The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captain John Smith into Europe, Asia, Africa, and America From Ann. Dom. 1593 to 1629 by Smith, John

{Transcriber's Note: Archaic typography which displays the letter "s" in a form that resembles the letter "f" has been transposed to the modern "s." British, archaic and inconsistent spellings have been left as in the original, as have capitalization and italicisation. A few obvious typographical errors have been changed. Margin notes are indicated where they occur in the text with {MN} and inserted in full at the end of the paragraph to which they refer.}

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THE TRUE TRAVELS, ADVENTURES, AND OBSERVATIONS, OF Captain JOHN SMITH, INTO EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, and AMERICA,

From Ann. Dom. 1593. to 1629.

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To the Right Honourable

_WILLIAM_ Earl of _PEMBROKE,_ Lord Steward of His Majesty's most Honourable Houshold.

_ROBERT_ Earl of _LINDSEY,_ Great Chamberlain of _England,_

_HENRY_ Lord _HUNSDON,_ Viscount _ROCHFORD,_ Earl of _DOVER,_

_And all your Honourable Friends and Well-willers._

My Lords,

Sir _Robert Cotton,_ that most Learned Treasurer of Antiquity, having by perusal of my General History, and others, found that I had likewise undergone divers other as hard hazards in the other Parts of the World, requested me to fix the whole Course of my Passages in a Book by it self, whose noble Desire I could not but in part satisfie; the rather, because they have acted my fatal Tragedies upon the Stage, and racked my Relations at their Pleasure. To prevent therefore all future Misprisions, I have compiled this true Discourse. Envy hath taxed me to have writ too much, and done too little; but that such should know, how little I esteem them, I have writ this, more for the satisfaction of my Friends, and all generous and well disposed Readers. To speak only of my self were intolerable Ingratitude; because, having had so many Co-Partners with me; I cannot make a Monument for my self, and leave them unburied in the Fields, whose Lives begot me the Title of a Soldier; for as they were Companions with me in my Dangers, so shall they be partakers with me in this Tomb.

For my _Sea Grammar_ (caused to be Printed by my worthy Friend, Sir _Samuel Saltenstall_) hath found such good Entertainment abroad, that I have been importuned by many noble Persons, to let this also pass the Press. Many of the most eminent Warriours, and others, what their Swords did, their Pens writ: Though I be never so much their inferiour, yet I hold it no great Errour, to follow good Examples; nor repine at them will do the like.

And now, _My most Honourable good Lords,_ I know not to whom I may better Present it, than to your Lordships, whose Friendships, as I conceive, are as much to each others, as my Duty is to you all; and because you are acquainted both with my Endeavours, and Writings, I doubt not, but your Honours will as well accept of this, as of the rest, and Patronize it under the shadow of your most noble Virtues, which I am ever bound in all Duty to Reverence, and under which I hope to have shelter, against all Storms that dare threaten,

_Yours Honours to be Commanded,_

John Smith.

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THE TRUE TRAVELS, ADVENTURES, AND OBSERVATIONS OF Captain _JOHN SMITH,_

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CHAP. I.

_His Birth; Apprenticeship; Going into_ France; _His beginning with Ten Shillings and three Pence; His Service in the_ Netherlands; _His bad Passage into_ Scotland; _His return to_ Willoughby, _and how he lived in the Woods._

He was born in _Willoughby_ in _Lincoln-shire,_ and a Scholar in the two Free-Schools of _Alford_ and _Louth._ His Father antiently descended from the ancient _Smiths_ of _Crudley_ in _Lancashire;_ his Mother from the _Rickards_ at Great _Heck,_ in _York-shire._ His Parents dying when he was about Thirteen Years of Age, left him a competent Means, which he not being capable to manage, little regarded; his Mind being even then set upon brave Adventures, sold his Satchel, Books, and all he had, intending secretly to get to Sea, but that his Fathers Death stay'd him. But now the Guardians of his Estate more regarding it than him, he had liberty enough, though no Means, to get beyond the Sea. About the Age of Fifteen Years, he was bound an Apprentice to Mr. _Thomas Sendalt_ of _Linne,_ the greatest Merchant of all those Parts; but because he would not presently send him to Sea, he never saw his Master in Eight Years after. At last he found Means to attend Mr. _Peregrine Berty_ into _France_, second Son to the Right Honourable _Peregrine_, that generous Lord _Willoughby,_ and famous Soldier; where coming to his Brother _Robert,_ then at _Orleans,_ now Earl of _Lindsey_, and Lord Great Chamberlain of _England;_ being then but little Youths under Tutorage: His Service being needless, within a Month or six Weeks they sent him back again to his Friends; who when he came from _London_, they liberally gave him (but out of his own Estate) Ten Shillings to be rid of him; such oft is the share of Fatherless Children: But those two Honourable Brethren gave him sufficient to return for _England._ But it was the least thought of his Determination, for now being freely at liberty in _Paris_, growing acquainted with one Mr. _David Hume,_ who making some use of his Purse, gave him Letters to his Friends in _Scotland_ to prefer him to King _James._ Arriving at _Roan,_ he better bethinks himself, seeing his Money near spent, down the River he went to _Haver de grace,_ where he first began to learn the Life of a Soldier: Peace being concluded in _France,_ he went with Captain _Joseph Duxbury_ into the Low-Countries, under whose Colours, having served three or four Years, he took his Journey for _Scotland,_ to deliver his Letters. At _Ancusan_ he imbark'd himself for _Lethe,_ but as much danger, as Shipwreck and Sickness could endure, he had at the Holy Isle in _Northumberland_ near Berwick, ( being recovered ) into _Scotland_ he went to deliver his Letters. After much kind usage among those honest _Scots_ at _Ripweth_ and _Broxmoth,_ but neither Money nor Means to make him a Courtier, he returned to _Willoughby_ in _Lincoln-shire;_ where within a short time, being glutted with too much Company, wherein he took small delight, he retired himself into a little Woody Pasture, a good way from any Town, invironed with many hundred Acres of other Woods: Here, by a fair Brook he built a Pavillion of Boughs, where only in his Cloths he lay. His Study was _Machiavil's_ Art of War, and _Marcus Aurelius;_ his exercise a good Horse, with his Lance and Ring; his Food was thought to be more of Venison than any thing else; what he wanted his Man brought him. The Country wondering at such an Hermite, his Friends perswaded one Seignior _Theodora Polaloga,_ Rider to _Henry_ Earl of _Lincoln,_ an excellent Horse Man, and a Noble _Italian_ Gentleman, to insinuate into his Woodish Acquaintance, whose Languages and good Discourse, and Exercise of Riding drew him to stay with him at _Tattersall._ Long these Pleasures could not content him, but he returned again to the Low Countries.

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CHAP. II.

_The notable Villany of four_ French _Gallants, and his revenge;_ Smith _thrown over-board; Captain_ La Roche _of Saint_ Malo _relieves him._

Thus when _France_ and _Netherlands_ had taught him to Ride a Horse, and use his Arms, with such Rudiments of War, as his tender Years in those Martial Schools could attain unto; he was desirous to see more of the World, and try his Fortune against the _Turks,_ both repenting and lamenting to have seen so many _Christians_ slaughter one another. {MN} Opportunity calling him; into the Company of four _French_ Gallants well attended, faining to him the one to be a great Lord, the rest his Gentlemen, and that they were all devoted that way; over-perswaded him to go with them into _France,_ to the Dutchess of _Merceur,_ from whom they should not only have Means, but also Letters of Favour to her Noble Duke, then General for the Emperour _Rolduphus_ in _Hungary;_ which he did, with such ill Weather as Winter affordeth, in the dark Night they arrived in the broad shallow In-let of St. _Valleries sur Soame_ in _Picardie;_ His _French_ Lord knowing he had good Apparel, and better furnished with Money than themselves, so Plotted with the Master of the Ship, to set his and their own Trunks ashore, leaving _Smith_ aboard till the Boat could return, which was the next day after, towards Evening: The reason he alledged, was, the Sea went so high he could come no sooner, and that his Lord was gone to _Amiens,_ where they would stay his coming; which treacherous Villany, when divers other Soldiers, and Passengers understood, they had like to have slain the Master, and had they known how, would have run away with the Ship.

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{MN} _A notable Villany of four_ French _Gallants._

Coming on shoar, he had but one _Cavvalue,_ {MN-1} was forced to sell his Cloak to pay for his Passage. One of the Soldiers, called _Curzianvere,_ compassionating his Injury, assured him, this great Lord _Depreau_ was only the Son of a Lawyer of _Mortaigne_ in base _Britany,_ and his Attendants _Cursell, La Nelie,_ and _Monserrat,_ three young Citizens, as arrant Cheats as himself; but if he would accompany him, he would bring him to their Friends, but in the _interim_ supplied his wants: Thus Travelling by _Deepe, Cadebeck, Humphla, Pount-demer_ in _Normandy,_ they came to _Caen_ in base _Normandy;_ where both this Noble _Curzianvere,_ and the great Prior of the great Abbey of St. _Steven_ (where is the ruinous Tomb of _William_ the Conqueror) and many other of his Friends kindly welcomed him, and brought him to _Montaigne,_ where he found _Depreau_ and the rest, but to small purpose; for Mr. _Curzianvere_ was a banished Man, and durst not be seen but to his Friends: yet the bruit of their Cozenage occasioned the Lady _Collumber,_ the Baron _Larshan,_ the Lord _Shasghe,_ and divers other honourable Persons, to supply his wants, and with them to recreate him-self so long as he would; But such pleasant pleasures suited little with his poor Estate, and his restless Spirit, that could never find content, to receive such Noble Favours, as he could neither deserve nor requite: But wandering from Port to Port to find some Man of War, spent that he had, and in a Forest, near dead with grief and cold, a rich Farmer found him by a fair Fountain, under a Tree: This kind Peasant relieved him again to his content, to follow his intent. {MN-2} Not long after, as he passed thorow a great Grove of Trees, between _Pounterson_ and _Dina_ in _Britany,_ it was his chance to meet _Cursell,_ more miserable than himself: His piercing Injuries had so small patience, as without any word they both drew, and in a short time _Cursell_ fell to the Ground, where, from an old ruinated Tower, the Inhabitants seeing them, were satisfied, when they heard _Cursell_ confess what had formerly passed; and that how, in the dividing that they had stolen from him, they fell by the Ears amongst themselves, that were Actors in it; but for his part, he excused himself to be innocent as well of the one, as of the other. In regard of his hurt, _Smith_ was glad to be so rid of him, directing his course to an honourable Lord, the Earl of _Ployer,_ {MN-3} who during the War in _France,_ with his two Brethren, Viscount _Poomory,_ and Baron _d'Mercy,_ who had been brought up in _England;_ by him he was better refurnished than ever. When they had shewed him Saint _Malo_ Mount, Saint _Michael, Lambal, Simbreack, Lanion,_ and their own fair Castle of _Tuncadeck, Gingan,_ and divers other places in _Britany_ (and their British _Cornwaile_) taking his leave, he took his way to _Raynes,_ the _Britains_ chief City, and so to _Nants, Poyters, Rochel,_ and _Bourdeaux._ The rumour of the strength of _Bayon_ in _Biskay,_ caused him to see it; and from thence took his way from _Leskar_ in _Bicarne,_ and _Paw,_ in the Kingdom of _Navarre_ to _Tolouza_ in _Gascoigne, Bezers,_ and _Carcassone, Narbone, Montpelier, Nimes_ in _Languedeck,_ and thorow the Country of _Avignion,_ by _Aries_ to _Marseilles_ in _Provence,_ there imbarking himself for _Italy;_ the Ship was inforced to _Tolonne,_ and putting again to Sea, ill Weather so grew upon them, that they Anchored close aboard the Shoar, under the little Isle of St. _Mary,_ against _Nice_ in _Savoy._ Here the inhuman Provincials, with a Rabble of Pilgrims of divers Nations going to _Rome,_ hourly cursing him, not only for a _Hugonot_ but his Nation they swore were all Pirats, and so vilely railed on his dread Soveraign Queen _Elizabeth,_ and that they never should have fair Weather so long as he was aboard them; their Disputations grew to that Passion, that they threw him over board, yet God brought him to that little Isle, where was no Inhabitants, but a few Kine and Goats. The next Morning, he espied two Ships more riding by them, put in by the Storm, that fetched him aboard, well refreshed him, and so kindly used him, that he was well contented to try the rest of his Fortune with them. {MN-5} After he had related unto them his former Discourse, what for pity, and the love of the Honourable Earl of _Ployer,_ this Noble _Britain_ his Neighbour, Captain _la Roche_ of Saint _Malo,_ regarded and entertained him for his well respected Friend. With the next fair Wind, they Sailed along by the Coast of _Corsica_ and _Sardinia,_ and crossing the Gulf of _Tunis,_ passed by Cape _Bona_ to the Isle of _Lempadosa,_ leaving the Coast of _Barbary_ till they came at _Cape Rasata,_ and so along the _African_ Shoar, for _Alexandria_ in _AEgypt._ There delivering their Fraught, they went to _Seandaroone,_ rather to view what Ships were in the Road, than any thing else: keeping their Course by _Cypres,_ and the Coast of _Asia,_ Sailing by _Rhodes_, the _Archipelagus, Candia,_ and the Coast of _Grecia,_ and the Isle of _Zefalonia._ They lay to and again a few days, betwixt the Isle of _Corsue,_ and the Cape of _Orranto,_ in the Kingdom of _Naples,_ in the Entrance of the _Adriatick_ Sea.

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{MN-1} _A Cavvalue is in value a penny._

{MN-2} _Here he incountred one of the thieves._

{MN-3} _The Nobleness of the Earl of_ Plover.

{MN-4} _An inhuman act of the Provincials in casting him overboard._

{MN-5} _Capt._ La Roche _relieves him._

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CHAP. III.

_A desperate Sea Fight in the Streights; His Passage to_ Rome, Naples, _and the view of_ Italy.

Betwixt the two _Capes_, they met with an _Argosie_ of _Venice_; it seemed the Captain desired to speak with them, whose untoward answer was such, as slew them a Man; {MN} whereupon the _Britain_ presently gave them the Broad-side, then his Stern, and his other Broad-side also, and continued the Chase, with his chase Pieces, till he gave them so many Broad-sides one after another, that the _Argosies_ Sails and Tackling was so torn, she stood to her defence, and made shot for shot; twice in one hour and a half the _Britain_ boarded her, yet they cleared themselves, but clapping her aboard again, the _Argosie_ fired him, which with much danger to them both was presently quenched. This rather augmented the _Britain's_ rage, than abated his courage; for having reaccommodated himself again, shot her so oft between Wind and Water, she was ready to sink, then they yielded; the _Britain_ lost fifteen Men, she twenty, besides divers were hurt, the rest went to Work on all hands; some to stop the Leaks, others to guard the Prisoners that were chained, the rest to ride her. The Silks, Velvets, Cloth of Gold, and Tissue, Piasters, Chicqueens and Sultanies, which is Gold and Silver, they unloaded in four and twenty hours, was wonderful, whereof having sufficient, and tired with toil, they cast her off with her Company, with as much good Merchandize as would have fraughted such another _Britain_, that was but two Hundred Tuns, she four or five Hundred.

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{MN} _A desperate Sea Fight._

To repair his Defects, he stood for the Coast of _Calabria_, but hearing there was six or seven Galleys at _Messina,_ he departed thence for _Malta;_ but the Wind coming fair, he kept his course along the Coast of the Kingdom of _Sicilia_, by _Sardinia_ and _Corsica_, till he came to the Road of _Antibo_ in _Peamon,_ where he set _Smith_ on shoar with five Hundred Chicqueens, and a little Box God sent him worth near as much more. Here he left this Noble _Britain_, and embarked himself for _Legorn,_ being glad to have such opportunity and means to better his Experience by the view of _Italy;_ and having passed _Tuskany,_ and the Country of _Siena,_ where he found his dear Friends, the two Honourable Brethren, the Lord _Willoughby,_ and his Brother cruelly wounded, in a desperate fray, yet to their exceeding great Honour. Then to _Viterbo_ and many other Cities he came to _Rome,_ from where it was his chance to see Pope Clement the VIII. with many Cardinals, creep up the Holy Stairs, {MN} which they say, are those our Savior Christ went up to _Pontius Pilate,_ where blood, falling from his Head, being pricked with his Crown of Thorns, the drops are marked with Nails of Steel, upon them none dare go but in that manner, saying so many _Ave-Maries_ and _Pater-Nosters,_ as is their Devotion, and to kiss the Nails of Steel: But on each side, is a pair of such like Stairs, upon which you may go, stand, or kneel, but divided from the Holy Stairs by two Walls: Right against them is a Chappel, where hangs a great Silver Lamp, which burneth continually; yet they say, the Oil neither increaseth nor diminisheth. A little distant is the ancient Church of Saint _John de Lateran,_ where he saw him say Mass, which commonly he doth upon some Friday once a Month. Having saluted Father _Parsons,_ that famous _English_ Jesuit, and satisfied himself with the Rarities of _Rome,_ he went down the River of _Tiber_ to _Civita Vechia,_ where he embarked himself, to satisfie his Eye with the fair City of _Naples,_ and her Kingdoms Nobility; returning by _Capua, Rome_ and _Siena,_ he passed by that admired City of _Florence,_ the Cities and Countreys of _Bolonia, Ferrara, Mantua, Padua_ and _Venice,_ whose Gulf he passed from _Malamoco_ and the _Adriatic_ Sea for _Ragouza,_ spending some time to see that barren, broken Coast of _Albania_ and _Dalmatia,_ to _Capo de Istria,_ Travelling the main of poor _Sclavonia_ by _Lubbiano,_ till he came to _Grates_ in _Styria,_ the Seat of _Ferdinando,_ Arch-duke of _Austria,_ now Emperour of _Almania:_ where he met an _English_ Man, and an _Irish_ Jesuit, who acquainted him with many brave Gentlemen of good Quality, especially with the Lord _Ebersbaught,_ with whom, trying such Conclusions, as he projected to undertake, preferred him to Baron _Kisell,_ General of the Artillery, and he to a worthy Colonel, the Earl of _Meldritch,_ with whom, going to _Vienna_ in _Austria,_ under whose Regiment, in what Service, and how he spent his time, this ensuing Discourse will declare.

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{MN} _The Popes holy stairs brought from_ Jerusalem, _whereon (they say) Christ went up to_ Pontius Pilate.

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CHAP. IV.

_The Siege of_ Olumpagh; _An excellent Stratagem by_ Smith; _Another not much worse._

After the loss of _Caniza,_ the _Turks_ with Twenty thousand besieged the strong Town of _Olumpagh_ so straitly, as they were cut off from all intelligence and hope of succour; till _John Smith,_ this _English_ Gentleman, acquainted Baron _Kisell,_ General of the Arch-dukes Artillery, he had taught the Governour, his worthy Friend, such a Rule, that he would undertake to make him know any thing he intended, and have his answer, would, they bring him but to some place where he might make the Flame of a Torch seen to the Town; _Kisell_ inflamed with this strange Invention, _Smith_ made it so plain, that forthwith he gave him Guides, who in the dark Night brought him to a Mountain, where he shewed three Torches equidistant from the other, which plainly appearing to the Town, the Governour presently apprehended, and answered again with three Other fires in like manner; each knowing the others being and intent; _Smith,_ though distant seven Miles, signified to him these Words: _On Thursday at Night I will charge on the East, at the Alarum, salley you;_ Ebersbaught answered, _he would,_ and thus it was done: First he writ his Message as brief, you see, as could be, then divided the Alphabet into two parts thus;

_A. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. l._ _I. I. I. I. I. I. I. I. I. I. I._

_m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. v. w. x._ _2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2._ _y. z._ _2. 2._

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{MN} _The siege of_ Olumpagh.

{M-1} The first part from _A._ to _L._ is signified by shewing and hiding one link, so oft as there is Letters from _A._ to that Letter you mean; the other part from _M._ to _Z._ is mentioned by two Lights in like manner. The end of a Word is signified by shewing of three Lights, ever staying your Light at that Letter you mean, till the other may write it in a Paper, and answer by his signal, which is one Light, it is done, beginning to count the Letters by the Lights, every time from _A._ to _M._ by this means also the other returned his answer, whereby each did understand other. The Guides all this time having well viewed the Camp, returned to _Kisel,_ who, doubting of his power, being but Ten thousand, was animated by the Guides, how the _Turks_ were so divided by the River in two parts, they could not easily second each other. {MN-2} To which _Smith_ added this conclusion; that two or three thousand pieces of Match fastened to divers small Lines of an hundred Fathom in length, being armed with Powder, might all be fired and stretched at an instant before the Alarum, upon the Plain, of _Hysnaburg,_ supported by two Staves, at each lines end, in that manner would seem like so many Musketteers; which was put in Practice; and being discovered by the _Turks,_ they prepared to encounter these false fires, thinking there had been some great Army: whilst _Kisel_ with his Ten thousand being entred the _Turks_ quarters, who ran up and down as Men amazed, it was not long ere _Ebersbaught_ was pell-mell with them in their Trenches; in which distracted confusion, a third part of the Turks that besieged that side towards _Knowsbruck,_ were slain; many of the rest drowned, but all fled. The other part of the Army was so busied to resist the false fires, that _Kisel_ before the Morning put two thousand good Soldiers in the Town, and with small loss was retired; the Garrison was well relieved with what they found in the _Turks_ Quarters, which caused the _Turks_ to raise their Siege and return to _Caniza:_ and _Kisel_ with much honour was received at _Kerment,_ and occasioned the Author a good Reward and Preferment, to be Captain of Two hundred and fifty Horse-men, under the conduct of Colonel _Voldo,_ Earl of _Meldritch._

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{MN-1} _An excellent Stratagem._

{MN-2} _Another stratagem._

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CHAP. V.

