_.

=A. pennsylvanica= (Pennsylvanian). Synonymous with _A. dichotoma_.

=A. pratensis= (meadow).* _fl._ dark purple, pendulous; sepals six, erect, reflexed at the top, acute. May. _l._ pinnate, many parted; lobes linear. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Northern Europe, &c., 1731. Differs chiefly from the following species in having smaller flowers, sepals narrower and more acute, connivent at base, and reflexed at apex. SYN. _Pulsatilla pratensis_.

=A. Pulsatilla= (common Pulsatilla).* Pasque Flower. _fl._ generally violet, sub-erect; sepals six, spreading, externally silky, very handsome. April. _l._ pinnate; segments many parted; lobes linear. _h._ 6in. to 12in. England, &c. A singular and beautiful species, thriving best in a dry situation and well-drained soil of a calcareous nature. It is a very pretty plant for a border or rockery; when well grown, it forms handsome tufts, and flowers very freely. See Fig. 99. SYN. _Pulsatilla vulgaris_. There are numerous varieties, the best of which are:

=A. P. dahurica= (Dahurian). _fl._ erect; sepals oblong, very villous. Plant dwarf. Sunny border or rockery.

[Illustration: FIG. 99. ANEMONE PULSATILLA.]

=A. P. lilacina= (lilac). _fl._ lilac.

=A. P. rubra= (red). _fl._ erect; sepals blunter. Plant dwarfer.

=A. ranunculoides= (Ranunculus-like).* _fl._ usually yellow (but in the Pyrenean variety purple), generally solitary, single or double; sepals five to six, elliptical. March. _l._ radical ones three to five parted; segments subtrifid, deeply toothed; those of the involucrum on short stalks three parted, deeply toothed. _h._ 3in. Naturalised in English woods, but rarely. Tuberous rooted.

[Illustration: FIG. 100. ANEMONE STELLATA.]

=A. rivularis= (river).* _fl._ white; anthers purple; sepals five, oval, smooth; pedicels three, one of which is naked. April. _l._ villous, as well as petioles, three parted; lobes cuneated, trifid; lobules cut, acutely toothed. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. North India, 1840. Should be grown on the banks of running water, or in a damp situation in the border.

=A. sibirica= (Siberian). _fl._ white; sepals six, orbicular; scapes one-flowered. June. _l._ ternate; segments deeply toothed, ciliated, those of the involucrum on short stalks, ternate; segments lanceolate. _h._ 6in. Siberia, 1804. Rockery; very rare.

=A. stellata= (star-leaved).* _fl._ purple, or rose red, or whitish, solitary; sepals ten to twelve, oblong, bluntish. April. _l._ three parted; lobes cuneated, deeply-toothed; involucral leaves sessile, oblong. _h._ 8in. to 10in. South Europe, 1599. A pretty and gay spring flowering plant. Tuberous rooted. SYN. _A. pavonina_. Double forms of this occur in cultivation. See Fig. 100.

[Illustration: FIG. 101. ANEMONE SYLVESTRIS.]

=A. sylvestris= (wood).* Snowdrop Windflower. _fl._ pure satin white, slightly drooping, 1-1/2in. across when fully open, fragrant; sepals six, elliptical; pedicel solitary. April. _l._ ternate or quinate, hairy beneath; segments deeply toothed at top, those of the involucrum stalked. _h._ 6in. to 18in. Europe, 1596. This distinct and showy species thrives best in a light vegetable soil in a rather shady and moist situation. The roots are creeping, and should be allowed plenty of room, so that they may ramble without check. See Fig. 101.

[Illustration: FIG. 102. ANEMONE VERNALIS.]

=A. trifolia= (three-leaved). _fl._ white, erect; sepals five, elliptical, obtuse. April. _l._ all stalked, ternate; segments ovate-lanceolate, acute, toothed. _h._ 6in. France, 1597. This species comes close to _A. nemorosa_.

=A. vernalis= (spring).* _fl._ whitish inside, violet and covered with silky down outside, erect, sub-sessile or on pedicels; sepals six, straight, elliptic-oblong. April. _l._ pinnate; segments cuneate-lanceolate, trifid; involucrum very villous. _h._ 6in. Europe, 1816. A curious rather than a showy species; it makes a pretty pot plant, but must not, under any consideration, be allowed to want water. It can be plunged in sand or ashes in the open, and just as the flowers commence to expand, transfer to a cool frame. It thrives best in a peat and loam compost, to which small pieces of charcoal may be added. SYN. _Pulsatilla vernalis_. See Fig. 102.

=A. virginiana= (Virginian).* _fl._ purplish green or pale purple, small; sepals five, elliptical, silky-pubescent on the outside; pedicels often rising in pairs from the involucel. May. _l._ ternate; segments trifid, acuminated, deeply toothed; those of the involucre and involucels stalked; peduncles three to four, much elongated, middle one naked, sometimes 1ft. high; lateral ones bearing two-leaved involucels. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1722. Border or woodlands, and damp places.

=A. vitifolia= (vine-leaved). _fl._ white, villous on the outside; anthers copper colour; sepals eight, oval, oblong; pedicels one-flowered. July. _l._ large, cordate, five-lobed, beneath as well as the stems clothed with white wool; lobes broadly ovate, cut, and crenate; those of the involucrum stalked, woolly underneath, smooth above, bluntly cordate, five-lobed. _h._ 2ft. Upper Nepaul, 1829. This requires a warm sheltered position to stand the winter. Very near _A. japonica alba_, and probably the progenitor of it.

=ANEMONOPSIS= (from _anemone_, and _opsis_, resemblance; flowers like those of the Anemone). ORD. _Ranunculaceæ_. A handsome and remarkable hardy herbaceous perennial, not unlike _Anemone japonica_, but smaller. It thrives in any light soil. Propagated by seeds and divisions of the root-stock in spring.

=A. macrophylla= (large-leaved).* _fl._ in loose racemes; sepals about nine, concave, the outer three purple, internally pale lilac; petals twelve, in many rows, one-third the length of the sepals, linear-oblong. July. _l._ large, biternate, coarsely toothed, glabrous. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Japan, 1869.

=ANEMOPÆGMA= (from _anemos_, the wind, and _paigma_, sport). ORD. _Bignoniaceæ_. A handsome stove climbing shrub. For culture, _see_ =Bignonia=.

=A. racemosum= (racemose).* _fl._ delicate buff coloured, in axillary racemes, large. September. Brazil, 1879. This beautiful and vigorous climber is, as yet, very rare in cultivation.

=ANETHUM= (from _ano_, upwards, and _theo_, to run; in reference to its quick growth). ORD. _Umbelliferæ_. A genus of erect glabrous annuals. Flowers yellow; involucre and involucels wanting. Leaves decompound, with linear-setaceous lobes. This genus is of no ornamental value, its most important species being the garden Dill (_A. graveolens_), which _see_ for culture.

=ANGELICA= (in reference to the supposed angelic medicinal virtues of some species). ORD. _Umbelliferæ_. Perennial or biennial herbs. Flowers white; umbels terminal; involucra wanting or of few leaves; involucels of many leaves. Leaves bipinnate. The common Angelica (_A. Archangelica_) is the only species that calls for mention. It is a native biennial, and was at one time in much request for confectionery, and as a herb of supposed great medicinal value. Seed should be sown in September or March in ordinary soil, and the young plants thinned out to about 18in. apart.

=ANGELICA TREE.= _See_ =Aralia spinosa=.

=ANGELONIA= (from _angelon_, the local name of _A. salicariæfolia_ in South America). SYN. _Schelveria_. ORD. _Scrophulariaceæ_. Very pretty stove herbaceous perennials. Flowers axillary, racemose; corolla irregular, bilabiate; lower lip saccate at the base, trifid; upper one smaller, bifid. Leaves opposite. Stem and branches quadrangular. A mixture of light turfy loam, peat, leaf soil, and sand, is a good compost. Cuttings of young shoots in spring strike readily under a hand glass, or plunged in the propagating bed, giving plenty of air daily.

=A. salicariæfolia= (Willow-leaved).* _fl._ blue, hairy, axillary, solitary, pedicellate, disposed in terminal racemes. August. _l._ sessile, lanceolate, acute, serrated towards the apex, finely pubescent on both surfaces. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. South America, 1818.

=ANGIOPTERIS= (from _aggeion_, a vessel, and _pteris_, a wing). Including _Psilodochea_. ORD. _Filices_. A genus of gigantic greenhouse ferns. Capsules eight to fifteen, opening by a slit down the side, sessile, very close but not concrete, arranged in linear-oblong or boat-shaped sori near the edge of the frond. These ferns require a very liberal supply of water, and plenty of room to fully expand. The most suitable compost is a mixture of strong loam and peat, with some sharp sand. Thorough drainage must be afforded.

=A. evecta= (evectic). _cau._ erect, 2ft. to 6ft. high, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. thick, very fleshy. _sti._ swollen and articulated at the base, furnished with two large leathery persistent auricles. _fronds_ 6ft. to 15ft. long, bi- or tripinnate; pinnæ 1ft. to 3ft. long, spreading, the lowest the largest; rachis swollen at the base; pinnules 4in. to 12in. long, 1/2in. to 1-1/2in. broad, linear-oblong, sessile or shortly stalked, acuminate; edge entire or finely toothed. Tropics of Old World. This is the only clearly defined species; the others usually known as distinct species are but varieties of it, and its culture should not be attempted if plenty of room cannot be afforded it.

=ANGOPHORA= (from _aggos_, a vessel, and _phero_, to bear; in reference to the shape of the fruit). ORD. _Myrtaceæ_. Australian evergreen greenhouse ornamental trees or shrubs. Flowers corymbose; calyx five or six-cleft. Leaves large, opposite. A mixture of leaf soil, peat, and sand suits them well. Ripened cuttings will root in sandy soil under a hand glass in a cool house, in a few weeks.

=A. cordifolia= (heart-leaved).* _fl._ yellowish, corymbose, large. May. _l._ sessile, ovate, cordate at the base, glabrous. _h._ 7ft. to 10ft. New Holland, 1789.

=A. lanceolata= (lanceolate-leaved).* _fl._ white, corymbose. May. _l._ petiolate, lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. New Holland, 1816.

=ANGRÆCUM= (deduced from _angurek_, a Malayan name for air plants). ORD. _Orchidaceæ_. TRIBE _Vandeæ_. These are among the most beautiful of epiphytal orchids. One characteristic, both remarkable and peculiar, is the long, hollow, tail-like spur depending from the base of the lip. The flowers are produced on spikes from the axils of the leaves. The leaves are evergreen, and arranged in two rows, the one opposite to the other, and, in many kinds, being curved, give the plant a very graceful appearance. The fact of these plants producing their blooms during the winter--a period when flowers are generally scarce--considerably enhances their value. They usually continue six or eight weeks in perfection, or even more. The following table of night temperatures should be almost universally adhered to for all the species enumerated, except _A. falcatum_, which thrives best in a cool house. From November to February, 58deg. to 63deg.; March to May, September and October, 65deg.; June to August, 70deg. The day temperature should be 7deg. or 8deg. higher than that of the night. A compost of crocks, charcoal, and sphagnum is best. A layer of a few large crocks at the bottom of the pot or pan will be required; over these spread another layer of charcoal and smaller crocks, just enough to allow the roots to support the plant; so that the first pair of leaves will be, in large plants, about 4in. above the rim of the pot, or proportionately less in the case of small plants. When the plant is carefully adjusted in its proper position, and held there with one hand, the other hand should work in among the roots more crocks and charcoal, ceasing so to do when within 2in. of the rim; the remaining space must be occupied with fresh sphagnum, pressed firm (this is most essential) in a cone shape, which may be built up to within 1/2in. of the lower pair of leaves. Prior to potting, which ought to be done between February and April, water should be withheld for a short time; but give a good soaking immediately after the operation. In the process of repotting, clear the roots of the old moss, all rotten stems, and particles of decayed roots. If plants are potted as we have recommended, a thorough soaking once a week only, or if grown on blocks of wood, or in suspended baskets or pans, about twice weekly will be found sufficient. Excessive fumigation, drought, whether atmospherical or at the roots, will cause the leaves to drop, and prevent any growth being made, in which case the plant ought to be lowered. If the stems have emitted but few roots, a ring of moss fastened round the stems, and kept constantly wet, will induce the plant to throw out additional roots, when the lowering may be proceeded with. To keep the plants free from insect pests, frequently sponge the foliage. Thrips generally prove very troublesome, and a moderate fumigation is needful, dislodging the insects that may be secreted low down in the centre of the plant, shortly before the operation, by dropping a little weak tobacco water or sulphur among them.

=A. arcuatum= (curved).* _fl._ white; racemes from the axils of the two-year-old leaves, two or three being produced from a single growth, about 6in. long, arching. _l._ about 4in. long, and 3/4in. broad. Natal. SYNS. _Listrostachys arcuata_. _A. (Listrostachys) Sedeni_ comes close to the above species, but is excessively rare in cultivation.

=A. bilobum= (two-lobed).* _fl._ white, with a tinge of rose, about 1-1/2in. in diameter; spur 2in. long, produced from the side of the stem, just above the two-year-old leaves; racemes pendulous, 6in. or more long, bearing about a dozen flowers, which possess a slight fragrance. October to December. _l._ 4in. long by 2in. broad, two-lobed at the apex, about eight on a plant. Stem erect, about 6in. high. Cape Coast, 1841. Should be grown in a basket.

=A. caudatum= (tailed). _fl._ greenish yellow, mixed with brown; labellum pure white; spur thick, pale green, about 9in. long, two-lobed at the lowest portion; racemes arching, 1ft. or more long, produced from the base of the two-year-old leaves. Autumn. _l._ pale green, drooping, about 10in. long by 1in. broad. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Stem erect, or nearly so. Sierra Leone, 1834.

=A. cephalotes= (capitate).* _fl._ white. Tropical Africa, 1873.

=A. Chailluanum= (Chaillu's).* _fl._ white; sepals and petals narrow, acute; spur yellowish green, 4in. or more long; racemes pendulous, 8in. or 10in. long, about twelve medium sized flowers produced from the side of the stem, just above the axils of two-year-old leaves. _l._ 6in. long, 1-1/2in. broad, slightly wavy, two-lobed at the apex, arranged in an imbricate manner. West Africa, 1866. A rare species.

=A. Christyanum= (Christy's). A curious species, with yellow or greenish-white flowers, having a much developed three-lobed lip. The plant has the aspect of _A. arcuatum_. 1880.

=A. citratum= (citron-like).* _fl._ creamy white, or pale yellow, nearly 1in. in diameter; spurs about 1-1/2in. long; racemes three, on strong plants, produced from the axils of two-year-old leaves, arched, about 1ft. long, bearing sometimes twenty flowers. _l._ 4in. to 6in. long and 2in. broad, six or eight on a plant, occupying about 1-1/2in. of stem. Madagascar, 1868. Habit compact; stem nearly erect.

=A. distichum= (two-rowed-leaved). _fl._ whitish, 1/4in. across, on one-flowered pedicels, which are produced from the axils of the leaves. _l._ very short, closely imbricated, deep bright green. _h._ 6in. Sierra Leone, 1834. A very neat growing little species, and quite distinct.

=A. eburneum= (ivory-lipped).* _fl._ sepals and petals greenish white; lip uppermost, white, very large; racemes about 18in. long, from the axils of two-year-old leaves; footstalks erect, but gradually becoming pendulous from the commencement of the flowers. _l._ 20in. long by 2in. broad, light green, stiff. Madagascar, 1826. SYN. _Ærobion eburneum_. _A. virens_ is an inferior variety, but _A. e. superbum_ surpasses the type in beauty; it is, however, at present extremely rare.

=A. Ellisii= (Ellis's).* _fl._ pure white, fragrant, about 2in. across, with narrow reflexed sepals and petals, the column standing very prominent; spur pale brownish, 6in. to 8in.; racemes frequently 2ft. long, on the side of the stem just above the axils of the two-year-old leaves, bearing about twenty blossoms. _l._ dark green, 9in. or 10in. long, and 2in. broad, divided at the apex into two unequal lobes. Madagascar, 1879.

=A. falcatum= (sickle-shaped).* _fl._ pure white, very fragrant; spur upcurved, 2in. long; racemes from the axils of the two-year-old leaves, short, bearing from two to five blooms. _l._ 2in. to 4in. long, very narrow and fleshy, dark green. 1815. An elegant little cool house species, and one of the smallest belonging to this genus. It should be grown in peat, in a basket or small pot suspended about 2ft. from the glass, but rather shaded.

=A. Kotschyi= (Kotschy's).* _fl._ yellowish white, perfume similar to the common white pink, 1in. to 1-1/2in. across; spur reddish-tinted, 6in. or 7in. long, distinguished by the two spiral twistings; racemes from the axils of the lower leaves, 18in. long, bearing about twelve blossoms. _l._ 6in. long by 3in. broad, of which there are generally six or more on a good plant. Zanzibar, 1880. Should be grown in a basket, or on a cylindrical block of teak wood.

=A. modestum= (modest).* _fl._ pure white, 1in. to 1-1/2in. across. _l._ distichous, 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, elliptic or linear-oblong, acute, tip entire, pale bright green, leathery, nerveless. Stem short. Madagascar, about 1880.

=A. pellucidum= (transparent).* _fl._ white, of a delicate semi-transparent texture, and with a finely fringed labellum; racemes from the axils of the lowest leaves, hanging perpendicularly from the stems, about 1ft. long, bearing thirty to forty blossoms. _l._ 12in. long by 2in. or 3in. broad. Sierra Leone, 1842. Must be grown in a suspended basket.

=A. pertusum= (broken).* _fl._ pure white; spur comparatively short, with a well-marked yellow tinge; racemes from the axils of two-year-old leaves, horizontal, or slightly nodding, 6in. to 7in. long, with from forty to sixty densely packed, small blossoms. _l._ dark green, arching, 10in. long by 1in. broad. _h._ 1ft. Sierra Leone, 1836. Very distinct and attractive.

=A. Scottianum= (Scott's).* _fl._ pure white, very delicate in texture, the lip is uppermost, 1in. or more across; spur narrow, yellowish, 3in. to 4in. long; peduncle slender, a little longer than the spur, usually but one-flowered. _l._ narrow, terete--thus differing from most of its congeners--tapering or awl-shaped, about 4in. long, 1/8in. to 1/4in. in diameter, channelled in the upper surface and ridged below. Comoro Islands, 1878.

=A. Sedeni= (Seden's). A rare form of _A. arcuatum_.

=A. sesquipedale= (foot-and-a-half).* _fl._ beautiful ivory white, on stout, solitary, axillary peduncles, with sepals and petals spreading out like rays, from 6in. to 8in. across; the whip-like spur or nectary hangs down from the labellum, often from 10in. to 18in. long. November, December, and January, and lasts about three weeks in beauty. _l._ dark green, distichous, about 10in. long. _h._ 1ft. Madagascar, 1823. It is one of the grandest of winter flowering orchids.

=A. virens= (green). An inferior variety of _A. eburneum_.

=ANGULAR.= Having angles, or forming angles.

=ANGULOA= (commemorative of Angulo, a Spanish naturalist). ORD. _Orchidaceæ_. A small genus containing about six species. The flowers, which are large and beautiful, are borne singly on scapes from 12in. to 16in. high, several of which are produced from the ripened pseudo-bulbs of the preceding year's growth. Pseudo-bulbs from 5in. to 8in. high, as thick as a man's wrist, bearing two to three erect, broad, lanceolate leaves, 2ft. to 4ft. long. Temperature, summer, day (maximum), 70deg.; night (minimum), 60deg. Winter, day (maximum), 60deg.; night (minimum), 45deg. These are bold growing cool-house plants, best grown in rough fibrous peat, with good drainage. They delight in an abundant supply of water both to the roots and foliage when growing, and require to be kept in a somewhat dark or heavily-shaded place. During the season of rest, and until young shoots commence growth, they should be kept rather dry. They are propagated by dividing the pseudo-bulbs, just before they commence to grow. The flowering season is summer.

=A. Clowesii= (Clowes's).* _fl._ fragrant; sepals and petals concave, clear golden yellow; lip pure white; whole conformation globular, or tulip-like. Columbia (at 5000ft. to 6000ft. elevation), 1842. This is the largest growing species, of which there are one or two rare varieties.

=A. eburnea= (ivory-flowered).* _fl._, sepals and petals of the purest white; lip spotted with pink. New Grenada. In other respects similar to above, but is very rare.

=A. Ruckeri= (Rucker's).* _fl._, sepals and petals yellow, with crimson spots; lip deep crimson. Columbia, 1845. Not so large a grower as either of the foregoing, but with same sized flowers.

=A. R. sanguinea= (bloody).* This variety has flowers of a deep blood red colour, but is rare.

=A. superba= (superb).* Synonymous with _Acineta Humboldtii_.

=A. uniflora= (one-flowered).* _fl._ sub-globose, pure white, sometimes freckled with brown, spotted profusely with pink inside. Columbia, 1844. One of the best in cultivation.

=ANGURIA= (one of the Greek names for the cucumber). ORD. _Cucurbitaceæ_. A stove genus of evergreen climbers allied to _Momordica_. Flowers monœcious; corolla joined to the calyx, ventricose, red, with a five-parted spreading border. Fruit somewhat tetragonal. Several species have been introduced from time to time, but they are rarely seen in our gardens. Some of them are handsome plants, and well worthy of cultivation.

=ANHALONIUM.= _See_ =Mammillaria=.

=ANIGOZANTHUS= (from _anoigo_, to expand, and _anthos_, a flower; in reference to the branching expansion of the flower stalks). SYN. _Schwægrichenia_. ORD. _Hæmodoraceæ_. Greenhouse or half-hardy perennial herbs. Flowers large, racemose or corymbose; perianth tubular, elongated, woolly. Leaves linear ensiform. The species thrive in a turfy compost of peat and loam, three parts of the former to one of the latter; the whole intermixed with sand to make it porous. In the growing season they must be kept well watered, and somewhat dry during their period of rest in winter. They are very easily propagated by dividing the roots in spring.

=A. coccineus= (scarlet).* _fl._ scarlet; perianth swelling towards the summit, hairy, segments a little reflexed; disposed in dichotomously-forked panicles; pedicels rather long. June. _l._ lanceolate, deep green. Stem ciliated. _h._ 5ft. Swan River, 1837.

[Illustration: FIG. 103. INFLORESCENCE AND LEAF OF ANIGOZANTHUS FLAVIDUS.]

=A. flavidus= (yellowish-green-flowered).* _fl._ yellowish green, panicled; scapes long. May. _l._ lanceolate, smooth, as is also the stem; down of branches deciduous. _h._ 3ft. New Holland, 1808. There is a scarlet and green-flowered variety of this species. See Fig. 103.

=A. Manglesii= (Mangle's). _fl._ green; stigma capitate, projecting beyond the tube, in a short terminal spiked raceme. May. Stem erect, clothed with short thick crimson persistent velvety down. _h._ 3ft. Swan River, 1833.

=A. pulcherrimus= (beautiful).* _fl._ yellow; panicles much branched, clothed with rufous bristles. May. _l._ equitant, linear falcate, covered with stellate tomentum. _h._ 3ft. Swan River, 1844.

=A. tyrianthinus= (purple).* _fl._ purple and white; panicle clothed with purple tomentum. May. _l._ linear, stiff, straight, glabrous. Stem tall, ternate, panicled, clothed with hoary tomentum below. _h._ 3ft. Swan River, 1844.

=ANIL.= _See_ =Indigofera Anil=.

=ANIME RESIN.= _See_ =Hymenæa Courbaril=.

=ANIMATED OAT.= _See_ =Avena sterilis=.

=ANISANTHUS.= _See_ =Antholyza=.

=ANISE= (_Pimpinella Anisum_). A hardy annual, occasionally used for garnishing or seasoning. Sow seed, in ordinary garden soil, on a warm sunny border, in May, where it is intended for the plants to remain.

=ANISEED TREE.= _See_ =Illicium=.

=ANISOCHILUS= (from _anisos_, unequal, and _cheilos_, a lip; in reference to the inequality of both lips of calyx and corolla). ORD. _Labiatæ_. A very ornamental genus of stove perennials or biennials. Whorls of flowers densely imbricate into oblong cylindrical spikes; corolla with an exserted, defracted tube, inflated throat, and bilabiate limb. They thrive in any light rich soil. Cuttings will root in a sandy soil under a bell glass, in heat; seeds may be sown in February in heat.

=A. carnosum= (fleshy). _fl._ lilac; whorls densely imbricate into oblong cylindrical pedunculate spikes. June to September. _l._ petiolate, ovate-roundish, obtuse, crenated, cordate at the base, thick, fleshy, tomentose on both surfaces. Stem erect. _h._ 2ft. East Indies, 1788.

=ANISOMELES= (from _anisos_, unequal, and _melos_, a member; in reference to the anthers of the longer stamens being halved). ORD. _Labiatæ_. Ornamental greenhouse or evergreen stove shrubs, herbaceous perennials, or annuals. Whorls sometimes densely many-flowered, at others few, and loose; corolla with upper lip erect, oblong, entire; lower lip larger, spreading, and lateral lobes ovate, obtuse. They are of very easy culture in light rich soil; young cuttings strike freely in spring, in heat, under a bell glass. _A. furcata_ requires little or no artificial heat, but the protection of a bell glass is beneficial. Seeds of _A. ovata_ may be sown in spring, in heat, and, after due hardening off, the seedlings may be planted outside in May.

=A. furcata= (forked).* _fl._ small, elegantly variegated with white, red, and purple, in loose many-flowered racemose cymes. July. _l._ petiolate, ovate, acuminated, crenated, cordate at the base, hispid on both surfaces. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. Nepaul, 1824.

=A. malabarica= (Malabar). _fl._ purplish; whorls distant, many-flowered, dense. July. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, 2in. to 4in. in length, obtuse, serrately crenated in the upper part, quite entire at the base. _h._ 2ft. to 5ft. Tropical Asia, in humid places, 1817. Shrub.

=A. ovata= (ovate-leaved).* _fl._ purple; lower lip of a deeper colour; whorls many-flowered, lower ones distant, upper ones interruptedly spicate. August. _l._ ovate, obtuse, broadly crenated. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Nepaul, 1823. An annual. Habitat similar to last.

=ANISOMEROUS.= Unequally-parted; unsymmetrical.

=ANISOPETALUM.= _See_ =Bulbophyllum=.

[Illustration: THREAD-LEAVED PINE, AGAVES, AND YUCCA, IN A GUERNSEY GARDEN.]

=ANNUALS.= All plants which spring from the seed, flower, and die within the course of a year. A number of things, however, which are not strictly of annual duration, but which are sown every year in preference to housing the roots before they are killed by late autumn or winter frosts, are generally classed, for the sake of convenience, under the head of Annuals. Hardy Annuals are those which require no artificial aid to enable them to develop, but grow and flower freely in the open air. These are best sown in the spots where they are intended to remain during March and April, and care must subsequently be taken to keep the ground clear of weeds, and also to thin out the seedlings, allowing each sufficient room to develop and exhibit its true character. If allowed to remain too crowded, the plants, as a matter of course, suffer, and the size and number of the flowers and the general effect are considerably decreased. Successional sowings of a good many of the showy species will be found to prolong their flowering season. In well-kept establishments, where Annuals are duly appreciated, several sowings are made in pots at intervals of a few weeks. As the previously-sown clumps begin to get shabby, they are removed, and replaced by others which have still to flower. By this means a continual sheet of blossom can be maintained for a long time. It is much better to trust to plants grown in pots in order to carry out the plan just sketched, as these receive no check when placed in their new quarters; whilst transplanted clumps frequently fail, and many species do not transplant at all readily from an open border. In order to secure, in early spring, a fine show of such plants as several of the _Silenes_, _Myosotis_, _Saponaria_, and a number of others, it is best to sow the seeds in an open, sheltered border, about the end of July or beginning of August, taking care to keep a small reserve stock in a cold frame, in case very severe weather kills the unprotected plants. Half-hardy Annuals are those for which our climate is not sufficiently warm, or, rather, our summer is not, as a rule, either hot enough or long enough, to allow them to grow, flower well, and ripen seeds, if sown in the open air. Many of these are amongst the showiest of garden plants, so it is worth while to give them the shelter of a warm frame during their earlier stages, and gradually harden them off, planting out at the end of May or beginning of June, when danger resulting from severe weather is passed. After germination, the seedlings should have plenty of light and air, or a weak, spindly growth, and, as a consequence, poor flowers, will result. The most satisfactory method of watering very tiny seeds is to place a piece of fine muslin over the seed-pot, through which the water will be easily conveyed to the seeds, and thus prevent disturbance. Tender Annuals require the same treatment as the half-hardy ones, except that they need throughout their existence the protection of a glass structure. All, or nearly all, garden Annuals delight in full sunlight and plenty of air. In the open, these requirements, as a rule, obtain, but sometimes mistakes are made under glass by keeping the plants too close and over much shaded, as well as too great a distance from the glass.

=ANNULAR.= Having a ring-like form.

=ANNULATE.= With the appearance of rings.

=ANŒCTOCHILUS= (from _anoiktos_, open, and _cheilos_, a lip; in reference to the spreading apex of the lip). SYNS. _Anecochilus_, _Chrysobaphus_. ORD. _Orchideæ_. Stove terrestrial orchids, the radical leaves of which are the chief attraction, being amongst the most beautiful and delicate objects in the vegetable kingdom. The flowers, which should be pinched off so soon as they appear, are, as a rule, small and unattractive. Few of the species exceed 6in. in height, with leaves from 2in. to 6in. long, including the fleshy petioles. They require a good deal of attention. To one part of silver sand, thoroughly washed twice or three times, add two of sphagnum, which should also be well washed and picked over, when it should be chopped into minute particles, in order that it may freely amalgamate with the sand; mix a little loam and peat with the whole. In the pots, when well drained by first placing a large piece of potsherd over the bottom and nearly half filling up with pieces broken small and of uniform size, place a thin layer of crude sphagnum, afterwards filling firmly with the mixture above mentioned, and bringing it up more or less in the form of a cone above the rim of the pot, into which the plants should be firmly fixed. Plants which have been propagated by division should be carefully transferred to 32-sized pots. About five separate pieces might be placed evenly over the surface. Make holes with a neat dibble, and into these drop the roots their entire length, pressing the soil firmly with the dibble. Fix them so that they may grow inwardly, and not out over the rim of the pots, pegging each creeping root needing such attention firmly down upon the surface of the soil afterwards; after a good soaking, they may be replaced in any warm, shady situation. For propagating, a strong plant is necessary; it may be cut into pieces just below the first joint, each piece having a root. The bottom piece should have two eyes--one to root from, and the other to push into a shoot. The "bottom," or plant which has been cut, should be replaced in its pot, and then put under a bell glass. It will soon throw up a young shoot; this ought to be left on until well rooted, when it may be separated and treated similarly to the portion first removed, still leaving the old part in the pot. These plants must be grown in glass cases, or under bell glasses, but they should always have a little air, for, as Mr. Williams says, when too much confined, they grow up spindly, and damp off in the stem; the latter, being fleshy, requires more substance and sturdiness. Air should be admitted through a space of about 1in. or 2in. The following ranges of temperature are advised: Winter, night, 55deg. to 60deg.; day, 65deg. to 70deg. during March, April, and May; night, 60deg. to 70deg.; and, afterwards, a few degrees higher, with a maximum day temperature of 80deg. Bottom heat should not be given, as it induces a weak, fast growth. Great care will be needed to prevent ravages of insects. The most suitable month for repotting is March, just before growth commences, when the plants will need plenty of water up to October, excepting when it is desirous to utilise them as drawing-room ornaments, in which case they should be kept rather dry for a short time previous. _See also_ =Dossinia=, =Goodyera=, =Hæmeria=, =Macodes=, =Physurus=, and =Zeuxine=.

[Illustration: FIG. 104. ANŒCTOCHILUS FRIDERICI-AUGUSTI.]

=A. argenteus pictus= (silvery-painted). A synonym of _Physurus pictus_.

=A. argyroneurus= (silvery-veined).* _l._ light green, dark mottled; veins forming a beautiful silvery network. Java.

=A. Boylei= (Boyle's).* _l._ ovate, acuminate, 2in. long and broad, olive-green, netted and pencilled with gold. India.

=A. Bullenii= (Bullen's).* _l._ 2-1/2 in. long, ground colour bronzy green, with three broad distinct lines of coppery-red, or golden stripes running the entire length. Borneo, 1861.

=A. concinnus= (neat). _l._ ovate, acuminate, rounded at base, dark olive-green, netted and striped with shining coppery-red. Assam.

=A. Dawsonianus= (Dawson's).* _l._ ovate, of a dark velvety, rich olive-green, traversed by about seven longitudinal copper-coloured veins; the space on each side of the midrib being filled with fine reticulations of the same colour. Malay Archipelago, 1868. The proper name of this plant is _Hæmeria discolor Dawsoniana_.

=A. Dayi= (Day's). A synonym of _Dossinia marmorata Dayi_.

=A. Dominii= (Dominy's). _l._ dark olive-green, streaked down the centre with pale coppery-yellow, the main ribs marked by pale lines. Hybrid between _Goodyera discolor_ and _A. Friderici Augusti_.

=A. Eldorado= (Eldorado). _l._ dark green, with small tracery of a lighter colour, deciduous. Central America.

=A. Friderici-Augusti= (Frederick Augustus').* _l._ 2-1/2in. long, and 1-1/2in. broad, dark velvety green, with broad orange and green stripes down the centre, covered with a beautiful golden network. _h._ 5in. Very distinct. See Fig. 104. SYN. _A. xanthophyllus_.

=A. Heriotii= (Heriot's). _l._ 3-1/2in. long, 2-1/2in. broad, dark mahogany-colour, golden-reticulated, and with shadowy network. India.

=A. hieroglyphicus= (hieroglyphic-marked). _l._ small, dark green, with hieroglyphic-like, silvery-grey blotches. Assam.

=A. intermedius= (intermediate).* _l._ 2-1/2in. long, and 1-1/2in. broad, with a silky surface, dark olive, striped and veined with gold. _h._ 3in. Will succeed with a glass covering, in a stove, if shaded.

=A. javanicus= (Java). _fl._ pink, small, spicate; scape 9in. high. _l._ 2in. long, 1-1/2in. broad, dark olive-green, with lighter blotches and faint golden reticulation, pinkish beneath. Java.

=A. latimaculatus= (broad-spotted).* _l._ dark green, with silvery markings. Borneo. A distinct and free-growing kind.

=A. Lowii= (Low's).* _l._ 4in. to 5in. long, 3in. broad, dark velvety-green, shading to orange-brown, lined from base to apex with deep golden veins, crossed by lines of the same hue. _h._ 6in. Borneo. The correct name of this plant is _Dossinia marmorata_.

=A. L. virescens= (greenish).* _l._ brighter green, with brighter markings over the whole surface.

=A. Ordianus= (Ordi's).* _l._ shape and habit of _A. Dawsonianus_, but the colour is a vivid green, and lined with golden veins. Java, 1869. The proper name of this plant is _Hæmeria discolor Ordiana_.

=A. pictus= (painted). A synonym of _Physurus pictus_.

=A. querceticola= (forest-dwelling). A synonym of _Physurus querceticolus_.

=A. regalis= (royal).* King Plant. _l._ 2in. long, 1-1/2in. broad; surface a beautiful velvety green, veined in regular lines, and covered with a network of gold. _h._ 4in. Java, 1836. If examined with a lens in sunshine, the beauty of the network will be plainly seen. SYN. _A. setaceus_ (of gardens). There are several varieties, the best of which are:

=A. r. cordatus= (heart-shaped). _l._ rounder, and gold markings broader. Very rare.

=A. r. grandifolius= (large-leaved).* _l._ light green, beautifully laced and banded with a network of gold. Also rare.

=A. r. inornatus= (unadorned). _l._ dark rich velvety, with a few slight markings, destitute of the golden reticulation. Java.

=A. Reinwardtii= (Reinwardt's).* _l._ rich, deep velvety-bronze, intersected with bright golden lines. Java.

=A. Roxburghii= (Roxburgh's).* _l._ 2-1/2in. long, 1-1/2in. broad, dark velvety-green, striated with well-defined lines of silver. _h._ 3in. India. The true species is very rare; several are sold as such.

=A. Ruckerii= (Rucker's).* _l._ broadly ovate-bronzy-green, with six rows of distinct spots running from base to apex. Borneo, 1861.

=A. setaceus= (bristly). A garden synonym of _A. regalis_.

=A. striatus= (striated). A synonym of _Zeuxine regia_.

=A. Turneri= (Turner's).* _l._ large, rich bronze, freely golden-reticulated. One of the handsomest; a very free grower.

=A. Veitchii= (Veitch's). A synonym of _Macodes Petola_.

=A. xanthophyllus= (yellow-leaved). A synonym of _A. Friderici-Augusti_.

=A. zebrinus= (striped).* _l._ ovate-lanceolate, deep olive green, with copper-coloured veins. India, 1863. Dwarf and elegant.

=ANOMATHECA= (from _anomos_, singular, and _theca_, a capsule, or seed-pod). ORD. _Irideæ_. Very pretty little bulbous perennials. Perianth hypocrateriform; tube triquetrous, constricted at the throat. The species are hardy when planted in warm sunny situations in the open border. Their dwarf stature, brilliance, profusion of flowers, and habit of blossoming continuously over a long period, render them very popular subjects amongst growers of hardy perennials. Although generally credited with being hardy, when cultivated out of doors they should be lifted and stored in frost-proof quarters before winter commences, until the following March. They are excellent as window garden plants, and also for pot culture. If grown in pots, they should be shaken out, and repotted in February or March. They multiply very rapidly, and may be divided in patches, not by single bulbs, once yearly. Light sandy loam, mixed with a little leaf mould, is the best compost. Anomathecas are sometimes increased by seed, which may be sown so soon as ripe, very thinly, in seed pans. Thin out the seedlings if growing very close together; the next season they may be put out four or five in a pot. When they become crowded, shift into a much larger pot, but do not disturb the ball. The young seedlings will probably produce flowers the second season.

=A. cruenta= (bloody).* _fl._ rich carmine-crimson; perianth segments elliptical, three lower ones broader than the others, with a dark blotch at the base; tube long, whitish; scapes secund, bearing about five or six flowers. Summer and autumn. _l._ two-ranked, about 1/2in. broad, sword-shape, somewhat tapering. Bulb ovate, rather large. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Cape of Good Hope, 1830.

=A. juncea= (rushy). _fl._ very bright pink, with a dark spot at the base, produced in profusion. The leaves are narrower than those of the foregoing. Cape of Good Hope, 1791. A rare species.

=ANONA= (_Anona_ is the name applied to these plants in St. Domingo). Custard Apple. ORD. _Anonaceæ_. Stove evergreen shrubs, with fragrant leaves. Petals six, in two rows. Carpels indefinite, joined into one fleshy, many-celled, edible, roundish fruit, with a muricated, scaly, or reticulated skin. Anonas thrive best in rich loamy soil, mixed with a little peat. Ripened cuttings, with leaves intact, will root if inserted in sand and placed under a hand glass, in a moist heat. When seeds are procurable, they should be sown in pots, and plunged into a hotbed.

=A. Cherimolia= (The Cherimoyer). _fl._ outer petals somewhat concave, linear-oblong, brown on the outside, each marked with a dark spot at the base; peduncles opposite the leaves, solitary. July. _fr._ somewhat globose and scaly, dark purple; esteemed by the Peruvians as one of their most delicate, and as being not inferior to any fruit in the world. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, not dotted; under surface silky tomentose, strong scented. _h._ 20ft. Peru, 1739.

=A. glabra= (smooth-fruited).* _fl._ outer petals ovate, obtuse, brown; calyx leathery, large; peduncles opposite the leaves, two-flowered. July. _fr._ greenish-yellow, conoid, blunt, smooth. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, smooth. _h._ 10ft. West Indies, 1774.

=A. longifolia= (long-leaved). _fl._ purplish; outer petals concave, thick, all acute, large, axillary, solitary, stalked. May. _fr._ ovate-globose, dotted, and reticulated, flesh-coloured. _l._ oblong, acuminated, mucronate, smooth. _h._ 20ft. Guiana, 1820.

=A. muricata= (muricated-fruited).* The Sour Sop. _fl._ outer petals cordate, concave, thick, acuminated, green on the outside, yellow inside, and spotted; peduncles solitary, one-flowered, sweet-scented. _fr._ muricated, with fleshy points, green. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, smooth, shining. _h._ 15ft. West Indies, 1656.

=A. palustris= (marsh). Alligator Apple; Cork-wood. _fl._ yellow; petals all acute. _fr._ rather areolate, large, heart-shaped, sweet-scented. _l._ ovate-oblong, leathery, quite smooth. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. South America, 1788.

=A. reticulata= (netted). The Custard Apple, or Bullock's Heart. _fl._ outer petals oblong-lanceolate, acute, somewhat concave at the base, brownish on the outside, whitish-yellow on the inside, marked with dark purple spots. _fr._ ovate-globose, reticulate, as large as a tennis ball, with yellowish soft flesh; it is much esteemed by some people. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acute, smooth, somewhat dotted. _h._ 15ft. to 25ft. Brazil, 1690.

=A. squamosa= (scaly). Sweet Sop. _fl._, outer petals linear-oblong, somewhat concave at the base, nearly closing, greenish-yellow. _fr._ egg-shaped, scaly. _l._ oblong, bluntish, smooth, full of pellucid dots, rather glaucous beneath. _h._ 20ft. South America, 1739.

=ANONACEÆ.= An order of trees or shrubs, mostly tropical, with axillary peduncles, lateral or opposite the leaves, and with alternate, simple, entire or hardly toothed leaves, without stipules. _Anona_ is the typical genus.

=ANONYMO.= A synonym of =Saururus= (which _see_).

=ANONYMOS BRACTEATA.= _See_ =Zornia tetraphylla=.

=ANOPLANTHUS= (in part). A synonym of =Phelipæa= (which _see_).

=ANOPLOPHYTUM.= _See_ =Schlumbergeria= and =Tillandsia=.

=ANOPTERUS= (from _ano_, upwards, and _pteron_, a wing; in reference to the seeds, which are winged at the apex). ORD. _Saxifrageæ_. A very handsome greenhouse evergreen shrub, having a free branching habit, large dark shining green leaves, and long panicles of salver-shaped flowers. It would probably prove quite hardy in the south and west of England, and parts of Scotland, provided it had a slight winter protection. It grows well in sandy loam and peat. When grown in pots, it requires plenty of room and water. Half-ripened cuttings root freely under a bell glass in a cool house or frame in summer.

=A. glandulosa= (glandular).* _fl._ white, rose tinted, large; racemes erect, simple, terminal. April, May. _l._ alternate, rarely nearly opposite, ovate-oblong, attenuated at both ends, nearly sessile, leathery, toothed. _h._ 3ft. Van Diemen's Land, 1823.

=ANSELLIA= (named after Mr. Ansell, the botanical collector who accompanied the ill-fated Niger Expedition). ORD. _Orchidaceæ_. Strong growing, free flowering stove epiphytal orchids. Best grown in large pots, as they produce a quantity of roots. They require a compost of turfy peat, with moderate drainage. An ample supply of water during the growing season is needed; but care must be taken not to let any remain in the heart of the plants, as they are very likely to rot. During the season of rest, little or no water, but a damp atmosphere, are the chief requirements. Propagated by divisions of the bulbs just after flowering.

=A. africana= (African).* _fl._, sepals and petals nearly 2in. long, greenish yellow, spotted with brownish red; lip small, yellow; spikes large, drooping, branched, each sometimes bearing nearly a hundred blooms. Stems 3ft. to 4ft. high, with light evergreen foliage. Fernando Po, 1844. Lasts two months in perfection.

=A. a. gigantea= (gigantic).* _fl._ on upright spikes from the top of the pseudo-bulbs, but smaller, of a light yellow tint, with very few narrow, transverse, brown bars, and a deep yellow lip, without warts of any kind on its middle lobe, and with more or less crenulated keels. Natal, 1847. The perfume is very peculiar. Very rare.

=A. a. lutea= (yellow). Not so strong a grower; producing clusters of light yellow flowers from the top of the pseudo-bulbs. Natal.

=A. a. nilotica= (Nile district).* As a garden plant this is much superior to the type. The habit is dwarfer, the colours of the flowers brighter and more distinctly defined. The sepals and petals, too, are more spreading. Eastern Africa.

=ANSERINA.= _See_ =Potentilla anserina=.

=ANTENNÆ.= Two movable, articulated organs attached to the heads of insects and crustacea, commonly called "horns" or "feelers." They are variable in form and length. Antennæ seem to serve for touch, and, perhaps, for smell and hearing.

[Illustration: FIG. 105. ANTENNARIA MARGARITACEA, showing Habit and Inflorescence.]

=ANTENNARIA= (from _antennæ_; in reference to the similarity which exists between the seed down of the plant and the antennæ, or feelers, of an insect). ORD. _Compositæ_. Hardy herbaceous perennials, distinguished by the dry, coloured, chaffy scales encircling each head of flowers, of which the stamens and pistils are on different plants. These are charming little alpine plants, admirably adapted for rockwork, pots, edgings, or borders, in any light soil. Propagated by divisions of the roots in spring, and seeds; the latter should be sown in spring in a cold frame. Grown chiefly for their leaves.

=A. dioica= (diœcious).* _fl.-heads_ pink, in crowded corymbs, 3in. to 4in. high. June. _l._ radical ones spathulate, woolly chiefly beneath; upper ones lanceolate. Stems simple; shoots procumbent. Britain. The two or three varieties of this pretty species exceed the type in beauty. SYN. _Gnaphalium dioicum_.

=A. d. hyperborea= (northern). _l._ woolly on both surfaces.

=A. d. minima= (smallest).* A very small growing variety.

=A. margaritacea= (pearly).* _fl.-heads_ white, corymbose. August. _l._ linear-lanceolate, acute, alternate, cottony, especially beneath. Stems branched above. _h._ 2ft. Naturalised in England and on the Continent. Said to have been introduced from America about the sixteenth century. The prettier but much rarer _A. triplinervis_, from Nepaul, comes close to this species. See Fig. 105.

=A. tomentosa= (downy).* _fl.-heads_ corymbose. Summer. One of the dwarfest and best of silvery-leaved plants, either as an edging for small beds or for covering the higher portions of rockwork; it is much used in carpet bedding. It scarcely grows more than 1in. high, and forms a dense carpet in a short space of time. It should be grown separate from other plants. It is frequently known under the name of _A. candida_.

=ANTERIOR.= Placed in front, or outwards.

=ANTHEMIS= (from _anthemon_, a flower; referring to their general floriferous character). Camomile. ORD. _Compositæ_. Receptacle convex, chaffy. Involucre hemispherical or nearly flat; scales imbricated, membranaceous at the margin. Pappus none; ray florets ligulate; disk tubular. This is a large genus, principally of medicinal value, and contains very few species worth the cultivator's trouble. Of easy culture in any ordinary soil. Propagated by divisions.

=A. Aizoon= (Aizoon).* _fl.-heads_ resembling a white Daisy; florets of the ray fourteen to eighteen, trifid, twice as long as the breadth of the disk. Summer. _l._ lanceolate, or broadly so, acutely and deeply serrated, narrowed towards the base, covered with white down; lower ones crowded; stem-leaves rather acute, gradually lessening in size. _h._ 2in. to 4in. Northern Greece. Free grower, dwarf, and compact.

=A. Biebersteinii= (Bieberstein's).* _fl.-heads_ yellow. Summer. _l._ pinnately divided into linear three-lobed segments, which are covered with white silky pubescence. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Caucasus.

=A. Chamomilla fl. pl.= _See_ =Matricaria=.

=A. nobilis= (noble). Common Chamomile. _fl.-heads_ solitary; disk yellow; ray white; scales of the receptacle membranaceous, scarcely longer than the disk. _l._ bipinnate, segments linear-subulate, a little downy. Stem procumbent, and much branched. England. A very strong smelling plant, of great medicinal value. For culture, _see_ =Chamomile=.

=A. tinctoria= (dyer's). _fl._ bright yellow, in large heads. July and August. _l._ bipinnatifid, serrate, downy beneath. Stem angular. _h._ 1-1/2ft. England. A very pretty plant.

=ANTHER.= The male part of a flower containing the pollen.

=ANTHERICUM= (from _anthos_, a flower and _kerkos_, a hedge; in reference to the tall flower stems). SYN. _Phalangium_. ORD. _Liliaceæ_. A large genus, belonging to the capsular group of the order, and inhabiting, for the most part, the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers white, racemose or panicled, scapose; perianth segments either spreading from near the base or campanulately united; stamens short, with naked or bearded filaments. Leaves radical, filiform or linear. The hardy varieties are now extensively grown, and are among the most ornamental of border plants. They thrive best in rich light soil, and are excellent subjects for pot culture; for which purpose use a compost of fibrous loam, leaf mould, or well-decayed manure, and coarse sand. The pots should be about 12in. across, well drained, and the plants potted just previous to, or so soon as, growth commences. During activity, plenty of water is needed, until the plants have finished flowering, when the quantity may be lessened; but never allow them to get dry. Propagated by division of the roots or seeds, sowing the latter, as early as possible after they are ripe, in a cold frame.

=A. graminifolium= (grass-leaved). A garden name of _A. ramosum_.

=A. Hookeri= (Hooker's). _See_ =Chrysobactron Hookeri=.

=A. Liliago= (Liliago).* St. Bernard's Lily. _fl._ pure white, 1in. to 1-1/2in. across; perianth segments spreading; style curved. May to August. _l._ tufted, narrow, channelled, 12in. to 18in. high. South Europe, 1596. A very free flowering species, of which there is a _major_ variety in gardens. SYNS. _Phalangium_ and _Watsonia Liliago_.

=A. Liliastrum= (Liliaster).* St. Bruno's Lily. _fl._ much larger than the last, 2in. long, and as much across, fragrant, of a transparent whiteness, with a delicate green spot on the point of each segment, campanulate, arranged in loose spikes. Early summer. _l._ long, narrow, six or eight to each plant, about 1ft. to 2ft. long, _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. South Europe, 1629. SYNS. _Czackia Liliastrum_ and _Paradisia Liliastrum_ (this is the correct name). See Fig. 106.

[Illustration: FIG. 106. ANTHERICUM LILIASTRUM, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. L. major= (greater). _fl._ about 1in. larger than the type. _h._ about 6ft. A very desirable border plant.

=A. ramosum= (branched).* _fl._ white, rather smaller than those of _A. Liliago_; perianth segments narrow and spreading; style straight; flower stems much branched. June. _l._ long, narrow, channelled, grass-like. _h._ 2ft. South Europe, 1570. A rapid grower. SYN. _A. graminifolium_ (of gardens).

=A. serotinum= (late-flowering). _See_ =Lloydia=.

=A. variegatum= (variegated). _l._ keeled, grass-like, striped and margined with white. South Africa, 1875. Half hardy. The proper name of this plant is _Chlorophytum elatum variegatum_. SYNS. _A. Williamsii_ and _Phalangium argenteo-lineare_.

=A. Williamsii= (Williams'). Synonymous with _A. variegatum_.

=ANTHERIDIA.= The reproductive organs in cryptogamic plants, analogous to anthers in flowering plants.

=ANTHERIFEROUS.= Bearing anthers.

=ANTHESIS.= The opening period of flowers.

=ANTHOCARPOUS.= Bearing a fruit resulting from many flowers.

=ANTHOCERCIS= (from _anthos_, a flower, and _kerkis_, a ray; in reference to the radiated corolla). ORD. _Solanaceæ_. Handsome greenhouse evergreen shrubs, with alternate leaves, attenuated into the petioles or base, thick, sometimes glandularly dotted. Flowers axillary, generally solitary; corolla campanulate. Cuttings strike freely in sand under a bell glass, with a mild bottom heat. So soon as they have well rooted, pot off into very small pots in two-thirds good loam and one of peat. After having made a little headway, the leading shoots should be pinched off, to induce a lateral growth; they may be transferred to pots a size larger when the roots have filled the first pot. Continue growing throughout the summer in frames or in the greenhouse, near the glass, allowing plenty of air. Vigorous growth should be checked; thus encouraging bushy plants.

=A. albicans= (whitish-leaved).* _fl._ white, streaked with bluish-purple inside the tube, fragrant; petals longer than the tube. April. _l._ oblong, obtuse, densely tomentose on both surfaces, as well as the branches. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. New South Wales, 1824.

=A. floribunda= (many-flowered). _fl._ white. _h._ 3ft. New South Wales.

=A. ilicifolia= (Holly-leaved). _fl._ yellowish green. June. _h._ 6ft. Swan River, 1843.

=A. littorea= (shore). _fl._ white. June. _h._ 3ft. New Holland, 1803.

=A. viscosa= (clammy).* _fl._ large, white. May. _l._ obovate, glandularly dotted with scabrous margins; young leaves and branches clothed with fine down. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. New Holland, 1822.

=ANTHOLOMA= (from _anthos_, a flower, and _loma_, a fringe; in allusion to the fringed or crenulated limb of the corolla). ORD. _Tiliaceæ_. A very fine greenhouse evergreen tree; it thrives best in a light loamy soil, mixed with a little peat. Cuttings of ripened wood will strike root in sand, under a hand glass.

=A. montana= (mountain).* _fl._ white; corolla ovately cylindrical, with a crenate, rather toothed margin; racemes axillary, somewhat umbellate, reflexed. May. _l._ elliptical-oblong, leathery, stalked, scattered at the top of the branchlets. _h._ 20ft. New Caledonia, 1810.

