The Golden Rule Cook Book: Six hundred recipes for meatless dishes by Sharpe, M. R. L. (Maud Russell Lorraine)

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THE GOLDEN RULE COOK BOOK

SIX HUNDRED RECIPES FOR MEATLESS DISHES. ORIGINATED COLLECTED AND ARRANGED BY M. R. L. SHARPE. NEW EDITION PUBLISHED BY LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY, BOSTON, 1912

It was Margaret More who said, "The world needs not so much to be taught, as reminded." May this book remind many of the Love they owe to every living creature.

And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat; and it was so.

Genesis i. 29, 30

CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION 11 THE KITCHEN 29 THE DINING ROOM 35 SUGGESTIVE COMMENTS 39 SOUPS 45 VEGETABLES 79 VEGETABLE COMBINATIONS 167 NUT DISHES 177 RICE, MACARONI, ETC. 185 CROQUETTES 197 TIMBALES AND PATTIES 209 SAUCES 217 EGGS 231 CHEESE 249 SALADS 257 SAVOURIES 273 SANDWICHES 281 PASTRY, PATTY CASES, ETC. 287 A FEW HOT BREADS 293 PLUM PUDDING AND MINCE PIE 299 MENUS 303

INDEX 315

Let none falter who thinks he is right.

Abraham Lincoln.

INTRODUCTION

The arranging of this help for those who are seeking to obey the call to a higher humanitarianism, which is put forth by non-flesh-eating men and women, has been a labour of love: the labour, the result of an earnest endeavour to so write the receipts that "the way-faring woman may not err therein," the love, of a kind whose integrity may not be questioned, since it has inspired to the never easy task of going against the stream of habit and custom, and to individual effort in behalf of the myriads of gentle and amenable creatures, which an animality that defiles the use of the word has accustomed man to killing and eating.

The name Vegetarian has come to mean one who abstains from animal flesh as food; and, as some designation is necessary, it is perhaps a sufficiently suitable one. This term did not, however, originally classify those who used a bloodless diet, but is derived from the Latin Homo Vegitus, which words described to the Romans a strong, vigorous man. The definition of the word Vegitus, as given in Thomas Holyoke's Latin Dictionary, is "whole, sound, quick, fresh, lively, lusty, gallant, trim, brave," and of Vegito, "to refresh, to re-create." Professor Mayor of England adds to these definitions: "The word vegetarian belongs to an illustrious family; vegetable, which has been called its mother, is really its niece."

The word has unfortunately become intermingled with various dietetic theories, but the Vegetarian who is one because his conscience for one reason or another condemns the eating of flesh, occupies a very different place in the world of ethics from one who is simply refraining from meat eating in an effort to cure bodily ills.

Indeed, the dyspeptic frequenting the usual Vegetarian restaurant has little opportunity to know much about vegetables as food, the menu being, as a rule, so crowded with various mixtures which are supposedly "meat substitutes" that vegetables pure and simple find small place. This book contains no meat substitutes, as such, but receipts for the palatable preparation of what is called by many "live foods,"--that is, food which has no blood to shed and does not, therefore, become dead before it can be eaten.

There will also be found lacking from the index such dishes as "Vegetarian Hamburg Steak," "Pigeon Pie, Vegetarian style," etc., which should repel rather than attract, by bringing to mind what Bernard Shaw has graphically spoken of as "scorched carcasses."

It has been proven by myself and my household that flesh eating may be safely stopped in one day with no injury to health or strength, and that a table supplied from the receipts in this book can make those whom it furnishes with food well and strong as far as food can make them so.

There are many reasons why thoughtful, cleanly, humane people should not feed upon animals, but there is a surprising deafness to this fact shown by the majority of those active in humane charities. One marvels to see hundreds of consecrated workers in session, putting forth every effort for the enacting of laws for the amelioration of the sufferings of cattle travelling to slaughter by car and ship, who are still content to patronise the butcher shop to buy food supplied by the dead bodies of these tortured victims of a false appetite. Mere thoughtlessness can make the kindest act cruelly inconsistent, for I once saw a woman presiding at a meeting held to discountenance the wearing of aigrettes with a sheaf of them decorating her bonnet. This looks much like receiving stolen goods while denouncing theft.

It is well to write, and legislate, and pray for better and kinder treatment of these frightened, thirst-maddened, tortured creatures on their journey to our tables, but the surest, quickest way to help (and this can be done even while continuing to work for the alleviation of their sufferings) is to stop feeding upon them.

In a recent issue of a paper devoted to humane matters there is an indignant protest against the sufferings endured by crated chickens in a certain market, and another article deplores the cruelty shown to turtles in the same place, but when we know the writers of these protests to be still willing to use these creatures on their tables, it is not always easy to fully credit their tender-heartedness. In another such paper there appear from year to year sentimental pictures and poems extolling the kindliness and virtues of "the cattle upon a thousand hills," while those same pages print instructions on the most humane way of slaying them, giving as a reason for the sudden and painless death described that suffering "poisons the meat."

The favourite phrase, "our four-footed friends," seems rather an anachronism in the face of our acknowledged relations to them as eater and eaten, for the phrase indicates a mutual pact of friendship, which, however well sustained by them, is dishonoured by man; for even cannibals, we are told, sink no lower than to eat their foes.

The demand for butcher's meat may not seem materially lessened because I do not eat it, but it is lessened notwithstanding, and I rejoice to know that in the past seven years my abstinence from flesh must have resulted in a little less slaughter, and I am glad to have reduced by even one drop the depth of that ocean of blood. I have heard the Biblical statement that man was to have dominion over all the earth quoted as a justification for the eating of the lower animals. We will some day be so civilised that we will recognise the great truth that dominion implies care, and guardianship, and protection rather than the right to destroy.

The first objection voiced against Vegetarianism is not usually against its principle, but its practice; we are told that the refusal to eat meat causes inconvenience, and that it is best to "eat what is set before you, asking no questions for conscience's sake." I could respect the position of one who literally believed and consistently acted on this mandate, but where in Christendom can he be found? Few of us could or would eat the flesh of a pet lamb, or partake knowingly of horse flesh, or could or would feel called upon to dine on these lines with the peoples who eat dog, or with so-called cannibals. The host might have secured, in a broad spirit of hospitality, just the particular carcass which most pleased his own palate, but courtesy seldom forces us to eat any flesh other than the sorts to which our own habits have accustomed us.

There is a well-known story of an American statesman who was reared by Vegetarian parents in the country, and taken while still a small boy to dine at a neighbour's. During the progress of the meal a large platter was borne into the room, on which lay something the like of which he had not seen on any table. He stared in wonder, and finally located the resemblance and shouted, "Why, mother, if that isn't a dead hen!" Habit had not overcome his horror of that particular dead thing as food, as it would have done had he seen dead hens served as food all his life.

As to the inconvenience caused my friends when I am at their tables, I consider it of such small consequence compared to the fact that even one child should be standing almost knee-deep in blood in some slaughter-house, working to supply my wants, that it is not worth a second thought. No one need go hungry from any well-planned dinner, even though no extra preparation has been made for the non-meat-eating guest; but if my hostess knows in advance that I do not eat meat, and wishes to have prepared an especial dish, I give her the benefit of the doubt, and believe that she is as pleased to do it as I would be in her place. We like to take a little extra trouble to entertain our friends, and the thought expended to give others pleasure is perhaps the real joy of hospitality.

Another class of objector likes to remind us that we take life when we eat vegetables, or drink, or breathe. A friend, who has since ceased to consider the unnecessary and cruel slaughtering of thousands of creatures daily a fit subject for joking, once sent me in raillery a sonnet which rehearsed the sad death suffered by a cabbage to satisfy a Vegetarian's selfish cravings. I find no qualms in my own conscience on this subject, but should I ever come to feel as these over-sensitive claim I should, I hope I will not then eat even the "innocent cabbage."

Again, if the germs in the water we drink and the air we breathe do die by reason of our drinking and breathing I endure no self-condemnation. Man cannot be required to do the impossible by any Principle of Good, and to do each day what good he is able to do, to avoid the evil he can avoid, and in every difficulty choose what he thinks to be the lesser of two evils, is perhaps as much as even Divine Love expects of him to-day.

It is well to face the unpleasant fact that there are occasions when in our present state of development it seems necessary to kill in self-defence, as it were, moths, rats, etc.; but even in this we can "do our best," and it has been well said, "angels can do no more." We can by care in our households greatly reduce this necessity, and we can always see that no creatures, although destroying our property, pilfering or stealing, are in their death made to suffer. In this connection I would urge every one who reads these lines to never permit a piece of sticky fly-paper to be brought into the house, for of all cruel ways of destruction, this slow method, by which the unfortunate fly almost dismembers itself in its frantic efforts to escape, is one of the most fiendishly contrived.

An advocate of Vegetarianism has truly said, "A vegetable diet is as little connected with weakness and cowardice as meat eating is with physical force and courage." That Vegetarians are not physical weaklings is no mere matter of opinion, but is proven by the giant Japanese wrestlers; the ancient Greek wrestlers; those Indian regiments of the British army showing most endurance; by the peasantry of the world, which is seldom able to afford meat, and above all, by those famous Vegetarians who march around the globe doing the work carnivorous man is too weak to do,--the horse, the ox, the camel, and the elephant. One of our best-known cooking teachers and food experts printed this statement not long ago: "While meat seems necessary to the rapid development of the American, I must contend that a well-selected vegetable diet will give greater health, bodily vigour, and mental strength," which would seem contradictory, for even an American would not seem to require other food than that which will give him greatest health, bodily vigour, and mental strength.

Nor have we cause to feel ashamed of the mentality of the guests at Ceres' table, which is graced by a goodly company; the list of names encircling the cover of "The Vegetarian Magazine" reads, "Adam, Hesiod, Gautama, Isaiah, Daniel, Plato, Zoroaster, Aristotle, Seneca, Ovid, Plutarch, Pope, Swedenborg, Leonardo da Vinci, Voltaire, Franklin, Westley, Linnæus, Shelley, Tolstoi, and King Oscar II." Others are Bernard Shaw, and Maurice Maeterlinck (who is said to have become a non-meat eater to gain greater endurance for his favourite pastime of mountain climbing), Richard Wagner, and General Booth.

But after all, the one great argument for a fleshless diet is the humanitarian one, and it does not seem possible that persons exist to-day who do not know of the horrors of cruelty which take place hourly, in order that meat may be eaten by men and women who could not look without sickening at the process which has made possible the roast upon their tables, but who are nevertheless the employers of every fainting child in the stock-yards, and every brutalised man in the shambles, whose wages they pay with every pound of meat they buy. The real butcher of an animal is the one for whom it receives its death blow, not the one who actually deals that blow.

A man who recently visited some stock-yards writes: "We were sorry to see the Thor man make mislicks at a pretty heifer. His first stroke did not fell her, and she staggered and looked at him so wonderingly and pathetically. He could not strike her while her head was in that position, and after giving her two or three more ineffectual blows, she looked at him so reproachfully, as if pleading, 'Why do you treat me so cruelly? What have I ever done to you?' Finally he got her down and out of her misery. I shall never take a bit of steak on my fork without seeing that pretty heifer lifting her stunned head to that awkward pounder."

Perhaps nothing more revolting than this same writer's remarks anent pig-killing has been written, but since the words are accurately true, they should be fit to read, for if the words which tell the truth about meat as food are unfit for our ears, the meat itself is not fit for our mouths. He describes the pig-sticking, the skinning, and the process which makes the pig into pork, and then adds: "He goes into the cooling room, and the whole effort from that time is to keep him from crumbling back into dust, attacked by worms. Salt and brine and smoke and cold prevent the corpse from utter dissolution. The refrigerator is a sort of Purgatory where the brute stays until he finally finds a cemetery in the human alimentary canal." Yet this man expects to again have meat "on his fork"!

The "Cosmopolitan" calls attention to the remarkable procession daily passing through a certain slaughter-house, as follows: "Imagine a procession of 10,000 cattle marching two by two, in a line fifteen miles long; let 20,000 sheep follow them, bleating along twelve miles of road; after them drive sixteen miles of hogs, 27,000 strong; then let 30,000 fowls bring up the rear, clucking and quacking and gobbling, over a space of six miles; and in this whole caravan, stretching for nearly fifty miles and requiring two days to pass a given point, you will see the animals devoted to death in the packing houses of ---- & Co. in a single day. Surely a Buddhist would think that the head of that establishment had much to answer for. Never before in the world's history was a massacre of the innocents organised on such a stupendous scale or with such scientific system."

People are surprisingly callous to the sufferings of those animals destined to become food. Recently some well-dressed, well-mannered men were on a train returning East from a Western visit, and the train coming to a standstill for some reason, their conversation was plainly overheard by their fellow-passengers. They were discussing a visit to the stock-yards, and one of them, quite convulsed with laughter, cried out that he really thought the most comical sight he had seen while away, in fact one of the funniest things he had seen in his whole life, was the antics of a pig "which had escaped out of the scalding pen!" The pig-sticker had evidently been as awkward that time as the man who missed the pretty heifer.

It is daily less possible to buy turkeys and chickens minus their heads. The delicate death without the use of the old-time axe (which we degraded men and women have thought a pretty symbol to place on Thanksgiving Day table cards) is brought about by hanging the fowls up by the feet, in what fright can be imagined, an incision is then made in the roof of the mouth, and after bleeding to death, which, as in the case of calves or veal, insures solid white flesh, they are served as food to dainty women who can scarcely bear to kill a fly, and alas! to some members of the societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals!

One crate of chickens can encase more suffering than I want endured for me. There is first the terror in capture, then the suffering of being thrust, legs often tied, in the small over-crowded crate, then the journey in the shrieking train, and the thirst-tortured hours in the sun before the final twist of the neck or the blow of the axe, given in many cases just before natural death would render the fowl unfit for sale. And such food, poisoned by fear and suffering, is considered the most delicate, and thought fit to feed to invalids!

That all chickens do not endure the same suffering before death is no excuse for eating them, for some will have to submit to it while chicken is an article of food. The modern invention of fattening fowl by the machine-stuffing method, to make what are called in England "Surrey fowls," and in America are given various fancy names, is so revolting that it almost makes one faint to read a true account of it. We are selfishly prone to comfort ourselves when these things are brought to our notice with the thought that the lower creatures do not suffer as we would. The fact is that no two live beings suffer the same in any event, physical or mental, but the lower animal or bird or fish suffers in its fear and death all it is capable of suffering, and we have no right to make any creature do this for our pleasure.

Mr. E. Bell has written, "Dreadful are the revelations made by humane men, who, setting aside personal comfort and peace of mind, have endeavoured to sound the depths of animal agony and bloodshed. The process of flaying alive, and even of dismembering animals before the breath has left their bodies, is far from uncommon in private slaughter-houses."

When we witness the cruelty to horses on our streets, though they are property which the most unwise would naturally seek to care for, we can only imagine what must chance to the unfortunate creatures, already condemned to death and only regarded as food, at the hands of the hardened men whose miserable lot it is to be employed by Christendom to do its most evil work.

In a pamphlet called "An Epitome of Vegetarianism" C. P. Newcombe writes: "Our opponents are quick to point out the supposed resemblance between the canine teeth of man and those of the carnivora, forgetting that they are even more prominent in the ape, the horse, and the camel. We accept the challenge and appeal for an authoritative statement of the facts to the great masters of science, among whom there is complete agreement, viz., that expressed by Baron Cuvier, the Professor of Natural History in the College of France, who wrote in 'The Animal Kingdom,' vol. i, page 88: 'Fruits, roots, and the other succulent parts of vegetables appear to be the natural food of man; his hands afford him a facility for gathering them, and his short and comparatively weak jaws, his short canine teeth, not passing beyond the common line of others, and his tuberculous cheek teeth would not permit him either to feed upon herbage or devour flesh unless these aliments were previously prepared by the culinary process.' Similar opinions are expressed by Sir Charles Bell, F. R. S., Prof. William Lawrence, F. R. S., Sir Richard Owen, K. C. B., F. R. S., and Dr. Charles Darwin, with many others."

While interesting in stating a case, this interests me as an argument but little, for if we were carnivorously made, with our minds, our hearts, our capacity for love and charity, and that great hope we have of finally manifesting the perfection of the sons of God, we still should control our tendencies by a higher law, and no more be carnivorous than we are apes, or marauders, or any other mental or physical manifestation from which spiritual evolution has lifted us high.

But this humanitarianism does not consider alone the animals slaughtered, but the men, women, and children who do this revolting work. One packing-house in the West advertises over 18,000 employees; multiply this by thousands and one can estimate the numbers of human beings who are thus degraded and brutalised. In my own household I have made it a point of honour to demand no labour which I would not be willing to do myself; I might fail in strength, but morally I would be willing to undertake any work required by me, and from the day I realised what I required from others if I ate meat, I became an abstainer from it, for no surer ethical truth can be stated than that we have no moral right to demand from the hands of another, work we would not be willing to undertake ourselves.

Mr. Henry Salt has written, "Of all recognised occupations, the work which is looked upon with the greatest loathing (next to the hangman's) is that of the butcher--the trade of doing to death countless numbers of inoffensive and highly organised creatures, amid scenes of indescribable filth and ferocity--is delegated to a pariah class of slaughter-men, who are thus themselves made the victims of a grievous social wrong."

So large a percentage of the murderers of to-day have been butchers, they or their fathers before them, that these statistics alone constitute a sufficient argument for Vegetarianism.

Man's inhumanity to himself in this matter of flesh eating is rapidly being uncovered by meat inspectors, food experts, and hundreds of physicians the world over. The statistics comparing meat-eating and non-meat-eating races with regard to tuberculosis, cancer, appendicitis, etc., are of the greatest interest to those who care not only for the health but for the mere cleanness of their bodies.