_The Siege of_ Stoll-weissenburg; _The effects of_ Smith's _Fire-works; A worthy Exploit of Earl_ Rosworme; _Earl_ Meldritch _takes the_ Bashaw _Prisoner._

A General rumour of a general Peace, now spred it self over all the face of those tormented Countries: but the _Turk_ intended no such matter, but levied Soldiers from all Parts he could. The Emperour also, by the assistance of the _Christian_ Princes, provided three Armies, the one led by the Arch-duke _Matthias,_ the Emperour's Brother, and his Lieutenant Duke _Merceur_ to defend Low _Hungary;_ the second, by _Ferdinando_ the Arch-duke of _Styria,_ and the Duke of _Mantua_ his Lieutenant to regain _Caniza;_ the third by _Gonzago,_ Governour of High _Hungary,_ to joyn with _Georgio Buson_ to make an absolute conquest of _Transilvania._

Duke _Merceur_ with an Army or Thirty thousand, whereof near Ten thousand were _French,_ besieged _Stoll-weissenburg,_ otherwise called _Alba Regalis,_ a place so strong by Art and Nature, that it was thought impregnable. At his first coming, The _Turks_ sallied upon the _German_ Quarter, slew near five hundred, and returned before they were thought on. The next Night in like manner, they did near as much to the _Bemers,_ and _Hungarians;_ of which, Fortune still presuming, thinking to have found the _French_ quarter as careless, Eight or Nine hundred of them were cut in pieces and taken Prisoners. In this Encounter Monsieur _Grandvile,_ a brave _French_ Colonel, received seven or eight cruel Wounds, yet followed the Enemy to the Ports; he came off alive, but within three or four days died.

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{MN} _The siege of_ Alba Regalis.

Earl _Moldritch,_ by the Information of of three or four _Christians,_ (escaped out of the Town) upon every Alarum, where there was greatest Assemblies and throng of People, {MN} caused Captain _Smith_ to put in practice his fiery Dragons, he had demonstrated unto him, and the Earl _Von Sulch_ at _Comora_ which he thus performed: Having prepared forty or fifty round-bellied Earthen Pots, and filled them with hand Gun powder, then covered them with Pitch, mingled with Brimstone and Turpentine; and quartering as many Musket-bullets, that hung together but only at the Center of the division, stuck them round in the mixture about the Pots, and covered them again with the same mixture, over that a strong Searcloth, then over all, a good thickness of Towze-match, well tempered with Oyl of Lin-seed, Camphire, and Powder of Brimstone, these he fitly placed in Slings, graduated so near as they could to the places of these Assemblies. At mid-night upon the Alarum, it was a fearful sight to see the short flaming course of their flight in the Air, but presently after their fall, the lamentable noise of the miserable slaughtered _Turks_ was most wonderful to hear: Besides, they had fired that Suburb at the Port of _Buda_ in two or three places, which so troubled the _Turks_ to quench, that had there been any means to have assaulted them, they could hardly have resisted the fire, and their Enemies. The Earl _Rosworme,_ contrary to the opinion of all Men, would needs undertake to find means to surprize the Segeth and Suburb of the City, strongly defended by a muddy Lake, which was thought unpassable.

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{MN} _The effect of good fireworks._

The Duke having planted his Ordnance, battered the other side, {MN-1} whilst _Rosworme_ in the dark Night, with every Man a bundle of Sedge and Bavins still thrown before them, so laded up the Lake, as they surprised that unregarded Suburb before they were discovered: Upon which unexpected Alarum, the _Turks_ fled into the City, and the other Suburb not knowing the matter, got into the City also, leaving their Suburb for the Duke, who, with no great resistance, took it, with many Pieces of Ordnance; the City, being of no such strength as the Suburbs, with their own Ordnance was so battered, that it was taken by force, with such a merciless Execution, as was most pitiful to behold. {MN-2} The _Bashaw_ notwithstanding, drew together a Party of Five hundred before his own Palace, where he intended to die; but seeing most of his Men slain before him, by the valiant Captain, Earl _Meldritch,_ who took him Prisoner with his own hands; and with the hazard of himself saved him from the fury of other Troops, that did pull down his Palace, and would have rent him in pieces, had he not been thus preserved. The Duke thought his Victory much honoured with such a Prisoner; took order, he should be used like a Prince, and with all expedition gave charge presently to repair the Breaches, and the Ruins of this famous City, that had been in the possession of the _Turks_ near threescore years.

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{MN-1} _A worthy Exploit of Earl_ Rosworme.

{MN-2} _Earl_ Meldritch _takes the_ Bashaw _prisoner._

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CHAP. VI.

_A brave Encounter of the_ Turks _Army with the_ Christians; _Duke_ Merceur _overthroweth_ Assan Bashaw; _He divides the_ Christian _Army; His Nobleness and Death._

_Mahomet_ the Great _Turk_, during the Siege, had raised an Army of Sixty thousand Men to have relieved it; but hearing it was lost, he sent _Assan Bashaw,_ General of his Army, the _Bashaw_ of _Buda, Bashaw Amaroz,_ to see if it were possible to regain it; The Duke understanding there could be no great experience in such a new levied Army as _Assan_ had, having put a strong Garrison into it, and with the brave Colonel _Rosworme, Culnits, Meldritch,_ the _Rhine Grave, Vahan,_ and many others, with Twenty thousand good Soldiers, set forward to meet the _Turk,_ in the Plains of _Girk._ {MN-1} Those two Armies encountred as they marched, where began a hot and bloody Skirmish betwixt them, Regiment against Regiment, as they came in order, till the night parted them: Here Earl _Meldritch_ was so invironed among those half circular Regiments of _Turks,_ they supposed him their Prisoner, and his Regiment lost; but his two most couragious Friends, _Vahan_ and _Culnits,_ made such a Passage amongst them, that it was a terror to see how Horse and Man lay sprawling and tumbling, some one way, some another on the Ground. The Earl there at that time made his valour shine more bright than his Armour, which seemed then painted with _Turkish_ Blood; he slew the brave _Zanzack Bugola,_ and made his Passage to his Friends, but near half his Regiment was slain. Captain _Smith_ had his Horse slain under him, and himself sore wounded; but he was not long unmounted, for there was choice enough of Horses, that wanted Masters. The _Turk,_ thinking the Victory sure against the Duke, whose Army, by the Siege and the Garrison, he had left behind him, was much weakened, would not be content with one, but he would have all; and lest the Duke should return to _Alba Regalis,_ he sent that Night Twenty thousand to besiege the City, assuring them, he would keep the Duke or any other from relieving them. Two or three days they lay each by other, entrenching themselves; the _Turks_ daring the Duke daily to a sett Battle, {MN-2} who at length drew out his Army, led by the _Rhine-Grave, Culnits,_ and _Meldritch_ who upon their first Encounter, charged with that resolute and valiant courage, as disordered not only the foremost Squadrons of the _Turks,_ but enforced all the whole Army to retire to the Camp, with the loss of five or six thousand, with the _Bashaw_ of _Buda,_ and four or five _Zanzacks,_ with divers other great Commanders, Two hundred Prisoners, and nine pieces of Ordnance. At that instant appeared, as it were, another Army coming out of a Valley over a plain Hill, that caused the Duke at that time to be contented, and to retire to his Trenches; which gave time to _Assan,_ to reorder his disordered Squadrons: Here they lay nine or ten days, and more Supplies repaired to them, expecting to try the event in a sett Battle; but the Soldiers on both Parties, by reason of their great Wants, and approach of Winter, grew so discontented, that they were ready of themselves to break up the Leager; the _Bashaw_ retiring himself to _Buda,_ had some of the Rear Troops cut off. _Amaroz Bashaw_ hearing of this, found such bad welcome at _Alba Regalis,_ and the Town so strongly repaired with so brave a Garrison, raised his Siege, and retired to _Zigetum._

* * * * *

{MN-1} _A brave encounter of the_ Turks _Army with the_ Christians.

{MN-2} _Duke_ Merceur _overthroweth_ Assan Bassa.

The Duke understanding, that the Archduke _Ferdinando,_ had so resolutely besieged _Caniza_ as what by the loss of _Alba Regalis,_ and the _Turks_ retreat to _Buda,_ being void of hope of any relief, doubted not, but it would become again the _Christians._ {MN-1}To the furtherance whereof, the Duke divided his Army into three parts. The Earl of _Rosworme_ went with Seven thousand to _Caniza,_ the Earl of _Meldritch_ with Six thousand he sent to assist _Georgio Busca_ against the _Transilvanians,_ the rest went with himself to the Garrisons of _Strigonium_ and _Komara;_ having thus worthily behaved himself, he arrived at _Vienne,_ where the Arch-dukes and the Nobility with as much honour received him, as if he had conquered all Hungaria; his very Picture they esteemed would make them fortunate, which thousands kept as curiously as a precious relique. To requite this honour, preparing himself to return into _France,_ to raise new Forces against the next year, with the two Arch-dukes, _Matthias_ and _Maximilian,_ and divers others of the Nobility, was with great Magnificence conducted to _Nurenburg,_ there by them royally feasted, (how it chanced is not known;) {MN-2} but the next Morning he was found dead, and his Brother in Law died two days after; whose hearts, after this great Triumph, with much sorrow were carried into _France._

* * * * *

{MN-1} _Duke_ Merceur _divideth his army._

{MN-2} _Duke_ Merceur _and his brother in law die suddenly._

* * * * *

CHAP. VII.

_The unhappy Siege of_ Caniza; _Earl_ Meldritch _serveth Prince_ Sigismundus; _Prince_ Moyses _besiegeth_ Regall; Smith's _three single Combats; His Patent from_ Sigismundus, _and Reward._

{MN} The Worthy Lord _Rosworme_ had not worse Journey to the miserable Siege of _Caniza,_ (whereby the extremity of an extraordinary continuing Tempest of Hail, Wind, Frost and Snow, insomuch that the _Christians_ were forced to leave their Tents and Artillery, and what they had; it being so cold, that three or four hundred of them were frozen to Death in a Night, and two or three thousand lost in that miserable flight in the Snowy Tempest, though they did know no Enemy at all to follow them) than the Noble Earl of _Meldritch_ had to _Transilvania,_ where hearing of the Death of _Michael,_ and the brave Duke _Merceur,_ and knowing the Policy of _Busca,_ and the Prince his Royalty, being now beyond all belief of Men, in Possession of the best part of _Transilvania,_ perswaded his Troops, in so honest a Cause, to assist the Prince against the _Turk,_ rather than _Busca_ against the Prince.

* * * * *

{MN} _The unhappy siege of_ Caniza.

{MN} The Soldiers being worn out with those hard Pays and Travels, upon hope to have free liberty to make booty upon what they could get Possession of from the _Turks,_ were easily perswaded to follow him whithersoever. Now this Noble Earl was a _Transilvanian_ born, and his Fathers Country yet Inhabited by the _Turks;_ for _Transilvania_ was yet in three Divisions, though the Prince had the Hearts both of Country and People; yet the Frontiers had a Garrison amongst the unpassable Mountains, some for the Emperour, some for the Prince, and some for the _Turk:_ To regain which small Estate, he desired leave of the Prince to try his Fortunes, and to make use of that experience, the time of twenty years had taught him in the Emperours service, promising to spend the rest of his days, for his Countrys defence in his Excellencies Service. The Prince glad of so brave a Commander, and so many expert and ancient Soldiers, made him Camp Master of his Army, gave him all necessary relief for his Troops, and what freedom they desired to plunder the _Turks._

* * * * *

{MN} _Earl_ Meldritch _serveth with Prince_ Sigismundus.

{MN-1} The Earl having made many Incursions into the Land of _Zarkan,_ among those Rocky Mountains, where were some _Turks,_ some _Tartars,_ but most _Bandittoes, Rennegadoes,_ and such like, which sometimes he forced into the Plains of _Regall_ where is a City, not only of Men and Fortifications, Strong of it self, but so environed with Mountains, that made the Passages so difficult, that in all these Wars, no attempt had been made upon it to any purpose: Having satisfied himself with the Situation, and the most convenient Passages to bring his Army into it: The Earth no sooner put on her green Habit, than the Earl overspread her with his armed Troops. To possess himself first of the most convenient Passage, which was a narrow Valley betwixt two high Mountains; he sent Colonel _Veltus_ with his Regiment; dispersed in Companies to lie in _Ambuscado,_ as he had directed them, and in the Morning to drive all the Cattel they could find before a Fort in that Passage, whom he supposed would sally, seeing but some small Party to recover their prey; which took such good success, that the Garrison was cut off by the _Ambuscado,_ and _Veltus_ seized on the Skonces, which were abandoned. _Meldritch_ glad of so fortunate a beginning, it was six days ere he could with six thousand Pioneers make passage for his Ordnance: The _Turks_ having such warning, strengthened the Town so with Men and Provision, that they made a scorn of so small a number as _Meldritch_ brought with him before the City, which was but eight thousand. Before they had pitched their Tents, the _Turks_ sallied in such abundance, as for an hour, they had rather a bloody Battel than a Skirmish, but with the loss of near Fifteen hundred on both sides. The Turks were chased till the Cities Ordnance caused the Earl to retire. {M-2} The next day _Zachel Moyses,_ General of the Army, pitched also his Tents with nine thousand Foot and Horse, and six and twenty Pieces of Ordnance; but in regard of the Situation of this strong Fortress, they did neither fear them nor hurt them, being upon the point of a fair Promontory, environed on the one side within half a Mile with an un-useful Mountain, and on the other side with a fair Plain, where the _Christians_ encamped, but so commanded by their Ordnance, they spent near a Month in entrenching themselves, and raising their Mounts to plant their Batteries; which slow proceedings the _Turks_ oft derided, that their Ordnance were at pawn, and how they grew fat for want of Exercise, and fearing lest they should depart ere they could assault their City, sent this Challenge to any Captain in the Army.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _Earl_ Meldritch _maketh incursions to discover_ Regall.

{MN-2} Moyses _Besiegeth_ Regal.

That to delight the Ladies, who did long to see some Court-like pastime, the Lord _Turbashaw_ did defie any Captain, that had the command of a Company, who durst Combate with him for his Head: The matter being discussed, it was accepted, but so many Questions grew for the undertaking, it was decided by Lots, which fell upon Captain _Smith,_ before spoken of.

{MN} Truce being made for that time, the Rampires all beset with fair Dames, and Men in Arms, the _Christians_ in _Battalia; Turbashaw_ with a noise of Haut-boys entred the Field well mounted and armed; on his shoulders were fixed a pair of great Wings, compacted of Eagles Feathers, within a ridge of Silver, richly garnished with Gold and precious Stones, a _Janizary_ before him, bearing his Lance, on each side another leading his Horse; where long he stayed not, ere _Smith_ with a noise of Trumpets, only a Page bearing his Lance, passing by him with a courteous Salute, took his Ground with such good success, that at the sound of the charge, he passed the _Turk_ thorow the sight of his Beaver, Face, Head and all, that he fell dead to the Ground, where alighting and unbracing his Helmet, cut off his Head, and the _Turks_ took his Body; and so returned without any hurt at all. The Head he presented to the Lord _Moyses,_ the General, who kindly accepted it, and with joy to the whole Army he was generally welcomed.

* * * * *

{MN} _Three single combates._

The Death of this Captain so swelled in the Heart of one _Grualgo,_ his vowed Friend, as rather inraged with madness than choler, he directed a particular challenge to the Conqueror, to regain his Friends Head, or Idle his own, with his Horse and Armour for advantage, which according to his desire, was the next day undertaken: as before upon the sound of the Trumpets, their Lances flew in pieces upon a clear Passage, but the _Turk,_ was near unhorsed. Their Pistols was the next, which marked _Smith_ upon the Placard; but the next shot the _Turk,_ was so Wounded in the left Arm, that being not able to rule his Horse, and defend himself, he was thrown to the ground, and so bruised with the fall, that he lost his Head, as his Friend before him, with his Horse and Armour; but his Body, and his rich Apparel were sent back to the Town.

Every day the _Turks_ made some Sallies, but few Skirmishes would they endure to any purpose. Our Works and Approaches being not yet advanced to that heighth and effect, which was of necessity to be performed; to delude time, _Smith_ with so many incontradictible perswading Reasons, obtained leave, that the Ladies might know he was not so much enamoured of their Servants Heads; but if any _Turk,_ of their rank would come to the place of Combate to redeem them, should have his also upon the like conditions, if he could win it.

The challenge presently was accepted by _Bonny Mulgro._ The next day, both the Champions entring the Field as before, each discharging their Pistol, having no Lances, but such martial Weapons as the Defendant appointed, no hurt was done; their Battle-Axes was the next, whose piercing Bills made sometime the one, sometime the other to have scarce sense to keep their Saddles, specially the _Christian_ received such a blow, that he lost his Battle axe, and failed not much to have fallen after it, whereat the supposed conquering _Turk,_ had a great shout from the Rampires. The _Turk,_ prosecuted his advantage to the uttermost of his power; yet the other, what by the readiness of his Horse, and his judgement and dexterity in such a business, beyond all Mens expectation, by God's assistance, not only avoided the _Turks_ violence but having drawn his Faulchion, pierced the _Turk,_ so under the Culets, thorow back and body, that altho' he alighted from his Horse, he stood not long ere he lost his Head, as the rest had done.

* * * * *

CHAP. VIII.

Georgio Busca _an_ Albane, _his ingratitude to Prince_ Sigismundus; _Prince_ Moyses _his Lieutenant, is overthrown by_ Busca, _General for the Emperour_ Rodulphus; Sigismundus _yieldeth his Country to_ Rodulphus; Busca _assisteth Prince_ Rodol _in_ Wallachia.

This good success gave such great encouragement to the whole Army, that with a Guard of six thousand, three spare Horses, before each a _Turks_ Head upon a Lance, he was conducted to the Generals Pavilion with his Presents. Moyses received both him and them, with as much respect as the occasion deserved, embracing him in his Arms, gave him a fair Horse, richly furnished, a Scimitar and Belt worth Three hundred Ducats; and _Meldritch_ made him Sergeant Major of his Regiment. But now to the Siege, having mounted six and twenty pieces of Ordnance, fifty or sixty Foot above the Plain, made them so plainly tell his meaning, that within fifteen days two Breaches were made, which the _Turks_ as valiantly defended as Men could; that day was made a darksome Night, but by the light that proceeded from the murdering Muskets, and peace-making Canon, whilst their slothful Governour lay in a Castle on the top of a high Mountain, and like a Valiant Prince asketh what's the matter, when horror and death flood amazed each at other, to see who should prevail to make him victorious: {MN} _Moyses_ commanding a general assault upon the sloping front of the high Promontory, where the Barons of _Budendorfe_ and _Oberwin,_ lost near half their Regiments, by Logs, Bags of Powder, and such like, tumbling down the Hill, they were to mount ere they could come to the breach; notwithstanding with an incredible courage, they advanced to the push of the Pike with the Defendants, that with the like courage repulsed, till the Earl _Meldritch, Becklefield_ and _Zarvana,_ with their fresh Regiments seconded them with that fury, that the _Turks_ retired and fled into the Castle, from whence by a Flag of truce they desired composition. The Earl remembring his Fathers Death, battered it with all the Ordnance in the Town, and the next day took it: all he found could bear Arms, he put to the Sword, and set their Heads upon Stakes round about the Walls, in the same manner they had used the _Christians,_ when they took it. _Moyses_ having repaired the Rampires, and thrown down the Work in his Camp, he put in it a strong Garrison, though the pillage he had gotten in the Town was much, having been for a long time an impregnable den of Thieves; yet the loss of the Army so intermingled the sowre with the sweet, as forced _Moyses_ to seek a farther revenge, that he sacked _Veratio, Solmos,_ and _Kupronka,_ and with two thousand Prisoners, most Women and Children, came to _Esenberg,_ not far from the Princes Palace, where he there Encamped.

* * * * *

{MN} Regal _assaulted and taken._

_Sigismundus_ coming to view his Army, was presented with the Prisoners, and six and thirty Ensigns; where celebrating thanks to Almighty God in triumph of those Victories, he was made acquainted with the service _Smith_ had done at _Olumpagh, Stoll-Weissenburgh_ and _Regal;_ for which, with great honour, he gave him three _Turks_ Heads in a Shield for his Arms, by Patent, under his Hand and Seal, with an Oath ever to wear them in his Colours, his Picture in Gold, and three hundred Ducats yearly for a Pension.

* * * * *

[Illustration: Smith's Coat of Arms]

Sigismundus Bathori, _Dei Gratia, Dux_ Transilvaniae, Wallachiae, & Vandalorum; _Comes_ Anchard, Salford, Growenda; _Cunctis his literis significamus qui cas lecturi aut audituri sunt, concessam licentiam aut facultatem_ Johanni Smith, _natione_ Anglo _Generoso,_ 250. _militum Capitaneo sub Illustrissani & Gravissani_ Henrici Volda, _Comitis de_ Meldri, Salmariae, & Peldoix _primario, ex_ 1000 _equitibus_ & 1500. peditibus bello_ Ungarico _conductione in Provincias supra scriptas sub Authoritate nostra: cui servituti omni laude, perpetuaq; memoria dignum praebuit sese erga nos, ut virum strenuum pugnantem pro aris & focis decet. Quare e favore nostro militario ipsum ordine condonavimus, & in Sigillum illius tria_ Turcica _Capita defignare & deprimere concessimus, que ipso gladio suo ad Urbem_ Regalem _in singulari praelio vicit, mactavit, atq; decollavit in_ Transilvaniae _Provincia: Sed fortuna cum variabilis ancepsq; sit idem forte fortuito in_ Wallachiae _Provincia, Anno Domini_ 1602. _die Mensis Novemberis_ 18. _cum multis aliis etiam Nubilibus & aliis quibusdam militibus captus est a Domino_ Bascha _electo ex_ Cambia _regionis_ Tartariae, _onjus severitate adductus salutum quantem potuit quaesivit, tantumque effecit, Deo omnipotente adjuvante, ut deliberavit se, & ad suos Commilitones revertit; ex quibus ipsum liberavimus, & haec nobis restimonia habuit ut majori licentia frucretur qua dignus esset, jam tendet in patriam suam dulcissonam: Rogamus ergo omnes nostros charissunos, confinititmos, Duces, Principes, Comites, Barones, Gubernatores Urbium & Navium in cadem Regione & caeterarum Provinciarum in quibus ille refidere conatus fuerit ut idem permittatur Capitaneus libere sine obstaculo omni versari. Haec facientes pergratum nobis feceritis. Signatum_ Lesprizia _in_ Misnia _die Mensis_ Decembris_ 9. _Anno Domini_ 1603.