=ANTHOLYZA= (from _anthos_, a flower, and _lyssa_, rage; in reference to the opening of the flowers, which resemble the mouth of an enraged animal). SYN. _Petamenes_. Including _Anisanthus_. ORD. _Irideæ_. A very pretty genus of bulbous plants from the Cape of Good Hope, having narrow, erect, Iris-like leaves, and flower-spikes that over-top the foliage, bearing numerous bright-coloured flowers. Perianth tubular, six-cleft, unequal, the upper segments longest; stamens three. The species may be grown in a greenhouse, or planted out in a frame. They also thrive excellently out of doors, and should be planted 8in. or 9in. deep for fear of frost, or have a winter protection of several inches of cocoa-nut fibre refuse or litter. The safer plan is to raise the roots, winter them in some dry part of the greenhouse; but, previous to storing, divide the clumps, clean them, and re-plant or pot in February, or early in March. A mixture of equal parts peat, sandy loam, and leaf soil is most suitable for their culture. Just previous to flowering, if in pots, frequent doses of weak manure water will be found beneficial. They may be propagated by offsets, which are produced in abundance, at almost any time. Seeds are sometimes procured, which should be sown so soon as ripe, in light soil, in a cool house, where they will germinate the following spring, and will be fit to plant out in the summer of the same year. With the exception of _A. Cunonia_, they all much resemble each other. Only four or five species of this genus are worth cultivating.

=A. æthiopica= (Æthiopian).* _fl._ scarlet and green. June. _h._ 3ft. 1759. SYNS. _A. floribunda_, _A. præalta_.

=A. æ. ringens= (gaping). _fl._ red and yellow, rather smaller than those of the type. SYN. _A. vittigera_.

=A. bicolor= (two-coloured). Synonymous with _A. Cunonia_.

=A. caffra= (Caffrarian).* _fl._ rich scarlet; spike distichous, many-flowered. June. _l._ long, linear, or linear-ensiform. _h._ 2ft. 1828. A very showy and pretty species, but rarely seen in our gardens. SYN. _Anisanthus splendens_.

=A. Cunonia= (Cunon's).* _fl._ scarlet and black, a combination of colours uncommon among bulbous plants; spikes secund. June. _h._ 2ft. 1756. SYN. _Anisanthus Cunonia_.

=A. floribunda= (much-flowered). A synonym of _A. æthiopica_.

=A. præalta= (very tall). Synonymous with _A. æthiopica_.

=A. vittigera= (glandular). Synonymous with _A. æ. ringens_.

=ANTHOMYIA.= _See_ =Beet Fly=, =Cabbage Fly=, and =Onion Fly=.

=ANTHONOMUS.= _See_ =Grubs=.

=ANTHOSPERMUM= (from _anthos_, a flower, and _sperma_, a seed). Amber Tree. ORD. _Rubiaceæ_. An ornamental greenhouse evergreen shrub from the Cape of Good Hope. It thrives in peat, loam, and sand, with a summer temperature of 50deg. to 65deg., and winter, 40deg. to 45deg. Increased by cuttings, in sand, under a bell glass. There are above twenty other species belonging to this genus.

=A. æthiopicum= (Æthiopian).* _fl._ diœcious, male brownish, and the female ones green, disposed in verticillate spikes. June. _l._ linear-lanceolate, three in a whorl, shining above, glabrous beneath, about 1/4in. long. Stem much branched, downy above. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. 1692.

=ANTHOTAXIS.= The arrangement of flowers on an inflorescence.

=ANTHOXANTHUM= (from _anthos_, a flower, and _xanthus_, yellow). Spring Grass. Calyx of two valves, glumaceous, one-flowered; corolla double, each of two valves: the exterior awned; the interior small, awnless; stamens two, not three, as is usually the case with grasses. ORD. _Gramineæ_. A pretty native hardy perennial, of easy culture in common garden soil.

[Illustration: FIG. 107. ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM.]

=A. odoratum= (sweet). _fl._ panicle spiked, oblong, dense, becoming dullish yellow. _l._ short, pale green. _h._ 1ft. The pleasant smell of new-made Hay is chiefly owing to this plant, which in drying emits an odour similar to that of _Asperula odorata_. See Fig. 107.

=ANTHURIUM= (from _anthos_, a flower, and _oura_, a tail; referring to the inflorescence). ORD. _Aroideæ_. Flowers densely disposed on a cylindrical spadix, at the base of which is a large bract-like spathe, that ultimately bends backwards. Leaves of various shapes. This very large genus of handsome stove and greenhouse plants is remarkable both for the peculiar inflorescence and often noble leaves, and is distinguished in structure from all the European members of the order in the flowers being hermaphrodite. Fibry peat, loam, sphagnum, broken crocks, or charcoal, and silver sand, form the most suitable compost. In preparing the peat, it should be broken up into small lumps, and then have most of the earthy matter knocked out of it by giving it a few raps with a stick, or by shaking it about in a sieve. To this, after so treated, add about one-fourth its bulk of sphagnum, and about half its bulk of fibrous loam, and just a sprinkling of fresh broken crocks, or small pieces of charcoal and sharp silver sand. In placing them in the pots--—which must be well drained--—carefully spread out the roots and work the mixture among them, keeping the plant well up, so that when finished it stands clear above the rim of the pot at least 2in. or 3in., and forms a kind of mound or hillock. They must then be kept freely syringed or watered, and placed in a moist atmosphere, where they can enjoy a temperature ranging between 60deg. and 70deg., or a few degrees lower for the less tender species. Raising plants from seed requires patience. About a year elapses from the time the flowers are fertilised--—which should be done artificially--before the seed ripens, and often another to get up plants. Sow as soon as ripe in shallow, well-drained pans or pots, filled with the potting mixture, and cover slightly, and place in a close, moist propagating case, where a temperature of from 75deg. to 85deg. is maintained, or they may be covered with bell glasses. The principal thing is to keep the air about them constantly humid, and the material in which they are sown in a uniformly moist condition; if this is done, the young seedlings will make their appearance in due course. When these are of sufficient size to handle, they should be pricked off in the same sort of compost, and be kept close and moist till they get a start, after which gradually inure them to more air. January is the best month of the year wherein to propagate these plants by divisions. This is done by carefully turning them out of their pots and shaking out what soil they have amongst their roots, which must be tenderly dealt with, so as not to bruise or injure them. This done, they may then be pulled apart, and as many plants made as there are separate crowns, or the mass may be simply halved or quartered, according to the stock required. Treat now as recommended above for potting. They are all moisture-loving plants, and must have a copious supply of water at all times, although, of course, much less during the winter than spring and summer months. There is no season of the year when they can be handled for any purpose with less risk or check than January. A moderate moist stove heat is advisable for them generally. The species enumerated are selected from nearly 150, and will be found to be a very representative collection. _See also_ =Spathiphyllum=.

=A. acaule= (stemless).* _fl._, spadix blue in a young state, borne on long footstalks, sweetly scented. Spring. _l._ broad, oblong, acuminate, 1ft. to 3ft. in length, erect, arranged in a rosulate manner, dark shining green on the upper surface, somewhat paler beneath. West Indies, 1853. A noble species.

[Illustration: FIG. 108. ANTHURIUM ANDREANUM.]

=A. Andreanum= (André's).* _fl._, spadix about 3in. long, yellowish, with a broad central band of white; spathe open, cordate-ovate, orange red, leathery, 3in. to 4in. across, and 6in. to 9in. long; surface irregularly corrugated. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, deeply cordate, green. Columbia, 1876. A very beautiful species. See Fig. 108.

=A. Bakeri= (Baker's).* _fl._, spathe small, green, reflexed; the spadix, wherein lies the plant's principal beauty, exhibits a lovely combination of pink and bright scarlet; the fleshy rachis being pink, and the pea-sized fruits bright scarlet. July. _l._ linear, leathery, green, with stout midribs. Costa Rica, 1872.

=A. cordifolium= (cordate-leaved).* _l._ 3ft. long and 20in. broad, heart-shaped, deep shining green on the upper surface, and paler below. _h._ 4ft. New Grenada. One of the best, and may be grown in a greenhouse or even in a sheltered spot of the sub-tropical garden during July and August. _A. Browni_, although quite distinct, comes close to this species.

=A. coriaceum= (leathery).* _l._ very thick, leathery, ovate, about 2ft. long; petioles stout, about the same length. Brazil. An admirable sub-tropical species.

[Illustration: FIG. 109. ANTHURIUM CRYSTALLINUM.]

=A. crystallinum= (crystalline).* _l._ large, ovate-cordate, acuminate, bright rich velvety green, principal veins elegantly banded with pure crystal white; when young, the leaves are violet colour; petioles terete. _h._ 2ft. Columbia. See Fig. 109.

=A. cuspidatum= (cuspidate). _fl._, spathe crimson, reflexed, shorter than the purplish spadix. _l._ ovate-oblong, acuminate, 10in. to 20in. long, green. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Columbia.

_A. ferrierense_ (Ferrières).* _fl._, spathe cordate, about 5in. long, and 4in. wide, bright red; spadix erect, about 4in. long, ivory white. _l._ large, cordate. A handsome hybrid between _A. ornatum_ and _A. Andreanum_.

=A. fissum= (cut-leaved). _fl._, spathe green, erect, narrowly lanceolate-acuminate. _l._ cut into four to seven elliptic oblong-acuminate segments, green; petioles longish, terete. _h._ 2ft. Columbia, 1868.

=A. Harrisii pulchrum= (beautiful).* _fl._, spathe linear-lanceolate, creamy white, deflexed, and pinkish at top; spadix erect, deep crimson; scape about 1ft. long, pale green. _l._ lanceolate, rounded at the base, pale green, with confluent white markings intermixed with dark green. Stem short. Brazil, 1882. A beautiful variegated plant. The typical _A. Harrisii_ is extremely rare.

=A. Hookeri= (Hooker's). _fl._, spathe green; spadix green or violet. _l._ obovate-spathulate, narrowed to a wedge-shaped base, and shortly stalked, shining, about 30in. long and 8in. broad. _h._ 3ft. Tropical America, 1840. SYNS. _A. Huegelii_, _Pothos acaulis_.

=A. Huegelii= (Huegel's). A synonym of _A. Hookeri_.

=A. insigne= (showy).* _l._ three-lobed, middle lobe lanceolate, the two lateral ones are nearly ovate, and have from three to five longitudinal ribs; when young, the leaves have a bronzy tinge; petioles terete, slightly sheathing at the base. Columbia, 1881. A very handsome species.

=A. Kalbreyeri= (Kalbreyer's).* _l._ palmate, about 2-1/2ft. across; leaflets nine, obovate-oblong, acuminate, sinuate, thick, glabrous, rich deep green, those furthest from the stem are much larger than those next the axis; petiole cylindrical, thickened at the top. New Grenada, 1881. A very handsome climbing species.

=A. lanceolatum= (lanceolate). _fl._, spathe lanceolate, deflexed, yellowish green; spadix dark brown. _l._ lanceolate, stalked, green, 1ft. long, narrowed to the base. There appears to be much confusion as regards this and many varieties of _A. Harrisii_; and the specific designation is indiscriminately applied to lanceolate-leaved forms generally. The true species was introduced to Kew from the West Indies. SYN. _A. Wildenowii_.

=A. leuconeurum= (white-nerved). Green. Mexico, 1862.

=A. Lindenianum= (Linden's).* _fl._ fragrant, spathe very pretty, white, not reflexed, but the pointed apex slightly arches over and shelters the white or purplish spadix. October. _l._ deeply cordate, of a roundish outline; petioles long. _h._ 3ft. Columbia, 1866. SYN. _A. Lindigi_ (of gardens).

=A. Lindigi= (Lindig's). A garden synonym of _A. Lindenianum_.

=A. macrolobum= (large-lobed).* _l._ large, deflexed, cordate, acuminate, with an open sinus at the base, and about three acute marginal lobes, dark green, marked with about five pale green ribs; petioles green, terete. Stem erect, short. A fine hybrid.

=A. nymphæifolium= (Nymphæa-leaved). _fl._, spathe white; spadix purplish. Venezuela, 1854.

=A. ornatum= (adorned).* _fl._, spathe linear-oblong, white, 5in. to 6in. long, on terete green scapes, enclosing cylindrical purplish spadices of about the same length as the spathes, and studded with white points arranged spirally. Spring. _l._ ovate or oblong-cordate, on slender terete petioles. _h._ 2-1/2ft. Venezuela, 1869.

=A. regale= (royal).* _l._ large, cordate-acuminate, 1ft. to 3ft. long, dull metallic green, with white veins; young leaves tinged with rose, on long smooth footstalks. East Peru, 1866. An excellent species for conservatory or window decoration during summer.

[Illustration: FIG. 110. ANTHURIUM SCHERZERIANUM.]

=A. Scherzerianum= (Scherzer's).* _fl._ on bright red peduncles, which spring from among the base of the leafstalks; spathe ovate-oblong, 3in. long and nearly 2in. broad, intense and brilliant scarlet; spadix orange coloured. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, 12in. to 18in. long, and 2in. or more broad, deep rich green, leathery. Costa Rica. A very compact dwarf-growing evergreen about 1ft. high. It continues in beauty about four months. See Fig. 110.

=A. S. album= (white). A synonym of _A. Scherzerianum Williamsii_.

[Illustration: FIG. 111. ANTHURIUM SCHERZERIANUM MAXIMUM.]

=A. S. maximum= (greater).* A very fine variety, with "gigantic flower spathes, which measure about 9in. in length by 4in. in breadth, and are of the most brilliant scarlet colour." See Fig. 111.

=A. S. pygmæum= (small).* Altogether smaller than the type, with narrow leaves, which are from 4in. to 6in. long, and about 1/2in. broad. It is one of the best varieties, and produces flowers very freely. 1880.

=A. S. Rothschildianum= (Rothschild's). _fl._, spathe creamy white, spotted with crimson; spadix yellow. 1880. Exactly intermediate between its parent plants--the typical species and the following variety.

=A. S. Wardii= (Ward's).* _fl._, spathe 6in. long, 4in. broad, very brilliant. _l._ broader and more robust than those of the typical species. A splendid variety.

=A. S. Williamsii= (Williams's).* _fl._, spathe white; spadix yellowish. May. _l._ lanceolate-acuminate. Costa Rica, 1874. SYN. _A. Scherzerianum album_.

=A. signatum= (well-marked). _l._ apparently three-lobed; front lobe about 1ft. long and 4in. wide; the two side ones 4in. long, and about 6in. from the midrib to the extremity, dark green; petioles about 1ft. long. Venezuela, 1858.

=A. spathiphyllum= (Spathiphyllum). _fl._, spathe about 1-3/4in. long, and nearly as much broad, erect, boat-shaped, broadly ovate, white; spadix nearly 1in. long, very obtuse, pale yellow. _l._ narrow lanceolate, 16in. to 24in. long, and about 2in. wide, bright green above, pale greyish green beneath; midrib prominent; petiole 3in. to 6in. long, trigonous. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Tropical America, 1875.

=A. splendidum= (splendid).* _l._ cordate, with an open sinus, the lobes meeting behind; "the course of the nerves is marked by a broadish band of deep lustrous velvety green, the intervening spaces of about equal width being in striking contrast, of a pale yellowish green; the leaf surface is scabrous, and the portions between the ribs strongly bullate, as if raised in papillose blisters; the veins on the under surface are angular, with tooth-like projections at intervals, while the whole under surface is punctuated with small pallid dots" (W. Bull). Stem short, thick. South America, 1882. A very beautiful species, quite distinct from any others of the genus. See Fig. 112.

[Illustration: FIG. 112. ANTHURIUM SPLENDIDUM.]

=A. subsignatum= (nearly allied to Signatum).* _l._ thick and fleshy, hastate, with blunt points, 12in. to 18in. long, and as much in breadth at the widest part; dark shining green above, paler beneath; petioles about 1ft. long. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Costa Rica, 1861. An excellent species.

=A. tetragonum= (four-angled). _l._ erect, commences very narrow, 1ft. wide at its broadest part; margins undulate, deep shining green on the upper surface, paler below; petioles short, quadrangular. Tropical America, 1860. An excellent sub-tropical species.

=A. triumphans= (superior). _fl._, spathe narrow, green; spadix stout, greenish-white; peduncle quadrangular. _l._ alternate, elongately cordate, bright green; ribs prominent, and of a paler hue. Stem erect. Brazil, 1882. A handsome plant.

=A. Veitchii= (Veitch's).* _l._ ovate-oblong, greatly elongated, 2ft. to 3ft. long, with a breadth of less than one-third of these dimensions, leathery, deep green, with a glossy metallic surface when first expanded that becomes paler with age; the principal nerves are arched and deeply sunk, imparting a curiously waved appearance to the surface. _h._ 2-1/2ft. Columbia, 1877. Rare but very handsome.

=A. Waluiewi= (Walujew's).* _l._ broadly cordate, 12in. to 14in. long, 8in. to 10in. broad, olive metallic green, when young, bright reddish crimson; petioles four to five-angled. _h._ 2ft. Venezuela, 1880. A very distinct and noble species.

=A. Waroqueanum= (Waroque's).* _l._ elongated, from 24in. to sometimes 36in. long, and 8in. to 11in. broad, very rich deep green, of a velvety lustre; midribs and veins light, forming a very pleasing contrast. Columbia, 1878. A very free grower.

=A. Wildenowii= (Wildenow's). A synonym of _A. lanceolatum_.

It may be here remarked that by far the majority of species enumerated in the _Supplement_ of Johnson's Dictionary are chiefly of botanical interest, and will, therefore, never become extensively cultivated.

=ANTHYLLIS= (from _anthos_, a flower, and _ioulos_, down; flowers usually downy). Kidney Vetch. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Herbaceous or sub-shrubby plants, of variable habit. Flowers in spikes or heads; calyx tubular, five toothed, permanent after flowering, more or less inflated. Petals nearly equal. Although not extensively grown, all the species are very beautiful when in flower, the hardy sorts being admirably adapted for rockwork. The herbaceous perennials may be easily propagated by seed or division. The seeds of the annual kinds should be sown in a rather dry, warm situation in the open ground. The shrubby evergreens will need the protection of a frame or cool greenhouse in cold northern climates, and are best grown in a mixture of loam, sand, and peat. Young cuttings of most species will root in a pot of sandy soil, with a bell glass placed over them, in a cool house or frame.

=A. Barba-Jovis= (Jupiter's beard).* _fl._ pale yellow, numerous, in globose, bracteate heads. March. _l._ pinnate, and are as well as the branches, clothed with silky tomentum; leaflets nine to thirteen, oblong-linear. _h._ 4ft. to 8ft. Spain, 1640. Shrub.

=A. erinacea= (prickly).* _fl._ bluish-purple; heads few flowered, on short peduncles, bracteate. April. _l._ very few, oval, or oblong. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Spain, 1759. A much branched, spiny, almost leafless, and slow-growing species; hardy in a dry sunny position on the rockery. SYN. _Erinacea hispanica_.

=A. Hermanniæ= (Hermann's). _fl._ yellow; heads few flowered, nearly sessile in the axils of the upper leaves. April. _l._ almost sessile, simple, or trifoliate; leaflets oblong-cuneated, glabrous or clothed with adpressed pubescence. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Corsica, 1739. Shrubby, much branched.

=A. montana= (mountain).* _fl._ pink or purplish, in dense heads, on peduncles, with a leafy involucre. June. _l._ pinnate, and are as well as the branches, silky and hoary; leaflets numerous, oval-oblong, acute, small, entire. _h._ 3in. to 6in. Alps of Europe, 1769. A very handsome little rock plant, with a dwarf and tufted habit.

=A. tetraphylla= (four-leaved). _fl._ white; heads axillary, sessile, few flowered. July. _l._ pinnate, the terminal leaflets ovate and large, the other three small and acute. South Europe, 1640. A procumbent annual.

=A. Vulneraria= (Common Woundwort).* _fl._ generally yellow, sometimes white, red, or pinkish, in crowded twin heads. Summer. _l._ pinnate, with five or more unequal leaflets; the lower ones smallest. An elegant native herbaceous, perennial, admirably adapted for rockwork. It is plentiful in most dry pastures. There are several varieties, the best of which is _alba_.

=ANTIARIS TOXICARIA.= This is the famous Upas tree of Java, from which is obtained poison of a most deadly nature. It belongs to the NAT. ORD. _Urticaceæ_.

=ANTIGONON= (from _anti_, against, or opposite, and _gonia_, an angle). ORD. _Polygonaceæ_. Elegant stove climbers. Flowers racemose, cirrhose at the apex of the rachides; petals five, three outer ones broadly cordate, two inner oblong. Leaves alternate, cordate. Although extremely handsome plants, they are difficult to flower. They seem to succeed best when planted out in a very thoroughly drained border over hot-water pipes or flues, the long climbing stems being trained near the glass in full light.

=A. amabile= (lovely).* _fl._ bright rose, profusely borne in axillary and terminal racemes. _l._ 3in. to 5in. long, ovate-cordate, and deeply lobed at the base. It is of free slender growth, the young shoots are pubescent, and having a slight reddish tinge. An exceedingly attractive and effective species.

=A. guatemalensis= (Guatemala). Probably the same as _A. insigne_.

=A. insigne= (remarkable).* _fl._ very numerous, borne in tufts along the sides of long racemes or panicles, which terminate in branched tendrils; the calyx, which is the showy part of the flower, has five membranous sepals, the three outer are of a beautiful rosy pink colour, about 1in. in length by rather less in breadth, cordate at the base, oblong, rounded towards the apex; the two inner sepals about the same length as the outer ones, but much narrower, falcate, lanceolate; pedicels 3/4in. long. _l._ broadly ovate oblong, deeply cordate at the base, with two rounded lobes; 4in. by 3in., the upper ones smaller, supported on short terete downy stalks. Stems slender, angular, pubescent. Columbia, 1876.

_A. leptopus_ (slender-stemmed). _fl._ numerous; the outer three sepals of a beautiful rose colour, the centre of a much deeper tint; racemes secund, bearing several coloured bracts as well as flowers, and end in a branched tendril. _l._ alternate, cordate, petiolate. Stem slender, sub-pubescent. Mexico, 1868.

=ANTIGRAMME.= _See_ =Scolopendrium=.

[Illustration: FIG. 113. ANTIRRHINUM CAPSULE, with Persistent Style.]

[Illustration: FIG. 114. ANTIRRHINUM ASARINA, showing Habit and Flower.]

=ANTIRRHINUM= (from _anti_, like, and _rhin_, a nose or snout; alluding to the shape of the corolla). Snapdragon. ORD. _Scrophulariaceæ_. Hardy herbaceous plants. Flowers in terminal racemes, or solitary and axillary; corolla personate; tube ample, saccate at the base; lobes of the upper lip erect; lower lip spreading, having the middle lobes smaller than the lateral ones, with an ample bearded palate, which closes the throat. Seed pod or capsule two-celled, upper cell bursting by one pore, lower by two many-toothed pores. See Fig. 113. Leaves entire, rarely lobed. The genus contains several very handsome species, suitable for borders and the rockery, while innumerable varieties have originated from _A. majus_, which are very popular, and extremely useful for bedding purposes; these may be increased by cuttings or seeds; if it is desired to increase certain colours or varieties, the former is the only sure method to adopt. They should be taken in September, when they will readily root in a cold frame, or under a hand glass, or they may be rapidly propagated in gentle heat in spring. Seeds should be sown in July or August, when they will produce good plants by the following season; or if sown in March in warmth, the plants will bloom late in the same year. The "Tom Thumb" strain is especially desirable for bedding, being very dwarf and free. All the other species may be increased by cuttings and seeds treated in the same way. Light soil, well enriched with manure, is most suitable for all of them, especially for the varieties of _A. majus_.

[Illustration: FIG. 115. FLOWER-SPIKE OF ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS.]

=A. angustifolium= (narrow-leaved). Synonymous with _A. siculum_.

=A. Asarina= (Asarina).* _fl._ axillary, solitary; corolla 1-1/2in. long, white, sometimes tinged with red; palate yellow; tube glabrous, compressed on the back, marked by purple spots, and bearded by yellow hairs inside. June. _l._ opposite, on long petioles, five-nerved, five-lobed, cordate, and crenated. South France, &c., 1699. A greyish clammy procumbent plant, requiring a warm position on the rockery. See Fig. 114.

=A. hispanicum= (Spanish). _fl._ in loose spikes; corolla hardly an inch long, purple, with a golden yellow palate; tube villous. Summer. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, contracted at the base, bluntish; lower ones opposite; superior ones alternate, narrower. _h._ 1ft. Spain, 1878. SYN. _A. latifolium_.

=A. latifolium= (broad-leaved). Synonymous with _A. hispanicum_.

=A. majus= (large).* Greater, or Common Snapdragon. _fl._ racemose, approximate; corolla 1in. to 2in. long, shades infinite; palate yellow at top, very prominent; tube downy outside. Spring, summer, and autumn. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, 1in. to 3in. long; upper ones narrower, attenuated at both ends, glabrous. Branches erect, usually branched again. _h._ 2ft. Europe (naturalised in Britain). The named varieties are numerous, but it is unnecessary to enumerate any, as an equal amount of variation can be obtained from seed. See Fig. 115.

=A. molle= (soft).* _fl._ few, at the tops of the branchlets; corolla 1in. long, whitish, with a yellow palate; upper lip striped with purple. July. _l._ opposite, petiolate, clothed with glandular and clammy hairs, about 1/2in. long, and little more than 1/4in. broad; branches procumbent, slender, clothed with woolly hairs. Pyrenees, 1752. A very pretty plant, which should have a warm position on the rockery. _A. sempervirens_ comes close to this species.

=A. Orontium= (Orontium). _fl._ axillary, distant; corolla rose-coloured or white, striped with purple; tube furnished with a few glandular hairs; palate veined with purple; sepals linear-lanceolate, large. June. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acutish, attenuated at both ends, glabrous, 2in. long. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Europe (British cornfields). Annual. See Fig. 116.

[Illustration: FIG. 116. ANTIRRHINUM ORONTIUM.]

=A. O. grandiflorum= (large-flowered). A variety with larger, paler, and more approximate flowers, and with broader leaves, than the type. Europe (British cornfields).

=A. siculum= (Sicilian). _fl._ in loose racemes; corolla hardly 1in. long, white or yellowish, rarely purple; tube rather hairy; lobes of the upper lip and the middle lobe of the lower lip emarginate. July. _l._ 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, linear-lanceolate, opposite, alternate or three in a whorl, narrowed into petioles at the base. Branches erect. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Sicily, 1804. SYN. _A. angustifolium_.

=A. tortuosum= (twisted).* _fl._ disposed in spiked racemes, approximating by threes and fours; corolla (the largest of the genus) purple; tube short; upper lip large. June. _l._ linear, acute, opposite or three in a whorl, 2in. long, attenuated at both ends; upper ones very narrow. Branches erect. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Italy.

=ANTONIA.= A synonym of =Rhynchoglossum= (which _see_).

=ANTROPHYUM= (from _antron_, a cavern, and _phuo_, to grow; referring to its place of growth). Including _Polytænium_. ORD. _Filices_. A small genus of stove ferns, very rarely seen in cultivation, all with simple fronds, of firm but fleshy texture, and copious, uniform, hexagonal areolæ. Sori carried along the veins, imperfectly reticulated. For culture, &c., _see_ =Ferns=.

=A. cayennense= (Cayenne). _sti._ 1in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, lanceolate-oblong, narrowed at both ends; edge thickened, entire; areolæ half as broad as long. _sori_ sub-superficial, often forked. Guiana, &c.

=A. coriaceum= (leathery). _fronds_ 6in. to 8in. long, about 1/2in. broad, narrowed very gradually from the centre to the base, very acute at the apex, very thick; areolæ very long and narrow, distinctly raised on the upper surface. _sori_ quite immersed, sometimes confluent. Himalayas, &c.

=A. lanceolatum= (lance-leaved).* _fronds_ 1ft. or more long, 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, point acute, edge entire, the lower half narrowed very gradually to the base; areolæ two or three times as long as broad, about three rows between the midrib and the edge. _sori_ slender, superficial, often joining. West Indies, southwards to New Grenada, 1793.

=ANTS= (_Formicidæ_). Well-known pests, easily distinguished from all other insects. There are a great number of species, differing more or less in habits; but, as a rule, they dwell underground in communities, and construct extensive ant-cities, which are occupied by three classes--the neuters or workers (by far the most numerous), the males, and the females. There are often, in addition to these, larger and stronger neuters, known as the "soldiers," or defenders of the community. Ants have a long, slender body, supported on long and slender legs. The head bears a pair of elbowed horns or antennæ, constantly waving about and touching everything the insect comes across. They have powerful mandibles for cutting, sawing, and biting, and it is with these instruments that Ants do mischief in gardens. The winged males and females become mature in summer, and on a warm day they ascend in a body into the air; after a short time, they fall to the ground, the females at once free themselves from the henceforth useless wings, and begin to form new colonies. Vast numbers of eggs are laid, from which issue larvæ, and these soon become pupæ, and then perfect Ants. Some kinds are injurious from their habit (in some species) of collecting aphides together, and farming them for the sake of the honey secreted by the aphides, and that passes out from their honey-tubes (thus helping to perpetuate the stock of these most injurious insects); and also from the mechanical damage they do in pots, and other receptacles for plants. They likewise cause unsightly hills on lawns and paths, and the large black species that live in decayed wood often injure the framing of greenhouses, &c., when the woodwork has become somewhat decayed. Where fruit, such as peaches or wall pears, are grown, Ants will at times inflict damage, and, therefore, they should be kept away; but this is a comparatively easy matter, as the placing of an obnoxious substance along the base of the walls and around the stems of the trees will deter them. For the extirpation of Ants from indoors, the Arsenical solution described below is most efficacious, but it is extremely dangerous.

* * * * *

_Lime._ Air-slaked lime plentifully dusted, in warm, dry, weather, over and around the hills and other places infested, will cause the Ants to vacate them in a short time. A thick chalk line drawn round a smooth tree, or across an upright board or post, will render it impassable.

_Arsenic._ This must be used with the utmost caution, as it is a poison most fatal to animal life. Recipe: 1oz. of ordinary arsenic is placed in an old iron pot with a quart of water, and then boiled until reduced to a pint or a little more of liquid, to which is added 1/2lb. of coarse sugar. This mixture can either be dropped about the runs and around the nests, or placed in saucers in the Ants' haunts.

_Ferrocyanide of Potassium._ This is also very dangerous: Ferrocyanide of potassium, 1dr.; raspings of quassia, 1dr.; and enough sugar to form a syrup. Use in the same way as the preceding.

_Calomel and Sugar._ Mix together one part of calomel and ten parts of finely-powdered loaf sugar, and lay it in little heaps about their nests and runs; the Ants will eat it and die. Spring is the best season for this method.

_Guano_, when fresh, if sprinkled on and around their quarters, is said to be efficacious in driving them away.

_Camphor._ If a piece of camphor, about the size of a filbert, be placed in two quarts of hot water, and this, when cool enough, applied to pot or other plants infested with Ants, the insects will be driven off without injury to the plants.

_Bones._ Lay a quantity of partially-picked boiled bones in the haunts, and they will be quickly covered with insects. As soon as this occurs, throw the bones into hot water. Before laying them down again, let all superfluous moisture drain off. This is a cheap remedy, and, if persisted in, is very effectual.

_Carbolic Acid._ This, if of good strength, diluted with about ten or twelve times its bulk of water, and well sprinkled over paths or other places where there is no vegetation, will keep the Ants away. It has, however, an objectionable smell.

_Paraffin Oil._ Paraffin, mixed with six times its bulk of water, and sprinkled over the nests every few days, will kill and drive away Ants; but the smell is disagreeable.

_Quassia._ 4oz. of quassia chips, boiled in a gallon of water for about ten minutes, and 4oz. of soap added to the liquor as it cools, if used like the preceding, is fairly effectual; but this, like the other remedies, must be persisted in for some time.

Fly pans or saucers, nearly filled with thin honey or sweet oil, attract Ants, and they are drowned in them. Ants are very hard to clear effectually out of a place, and therefore it is very desirable, in all attempts to be rid of them, to persist in the above remedies. When not living close to the roots or stems of plants, the best and surest remedy of all is to flood them out or scald them in with boiling water. The specifics are endless, but the best are mentioned above.

=ANTWERP HOLLYHOCK.= _See_ =Althæa ficifolia=.

=AOTUS= (from _a_, without, and _ous_, an ear; in allusion to the absence of appendages in the calyx, which distinguishes it from its allied genus, _Pultenæa_). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Elegant little greenhouse evergreen shrubs, with yellow flowers, and simple, linear-subulate leaves, revolute at the margins, alternate or nearly opposite, or three in a whorl. They should be grown in a compost of equal parts loam, sand, and peat, with a little charcoal, and the pots should be well drained. Cuttings of half-ripened wood, made in April, root freely in sand, under a bell glass.

=A. gracillima= (most slender).* _fl._ yellow and crimson, small, on long, dense, graceful spikes, which are often over a foot long; pedicels short. May. _h._ 3ft. New Holland, 1844. A very pretty slender growing shrub.

=A. villosa= (soft-haired). _fl._ axillary, disposed in racemose spikes along the branches; calyx silky. April. _l._ smoothish on the upper surface. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. New Holland, 1790.

=APEIBA= (the native name in Guiana.) ORD. _Tiliaceæ_. Very handsome stove evergreen trees or shrubs, clothed with starry down. Flowers large, golden yellow, pedunculate, bracteate. Capsule spherical, depressed, rough from rigid bristles. Leaves broad, alternate, entire or serrate. They thrive in a mixture of loam and peat. The best way to induce them to flower in this country is by cutting a ring round the bark of a large branch; by this means the growth is stopped. Well ripened cuttings should be planted in sand in heat, under a bell glass, which should be tilted occasionally, so as to give a little air to the cuttings, otherwise they are apt to damp off.

=A. aspera= (rough).* _fl._ golden yellow; peduncles opposite the leaves, branched, many flowered. May. _l._ ovate-oblong, somewhat cordate, quite entire, smooth. _h._ 30ft. to 40ft. Guiana, 1792.

=A. Petoumo= (Petoumo). _fl._ yellow, similarly disposed to _A. aspera_. August. _fr._ densely clothed with bristles. _l._ ovate-oblong, somewhat cordate at the base, entire, hoary beneath. _h._ 40ft. Guiana, 1817.

=A. Tibourbou= (Tibourbou).* _fl._ dark yellow. August. _fr._ densely clothed with bristles. _l._ cordate, ovate-oblong, serrated, hairy beneath. _h._ 10ft. Guiana, 1756.

=APETALOUS.= Without petals.

=APEX.= The summit or point of anything.

=APHELANDRA= (from _apheles_, simple, and _aner_, a male; the anthers being one-celled). ORD. _Acanthaceæ_. Very handsome stove evergreen shrubs, mostly of an erect habit of growth, and having handsome shining leaves, which in some instances are variegated. Flowers produced in terminal four-sided spikes-—the preponderating colours being brilliant shades of orange or scarlet—-conspicuously situated above the foliage; they are exceedingly attractive; corolla ringent, two-lipped, upper lip three-lobed; central lobe large. They bloom generally during the autumn months, and if the plants are removed to a warm dry atmosphere so soon as the flowers begin to open, they will continue much longer in perfection than if left in the moisture-laden atmosphere of the stove. From the time the flower spikes are at first seen till they bloom, the plants will derive much benefit from frequent applications of clear manure water. When the plants have finished flowering, they should be allowed to rest, by reducing the supply of water, but never allow them to shrivel. During this time they may be kept in a house or pit, where the atmosphere is rather dry, with a night temperature of 50deg. to 55deg. Here they may remain till March, when they should be pruned. This operation is commenced by thinning out the weakest shoots altogether, and cutting the others back to one or two of the strongest joints or buds above the old wood in order to keep the plants dwarf and bushy. When pruned, the plants should be placed in the stove, giving moderate supplies of water at the roots, and occasionally sprinkling the stems overhead till growth commences. When the young shoots have attained an inch or so in length, the plants should be turned out of the pots, removing the crocks and as much of the old soil as can be got away easily, at the same time shortening-in any of the straggling roots. They should then be placed into smaller-sized pots, keeping them rather close, and watering them carefully for a time till growth has commenced. When fairly started, they may be transferred into larger-sized pots, in which they are to flower. During the summer, these plants require a moist atmosphere, with a temperature of 65deg. by night, allowing it to rise 15deg. or 20deg. by day, and whilst active growth is taking place they should be frequently supplied with moisture at the roots, keeping them well exposed on all sides to the light. After growth has commenced, it is not advisable to stop the shoots, for the stouter and stronger they grow up the finer will be the flower spikes when they appear. The compost should consist of equal parts fibry loam, leaf soil, and peat, with a good proportion of sand added. In preparing it, it should be rather lumpy, and, before using, should be warmed to about the temperature of the house in which the plants are grown. Clean pots and perfect drainage are most essential. Cuttings are best prepared from half ripened wood, or taken off when young with a heel. The base of each cutting should invariably be cut clean across. These may be inserted an inch apart, in pots of sandy soil, and plunged in a brisk bottom heat. To obtain young shoots for cuttings, if the old plants break freely after pruning, and very large specimens are not required, when the shoots are 2in. long they should be thinned out, leaving the requisite number of the strongest to form the plant. If the surplus pieces are removed with a slight heel of the older wood, they make good cuttings, and should be treated the same as the others. These cuttings strike root quickest, and when rooted, if potted into 5in. or 6in. pots, and allowed to grow up without stopping or pinching out the tops, they will flower the first season. Although Aphelandras can be grown into large sized specimens, it will be found to be more generally satisfactory to have specimens of neat and moderate dimensions. The mealy bug and scale insects are very troublesome, and must be kept down, otherwise they will prove most prejudicial to the plants.

=A. acutifolia= (acute-leaved). _fl._ large, deep vermilion red; the upper lip of corolla concave, and projected forward, the lower one consists of three oblong-obtuse spreading lobes. October. _l._ broad, oblong-ovate, acuminate. Columbia, 1868.

=A. aurantiaca= (orange-coloured).* _fl._ deep orange scarlet; upper lip of corolla erect, bidentate, concave; lower one spreading horizontally, three lobed. December. _l._ broad, ovate, opposite, dark green, somewhat wavy at the edge. _h._ 3ft. Mexico, 1844.

=A. a. Roezlii= (Roezl's).* Differs chiefly from the type in the curiously twisted leaves, which are dark green, shaded with a silvery hue between the primary veins; in the brighter scarlet of the flowers; and a few other, but purely technical, points. It is one of the best. Mexico, 1867. SYN. _A. Roezlii_.

=A. cristata= (crested).* _fl._ brilliant orange scarlet, 2in. or 3in. long, in large terminal branching spikes. August to November. _l._ large, broadly ovate, and tapering to a point. _h._ 3ft. West Indies, 1733. A handsome and continuous bloomer. SYN. _Justicia pulcherrima_.

=A. fascinator= (fascinating).* _fl._ bright vermilion, in very large spikes. Autumn. _l._ ovate acuminate, olive green, beautifully banded with silvery white, whilst the under side is of a uniform purplish violet. _h._ 1-1/2ft. New Grenada, 1874.

=A. Leopoldi= (Leopold's).* _fl._ citron-yellow. _l._ opposite, ovate-oblong, acuminate; ground colour on the upper surface dark green, the midrib and primary veins pure white; under surface uniformly pale green. Brazil, 1854.

=A. medio-aurata= (golden-centred). _fl._ unknown. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, sinuate, bright green, with yellow central brand. Brazil, 1871. SYN. _Graptophyllum medio-auratum_.

=A. nitens= (shining).* _fl._ glowing vermilion-scarlet, very large, in erect, simple, terminal spikes, which, after the flowers have fallen, are clothed with the imbricating, lanceolate, appressed bracts. _l._ ovate, sub-acute, leathery, brilliant glossy on the upper surface, dark vinous purple underneath. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Columbia, 1867.

=A. Porteana= (Porte's).* _fl._ in fine terminal heads; corolla and bracts bright orange. _l._ rich green, with metallic silvery-white veins. _h._ 2ft. Brazil, 1854.

=A. pumila= (dwarfish).* _fl._ orange-coloured; upper lip erect, concave, entire; bracts large, purplish. _l._ large, cordate, ovate-oblong, acute. _h._ 8in. Brazil, 1878. Very distinct from all others.

=A. punctata= (dotted).* _fl._ bright yellow, in large and rather dense spikes; the spiny-edged long pointed bracts are also yellow, with the exception of the tip, which is green, and forms a pleasing contrast. November. _l._ opposite, elliptic, acuminate; the green midrib is conspicuous in the middle of a white central band, which also extends beside the green veins, this silvery band breaking up on its margin into numerous small white dots, producing a pretty and distinct form of variegation. South America, 1881.

=A. Roezlii.= A synonym of _A. aurantiaca Roezlii_.

=A. variegata= (variegated). _fl._ yellow; spike, 6in. long, with bright orange-red bracts. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, dark green with white veins. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Brazil.

=APHELEXIS= (from _apheles_, simple, and _exis_, habit). ORD. _Compositæ_. A genus of elegant dwarf evergreen greenhouse shrubs. Flower-heads large, solitary, or small and two or more together. Leaves small. These plants are valuable for exhibition purposes, on account of their bright colours, and the length of time they last in perfection; they are included among what are familiarly known as "everlastings." The most suitable soil is a compost of two parts of good fibrous peat and one of leaf mould, with a liberal supply of silver sand, and a few pieces of charcoal added to it. Repot the plants firmly in February, and allow thorough drainage. Cuttings can be made in spring or summer; small half-ripened side shoots are best; and these will root in sandy soil, under a bell glass, in a cool greenhouse.

=A. ericoides= (heath-like).* _fl.-heads_ white. April. _l._ very small, three-cornered, imbricated, appressed; branches numerous, very fine, filiform. _h._ 1ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1796.

=A. fasciculata= (fascicled). _fl.-heads_ purplish, solitary, terminal; peduncles scaly. March. _l._ acerose linear, roundish, downy above; lower spreading; upper appressed. _h._ 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1779. There are two or three forms of this species, varying in the colour of the flowers.

=A. humilis= (humble, or dwarf).* _fl.-heads_ pink, solitary, terminal, opening only in sunshine; peduncles scaly. April. _l._ subulate, erect, imbricate. Branches numerous, slender, covered with white tomentum. _h._ 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1810. A handsome greenhouse plant, with much-branched stems, terminated by the flower-head. SYNS. _A. macrantha_ and _Helipterum humile_.

=A. h. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ rosy-purple, produced in great abundance. Habit rather dwarf, and free branching. Very highly esteemed.

=A. h. purpurea= (purple).* _fl._ dark purple, very abundant. _l._ silvery white and shining. A vigorous grower, and perhaps the best for exhibition purposes. It is known in gardens as _A. macrantha purpurea_; also under the name of _A. spectabilis_.

=A. h. rosea= (rose-coloured).* _fl.-heads_ delicate rose, very profuse. Habit very compact and free-branching. A very showy and desirable variety, known in gardens as _A. macrantha rosea_.

=A. macrantha= (large-flowered). Synonymous with _A. humilis_.

=A. sesamoides= (Sesamum-like). _fl.-heads_ purple and white, sessile, solitary, terminal. April. _l._ acerose linear, keeled, smooth, appressed. _h._ 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1739.

=APHIDES=, or =PLANT LICE=. These belong to the order _Homoptera_, meaning "same winged," and the name has reference to the fact that the fore wings are uniform in their structure from base to apex, not divided into a leathery base and a membranous tip. Aphides are all minute in size, soft bodied, and generally long legged; the mouth is furnished with a curiously-constructed beak, or rostrum, for sucking the juice of plants; the antennæ, or feelers, are long and slender; the legs have usually two joints in the tarsi, one of which is generally very ill-developed; and near the tip of the abdomen, on the back of a ring, in many kinds, stand two prominent tubes, called honey-tubes, from which a sweet secretion, much sought after by ants, is emitted. They are very destructive, and nearly every plant has its own peculiar Aphis; but among the worst are the cherry fly and bean fly. All these insects are very destructive to the young shoots and foliage of plants, on which they cluster in large numbers, sometimes completely hiding the stems, increasing with marvellous rapidity. They produce eggs in autumn, which lie dormant through the winter, and upon the approach of warm weather in spring, hatch and produce individuals which, during the summer, are viviparous, budding off young insects at a surprising rate, which quickly in turn become possessed of the same marvellous power; hence the enormous number which are produced in so surprisingly short a time. It has been computed that in a few weeks many millions of young might be produced directly or descended from a single female. _See also_ =Black Fly= and =Bean Fly=.

The following remedies may be successfully employed:

_Tobacco._ This is applied, as a rule, in three forms, each of which is useful for particular purposes. Tobacco powder is useful as a dry application to plants where, from any cause, the other modes of employing it are not desirable. It causes no smell, and is useful in conservatories, &c., for that reason. The mode of applying it is to dredge or dust it over the foliage of the plants affected, and to syringe off in from three to thirty hours, according to the nature of the plants. Fumigation with tobacco, if done in a proper way, is very effective, but it leaves an unpleasant smell. The foliage of the plants should be quite dry, and a still day must be chosen for the work; the house should be filled with smoke, but no flame must arise in the burning. The plants should be well syringed the next morning, and full ventilation allowed; if the fumigation is repeated twice or thrice, it will prove very effectual. Tobacco water is made by soaking a pound of coarse shag in 6gals. of hot water, to which 1/2lb. of size or soft soap has been added. The plants should be dipped into or syringed with this mixture, and well syringed with clean tepid water about twelve hours after. It should not be employed for plants having woolly or hairy foliage. Tobacco paper and cloth are used for fumigating in the same manner as tobacco; but as they vary in strength, more care is necessary, as they sometimes cause the leaves to become spotted. Judiciously employed, they are cheaper than Tobacco.

_Quassia._ Boil 1lb. quassia chips in 4gals. of soft water, for about ten minutes, and after straining off the chips, add 1lb. of soft soap. Apply in the same way as Tobacco water, and syringe the plants with clean water after ten minutes or a quarter of an hour.

_Soft Soap._ This, in proportion of 8lb. to 12gals. of rain water, and 1gal. of tobacco water added after it is cold, is a cheap and good remedy out of doors, and requires the same mode of application as tobacco water.

_Soap Suds._ Where bleaching powder, or much soda, is not mixed with these, they make a good insect killer for hard-foliaged plants, but should be washed off with clean water in twelve hours. No mixture containing chloride of lime should be used.

_Various._ Fir-tree Oil, Gishurst's Compound, and Fowler's Insecticide, are all serviceable, if used as directed on the labels. Hardeman's Beetle Powder, applied with the little French powder-bellows which is sold with it, is very efficacious. For outdoor work, nothing surpasses clean cold water, applied often and forcibly with a syringe.

The best mode of clearing Aphis off Beaus, Currants, &c., is to remove the tops of the infested shoots, and to wash the plants with soapy water, or a solution of Gishurst's Compound. In some cases, a good dusting with soot and wood ashes, while the plants are wet, will keep them in check. The "Golden Eyes" or "Lacewing" fly, and also ladybirds, are to be encouraged, as the larvæ of each of these wage incessant war against Aphides, especially the green varieties, and thin them out considerably.

=APHROPHORA.= _See_ =Frog Hopper=.

=APHYLLANTHES= (from _aphyllos_, leafless, and _anthos_, a flower; the flowers are on rush-like branches). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. A very pretty rush-like hardy perennial, forming dense, erect tufts. It thrives best in sandy peat, requires a warm sunny situation, and slight protection in winter. Increased by division of the roots, and seeds; the latter should be sown in pots in a cool greenhouse as soon as ripe.

=A. monspeliensis= (Montpelier).* _fl._, perianth six-cleft, spreading at the apex, deep blue, nearly an inch across, disposed in a small head, on slender scapes. June. _l._ absent; the very slender scapes are leaflike, with membranous sheaths at the base. South of France, 1791.

=APHYLLOUS.= Without leaves.

=APICRA= (from _apicros_, not bitter). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. A group of succulents allied to _Aloe_, and having the following among other characters:--Flowers small, loosely sub-spicate; perianth regular, cylindrical, with short spreading segments; peduncles simple or forked. Plants small; rosette leaves always elongated. Leaves thick, diffuse, never spinosely dentated. They require treatment similar to Aloes, under which genus they are included by some authors.

=A. aspera= (rough).* _fl._, perianth 1/2in. long; raceme loose, 3in. to 4in.; pedicels three to four lines long; peduncle slender, simple, nearly 1ft. _l._ dense, in many rows, spreading, rounded, deltoid, six to seven lines long and broad; face rather flat; middle three to four lines thick; back convex hemispherical, wrinkled. Cape of Good Hope, 1795.

=A. bicarinata= (double-keeled).* _fl._ unknown. _l._ dense, in many rows, ascending, deltoid-lanceolate, nine to twelve lines long, six lines broad, dirty green; face flat; middle two lines thick; margin scabrous; back copiously tubercled. Cape of Good Hope, 1824.

=A. congesta= (congested). _fl._, perianth six to seven lines, whitish; raceme loose, sub-spicate, about 1ft.; pedicels short; peduncles 6in. long, simple. _l._ dense, spreading, in many rows, deltoid-lanceolate, eighteen to twenty-one lines long, three to four lines thick; back convex; top unevenly keeled towards the margins. 1843.

=A. deltoidea= (deltoid). _fl._, perianth greenish, five to six lines long; raceme about 1ft. long, sub-spicate; pedicels short; peduncles 6in., simple or branched. _l._ in five regular rows, spreading, nine to twelve lines long, deltoid, shining green; when mature, upper surface rather flat, apex pungent; middle two to three lines thick; back distinctly keeled upwards; margins and keels minutely serrated. South Africa, 1873.

=A. foliolosa= (small-leafy).* _fl._, perianth greenish, five to six lines long; raceme loose, sub-spicate, about 1ft.; pedicels two to three lines long; peduncle 6in., simple. _l._ dense, spreading, in many rows, rounded deltoid, cuspidate, six to eight lines long and broad, without spots or tubercles; face rather flat; middle one and a half to two lines thick; back obliquely keeled upwards towards the margins. Cape of Good Hope, 1795.

=A. imbricata= (imbricated). Synonymous with _A. spiralis_.

=A. pentagona= (five-angled).* _fl._, perianth whitish, 1/2in. long; raceme about 1ft., loose; lower pedicels two to three lines long; peduncles 1ft., often branched. _l._ dense, regular, lower ones spreading, upper ones ascending, lanceolate-deltoid, fifteen to eighteen lines long; bottom six to eight lines broad, shining green; face flat; middle three to four lines thick; apex pungent; margin scabrous; back irregularly one to two keeled at top. Cape of Good Hope, 1731.

=A. p. bullulata= (little-blistered). _l._ irregularly spiral, five rowed; back with spreading close wrinkled tubercles.

=A. p. spirella= (small spiral). _l._ smaller and more deltoid, 1in. long, six to eight lines broad at the bottom, irregularly five rowed, or as if in many rows.

=A. spiralis= (spiral).* _fl._, perianth reddish-white, 1/2in. long; raceme loose, nearly 1ft.; pedicels ascending, two to three lines long; peduncles 6in., simple or branched. _l._ dense, in many rows, strong, ascending, lanceolate-deltoid, twelve to fifteen lines long, six to eight lines broad; face almost flat, without tubercles; apex pungent; back swollen, scarcely keeled; margins obscurely crenulated. Cape of Good Hope, 1790. SYN. _A. imbricata_.

=APICULATE=, =APICULATED=. Terminated in a little point.

=APIOS= (from _apion_, a pear; in reference to the form of the tubers of the root). ORD. _Leguminosæ_. An elegant little hardy twining perennial, easily trained into almost any shape. It must have a well-exposed, sunny position, and the soil should be of a warm or light sandy nature. Propagated by division of the tubers.

[Illustration: FIG. 117. APIOS TUBEROSA, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. tuberosa= (tuberous).* Ground Nut. _fl._ brownish-purple, sweet-scented, in axillary racemes. Summer and early autumn. _l._ pinnate. Tubers edible, farinaceous. Habit very light and graceful. Pennsylvania, 1640. SYN. _Glycine Apios_. See Fig. 117.

=APIOSPERMUM.= A synonym of =Pistia= (which _see_).

=APIUM= (from _apon_, Celtic for water; in reference to the habitat). ORD. _Umbelliferæ_. This genus contains no species worth growing for ornament, and nearly all are more or less acrid and poisonous. A. _graveolens_ is the Celery of gardens, for culture of which, _see_ =Celery=.

=APLECTRUM= (from _a_, without, and _plectron_, a spur; flower spurless). ORD. _Orchideæ_. A monotypic genus from North America. A curious, hardy, terrestrial orchid, requiring a shady spot in light loam and leaf mould, moderately damp. Very difficult to cultivate.

=A. hyemale= (wintry).* _fl._ greenish-brown, large, racemose, borne on a naked scape after the leaves have died down; labellum as long as the sepals; column sessile, rather long, wingless. April. Stem pseudo-bulbous, with one large, broad, ribbed leaf. _h._ 1ft. 1827.

=APLOTAXIS.= Included under =Saussurea= (which _see_).

=APOCARPOUS.= Having the carpels or fruit separate, or disunited.

=APOCYNACEÆ.= A large order of trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, usually with a poisonous, milky sap. Flowers regular, solitary or corymbose; corolla salver-shaped or campanulate. Leaves simple, opposite, sometimes alternate or whorled. Well known genera belonging to this order are: _Allamanda_, _Nerium_, _Tabernæmontana_ and _Vinca_.

=APOCYNUM= (from _apo_, away, and _kyon_, a dog; adopted by Dioscorides, because the plant was supposed to be poisonous to dogs). ORD. _Apocynaceæ_. Dog's Bane. Perennial erect herbs, with cymose flowers and membranous, opposite leaves. There are several species belonging to this genus, but only the one described below is worthy of being cultivated. They are of extremely easy culture, thriving in any ordinary soil; and may be propagated by suckers, divisions, or seeds. The best time to divide is just as they are starting into fresh growth in spring.