Dr. B. W. Richardson, in a book called "The Field of Disease," says: "In Jewish communities there are a number of men set apart to act as inspectors of animal food. They attend at the slaughter-houses, and after an animal is slain and dressed they submit it to inspection; then, unless they put upon it their sign, that it is free from disease, it is not permitted to enter a Jewish family. It enters into the families outside the Jewish community, so that we who are not Jews actually accept into our bodies food which the Jews have rejected as diseased."

The statistics taken from two small abattoirs alone, for one year, as given by a secretary of one Jewish ecclesiastical board are as follows:

Total oxen killed 22,308 Diseased 7,885 Total calves killed 3,330 Diseased 705 Total sheep killed 41,556 Diseased 13,019

According to this very nearly one-third of all the meat sold to Christian families is tainted by parasitical disease. If an animal dies of cancer, tuberculosis, etc., our laws protect us from the carcass, but, if slaughtered, the diseased portion is cut away and the remainder is sold as fit for food. Such blood is squeezed from beef and poured by the gallon by loving hands into the willing lips of consumptives and anæmics!

The true Vegetarian will not be seen adorned (?) by any of the reapings from a dead body, whether they be feathers or furs, for these have no beauty in the sight of those who see them in thought, dripping with the blood from which they can never be truly cleansed.

Those who would "strain at gnats" while swallowing camels, criticise the Vegetarian for his kid gloves and his leather shoes; but perfect conditions do not yet prevail for the absolutely consistent carrying out of his principles; his effort is to help to bring these to pass, and he does not refrain from beginning for the reason that he cannot yet do all. An adequate substitute for leather has been made which experiments have proven of value, but, as yet, there is no demand which justifies its manufacture.

Many express the fear that, were wholesale slaughter abolished, the earth would be overrun by the lower animals; but were artificial and unnatural breeding discontinued we can safely trust that the animal creation would find its proper place in the world, as everything does, under the guidance of the controlling Mind which is Creator.

Stop and think for a moment what the world would be like to-day if it were Vegetarian. If the world were Vegetarian, the endless caravans of doomed creatures would not be ambling to the shambles; not a man would be brutalised by the daily slaughter of hundreds of gentle creatures; not a woman would be engaged in sorting edible parts from the dissected carcasses, making all red around her; not a child would be standing deep in offal, seeking useful bits of dead bodies; "where sympathy is, cruelty is impossible," therefore, not a dog would be maltreated, not a cat selfishly deserted to starve, not a horse cruelly beaten, and not a vivisectionist could be found on the face of the earth! Those who had learned to be just to the lower animals would not fail in their duties to man, and in this millennium, prophesied in Isaiah xi: 9, slaughter-houses, transport cars, and cattle-ships would be empty, and the fields and meadows would be filled with labourers under the clear sky, tilling the ground to provide the food of man.

M. R. L. S.

Providence House, Chestnut Hill, Mass.

I do not see how it is possible that so many good people remain meat-eaters.

Count Leo Tolstoi.

THE KITCHEN

There is no room in the house which requires such careful furnishing as the kitchen, and much time may be saved there if the right thing is in the right place, for just as truly as "the means to do ill deeds make ill deeds done," do the means to do things well tend toward their being done.

To house-builders I would urge that it pays to have a white enamelled sink, and to insist that no sand-soap or scouring soap be used on it, as this removes the finish and makes it less easy to keep it spotless. See that a package of one of the cleaning powders is placed near the sink, convenient for use the first time the maid looks about for materials, and over the sink on small hooks have hung two or three different shaped sink brushes. An enamelled soap-dish should be fastened above the sink, and on the left of it a grooved, slightly slanting draining board for washed dishes; hanging under this on a large hook should be the enamelled dishpan and back of it a wire drainer, both hanging free from the wall.

Any kitchen can have a chair-rail put around it, and this four-inch wide board should be arranged with small hooks placed at a distance of ten or twelve inches apart, and on these should hang the enamelled spoons, strainers, egg-beater, small jugs, and the saucepans, the bottoms of these being always in evidence and not out of sight in cupboards. The Europeans have always had their cooking utensils displayed as a part of the kitchen furnishing, and when this is done there is less temptation to neglect their absolute cleanliness.

One of the comforts of my kitchen is a holder for saucepan covers; I was about to invent such a holder when I found that the wire ones made to display half a dozen handsome plates were perfectly suitable. One of these hangs beside the stove and the covers are conveniently at hand when required.

A cupboard built in the kitchen, sixteen inches deep and six feet across, will hold all the casseroles, baking-pans, tins for spices, etc., which the usual family requires. Mine was built with this conviction, and if it becomes overcrowded, I know it has things in it which do not belong there, and a few moments given to overseeing its rearrangement always leave it with all the space required.

The table shown in the illustration is becoming well-known in American kitchens; the deep drawers for flour, etc., are a convenience not easy to estimate, but the fact that two sizes of pastry boards slide snugly into their places under the top is its best feature.

A ball of string in a holder hung up with small scissors attached, a neat calendar, a washable tablet for orders, a burnt-match holder, a match-box holder fastened near the stove, a small mirror on a door or in an inconspicuous corner, and a wall clock are things which I advise the young housekeeper to see securely placed in her kitchen before the pictures are hung in the drawing-room.

A plate-rack is not only always quaint and decorative, but is most useful and labour-saving. A pestle and mortar should be among the utensils of every kitchen, as well as a vegetable mill, and a small hard-wood board, used exclusively for the cutting of fruit, vegetables, etc., which are to be sliced, saves many a cut finger, as the plate usually used is not the proper shape or texture for such a slippery process.

A piece of thick glass measuring about 7×9 inches, and bound about the edges with heavy gummed paper or linen, is useful to lay upon the open pages of the cook-book, and serves the double purpose of holding it open at the required page and of protecting it from floured or buttered fingers.

A plentiful supply of the small earthenware dishes, called casseroles, marmites, ramekins, and gratin dishes, is especially useful in the Vegetarian's kitchen.

Those building homes should see that the place on which the stove is to stand is covered with suitable tiling, and this should extend for two feet or more around the stove. The floor itself is best covered with linoleum, and if a colour scheme is carried out in this room, as it may well be in these days of many-coloured enamelled ware, it can be accented by the linoleum chosen and the kitchen thus made as beautiful for its purpose as any room in the house.

I have not partaken of a fellow creature for fifteen years.

Bernard Shaw.

THE DINING ROOM

If a breakfast room is not used, a small winged table set in a sunny corner, or bay-window recess of the dining room, and used as a breakfast table, is an improvement upon breakfast at the large dining table, and can be arranged in almost any dining room.

If pictures are hung in this room nothing less appropriate than those usually chosen as fit subjects for its walls can be imagined. Engravings showing the gentle deer hunted to his death, with the dog's fangs already buried in his flesh, stuffed heads of the same animal, and paintings of dead fish, ducks or grouse, hanging by their feet, should not give pleasure to or improve the appetites of humane people. If pictures are used let us have those which depict life, joy, kindness, and beauty rather than cruelty, bloodshed, and death.

Among the noblest in the land, Though he may count himself the least, That man I honor and revere Who without favor, without fear, In the great city dares to stand The friend of every friendless beast.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

SUGGESTIVE COMMENTS

SEASONING

The subject of seasoning is indeed holy ground in culinary matters, and after much thought and experiment I have decided that the phrase so deplored by young housekeepers, "season to taste," is after all not the worst one to use. No such inaccurate directions were to appear in this cook-book when planned, but I have finally decided with the army of wiser cooks who have preceded me that accurate measurements in seasoning are dangerous to success. Not only do tastes vary, but much depends on the time the seasoning is added, on the rapidity with which the food is cooking, etc. With this in mind, and very long prejudice against the old phrase above mentioned, I have compromised and frequently been tempted to state quantities of salt and pepper, usually regretting when I have. The truth is, unless one can "season to taste" one cannot cook palatable dishes, and my final word on the subject is that it is well to always use a little more salt and pepper than seems advisable, and then just before serving add a little more!

MEASURING

Weights as a means of measuring quantities have been avoided in these recipes, as I can see no advantage to the system which uses them, and I have been able to show even English cooks that the scales are not the most necessary part of the kitchen furnishing, and they have become devoted to our simple method of using the kitchen cup as the standard. It holds 1/2 pint, and 2 cups, therefore, hold 1 pint; 4 cups hold 1 quart; and I find no fault with the old couplet,--

"A pint's a pound The world around."

It usually is, and one cannot go far wrong in acting as if it always were.

THICKENING

In thickening sauces and soups, ordinary flour can always be used and cornstarch also, and as a rule I have said "flour" only in these recipes, but have only refrained from always advising potato-flour because it would have confused many who cannot obtain it in America. In Germany it is always used, and when it can be had is far nicer for thickening all vegetable sauces and soups than any other sort of flour.

AN HERB GARDEN

No one thing pays better for the little trouble expended than a small herb garden. Buy two or three tarragon plants, cover them in the winter, and in the autumn pick the leaves to make vinegar and to dry. Plant chervil, parsley, thyme, chives, and a plant of rosemary.

A window-box will keep parsley and chives on hand, and a clump of chives from the market will grow for weeks if set in a bowl and watered occasionally.

GELATINE

Instead of the usual gelatine use must be made of arrowroot or a gelatine advertised to be purely vegetable. One tablespoon is usually allowed to 1 pint of liquid, but experiments must be made and there will usually be directions found with the package.

FAT FOR FRYING

The Vegetarian can well afford to do away with that doubtful economy, cooking butter. For ordinary frying use good butter; for deep fat use a good brand of cooking-oil, or cocoanut butter.

CANNED GOODS

It seems to be a habit with many people to decry the use of canned vegetables, although I believe there are few households which subsist without them. My experience is that the best grades of canned vegetables are often far sweeter and better, fresher in fact, than vegetables that can be bought in city markets. The housekeeper should make it a point to know which brands she prefers and to trade where she can get them; and where no retailer carries them she can usually obtain cases containing two dozen each from the preservers themselves. A little trouble taken in the autumn to stock the store-room, instead of ordering "a can of peas" now and then at random, saves time and trouble in the end. Among the canned vegetables which are put up and sealed the day they are picked by the best firms are beets, peas, corn, spinach, hard-shelled beans, tomatoes, stringless beans, wax beans, mushrooms, pimentos, okra, okra-tomato, asparagus, etc.; and the saving of time and labour in the preparation of beans, spinach, and beets especially, is worth consideration. People make the mistake of merely warming up canned goods and then serving them, whereas when the can is opened the vegetables are only ready to be seasoned and finished as they would be had they been boiled at home. Good canned vegetables are not easy to improve upon, and I serve them constantly to people who will not easily credit my statement that they are not so-called "fresh" vegetables.

I will not kill or hurt any living creature needlessly, nor destroy any beautiful thing, but will strive to save and comfort all gentle life and guard and perfect all natural beauty upon the earth.

John Ruskin.

SOUPS

Most clear soups can be greatly improved in colour by using a small quantity of vegetable soup browning, or caramel. Do not overdo it, however, as the flavour is not pleasant when too pronounced. All cream soups should be cooked in a double boiler.

VEGETABLE STOCK

Few meat stocks have of themselves more flavour than vegetable stock, that is, the water in which vegetables have cooked. The water in which rice, onions, leeks, celery, beans, cabbage, etc., have boiled is valuable in Vegetarian cookery, and the wise cook will use it in many ways to enhance the flavours of soups and sauces.

A SIMPLE CONSOMMÉ OR STOCK

A simple way of preparing a rich, clear consommé is to wash well 1/2 cup of German lentils, drain them and toss them for ten minutes in a saucepan in which 1 tablespoon of butter has been melted. Then pour on them 5 cups of cold water, set them over a hot fire, and let them boil rapidly about half an hour only. Drain, and strain through a fine cloth, and return to a clean saucepan with 1 bay leaf, 1 slice of onion, 2 cloves, and 1/2 teaspoon of celery seed; simmer slowly for fifteen minutes, season with salt and pepper, and add a little sherry if liked.

If the lentils are cooked longer, it will make a cloudy soup, which will be stronger but not clear.

CLEAR BOUILLON OR CONSOMMÉ

There are various vegetable extracts in the market which, when diluted, make delicious stock, or clear soup. If these are not available, a clear vegetable broth may be made as follows:

Wash 3 cups of any dried beans or lentils, and put them to soak in a covered earthenware dish with 10 cups of water for twelve hours or so. Then empty with that same water into a kettle, and let come slowly to the boiling point, skim frequently, and do not let it actually boil. When clear, and there seems no further need of skimming, add 1 cup each of cut onions, carrots, turnips, 1 tablespoon of parsley, 1 tablespoon of salt, 1 clove of garlic, and 1 teaspoon of thyme, etc., 1 tablespoon of celery seed, and 1 bay leaf.

Let boil up once, and then place on the back of the stove to barely simmer for two hours; then strain through a fine sieve, and a good broth is made. The beans, etc., can be utilised in a deep pie, or with brown or white sauce in crust cups, in a curry, or many other ways.

To make this into a strong, clear soup put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1/2 cup each of chopped onions, carrots, turnips, and celery, 2 cloves, and a bit of parsley; fry until somewhat browned, then cover with 6 cups of the broth, and let simmer very quietly for two hours. Skim often, drain, let cool, remove any grease from the top, and to clarify add to it, when cold, the slightly beaten yolk of 1 egg and the whites of 3, then set over a hot fire and stir vigorously, watching for the first sign of boiling. At this, remove to a place where it cannot even simmer, but will be warm for half an hour, and strain through a fine, clean cloth. A wineglass of sherry may be added if to be served in cups.

CREAM OF ARTICHOKE

Scrape and slice enough Jerusalem artichokes to make 2 cups, and cover them with cold water. Let them stand for fifteen or twenty minutes, and put them in a saucepan with 2 quarts of cold water or milk, or 1 quart of each, and let them cook for an hour or until thoroughly soft. Now rub them through a sieve with 2 cups of the stock in which they cooked, and return to the fire. When boiling add 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 of flour, rubbed together, and 1 teaspoon of salt and 1 saltspoon of pepper, and cook about ten minutes before adding 2 cups of hot milk, or 1 cup of milk and 1 cup of cream. Stir well and let boil up once before serving. A teaspoon of chopped parsley or chives improves the appearance and taste of almost any cream soup.

CREAM OF ARTICHOKE WITH NASTURTIUMS

Make the plain cream of artichoke soup as in preceding recipe, and add before straining 1 handful of nasturtium leaves and blossoms; or, instead, add 1 tablespoon of these, finely minced, to the soup before serving.

ASPARAGUS SOUP

Use 1 can of asparagus, cut off the tips, and lay them aside. Cut up the stalks, cover with 4 cups of cold milk (or use half water and half milk), and let cook slowly in a double boiler for half an hour; then strain, pressing the asparagus well to extract the flavour. Return to the saucepan, add 1 teaspoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of butter, into which 1 teaspoon of flour has been made smooth, season generously with salt and pepper, add the asparagus tips, 1 cup of milk, and, just before serving, 1 tablespoon of whipped cream. A tablespoon of minced onion fried for ten minutes in butter is sometimes added to the stalks while cooking.

BARLEY AND TOMATO SOUP

Cook 1 can of tomatoes and 1 chopped Spanish onion together for fifteen minutes, then rub through a wire sieve; add 3 tablespoons of pearl barley, 1 tablespoon of butter, some pepper and salt, and cook for one hour, until the barley is soft. Re-season before serving.

BLACK BEAN SOUP

Soak 2 cups of beans for twelve hours or more, and then drain them and put into 8 cups of cold water; add 3 whole cloves, 3 whole allspice, and 3 whole peppers, salt well and boil gently for two hours, rub through sieve, and reheat. Mix 1 tablespoon of thickening flour, and 1 tablespoon of butter and water, and stir into the soup at boiling point; season afresh and pour into a tureen in which are placed, neatly sliced, 1 hard-boiled egg and half a dozen seeded slices of lemon. This soup is improved by adding 1 wineglass of sherry, or one may substitute for it a few drops of Tomato Chutney or Worcestershire sauce.

BELGIAN SOUP

Take 4 cups of diced turnips and put them in a saucepan with 2 tablespoons of butter, and stir for ten minutes over a slow fire; then stir in 2 cups of water, 2 teaspoons of brown sugar, and plenty of pepper and salt, and let simmer for another ten minutes; add 2 cups of milk thickened with 1 tablespoon of flour, let boil up, stirring constantly, and serve with croutons.

PLAIN BEAN SOUP

Wash 2 cups of any sort of dried beans and soak twelve hours or more in cold water. Before using, strain them and cover with 8 cups of cold water. Put over the fire and let cook gently for four hours, then rub them through a sieve into their own stock, season with 1 tablespoon of salt and 1/2 teaspoon of pepper and 1 tablespoon of butter, and let them cook ten minutes longer. Serve with half-inch squares of toast in the tureen.

BROWN BEAN SOUP

Take 1 cup of brown beans and 1/2 cup of German lentils, wash well and put in a saucepan with plenty of cold water, 2 or 3 chopped onions, 1 stalk of celery, 1 bay leaf, and simmer together for three hours, then strain. If a thin soup is wanted, do not press any of the pulp through the strainer, but if it is liked somewhat thick, do so. Return the strained soup to the saucepan and thicken with 1 teaspoon of thickening flour. This is now delicious soup stock, and can be served plain, or varied by adding peas, diced carrots, spaghetti, a few drops of sauce, a little sherry, tomato catsup, or curry powder. Season well with salt and pepper before serving.

RED BEAN SOUP

Soak for 8 hours or more 2 cups of red beans, then put them in a large saucepan containing 8 cups of cold water, 1 cup of milk, and 2 onions halved, each having 4 cloves stuck in it. Let cook for two hours, then press through a sieve, reheat, adding just before serving 1 wineglass of claret and fresh seasoning of salt and pepper. 1 hard-boiled egg chopped fine is an improvement to this soup.