_Cum Privilegio propriae, Majestatis._ Sigismundus Bathori.

[Illustration: Seal of Sigismundus.]

Universis, & singulis, cujuscunq; loci, status, gradut, ordinis, ac conditighis ad quos hos praesens scriptum pervenerit,_ Gulielmus Segar, Eques auratus alias dictus Garterus Principalis Rex Armorum_ Anglicorum, Salutum._ Sciatis, _quod Ego praedictus Garterus, notum, testatumque facio, quod Patentitem suprascriptum, cum manu propria praedicti Ducis_ Transilvaniae _Subsignatum, & Sigillo suo affixum, Vidi: & Copiam veram ejusdem (in perpetuam rei memoriam) transcripsi, & recordavi in Archivis, & Registris Officii Armorum. Datum_ Londini 19. _die Augusti, Anno Domini_ 1625. _Annoque Regni Domini nostri_ CAROLI _Dei gratia Magnae_ Britanniae, Franciae, & Hibernix _Regis, Fidei Defendoris, &c. Prime.

Gulielmus Segar, Garterus.

{MN} Sigismundus Bathori, by the Grace of God, Duke of _Transilvania,_ _Wallachia,_ and _Moldavia,_ Earl of _Anchard, Salford_ and _Growenda;_ to whom this Writing may come or appear. Know that We have given Leave and Licence to _John Smith_ an _English Gentleman,_ Captain of 250 Soldiers, under the most Generous and Honourable _Henry Volda,_ Earl of _Meldritch, Salmaria,_ and _Peldoia,_ Colonel of a thousand Horse, and fifteen hundred Foot, in the Wars of _Hungary,_ and in the Provinces aforesaid under our Authority; whose Service doth deserve all praise, and perpetual Memory towards us, as a Man that did for God and his Country overcome his Enemies; Wherefore out of our Love and Favour, according to the Law of Arms, We have ordained, and given him in his Shield of Arms, the Figure and Description of three Turks Heads, which with his Sword before the Town of _Regal,_ in single Combat he did overcome, kill, and cut off, in the Province of _Transilvania._ But Fortune, as she is very variable, so it chanced and happened to him in the Province of _Wallatchia,_ in the year of Our Lord 1602. the 18th day of _November,_ with many others, as well Noble Men as also divers other Soldiers, were taken Prisoners by the Lord _Bashaw_ of _Cambia,_ a Country of _Tartaria;_ whose cruelty brought him such good Fortune, by the Help and Power of Almighty God, that he delivered himself, and returned again to his Company and fellow Soldiers, of whom We do discharge him, and this he hath in Witness thereof, being much more worthy of a better Reward; and now intends to return to his own sweet Country. We desire therefore all Our loving and kind Kinsmen, Dukes, Princes, Earls, Barons, Governours of Towns, Cities or Ships, in this Kingdom, or any other Provinces he shall come in, that you freely let pass this the aforesaid Captain, without any hindrance or molestation, and this doing, with all kindness, we are always ready to do the like for you. Sealed at _Lipswick_ in _Misenland,_ the ninth of _December,_ in the year of our Lord, 1603.

* * * * *

{MN} _The same in_ English.

_With the proper privilege of his Majesty._ SIGISMUNDUS BATHORI

To all and singular, in what Place, State, Degree, Order, or Condition whatsoever, to whom this present Writing shall come: I _William Segar,_ Knight, otherwise Garter, and principal King of Arms of _England,_ wish health. Know, that I the aforesaid Garter, do witness and approve, that this aforesaid Patent, I have seen, Signed, and Sealed, under the proper Hand and Seal Manuel of the said Duke of _Transilvania,_ and a true Copy of the same, as a thing for perpetual memory, I have Subscribed and Recorded in the Register, and Office of the Heralds of Arms. Dated at _London,_ the nineteenth day of _August,_ in the year of Our Lord, 1625, and in the first year of our Sovereign Lord _Charles,_ by the Grace of God, King of great _Britain, France,_ and _Ireland,_ Defender of the Faith, &c.

WILLIAM SEGAR.

* * * * *

CHAP. IX.

Sigismundus _sends Ambassadours unto the Emperour. The Conditions reassured. He yieldeth up all to_ Busca, _and returneth to_ Prague.

_Busca_ having all this time been raising new Forces, was commanded from the Emperour again to invade _Transilvania,_ which being one of the fruitfullest and strongest Countries in those Parts, was now rather a Desart, or the very Spectacle of Desolation; their Fruits and Fields overgrown with Weeds, their Churches and battered Palaces, and best Buildings, as for fear, hid with Moss and Ivy; being the very Bulwark and Rampire of a great part of _Europe,_ most fit by all _Christians_ to have been supplied and maintained, was thus brought to ruin by them, it most concerned to support it. But alas, what is it, when the Power of Majesty pampered in all delights of pleasant Vanity, neither knowing, nor considering the labour of the Plough-man, the hazard of the Merchant, the oppression of Statesmen, nor feeling the piercing Torments of broken Limbs, and inveterate Wounds, the toilsome Marches, the bad Lodging, the hungry Diet, and the extream misery that Soldiers endure to secure all those Estates, and yet by the spight of malicious detraction, starves for want of their Reward and Recompences, whilst the politique Courtier, that commonly aims more at his own Honours and Ends, than his Countries good, or his Princes Glory, Honour, or Security, as this worthy Prince too well could testifie. But the Emperor being certified how weak and desperate his Estate was, sent _Busca_ again with a great Army, to try his fortune once more in _Transilvania._ The Prince considering how his Country and Subjects were consumed, the small means he had any longer to defend his Estate, both against the cruelty of the _Turk,_ and the power of the Emperor, and the small care the _Polanders_ had in Supplying him, as they had promised, sent to _Busca_ to have truce, till Messengers might be sent to the Emperour for some better agreement, wherewith _Busca_ was contented. The Ambassadors so prevailed, that the Emperour re-assured unto them the conditions he had promised the Prince at their confederacy for the Lands in _Silesia,_ with 60000 Ducats presently in hand, and 50000 Ducats yearly as a Pension. When this conclusion was known to _Moyses,_ his Lieutenant then in the Field with the Army, that would do any thing, rather than come in subjection to the _Germans,_ he encouraged his Soldiers, and without any more ado, marched to encounter _Busca,_ {MN} whom he found much better provided than he expected; so that betwixt them, in six or seven hours, more than five or six thousand, on both sides, lay dead in the field. _Moyses_ thus overthrown, fled to the _Turks_ at _Temesware,_ and his Scattered Troops, some one way, some another.

* * * * *

{MN} _Busca_ in _Transilvania_ overthroweth _Moyses._

The Prince understanding of this so sudden and unexpected Accident, only accompanied with an hundred of his Gentry and Nobility, went into the Camp to _Busca,_ to let him know how ignorant he was of his Lieutenants error, that he had done it without his direction or knowledge, freely offering to perform what was concluded by his Ambassadors with the Emperor; {MN} and so causing all his Garrisons to come out of their strong Holds, he delivered all to _Busca_ for the Emperor, and so went to _Prague,_ where he was honourably received, and established in his Possessions, as his Imperial Majesty had promised. _Busca_ assembling all the Nobility, took their Oaths of Allegiance and Fidelity, and thus their Prince being gone _Transilvania_ became again subject to the Emperor.

* * * * *

{MN} _Sigismundis_ yieldeth his country to _Busca._

{MN} Now after the Death of _Michael,_ Vavoid of _Wallachia,_ the _Turk_ Sent one _Jeremy_ to be their Vavoid or Prince; whose insulting Tyranny caused the People to take Arms against him, so that he was forced to flie into the Confines of _Moldavia;_ and _Busca_ in the behalf of the Emperor, proclaimed the Lord _Rodol_ in his stead. But _Jeremy_ having assembled an Army of forty thousand _Turks, Tartars,_ and _Moldavians,_ returned into _Wallachia. Rodol_ not yet able to raise such a power, fled into _Transilvania_ to _Busca,_ his ancient Friend; who considering well of the matter, and how good it would be for his own Security, to have _Wallachia_ subject to the Emperor, or at least such an Employment for the remainders of the old Regiments of _Sigismundus,_ (of whose Greatness and true Affection he was very suspicious) sent them with _Rodol_ to recover _Wallachia,_ conducted by the Valiant Captains, the Earl _Meldritch,_ Earl _Veltus,_ Earl _Nederspolt,_ Earl _Zarvana,_ the Lord _Becklefield_ the Lord _Budendorfe,_ with their Regiments, and divers others of great rank and quality, the greatest Friends and Alliances the Prince had; who with Thirty thousand, marched along by the River _Altus,_ to the Streights of _Rebrink,_ where they entred _Wallachia,_ encamping at _Raza; Jeremy_ lying at _Argish,_ drew his Army into his old Camp, in the Plains of _Peteske,_ and with his best diligence fortified it, intending to defend himself, till more power came to him from the _Crim-Tartar._ Many small Parties that came to his Camp, _Rodol_ cut off, and in the nights would cause their Heads to be thrown up and down before the Trenches. Seven of their Porters were taken, whom _Jeremy_ commanded to be flayed quick, and after hung their Skins upon Poles, and their Carcases and Heads on Stakes by them.

* * * * *

{MN} _Busca_ assisteth _Rodol_ in _Wallachia._

* * * * *

CHAP. X.

_The Battle of_ Rottenton; _a pretty Stratagem of Fire-works by_ Smith.

_Rodol_ not knowing how to draw the Enemy to Battel, raised his Army, burning and spoiling all where he came, and returned again towards _Rebrink_ in the night, as if he had fled upon the general rumour of the _Crim-Tartars_ coming, which so inflamed the _Turks_ of a happy Victory, they urged _Jeremy_ against his Will to follow them. _Rodol_ seeing his Plot fell out as he desired, so ordered the matter, that having regained the Streights, he put his Army in order, that had been near two days pursued with continual Skirmishes in his Rear, {MN-1} which now making Head against the Enemy, that followed with their whole Army in the best manner they could, was furiously charged with six thousand _Heydukes, Wallachians,_ and _Moldavians,_ led by three Colonels, _Oversall, Dubras_, and _Calab,_ to entertain the time till the rest came up; _Veltus_ and _Nederspolt_ with their Regiments, entertained them with the like courage, till the Zanzacke _Hamesbeg,_ with six thousand more, came with a fresh charge, which _Meldritch_ and _Budendorfe,_ rather like enraged Lions, than Men, so bravely encountred, as if in them only had consisted the Victory; _Meldritch's_ Horse being slain under him, the _Turks_ pressed what they could to have taken him Prisoner, but being remounted, it was thought with his own hand he slew the valiant Zanzacke, whereupon his Troops retiring, the two proud _Bashawes, Aladin,_ and _Zizimmus,_ brought up the front of the body of their Battle. _Veltus,_ and _Nederspolt_ having breathed, and joyning their Troops with _Becklefield_ and _Zarvana,_ with such an incredible courage, charged the left flank of _Zizimmus,_ as put them all in disorder, where _Zizimmus_ the _Bashaw_ was taken Prisoner, but died presently upon his Wounds. _Jeremy_ seeing now the main Battel of _Rodol_ advance, being thus constrained, like a Valiant Prince in his front of the Vangard, by his example so bravely encouraged his Soldiers, that _Rodol_ found no great assurance of the Victory. Thus being joyned in this bloody Massacre, that there was Scarce Ground to stand upon, but upon the dead Carcases, which in less than an hour, were So mingled, as if each Regiment had singled out other. The admired _Aladin_ that day did leave behind him a glorious name for his Valour, whose Death, many of his Enemies did lament after the Victory, which at that instant fell to _Rodol._ It was reported, _Jeremy_ was also slain; but it Was not so, but fled with the remainder of his Army to _Moldavia,_ leaving five and twenty thousand dead in the Field, of both Armies. {MN-2} And thus _Rodol_ was seated again in his Soveraignty, and _Wallachia_ became subject to the Emperour.

* * * * *

{MN-1} A battle betwixt _Rodol_ and _Jeremy._

{MN-2} _Wallachia_ subjected to the Emperour.

But long he rested not to settle his new Estate, but there came News, that certain Regiments of stragling _Tartars,_ were foraging those Parts towards _Moldavia. Meldritch_ with thirteen thousand Men was sent against them, but when they heard it was the _Crim-Tartar,_ and his two Sons, with an Army of thirty thousand; and _Jeremy,_ that had escaped with fourteen or fifteen thousand, lay in ambush for them about _Langanaw,_ he retired towards _Rottenton,_ a strong Garrison for _Rodol;_ but they were so invironed with these hellish numbers, they could make no great hast for skirmishing with their Scouts, Foragers, and small Parties that still encountred them. But one night amongst the rest, having made a passage through a Wood, with an incredible expedition, cutting Trees thwart each other to hinder their passage, in a thick Fogg, early in the Morning, unexpectedly they met two thousand loaded with Pillage, and two or three hundred Horse and Cattel; the most of them were slain and taken Prisoners, who told them where _Jeremy_ lay in the passage, expecting the _Crim-Tartar_ that was not far from him. _Meldritch_ intending to make his passage by force, was advised of a pretty Stratagem, by the English _Smith,_ which presently he thus accomplished; for having accommodated two or three hundred Trunks with wild-fire, upon the Heads of Lances, and charging the Enemy in the night, gave fire to the Trunks, which blazed forth such Flames and Sparkles, that it so amazed not only their Horses, but their Foot also; that by the means of this flaming Encounter, their own Horses turned Tails with such fury, as by their violence overthrew _Jeremy_ and his Army, without any loss at all to speak of to _Meldritch._ But of this Victory, long they triumphed not; for being within three Leagues of _Rottenton,_ the _Tartar,_ with near forty thousand so beset them, that they must either fight, or be cut in pieces flying. Here _Busca,_ and the Emperour had their desire; for the Sun no sooner displayed his Beams, than the _Tartar_ his Colours; where at mid-day he stayed a while, to see the Passage of a tyrannical and treacherous imposture, till the Earth did blush with the blood of Honesty, that the Sun for shame did hide himself, from so monstrous sight of a cowardly Calamity. It was a most brave sight to see the Banners and Ensigns streaming in the Air, the glittering of Armour, the variety of Colours, the motion of Plumes, the forests of Lances, and the thickness of shorter Weapons, till the silent Expedition of the bloody blast from the murdering Ordnance, whose roaring Voice is not so soon heard, as felt by the aimed at Object, which made among them a most lamentable slaughter.

* * * * *

CHAP. XI.

_The names of the_ English _that were slain in the Battel of_ Rottenton; _and how Captain_ Smith _was taken Prisoner, and sold for a Slave._

In the valley of _Veristhorne,_ betwixt the River of _Altus,_ and the Mountain of _Rottenton,_ was this bloody Encounter, where the most of the dearest Friends of the noble Prince Sigismundus perished. _Meldritch_ having ordered his Eleven thousand in the best manner he could, at the Foot of the Mountain upon his Flanks, and before his front, he had pitched sharp Stakes, their Heads hardned in the fire, and bent against the Enemy, as three Battalion of Pikes, amongst the which also, there was digged many small holes. {MN-1} Amongst those Stakes was ranged his foot-men, that upon the charge was to retire, as there was occasion. The _Tartar_ having ordered his 40000 for his best advantage, appointed _Mustapha Bashaw_ to begin the Battel, with a general Shout, all their Ensigns displaying, Drums beating, Trumpets and Haut-boys sounding. _Nederspolt_ and _Mavazo_ with their Regiments of Horse most valiantly encountred, and forced them to retire; the _Tartar Begoli_ with his Squadrons, darkning the Skies with their flights of numberless Arrows, who was as bravely encountred by _Veltus_ and _Oberwin,_ which bloody slaughter continued more than an hour, till the matchless multitude of the _Tartars_ so increased, that they retired within their Squadrons of Stakes, as was directed. The bloody _Tartar,_ as scorning he should stay so long for the Victory, with his massie Troops prosecuted the Charge: But it was a wonder to see how Horse and Man came to the Ground among the Stakes, whose disordered Troops were there so mangled, that the _Christians_ with a loud Shout cried _Victoria;_ and with five or six field Pieces, planted upon the rising of the Mountain, did much hurt to the Enemy that still continued the Battel with that fury, that _Meldritch_ seeing there was no possibility long to prevail, joyned his small Troops in one body, resolved directly to make his passage, or die in the conclusion; and thus in gross gave a general charge, and for more than half an hour, made his way plain before him, till the main Battle of the _Crim-Tartar,_ with two Regiments of _Turks_ and _Jaizaries_ so overmatched them, that they were overthrown. The night approaching, the Earl with some thirteen or fourteen hundred Horse, swam the River, some were drowned, all the rest slain or taken Prisoners: And thus in this bloody Field, near 30000 lay, some Headless, Armless and Legless, all cut and mangled; where breathing their last, they gave this knowledge to the World, that for the lives of so few, the _Crim-Tartar_ never paid dearer. {MN-2} But now the Countries of _Transilvania_ and _Wallachia_ (subjected to the Emperor) and _Sigismundus,_ that brave Prince, his Subject and Pensioner, the most of his Nobility, brave Captains and Soldiers, became a prey to the cruel devouring _Turk:_ where, had the Emperour been as ready to have assisted him, and those three Armies led by three such worthy Captains, as _Michael, Busca,_ and Himself, and had those three Armies joyned together against the _Turk,_ let all Men judge, how happy it might have been for all Christendom: and have either regained _Bulgaria,_ or at least have beat him out of _Hungaria,_ where he hath taken much more from the Emperour, than hath the Emperour from _Transilvania._

* * * * *

{MN-1} _the Battle of_ Rottenton.

{MN-2} _Extracted out of a book, instituted, the Wars of_ Hungaria, Wallachia, _and_ Moldavia, _written by_ Francisco Ferneza, _a learned Italian, the Princes Secretary, and translated by Mr._ Purchas.

In this dismal Battel, where _Nederspolt, Veltus, Zarvana, Mavazo, Bavel,_ and many other Earls, Barons, Colonels, Captains, brave Gentlemen, and Soldiers were slain, give me leave to remember the names of our own Country-men, {MN} with him in those Exploits, that as resolutely as the best in the defence of Christ and his Gospel, ended their days, as _Bakersfield, Hardwick, Thomas Milemer, Robert Mollineux, Thomas Bishop, Francis Compton, George Davison, Nicholas Williams_ and one _John_ a Scot, did what Men could do, and when they could do no more, left there their Bodies in Testimony of their minds; only Ensign _Charleton,_ and Sergeant _Robinson_ escaped: But _Smith,_ among the slaughtered dead Bodies, and many a gasping Soul, with toil and Wounds lay groaning among the rest, till being found by the Pillagers, he was able to live, and perceiving by his Armour and Habit, his ransom might be better to them than his Death, they led him Prisoner with many others; well they used him till his Wounds were cured, and at _Axopolis_ they were all sold for Slaves, like Beasts in a Market-place, where every Merchant, viewing their Limbs and Wounds, caused other Slaves to struggle with them, to try their strength, he fell to the share of _Bashaw Bogal,_ who sent him forthwith to _Adrianopolis,_ so for _Constantinople_ to his fair Mistriss for a Slave. By twenty and twenty chained by the Necks, they marched in file to this great City, where they were delivered to their several Masters, and he to the young _Charaza Tragabigzanda._

* * * * *

{MN} _The English Men in this Battel._

* * * * *

CHAP. XII.

_How Captain_ Smith _was sent Prisoner thorow the_ Black _and_ Dissabacca _Sea in_ Tartaria; _the Description of those seas, and his usage._

This Noble Gentlewoman took sometime occasion to shew him to some Friends, or rather to speak with him, because she could speak Italian, would feign her self sick when she should go to the _Bannians,_ or weep over the Graves, to know how _Bogal_ took him Prisoner; and if he were as the _Bashaw_ writ to her, a _Bohemian_ Lord conquered by his Hand, as he had many others, which ere long he would present her, whose Ransomes should adorn her with the glory of his Conquests.