=A. androsæmifolium= (Tutsan-leaved).* _fl._ pale red, with darker stripes; corolla campanulate; cymes terminal and lateral. July. _l._ ovate, glabrous, petiolate, pale beneath. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Virginia, and Canada, 1683. A very old garden favourite, thriving best in peaty soil, with Azaleas, &c. See Fig. 118.

[Illustration: FIG. 118. INFLORESCENCE OF APOCYNUM ANDROSÆMIFOLIUM.]

=APONOGETON= (from _apon_, Celtic for water, and _geiton_, neighbour; alluding to the habitat of these plants). ORD. _Naiadaceæ_. Very ornamental aquatic perennials. There are several species, but _A. distachyon_ is superior to the others. This species may be cultivated in small tanks or aquaria; it delights in an abundance of light and air, and is perfectly hardy, having become naturalised in many parts of the country. Pot the plants in rich sandy loam and rotten cow manure, using, of course, small pots, if the vessel in which it is to be grown is restricted. When introducing it to large tanks or lakes, commence with strong, previously well-established plants, in large pots, breaking the latter when the plants are immersed. Place them in positions where the water is about 1ft. 6in. to 2ft. deep; they will then rapidly increase by offsets and seeds, and, when established, will flower nearly all the year round. The other kinds will thrive with the same treatment; but they are neither so hardy nor so vigorous, and should only be grown in small tanks or aquaria.

[Illustration: FIG. 119. APONOGETON DISTACHYON, showing Habit and Flower-spikes.]

=A. angustifolium= (narrow-leaved). _fl._ white. July. Cape of Good Hope, 1788. Half hardy.

[Illustration: FIG. 120. APONOGETON DISTACHYON, showing Flower-spikes, Leaf, and Root.]

=A. distachyon= (two-spiked).* Cape Pond Weed; Winter Hawthorn. _fl._ with a delicious Hawthorn-like perfume; petals none; bracts, or showy portion oval, entire, white; anthers purple-brown; scape two-spiked, each spike being from 2in. to 4in. long. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, entire, bright green, on long stalks, floating. Cape of Good Hope, 1788. See Figs. 119 and 120.

=A. monostachyon= (simple-spiked). _fl._ pink. September. _h._ 1ft. East Indies, 1803. Stove species. Rare.

=A. spathaceum junceum= (rush-like).* A very pretty, but rare, half-hardy aquatic plant, with the forked inflorescence having both bracts and flowers suffused with a delicate blush colour. _l._ rush-like, standing clear up out of the water. South Africa, 1879.

=APORETICA.= A synonym of =Schmidelia= (which _see_).

=APPENDICULATE, APPENDICULATED.= Having appendages.

=APPLANATE.= Flattened out.

[Illustration: FIG. 121. APPLE BLOSSOM.]

=APPLE= (_Pyrus Malus_). The Apple is one of the most useful, and probably most largely cultivated, of our hardy fruits. It is known as the Crab in its wild state, and is indigenous to Britain and to all the temperate and warmer parts of Europe. It is supposed that the progenitors of the varieties now grown were introduced to this country at various times from the Continent, and not obtained here as direct improvements on the native Crab. Those now cultivated are extremely numerous, and include good varieties that can be made to prolong the season all the year round. Apart from its great value as a fruit, the apple is a strikingly handsome tree when in flower (see Fig. 121). A fruiting branch is shown at Fig. 122.

[Illustration: FIG. 122. FRUITING BRANCH OF APPLE.]

_Propagation._ Seeds are sown extensively, chiefly for raising stocks to graft approved sorts on; also with a view to raising new varieties. The seeds do not retain their germinative properties very long, consequently they must be sown soon after being taken from the fruit. As grown in this country, they are generally sown in the autumn, transplanted the following year, and so on until they are of sufficient size for Grafting purposes. The standard of excellence being at present so high, improved forms raised from seed are comparatively scarce.

_Grafting._ This method of propagation is the one generally adopted for most purposes, the stocks being previously prepared for size or height of tree required. Cordon and other dwarf-trained trees should be worked near but not below the ground, while standards are best worked on stocks of the desired height. The practice of working standard trees low, and growing the scion to form the stem of the future tree, is not recommended, as many of the tenderer sorts will not grow straight or strong enough for the purpose. Whip-grafting is the most preferable mode adopted. The scions should be selected from healthy trees not later than January, and laid in singly in the ground until the stocks have slightly advanced in growth, which is generally about the middle of April. Several other methods of Grafting may be adopted with success, but the one above recommended is considered the best.

_Budding._ Apples may be successfully propagated by Budding, and this method is practised much more now than formerly. It has many advantages, as it requires to be performed at a season when there is not so much work in hand. It should be done in damp, dull weather, if possible, as the weather if dry soon destroys the buds. July and August is the proper time for the purpose. The stocks and woods from which the buds are taken should be as much as possible in the same condition.

_Propagation by Cuttings, Layers, &c._ This system may be made use of in the case of new varieties or where it is desired to increase any one variety with a limited number of scions, but the results are uncertain--at least in the case of cuttings; consequently, it is much better to resort to the safer method of Grafting.

_Pruning._ _See_ =Pruning=.

_Training._ _See_ =Training=.

_Planting._ The best time to plant is as soon as most of the leaves have fallen, which is generally about the end of October. The roots being then in an active state, and the ground still retaining a certain amount of heat, they will form new roots before winter, which is a material advantage. Where it is impossible to plant at this time, it may be done in suitable weather any time during the winter, but it is best not deferred till spring. It is important in planting that the soil should be moderately dry and free from frost; this condition cannot always be obtained during winter. The effects of soil and situation have a very important bearing on the Apple, specimens of the same sort from different places being often hardly recognisable. Although not over fastidious in the matter of soil as far as growing is concerned, the best results are obtained where it is of a rich loamy character and well drained. Dry, sandy soils invariably produce canker, while the trees are often overgrown with lichens in undrained land. The addition of heavier loam, or sometimes trenching and mixing the sub-soil with that at the top, will convert light soils into those suitable for Apple culture; while, on the other hand, heavy soils may be improved by drainage, the addition of lime, vegetable refuse, burnt earth, and other matters. Rank manure should on no account be used anywhere near the roots, but a little well-decayed manure, mixed with the soil or used as a mulching, is beneficial. The site best suited is an open, though not exposed one, with a south, south-east, or south-west aspect. Shelter from north-east winds in spring, which destroys the bloom, and from west and south-west winds in autumn, which blow down the fruit, should be the aim of cultivators. Planting in a valley should be avoided on account of spring frosts. In Planting, care must be taken to make the bottom of the hole tolerably firm, and slightly raised under the base or bole of the tree. The roots should then be carefully spread out all round, and if any have been ruptured in transplanting, cut them clean off on the upper side, thus inducing new roots to be formed near the surface. The soil should be trodden firmly after a quantity has been filled in, if it is in a dry, suitable condition, as previously recommended. Secure with stakes in proportion to the size of tree, or injury will be caused by the wind. The distance at which Apple trees are planted varies considerably. Standards in orchards may be planted in good soil, from 20ft. to 40ft. apart, especially if they are strong-growing culinary sorts. Pyramids may be planted from 5ft. to 15ft., according to size; and similar distances will suit Bush trees. The oblique Cordon system of training admits of a large number of varieties being cultivated in a small space, as they may be planted as close as 18in. or 2ft. apart. Horizontal Cordons should be planted about 5ft. asunder, and one branch trained each way. Watering will be necessary after planting in most cases, especially should the winter and following season be at all dry. Thinning the fruit is sometimes advisable for obtaining good specimens, but it is not generally necessary, at least with many of the shy-setting sorts. If, however, the crop should be exceptionally heavy, it is best to thin the fruit, or the tree may be unable to make and ripen its wood for the crop of the succeeding year.

_Gathering._ The three following tests are sure indications of the gathering period: (1) The apples will begin to fall of their own accord; (2) their seeds will be plump and brown in colour; and (3) the fruit will separate with a mere touch from the trees; the second test may be said to be infallible. All Apples should be gathered before the end of October, for none will bear frost with impunity. They must be gathered in dry weather, and handled with the greatest care, laid gently in baskets and trays, in single file only, and conveyed to the store room.

_Storing._ The simplest and best method is in choosing or forming some room or place free from extremes of heat and cold, dryness or damp, where a temperature of about 45deg. is maintained. A current of air is not necessary. The shelves should be made of poplar, sycamore, lime, or other white wood. Deal, oak, ash, elm, and almost all other woods, give a bad taste to the fruit. One sheet of paper--and paper only--should be placed under the fruit. They ripen best, and are of the highest flavour when left fully exposed to the free atmosphere of the fruit room, and in order to preserve a more even temperature the light should be shut out. Early and late ripening varieties must be stored in separate places, as well as all inferior or injured fruit. The plan of isolating each fruit by packing in tissue paper, sand, burnt earth, or other substances, often destroys the flavour of the fruit, and possesses no material benefit otherwise.

_Diseases._ Apple Mussel Scale, Apple or Codlin Grub, Canker, Mildew, American Blight, Scale, and Insect Pests, such as Caterpillars, Maggots, and Weevils, _see_ under their separate headings.

The following are some of the best varieties in cultivation:--

=Adams' Pearmain.= Dessert. Fruit medium, very handsome; flavour juicy and sugary. December to March.

=Alexander.= Kitchen. Very large, showy, and good. September to December.

=Alfriston.= Kitchen. Very fine, large, white flesh. November to April.

=Ashmead's Kernel=, or =Cockle Pippin=. Dessert. Fruit below medium; flavour very rich and sugary. This variety is, according to Mr. Rivers, much esteemed in Gloucestershire. November to January.

=Bedfordshire Foundling.= Kitchen. Fruit large. One of the finest and most useful sorts, a great bearer. February to May.

=Bess Pool.= Kitchen. Fruit large. Good late cooking apple. December to May.

=Betty Geeson.= Kitchen. Fruit large, produced in great abundance. February to May. A valuable sort.

=Blenheim Pippin.= One of the best kitchen sorts. November to February.

=Boston Russet.= Dessert. Fruit medium; flavour very sugary and rich, similar to the Ribston Pippin. An excellent American variety. January to May.

=Brabant Bellefleur.= Kitchen. Fruit large, round, pale yellow, red-streaked. A most useful cooking variety, also useful for dessert. November to April.

[Illustration: FIG. 123. APPLE, CALVILLE BLANCHE.]

=Calville Blanche.= Dessert. Fruit large; flavour first-class. October to December. See Fig. 123.

=Cellini.= Kitchen. Fruit perfect in form, size, colour, and quality. October to January.

=Claygate Pearmain.= Dessert. Fruit medium; flavour rich, aromatic, excellent, same as Ribston Pippin. January to May.

=Coe's Golden Drop.= Dessert. Fruit small, with a crisp and juicy flavour. November to January. A delicious variety.

=Cornish Aromatic.= Dessert. Fruit medium; flavour rich, juicy, and aromatic. October to December.

=Cornish Gillyflower.= Dessert. Fruit medium; flavour very rich, quite aromatic. October, November to January. An excellent variety, thriving best in a warm situation.

=Court of Wick.= Dessert. Fruit medium, very handsome; flavour somewhat similar to Golden Pippin. December to March.

[Illustration: FIG. 124. APPLE, COURT PENDU PLAT.]

=Court Pendu Plat.= Dessert or kitchen. Fruit medium, rich russet brown, of first-rate quality, and the tree is a good cropper. November to April. See Fig. 124.

=Cox's Orange Pippin.= Dessert. Fruit medium, very handsome; flavour rich aromatic. October to December. One of the best apples grown.

=Cox's Pomona.= Kitchen. Fruit very large, of superior quality. October.

=Devonshire Quarrenden.= Dessert. Fruit medium, excellent quality, and handsome. July to September. A very prolific sort.

=D. T. Fish.= Kitchen. Fruit large, roundish, of a clear straw-colour, with small specks of russet, slightly flushed with crimson on the side where the sun strikes it; flavour sub-acid. November to January. A fine and handsome variety.

=Duchess of Oldenburgh.= Kitchen. Fruit large, red-striped. August to October. A very desirable and handsome Russian variety.

=Duke of Devonshire.= Dessert. Fruit medium; flavour crisp, juicy, rich and sugary. December to March.

=Dumelow's Seedling=, or =Wellington=, or =Normanton Wonder=. Kitchen. Fruit firm, large, and somewhat acid. November to March.

=Early Harvest.= Dessert. Fruit medium; flavour juicy, excellent, with a pleasant sharpness. July to September. According to Mr. Rivers this variety is equally good for cooking or dessert, and is a very fertile tree on the Paradise stock.

=French Crab.= Kitchen. Fruit large, pale green, firm, acid. An excellent sort, and the longest keeper.

=Golden Pippin.= Dessert. Fruit small, very excellent flavour. November to January. A well-known and highly-esteemed sort.

=Golden Reinette.= Dessert. Fruit rather small, yellowish red, streaked with red; flavour excellent, sweet and rich. One of the best and most useful of dessert apples. October to December.

=Gravenstein.= Kitchen. Fruit large, handsome, sweet and crisp. November to January. A very prolific sort.

=Greenup's Pippin.= Kitchen. Fruit very large. February to May. A vigorous grower and abundant bearer.

=Irish Peach.= Dessert. Fruit medium, yellowish-green, very early; flavour juicy, excellent. July and August. A very good variety, often known as Early Crofton.

=Jolly Beggar.= Kitchen. Fruit large, pale yellow, tender and juicy. November to January. A very desirable sort and an extraordinary cropper.

=Keddlestone Pippin.= Dessert. Fruit small, yellow or golden colour, specked with russet; flavour delicious, highly aromatic. December to March. An excellent variety.

=Kerry Pippin.= Dessert. Fruit medium, firm, yellow, and red; flavour sugary and rich. September to October.

=Keswick Codlin.= Kitchen. Fruit large and early. August to October. An admirable sort for market purposes.

=King of the Pippins.= Dessert. Fruit medium, yellow and red; flavour juicy and rich. October to January.

=Lady Henniker.= Kitchen. Fruit yellow, with crimson streaks near the sun, highly flavoured, and with a pleasant perfume. February to May. An excellent sort, suitable for dessert or kitchen.

=Lodgemore Nonpareil.= Dessert. Fruit small; flavour rich, sugary, and aromatic. January to May. An excellent sort.

=Lord Suffield.= Kitchen. Fruit very large, white, soft, excellent for sauce and tarts. August to September.

=Manx's Codlin.= Kitchen. Fruit large. September and October. One of the finest and most useful of kitchen sorts.

=Mère de Ménage.= Kitchen. Large and good. October to March.

=Mr. Gladstone.= Dessert. Fruit large and handsome, very early, scarlet cheek, striped and shaded; of excellent quality. July and August. New.

=New= or =Winter Hawthornden=. Kitchen. Fruit very large, excellent. November to January. An extraordinary bearer, one of the best for sauce and cooking.

=Nonsuch.= Kitchen. Fruit large, juicy. August to October. An admirable sort, unequalled for sauce and cooking.

=Norfolk Beefing.= Kitchen. Large and good flavour, excellent keeper, most useful for baking whole and preserving. November to July.

=Norfolk Greening.= Kitchen. Fruit medium; rather acid. Keeps till April or May.

=Northern Spy.= Dessert. Fruit large, tender; flavour highly aromatic. December to May.

=Old Nonpareil.= Dessert. Fruit medium, tender, and juicy. November to January. A prolific variety.

=Pitmaston Pineapple.= Dessert. Fruit small; flavour very rich. July to September. According to Mr. Rivers this variety is a very abundant bearer on the Paradise stock; it is not a vigorous grower.

=Red Astrachan.= Dessert. Fruit good size, bright; flavour delicate and rich. August to September.

=Red Ingestrie.= Dessert. Fruit very pretty bright red next the sun, on a yellow ground, flesh pale yellow; flavour brisk and sparkling, like the Golden Pippin in quality. August and September. An excellent sort.

=Red Juneating=, or =Margaret=. Dessert. Fruit medium, early, very good quality. July and August. A well-known sort, with numerous synonyms.

=Red Quarrenden.= Dessert. Fruit under medium, bright scarlet; flavour crisp and sweet. August. One of the best summer sorts.

=Reinette du Canada.= Dessert. Fruit greenish-yellow and brown, large; flavour juicy, brisk, sub-acid. November to May. See Fig 125.

=Reinette Grise.= Dessert. Flesh yellowish-white, sugary, pleasant; flavour sub-acid. November to April. It does best on the Paradise stock, and is an abundant cropper. See Fig. 126.

=Ribston Pippin.= Dessert. Fruit greenish-yellow and red, medium; flavour rich, aromatic, excellent. October to December.

=Sam Young.= Dessert. Fruit small, yellowish with russet spots; flavour delicious, tender, and juicy. October to December. An excellent Irish sort.

=Scarlet Crofton.= Dessert. Fruit medium, yellow and red; flavour crisp, juicy, and sweet. October to December.

=Scarlet Nonpareil.= Dessert. Fruit well coloured, large; flavour crisp and juicy. January to March.

=Small's Admirable.= Kitchen. Fruit large, green, crisp, sweet, and juicy. November to January. A prolific cropper.

=Stamford Pippin.= Dessert. Fruit large, with a brisk flavour and an agreeable aroma. November to January. A very desirable sort.

[Illustration: FIG. 125. APPLE, REINETTE DU CANADA.]

=Sturmer Pippin.= Dessert. Fruit medium; flavour brisk and rich. February to June.

=Syke House Russet.= Dessert. Fruit small; flavour very rich. January to May. An excellent sort.

=Tower of Glammis.= Kitchen. Fruit yellow, very large, square-shaped, crisp, and excellent. February to May. A very excellent sort.

=Van Mons Reinette.= Dessert. Fruit small, with a rich, aromatic, and excellent flavour. November to January.

=Waltham Abbey Seedling.= Kitchen. Fruit large. November and December. An admirable sort.

=Warner's King.= Kitchen. Fruit large, handsome, and good. November to March.

=Worcestershire Pearmain.= Kitchen. Fruit large, conical, of a very brilliant colour; flavour crisp and juicy. August to October. A splendid variety, said to be as prolific as Lord Suffield.

[Illustration: FIG. 126. APPLE, REINETTE GRISE.]

=White Juneating.= Dessert. Fruit small, very early, and good quality, but a bad keeper. July and August. A prolific sort.

=White Nonpareil.= Dessert. Fruit medium, very delicious. March to June. A very desirable sort.

=Winter Quoining=, or =Queening=. Dessert. Fruit very bright, almost red; flavour excellent. November to May. An excellent sort, useful for dessert or culinary purposes.

=Winter Strawberry.= Dessert. Fruit yellow, medium, striped with red; flavour brisk aromatic. November to March. A very useful sort.

=Wormsley Pippin.= Kitchen or dessert. Fruit of an excellent quality, large, pale green; excellent for kitchen or dessert. September to October.

=Yorkshire Greening.= Kitchen. Fruit large, juicy, tender. November to January.

=For Cordons= the following are the best:--BETTY GEESON, COE'S GOLDEN DROP, COX'S ORANGE PIPPIN, DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, KING OF THE PIPPINS, LODGEMORE NONPAREIL, NORTHERN SPY, REINETTE DU CANADA, RIBSTON PIPPIN, SCARLET NONPAREIL.

=For Pyramidal, Bush, and Espalier Trees=, the best are:-—ADAMS' PEARMAIN, ASHMEAD'S KERNEL, BOSTON RUSSET, CLAYGATE PEARMAIN, CORNISH GILLYFLOWER, COURT OF WICK, COURT PENDU PLAT, COX'S ORANGE PIPPIN, EARLY HARVEST, GOLDEN PIPPIN, GOLDEN REINETTE, IRISH PEACH, KEDDLESTONE PIPPIN, KERRY PIPPIN, RED INGESTRIE, RED QUARRENDEN, REINETTE DU CANADA, RIBSTON PIPPIN, SAM YOUNG, SCARLET CROFTON, SCARLET NONPAREIL, STURMER PIPPIN, SYKE HOUSE RUSSET, WORMSLEY PIPPIN. The following Kitchen sorts are well adapted to this method:-—ALFRISTON, BED-FORDSHIRE FOUNDLING, BRABANT BELLEFLEUR, CALVILLE BLANCHE, CELLINI, COX'S POMONA, D. T. FISH, DUCHESS OF OLDENBURGH, DUMELOW'S SEEDLING, JOLLY BEGGAR, KESWICK CODLIN, LORD SUFFIELD, MANX'S CODLIN, NEW HAWTHORNDEN, NONSUCH, WALTHAM ABBEY SEEDLING, WARNER'S KING.

=For Cold and Exposed Situations=, the following are the best:--BESS POOL, CLAYGATE PEARMAIN, FRENCH CRAB, GREENUP'S PIPPIN, KESWICK CODLIN, NONSUCH, STURMER PIPPIN, TOWER OF GLAMMIS, WINTER STRAWBERRY, WORMSLEY PIPPIN.

=For Cottage Gardens=: ALEXANDER, BEDFORDSHIRE FOUNDLING, BLENHEIM PIPPIN, KING OF THE PIPPINS, MANX'S CODLIN, NEW HAWTHORNDEN, REINETTE DU CANADA, RIBSTON PIPPIN, STURMER PIPPIN, WALTHAM ABBEY SEEDLING, WARNER'S KING, WORMSLEY PIPPIN.

=APPLE BERRY.= _See_ =Billardiera=.

=APPLE-BLOSSOM WEEVIL= (_Anthonomus pomorum_). This is a small beetle of a reddish-brown colour, with three inconspicuous stripes of a paler colour behind the head; the wing cases show a large pitchy-coloured blotch, with oblique striæ and yellowish spots thereon. The female busily engages herself in piercing the flower buds; while the male may be usually seen flying about the trees during the breeding season, which, of course, varies according to the earlier or later expansion of the buds. The female, by means of strong jaws at the end of the long proboscis, bores a hole in the bud, in which she lays a single egg, finally closing the opening, then passing on to other buds. The laying season lasts for two or three weeks, or, indeed, as long as the buds remain unexpanded; eggs are never laid in open blossoms. In warm weather, the eggs are hatched in six or seven days, usually about the end of April, into small, white, legless maggots, which feed upon the stamens and pistil; hence, although the petals are normally coloured, and expand, the flowers ultimately wither, and in some seasons very serious consequences have arisen from these injurious little pests. The maggot is fleshy, whitish, with a few hairs and a black, hard head; in a few days, it turns into a brown chrysalis or pupa, which, in turn, is changed into the Weevil, only about a month having elapsed from the deposition of the egg till the Weevil is developed. It feeds upon the foliage during summer, and hybernates in crannies of the bark, or under the soil at the base of the trees, during winter, waking up in the following spring to go through the same performances as its parents.

_Remedies._ Some of the methods advised for the extirpation of the American Blight will prove very useful for the destruction of this pest. Clear away all useless portions of the bark and rubbish round about the tree during the winter, and many will be destroyed. Place bandages of tarred cloth around the stem in spring; this will prevent the females crawling up, as they seldom fly. If a white cloth is placed beneath the tree affected when in bud, and the tree is severely shaken, a large number will be caught, as the Weevil falls to the ground when alarmed. Timely thinning of the trees, allowing the free admission of light and air, is also a very effectual preventive, as it has been proved that the greatest ravages are committed where neglect of this has been the rule; and that, on the other hand, in proportion to its being done, the pest has been lessened in numbers.

=APPLE MUSSEL SCALE= (_Aspidiotus conchiformis_). This insect attacks the bark of Apple and Pear-trees. It is in outward appearance like the half of a mussel shell. Under the scale is the insect. It is closely allied to the true scale insects, and has similar habits. The scales are about 1/8in. long, brown, and wider at one end than at the other. The female is like a fat, green, fleshy maggot, without jointed limbs. The eggs of this curious insect are not laid, but simply remain in the body of the mother until she dies, thus leaving a protecting shield or case from which the hatched larvæ emerge. To get rid of this insect, therefore, the females containing eggs should be destroyed. It differs from most other species in the absence of the long tail filaments. If numerous, this Scale causes the trees to become sickly and unfruitful. It is difficult to extirpate.

_Soft-soap Lather._ When the leaves fall, in autumn, the trees should be treated with a stiff sash-tool, and all the Scale rubbed off, keeping the brush just moist, and not rubbing the buds. Applied for two seasons, this should clear the trees. All loose bark should be removed.

_Seal Oil_ is sometimes recommended as a good remedy: but oils are rather unsafe applications to the bark of trees, especially of the young branches.

[Illustration: FIG. 127. CODLIN MOTH AND GRUB (CARPOCAPSA POMONANA).]

=APPLE OR CODLIN GRUB= (_Carpocapsa pomonana_). During the month of May, the well-known Codlin Moth (see Fig. 127) lays its eggs in the calyces, usually one in each, of the young, quickly-growing apple. The moth itself is a small insect; the fore-wings are grey, prettily speckled with delicate, darker streaks, and with a curved golden mark on the hinder part, inclosing one of a reddish-brown colour. The hind wings are usually dark, as is also the body. The caterpillar, when hatched, is white, with black head and neck, and with four rows of black marks along the whole body. The colours soon, however, become less decided, taking an indistinct brownish or grey hue. After being hatched, the caterpillar gnaws its way down the fruit, keeping clear of the core, and gradually forces its gallery towards the rind of the fruit, which it finally pierces, the opening serving as the outlet for the dirt. When nearly full grown, it pierces the core and feeds upon the pips, which injury speedily causes the fruit to drop. The insect then emerges therefrom, and finds a suitable shelter in a cranny of the bark, where it spins a cocoon; and, according to British authorities, it remains in the larval state for some weeks, finally assuming the chrysalis form, and thus passing the winter; the moth emerges the following season. Shortly after development, the moths pair, the female depositing eggs in the fruit in June or July, according to the season.

Practically, there is no preventive; but the following hints will serve to greatly reduce the numbers. All apples that fall ere they are ripe should be picked up as promptly as possible, and be given to the pigs; or pigs should be turned into the orchard to clear off the fallen fruit. The following is the only serviceable remedy:

_Hayband Trap._ This is simply a loosely made hayband twisted around the stems of the trees, about 1ft. from the ground. The grubs, in searching for a suitable place in which to make a cocoon, will generally choose the bands. At the end of the season, all the haybands should be collected and burnt, and the stems of the trees from which they were removed should be cleared of any cocoons which may adhere to them. All loose bark and other rubbish should be removed from the tree trunks, and also from the ground below.

=APPLE OR CODLIN GRUB TRAP.= An exceedingly ingenious and effective method of alluring that obnoxious pest, the Apple Grub. The trap (Fig. 128) consists of two, three, or more thin pieces of board, 12in. to 20in. in length, and 2in. to 4in. wide, with a screw (_a_) through their centre. The screw must be long enough to be firmly driven into the trunk of the tree, so as to hold the boards in position. Small slips of wood (_b_) are inserted between the boards, to keep them sufficiently open to allow of the entry of the grubs, as shown at _d_. The boards are cut on each side of the screw, as at _c_, to facilitate their separation when fastened together by the silken threads of the grubs, and to better expose the latter when the trap is opened. This handy trap, which is of American origin, is very cheap. A great number of them may be collected with little trouble, submitted to a killing heat, and replaced again; and they can be used either on the ground or on the trees. As regards killing the grubs when caught, Mr Weir, the inventor, says: "The quickest and best way is to have a large tin pan, bent in on one side, so as to fit closely to the trunk of the tree. When you reach the tree, drop upon your knees, place the depression in the pan against the trunk of the tree, hold it there by pressing your body against it, and you have both hands free to open the trap. When opening it, many of the pupæ or chrysalids will fall into the pan. The trap must be turned clear around, as many will be found between it and the bark. A person will open and kill the worms in from four hundred to eight hundred traps in a day."

[Illustration: FIG. 128. APPLE OR CODLIN GRUB TRAP.

B, OPEN. A, SHUT.]

=APPOSITE.= Placed side by side.

=APPROXIMATE=, =APPROXIMATED=, =APPROXIMATING=. Near together.

=APRICOT= (_Armeniaca vulgaris_). The Apricot, or, as it was formerly written, "Abricock," is a much esteemed and luscious fruit. It is said to have been introduced into this country during the reign of Henry VIII. The Apricot is one of the earliest flowering of fruit-trees (see Fig. 129), and is generally in bloom during February. This fact is a great drawback, as it is a difficult matter to save the flowers from destruction by the spring winds and frosts. The fruit (see Fig. 130) contains less acid than most stone fruits, and in appearance it is perhaps the handsomest of all. Success with its culture in many gardens is by no means certain, but with careful preparation of borders and protection of the flowers in spring, satisfactory results are often obtained. Large quantities of fruit are annually imported to this country from France; but their quality and flavour cannot be compared with that of good home-grown produce.

[Illustration: FIG. 129. BLOSSOM OF APRICOT.]

_Propagation_ is effected by seeds or budding. The stones, selected from the best varieties, may be sown as soon as the fruit is ripe, in August or September, in light rich soil, and covered with about 2in. of earth, over which a little litter should be spread during winter. After one season's growth, the plants should be lifted, and the tap roots slightly cut back if the trees are intended for walls. They should then be planted in nursery lines, allowing about a yard between the rows, and 2ft. from plant to plant.

[Illustration: FIG. 130. FRUITING BRANCH OF APRICOT.]

Budding is the most general mode of propagating Apricots. They are frequently budded from the beginning to the middle of June on seedling, and also on plum stocks, of which latter the Mussell, Saint Julien, Brussels, and Black Damson are the best. For dwarf trees, the stock should be budded about 1ft. from the ground. There are many disadvantages in having a great length of stem. "Rider" trees require a stem from 3-1/2ft. to 6ft.; half-riders, 2-1/2ft. to 3ft. Grafting by the Whip method is sometimes employed, but, for many reasons, it is much inferior to Budding.

_Planting, &c._ South-west and western aspects suit the Apricot best, but the fruit has been ripened in warm localities on walls facing several points north. Large areas of garden wall (see Figs. 131 and 132), the walls of stables, barns, outbuildings, and two sides of at least hundreds of cottages, might thus be utilised for the cultivation of this tree. If well drained, almost any garden soil will bring these fruits to perfection; light, fibrous, rather sandy loam will, however, prove most satisfactory. There should be a considerable depth of soil; a yard is not too much, provided it be on a dry base, which is most important. Heavy soils may be improved for Apricot culture by the addition of an equal portion of light loam, mortar rubbish, or charred refuse. In furnishing walls, the distance apart may vary from 2ft. between Cordons, to 12ft., 15ft., or even 20ft. between Fan-shaped trees. The roots should be carefully arranged, interlayered at all points with fine soil, and the whole covered to a depth of 3in. or 4in. Not only should the roots have a good covering of suitable earth, but a secondary one of litter, or other light material, should be added, to render them frost proof in winter, and drought and heat proof in summer. Newly planted trees should, on no account, be allowed to get dry at the root. A thorough soaking of soft rain, or manure water, will often save a crop, and restore the trees, when all other surface remedies or appliances fail. Surface sprinklings overhead with the garden engine, in the afternoons of bright days, are beneficial, and help to keep the foliage clean and healthy. So soon as the trees are cleared of their fruit, attention should be directed to the maturation of the wood. All superfluous shoots should be removed, any excess of growth left on the shoots cut back, and every effort made to perfect the wood already made, rather than force the tree to make more. Unless the weather be very dry, water should not be applied after this stage.

[Illustration: FIG. 131. APRICOT TREE, showing method of Wall Training.]

_Protection._ It is almost hopeless to expect a crop unless the blossoms are protected, by mats or other means, from spring frosts. Temporary wooden copings, from 1ft. to 2ft. wide, laid on iron brackets, are indispensable for warding off storms, and keeping other coverings away from the flowers. These should not be put up till the trees are just bursting into bloom, and may safely be removed about the end of May. A few fish or other nets, spread over the trees, afford considerable resistance to the radiation of heat. This is assuredly one of the easiest, if not one of the most efficient, modes of protection. Frigi-domo and other thick shadings are sometimes used, but they require to be removed from the trees in the day time. The thinner nets mentioned are generally not in use for other purposes at this time of year, and may remain over the trees altogether. Glass copings are the best, but, being rather expensive, they cannot be used by the majority of cultivators. They have, however, been applied with good results to trees that had previously failed.

[Illustration: FIG. 132. APRICOT TREE, showing method of Training suitable for Gable Ends of Cottages.]

_Cropping, &c._ Thinning of the fruit needs early and careful attention. The average of 3in. apart may be chosen for a maximum yield. As the fruit approach maturity, overhanging leaves, or branches of young wood, must be removed, to admit sun and light to properly ripen and colour them. Apricots for preserving should be gathered quite dry, and with the sun upon them. For dessert, they should be plucked in the morning, and placed in a cool room till wanted.

_Under Glass._ The Apricot will hardly bear forcing. It is more sensitive to heat than almost any other of our semi-hardy fruits. Practically, it is found that a confined atmosphere, or the slightest excess of heat, brings its blooms off in showers, and this, of course, mars all prospect of fruit. But in cold climates and northern latitudes under glass is the best and only means of growing them. Should red-spider appear, it is proof that the roots or the atmosphere, probably both, have been too dry; more moisture, and syringing over the leaves, are the surest remedies. The borders need to be about 2ft. or 2ft. 6in. deep, of any light rich soil. Fresh planted trees should be frequently syringed overhead before and after the flowering period. After they have become fully established, less overhead sprinkling is needed. During all the earlier stages of growth, and until the fruit are stoned, an artificial temperature of 45deg. should not be exceeded. After that stage, the fruit will bear a heat of 50deg. or 55deg. It is hardly safe or desirable to exceed the latter under glass, and unless abundance of air is given, 55deg. may bring off the fruit, even at an advanced stage. A thorough soaking, at intervals of fourteen days during the height of the growing season, may be applied; and, should the trees be heavily cropped, manure water may be given at every alternate watering. It is also a good practice to mulch the surface of heavily cropped trees with 3in. or 4in. of good dung. The fruit should, however, be freely thinned to distances of from 4in. to 6in. apart at the most. There are three general methods of growing them under glass: The trees may be trained on trellises or walls; grown as natural standards, tall or dwarf; and as bushes, either planted out or in pots.

_Varieties._ The varieties of Apricot, unlike most other fruit, are not numerous; and the following will be found in every way representative and satisfactory:

=Blanche=, or =White Masculine=. A small and delicate fruited sort. Fruit pale whitish-yellow, tinged with brownish-red next the sun, covered with a fine white down; rich, delicate, and sugary.

=Blenheim=, or =Shipley's=.* Very early and prolific. Colour deep yellow; flesh medium, rich, and juicy. Ripe in July.

=Breda.=* A small sort, of excellent quality. Colour deep orange; flesh firm, juicy, and rich. Hardiest sort grown.

=Kaisha.=* Fruit round, much smaller than Moorpark. Colour pale citron; flesh tender, rich, juicy; flavour delicate and delicious; kernel very sweet.

=Large Red.= The deepest coloured of all. Fruit very large; colour deep reddish-orange; flesh rich and juicy; kernel bitter.

=Moorpark.=* The sort most generally grown; large, handsome, and of excellent quality. Colour brownish-orange; flesh rich, juicy, and sweet. It is one of the best and most useful sorts in cultivation.

=Peach=, or =Grosse Peche=. Distinct and very desirable. Fruit very large; flesh rich, firm, and juicy. One of the very best.

=Royal.=* Not unlike Moorpark, but with a more robust constitution, and less given to limb dying. Fruit large, dull, yellow, rich, and juicy.

=Turkey.=* A good variety. Colour pale yellow; flavour rich and juicy; flesh firm.

For modes of Training and Budding, Diseases, Insect Pests, &c., full information will be found under each individual title.

=APTERANTHES.= _See_ =Boucerosia=.

=APTEROUS.= Without wings.

=AQUATIC PLANTS.= The culture of Aquatic Plants, both indoors and in the open air, has been greatly neglected of late years; they are, therefore, rarely seen to perfection in places other than where their culture is made a speciality. Generally speaking, they are most easily grown. The following stove and greenhouse genera are well worth attention: _Aponogeton_, _Cyperus_, _Damasonium_, _Herpestis_, _Limnocharis_, _Nelumbium_, _Nymphœa_, _Ouvirandra_, _Pistia_, _Pontederia_, _Salvinia_, _Thalia_, _Trianea_, _Victoria_. Many species belonging to some of the foregoing genera are hardy, as are also the following: _Alisma_, _Butomus_, _Calla_, _Hottonia_, _Menyanthes_, _Nuphar_, _Polygonum_, _Sagittaria_, _Trapa_, _Typha_, _Villarsia_.

=AQUATICUS.= Living in water.

=AQUATILIS.= Living under water.

=AQUIFOLIACEÆ.= _See_ =Ilicineæ=.

=AQUILEGIA= (from _aquila_, an eagle; in reference to the form of the petals). Columbine. ORD. _Ranunculaceæ_. Erect hardy perennial herbs with fibrous roots. Flowers solitary or panicled, drooping; sepals five, petaloid, deciduous; petals five, concave, spurred; spurs very large, produced downwards into hollow tubes, and frequently curved at the extremity; carpels five, sessile, free. Radical leaves on long stalks, twice or thrice ternate, with trifid-toothed, usually blunt segments. Too much praise can scarcely be lavished upon this elegant genus of plants. They prefer a moist and sheltered situation, with exposure to the sun. The more robust species will thrive in ordinary garden soil, but the rarer and more delicate kinds require a good friable sandy loam and leaf soil, with good drainage. Seed is produced in abundance, and must be sown very thinly, as soon as practicable after being ripe, in a shady place or in pans in a cold frame. When up, and strong enough to remove, the seedlings may be planted out where they are to bloom, allowing every plant at least 9in. each way. The strong-growing kinds may be placed in the border, the dwarf ones on the rockery. When in bloom, the inferior sorts should be weeded out, retaining only the best varieties. To obtain seed true of any species, it is absolutely necessary to plant the separate kinds far apart, and cover them with fine muslin, to prevent the access of insects to the flowers, as none are more easily cross-fertilised. Division of the root is the only way to perpetuate any particular variety with certainty, unless seed is saved in the way mentioned, or imported from the native habitats of particular species. There are many beautiful hybrids, as well as species, in cultivation.

=A. alpina= (alpine).* _fl._ from 2in. to 3in. in diameter when expanded, deep blue or blue and white, on leafy, two to three-flowered stems; spurs straight, but somewhat incurved at the apex, one-half shorter than the petal limb. May. _l._ with segments deeply divided into linear lobes. _h._ 1ft. Alps of Switzerland, in shady humid places, 1731. Plant this on the rockery.

=A. arctica= (Arctic). A form of _A. formosa_.

=A. atropurpurea= (dark purple). _fl._ dark purple or bluish violet, about 1in. or 1-1/2in. in diameter when expanded, two or three in a head; spurs straight, equal in length with the petals' limb; sepals about as long as the petals. May. _l._ petioled, biternate. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Siberia. Border plant.

=A. aurea= (golden).* A synonym of _A. chrysantha flavescens_.

=A. Bertoloni= (Bertoloni's).* _fl._ about 1in. across, blue-violet throughout; sepals about 3/4in. long, rounded; petals about the same length; spurs very short, knobbed; stems two to four flowered. June and July. _l._ small, dark green, and glaucous. A very pretty little alpine, growing about 1ft. high. SYN. _A. Reuteri_.

[Illustration: FIG. 133. AQUILEGIA CÆRULEA.]

=A. cærulea= (sky-blue).* _fl._ several on a stem, blue and white, sometimes more or less tinted with lilac or claret, rarely pure white, when expanded 2-1/2in. to 3in. in diameter; spur very slender, nearly straight, green tipped, about 2in. long. April to July. _l._ large, biternate. _h._ 9in. to 15in. Rocky Mountains, 1864. A very lovely species for the border or base of the rockery. SYNS. _A. leptoceras_, _A. macrantha_. See Fig. 133.

=A. c. alba= (white).* _fl._ the same size and form as the type, white throughout. Rocky Mountains. A very rare and lovely variety; sometimes met with under the name of _A. grandiflora_.

=A. c. hybrida= (hybrid).* _fl._ blue and white, not so wide across as the type, but more numerous, and the plant has a much more vigorous habit. Of garden origin.

=A. californica= (Californian).* A form of _A. formosa_.

[Illustration: FIG. 134. AQUILEGIA CANADENSIS, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. canadensis= (Canadian).* _fl._ scarlet, mixed with yellow, less than 1in. in diameter; spur straight, longer than the limb; styles and stamens protruding; sepals acutish, a little longer than the petals' limb. April to June. _l._, segments three-parted, bluntish, and deeply toothed at the apex. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. North America, 1640. Border or rockery; very pretty. See Fig. 134.

=A. chrysantha= (yellow-flowered).* _fl._, sepals primrose yellow, spreading horizontally in full expansion, nearly or quite 1in. long, tinted claret at the tip; limb of petals deeper yellow, not quite so long; spur straight, very slender, divergent, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long; stems many-flowered. May to August. _l._ biternate. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. California, 1873. One of the finest of all hardy perennials for the border.

=A. c. flavescens= (yellow). _fl._ of a uniform bright canary yellow, tinged with red; spur somewhat shorter than in _A. canadensis_, and slightly incurved. California, 1872. SYN. _A. aurea_.

[Illustration: FIG. 135. AQUILEGIA GLANDULOSA.]

=A. eximia= (choice). Synonymous with _A. formosa_.

=A. formosa= (handsome).* _fl._, sepals bright red, usually less than 1in. long, with an obtuse green tip; limb of petals yellow, about half as long as the sepals; spurs 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, slender in the lower half, nearly straight, distinctly knobbed at the tip; stems many-flowered. May to September. _l._ biternate. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. North America. Border. The following are synonyms and varieties: _A. arctica_, _A. californica_, _A. eximia_, and _A. f. truncata_, revealing only trivial differences. There is a very beautiful hybrid known in gardens as _A. californica hybrida_, with the sepals and petals yellowish, or tinged with orange, while the long slender spurs are orange red; it is one of the handsomest of all. All the forms are very showy, and well worth growing.

=A. fragrans= (fragrant).* _fl._ white or pale claret purple, finely pubescent, very fragrant; sepals about 1-1/2in. long, not reflexing, twice longer than the broad petals' limb; spur slender, slightly curved, knobbed at the top, same length as the petals; stems few-flowered. May to July. _l._ biternate. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Himalayas, 1839. This requires a warm position.

=A. glandulosa= (glandular).* _fl._, sepals bright lilac blue, about 1-1/2in. long, more than twice the length of the petals' limb; petals white; spur 1/4in. long, or but little more, stout, much incurved; stems one to three-flowered. Spring. _l._ biternate. _h._ 8in. to 12in. Siberia, 1822. Extremely pretty. See Fig. 135.

=A. g. jucunda= (pleasant). _fl._ rather smaller. Very handsome little plants, freely hybridised, and it is necessary to keep raising fresh batches, as they are scarcely more than biennial.

=A. glauca= (glaucous). _fl._ white, tinted claret, fragrant; sepals 1in. long, not reflexing; limb of petals 3/4in. long; spur straight, or a little curved, about 1/3in. long; stem three to four-flowered. June. _l._ biternate. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Himalayas, 1839. Rather tender; plant in a warm dry position.

=A. leptoceras= (slender-horned). A synonym of _A. cærulea_.

=A. macrantha= (large-flowered). A synonym of _A. cærulea_.

=A. olympica= (Olympic).* _fl._ large, delicate mauve blue; petals white, rather shorter than the sepals; spur stout, short, obtuse. _l._ bi- or triternate, glaucous. _h._ 1-1/2ft. 1880. Mount Olympus. See Fig. 136.

=A. pyrenaica= (Pyrenean).* _fl._, sepals bright lilac blue, about 1in. long, but not quite as much broad; limb of petals about 1/2in. long, and half as broad; spur slender, nearly straight, or rather incurved, nearly or quite 3/4in. long, scarcely knobbed at the end; stem one to three-flowered, with small and little compound deep green leaves. Summer. _h._ 9in. to 12in. Pyrenees, 1818. Plant on the rockery.

=A. Reuteri= (Reuter's). Synonymous with _A. Bertoloni_.

=A. sibirica= (Siberian).* _fl._ bright lilac; sepals very blunt, 1in. or a little more in length, spreading or slightly reflexing when fully expanded; limb of petals sometimes white, about 1/2in. long; spur stout, much incurved, 1/2in. to 3/4in. long; stems many-flowered, glabrous. Summer. _l._ biternate. _h._ 1ft. Siberia, 1806. Rockery species. Here are referred, by Mr. Baker, _A. bicolor_, _A. Garnieriana_, and _A. speciosa_. See Fig. 137.

=A. thalictrifolia= (Thalictrum-leaved). _fl._, sepals oblong, acute, lilac blue, about 1/2in. long; limb of petals about as long, and rounded at the top; spurs slender, not quite as long as the sepals; stems about three-flowered. Summer. _l._ with three-stalked segments cut into deep oblong lobes. _h._ 2ft. Tyrol, 1879. Entire plant clothed with fine pubescence.

=A. viridiflora= (green-flowered). _fl._, sepals oval-oblong, shorter than the petals; spurs straight and longer than the petals; stems two to three-flowered. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Siberia, 1780. Border. Rather a pleasing and sweet-scented green-flowered species, but not very ornamental.

=A. vulgaris= (common). Common Columbine. _fl._ variously coloured; sepals ovate acute, about 1in. long, and half as broad; limb of the petal rarely exceeding 3/4in. long, and half as much broad, rounded at the apex; spur much incurved, stout, knobbed at the end, as long as the petals; stems many-flowered. Spring and early summer. _l._ biternate. England, &c. There are numerous varieties of this very handsome species, both double and single-flowered.

=A. v. alba= (white). _fl._ pure white.

=A. v. a. fl.-pl.= Double white flowers.

=A. v. cærulea nana fl.-pl.= Very dwarf, with double deep blue flowers.

=A. v. hybrida= (hybrid). _fl._, sepals lilac purple, oblong-lanceolate, less than 1in. long; limb of the petals white, about 1/2in. long; spur scarcely incurved.

=A. v. Vervæneana.= This variety has pretty yellow mottled foliage.

[Illustration: FIG. 136. AQUILEGIA OLYMPICA, showing Habit and Flower.]

[Illustration: FIG. 137. AQUILEGIA SIBIRICA FLORE-PLENO, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. v. Wittmanniana= (Wittmann's). _fl._ large, bright lilac purple; sepals ovate-acute, 1in. to 1-1/4in. long, more than half as much broad; limb of petals white, about half the length of sepals; spur curved. A very fine variety.

The following names are also met with in gardens, some of which represent specific forms, but none are effective as garden ornaments: _advena_, _Burgeriana_, _Haylodgensis_ (hybrid), _grata_, _longissima_, _nevadensis_, _oxysepala_, &c.

=AQUOSUS.= Watery.

=ARABIS= (origin of the word not clear). Wall Cress; Rock Cress. ORD. _Cruciferæ_. Hardy perennial trailers, except where otherwise stated. Flowers mostly white; racemes terminal; pedicels bractless. Radical leaves usually stalked; cauline ones sessile or stem-clasping, entire or toothed, rarely lobed. Most members of this genus are peculiarly well adapted for rockwork and the alpine garden, both from their natural hardihood as well as their early and profuse flowering habits. They are of the easiest possible culture in any dry soil. The perennial species may either be increased by divisions of the root, by cuttings, placed in a shady border during the summer, or by seed. The latter may be sown outside, or in pans, in spring, when most of them will germinate in two or three weeks. The annuals and biennials are for the most part devoid of any cultural beauty.

=A. albida= (whitish).* _fl._ white; racemes terminal; pedicels longer than the calyx. January to May. _l._ few-toothed, hoary, or downy with branched hairs; radical ones obovate-oblong; cauline ones cordately sagittate, clasping the stem. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Tauria and Caucasus, 1798. SYN. _A. caucasica_.

=A. a. variegata= (variegated).* A very pretty variegated form for edgings.

[Illustration: FIG. 138. ARABIS ALPINA, showing Habit and Flowers.]

=A. alpina= (alpine).* _fl._ white, smaller than those of _A. albida_; racemes terminal; pedicels longer than the calyx, which is smoothish. March to May. _l._ many-toothed, lanceolate, acute, villous with branched hairs; radical ones somewhat stalked; cauline ones cordate, clasping the stem. _h._ 6in. European rocks, in sunny places, 1596. There are one or two varieties, including a variegated-leaved form, in cultivation. See Fig. 138.

[Illustration: FIG. 139. ARABIS ARENOSA, showing Habit and Flowers.]

=A. arenosa= (sand-loving).* _fl._ rose coloured, very rarely white or bluish; petals obovate; pedicels spreading. April to July. _l._ villous, with forked hairs; radical ones pinnatifid, with the upper lobes much larger than the lower; cauline ones deeply toothed. Stem branched, hispid, with simple hairs. _h._ 6in. Middle Europe, 1798. See Fig. 139.

=A. blepharophylla= (fringed-leaved).* _fl._ rosy purple; petals roundish, narrowing to the base, with slender claws. Spring. _l._ naked, except the margins, which are fringed with very stiff hairs; radical ones spathulate; cauline ones oblong, sessile. _h._ 3in. to 4in. California, 1874. This succeeds best in a cool frame, where it will flower in January.

=A. caucasica= (Caucasus). A synonym of _A. albida_.

=A. lucida= (shining).* _fl._ white; petals entire, narrowed at the base, twice as long as the calyx. Summer. _l._ obovate, thickish, shining, clasping the stem. _h._ 4in. to 6in. Hungary, 1790. A very pretty species, with a dwarf habit; it is especially adapted for edgings, borders, or rockwork.

=A. l. variegata= (variegated).* A great improvement upon the type, being broadly edged with yellow, and the green somewhat lighter. When grown in tufts or as edging, it is very effective, and should be prevented from flowering. This exceedingly desirable variety is a gem for the rockwork, and when seen in crevices, or in bold tufts, it is very striking. It must be increased by slips or rootlets, which should be taken in early summer.

=A. mollis= (soft). _fl._ white, in terminal racemes. May to July. _l._ grossly toothed, somewhat pubescent, with small stellate hairs; lower ones on long petioles, cordate-roundish; cauline ones ovate-cordate, clasping the stem. _h._ 2ft. Caucasus, 1823.

=A. petræa= (rock).* _fl._ white; petals ovate, with stalks. June. _l._ smooth, ciliated or scabrous, with simple or bifid radical ones on longish stalks, entire, toothed; cauline ones oblong-linear, entire, or toothed. _h._ 3in. or 4in. Britain.

=A. præcox= (early). _fl._ white; petals obovately cuneated, double the length of the calyx. April to June. _l._ oblong, acute, sessile, quite entire, smooth. Stem covered with close pressed rigid hairs. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Hungary.

=A. procurrens= (procurrent). _fl._ white; petals obovate, double the length of the calyx. May and June. _l._ ovate, quite entire, smooth, ciliated with two-parted hairs; radical ones narrowed into a petiole; cauline ones sessile, pointed. Stolons creeping. _h._ 9in. Servia, 1819. There is a brilliantly variegated form of this pretty species well worth growing.

=A. rosea= (rosy).* _fl._ rosy purple; petals oblong, somewhat wedge-shaped, double the length of the calyx; pedicels longer than the calyx. May to July. _l._, cauline ones oblong, somewhat cordate, and rather stem-clasping, scabrous with branched hairs. _h._ 1ft. Calabria, 1832.

=A. verna= (spring). _fl._ small, purple, with a white claw; pedicels shorter than the calyx. May to June. _l._, cauline ones cordate, clasping the stem, toothed, scabrous with three-parted hairs. _h._ 3in. to 6in. South Europe, 1710. The best annual species.

=ARACEÆ= or =AROIDEÆ=. An extensive order of herbaceous plants, with tuberous rhizomes. Flowers on a spadix, unisexual or hermaphrodite, protected by a spathe. Leaves large, radical. Well known genera belonging to this order are: _Alocasia_, _Arum_, _Caladium_, _Colocasia_, and _Dieffenbachia_.

=ARACHIS= (from _a_, without, and _rachis_, a branch; plant branchless). Ground or Earth Nut. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A stove annual, of economical value. Corolla resupinate; calyx a long tube, with a bilabiate limb; ovary stipitate, inclosed in the tube of the calyx; the stipe at first short, but afterwards becoming elongated. Sandy loam is the soil most suitable for their cultivation. Seeds should be sown in heat; and, when the plants have grown to a sufficient size, they should be potted off singly, and placed among other stove annuals. After the plant has finished flowering, and the pods begin to lengthen, the pedicels force them into the earth, where they ripen their seeds.

=A. hypogæa= (underground). Monkey Nut. _fl._ yellow, five to seven together in the axils of the leaves. May. _l._ abruptly-pinnate, bearing two pairs of leaflets, without any tendril; stipulas elongated, adnate to the petioles. _h._ 1ft., or procumbent. South America, 1812. See Fig. 140.

=ARACHNIMORPHA.= A synonym of =Rondeletia= (which _see_).

=ARACHNOID.= Resembling a cobweb in appearance; seeming to be covered with cobweb, in consequence of the entanglement of long, white hairs.

[Illustration: FIG. 140. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA, showing Leaf, Flower, &c., and Cluster of short wrinkled Pods.]