LIMA BEAN CREAM SOUP

Soak 2 cups of dried lima beans for several hours and then put them in a saucepan with 1 cup of cold water and 1 cup of milk and let them cook for two hours, adding salt when they have partly cooked. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 onion chopped fine. Let cook slowly until browned, then scrape the contents of the frying pan into the saucepan containing the beans, and add 1 tablespoon of tomato catsup or chutney and press all through a sieve, and re-season before serving. If liked a little thick, use 1 tablespoon of flour, made smooth in 1/2 cup of milk or cream, to thicken. A tablespoon of whipped cream in the tureen is always an improvement to a cream soup.

DUTCH CABBAGE SOUP

Make exactly like Cockie-Leekie soup, using the water in which a cabbage has boiled for stock and adding 1/2 cup of finely chopped cabbage instead of using any of the barley to return to the strained soup. Those who like caraway seed will enjoy the addition of 1 teaspoon of these to the soup. If used, add them with the chopped cabbage after the other seasoning has been removed.

CALCUTTA BISQUE

Put 1 cup of tomato pulp in a saucepan and with it 1 bay leaf. When hot add to it 1 saltspoon of soda, and as it foams stir slowly into it 3 or 4 cups of milk, 1 teaspoon of curry powder, 1 teaspoon of butter, and 1 saltspoon of salt. Let boil up once and serve with croutons.

The water in which rice has boiled or any vegetable stock may be substituted for milk and the soda then omitted.

CANTON STEW

Put 2 cups of finely shredded cabbage in enough water to boil and let cook slowly until tender, which should be in about three quarters of an hour. When the cabbage has been cooking half an hour, add a cup of milk, and when it is nearly done put in 2 cups of milk; let boil up once, then season with salt, black pepper, and pour in a hot tureen, in which should be laid 1 teaspoon of butter. Those who like oyster crackers served in or with milk stews can use them with this soup which greatly resembles an oyster stew in flavour.

CARROT BROTH

Scrape and cut 3 or 4 large carrots (or more of the small French sort) in eighths lengthwise and boil them until tender. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 scant half cup of oatmeal to it, putting in 1 tablespoon at a time and stirring carefully with a wooden spoon until all the butter is taken up; then put in 1 ladle of stock in which the carrots have been cooked, and continue stirring; then another ladle of stock, and so on until a cup and a half of stock has been added during ten minutes' slow cooking. Now put in another cup of stock and let cook ten minutes; then, as the soup will be getting too thick, add another cup of stock and so on, thinning the soup with additional stock until the oatmeal is thoroughly cooked. If Quaker Oats is used, the soup will only have to cook about forty minutes, and it is best to strain it before serving; fine Scotch meal will take longer, but does not need to be strained and thickens somewhat better.

When the soup is half cooked add 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, and a dash of nutmeg. (Serve the carrots with a plain sauce or warm them up next day in some of the ways mentioned under Carrots.)

CREAM OF CARROT AND ONION

Take 2 cups of grated carrot and 1 chopped onion and fry for ten minutes with 1 tablespoon of butter and then cover with 4 cups of cold water and let boil. Add salt and pepper and in twenty minutes 1 cup of milk in which 1 tablespoon of flour has been dissolved.

CREAM OF CARROTS

Put 2 cups of grated carrot with 1 pint (2 cups) of cold water in a double boiler, and when heated add 2 tablespoons of butter and 1 teaspoon of sugar. Let cook for an hour, then add 1/2 cup of stale bread crumbs and 2 cups of water, and let cook half an hour longer. Rub the contents of the double boiler through a fine sieve, add 1 1/2 cups of hot milk, 1 tablespoon of salt and a saltspoon of pepper, and return to the boiler. Beat 2 egg-yolks in 1/2 cup of milk, and when the soup boils again stir them into it. Stir hard for one minute and serve.

CREAM OF CHEESE

Put 1 quart (or 4 cups) of milk in a double boiler, and put with it 3/4 of a cup of grated cheese, 1 teaspoon of grated onion, 1 teaspoon of some piquant sauce, 1/4 teaspoon of salt, a dash of cayenne pepper, and 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 of butter rubbed together. Stir until smooth, then beat the yolks of 2 eggs with 2 tablespoons of milk, put in the tureen, and pour the boiling soup over them, stirring during the process. Add a little salt and serve with croutons.

CREAM OF CAULIFLOWER

Take a good-sized cauliflower, and let it soak in cold water, which is slightly salted, for half an hour; then drain it and put it, head upwards, in a saucepan which is not over large, and let it cook for half an hour uncovered. Put in a double boiler 1 quart of milk (4 cups), 1 onion and 1 bay leaf, and let them cook together while the cauliflower is boiling. Drain the cauliflower when done, and reserve 1/2 cup of the little sprays which form the head, mash the remainder in a wooden bowl, and add to it 2 cups of the stock in which it boiled and put in with the boiling milk; stir well, and let cook five minutes, then put through a sieve and return to the fire with a thickening of 1 tablespoon of flour rubbed together with 1 tablespoon of butter, season lightly with salt and pepper and a dash of nutmeg, add the 1/2 cup of cauliflower as a garnish, and let cook ten minutes more before serving. A tablespoon of whipped cream is an addition if added at the last.

CHESTNUT SOUP

Peel and blanch 1 quart of Italian chestnuts and chop them fine, then boil for half an hour in 2 quarts of water. Strain the chestnuts and crush them to fine pulp in a mortar, and gradually stir on this 1 quart of the stock in which the chestnuts cooked, and then rub all through a sieve. Return to the fire in a saucepan with 1 cup of bread crumbs, 1 tablespoon of salt, and 1 saltspoon of pepper. Cook for half an hour, then strain again, and add 2 cups of milk and a grating of nutmeg, and 1 tablespoon of browned butter, and reheat to boiling point.

CREAM OF CELERY

Wash and scrape and cut into half-inch pieces what will make 1 cup of celery; put it into 1 quart of boiling salted water and cook for nearly an hour or until very soft, then mash it in the water in which it was boiled. Put 1 teaspoon of chopped onion, 2 bay leaves, some mace, and 2 cloves into 2 cups of milk, let simmer for ten minutes, and add it to the celery pulp. Now press through a sieve and return to the double boiler in which the milk was cooked. Melt 1 tablespoon of butter and blend it with 1 tablespoon of flour until smooth, and stir it into the boiling soup; then season with salt and pepper. Boil five minutes and strain into a hot tureen in which a pat of butter and 1 tablespoon of whipped cream have been put. The addition of 1 tablespoon of chopped chives is an improvement to the appearance and taste, or parsley may be used if preferred.

CREAM OF CHESTNUT

Shell and blanch and cut in quarters 2 cups (1 pound) of Italian chestnuts and cover them with 2 cups of boiling water. Add 1 slice of onion (or a drop of onion juice extract), 1/4 cup of chopped celery (or 1 teaspoon celery seed), 1 bay leaf, 1 sprig of parsley, and 1 saltspoon of paprika. Cover and boil until the chestnuts are tender,--about half an hour. Then grind in a mortar, or press through a colander or vegetable mill, and add 1 quart (4 cups) of milk, and 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 of flour rubbed together, and cook for three minutes; then add 1 teaspoon of salt, and press all through a fine sieve and reheat before serving.

CREAM OF CORN

Put 1 quart of milk and 1 can of corn in a double boiler and let boil; mix 1 teaspoon of butter and 1 of cornstarch or potato-flour together, and add to the corn; season with salt and pepper, and stir for one minute; then press through a sieve and add 1 tablespoon of minced green peppers.

COCKIE-LEEKIE

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted stir in, a spoonful at a time, 1 cup of pearl barley, taking ten minutes to add it all; then cover with 8 cups of carrot or onion broth (or use water), and add 2 bay leaves, 1 onion with 4 cloves stuck in it, a bouquet of herbs and parsley, 1 stalk of celery, and let simmer for one hour and a half, then strain, reserving some of the barley. Prepare leeks by washing and cutting into 2-inch lengths (using some of the green), and slicing lengthwise, and add them to the soup; put in the barley, and let cook twenty-five minutes and season with salt and pepper.

CREOLE SOUP

Put 1 can of tomatoes, 1 quart of water or vegetable stock, 1 sliced onion, and 1 small sliced carrot, and 1 chopped green pepper together in a saucepan, and let cook for half an hour, then rub through a fine strainer. Return the strained mixture to the double boiler and put in 2 scant tablespoons of boiled rice, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1/8 teaspoon paprika, 1 tablespoon of sugar. Cream 2 tablespoons of butter with 1 tablespoon of flour, and stir into the soup; let boil up once and serve.

CREAM OF CURRY

Put 1 quart (or 4 cups) of milk in a double boiler with 1 onion with 4 cloves stuck in it, and when hot thicken it with 1 tablespoon of thickening flour rubbed smooth with 1 tablespoon of butter; add 2 tablespoons of boiled rice, and 1 hard-boiled egg chopped fine, and 2 teaspoons (more if liked) of curry powder or paste. Remove the onion and serve with croutons. One tablespoon of chopped chives or pimentos is an addition to the soup.

FLORENTINE SOUP

Melt 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and put into it 3/4 of a cup of finely chopped onions and stir over a moderate heat about five minutes and then add 2 full cups of very thinly sliced turnips; stir these with the onions for another five minutes and then add 2 tablespoons of flour and gradually add 2 pints of boiled milk mixing all well together; watch it till it boils and then let simmer gently, stirring frequently during twenty minutes or half an hour, until the onions are quite soft. Then add 2 more cups of milk, and when this boils add 1 cup of tomato puree (either canned tomato soup or canned tomatoes), or 1 1/2 cups of sliced fresh tomatoes, using a pinch of soda to prevent curdling. Now press the contents of the saucepan through a fine sieve, add a heaping teaspoon of butter, reheat, and serve with croutons and 1 tablespoon of whipped cream.

HEILBRONN SOUP

Take 3 quarts of water in which vegetables have been boiled (preferably onions or leeks) and let simmer. In another enamelled pan put 1 tablespoon of butter; when melted stir in slowly with a wooden spoon 1/2 cup of barley, adding a little at a time, until butter is well "taken up." Let it cook for five minutes, stirring constantly, then add (a ladle at a time) 6 or 8 ladles of the hot stock, putting in this amount during ten minutes of stirring. Add 1/2 the remaining stock, and salt, pepper, and some nutmeg, and let simmer twenty minutes; then the remaining stock and simmer another one-half hour. Peel 1/4 pound mushrooms and cut in 4 or 6 pieces each; fry them in butter for five minutes, and add to soup ten minutes before serving and season afresh.

JULIENNE SOUP

Strain any clear vegetable soup, and to each 2 cups of broth add 1/2 cup of dried "Julienne;" season with salt and pepper and 1 tablespoon of browned butter.

RED LENTIL SOUP

Soak 2 cups of Egyptian lentils in water for eight or ten hours, then drain and shake dry. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan and when melted add 1/3 of the lentils and stir well with a flat-ended wooden spoon, letting them cook very slowly; then add another third, and after stirring a few moments, add the remainder. Pour on 6 cups of cooled water in which leeks or onions have boiled, and let simmer for an hour or until the lentils are tender; press through a sieve and return to the fire to reheat. Smooth 1 teaspoon of flour with 1 teaspoon of butter and add to the soup, season with salt and pepper and a dash of nutmeg. Instead of the flour and butter 1 well-beaten egg may be vigorously stirred into the soup after removing it from the fire.

If Egyptian lentils cannot be obtained, canned or dried red kidney beans may be substituted.

CREAM OF LENTIL

Wash 2 cups of Egyptian lentils, then let them soak in 2 quarts of water for twelve hours or more and put them, in this same water, where they will simmer gently over a slow fire. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add to it 2 large onions, sliced, 2 carrots and 1 turnip diced, and fry until a delicate brown; add these to the lentils and let cook slowly for about two hours. Press through a sieve, return to the fire, add 2 cups of milk and just before serving, 1 tablespoon of whipped cream, and season with salt and pepper.

HUNGARIAN SOUP

Put 1 cup of German lentils in a saucepan with 2 cups of cold water or vegetable stock, and let boil for an hour. If the water is absorbed before the lentils are tender, add a little more. At the end of the hour pour over them 6 cups of hot water or stock.

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 small onion chopped fine and 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 clove of garlic. When browned add this to the soup and at the same time put in 1/2 cup of diced potatoes. Let simmer gently for half an hour, then press through a sieve, return to the fire, season well with salt and pepper, and add 1 tablespoon of lemon juice or reduced vinegar before serving.

PURÉE MONGOLE

Put 1 can of tomatoes in a saucepan and with it 2 cups of strong vegetable broth, 1 stalk of celery, 1 slice of onion, 1 bay leaf, 3 allspice, 3 cloves, salt and pepper, and let cook slowly for half an hour. Pour the liquid through a sieve, pressing with it as much of the tomato as will go, reserving the celery. Return to the saucepan, add 1 tablespoon of reduced vinegar, 1 tablespoon of boiled peas, 1 tablespoon of canned string beans, split in half, and the cooked stalk of celery shredded into thin strips two inches long; let simmer for five minutes, season with salt and pepper, add 1 tablespoon of butter, remove from the fire, and beat vigorously into the soup 1 well-beaten egg.

MUSHROOM BISQUE

Cut up with a silvered knife about 1 cup of fresh mushrooms, wash and drain, toss about in 2 tablespoons of melted butter for ten minutes, then stir in 1 tablespoon of flour made smooth in a little milk, and add 1 quart of milk and let simmer half an hour. Season with salt and paprika, and press through a sieve, reserving half the mushrooms. Add these to the soup, and serve with croutons.

MUSHROOM SOUP

Take 1/4 of a pound of fresh mushrooms, 3/4 of a cup of small white beans, the rind of half a lemon, 1 Spanish onion in which 5 cloves have been stuck, a small piece of mace, some parsley and thyme, and, after preparing for cooking, let boil for an hour or more in 2 quarts of water; then press all but a few of the mushrooms through a wire strainer, return to the saucepan, add 2 tablespoons of butter, pepper, and salt, 1/2 teaspoon of soup browning, and, after cutting them in several pieces, add the reserved mushrooms and serve.

MUSHROOM STEW

Select mushrooms that are white and firm and small, wash them carefully one at a time with the hands, and put 1 heaping cup of them into 4 cups of milk and let heat, without boiling, for 15 minutes. Then add 1 tablespoon of butter, plenty of salt and pepper, and serve in a hot tureen with crisp crackers.

NOODLE OR ALPHABET SOUP

Strain any one of the vegetable soups for stock, add 1/2 cup of noodles or "alphabets" fifteen minutes before serving.

CREAM OF ONION SOUP

Chop enough onions to make 4 cups, and put them in a large saucepan with 2 tablespoons of butter and stir them for five minutes; then add 1 small onion with 4 cloves stuck in it, a sprig of parsley, and a bay leaf, cover with 6 or 7 cups of water, add salt and pepper, and let cook gently for three quarters of an hour. Press all through a sieve, and return the liquid to the saucepan; add 1 tablespoon of flour blended with 1 tablespoon of butter, also 2 cups of milk (or half cream), and let boil up once before serving. One tablespoon of chopped chives may be added, also 1 tablespoon of whipped cream.

OKRA SOUP

Cut into small pieces 2 cups (1 can) of okra, use 1 can of green peas, 1 of green corn, 1 cup of shell beans, 2 onions, 1 slice of carrot, 1 slice of turnip, 2 tomatoes, and some celery, or use celery salt. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add the chopped onion, carrot, and turnip, and cook ten minutes; then put with the okra, celery and beans into 4 cups of water. Cook for one hour, then add salt and pepper and the tomatoes, corn, peas, and celery, and simmer for half an hour. Do not strain to serve, but if too thick, thin with stock or water.

ONION SOUP AU FROMAGE

Slice 6 ordinary onions or 3 large Spanish ones, and put in frying pan with 2 heaping tablespoons of butter, and let fry very slowly until the onions are a rich dark brown,--about fifteen minutes; then scrape the contents of the pan into a large marmite, add 1 large tablespoon of butter, some pepper and salt, and nearly fill the casserole with tepid water, or with water in which onions have boiled; cover and let cook slowly half an hour, and then stir in 2 teaspoons of soup browning. Take 4 thick slices of dry rye bread, spread them thickly with grated cheese, and lay these in the soup pot; remove the cover and let cook five minutes more, and serve in the marmite.

NEW GREEN PEA SOUP

Shell half a peck of peas and wash the pods. Put the pods in a large kettle and almost cover with boiling water; let them simmer for half an hour, then strain these out, and put the peas in this water to boil until tender. The length of time this takes depends on the freshness of the peas. Save out 1 cup of the peas and press the remainder, water and all, through a sieve, and add to them 1 pint of milk, then return to the fire. Rub together 1 tablespoon of flour and one of butter and stir into the boiling soup; then add the reserved cup of peas, season with salt and pepper, and serve. If the flavour of mint is liked, put 3 or 4 mint leaves, or 1 teaspoon of chopped mint, into the tureen. If mint is not used add a little chopped parsley.

CREAM OF GREEN PEA SOUP

Put 1 can of peas, 1 chopped onion, and 1 cup of water in a saucepan, and cook twenty minutes. At the same time put 1 quart of milk on the fire in a double boiler. When the milk is hot stir in 1 tablespoon of butter, and as it boils, 1 tablespoon of flour which has been dissolved in a quarter of a cup of milk. Rub the peas through a fine sieve, stir into the milk, season with salt and pepper, add 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, and serve. Instead of the parsley, chopped mint can be used if the flavour is liked, or 1 or 2 mint leaves laid in the tureen before the soup is poured in give a delicate flavour.

SPLIT GREEN PEA SOUP

Soak 2 cups of peas for twelve hours or more, and then drain and toss them for ten minutes in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 tablespoon of chopped onion; then add 4 cups of hot water and let cook two hours, and press through a sieve with the water in which they cooked. Add 1 cup of milk and 1 teaspoon of chopped mint (fresh or dried), and 1 tablespoon whipped cream. Season well with salt and pepper.