But when she heard him protest he knew no such matter, nor ever saw _Bogal,_ till he bought him at _Axopolis,_ and that he was an _English-man,_ only by his Adventures made a Captain in those Countries. To try the truth, she found means to find out many who could speak _English, French, Dutch,_ and _Italian,_ to whom relating most part of these former Passages she thought necessary, which they so honestly reported to her, she took (as it seemed) much compassion on him; but having no use for him, lest her Mother should sell him, she sent him to her Brother, the _Timor Bashaw_ of _Nalbrits,_ In the Country of _Cambia,_ a Province in _Tartaria._

{MN-1} Here now let us remember his passing, in this speculative course from _Constantinople_ by _Sander, Screw, Panassa, Musa, Lastilla,_ to _Varna,_ an ancient City upon the _Black Sea._ In all which Journey, having little more liberty, than his eyes judgment, since his Captivity, he might see the Towns with their short Towers, and a most plain, fertile, and delicate Country, especially that most admired place of _Greece,_ now called _Romania,_ but from _Varna,_ nothing but the _Black Sea_ Water, till he came to the two Capes of _Taur_ and _Pergilos,_ where he passed the Streight of _Niger,_ which (as he conjectured) is some ten Leagues long, and three broad, betwixt two Low-lands, the Channel is deep, {MN-2} but at the entrance of the Sea _Dissabacca,_ there are many great Osie-shaulds, and many great black Rocks, which the _Turks_ said were Trees, Weeds, and Mud, thrown from the In-land Countries, by the Inundations and violence of the Current, and cast there by the Eddy. They Sailed by many low Isles, and saw many more of those muddy Rocks, and nothing else, but salt Water, till they came betwixt _Sufax_ and _Curuske,_ only two white Towns at the entrance of the River _Bruapo_ appeared: In six or seven days Sail, he saw four or five seeming strong Castles of Stone, with flat tops and Battlements about them, but arriving at _Cambia,_ he was (according to their custom) well used. The River was there more than half a Mile broad. The Castle was of a large Circumference, fourteen or fifteen foot thick, in the Foundation some six foot from the Wall, is a _Pallizado,_ and then a Ditch of about forty foot broad full of Water. On the West side of it, is a Town, all of low flat Houses, which as he conceived, could be of no great strength, yet it keeps all them barbarous Countreys about it in admiration and subjection. After he had stayed there three days; it was two days more before his Guides brought him to _Nalbrits,_ where the _Tymor_ was then resident, in a great vast Stone Castle, with many great Courts about it, invironed with high Stone Walls, where was quartered their Arms, when they first subjected those Countries, which only live to labour for those Tyrannical _Turks._

* * * * *

{MN-1} _How he was sent into_ Tartaria.

{MN-2} _The Description of the_ Dissabacca _Sea._

{MN} To her unkind Brother, this kind Lady writ so much for his good usage, that he half expected, as much as she intended; for she told him, he should there but sojourn to learn the Language, and what it was to be a _Turk,_ till time made her Master of her self. But the _Tymor,_ her Brother, diverted all this to the worst of Cruelty; for within an hour after his arrival, he caused his _Drubman_ to strip him naked, and shave his Head and Beard so bare as his Hand, a great Ring of Iron, with a long stalk bowed like a Sickle, revitted about his Neck, and a Coat made of _Ulgries_ Hair, guarded about with a piece of an undrest Skin. There were many more Christian Slaves, and near an hundred _Forsados_ of _Turks_ and _Moors,_ and he being the last, was slave of Slaves to them all. Among these slavish Fortunes, there was no great choice; for the best was so bad, a Dog could hardly have lived to endure, and yet for all their pains and labours, no more regarded than a Beast.

* * * * *

{MN} Smith's _usage in_ Tartaria.

* * * * *

CHAP. XIII.

_The_ Turks _diet; the Slaves diet; the attire of the_ Tartars; _and manner of Wars and Religions, &c._

{MN-1} The _Tymor_ and his Friends fed upon Pillaw, which is, boiled Rice and Garnances with little bits of Mutton or Buckones, which is Roasted pieces of Horse, Bull, Ulgrie, or any Beasts. Samboyses and Muselbit are great Dainties, and yet but round Pies, full of all sorts of Flesh, they can get chopped with variety of Herbs. Their best Drink is Coffee, of a grain they call _Coava,_ boiled with Water; and _Sherbeck,_ which is only Honey and Water; Mares Milk, or the Milk of any Beast, they hold restorative: but all the Commonalty drink pure Water. {MN-2} Their Bread is made of this _Coava,_ which is a kind of black Wheat, and Cuskus a small white Seed, like _Millia_ in _Biskay:_ But our common Victuals, the entrails of Horse and Ulgries; of this cut in small pieces, they will fill a great Cauldron, and being boiled with _Cuskus,_ and put in great Bowls in the form of Chaffing-dishes, they sit round about it on the Ground, after they have raked it thorow, so oft as they please with their foul Fists, the remainder was for the _Christian_ Slaves. Some of this Broth, they would temper with _Cuskus_ pounded, and putting the Fire off from the Hearth, pour there a Bowl full, then cover it with Coals till it be baked, which stewed with the remainder of the Broth, and some small pieces of Flesh, was an extraordinary Dainty.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The_ Tymor's _Diet of_ Cambia, _is as the_ Turks.

{MN-2} _The Slaves Diet._

{MN} The better sort are attired like _Turks,_ but the plain _Tartar_ hath a black Sheeps-skin over his back, and two of the Legs tied about his Neck; the other two about his middle, with another over his Belly, and the Legs tied in like manner behind him: Then two more, made like a pair of Bases, serveth him for Breeches; with a little close Cap to his Skull of black Felt, and they use exceeding much of this Felt for Carpets, for Bedding, for Coats, and Idols. Their Houses are much worse than your _Irish,_ but the In-land Countries have none but Carts and Tents, which they ever remove from Countrey to Countrey, as they see occasion, driving with them infinite Troops of black Sheep, Cattel and Ulgries, eating all up before them as they go.

* * * * *

{MN} _The attire of those_ Tartars.

{MN} For the _Tartars_ of _Nagi,_ they have neither Town, nor House, Corn, nor Drink, but Flesh and Milk. The Milk they keep in great Skins like _Burracho's,_ which though it be never so sower, it agreeth well with their strong Stomachs. They live all in _Hordias,_ as doth the _Crim-Tartars,_ three or four hundred in a Company, in great Carts fifteen or sixteen foot broad, which are covered with small Rods, wattled together in the form of a Bird's Nest, turned upwards, and with the Ashes of Bones, temper'd with Oil, Camels Hair, and a Clay they have, they loam them so well, that no Weather can pierce them, and yet very light. Each _Hordia_ hath a _Murse,_ which they obey as their King. Their Gods are infinite. One or two thousand of those glittering white Carts drawn with Camels, Deer, Bulls, and Ulgries, they bring round in a Ring, where they pitch their Camp; and the _Murse,_ with his chief Alliances, are placed in the midst. They do much hurt, when they can get any _Stroggs,_ which are great Boats used up on the River _Volga,_ (which they call _Edle_) to them that dwell in the Countrey of _Perolog,_ and would do much more, were it not for the _Muscovites_ Garrisons that there Inhabit.

* * * * *

{MN} _The_ Tartars _of_ Nagi _and their manners._

* * * * *

CHAP. XIIII.

_The Description of the_ Crim-Tartars; _their Houses and Carts, their Idolatry in their Lodgings_

{MN-1} Now you are to understand, _Tartary_ and _Scythia_ are all one, but so large and spacious, few, or none, could ever perfectly describe it, nor all the several kinds of those most barbarous People that inhabit it. Those we call the _Crim-Tartars,_ border upon _Moldavia, Podolia, Lithuania,_ and _Russia,_ are much more regular than the interior parts of _Scythia._ This Great _Tartarian_ Prince, that hath so troubled all his Neighbours, they always call _Chan,_ which signifieth Emperour; but we, the _Crim-Tartar._ He liveth for the most part in the best Champion Plains of many Provinces; and his removing Court is like a great City of Houses and Tents, drawn on Carts, all so orderly placed East and West, on the right and left hand of the Prince's House, which is always in the midst towards the South, before which, none may pitch their Houses, every one knowing their Order and Quarter, as in an Army. {MN-2} The Princes Houses are very artificially wrought, both the Foundation, Sides, and Roof of Wickers, ascending round to the top like a Dove coat; this they cover with white Salt, or white Earth, temper'd with the Powder of Bones, that it may shine the whiter; sometimes with black Felt, curiously painted with Vines, Trees, Birds, and Beasts; the breadth of the Carts are eighteen or twenty Foot, but the house stretcheth four or five Foot over each side, and is drawn with ten or twelve, or for more state, twenty Camels and Oxen. {MN-3} They have also great Baskets, made of smaller Wickers, like great Chests, with a covering of the same, all covered over with black Felt, rubbed over with Tallow and Sheep's Milk, to keep out the Rain; prettily bedecked with Painting or Feathers; in those they put their Houshold Stuff and Treasure, drawn upon other Carts for that purpose. When they take down their Houses, they set the door always towards the South, and their Carts thirty or forty Foot distant on each side, East and West, as if they were two Walls: The Women also have most curious Carts; every one of his Wives hath a great one for her self, and so many other for her Attendants, that they seem as many Courts as he hath Wives. One great _Tartar_ or Nobleman, will have for his particular, more than an hundred of those Houses and Carts, for his several Offices and Uses, but set so far from each other, they will seem like a great Village. {MN-4} Having taken their Houses from the Carts, they place the Master always towards the North; over whose head is always an Image like a Puppet, made of Felt, which they call his Brother; the Women on his left hand, and over the chief Mistriss her Head, such another Brother, and between them a little one, which is the keeper of the House; at the good Wives Beds-feet is a Kids Skin, stuffed with Wooll, and near it a Puppet looking towards the Maids; next the door another, with a dried Cows Udder, for the Women that Milk the Kine, because only the Men Milk Mares; {MN-5} every Morning those Images in their orders, they besprinkle with that they drink, be it Cossmos, or whatsoever, but all the white Mares Milk is reserved for the Prince. Then without the door, thrice to the South, every one bowing his knee in honour of the Fire; then the like to the East, in honour of the Air; then to the West, in honour of the Water; and lastly to the North, in behalf of the dead. After the Servant hath done this duty to the four quarters of the World, he returns into the House, where his Fellows stand waiting, ready with two Cups, and two Basons, to give their Master, and his Wife that lay with him that Night, to wash and drink, who must keep him company all the day following, and all his other Wives come thither to drink, where he keeps his House that day; and all the Gifts presented him till night, are laid up in her Chests; and at the door a Bench full of Cups, and drink for any of them to make merry.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The description of the_ Crim-Tartar's _Court._

{MN-2} _His Houses and Carts._

{MN-3} _Baskets._

{MN-4} _Their Idolatry in their Lodgings._

{MN-5} _Cosmos is Mares Milk._

* * * * *

CHAP. XV.

_Their Feasts, common Diet, Princes Estate, Buildings, Tributes, Laws, Slaves, Entertainment of Ambassadors._

{MN} For their Feasts, they have all sorts of Beasts, Birds, Fish, Fruits, and Herbs they can get, but the more variety of wild ones is the best; to which they have excellent Drink made of Rice, Millet, and Honey, like Wine; they have also Wine, but in Summer they drink most Cossmos, that standeth ready always at the entrance of the door, and by it a Fidler; when the Master of the House beginneth to drink, they all cry, ha, ha, and the Fidler plays, then they all clap their Hands and dance, the Men before their Masters, the Women before their Mistresses; and ever when he drinks, they cry as before; then the Fidler stayeth till they drink all round; sometimes they will drink for the Victory; and to provoke one to drink, they will pull him by the Ears, and lug and draw him, to stretch and beat him, clapping their Hands, stamping with their Feet, and dancing before the Champions, offering them Cups, then draw them back again to increase their Appetite; and thus continue till they be drunk, or their drink done, which they hold an honour, and no Infirmity.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Feasts._

{MN} Though the Ground be fertile, they sow little Corn, yet the Gentlemen have Bread and Honey-wine; Grapes they have plenty, and Wine privately, and good Flesh and Fish; but the common sort stamped Millet, mingled with Milk and Water. They call Cassa for Meat, and drink any thing; also any Beast unprofitable for service they kill, when they are like to die, or however they die, they will eat them, Guts, Liver and all; but the most fleshy parts they cut in thin slices, and hang it up in the Sun and Wind without salting, where it will dry so hard, it will not putrifie in a long time. A Ramm they esteem a great Feast among forty or fifty, which they cut in pieces boiled or roasted, puts it in a great Bowl, with Salt and Water, for other Sawce they have none; the Master of the Feast giveth every one a piece, which he eateth by himself, or carrieth away with him. {MN-2} Thus their hard fare makes them so infinite in Cattel, and their great number of Captive Women to breed upon, makes them so populous. But near the Christian Frontiers, the baser sort make little Cottages of Wood, called _Vlusi,_ daubed over with dirt, and Beasts dung covered with sedge; yet in Summer they leave them, beginning their Progress in _April,_ with their Wives, Children, and Slaves, in their Carted Houses, scarce convenient for four or five Persons; driving their Flocks towards _Precopia,_ and sometimes into _Taurica,_ or _Osow,_ a Town upon the River _Tanais,_ which is great and swift, where the _Turk_ hath a Garrison; and in _October_ return again to their Cottages. Their Clothes are the Skins of Dogs, Goats, and Sheep, lined with Cotton Cloath, made of their finest Wooll, for of their worst they make their Felt, which they use in abundance, as well for Shooes and Caps, as Houses, Beds, and Idols; also of the coarse Wooll mingled with Horse hair, they make all their Cordage. {MN-3} Notwithstanding this wandring life, their Princes sit in great State upon Beds, or Carpets, and with great reverence are attended both by Men and Women, and richly served in Plates and great Silver Cups, delivered upon the Knee, attired in rich Furrs, lined with Plush, or Taffity, or Robes of Tissue. These _Tartars_ possess many large and goodly Plains, wherein feed innumerable Herds of Horse and Cattel, as well wild as tame; which are Elkes, Bisons, Horses, Deer, Sheep, Goats, Swine, Bears, and divers others.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _Their common diet._

{MN-2} _How they become populous._

{MN-3} _Their Princes State._

{MN-1} In those Countries are the Ruins of many fair Monasteries, Castles, and Cities, as _Bacasaray, Salutium, Almassary, Precopia, Cremum, Sedacom, Capha,_ and divers others by the Sea, but all kept with strong Garrisons for the Great _Turk,_ {MN-2} who yearly by Trade or Traffick, receiveth the chief Commodities those fertile Countries afford, as Bezoar, Rice, Furs, Hides, Butter, Salt, Cattel, and Slaves, yet by the spoils they get from the secure and idle Christians, they maintain themselves in this Pomp. Also their Wives, of whom they have as many as they will, very costly, yet in a constant custom with decency.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _Ancient Buildings._

{MN-2} _Commodities for tribute to the_ Turk.

{MN} They are _Mahometans,_ as are the _Turks,_ from whom they also have their Laws, but no Lawyers, nor Attornies, only Judges, and Justices in every Village, or Hordia; but Capital Criminals, or matters of moment, before the Chan himself, or Privy Councils, of whom they are always heard, and speedily discharged; for any may have access at any time to them, before whom they appear with great Reverence, adoring their Princes as Gods, and their Spiritual Judges as Saints; for Justice is with such integrity and Expedition Executed, without Covetousness, Bribery, Partiality, and Brawling, that in six Months they have sometimes scarce six Causes to hear. About the Princes Court, none but his Guard wear any Weapon, but abroad they go very strong, because there are many Bandittos, and Thieves.

* * * * *

{MN} _Good Laws, yet no Lawyers._

{MN} They use the _Hungarians, Russians, Wallachians,_ and _Moldavian_ Slaves (whereof they have plenty) as Beasts to every work; and those _Tartars_ that serve the Chan, or Noblemen, have only Victuals and Apparel, the rest are generally nastly, and idle, naturally miserable, and in their Wars better Thieves than Soldiers.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Slaves._

{MN} This Chan hath yearly a Donative from the King of _Poland,_ the Dukes of _Lithuania, Moldavia,_ and _Nagayon Tartars;_ their Messengers commonly he useth bountifully, and very nobly, but sometimes most cruelly; when any of them do bring their Presents, by his Houshold Officers, they are entertained in a plain Field, with a moderate proportion of Flesh, Bread and Wine, for once; but when they come before him, the _Sultans, Tuians, Vlans, Marhies,_ his chief Officers and Councellors attend, one Man only bringeth the Ambassadour to the Court Gate, but to the Chan he is led between two Councellors; where saluting him upon their bended knees, declaring their message, are admitted to eat with him, and presented with a great Silver Cup full of Mead from his own hand, but they drink it upon their Knees: when they are dispatched, he invites them again, the Feast ended, they go back a little from the Palace door, and rewarded with Silk Vestures, wrought with Gold down to their Anckles, with an Horse or two, and sometimes a Slave of their own Nation; in them Robes presently they come to him again, to give him thanks, take their leave, and so depart.

* * * * *

{MN} _His Entertainment of Ambassadours._

* * * * *

CHAP. XVI.

_How he levieth an Army; their Arms and Provision; how he divideth the Spoil, and his Service to the Great Turk._

{MN} When he intends any Wars, he must first have leave of the Great _Turk,_ whom he is bound to assist when he commandeth, receiving daily for himself and chief of his Nobility, Pensions from the _Turk,_ that holds all Kings but Slaves, that pay Tribute, or are subject to any: signifying his intent to all his Subjects, within a Month commonly he raiseth his Army, and every Man is to furnish himself for three Months Victuals, which is parched Millet, or ground to Meal, which they ordinarily mingle with Water (as is said) hard Cheese or Curds dried, and beaten to powder, a little will make much Water like Milk, and dried Flesh, this they put also up in Sacks; The Chan and his Nobles have some Bread and _Aquavitae,_ and quick Cattel to kill when they please, wherewith very sparingly they are contented. Being provided with expert Guides, and got into the Country he intends to Invade, he sends forth his Scouts to bring in what Prisoners they can, from whom he will wrest the utmost of their Knowledge fit for his purpose; having advised with his Council, what is most fit to be done, the Nobility, according to their Antiquity, doth march; then moves he with his whole Army: if he find there is no Enemy to oppose him, he adviseth how far they shall Invade, commanding every Man (upon pain of his Life) to kill all the obvious Rusticks; but not to hurt any Women, or Children.

* * * * *

{MN} _How he levieth an Army._

{MN} Ten, or fifteen thousand, he commonly placeth, where he findeth most convenient for his standing Camp; the rest of his Army he divides in several Troops, bearing ten or twelve Miles square before them, and ever within three or four days return to their Camp, putting all to Fire and Sword, but that they carry with them back to their Camp; and in this scattering manner he will invade a Country, and be gone with his Prey, with an incredible Expedition. But if he understand of an Enemy, he will either fight in Ambuscado, or flie; for he will never fight any Battel if he can chuse, but upon treble advantage; yet by his innumerable flights of Arrows, I have seen flie from his flying Troops, we could not well judge, whether his fighting or flying was most dangerous, so good is his Horse, and so expert his Bow-men; but if they be so intangled they must fight, there is none can be more hardy, or resolute in their defences.

* * * * *

{MN} _The manner of his Wars._

{MN} Regaining his own Borders, he takes the tenth of the principal Captives, Man, Woman, Child, or Beast (but his Captains that take them, will accept of some particular Person they best like for themselves) the rest are divided amongst the whole Army, according to every Mans Desert and Quality; that they keep them, or sell them to who will give most; but they will not forget to use all the means they can, to know their Estates, Friends, and Quality, and the better they find you, the worse they will use you, till you do agree to pay such a Ransom, as they will impose upon you; therefore many great Persons have endured much misery to conceal themselves, because their Ransoms are so intolerable: their best hope is of some Christian Agent, that many times cometh to redeem Slaves, either with Money, or Man for Man; those Agents knowing so well the extream covetousness of the _Tartars,_ do use to bribe some Jew or Merchant, that feigning they will sell them again to some other Nation, are oft redeemed for a very small Ransom.

* * * * *

{MN} _How he divideth the spoil._

{MN} But to this _Tartarian_ Army, when the _Turk,_ commands, he goeth with some small Artillery; and the _Nagayans, Precopens, Crims, Osovens,_ and _Circassians,_ are his Tributaries; but the _Perigorves, Oczaconians, Bialogordens,_ and _Dobrucen Tartars,_ the _Turk_ by Covenant commands to follow him, so that from all those _Tartars_ he hath had an Army of an hundred and twenty thousand excellent, swift, stomackfull _Tartarian_ Horse for foot they have none. Now the Chan, his Sultans and Nobility, use _Turkiso, Caramanian, Arabian, Parthian,_ and other strange _Tartarian_ Horses; the swiftest they esteem the best; seldom they feed any more at home, than they have present use for; but upon their Plains is a short Wood-like Heath, in some Countries like Gail, full of Berries, much better than any Grass.

* * * * *

{MN} _How the Chan doth serve the Great_ Turk.

{MN} Their Arms are such, as they have surprised or got from the _Christians_ or _Persians,_ both Brest-plates, Swords, Scimitars, and Helmets; Bows and Arrows they make most themselves, also their Bridles and Saddles are indifferent, but the Nobility are very handsome, and well armed like the _Turks,_ in whom consisteth their greatest Glory; the ordinary sort have little Armour, some a plain young Pole unshaven, headed with a piece of Iron for a Lance; some an old _Christian_ Pike, or a _Turks_ Cavarine, yet those Tattertimallions will have two or three Horses, some four or five, as well for service, as for to eat; which makes their Armies seem thrice so many as there are Soldiers. The Chan himself hath about his Person, Ten thousand chosen _Tartars_ and _Janizaries,_ some small Ordnance, and a white Mares Tail, with a piece of green Taffity on a great Pike, is carried before him for a Standard; because they hold no Beast so precious as a white Mare, whose Milk is only for the King and Nobility, and to Sacrifice to their Idols; but the rest have Ensigns of divers Colours.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Arms._

For all this miserable Knowledge, Furniture, and Equipage, the mischief they do in _Christendom_ is wonderful, by reason of their hardness of Life and Constitution, Obedience, Agility, and their Emperours Bounty, Honours, Grace, and Dignities he ever bestoweth upon those, that have done him any memorable Service in the face of his Enemies.