=ARALIA= (meaning unknown). ORD. _Araliaceæ_. This widely-grown genus includes stove, greenhouse, and hardy, herbaceous and shrubby plants. Flowers inconspicuous, umbellate, the umbels usually disposed in panicles; petals five, inserted on the margin of the disk; stamens five (see Fig. 142). Leaves usually compound. These plants are of moderately free growth, and the majority are easy to manage. Those requiring indoor treatment thrive well under the ordinary routine of management. One most important requirement, however, is that they must be kept well supplied with water at the roots. The finer, or stove varieties, should be potted in a mixture of sandy loam and peat, with the addition of a little fibrous leaf soil, and sufficient sand to keep the whole porous. The stronger growing kinds thrive in a richer compost. Propagation by cuttings of the roots is a common and very successful method. To obtain the roots, one of the strongest plants should be turned out of the pot, and the roots should be cleared of soil by shaking or washing it out; the requisite number of pieces should then be selected. As each piece is removed, it should have the end nearest the stem cut horizontally, to distinguish it from the other or furthermost end. In planting cuttings of the roots, it is best to place the end nearest the stem uppermost. The pieces may be left about 2in. long, and should be inserted in pots, well drained, and filled with sandy soil, leaving the tops of the cuttings about level with the surface of the soil. A square of glass must be placed over the top of each pot, plunging them in moderate bottom heat. The stems of the plants from which the roots have been taken may be cut into pieces 1in. or 1-1/2in. long, leaving an eye or bud near the top; a slice of half the shoot may be taken off opposite the bud. When prepared, these pieces should be pressed into pots of sand or sandy soil, and plunged into bottom heat. The stems may be cut down without disturbing the roots; in that case, if the pots are plunged in bottom heat, and kept moderately supplied with water, they will probably throw up several suckers or shoots from the roots. These, if taken off with a portion of root to each, and placed in small sized pots, will, with a little care, soon make useful plants. All the hardy species and most of the greenhouse ones are propagated readily by cuttings or pieces of roots. Some of the stove species, however, are very difficult to increase, except by grafting. Among these are _A. leptophylla_, _A. Veitchii_, &c. These should be worked on stocks of _A. Guilfoylei_ or _A. reticulata_, the latter being the better of the two. Cuttings of either of these strike readily, and stocks fit for grafting are easily procured. In sheltered and warm positions, the greenhouse species are admirably suited for sub-tropical gardening, either planted singly or in groups. _See_ also =Dimorphanthus=, =Fatsia=, =Hedera=, =Heptapleurum=, =Monopanax=, =Oreopanax=, and =Panax=.

=A. canescens= (greyish). A garden synonym of _A. chinensis_.

=A. Chabrierii= (Chabrier's).* _l._ alternate, pinnate, about a foot long; pinnæ opposite, 6in. to 9in. long, linear-lanceolate, deep green, with a heavy crimson midrib. 1882. Suitable for table decoration. A charming stove species.

[Illustration: FIG. 141. ARALIA CHINENSIS.]

=A. chinensis= (Chinese).* _fl._ white; panicles terminal; peduncles umbelliferous. _l._ petiolate, coriaceous, woolly on both surfaces when young (only); pinnæ seven, ovate, serrated at the apex, erect and distinct. _h._ 5ft. to 6ft. 1838. This species, if planted in a soil with a dry porous bottom, will prove to be hardy. SYN. _A. canescens_, of gardens. See Fig. 141.

=A. concinna= (neat). _l._ unequally pinnate; pinnæ lobed and serrate. Stem spotted. New Caledonia, 1879. A handsome stove species, but very rare. SYNS. _A. spectabilis_, _Delarbrea spectabilis_.

=A. crassifolia= (thick-leaved). A synonym of _Pseudopanax crassifolium_.

=A. edulis= (edible).* _fl._ numerous, white; umbels globose, axillary and terminal, united into simple or compound racemes. Summer. _l._, lower ones pinnate, with five leaflets, or three pinnate, with divisions of three to five leaflets; upper ones generally simple, with stalked leaflets, having a cordate base, ovate, acute, finely toothed, downy. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. Japan, 1843. Hardy, herbaceous, perennial, hairy, and spineless.

=A. elegantissima= (most elegant).* _l._ digitate, on long dark green footstalks, which are mottled with white; leaflets seven to ten, filiform, and, being pendulous, impart a very graceful character to the plant. Stem straight, erect. South Sea Islands, 1873. Stove species, excellent for table decoration.

=A. filicifolia= (fern-leaved).* _l._, leafstalks sheathing at the base, and terete in the upper part, expanding into a broad leafy limb which is impari-pinnately divided; pinnæ opposite, deeply pinnatifid, bright green, with a purplish midrib. Stem and leafstalks purplish, thickly marked with oblong white spots. Polynesia, 1876.

=A. gracillima= (most graceful). Synonymous with _A. Veitchii gracillima_.

=A. Guilfoylei= (Guilfoyle's).* _l._ pinnate, on long smooth terete petioles; leaflets oblong-elliptic, bluntish, from three to seven, they are sometimes obscurely lobed, and irregularly spinose, serrate, varying in size from 2in. to 3in. long, neatly and evenly margined with creamy white, the surface being in addition occasionally splashed with grey. Stem erect, copiously dotted with lenticular markings. South Sea Islands, 1876. Stove species.

=A. heteromorpha= (many-formed).* _l._ sometimes ovate-lanceolate and serrated, and at others bifid or even trifid at the apex, about 6in. to 8in. or 9in. long, bright shining green. A very desirable species, of robust and compact habit.

=A. japonica= (Japanese). Another name for _Fatsia japonica_.

=A. Kerchoveana= (Count Kerchove's). _l._ digitate, almost circular in outline; leaflets nine to eleven, spreading, elliptic-lanceolate, conspicuously serrated or undulated margins, of a deep glossy green relieved by a pale midrib. 1883. A very elegant slender-stemmed plant from the South Sea Islands, and likely to prove valuable for decorative purposes. Stove species.

=A. leptophylla= (slender-leaved).* _l._ compound, bearing often seven or more petiolate leaflets of a somewhat pendent character, and dark green in colour. 1862. An elegant stove or greenhouse slender growing species.

=A. longipes= (long-stalked). _l._ digitate, long stalked, and rather distant; leaflets oblanceolate acuminate, slightly undulated at the edge; petioles elongated. Stems simple. North Australia, 1882. A very distinct erect-growing evergreen stove species.

=A. maculata= (spotted). _l._ of a light green colour; leaflets oblong-acuminate, in about four pairs. Stem erect, which, as well as the stalks of the leaves, is of a blackish-purple hue, thickly spotted with green dots. This peculiar colouring is very distinct and conspicuous. South Pacific Islands. Stove species.

=A. Maximowiczii= (Maximowicz's).* _l._ on long stalks, palmately five to seven-lobed; lobes lanceolate, 3-1/2in. long, serrate. Japan, 1874. An elegant and distinct hardy shrub, with erect spiny stem. SYN. _Acanthopanax ricinifolium_.

=A. monstrosa= (monstrous).* _l._ pendent, pinnate; leaflets three to seven, oblong elliptic, deeply and irregularly serrated (this serration sometimes takes most fantastic forms), broadly margined with creamy white, the surface blotched with grey. South Sea Islands, 1880. Stove species.

=A. nudicaulis= (naked-stemmed).* _fl._ greenish; scape trifid at the apex, shorter than the leaf, each division bearing a many-flowered umbel. June. _l._ radical, the divisions pinnately five foliate; leaflets oblong-oval, with a long tapering point, serrate. Root horizontal, very long. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. North America, 1731. Quite hardy, herbaceous perennial.

=A. Osyana= (Osyan).* Resembling _A. leptophylla_, but with leaflets deeply bifid at the ends; surface colour bright green; primary veins and tips of the leaflets chocolate brown. South Sea Islands, 1870. Very elegant stove species.

=A. pentaphylla= (five-leaved).* _l._ digitate, or sometimes only three leaflets are produced, each varying from 6in. to 10in. in length, and from 1in. to 2in. in breadth, deeply lobed or pinnatifid, bright shining green. Stem arboreous, prickly. _h._ 20ft. Japan. SYN. _Panax spinosa_.

=A. p. variegata= (variegated). _l._ broadly edged with creamy white. Japan, 1874.

=A. quercifolia= (oak-leaved).* _l._ opposite, trifoliate; leaflets deeply sinuate; lower petioles about 3in. long, light shining green. New Britain, 1880. Very pretty stove species.

[Illustration: FIG. 142. FLOWER OF ARALIA RACEMOSA, enlarged.]

=A. racemosa= (raceme-flowering).* _fl._ greenish-white, petals spreading; peduncles axillary, disposed in a terminal raceme, umbelliferous. June. _l._ petioles tripartite, the partitions bearing each three to five ovate or cordate, acuminated, serrated, smoothish leaflets. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. North America, 1658. Hardy herbaceous species, highly ornamental. See Fig. 142.

=A. reticulata= (netted). _l._ alternate, strap-shaped when young, becoming larger with age, dark green, reticulated with a lighter shade of the same colour. A very handsome species, requiring stove heat during winter. In spring and summer it is admirably suited for conservatory or indoor decoration, having a light and graceful aspect.

=A. rotunda= (round). _l._ sometimes of a single leaflet only, which is spreading, orbicular, cordate at the base, margined with distinct white tipped teeth; at other times, especially when approaching maturity, the leaves are trifoliate, the leaflets being rounded and toothed, and the terminal one being about double the size of the lateral ones. Stems erect, brownish-green, spotted when young with pale elongate blotches. Polynesia, 1882.

=A. Scheffleri= (Scheffler's). _l._ on long petioles, digitate; leaflets five, petiolulate, lanceolate, attenuated at the base, serrulated, glabrous on both surfaces. Stem shrubby, smooth. New Zealand. Greenhouse species.

=A. spectabilis= (showy). A synonym of _A. concinna_.

=A. spinosa= (thorny).* Angelica Tree. _l._ doubly and triply pinnate; leaflets ovate, acuminated, deeply serrated. Stem simple, prickly (as are also the petioles), forming into an umbrella-like head, deciduous. _h._ 8ft. to 12ft. North America, 1688. A very fine hardy species for sheltered spots.

=A. spinulosa= (small-spined). _l._ alternate, pinnate; pinnæ ovate acuminate, dark green, margined with little reddish-crimson spines or prickles. Stems and petioles spotted and suffused with crimson. 1880. A bold and robust stove plant.

=A. ternata= (three-leafleted).* _l._ opposite, ternate; leaflets oblong-lanceolate; margins in some cases deeply serrate, in others sinuate, light green. New Britain, 1879. A slender growing species.

=A. trifolia= (three-leaved). A synonym of _Pseudopanax Lessonii_.

[Illustration: FIG. 143. ARALIA VEITCHII.]

=A. Veitchii= (Veitch's).* _l._ digitate, with about eleven filiform undulated leaflets, glossy green above, dark red beneath; petioles long and slender. New Caledonia, 1867. A very handsome (said to be the best) species, with slender, erect growing stem. See Fig. 143, for which we are indebted to Messrs. Veitch and Sons.

=A. V. gracillima= (most graceful).* _l._ alternate, spreading; leaflets nearly linear, but slightly narrowed at both ends, having a prominent ivory-white central rib. South Sea Islands, 1876. An erect growing species, with an elegantly graceful habit. It is allied to _A. reticulata_, but is more handsome. This charming variety is undoubtedly the finest for table decoration, and is frequently grafted upon stocks of the typical form. It enjoys plenty of heat. SYN. _A. gracillima_.

=ARALIACEÆ.= An order of trees, shrubs, or (rarely) herbaceous plants, often pubescent, and sometimes spiny. Flowers variously disposed, hermaphrodite or unisexual, regular; petals usually five, and valvate. Leaves alternate, or (rarely) opposite. This order is closely allied to _Umbelliferæ_; and the best known genera are _Aralia_ and _Hedera_.

=ARAR-TREE.= A common name for =Callitris quadrivalvis= (which _see_).

=ARAUCARIA= (from _Araucanos_, its name in Chili). SYN. _Eutacta_. ORD. _Coniferæ_. A noble genus of diœcious or sub-diœcious evergreen trees, with usually imbricated persistent flat sessile scale-like leaves. Male cones large, cylindrical, terminal; female ones very large, globular, terminal, with dense ligneous deciduous scales, each bearing a solitary seed. The majority of the species are not, unfortunately, sufficiently hardy to withstand our winters out of doors. Few trees can compete with them in symmetry and elegant proportion for conservatory decoration, where they may be grown in large tubs, or planted out. Small plants grown in pots are most serviceable for table and other decorative purposes. They thrive in a good fibrous loam, mixed with leaf soil and sand. Propagation by means of seed is the surest and most satisfactory method; the seed should be sown in pans or boxes, or if in large quantities, in a bed, with but gentle heat; they usually take some time to germinate. Cuttings are procured by taking off the leading shoots, and fixing them firmly in a pot of sand; they first require a cool place, but may afterwards be subjected to slight warmth. When rooted, they should be potted off into the soil above mentioned. The young growths which afterwards shoot from the plant, whence the cutting, may be taken off and treated in much the same manner. These are the only methods of propagation worth pursuing.

=A. Balansæ= (Balansa's). _male cones_ cylindrical-conical, 2in. _female cones_ elliptic globose, 4in.; scales obovate, cuneate. _l._ arcuately-uncinate, ovate triangular, imbricated round the distichous, simple branchlets. _h._ 130ft. to 160ft. New Caledonia, 1875. A fine greenhouse plumosely branched tree.

=A. Bidwillii= (Bidwill's).* Bunya-Bunya Pine; Moreton Bay Pine. _cones_ sub-globose, longest diameter 10in. to 12in., shortest 9in. to 10in. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, in two nearly horizontal rows, acuminated, slightly convex above, concave beneath, leathery, deep shining green. _h._ 150ft. Moreton Bay. Habit very regular and symmetrical. Greenhouse species.

=A. brasiliensis= (Brazilian). _l._ oblong-lanceolate, much attenuated at the point, loosely imbricated, deep green; lower part of the trunk usually free from branches, terminating in a rounded head. _h._ 70ft. to 100ft. Brazil, 1819. _A. b. gracilis_, and _A. b. Ridolfiana_ are two forms of this species.

=A. columnaris= (columnar). A synonym of _A. Cookii_.

=A. Cookii= (Cook's).* _l._ awl-shaped, short, densely imbricated around the frondose branches. Described by Mr. Abbay as having "a somewhat curious habit, even when growing alone, of shedding their branches for five-sixths or more of their height, and then replacing them by a smaller and more bushy growth, so that the tree at a distance presents a very columnar appearance, the resemblance being increased by the summit being crowned with a mass of foliage somewhat like a capital." _h._ 200ft. New Caledonia, 1851. SYN. _A. columnaris_.

[Illustration: FIG. 144. ARAUCARIA EXCELSA.]

=A. Cunninghami= (Cunningham's).* _l._ on the sterile branches needle-shaped, obscurely quadrangular, rigid, acute; on the fertile branches shorter, stouter, closely appressed, bright green; upper branches ascending, lower ones horizontal. _h._ 100ft. Moreton Bay. This fine species we have found to be quite hardy on the south-west coast of England.

=A. C. glauca= (milky-green). A very handsome variety, with silvery glaucous leaves.

=A. excelsa= (lofty).* The Norfolk Island Pine. _l._ awl-shaped, curved, sharply acuminated, bright green, densely packed on the frondose, deltoid, horizontal, or pendulous branches. When well grown, this is a beautifully symmetrical greenhouse or conservatory species, attaining to a height of 150ft., and a circumference of 20ft. or more. Norfolk Island. This is especially desirable in a small state. There are several varieties known, the best being: _A. e. glauca_, having lighter green, and very glaucous foliage; and _A. e. robusta_, which is larger in all its parts. See Fig. 144.

=A. Goldieana= (Goldie's).* Allied to _A. Rulei_. _l._ produced in whorls, pendulous, dark green, varying in size. New Caledonia. Most distinct and elegant for conservatory decoration.

=A. imbricata= (imbricated).* The Monkey Puzzle. _fl._, male and female catkins on separate trees; the males are six or seven in a cluster, pedunculate, yellow, and oval with numerous scales, imbricated, long, and recurved at the points; the female catkins are oval, with numerous wedge-shaped scales, with narrow oblong brittle points; they are produced at the ends of the branches. _cones_, when fully ripe globular, from 3in. to 4in. in diameter, dark brown. The branches are horizontal, inflexed, and ascending at the extremities, and are produced in whorls. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, sessile, thickened at the base, stiff, leathery, straight, somewhat keeled-shaped below, and strongly mucronate at the apex; verticillate, with seven or eight in a whorl, imbricate, and closely encircling the branches, concave, glabrous, shining, marked with longitudinal lines, dotted on both sides. _h._ 50ft. to 100ft. Chili, 1796. A well known hardy tree, of striking aspect, and indispensable to Arboreta and shrubberies. See Fig. 145.

=A. Rulei= (Rule's).* _male cones_ oblong obtuse; _female cones_ oval. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, with a prominent dorsal nerve, more closely appressed, and less sharply pointed than in the foregoing species; imbricated in four rows. Branches horizontal; branchlets often quite pendulous. _h._ 50ft. Papuan Archipelago.

=A. R. elegans= (elegant).* _l._ smaller; whorls of branches closer together; branchlets more slender. An elegant form; and, from its comparative dwarf and graceful habit, should be very generally grown.

=ARBOR.= A tree. A perennial plant, having a distinct bole or trunk, from which the main branches grow.

=ARBORESCENT.= Having a tendency to become a tree.

=ARBORETUM.= A collection of hardy trees formed for pleasure or instruction, and which, when well managed, is a source of much interesting study. They afford shelter, improve the local climate, renovate bad soils, &c., and also, by concealing or hiding disagreeable objects, heighten the effect of agreeable ones, create beauty, and add value. A properly arranged Arboretum should be constructed with a view to picturesque beauty, and not systematically, as is usually the case in Botanic Gardens, although scientific purposes are best served by a systematic arrangement.

=ARBOR-VITÆ.= _See_ =Thuja=.

=ARBOUR.= A seat surrounded by lattice work, covered by Vines, Wistarias, or other climbing plants.

=ARBUTUS= (from _arboise_, Celtic for austere bush; in allusion to the austere quality of the fruit). Strawberry Tree. ORD. _Ericaceæ_. Trees and shrubs, with evergreen alternate laurel-like leaves. Corolla globose, or ovately campanulate; petals five, reflexed. Very ornamental subjects for lawns and shrubberies, thriving well in a light sandy or peaty soil. They may be propagated by seeds, which should be sown in sand during March; by budding, and by inarching; the first mentioned method is the one most generally employed, with good results. The various sorts may be grafted, budded, or inarched upon _A. Unedo_. The greenhouse species are rare in cultivation, but their management does not materially differ from other plants requiring a similar temperature.

=A. Andrachne= (Andrachne).* _fl._ greenish-white; panicles terminal, erect, clothed with viscid down. March and April. _l._ oblong, bluntish, entire in some, a little serrated in others, glabrous. _h._ 10ft. to 14ft. Greece, 1724. A fine ornamental tree.

=A. A. serratifolia= (saw-edge-leaved). _fl._ yellowish, disposed in rather large terminal clusters. _l._ serrated, and narrower than those of the species. SYN. _A. serratifolia_.

[Illustration: FIG. 145. ARAUCARIA IMBRICATA.]

=A. andrachnoides= (Andrachne-like). A synonym of _A. hybrida_.

=A. canariensis= (Canary). _fl._ greenish-white; panicles erect, hispid. May. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, serrated, glaucous beneath. _h._ 8ft. to 10ft. Canary Islands, 1796. Greenhouse.

=A. densiflora= (thickly-flowered).* _fl._ white; corolla oval; pedicels furnished with three bracteas at the base; panicle terminal, composed of closely packed racemes. _l._ 4in. to 5in. long, on long petioles, oblong, acute, sharply toothed, coriaceous, glabrous above and shining, but downy beneath, the middle nerve with rusty villi; branches angular, hairy. _h._ 20ft. Mexico, 1826. Greenhouse.

=A. hybrida= (hybrid).* _fl._ white; panicle terminal, pendulous, downy. September to December. _l._ oblong, acute, serrated, glabrous; branches pilose. _h._ 10ft. to 0ft. A half-hardy garden hybrid; it originated about 1800. SYN. _A. andrachnoides_.

=A. Menziesi= (Menzies').* _fl._ white; racemes axillary and terminal, panicled, dense-flowered. September. _l._ broad-oval, quite entire, glabrous, on long petioles. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. North-west America, 1827. A noble hardy tree. _A. laurifolia_ comes close to this species. SYN. _A. procera_.

=A. mollis= (soft). _fl._ rosy, drooping; panicle terminal, crowded, racemose. June. _l._ oblong-acute, sharply toothed, coriaceous, clothed with soft pubescence above, and white tomentum beneath. _h._ 6ft. Mexico. Greenhouse shrub.

=A. mucronata= (mucronate). A synonym of _Pernettya mucronata_.

=A. pilosa= (pilose). A synonym of _Pernettya pilosa_.

=A. procera= (tall).* A synonym of _A. Menziesi_.

=A. serratifolia= (saw-edge-leaved). A synonym of _A. Andrachne serratifolia_.

=A. Unedo= (Unedo).* The Strawberry Tree. _fl._ white, deep red in some of the varieties, nodding, in terminal racemose, bracteate panicles. September. _fr._ large, scarlet, nearly globose, granular, edible. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, serrulated; branchlets clothed with glandular hairs. _h._ 8ft. to 10ft. West of Ireland, and South Europe. There are several varieties of this plant in cultivation. It is one of the greatest ornaments in the months of October and November--the season when it is in flower, and when, also, the fruit of the former year is ripe.

=A. Xalapensis= (Xalapan). _fl._ reddish white; corolla ovate; panicle terminal, composed of many racemes. April. _l._ petiolate, oblong, acute, quite entire, about 2in. long, glabrous above, but clothed with brownish tomentum beneath; epidermis separating, brownish purple. Young branches glabrous, but beset with ramentæ. _h._ 6ft. to 9ft. Mexico. Greenhouse species.

=ARCHEGONIUM.= The female organ in ferns, &c., analogous with the ovary in flowering plants.

=ARCTOSTAPHYLOS= (from _arktos_, a bear, and _staphyle_, a grape; bears eat the fruit of some species). ORD. _Ericaceæ_. Handsome hardy or half-hardy shrubs or sub-shrubs, agreeing in generic characters with _Arbutus_, except that the fruit is five-celled and the cells one-seeded, and not granular on the outside. For culture, &c., _see_ =Arbutus=.

=A. alpina= (alpine).* Black Bearberry. _fl._ white or flesh-coloured, in terminal, reflexed racemes; pedicels rather hairy. April. _l._ obovate, acute, wrinkled, serrated, deciduous. Stems procumbent, trailing. Scotland (but rare), &c. SYN. _Arbutus alpina_.

=A. nitida= (shining).* _fl._ white; racemes terminal. May. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acute, smooth on both sides and shining above. _h._ 4ft. Mexico, 1839. An erect half-hardy evergreen.

=A. pungens= (stinging).* _fl._ white; pedicels close; racemes short, at first terminal, but at length lateral. February. _l._ ovate-oblong, acute, mucronate, rather pungent, quite entire, coriaceous, clothed with fine down on both surfaces; branchlets angular, downy. _h._ 1ft. Mexico, 1839. A dwarf, much branched, half-hardy evergreen shrub.

=A. tomentosa= (tomentose).* _fl._ pure white, campanulately urceolate, bracteate; peduncles axillary, shorter than the leaves, somewhat capitately racemose. December. _l._ oval, acute, sub-cordate at the base, clothed with white tomentum beneath, on short petioles; branches hispid. _h._ 4ft. North-west America, 1826. Shrubby species; hardy.

=A. Uva-ursi.=* Bearberry. _fl._ flesh-coloured, with a red mouth, growing in small clusters at the extremities of the branches. April. _l._ obovate, quite entire, coriaceous, shining. Highlands of Scotland and Wales. A hardy evergreen procumbent trailer. SYN. _Arbutus Uva-ursi_.

=ARCTOTHECA= (from _arktos_, a bear, and _theke_, a capsule; so named from the roughness of the fruit). ORD. _Compositæ_. Greenhouse herbaceous perennial, allied to _Arctotis_. Heads radiate; involucral scales imbricate in many rows, the outer linear, herbaceous, inner larger, scariose, very obtuse; receptacle honeycombed, bearing many little fringes; achenes ovate, somewhat four-sided, without wings or pappus. It thrives in a compost of peat, leaf soil, and loam. Propagated by divisions of the plant, or cuttings, in spring. Several species formerly classed in this genus are now included under _Arctotis_.

=A. repens= (creeping). _fl.-heads_ yellow. July. _l._ petioled, lyrate-pinnatifid, green and mostly smooth above, white-woolly beneath. Cape of Good Hope, 1793. A stemless, creeping or decumbent herb.

=ARCTOTIS= (from _arktos_, a bear, and _ous_, an ear; in reference to the shaggy fruit). ORD. _Compositæ_. Mostly half-hardy herbaceous perennials. Involucral bracts numerous, imbricated, scariose on the margin; receptacle pitted, studded with bristles between the florets; achenes grooved, crowned with a pappus of membranous scales. The species of this genus are of easy culture in a compost of loam and leaf soil. Propagated by cuttings at any time of the year; these should be pricked in pots of very sandy soil, and placed in gentle warmth; they must be kept uncovered and moderately dry, or they will rot. The Arctotis are very handsome plants in sunny, dry positions outside during the summer months, but they must be protected during winter.

A. acaulis (stemless).* _fl.-heads_ yellow and red. Summer. _l._ hoary on each side, ternate, lyrate. Stem very short, decumbent. _h._ 4in. Cape of Good Hope, 1759. Very rarely met with.

=A. arborescens= (tree-like).* _fl.-heads_, ray-florets white above, pink beneath; disk-florets yellow; disposed in large circular Daisy-like heads. Summer. _l._ linear-oblong, pinnate; upper ones amplexicaul; lower ones stalked. _h._ 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1815.

=A. argentea= (silvery). _fl.-heads_ orange. August. _l._ lanceolate-linear, entire, downy. _h._ 1ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1774.

=A. aureola= (golden). Synonymous with _A. grandiflora_.

=A. breviscapa= (short-stalked). Synonymous with _A. speciosa_.

=A. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ orange; outer scales of involucre reflexed, cuneate, oblong, with a broad short point, somewhat cobwebbed. July. _l._ pinnatifid, serrulate, three-nerved. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1710. SYNS. _A. aureola_ and _A. undulata_.

=A. reptans= (creeping). _fl.-heads_ white, orange. July. _l._ hairy beneath; lower lyrate toothed; upper lanceolate toothed. Stem ascending. _h._ 8in. Cape of Good Hope, 1795.

=A. rosea= (rosy). _fl.-heads_ pink. Autumn. _l._ spathulate-lanceolate, repand-toothed, hoary. Stem procumbent. Cape of Good Hope, 1793.

=A. speciosa= (showy).* _fl.-heads_ yellow; outer scales of involucre linear recurved. July. _l._ lyrate, pinnatifid, hoary beneath, three-nerved. Plant stemless. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1812. Closely allied to _A. acaulis_. SYN. _A. breviscapa_.

=A. undulata= (wavy). Synonymous with _A. grandiflora_.

=ARCUATE, ARCUATED.= Curved or bent like a bow; forming an arch.

=ARDISIA.= (from _ardis_, a point; in reference to the acute, spear-pointed anthers). SYN. _Pyrgus_. ORD. _Myrsineæ_. An extensive genus of greenhouse or stove, mostly ornamental, evergreen trees and shrubs. Flowers white or rose-coloured, more or less panicled; panicles sometimes many-flowered at the extremities of the branches, and longer than the leaves, sometimes few-flowered and in the axils of the leaves. Leaves alternate, rarely almost opposite, or three in a whorl, dotted. Propagated by cuttings of the half-ripened wood taken from the side shoots of the plant any time from March to September; but, as the points of these side shoots bear the blossoms and fruit, they are not well adapted for making good plants. To obtain the best plants, the largest, ripest, and best-coloured berries should be sown early in spring, as soon as gathered, in a wide-mouthed pot or seed pan, well drained and filled with loam and peat in equal parts, with the addition of some sand, and plunged in bottom heat, the soil being kept moderately moist. The seeds will germinate in a few weeks after sowing, and when about 2in. high, the strongest seedlings should be selected and placed in 3in. pots, the same mixture of soil being used, with the addition of a fourth part well decomposed manure. After potting, the plants must be moistened overhead twice a day with a fine rose or syringe, and be kept in a close atmosphere until the roots have taken to the fresh soil. When the plants begin to grow again, they should be removed to a light situation in the house; and when the pots are well filled with roots, a shift into 6in. pots may be effected, water being given judiciously until well established, and here they may remain to fruit. Until the berries are coloured, clear manure water, given once or twice a week, will be found beneficial. The plants arrive at their best when about 18in. or 2ft. high; after that, they begin to get naked at the bottom. It will then be wise to cut the worst plants down to within 2in. of the pots, in early spring, allowing them to become dry at the roots before this operation is performed. By giving moisture to the roots when the cut has become dry, the plants will soon break into growth again, when some of the worst placed shoots should be rubbed off, leaving only one or two of the strongest and best placed, calculated to develop into a well formed plant. When the shoots have grown 2in. or 3in., the plants should be turned out of their pots, the soil shaken out from the roots, and the long ends of the roots trimmed in a little with a knife; they must then be placed in a pot sufficiently large to hold the roots without squeezing. The plants should now occupy the warmest end of the house in which they are grown, care being taken in watering until new roots are formed, when they may have more air and somewhat liberal supplies of water. As soon as they are sufficiently advanced in growth, they should be transferred to a larger-sized pot. With proper treatment, they will flower and fruit the same season as they are cut down, and form handsome plants. Although most species of this genus are classed as stove plants, they will succeed very well in a temperature that does not fall below 45deg. in winter; and, when so grown, they are not so liable to become infested with large brown scale and other insect pests. This is particularly the case with _A. crenulata_, and cool treatment is also favourable to the ripe berries hanging on the plants for a much longer time than when grown in a stove. Moreover, they do not suffer so much when removed for decorative purposes.

=A. acuminata= (taper-pointed). _fl._ nearly white; petals small, acute, dotted; panicles terminal and axillary, many-flowered. July. _l._ entire, glabrous, oblong, acuminated, attenuated at the base. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. Guiana, 1803.

[Illustration: FIG. 146. FLOWERING BRANCH OF ARDISIA CRENULATA.]

=A. crenulata= (round-notched-leaved).* _fl._ reddish violet; panicles terminal; pedicels umbellate. June. Berries numerous, bright coral-like. _l._ lanceolate-ovate, tapering at both ends, repandly crenulated, pilose. _h._ 3ft. to 6ft. Mexico, 1809. When grown in a cool atmosphere, as previously alluded to, it is quite common for one crop of berries to hang on the plants until another crop is ripe. This is a splendid plant, superior even to the red-berried Solanums for decorative purposes, for which it is largely grown. See Fig. 146.

=A. crispa= (curled). _fl._ small, drooping, red; cymes terminal, usually solitary, often compound; pedicels smooth, finely veined, umbellate, drooping. July. Berries red, size of peas. _l._ bluntish, oblong-lanceolate, attenuated at both ends, with repandly crenulated glandular edges, glabrous. _h._ 4ft. India, 1809.

=A. humilis= (humble). _fl._ rose-coloured; peduncles solitary, bearing each a simple racemose umbel of many pretty, large, drooping flowers; petals lanceolate, first recurved, afterwards revolute. June. Berries size of peas, shining, black, juicy. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acuminated at both ends, glabrous, veined, shining. _h._ 4ft. India, 1820.

=A. japonica= (Japanese).* _fl._ white; pedicels red, sub-umbellate, secund, drooping; racemes simple, axillary. June. _l._ nearly opposite, or three to five in a whorl, on short petioles, cuneate-oblong, acute, glabrous, serrated; 4in. long. _h._ 1ft. Japan. Perhaps the hardiest of all the species.

=A. macrocarpa= (large-fruited).* _fl._ flesh-coloured, dotted; petals ovate, obtuse; racemes terminal, corymbose, almost sessile, slightly hairy. Berries vermilion coloured, as large as gooseberries. _l._ oblong, acute, tapering downwards, glandularly crenated, dotted, close together, leathery, 6in. to 8in. long, paler beneath, veinless. _h._ 5ft. to 6ft. Nepaul, 1824. A beautiful shrub.

=A. Oliveri= (Oliver's).* _fl._ rose pink, white eye: corolla rotate, 1/2in. across; lobes obtuse; heads terminal, consisting of a number of stalked, many-flowered corymbs; pedicels about twice as long as the flower. July. _l._ nearly sessile, entire, glabrous, 6in. to 8in. long, by 2in. in the broadest portion; oblanceolate, acuminate, tapering towards the base. Costa Rica, 1876.

=A. paniculata= (panicled).* _fl._ rose-coloured; panicles terminal, composed of many alternate compound branches, large and elegant; petals and sepals ovate. July. Berries red, smooth, size of a pea, juicy. _l._ glabrous, cuneate-oblong, almost sessile, reflexed, 6in. to 20in. long, and from 3in. to 5in. broad, crowded at the ends of the branches. _h._ 8ft. to 10ft. India, 1818.

=A. punctata= (dotted). _fl._ greyish white, sub-campanulate, secund, beset with dark dots, and the pedicels with dark lines; peduncles umbellate, terminal, and axillary; umbels involucrated by deciduous bracts. June. _l._ glabrous, lanceolate, leathery, repandly crenated, tapering to the base. _h._ 6ft. to 10ft. China, 1822.

=A. serrulata= (finely serrated).* _fl._ deep red; petals ciliated; calyces and pedicels coloured; panicles terminal; pedicels umbellate. July. _l._ glabrous, lanceolate, acuminated, wrinkled, serrulated, beset with rusty dots beneath; branches downy. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. China, 1820.

=A. villosa= (hairy). _fl._ whitish, umbels axillary and terminal, very villous. October. Berries villous. _l._ lanceolate, acuminated, villous beneath, crenulated, 5in. to 7in. long, tapering to the base, copiously dotted. China. All the upper parts of the plant are densely beset with hairs.

=A. v. mollis= (soft).* This variety has very fine red berries, and is superior to the type.

=A. Wallichii= (Wallich's). _fl._ red, in loose racemes; peduncles axillary, one-half shorter than the leaves, and are, as well as the pedicels, pilose. July. _l._ obovate, acute, or obtuse, narrowed into the marginate petioles, repandly crenulated, 4in. to 5in. long, and 2in. broad, thickish. _h._ 2ft. India.

=ARDUINA= (in honour of P. Arduini, curator of the Economical Garden of Padua, in the time of Linnæus). ORD. _Apocynaceæ_. A singular and pretty greenhouse evergreen shrub, of easy culture in carefully drained pots of peat and loam, mixed in equal proportions. Propagated by cuttings in sand, under a glass. The winter temperature should not be allowed to fall below 40deg.

=A. bispinosa= (two-spined). _fl._ small, white, sweet-scented, terminal, corymbose. March to August. Berry red. _l._ cordate-ovate, mucronate, nearly sessile, dark green, larger than those of Box. Spines twin, simple, but usually bifid; in this last case, one of the clefts points downwards, and the other upwards. _h._ 3ft. to 5ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1760. SYN. _Carissa Arduina_.

=ARECA= (_Areec_ is its name in Malabar, when an old tree). The Cabbage Palm. ORD. _Palmeæ_. This genus is now broken up into several, and many species formerly here arranged are now found under _Acanthophœnix_, _Euterpe_, _Hyophorbe_, _Kentia_, _Oncosperma_, _Phænicophorum_. Very ornamental and graceful stove palms, with a branching spadix, and double spathe, which incloses the flowers. Flowers unisexual, borne upon the same spike; female flowers having six rudimentary stamens, and male flowers a six-cleft perianth. Fruit one-seeded. They thrive in a compost of loam, peat, and leaf soil, in equal parts, with a liberal addition of sand; but when they are fully grown, loam should preponderate to the extent of about two-thirds, and some rotten cow-manure may be added. Propagated from seeds, which should be sown in a compost similar to above, and placed in a moist gentle heat. They are employed, when young, with much success for the decoration of drawing rooms and dinner tables.

=A. Aliciæ= (Princess Alice's). _l._ pinnatisect; segments sessile. North Australia. A very handsome species, with a comparatively dwarf habit; it is a valuable decorative plant.

=A. Catechu= (Catechu). _l._ pinnate, from 3ft. to 6ft. long; leaflets 12in. to 24in. in length, and about 2in. broad, light green; petioles broadly sheathed at the base. _h._ 30ft. India, 1690. One of the best and oldest species in cultivation, very effective, in a young state, for dinner table decoration. It produces the Betel nut, of which enormous quantities are used in India.

=A. concinna= (neat). _l._ pinnatisect, sub-glabrous; segments sickle-shaped, much acuminated. Stem green, 8ft. to 12ft. high, 1in. to 2in. in diameter. Ceylon. The Cingalese chew the albumen of the seeds with their Betel.

=A. gigantea= (gigantic). A synonym of _Pinanga ternatensis_.

=A. glandiformis= (gland-formed). _l._ pinnatisect, 9ft. to 12ft. long when fully grown. _h._ 30ft. Moluccas. A handsome stove palm, of bold aspect, and very suitable, when young, for decorative purposes.

=A. Normanbyi= (Normanby's). A synonym of _Ptychosperma Normanbyi_.

=A. triandra= (three-stamened). _l._ pinnate, like those of _A. Catechu_ in size, &c. _h._ 20ft. India, introduced to Britain about 1810.

=ARENARIA= (from _arena_, sand; in which most of the species are found). Sandwort. ORD. _Caryophyllaceæ_. TRIBE _Alsineæ_. A very large genus of hardy herbaceous plants, consisting of about 150 species. It is distinguished by having generally three styles. The perennials only are worth growing; these are extremely pretty little alpine plants, and will thrive in any ordinary soil in exposed places; the rarer species may be grown in small pots, well drained, in a mixture of sand, loam, and leaf soil, or in well-drained crannies of the rockery. They may be increased by either division, seeds, or cuttings; the latter, placed under a hand-glass, will root freely. The best time to divide the plants is early spring, or July and August. Seeds should be sown in spring in a cold frame.

=A. balearica= (Balearic).* _fl._ white, sepals erect; peduncles elongated, one-flowered. March to August. _l._ very small, ovate, shining, rather fleshy, ciliated. _h._ 3in. Corsica, 1787. A pretty little creeper, one of the best plants for covering damp borders of the rockwork.

=A. cæspitosa= (tufted). Synonymous with _A. verna cæspitosa_.

=A. ciliata= (ciliated). _fl._ white, usually solitary; sepals ovate, acute, five to seven ribbed; petals obovate, twice as long as the sepals. July. _l._ ovate, or obovate, roughish, with a few hairs, one-nerved, and ciliated. Ireland. _h._ 6in. A thick, tufted, spreading, procumbent plant.

=A. graminifolia= (grass-leaved).* _fl._ white; panicle three-forked, hairy, loose; sepals very blunt, much shorter than the obovate petals. June. _l._ long, awl-shaped, filiform, scabrous on the margins from serratures. Stem erect, simple. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Caucasus, 1817.

=A. grandiflora= (large-flowered).* _fl._ white, usually solitary; peduncles very long, pubescent; sepals ovate, awned, three-nerved, smaller than the petals. June. _l._ awl-shaped, broadish, flat, three-nerved, ciliated, radical ones crowded. _h._ 3in. to 6in. France, 1783. _A. g. biflora_ is a two-flowered, and _A. g. triflora_ a three-flowered, variety.

=A. laricifolia= (Larch-leaved).* _fl._ white; sepals bluntish, triple nerved, hairy; petals twice as long as the sepals; stems ascending, one, three, or six flowered, somewhat scabrous; calyx cylindrical. June. _l._ awl-shaped, denticulately ciliated. _h._ 6in. Switzerland, 1816.

=A. longifolia= (long-leaved). _fl._ white; sepals ovate, obtuse, not half the length of the obovate petals; panicle three-forked, glabrous, crowded. June. _l._ awl-shaped, filiform, serrulated. Stem erect, simple. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Siberia, 1823.

=A. montana= (mountain). _fl._ large, white; peduncles terminal, very long, one-flowered; sepals lanceolate, acuminated, much shorter than the corolla. April. _l._ lanceolate-linear; sterile stems very long, procumbent. _h._ 3in. France and Spain, 1800.

=A. peploides= (Peplis-like). _fl._ white; sepals ovate, shorter than the oblong petals. May to July. _l._ ovate, light green, rather fleshy; branches procumbent, fleshy, deciduous. _h._ 3in. to 4in. Sea shores of Britain. SYN. _Honckenya peploides_.

=A. purpurascens= (purplish).* _fl._ purplish; pedicels tomentose, scarcely exceeding the leaves; sepals lanceolate, smooth, with shrivelled margins, longer than the corolla; branches two to three-flowered. May. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, glabrous. Plant tufted, decumbent. _h._ 6in. Higher Pyrenees.

=A. rotundifolia= (round-leaved).* _fl._ white, solitary; petals roundish-ovate, longer than the sepals. July and August. _l._ about 1/4in. across, roundish, ciliated, on spreading tufted branches. _h._ 4in. to 6in. Siberia.

=A. tetraquetra= (four-angled). _fl._ white, somewhat capitate; sepals stiff, acute, keeled, ciliated, almost equal in length to the corolla. August. _l._ ovate, keeled, recurved, edged, imbricated in four rows. Stem straight, pubescent. _h._ 3in. to 6in. France, 1731.

=A. verna= (spring-flowering). _fl._ small, white; sepals ovate, lanceolate, acuminated, with three remote equal ribs, longer than the obovate petals. May. _l._ awl-shaped, bluntish. Stems panicled, elongated. _h._ about 3in.

=A. v. cæspitosa= (turfy). A variety having very leafy stems. Calyces and peduncles smoothish. Europe. SYN. _A. cæspitosa_.

=ARENGA= (name of doubtful origin). SYN. _Saguerus_. ORD. _Palmæ_. An extremely useful and interesting palm. The medulla of the trunk is used as sago, and the saccharine juice forms excellent sugar. It requires a strong heat and rich mould. Propagated by seeds only.

=A. saccharifera= (sugar-bearing). _fl._ striped. June. _h._ 40ft. Moluccas, 1829.

=AREOLATE.= Divided into distinct angular spaces, or areolæ.

=ARETHUSA= (mythological: named after a nymph of Diana's, who was changed into a fountain; in allusion to the habit of the plants). ORD. _Orchideæ_. A small genus of very pretty, but rare, terrestrial orchids. They require a moist shady spot with a northern aspect, and thrive best in a compost of well-rotted manure and sphagnum. A mulching in winter, by way of protection, is needed.

=A. bulbosa= (bulbous).* _fl._ large, bright rose purple, solitary, sweet-scented, terminal; lip dilated, recurved, spreading towards the summit, bearded-crested down the face; scape one-leaved. May. _l._ linear, nerved. _h._ 8in. Carolina.

=ARETIA.= _See_ =Androsace=.

=ARGANIA= (from _argam_, its aboriginal name). ORD. _Sapotaceæ_. A very fine greenhouse evergreen tree, said by Don to flourish against a south wall, out of doors, with the protection of a mat in severe weather. It will thrive in ordinary garden soil. Increased by layers and cuttings in autumn and spring, the latter requiring a bell glass covering; both operations must be performed in a moderately heated greenhouse.

=A. Sideroxylon= (Iron-wood). _fl._, corolla greenish yellow, cup-shaped, five-parted, with ovate-lanceolate, sub-emarginate segments; lateral and axillary, scattered, crowded, sessile. _fr._ dotted with white, size of a plum, full of white, milky juice. July. _l._ lanceolate, entire, bluntish, glabrous, paler beneath; branches terminated by strong spines. _h._ 15ft. to 20ft. Morocco, 1711. As the specific name implies, the wood is excessively close and hard, so much so that it sinks in water. SYNS. _Elæodendron Argan_, _Sideroxylon spinosum_.

=ARGEMONE= (from _argema_, cataract of the eye; in allusion to some real or fancied medicinal properties). ORD. _Papaveraceæ_. Very handsome annuals and perennials, abounding with yellow juice, and covered with stiff prickles. Sepals two to three, concave, mucronate; petals four to eight; peduncles axillary, always erect. Leaves sessile, repand-sinuated, usually spotted with white; recesses spiny-toothed. The species will thrive in almost any garden soil in the open border. Seed may be sown out of doors about the end of March; those of the rarer species on a hotbed, and planted out about the end of June.

=A. albiflora= (white-flowered).* _fl._ white; petals usually three. July and August. _l._ sessile, feather-nerved. _h._ 1ft. Georgia, 1820. Hardy annual.

=A. grandiflora= (great-flowered).* _fl._ large, panicled, white with yellow anthers. July. _l._ sinuated, smooth, glaucous, spiny-toothed; nerves unarmed. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Mexico, 1827. This species, when raised from seed, does not flower until October; but when the roots have existed through the winter, the plants produce flowers early in the summer. Hardy perennial. See Fig. 147.

=A. hirsuta= (hairy).* _fl._ pure white, 3in. to 5in. in diameter. September. _l._ pinnatifid, bristly. _h._ 2ft. California, 1879. A very beautiful hardy annual.

[Illustration: FIG. 147. INFLORESCENCE OF ARGEMONE GRANDIFLORA.]

=A. mexicana= (Mexican). Devil's Fig. _fl._ solitary, yellow; petals four to six. June. _l._ profoundly repand-sinuated, spiny, blotched with white. _h._ 2ft. Mexico, 1592. Hardy annual.

=A. ochroleuca= (yellowish-white).* _fl._ pale yellow, solitary; petals six. August. _l._ profoundly sinuated or pinnatifid, glaucescent nerves with prickly bristles, blotched with white. Stem prickly. Mexico, 1827. Hardy annual.

=ARGENTEUS.= Silvery. A pale colour resembling silver.

=ARGOLASIA.= _See_ =Lanaria=.

=ARGIYREIA= (from _argyreios_, silvery; in reference to the silvery undersides of the leaves). Silver-weed. ORD. _Convolvulaceæ_. An elegant genus of greenhouse and stove climbers. Sepals five; corolla campanulate. Shrubs for the most part silvery, but sometimes silky and tomentose. The greater number of the species are robust, extensive twiners or climbers, usually requiring plenty of room to run, before they will flower. _A. cuneata_, and one or two others, are of dwarf habit, and produce their splendid blossoms in abundance. All the species grow well in light rich soil, or a mixture of peat, loam, and sand. Cuttings root readily if planted in sand, with a hand glass placed over them, in a little bottom heat.

=A. capitata= (headed). _fl._, corolla 1in. to 2in. long, rose coloured or purple, hairy outside; peduncles exceeding the petioles. July. _l._ cordate-ovate, acuminated, 2in. to 5in, long, and 1in. to 3in. broad, hairy on both surfaces; hairs glandular at the base. Plant clothed with strigose hairs. Silhet, 1823.

=A. cuneata= (wedge-leaved).* _fl._, corolla large, of a beautiful deep bright purple; peduncles downy, shorter than the leaves, three to six-flowered. July. _l._ obovate-cuneate, emarginate, glabrous above, but beset with short, crowded hairs beneath, hardly petiolate. Stem clothed with powdery down at top. _h._ 2ft. to 5ft. India, 1822.

=A. cymosa= (cyme-flowered).* _fl._, corolla pale pink, tubularly funnel-shaped, villous outside; peduncles as long or longer than the leaves, leafy at top, and cymosely many-flowered. _l._ roundish-cordate, or reniformly-cordate, obtuse, terminated by a very short prickle, glabrous on both surfaces, or clothed with pruinose down. Malabar (mountains), 1823.

=A. malabarica= (Malabar). _fl._ rather small; bottom of the bell deep purple; throat pink, with the edges paler, almost white, and slightly ten-lobed; peduncles as long or longer than the leaves, many-flowered at the apex. June. _l._ roundish-cordate, acute, glabrous, or furnished with a few scattered hairs on both surfaces. Coromandel, 1823.

=A. pomacea= (Apple-fruited). _fl._ large, rose coloured; peduncles villous, exceeding the petioles a little, cymose, many-flowered. Berry size of a cherry, yellow. _l._ ovate-elliptic, obtuse, clothed with cinerous, velvety down on both surfaces, but especially beneath, sometimes sub-emarginate at apex. Mysore, 1818.

=A. speciosa= (showy).* _fl._, corolla nearly 2in. long, of a deep rose colour; peduncles about equal in length to the petioles, umbellately capitate. July. _l._ 3in. to 12in. long, and 2in. to 4in. broad, cordate, acute, glabrous above, or rarely villous, thickly nerved beneath, and clothed with silky, silvery down. India, 1818.

=A. splendens= (splendid).* _fl._, corolla tubularly campanulate, 1-1/2in. long, rather villous outside, pale red; peduncles exceeding the (hoary) petioles, corymbosely many-flowered. November. _l._ ovate-oblong or ovate-elliptic, entire or pandurately sinuated, sometimes somewhat three-lobed, smooth above, but clothed with silvery, silky down beneath, 6in. long, acuminated. India, 1820.

=ARGYROCHÆTA.= A synonym of =Parthenium= (which _see_).

=ARGYROXYPHIUM= (from _argyros_, silver, and _xyphion_, a corn-flag; in allusion to the leaves). ORD. _Compositæ_. An ornamental greenhouse perennial herb. Involucre campanulate; receptacle conical; heads pedunculate, racemose, or in thyrsoid panicles. Leaves alternate; lower ones close, elongated, thick, on both sides silver-lined. Stems simple or slightly branched. It thrives well in rich sandy loam and leaf mould. Propagated by seed-heads.

=C. sandwicense= (Sandwich Islands). _fl.-heads_ purplish. _l._ linear lanceolate, imbricate, clothed, like the stems, with silvery hairs. _h._ 3ft. Sandwich islands, 1872. SYN. _Argyrophyton Douglasii_.

=ARIA.= _See_ =Pyrus Aria=.

=ARISÆMA= (from _aron_, Arum, and _sana_, a standard; in reference to the close alliance to _Arum_). ORD. _Aroideæ_. Small tuberous rooted greenhouse (except where stated otherwise) herbaceous plants. Spathe rolled round the spadix at the base; spadix bearing unisexual flowers below. and rudimentary flowers in the upper part. Leaves peltate, pedate, palmate, or simple. For culture, &c., _see_ =Arum=.

=A. concinna= (neat).* _fl._, spathe convolute, tubular at the base; upper portion bent over at the mouth, and gradually narrowed into a tail-like appendage about 3in. long; spathe of the female plant longitudinally barred with white and green, the latter colour being replaced with blue-purple in the male. June. _l._ solitary, sheathing at the base, and made up of ten or twelve lanceolate, entire, light green leaflets, which radiate from the top of the petiole, the latter being 1ft. to 2ft. high. Sikkim, 1871.

=A. curvatum= (curved).* _fl._ crowning a scape which overtops the foliage; tube of spathe cylindrical, green, obscurely striped with white; the elliptic blade arches forward, green on the inner surface, and brownish-red on the outer; spadix produced into a purplish-red tail, about 1ft. long. April. _l._ pedate. The large bracts, which sheath the base of the stem, are beautifully marbled with dark olive green, red, and light green. _h._ 4ft. Himalayas, 1871. SYN. _A. helleborifolium_.

=A. galeata= (helmeted).* _fl._, spathe about 4in long; tube and cylindrical side of spathe green, tinted purplish at base, with many longitudinal white lines; inside of the tube purple. July. _l._ solitary, trifoliate; middle leaflet 6in. long by 3-3/4in. broad; lateral ones 7in. long and nearly 4in. broad. _h._ 1ft. Himalayas, Sikkim, 1879.

=A. Griffithi= (Griffith's).* _fl._, spathe large, hood-like, brown-violet, with green veins; spadix brown-violet, and the barren end at the base above the flowers has a disk-like projection, while its free extremity is prolonged into a long thread-like appendage. Spring. _l._ with bold roundish leaflets. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Sikkim, 1879. Hardy; very handsome. SYN. _A. Hookerianum_.

=A. helleborifolium= (Hellebore-leaved). A synonym of _A. curvatum_.

=A. Hookerianum= (Hooker's). A synonym of _A. Griffithi_.

=A. nepenthoides= (Nepenthes-like).* _fl._, spathe above the tubular portion extended into two decided auricles, which serve to distinguish it from other species, ochre, brown, green; spadix yellowish Spring. _l._ pedate, of five lanceolate or oblanceolate leaflets; central one 6in. long, the others shorter. _h._ 2ft. Himalayas, 1879.

=A. præcox= (early). A synonym of _A. ringens_.

=A. ringens= (gaping).* _fl._, spathe striped green and white, erect and cylindrical below, then arching suddenly over, and again contracting into a rather small deep purple orifice, with broad, reflexed margins; spadix erect, pale yellow-green. Spring. _l._, leaflets three, ovate-oblong, acuminate, and produced into a filiform point; peduncle short. Japan. Hardy. SYNS. _A. præcox_ and _A. Sieboldi_.

=A. Sieboldi= (Siebold's). A. synonym of _A. ringens_.

=A. speciosa= (showy).* _fl._, spadix deep glossy purple, greenish and white, with a long flexuous prolongation, sometimes nearly 20in. in length; spathe also terminating with a filiform elongation. March. _l._ solitary, trifoliate; leaflets petioled, dark green, conspicuously edged with blood red; petioles long, mottled with white. _h._ 2ft. Temperate Himalayas, 1872.

[Illustration: FIG. 148. ARISÆMA TRIPHYLLA.]

=A. triphylla= (three-leaved).* _fl._, spathe 4in. to 6in. long, striped with broad lines of purplish-brown, with about 1in. of green in the middle; spadix 3in. long, spotted with brown. June to July. _l._ on long stout petioles, trifoliate; leaflets entire, equal, acuminated. _h._ 9in. to 1ft. North America, 1664. This is quite hardy. SYNS. _A. zebrina_ and _Arum triphyllum_. See Fig. 148.

=A. zebrina= (zebra). A synonym of _A. triphylla_.

=ARISARUM= (name of Greek origin). ORD. _Aroideæ_. A small genus of half-hardy herbaceous plants, possessing but little horticultural interest, and allied to _Arisæma_. Flowers unisexual, spadix having no rudimentary flowers. Leaves on long stalks, heart-shaped or spear-shaped. The only species in cultivation thrives in a sand, loam, and peat compost. Propagated by seeds or divisions of the root in spring.