PRINCESS SOUP

Slice 3 onions and cook in a scant half cup of butter for ten minutes. Add 1 quart of hot milk and cook slowly another ten minutes. Strain into double boiler, thicken with 1 teaspoon of flour dissolved in a little milk, and just before serving add 2 teaspoons of finely chopped canned pimentos, and salt and pepper. Add 1 tablespoon of cream in serving.

POTATO SOUP

Wash 6 to 9 potatoes and put them in boiling water and boil them from twenty minutes to half an hour, the time depending on their size. Use 1 large onion quartered, with cloves stuck in it, and 2 pieces of celery (or 1/4 teaspoon of celery salt or celery seed), some mace, 1 bay leaf, and 6 peppercorns, and put in a double boiler with 1 quart of milk, from which reserve 1 small half cup. Mix 1 tablespoon of flour with the reserved milk, and stir slowly into the milk when it boils, and let cook ten minutes longer. When the potatoes are done pour off the water, peel them and mash until light, then add to the boiling milk, stir well, season with salt and pepper, and rub all through a sieve. Return to double boiler, add 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 teaspoon of minced parsley, boil up once, and serve.

GERMAN POTATO SOUP

The German potato soup is made by rubbing 6 or 8 well-boiled potatoes through a sieve together with enough of the water in which they were cooked to make sufficient soup, and adding 1 tablespoon of chopped chives (or shallot or onion), 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, 1/2 cup of sour cream containing a little lemon juice, or, instead of sour cream, 1 tablespoon of reduced vinegar can be used, with 1/2 cup of fresh cream. Let simmer for fifteen minutes and serve very hot with croutons.

POTATO SOUP FLORA

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 large onion chopped fine, stir until browned, then add 3 cups of thinly sliced potatoes and 6 cups of cold water; when the potatoes are cooked to a mush press them through a sieve, add a small piece of butter, pepper, and salt, and 1 teaspoon finely chopped parsley.

CREAM OF RICE SOUP

Put 1/2 cup of rice into 1 1/2 pints of boiling water, and add 2 onions into which 4 cloves are pressed, a piece of celery (or 1/4 teaspoon celery seed), one bay leaf, 1 sprig of parsley, 4 peppercorns, and a bit of mace. Let simmer gently for one hour, then turn the soup into a large bowl, pouring it through a fine sieve, and pressing as much through the sieve as possible. Return the contents of the bowl to the saucepan and add 1 pint of milk, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of butter, and 1 scant tablespoon of flour dissolved in a little milk. Add 1 tablespoon of chopped Spanish pimentos, 1 teaspoon finely chopped chives, let simmer five minutes, add 1 tablespoon of whipped cream, and serve.

RICE AND TOMATO SOUP

Boil 1 cup of rice in 2 quarts of water. Heat the contents of 1 can of tomatoes with 1 bay leaf, 2 slices of onion, and, after fifteen minutes' cooking, press through a sieve and put in double boiler, and to this add 1 pint of water in which rice has been boiled. When hot put in 1 teaspoon of butter, some pepper, salt, and a dash of celery salt, and 2 tablespoons of the cooked rice, and serve. The boiled rice can be utilised for the same meal, or used later.

RICE-OKRA SOUP

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a large saucepan, and when melted add 1 sliced onion and let simmer for five minutes; then stir in 1 tablespoon of flour, and when smooth and browned add 6 cups of water; season well and let cook slowly for three quarters of an hour. In another saucepan put 1/4 cup of rice and 2 cups of sliced okra, and strain the hot stock over the rice and okra, season well with salt and pepper, cover closely, and let simmer gently for an hour. If fresh okra is not available the canned okra is a very good substitute; but if it is used, do not add it to the rice and stock until twenty minutes before removing the soup from the fire.

OYSTER PLANT (SALSIFY) SOUP

Use enough salsify to make 4 cups when sliced. Soak in cold water for an hour, then scrape and put in fresh water, containing some lemon juice, for fifteen minutes. The salsify must not be left out of the water, or it will turn dark. Cut in thin slices, and put into a saucepan containing 4 cups of water and 1/2 cup of milk, and let cook slowly for about an hour, adding 1 teaspoon of salt when it has cooked half the time. Reserve 1/4 of a cup of the salsify, and press the remainder, with the stock, through a sieve; return to the saucepan, add 1 1/2 cups of milk and 1 cup of cream, and 1 tablespoon of butter rubbed together with 1 tablespoon of flour (or less if a thick soup is not liked), a little salt, a dash of paprika and pepper, and serve very hot with small crackers.

SPINACH-TOMATO SOUP

Put 1 tablespoon of butter into the frying pan, and when melted add 1 onion chopped fine, and let cook slowly for ten minutes. Put 1 cup of cold prepared spinach into the butter and onion and 1 cup of tomato sauce or tomatoes, and let heat through. Put 2 cups of milk in a double boiler with 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 of butter rubbed together. Add a pinch of soda to the tomato-spinach mixture, press it through a sieve, and stir the purée into the milk when it boils. Season with salt and pepper and add 1 tablespoon of cream.

CREAM OF SPINACH

Put the contents of 1 can of spinach in a chopping-bowl and chop it to a fine pulp; then put it in a double boiler with 2 tablespoons of onion juice (grated onion), and some salt and pepper, and 5 or 6 cups of milk. Let all cook together for twenty minutes, then pour through a sieve, pressing the spinach to extract the juice. Return the soup to the double boiler, add 1 tablespoon of butter, re-season with salt and pepper and a pinch of nutmeg or mace, and some celery salt. A tablespoon of whipped cream added at the last is an improvement, or 1 tablespoon of finely chopped white and riced yolk of hard-boiled egg can be added. The spinach itself can be prepared next day in any of the ways described for serving spinach.

FRENCH SORREL SOUP

Wash 1 quart of sorrel and put it to cook in cold water, remove from the fire in ten minutes and drain and chop fine. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan and fry in it when melted 1 small onion chopped fine; then add the sorrel to this and stir for three or four minutes and add 2 cups of cold milk and let simmer for five minutes. Dissolve in 1 cup of milk, 1 teaspoon of sugar and 1 tablespoon of potato flour (or other thickening), and add to the boiling soup; then strain, reheat, and serve with the addition of 1 tablespoon of whipped cream.

GERMAN SORREL SOUP

The Germans enrich the above soup by pouring it upon a 1/2 cup of milk in which the yolks of 2 eggs have been beaten. Do not reverse the process, as it will curdle the soup.

ST. GERMAIN SOUP

Take 2 cans of peas, reserving 1/2 cup of them, and put them in a double boiler with 1 onion cut in 4 pieces with a clove stuck in each, 1 tablespoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 1 teaspoon of sugar, 1 bay leaf, and a sprig of parsley; cover and let cook for half an hour, then mash the contents of the double boiler with a potato-masher, and add to them 6 cups of water, and when this boils add to the soup 2 tablespoons of butter and 2 of flour rubbed together; stir well and cook fifteen minutes, then press through a sieve. Return to the double boiler, add 2 cups of milk, the 1/2 cup of peas drained dry, and reheat, seasoning afresh before serving with croutons.

SPAGHETTI SOUP

Melt 1 tablespoon of butter in a large saucepan, and add to it 1 thinly sliced onion, 2 slices of carrot, 2 slices of turnip, 1/2 cup of chopped celery (or 1 teaspoon of celery seed may be used instead), and let cook very slowly. Stir frequently, and at the end of ten minutes add 2 cloves, 10 or 12 peppercorns, a small piece of cinnamon, and 1 large bay leaf, and 8 cups (or 2 quarts) of cold water. Cover the saucepan and let the soup cook slowly three quarters of an hour, then strain carefully and return to the saucepan. Season with 1 teaspoon of salt, and add 1/2 cup of spaghetti broken into inch-long pieces. Cover the saucepan and let the soup simmer for an hour, as this will draw more flavour from the spaghetti than rapid boiling, and is the better way for a soup, since the object is to extract the flavour of the ingredients. Grated or Parmesan cheese served with this soup is an improvement.

SCOTCH BROTH

Put 2 quarts of water in kettle, and when at boiling point add 1/2 cup of pearl barley, which has been tossed in hot butter in a frying pan for five minutes, and let cook slowly. Cut up 2 carrots, 2 turnips, and 3 large onions, and fry in 2 tablespoons of butter. Chop a sprig of parsley very fine, and put with the other vegetables into the barley and water. Let cook slowly for two hours, season with pepper and salt, and serve. A 1/2 teaspoon of soup-browning improves the appearance of the broth.

SPANISH TOMATO SOUP

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted stir into it 3 onions thinly sliced, and let simmer for ten minutes; then add to them the juice from 1 can of tomatoes and 2 of the tomatoes, and let cook slowly for twenty minutes; strain, pressing through a sieve, return to the fire, add 1 tablespoon of butter, some pepper and salt, and stir in 2 well-beaten eggs. Do not let the soup boil after adding the eggs.

TOMATO-TAPIOCA SOUP

Put 2 quarts of water into a double boiler, and when it boils add 1/2 cup of tapioca. Slice 6 large tomatoes (or use 2 cups of strained canned tomatoes), cut 2 onions fine, and fry together until a light brown in 1 tablespoon of butter. Scrape the contents of the pan into the kettle and let simmer slowly for an hour and a half, then season well and serve.

TOMATO CREAM SOUP

Take 2 cups of canned tomatoes, juice and all, mash the large pieces to a pulp, and place in a saucepan with 1 1/2 cups of hot water and a piece of butter the size of an egg, a pinch of pepper, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1 bay leaf. Let come to a boil, and then add 1/4 teaspoon of carbonate of soda, stir for one minute, and add 2 cups of milk. Let boil up and pour in tureen in which is a 1/2 cup of cracker crumbs very finely rolled. Use this way for ordinary use, or strain to serve in cups.

TOMATO AND CORN BISQUE

Put 1 quart of milk and 1 can of corn in a double boiler and let simmer fifteen minutes; then add 1 teaspoon of butter, season well with salt and pepper, and press through a sieve, and put back into the double boiler. Add 1/2 cup of boiled tomatoes which have been pressed through a sieve, stir together, reheat, and serve.

TOMATO-MACARONI SOUP

Put 1 can of tomatoes, 1 sprig of parsley, 1 onion with 4 cloves stuck in it, 1 tablespoon of salt, 6 peppercorns, and 6 cups of cold water in a saucepan, and let cook slowly for three quarters of an hour; then strain and return to the saucepan, and when boiling again, add 1/2 cup of macaroni which has been broken into small pieces, and cover and cook for half an hour. Season afresh before serving. Spaghetti or noodles may be used instead of macaroni.

TOMATO SOUP

Let 1 quart can of tomatoes, 2 cups of water (or rice stock), a sprig of parsley, 1 bay leaf, and 1 onion simmer together for fifteen minutes, then press through a sieve and return to the fire to boil. Rub 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 tablespoon of flour together, and stir into the boiling soup until smooth. Add salt, pepper, and a pinch of soda, and serve immediately with croutons. If water in which rice has boiled is used omit the flour and the soda.

TOMATO-OKRA SOUP

Into 1 1/2 quarts (6 cups) of boiling water put 1/2 cup of rice; cover and let boil fifteen minutes, then add the contents of 1 can of "tomato-okra" and cook ten minutes more. Reserve 2 okra pods, 2 tomatoes, and 1 tablespoon of rice, and press all the rest through a sieve. Return to the fire, season with salt and pepper, and add the rice and tomatoes and the okra cut in thin slices.

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

Make as above, but strain, reserving a little rice and a little tomato to add later; stir 1 tablespoon of curry paste (or powder) into the soup, reheat, and serve.

VEGETABLE SOUP. NO. 1

Cut in tiny squares 1 potato, 1 onion, 1/2 turnip, 1 carrot, and 1 root of celery. Melt 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, add all the vegetables except the potato, and fry until a delicate brown. Then scrape the contents of the frying pan into a kettle containing 2 quarts of cold water, 1 teaspoon of salt, 3 tablespoons of rice, 1 bay leaf, and a bunch of soup herbs. Let cook slowly for one hour and a half, and then add the potatoes and boil twenty minutes more. Add pepper, a little fresh salt, and 1 teaspoon soup-browning, and, if a thin soup is preferred, strain out most of the vegetables and rice. These may be served with brown sauce and put in individual crust cups made hot in oven after being filled.

VEGETABLE SOUP. NO. 2

When seasonable another vegetable soup may be made, proceeding as above, but adding cauliflower and young onions instead of carrots, etc., and thinning with 1 1/2 cups of hot milk and adding at the last 1/2 cup of boiled young peas. Add butter, pepper, and salt, and a spoonful of cream, before serving.

VEGETABLE SOUP. NO. 3

Put 1 generous tablespoon of butter in a large saucepan, and fry in the butter when melted 1/2 cup of chopped onion, and when a golden brown stir in carefully 1 tablespoon of flour, and when smoothed pour on slowly 2 cups of hot water or vegetable stock. Now put in 1/2 cup each of chopped carrot, turnip, parsnip, and 1 cup of celery, and dredge well with pepper and salt, and cover with boiling water, and let simmer for one hour. Then put in 2 cups of parboiled potatoes, and when the vegetables are soft press through a sieve with the stock in which they have cooked.

VEGETABLE SOUP. NO. 4

A much more simple but very palatable vegetable soup is made by taking 1 cup of diced carrots and 1 cup of parsnips and 1 can of peas (or fewer peas can be used), covering them with cold water, and after one hour's boiling adding 2 cups of milk, to which should be added when it boils 1 teaspoon of potato-flour, or other thickening, and, before serving, pepper, salt, and a small piece of butter.

VEGETABLE SOUP. NO. 5

Slice and cut in fancy shapes 1 turnip, 1 carrot, 1 sweet potato, the corn from 1 ear of corn, or use 2 tablespoons of canned corn, and strain 1/2 can of peas, or 1/2 cup of fresh peas may be used. Put 3 quarts of water in a saucepan, and when boiling add 1 tablespoon of rice and the carrot; let boil for half an hour, then put in the other vegetables and cook for half an hour longer, and add 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley before serving; also season highly with salt and pepper.

CREAM OF VEGETABLE SOUP

Melt 3 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and add 3 tablespoons each of chopped celery, turnip, and carrot, and 1 tablespoon of minced onion, 4 bay leaves, and 4 blades of mace. Cook together very slowly for twenty minutes, stirring frequently to prevent browning; then shake in 3 tablespoons of flour, and when blended put the contents of the frying pan into a little less than 3 pints of milk made hot in a double boiler. Cook twenty minutes longer, and then season well with salt and pepper, and pour into a saucepan containing 2 egg-yolks, beaten with 1/2 cup of cream or milk. The soup can then be strained and served without any, or with only a few, of the vegetables, or it is delicious served without straining. It can be made at any time that is convenient and reheated for serving.

PURÉE OF VEGETABLE MARROW (SUMMER SQUASH)

Slice 3 onions and cover with 2 quarts of cold water, and when it boils add a large vegetable marrow, cut in thin slices. Let simmer slowly for two hours, then rub all through a sieve; mix 1 tablespoon of ground rice, 1 cup of milk, and 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when hot add to the soup. Finish with 2 tablespoons of boiled flageolets, or peas, and season well with salt and pepper.

Hast thou named all the birds without a gun? Loved the woodrose and left it on its stalk? At rich men's tables eaten bread and pulse?

Oh, be my friend, and teach me to be thine!

Ralph Waldo Emerson.

VEGETABLES

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES IN BUTTER

Wash 1 quart of artichokes, scrape them well, and lay them in salted water to keep them from discolouring, then put them in salted, boiling water which has been whitened with a little milk, and boil for twenty or twenty-five minutes. Drain and arrange in a buttered baking dish; pour over them 3 tablespoons of melted butter, and sprinkle the tops with browned bread crumbs finely rolled, and set them in the oven for five minutes.

This dish makes a dainty entremets when served in individual gratin dishes, in which case 2 or 3 artichokes should be arranged in each dish. The little dish should be served on a small plate with a paper doiley.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES AU GRATIN

Prepare the artichokes as in above recipe, arrange them in a large baking dish, or in small individual dishes, cover them with white sauce, sprinkle the top with grated cheese and crumbs, and put them in the oven a few minutes to brown.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Prepare the artichokes as in the first recipe, but instead of using melted butter use a little tomato sauce, and sprinkle the artichokes with browned crumbs, and let heat a few moments in the oven before serving. This also is a dainty dish to serve after the soup in individual gratin dishes.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES WITH FRENCH SAUCE

Prepare as directed, and in the water in which the artichokes are boiling put 1 large onion and a piece of celery finely chopped. After removing the artichokes take enough of the stock for a sauce, season it nicely, thicken with the yolk of an egg, and strain and pour over the hot artichokes and serve.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE FRITTERS

Boil the artichokes not more than fifteen minutes, cut them into strips 1/4 of an inch thick, dry them, dip them in flour, and then in batter, and fry a golden brown in good butter.

FRIED ARTICHOKES

Boil as directed, but do not quite finish cooking; let them cool, slice them and fry in melted butter, adding 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley just before removing from the pan.

FRENCH FRIED JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES

Scrape and wash 1 quart of Jerusalem artichokes, cut in slices lengthwise, and fry in a frying basket in hot vegetable fat or oil until a golden brown. Serve with a sprinkling of lemon juice, or with Dutch butter and browned crumbs.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES TARTARE

Select small artichokes, or cut them round with a patent cutter, roll them in yolk of egg and then in fine crumbs, place in a frying basket, and fry in hot vegetable fat until a golden brown. Serve very hot, garnished with parsley, and with a tureen of sauce Tartare. Serve alone after soup.