{MN} The Caspian Sea, most Men agree that have passed it, to be in length about 200 Leagues, and in breadth an hundred and fifty, environed to the East, with the great Desarts of the _Tartars_ of _Turkomania;_ to the West, by the _Circasses,_ and the Mountain _Caucasus;_ to the North, by the River _Volga,_ and the Land of _Nagay;_ and to the South, by _Media,_ and _Persia:_ This Sea is fresh Water in many places, in others as salt as the great Ocean; it hath many great Rivers which fall into it, as the mighty River of _Volga,_ which is like a Sea, running near Two thousand Miles, through many great and large Countries, that send into it many other great Rivers; also out of _Saberia, Yaick,_ and _Yem,_ out of the great Mountain _Caucasus,_ the River _Sirus, Arash,_ and divers others, yet no Sea nearer it than the black Sea, which is at least an hundred Leagues distant: In which Country live the _Georgians,_ now part _Armenians,_ part _Nestorians;_ it is neither found to increase or diminish, or empty it self any way, except it be under Ground, and in some places they can find no Ground at Two hundred fathom.

* * * * *

{MN} _A Description of the_ Caspian _Sea._

Many other most strange and wonderful things are in the Land of _Cathay,_ towards the North-east, and China towards the South-east, where are many of the most famous Kingdoms in the World, where most Arts, Plenty, and Curiosities are in such abundance, as might seem incredible, which hereafter I will relate, as I have briefly gathered from such Authors as have lived there.

* * * * *

CHAP. XVII.

_How Captain_ Smith _escaped his Captivity; slew the_ Bashaw _of_ Nalbrits _in_ Cambia; _his Passage to_ Russia, Transilvania, _and the middest of_ Europe _to_ Africa.

{MN-1} All the hope he had ever to be delivered from this Thraldom, was Only the love of _Tragabigzanda,_ who surely was ignorant of his bad usage; for although he had often debated the matter with some Christians, that had been there a long time Slaves, they could not find how to make an escape, by any reason or possibility; but God beyond Man's Expectation or Imagination helpeth his Servants, when they least think of help, as it hapned to him. So long he lived in this miserable Estate, as he became a Thresher at a grange in a great Field, more than a League from the _Timor's_ House; the _Bashaw,_ as he oft used to visit his Granges, visited him, and took occasion so to beat, spurn, and revile him, that forgetting all reason, he beat out the _Timor's_ Brains with his Threshing Bat, for they have no Flails; and seeing his Estate could be no worse than it was, clothed himself in his Clothes, hid his Body under the Straw, filled his Knapsack with Corn, shut the doors, mounted his Horse, and ran into the Desart at all adventure; two or three days, thus fearfully wandring he knew not whither, and well it was, he met not any to ask the way; being even as taking leave of this miserable World, {MN-2} God did direct him to the great way or Castragan, as they call it, which doth cross these large Territories, and generally known among them by these marks.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _How_ Smith _escaped his Captivity._

{MN-2} _Their Guides in those Countries._

In every crossing of this great way is planted a Post, and in it so many bobs with broad ends, as there be ways, and every bob the Figure painted on it, that demonstrateth to what part that way leadeth; as that which pointeth towards the _Crim's_ Country, is marked with a half Moon, if towards the _Georgians_ and _Persia,_ a black Man, full of white spots, if towards _China,_ the Picture of the Sun, if towards _Muscovia,_ the Sign of a Cross, if towards the Habitation of any other Prince, the Figure whereby his Standard is known. To his dying Spirits thus God added some comfort in this melancholy Journey, wherein if he had met any of that vile Generation, they had made him their Slave, or knowing the Figure Engraven in the Iron about his Neck, (as all Slaves have) he had been sent back again to his Master; sixteen days he travelled in this fear and torment, after the Cross, till he arrived at _AEcopolis,_ upon the River _Don,_ a Garrison of the _Muscovites._ The Governour after due Examination of those his hard events, took off his Irons, and so kindly used him, he thought himself new risen from the Dead, and the good Lady _Calamata,_ largely Supplied all his wants.

{MN-1} This is as much as he could learn of those wild Countries, that the Country of _Cambia_ is two days Journey from the Head of the great River _Bruapo,_ which springeth from many places of the Mountains of _Innagachi,_ that joyn themselves together in the Pool _Kerkas_ which they account for the Head, and falleth into the Sea _Dissabacca,_ called by some the Lake _Maeotas,_ which receiveth also the River _Tanais,_ and all the Rivers that fall from the great Countries of the _Circassi,_ the _Cartaches,_ and many from the _Tauricaes, Precopes, Cummani, Cossunka,_ and the _Crim;_ through which Sea he Sailed, and up the River _Bruapo_ to _Nalbrits,_ and thence through the Desarts of _Circassi_ to _AEcopolis,_ as is related; where he stayed with the Governour, till the Convoy went to _Caragnaw;_ then with his Certificate how he found him, and had examined with his friendly Letters, sent him by _Zumalack_ to _Caragnaw,_ whose Governour in like manner so kindly used him, that by this means he went with a safe conduct to _Lesch,_ and _Donko,_ in _Cologoske,_ and thence to _Berniske_, and _Newgrod_ in _Siberia,_ by _Rezechica,_ upon the River _Nieper,_ in the confines of _Lithuania;_ from whence with as much kindness, he was convoyed in like manner by _Coroski, Duberesko, Duzihell, Drohobus,_ and _Ostroge_ in _Volonia; Saslaw,_ and _Lasco_ in _Podolia; Halico_ and _Collonia_ in _Polonia;_ and so to _Hermonstat_ in _Transilvania._ In all this his life, he seldom met with more Respect, Mirth, Content and Entertainment; and not any Governour where he came, but gave him somewhat as a Present, besides his Charges; seeing themselves as subject to the like Calamity. {MN-2} Through those poor continually Foraged Countries, there is no passage, but with the Caravans or Convoys; for they are Countries rather to be pitied than envied; and it is a wonder any should make Wars for them. The Villages are only here and there, a few Houses of streight Firr Trees, laid heads and points above one another, made fast by notches at the ends, more than a Man's heighth, and with broad split Boards, pinned together with woodden Pins, as thatched for coverture. In ten Villages you shall scarce find ten Iron Nails, except it be in some extraordinary Man's House. For their Towns, _AEcopolis, Letch,_ and _Donko,_ have Rampires made of that woodden Walled fashion, double, and betwixt them Earth and Stones, but so latched with cross Timber, they are very strong against any thing but Fire; and about them a deep Ditch, and a Palizado of young Firr Trees; but most of the rest have only a great Ditch cast about them, and the Ditches Earth, is all their Rampire; but round, well environed with Palizadoes. Some have some few small pieces of small Ordnance, and Slings, Calievers, and Muskets, but their generallest Weapons are the _Russe_ Bows and Arrows; you shall find Pavements over Bogs, only of young Firr-Trees, laid cross one over another, for two or three hours Journey, or as the Passage requires, and yet in two days Travel, you shall scarce see six Habitations. Notwithstanding to see how their Lords, Governours, and Captains are civilized, well attired and accoutred with Jewels, Sables, and Horses, and after their manner with curious Furniture, it is wonderful; but they are all Lords or Slaves, which makes them so subject to every Invasion.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The description of_ Cambia, _and his passage to_ Russia.

{MN-2} _His Observations in his Journey to_ Transilvania, _through the midst of_ Europe.

In _Transilvania,_ he found so many good Friends, that but to see, and rejoyce himself (after all those Encounters) in his Native Country, he would ever hardly have left them, though the mirrour of vertue their Prince was absent. Being thus glutted with content, and near drowned with Joy, he parted high _Hungaria_ by _Fileck, Tocka, Cassovia,_ and _Underorowoay,_ by _Ulmicht_ in _Moravia,_ to _Prague_ in _Bohemia;_ at last he found the most gracious Prince _Sigismundus,_ with his Colonel at _Lipswick_ in _Misenland,_ who gave him his Pass, intimating the service he had done, and the Honours he had received, with fifteen hundred Ducats of Gold to repair his Losses: With this he spent some time to visit the fair Cities and Countries of _Dresden_ in _Saxony, Magdeburgh_ and _Brunswick; Cassel_ in _Hessen; Wittenberg, Vilum,_ and _Minekin_ in _Bavaria; Augsburg,_ and her Universities; _Hama, Frankford, Mentz,_ the _Palatinate; Worms, Spires,_ and _Straburg;_ passing _Nancie_ in _Lorain,_ and _France_ by _Paris_ to _Orleans,_ he went down the River of _Loyer,_ to _Angiers,_ and imbarked himself at _Nantz_ in _Britain,_ for _Bilbao_ in _Biskay_ to see _Burgos-Valladolid,_ the admired Monastery of the _Escurial, Madrid, Toledo, Corduba, Cuedyrial, Sivil, Cheries, Cales,_ and St. _Lucas_ in _Spain._

* * * * *

CHAP. XVIII.

_The Observations of Captain_ Smith; _Mr._ Henry Archer, _and others in_ Barbary.

Being thus satisfied with _Europe_ and _Asia,_ understanding of the Wars in _Barbary,_ he went from _Gibralter_ to _Ceuta_ and _Tangier,_ thence to _Saffee,_ where growing into Acquaintance with a French Man of War, the Captain and some twelve more went to _Morocco,_ to see the ancient Monuments of that large renowned City: It was once the principal City in _Barbary,_ situated in a goodly plain Country, 14 Miles from the great Mount _Atlas,_ and sixty Miles from the _Atlantick_ Sea; but now little remaining, but the King's Palace, which is like a City of it self; and the Christian Church, on whose flat, {MN-1} square Steeple is a great broach of Iron, whereon is placed the three Golden Balls of Africa: The first is near three Ells in Circumference, the next above it somewhat less, the uppermost the least over them, as it were an half Ball, and over all a pretty gilded Pyramid. Against those Golden Balls hath been shot many a shot, their Weight is recorded 700 weight of pure Gold, hollow within, yet no shot did ever hit them, nor could ever any Conspirator attain that Honour as to get them down. They report, the Prince of _Morocco_ betrothed himself to the King's Daughter of _AEthiopia,_ he dying before their Marriage, she caused those three Golden Balls to be set up for his Monument, and vowed Virginity all her Life. {MN-2} The _Alfantica_ is also a place of note, because it is invironed with a great Wall, wherein lie the Goods of all the Merchants securely guarded. The _Inderea_ is also (as it were) a City of it self, where dwell the Jews: The rest for the most part is defaced; but by the many Pinnacles and Towers, with Balls on their tops, hath much appearance of much sumptuousness and curiosity. There have been many famous Universities, which are now but Stables for Fowls, and Beasts, and the Houses in most parts lie tumbled one above another; the Walls of Earth are with the great fresh Floods washed to the ground; nor is there any Village in it, but Tents for Strangers, _Larbes_ and _Moors._ Strange Tales they will tell of a great Garden, wherein were all sorts of Birds, Fishes, Beasts, Fruits, and Fountains, which for Beauty, Art and Pleasure, exceeded any place known in the World, though now nothing but Dung-hills, Pigeon-Houses, Shrubs and Bushes. There are yet many excellent Fountains, adorned with Marble, and many Arches, Pillars, Towers, Ports, and Temples; but most only reliques of lamentable Ruins and sad Desolation.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The three Golden Balls of_ Africa.

{MN-2} _The description of_ Morocco.

{MN} When _Muly Hamet_ Reigned in _Barbary,_ he had three Sons, _Muly Sheck, Muly Sidan,_ and _Muly Bufferres,_ he a most good and noble King, that governed well with Peace and Plenty, till his Empress, more cruel than any Beast in Africa, poisoned him, her own Daughter, _Muly Sheck,_ his eldest Son, born of a Portugal Lady, and his Daughter, to bring _Muly Sidan,_ to the Crown now reigning, which was the cause of all those brawls, and Wars that followed betwixt those Brothers, their Children, and a Saint that started up, but he played the Devil.

* * * * *

{MN} _A bloody Empress._

{MN-1} King _Muly Hamet_ was not black, as many suppose, but _Molara,_ or tawny, as are the most of his Subjects; every way noble, kind and friendly, very rich and pompous in State and Majesty, though he sitteth not upon a Throne nor Chair of state, but cross Leg'd upon a rich Carpet, as doth the _Turk,_ whose Religion of _Mahomet,_ with an incredible miserable Curiosity they observe. His ordinary Guard is at least 5000, but in Progress, he goeth not with less than 20000 Horse-men, himself as rich in all his Equipage, as any Prince in Christendom, and yet a Contributor to the _Turk._ {MN-2} In all his Kingdom were so few good Artificers, that he entertained from _England,_ Gold-smiths, Plummers, Carvers, and Polishers of Stone, and Watch-makers, so much he delighted in the Reformation of Workmanship, he allowed each of them ten Shillings a day standing Fee, Linen, Woollen, Silks, and what they would for Diet and Apparel, and Custom-free to transport, or import what they would; for there were scarce any of those qualities in his Kingdom, but those, of which there are divers of them, living at this present in _London._ Amongst the rest, one Mr. _Henry Archer,_ a Watch-maker, walking in _Morocco,_ from the _Alfantica_ to the _Juderea,_ the way being very foul, met a great Priest, or a _Sante_ (as they call all great Clergy-men) who would have thrust him into the dirt for the way; but Archer not knowing what he was, gave him a box on the Ear, presently he was apprehended, and condemned to have his Tongue cut out, and his Hand cut off: But no sooner it was known at the King's Court, but 300 of his Guard came, and broke open the Prison, and delivered him although the Fact was next degree to Treason.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _King_ Muly Hamet _or the Great_ Zeriff _of_ Barbary.

{MN-2} _His great love to English Men._

{MN} Concerning this _Archer,_ there is one thing more worth noting: Not far from Mount _Atlas,_ a great Lioness in the heat of the day, did use to bathe her self, and teach her young Puppies to swim in the River _Cauzef,_ of a good breadth; yet she would carry, which some _Moors_ perceiving, watched there them one after another over the River; opportunity, and when the River was between her and them, stole four of her Whelps, which she perceiving, with all the speed she could passed the River, and coming near them, they let fall a Whelp (and fled with the rest) which she took in her mouth, and so returned to the rest: A Male and a Female of those they gave Mr. _Archer,_ who kept them in the King's Garden, till the Male killed the Female, then he brought it up as a Puppy-dog lying upon his Bed, till it grew so great as a Mastiff, and no dog more tame or gentle to them he knew: But being to return for _England,_ at _Saffee_ he gave him to a Merchant of _Marseillses,_ that presented him to the French King, who sent him to King James, where it was kept in the Tower seven Years: After one Mr. _John Bull,_ then Servant to Mr. _Archer,_ with divers of his Friends, went to see the Lions, not knowing any thing at all of him; yet this rare Beast smelled him before he saw him, whining, groaning, and tumbling, with such an expression of acquaintance, that being informed by the Keepers how he came thither; Mr. _Bull_ so prevailed, the Keeper opened the Grate, and _Bull_ went in: But no Dog could fawn more on his Master, than the Lion on him, licking his Feet, Hands, and Face, skipping and tumbling to and fro, to the wonder of all the beholders; being satisfied with his acquaintance, he made shift to get out of the Grate: But when the Lion saw his Friend gone, no Beast by bellowing, roaring, scratching, and howling, could express more rage and sorrow, nor in four days after would he either eat or drink.

* * * * *

{MN} _The strange love of a Lion._

{MN} In _Morocco,_ the King's Lions are altogether in a Court, invironed with a great high Wall; to those they put a young Puppy-dog: The greatest Lion had a sore upon his neck, which this Dog so licked, that he was healed: The Lion defended him from the fury of all the rest, nor durst they eat till the Dog and he had fed; this Dog grew great, and lived amongst them many years after.

* * * * *

{MN} _Another kind Lion in_ Morocco.

{MN-1} _Fez_ also is a most large and plentiful Country, the chief City is called _Fez,_ divided into two parts; old _Fez_, containing about 80 thousand Households, the other 4000 pleasantly situated upon a River in the heart of _Barbary,_ part upon Hills, part upon Plains, full of people, and all sorts of Merchandize. The great Temple is called _Carucen_, in breadth seventeen Arches, in length 120, born up with 2500 white Marble Pillars: under the chief Arch, where the Tribunal is kept, hangeth a most huge Lamp, compassed with 110 lesser, under the other also hang great Lamps, and about some, are burning fifteen hundred lights, They say, they were all made of the Bells the _Arabians_ brought from _Spain._ It hath three Gates of notable heighth, Priests and Officers so many, that the Circuit of the Church, the Yard, and other Houses, is little less than a Mile and half in compass, there are in this City 200 Schools, 200 Inns, 400 Water-Mills, 600 Water-Conduits, 700 Temples and Oratories; but 50 of them most stately and richly furnished. Their _Alcazer_ or _Burse_ is Walled about, it hath twelve Gates, and fifteen Walks covered with Tents, to keep the Sun from the Merchants, and them that come there. The King's Palace, both for strength and beauty is excellent, and the Citizens have many great Privileges. Those two Countries of _Fez_ and _Morocco,_ are the best part of all _Barbary,_ abounding with People, Cattel, and all good Necessaries for Man's use. For the rest, as the _Larbs,_ or Mountainers, the Kingdoms of _Cocow, Algier, Tripoli, Tunis,_ and _AEgypt;_ there are many large Histories of them in divers Languages, especially that writ by that most excellent Statesman, _John de Leo,_ who afterwards turned Christian. {MN-2} The unknown Countries of _Guine_ and _Binn,_ this six and twenty years have been frequented with a few English Ships only to Trade, especially the River of _Senega,_ by Captain _Brimstead,_ Captain _Brockit,_ Mr. _Crump,_ and divers others. Also the great River of _Gambia,_ by Captain _Johnson,_ who is returned in thither again, in the Year 1626, with Mr. _William Grent,_ and thirteen or fourteen others, to stay in the Country, to discover some way to those rich Mines of _Gago_ or _Tumbatu,_ from whence is supposed the _Moors_ of _Barbary_ have their Gold, and the certainty of those supposed Descriptions and Relations of those interiour parts, which daily the more they are sought into, the more they are corrected: For surely, those interiour Parts of Africa, are little known to either _English, French,_ or _Dutch,_ though they use much the Coast; therefore we will make a little bold with the Observations of the _Portugals._

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The description of_ Fez.

{MN-2} _A brief description of the most unknown parts of_ Africa.

* * * * *

CHAP. XIX.

_The strange Discoveries and Observations of the_ Portugals _in_ Africa.

{MN} The _Portugals_ on those Parts have the glory, who first coasting along this Western Shoar of _Africa,_ to find passage to the _East-Indies,_ within this hundred and fifty years, even from the Streights of _Gibraltar,_ about the Cape of _Bone Esperance_ to the _Persian_ Gulf, and thence all along the _African_ Coast to the _Moluccas,_ have subjected many great Kingdoms, erected many Common-wealths, built many great and strong Cities; and where is it they have not been by Trade or Force? No not so much as _Cape de Verd,_ and _Sermleone;_ but most Bays or Rivers, where there is any Trade to be had, especially Gold, or conveniency for Refreshment, but they are scattered; living so amongst those Blacks, by time and cunning, they seem to be naturalized amongst them. As for the Isles of the _Canaries,_ they have fair Towns, many Villages, and many thousands of People rich in Commodities.

* * * * *

{MN}_How the_ Portugals _coasted to the_ East Indies.

{MN} _Ordoardo Lopez,_ a noble _Portuguse, Anno Dom._ 1578, imbarking himself for _Congo_ to Trade, where he found such Entertainment, finding the King much oppressed with Enemies, he found means to bring in the _Portugals_ to assist him, whereby he planted there Christian Religion, and spent most of his life to bring those Countries to the Crown of _Portugal,_ which he describeth in this manner.

* * * * *

{MN} _Or_ Edward.

{MN} The Kingdom of _Congo_ is about 600 Miles Diameter any way, the chief City called St. _Savadore,_ seated upon an exceeding high Mountain, 150 Miles from the Sea, very fertile, and Inhabited with more than 100000 Persons, where is an excellent Prospect over all the plain Countries about it, well watered, lying (as it were) in the Center of this Kingdom, over all which the _Portugals_ now command, though but an handful in comparison of _Negroes._ They have Flesh and Fruits very plentiful of divers sorts.

* * * * *

{MN} _The Kingdom of_ Congo.

{MN} This Kingdom is divided into five Provinces, viz. _Bamba, Sundi, Pango, Batta_ and _Pembo;_ but _Bamba_ is the Principal, and can afford 400000 Men of War. Elephants are bred over all those Provinces, and of wonderful greatness; though some report, they cannot kneel, nor lie down, they can do both, and have their Joynts as other Creatures for use: With their Fore-feet they will leap upon Trees to pull down the Boughs, and are of that strength, they will shake a great _Cocao_ Tree for the Nuts, and pull down a good Tree with their Tusks, to get the Leaves to eat, as well as Sedge and long Grass, _Cocao_ Nuts and Berries, &c. which with their Trunk they put in their Mouth, and chew it with their smaller Teeth; in most of those Provinces, are many rich Mines, but the _Negroes_ opposed the _Portugueses_ for working in them.

* * * * *

{MN} _Wild Elephants._

{MN} The Kingdom of _Angola_ is wonderful populous, and rich in Mines of Silver, Copper, and most other Metals; fruitfull in all manner of Food, and sundry sorts of Cattel, but Dogs Flesh they love better than any other Meat; they use few Clothes, and no Armour; Bows, Arrows, and Clubs are their Weapons. But the _Portugueses_ are well armed against those Engines, and do buy yearly of those Blacks more than five thousand Slaves, and many are People exceeding well proportioned.

* * * * *

{MN} _The Kingdom of_ Angola.