=A. vulgate= (common). _fl._, spathe livid purple. May. _h._ 1ft. South Europe, 1596.

=ARISTATE.= Having a beard or awn, as the glumes of barley.

=ARISTEA= (from _arista_, a point or beard; in reference to the rigid points of the leaves). ORD. _Iridaceæ_. A genus of greenhouse herbaceous perennials from the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers blue; perianth rotate, six-parted, twisted after flowering; scape two-edged, rigid, often branched. Leaves narrow, sword-shaped. The species are more interesting than ornamental, and may be grown in a compost of three parts turfy peat, and one of loam. Easily propagated by divisions and seeds. They vary in height from 3in. to 3ft., and flower generally in summer.

=A. capitata= (headed). _fl._ blue. July. _h._ 3ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1790.

=A. cyanea= (bright blue). _fl._ blue. June. _h._ 6in. Cape of Good Hope, 1759.

=ARISTOLOCHIA= (from _aristos_, best, and _locheia_, parturition; in reference to its supposed medicinal character). Birthwort. ORD. _Aristolochiaceæ_. A very large genus of stove, greenhouse, or hardy, evergreen or deciduous, climbing or erect shrubs. Flowers axillary, clustered, or solitary, pendulous, of most extraordinary forms; perianth tubular, curved, or straight, with an oblique, cordate limb; stamens six, rarely four, or numerous, adhering to the stigma; capsule six-valved. Leaves cordate entire or lobed. Good loam, with a small proportion of decayed manure and a slight addition of sharp sand to secure efficient drainage, is a good compost for the whole. They will thrive when planted out in the conservatory more satisfactorily than elsewhere; for as they usually grow a considerable height before flowering, they require very long trellises in pots, and have to be trained up and down; or, better still, round a pillar of uniform circumference, a pyramid form being useless. The best way is to train them round, close down to the pot, and keep on about 2in. from one turn to the next. Some of the larger sorts will require more room. Cuttings root freely in sand under a bell glass with bottom heat.

=A. anguicida= (snake-killing). _fl._ white, spotted brown; tube of perianth inflated at base, dilated and oblique at the mouth; peduncles axillary, solitary, one-flowered. December. _l._ on short petioles, cordate acuminate; stipules cordate-roundish. _h._ 10ft. New Grenada, 1845. An evergreen stove twiner.

=A. barbata= (bearded). _fl._ purple, axillary, 2-1/2in. long; perianth straight; limb spreading; lip spathulate, bearded at the end. July. _l._ cordate, oblong. _h._ 10ft. Caraccas, 1796. Stove evergreen.

=A. caudata= (tailed).* _fl._ lurid; perianth cylindrical ventricose, and six-spurred at the base; lip cordate, cuspidate; the cusp twisted, filiform. June. _l._, lower ones reniform, lobed; upper ones three partite. _h._ 5ft. Brazil, 1828. Deciduous stove twiner.

=A. ciliosa= (fringed).* _fl._ purple-yellow; tube of perianth obliquely ventricose at base, stretched out, from the middle to the apex cylindrical, fringed; peduncles one-flowered. September. _l._ cordate reniform. Plant glabrous. _h._ 6ft. Brazil, 1829.

=A. Clematitis= (Clematis-like). _fl._ pale yellow, upright; lip oblong, shortly acuminate. July. _l._ cordate. Stem erect. _h._ 2ft. A hardy herbaceous perennial, naturalised here and there in Britain.

=A. clypeata= (shielded). _fl._ axillary; tube yellowish, cylindrical; limb elliptic, white, blotched with purple, long and large, funnel-shaped. _l._ subcordate-ovate, acuminate. Columbia, 1871.

=A. cordiflora= (cordate-flowered). _fl._ axillary, very large, with broad cordiform limb, creamy yellow, with blotchy purple veining. May. _l._ cordate acuminate. _h._ 30ft. Mexico, 1860.

=A. deltoidea variegata= (deltoid variegated variety). _l._ variegated with white. _h._ 6ft. Columbia, 1870.

=A. Duchartrei= (Duchartre's).* _fl._ racemose; tube brown; limb cream colour, with purple blotches. January. _l._ reniform-cordate, acuminate. Upper Amazons, 1868. _h._ 5ft. This stove species flowers from the old wood. SYN. _A. Ruiziana_.

=A. floribunda= (free-flowering).* _fl._ numerous; limb purplish-red, with yellow veins, centre yellow. July. _l._ cordate ovate, acuminate. _h._ 10ft. Brazil, 1868. Stove species.

=A. galeata= (helmeted). _fl._ creamy, with reticulated veins. August. _l._ cordate, with broad open sinus. _h._ 20ft. New Grenada, 1873.

=A. gigas= (giant). _fl._ purple; perianth large, cordate ribbed outside, reticulated, downy; tube inflated, contracted in the middle; limb large, cordate ovate, with a long tail. June. _l._ downy, cordate, acuminate; peduncles solitary, bracteate. _h._ 10ft. Guatemala, 1841.

=A. Goldieana= (Goldie's).* _fl._ greenish outside, deep yellow with chocolate veins inside, bent into two unequal portions, the lower portion surmounting the ovary about 8in. in length, somewhat cylindrical, terminating in a club-shaped curved knob; the upper portion, commencing from this knob, is about a foot long, funnel-shaped, ribbed, dilated above into a somewhat three-lobed limb. Stamens twenty-four--a very unusual number in the whole family. The enormous flowers are 26in. long by 11in. in diameter. July. _l._ ovate, or triangular-cordate, acuminated. Old Calabar River, 1867. This noble climber should be repotted in fresh soil in February or March. But little water will be necessary until the young shoots have made about 6in. of growth; the quantity should then be increased with moderation until early in September, when the old stem dies down within a few inches of the surface of the pot--at this period, and during winter, water must be entirely withheld. This species blooms freely in a temperature of 65deg. to 70deg.

=A. indica= (Indian). _fl._ purple; perianth erect; peduncle many-flowered. July. _l._ elliptical, blunt, somewhat emarginate, slightly cordate. _h._ 10ft. India, 1780. Stove evergreen.

=A. labiosa= (great-lipped).* _fl._ greenish; perianth incurved at base, saccate, two-lipped in the middle. July. _l._ reniform, roundish cordate, amplexicaul. _h._ 20ft. Brazil, 1821. Stove evergreen.

=A. leuconeura= (white-veined). _fl._ purple brown. September. _l._ cordate, acuminate. _h._ 12ft. Magdalena, 1858. Stove species.

=A. odoratissima= (sweetest-scented).* _fl._ purple, sweet-scented; peduncles one-flowered, longer than the leaf; lip cordate lanceolate, longer than the perianth. July. _l._ cordate, ovate, evergreen. Stem twining. _h._ 10ft. Jamaica, 1737. Stove evergreen.

=A. ornithocephala= (bird's-head).* _fl._ purple, very large, and extremely singular. To render any description at all lucid, this species may be said to have the head of a hawk and the beak of a heron, with the wattles of a Spanish fowl, which, however, are grey, netted with brown; head of the same colour, veined; and the beak grey. _l._ between cordate and reniform, obtuse. October. _h._ 20ft. Brazil, 1838. Stove species.

=A. ringens= (gaping).* _fl._ extremely grotesque, 7in. to 10in. long, pale green, marbled and reticulated with black purple. The perianth has an obovoid ventricose sac, or cup, 2-1/2in. long, which is woolly inside; tube ascending obliquely from the sac, terete, dividing into two very long lips, the upper of which (lower as the flower hangs) is oblong-lanceolate, recurved, and hairy inside below the middle, while the lower one is shorter, with recurved margins, and expanding into an orbicular or almost reniform limb. Unlike many other species, the flowers are produced on the young shoots. July. _l._ bright green, glabrous, roundish-reniform. _h._ 20ft. Brazil, 1820. Stove evergreen.

=A. Ruiziana= (Ruiz's). A synonym of _A. Duchartrei_.

=A. saccata= (pouch-flowered). _fl._ purplish-red, forming a large pouch; throat circular, vertical. September. _l._ 12in. to 15in. long, and 4in. broad, scattered, ovate-cordate, narrowed at apex, slightly waved and sinuated, entire, more silky beneath than above. _h._ 20ft. Sylhet, 1829. Stove evergreen.

=A. sempervirens= (evergreen). _fl._ purple; perianth incurved. May. _l._ cordate, oblong, acuminate. Stem prostrate, flexuous, somewhat climbing. _h._ 4ft. Candia, 1727. Greenhouse species.

[Illustration: FIG. 149. FLOWERING BRANCH OF ARISTOLOCHIA SIPHO.]

=A. Sipho= (tube-bearing).* _fl._ yellowish-brown; corolla ascending; limb in three equal portions, not expanding, flat, brown; bracts of the peduncle large, ovate. May and June. _l._ cordate, acute. Stem twining. _h._ 15ft. to 30ft. North America, 1763. This hardy, climbing, deciduous shrub grows freely in a deep, free, rather dry soil. See Fig. 149.

=A. Thwaitesii= (Thwaites'). _fl._ yellow. March. _h._ 3ft. Old Calabar, 1854. Stove species.

=A. tomentosa= (tomentose).* _fl._ purple; perianth with its tube twisted back, and much more deeply divided than in _A. Sipho_, expanding, flat, and yellow, with the mouth of the tube of a deep purple; peduncle solitary, without a bract. July. _l._ cordate, downy beneath. _h._ 20ft. North America, 1799. Hardy.

=A. tricandata= (three-tailed).* _fl._ dark purple-brown, solitary, split into three subulate tails. August. _l._ oblong acuminate, rugose, 5in. to 8in. long. Mexico, 1866. A curious, but pretty, stove shrub.

=A. trilobata= (three-lobed). _fl._ purple; perianth cylindrical, broken saccate at base; lip cordate cuspidate. June. _l._ three-lobed. Stem twining. _h._ 8ft. South America, 1775. Stove evergreen.

=A. ungulifolia= (claw-leaved). _fl._ racemose; perianth brownish-purple, stipitate at base, above which it is swollen out in a globose or oblong form, with two thickened projections near the end; upper end of tube contracted, somewhat curved, terminating in a two-lipped limb, one lip large, ovate, the other minute. June. _l._ 6in. to 7in. long, cordate, and pedately five-nerved at the base, three-lobed below the middle, with broad sinuses, the two lateral lobes arcuate, and blunt at the apex. Labuan, 1880. Stove species.

=ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ.= An order of very curious plants, with singularly inflated flowers, consisting of a calyx only, of a dull, dingy colour. It is popularly known as the Birthwort family, and has an English representative in _Aristolochia clematitis_.

=ARISTOTELIA= (said to be named in honour of Aristotle, the Greek philosopher). ORD. _Tiliaceæ_. A hardy evergreen shrub. Calyx campanulate; petals five, inserted in the base of the calyx, and alternating with its lobes. Easily grown, in ordinary garden soil, in the shrubbery. Propagated by ripened cuttings, which root freely if placed under a hand glass; or by layers.

=A. Macqui= (Macqui's).* _fl._ small, greenish, axillary. May. _l._ nearly opposite, stalked, oblong, acute, smooth, shining, dentate, permanent. _h._ 6ft. Chili, 1733. A shrub esteemed for its handsome foliage. The berries are about the size of a pea, very dark purple, at length becoming black. The variegated form is not so hardy as the type, but much more ornamental.

=ARMENIACA= (from Armenia, the native country of the Apricot). Apricot. ORD. _Rosaceæ_. TRIBE _Drupaceæ_. Small, hardy, deciduous trees. Flowers appearing before the leaves from scaly buds, solitary, or few together, almost sessile. Leaves, when young, convolute. Drupe ovate-globose, fleshy, covered with velvety skin, containing a nut, or stone, which is acute at one end and blunt at the other, with a furrow on both sides; the rest smooth, not wrinkled. For culture, &c., _see_ =Apricot= and =Prunus=.

=A. brigantiaca= (Brigancon).* _fl._ white or pink, glomerate, almost sessile. March. _l._ somewhat cordate, acuminated, sharply toothed; the teeth numerous, and lapping over each other. _h._ 6ft. to 8ft. South Europe, 1819.

=A. dasycarpa= (thick-fruited).* _fl._ white, pedicellate; pedicels filiform. March. _l._ ovate, acuminate, serrated; petioles glandular. _h._ 10ft. to 15ft. China, 1800.

=A. sibirica= (Siberian). _fl._ rose-coloured. April. _l._ ovate, acuminate; petioles glandless. _h._ 8ft. to 20ft. Dahuria, 1788.

=A. vulgaris= (common).* Common Apricot. _fl._ pinkish-white, sessile. February. _l._ ovate, or cordate, glabrous, glandularly serrated. _h._ 15ft. Levant, 1548. Of this species numerous varieties, differing in the foliar outline, &c., are sometimes met with. _See_ =Apricot=.

=ARMERIA.= (from _Flos Armeriæ_, Latin name for the flowers of a species of Pink). Thrift; Sea Pink. ORD. _Plumbagineæ_. A very interesting and pretty group of hardy alpine tufted perennials. Flowers pedicellate, collected in dense solitary heads; involucre scarious, sheathing the scape and turned downwards; petals cohering at the base, persistent; flower scapes leafless. Leaves linear, radical. As the majority of the species differ in mere technical details, we have given a representative group only. They are easily cultivated in a sandy loam and leaf soil, and are increased by seeds and division, separate pieces being planted as cuttings under hand glasses; or the rarer kinds should be potted and placed in a frame. The seed should be sown in spring, in pots of sandy soil, and placed in a cold frame. Although best grown as rock plants, most of them do well in pots and borders. _A. vulgaris_ makes one of the best of edging plants.

=A. cephalotes= (round-headed).* _fl._ deep rose or crimson, in a large roundish head on erect stalk. Autumn. _l._ broadly lanceolate, glabrous, acute; petioles channelled, sheathing at the base. _h._ 12in. to 18in. South Europe, 1800. This is perhaps the finest species, and is best raised from an annual sowing of seed, as it is somewhat difficult to increase by divisions. SYNS. _A. formosa_, _A. latifolia_, _A. mauritanica_, and _A. pseudo-armeria_.

=A. dianthoides= (Pink-like).* _fl._ light pink, in close heads about 6in. high. May and June. _l._ spreading, flattened, nerved, slightly downy. South Europe, 1810.

=A. formosa= (handsome). Synonymous with _A. cephalotes_.

=A. juncea= (rush-like).* _fl._ rose pink, in small heads about 3in. high. June. _l._ small, erect, roundish, pointed, deep green. South Europe. A very pretty little alpine species.

=A. juniperifolia= (Juniper-leaved).* _fl._ deep rose, in small densely packed heads. May and June. _l._ short, stiff, erect, Juniper-like. _h._ 6in., with a dense tufted habit. Spain, 1818. Plant in a warm well-drained portion of the rockery in very sandy soil, with some nodules of sandstone intermixed.

=A. latifolia= (broad-leaved). Synonymous with _A. cephalotes_.

=A. leucantha= (white-flowered). A white-flowered variety of _A. plantaginea_.

=A. maritima= (sea). Synonymous with _A. vulgaris_.

=A. mauritanica= (Mediterranean). Synonymous with _A. cephalotes_.

=A. plantaginea= (Plantain-leaved).* _fl._ bright rose; scapes taller than in _A. vulgaris_. _l._ broader, three to five-nerved, and with a stouter growing habit than the common species. _h._ 1ft. South Europe, 1818. A very pretty species. SYNS. _A. leucantha_, which is frequently called _A. p. alba_, and _A. scorzoneræfolia_.

=A. pseudo-armeria= (false-Armeria). Synonymous with _A. cephalotes_.

=A. scorzoneræfolia= (Scorzonera-leaved). Synonymous with _A. plantaginea_.

=A. setacea= (bristly).* _fl._ light rose, in small heads about 2in. high, very freely produced from the axils of the leaves. April to June. _l._ in dense rosettes, erect, or nearly so, narrow, acute, the tufts having a bristly appearance. _h._ 3in. South Europe. Plant in a semi-perpendicular cranny of the rockery, with a sunny position.

=A. vulgaris= (common).* Common Thrift; Sea Pink. _fl._ pink, rosy red, lilac, or white (the latter known as _A. v. alba_), collected into a rounded head on the top of the simple scape. June to August. _l._ all radical, numerous, linear, usually one-nerved, more or less pubescent. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Britain, on the sea coasts. _A. v. alpina_ is a dwarf alpine form of this species. The white-flowered variety is very handsome. _A. v. Laucheana_ is also a pretty form, with deep pink flowers in dense heads about 6in. high, and a very tufted habit. _Crimson Gem_, of garden origin, is stronger growing, with stems about 9in. high, carrying heads of bright crimson pink flowers, also of tufted habit. SYNS. _A. maritima_, _Statice Armeria_.

=ARNEBIA= (its Arabian name). ORD. _Boraginaceæ_. Handsome hardy herbaceous perennials or annuals, allied to _Lithospermum_. Cuttings should be removed with a heel in autumn, dibbled in sandy soil in small pots, and placed in a cool house, where they will ultimately, though slowly, root; they should then be gradually hardened off, and finally planted out. _A. echioides_ is also easily increased by making cuttings of the strong roots, which should be dibbled in pots of sandy soil, and placed in gentle heat; it is also raised from seed.

=A. echioides= (Echium-like).* _fl._ bright primrose yellow, with a purplish spot in the sinuses between the lobes of the corolla, which gradually disappears in a few days; spikes terminal, large, solitary, secund. May. _l._ sessile, alternate; margins-—as well as the stems-—ciliated. _h._ 9in. to 12in. Armenia. One of the showiest of hardy perennials for the border or rockery.

=A. Griffithii= (Griffith's). This differs from above in having narrower leaves, rather smaller flowers, which are of a more decided yellow, a differently shaped calyx, and a longer corolla. _h._ 9in. North-west India. Equally desirable, were it a perennial; but, being an annual, it must be constantly raised from seed.

=ARNICA= (from _arnakis_, lambskin; in reference to the texture of the leaves). ORD. _Compositæ_. Hardy, dwarf, herbaceous perennials, allied to _Senecio_. They thrive best in loam, peat, and sand; the plants are best divided in spring. Seeds should be procured when possible, and sown in a cold frame, in spring. The only species worth growing are described below.

=A. Aronicum.= Synonymous of _A. scorpioides_.

=A. Chamissonis= (Chamisso's).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, 1-1/2in. to 2in. across, arranged in a corymb. July to September. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or acute, tomentose, tapering to the base. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. North America. A rather scarce, showy species.

=A. Clusii= (Clusius's). _fl.-heads_ yellow, solitary, terminal; stalks long, thickened towards the top, and covered with long hairs. Summer. _l._ soft, radical ones entire, or nearly so, oblong, obtuse, attenuated into the petiole; cauline ones sessile, half stem-clasping, lanceolate, toothed in the lower part. _h._ 1ft. Switzerland, 1819. SYN. _Doronicum Clusii_.

=A. foliosa= (leafy).* _fl.-heads_ pale yellow, about 1in. across, from three to seven in a corymb. August. _l._ lanceolate, stalked, acute, denticulate, smooth. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Stems springing from slender rhizome-like shoots. United States. Closely allied to _A. montana_. It requires a damp situation.

=A. montana= (mountain).* Mountain Tobacco. _fl.-heads_ yellow, three or four together, about 2in. in diameter; ray florets numerous. July. _l._ radical, except a few on the scape, oblong-lanceo-late, entire, smooth. Habit tufted. _h._ 1ft. Europe. 1731. A very handsome but rare plant; excellent for a rockery. It is slowly increased. See Fig. 150.

[Illustration: FIG. 150. ARNICA MONTANA, showing Habit and Flower-head.]

=A. scorpioides= (scorpion-like).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, large, solitary; scape one to three-flowered. Summer. _l._ pale green, denticulated; radical ones on long petioles, broadly ovate; the lower stem leaves shortly stalked, amplexicaul; the upper ones sessile. _h._ 6in. to 12in. South Europe, 1710. Border. SYNS. _A. Aronicum_, _Aronicum scorpioides_.

=ARNOPOGON.= _See_ =Urospermum=.

=AROIDEÆ.= _See_ =Araceæ=.

=ARONIA.= _See_ =Cratægus Aronia= and =Pyrus=.

=ARONICUM.= _See_ =Arnica scorpioides= and =Doronicum=.

=ARPOPHYLLUM= (from _arpe_, a scimitar, and _phyllon_, a leaf; the leaf is sword-shaped). ORD. _Orchideæ_. Distinct evergreen epiphytes. There are about six species known, and the genus belongs to the _Epidendreæ_ division of orchidaceous plants; their general characters are: Flowers small, numerous, in closely packed cylindrical spikes; anther-bed broad, shorter than the broad extension of the upper edge of the stigma; pollinia eight. Stems rather long, with white sheaths. They thrive well in fibrous peat, one-third turfy loam, freely interspersed with lumps of fresh charcoal and an abundance of crocks. When growing, a liberal supply of water at the roots is essential, as is also a situation near the light, where they will blossom much more profusely than if in any way shaded. The flowers last in perfection about four weeks.

=A. cardinale= (cardinal). _fl._, sepals and petals light rose; lip deep red, on upright spikes about 1ft. high. Summer. New Grenada.

=A. giganteum= (gigantic).* _fl._ dark purple and rose, densely and symmetrically arranged on the cylindrical spikes, which are from 12in. to 14in. long. April and May. _l._ dark green, about 2ft. long, borne on slender pseudo-bulbs. Mexico.

=A. spicatum= (spike-flowered).* _fl._ dark red, on an upright spike about 1ft. long. During winter. Guatemala, 1839.

=ARRACACHA= (its Spanish name in South America). ORD. _Umbelliferæ_. A half-hardy tuberous perennial, highly esteemed as an esculent in South America, where it yields a food, which is prepared in the same manner as potatoes, and is said to be grateful to the palate and extremely easy of digestion. It thrives best in rich loam, and is increased by divisions of the roots.

=A. esculenta= (edible). _fl._ white; umbels opposite the leaves or terminal; involucre wanting. July. _l._ pinnate; leaflets broadly ovate, acuminated, deeply pinnatifid, profoundly serrated; the two lower leaflets petiolate, sub-ternate. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Mountainous districts of Northern South America, 1823. SYN. _Conium Arracacha_.

=ARRHOSTOXYLUM.= Included under =Ruellia= (which _see_).

=ARROW ARUM.= _See_ =Peltandra virginica=.

=ARROWGRASS.= _See_ =Triglochin=.

=ARROW-HEAD.= _See_ =Sagittaria=.

=ARROWROOT.= _See_ =Maranta=.

=ARTABOTRYS= (from _artao_, to suspend or support, and _botrys_, grapes; in reference to the way the fruit is supported by the curious tendril). ORD. _Anonaceæ_. A handsome stove evergreen shrub, thriving in a good sandy loam and peat, to which a little rotten dung may be added. Propagated by cuttings made of ripened wood, insert in sand under a bell glass, with bottom heat, in early spring. Seed, when procurable, should be sown as soon after receipt as possible.

=A. odoratissimus= (sweetest-scented).* _fl._ reddish brown, extremely fragrant; peduncles opposite the leaves, hooked beneath the middle. June and July. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acuminated, smooth, shining. _h._ 6ft. Malayan Islands, 1758. In Java, the leaves are held to be invaluable as a preventive of cholera.

=ARTANEMA= (from _artao_, to support, and _nema_, a filament; in reference to a tooth-like process growing on the longer filaments). ORD. _Scrophularineæ_. An interesting and handsome greenhouse evergreen shrub, allied to _Torenia_. Flowers disposed in terminal racemes, and on short pedicels. Leaves opposite, sub-serrated. It may be treated as hardy during summer, for which purpose seeds should be sown in spring; but it requires the protection of a greenhouse during winter. Artanema grows freely in light rich soil, and is readily increased by cuttings and seeds.

=A. fimbriatum= (fringed). _fl._, corolla blue, large, tubularly funnel-shaped, clothed with minute glandular pubescence outside; lobes unequally serrated; racemes terminal, four to sixteen-flowered. June, November. _l._ lanceolate, acute, serrated, rough to the touch from numerous elevated dots. Stem smooth, glossy. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. New Holland (on the banks of the Brisbane River at Moreton Bay), 1830.

=ARTANTHE.= _See_ =Piper=.

=ARTEMISIA= (from Artemis, one of the names of Diana). Mugwort; Southernwood; Wormwood. ORD. _Compositæ_. A very large genus of mostly hardy herbaceous perennials, few of which, comparatively speaking, are worth growing. Flower-heads disposed in spikes, or racemes, and these are usually arranged in panicles; pappus none; involucre few-flowered, ovate or rounded, imbricated; florets of the disk all tubular; of the ray, if any, slender, awl-shaped. Leaves alternate, variously lobed. All the species are of the easiest possible culture in any dry soil. The shrubby kinds are best propagated by cuttings; the herbaceous ones, by dividing at the root; and the annuals, by seeds.

=A. Abrotanum= (aromatic herb).* Southernwood. _fl.-heads_ yellowish. August to October. _l._, lower ones bipinnate; upper ones pinnate, with the segments hair-like. Stem straight. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Europe, 1548. A deciduous shrub; well known for its fragrance.

=A. A. humile= (low). A low spreading variety. _h._ 1-1/2ft.

=A. A. tobolskianum= (Tobolskian). A much more vigorous growing variety than the last, and larger in all its parts than the type.

=A. alpina= (alpine).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, solitary, on long slender stalks; scales of involucre lanceolate. Summer. _l._ pinnate, covered with whitish silky hairs; lobes linear, entire. _h._ 6in. to 10in. Caucasus, 1804. Dwarf, with a very tufted habit.

=A. anethifolia= (Anethum-leaved). _fl.-heads_ yellowish-green, small; panicle very large, densely packed, nearly 2ft. long. Autumn. _l._ chiefly cauline, much divided into thread-like segments, greyish-green. Stem shrubby at the base, nearly glabrous, branching at the top. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Siberia, 1816.

=A. argentea= (silvery).* _fl.-heads_ pale yellow, roundish, closely packed. July. _l._ ovate-oblong, very freely divided, densely clothed with soft silvery hairs. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Madeira, 1777. A very pretty species, requiring a warm sunny position on the rockery.

=A. cana= (hoary).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, small, uninteresting, ovate, in a close spiky panicle. August. _l._ silky, hoary; lower ones wedge-shaped, sharply three-cleft; cauline ones linear-lanceolate, three-nerved. Stem ascending; branches erect. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. North America, 1800. This is a very distinct species, and its silvery leaves and stems render it well worthy of cultivation.

=A. cœrulescens= (bluish).* _fl.-heads_ bluish, erect, cylindrical. August. _l._ hoary, most of them lanceolate, entire, tapering at the base; lower ones variously divided. _h._ 2ft. South Europe. An ornamental evergreen shrub.

=A. Dracunculus.=* Tarragon. _fl.-heads_ whitish green; racemes panicled; heads sub-globose. July. _l._, radical ones three-fid; cauline ones sessile, linear or linear-oblong, acute, entire, toothed. _h._ 2ft. South Europe, 1548. _See_ =Tarragon=.

=A. frigida= (frigid). _fl.-heads_ yellow, uninteresting, small, roundish, racemosely panicled. August. _l._ pinnate; segments narrow, silvery. _h._ 1ft. Siberia, 1826. A pretty creeping, herbaceous plant.

=A. maritima= (maritime). _fl.-heads_ brown; racemes oblong, erect or drooping. August and September. _l._ downy, bipinnatifid, oblong; segments linear. Britain. A much branched, erect, or decumbent plant, excellent for rough rockwork or very dry banks, etc.

=A. Mutellina= (Mutellina).* _fl.-heads_ yellowish-green; lower ones stalked, upper ones sessile. July. _l._ all palmate, multifid, white. Stem quite simple. _h._ 6in. European Alps, 1815.

=A. pontica= (Pontine). _fl.-heads_ yellow, roundish, stalked, nodding. September. _l._ downy beneath; cauline ones bipinnate; leaflets linear. _h._ 3ft. Austria, 1570.

=A. rupestris= (rock). _fl.-heads_ brown, globose, stalked, nodding. August. _l._ sub-pubescent; cauline ones pinnatifid; leaflets linear, acute. _h._ 6in. Norway, &c., 1748.

=A. scoparia= (twiggy-branched). _fl.-heads_ small, whitish; panicle broad, densely packed, about 1-1/2ft. long. Autumn. _l._ much divided; segments hair-like; lower branches very slender. _h._ 3ft. to 5ft. East Europe.

=A. spicata= (spicate). _fl.-heads_ brown, spicate. June and July. _l._ hoary; radical ones palmate multifid; cauline ones pinnatifid; upper linear, entire, blunt. Stem quite simple. _h._ 1ft. Switzerland, 1790.

=A. Stelleriana= (Steller's).* _fl.-heads_ yellow, uninteresting, round, somewhat erect. Summer. _l._, lower ones spathulate-incised; upper ones obtusely lobed; end lobes often confluent, about 2in. long, silvery white. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Siberia.

=A. tanacetifolia= (Tanacetum-leaved). _fl.-heads_ brownish; racemes simple, terminal. Summer. _l._ bipinnate; lobes linear sub-lanceolate, entire, acuminated, rather downy. Stem sometimes branching at the base, herbaceous. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Siberia, 1768.

=A. vulgaris= (common).* Mugwort. _fl.-heads_ yellow, somewhat racemed, ovate. August. _l._ pinnatifid; segments white, and downy beneath. Stems 3ft. to 4ft. high, furrowed. Britain. The variegated form of this species exhibits a very pleasing contrast. There is also a pretty variety with golden leaves.

=ARTHROPHYLLUM MADAGASCARIENSE.= _See_ =Phyllarthron Bojeriana=.

=ARTHROPODIUM= (from _arthron_, a joint, and _pous_, a foot; the footstalks of the flowers being jointed). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. Very pretty greenhouse herbaceous perennials, allied to _Anthericum_. Flowers purplish or white, in loose racemes. Leaves grass-like, radical. They thrive well in a compost of sandy loam and peat, and may be increased freely by divisions or seeds.

=A. cirratum= (curled). _fl._ white; racemes divided; bracteas leafy. May. _l._ lanceolate, ensiform, spreading, 1ft. long. _h._ 3ft. New Zealand, 1821.

=A. fimbriatum= (fringed). _fl._ white. July. _h._ 1-1/2ft. New Holland, 1822.

=A. neo-caledonicum= (New Caledonian).* _fl._ small, white, on a much-branched, many-flowered panicle. May. _l._ tufted, linear-lanceolate, barred with black linear markings near the base. _h._ 1-1/2ft. New Caledonia, 1877.

=A. paniculatum= (panicled).* _fl._ white; racemes divided; pedicels clustered; inner sepals crenulate. May. _l._ narrowly lanceolate. _h._ 3ft. New South Wales, 1800. _A. minus_ is a small form of this species.

=A. pendulum= (pendulous).* _fl._ white, clustered in threes, pendulous. June to August. _l._ linear, keeled, shorter than the branched scape. _h._ 1-1/2ft. New Holland, 1822.

=ARTHROPTERIS.= _See_ =Nephrodium= and =Nephrolepis=.

=ARTHROSTEMMA= (from _arthron_, a joint, and _stemon_, a stamen; in reference to the stamens or connectives being jointed). ORD. _Melastomaceæ_. Beautiful stove or greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Tube of calyx turbinate or campanulate, usually clothed with bristles, pili, or scales; lobes four, lanceolate, permanent, without any appendages between them; petals four. A mixture of loam, peat, and sand, suits them best; and cuttings of small firm side shoots will root, in April or August, under a hand glass in sandy soil. Only three or four out of the half-dozen species belonging to this genus have been as yet introduced.

=A. fragile= (brittle). _fl._ rosy; cymes loose, terminal, few-flowered; calyx glandular. July. _l._ ovate-cordate, acute, five-nerved, serrated; branches tetragonal, beset with glandular hairs. _h._ 3ft. Mexico, 1846. Stove species.

=A. nitida= (glossy-leaved). _fl._ lilac; peduncles axillary towards the top of the branches, three-flowered, longer than the petioles. June. _l._ ovate, acute, serrulated, glabrous on both surfaces, shining above, but glandularly hispid on the nerves beneath. Stems shrubby, erect, and are, as well as the branches, tetragonally winged, beset with coloured hairs. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Buenos Ayres, 1829 greenhouse species.

=A. versicolor= (changeable-flowered). _fl._, petals obovate, ciliated, at first white, but at length becoming reddish, terminal, solitary. September. _l._ petiolate, ovate, serrulated, five-nerved, discoloured beneath. Plant shrubby; hairy. _h._ 1ft. Brazil (on the sea shore), 1825. Stove species.

=ARTHROTAXIS.= _See_ =Athrotaxis=.

=ARTICHOKE, GLOBE.= (_Cynara Scolymus_, a cultivated form of _C. Cardunculus_). As a vegetable, the Globe Artichoke is cultivated for the use of the immature flower-heads, and is highly esteemed. A good open position, free from overhanging trees, is best suited for its culture generally, but, by planting successional suckers in different aspects, the season may be considerably prolonged. The soil must be of good depth, rich, and not too heavy. It may be greatly improved for Artichoke culture by the addition of sea-weeds or salt applied as manure.

[Illustration: FIG. 151. GLOBE ARTICHOKE.]

_Preparation of Soil._ Trench the ground two spits deep if possible, mixing a liberal dressing of well-rotted manure in autumn, and ridge up for the winter, to sweeten. Crude manure full of straw, leaves, and sticks, often induce fungoid growths, and are most injurious to the crowns of the plants. Clay or stiff loam is about the worst soil on which to attempt the culture of this vegetable; this drawback may, however, to some extent be alleviated by the addition and thorough amalgamation of a light free soil or liberal dressings of sandy road drifts, or similar materials. An ill-drained soil is also fatal to good results. During hot, dry weather, the plants are greatly benefited by copious applications of clear water and dilute liquid manure; and this must be especially attended to on such soils as are liable to burn or dry up in summer.

_Cultivation._ When the beds have been properly prepared, the plants should be put in them in April or May. Place three together in rows between 3ft. and 4ft. apart, and about 3ft. from plant to plant. Water-in carefully to settle the soil around the roots, and apply a mulching of half-decayed manure, to prevent an undue evaporation of moisture. During hot, dry weather, give liberal supplies of water, and the plants will become established as fine stools the first season. A few heads will probably be produced the first year; but there will not be much of a crop until the second season, when five or six good heads will be got from each plant, and for three or four years the produce will be large if the beds are properly attended to; after which time it will become desirable to make up new plantations. In October or November, it will be necessary to apply a good mulching of straw or fern to the beds, to protect the plants from frost. In April, all this litter should be cleaned off, a dressing of rotten manure applied, and the beds forked over and kept clean for the rest of the season, treating as before described. Great care must be taken to remove the heads as soon as they are in a fit state; and, when the whole of them are removed from the stems, cut the latter out as low as possible. Globe Artichokes will keep for some considerable time if laid in a cool place, although they will deteriorate in quality. These plants may be used in the background of flower borders in the kitchen garden, their handsome foliage being peculiarly well adapted for such purposes, whilst their economical value is also secured. See Fig. 151. Where there is plenty of room in light, warm sheds, orchard houses, or other places where frost can be kept out, some stools can be taken up with the root intact in the early part of November, placed in boxes of soil, and well watered-in. When drained, the boxes may be put in any of those positions for their winter quarters, and, if kept moist, will develop much earlier than the outdoor crops, provided they are planted out early in April on a warm border, and protected with mats when the weather is cold. Propagation may be effected by seeds, or by suckers from the old stools, the latter being the better plan. In the former case, sow the seeds in March, on a gentle hotbed, and prick the seedlings off singly, when large enough, into small pots. Harden off by the last week in May, and plant out in threes as previously recommended, protecting the plants from late frosts. During the growing season, give an abundance of water and liquid manure mulching, to prevent undue evaporation. In November, well cover with dry litter which will not heat; and, in hard frosts, or heavy snow, throw a few mats over the beds, uncovering at the same time as recommended above for the older plants. To propagate by rooted offsets or suckers, take up and divide the stools, when they have made a fair amount of growth in April or early in May, separating the suckers with as many roots and as much soil adhering to them as possible. The old woody portions are of little use, but they may be replanted to give off a fresh supply of suckers for the next year, if required. Propagation by suckers, if they are to be obtained, has many advantages; but care must be taken, in removing them from old plants, that some roots are attached, or growth will be uncertain. Seeds generally produce a large percentage of plants that are useless, and this is not found out until the flower-heads appear. On the other hand, suckers reproduce the parent plant, and if these are previously selected, the superior stock is thereby perpetuated.

_Sorts._ The Green and Purple are the best for ordinary purposes; and of these preference should be given to the former. _See also_ =Cynara=.

=ARTICHOKE, JERUSALEM= (_Helianthus tuberosus_). A hardy tuberous-rooted herbaceous perennial, native of Brazil. The roots are used as a vegetable principally during the winter, sometimes as a dish, but more generally for flavouring purposes. Plants will grow in almost any position, but the best results and largest tubers are obtained where they receive plenty of room and liberal treatment. Their culture has been recommended as a substitute for the potato, but they are not likely to take the place of this vegetable, the flavour being disliked by many persons. A few are, however, generally acceptable.

_Cultivation._ To ensure the most successful results, trench over a piece of ground in autumn, and give a light dressing of manure. Fork over in March; at the same time plant good-shaped tubers (see Fig. 152) in rows about 3ft. apart, and allow from 18in. to 2ft. between the tubers in the rows. Keep clear of weeds; and, as soon as the foliage is yellow, in the latter part of the autumn, the roots will be fit for use. The best plan with this crop is to leave it in the ground till wanted, or till the end of February, and then to take up every tuber, replanting those which are wanted for stock, and storing the others away in a cold dry place. When they commence growth, they turn black, and are of little use for cooking, save for flavouring soups. This vegetable has of late years grown into favour as a marketable crop, and the demand seems to be increasing. Considering its very easy culture, it is fairly remunerative. _See also_ =Helianthus=.

[Illustration: FIG. 152. TUBERS OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE.]

=ARTICULATE, ARTICULATED.= Jointed; having joints.

=ARTILLERY PLANT.= _See_ =Pilea microphylla=.

=ARTOCARPEÆ.= A tribe of the large order _Urticaceæ_.

=ARTOCARPUS= (from _artos_, bread, and _carpos_, fruit; the fruit, when baked, resembling bread). Bread Fruit. SYNS. _Polyphema_, _Rademachia_, _Rima_. ORD. _Urticaceæ_. TRIBE _Artocarpeæ_. Included in this most remarkable tribe, in addition to the Bread Fruit Tree, is the virulent poisonous _Antiaris toxicaria_, and the economic Cow Tree (_Brosimum Galactodendron_), of Caraccas. A genus of stove evergreen trees, requiring a high and very moist atmosphere, a copious supply of water, perfect drainage, and a compost of two parts rich loam and one of leaf mould, with the addition of a little silver sand. Under all conditions, this genus is difficult to propagate; the young and slender lateral growths are adapted for cuttings; and suckers may be utilised when procurable, which is very rare.

=A. Cannoni= (Cannon's).* _l._ alternate, petiolate; petiole and midrib bright red; upper surface glossy, of a rich, full bronzy crimson hue, beautifully tinted with purple; under surface bright vinous red. The leaves vary much in form; some are simple and cordate at the base, with the apex irregularly lobate; some have the apex regularly three-lobed, with short, entire lobes; and others, again, are deep three-lobed, being divided nearly to the base, the segments, of which the centre one is largest, being slightly sinuate-lobed. _h._ 7ft. Society Islands, 1877. This is a most distinct and handsome ornamental-leaved plant.

=A. incisa= (incised).* True Bread Fruit. _l._ from 2ft. to 3ft. long, deeply lobed or incised, deep green on the upper side, paler below. _h._ 50ft. South Sea Islands, 1793. This is a noble tree when full grown, and forms a most distinct and beautiful stove plant. The extraordinary fruit is produced from the axils of the leaves in large globular heads, and is highly valued as an article of food in its native country.

=A. integrifolia= (entire-leaved). _l._ oblong, undivided, sinuated, scabrous, downy beneath. _h._ 30ft. India, 1778.

=A. laciniata metallica= (laciniate, metallic). _l._ bronzy above, reddish purple beneath. Polynesia.

[Illustration: FIG. 153. ARUM MACULATUM.]

=ARUM= (formerly _aron_, and probably of Egyptian extraction). ORD. _Aroideæ_. A large genus of ornamental or curious, hardy, greenhouse or stove perennials, with thick rhizomes and pedate or hastate leaves. Spathe large, convolute; spadix naked and club-shaped at the top. They are all of easy culture, and the indoor species will thrive with such treatment as is given to _Alocasias_, _Caladiums_, &c. Rich soil is one of the first conditions of success. Like most plants grown for the beauty of their foliage, rapid and free growth is necessary. A compost of good rich loam, with a third of sweet manure, thoroughly rotted, or leaf mould, with some sharp sand, is very suitable. Plenty of moisture is necessary during the growing season, after which the tender kinds should be kept moderately dry, warm, and at rest during the winter. The hardy kinds may be left in the ground. Propagated by seeds or division of the roots--usually the latter. The best time to divide them is just as they commence their new growth, securing as many roots as possible to each division. Any rootless pieces should be placed in heat shortly after removal; this hastens the formation of roots and excites top growth. Arums are useful in sub-tropical gardening, and are otherwise interesting plants both for indoors and outside cultivation; and the hardy kinds are very suitable for naturalising in woodlands, &c. There are many other species besides those here described, but the following list comprises the best. Sub-sections of the genus will be found treated separately, such as =Amorphophallus= (which _see_), &c.

[Illustration: FIG. 154. ARUM DRACUNCULUS.]

=A. bulbosum= (bulbous). Synonymous with _A. ternatum_.

=A. Dracontium= (Green Dragon). _fl._, spadix subulate, longer than the oblong convolute green spathe. June. _l._ pedate, entire. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1759. Hardy.

=A. Dracunculus= (Common Dragon).* _fl._, spadix lanceolate, shorter than the ovate, flat, smooth, brown spathe. July. _l._ pedate, entire. _h._ 3ft. South Europe, 1548. Hardy. SYN. _Dracunculus vulgaris_. See Fig. 154.

=A. indicum= (Indian). _See_ =Colocasia indica=.

=A. italicum= (Italian).* _fl._, spathe ventricose below, opening nearly flat and very broad above; apex often falling over very shortly after expansion, sometimes greenish yellow, at others nearly white; spadix yellowish or creamy white, club-shaped, about one-third as long as the spathe. Spring. _l._ appearing before winter, radical, triangular-hastate. _h._ 9in. to 2ft. Channel Islands and Cornwall, &c. Hardy.

=A. i. marmorata= (marbled).* _l._ marbled with yellow. A very pretty and effective hardy border plant.

=A. maculatum= (spotted). Lords and Ladies; Cuckoo Pint. _fl._, spathe ventricose below and above, constricted in the middle, with inflexed edges when open, spotted with dull purple; spadix usually purple, shorter than the spathe. Spring. _l._ vernal radical, hastate-sagittate, with deflexed lobes. _h._ 9in. Britain, &c. This species is admirably adapted for a corner in the wild garden. See Fig. 153.

=A. Malyi= (Maly's). _fl._ whitish. Montenegro, 1860.

=A. Nickelli= (Nickel's). Levant, 1859. A form of _A. italicum_.

=A. orientale= (eastern). _fl._ resembling those of _A. maculatum_. June. _l._ brownish, simple, ovate, slightly sagittate. _h._ 1ft. Tauria, 1820. Hardy.

=A. palæstinum= (Palestine).* _fl._, spathe 7in. to 11in. long, purplish blotched or spotted outside, rich velvety black inside and yellowish white at the base of the tube; spadix much shorter than the spathe; petiole usually rising 8in. or 9in. above the leaves. May. _l._ four or five, triangular-hastate, acute, from 6in. to 14in. long, and from 3-1/2in. to 7-1/2in. broad; petioles 12in. to 18in. long. Jerusalem, 1864. Tender.

=A. pictum= (painted). _h._ 2ft. Corsica, 1801. Hardy.

=A. proboscideum= (proboscis-like).* _fl._, spathe greenish purple, navicular, horizontal, terminated by a straight tail; scapes arising from among the petioles. May. _l._ radical, about four, cordate-elliptic, entire. _h._ 6in. South Europe, 1823. Hardy.

=A. spectabile= (showy). _fl._, spathe ovate-oblong, acuminate, dark purplish inside, longer than the purplish spadix. _l._ broadly hastate-sagittate. _h._ 1ft. Asia Minor. Half-hardy.

=A. spirale= (spiral). _fl._, spadix lanceolate, shorter than the oblong-lanceolate spirally twisted brown spathe. May. _l._ linear-lanceolate. Plant stemless. _h._ 1ft. China, 1816. Tender.

=A. tenuifolium= (narrow-leaved).* _fl._, spadix subulate, longer than the white lanceolate spathe. April. _l._ linear-lanceolate. Plant stemless. _h._ 1ft. South Europe, 1570. Hardy.

=A. ternatum= (three-leafleted). A synonym of _Pinellia tuberifera_.

=A. variolatum= (variegated). Dalmatia, 1859. Hardy.

=A. venosum= (veined). A synonym of _Sauromatum guttatum_.

=A. Zelebori= (Zelebor's). A form of _A. maculatum_.

=ARUM LILY.= _See_ =Richardia æthiopica=.

=ARUNDINARIA= (altered from _arundo_, a reed). ORD. _Gramineæ_. A small genus of hardy or nearly hardy shrubby grasses, having strong jointed stems, and frequently included under _Bambusa_. For sub-tropical gardening purposes more particularly it is exceedingly ornamental as an isolated tuft. It thrives best in a deep, rich soil, and requires plenty of water when in a growing state. Increased by division of the roots.

[Illustration: FIG. 155. ARUNDINARIA FALCATA.]

=A. falcata= (sickle-shaped).* _l._ linear-lanceolate, very acute, shortly stalked, very light green. Stems freely branched, deep green, and very slender. _h._ 3ft. to 6ft. India. An extremely handsome species for greenhouse decoration; also for outdoor work, particularly in the South of England, &c. SYN. _Bambusa gracilis_, of gardens.

=A. Maximowiczii= (Maximowicz's). This Japanese species is believed to be allied to, if not identical with, _Bambusa Simonii_. Quite hardy.

=A. Metake= (Metake). _l._ lanceolate, with very sharp points, dark green, persistent, narrowed into a short leafstalk, 6in. to 12in. long; sheath ample. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. Japan. A handsome, hardy, dwarf, much-branched species, forming grand specimens, and producing flowers very freely. SYN. _Bambusa japonica_.

=ARUNDO= (origin of word doubtful; stated by some authorities to be from _arundo_, a reed; and others as from the Celtic _arn_, signifying water). Reed. ORD. _Gramineæ_. A very ornamental group of half or quite hardy plants, of very easy culture in ordinary garden soil, preferring damp situations. Panicle loose; calyx two-valved, unequal, many-flowered; corolla of two very unequal valves; all, except the lower and imperfect one, surrounded by a tuft of hairs. Fruit free, covered by the corolla. Arundos are very valuable either for conservatory decoration, sub*-tropical gardening, or cultivation in clumps on the turf of the flower-garden or pleasure ground, and the margins of lakes. Although well worth growing, all are inferior to their ally, the Pampas Grass. Propagated by seeds or divisions, the spring being the best time to adopt either method of increase.

=A. conspicua= (conspicuous).* _fl._ silky-white, on large drooping racemes, and lasting in beauty for several months. _h._ 3ft. to 8ft., but in a good deep and sandy loam it sometimes attains the height of 12ft. New Zealand, 1843. This fine species grows in dense tufts, from which arise numerous leathery, narrow, smooth (or slightly rough), long curving leaves, and erect, slender culms. The plant is not sufficiently hardy to withstand a severe winter, and should, therefore, be protected with mats, or be grown in tubs, so that it can be removed under shelter before the approach of winter. These precautions are unnecessary in the more southern counties of England.

=A. Donax= (Donax).* Great Reed. _fl._ reddish, ultimately whitish, in numerous spikelets, forming a large compact panicle 12in. to 16in. long. Autumn. _l._ alternate, lanceolate-acute, large, and ornamental, glaucous green, arching. _h._ about 12ft. South Europe, 1648. This also requires protection during winter in the colder counties. See Fig. 156.

=A. D. versicolor= (various-coloured).* _h._ 3ft. South Europe. Although much smaller, this variety is far superior to the type for gardening purposes, and has its leaves ribboned with white. It requires a deep, well drained, sandy loam to thrive well, and a thorough winter protection of cocoa-fibre refuse or coal ashes. For isolated tufts or groups, few plants can equal it. It is propagated by placing a stem in water, which induces little rooted plants to start from the joints; these should be separated, potted off, and kept in frames until thoroughly established.

=A. mauritanica= (Mediterranean Reed). This is a rare greenhouse species, closely allied to _A. Donax_, but inferior to it.

[Illustration: FIG. 156. ARUNDO DONAX.]

=ARYTERA.= A synonym of =Ratonia= (which _see_).

=ASAFœTIDA.= _See_ =Narthex Asafœtida=.

=ASARABACCA.= _See_ =Asarum europæum=.

=ASARUM= (from _a_, not, and _saron_, feminine; derivation doubtful). ORD. _Aristolochiaceæ_. Curious hardy herbaceous perennials, with bell-shaped, three-cleft perianths. They should be planted at the foot of the rockery, or in borders or woodlands, as they are not very showy, but are, nevertheless, worth growing, and easily propagated by divisions, in spring.

=A. canadense= (Canadian).* _fl._ brown, campanulate, on a short peduncle, sometimes nearly buried. May and June. _l._ in pairs, broadly reniform. _h._ 1ft. Canada, &c., 1713.

[Illustration: FIG. 157. ASARUM CAUDATUM.]

=A. caudatum= (tailed).* _fl._ brownish-red, with attenuated or caudate calyx lobes. July. _l_. cordate-reniform, hooded, sub-acute, or bluntish, slightly pubescent. California, 1880. A rare and pretty species. See Fig. 157.

=A. europæum= (European). A sarabacca. _fl._ dull brown, solitary, rather large, drooping; segments of perianth incurved. May. _l._ two on each stem, roundish-reniform, stalked, slightly waved. _h._ 1ft. England.

=ASCENDING.= Directed upwards; as the stem, which is the ascending axis.

=ASCLEPIADEÆ.= A large order of, for the most part, lactescent, climbing shrubs. Flowers sub-umbellate, fascicled or racemose, interpetiolar; pollen collected in the form of waxy masses, coalescing to the cells of the anthers; follicles two, one of which is abortive. Leaves entire, usually opposite.

=ASCLEPIAS= (the Greek name of Æsculapius of the Latins). Swallow-wort. ORD. _Asclepiadeæ_. Erect, hardy, herbaceous or sub-shrubby perennials, except where otherwise specified. Corolla five-parted, reflexed; umbels interpetiolar; corona seated on the upper part of the tube of the filaments, five-leaved. Leaves opposite, verticillate, sometimes alternate. Most of the hardy species are very handsome border plants, thriving in peaty, or light rich soil, and are increased by dividing the roots in spring, and sometimes also by seeds. The doubtfully hardy or rarer species should always be grown in a peat soil, and have a little protection during severe frost, by mulching the roots. The most important of the greenhouse and stove species is _A. curassavica_. In order to obtain good bushy specimens of this, it will be necessary to cut the plants back annually, after keeping them slightly dry, and resting for a month or two in midwinter. When growth has sufficiently advanced, they should be shaken out and repotted. At this stage, a close, moist atmosphere will be needful to produce the usually very free growth. The points of the shoots must be nipped out, in order to promote a bushy habit. When the pots have become filled with roots, liquid manure may be applied; but it must be quite clear and not over strong. All the indoor species grow best in good fibry loam and leaf mould, and require to be potted firmly. Cuttings should be secured in spring, struck in gentle heat, under a bell glass, and as soon as they are well rooted, potted into 60-size pots. A shift must be given as often as the pots become filled with roots, up to the time when the plant commences flowering. Seeds may be sown in pots in spring, pricked out singly when large enough, and then treated similarly to cuttings.

=A. acuminata= (taper-pointed).* _fl._ red and white; umbels lateral, solitary, erect. July. _l._ ovate, sub-cordate, acuminated, on short petioles; superior ones sessile, glabrous, but rough on the edges. Stems erect, glabrous, simple. _h._ 2ft. New Jersey, 1826. Hardy, herbaceous.

=A. amœna= (pleasing).* _fl._ beautiful purple; umbels terminal, erect; appendages of corona exserted, red. July. _l._ opposite, almost sessile, oblong-oval, downy beneath, with a large purple middle nerve. Stem simple, with two rows of down. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. New England, 1732. Hardy, herbaceous.

=A. Cornuti= (Cornuti's).* Synonymous with _A. syriaca_.

=A. curassavica= (Curassavian). Redhead. _fl._ reddish orange-scarlet; umbels erect, solitary, lateral. July to September. _l._ opposite, oblong-lanceolate, tapering at both ends. Stem rather downy, simple, seldom a little branched. _h._ 1ft. to 3ft. Tropical America, 1692. The white-flowered variety is a very pretty contrast. Stove herbaceous.

=A. Douglasii= (Douglas's).* _fl._ large, waxy, purplish-lilac, sweet-scented, in many-flowered umbels. Summer. _l._ opposite, ovate-cordate, acuminated, 6-1/2in. long by 5in. or more wide, glabrous above, downy beneath. Stem thick, woolly, simple. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. West America, 1846.

=A. hybrida= (hybrid). A synonym of _A. purpurascens_.