FRIED ARTICHOKES WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Fry artichokes as in foregoing recipe and serve with hot tomato sauce.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES LYONNAISE

Boil the artichokes as directed, but do net let them quite finish cooking, then slice them. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 large onion sliced or chopped, and when onions are transparent, but not brown, add the artichokes and fry slowly. Sprinkle with chopped parsley or chives.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE PURÉE

Boil 1 quart of artichokes as already directed, drain, mash and press through a fine sieve, and stir in 2 tablespoons of melted butter; then stir over a low fire until the moisture is exhausted. Remove from the fire, and when cold add 4 eggs which have been well beaten, beating them briskly, and adding them slowly to the purée; also beat in 1 tablespoon of whipped cream. When thoroughly mixed and light from much beating put into a large mould, or into individual moulds, and steam or poach with water half-way up the mould, and turn out and serve with some good sauce, tomato or Hollandaise preferred, or the sauce described as being made with the water in which the artichokes were boiled can be used; to it should be added 1 teaspoon of finely chopped parsley.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES NEWBURG

Make a sauce with 2 cups of milk, 1 tablespoon of butter mixed with 1 of flour, 2 yolks of eggs, and pepper and salt, and when thickened add 2 tablespoons of sherry, and 3 cups of sliced boiled artichokes, and 1/2 cup of blanched chopped almonds. Serve on toast or in cases.

FRENCH OR GLOBE ARTICHOKES

The globe artichoke is a most delicious addition to a vegetarian menu, and it is not because it is not known to be edible, but because many people do not know how either to eat it or to serve it, that it is not oftener seen in America. I have had it served to me in almost every European country and often in restaurants in America, and have never encountered but one cook who knew how it should be sent to the table after cooking, and one waiter who knew how to serve it when it got there. It is usually served half cold with the leaves falling all about it because the "thistle," and usually the best of the artichoke besides, has been carelessly removed in the kitchen; instead of which it should be served whole, as in this way only can it be kept hot enough to be palatable. The artichoke should be set stem end downward on a hot, flat dish and wound about at the base with a small table napkin, and the person who serves it, holding it in the napkin, should reverse it and taking a small, sharp, silvered knife should cut through the artichoke on the bottom, using a sawing motion, and with the help of a serving fork ease apart the "thistle" and the closely knitted small leaves in the centre. Unless the artichokes are very large ones, a half of one is not too much to serve each person. The "thistle" should be removed by the server, and this should be done by carefully separating it from the "fond" or base, which is the fleshy part from which the leaves grow out. The leaves should be taken one by one, by the dry tip, in the fingers, and the fleshy end thus pulled from the base should be dipped in the sauce served, and the soft portion removed by drawing it between the front teeth; when the leaves are finished the base should be cut up with a fork and eaten with the sauce.

TO STEAM GLOBE ARTICHOKES

Prepare for cooking as in the above recipe, place in a covered steamer, and let steam forty minutes or until the leaves, when pulled, part easily from the base.

TO BOIL GLOBE ARTICHOKES

Globe artichokes should not look dry and wrinkled when bought, but green and fresh. Put them in cold salted water and a little vinegar for fifteen minutes to cleanse and free from insects, then put them in salted boiling water and boil until the leaves part easily from the base when pulled; this should be in about half an hour, but the time varies with the age and size of the artichoke; it should then be drained and the stem cut off so that it will stand erect on the serving dish.

GLOBE ARTICHOKES STUFFED WITH MUSHROOMS

Cut the stalk from fresh artichokes and trim the leaves to an even length, and boil them for twenty minutes, or until the choke or thistle can be removed neatly. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 2 finely minced shallots (or use chives or onion tops), and 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, and 1 cup of chopped fresh or canned mushrooms, salt and pepper, and fry all together for five minutes. Fill the artichoke with this, tie the leaves together and set in a pan containing 1 cup of stock (or water), 2 tablespoons of butter or olive oil, and bake them half an hour, basting them thoroughly five or six times. Remove the strings, set upright and serve very hot with Dutch butter, or any sauce preferred.

GLOBE ARTICHOKES VINAIGRETTE

Serve cold boiled artichokes, which have been cut in half and the "thistles" removed, with sauce vinaigrette, which is French dressing to which a little chopped onion or onion juice and chopped parsley have been added.

FONDS D'ARTICHAUT

The bottom or solid part of the globe artichoke can be bought preserved in bottles; heat them in their own liquid, drain, and serve hot with Hollandaise sauce, or cold with sauce vinaigrette or mayonnaise.

ASPARAGUS

Asparagus should be carefully looked over and washed, and then tied into a bunch with a piece of tape, with all the heads level, then with a very sharp knife an inch or two of the stalks should be so evenly cut off that the bunch will stand upright. Stand the asparagus in a deep saucepan so that the tips are well out of the water, add 1 teaspoon of salt, put a cover on the saucepan, and let cook about half an hour or twenty-five minutes. In this way the tips are sufficiently steamed by the time the stalks are cooked, and will not be cooked to pieces as when immersed in water.

ASPARAGUS WITH WHITE SAUCE

Having boiled the asparagus as directed, lift it out by plunging a sharp fork into it two or three inches from the bottom, lay it on a hot plate on the top of the stove, cut the tape and arrange 4 or 5 pieces each on long strips of toast, and pour over each 2 tablespoons of nicely seasoned white sauce; arrange neatly on a long platter with the asparagus heads all turned one way.

ASPARAGUS WITH DUTCH BUTTER

Proceed exactly as in above recipe, but instead of the white sauce pour a little melted butter over all, and serve with a small tureen of Dutch butter.

HOT ASPARAGUS TIPS

Take a can of asparagus tips, drain and put in a saucepan with 2 tablespoons of melted butter into which some paprika has been shaken. When hot garnish with diamonds of toast to serve, and sprinkle with salt.

WHITE ASPARAGUS

Open canned asparagus at the bottom, and after draining, ease it from the can, so as to prevent the tips from being injured. Lay the stalks evenly in a shallow enamelled pan, cover with hot water or the juice from the can, and let heat through over a slow fire. Remove after ten minutes' cooking to a heated flat dish, using a strainer to lift the stalks from the water. Serve with Dutch butter, into which a few browned crumbs have been stirred, or chopped chives can be used instead of crumbs. The asparagus can also be served with tomato sauce.

ASPARAGUS VINAIGRETTE

Place the can of asparagus to be used on the ice for half an hour, then open and drain and rinse carefully in cold water. Place on crisp lettuce leaves, using 5 or 6 stalks on each, and serve with sauce vinaigrette.

FRIED TIPS WITH ONION BUTTER

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of grated onion and the drained contents of 1 can of asparagus tips. Let all cook together slowly for five minutes, and season with salt and pepper.

ASPARAGUS TIPS WITH WHITE SAUCE

Heat 1 can of asparagus tips with 1 tablespoon of melted butter, and to serve, cover with 3/4 of a cup of highly seasoned white sauce in which the white of 1 hard-boiled egg has been mixed, after being chopped fine. Sprinkle over the top the yolk of the egg pressed through a sieve, and serve with squares of toast.

ASPARAGUS IN BREAD CASES

Boil 2 cups of asparagus tips in salted water for fifteen minutes, and then drain them; while they are cooking put 1 cup of milk in a double boiler, and when boiling pour some of it on to 2 lightly beaten eggs, stirring vigorously meanwhile, and then put the eggs into the double boiler with the milk, and stir until it begins to thicken. Add 1 teaspoon of butter, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1/2 saltspoon of pepper, and remove from the fire. Cut the asparagus tops into half-inch pieces and add them to the sauce. Take 5 stale rolls, cut off the tops, remove the inside, and let them dry in the oven; when crisp and hot fill each with the asparagus in sauce, replace the top and serve.

ESCALLOPED ASPARAGUS

Use either fresh green asparagus, or canned asparagus. Cut it into two-inch lengths, and if fresh is used cook in boiling water for ten minutes. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan and brown in it 1/2 cup of bread crumbs and 1/2 cup of finely chopped roasted peanuts. Roll each bit of asparagus in beaten egg and the crumbs and nut mixture, and arrange in a buttered gratin dish with alternate layers of thick white sauce, seasoning each layer with a little pepper and salt. Cover the top with crumbs and a sprinkling of grated cheese, and brown in the oven.

GRIDDLED APPLES

Peel and core large sour apples. Cut them in thick slices and lay on a well-buttered griddle, and let fry until a light brown; turn, and brown the other side.

APPLE FRITTERS

Pare and core as many tart apples as required, sprinkle with salt, dip in batter, and fry until golden brown in hot fat. Drain on brown paper before serving.

BOILED BANANAS

Put bananas unpeeled into boiling water, let boil for ten minutes, then peel and cut in two and serve with melted butter.

BANANAS WITH TOMATOES

Peel 3 bananas and cut them in slices either lengthwise or across, and slice 3 or 4 large tomatoes. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted lay in the bananas and tomatoes and sprinkle well with salt, pepper, and 1 tablespoon of sugar. Let cook slowly, and when browned on the bottom turn and add another sprinkling of sugar, brown again, and serve very hot.

BANANA FRITTERS

Pare the bananas required, cut each in half crosswise, and then split each half. Sprinkle with salt and dip in batter and fry until a golden brown in hot fat. Drain on brown paper and serve very hot.

BOSTON BAKED BEANS

Cover with cold water 3 or 4 cups of dry California pea beans, or any small white beans, and let them soak over night. The next morning drain and put on the stove in a large kettle well filled with water, and let cook slowly, with 1/4 of a teaspoon of soda added, for half an hour. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in the bean-pot, or a deep baking dish, drain the beans, and put them in the butter. Pour over them slowly 4 tablespoons of dark molasses, 1 tablespoon of salt, and add 1 tablespoon of butter; then fill the bean-pot to the top with hot water and bake in a very slow oven for 6 or 7 hours. As the water cooks away replace it. This will require doing about three times during the baking. Serve in the dish in which they were cooked, and garnish with whole black pickled walnuts.

GREEN STRING BEANS

If fresh beans are used pick them over, remove the ends and "strings," and boil for half an hour or more; then drain them, and add 1 tablespoon of butter and 2 tablespoons of milk, season with salt and pepper, and serve after ten minutes' slow cooking. If canned beans are used omit the first long boiling.

GOLDEN WAX BEANS

If fresh beans are used wash, remove the ends and "strings," and boil for three quarters of an hour, or until tender, in salted water; then drain and add to them 1 tablespoon of butter, and 2 tablespoons of milk, let cook slowly for ten minutes, and season well with salt and pepper. In using canned beans omit the first boiling.

FRENCH BEANS (FLAGEOLETS)

Those in glass are the best; drain and put in a double boiler with 1 tablespoon of butter, pepper and salt, and 1 tablespoon of cream. Serve very hot.

DRIED BEANS DEUTSCHLAND

Pick over 1 1/2 cups of dried beans of any sort, cover with water, and soak ten hours or more. Drain and put in boiling water (or the stock onions or leeks have boiled in), and let cook slowly for two hours, or until tender but unbroken, then drain. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 onion chopped fine, and let it cook slowly for ten minutes; then add the beans and season with salt and pepper and put over them 2 tablespoons of lemon juice or 1 tablespoon of "reduced vinegar," and let cook very slowly for ten or fifteen minutes that all may be well blended before serving.

WHITE BEANS FLORENTINE

Soak 4 cups of white kidney beans for ten hours, then boil them two hours. Slip the skins off and put them into a saucepan with 1 cup of broth and a bunch of sweet herbs, 1 bay leaf, and 2 tablespoons of Marsala or sherry. Cover and let them cook slowly for thirty minutes. Remove the herbs and stir in 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 tablespoon of flour rubbed well together, stir until smooth, and then pour on 1 cup of cream or milk into which 1 egg has been beaten; continue to stir, add 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, and serve with grated cheese.

BEANS AND CORN ESCALLOPED

Use 1 can of green string beans, or Lima beans, and 1 can of sweet corn. Butter a baking dish, and arrange a layer of beans; dot with butter, and season with pepper and salt, then put on this a layer of corn about half an inch deep, season, and so proceed until the dish is filled. Then pour 1/2 cup of milk over all, sprinkle with bread crumbs, and bake for fifteen minutes, or until the crumbs are browned.

ITALIAN BEANS

Use 3 cups of white haricot beans, soak for several hours, boil two hours in salted water, then drain. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 large onion chopped fine and 2 bay leaves. Let cook slowly for eight minutes, then put into the pan the boiled beans, and season with salt and pepper; let heat through, stirring gently, and add 1 cup of tomato sauce two minutes before removing from the fire.

Canned brown or red beans may be used, giving the same dish practically with far less trouble.

SPANISH BEANS

Soak for eight or ten hours any sort of large dried beans, then drain them and put them into boiling water two hours or more, or until cooked. One way of testing them is to remove a few and blow on them; if the skins crack they are done. Drain, and put them in a bean-pot or casserole and sprinkle with 2 tablespoons of chopped onion and 2 cups of strained tomatoes, and dredge well with salt. Cover the dish and bake slowly for an hour. A quarter of an hour before taking out, pour over them 1 tablespoon of melted butter and remove the cover.

LIMA BEANS

Let Lima beans stand in cold water for an hour or so after they are shelled, and in cooking them allow 8 cups of water to every 4 cups of beans. Put them in boiling salted water, and let them cook for an hour, or more if not fresh picked. Drain them and add 1/2 cup of the water they cooked in, 1/2 cup of milk, 1 tablespoon of butter, and season highly with salt and pepper.

Dried beans must soak ten or twelve hours and cook two hours. Canned Lima beans only need reheating, draining, and a little milk and butter and seasoning added to them.

LIMA BEANS HOLLANDAISE

Boil 1 quart of beans until tender, salting them well when half cooked. Beat a large tablespoon of butter to a cream, beat in the yolk of 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of finely chopped parsley, 1 saltspoon of black pepper, and 2 teaspoons of lemon juice; when this sauce is well mixed stir it into the beans, taking care not to break them.

CREAMED LIMA BEANS

Cover 2 cups of boiled Lima beans with 1 scant cup of cream, and let simmer in a double boiler for ten minutes; then add 1 teaspoon of butter, and season with salt, pepper, and a dash of nutmeg.

LIMA BEAN SAUQUETASH

Boil 2 cups of freshly picked Lima beans in 1 quart of water for half an hour, then drain them and add 1 cup of milk, 1 tablespoon of butter, and enough green corn cut from the cob to make 2 cups. Season well, and let simmer for fifteen minutes, and salt again before serving.

If canned corn and canned beans are used they need be cooked for only ten minutes.

BEETS

Great care should be taken in washing beets that the small rootlets are not broken or the skin of the beet bruised, as anything which causes the juice to escape injures both the taste and the colour. In the city, beets are seldom obtainable which require less than two or three hours' cooking; but really young, small beets should not require more than one hour's boiling. When boiled they should be drained, then plunged into cold water, after which the skin can be rubbed off with the hand. Some, however, prefer that beets should be baked or steamed; the time required to cook will then be somewhat longer. Canned beets are a great convenience.

CREAMED BEETS

Boil 6 or 7 medium-sized beets until tender, then remove them from the saucepan and place them in cold water; rub the skins off carefully with the hands, and cut them in half-inch cubes. Make a sauce of 2 tablespoons of butter creamed with 2 tablespoons of flour and 1/2 cup of the water in which the beets were boiled, 2 tablespoons of cream, 2 tablespoons of vinegar, 2 teaspoons of sugar, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1 saltspoon of pepper. Pour the sauce over the hot beets and serve in a heated deep dish.

VIRGINIA BEETS

Carefully peel boiled beets, and with a sharp knife cut into very thin, even slices, laying them as sliced into a heated vegetable dish; when a layer has been made over the bottom, dot it well with butter, season lightly with salt, and sprinkle with 1 tablespoon of granulated sugar; then arrange another layer of beets with butter, salt, and sugar, and proceed in this way until the dish is filled. The work should be done near the fire in order that the beets may not cool, as the dish should be served very hot. If, however, the beets have cooled in preparation, set them in a hot oven for a few minutes, and turn them with a spoon in the dish before serving in order that they may be juicy.

PICQUANT BEETS

Peel hot cooked beets, cut into slices, and toss about for three or four minutes in a saucepan which contains 3 tablespoons of butter to which has been added 1 teaspoon of plain vinegar, or a few drops of tarragon, 2 cloves, and 1 teaspoon of sugar.

GERMAN BEETS

Make a sauce of 1 tablespoon of butter, when melted add 1 tablespoon of flour, 2 teaspoons of onion juice, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, and enough hot water to make the sauce the right consistency; then add freshly sliced cooked beets, and let cook together three or four minutes before serving.

PICKLED BEETS

Place slices of cold beets in a deep porcelain or glass receptacle, place some peppercorns among them, and a few allspice, cover with mild vinegar, and let stand ten or twelve hours before using.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

Brussels sprouts are best if laid for ten minutes, after trimming and looking over, in salted cold water which contains some lemon juice. They should then be drained and put in a large saucepan filled with boiling water containing salt and a pinch of soda. Parboil in this ten minutes, then lift them with a strainer and put in a steamer above the boiling water; cover, and let steam half an hour to finish cooking.

If sprouts are cooked by boiling instead of steaming, leave the saucepan uncovered, as this will keep the odour from being pronounced. Boil in salted water from twenty to thirty minutes, drain the instant they are tender, and serve with melted butter.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS IN DUTCH BUTTER

Put boiled Brussels sprouts in a saucepan with 2 tablespoons of melted butter, to which has been added a tablespoon of lemon juice; stir until hot and add pepper and salt.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS WITH CELERY

Trim and wash in cold running water 1 quart of Brussels sprouts; then place them in a saucepan, cover with boiling water, and let them boil for five minutes; then drain and cover with fresh boiling water containing 1 teaspoon of salt. Boil for another twenty-five minutes uncovered, and then drain them. Wash enough celery to make 1 1/2 cups when cut in pieces one inch long, put this in a saucepan with 3 tablespoons of butter, stir well together, and add 1 1/2 cups of scalded milk containing 2 tablespoons of flour; when this is thickened add the sprouts, season with salt and pepper, and serve very hot.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS WITH CHESTNUTS

To every cup of Brussels sprouts allow 1/2 cup of blanched chestnuts which have been cooked for fifteen minutes; put the sprouts and chestnuts together, cook another forty minutes, drain, and serve with white sauce.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS LYONNAISE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of chopped onion; when this is beginning to brown add 4 cups of boiled sprouts, and stir together for three or four minutes, unless the sprouts were cold, in which case they should be tossed about with the butter and onion until hot.