{MN-1} The _Anchios_ are a most valiant Nation, but most strange to all about them. Their Arms are Bows; short and small, wrapped about with Serpents Skins, of divers Colours, but so smooth, you would think them all one with the Wood, and it makes them very strong; their Strings little twigs, but exceeding tough and flexible; their Arrows short, which they shoot with an incredible quickness. They have short Axes of Brass and Copper for Swords; wonderful, loyal and faithful, and exceeding simple, yet so active, they skip amongst the Rocks like Goats. {MN-2} They trade with them of _Nubea,_ and _Congo,_ for _Lamach,_ which is a small kind of Shell-fish, of an excellent azure, colour, Male and Female, but the Female they hold most pure; they value them at divers prices, because they are of divers sorts, and those they use for Coin, to buy and sell, as we do Gold and Silver; nor will they have any other Money in all those Countries, for which they give Elephants Teeth; and Slaves for Salt, Silk, Linen Cloth, Glass-beads, and such like _Portugal_ Commodities.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The Kingdom of_ Anchios.

{MN-2} _A strange Memr'y._

{MN} They circumcise themselves, and mark their Faces with sundry slashes from their Infancy. They keep a shambles of Man's Flesh, as if it were Beef, or other Victuals; for when they cannot have a good Market for their Slaves; or their Enemies they take, they kill, and sell them in this manner; some are so resolute, in shewing how much they scorn death, they will offer themselves and Slaves, to this Butchery to their Prince and Friends; and though there be many Nations will eat their Enemies, in _America_ and _Asia,_ yet none but those are known to be so mad, as to eat their Slaves and Friends also.

* * * * *

{MN} _A shambles of Men's Flesh._

Religions and Idols they have as many, as Nations and Humours; but the Devil hath the greatest part of their Devotions, whom all those Blacks do say, is white; for there are no Saints but Blacks.

{MN} But besides those great Kingdoms of _Congo, Angola,_ and _Azichi,_ in those unfrequented Parts are the Kingdoms of _Lango, Matania, Battua, Sofola, Mozambeche, Quivola,_ the Isle of St. _Lawrence, Mombaza, Melinda,_ the Empires of _Monomotapa, Monemugi,_ and _Presbyter John,_ with whom they have a kind of Trade, and their Rites, Customs, Climates, Temperatures, and Commodities by Relation. Also of great Lakes, that deserve the Names of Seas, and huge Mountains of divers sorts, as some scorched with heat, some covered with Snow; the Mountains of the Sun, also of the Moon, some of Chrystal, some of Iron, some of Silver, and Mountains of Gold, with the Original of _Nilus;_ likewise sundry sorts of Cattel, Fishes, Fowls, strange Beasts, and monstrous Serpents; for Africa was always noted to be a fruitful Mother of such terrible Creatures; who meeting at their watering places, which are but Ponds in desart places, in regard of the heat of the Country, and their extremities of Nature, make strange Copulations, and so ingender those extraordinary Monsters. Of all these you may read in the History, of this _Edward Lopez,_ translated into English by _Abraham Hartwel,_ and dedicated to _John_ Lord Arch-bishop of _Canterbury,_ 1597. But because the Particulars are most concerning the conversion of those Pagans, by a good poor Priest, that first converted a Noble Man, to convert the King, and the rest of the Nobility; sent for so many Priests and Ornaments into _Portugal,_ to Solemnize their Baptisms with such Magnificence, which was performed with such strange Curiosities, that those poor _Negro's_ adored them as gods, till the Priests grew to that Wealth, a Bishop was sent to rule over them, which they would not endure, which endangered to spoil all before they could be reconciled. But not to trouble you too long with those Rarities of uncertainties; let us return again to _Barbary,_ where the Wars being ended, and _Befferres_ possessed of _Morocco,_ and his Fathers Treasure, a new bruit arose amongst them, that _Muly Sidan_ was raising an Army against him, who after took his Brother _Befferres_ Prisoner; but by reason of the uncertainty, and the perfidious, treacherous, bloody murthers rather than War, amongst those perfidious, barbarous Moors, _Smith_ returned with _Merham,_ and the rest to _Saffe,_ and so aboard his Ship, to try some other conclusions at Sea.

* * * * *

{MN} _Divers Nations yet unknown, and the wonders of_ Africa.

* * * * *

CHAP. XX.

_A brave Sea Fight betwixt to_ Spanish _Men of War, and Captain_ Merham, _with_ Smith.

_Merham,_ a Captain of a Man of War then in the Road, invited Captain _Smith,_ and two or three more of them aboard with him, where he spared not any thing he had to express his kindness, to bid them welcome, till it was too late to go on Shoar, so that necessity constrained them to stay aboard; a fairer Evening could not be, yet ere Midnight, such a Storm did arise, they were forced to let slip Cable, and Anchor, and put to Sea; spooning before the Wind, till they were driven to the _Canaries;_ in the Calms they accommodated themselves, hoping this strange accident might yet produce some good event; not long it was before they took a small Bark coming from _Tenerif,_ loaded with Wine; three or four more they chased, two they took, but found little in them, save a few Passengers, that told them of five _Dutch_ Men of War, about the Isles, so that they stood for _Boiadora,_ upon the _African_ Shoar, betwixt which and _Cape Noa,_ they descryed two Sail. _Merham_ intending to know what they were, hailed them; very civilly they danced their Top-sails, and desired the Man of War to come aboard them, and take what he would, for they were but two poor distressed _Biskainers._ But _Merham_ the old Fox, seeing himself in the Lions paws, sprung his louf, the other tacked after him, and came close up to his nether Quarter, gave his Broad-side, and so loufed up to Windward; the Vice-Admiral did the like, and at the next bout, the Admiral with a noise of Trumpets, and all his Ordnance, Murtherers, and Muskets, boarded him on his Broad-side, the other in like manner on his ley Quarter, that it was so dark, there was little light, but fire and smoak; long he stayed not, before he, fell off, leaving 4 or 5 of his Men sprawling over the Grating; after they had battered _Merham_ about an hour, they boarded him again as before, and threw four Kedgars or Grapnels in Iron Chains, then shearing off, they thought so to have torn down the Grating; but the Admiral's Yard was so intangled in their Shrouds, _Merham_ had time to discharge two cross barr shot amongst them, and divers Bolts of Iron made for that purpose, against his Bow, that made such a Breach, he feared they both mould have sunk for Company; so that the _Spaniard_ was as yare in slipping his chained Grapnels, as _Merham_ was in cutting the Tackling, kept fast their Yards in his Shrouds; the Vice-Admiral presently cleared himself, but spared neither his Ordnance nor Muskets to keep _Merham_ from getting away, till the Admiral had repaired his Leak; from twelve at noon, till six at night, they thus interchanged one volly for another; then the Vice-Admiral fell on Stern, staying for the Admiral that came up again to him, and all that night stood after _Merham,_ that shaped his course for _Mamora,_ but such small way they made, the next Morning they were not three Leagues off from _Cape Noa._ The two _Spanish_ Men of War, for so they were, and well appointed, taking it in scorn as it seemed, with their Chase, Broad-side, and Stern, the one after the other, within Musket shot, plying their Ordnance; and after an hours Work, commanded _Merham_ amain for the King of Spain upon fair Quarter; _Merham_ drank to them, and so discharged his Quarter Pieces. Which Pride the _Spaniard_ to revenge, boarded him again, and many of them were got to the top to unsling the Main-Sail, which the Master and some others from the Round-House, caused to their cost to come tumbling down; about the Round-House the _Spaniards_ so pestred, that they were forced to the great Cablen and blew it up; the smoak and fire was so vehement, as they thought the Ship on fire; they in the Fore-Castle were no less assaulted, that they blew up a piece of the Grating, with a great many of _Spaniards_ more; then they cleared themselves with all speed, and _Merham_ with as much Expedition to quench the Fire with wet Cloaths and Water, which began to grow too fast. The _Spaniard_ still playing upon him with all the shot they could; the open Places presently they covered with old Sails, and prepared themselves to fight to the last Man. The Angry _Spaniard_ seeing the fire quenched, hung out a Flag of truce to have but a Parley; but that desperate _Merham_ knew there was but one way with him, and would have none, but the report of his Ordnance, which he did know well how to use for his best Advantage. Thus they spent the next Afternoon, and half the Night, when the _Spaniards_ either lost them or left them. Seven and twenty Men _Merham_ had slain and sixteen wounded, and could find they had received 140 great shot. A wounded _Spaniard_ they kept alive confessed, they had lost 100 Men in the Admiral, which they did fear would sink ere she could recover a Port. Thus Re-accommodating their Sails, they failed for _Sancta Cruse, Cape Goa,_ and _Magadore,_ till they came again to _Safee,_ and then he returned into England.

* * * * *

CHAP. XXI.

_The continuation of the General History of_ Virginia; _the_ Summer Isles, _and_ New England; _with their present Estate from_ 1624. _to this present_ 1629.

Concerning these Countries, I would be sorry to trouble you with repeating one thing twice, as with their Mapps, Commodities, People, Government and Religion yet known; the beginning of these Plantations, their Numbers and Names, with the Names of the Adventures, the Yearly proceedings of every Governour both here and there. As for the Misprisions, Neglect, Grievances, and the causes of all these Rumours, losses and crosses that have happened; I refer you to the General History, where you shall find all this at large; especially to those Pages where you may read my Letter of Advice to the Councel and Company, what of necessity must be done, or lose all and leave the Country, Pag. 70. what Commodities I sent home, Pag. 163. my Opinion and offer to the Company, to feed and defend the Colonies, Pag. 150. my Account to them here of my Actions there, Pag. 163. and seven Answers to his Majesty's Commissioners: Seven Questions what hath hindered _Virginia,_ and the remedy, Pag. 165. How those Noble Gentlemen spent near two Years in perusing all Letters came from thence; and the differences betwixt many Factions, both here and there, with their Complaints; especially about the _Sallery_ which should have been a new Office in _London,_ for the well ordering the sale of _Tobacco,_ that 2500 Pounds should Yearly have been raised out of it, to pay four or five Hundred Pounds Yearly to the Governour of that Company, two or three Hundred to his Deputy; the rest into Stipends of forty or fifty Pounds Yearly for their Clerks and other Officers which were never there, Pag. 153. but not one Hundred Pounds for all them in _Virginia,_ nor any thing for the most part of the Adventures in _England,_ except the undertakers for the Lotteries, Setters out of Ships, Adventures of Commodities, also their Factors and many other Officers, there imployed only by friendship to raise their Fortunes out of the Labours of the true Industrious Planters by the Title of their Office, who under the colour of sincerity, did pillage and deceive all the rest most cunningly: For more than 150000 Pounds have been spent out of the Common Stock, besides many thousands have been there Consumed, and near 7000 People that there died, only for want of good Order and Government, otherwise long ere this there would have been more than 20000 People, where after twenty Years spent only in Complement and trying new Conclusions, was remaining scarce 1500, with some few Cattel.

Then the Company dissolved, but no Account of any thing; so that his Majesty appointed Commissioners to oversee, and give Order for their Proceedings. Being thus in a manner left to themselves, since then within these four Years, you shall see how wonderfully they have increased beyond expectation; but so exactly as I desired, I cannot relate unto you: For altho' I have tired my self in seeking and discoursing with those returned thence, more than would a Voyage to _Virginia;_ few can tell me any thing, but of that Place or Places they have Inhabited, and he is a great Traveller that hath gone up and down the River of _James_ Town, been at _Pamaunk, Smith's_ Isles, or _Accomack;_ wherein for the most part, they keep one tune of their now particular abundance, and their former wants having been there, some sixteen Years, some twelve, some six, some near twenty, &c. But of their general Estate, or any thing of worth, the most of them doth know very little to any purpose.

{MN} Now the most I could understand in general, was from the Relation of Mr. _Nathaniel Cawsey,_ that lived there with me, and returned _Anno Dom._ 1627. and some others affirm; Sir _George Yerely_ was Governour, Captain _Francis West,_ Doctor _John Pott,_ Captain _Roger Smith,_ Captain _Matthews,_ Captain _Tucker,_ Mr. _Clabourn,_ and Mr. _Farrer,_ of the Council: their Habitations many. The Governour, with two or three of the Council, are for most part at _James_ Town, the rest repair thither as there is occasion; but every three Months they have a general Meeting, to consider of their Publick Affairs.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their estate_ 1627.

{MN} Their Numbers then were about 1500, some say rather 2000, divided into seventeen or eighteen several Plantations; the greatest part thereof towards the falls, are so inclosed with Pallisadoes they regard not the _Salvages._ and amongst those Plantations above _James_ Town, they have now found means to take plenty of Fish, as well with Lines as Nets, and where the Waters are the largest, having Means they need not want.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their numbers._

{MN} Upon this River they seldom see any _Salvages,_ but in the Woods, many times their Fires: yet some few there are, that upon their opportunity, have slain some few straglers, which have been revenged with the Death of so many of themselves; but no other Attempt hath been made upon them this two or three Years.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their condition with the Salvages._

{MN} Their Cattel, Namely, Oxen, Kine, Bulls, they imagine to be about 2000; Goats great store and great increase; the wild Hoggs, which were infinite, are destroyed and eaten by the _Salvages:_ but no Family is so poor that hath not tame Swine sufficient; and for Poultry, he is a very bad Husband, breedeth not an Hundred in a Year, and the Richer sort doth daily feed on them.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their increase of Cattel and Poultry._

{MN} For Bread they have plenty, and so good, that those that make it well, better cannot be: Divers have much _English_ Corn, especially Mr. _Abraham Perce,_ which prepared this Year to sow two Hundred Acres of _English_ Wheat, and as much with Barly, feeding daily about the number of sixty Persons at his own Charges.

* * * * *

{MN} _Plenty of Corn._

{MN} For Drink, Some Malt the _Indian_ Corn, others Barly, of which they make good Ale, both strong and small, and such plenty thereof, few of the Upper Planters drink any Water: but the better sort are well furnished with Sack, _Aquavitae,_ and good _English_ Beer.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Drink._

{MN} The Servants commonly feed upon Milk Homili, which is bruised _Indian_ Corn pounded, and boiled thick, and Milk for the sawce; but boiled with Milk, the best of all will feed oft on it, and leave their Flesh; with Milk, Butter and Cheese; with Fish, Bulls-flesh, for they seldom kill any other, &c. And every one is so applied to his labour about Tobacco and Corn, which doth yield them such Profit, they never regard any food from the _Salvages,_ nor have they any Trade or Conference with them, but upon meer Accidents and Defiances: And now the Merchants have left it, there having gone so many voluntary Ships within these two Years, as have furnished them with Apparel, Sack, _Aquavitae,_ and all necessaries, much better than any before.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Servants diet._

{MN} For Arms, There is scarce any Man but he is furnished with a Piece, a Jack, a Coat of Male, a Sword or Rapier; and every Holy-day, every Plantation doth Exercise their Men in Arms, by which means Hunting and Fowling, the most part of them are most Excellent Marks-men.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Arms and Exercise._

{MN} For Discoveries they have made none, nor any other Commodity than Tobacco do they apply themselves unto, tho' never any was Planted at first. And whereas the Countrey was heretofore held most intemperate and contagious by many, now they have Houses, Lodgings, Victuals, and the Sun hath Power to Exhale up the moist Vapours of the Earth, where they have cut down the Wood, which before it could not, being covered with spreading tops of high Trees; they find it much more healthful than before; nor for their Numbers, few Countries are less troubled with Death, Sickness, or any other Disease, nor where overgrown Women become more fruitful.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Health and Discoveries._

{MN-1} Since this, Sir _George Yerely_ died 1628, Captain _West_ Succeeded him; but about a Year after, returned for _England._ Now Doctor _Poor_ is Governour, and the rest of the Council as before: _James_ Town is yet their chief Seat, most of the Wood destroyed, little Corn there Planted, but all Converted into Pasture and Gardens, wherein doth grow all manner of Herbs and Roots we have in _England,_ in abundance, and as good Grass as can be. Here most of their Cattle do feed, their Owners being most some one way, some another, about their Plantations, and return again when they please, or any Shipping comes in to Trade. Here in the Winter they have Hay for their Cattel, but in other Places they Browze upon Wood, and the great husks of their Corn, with some Corn in them, doth keep them well. {MN-2} Mr. _Hutchins_ saith, they have 2000 Cattle, and about 5000 People, but _Master Floud, John Davis, William Emerson,_ and divers others say, about 5000 People, and 5000 Kine, Calves, Oxen and Bulls; for Goats, Hoggs and Poultry, Corn, Fish, Dear, and many sorts of other wild Beasts; and Fowl in their Season, they have so much more than they spend, they are able to feed three or four Hundred more than they have; and do oft much relieve many Ships, both there, and for their Return; and this last Year was there at least two or three and Twenty Sale. They have oft much Salt-fish from _New England,_ but fresh Fish enough, when they will take it; Peaches in abundance at _Kecoughtan;_ Apples, Pears, Apricocks, Vines, Figgs, and other Fruits some have Planted that prospered exceedingly, but their Diligence about Tobacco, left them to be spoiled by the Cattel, yet now they begin to Revive; {MN-3} Mrs. _Pearce,_ an Honest Industrious Woman, hath been there near twenty Years, and now returned, saith, she hath a Garden at _James_ Town, containing three or four Acres, where in one Year she hath gathered near an Hundred Bushels of excellent Figgs; and that of her own Provision she can keep a better House in _Virginia,_ than here in _London_ for 3 or 400 Pounds a Year, yet went thither with little or nothing. They have some tame Geese, Ducks and Turkies. The Masters now do so train up their Servants and Youth in shooting Deer and Fowl, that the Youths will kill them as well as their Masters. They have two Brew-houses, but they find the _Indian_ Corn so much better than ours, they begin to leave sowing it. Their Cities and Towns are only scattered Houses, they call Plantations, as are our Country Villages; but no Ordnance Mounted. The Forts Captain _Smith_ left a Building, so ruined, there is scarce Mention where they were; no Discoveries of any thing more, than the curing of Tobacco, by which hitherto, being so present a Commodity of Gain, it hath brought them to this abundance; but that they are so disjointed, and every one Commander of himself to Plant what he will: {MN-4} they are now so well provided, that they are able to subsist; and if they would join together, now to work upon Soap, Ashes, Iron, Rape-Oil, Mader, Pitch and Tarr, Flax and Hemp; as for their Tobacco, there comes from many Places such abundance, and the charge so great, it is not worth the bringing home.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The present estate of_ Virginia 1629.

{MN-2} _Mr._ Hutchins. _Five thousand people. Five thousand Cattel. Goats, Hogs, and Poultry infinite._

{MN-3} _Good Hospitality._

{MN-4} _Commodities worth making, Black Wallnut, Also for Pikes, Oak for Planks, knees for ships, Cypress, for Chests, &c._

There is gone, and now a going, divers Ships, as Captain _Perse,_ Captain _Prine,_ with Sir _John Harvey_ to be their Governour, with two or three Hundred People; there is also some from _Bristow,_ and other Parts of the West Country a preparing, which I heartily pray to God to Bless, and send them a Happy and Prosperous Voyage.

_Nathaniel Causie,_ Master _Hutchins,_ Master _Floud, John Davis, William Emerson,_ Master _William Barnet,_ Master _Cooper,_ and others.

* * * * *

CHAP. XXII.

_The proceedings and present estate of the_ Summer Isles, _from_ Anno Dom. 1624, _to this present_ 1629.

From the _Summer Isles,_ Mr. _Ireland,_ and divers others report, their Forts, Ordnance and Proceedings, are much as they were in the Year 1622. as you may read in the General History, Pag. 199. Captain _Woodhouse_ Governour. There are few sorts of any Fruits in the West Indies, but they grow there in abundance; yet the fertility of the Soil in many Places decayeth, being Planted every Year, for their Plantains, which is a most delicate Fruit, they have lately found a way by Pickling or Drying them, to bring them over into _England,_ there being no such Fruit in _Europe,_ and wonderful for increase. For Fish, Flesh, Figgs, Wine, and all sorts of most excellent Herbs, Fruits and Roots they have in abundance. In this Governour's time, a kind of Whale, or rather a Jubarta, was driven on Shoar in _Southampton_ Tribe from the West, over an Infinite Number of Rocks so bruised, that the Water in the Bay where she lay, was all Oily, and the Rocks about it all Bedasht with Parmacitty, congealed like Ice, a good quantity we gathered, with which we commonly cured any Boil, Hurt or Bruise; some burnt it in their Lamps, which blowing out, the very snuff will burn so long as there is any of the Oil remaining, for two or three days together. {MN}

* * * * *

{MN} _The present Estate of the_ Summer Isles.

The next Governour was Captain _Philip Bell,_ whose time being expired, Captain _Roger Wood_ possess'd his Place, a worthy Gentleman of good desert, and hath lived a long time in the Country; their Numbers are about 2 or 3000 Men, Women and Children, who increase there exceedingly; their greatest Complaint is want of Apparel, and too much Custom, and too many Officers; the Pity is, there are no more Men than Women, yet no great Mischief, because there is so much less Pride: the Cattle they have increase exceedingly; their Forts are well maintain'd by the Merchants here, and Planters there; to be brief, this Isle is an excellent Bit to Rule a great Horse.

All the Cohow Birds and Egbirds are gone; seldom any wild Catts seen; no Rats to speak off; but the Worms are yet very troublesome; the People very healthful, and the Ravens gone; Fish enough, but not so near the shoar as it used, by the much beating it; it is an Isle that hath such a Rampire and a Ditch, and for the quantity so manned, Victualled, and Fortified, as few in the World do exceed it, or is like it.