=A. incarnata= (flesh-coloured).* _fl._ red or purplish; umbels numerous, usually twin. July. _l._ opposite, lanceolate, rather woolly on both surfaces. Stem erect, branched and tomentose at the top. _h._ 2ft. Canada (on the banks of rivers), 1710. Hardy, herbaceous.

=A. mexicana= (Mexican). _fl._ white; umbels many-flowered. July. _l._ verticillate, linear-lanceolate, with revolute edges; lower ones four to six in a whorl; upper ones three in a whorl, or opposite. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Mexico, 1821. Greenhouse evergreen.

=A. phytolaccoides= (Phytolacca-like). _fl._ purple; corona white, with truncate leaflets; umbels lateral and terminal, solitary, on long peduncles, drooping. July. _l._ broad, ovate-oblong, acute, glabrous, paler beneath. Stem erect, simple, spotted with purple. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. Virginia and Carolina (on the mountains), 1812.

=A. purpurascens= (purplish). _fl._ purple; umbels erect. July. _l._ opposite, large, ovate, with a purplish middle nerve, villous beneath. Stem simple, rather hairy at top, brownish green at bottom. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Virginia (in shady swamps), 1732. Hardy. SYN. _A. hybrida_.

=A. quadrifolia= (four-leaved).* _fl._ white, small, sweet-scented, with red nectaries; umbels twin, terminal, loose-flowered; pedicels filiform. July. _l._ ovate, acuminated, petiolate; those in the middle of the stem larger, and four in a whorl; the rest opposite. Stems erect, simple, glabrous. _h._ 1ft. New York, 1820. Hardy species.

=A. rubra= (red), _fl._ red; umbels compound, July, August. _l._ alternate, ovate, acuminated. Stem erect, simple. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Virginia, 1825.

=A. Sullivanti= (Sullivant's). Similar to _A. syriaca_, but having larger and deeper coloured flowers.

=A. syriaca= (Syrian).* _fl._ pale purple, sweet scented, in large, loose, drooping umbels. July. _l._ opposite, lanceolate-oblong, or oval, gradually acute, tomentose beneath. Stems simple. _h._ 3ft. to 5ft. North America, 1629. SYN. _A. Cornuti_.

[Illustration: FIG. 158. FLOWERING BRANCH OF ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA.]

=A. tuberosa= (tuberous).* _fl._ bright orange, very showy; umbels disposed in a terminal sub-corymb. July to September. _l._ scattered, oblong-lanceolate, hairy. Stems erectish, divaricately branched at top, very hairy. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. North America (in stony, sandy fields and woods), 1690. A desirable hardy herbaceous border plant. See Fig. 158.

=A. variegata= (variegated). _fl._, petals and foliola of corona white, fructification red, in dense umbels, very handsome; umbels almost sessile; pedicels hairy. July. _l._ opposite, ovate, petiolate, wrinkled, naked. Stems simple. erect, variegated with purple. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. New York to Carolina (on dry, sandy hills), 1597.

=A. verticillata= (whorled). _fl._, corolla with yellowish green petals and white nectaries; umbels many-flowered. July and August. _l._ very narrow, linear, thick, quite glabrous, usually verticillate, but sometimes scattered. Stems erect, often branched, having a downy line on one side. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. New Jersey, 1759.

=ASCYRON.= _See_ =Hypericum Ascyron=.

=ASCYRUM= (from _a_, without, and _skyros_, hard; that is to say, a plant which is soft to the touch). ORD. _Hypericinæ_. A genus of elegant little herbs and sub-shrubs, with sessile, entire leaves, destitute of pellucid dots, but usually furnished with black dots beneath. Flowers resembling _Hypericum_. They require to be protected during winter by a frame; for this purpose they should be grown in pots, as they never exist long in the open border. A compost of peat, pure leaf soil, and sand, in equal portions, suits them well; young cuttings of the shrubby kinds will root in sand under a hand bell glass. Propagated by careful divisions of the roots in spring. All may be raised from seeds.

=A. amplexicaule= (stem-clasping). _fl._ yellow, few, axillary, and terminal; corymbs naked. July. _l._ stem-clasping, ovate, cordate, sinuately-curled. Stem dichotomously panicled. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1823. The flowers and leaves are longer in this than in any other of the species.

=A. Crux Andreæ.=* St. Andrew's Cross. _fl._, petals narrow-pale, yellow, nearly sessile, in terminal corymbs. July. _l._ ovate-linear, obtuse, usually in bundles in the axils. Stem shrubby, round. _h._ 1ft. North America (in sandy fields), 1759. This proves to be quite hardy in many situations.

=A. hypericoides= (Hypericum-like). _fl._ yellow. August. _l._ linear-oblong, obtuse. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1759.

=A. stans= (standing). St. Peter's Wort. _fl._ yellow. August. _l._ oval or oblong, somewhat clasping. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1816.

=ASHES.= The earthy or mineral particles of combustible substances, remaining after combustion. Ashes are amongst the most economical manures.

_Vegetable Ashes_ are generally the best application for manuring boggy, cold, and, consequently, sour and unprofitable land, in quantities of about forty bushels per acre, thinly and evenly distributed. The annual exhaustion of salts from large crops of grain, roots, and grass, is from 180lb. to more than 250lb. per acre; and the aggregate of a few years will so far impoverish the soil in one or more of the principles necessary to sustain a luxuriant vegetation, that it will cease to yield remunerating returns. The ashes of vegetables consist of such elements as are always required for their perfect maturity, and it is evident they must furnish one of the best saline manures which can be supplied for their growth; they contain, in fact, every element, and generally in the right proportions, for insuring a full and rapid growth. Both gardener and farmer will therefore perceive the great value of Ashes to their crops.

_Coal Ashes._ The bituminous and anthracite coals afford Ashes, and, although inferior in quality to those made from wood and vegetables, are, like them, a valuable manure, and they should be applied to the land in a similar manner. If they contain many cinders, from not having been thoroughly burned, they are more suited to heavy than to light soils. Coal Ashes, if very fine, may be sprinkled half an inch deep on the surface, over peas and beans, &c., to preserve them from mice; they may also be used for garden and greenhouse walks, where bricks or tiles are absent, being tidy in appearance, and an excellent substitute for other and more expensive material.

_Peat Ashes._ Peat approaching to purity, when thrown out of its bed and thoroughly dried, may be burned to an imperfect Ash, and when it does not reach this point, it will become thoroughly charred, and reduced to cinders. The process of burning should be as slow as possible. In either form, it is a valuable dressing for the soil.

=ASH-TREE.= _See_ =Fraxinus=.

=ASIATIC POISON BULB.= _See_ =Crinum asiaticum=.

=ASIMINA= (meaning unknown). ORD. _Anonaceæ_. Hardy shrubs, with oblong, cuneated, usually deciduous leaves. Flowers sometimes rising before the leaves, usually solitary and axillary. They thrive freely in a mixture of sand and peat. Propagated by layers put down in the autumn, or by seed, procured from their native country. Seedlings should be raised in pots, and sheltered in winter, until they have acquired a considerable size.

[Illustration: FIG. 159. FLOWERING BRANCH OF ASIMINA TRILOBA.]

=A. triloba= (three-lobed).* _fl._ campanulate, the three outer petals pale purplish, and the three inner ones smaller, purplish on the outside as well as the inside at the base and apex, with the middle yellow, about 2in. diameter, produced between the upper leaves. May. _l._ oblong-cuneated, often acuminated, and, as well as the branches, smoothish. _h._ 10ft. Pennsylvania, 1736. A small tree or shrub. See Fig. 159.

=ASKALLON= (the Eschallot). _See_ =Allium ascalonicum=.

=ASPALATHUS= (from _a_, not, and _spao_, to extract; in reference to the difficulty of extracting its thorns from a wound). Including _Sarcophyllus_. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. Shrubs or sub-shrubs, natives, with one exception, of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers usually yellow, furnished with three bracteoles, or a leaf comprised of three leaflets. Leaves of three to five leaflets, disposed palmately, rarely pinnately, having scarcely any or very short petioles. All the species are pretty when in flower, and thrive in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. Young cuttings of half-ripened wood will strike in April, in sand, under bell glasses, which must be wiped dry occasionally. But little water is needed. Over a hundred species are known; those introduced are very rarely seen in cultivation.

=ASPARAGUS= (from _a_, intensive, and _sparasso_, to tear; in reference to the strong prickles of some species). ORD. _Liliaceæ_. Erect or climbing herbs or shrubs, with very small scale-like leaves, and a profusion of numerous slender fascicled-needle, rather spiny branchlets. Flowers axillary, inconspicuous. Fruit baccate. The indoor species will all thrive well in a warm greenhouse temperature, provided they have partial shade, a good supply of moisture at the roots, and are not kept too close, in a moderately rich sandy compost. The hardy species are propagated chiefly by seeds and divisions of the roots. Rich sandy loam is necessary, and otherwise they may be treated as ordinary perennials. Some of the species belonging to this genus are among the most elegant of foliage plants for cutting purposes. _A. decumbens_ and _A. scandens_ make excellent plants for Wardian cases, and may be cut in freely if they exceed their limits.

ASPARAGUS (_A. officinalis_) AS A VEGETABLE. The value and importance of this plant as a vegetable cannot be over-estimated; it is extensively grown, and, when properly managed, produces a fairly lucrative crop.

_Soil and Bed._ The first thing to be done in the preparation of an Asparagus bed to stand for any length of time, is to secure an efficient drainage; and on wet soils this is best effected by placing a layer of brick rubbish over the whole of the bottom, and connecting this with a drain. On gravelly or other soils which are drained naturally, of course, this is not needed; but if really good crops are a _desideratum_, water should not stand within 3ft. of the surface. In all cases, the ground must be dug to a depth of 18in., and, if stiff, a goodly amount of road sweepings, or other gritty materials, should be well mixed with the staple soil. Asparagus requires a good soil, neither too heavy nor too light.

_Manuring._ After the soil has been well trenched, and has lain long enough to settle down, a good dressing of manure--thoroughly rotted, and not too rank, at the rate of from twenty to thirty tons to the acre, dug into the surface of the beds-—will be found very beneficial. If possible, this should be introduced in January; and then, if the weather permits, the beds should be forked two or three times by the end of March, so as to render the soil as friable as possible. A very good manure, and one that is easily obtained, is common garden salt. This may be given annually to established beds. A moderate dressing should be applied just before growth commences in spring, but a little will do no harm at other times during the summer. It is best scattered on with the hand, and a showery day should be selected, as it will then soon disappear. Salt, besides acting as a manure, has also the properties of keeping the beds cool and moist in hot weather, and of preventing the growth of weeds.

_Planting._ Asparagus can be planted during March and April, the latter month being the best time for the work. The soil having been thoroughly prepared, the next point is to decide on the size of the beds; this depends on the size of garden, and the class of "grass" desired. When very large and fine stocks are the object in view, the best results will accrue if the plants are fully a yard apart each way; but this means a comparatively small crop. A good plan is to make the beds 3ft. wide, planting two rows, at a distance of 1ft. from each other, and allowing 18in. between each plant, placing them in alternate order. An 18in. alley should be allowed between the beds. The roots used for making the beds should be one year old, and fresh from the ground. In planting, pull out a wide drill with a hoe, or other tool, to the depth of about 3in. or 4in., and spread out the roots all round. Carefully shake the soil in amongst the roots, and, if dry, apply some water through a coarse-rosed watering pot, to settle the earth around them. At intervals, as necessary, give other waterings till September, when they should be discontinued. At all times, keep the beds free from weeds, removing them by the hand to prevent injury to the crowns of the plants. If the ground is good, no liquid manure will be needed the first year. As soon as the foliage turns yellow, cut it off, cleanly rake over the beds, and leave till about January, when a top-dressing of from 1in. to 3in. of thoroughly rotted manure may be applied with advantage. At the end of February, rake off the bed all loose straw or other _debris_, and throw on them a little of the soil from the alleys, raking down, and finishing off the edges squarely and neatly. During this and succeeding years, apply liquid manure and clear water, from time to time, as required; and, provided the manure is not of too great strength, there is scarcely any limit to its application; but, in many instances, beds which have only received an annual dressing have given a good return. Each year they must be cut over and dressed as before described, but care must be taken to keep them flat on the surface, otherwise the plants will die out for want of moisture. When the produce appears, the beds should be kept cut over until the 20th of June, after which, cutting should cease, or they will be rendered comparatively unproductive. Cutting can commence the second or third year, or as soon as there is any "grass" worth taking. Several methods of growing these plants could be cited, but that which we have recommended will be found most satisfactory.

[Illustration: FIG. 160. ASPARAGUS, Crown for Lifting.]

_Seeds._ Plants are raised by sowing seeds in rows across the kitchen garden, or selected quarter, about the month of April. The seedlings make a growth, and form good plants during the first season. In March or April of the following year, or the year after, they may be removed, and planted out permanently, as already alluded to. Many cultivators prefer growing their own plants from seed; because during the transit of the roots from any distance to where they are to be grown, a frequent and injurious exhaustion takes place, and particularly so when they are carelessly packed.

_Forcing._ Asparagus can, if properly treated, be obtained from December onwards; and at Christmas time the produce is very valuable; but, in order to obtain it at this season, it will be necessary to resort to forcing. Prepare some beds to secure a lasting heat, and on these place about 3in. of ordinary garden soil, not very stiff. Then take the roots, and place them crown upwards, and moderately close together, shaking the soil well amongst the roots, and covering about a couple of inches deep. Water well, to settle the whole, and put on the lights, allowing a little ventilation, to let out any steam which may arise. Unless the weather be very cold indeed, give a little air at all times, and only cover the lights in actual frost. From time to time, apply fresh linings of hot manure, and in cold rains, or wind, cover the outsides of the frames with old sacks, or other things which will keep in the heat. A regular and steady temperature of 60deg. will force this plant with better results than a higher one. Houses that are fitted with hot-water pipes to give bottom heat can be used equally as well as manure beds, and so long as the soil is kept moist, the heat thus obtained is as good as any for the purpose, and much less trouble than fermenting materials. To keep up a regular supply, a succession of beds will be necessary. Asparagus can be forced, or rather forwarded, in pots or boxes, in a warm greenhouse or vinery, and, of course, when the plants are done with, they can be cast away. We give an illustration (Fig. 160) of a bearing crown fit for gentle forcing; but, of course, it must not be left so bare of earth as appears here, which is done for the purpose of clearness.

_Varieties._ Connover's Colossal, and Giant, are the most esteemed. Strains are frequently largely advertised as improvements on the sorts above-mentioned, and the charges are higher accordingly. The difference may be generally attributed to the culture the plants receive more than to an improved variety. When saving seed for home sowing, they should be taken from the strongest growths, or deterioration will ensue.

=A. æthiopicus ternifolius= (ternate). _fl._ white, in shortly-stalked racemes, very profuse. August. _l._, false ones in threes, flattened, narrow, linear; prickles solitary, reversed; branches angular. _h._ 30ft. South Africa, 1872. A greenhouse evergreen.

=A. Broussoneti= (Broussonet's).* _fl._ very small, succeeded by small red berries. May. _l._, lower ones solitary, the others ternate, 1in. long, needle-shaped, persistent, distant, glaucescent; stipules with reflected spines at the base. Summer. Stem tapering, streaked, shrubby. _h._ 10ft. Canary Islands, 1822. A very pretty hardy climber.

=A. Cooperi= (Cooper's). _fl._ axillary, one to three, from the same nodes as the false leaves; perianth cream-coloured, one line long. April and May. _l._ minute, deltoid, scariose, reddish-brown; false leaves six to fifteen to a node, subulate, moderately firm, 1/4in. to 3/8in. long, spreading or ascending. _h._ 10ft. to 12ft. Africa, 1862. A greenhouse climber, with a shrubby terete main stem, 1-1/2in. to 2in. thick at the base, sending out crowds of spreading branches, which bear abundant slender, firm, alternate branchlets; nodes of branches and branchlets, furnished with distinct red-brown, subulate prickles, those of the main stems 1/4in. long, deflexed, but not curved.

=A. decumbens= (decumbent).* Stem unarmed, decumbent, much branched; branches wavy; leaves setaceous, in threes. Cape of Good Hope, 1792. A greenhouse evergreen herbaceous perennial.

=A. falcatus= (hooked-leaved). _l._ fascicled, linear, falcate; branches round; prickles solitary, recurved; peduncles one-flowered, clustered. _h._ 3ft. India, 1792. A greenhouse evergreen perennial.

=A. officinalis= (officinal). Common Asparagus. _fl._ greenish-white, drooping. August. _l._ setaceous, fasciculate, flexible, unarmed. Stem herbaceous, mostly erect, rounded, very much branched. _h._ 1ft. Said to grow on "Asparagus Island," Kynance Cove, Lizard, but we have never found it there, and it has probably long since been exterminated.

=A. plumosus= (plumed).* _fl._ white, small, produced from the tips of the branchlets. Spring. _l._, true ones in the form of minute deltoid scales, with an acute ultimately reflexed point; the false ones are grouped in tufts, each being 1/8in. to 1/4in. long, bristle-shaped, and finely pointed. South Africa, 1876. An elegant evergreen climber, with smooth stems and numerous spreading branches. It forms an excellent plant when trained in pots, and is invaluable for cutting.

=A. p. nanus= (dwarf).* A very elegant dwarf variety of above. Stems tufted, slender, and gracefully arching. South Africa, 1880. For bouquets, the cut sprays of both type and variety have the advantage of much greater persistency than any fern, retaining their freshness in water from three to four weeks. See Fig. 161, for which we are indebted to Messrs. Veitch and Sons.

=A. racemosus= (racemose). _fl._ greenish-white, in many-flowered axillary racemes. May. _l._ bundled, linear-subulate, falcate; branches striated; prickles solitary. _h._ 3ft. India, 1808. Greenhouse evergreen shrub.

[Illustration: FIG. 161. ASPARAGUS PLUMOSUS NANUS.]

=A. ramosissimus= (very branching). _fl._ solitary, at the tips of the branchlets; pedicels hardly perpendicular, one and a-half to two lines long; cream coloured. June. _l._ obscurely spurred at the base; false leaves three to eight-nate, flattened; linear-falcate acute, 1/4in. to 3/8in. long, spreading. South Africa, 1862. A wide climbing, copiously branched, slender greenhouse shrub, with very numerous spreading or ascending branches and branchlets.

=A. scandens= (climbing).* _fl._ whitish, axillary on the ultimate branchlets, succeeded by round orange-coloured berries. The annual, much-branched, unarmed stems bear, usually in threes, numerous small linear-pointed leaves, which on the ultimate branches spread nearly in one plane. Cape of Good Hope, 1795. An elegant climbing greenhouse perennial.

=A. virgatus= (twiggy).* A remarkably elegant feathery looking plant, of shrubby habit. The stems, which issue from the crown of the stout fleshy roots, are of a dark green colour, and bear at the upper end a corymbose head of erect branches, of which the lowest is the youngest or most recently developed. These branches are again twice branched, the ultimate branchlets being furnished with needle-shaped false leaves, 1/2in. long, which usually grow in threes. South Africa, 1862.

=ASPARAGUS BEETLE= (_Crioceris asparagi_), or "Cross-bearer." This beautiful little insect is blue-black or greenish; the thorax is red with two black spots, and the wing-cases are yellow, with a black cross on them; the legs and antennæ are black. The short grey larva is flat underneath, arched on the back, and covered with hairs. The sides are of an olive hue, and the little legs and head are black. It ejects a drop of blackish fluid from the mouth when touched. When full grown, which takes about a fortnight, the larva measures about two lines in length; the average length of the perfect Beetle is about three lines. Although this insect does not actually destroy the plants, it inflicts much damage on the foliage, and checks the growth of the stems after they have attained some size, in consequence of which the foliage becomes much less in the next season. The eggs are fixed to the shoots, and are small, dark, pointed bodies. The larvæ do the harm, as they feed on the bark and tender portions of the plants. The mature Beetles should be picked off by hand, and, by commencing early enough in the season, their numbers will be greatly reduced. Syringing the plants with water, heated to a temperature that will not injure the plants, is found a useful method for removing the grubs.

_White Hellebore._ Freshly-ground White Hellebore, sprinkled over the foliage while it is damp, and repeating the operation at intervals of about eight days for a season, will generally effect a riddance; but the following will usually be found better in such cases. Neither must be applied until after cutting ceases, as they are very poisonous.

_Paris Green._ This, mixed and used as for Cherry Fly (_see_ =Black Fly=), will generally got rid of the Beetle, if applied about thrice each season for two years. It should, however, only be used in severe cases.

_Soot_, applied in the same manner as White Hellebore, and in liberal quantities, will, in a season or two, clear the beds. If a bushel of salt be mixed with each twenty bushels of soot, it will enhance the effect.

=ASPARAGUS KNIFE.= The Asparagus Knife consists of a strong blade fixed in a handle. There are, or were, three kinds employed: In one form, the blade was blunt on both sides, straight, with a sharp tip, and not unlike a small chisel. Another had its blade slightly hooked, and serrated at one end. But the best is that now almost universally employed, and which is illustrated by Fig. 162.

[Illustration: FIG. 162. ASPARAGUS KNIFE.]

=ASPASIA= (from _aspazomai_, I embrace; the column embraced by the labellum). ORD. _Orchidaceæ_. A genus of elegant stove Epidendrum-like epiphytal orchids, with the lip united to the column, and broad, thin pseudo-bulbs. The name Aspasia is now and then met with attached to a totally different genus. Salisbury gave it to a liliaceous plant which is now referred to _Ornithogalum_. For culture and propagation, _see_ =Stanhopea=.

=A. epidendroides= (Epidendrum-like).* _fl._ whitish yellow; sepals linear oblong, acute; petals obtuse, concave, lateral lobes of lip roundish, entire, middle lobe crenated emarginate. February. Pseudo-bulbs oblong, two-edged. _h._ 1ft. Panama, 1833.

=A. lunata= (crescent-marked).* _fl._ green, white, and brown, solitary; sepals and petals linear obtuse, spreading; lip three-lobed, lateral lobes short, middle one flat, nearly square, wavy. February. Pseudo-bulbs oblong, two-edged. _h._ 1ft. Rio Janeiro, 1843.

=A. papilionacea= (butterfly-like).* _fl._, sepals and petals yellowish, mottled with brown lines on their internal inferior halves; lip fiddle-shape, its back very great, elliptic, apiculate; an orange-coloured area stands at its base, a wide violet disc before and around it. _h._ 9in. Costa Rica, 1876. Distinguished from _A. lunata_ in having thirteen keels at the base of the lip, which is higher inserted, and in the echinulate anther. It is a beautiful but rare novelty.

=A. psittacina= (parrot-like).* _fl._, sepals and petals light green, with brown transverse bars, which sometimes consist of separate stripes, at other times of confluent ones; the fiddle-shaped lip shows two keels and a few purplish dots over its top; the column is brown at its top, then violet, and white at the base. Ecuador, 1878. It has a raceme of several flowers, usually one-sided, bent over.

=A. variegata= (variegated).* _fl._ green, spotted with yellowish red; sepals linear oblong; petals somewhat rhomboid, acute; lateral lobes of lip recurved, middle one fleshy, serrated. February. _h._ 9in. Panama, 1836. Deliciously sweet-scented in the morning.

=ASPEN.= _See_ =Populus tremula=.

=ASPERA.= Rough, with hairs or points.

=ASPERULA= (from _asper_, rough; in allusion to the leaves). Woodruff. ORD. _Rubiaceæ_. Hardy herbs, rarely small shrubs. Flowers terminal and axillary, in fascicles. Leaves opposite, with one, two, or three stipulas on each side; they are therefore called four to eight in a whorl, but between the uppermost leaves there are no stipulas. Stems and branches usually tetragonal. Most of the species are very pretty when in flower, and are, therefore, well adapted for borders, rockwork, and shady places, in almost any garden soil. Propagated by divisions of the roots during spring and early summer. Herbaceous perennials, except where otherwise stated.

=A. azurea-setosa= (blue-bristly). A synonym of _A. orientalis_.

=A. calabrica= (Calabrian). A synonym of _Putoria calabrica_.

=A. cynanchica= (Cynanche-like). _fl._ on erect branches, forming a fastigiate corymb, white or bluish-coloured, elegantly marked with red lines, or sometimes pure white. Summer. _l._ four in a whorl; floral ones lanceolate-linear, acuminately awned; lower ones small, oblong, upper ones opposite. Plant glabrous, erectish. _h._ 9in. to 12in. England.

=A. hirta= (hairy). _fl._ white at first, changing to pink, with oblong divisions. July and August. _l._ usually six in a whorl, four towards the upper part, linear, hairy, deep green. _h._ 3in. Pyrenees, 1817. A charming but rare little alpine, thriving best in a rather damp position on the rockery.

=A. longiflora= (long-flowered).* _fl._ whitish, yellowish inside, and reddish outside; tube of corolla elongated; fascicles terminal, pedunculate; bracteas small, subulate. Summer. _l._ four in a whorl, linear; lower ones small, obovate; upper ones opposite. Stems weak, numerous, from the same neck, erectish, glabrous. _h._ 6in. Hungary, 1821.

=A. montana= (mountain).* _fl._, corollas pink, four-cleft, scabrous externally; in fascicles. June, July. _l._ linear; lower ones six in a whorl; middle ones four; upper ones opposite; floral leaves linear. Stem weak, glabrous. _h._ 6in. to 8in. Hungary, 1801.

=A. odorata= (sweet-scented).* Sweet Woodruff. _fl._ snowy white; corymbs terminal, pedunculate, usually trifid, each division bearing about four flowers. May, June. _l._ eight in a whorl, lanceolate, smooth, with serrulately scabrous edges. Stems tetragonal, simple, erect, or ascending. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Britain. This very pretty little plant is scentless when fresh, but, when dried, it diffuses an odour like that of spring grass; and when kept among clothes, it not only imparts an agreeable perfume to them, but preserves them from insects.

=A. orientalis= (Oriental).* _fl._ sky blue, in terminal heads; bracts of involucre shorter than the flowers. Summer. _l._ lanceolate, bristly, about eight in a whorl. _h._ 1ft. Caucasus, 1867. A charming little, profuse blooming, hardy annual, bearing clusters of fragrant flowers, admirably adapted for bouquet making. SYN. _A. azurea-setosa_. See Fig. 163.

[Illustration: FIG. 163. ASPERULA ORIENTALIS, showing Habit and Portion of Inflorescence.]

=A. taurina= (bull). _fl._, corollas white, elongated; corymbs pedunculate, axillary, fasciculately umbellate, involucrated; bracteas ciliated. April to June. _l._ four in a whorl, ovate-lanceolate, three-nerved, with finely ciliated margins. Plant smoothish, erect. _h._ 1ft. South Europe, 1739.

=A. tinctoria= (Dyers'). _fl._ white, reddish on the outside; usually trifid. June. _l._ linear; lower ones six in a whorl; middle ones four; and the uppermost ones opposite; floral leaves ovate. Plant procumbent, unless supported. Stem 1ft. to 2ft. long, purplish. Europe, 1764.

=ASPHALT.= Artificial Asphalt is now generally used in England for footpaths, &c. The recipes are various, one of the best being the following: Lime rubbish two parts, coal ashes one part (both must be very dry), sifted very fine; mix them, and leave a hole in the middle of the heap, wherein pour boiling hot coal tar; mix well together. When as stiff as mortar, lay it down, 3in. thick, on a dry and previously well-levelled surface. A boy should follow with dry, finely-sifted sand, distributing just enough to prevent his boots sticking to the tar. Two men should be employed for the tarring, whilst another should attend to the boiling operation. Only just enough tar to last ten minutes must be taken from the furnace at one time, as, if it be not boiling, the walks will become soft under the action of very hot sun. This may be repeated every three years. It is imperative that the surface, lime, coal ashes and sand be perfectly dry, and that the days selected for the operation be very fine, the hotter the better. Another excellent plan is that of using gas lime and coal ashes. There must be a firm foundation and smooth surface. Spread the gas lime to about 1-1/2in. deep, and level with the back of a spade. Over this place a thin layer of coal dust, and well roll. The work is then complete.

=ASPHODEL.= _See_ =Asphodelus=.

=ASPHODELINE.= ORD. _Liliaceæ_. A genus of plants allied to _Asphodelus_, but distinguished from it by having erect leafy stems. They thrive in any ordinary garden soil. Propagated by division.

=A. brevicaulis= (short-stemmed). _fl._ in lax, often panicled racemes, yellow, veined with green. _l._ subulate, ascending, lower ones 4in. to 6in. long. Stem slender, often flexuose. Orient.

=A. damascena= (Damascene). _fl._ white, in dense generally simple racemes, 6in. to 12in. long. _l._ in dense rosette, 6in. to 9in. long, subulate. Stem simple, erect. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Asia Minor.

=A. liburnica= (Liburnian). _fl._ yellow, striped with green, in generally simple lax racemes, 6in. to 9in. long. Stem simple, erect, strict, 1ft. to 2ft. high, upper half naked. South Europe.

=A. lutea= (yellow). _fl._ yellow, fragrant, in a dense, very long, straight, simple raceme, in the axils of buff-coloured bracts, which are nearly as long as the flowers. Summer. _l._ numerous, awl-shaped, triangular, furrowed, smooth, dark green, marked with lines of a paler tint; root leaves tufted. Stem 3ft. or 4ft. high. Sicily, 1596. The best known and handsomest species. SYN. _Asphodelus luteus_.

=A. l. fl.-pl.= This resembles the species, but the flowers are double, and last much longer than those of the typical form; it is a very pretty plant.

=A. taurica= (Taurian). _fl._ white, striped with green, in generally simple dense racemes, 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 2in. wide. Stem simple, erect, 1ft. to 2ft. high, densely leafy at base of raceme. Asia Minor, &c. SYN. _Asphodelus tauricus_.

=A. tenuior= (slenderer). _fl._ yellow, in simple lax-flowered racemes, 3in. to 4in. long, 2in. wide. Stem simple lower half leaf, upper naked, 1ft. Orient. SYN. _Asphodelus tenuior_.

=ASPHODELUS= (from _a_, not, and _sphallo_, to supplant; in allusion to the beauty of the flowers). Asphodel. ORD. _Liliaceæ_. Very pretty hardy herbaceous perennials, with fleshy fasciculated roots. Perianth white or yellow, of six equal spreading segments; stamens six, hypogynous, alternately long and short. Leaves usually radical, tufted, narrow, or triquetrous. All the species enumerated thrive in good deep sandy loam, and are very suitable for borders and shrubberies. Propagated by division of the root, which is best done in early spring.

=A. æstivus= (summer). _fl._ white. Summer. _h._ 2ft. Spain, 1820.

=A. albus= (white).* _fl._ white; peduncles clustered the length of the bracts. May. _l._ linear, keeled, smooth. Stem naked, simple. _h._ 2ft. South Europe, 1596.

=A. creticus= (Cretan).* _fl._ yellow. July. _l._ filiform, striated, toothed, ciliated. Stem leafy, naked above, branched. _h._ 2ft. Crete, 1821.

=A. fistulosus= (pipe-stalked). _fl._ white. July, August. _l._ upright, striated, subulate, fistular. Stem naked. _h._ 18in. South Europe, 1596.

=A. luteus= (yellow). A synonym of _Asphodeline lutea_.

=A. ramosus= (branchy). _fl._ large, white, with a reddish-brown line in the middle of each segment, springing from the axils of ovate-lanceolate bracts, and in very long dense racemes. Summer. _l._ sword-shaped, stiff, sharply keeled below, channelled above. Stem much branched. _h._ 4ft. to 5ft. South Europe, 1829.

[Illustration: FIG. 164. ASPHODELUS VILLARSII, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. Villarsii= (Villars'). _fl._ white; raceme dense, elongated; bracts dark brown. Stem simple or rarely branched. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Eastern France. See Fig. 164.

=ASPIDISTRA= (from _aspidiseon_, a little round shield; in reference to the form of the flower). SYN. _Porpax_ (of Salisbury). Including _Plectogyne_. ORD. _Liliaceæ_. Hardy, or nearly hardy, evergreen, foliage plants. Flowers insignificant, produced close to the ground, remarkable for the curious mushroom-like stigma, by which this genus is characterised. They thrive in almost any ordinary garden soil, but are best grown in rich loam, leaf soil, and sand; plenty of moisture being allowed. Propagated by suckers.

=A. elatior= (taller).* _l._ oblong, large, on long petioles, leathery; plant stemless. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. Japan, 1835. This very easily cultivated and quite hardy foliage plant is much grown for window gardening and other decorative purposes, for which it is well suited.

=A. e. variegata= (variegated).* A fine variety with alternately-striped green and white leaves.

[Illustration: FIG. 165. ASPIDISTRA LURIDA.]

=A. lurida= (lurid). _fl._ purple. July. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, on long petioles. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. China, 1822. A very graceful species, with long evergreen leaves. It is an effective plant for the outdoor garden during summer, and is nearly, if not quite, hardy. See Fig. 165.

=A. punctata= (dotted). _l._ lanceolate, on long stalks. _h._ 1ft. China. This is very closely allied to _A. elatior_, but of inferior value.

=ASPIDIUM= (from _aspidion_, a little buckler; in allusion to the form of the involucre). Shield Fern. ORD. _Filices_. Including _Cyclodium_, _Cyclopeltis_, _Cyrtomium_, _Phanerophlebia_, and _Polystichum_. Stove, greenhouse, or hardy ferns. Sori sub-globose, dorsal or terminal on the veinlets; involucre orbicular, fixed by the centre. They thrive in a compost of sandy peat with a little loam. Several species are admirably adapted for the indoor fernery. The hardy species are best grown in the shade; a little sandstone should be incorporated with the soil. For general culture, _see_ =Ferns=.

[Illustration: FIG. 166. ASPIDIUM ACULEATUM.]

=A. acrostichoides= (Acrostichum-like).* _sti._ 6in. to 8in. long, densely scaly below. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 2in. to 6in. broad; pinnæ of the lower half barren, 2in. to 3in. long, 1/4in. broad, spinoso-serrated throughout, auricled at the base above; the pinnæ of the upper half fertile, much smaller. _sori_ occupying the whole under side. North America. SYN. _Polystichum acrostichoides_. Hardy.

=A. a. grandiceps= (large-crested).* A very handsome fern, having the apices of the fronds and pinnæ heavily crested; equally desirable for the hardy or temperate fernery. Of garden origin.

=A. a. incisum= (incised).* A variety with the pinnules deeply cut and acutely pointed.

=A. aculeatum= (sharp-pointed).* The Hard Shield Fern. _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long, more or less scaly. _fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, ovate-lanceolate; lower pinnæ close, lanceolate, 4in. to 6in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad; pinnules ovate-rhomboidal, unequal sided, auricled on the upper base; teeth aristate. sori nearer the midrib than the edge. A variable and hardy species, common throughout the world. SYN. _Polystichum aculeatum_. _A. a. proliferum_ is a proliferous Australian form. _A. a. vestitum_ has the rachis densely clothed to the point, both with reddish-brown fibrillose and large lanceolate dark brown scales. See Fig. 166.

=A. amabile= (lovely). _sti._ scattered, 6in. to 12in. long, slightly scaly below. _fronds_ 1ft. or more long, 6in. to 12in. broad, with a lanceolate terminal pinna, and three to six lateral ones on each side, which are 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, the lowest sometimes divided at the base; segments sub-rhomboidal, with at least half the lower side cut away, the upper side and part of the lower lobed and sharply spinuloso-serrated. sori sub-marginal. Ceylon. Stove species. SYN. _Polystichum amabile_.

=A. angulare= (angular). The Soft Shield Fern. Botanically this is only a variety of _A. aculeatum_; but, to the cultivator, it is abundantly distinct. The fronds are not so tapered at the base, the pinnules are more equal in size, and the lower ones distinctly stalked, while the texture is much less rigid than in _A. aculeatum_, the caudex has a tendency to elongate. Almost cosmopolitan in its distribution. SYN. _Polystichum angulare_. There are an enormous number of varieties, many of which are not under cultivation. Amongst the best found in gardens are _alatum_, _Bayliæ_, _concinnum_, _corymbiferum_, _cristatum_, _curtum_, _dissimile_, _grandiceps_, _imbricatum_, _Kitsoniæ_, _lineare_, _parvissimum_, _plumosum_, _polydactylon_, _proliferum_, _rotundatum_, _Wakeleyanum_, _Woollastoni_.

[Illustration: FIG. 167. ASPIDIUM ANGULARE GRANDICEPS.]

=A. a. grandiceps= (large-crested). This is a narrow fronded variety, having the apices of the fronds branched and crested, ultimately producing a broad tasselled head. A very handsome fern. See Fig. 167.

=A. anomalum= (anomalous). _sti._ tufted, 1ft. to 2ft. long, densely scaly below. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 1ft. or more broad; lower pinnæ 6in. to 9in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; pinnules lanceolate, cut down in the lower part into oblong segments; teeth blunt or slightly mucronate. _sori_ placed near the sinuses of the pinnules. Ceylon. Stove species. SYN. _Polystichum anomalum_.

=A. aristatum= (awned).* _rhiz._ creeping. _sti._ scattered, 9in. to 18in. long, very scaly below. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 9in. to 12in. broad, ovate-deltoid, tri- or quadripinnatifid; lower pinnæ largest, 4in. to 6in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; lowest pinnules much the largest, lanceolate-deltoid; teeth copious aristate. _sori_ small, principally in two rows near the midrib. Japan, Himalayas, New South Wales, &c. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum aristatum_.

=A. a. coniifolium= (Conium-leaved).* _fronds_ more finely divided; segments copiously toothed, with lower lobes distinct.

=A. a. variegatum= (variegated).* A handsome variety, with a broad band of green running through the bases of the pinnules along the course of the rachis.

=A. auriculatum= (eared).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 6in. long, scaly below or throughout. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad; pinnæ numerous, sub-sessile, usually close, 1in. to 2in. long, about 1/2in. broad, ovate-rhomboidal, falcate, acute, spinoso-serrated, the upper base auricled, the lower one truncate. _sori_ in two rows. India, widely distributed. Stove species. SYNS. _A. ocellatum_, _Polystichum auriculatum_.

=A. a. lentum= (pliant). Pinnæ cut into oblong mucronate lobes about half-way down to the rachis, the auricle sometimes quite free.

=A. a. marginatum= (margined).* A variety with more coriaceous texture; upper edge of the pinnæ slightly lobed.

=A. capense= (Cape).* _sti._ scattered, 1ft. to 2ft. long, densely scaly below. _fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 12in. to 18in. broad, sub-deltoid; lowest pinnæ the largest, 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 4in. broad; pinnules and segments lanceolate, the latter bluntly lobed. _sori_ very large and copious. South America, New Zealand, Cape Colony, Natal, &c. Greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. coriaceum_, _Polystichum capense_.

=A. confertum= (compressed). Synonymous with _A. meniscioides_.

=A. coriaceum= (leathery). Synonymous with _A. capense_.

=A. falcatum= (hooked).* _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long, densely scaly below. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, simply pinnate; pinnæ numerous, the lower stalked, ovate-acuminate, falcate, 3in. to 5in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad; edge entire or slightly undulated, the upper side narrowed suddenly, sometimes auricled, the lower rounded or obliquely truncate at the base. _sori_ small, copious, scattered. Japan, China, Himalayas, &c. SYN. _Cyrtomium falcatum_.

=A. f. caryotideum= (Caryota-like) has pinnæ sometimes larger, sharply toothed, slightly lobed, sometimes auricled on both sides. SYN. _Cyrtomium caryotideum_.

=A. f. Fortunei= (Fortune's).* This differs from the type in having pinnæ narrower and more opaque. All are most useful house ferns, and quite hardy in many parts of the country. SYN. _Cyrtomium Fortunei_.

=A. falcinellum= (finely-hooked).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long, densely scaly. _fronds_ 9in. to 18in. long, 3in. to 6in. broad; central pinnæ 2in. to 3in. long, 1/4in. broad; point acute; edge finely serrated; the upper side bluntly auricled, the lower obliquely truncate at the base. _sori_ in two long rows. Madeira. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum falcinellum_.

=A. flexum= (bending). _rhiz._ stout, wide-creeping. _sti._ scattered, 1ft. long, scaly. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. to 12in. broad; lower pinnæ lanceolate-deltoid, 4in. to 6in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad; pinnules lanceolate-deltoid, cut down to the rachis below into oblong bluntly-lobed segments. _sori_ large, in two rows, copious. Juan Fernandez. Stove species. SYN. _Polystichum flexum_.

=A. fœniculaceum= (Fennel-leaved).* _rhiz._ creeping. _sti._ scattered, 6in. to 12in. long, densely scaly below. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, and 9in. to 12in. broad, lanceolate-deltoid, four to five pinnatifid; lower pinnæ 6in. to 8in. long, 3in. to 4in. broad; ultimate divisions linear, awned, with a firm texture. _sori_ solitary. Greenhouse species. Sikkim, 7,000ft. to 10,000ft. SYN. _Polystichum fœniculaceum_.

=A. frondosum= (leafy). _sti._ scattered, 1ft. to 2ft. long, densely scaly below. _fronds_ 18in. to 24in. long, 1ft. or more broad, sub-deltoid; lower pinnæ much the largest, long stalked; pinnules lanceolate; segments very unequal sided, pinnatifid, with rounded mucronate lobes, obliquely truncate at the base below. _sori_ large, copious. Madeira. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum frondosum_.

=A. Hookeri= (Hooker's). _sti._ 1ft. or more long, naked. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long; pinnæ 6in. to 8in. long, 1in. broad, cut down to a broadly-winged rachis into nearly close, spreading, entire, linear-oblong lobes 1/8in. broad. _sori_ nearer the edge than the midrib. Malay Archipelago. Stove species. SYNS. _A. nephrodioides_ and _Cyclodium Hookeri_.

=A. laserpitiifolium= (Laserpitium-leaved).* _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long, stramineous, scaly at base. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, ovate-deltoid, tripinnate; lower pinnæ the largest, with pinnules on the lower side prolonged, lanceolate, imbricated with small, distinct, bluntly-lobed segments. _sori_ in two rows, very copious. Japan. A very desirable greenhouse species. SYNS. _Lastrea Standishii_ (of gardens) and _Polystichum laserpitiifolium_.

=A. lepidocaulon= (scaly-stemmed). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long, densely clothed with large cordate scales. _fronds_ 1ft. or more long, 4in. to 6in. broad, sometimes elongated and rooting at the point: pinnæ 2in. to 3in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, lanceolate-falcate, the two sides unequal, the upper one auricled at the base. _sori_ principally in two rows, near the midrib. Japan. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum lepidocaulon_.

=A. Lonchitis= (spar-like).* The Holly Fern. _sti._ densely tufted, 1in. to 4in. long, scaly at base. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 1in. to 3in. broad, pinnate throughout; pinnæ 1/2in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, ovate-rhomboidal, sub-falcate, the two sides unequal, point mucronate, edge spinuloso-serrated, the upper side sharply auricled at the base, the lower obliquely truncate. Britain, &c. A very widely-spread hardy species. SYN. _Polystichum Lonchitis_.

=A. meniscioides= (Meniscium-like). _sti._ 1ft. to 2ft. long, scaly below. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 1ft. or more broad, pinnate; barren pinnæ sessile, 6in. to 9in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, oblong-acuminate, nearly entire; fertile pinnæ much smaller. _sori_ in two close rows between the primary veins. West Indies, &c. Stove species. SYNS. _A. confertum_ and _Cyclodium meniscioides_.

=A. mohrioides= (Mohria-like). _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 6in. long, more or less densely scaly. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, bipinnate; pinnæ numerous, frequently imbricated, lanceolate, cut down below into slightly toothed, oblong-rhomboidal pinnules. _sori_ copious. Patagonia and the Cordilleras of Chili. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum mohrioides_.

=A. mucronatum= (mucronated).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 4in. long, densely scaly. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, pinnate throughout; pinnæ very numerous, often imbricated, 3/4in. to 1in. long, 1/4in. to broad, sub-rhomboidal, unequal-sided, mucronate, sub-entire, distinctly auricled at the upper base. _sori_ in a long row on each side the midrib. West Indies. Stove or greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum mucronatum_.

=A. munitum= (armed).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 9in. long, densely scaly. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 8in. broad; pinnæ close, 2in. to 4in. long, about 1/2in. broad, acuminate, finely spinulose and serrated throughout, the upper side auricled, and the lower obliquely truncate at the base. _sori_ in two rows near the edge. California, &c. Hardy; very fine. SYN. _Polystichum munitum_.

=A. nephrodioides= (Nephrodium-like). Synonymous with _A. Hookeri_.

=A. ocellatum= (spotted). Synonymous with _A. auriculatum_.

=A. pungens= (stinging). _rhiz._ stout. _sti._ scattered, 1ft. long, scaly below only. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. to 12in. broad; lower pinnæ 4in. to 6in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; pinnules ovate-rhomboidal, unequal-sided, often deeply pinnatifid. _sori_ principally in two rows near the midrib. Cape Colony. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum pungens_.

=A. repandum= (wavy-leaved). _sti._ 1ft. to 2ft. long, naked. _fronds_ 2ft. or more long, 12in. to 18in. broad, apex deeply pinnatifid, with linear-oblong, slightly sinuated lobes; lower pinnæ four to eight on each side, 6in. to 8in. long, 1-1/4in. to 1-1/2in. broad, acuminate; edge bluntly sinuated, the lowest stalked and forked. _sori_ in two distinct rows near the main vein. Philippines. Stove species.

=A. rhizophyllum= (frond-rooting). _sti._ tufted, 1in. to 2in. long, slender. _fronds_ 2in. to 6in. long, 3/4in. broad, with the long, narrow upper half of the frond lengthened out and rooting, the lower half cut down to a flattened fibrillose rachis into oblong-rhomboidal sub-entire lobes about 1/2in. broad, 1/4in. deep. _sori_ scattered. Jamaica, 1820. Stove or cool house species. SYN. _Polystichum rhizophyllum_.

=A. semicordatum= (half-cordate). _sti._ scattered, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 8in. to 12in. broad, simply pinnate; pinnæ spreading, 4in. to 6in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, nearly entire, acuminate, cordate or truncate at the base. _sori_ in one to three rows on each side, the inner one close to the midrib. Tropical America, &c. SYN. _Polystichum semicordatum_.

=A. trapezioides= (Trapezium-like). Synonymous with _A. viviparum_.

=A. triangulum= (triangular).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 6in. long, base scaly. _fronds_ 1ft. or more long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad; pinnæ numerous, sessile, lower ones distant, central ones 3/4in. to 1in. long, about 5/8in. broad, sub-deltoid, lower side obliquely truncate; apex mucronate, edge sub-entire or slightly lobed, with blunt or spinose teeth, one or both sides auricled at the base. _sori_ principally in two rows near the edge. West Indies. Stove or greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum triangulum_.

=A. trifoliatum= (three-leaved). _sti._ tufted, 1ft. or more long, base only scaly. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, with a large ovate-acuminate terminal pinna, narrowed or forked at the base, and one or two lateral ones on each side, the lowest mostly forked. _sori_ in rows near the main veins. Tropical America. Stove species.

=A. t. heracleifolium= (Heracleum-leaved). A form with pinnæ pinnatifid on both sides at the base.

=A. tripteron= (three-winged). _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long, densely scaly at base. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, with a large terminal and two small spreading lateral pinnæ at the base of it, the former 2-1/2 in. to 3in. broad, with very numerous spreading pinnules on each side, 1-1/2in. long, about 1/2in. broad, unequal sided, acute, deeply inciso-pinnatifid, the lower lobes again toothed; lateral pinnæ 3in. to 5in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad. _sori_ principally in two rows midway between midrib and edge. Japan. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Polystichum tripteron_.

=A. varium= (variable).* _rhiz._ sub-creeping. _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, densely fibrillose below. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 9in. to 12in. broad, lanceolate-deltoid; lower pinnæ much the largest, sub-deltoid, unequal sided, 4in. to 6in. long, 3in. to 4in. broad; pinnules lanceolate, imbricated, with oblong, blunt, slightly toothed segments. _sori_ principally in two rows near the midrib. Japan. Greenhouse species. SYNS. _Lastrea varia_ and _Polystichum varium_. It is frequently met with in gardens under the former name.

=A. viviparum= (bud-producing). _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 6in. long, scaly at the base. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad; pinnæ numerous, nearly lanceolate, the central ones 2in. to 3in. long, about 1/2in. broad, mucronate, sometimes bud-bearing, the edge more or less deeply lobed, in the lower part sometimes quite down to the rachis, the upper side auricled. _sori_ in two or four rows. West Indies. Stove or greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. trapezioides_ and _Polystichum viviparum_.

=ASPLENIUM= (from _a_, not, and _splen_, spleen; referring to the medicinal properties formerly attributed to the genus). Spleenwort. ORD. _Filices_. Including _Anisogonium_, _Athyrium_, _Ceterach_, _Cænopteris_, _Darea_, _Diplazium_, _Hemidictyum_, _Neottopteris_. A very large and widely-spread genus, including species suitable for the stove, temperate, and hardy ferneries. Sori dorsal or submarginal, linear or oblong. Involucre similar in shape, straight or occasionally curved, single or double, plane or tumid, bursting along the outer edge. The tropical species should be grown in a compost of peat, loam, and sand; the hardy sorts in a mixture of fibrous peat and sand. Good drainage is at all times required. For general culture, _see_ =Ferns=.

[Illustration: FIG. 163. ASPLENIUM ADIANTUM-NIGRUM, showing Rootstock and back of Fertile Fronds.]

=A. abscissum= (clipped). _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 3in. to 4in. broad, sometimes proliferous at the apex, with twelve to twenty horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, about 1/2in. broad, bluntish; edge inciso-crenate, the upper one narrowed suddenly at the base, the lower one obliquely truncate. _sori_ short, in two regular rows, falling short of both midrib and edge. Tropical America. Stove species. SYN. _A. firmum_.

=A. acuminatum= (taper-pointed).* _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 9in. to 12in. broad, with very numerous close-placed lanceolate-oblong pinnæ on both sides, which are 4in. to 6in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad; pinnules numerous, unequal-sided, lanceolate, acuminate; edges sharply toothed, the lower base obliquely truncate. _sori_ in two rows in the upper part, of the pinnules, often diplazioid. Sandwich Islands. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. polyphyllum_.

=A. Adiantum-nigrum= (Black Spleenwort). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad sub-deltoid; lower pinnæ deltoid, 2in. to 3in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad; all the pinnæ pinnate. _sori_ copious, at last often occupying the whole under surface of the segments. Great Britain. World-wide in its distribution. Hardy. _A. solidum_, from Cape Colony, is supposed to be a mere form of this species. There are several varieties the best of which are described below. See Fig. 168.

=A. A.-n. acutum= (acute). _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. long, deltoid, tripinnate; ultimate segments linear, and very acute. Ireland. A copiously divided and very elegant variety. Habit more graceful than the type.

[Illustration: FIG. 169. ASPLENIUM ADIANTUM-NIGRUM GRANDICEPS.]

=A. A.-n. grandiceps= (large-crested). _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long; pinnæ comparatively short, and slightly crested; apex freely divided, and expanded into a broad crest, which gives the frond a very graceful contour. Frame or greenhouse variety. See Fig. 169.

=A. A-n. oxyphyllum= (sharp-leaved). _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, ovate-lanceolate; ultimate segments narrow and very acute. A very pretty little variety.

=A. affine= (related). _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 12in to 18in. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, bipinnate, with numerous pinnæ on each side, the lower ones lanceolate-rhomboidal; pinnules rhomboidal, inciso-serrate. _sori_ copious, linear. Mascaren Islands, &c. Stove or warm greenhouse species. SYN. _A. spathulinum_.

=A. alatum= (winged).* _sti._ 4in. to 6in, long, slender, the upper part and the rachis, winged. _fronds_ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long, 3in. to 4in. broad, with twelve to twenty horizontal sessile pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, and about 1/2in. broad, bluntish; edge uniformly inciso-crenate, the base nearly equal on both sides. _sori_ distant, not reaching either the midrib or edge. West Indies, &c. A very elegant stove species.

=A. alismæfolium= (Alisma-leaved). _sti._ 2in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ varying in shape, from simple oblong-lanceolate, 6in. to 9in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad; apex acuminate; edges entire, to ternate or pinnate, with a large terminal and three pairs of lateral pinnæ, each like the entire frond of the simple state; texture coriaceous. Isle of Luzon. Stove species. SYN. _Anisogonium alismæfolium_.

=A. alternans= (alternated). _sti._ tufted, 1in. to 2in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 8in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, lanceolate-oblong, cut down into numerous bluntly-rounded lobes on each side, which reach very nearly down to the rachis, the lower gradually reduced. _sori_ copious. N. W. Himalayas. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. Dalhousiæ_.

=A. alternifolium= (alternate-leaved). Synonymous with _A. germanicum_.

=A. angustifolium= (narrow-leaved).* _sti._ tufted, about 1ft. long. _fronds_ 18in. to 24in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, simply pinnate, lanceolate-oblong, flaccid, with twenty to thirty sub-sessile pinnæ on each side, sterile ones largest, 2in. to 3in. long, 1/2in. broad, acuminate; edge obscurely-crenate, base rounded and equal on both sides; fertile pinnæ narrower and more distant. _sori_ very close and regular, extending from the midrib nearly to the edge. Canada, &c. Greenhouse species.

=A. anisophyllum= (unequal-leaved). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, simple pinnate, with ten to sixteen sub-sessile pinnæ on each side which are 3in. to 5in. long, about 1in. broad, acuminated, crenate, the two sides unequal, the upper one narrowed suddenly, the lower one obliquely truncate at the base. _sori_ distant, elliptical, reaching half-way from the edge to the margin. Cape Colony, &c. Greenhouse species.

=A. apicidens= (apex-toothed). A variety of _A. Vieillardii_.