CREAMED BRUSSELS SPROUTS

Cover freshly boiled Brussels sprouts with a white sauce made entirely of milk, or of the stock in which they were cooked, with 1 tablespoon of cream added.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS IN BREAD CASES

Cut stale bread into three-inch squares, and with a sharp knife cut out the centre, leaving a bottom and four sides like a box; brush over with melted butter, and brown in the oven. Serve sprouts prepared in any of the above ways in these cases; the creamed sprouts are perhaps the best served this way.

CABBAGE

Wash cabbage carefully after cutting it in half, and let it boil for five minutes in well-salted boiling water; pour this water off and re-cover with fresh boiling water; let cook for half an hour, then add 1 teaspoon of salt, and let finish cooking, which will be in about another half an hour for a medium-sized cabbage.

Cabbage should never be covered while boiling, as covering increases the odour in cooking.

NEW ENGLAND CABBAGE

Cut a cabbage in quarters, wash it thoroughly, and parboil it for five minutes in salted water; then drain and cook with 2 carrots and 2 turnips for an hour or until tender, in any strong vegetable stock, to which 1 tablespoon of butter has been added. Drain and dampen with a little of the stock to serve, and season well with salt and pepper.

WESTERN CABBAGE

Take 4 or 5 cups of shredded white cabbage and put in a frying pan in which 1 tablespoon of butter has been melted. Press the cabbage into the pan, dredge with salt and pepper, and pour over it 1/2 cup of vinegar and 1/2 cup of water; cover and let cook very gently for half an hour or somewhat less.

Red cabbage can be prepared in this same way, and a pretty dish is made by using equal quantities of red and white cabbage.

CABBAGE SARMAS

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 onion chopped fine, and after it has cooked gently for ten minutes stir into it 1 cup of boiled rice, 1/2 cup of chopped nuts, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, and 1 tablespoon of melted butter. Parboil a small cabbage for fifteen minutes, then separate its leaves, and into each leaf roll 1 tablespoon of the force-meat; pack tightly in a shallow pan, dredge with salt and pepper, and cover with the water in which the cabbage cooked; lay 2 bay leaves on the top, and let simmer for fifteen minutes. Serve with melted butter or tomato sauce.

CABBAGE LICHTENSTEIN

Cut one large cabbage into small pieces, not using the stalk. Wash well and put in a kettle of boiling water with 1 teaspoon of salt and 1 tablespoon of caraway seed. Cook for half an hour uncovered, then add to the cabbage 4 large potatoes peeled and quartered, season afresh with salt, and let cook another twenty minutes. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 onion chopped fine and 1 tablespoon of flour; let all cook together until brown, then scrape the contents of the frying pan into the cabbage, etc., and cook slowly for twenty minutes more, or until the stock is almost cooked away.

LADY CABBAGE

Boil firm white cabbage fifteen minutes, changing the water then for more from the boiling teakettle; continue boiling for half an hour or until tender, then drain and set aside until perfectly cold. Chop fine, season with pepper and salt, add 1 or 2 well-beaten eggs, 1 tablespoon of butter, and 1/2 cup of rich milk. Stir all well together and bake in a buttered dish until brown. The oven should be moderately hot, and the same care used as in the baking of a custard. Serve in the baking dish.

COLD SLAW

Put 2 tablespoons of vinegar on to boil in a saucepan, and add to it when boiling 1/2 cup of sour or fresh milk or cream containing 2 lightly beaten eggs; stir and then add 1 tablespoon of butter, salt and pepper, and pour over 4 cups of shredded cabbage arranged in a deep bowl. Serve cold.

GERMAN RED CABBAGE

Put 3 or 4 cups of shredded red cabbage into a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 finely chopped apple, and the juice of half a lemon; sprinkle lightly with sugar, season with salt and pepper, cover, and let cook from half to three quarters of an hour.

HUNGARIAN CABBAGE

Quarter a red cabbage, remove the stalk parts and wash well, and put it in a kettle containing enough boiling water to cover it. Let boil for three quarters of an hour or until tender, and then drain, gently pressing out all the water. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 onion chopped fine and 1 tablespoon of flour; stir until smooth and let cook until brown. Then add 1/2 cup of brown sugar, 1/3 of a cup of vinegar, and salt well. Add the shredded cabbage to this, and let all simmer together for fifteen or twenty minutes before serving.

PICKLED RED CABBAGE

Chop or shred enough cabbage to make 2 quarts (8 cups) and add to it 1 large onion chopped fine and 1 tablespoon of salt; mix well together and let stand over night in a covered jar. Next day press through a colander to drain, and then place a layer of cabbage in a jar, sprinkle over it a few mustard seeds and 2 or 3 cloves, and proceed in this way until the cabbage is all used. Do not press down. Cover with cider vinegar, and use any time after twenty-four hours.

CREAMED CARROTS

Scrape and wash enough carrots to make 4 cups when cut in dice, and put them in a double boiler containing half milk and half water at boiling point. Let them cook slowly for forty minutes or until tender, then drain them and put them in a hot dish at the side of the stove. Use 1 cup of the stock they cooked in to make a sauce, with 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 of flour, and plenty of salt and pepper. Pour the sauce over them to serve.

CREAMED CARROTS AND POTATOES

To 1 quart of cold boiled potatoes, cut in dice, add 1 cup of boiled diced carrots. Put them in a double boiler and cover with 1 1/2 cups of highly seasoned white sauce, to which has been added 1 tablespoon of onion juice and 1 tablespoon of finely chopped parsley; let boil up once and serve.

CARROTS SAUTÉ

Use boiled carrots cut in dice or fancy shapes and toss them for five minutes in hot butter. Season with salt and pepper, add a little chopped parsley, and serve very hot.

Fancy shaped German carrots in glass bottles can be used instead of fresh ones.

GLORIFIED CARROTS

Take 2 cups of diced carrots and boil them in slightly sweetened water about half an hour, or until tender, and let them cool. Put 1 tablespoon of butter into a saucepan, add to it 1 teaspoon of grated onion, and toss together until hot; then add the diced carrots and 1 cup of well-made white sauce. Butter small individual gratin dishes, fill them with the carrot mixture, sprinkle the top with a few lightly browned bread crumbs, then with chopped chives, and set in a hot oven for five minutes. Serve alone as an entrée, placing each dish on a small plate with a paper doily.

This dish can be varied by using more chives mixed with the carrots and omitting the onion, or, if chives are not at hand, they can be omitted when the onion is used, and finely chopped parsley substituted to garnish the top.

The quantities given here can be doubled, and the carrots cooked in a large baking dish as an addition to the main course of a luncheon or dinner.

GLAZED CARROTS

For this, the carrots must be cut into even cones or ovals, and it is convenient to use the imported carrots in glass bottles. If these are used they are already boiled; if fresh carrots are used scrape and wash them and cut out the little shapes with a patent cutter, then boil slowly until tender, but not quite done, and put 2 or 3 cups of them in a frying pan with 2 tablespoons of butter, which has been melted, sprinkle with fine sugar, and stir over a hot fire until they begin to brown; then add 2 tablespoons of the stock they boiled in, continue to stir them, add more stock if needed, and continue stirring until the carrots are nicely glazed. Serve alone or as a garnish.

CARROTS DELMONICO

Scrape and cut in dice enough carrots to fill a small baking dish; cover with boiling water in which is 1 tablespoon of sugar, and 1 tablespoon of butter, and let cook for half an hour, or until tender. Drain and let them cool, and then arrange them in the baking dish with the following sauce: Melt 3 tablespoons of butter, add 3 tablespoons of flour, and when this is smooth stir into it, using a little at a time, 1 cup of the stock in which the carrots were cooked, 1/2 cup of cream or milk containing the beaten yolks of 2 eggs; when smooth add 1/2 tablespoon of lemon juice, and salt and pepper well. Sprinkle the top with finely rolled crumbs and let brown in the oven.

CARROT SOUFFLÉ

Mix 2 cups of boiled, mashed carrots, 2 tablespoons of chopped onion, fried for five minutes in 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 cup of milk or cream in which 3 egg-yolks are beaten, 1/2 teaspoon of nutmeg, salt and pepper, and when well blended add lightly with a fork the stiffly beaten whites of the 3 eggs. Sprinkle with bread crumbs and bake to brown about fifteen or twenty minutes.

CAULIFLOWER

Leave all the green that looks fresh and palatable on the cauliflower, and wash it and let it stand from fifteen minutes to half an hour in salted water. Then put it in a saucepan, stem downwards, with the top barely covered with boiling water, and, if the saucepan is not too large, it will keep the cauliflower upright, so that the delicate top will not cook to pieces before the green stalk is tender. A small cauliflower will take half an hour to cook, and the lower part can be tried with a fork to see when it is tender. Leave the saucepan uncovered in cooking cauliflower, and the odour from the cooking will be very much lessened and the cauliflower more delicate in taste.

CREAMED CAULIFLOWER

Boil and drain a cauliflower and serve over it 1 cup of white sauce.

CAULIFLOWER AU GRATIN

Boil a large cauliflower, drain it, and break the sprays apart. Arrange in layers in a buttered baking dish, sprinkling each layer with cheese, and seasoning it with pepper and salt. When the dish is filled pour on 1 cup of white sauce, sprinkle the top with crumbs and cheese, and let bake fifteen minutes to brown.

CAULIFLOWER IN A GERMAN WAY

Boil a cauliflower and drain it, dredge with salt and pepper, and cover the white part with melted butter, and then dust this with browned bread crumbs; pour 3/4 of a cup of Dutch butter over it, and let it heat for five minutes in the oven in the shallow gratin dish in which it should be served.

ITALIAN CAULIFLOWER

Boil and drain a cauliflower and dredge the top with pepper and salt, sprinkle with grated cheese, and pour a little melted butter over it. Set in the oven for five minutes to brown, and serve surrounded with tomato sauce.

CAULIFLOWER FRITTERS

Boil a cauliflower for twenty-five minutes, or until nearly tender, then drain it and let it cool. When cold separate the sprays and dredge with salt and pepper, then dip in batter, and fry in deep fat until a golden brown. Drain and serve very hot.

CREAMED CELERY

Scrape and trim 3 or 4 heads of celery, leaving the roots on and cutting the tops off; cut each stalk in half, lengthwise, and into pieces five inches long; wash carefully in running water, and then blanch in boiling water for ten minutes. Drain and tie the stalks together like bunches of asparagus, and put them in a saucepan containing 2 cups of water, 2 cups of milk, 1/2 a carrot, 1/2 an onion with 2 cloves stuck in it, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 1 scant saltspoon of pepper, and let simmer three quarters of an hour or more, or until quite tender when tried with a fork. Remove the celery, strain the stock, and use 1 cup of it in making a sauce, with 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 tablespoon of flour. Untie the bunches of celery, and arrange them evenly on toast with the sauce poured over them.

CELERY IN BROWN SAUCE

Prepare celery as above, boil for three quarters of an hour or until tender, drain, and cover with the brown sauce described below, omitting the wine, and serve in an ordinary vegetable dish.

CELERY IN CASSEROLE

Cut celery in four-inch lengths, halving each stalk lengthwise, and leaving the root on, wash well and parboil for ten minutes in salted water or milk, and arrange in a square, covered casserole. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when browned add 2 tablespoons of flour. Stir until well dissolved, then add 2 cups of the water in which the celery cooked, 1 scant teaspoon of salt, 1 small saltspoon of pepper, and 2 bay leaves. Stir until smooth, and then strain and pour this sauce over the celery, add 1 teaspoon of sherry or Madeira, cover the dish, set it in a shallow pan containing a little water, and let it cook for half an hour in the oven. Serve in the casserole.

BAKED CELERY

Cut 2 bunches of celery into two-inch lengths, wash thoroughly, and let blanch in boiling water and milk, using equal quantities of each, for fifteen minutes, then remove the celery and let it cool; add to 1 cup of the milk and water stock 1 tablespoon of butter blended with 1 tablespoon of flour, some pepper and salt, and when smoothed remove from the fire and beat into it vigorously 2 eggs. Arrange the celery in a buttered baking dish, pour the sauce over it, spread the top thickly with crumbs, and put in the oven. Cover for twenty minutes, then uncover and let brown nicely before serving.

CÊPES IN BLACK BUTTER

French Cêpes come in tin or glass. Put 3 tablespoons of butter in a pan, with 2 bay leaves, a few celery seeds and 1 clove of garlic; let it slowly brown. Strain and add cêpes and let them heat in the butter. Season with salt and paprika and serve very hot.

AMERICAN SWEET CORN

Sweet corn on the cob, which has been picked within twenty-four hours of the time of using, should be dropped into rapidly boiling, slightly salted water, and boiled not more than eight or ten minutes.

ROAST CORN

To roast sweet corn, leave the husks on the cob, and put in a slow oven and let bake for half an hour. Take off the husks and silk and serve at once. Some think this method of cooking the delicate American vegetable retains the flavour of the corn more than the usual way of boiling it.

CORN PUDDING

Use 6 or 7 ears of sweet corn, and cut each row down the middle with a sharp knife, and then cut the grains from the ear, and add to them 2 cups of milk, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 1 teaspoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, and 2 slightly beaten eggs. Put this into a baking dish and bake like a custard, in a slow oven for half an hour, taking care it does not cook too long nor get too hot lest it curdle. Canned corn may be used when fresh is out of season.

CORN PUDDING IN TOMATO OR PEPPER CASES

Bake the preceding in cases made by scooping a large part of the inside from large, solid tomatoes, or in hollowed-out green, sweet peppers.

CORN CREOLE

Put 1 can of corn into a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of chopped green peppers and 1/2 cup of milk, and cook slowly for ten minutes; then season with salt and pepper and add 1 tablespoon of butter and serve. This may be put in a baking dish, covered with crumbs, and baked for fifteen minutes.

CORN AND TOMATO PIE

Butter a pudding dish and fill it with alternate layers of boiled or canned corn and tomatoes, and season with salt, pepper, and butter; cover the top with pie-crust and bake in a moderately hot oven for fifteen minutes. If a crust is not desired the dish can be covered with bread crumbs and browned. If fresh tomatoes and corn are used the pie will require twice the time to cook, the first half of the time covered with a plate, and the last half uncovered.

CORN CHOWDER

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 sliced onion, and let cook slowly for five minutes; then add to it 4 cups of potatoes which have been parboiled for five minutes, and then cut in small squares, and 2 cups of boiling water. Let cook for twenty minutes or until the potatoes are tender, then add 1 can of sweet corn, 4 cups of hot milk, 1 tablespoon of butter, and plenty of salt and pepper, and let heat through. Break 8 soda crackers into a deep dish, and pour the chowder over them to serve.

RHODE ISLAND ESCALLOP

Bake 4 medium-sized sweet potatoes for half an hour, then scrape out the potato and chop it into small bits. Boil 2 ears of green corn for ten minutes, run a sharp knife down each row of grains, cutting them in two, and then cut the corn from the cob and mix it with the chopped sweet potato. Butter six individual gratin dishes and fill them with the mixed corn and potato, sprinkle them with salt, pour 1 tablespoon of melted butter over each, cover with bread crumbs, and let cook for eight or ten minutes in the oven. The same mixture can be used to fill a baking dish, and enough melted butter used to moisten the potato thoroughly.

STEWED CUCUMBERS

Peel 4 or 5 cucumbers, quarter them, and cover them with boiling salted water, and let them cook from twenty to thirty minutes; then drain, saving the water in which they were cooked. Make a sauce of 2 tablespoons of butter and 2 tablespoons of flour rubbed together, and 2 cups of the water in which the cucumbers were boiled, stir until smooth, and when it boils add the juice of 1 lemon, 1 teaspoon of salt, and some paprika; arrange the cucumbers on slices of toast and serve with the sauce poured over them.

STUFFED CUCUMBERS

Peel the cucumbers and cut into pieces about two inches long, scoop out the centre of each piece about half-way down to form a cup, fill this with chopped onions and chopped mushrooms that have been fried together in butter, cover the tops with crumbs, and let brown in the oven.

FRIED EGG-PLANT WITH SAUCE TARTARE

Peel and cut an egg-plant into half-inch slices, dust quickly with salt and pepper, roll in beaten egg-yolk, then in fine bread crumbs, and fry in hot vegetable fat; drain on brown paper and serve very hot. Either serve sauce Tartare with this, or arrange a spoonful on each round of egg-plant. Garnish with sprigs of watercress, celery tops, or parsley.

FRIED EGG-PLANT WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Fry as in foregoing recipe and serve a savoury tomato sauce with the egg-plant. Never soak egg-plant in salt and water, as it takes away its crispness.

CREAMED ENDIVE

Cut the outside leaves from heads of endive, and wash the endive thoroughly; then drain and put in boiling salted water for fifteen minutes. Drain again and cover with cold water for a few minutes, then chop and put in a saucepan with some butter, allowing 1 tablespoon for each head of endive, cover and let cook slowly for ten minutes, salt well, moisten with cream and sprinkle with paprika, and serve on toast or garnished with triangular pieces of toast.

KOHLRABI

These are very nice if used young, when not much larger than an egg. Parboil them for half an hour, cut them in half, and put them in a frying pan containing melted butter, and fry for fifteen or twenty minutes. Serve over them the butter in which they were cooked, and dredge with salt and pepper. The time required to cook kohlrabi depends largely of course upon the age at which it is picked.