{MN} The 22d of March, two Ships came from thence; the _Peter-Bonaventure,_ near 200 Tunns, and sixteen Pieces of Ordnance; the Captain, _Thomas Sherwin;_ the Master, Mr. _Edward Some,_ like him in Condition, a Goodly, Lusty, Proper, Valiant Man: The _Lydia,_ wherein was Mr. _Anthony Thorne,_ a smaller Ship, were chased by eleven Ships of _Dunkirk;_ being thus over-match'd, Captain _Sherwin_ was taken by them in _Torbay,_ only his Valiant Master was slain; the Ship with about seventy _English_ Men they carried betwixt _Dover_ and _Callais_ to _Dunkirk;_ but the _Lydia_ safely recovered _Dartmouth._

* * * * *

{MN} _An Evil Mischance._

These Noble Adventures for all thole losses patiently do bear them; but they hope the King and State will understand it is worth keeping, tho' it afford nothing but Tobacco, and that now worth little or nothing, Custom and Fraught pay'd, yet it is worth keeping, and not supplanting; tho' great Men feel not those losses, yet Gardiners, Carpenters and Smiths, do pay for it.

From the Relation of _Robert Chestevan_ and others.

* * * * *

CHAP. XXIII.

_The Proceedings and present Estate of_ New England, _since_ 1624. _to this present_ 1629.

When I went first to the North part of _Virginia,_ where the Westerly Colony had been planted, it had dissolved it self within a Year, and there was not one _Christian_ in all the Land. I was set forth at the sole Charge of four Merchants of _London;_ the Country being then reputed by your Westerlings, a most Rocky Barren, Desolate Desart; {MN-1} but the good Return brought from thence, with the Maps and Relations I made of the Country, which I made so manifest, some of them did believe me, and they were well embraced both by the _Londoners_ and the _Westerlings,_ for whom I had promised to undertake it, I thinking to have joined them all together, but that might well have been a work of _Hercules._ Betwixt them long there was much contention; the _Londoners_ indeed went bravely forward; but in three or four Years, I and my Friends consumed many hundred Pounds amongst the _Plimothians,_ who only fed me with delays, promises and excuses, but no Performance of any thing to any purpose. In the interim, many particular Ships went thither, and finding my Relations true, and that I had not taken that I brought home from the _French_ Men, as had been reported; yet further, for my Pains to discredit me, and my calling it _New-England,_ they obscured, and shadowed it, with the Title of _Canada,_ till at my humble suit, it pleased our most Royal King _Charles,_ whom God long keep, bless and preserve, then Prince of _Wales,_ to confirm it with my Map and Book, by the Title of _New England;_ the gain thence returning, did make the same thereof so increase, that thirty, forty, or fifty sail went Yearly only to Trade and Fish; but nothing would be done for a Plantation, till about some Hundred of your Brownists of _England, Amsterdam_ and _Leyden,_ went to _New Plimouth,_ whose humorous Ignorances, caused them for more than a Year to endure a wonderful deal of misery, with an infinite patience; saying my Books and Maps were much better cheap to teach them than my self; {MN-2} many other have used the like good Husbandry, that have payed soundly in trying their self-will'd conclusions; but those in time doing well, divers others have in small handfuls undertaken to go there, to be several Lords and Kings of themselves, but most vanished to nothing; notwithstanding the Fishing Ships, made such good returns, at last it was ingrossed by twenty Patentees, that divided my Map into twenty parts, and cast Lots for their shares; but Money not coming in as they expected, procured a Proclamation, none should go thither without their Licences to Fish; but for every thirty Tuns of Shipping, to pay them five Pounds; besides, upon great Penalties, neither to Trade with the Natives, cut down Wood for their Stages, without giving satisfaction, though all the Country is nothing but Wood, and none to make use of it, with many such other pretences, for to make this Country plant it self, by its own Wealth: Hereupon most Men grew so discontented, that few or none would go; so that the Patentees, who never a one of them had been there, seeing those Projects Would not prevail, have since not hindred any to go that would, that within these few last years, more have gone thither than ever.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _Considerations about the loss of time._

{MN-2} _The effect of negardliness._

{MN} Now this Year 1629, a great company of People of good Rank, Zeal, Means, and Quality, have made a great Stock, and with six good Ships in the Months of April and May, they set Sail from _Thames,_ for the Bay of the _Massachusets,_ otherwise called _Charles's_ River; _viz._ the _George Bonaventure,_ of twenty pieces of Ordnance, the _Talbot_ nineteen, the _Lions-whelp_ eight, the _May-flower_ fourteen, the _Four Sisters_ fourteen, the _Pilgrim_ four, with three hundred and fifty Men, Women, and Children; also an hundred and fifteen head of Cattel, as Horse, Mares, and neat Beast; one and forty Goats, some Conies, with all Provision for Houshold and Apparel; six pieces of great Ordnance for a Fort, with Muskets, Pikes, Corselets, Drums, Colours, with all Provision necessary for a Plantation, for the good of Man; other Particulars I understand of no more, than is writ in the general History of those Countries.

* * * * *

{MN} _A new Plantation_ 1629.

But you are to understand, that the noble Lord chief Justice _Popham,_ Judge _Doderege;_ the Right Honourable Earls of _Pembroke, Southampton, Salisbury,_ and the rest, as I take it, they did all think, as I and them went with me, did; That had those two Countries been planted, as it was intended, that no other Nation should complant betwixt us. If ever the King of _Spain_ and we should fall foul, those Countries being so capable of all Materials for shipping, by this might have been Owners of a good Fleet of Ships, and to have relieved a whole Navy from _England_ upon occasion; yea, and to have furnished _England_ with the most Easterly Commodities; and now since, seeing how conveniently the _Summer Isles_ fell to our shares, so near the _West-Indies,_ we might with much more facility than the _Dutch_ Men have invaded the _West-Indies,_ that doth now put in practice, what so long hath been advised on, by many an honest _English_ States-man.

{MN} Those Countries, Captain _Smith_ oft times used to call his Children that never had Mother; and well he might, for few Fathers ever payed dearer for so little content; and for those that would truly understand, how many strange Accidents hath befallen them and him; how oft up, how oft down, sometimes near despair, and ere long flourishing, cannot but conceive Gods infinite Mercies and Favours towards them. Had his Designs been to have perswaded Men to a Mine of Gold, though few doth conceive either the charge or pains in refining it, nor the power nor care to defend it; or some new Invention to pass to the South Sea, or some strange Plot to invade some strange Monastery, or some portable Country, or some chargeable Fleet to take some rich Carocks in the _East-Indies;_ of Letters of Mart to rob some poor Merchants; What multitudes of both People and Money would contend to be first imployed? But in those noble endeavours (now) how few of quality, unless it be to beg some Monopoly; and those seldom seek the common good, but the Commons Goods, as you may read at large in his general History, _pag._ 217, 218, 219, his general Observations and Reasons for this Plantation; for yet those Countries are not so forward, but they may become as miserable as ever, if better courses be not taken than is; as this _Smith_ will plainly demonstrate to his Majesty, or any other noble Person of Ability, liable generously to undertake it; how within a Short time to make _Virginia_ able to resist any Enemy, that as yet lieth open to all, and yield the King more Custom within these few years, in certain staple Commodities, than ever it did in Tobacco; which now not being worth bringing home, the Custom will be as uncertain to the King, as dangerous to the Plantation.

* * * * *

{MN} _Notes of inconveniency._

* * * * *

CHAP. XXIV.

_A brief Discourse of divers Voyages made unto the goodly Country of_ Guinea _and the great River of the_ Amazons; _relating also the present Plantation there._

It is not unknown how that most Industrious and honourable Knight, Sir _Walter Rawleigh,_ in the Year of Our Lord 1595, taking the Isle of _Trinidado,_ fell with the Coast of _Guiana,_ Northward of the Line 10 degrees, and coasted the Coast, and searched up the River _Oranoco;_ where understanding that twenty several Voyages had been made by the Spaniards; in discovering this Coast and River, to find a passage to the great City of _Mano,_ called by them the _Eldorado,_ or the Golden City: he did his utmost to have found some better Satisfaction than Relations: {MN-1} But means failing him, he left his trusty Servant _Francis Sparrow_ to seek it, who wandring up and down those Countries, some fourteen or fifteen years, unexpectedly returned; I have heard him say, he was led blinded into this City by _Indians;_ but little Discourse of any purpose, touching the largeness of the report of it; his body seeming as a Man of an uncurable Consumption, shortly died here after in _England._ There are above thirty fair Rivers that fall into the Sea, between the River of _Amazons_ and _Oranoco,_ which are some nine degrees asunder. {MN-2} In the year 1605, Captain _Ley_, Brother to that noble Knight, Sir _Oliver Ley,_ with divers others, planted himself in the River _Weapoco,_ wherein I should have been a Party; but he died, and there lies buried, and the supply miscarrying, the rest escaped as they could.

* * * * *

{MN-1} Sparrow _left to seek the great city of_ Mano.

{MN-2} Captain _Charles Ley._

{MN} Sir _Thomas Roe,_ known to be a most Noble Gentleman, before he went Lord Ambassadour to the Great _Mogul,_ or the Great _Turk,_ spent a year or two upon this Coast, and about the River of the _Amazons,_ {MN-2} wherein he most imployed Captain _Matthew Morton,_ an expert Sea-man in the discovery of this famous River, a Gentleman that was the first shot, and mortally supposed wounded to Death, with me in _Virginia,_ yet since hath been twice with command in _East-Indies;_ {MN-3} Also Captain _William White,_ and divers others worthy and industrious Gentlemen, both before and since, hath spent much time and charge to discover it more perfectly, but nothing more effected for a Plantation, till it was undertaken by Captain _Robert Harcote_ 1609.

* * * * *

{MN-1} Sir _Thomas Roe._

{MN-2} Captain _Morton._

{MN-3} Captain _White._

{MN} This worthy Gentleman, after he had by Commission made a discovery to his mind, left his Brother _Michael Harcote,_ with some fifty or sixty Men in the River _Weapoco,_ and so presently returned to _England,_ where he obtained by the favour of Prince _Henry_ a large Patent for all that Coast called _Guiana,_ together with the famous River of _Amazons,_ to him and his Heirs: but so many troubles here surprized him, though he did his best to supply them, he was not able, only some few he sent over as Passengers, with certain _Dutch_ Men, but to small purpose. Thus this business lay dead for divers years, till Sir _Walter Rawleigh,_ accompanied with many valiant Soldiers and brave Gentlemen, went his last Voyage to _Guiana,_ amongst the which, was Captain _Roger North,_ Brother to the Right Honourable the Lord _Dudley North,_ who upon this Voyage, having stayed, and seen divers Rivers upon this Coast, took such a liking to those Countries, having had before this Voyage, more perfect and particular Information of the excellency of the great River of the _Amazons,_ above any of the rest, by certain _English_ Men returned so rich, from thence in good Commodities, they would not go with Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ in search of Gold; that after his return for _England_, he endeavoured by his best Abilities to interest his Country and State in those fair Regions, which by the way of Letters Patents unto divers Noble Men and Gentlemen of Quality, erected into a Company and Perpetuity for Trade and Plantation, not knowing of the Interest of Captain _Harcote._

* * * * *

{MN} Captain _Harcote._

{MN} Whereupon accompanied with 120 Gentlemen and others, with a Ship, a Pinnace and two Shallops, to remain in the Country, he set Sail from _Plimouth_ the last of _April_ 1620, and within seven Weeks after he arrived well in the _Amazons,_ only with the loss of one old Man: Some hundred Leagues they ran up the River to settle his Men, where the sight of the Country and People so contented them, that never Men thought themselves more happy: Some _English_ and _Irish_ that had lived there some eight years, only supplied by the _Dutch,_ he reduced to his Company and to leave the _Dutch:_ having made a good Voyage, to the value of more than the charge, he returned to _England_ with divers good Commodities, besides, Tobacco: So that it may well be conceived, that if this Action had not been thus crossed the Generality of _England_ had by this time been won and encouraged therein. But the time was not yet come, that God would have this great business effected, by reason of the great Power the Lord _Gundamore,_ Ambassadour for the King of _Spain,_ had in _England,_ to cross and ruin those Proceedings, and so unfortunate Captain _North_ was on this business, he was twice committed Prisoner to the Tower, and the Goods detained, till they were spoiled, who beyond all others, was by much the greatest Adventurer and Loser.

* * * * *

{MN} Captain _Roger North._

{MN} Notwithstanding all this, those that he had left in the _Amazons,_ would not abandon the Country. Captain _Thomas Painton,_ a worthy Gentleman; his Lieutenant dead. Captain _Charles Parker,_ Brother to the Right Honourable the Lord _Morley,_ lived there six years after; Mr. _John Christmas,_ five years; so well, they would not return, although they might, with divers other Gentlemen of Quality and others: All thus destitute of any supplies from _England._ But all Authority being dissolved, want of Government did more wrong their Proceedings, than all other crosses whatsoever. Some relief they had sometime from the _Dutch,_ who knowing their Estates, gave what they pleased, and took what they list. Two Brothers, Gentlemen, _Thomas_ and _William Hixon,_ who stayed three years there, are now gone to stay in the _Amazons,_ in the Ships lately sent thither.

* * * * *

{MN} _Nota bene._

The business thus remaining in this fort, three private Men left of that Company, named Mr. _Thomas Warriner, John Rhodes,_ and _Robert Bims,_ having lived there about two years, came for _England,_ and to be free from the disorders that did grow in the _Amazons,_ for want of Government amongst their Country-men, and to be quiet amongst themselves, made means to let themselves out for St. _Christophers;_ their whole number being but fifteen Persons that payed for their Passage in a Ship going for _Virginia,_ where they remained a year before they were supplied, and then that was but four or five Men. Thus this Isle, by this small beginning, having no interruption by their own Country, hath not got the start of the Continent and main Land of _Guinea,_ which hath been laid apart, and let alone until that Captain _North,_ ever watching his best opportunity and advantage of time in the State, hath now again pursued, and set on foot his former design. Captain _Harcote_ being now willing to surrender his Grant, and to joyn with Captain _North,_ in passing a new Patent, and to erect a Company for Trade and Plantation in the _Amazons,_ and all the Coast and Country of _Guinea_ for ever. Whereupon, they have sent this present year in _January,_ and since 1628, four Ships, with near two hundred Persons; the first Ship with 112 Men, not one miscarried; the rest went since, not yet heard of and are preparing another with their best Expedition; and since _January_ is gone from _Holland,_ 100 _English_ and _Irish,_ conducted by the old Planters.

This great River lieth under the Line, the two chief Head Lands North and South, are about three degrees asunder, the mouth of it is so full of many great and small Isles, it is an easie matter for an unexperienced Pilot to lose his way. It is held one of the greatest Rivers in _America,_ and as most Men think in the World; and cometh down with such a fresh, it maketh the Sea fresh, more than thirty Miles from the Shoar. Captain _North_ having seated his Men about an hundred Leagues in the Main, sent Captain _William White,_ with thirty Gentlemen and others, in a Pinnace of thirty Tun, to discover further, which they did some two hundred Leagues, where they found the River to divide it self in two parts, till then all full of Islands, and a Country most healthful, pleasant and fruitful; for they found food enough, and all returned safe and in good health: In this discovery, they saw many Towns well inhabited, some with three hundred People, some with five, six, or seven hundred; and of some they understood to be of so many thousands, most differing very much, especially in their Languages: Whereof they suppose by those _Indians,_ they understand are many hundreds more, unfrequented till then by any _Christian,_ most of them stark naked, both Men, Women and Children, but they saw not any such Giant-like Women as the Rivers name importeth. But for those where Captain _North_ hath seated his Company, it is not known where Indians were ever so kind to any Nation, not sparing any pains, danger or labour, to feed and maintain them. The _English_ following their Buildings, Fortifications and Sugar-works; for which they have sent most expert Men, and with them all things necessary for that purpose; to effect which, they want not the help of those kind Indians to produce; and many other good Commodities, which (God willing) will ere long make plain and apparent to this Kingdom, and all the Adventures and Well-willers to this Plantation, to be well worthy the cherishing and following with all alacrity.

* * * * *

CHAP. XXV.

_The Beginning and Proceedings of the new Plantation of St._ Christopher _by Captain_ Warner.

Master _Ralph Merifield_ and others, having furnished this worthy Industrious Gentleman, {MN-1} he arrived at St. _Christophers,_ as is said, with fifteen Men, the 28th of _January_ 1623, _viz. William Tested, John Rhodes, Robert Bints,_ Mr. _Benifield,_ Sergeant _Jones,_ Mr. _Ware, William Ryle, Rowland Grascock,_ Mr. _Bond,_ Mr. _Langley,_ Mr. _Weaver, Edward Warner,_ their Captain's Son, and now Deputy Governour, till his Father's return, Sergeant _Aplon,_ one Sailor and a Cook: At their arrival, they found three _French_ Men, who sought to oppose Captain _Warner,_ and to set the _Indians_ upon us; but at last we all became Friends, and lived with the _Indians_ a Month, then we built a Fort, and a House, and planting Fruits, by _September_ we made a crop of Tobacco; {MN-2} but upon the nineteenth of _September_ came a _Hericano_ and blew it away, all this while we lived upon Cassada Bread, Potatoes, Plantanes, Pines, Turtles, Guanes, and Fish plenty; for drink we had _Nicnobby._

* * * * *

{MN-1} 1623.

{MN-2} _A Hericano._

{MN} The 18th March 1624 arrived Captain _Jefferson,_ with three Men Passengers in the _Hopewell_ of _London,_ with some Trade for the _Indians,_ and then we had another crop of Tobacco, in the mean time the _French_ had planted themselves in the other end of the Isle; with this crop Captain _Warner_ returned for _England_ in _September_ 1625.

* * * * *

{MN} 1624.

In his absence came in a _French_ Pinnace, under the command of _Monsieur de Nombe,_ that told us, the _Indians_ had slain some _French_ Men in other of the _Caribbe_ Isles, and that there were six Peryagoes, which are huge great Trees, formed as your Canoos, but so laid out on the sides with Boards, they will seem like a little Gally: {MN} Six of those, with about four or five hundred strange _Indians_ came unto us, we bade them be gone, but they would not; whereupon we and the _French_ joyned together, and upon the fifth of _November_ set upon them, and put them to flight: upon New years Even they came again, found three _English_ going about the Isle, whom they slew.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their Fight with the_ Indians.

{MN-1} Until the fourth of _August,_ we stood upon our Guard, living upon the spoil and did nothing. But now Captain _Warner_ arriving again with near an hundred People, then we fell to work and planting as before; {MN-2} but upon the fourth of September, came such a Hericano, as blew down all our Houses, Tobacco, and two Drums into the air we know not whither, drove two Ships on Shoar that were both split; all our Provision thus lost, we were very miserable, living only on what we could get in the wild Woods, {MN-3} we made a small party of French and English to go aboard for Provision, but in their returning home, eight _French_ Men were slain in the Harbour.

* * * * *

{MN-1} 1625.

{MN-2} _A Hericano._

{MN-3} _Eight French Slain._

{MN} Thus we continued till near _June_ that the _Tortles_ came in 1627, but the French being like to starve, sought to surprize us, and all the Cassado, Potatoes, and Tobacco we had planted, but we did prevent them. The 26th of _October,_ came in Captain _William Smith,_ in the _Hope-well,_ with some Ordnance, Shot and Powder, from the Earl of _Carlisle,_ with Captain _Pelham_ and thirty Men; about that time also came the _Plow,_ also a small Ship of _Bristow,_ with Captain _Warner's_ Wife, and six or seven Women more.

* * * * *

{MN} 1627.

{MN} Upon the 25th of _November,_ the _Indians_ set upon the French, for some injury about their Women, and slew six and twenty _French_ Men, five _English,_ and three _Indians._ Their Weapons are Bows and Arrows, their Bows are never bent, but the string lies flat to the Bow; their Arrows a small Reed, four or five foot long, headed some with the poisoned Sting of the Tail of a Stingray, some with Iron, some with Wood, but all so poisoned, that if they draw but blood, the hurt is incurable.

* * * * *

{MN} _Three_ Indians _Slain._

{MN} The next day came in Captain _Charles Saltonstall,_ a young Gentleman, Son of Sir _Samuel Saltonstall,_ who brought with him good store of all Commodities to relieve the Plantation; but by reason some _Hollanders,_ and others had been there lately before him, who carried away with them all the Tobacco, he was forced to put away all his Commodities upon trust till the next crop; in the mean time he resolved there to stay, and imploy himself and his Company in planting Tobacco, hoping thereby to make a Voyage, but before he could be ready to return for _England,_ a _Hericano_ happening, his Ship was split, to his great loss, being sole Merchant and owner himself, notwithstanding forced to pay to the Governour the fifth part of his Tobacco, and for fraught to _England,_ three pence a pound, and nine pence a pound custom, which amounts together to more than threescore pound in the hundred pound, to the great discouragement of him and many others, that intended well to those Plantations. Nevertheless he is gone again this present year 1629, with a Ship of about three hundred Tuns, and very near two hundred People, with Sir _William Tuffton_ Governour for the _Barbadoes_, and divers Gentlemen, and all manner of Commodities fit for a Plantation.

* * * * *

{MN} _The arrival of many English Ships._

Captain _Prinn,_ Captain _Stone,_ and divers others came in about _Christmas;_ so that this last year, there hath been about thirty Sail of _English, French,_ and _Dutch_ Ships, and all the _Indians_ forced out of the Isle, for they had done much mischief amongst the _French,_ in cutting their Throats, burning their Houses, and spoiling their Tobacco; amongst the rest _Tegramund,_ a little Child, the King's Son, his Parents being slain, or fled, was by great chance saved, and carefully brought to _England,_ by Master _Merifield,_ who brought him from thence, and bringeth him up as his own Children.