=A. arborescens= (tree-like). _cau._ oblique. _sti._ 1ft. to 2ft. long. _fronds_ 3ft. to 4ft. long, 2ft. to 3ft. broad, deltoid, tripinnatifid, with numerous pinnæ, the lower ones 12in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad; pinnules 3in. long, about 1/2in. wide, acuminate, edge cut two-thirds of the way down to the rachis into nearly entire lobes, 1/4in. deep, 1/8in. broad. Lower _sori_ 1/8in. long. Mauritius, &c., 1826. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium arborescens_.

=A. Arnottii= (Arnott's). _sti._ smooth, angular. _fronds_ ample, tripinnatifid; lower pinnæ 9in. to 12in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad; pinnules 3in. to 4in. long, 1in. or more broad, cut down below to a distinctly winged rachis into deeply crenate, blunt, oblong lobes, 1/2in. deep, 1/4in. broad. _sori_ copious, nearly all diplazioid, and filling up when mature nearly the whole surface of the lobes. Sandwich Islands, 1877. Greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. diplazioides_ and _Diplazium Arnottii_.

=A. aspidioides= (Aspidium-like). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 8in. to 12in. broad, ovate-deltoid, tripinnatifid; lower pinnæ 6in. to 8in. long, lanceolate-deltoid; pinnules lanceolate, cut down below nearly to the rachis into inciso-pinnatifid ovate segments, two lines broad. _sori_ copious, oblong, the lower ones curved. Tropical America, &c. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. multisectum_.

=A. attenuatum= (attenuated). _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ simple, linear-lanceolate, about 1ft. long, about 1/2in. broad, narrowed upwards very gradually, sometimes proliferous at the point, the margin toothed; the lower third also lobed; the lowest roundish, lobes reaching down nearly or quite to the rachis. _sori_ reaching nearly to the edge. Queensland, &c. Greenhouse species.

=A. aureum= (golden). A variety of _A. Ceterach_.

=A. auriculatum= (auriculated).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, simply pinnate, lanceolate-oblong, with ten to twenty-stalked horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 2in. to 4in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, lanceolate, often sub-falcate; edge deeply crenate, the two sides unequal, the upper one with a cordate auricle, the lower one obliquely truncate. _sori_ distant, not reaching either the midrib or edge. Tropical America, 1820. Stove species.

=A. auritum= (eared). _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, simply pinnate, with ten to fifteen stalked horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 2in. to 3in. long, and about 1/2in. broad, acute or bluntish; edge sharply toothed or often lobed, especially on the upper side towards the base. _sori_ in two broad rather oblique rows. Tropical America. Stove species.

=A. australasicum= (Australian). A variety of _A. Nidus_.

=A. Baptistii= (Baptist's).* _sti._ 6in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. long, bipinnate, broadly ovate; pinnæ stipitate, the lower about 5in. long, with four narrow stipitate linear-toothed pinnules, 2in. long, and a terminal lobe, 3-1/2in. long, 1/4in. broad, furnished with distinct linear marginal teeth, pointing forwards, and terminating in a long attenuated point, which is toothed nearly to the end. _sori_ linear-oblong, straight, parallel with, and close to, the midrib. South Sea Islands, 1879. A very handsome stove species.

=A. Belangeri= (Belanger's).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, bipinnate; pinnæ numerous, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/2in. broad, rounded at the point, truncate at the base on the lower side; pinnules linear, erecto-patent, half line broad; one vein and sorus to each segment, the latter marginal. Malayan Peninsula. Stove species. SYNS. _A. Veitchianum_, _Darea_, _Belangeri_, &c.

=A. bipartitum= (twice-partite). _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 8in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, bipinnate, with about ten to fifteen stalked pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, bluntish, cut down at the base on the upper side into one distinctly-stalked cuneate pinnule, sometimes into two or three, the outer edge inciso-crenate, the base on the lower side obliquely truncate. _sori_ in two regular rows, reaching nearly to the edge. Mascaren Isles. Stove species.

=A. bisectum= (bisected).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, bipinnatifid, with twenty to thirty horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 2in. to 3in. long, 1/4in. broad, with a very long, narrow, deeply inciso-pinnatifid upper portion, the base on the upper side narrowed suddenly, on the lower obliquely truncate. _sori_ almost all in two parallel rows close to the midrib. West Indies, &c. Stove species.

=A. brachypteron= (broadly-winged). _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, bipinnate, with twelve to twenty-four horizontal pinnæ on each side, of which from half to nearly the whole of the lower side is cut away, the largest 1/2in. to 5/8in. long, cut down to the rachis into simple or forked linear pinnules, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long. _sori_ solitary, often quite marginal. Madagascar, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Darea brachypteron_.

=A. brevisorum= (shortly-soriate). _sti._ 12in. to 18in. long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. to 18in. broad, tripinnate; lower pinnæ 1ft. or more long; pinnules lanceolate, distant, 2in. to 3in. long, and 1-1/2in. broad; segments lanceolate, 3/4in. long, two lines broad, deeply and sharply toothed. _sori_ small, six to twelve to a segment, in two rows near the midrib, the lower ones curved, often double. Jamaica, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Athyrium brevisorum_.

=A. bulbiferum= (bulb-bearing). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 8in. to 12in. broad, oblong-deltoid, with numerous horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are often proliferous from the upper surface, the largest 4in. to 8in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad; pinnules lanceolate-deltoid, slightly toothed. _sori_ oblong, when mature often filling the whole breadth of the segments. New Zealand, &c., very widely distributed. Greenhouse species.

=A. b. Fabianum= (Fabia's). Lower segments deeply pinnatifid, with narrow divisions and sub-marginal sori. SYN. _A. Fabianum_.

=A. b. laxum= (loose). Habit more slender; segments narrow, so that the sori are often as if marginal.

=A. caudatum= (tailed). Probably a form of _A. falcatum_, but having the sori more confined to the centre of the pinnæ, being often restricted to two parallel rows close to the rachis. Polynesia, &c. Greenhouse species.

[Illustration: FIG. 170. ASPLENIUM CETERACH.]

=A. Ceterach.=* Scale or Scaly Fern. _sti._ densely tufted, 1in. to 3in. long, scaly. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, 1/2in to 1in. broad, cut down nearly or quite to the rachis into alternate, blunt, sub-entire, broadly-oblong or roundish pinnæ, with a rounded sinus between them; upper surface naked, lower densely clothed with deep brown membranous scales. _sori_ linear oblique. Britain, throughout Europe, Northern Asia, &c. This is a variable species, but the forms do not remain constant under cultivation. It should be firmly planted in a vertical chink of the rockery in loam, lime rubbish, rock chippings, and sand, and be watered freely during the summer. SYN. _Ceterach officinarum_. See Fig. 170.

=A. C. aureum= (golden).* A large variety, producing fronds from 9in. to 15in. long, 1-1/2in. to 3in. broad, and pinnæ more oblong than the type; scales toothed. Canaries and Madeira. This is a charming fern, requiring greenhouse treatment. SYN. _Ceterach aureum_.

=A. cicutarium= (Cicuta-leaved).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, tripinnate, with ten to fifteen horizontal pinnæ on each side, the lower ones 2in. to 3in. long, 1in. broad, cut down to the rachis into numerous ovate-rhomboidal pinnules, which are 3/8in. to 1/2in. long, 1/4in. broad, obliquely-truncate on the lower side; segments once or twice cleft at the apex. _sori_ principally in two rows along the pinnules. Tropical America, &c. Stove species.

=A. Colensoi= (Colenso's). _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, tripinnatifid, with numerous rather rigid erecto-patent pinnæ, the lower on stalks 1/4in. to 1/2in. long; lower pinnules spreading, deeply inciso-pinnatifid, with linear segments. _sori_ oblong, solitary. New Zealand. A beautiful greenhouse species. SYN. _A. Hookerianum_.

=A. compressum= (compressed). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 8in. to 12in. broad, simply pinnate, lanceolate-oblong, with ten to twenty sessile pinnæ on each side, which are 4in. to 6in. long, about 1in. broad, acute or bluntish at the point, edge slightly dentate, the upper ones decurrent at the base upon the stout fleshy compressed rachis, the upper side narrowed suddenly at about a right angle, the lower one obliquely truncate. _sori_ broad, distant, not reaching either the midrib or edge. St. Helena. Stove or greenhouse species.

=A. contiguum= (contiguous). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, with twenty to thirty horizontal sub-falcate pinnæ on each side, which are acuminated at the apex; edge more or less serrated, the base narrowed suddenly, and sometimes auricled on the upper, obliquely truncate in a curve on the lower side. _sori_ close, copious, falling considerably short of the margin. Sandwich Isles. Greenhouse species.

=A. crenatum= (crenated).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, scattered. _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. each way, deltoid, tri- or quadripinnate, with nine to twelve pinnæ on each side, the lowest much the largest, 6in. to 9in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad; pinnules lanceolate, cut down to the rachis except towards the point on each side into four to six blunt oblong segments, two lines long, one line broad, which are bluntly toothed. _sori_ two to six to a segment, oblong, usually nearly straight, often double. Scandinavia, &c. Hardy species.

=A. cultrifolium= (hook-leaved).* _sti._ 4in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, bipinnate, deltoid-ovate, with a lobed terminal point and six to ten pinnæ on each side, which are 3in. to 4in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, acute; edge broadly toothed, sometimes lobed below nearly or quite to the rachis, the base nearly at a right angle on the upper, but obliquely truncate on the lower side. _sori_ falling short both of the edge and midrib. West Indies, 1820. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium cultrifolium_.

=A. cuneatum= (wedge-shaped). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, tripinnatifid, narrow-deltoid, with numerous spreading pinnæ on each side, the lower 3in. to 4in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, lanceolate-deltoid, cut down to the rachis into several distinct ovate-cuneate pinnules, which are dentate and cut down in the lower part nearly or quite to the rachis. _sori_ linear, sub-flabellate. West Indies, and widely distributed in both hemispheres, 1832. A very handsome stove species.

=A. Dalhousiæ= (Dalhouse's). Synonymous with _A. alternans_.

=A. decussatum= (decussate). _sti._ 1ft. to 2ft. long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 4ft. long, simply pinnate, with numerous pinnæ on each side, which are 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad, often proliferous in the axils; edge nearly entire. _sori_ reaching nearly to the edge, and copiously double. Polynesian and Malayan Islands, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Anisogonium decussatum_.

=A. dentatum= (dentated).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 6in. long. _fertile fronds_ 2in. to 3in. long, 1in. broad, with six to eight pairs of stalked, sub-opposite pinnæ, which are 1/2in. broad, 3/8in. deep, oblong-rhomboidal, the lower side at the base truncate in a curve, the outer edge irregularly crenate. _sterile fronds_ smaller, on shorter stalks. _sori_ copious, in two parallel rows. West Indies, &c., 1820. A pretty little greenhouse species.

=A. dimidiatum= (unequal-sided).* _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, deltoid, simply pinnate, with six to nine opposite pairs of pinnæ, which are 2in. to 3in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, acuminated, sharply serrated. _sori_ radiant, narrow, long linear. Tropical America. Stove species.

=A. dimorphum= (two-formed).* _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 12in. to 15in. broad, ovate-deltoid, sterile and fertile ones different or combined; lower pinnæ ovate-deltoid, 6in. to 8in. long, 2in. broad, bluntly toothed, and the base on the lower side obliquely truncate; fertile pinnæ the same size, but with very narrow simple or forked pinnules. _sori_ linear, solitary, marginal. Norfolk Island. One of the handsomest warm greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. diversifolium_ (of gardens), and _Darea dimorpha_.

=A. diplazioides= (Diplazium-like). A synonym of _A. Arnottii_.

=A. diversifolium= (diverse-leaved). A garden synonym of _A. dimorphum_.

=A. diversifolium= (diverse-leaved). Synonymous with _A. maximum_.

=A. ebeneum= (ebony-stalked).* _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, linear-lanceolate, with twenty to forty sessile pinnæ on each side, which are about 1in. long, 1/8in. broad; point acute or bluntish; edge faintly serrate; base hastately auricled, often cordate. _sori_ ten to twelve on each side, oblong, short. Canada, &c., widely distributed, 1779. Greenhouse species. _A. ebenoides_ is very like this, but the pinnæ are not cut down to the rachis, and the frond has an elongated point, which is only sinuated with a single row of sori on each side.

=A. erectum= (erect). Synonymous with _A. lunulatum_.

=A. erosum= (bitten). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, deltoid, with nine to fifteen pinnæ on each side, which are 3in. to 4in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, the edge slightly lobed and crenato-dentate, the point acuminate, the two sides unequal. _sori_ falling short of the edge. West Indies. Stove species.

=A. esculentum= (edible).* _cau._ sub-arborescent. _sti._ 1ft. to 2ft. long. _fronds_ 4ft. to 6ft. long, pinnate or bipinnate; lower pinnæ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 8in. broad; pinnules 3in. to 6in. long, about 1in. broad, acuminate; edge more or less deeply lobed; base narrowed suddenly, often auricled; lines of _sori_ often on all the lateral veinlets. India, &c., 1822. Stove species. SYN. _Anisogonium esculentum_.

=A. extensum= (extended). _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 24in. long, about 1in. broad, with twenty to forty sessile pinnæ on each side, which are 1/2in. long, 1/4in. to 3/8in. deep, blunt and entire, the upper side rather the broadest and often cordate, the lower merely rounded at the base. _sori_ linear-oblong, two or three on each side of the midrib. Andes of Columbia and Peru. A very rare greenhouse species, allied to our native _A. Trichomanes_.

=A. Fabianum= (Fabia's). Synonymous with _A. bulbiferum Fabianum_.

=A. falcatum= (hooked).* _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, lanceolate, with six to twenty stalked, nearly horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 2in. to 3in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad, acuminated, the edges lobed often one-third of the way down, and the lobes sharply toothed, the two sides unequal, and the lower one at the base obliquely truncate. _sori_ in long irregular lines reaching nearly to the edge. Polynesian Islands, &c., widely distributed. A very elegant greenhouse species.

=A. fejeense= (Fijian).* _rhiz._ wide-climbing. _sti._ 6in. long, scaly below. _fronds_ 18in. to 24in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, lanceolate, caudate, or acuminate at the apex, and often proliferous, narrowed below to a truncate base, the margin nearly entire. _sori_ reaching from the midrib nearly to the edges. Fiji, Samoa. &c. Stove species.

=A. Fernandesianum= (Juan Fernandez). A variety of _A. lunulatum_.

=A. Filix-fœmina= (Lady Fern).* _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, with numerous pinnate pinnæ, the lower ones spreading, lanceolate, 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad; pinnules deeply inciso-pinnatifid. _sori_ linear-oblong, the lower ones often curved. Britain, and world-wide in its distribution. SYN. _Athyrium Filix-fœmina_. This handsome deciduous species has a great number of varieties, the most important of which are described below:

=A. F.-f. acrocladon= (summit-branched).* _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. long, slender, bi- or tripinnate, the lower part very narrow, with the apices of the pinnæ sometimes crested; upper portion of the frond freely branched, divisions narrow and crested, the whole forming a broad head.

=A. F.-f. acuminatum= (taper-pointed).* _fronds_ 9in. to 12in. long, lanceolate-acuminate in outline, with closely set pinnæ, which are similarly characterised, and particularly tapering at the apices.

=A. F.-f. apiculatum= (apiculate).* _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, lanceolate-acuminate in outline, with variously furcate apices; pinnæ closely set with distinctly acuminated apices, and small roundish obtuse serrated pinnules.

=A. F.-f. Applebyanum= (Appleby's).* _fronds_ narrow, 12in. to 24in. long, with short blunt pinnæ, while the extremities are dilated into a broad furcated crest, which is very striking upon such a narrow frond.

=A. F.-f. Barnesii= (Barnes's).* _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. long, 3in. to 4in. wide, lanceolate in outline, abrupt at the top, bipinnate; pinnæ alternate, closely set, lanceolate, acutely pointed, with densely set, narrow, acutely serrate pinnules, with a very membranous texture.

=A. F.-f. calothrix= (beautiful-hair).* _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. long, copiously divided into exquisitely fine segments, so that the fronds present a very light and delicate appearance.

=A. F.-f. contortum= (contorted).* _fronds_ very diversified, the various pinnæ occasionally combining the characters of the varieties _Applebyanum_ and _Victoriæ_.

=A. F.-f. coronatum= (coronate).* _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 2in. wide; pinnæ distinctly forked, sometimes slightly crested at the apices; the upper extremity of the frond copiously forked, and by the ramification of the divisions a broad crest is formed, about 3in. to 4in. across.

=A. F.-f. corymbiferum= (corymbose).* _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 7in. broad, lanceolate-acuminate in general outline; pinnæ closely set, usually forked and crested at the apices, while the extremities of the fronds are dilated into broad crests, nearly or quite as wide at the broadest portion of the frond.

=A. F.-f. crispum= (crispy or curled).* _fronds_ 6in. long, densely set with very finely divided pinnæ, which are thickly curled, presenting a crispy appearance.

=A. F.-f. dissectum= (dissected).* _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, ovate or broadly lanceolate in form, with irregular and unequal pinnæ; the pinnules also differ very much, and are deeply cut, nearly down to the rachises.

=A. F.-f. Elworthii= (Elworth's).* _fronds_ 12in. to 20in. long, lanceolate, tripinnate, terminated with a very dense crest, from 4in. to 6in. across; pinnæ and frequently the pinnules also more or less forked and crested.

=A. F.-f. Fieldiæ= (Field's).* _fronds_ 12in. to 20in. long, narrow, with regular or variously-forked divided pinnæ, sometimes arranged crosswise, with a very graceful disposition.

=A. F.-f. Friselliæ= (Frisell's).* _fronds_ pendent, sometimes 2ft. long, rarely exceeding 1in. wide, bi- or tripinnate; pinnæ alternate, imbricated, flabellate, with the margins of the pinnules or ultimate divisions dentated.

=A. F.-f. grandiceps= (large-crested).* _fronds_ 9in. to 15in. long, lanceolate in outline, copiously forked both at the extremities of the pinnæ and frond. The latter is furnished with a very large globose crest, which causes the frond to present a beautifully arched appearance.

=A. F-f. Grantæ= (Grant's).* _fronds_ 9in. to 12in. long, lanceolate, or broadly so, very thickly set with pinnæ, copiously divided, with the apices of the latter turned up, so that the plant has a crisp or bristly appearance.

=A. F.-f. Jonesii= (Jones's).* _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, oblong-lanceolate in outline, slightly acuminate, bipinnate, furnished at the extremities with a small crest; pinnæ alternate, copiously forked and crested at the apices, even having larger crests than the one at the upper extremity of the frond; pinnules narrow, dentate, slightly crested.

=A. F.-f. minimum= (smallest).* _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. wide, lanceolate, bipinnate; pinnules densely set, imbricated, and crispy.

=A. F.-f. Moorei= (Moore's).* _fronds_ 4in. to 8in. long, linear, terminated with a broad tasselled crest, 3in. or more in diameter; pinnæ small, scattered, variously forked, crested, and slender.

=A. F.-f. multifidum= (many-fid).* A very vigorous growing variety, producing fronds as large as those of the type, terminated with large tasselled crests; pinnæ and pinnules narrow, the former furnished with small crested apices. A variety known as _nanum_ much resembles the foregoing, but the crests are more dense, and the fronds are usually not more than half the length.

=A. F.-f. pannosum= (pannose).* _fronds_ 10in. to 20in. long, lanceolate in outline, from 4in. to 6in. in the broadest part, bi- or (rarely) tripinnate; pinnæ thickly set, closely alternated, lanceolate-acuminate in form, with deep cut pinnules, and distinctly but irregularly lobed; the whole frond is frequently tinged with reddish-purple.

=A. F.-f. plumosum= (feathery).* _fronds_ 12in. to 30in. long, 4in. to 10in. broad, broadly lanceolate in outline, tripinnate, beautifully arched; pinnæ of the same form as the frond, copiously divided; pinnules again divided into very fine segments. There are several forms of this charming variety.

=A. F.-f. Pritchardii= (Pritchard's).* _fronds_ 12in. to 30in. long, very narrow, tapering especially towards the apices; pinnæ decussate, imbricate, rather irregular, with the margins of the pinnules dentate. There is also a variety named _cristatum_, which is finely crested at the apices of the pinnæ, and is particularly striking.

=A. F.-f. ramosa= (branched).* _fronds_ 9in. to 12in. long, the lower portion sparsely set with short irregular pinnæ, sharply cut into finely dentate pinnules; the upper part is divided into two main branches, which are again variously forked, and furnished with short pinnæ, the ultimate divisions furcate and slightly crested.

=A. F.-f. scopæ= (heavily-crested).* _fronds_ 6in. to 16in. long, with a few scattered irregular pinnæ along the main rachis; some of the pinnæ are almost obsolete, while others are an inch long with oblong-dentate pinnules and a heavy terminal crest; the upper portion has several ramifications, each of which is copiously forked and heavily crested, the whole forming a corymbose head 3in. or 4in. in diameter, which gives the plant a pendent habit.

=A. F.-f. sub-lunatum= (half-crescent-shaped).* _fronds_ 9in. to 20in. long, less than 1in. wide, with curious alternated, nearly crescent-shaped, much contracted pinnæ, sparingly divided, arching.

=A. F.-f. Victoriæ= (Victoria's).* _fronds_ long, lanceolate in outline, with the apices crested, as well as those of the pinnæ; the latter are forked at the base, the divisions being divergent, and crossing those of the neighbouring pinnæ. A form named _gracilis_ has narrower fronds, is more compact, and cresting rather thicker. There is also another form named _lineare_, having very small heavily crested fronds, and an extremely elegant appearance. The foregoing are the most important varieties, but a very comparative few of the total number. Although forms of an essentially hardy species, the greater number--and particularly the rarer sorts--should have a winter protection; or, what is far more preferable and satisfactory, they should be grown in the frame or temperate fernery.

=A. firmum= (firm-textured). Synonymous with _A. abscissum_.

=A. fissum= (cut).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 2in. to 5in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad, oblong-deltoid, tripinnatifid, with a few distant pinnæ on each side; pinnules flabellato-cuneate, deeply pinnatifid; ultimate segments under half a line broad. _sori_ linear-oblong, when mature occupying the whole breadth of the segments. South Europe. A pretty little frame or greenhouse species.

=A. flabellifolium= (fan-leaved).* _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ procumbent, wide straggling, elongated, and rooting at the apex, 6in. to 12in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, with ten to fifteen sessile flabellate pinnæ on each side, which are 1/4in. to 1/2in. each way, broadly lobed; lobes sharply toothed, the base cut away in a curve on the lower side. _sori_ oblique, irregular, copious. Temperate Australia, &c. Greenhouse species.

=A. f. majus= (greater). This is a larger form, with longer fronds and broader pinnæ.

=A. flaccidum= (relaxed). _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 3ft. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, often pendent, with numerous lanceolate pinnæ, which are 4in. to 8in. long, and about 1/2in. broad, sometimes rather rigid and recurved, sometimes quite flaccid and drooping, like the main rachis, sometimes deeply pinnatifid, but more often cut down to the thick rachis in oblique or sub-falcate linear lobes. _sori_ in the divided form quite marginal. New Zealand, &c. SYNS. _A. odontites_ and _Darea flaccida_.

=A. fœniculaceum= (Fennel-like). A variety of _A. fragrans_.

[Illustration: FIG. 171. ASPLENIUM FONTANUM.]

=A. fontanum= (rock).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, oblong-lanceolate; lower pinnæ short, reflexed; central ones horizontal, about 1/2in. long; pinnules stalked, lower ones oblong, deeply inciso-pinnatifid. _sori_ copious, covering nearly the whole under surface of the pinnule. England, &c. Hardy. This requires to be planted in a well-drained chink of the rockery, in rich gritty soil. SYN. _A. Halleri_. _A. refractum_ is a well-marked variety. See Fig. 171.

=A. formosum= (beautiful). _sti._ tufted, very short. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 1in. broad, with twenty to thirty sessile horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 1/2in. long, one and a-half to two lines deep; upper edge deeply cut, point rather obtuse, lower edge truncate in a straight line. _sori_ linear-oblong, short, oblique, placed one to four on each side of the midrib. Tropical America, &c., 1822. A very elegant stove species.

=A. fragrans= (fragrant).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long, _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 6in. broad, sub-deltoid, tripinnate, with numerous close placed deltoid pinnæ on each side, the lowest 3in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad; pinnules lanceolate-deltoid; segments sub-spathulate, one line broad, dentate round the outer edge. _sori_ copious. Tropical America, 1793. _A. fœniculaceum_ is a variety with narrowly linear ultimate segments. Both are very handsome stove plants, the latter being especially beautiful.

=A. Franconis= (Franconis).* _sti._ tufted, 1ft. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 9in. to 15in. broad, deltoid, with numerous pinnæ on each side, the lower ones 6in. to 8in. long, much acuminated, cut down in the lower half into distinct pinnules, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, 1/2in. broad, lanceolate, unequal sided, the edge cut half-way down below into oblong sharply-toothed lobes; the lower side obliquely truncate. _sori_ in parallel rows, not reaching the edge. Mexico, &c. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium Franconis_.

=A. furcatum= (forked).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long, _fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, with twelve to twenty pinnæ on each side, which are lanceolate-deltoid, 2in. to 3in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, nearly or quite pinnate; pinnules linear-cuneate, sharply serrated on the outer edge. _sori_ linear, distant. Very widely distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of both hemispheres. A most elegant greenhouse species. SYN. _A. præmorsum_.

=A. germanicum= (German).* _sti._ densely tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 2in. to 3in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad, lanceolate, cut down to the rachis into a few narrow flabellato-cuneate pinnæ on each side, the lowest of which are again deeply cleft. _sori_ linear, when mature covering the whole breadth, but falling short of the point of the pinnæ. Scotland and Norway to Hungary and Dalmatia. Hardy or frame species. SYN. _A. alternifolium_.

=A. giganteum= (gigantic). A synonym of _A. radicans_.

=A. Goringianum pictum= (painted).* A very pretty form of _A. macrocarpum_; the fronds are from 6in. to 18in. long, pendulous, somewhat lanceolate in form; rachis reddish, with the pinnæ next it on each side variegated, forming a central grey band throughout its entire length. Japan. Greenhouse species, or hardy in sheltered positions.

=A. grandifolium= (large-leaved). _sti._ 1ft. or more long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. to 12in. broad, deltoid-lanceolate, the point pinnatifid, with twelve to twenty pinnæ on each side; the lower ones 2in. or more apart, distinctly stalked, 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, acuminate; edge slightly toothed, and sometimes broadly lobed below, the base equally rounded on both sides. _sori_ irregular, falling slightly short of both midrib and edge. Tropical America, 1793. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium grandifolium_.

=A. Grevillei= (Greville's). _fronds_ undivided, 12in. to 18in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, lanceolate-spathulate, narrowed to an acute apex, and suddenly below to a broadly winged stipe, which grows very gradually narrower downwards; the margin entire. _sori_ usually extending within a short distance of the edge. India. Stove species.

=A. Halleri= (Haller's). Synonymous with _A. fontanum_.

=A. Hemionitis= (Hemionitis).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. each way, hastate, with a triangular, acute terminal lobe, and two large, cordate, acute lateral ones, again bluntly or acutely lobed at the base; the basal sinus rounded, 1in. or more deep, and the lobes on each side imbricated over one another and the petiole. _sori_ narrow upon the simple veins. South Europe, &c. A pretty greenhouse species. SYN. _A. palmatum_.

=A. H. cristatum= (crested).* Similar in frond form and size to the species, but the apices are crested and tasselled. Where variety is sought, this should certainly be grown.

=A. H. multifidum= (much-divided).* _fronds_ quite as broad as long; the main divisions again freely divided or deeply cut, so as to give them a fringed outline. Azores.

=A. heterocarpum= (various-fruited).* _sti._ scattered, 4in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, narrow-lanceolate, with very numerous close-placed dimidiate pinnæ on each side, which are 3/4in. to 1in. broad, 1/4in. deep; the lower edge quite entire, the upper broadest towards the base, where it is narrowed suddenly, deeply incised throughout. _sori_ one, or rarely two, together in the teeth. Himalayas, and widely distributed in south-eastern Asia. A very lovely stove or greenhouse species.

=A. heterodon= (variously-toothed). Synonymous with _A. vulcanicum_.

=A. Hookerianum= (Hooker's). Synonymous with _A. Colensoi_.

=A. incisum= (incised). _sti._ tufted, 1in. to 3in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, lanceolate, with numerous pinnæ on each side; lower distant and blunt, central ones 1in. long, 1/2in. broad, lanceolate-deltoid; pinnules ovate-rhomboidal, pinnate, much truncated at the base on the lower side and deeply inciso-pinnatifid. _sori_ linear-oblong, one to each vein. Japan, &c. Greenhouse species.

=A. javanicum= (Javanese). _See_ =Allantodia Brunoniana=.

=A. lanceolatum= (lanceolate).* _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad; lower pinnæ distant, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad; pinnules oblong-rhomboidal, sharply toothed, and often broadly lobed below. _sori_ copious, when mature covering nearly the whole under surface. South-west Europe, including southern England, &c. Hardy species.

=A. l. crispatum= (curled).* _fronds_ 4in. to 8in. long, broadly-lanceolate, bipinnate, with the margins of the pinnules involute and sharply toothed, giving them a curled appearance.

=A. l. microdon= (small-toothed).* _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, simply pinnate, with deeply lobed pinnæ, the margins of the lobes very finely dentated and toothed. A pretty little gem, well adapted for case culture.

=A. lanceum= (lance-shaped). _sti._ scattered, 4in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, attenuated gradually upwards and downwards, the edge entire or slightly undulated. _sori_ linear, irregular, reaching nearly to the edge, but not to the midrib. Himalayas, &c. Greenhouse species. SYN. _A. subsinuatum_ and _Diplazium lanceum_.

=A. laserpitiifolium= (Laserpitium-leaved).* _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long, naked. _fronds_ 1ft. to 4ft. long, 4in. to 18in. broad, deltoid-lanceolate, with numerous pinnæ on each side, 2in. to 9in. long, and from 2in. to 6in. broad, cut down to the rachis into numerous distinct pinnules, the lowest with rhomboidal-cuneate segments. _sori_ short, irregular. Polynesian Islands, North Australia, &c. A very handsome greenhouse species.

=A. laxum= (loose). A variety of _A. bulbiferum_.

=A. lineatum= (streaked). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, with twenty to thirty pinnæ on each side, which are 3in. to 4in. long, about 1/2in. broad, acuminate, dentate, nearly or quite sessile, the base cuneate. _sori_ very regular, reaching from the midrib nearly to the edge. Mauritius, &c. There are several forms of this species: those with small narrow cuneate pinnules, _inequale_; those with deeply bifid or pinnatifid pinnules, _bifida_. Stove species.

=A. longissimum= (longest).* _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 8ft. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, lanceolate-elongate, pendulous, proliferous, and rooting at the apex, with very numerous pinnæ on each side, which are 2in. to 4in. long, 1/4in. broad, acuminated, the two sides nearly equal, with a distinct central midrib; edge slightly toothed, the base on both sides often auricled. _sori_ numerous, in two regular rows on each side the midrib, and reaching nearly to the edge. Malacca, &c., 1840. A very distinct stove fern for baskets.

=A. lucidum= (clear). A synonym of _A. obtusatum lucidum_.

=A. lunulatum= (crescent-shaped).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, simply pinnate, narrowly lanceolate-oblong, with twelve to twenty pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, bluntish or acute, more or less deeply inciso-crenate throughout, the two sides unequal; the upper one on the base narrowed suddenly, the lower one obliquely truncate; lower pinnæ often deflexed. _sori_ falling short of both edge and midrib. Tropics. SYN. _A. erectum_.

=A. l. Fernandesianum= (Fernandez).* A form with a more rigid rachis and sub-coriaceous, rather narrower pinnæ. Juan Fernandez.

=A. macrocarpum= (large-fruited). _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 24in. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, ovate-lanceolate, with numerous pinnæ on each side, the lowest 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, lanceolate; pinnules oblong-rhomboidal, inciso-crenate or pinnatifid. _sori_ copious, large. Himalayas. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Athyrium macrocarpum_.

=A. macrophyllum= (long-leaved). Synonymous with _A. nitens_.

=A. marginatum= (margined). _sti._ 2ft. to 3ft. long, strong, erect woody, about 1/2in. thick at the base. _fronds_ simply pinnate, 4ft. to 6ft. long; pinnæ in several opposite pairs, the lowest 1ft. to 2ft. long, 3in. to 4in. broad, the edge entire, the base often cordate. _sori_ long, linear, confined to the free veins. Tropical America. Stove species. SYN. _Hemidictyum marginatum_.

=A. marinum= (sea).* Sea Spleenwort. _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 18in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, apex pinnatifid; pinnæ of the lower half quite deltoid, the point acute or obtuse, margin crenato-dentate. _sori_ broad, falling short of the edge. Europe, including Britain. Although perfectly hardy, this requires to be grown in a frame or cool house.

=A. m. coronans= (crowned).* _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, simply pinnate; pinnæ for two-thirds of the way up variable in form, and irregularly lobed and cut; the upper third freely branched with numerous imbricated, curled, and slightly crested divisions, forming a dense head 2in. or more across. A dwarf and pretty form.

=A. m. crenatum= (crenated). _fronds_ 4in. to 8in. long, broadly-lanceolate; pinnæ nearly trapeziform, obtuse, with deeply crenated margins. A very pretty form.

=A. m. mirabile= (wonderful).* _sti._ 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ about the same length, the rachis divided about half way down from the top into two nearly equal divisions, which are again freely forked, with the pinnules and segments obtusely lobed; the whole expanded, but not crested, into a breadth equal to the length of the frond; the lower pinnæ are more or less abnormal and bluntly lobed.

=A. m. plumosum= (feathery).* _sti._ 3in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, bi- or tripinnatifid, broadly-lanceolate; pinnæ very variable, closely set, and imbricated, cut nearly to the rachis into ovate or oblong divisions, which are again more or less deeply cut and lobed, the entire frond having a very elegant appearance.

=A. m. ramo-plumosum= (branched and feathery).* _fronds_ divided nearly to the top of the stipes into two main branches, which are distinctly pinnate; pinnæ distant below, imbricated upwards, cut nearly to the rachis into ovate or oblong lobes, the margins of which are slightly dentated. It is a very handsome form, the width of the frond being greater than its length.

=A. m. ramosum= (branched). _fronds_ from 4in. to 8in. long, branched at the apices; pinnæ oblong, with the margins obtusely-dentate, and slightly undulated.

=A. m. sub-bipinnatum= (half-bipinnate). _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, lanceolate; pinnæ distant, deeply lobed, or cut nearly to the midribs. A very rare and pretty variety.

=A. m. Thompsonii= (Thompson's).* _sti._ 3in. to 4in. long, smooth. _fronds_ 6in. to 10in. long, ovate-lanceolate, bipinnatifid; pinnæ closely set, sub-deltoid, unequal-sided, deeply cut into oblong, slightly undulated lobes below, gradually less divided upwards. A very rare and handsome variety. All the forms of _A. marinum_ require a very moist atmosphere, consequently they will not thrive in the open air, unless along the sea-coast.

=A. maximum= (largest). _cau._ erect. _sti._ 2ft. or more long. _fronds_ several feet long, 2ft. to 3ft. broad, deltoid-lanceolate, with numerous pinnæ on each side, the lowest 9in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 8in. broad; pinnules sub-sessile, 2in. to 4in. long, 3/4in. broad; edge more or less lobed. _sori_ medial, the lowest two lines long. North India. Stove species. SYNS. _A. diversifolium_ and _Diplazium decurrens_.

=A. melanocaulon= (black-stiped).* _sti._ 1ft. to 2ft. long. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. to 18in. broad; lower pinnæ 4in. to 9in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad; pinnules lanceolate, 2in. to 3in. long, 3/4in. broad, cut down two-thirds of the way to the rachis into linear-oblong, falcate, inciso-crenate lobes. _sori_ short, oblong, not touching either midrib or edge. Fiji. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium melanocaulon_.

=A. Michauxii= (Michaux's).* _cau._ stout. _sti._ 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 9in. to 24in. long, 3in. to 9in. broad, ovate-deltoid, bi- or tripinnate; pinnules oblong, deeply serrate, or cut quite to the rachis. United States. A very handsome hardy species, closely related to the Lady Fern, of which it may be only a variety.

=A. monanthemum= (one-flowered).* _sti._ densely tufted, 3in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, about 1in. broad, with twenty to forty horizontal, sessile, sub-dimidiate pinnæ on each side, which are about 1/2in. long and 1/4in. deep, the upper side crenate, suddenly narrowed at the base, the lower more or less distinctly cut away in a straight, or, in the lower pinnæ, decurved line. _sori_ linear-oblong, usually one or two, parallel with the lower edge of the pinnæ. Temperate regions of both hemispheres. Greenhouse species.

=A. montanum= (mountain).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 3in. long. _fronds_ 2in. to 3in. long, 1in. broad, lanceolate-deltoid; lowest pinnæ distinctly stalked, deltoid, sharply serrated round the outer edge. _sori_ short, copious. United States, 1812. Frame or greenhouse species.

=A. multisectum= (much-cut). Synonymous with _A. aspidioides_.

=A. musæfolium= (Musa-leaved). A variety of _A. Nidus_.

=A. myriophyllum= (myriad-leaved). A variety of _A. rhizophyllum_.

[Illustration: FIG. 172. ASPLENIUM NIDUS.]

=A. Nidus= (nest).* Bird's-nest Fern. _fronds_ undivided, 2ft. to 4ft. long, 3in. to 8in. broad, lanceolate, acute or acuminate at the apex, tapering gradually below into a short stem; the edge entire, the midrib rounded on the back; veins fine and parallel, about 1/2in. apart. _sori_ reaching about half way towards the margin. India, &c., 1820. SYN. _A. australasicum_. See Fig. 172.

=A. N. australasicum= (Australian). Midrib keeled on the back, often black. Australia, &c. The two former are best treated in the stove; the latter thrives well in the greenhouse. SYN. _Thamnopteris australasicum_.

=A. N. musæfolium= (Musa-leaved).* _fronds_ larger, sometimes 6ft. long, 1ft. broad. _sori_ extending nearly to the edge.

=A. nitens= (shining). _sti._ scattered, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, with twelve to twenty ascending or sub-falcate pinnæ on each side, which are 4in. to 6in. long, 1/2in. to 1in. broad, much acuminated; edge finely toothed, base broadly rounded on the upper, truncate in a curve on the lower side. _sori_ in close regular rows, not extending more than half way from the midrib to the edge. Mauritius. Stove species. SYN. _A. macrophyllum_, of gardens only.

=A. nitidum= (shining).* _sti._ 1ft. long, naked. _fronds_ 2ft. to 3ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, with many lanceolate-deltoid pinnæ on each side, which are cut down to the rachis into numerous stalked deltoid pinnules, these are again cut into broad fan-shaped cuneate segments, sharply serrated round the outer edge. _sori_ short. North India, Ceylon, &c. Greenhouse species.

=A. novæ-caledoniæ= (New Caledonian).* _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 9in. to 12in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, sub-deltoid, tripinnate; lower pinnæ and pinnules deltoid; segments rigid, scarcely flattened, 1/2in. or more long, distant, and erecto-patent. _sori_ long, linear, marginal. New Caledonia. A rare greenhouse species. SYN. _Darea novæ-caledoniæ_.

=A. obtusatum= (obtuse). _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 3in. to 4in. broad, oblong or ovate-deltoid, with a terminal pinna not much longer than the others, and two to six pairs on each side, which are 1in. to 2in. long and about 1/2in. broad, obtuse, edge crenate, the base truncato-cuneate, shortly stalked. _sori_ copious, broad, linear-oblong, falling short of the edge. Peru. _A. difforme_ is a variety with an ovate-deltoid frond, and the pinnæ cut quite down to a narrow-winged rachis in the lower part into distinctly separated roundish or oblong-sinuated pinnules. New Zealand, Australia, &c. Greenhouse kinds.

=A. o. lucidum= (clear).* _fronds_ often 2ft. long, with fifteen to twenty pairs of pinnæ on each side, which are more herbaceous in texture, darker green in colour, the lowest 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, narrowed gradually to a long acuminated point, edge more deeply toothed. Greenhouse variety. SYN. _A. lucidum_.

=A. obtusifolium= (obtuse-leaved).* _sti._ almost tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, ovate-lanceo-late, with twelve to twenty stalked horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 2in. to 3in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, acute; edges slightly undulato-crenate, the upper side with a distinct auricle at the base, and then narrowed suddenly, the lower side obliquely truncate. _sori_ distant, in two regular rows, falling short of the edge. West Indies, &c., 1838. Stove species.

=A. obtusilobum= (obtuse-lobed).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, with nine to twelve sub-deltoid pinnæ on each side, of which only the inner third on the lower side is cut away, the largest nearly 1in. long, 3/4in. broad; lowest pinnules 3/8in. deep, flabellately cut into three to five linear blunt lobes. _sori_ sub-marginal. New Hebrides, 1861. A very pretty little stove species. SYN. _Darea obtusiloba_.

=A. odontites= (much-toothed). Synonymous with _A. flaccidum_.

=A. oxyphyllum= (sharp-leaved).* _sti._ firm, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, lanceolate, with several pinnæ on each side, which are 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad; pinnules lanceolate, in the larger forms again pinnatifid; teeth mucronate. _sori_ in two rows on the pinnæ or pinnules midway between the midrib and edge. Himalayas. A very variable greenhouse species. SYNS. _Athyrium oxyphylla_ and _Lastrea eburnea_.

=A. paleaceum= (scaly).* _sti._ densely tufted, 1in. to 3in. long, spreading, densely scaly. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, sometimes proliferous and rooting at the apex, with twelve to twenty sub-sessile pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. long, about 1/2in. broad, bluntish; edge inciso-dentate, the upper base auricled and narrowed suddenly, the lower obliquely-truncate; the lower ones stalked, and nearly as broad as long. _sori_ linear, extending nearly to the edge. Tropical Australia. Stove or warm greenhouse species.

=A. palmatum= (palmate). Synonymous with _A. Hemionitis_.

=A. parvulum= (small). Synonymous with _A. trilobum_.

=A. persicifolium= (Peach-leaved). _sti._ and _rachis_ grey, with a few scattered minute grey scales. _fronds_ oblong-lanceolate, 2ft. to 3ft. long, often gemmiferous at the apex; pinnæ ascending, fifteen to thirty-jugate, sub-petiolate, 4in. to 5in. long, linear-ligulate-acuminate, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, distinctly crenate throughout. _sori_ regular, reaching nearly to midrib and edge. Philippine and Sandwich Isles. Stove species.

=A. Petrarchæ= (Petrarch's).* _sti._ densely tufted, 1in. to 2in. long. _fronds_ 2in. to 3in. long, 1/2in. broad, linear-lanceolate, with six to ten horizontal sessile pinnæ on each side, which are 1/4in. long and nearly as much broad, cordate-ovate, blunt; edge sinuated; the base unequal, slightly truncate on the lower side. _sori_ oblong, very short, four to six on each side of the midrib. South Europe, 1819. A very rare little gem, best treated in a cool house.

=A. pinnatifidum= (pinnatifid). _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. or more broad at the base, lanceolate-deltoid, with a long, gradually narrowing point, which is sinuated only; the lobes below this 1/4in. to 1/2in. deep; the lowest ovate-oblong, 1/2in. deep by nearly as broad, sinuated and reaching down nearly to the rachis. _sori_ copious. Pennsylvania. Greenhouse or sheltered places outside.

=A. planicaule= (flat-stiped).* _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 6in. long, naked. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, with twelve to twenty stalked horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad, acute; edge lobed about half-way down, and deeply serrated. _sori_ copious, reaching nearly to the edge. Himalayas, up to 6000ft., &c., 1841. Greenhouse species.

=A. plantagineum= (Plantain-like). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 2in. to 3in. broad, simple, acuminate, base rounded; edge slightly undulato-dentate upwards, sometimes lobed towards the base. _sori_ slender, linear, sometimes nearly touching both edge and midrib. West Indies, &c., 1819. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium plantagineum_.

=A. polyphyllum= (many-leaved). Synonymous with _A. acuminatum_.

=A. præmorsum= (bitten). Synonymous with _A. furcatum_.

=A. prolongatum= (prolonged). Synonymous with _A. rutæfolium_.

=A. pulchellum= (pretty).* _sti._ tufted. 1in. to 2in. long. _fronds_ 3in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, with twelve to eighteen pinnæ on each side, which are 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, two lines to three lines broad, bluntish, almost dimidiate; the upper edge crenate, and narrowed suddenly at the base. _sori_ linear, oblique, falling short of the edge. Tropical America. Stove species.

=A. pumilum= (small). _sti._ tufted, 3in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. each way, deltoid, the upper part sinuated only, the lower cut down to the rachis into distinct pinnæ, of which the lowest pair are much the largest; the pinnules on the lower side sometimes 2in. long, reaching down to a slightly winged rachis, acuminate and deeply lobed. _sori_ very oblique, the lower ones sometimes 1in. long. West Indies, &c., 1823. A very rare and pretty stove species.

=A. rachirhizon= (rachis-rooting). A variety of _A. rhizophorum_.

[Illustration: FIG. 173. ASPLENIUM RADICANS.]

=A. radicans= (rooting). _cau._ erect, sub-arborescent. _sti._ 1ft. to 2ft. long, tufted. _fronds_ 3ft. to 5ft. long, 2ft. to 3ft. broad, deltoid; lower pinnæ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 8in. broad; pinnules lanceolate, sessile, the upper ones entire, lower ones 3in. to 4in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, with blunt lobes, 1/4in. broad, reaching about half way down to the rachis. Lower _sori_ sometimes 1/4in. long. Tropical America. A very variable species. SYNS. _A. giganteum_, _Diplazium radicans_, _D. umbrosum_, &c. See Fig. 173.

=A. refractum= (refracted). A variety of _A. fontanum_.

=A. resectum= (cut or pared).* _sti._ scattered, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, lanceolate-oblong, with ten to thirty sub-sessile horizontal pinnæ on each side, which are 1in. to 3in. long, 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, almost dimidiate, the point bluntish, all except the truncate part crenate, the upper half at the base narrowed nearly at a right angle. _sori_ not reaching either the midrib or edge. India, &c., widely distributed, 1820. Greenhouse species.

=A. rhizophorum= (root-bearing).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, elongated, and rooting at the apex; pinnæ twelve to thirty on each side, sub-sessile, 1-1/2in. to 2in. long, about 1/2in. broad, inciso-dentate throughout; the two sides unequal, the upper one auricled and narrowed, the lower one obliquely cuneate. _sori_ not reaching either to the edge or midrib. Tropical America. A very variable stove species. _A. r. rachirhizon_, has distinctly separated oblong-rhomboidal pinnules, again deeply cut into narrow segments.

=A. rhizophyllum= (leaf-rooting). _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, cut down into numerous close-placed horizontal pinnæ on each side; central ones 1in. long, 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad, cut down throughout nearly to the centre into simple or forked erecto-patent pinnules, the lowest on the under side suppressed. _sori_ solitary, sub-marginal. _A. r. myriophyllum_ is a variety with broader fronds; central pinnæ 1-1/2in. long, with lower pinnules cut down into several simple or forked linear segments. North America, &c., 1680. Both handsome greenhouse kinds.

=A. rutæfolium= (Rue-leaved).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 15in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad, ovate deltoid, with twelve to twenty pinnæ on each side, the lowest sub-deltoid, 2in. or more long, cut down to the rachis into numerous erecto-patent distant pinnules on each side, the lowest on the upper side again cut down into erecto-patent linear segments. _sori_ small, marginal. Cape Colony. A beautiful greenhouse species. SYNS. _A. prolongatum_ and _Darea rutæfolia_.

=A. Ruta-muraria= (Wall-rue).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 1in. to 2in. long, about 1in. broad, deltoid, cut down to the rachis into a few pinnæ on each side, the lower ones again cut down into spathulato-cuneate pinnules, which are serrated round the outer edge. _sori_ copious. Great Britain, and almost worldwide in its distribution. Hardy species. This requires a well-drained position, and a soil composed mainly of old mortar rubbish.

=A. salicifolium= (Willow-leaved). _sti._ tufted, 6in. to 12in. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad, oblong, with a terminal pinna and four to ten distinctly stalked ones on each side, which are 4in. to 6in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, acuminate; edge usually entire, the base equally truncato-cuneate on both sides. _sori_ falling short both of the edge and midrib. West Indies, &c. Stove species.

=A. Sandersoni= (Sanderson's).* _sti._ tufted, 1in. to 2in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, linear, often gemmiferous at the apex, with twelve to twenty horizontal dimidiate pinnæ on each side, which are deeply crenate on the upper edge, and at the base narrowed suddenly into a winged petiole, the lower one nearly straight and quite entire. _sori_ oblong. Natal, &c. A very rare greenhouse species.

=A. schizodon= (cut-toothed). Synonymous with _A. Vieillardii_.

=A. Schkuhrii= (Schkuhr's). _cau._ erect. _sti._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. long. _fronds_ deltoid, 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. long, tripinnatifid; lower pinnæ distant, oblong-lanceolate, 6in. to 8in. long, 1-1/2in. to 2in. broad, rachis winged to base; pinnules ligulate-oblong, 3/8in. broad, sessile, cut into shallow, close, oblong blunt lobes. _sori_ 1/8in., medial in a single row in the pinnules. Ceylon. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium Schkuhrii_.

=A. Selosii= (Selose's).* _sti._ densely tufted, 1in. to 2in. long, wiry. _fronds_ 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, palmately cleft, usually into three nearly equal forks, which are about one line broad, the edge slightly inciso-serrate. _sori_ copious, ultimately occupying the whole surface. Tyrol and Carinthia. A very rare and curious little species, requiring the protection of the frame or cool house; it should be firmly potted between pieces of sandstone in loam, leaf-soil, rock chippings and sand, with good drainage.

=A. septentrionale= (northern).* _sti._ densely tufted, 3in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ simple, or cleft from the apex into two or three cuneate divisions, 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, one line broad, with a few sharp lateral and terminal teeth. _sori_ elongated, copious, often at last hiding the whole under surface. Great Britain, and widely distributed in both hemispheres. This rare little species requires to be securely planted in a well-drained elevated chink of the fernery outside, in loamy, gritty soil.

=A. Shepherdi= (Shepherd's).* _sti._ tufted, 1ft. long. _fronds_ 12in. to 18in. long, 6in. to 9in. broad; lower pinnæ stalked, 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. to 1-1/2in. broad, point acuminate, edge lobed above, 1/4in. broad, somewhat toothed. _sori_ linear, not reaching the edge. South America. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium Shepherdi_.

=A. S. inæquilaterum= (unequal-sided). _fronds_, texture firm, colour duller than that of the type; pinnæ much acuminated; the lobes deeper, more uniform, and falcate, the two sides unequal, the lower one unequally truncate at the base.

=A. spathulinum= (spathulate). A synonym of _A. affine_.

=A. spinulosum= (very spiny).* _sti._ 6in. to 12in. long, scattered. _fronds_ 9in. to 12in. each way, deltoid, tri- or quadripinnatifid, with nine to twelve pinnæ on each side, the lowest much the largest, 6in. to 9in. long, 2-1/2in. to 3in. broad, ovate-lanceolate; pinnules lanceolate, cut down to the rachis on each side into six to nine oblong-rhomboidal mucronate segments, two lines long, one line broad, which are sharply toothed. _sori_ two to ten to a segment, usually round, but occasionally oblong. Amur-land, &c. Greenhouse species. SYN. _Athyrium spinulosum_ and _Cystopteris spinulosa_.

=A. splendens= (splendid). _rhiz._ creeping, scaly. _sti._ 6in. to 9in. _fronds_ deltoid, 6in. to 1ft. long, two to three-pinnate; lower pinnæ stalked, deltoid, 1in. to 2in. broad, pinnate or bipinnate; segments cuneate-flabellate, 1/4in. to 1/2in. broad, slightly lobed, sharply toothed round outer edge. _sori_ copious, slender, irregular, reaching from base nearly to tip of segments. Cape Colony. A very rare greenhouse species.

=A. subsinuatum= (half-waved). Synonymous with _A. lanceum_.

=A. sundense= (Sundanese). Synonymous with _A. vittæforme_.

=A. sylvaticum= (woods). _cau._ decumbent. _sti._ 1ft. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, ovate-lanceolate, with numerous spreading pinnæ, the largest 3in. to 4in. long, 1/2in. to 3/4in. broad, acuminated; edge broadly and briefly lobed; base narrowed suddenly on both sides. _sori_ in long slender lines, reaching nearly to the edge. India, &c. Stove species.

=A. thelypteroides= (Thelypteris-like). _sti._ 1ft. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, lanceolate, with numerous spreading pinnæ, the lower ones 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. broad, cut down to a broadly-winged rachis into numerous nearly entire elliptical spreading pinnules. _sori_ in close regular rows, reaching nearly from the midrib to the edge, slightly curved, the lower ones often double. North America, &c., 1823. Hardy or cool house species. SYN. _Athyrium thelypteroides_.

=A. Thwaitesii= (Thwaites's).* _rhiz._ wide-creeping, stout. _sti._ 6in. long, slender, densely clothed with strong white woolly hairs. _fronds_ 1ft. or more long, 4in. to 6in. broad, with eight to ten distinct pinnæ beneath the pinnatifid apex, the largest 3in. long, 5/8in. broad, cut down two-thirds of the way to the rachis in oblong crenulated lobes, 1/4in. deep, two lines across. _sori_ reaching half-way to the edge, the lowest about one line long. Ceylon. Very fine stove species. SYN. _Diplazium Thwaitesii_.

[Illustration: FIG. 174. ASPLENIUM TRICHOMANES.]