KOHLRABI AU GRATIN

Slice kohlrabi, boil twenty minutes or until nearly tender, and arrange in a baking dish in layers with cream sauce. Season each layer with pepper and salt, sprinkle the top with crumbs and grated cheese, and bake twenty minutes.

LENTIL PIE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add to it 1 finely chopped onion and let this fry slowly for ten minutes; then add 2 cups of boiled German or Egyptian lentils and 1/2 cup of brown or German sauce, and when heated through pile into a deep dish; dredge with pepper and salt, cover with pie-crust, and bake in the oven until brown.

LENTILS EGYPTIAN STYLE

Wash 2 cups of lentils, soak them two or three hours, and drain them before using. Put them into boiling water well salted, cook until tender, about forty minutes, then drain again. Put 2 tablespoons of butter into a saucepan, and when melted add 1 large onion finely chopped; cook over a very slow fire for ten minutes, then add the lentils and 2 scant cups of boiled rice, and stir all together with a large fork until very hot; dredge well with salt and pepper before serving.

GERMAN LENTILS

Cover 2 cups of lentils with cold water and let them soak two or three hours; drain them and put them in boiling salted water with 1 leek (or 1 onion) and let them cook half an hour, or until tender but not broken. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted stir into it 2 tablespoons of flour, and let brown; then add 2 finely chopped onions and 2 or 3 tablespoons of vinegar and 2 tablespoons of the water in which the lentils cooked. Mix this sauce with the drained lentils, put them in a double boiler with salt, pepper, and a dash of nutmeg, and serve after they have steamed slowly for fifteen minutes.

LEEKS

Cut leeks into three-inch lengths, using the tender green part as well as the white; wash the pieces thoroughly in cold running water, then put them in a small saucepan and cover them with boiling salted water, and let them boil for twenty minutes.

Make a sauce by melting 1 tablespoon of butter and thickening it with 1 tablespoon of flour, and then adding, 1 tablespoon at a time, enough of the water the leeks were cooked in (about 1 cup) to make the sauce of the right consistency; season with pepper and salt, drain the leeks, and serve the sauce over them.

MUSHROOMS

Mushrooms should only be used when perfectly fresh and firm; in peeling them take a small knife, and, holding the delicate fringe at the edge of the mushroom between the edge of the knife and the thumb, peel the paper-like skin off, pulling it toward the centre of the mushroom. The stems should be cut or broken off without breaking the cup, and if sound should be scraped and used. When the mushrooms are white and small and freshly picked they can be quickly washed and used without peeling.

STEWED MUSHROOMS

Peel about 1 pound of mushrooms, put them in a saucepan with 2 tablespoons of butter, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 1/4 cup of milk, into which 1 tablespoon of flour has been mixed; cover and let cook for five or six minutes, then add 1 cup of cream, stir all well together, replace the cover, and let cook gently for ten minutes. These mushrooms can also be cooked and served in an Italian casserole.

GERMAN STEWED MUSHROOMS

Peel 1 pound of mushrooms and put them in a saucepan, sprinkle with the juice of 1 lemon, add 1 cup of milk, cover, and let simmer gently for ten minutes. Thicken with 1 heaping teaspoon of flour dissolved in a little milk, and add 1 tablespoon of butter and a grating of nutmeg, and let simmer gently for ten minutes more before serving. Instead of lemon juice and milk a cup of sour cream is often used in Germany, and is an acceptable substitute.

MUSHROOM AND CHESTNUT RAGOUT

Use an equal quantity of peeled mushrooms and boiled Italian chestnuts, and heat in a rich brown sauce. Serve, garnished with toast, or in cases, or use in a deep pie with a top crust of biscuit dough.

MUSHROOMS NEWBURG

Peel 1 pound of mushrooms, cover them with 2 cups of milk, and let them simmer gently for ten minutes. Lift the mushrooms out with a strainer, and make a sauce of the milk by adding 1 tablespoon of flour, 1 tablespoon of butter, the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, 1 wineglass of sherry, and some salt and paprika. When the sauce thickens replace the mushrooms in it, let them heat for two minutes, and serve on toast or in patty cases.

BAKED MUSHROOMS ON TOAST

Select as many large mushrooms as are required, and, after peeling them, lay each one, cup upward, on rounds of toast which, after toasting, have been dampened by being plunged quickly into hot water; place the toast with the mushrooms upon it into a shallow buttered pan, put a little bit of butter in the cup of each mushroom, sprinkle with salt and pepper, cover with another pan the same size, and let cook eight or ten minutes. Serve at once, with a garnish of parsley or watercress.

GRILLED MUSHROOMS

Peel or wash the mushrooms, and put them, cup upward, on a fine wire broiler and let them broil over a hot fire for five or six minutes, putting a pinch of salt in each cup. As soon as hot, remove them from the broiler and serve on hot plates, taking care not to spill the juice which has formed in the cups. Garnish with watercress or parsley.

MUSHROOMS SUR CLOCHE

Place carefully cleaned mushrooms, cup upward, on individual gratin dishes, salt each, and place a bit of butter in the cup, and set in a hot oven for ten minutes. To serve, place over each a glass "bell," which can be bought for this purpose. The heat is thus retained in the mushrooms during service.

MUSHROOMS IN CASSEROLE

Put into a French or Italian casserole 1/2 cup of good butter, and when melted stir into it 3/4 of a pound, or a pound, of peeled mushrooms, and dredge well with pepper and salt. Cover the casserole and set it in the oven; after five minutes' cooking stir the mushrooms, mixing them well with the butter, replace the cover, and repeat the process in another five minutes; let cook ten minutes more, and serve from the casserole on rounds of toast.

FILLED MUSHROOMS

Select 10 of the largest, most cup-shaped from 1 1/2 pounds of mushrooms. Peel and lay in a shallow pan, cup side up. Take the cleaned stems and the remaining mushrooms and chop fine and put them in the cups; add 1 teaspoon of melted butter, some pepper and salt to each, and let bake ten minutes or until done. Serve on toast garnished with watercress, or under the glass bells already mentioned.

MUSHROOMS WITH TRUFFLES

Toss truffles in butter in a hot frying pan for five minutes, sprinkle the cups of mushrooms with pepper and salt, fill them with the truffles, and cook for ten minutes in a covered pan in a hot oven; serve on crisp lettuce leaves, with parsley butter.

MUSHROOMS WITH PEAS

Fill the cups of large mushrooms with French canned peas, which have been tossed for five minutes in hot butter. Season and set in a covered pan in a hot oven for ten minutes, and serve on toast with white or brown sauce, as preferred.

MUSHROOMS WITH ONIONS

Peel 2 medium-sized onions and chop them fine, and put them in a casserole, or saucepan, with 1 tablespoon of melted butter. Let them cook slowly for ten minutes, then add 1 pound of mushrooms, which have been carefully washed or peeled, and another tablespoon of butter, and cover, letting cook for ten minutes. Season well with salt and pepper and serve very hot.

Mushrooms thus prepared may be put in a deep baking dish, covered with crust and baked in a pie.

MUSHROOMS WITH EGG

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a porcelain casserole, or in a saucepan, and when melted put with it 1 pound of peeled or washed mushrooms; let simmer gently for ten minutes, then add to them 2 hard-boiled eggs, cut in slices, and half a cup of cream. This recipe also is available for a deep pie; put in a baking dish, cover with crust, and bake until slightly browned.

CANNED MUSHROOMS

Drain the mushrooms from 1 can, and cut them in half. Use the liquid from the can augmented with water, if necessary, to make brown or German sauce. Put the mushrooms in a saucepan with the sauce, season with pepper and salt, and serve very hot on toast.

Button mushrooms can also be cooked by simply draining and tossing in parsley butter until hot; season with salt and pepper and serve on toast.

Mushrooms cooked in these ways are suitable for filling peppers or tomatoes. Canned mushrooms can be bought which are put up with truffles, and add variety to these different dishes.

CANNED MUSHROOMS CZARINA

Open a can of button mushrooms, drain them, and cut the buttons in half, if very large, and reserve the liquid. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of grated onion, 2 bay leaves, 2 cloves, 2 peppercorns, and 2 allspice. Let all cook together slowly for five minutes, then pour on the liquid from the mushrooms, with enough milk added to make 2 cups, season with salt, and let simmer for ten minutes; then add 1 tablespoon of flour creamed with 1 tablespoon of butter, let boil up once, and strain. Put the sauce and the button mushrooms in an Italian casserole, set this in the oven to heat for five minutes, and serve from the dish on triangles of toast.

MUSHROOM LOAF

Pour good clear, well-strained boiling vegetable stock onto dissolved vegetable gelatine or arrowroot, using about 1 tablespoon to every 2 cups of liquid. Season well with salt and pepper, and add 1 can of button mushrooms, halved, when the jelly is somewhat set so that they will remain in place evenly dispersed. Line a mould with chopped parsley and slices of pickled walnuts, pour the jelly into it, and serve, when set, ice-cold, with any savoury cold sauce or pickles. A few chopped nuts may be added if desired.

STEWED OKRA

Cut the ends off the pods of young okra, boil for one hour in salted water, then drain and reheat in a saucepan with some melted butter.

The okra can be used as a garnish to boiled rice. Canned okra needs only to be boiled five minutes, drained, seasoned, and tossed about in hot butter in a frying pan for two or three minutes before serving.

OKRA AND GRILLED TOMATOES

Cut good firm tomatoes in half, season well and broil, then serve with a garnish of stewed okra.

STEWED OKRA WITH TOMATO SAUCE

If fresh okra is used prepare as in stewed okra recipe, and if canned okra is used drain and heat in boiling salted water. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted lift the okra from the boiling water and place it in the frying pan; season well with salt and pepper and then cover with 1 cup of tomato sauce, and, when thoroughly heated through, serve.

OKRA AND TOMATO ESCALLOP

Arrange alternate layers of sliced canned okra and tomato in a well buttered baking dish, separating them with layers of boiled rice well seasoned with salt and pepper and dotted with butter. Cover the top with fine crumbs and cook for fifteen minutes, or until browned, in the oven.

BOILED ONIONS

Peel onions under cold water and they will not bring tears to the eyes. They should then be put in rapidly boiling water, and this changed after the first five minutes of cooking; then put in fresh boiling water, salt added, and cooked for from half an hour to forty minutes. If onions are not covered when boiling the odour will be less noticeable.

Serve boiled onions with parsley butter, or, after draining, cover with milk, add butter, pepper, and salt, and let boil up once before serving.

CREAMED ONIONS

Use onions which have been boiled until tender but not broken, and, after draining, serve with white or parsley sauce, made with equal quantities of milk and the stock in which the onions cooked.

BOILED ONIONS WITH BROWN SAUCE

Serve small boiled onions, which have cooked until tender, but not broken, with any hot sauce,--tomato, brown, mushroom, etc.

ONIONS AU GRATIN

Prepare as for creamed onions, making a white sauce of the milk, or milk and water, in which the onions have been boiled. The onions can be left whole, or somewhat broken up in the sauce. Fill a buttered baking dish with onions and sauce, dust the top with grated cheese, and let heat in the oven five or six minutes. The bottled Parmesan cheese is convenient, but is never as delicate to the taste as fresh cheese grated.

ONIONS WITH CHEESE

Arrange boiled onions, which are not broken at all by boiling, in a buttered baking dish, baste well with melted butter, and dredge with grated cheese, and set in the oven a few moments to brown; serve in the same dish or remove to a small platter and garnish with green, or use as a garnish to a dish of other vegetables. Mashed potatoes piled high (browned on top with salamander or under flame in gas oven) surrounded with these onions makes an attractive dish.

ESCALLOPED ONIONS

Escalloped onions are made like Onions au Gratin, except that the cheese is omitted and replaced by a layer of fine bread crumbs.

BAKED ONIONS WITH CHESTNUTS

Peel as many onions as required and parboil them for ten or fifteen minutes in salted water. Drain and dry, and when cooled somewhat remove the inside and fill with chopped chestnuts which have been tossed in hot butter for fifteen minutes; season well with salt and pepper, and, if liked, a little sage; arrange in a buttered baking dish, and bake for half an hour, covering them for the first fifteen minutes. If they seem too dry, baste with a little cream or onion stock and melted butter.

ONION SOUFFLÉ

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of flour, stir until smooth, and then add gradually 1 cup of milk, and season with paprika and salt. Let boil, then add 1/2 cup of stale bread crumbs, 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, 1 1/2 cups of cold boiled onions chopped fine, and the yolks of 2 eggs well beaten. Mix thoroughly, then add the stiffly beaten whites of the 2 eggs, and mix them gently through the onion mixture with a fork. Put in a buttered baking dish, or in individual cases, sprinkle fine crumbs on top, and bake about fifteen minutes to slightly brown before serving.

BORDEAUX ONIONS

Peel 6 or 8 small onions, and parboil them for fifteen minutes in salted water. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan or a baking dish, with 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley and 1 tablespoon of chopped celery, 2 cloves, 1 bay leaf, 1/4 of a cup of claret, 1 cup of brown sauce, the juice of 1 lemon, pepper and salt. Set the onions in this, cover, and let cook very gently for half an hour or until tender. Remove the bay leaf and serve with the sauce.

ONION AND TOMATO ESCALLOP

Place alternate layers of fresh onions, sliced, and fresh tomatoes in a buttered baking dish, covering each layer with crumbs, butter, pepper and salt. Put 1 1/2 cups of water over and bake for about an hour in a slow oven. Or use boiled onions and canned tomatoes, dampen with the juice from the tomatoes, and cook twenty minutes.

ONIONS BEATRICE

Fill a large bean-pot (or a high earthenware covered jar marmite) with small Bermuda onions, two inches in diameter. The onions should be left whole, but a sharp knife can be used to make two cuts in the shape of a cross in the top of each, as this insures the cooking of the centre. While arranging the onions in the jar, sprinkle them well with salt, also with black pepper (or use 1/2 dozen peppercorns instead), put in 3 bay leaves, and distribute 1 teaspoon of mixed herbs. Cover with hot water, put the lid on, and set on the back of the stove or in a slow oven. The onions should not cook to pieces, and with the proper heat will be cooked through in about two hours; this time is named not as a rule but as a guide. Serve in the marmite in which they were cooked.

STUFFED ONIONS

Boil the onions fifteen or twenty minutes and then remove the hearts, leaving the outsides as cases for a filling. Make the stuffing of bread or cracker crumbs mixed with the chopped centres of the onions, plenty of salt and pepper, and a little chopped tomato (or tomato sauce), or some chopped green peppers, or canned pimentos, or use both tomato and peppers. Fill the onion cases, and arrange in a buttered baking dish; sprinkle with 2 tablespoons of melted butter, set the pan in water, and bake half an hour; the baking dish should be covered until the last five minutes, and the onions should not be allowed to go dry; more butter can be added, or a little hot water or vegetable broth, if they cook dry. Serve in the baking dish, or remove to a small platter and garnish with sprigs of parsley.

FRIED ONIONS

Peel the onions and cut into thin slices, and when a generous tablespoon of butter has slowly melted in a frying pan, put the onions in and let them simmer over as low a fire as will keep them cooking; stir them frequently and serve when transparent and turning a golden brown.

Fried onions can be served alone or as a garnish to heaped up mashed potatoes. They are saved from their extreme commonplaceness by being arranged in a gratin dish, not over an inch high, dusted with a sprinkling of crumbs or grated cheese, and given three or four minutes in the oven.

FRENCH FRIED ONIONS

Peel medium-sized onions, and slice crosswise carefully; then separate the slices into rings. Drop these into smoking vegetable fat or oil, and let fry four or five minutes until crisp and a rich brown. Lift with a strainer onto brown paper to drain a moment before serving.

ONIONS IN POTATO CRADLES

Make potato cradles as directed, dredge with salt, and fill with fried or French-fried onions.

SMALL ONIONS

Peel small, round, pickling onions, parboil them ten minutes, drain, roll in flour, and fry in deep fat. Serve as a garnish to other vegetables or in stews.

GLAZED ONIONS

These are nice used either as a garnish to another dish (vegetable croquettes, mashed potatoes, etc.) or alone. Small onions should be used, or onion hearts, and taken from the water before they are quite cooked; then put in an enamelled pan in which is 1 tablespoon of butter which has been slowly melted; toss them about in this, and sprinkle with powdered sugar. When they begin to brown add 1 tablespoon of the water in which they were boiled, and as this is taken up add a little more, and pepper and salt. The onions will be browned and glazed. Serve very hot.

ONIONS AND APPLES

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted put in 3 sliced onions and 3 sliced apples; let fry slowly until browned, and serve on toast.

BOILED PARSNIPS IN SAUCE

Wash and scrape 6 or 7 parsnips, cut them in half, lengthwise, and put them in cold water for half an hour. Drain them, and put them in a saucepan of boiling water containing 1 teaspoon of salt, and let them boil for about three quarters of an hour. While they are finishing cooking, prepare a sauce with 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 tablespoon of flour rubbed together, and put in a saucepan over a slow fire. When melted and smooth add, a spoonful at a time, some of the stock in which the parsnips are cooking, until about 2 cups have been used; stir until well thickened but not paste-like, season with salt and pepper, and pour over the parsnips after draining them.

PARSNIPS IN BUTTER

Scrape and wash the parsnips, and cut them in eighths, lengthwise, and then in half. Put them in boiling water, salt well, and let them cook for about three quarters of an hour. Drain and serve with 1/2 cup melted butter poured over them, which contains 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley.

FRIED PARSNIPS

Slice cold boiled parsnips lengthwise, dredge with salt, and fry in buttered pan or griddle until a golden brown, turning with a pancake turner.

FRENCH FRIED PARSNIPS

Use cold boiled parsnips, cut in any shape desired,--balls, or long strips,--and put them in a frying basket, and fry in hot fat until brown. Drain, and dredge with salt to serve.