{MN-1} It lieth seventeen degrees Northward of the Line, about an hundred and twenty Leagues from the _Cape de tres Puntas,_ the nearest main Land in _America,_ it is about eight Leagues in length, and four in breadth; an Island amongst 100 Isles in the _West Indies,_ called the _Caribbes,_ where ordinarily all them that frequent the _West Indies,_ refresh themselves; those, most of them are Rocky, little, and Mountainous, yet frequented with the _Canibals;_ many of them inhabited, as Saint _Domingo,_ Saint _Mattalin,_ Saint _Lucia,_ Saint _Vincent, Granada,_ and _Margarita,_ to the Southward; Northward, none but Saint _Christophers,_ and it but lately, yet they will be ranging _Marigalanta, Guardalupo, Deceado, Mountserat, Antegua, Mevis, Bernardo,_ Saint _Martin,_ and Saint _Bartholomew,_ but the worst of the four Isles possessed by the _Spaniard,_ as _Portorico_ or _Jamaica,_ is better than them all; as for _Hispaniola,_ and _Cuba,_ they are worthy the Title of two rich Kingdoms, the rest not respected by the _Spaniards,_ for want of Harbours, and their better choice of good Land, and profit in the main. But Captain _Warner,_ having been very familiar with Captain _Painton,_ in the _Amazon,_ hearing his information of this St. _Christophers;_ and having made a years trial, as it is said, returned for _England,_ joyning with Master _Merifield_ and his Friends, got Letters Patents from King James to plant and possess it. Since then, the Right Honourable the Earl of _Carlisle_ hath got Letters Patents also, not only of that, but all the _Caribe_ Isles about it, who is now chief Lord of them, and the _English_ his Tenants that do possess them; over whom he appointeth such Governours and Officers as their affairs require; and although there be a great Custom imposed upon them, considering their other charges, both to feed and maintain themselves; yet there is there, and now a going, near upon the number of three thousand People; where by reason of the rockiness and thickness of the Woods in the Isle, it is difficult to pass, and such a snuff of the Sea goeth on the Shoar, ten may better defend, than fifty assault. {MN-2} In this Isle are many Springs, but yet Water is scarce again in many places; the Valleys and sides of the Hills very fertile, but the Mountains harsh, and of a sulphurous composition; all overgrown with _Palmetas, Cotten_ Trees; _Lignum vitae,_ and divers other sorts, but none like any in Christendom, except those carried thither; the air very pleasant and healthful, but exceeding hot, yet so tempered with cool breaths, it seems very temperate to them, that are little used to it; the Trees being always green, the days and nights always very near equal in length, always Summer; only they have in their Seasons great Gusts and Rains, and sometimes a Hericano, which is an over grown, and a most violent storm.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The Description of the Isle._

{MN-2} _The Springs; Temper; and Seasons._

{MN} In some of those Isles, are Cattel, Goats, and Hogs, but here none but what they must carry; _Guanes_ they have, which is a little harmless Beast, like a _Crocodile,_ or _Alligator,_ very fat and good Meat; she lays Eggs in the Sand, as doth the Land Crabs, which live here In abundance, like Conies in Boroughs, unless about _May,_ when they come down to the Sea side, to lay in the Sand, as the other; and all their Eggs are hatched by the heat of the Sun.

* * * * *

{MN} _A strange hatching of eggs for beasts._

{MN} From _May_ to _September,_ they have good store of Tortoises that come out of the Sea to lay their Eggs in the Sand, and are hatched as the other; they will lay half a peck at a time, and near a bushel ere they have done, and are round like Tenis-balls: This Fish is like Veal in taste, the Fat of a brownish colour, very good and wholsom. We seek them in the Nights, where we find them on shoar, we turn them upon their backs, till the next day we fetch them home, for they can never return themselves, being so hard, a Cart may go over them, and so big, one will suffice forty or fifty Men to dinner. Divers sorts of other Fish they have in abundance, and _Prawenes_ most great and excellent, but none will keep sweet scarce twelve hours.

* * * * *

{MN} _Fish._

{MN} The best and greatest is a _Passer Flaminga,_ which walking at her length, is as tall as a Man; _Pigeons_ and _Turtle Doves_ in abundance; some _Parrots,_ wild _Hawks,_ but divers other sorts of good Sea-fowl, whose Names we know not.

* * * * *

{MN} _Birds._

{MN} _Cassado_ is a Root planted in the Ground, of a wonderful Increase, and will make very good White-bread, but the Juce Rank Poyson, yet boyled, better than Wine; _Potatoes, Cabbages,_ and _Radish_ plenty.

* * * * *

{MN} _Roots._

{MN} Maize, like the _Virginia_ Wheat; we have Pine-Apple, near so big as an Hartichock, but the most daintiest taste of any Fruit; _Plantains,_ an excellent and most increasing Fruit; Apples, Prickle Pears, and Pease, but differing all from ours. There is Pepper that groweth in a little red Husk, as big as a Walnut, about four Inches in length, but the long Cods are small, and much stronger and better for use, than that from the _East Indies._ There is too sorts of Cotten, the silk Cotten as in the _East Indies,_ groweth upon a small stalk, as good for Beds as Down; the other upon a shrub, and beareth a Cod bigger than a Walnut, full of Cotten wool: Anotto also groweth upon a shrub, with a Cod like the other, and nine or ten on a bunch, full of Anotto, very good for Dyers, tho' wild; Sugar Canes, not tame, four or five foot high; also Mastick, and Locus-trees; great and hard Timber, Gourds, Musk-Melons, Water-Melons, Lettice, Parsly; all places naturally bear Purslain of it self; Sope-berries like a Musquet Bullet, that washeth as white as Sope; in the middle of the Root is a thing like a Sedge, a very good Fruit, we call Pengromes; a Pappaw is as great as an Apple, coloured like an Orange, and good to eat, a small hard Nut, like a Hazel Nut, grows close to the Ground, and like this grows on the Palmetas, which we call a Mucca Nut; Mustard-seed will grow to a great Tree, but bears no seed, yet the Leaves will make good Mustard; the Mancinel Tree, the Fruit is Poison; good Figs in abundance; but the Palmeta serveth to build Forts and Houses, the Leaves to cover them, and many other uses; the juice we draw from them, till we suck them to Death, (is held restorative) and the top for meat doth serve us as Cabbage; but oft we want Powder'd Beef and Bacon, and many other needful necessaries.

* * * * *

{MN} _Fruits._

By _Thomas Simons, Rowland Grascocke, Nicholas Burgh,_ and others.

* * * * *

CHAP. XXVI.

_The first Planting of the_ Barbadoes.

The _Barbados_ lies South-West and by South, an hundred Leagues from St. _Christophers,_ threescore Leagues West and South from _Trinidado,_ and some fourscore Leagues from _Cape de Salinos,_ the next part of the main. The first Planters brought thither by Captain _Henry Powel,_ were forty _English,_ with seven or eight _Negros;_ then he went to _Disacuba_ in the main, where he got thirty _Indians,_ Men, Women and Children of the _Arawacos,_ Enemies both to the _Caribbes_ and the _Spaniards._ {MN} The Isle is most like a Triangle, each side forty or fifty Miles square, some exceeding great Rocks, but the most part exceeding good Ground; abounding with an infinite number of Swine, some Turtles, and many sorts of excellent Fish; many great Ponds wherein is Duck and Mallard; excellent Clay for Pots, Wood and Stone for Building, and a Spring near the midst of the Isle of _Bitume,_ which is a liquid mixture like Tarr, that by the great Rains falls from the Tops of the Mountains, it floats upon the Water in such abundance, that drying up, it remains like great Rocks of Pitch, and as good as Pitch for any use.

* * * * *

{MN} _A Description of the Isle._

{MN} The Mancinel Apple, is of a most pleasant sweet smell, of the bigness of a Crab, but rank Poyson, yet the Swine and Birds have wit to shun it; great store of exceeding great Locus-trees, two or three Fathom about, of a great height, that beareth a Cod full of Meal, will make Bread in time of necessity. A Tree like a Pine beareth a Fruit so great as a Musk Melon, which hath always ripe Fruit Flowers, or Green Fruit, which will refresh two or three Men, and very comfortable; Plumb-trees many, the Fruit great and Yellow, which but strained into Water in four and twenty hours, will be very good drink; wild Figg-trees there are many; all those Fruits do fat the Hoggs, yet at sometimes of the Year they are so lean as Carrion; Guane-trees bear a Fruit so big as a Pear, good and wholsom; Palmetaes of three several sorts; Pappaws, Prickle Pears, good to eat or make drink; Cedar Trees very tall and great; Fustick Trees are very great, and the wood yellow, good for dying; Soap Berries, the kernel so big as a sloe, and good to eat; Pumpeons in abundance; Goads so great as will make good great Bottles, and cut in two pieces, good Dishes and Platters; many small Brooks of very good Water; _Guinea_ Wheat, Cassado, Pines and Plantains; all things we there Plant, do grow exceedingly, so well as Tobacco; the Corn, Pease, and Beans, cut but away the Stalk, young sprigs will grow, and so bear Fruit for many Years together, without any more Planting; the Isle is overgrown with Wood or great Reeds, those Woods which are soft are exceeding light and full of Pitch, and those that are hard and great, they are as hard to cut as Stone.

* * * * *

{MN} _Fruits and Trees._

{MN} Mr. _John Powel_ came thither the 40th of _August_ 1627. with forty five Men, where we stayed three Weeks, and then returning, left behind us about an Hundred People, and his Son _John Powel_ for his Deputy, as Governour; but there have been so many Factions amongst them, I cannot from so many variable Relations, give you any certainty for their orderly Government: for all those Plenties, much misery they have endured, in regard of their weakness at their Landing, and long stay without supplies; therefore those that go thither, it were good they carry good Provision with them; but the Isle is most healthful, and all things Planted do increase abundantly; and by this time there is, and now a going, about the number of fifteen or sixteen Hundred People.

* * * * *

{MN} _Their numbers._

Sir _William Curtine,_ and Captain _John Powel,_ were the first and chief Adventurers to the Planting this fortunate Isle; which had been oft frequented by Men of War to refresh themselves, and set up their Shallopes; being so far remote from the rest of the Isles, they never were troubled with any of the _Indies._ Harbours they have none, but exceeding good Rodes, which with a small Charge, might be very well Fortified; it doth Ebb and Flow four or five foot, and they cannot perceive that there hath ever been any Hericano in that Isle.

From the Relations of Captain _John White,_ and Captain _Wolverstone._

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CHAP. XXVII.

_The first Plantations of the Isle of_ Mevis.

{MN-1} Because I have ranged and lived amongst those Islands, what my Authors cannot tell me, I think it no great error in helping them to tell it my self. In this little Isle of _Mevis,_ more than twenty Years ago, I have remained a great time together, to Wood and Water and refresh my Men; it is all Woody, but by the Sea-side Southward, there are Sands like Downs, where a Thousand Men may quarter themselves Conveniently; but in most places the Wood groweth close to the Water side, at a high Water mark, and in some places so thick of a soft spungy Wood like a wild Fig-tree, you cannot get through it, but by making your way with Hatchets, or Fauchions: whether it was the dew of those Trees, or of some others, I am not certain, but many of our Men became so tormented with a burning swelling all over their Bodies, they seemed like scalded Men, and near Mad with Pain; {MN-2} here we found a great Pool wherein bathing themselves they found much ease; and finding it fed with a Pleasant small stream that came out of the Woods, we found the head half a Mile within the Land distilling from many Rocks, by which they were well cured in two or three days. Such factions here we had, as commonly attend such Voyages, that a pair of Gallows were made, but Captain _Smith_ for whom they were intended, could not be perswaded to use them; but not any one of the inventors, but their lives by Justice fell into his Power to determine of at his Pleasure, whom with much Mercy he favoured, that most basely and unjustly have betrayed him.

* * * * *

{MN-1} _The Description of the Isle._

{MN-2} _The Bath._

{MN} The last Year 1628. Mr. _Littleton_ with some others, got a Patent of the Earl of _Carlisle_ to Plant the Isle called the _Barbadoes,_ thirty Leagues Northward of St. _Christophers;_ which by report of their Informers, and Undertakers, for the excellency of the Pleasantness thereof, they called _Dulcina,_ but when they came there, they found it such a Barren Rock they left it; altho they were told as much before, they would not believe it, perswading themselves those contradicters would get it for themselves, was thus by their cunning Opinion, the deceivers of themselves; for seeing it lie conveniently for their purpose in a Map, they had not Patience to know the goodness or badness, the inconvenience nor probability of the Quantity nor Quality; which error doth predominate in most of our homebred Adventurers, that will have all things as they conceit and would have it; and the more they are contradicted, the more hot they are; but you may see by many Examples in the general History, how difficult a matter it is, to gather the Truth from amongst so many Foreign and several Relations, except you have exceeding good experience both of the Countries People, and their Conditions; and those ignorant undertakings, have been the greatest hindrance of all those Plantations.

* * * * *

{MN} _A great misfortune._

{MN} At last because they would be absolute, they came to _Mevis,_ a little Isle by St. _Christophers;_ where they seated themselves, well furnished with all necessaries, being about the Number of an Hundred, and since increased to an Hundred and fifty Persons, whereof many were old Planters of St. _Christophers;_ especially Mr. _Anthony Hinton,_ and Mr. _Edward Tompson._ But because all those Isles for the most part are so capable to produce, and in Nature like each other, let this discourse serve for the description of them all. Thus much concerning those Plantations, which now after all this time, loss and charge, should they be abandon'd, suppressed, and dissolved, were most lamentable; and surely seeing they all strive so much about this Tobacco, and that the Fraught thereof, and other charges are so great, and so open to any Enemy by that Commodity they cannot long subsist.

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{MN} _Their Numbers._

And it is a wonder to me to see such Miracles and Mischiefs in Men; how greedily they pursue to dispossess the Planters of the Name of Christ Jesus, yet say they are Christians, when so much of the World is unpossessed; yea, and better Land than they so much strive for, murthering so many Christians, burning and spoiling so many Cities, Villages and Countries, and subverting so many Kingdoms, when so much lieth wait, or only possessed by a few poor Savages, that more serve the Devil for fear, than God for love; whose Ignorance we pretend to reform, but Covetousness, Humours, Ambition, Faction, and Pride hath so many Instruments, we perform very little to any purpose; nor is there either Honour or Profit to be got by any that are so vile, to undertake the subversion, or hinderance of any honest intended Christian Plantation.

{MN} Now to conclude the Travels and Adventures of Captain _Smith;_ how first he Planted _Virginia_ and was let ashoar with about an Hundred Men in the wild Woods; how he was taken Prisoner by the Savages, by the King of _Pamaunke_ tied to a Tree to be shot to death, led up and down their Country to be shewed for a wonder; fatted as he thought, for a Sacrifice for their Idol, before whom they conjured him three days, with strange Dances and Invocations, then brought him before their Emperor _Powhatan,_ that commanded him to be slain; how his Daughter _Pocahontas_ saves his life, returned him to _James_ Town, relieved him and his famished Company, which was but eight and thirty to possess those large Dominions; how he discovered all the several Nations, upon the Rivers falling into the Bay of _Chisapeacke;_ flung near to death with a most Poisoned taile of a Fish called Stingray: how _Powhatan_ out of his Country took the Kings of _Pamaunke_ and _Paspahegh_ Prisoners, forced thirty nine of those Kings to pay him contribution, subjected all the Savages: how _Smith_ was blown up with Gun-powder, and returned for _England_ to be cured.

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{MN} _Certain exploits of Captain_ Smith.

Also how he brought our New _England_ to the subjection of the Kingdom of Great _Britain;_ his fights with the Pirats, left alone amongst a many _French_ men of Warr, and his Ship ran from him; his Sea-fights for the _French_ against the _Spaniards;_ their bad usage of him; how in _France_ in a little Boat he escaped them; was adrift all such a stormy Night at Sea by himself, when thirteen _French_ Ships were split, or driven on shoar by the Isle of _Ree,_ the General and most of his Men drowned, when God, to whom be all Honour and Praise, brought him safe on shoar to all their Admirations that escaped; you may read at large in his General History of _Virginia,_ the _Summer Isles,_ and _New England._

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CHAP. XXVIII.

_The bad Life, Qualities and Conditions of Pirates; and how they taught the_ Turks _and_ Moors _to become men of Warr._

As in all Lands where there are many People, there are some Thieves, so in all Seas much frequented, there are some Pirates; the most Ancient within the Memory of threescore Years, was one _Callis,_ who most refreshed himself upon the Coast of _Wales; Clinton_ and _Purser_ his Companions, who grew famous till Queen _Elizabeth_ of Blessed Memory, hanged them at _Wapping; Flemming_ was as expert and as much sought for as they, yet such a Friend to his Country, that discovering the _Spanish Armado,_ he voluntarily came to _Plimouth,_ yielded himself freely to my Lord Admiral, and gave him notice of the _Spaniards_ coming; which good warning came so happily and unexpectedly, that he had his Pardon, and a good Reward; some few Pirates there then remained; notwithstanding it is incredible how many great and rich Prizes the little Barques of the West Country daily brought home, in regard of their small Charge; {MN} for there are so many difficulties in a great Navy, by Wind and Weather, Victual, Sickness, losing and finding one another, they seldom defray half the charge: But for the Grace, State and Defence of the Coast and narrow Seas, a great Navy is most necessary, but not to Attempt any far Voyage, except there be such a Competent flock, they want not wherewith to furnish and supply all things with expedition; but to the purpose.

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{MN} _The difficulties of a great Navy._

{MN} After the death of our most Gracious Queen Elizabeth of Blessed Memory, our Royal King _James,_ who from his Infancy had Reigned in Peace with all Nations; had no imployment for those Men of Warr, so that those that were Rich relied with that they had; those that were poor and had nothing but from hand to Mouth, turned Pirates; some, because they became slighted of those for whom they had got much Wealth; some for that they could not get their Due; some that had lived bravely, would not abase themselves to Poverty; some vainly, only to get a name; others for Revenge, Covetousness, or as ill; and as they found themselves more and more oppressed, their Passions increasing with discontent, made them turn Pirates.

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{MN} _What occasioneth Pirates._

{MN} Now because they grew hatefull to all _Christian_ Princes, they retired to Barbary, where altho' there be not many good Harbours, but _Tunis, Argier, Sally, Mamora,_ and _Tituane,_ there are many convenient Rodes, or the open Sea, which is their chief Lordship: For their best Harbours _Massalqueber,_ the Towns of _Oran, Mellila, Tangier,_ and _Ceuta,_ within the Streights, are possessed by the _Spaniards;_ without the Streights they have also _Arzella_ and _Mazagan; Mamora_ they have likewise lately taken, and Fortified. _Ward_ a poor _English_ Sailer, and _Dansker_ a _Dutchman,_ made first here their Marts; when the _Moors_ knew scarce how to sail a Ship; _Bishop_ was Ancient and did little hurt; but _Easton_ got so much as made himself a Marquess in _Savoy;_ and _Ward_ lived like a Bashay in _Barbary;_ those were the first that taught the _Moors_ to be Men of War. _Gennings, Harris, Tompson,_ and divers others were taken in Ireland, a Coast they much frequented, and died at _Wapping. Haws, Bough, Smith, Walsingham, Ellis, Collins, Sawkwel, Wollingstone, Barrow, Wilson, Sayres,_ and divers others, all these were Captains amongst the Pirates, whom King _James_ Mercifully Pardon'd; and was it not strange, a few of those should command the Seas. Notwithstanding the _Malteses,_ the Pope, _Florentines, Genoeses, French, Dutch_ and _Engish,_ Gallies and Men of War, they Would rob before their Faces, and even at their own Ports, yet seldom more than three, four, five, or six in a Fleet: many times they had very good Ships, and well Man'd, but commonly in such Factions amongst themselves, and so Riotous, Quarrellous, Treacherous, Blasphemous and Villainous, it is more than a wonder they could so long continue, to do so much Mischief; and all they got, they basely consumed it amongst _Jews, Turks, Moors,_ and Whores.

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{MN} _Their chief Rendezvous._

The best was, they would seldom go to Sea, so long as they could possibly live on shoar, being compiled of _English, French, Dutch_ and _Moors,_ (but very few _Spaniards_ or _Italians_) commonly running one from another, till they became so disjointed, disordered, debauched, and miserable, {MN} that the _Turks_ and _Moors_ began to command them as Slaves, and force them to instruct them in their best skill, which many an accursed Runnagado, or _Christian_ turned _Turk_ did, till they have made those Sally-men or _Moors_ of _Barbary_ so Powerful as they be, to the Terror of all the Streights, and many times they take Purchase in the Main Ocean, yea sometimes in the narrow Seas in _England,_ and those are the most cruel Villains in _Turky_ or _Barbary;_ whose Natives are very Noble, and of good Natures, in comparison of them.

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{MN} _Renegados._

{MN} To conclude, The Misery of a Pirate, (altho' many are sufficient Seamen as any) yet in regard of his superfluity, you shall find it such, that any wise Man would rather live amongst wild Beasts, than them; therefore let all unadvised Persons take heed they entertain that quality; and I could how wish Merchants, Gentlemen, and all Setters forth of Ships, not to be sparing of a Competent Pay, nor true Payment; for neither Soldiers nor Seamen can live without Means, but necessity will force them to steal; and when they are once entered into that Trade, they are hardly reclaimed. Those Titles of Seamen and Soldiers, have been most worthily honoured and esteemed, but now regarded for the most part, but as the scum of the World; regain therefore your wonted Reputations and endeavour rather to Adventure to those fair Plantations of our English Nation; which however in the beginning were scorned contemned, yet now you see how many Rich and Gallant People come from thence, who went thither as Poor as any Soldier or Sailer, and gets more in one Year, than you by Piracy in seven. I intreat you therefore to consider how many Thousands yearly go thither; also how many Ships and Sailers are imployed to Transport them, and what Custom they Yearly pay to our most Royal King Charles, whole Prosperity and his Kingdom's good, I humbly beseech the Immortal God to preserve and increase.

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{MN} _Advertisements for Wild heads._

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F I N I S.

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