=A. Trichomanes= (maiden-hair).* Maidenhair Spleenwort. _sti._ densely tufted, 1in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, about 1/2in. broad, with fifteen to thirty opposite pairs of sessile horizontal pinnæ, which are 1/4in. to 3/8in. broad, one and a-half to two lines deep, edge slightly crenate, the two sides unequal, the upper one the broadest, and narrowed suddenly at the base. _sori_ linear-oblong, three to six on each side of the midrib. Great Britain, and almost cosmopolitan. Hardy species. See Fig. 174. There are several varieties in cultivation, of which the following are the most important:

[Illustration: FIG. 175. ASPLENIUM TRICHOMANES CRISTATUM.]

=A. T. cristatum= (crested).* _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, simply pinnate, with roundish pinnæ, and broad crests at their extremities, sometimes divided, each fork crested. A very pretty little variety, requiring frame or greenhouse treatment. See Fig. 175.

=A. T. incisum= (deeply-cut).* _fronds_ 3in. to 6in. long; pinnæ deeply pinnatifid, the lobes again deeply cut or serrated. A very rare and pretty form.

=A. T. multifidum= (much-divided).* _fronds_ 3in. to 6in. long, once, twice, thrice, or, rarely, quadri-furcate, each division terminated with a little crest. A free-growing kind.

=A. T. ramosum= (branched).* _fronds_ 5in. to 8in. long, freely branched, each division being again forked; pinnæ deeply cut or crenated, or serrate. More hardy than any of the other forms.

=A. trilobum= (three-lobed).* _sti._ tufted, 2in. to 3in. long. _fronds_ 1in. to 1-1/2in. long, 1in. broad, rhomboidal, apex acute, base cuneate, entire, the margin undulato-crenate, or the lower part deeply lobed, with broad inciso-crenate divisions. _sori_ broad and short. Chili and South Brazil. A very rare little stove species. SYN. _A. parvulum_.

=A. umbrosum= (shady). _sti._ 1ft. or more long, scaly at the base. _fronds_ 2ft. to 5ft. long, 12in. to 18in. broad, ovate-deltoid; pinnæ ovate-lanceolate, 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 6in. broad, with lanceolate pinnules, which are again cut down to the midribs into unequal-sided rhomboidal lobes, with the margins sharply crenated. _sori_ copious, oblong, with large tumid membranous involucres. Madeira, Canaries, Himalayas, &c. Very widely distributed. A very handsome greenhouse species. SYNS. _Allantodia australe_, _Athyrium umbrosum_.

=A. varians= (variable). _sti._ tufted, 1in. to 3in. long. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, 1in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, with eight to twelve pairs of pinnæ on each side, lower ones sub-deltoid, 1/2in. to 3/4in. long, 1/4in. broad, cut down to the rachis into a few cuneato-flabellate pinnules, the lowest two lines across, sharply toothed on the outer edge. _sori_ copious, when mature, covering nearly the whole under surface of the pinnules. Himalayas, and widely distributed. Greenhouse species.

=A. Veitchianum= (Veitch's). Synonymous with _A. Belangeri_.

=A. Vieillardii= (Vieillard's).* _sti._ tufted, 4in. to 6in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 9in. long, 6in. to 8in. broad, with large linear-lanceolate terminal pinna, lengthened out at the point, and deeply serrated, and three to four pairs of erecto-patent similar lateral ones, which are 3in. to 4in. long, upwards of 1/2in. broad, equally truncato-cuneate, and the lower ones slightly stalked at the base. _sori_ distant, falling short of both edge and margin. New Caledonia. A very graceful greenhouse species. SYN. _A. schizodon_. _A. apicidens_ is but a variety of this, with shortened sori and more obtuse venation.

[Illustration: FIG. 176. ASPLENIUM VIRIDE, showing Barren and Fertile Pinnæ (_a_ and _b_), Sorus (_c_), and Sporangium (_d_).]

=A. viride= (green). Green Spleenwort.* _sti._ densely tufted, 2in. to 4in. long. _fronds_ 4in. to 6in. long, 1/2in. broad, with twelve to twenty sub-sessile pinnæ on each side, ovate-rhomboid; upper edge narrowed suddenly at the base, the lower one obliquely truncate, outer part deeply crenated. _sori_ copious, linear-oblong, oblique. Great Britain, &c., widely distributed in both hemispheres. It requires to be planted in a well-drained but moist situation. Hardy species. See Fig. 176.

=A. vittæforme= (narrow-fronded).* _rhiz._ creeping. _sti._ short, erect. _fronds_ entire, lanceolate, 12in. to 18in. long, 1-1/2in. to 3in. broad, narrowed to an acute point, and very gradually into the stem below; margin obscurely toothed. _sori_ copious, often reaching from the midrib nearly to the edge. Java, &c. Stove species. SYN. _A. sundense_.

=A. viviparum= (plant-bearing).* _sti._ tufted. 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 6in. to 8in. broad, ovate-lanceolate, with numerous close-placed erecto-patent pinnæ on each side, which are 3in. to 4in. long, 1-1/2. to 2in. broad, cut down to a compressed rachis into numerous pinnatifid pinnules, the lower segments of which are again forked; ultimate segments 1/4in. to 3/8in. long, quarter-line broad. _sori_ solitary, marginal. Mauritius, &c., 1820. A very handsome stove species.

=A. vulcanicum= (volcanic). _sti._ 6in. to 9in. long. _fronds_ 1ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. to 8in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, with a linear-terminal pinna, or gemmiferous at the apex, and six to twelve lateral ones on each side; lower ones stalked, 2in. to 4in. long, 3/4in. to 1in. broad, acuminated; edge slightly dentate; the base truncate. _sori_ very regular and parallel, falling short of the edge. Malay Islands. Stove species. SYN. _A. heterodon_.

=A. zeylanicum= (Ceylonese).* _sti._ scattered, 4in. to 8in. long. _fronds_ 6in. to 12in. long, 1in. to 2in. broad, the point acuminated, apex slightly lobed, the lower two-thirds more deeply so, and the base quite down to the rachis; lobes blunt, 1/4in. to 1/2in. across. _sori_ linear, two to three lines long. Ceylon. Stove species. SYN. _Diplazium zeylanicum_.

=ASSONIA= (commemorative of Ignatius de Asso, a distinguished Spanish botanist, who wrote on the plants of Arragon). ORD. _Sterculiaceæ_. This genus is now included by best authorities under _Dombeya_. Ornamental stove evergreen trees, with undivided leaves, and axillary, bifid, sub-corymbose peduncles. They are of easy culture; thriving freely in any light rich soil, or a mixture of loam and peat. Young cuttings will root freely in sand, with a brisk bottom heat, if covered by a bell glass.

=A. populnea= (Poplar-leaved). _fl._ white, disposed in a terminal, bifid corymb; peduncles scarcely longer than the petioles. June. _l._ cordate, acuminated, smooth, a little serrated. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. Bourbon, 1820.

=A. viburnoides= (Viburnum-like). _fl._ white; peduncles three times longer than the petioles. _l._ cordate, somewhat acuminate, crenated, tomentose beneath, as well as younger leaves. _h._ 10ft. to 20ft. Bourbon, 1822.

=ASTARTEA= (a mythological name: Astarte, the Syrian Venus). ORD. _Myrtaceæ_. An ornamental greenhouse evergreen shrub, requiring a mixture of loam, peat, leaf soil, and sand. Young cuttings root readily in sand under a bell glass in gentle heat.

=A. fascicularis= (bundle-flowered). _fl._ white, pedicellate, solitary, axillary. May. _l._ opposite, linear, fleshy; when young, disposed in axillary fascicles. _h._ 6ft. to 9ft. West Australia, 1830.

=ASTELMA= (from _a_, not, and _stelma_, a crown; in reference to the construction of the fruit). ORD. _Compositæ_. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from the Cape of Good Hope. Some species of this genus, which is now generally referred to _Helipterum_, are very handsome, and thrive well in a mixture of fibrous peat, leaf soil, and sand, with thorough drainage. Fill the pots one-third full of crocks; water carefully, and only when absolutely necessary; and place in a situation near the glass, allowing a free admission of air. Seeds should be sown in pots of light, open soil, and placed in a gentle heat; half-ripened cuttings will strike readily in sandy soil with a hand glass placed over them. They are now but rarely seen under cultivation.

=A. canescens= (hoary). _fl.-heads_ purple; scales of involucre ovate; branches one-flowered. May to June. _l._ oblong, blunt, imbricated. _h._ 1-1/2ft. 1794.

=A. eximium= (fine).* _fl.-heads_ crimson; corymbs sessile. July. _l._ sessile, ovate, close, erect, white with thick woolly pubescence. Stem stout. _h._ 3ft. 1793. This is a very beautiful species.

=A. speciosissimum= (showiest). _fl.-heads_ white, large, solitary, terminal. July. _l._ sessile, lanceolate-obovate, acute, three-nerved, woolly. _h._ 8ft. 1691.

=ASTEPHANUS= (from _a_, without, and _stephanos_, a corona; corona absent). ORD. _Asclepiadeæ_. A genus of pretty evergreen greenhouse twiners. Flowers few, small, disposed in interpetiolar umbels; corolla campanulate. Leaves small, opposite. They thrive in a compost of turfy peat, leaf soil, and loam, in equal parts. Very little water is required when the plants are at rest. Cuttings root readily in sandy soil in a moderate heat. Propagation may also be effected by division.

=A. linearis= (linear). _fl._ white; umbels dividing in threes, lateral and terminal. July. _l._ 1in. long, opposite, linear-lanceolate. Stem glabrous. Cape of Good Hope, 1816.

=A. triflorus= (three-flowered).* _fl._ white; umbels generally three-flowered. July. _l._ opposite, lanceolate, villous beneath. Stems hairy. Cape of Good Hope, 1816.

=ASTER= (from _aster_, a star; general shape of flower-heads). Michaelmas Daisy; Star-wort. SYN. _Pinardia_ (of Necker). ORD. _Compositæ_. Hardy herbaceous perennials, except where otherwise stated. Heads solitary, corymbose, or panicled, heterogamous, rayed; ray florets pistiliferous, one or two-seriate, fertile or neuter; ligule elongated, white, blue, or purple; disk florets hermaphrodite, fertile, tubular, yellow, five-cleft; involucre campanulate or hemispheric; bracts few or many-seriate, outer smaller or larger; receptacle flat or convex; pappus hairs few or copious, scabrid, outer sometimes shorter, rigid, and paleaceous. Leaves alternate. This large genus contains many handsome border and alpine deciduous perennials (rarely biennials) of easy culture in ordinary soil. They may be propagated by divisions in autumn or spring, or by seeds in spring. The greenhouse species are mostly evergreen shrubs, requiring a compost of peat, leaf soil, and loam. Cuttings root readily in a sandy soil, under a hand glass, with very little heat.

=A. acris= (acrid). _fl.-heads_ blue; involucre imbricated, twice as short as the disk. August. _l._ linear-lanceolate, not dotted, three-nerved. _h._ 2ft. South Europe, 1731.

=A. acuminatus= (taper-pointed).* _fl.-heads_ white; panicle corymbose. September. _l._ broad-lanceolate, narrowed at base, entire, with a very long point. Stem simple, flexuous, angular. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1806.

=A. adulterinus= (false). _fl.-heads_ violet; involucre squarrose, shorter than the disk. September. _l._ amplexicaul, lanceolate; lower ones sub-serrate, smooth; those of the branches linear squarrose. _h._ 3ft. North America.

=A. æstivus= (summer-flowering).* _fl.-heads_ blue. July. _l._ lanceolate, somewhat amplexicaul, narrowed at the end, scabrous at edge. Stem erect, hispid; branchlets pilose. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1776.

=A. albescens= (whitish). _fl.-heads_ purple or whitish, nearly 1in. across; corymbosely panicled; scales of involucre ovate-linear, apiculate; ray twenty-flowered. August. _l._ lanceolate on short petioles, denticulate, downy. Plant beset with rusty down. _h._ 3ft. Nepal, 1842.

=A. alpinus= (alpine).* _fl.-heads_ bright purple, 1in. to 2in. across; scales of involucre nearly equal, lanceolate, bluntish. July. _l._, radical ones lanceolate-spathulate; those of the stem lanceolate. Stem one-flowered. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Europe, 1658. A very attractive species, having a dwarf, stout habit; it forms a useful and handsome subject for edging, and its flowers are valuable for cutting purposes. See Fig. 177.

=A. a. albus= (white).* _fl.-heads_ white, in other respects resembling the type; but it is much less desirable, and has not nearly so vigorous a habit. Europe, 1827.

=A. altaicus= (Altaian).* _fl.-heads_ blue-purple, about 2in. across; stem simple, corymbose, downy. June, July. _l._ linear-lanceolate, entire, blunt mucronate, three-nerved at base, veiny. _h._ 1ft. Siberia, 1804. This, which is frequently considered a variety of _A. alpinus_, is one of the handsomest.

=A. alwartensis= (Alwart). _fl.-heads_ red; ray very fine; involucre loosely squarrose. May. _l._ ovate, narrowed at base, entire, about five-nerved. _h._ 1ft. Caucasus, 1807.

=A. Amellus= (Amellus).* _fl.-heads_ purple, solitary, numerous; involucre imbricated squarrose; leaves blunt; inner membranous, coloured at edge. August. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, scabrous. _h._ 2ft. Italy, 1596. One of the best border kinds.

[Illustration: FIG. 177. ASTER ALPINUS.]

=A. A. bessarabicus= (Bessarabian).* A most desirable variety, frequently seen in gardens; it is rather taller than the type, with larger flower-heads, of a deep purple colour. One of the showiest of all the Asters. See Fig. 178.

[Illustration: FIG. 178. ASTER AMELLUS BESSARABICUS.]

=A. amplexicaulis= (stem-clasping). _fl.-heads_ violet. July. _l._ ovate-oblong, acute, amplexicaul, cordate, serrated, smooth. Stem panicled, smooth; branches one to two-headed. _h._ 3ft. North America.

=A. amygdalinus= (Almond-leaved). _fl.-heads_ white; involucre closely imbricated. August. _l._ lanceolate, narrowed at base, acuminated, scabrous at edge. Stem simple, corymbose at end. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1759.

=A. argenteus= (silvery).* _fl.-heads_ purple. August. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, silky, sessile. Stem slender, decumbent, loosely branched; branches and branchlets one-headed. _h._ 1ft. North America, 1801.

=A. bellidiflorus= (Daisy-flowered). _fl.-heads_ pale red; involucre with spreading scales. September. _l._ amplexicaul, narrow-lanceolate, scabrous above, lower sub-serrated. Stem much branched. _h._ 3ft. North America.

=A. Bigelovii= (Bigelow's).* _fl.-heads_ corymbose, 2-1/2in. diameter, ray-florets lilac, disk yellow. Summer. _l._ scabrous pubescent, oblong-spathulate; cauline ones amplexicaul, ovate-oblong, crenate, obscurely-toothed. _h._ 2-1/2ft. Colorado, 1878. A very handsome biennial species. SYN. _A. Townshendi_.

=A. blandus= (charming). _fl.-heads_ pale purple; racemes scarcely longer than the leaves. October. _l._ sub-amplexicaul, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, sessile, smooth. Stem pyramidal. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1800.

=A. canescens= (hoary). _fl.-heads_ pale purple; involucre imbricated, very acute, longer than disk. September. _l._ linear. Panicle corymbose, much branched, leafy. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1812. Biennial or perennial.

=A. cassiarabicus= (Arabian Cassia). _fl.-heads_ pink; panicles corymbose. September. _l._ ovate, acute, serrated, tapering at the petioles. Plant erect, pilose. _h._ 2ft. Russia, 1834.

=A. caucasicus= (Caucasian).* _fl.-heads_ purple, solitary; scales of involucre nearly equal, linear. July. _l._ ovate, sessile, scabrous. _h._ 1ft. Caucasus, 1804.

=A. ciliatus= (ciliated). _fl.-heads_ white. September. _l._ ciliated; cauline ones linear-lanceolate, nerved; those of the branches very short lanceolate, three-nerved. Stem branched, downy; branches downy. _h._ 3ft. North America.

=A. concinnus= (neat).* _fl.-heads_ purple; involucre closely imbricated. October. _l._ sub-amplexicaul, lanceolate; lower ones sub-serrate, smooth. Stem simple, panicled at end. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1800.

=A. concolor= (one-coloured). _fl.-heads_ purple; raceme terminal. October. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, hoary on each side. Stem simple, erect, downy. _h._ 1ft. North America, 1759.

=A. conyzioides= (Conyza-like). Synonymous with _Seriocarpus conyzioides_.

=A. cordifolius= (heart-leaved). _fl.-heads_ blue, small, disposed in crowded racemes, which are slightly drooping. July. _l._ cordate, pilose beneath, finely serrated, stalked. Stem smoothish, panicled; panicle spreading. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1759.

=A. coridifolius= (Coris-leaved). _fl.-heads_ pale blue. October. _l._ very numerous, linear, blunt, reflexed, hispid at edge. Stem branched, diffuse, smooth; branches one-headed. _h._ 1ft. North America.

[Illustration: FIG. 179. ASTER CORYMBOSUS, showing Habit and Flower-head.]

=A. corymbosus= (corymbose). _fl.-heads_ corymbose, about 1in. in diameter; ray-florets few, narrow, white; disk-florets pale yellow. Autumn. _l._ 3in. long, cordate acute, lobed at the base, coarsely toothed. Stems brittle, blackish purple. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. SYN. _Biotia corymbosa_. See Fig. 179.

=A. diffusus= (diffuse). _fl.-heads_ white; involucres imbricated. October. _l._ elliptic-lanceolate, equal, serrated, smooth. Branches spreading. Stem pubescent. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1777.

=A. Douglasii= (Douglas's).* _fl.-heads_ purple; involucral scales linear or spathulate-linear, loosely imbricated. August. _l._ lanceolate, acute, entire, or rarely serrate, mostly tapering at the base. Stem smooth, slender, paniculately branched, leafy. _h._ 3ft. to 4ft. California, &c.

=A. dracunculoides= (Tarragon-like).* _fl.-heads_ white, about 1in. across, disposed in dense cymose clusters; involucre imbricated. September, October. _l._ linear, acuminated, entire; lower ones linear-lanceolate, sub-serrate. Branches corymbose. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1811. A very handsome species.

=A. dumosus= (bushy).* _fl.-heads_ white, about 1/2in. across, disposed in broad clusters; involucre cylindrical, closely imbricated. October. _l._ linear, glabrous; those of the branches very short. Branches panicled. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1734.

=A. d. albus= (white).* _fl.-heads_ quite white, and rather smaller than those of the species. North America.

=A. d. violaceus= (violet). _fl.-heads_ violet-purple. North America.

=A. elegans= (elegant). _fl.-heads_ blue, small; corymb contracted, drooping; scales of involucre oblong-cuneate, blunt, squarrose. September. _l._ scabrous; cauline ones oblong-lanceolate, acute; radical ones oblong, stalked. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1790. A very elegant species, having a graceful habit.

=A. eminens= (eminent). _fl.-heads_ light blue. October. _l._ linear-lanceolate, acuminate, scabrous at edge; lower ones sub-serrated. Stem panicled; branches one-headed. _h._ 2ft. North America.

[Illustration: FIG. 180. ASTER ERICOIDES.]

=A. ericoides= (Heath-like).* _fl.-heads_ white; involucre squarrose, leaflets acute. September. _l._ linear, glabrous; those of the branches subulate, close together; and those of the stem long. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1758. A very pretty species. See Fig. 180.

=A. floribundus= (many-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ light purple. September. _l._ sub-amplexicaul, lanceolate; lower ones serrated. Stem smooth; branches corymbose. _h._ 4ft. North America.

=A. foliosus= (leafy). _fl.-heads_ pale blue; involucre imbricate. September. _l._ linear-lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed at each end. Stem downy, panicled, erect; branches few-headed. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1732.

=A. fragilis= (fragile). _fl.-heads_ flesh-coloured, small; involucre imbricated. September. _l._ linear, acuminate, entire; radical ones oblong, serrate. Branches in corymbose panicles. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1800.

[Illustration: FIG. 181. ASTER GRANDIFLORUS.]

=A. grandiflorus= (large-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ purple, large, terminal; scales of involucre squarrose. November. _l._ linear, rigid, acute, sub-amplexicaul; those of the branches reflexed, hispid at edge. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1720. See Fig. 181.

=A. hyssopifolius= (Hyssop-leaved).* _fl.-heads_ white, or purple shaded; scales of the involucre about half as long as the disk. August to October. _l._ linear-lanceolate, acute, with the margins scabrous. Branches fastigiate and corymbose, smooth. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft. North America.

=A. lævigatus= (smooth-stemmed). _fl.-heads_ flesh-coloured, about 1in. across, disposed in large panicles. September. _l._ sub-amplexicaul, broad-lanceolate, sub-serrate, smooth. Stem glabrous. Branches many-headed. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1794.

=A. lævis= (smooth).* _fl.-heads_ blue; involucre imbricated with cuneiform leaflets. September. _l._ sub-amplexicaul, remotely oblong, entire, lucid; radical ones sub-serrated. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1758. One of the best border species.

=A. laxus= (loose-flowered). _fl.-heads_ white, about 1in. across; clusters loose. October. _l._ linear-lanceolate, scabrous at edge; lower ones sub-serrated; stem ones reflexed. Stem loosely panicled. _h._ 2ft. North America.

=A. linarifolius= (Toad-flax-leaved). _fl.-heads_ pale blue. September. _l._ numerous, linear, mucronated, nerveless, not dotted, keeled, scabrous, rigid. Branches fastigiate, one-headed. _h._ 1ft. North America, 1699.

=A. linifolius= (Flax-leaved). _fl.-heads_ white; involucre imbricated, short. July. _l._ linear, nerveless, dotted, scabrous, reflexed, spreading. Branches corymbose, fastigiate, leafy. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1739.

=A. longifolius= (long-leaved).* _fl.-heads_ white, 1in. across, in dense corymbose panicles; involucre squarrose. October. _l._ linear-lanceolate, rarely toothed, very long, smooth. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1798. There are several varieties of this handsome species.

=A. l. formosus= (charming).* _fl.-heads_ pink, produced in dense corymbs. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 2ft.

=A. macrophyllus= (large-leaved). _fl.-heads_ white. August. _l._ large, ovate, stalked, serrated, scabrous; upper ones cordate, sessile. Stem branched, diffuse. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1739.

=A. multiflorus= (many-flowered).* _fl.-heads_ white, small; corymb large, elongated; involucre imbricated; scales oblong, squarrose, acute. September. _l._ linear, glabrous. Stem much branched, diffuse, downy; branchlets one-sided. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1732.

=A. myrtifolius= (Myrtle-leaved). _fl.-heads_ white; involucre imbricated; scales length of disk. August. _l._, stem ones, amplexicaul, scabrous; those of the branches small. _h._ 2ft. 1812.

=A. novæ-angliæ= (New England).* _fl.-heads_ purple, in terminal clusters. September. _l._ linear-lanceolate, pilose, amplexicaul, auricled at base. Stem simple, pilose, straight. _h._ 6ft. North America, 1710. One of the best; having a tall and robust habit.

=A. n.-a. rubra= (red).* _fl.-heads_ deep red pink, in other respects like the type. North America, 1812.

=A. novæ-belgii= (New York).* _fl.-heads_ pale blue. September. _l._ sub-amplexicaul, lanceolate, glabrous, scabrous at edge; lower ones sub-serrated. Branches divided. _h._ 4ft. North America, 1710. There is a variety known in gardens which belongs to this species, under the name of _amethystinus_, the flowers of which are much larger and very showy.

=A. obliquus= (oblique). _fl.-heads_ numerous; ray white; disk purplish. Autumn. _l._ alternate; lower ones linear-lanceolate, oblique; upper stem ones smaller. _h._ 5ft. North America. A very fine species, forming large tufts.

=A. paniculatus= (panicled).* _fl.-heads_ light blue; involucre loose. September. _l._ ovate-lanceolate, sub-serrated, stalked, smooth; petioles naked. Stem much branched, smooth. _h._ 4ft. North America, 1640.

=A. pannonicus= (Pannonian). _fl.-heads_ violet; scales of involucre lanceolate, blunt, equal. July. _l._ linear-lanceolate, hispid at edge. Stem simple, corymbose. _h._ 2ft. Hungary, 1815.

=A. patens= (spreading). _fl.-heads_ light purple, about 1in. across. October. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, ciliate, cordate, amplexicaul, scabrous on each side, hairy. Stem branched, hairy. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1773.

=A. pendulus= (drooping).* _fl.-heads_ pure white at first, ultimately rosy pink, small. September. _l._ elliptic-lanceolate, serrate, smooth, those of the branches distant. Branches much spreading, pendulous. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1758. A very pretty species.

=A. peregrinus= (foreign).* _fl.-heads_ bluish purple, 2in. across. July, August. _l._ lanceolate, sub-acute, entire, smooth, those of the stem rather narrower than the radical ones. Stem smooth, or nearly so, two or three-flowered. _h._ 1ft. North America. A very pretty little species for the rockery or border.

=A. pilosus= (pilose). _fl.-heads_ pale blue; involucre oblong, loose, imbricated. September. _l._ linear-lanceolate, hoary. Stem branched, villous; branchlets somewhat one-sided, one-headed. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1812.

=A. præcox= (early). _fl.-heads_ violet; involucre imbricated; scales nearly equal; outer scales somewhat spreading. July. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at the base. Stem hairy. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1800.

=A. pulchellus= (beautiful).* _fl.-heads_ purple, solitary; scales of involucre nearly equal, linear, acuminate. June. _l._, radical ones spathulate; cauline ones linear-lanceolate. _h._ 1ft. Armenia.

=A. puniceus= (red-stalked). _fl.-heads_ blue, about 1in. across; panicle large, pyramidal; involucre loose, longer than the disk. September. _l._ amplexicaul, lanceolate, serrate, roughish. Branches panicled. _h._ 6ft. North America, 1710.

=A. pyrenæus= (Pyrenean).* _fl.-heads_ lilac-blue (disk yellow), large, three to five in a short corymb. July. _l._ scabrous on both sides; cauline ones oblong-lanceolate, acute, sessile, sharply serrated on the upper part. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft. Pyrenees.

=A. Reevesi= (Reeves's). _fl.-heads_ white, with yellow centre, small; panicle dense, pyramidal. Autumn. _l._ linear, acute. Branches slender. _h._ 9in. to 12in. North America. A very desirable species, suitable for rockwork.

=A. reticulatus= (netted). _fl.-heads_ white. July. _l._ lanceolate-oblong, acute at each end, sessile, revolute at end, netted, and three-nerved beneath. Plant hoary all over. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1812.

=A. rubricaule= (red-stemmed). Synonymous with _A. spurius_.

=A. salicifolius= (Willow-leaved). _fl.-heads_ flesh-coloured; involucre lanceolate, imbricate; scales acute, spreading at end. September. _l._ linear-lanceolate, nearly entire, smooth. Stem smooth, panicled at end. _h._ 6ft. North America, 1760.

=A. salsuginosus= (salt-plains).* _fl.-heads_ violet-purple; involucral scales linear, loose, glandular. July. _l._ entire, the lower spathulate, obovate, tapering into a margined petiole; the upper ones lanceolate, acute, with broad base, usually sub-amplexicaul. Stem minutely pubescent, leafy nearly to the top, few-flowered. _h._ 9in. to 18in. North America, 1827. A very handsome species.

=A. s. elatior= (tallest). This variety grows 2ft. or more high, and has rather larger flowers than the type. North America.

=A. sericeus= (silky). _fl.-heads_ deep blue; terminal, about 1-1/2in. across. Summer and autumn. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, sessile, entire, three-nerved, silky with down. _h._ 3ft. Missouri, 1802. This is a half-hardy evergreen shrub, and requires a warm, well-drained soil.

=A. serotinus= (late-flowering). _fl.-heads_ blue. September. _l._ oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, sessile, smooth, scabrous at edge; lower ones serrated; branches corymbose, smooth. _h._ 3ft. North America.

=A. Shortii= (Short's). _fl.-heads_ purplish blue, about 1in. across; panicles long, racemose. Autumn. _l._ lanceolate, elongated, acuminated, cordate at the base. _h._ 2ft. to 4ft. Stem slender, spreading. North America.

=A. sibiricus= (Siberian). _fl.-heads_ blue; involucre loose; leaflets lanceolate, acuminate, hispid. August. _l._ lanceolate, sub-amplexicaul, serrate, pilose, scabrous. _h._ 2ft. Siberia, 1768.

=A. sikkimensis= (Sikkimese).* _fl.-heads_ purple; leaflets of involucre linear, acuminate, sub-squarrose. October. _l._ lanceolate, acuminate, spinosely denticulate; radical ones on longer petioles; cauline ones sessile; corymbs large, of many heads, leafy, erect, glabrous, branched. _h._ 3ft. Sikkim, 1850.

=A. spectabilis= (showy).* _fl.-heads_ blue; scales of involucre loose, leafy. August. _l._ lanceolate, roughish, somewhat amplexicaul; lower ones serrate in the middle. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1777. A very pretty species.

=A. spurius= (spurious). _fl.-heads_ purple, large, few; inner scales of involucre coloured. September. _l._ linear-lanceolate, amplexicaul, polished. Stem virgate, panicled. Branches racemose. _h._ 4ft. North America, 1789. SYN. _A. rubricaule_.

=A. tardiflorus= (late-flowering). _fl.-heads_ blue, numerous. Autumn. _l._ sessile, serrated, smooth, spathulate-lanceolate, narrowed at base, and bent down towards each side. _h._ 2ft. North America, 1775.

=A. Townshendi= (Townshend's). Synonymous with _A. Bigelovii_.

=A. Tradescanti= (Tradescant's).* _fl.-heads_ white; involucre imbricated. August. _l._ lanceolate-sessile, serrated, smooth; branches virgate. Stem round, smooth. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1633. _A. multiflorus_ is very much like this species, and, perhaps, a mere form thereof, with somewhat smaller flowers and more obovate-oblong leaves.

=A. tripolium= (Tripoli). Michaelmas Daisy. _fl.-heads_ blue; disk yellow; scales of involucre lanceolate, membranous, obtuse, imbricated. August. _l._ linear-lanceolate, fleshy, obscurely three-nerved. Stem glabrous, corymbose. _h._ 2ft. Britain.

[Illustration: FIG. 182. ASTER TURBINELLUS.]

=A. turbinellus= (turbinate). _fl.-heads_ delicate mauve, disposed in panicles; involucre top-shaped, scales imbricate. Summer and autumn. _l._ lanceolate, smooth, entire, with fringed margins, somewhat stem-clasping; those of the branchlets awl-shaped. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. North America. A very desirable species. See Fig. 182.

=A. undulatus= (undulated). _fl.-heads_ pale blue. August. _l._ oblong-cordate, amplexicaul, entire; petioles winged. Stem panicled, hispid. Branchlets one-sided. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1699.

=A. versicolor= (various-coloured).* _fl.-heads_ white, changing to purple; scales of involucre shorter than disk. August. _l._ sub-amplexicaul, broad-lanceolate, sub-serrate, smooth. Stem glabrous. _h._ 3ft. North America, 1790.

The annuals (_Callistemma hortensis_), usually known as French, German, or China Asters, are very extensively grown, both for beds and pots, and their diversity and generally compact growth render them almost universal favourites. They require a rich loamy soil, and as the roots are produced near the surface, a mulching of rotten dung will be found most beneficial. Seeds may be raised in a cold frame in March or April, and, when the seedlings are large enough, they must be transplanted into beds from 9in. to 12in. apart each way. If it is desired to have them in pots, they may be removed thence with a good ball of earth adhering just before they commence flowering, liberally watered, and kept lightly shaded from the sun, until root action is resumed. Those kinds required for exhibition purposes should have several of the side shoots removed, so that the whole growing energy of the plant may be centralised into from five to seven flower-heads, by which means fine blooms may be obtained. The dwarf kinds are most valuable for bedding and pots, as the taller kinds frequently require stakes for support. The following are the most important sections:

=Betteridge's Prize.= Very beautifully formed and brilliantly coloured varieties, unsurpassed for exhibition purposes. As this class has rather a straggling habit of growth, it is less suitable for bedding and borders than many of the others.

=Boltze's Miniature Bouquet Pyramidal.= Dwarf and elegant, in compact bouquets of six or eight; the truss of flower-heads springs directly from the ground, having only a few leaves at base. Colours very varied. _h._ 6in. to 8in.

[Illustration: FIG. 183. TRUFFAUT'S PEONY-FLOWERED ASTER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 184. TRUFFAUT'S PERFECTION ASTER.]

=Crown.=* Distinct. The central portion, or disk, of the head of flowers is pure white, surrounded by a broad margin of coloured ray florets, such as purple, violet, crimson, rose, &c. Flower-heads large, flat, freely produced. _h._ 1ft. to 1-1/2ft.

=Dwarf Chrysanthemum-flowered.=* In size of flower-heads and habit of growth, this surpasses all other dwarf varieties. The flowers are full, Chrysanthemum-shaped, produced in clusters, or bouquets, from ten to twenty in a truss, very delicate and beautiful in colour. _h._ 1ft.

=Dwarf Pyramidal= or =Dwarf Bouquet=. A pretty little class, and extremely floriferous, each plant producing from twenty to fifty heads of bloom. Some of the colours are: Exquisite carmine with white points, white with blue or carmine points, white with salmon centre, &c. _h._ 1ft.

=Improved Imbricate.= The best strain of pyramidal Asters with recurved florets; fine regular form of flowers, double to the centre, producing but few seeds. Colours very brilliant. _h._ 2ft.

=Improved Rose.= A handsome class, producing a branched head, displaying no less than fifty large double flower-heads, the outer florets finely imbricated, and filled up to the centre when quite open. The colours are of great brilliancy, and of many shades. _h._ 2ft.

=Pompone Goliath.=* Flower-heads globular, and florets very closely set. Valuable for bouquets, as the flowers remain intact for a considerable time.

=Pyramidal Hedgehog.= Singular and unique. Stems upright, and branched; each branch terminated by a single flower-head, which is filled up with quill-like florets. Colours various. _h._ 1-1/2ft.

=Truffaut's Pæony Perfection.=* Vigorous upright growers, having large, hemispherical-formed heads of flowers with incurved florets, 4in. across. The colours also are very varied. _h._ about 2ft. See Figs. 183 and 184.

[Illustration: FIG. 185. VICTORIA ASTER.]

=Victoria.=* One of the most popular classes of Asters grown; flower-heads very double, imbricate, globular, 4in. in diameter, from ten to twenty on a plant, of various shades. _h._ 1ft., with a pyramidal habit. See Fig. 185.

=ASTERACANTHA= (from _aster_, a star, and _acantha_, a spine; referring to the disposition of the spines). ORD. _Acanthaceæ_. A handsome greenhouse herbaceous perennial, of easy culture in sandy loam. It should be grown in a sunny position, and be kept moderately dry, otherwise little but foliaceous growth will be produced; but, if thus treated, it flowers freely. Propagated by divisions in spring; or by seeds, sown in August.

=A. longifolia= (long-leaved). _fl._ yellow, in dense axillary fascicles. July. _l._ lanceolate, tapering to the base, narrow, sessile, serrately ciliated. Stem quadrangular. Plant rather hairy. _h._ 2ft. India, 1781.

=ASTERACEÆ.= _See_ =Compositæ=.

=ASTEROCEPHALUS.= _See_ =Scabiosa=.

=ASTILBE= (from _a_, without, and _stilbe_, brilliancy; in allusion to the inconspicuous flowers of some of the species). ORD. _Saxifragaceæ_. Tall branching herbs, with triternate or biternate leaves, allied to _Spiræa_, from which they differ in having not more than three carpels, eight or ten stamens, and numerous albuminous seeds. They are all more or less graceful, and some indispensable, either when grown in isolated clumps, or intermingled with other herbaceous plants. They thrive well in almost any rich garden soil, preferring damp positions, and are easily propagated by division, which is best done in early spring. _A. japonica_ is grown very extensively for decorative purposes, its elegant spikes of pure white flowers rendering it especially valuable. The majority of the plants cultivated are imported, but they may be grown fairly well in this country in heavily manured soil. They should be potted as early as possible in the autumn, and plunged in ashes or fibre outside, when they will soon commence to root, after which they may be placed in heat, and forced as required, always giving an abundance of water. Indeed, the pots may be stood in pans of water, especially when the plants are well furnished with growth.

=A. barbata= (bearded). A synonym of _A. japonica_.

=A. decandra= (ten-stamened). _fl._ white, in spicate racemose panicles. May. _l._ biternate; leaflets cordate, deeply lobed and serrated, glandular beneath, and on the petioles. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. North America, 1812.

[Illustration: FIG. 186. ASTILBE JAPONICA.]

=A. japonica= (Japanese).* _fl._ small, pure white, in large branching racemose panicles. May. _l._ triternate or pinnate, serrated. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Japan. This is best grown in pots, as early frosts generally cut it down in the open air. SYNS. _Spiræa barbata_ and _japonica_, also _Hoteia_ and _A. barbata_. See Fig 186.

=A. j. variegata= (variegated).* _l._ prettily variegated with yellow; panicles much more dense than the type; indeed, it is far superior in that respect.

[Illustration: FIG. 187. ASTILBE RIVULARIS.]

=A. rivularis= (brook).* _fl._ yellowish-white, or reddish, in large panicled spikes. Late summer. _l._ biternate; leaflets ovate, doubly serrated, villous beneath and on the petioles. _h._ 3ft. Nepaul. A grand plant for the margins of lakes or damp woodlands. See Fig. 187.

=A. rubra= (red).* _fl._ rose, very numerous, in dense panicles. Late summer and autumn. _l._ biternate; leaflets oblique, cordate, 1in. to 2in. long, with elongated, serrated points. _h._ 4ft. to 6ft. India, 1851. A very pretty, but rare species; excellent for sub-tropical gardening.

=A. Thunbergi= (Thunberg's).* _fl._ small, white, very numerous, in erect, much branched, pyramidal panicles, with reddish and slightly downy stalks. May. _l._ unequally pinnate or bipinnate; leaflets broad, yellowish green, sharply toothed. _h._ 1-1/2ft. Japan, 1878. This pretty little sub-shrub is extensively propagated on the Continent for forcing purposes.

=ASTRAGALUS= (a name applied to a shrub by Greek writers). Milk Vetch. ORD. _Leguminosæ_. A very large genus of hardy herbs or sub-shrubs. Flowers in axillary clusters; standard larger than the wings. Leaves unequally pinnate. About one hundred species have from time to time been introduced in English gardens; many of these are lost to cultivation; the comparative few here described are still generally grown, and are good representative species. They are all of easy culture. The shrubby kinds grow well in any light dry soil, and are slowly increased by cuttings placed in a cold frame, or by seeds. The herbaceous perennials prefer a dry light soil, and may be increased by divisions or seeds; the latter mode is preferable, as many species are very liable to die if transplanted or divided, which is at best but a slow method. Seed should be sown in pots of sandy soil placed in a cold frame as soon as ripe, or very early in the spring, as they may lie a long time before germinating. The dwarfer species constitute admirable rockwork plants, and can be grown in pots containing a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. Seeds of the two annual species, _A. Cicer_ and _A. Glaux_, merely require to be sown in the open border early in spring.

=A. adsurgens= (adsurgent).* _fl._ bluish purple; spikes oblong, pedunculate, longer than the leaves, densely packed. June. _l._ with eleven to twelve pairs of ovate-lanceolate acute leaflets; stipules acuminated, length of leaves. Plant ascending, smoothish. Siberia, 1818. A very handsome and rare perennial species.

=A. aduncus= (hooked). _fl._ rose purple, in oblong spikes; peduncles rather shorter than the leaves. June and July. _l._ with numerous pairs of roundish-ovate, smooth leaflets, sometimes downy. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Caucasus, 1819. Perennial.

=A. alopecuroides= (foxtail-like).* _fl._ yellow, disposed in thick dense ovate-oblong spikes, on short axillary peduncles. June. _l._ with numerous ovate-lanceolate, pubescent leaflets; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acuminated. Plant erect. _h._ 2ft. to 5ft. Siberia, 1737. One of the finest perennial species grown.

=A. alpinus= (alpine). _fl._ bluish-purple, sometimes whitish, drooping, disposed in racemes of about 1/2in. long. Summer. _l._ impari-pinnate, with eight to twelve pairs of ovate or oblong leaflets. Britain. A very desirable, hairy, prostrate perennial.

=A. arenarius= (sand-loving).* _fl._ blue; peduncles few-flowered, rather shorter than the leaves. June. _l._ with linear-obtuse leaflets; stipules connate, opposite the leaves. Plant diffuse, tomentose from white adpressed down. _h._ 6in. Denmark, 1800. Perennial.

=A. austriacus= (Austrian).* _fl._ few; upper petal, or vexillum, blue, the rest purple; racemes pedunculate, longer than the leaves. May. _l._, leaflets glabrous, linear, truncately emarginate. Plant diffusely procumbent. South Europe, 1640. Perennial.

=A. canadensis= (Canadian). _fl._ yellow, disposed in spikes; peduncles about as long as the leaves. July. _l._ with ten to twelve pairs of elliptic-oblong, bluntish leaflets. Plant nearly erect, rather hairy. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. North America, 1732. Perennial.

=A. Cicer= (Vetch-like). _fl._ pale yellow, disposed in spike-like heads; peduncles longer than the leaves. July. _l._ with ten to thirteen pairs of elliptic-oblong mucronate leaflets. Plant diffusely procumbent. Europe, 1570. Annual.

=A. dahuricus= (Dahurian). _fl._ purple, in dense racemes, which are longer than the leaves. July. _l._, leaflets, seven to nine pairs, oblong, mucronate. Plant erect, pilose. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Dahuria to China, 1822. Perennial.

=A. dasyglottis= (thick-tongued).* _fl._ purple, blue, and white mixed, in capitate spikes; peduncles a little longer than the leaves. June. _l._, leaflets elliptic-oblong, somewhat emarginate; stipules connate, opposite the leaves. _h._ 3in. to 4in. Plant diffuse. Siberia, 1818. A charming little alpine perennial.

=A. falcatus= (hooked). _fl._ greenish yellow, in spikes; peduncles rather longer than the leaves. June. _l._ with sixteen to twenty pairs of elliptic-oblong, acute leaflets. Plant erect, rather hairy. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Siberia (in wet, grassy places). Perennial. SYN. _A. virescens_.

=A. galegiformis= (Galega-like).* _fl._ pale yellow, pendulous, racemose; peduncles longer than the leaves. June. _l._ with twelve to thirteen pairs of elliptic-oblong leaflets. Plant erect, glabrous. _h._ 3ft. to 5ft. Siberia, 1729. A showy perennial species.

=A. Glaux= (Milkwort). _fl._ purplish, in dense heads; peduncles longer than the leaves. June. _l._ with eight to thirteen pairs of small, oblong, acutish leaflets. Spain, 1596. Procumbent annual, clothed with whitish hair.

=A. glycyphyllos= (sweet-leaved).* _fl._ sulphur coloured, in ovate-oblong spikes; peduncles shorter than the leaves. June. _l._ with four, five, to seven pairs of oval, bluntish, smooth leaflets; stipules ovate-lanceolate, entire. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Britain. A perennial prostrate trailer.

=A. hypoglottis= (under-tongued).* _fl._ variegated with purplish, blue and white, disposed in roundish heads; peduncles longer than the leaves, ascending. June. _l._ with numerous little ovate, obtuse, dark green leaflets, somewhat emarginate; stipules connate, ovate. Stems prostrate, rather hairy. _h._ 3in. Britain, &c. Perennial trailer.

=A. h. alba= (white-flowered).* This resembles the type, except in the colour of the flowers.

=A. leucophyllus= (hoary-leaved).* _fl._ pale yellow, about 1/2in. long, in dense racemes; peduncles much longer than the leaves. July and August. _l._, leaflets in numerous pairs, broadly-linear, covered with soft, silky pubescence. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. North America. Perennial.

=A. maximus= (largest).* _fl._ yellow; spike sessile, cylindrical, nearly terminal. June. _l._ with ovate-lanceolate, pubescent leaflets; stipules oblong-lanceolate. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Armenia. A very handsome, erect, perennial species.

[Illustration: FIG. 188. ASTRAGALUS MONSPESSULANUS, showing Habit and Flower.]

=A. monspessulanus= (Montpelier).* _fl._ usually purplish, spicate; peduncles longer than the leaves. June. _l._, leaflets twenty-one to forty-one, ovate or lanceolate, outer ones rather the smallest. Leaves hoary, and plant almost stemless when growing in dry exposed situations; but in rich earth or moist places the leaves are almost glabrous, and the stem becomes elongated. South Europe, 1710. This species is much appreciated, and well deserves a place in all collections. Evergreen trailer. See Fig. 188.

=A. narbonensis= (Narbonne). _fl._ yellow, disposed in somewhat globose spikes, on short axillary peduncles. June. _l._ with oblong-linear leaflets; stipules lanceolate. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Narbonne and Madrid, 1789. An erect hairy perennial.

=A. odoratus= (sweet-scented). _fl._ pale yellow, sweet-scented, disposed in spikes; peduncles same length as leaves. June. _l._ with eleven to fourteen pairs of oblong acute leaflets; stipules connate. Plant erect, rather ascending. _h._ 6in. Levant, 1820. Perennial.

=A. onobrychioides= (Onobrychis-like).* _fl._ beautiful purple, in capitate spikes on long peduncles. July. _l._ with eight to ten pairs of elliptic leaflets; stipules connate, opposite the leaves. Plant rather diffuse, shrubby at the base, clothed with adpressed hairs. _h._ 9in. to 12in. Iberia, Persia, &c., 1819. A very handsome perennial species.

=A. Onobrychis= (Onobrychis). _fl._ purple; spikes oblong-ovate, pedunculate, longer than the leaves. June. _l._ with seven to sixteen pairs of oblong leaflets. _h._ 1-1/2ft., or procumbent. Mountains Southern Europe, 1640. This is an elegant perennial, and ranks among the very best. The varieties, all white flowered, are: _alpinus_, _major_, _microphyllus_ and _moldavicus_, but only the first-named is now in cultivation.

=A. pannosus= (woolly).* _fl._ rose-coloured, in compact globose heads, with peduncles shorter than the leaves. July. _l._ with four, five, to nine pairs of ovate-lanceolate leaflets, thickly coated with long white woolly hairs. _h._ 6in. to 9in. Siberia. Perennial.

=A. ponticus= (Pontic). _fl._ yellow; spikes sessile, almost globose. July. _l._ oblong, smoothish; stipules lanceolate. Stem rather hairy. _h._ 2ft. Tauria, 1820. A very showy, erect, border perennial.

=A. purpureus= (purple). _fl._ purplish blue, disposed in capitate spikes; peduncles longer than the leaves. June. _l._, leaflets obovate, bidentate at the apex; stipules connate, opposite the leaves. Plant diffuse, procumbent, rather hairy. _h._ 3in. to 6in. Provence, 1820. Perennial.

=A. sulcatus= (furrowed).* _fl._ pale violet, but with a white keel, tipped with brown; racemes pedunculate, longer than the leaves. July. _l._ with linear-lanceolate leaflets. Plant erect, glabrous; stem furrowed. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Siberia, 1783. Perennial.

=A. Tragacantha= (great goat's thorn).* Gum Tragacanth. _fl._ pale violet, two to five together, axillary, sessile. June. _l._ with eight to nine pairs of linear hispid leaflets; young stipules connate, clothed with silky hairs; adult ones glabrous; petioles permanent, at length becoming hardened spines. _h._ 1-1/2ft. to 3ft. Levant, 1640. Evergreen shrub. Tragacanth, a partially soluble gum, was formerly supposed to be furnished by this plant. It is, however, now known that _A. Tragacantha_ yields none. Several species from mountainous regions in Asia Minor, &c., furnish the gum.

=A. vaginatus= (sheathed-stipuled). _fl._ rosy-purple, with white-tipped wings; calyx rather inflated, covered with soft white and black hairs; spikes dense. Summer. _l._ impari-pinnate, with seven or eight pairs of elongated-oblong leaflets, both surfaces covered with short silvery hairs. _h._ 1ft. Siberia. Perennial.

=A. vesicarius= (bladdery). _fl._, upper petal purple, the wings yellow, and the keel white, tipped with yellow; calyx clothed with black adpressed down and long white spreading hairs; peduncles longer than the leaves. July. _l._ with five to seven pairs of elliptic leaflets. Plant diffusely procumbent, hoary from adpressed silky down. _h._ 6in. to 9in. France, 1737. Perennial trailer.

=A viminens= (twiggy). _fl._, upper petal purplish rose, much longer than the pure white wings; calyx clothed with black hairs; spikes somewhat capitate, pedunculate, longer than the leaves. June. _l._ with four to six pairs of lanceolate acute leaflets, beset with adpressed hairs. _h._ 6in. to 1ft. Siberia, 1816. A handsome perennial.

=A. virescens= (greenish). Synonymous with _A. falcata_.

=A. vulpinus= (fox).* _fl._ pale yellow; spikes nearly globose, on very short peduncles. June. _l._ with obovate, obtuse, emarginate, rather velvety leaflets. Plant erect; stem glabrous. _h._ 2ft. to 3ft. Caucasus, 1815. A handsome border perennial.

=ASTRANTIA= (from _astron_, a star, and _anti_, in composition signifying comparison; in reference to the appearance of the umbels of flowers). ORD. _Umbelliferæ_. Ornamental, hardy, herbaceous perennials, natives of Europe and Caucasus. Universal umbels irregular, of few rays, surrounded by variable involucre; partial umbels regular, and containing many flowers, surrounded by many-leaved involucels. Radical leaves petiolate, palmately lobed; cauline ones few, sessile. Roots blackish. These are suited for borders, banks, and woodlands, growing well in any ordinary garden soil, but preferring a damp position. Easily increased by root divisions in autumn or spring.

=A. carniolica= (Carniolan).* _fl._ white. May. _l._ of involucre twelve to thirteen, quite entire, white, with a green line running along the middle of each, tinged with red; radical ones palmate; lobes five to seven, oblong, acuminated, unequally serrated. _h._ 6in. to 12in. Carniola, 1812. A pretty species.

=A. helleborifolia= (Hellebore-leaved).* _fl._ (and involucre) pink, pedicellate. June. _l._ of involucre twelve to thirteen, ovate-lanceolate, exceeding the umbel a little, bristly; radical ones palmate; lobes three, ovate-lanceolate, unequally serrated. _h._ 1ft. to 2ft. Eastern Caucasus, 1804. SYN. _A. maxima_.

=A. major= (greater).* _fl._ pinkish, pedicellate. May. _l._ of involucre fifteen to twenty, linear-lanceolate, quite entire, hardly longer than the umbel; radical ones palmate; lobes five, ovate-lanceolate, acute, rather trifid, toothed. _h._ 1ft to 2ft. Europe, 1596. Very distinct and ornamental.

=A. maxima= (greatest). Synonymous with _A. helleborifolia_.

=ASTRAPÆA= (from _astrape_, lightning; alluding to the brightness of the flowers). ORD. _Sterculiaceæ_. Elegant stove evergreen trees. Peduncles axillary, long, bearing on their apex an umbel of large sessile flowers, enclosed in a leafy involucre. Leaves alternate, stalked, cordate, three to five-lobed. They thrive well in a mixture of loam and peat, and require a plentiful supply of water; but the best results accrue if the bottom of the pot can be stood in a saucer or tub of water. Propagated by cuttings of young wood, made in April, placed in a compost of loam and peat, or sand, under a bell glass, in heat.

=A. tiliæflora= (Lime-tree leaved). _fl._ pink. _h._ 20ft. Isle of Bourbon, 1824.

=A. viscosa= (clammy). _fl._ pink. _h._ 20ft. Madagascar, 1823.

=A. Wallichii= (Wallich's).* _fl._ scarlet; umbels drooping. July. _l._ large, cordate, angularly lobed; stipulas leafy, ovate-acuminated; peduncles long, hairy. _h._ 30ft. Madagascar, 1820. This splendid species has often been described as being one of the finest plants ever introduced into this country; and, when in full flower, nothing can exceed it in beauty and grandeur.

=ASTROCARYUM= (from _astron_, a star, and _karyon_, a nut; referring to the disposition of the fruit). SYN. _Phœnico-phorum_. ORD. _Palmaceæ_. Very ornamental stove palms, allied to _Cocos_, having the trunk (when present), foliage, fruit-stalks, spathes, and sometimes the fruit, covered with spines. The flowers develop from the axils of the old decayed leaves. Drupes oval, one-seeded, orange or yellow, in some species fragrant. Leaves pinnate, with linear segments, dark green above, and often of a silvery white below. The species thrive in a compost of two-thirds rich loam and one-third vegetable mould; water may be given copiously. Propagation may be effected by seeds, which should be sown in spring in a hotbed; or by suckers, if they are to be obtained.

=A. acaule= (stemless). _l._ pinnate, 3ft. to 10ft. long, slender and spreading; pinnæ narrow, arranged in clusters, pendent. Spines very numerous, long, flat, black. _h._ 10ft. Brazil, 1820.

=A. aculeatum= (prickly). _h._ 40ft. Guiana, 1824.

=A. argenteum= (silvery).* _l._ arching, wedge-shaped, pinnate, distinctly plicate, bright green on the upper surface, the under surface, as well as the stalks, covered with a fine white scurf, which gives them a silvered appearance. Columbia, 1875. One of the best of silver palms.

=A. filare= (thready).* _l._ erect, narrowly cuneate, with two divergent lobes; petioles covered with white scurf, both on the upper and under surfaces. Distinct and elegant, with a comparatively small and slender growth. Columbia, 1875.

=A. granatense= (New Grenadan). _l._ pinnate, with oblong-acuminate segments; the rachis is spiny, like the petiole, both on the upper and lower surfaces; leafstalks