BROILED PARSNIPS

Use boiled parsnips, cut each in 3 slices, lengthwise, dip in melted butter, broil until brown, and sprinkle with salt before serving.

GREEN PEAS

Newly picked green peas should be shelled and put in a double-boiler with a little salt, and 1 teaspoon or more of sugar, and no water. Cover closely and keep water in under pan boiling for about three quarters of an hour. Add a little butter before serving.

GREEN PEAS PAYSANNE

Cook peas as in the above recipe adding a few lettuce leaves which have been washed and cut in strips. Drain them before adding butter and salt.

CANNED PEAS

Canned peas should be slowly cooked in their own stock for ten minutes, drained, and seasoned with butter, pepper and salt, and a little milk or cream added to them.

CANNED PEAS WITH ONION

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of chopped onion; let simmer for five minutes, then add 1 can of peas, drained of their juice, and 1/4 of a cup of cream or milk; season well with salt and pepper, and serve after ten minutes' slow cooking.

STUFFED PEPPERS

Slice the stem-end from sweet peppers, cut out the insides, and fill with a mixture made of 1 cup of fine crumbs, 1 grated onion, 1/2 cup of chopped nuts, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 2 tablespoons of melted butter. Set in a pan containing a little water and melted butter, and bake from twenty minutes to half an hour, basting occasionally.

Peppers can be parboiled for ten minutes before stuffing, but though softer they lose their colour to some extent.

PEPPERS STUFFED WITH MUSHROOMS

Cut the stem-end from sweet peppers, remove the inside, and fill with mushrooms Czarina, or mushrooms in tomato sauce, and bake twenty to thirty minutes, basting with a little butter and water, which should be in the pan in which they are cooked.

PEPPERS WITH RICE

Cut the stem-end from sweet green peppers, remove the inside, fill with boiled rice and chopped tomato in equal proportions, and season well with pepper and salt. A few chopped mushrooms, olives, or boiled eggs may be added to the filling. Bake from twenty to thirty minutes, basting with butter and water.

GREEN PEPPERS WITH EGG

Parboil 6 green peppers for five minutes, first having cut off the stem-end and removed the seeds. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 finely chopped onion, and let it cook slowly for ten minutes; then stir in 3 tablespoons of fine bread crumbs, and season with salt, pepper, and catsup. Upon removing the peppers from the boiling water set them up cup-like in a shallow pan, and put 1 tablespoon of this mixture into each; break into each pepper 1 egg, cover with some more of the prepared crumbs, and bake for ten minutes if the eggs are liked soft, for fifteen if liked hard. Serve on toast with 1 1/2 cups of white sauce containing 2 tablespoons of grated cheese.

PEPPERS WITH CORN

Cut a slice from the end of sweet peppers, remove the inside, and fill with canned corn, well salted; replace the ends and bake.

Peppers, like tomatoes, may be filled in so many ways that it is useless to endeavour to enumerate them, for the ingenious cook can multiply them without end.

ESCALLOP OF PEPPERS AND CORN

Cut enough sweet corn from the cob to make 3 cups. Take 2 or 3 sweet green peppers and remove the insides, then slice them in very thin circles and arrange a layer of the corn in a buttered baking dish, salt it, and then place some rings of the peppers, then another layer of corn, and so on, until the dish is filled, finishing the top with peppers. To a cup of cream (or milk) add 1 beaten egg and 2 tablespoons of melted butter; pour this over the whole, and bake for half an hour in a hot oven. Canned corn may be used, in which case less cream will be needed.

FRIED PEPPERS

Remove the seeds from 6 sweet green peppers, cut the pods in squares about half an inch across. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 sliced onion, and let simmer for two or three minutes; then put into the pan the cut-up peppers, and fry for ten minutes. Add 1/2 cup of brown or tomato sauce and serve on toast with boiled rice, or on flat rice cakes.

CREAMED PIMENTOS

Put the pimentos from 1 can into 2 cups of white sauce, and let cook in a double boiler for ten minutes. Add 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, some pepper and salt, and serve on toast.

ROLLED PIMENTOS

Remove the pimentos from the can, and with a sharp knife cut them open on one side and open them out. Arrange the flat pieces thus made on a large plate or board, with the inner part up, and spread with finely chopped onion, sprinkle with salt and celery salt, and roll into firm rolls. Place these in a well-buttered tin, add a little hot water, cover, and set in a hot oven for ten minutes; then uncover, add 1 tablespoon of butter, and when it melts baste the pimentos with it. Let them cook five minutes more, and serve with the melted butter poured over them, or with parsley butter.

PIMENTOS WITH OKRA

Split the pimentos with a sharp knife, salt the inner part, then roll each around a pod of freshly boiled or canned okra. Place in a well-buttered pan, add a little hot water, and let cook ten minutes covered, and five uncovered. Add more butter during the last five minutes, baste the rolls, and serve with the butter poured over them, or with tomato sauce.

PIMENTOS WITH TOMATO

Lay the large flat pimentos from a can on a platter, and slide into each a slice of tomato which has been sprinkled with salt and celery salt. Fry in a covered pan for five minutes, and serve plain or with caper sauce.

POTATOES

Between the good cooks who contend that a potato is never properly "boiled" if it is boiled at all, and those who either cook potatoes in a steamer, or put them in cold water which is carefully watched to see that it does not actually boil, cooking thus until the potatoes are tender, and those who drop them into rapidly boiling salted water, letting them boil hard until done, there is wide latitude for individual preference. I would advise those who do not have potatoes served on the table which are white and floury and thoroughly cooked through, to see that one of the above-mentioned ways of cooking potatoes is carried out in their kitchens. Potatoes put in boiling water, or put in a covered steamer over rapidly boiling water, will cook in from twenty minutes to half an hour, the time depending, of course, upon the size and age of the potatoes; they should always be carefully scrubbed and cooked in their skins, and peeled afterwards.

MASHED POTATOES

Having boiled or steamed the required number of potatoes, peel them as expeditiously as possible and break them up in a hot saucepan; mash and then beat them vigorously with a wooden spoon or a fork, add a generous piece of butter, dredge with salt and a little pepper, and beat them until they are light; then moisten slightly with a very little hot milk or cream, beat them for a moment more, and serve very hot.

POTATO SOUFFLÉ

Put into a saucepan 3 or 4 cups of warm mashed potato and 1 tablespoon butter. Add the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 tablespoons cream (or milk), salt and pepper, and stir over fire until well mixed. Remove from the fire and add the well-beaten whites of the eggs. Heap in a buttered baking dish and let brown on the top in the oven.

MASHED POTATO SOUFFLÉ IN CASES

Select large potatoes, scrub them and let them bake until mealy, which will be in from half an hour to three quarters, then cut them in half, lengthwise, and carefully scrape out the potato, laying aside the skins to use as cases. Mash the potatoes with a wire potato-masher, add 1 tablespoon of butter for every 5 potatoes used, and season well with salt and pepper. Beat the whites of eggs very stiff, allowing 2 to every 5 potatoes, and mix them lightly through the potato with a fork; fill the potato skins with the mixture, heaping them full; brown them slightly in the oven before serving, and garnish the dish on which they are served with sprigs of parsley. Five potatoes will fill 6 or 7 cases.

RICED POTATOES

Break up well-boiled dry potatoes with a fork, dredge with salt and pepper, and press through a sieve or a so-called "ricer" into a hot serving dish.

RICED POTATO FRITTERS

Boil 6 large potatoes, press them through a sieve, and add 3 lightly beaten eggs, 2 teaspoons of flour creamed with 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 2 cups of milk. Beat well together, and drop from a large spoon into deep, hot fat; they will rise to the top a light brown when done. Chopped chives or chopped parsley may be added to the mixture if desired.

MASHED POTATOES WITH ONION

To 4 or 5 cups of mashed potato add 1 cup of boiled onion minced to a pulp, 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 tablespoon of cream, some pepper and salt; beat lightly together, and before serving brown the top for a moment in the oven.

BAKED POTATOES

Select potatoes of uniform size, scrub them well, place in a hot oven until they yield to pressure of the fingers, which will be in most cases in about three quarters of an hour. They should not stand after baking, and should be served in an open dish. A baked potato that is worked with the fingers while being turned in the hand a few times, becomes light and soft.

ROAST POTATOES

Pare small, round potatoes, and lay them in cold water. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a shallow baking pan, and let it melt in the oven; then wipe the potatoes, and lay them in the pan, rolling each in the hot butter. Let them cook in a moderate oven from one half to three quarters of an hour, and baste them during the cooking five or six times with the butter. Sprinkle with salt before serving.

DENVER POTATOES

Peel several smooth oval potatoes and cut in half, lengthwise. Dig out a small hole in the centre of the smooth side, and level the rounded parts so they will sit evenly. Put a lump of butter in each, and place in a pan with a little water, first dredging with salt and pepper, and bake about twenty-five minutes or until browned.

BROILED POTATOES

Cut cold boiled potatoes lengthwise into quarter-inch slices, dip each in flour, and lay in a folding broiler. Broil until evenly browned on both sides, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve on a hot dish with a bit of butter on each, or as a garnish to other vegetables.

FRIED POTATOES SOUFFLÉ

Peel and trim the required number of potatoes to a uniform size, cut both ends straight across, and then slice the potatoes into slices about 1/16 of an inch thick, and drop them into cold water for about half an hour, and then dry them with a cloth. For the frying two kettles of fat are necessary, one of which must be perfectly fresh; drop the potatoes into the used fat or oil and let them fry until about half done; but do not let them brown at all; drain them thoroughly and let them get cold. Five or six minutes before they are to be served drop them into the fresh fat which should be almost smoking, move them about lightly with a fork, and they will puff out to a considerable size; let them become a golden brown, put them in the oven on brown paper for a moment, and serve instantly.

WHOLE POTATOES FRIED

Use very small new potatoes, and, after boiling them, roll in egg and cracker crumbs, and fry in hot, deep fat. Use alone or as a garnish to baked tomatoes.

FRENCH-FRIED POTATOES

Peel potatoes which are of medium size and cut into even eighths, lengthwise, and then let them lie in cold water for fifteen minutes; then dry them between the folds of a clean cloth, and put in a frying basket. Immerse slowly in hot fat, and fry until a golden brown; drain at once, and dredge with salt.

SARATOGA CHIPS

Cut potatoes into thin slices with a potato cutter, lay in cold water twenty minutes, dry, and fry in deep, hot fat until crisp. Drain from the fat onto brown paper, dredge with salt, and serve very hot.

POTATOES PARISIAN

These are cooked exactly like French-fried potatoes, except that the little vegetable cutter, which cuts tiny globes of potato, is used to form the shapes. Some care must be taken to use strength enough with the cutter to make it cut perfectly round balls.

POTATO STRAWS

Peel 4 or 5 potatoes and then cut them with a patent vegetable cutter in strings; lay them in very cold water for twenty minutes, drain, and put in a frying basket, and slowly immerse in hot fat, and let them fry until a golden brown. Drain, and dredge with salt before serving.

POTATO CRADLES

Peel, wash, and dry potatoes of uniform size and shape. Cut in two, lengthwise, and scoop out the inside, and fry the potato cases in hot fat until brown; then drain and sprinkle with salt. Serve hot peas heaped up in each cradle and garnish with mint or parsley.

POTATOES LYONNAISE

Take 5 or 6 cold boiled potatoes and cut them in slices. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when it is melted add 2 thinly sliced, medium-sized onions, and fry these, letting them cook very slowly ten minutes; then season with pepper and salt and add the sliced potatoes, and let these fry slowly, turning with a knife until they are a golden brown; season afresh with pepper and salt, and add 1 tablespoon of finely chopped parsley before serving. These potatoes will take a great deal of salt and pepper.

GERMAN FRIED POTATOES

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 5 or 6 cold boiled potatoes cut in slices, season highly with salt and pepper, fry until done, which will be about twelve or fifteen minutes, turning with a knife; when nearly done stop stirring, and let the potatoes brown on the bottom of the pan; serve in a hot dish with the browned slices on the top.

FRIED POTATO SAVOURY

Fry cold sliced or diced potatoes, and when browned add 1/2 teaspoon of onion juice or extract, then arrange in a buttered baking dish in layers with grated cheese, pepper, salt, and some butter in each layer, cover the top with a few brown crumbs and chopped parsley or chives, and let heat a few minutes in the oven. Chopped chives can be arranged with the layers of potato if the flavour is liked.

CREAMED POTATOES

Put 2 tablespoons of butter into a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of minced parsley and pepper and salt, stir until very hot, then add a scant cup of milk, containing 1 teaspoon of flour and a pinch of soda, and when this boils add diced cold boiled potatoes, and, when thoroughly heated through, serve.

ESCALLOPED POTATOES

Boil 10 or 12 medium-sized potatoes in their skins, and after peeling slice them in slices 1/4 of an inch thick. While the potatoes are boiling make a sauce of 2 cups of milk, the juice of 1 onion, salt and pepper, 2 tablespoons of butter, and 1 tablespoon of thickening flour. Butter a baking dish, and arrange a layer of potatoes, cover with sauce, then put another layer of potatoes, and so continue until the dish is filled. Then cut 2 hard-boiled eggs in neat slices, arrange them over the top, sprinkle with cracker crumbs and a little finely chopped parsley, and cook ten or twelve minutes in the oven.

POTATOES DELMONICO

For a large baking dish 4 cups of cold boiled diced potatoes will be required. Butter a baking dish, and put a layer of potatoes an inch deep in the bottom, and cover this with well made white sauce, and sprinkle slightly with salt and pepper; then add another layer of potato, and white sauce, and seasoning, and so on, until the dish is heaping full, and then sprinkle the top with grated cheese, and let brown well in a hot oven.

OAK HILL POTATOES

Butter a baking dish well, and place in it alternate layers of sliced cold boiled potatoes and hard-boiled eggs, seasoning each layer; then pour over it a white sauce in which grated cheese is melted. Cover the top of the dish with cracker crumbs, and brown in the oven.

HEILBRONN POTATOES

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a deep saucepan, and when melted stir into it, with a flat-ended wooden spoon, 2 tablespoons of flour and let brown, then add 2 tablespoons of vinegar and use 2 cups of boiling water or vegetable stock in making this into a smooth sauce. Add 1/2 an onion, sliced, 2 cloves, 2 allspice, a piece of thin lemon peel, 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, and let cook very slowly, stirring for ten minutes. Then add more vegetable stock or boiling water to make a thin sauce and strain it; return to the fire and add 5 or 6 parboiled thinly sliced potatoes, 2 tablespoons of capers, and let cook slowly for fifteen minutes, stirring frequently; then pour into the saucepan 1/2 cup of cream (sour preferred), and serve in a deep, hot dish.

SAVOURY POTATO CAKES

Chop 6 cold boiled potatoes, and crush with a potato masher (or use cold mashed potato); add to them 1 tablespoon of mixed herbs, 1 teaspoon of chopped onions, pepper, salt, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, and 1 beaten egg; mould into flat cakes, and put in a frying pan containing 1 tablespoon of melted butter; brown, and turn with a pancake turner to brown the other side.

POTATO HASH

Put 8 cold boiled potatoes and 2 medium-sized onions in a chopping bowl and chop them fine. Melt 1 tablespoon of butter in a large frying pan, place the potatoes and onion in it, and smooth the top even with a fork. Season well with salt and pepper and put over a moderately hot fire, shaking the pan vigorously from time to time to keep the hash from burning. If it is shaken instead of being stirred it will brown well on the bottom. Turn out onto a hot serving dish, with the browned part on top, and sprinkle with salt and pepper.

POTATO OMELET

Butter a frying pan with 1 teaspoon of butter, and cover the bottom of the pan with sliced cold boiled potatoes laid flat; let these fry a few moments, then pour over them 2 well-beaten eggs and 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley or chives, season well with salt and pepper, and turn from the pan when browned.

CURRIED POTATOES

Chop 1 good-sized onion very fine, and fry in 2 tablespoons of butter until transparent and cooked, but not brown; then remove most of the onion with a strainer, pressing the juice from it into the butter, and put in 4 or 5 sliced cold boiled potatoes; sprinkle some curry powder and salt and pepper over them and fry, turning them frequently until done. The amount of curry can vary from 1 to 2 teaspoons.

POTATO FRICASSEE

Put in a saucepan 1 generous tablespoon of butter and 1 cup of milk; when hot add some cold potatoes cut in dice, season with pepper, salt, and a few drops of onion juice. Let them get thoroughly hot, then add the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, stir constantly until thick. Great care must be taken not to let it cook too long or the sauce will curdle. Add a little chopped parsley before serving.

POTATOES RENNEQUIN

Boil 6 potatoes, peel them, and let them dry in a warm place on the stove.

Put 1 tablespoon of butter into a saucepan, and when partly melted slice the potatoes into it. Now add 1 tablespoon of water, some salt, pepper, and 1 tablespoon of minced parsley; let it become thoroughly heated, then add 1 tablespoon of lemon juice and serve very hot.

POTATOES AND CHEESE

Mince or chop fine 5 or 6 peeled raw potatoes, and toss in a saucepan with 2 tablespoons of butter until cooked. Place a layer of these in a buttered baking dish, season with salt and pepper, and sprinkle with grated cheese; then add another layer of potatoes, and proceed thus until the dish is full. Pour melted butter over and let brown in the oven.

ESCALLOPED POTATO AND ONION

Peel and slice very thinly 5 or 6 medium-sized potatoes and 3 or 4 onions, and arrange them in layers in a buttered baking dish, dotting them with butter, and sprinkling with pepper and salt. Over all pour 1/2 cup of milk, or enough to dampen well, and almost cover, and set the dish in a shallow pan containing a little water, and let the escallop cook slowly for about an hour, keeping it covered for the first half-hour, and uncovered afterward to brown. Serve in the baking dish.

NEW POTATOES IN BUTTER

Scrub small new potatoes with a stiff brush, and boil or steam them for twenty-five minutes, and serve them with melted butter to which a teaspoon or more of finely chopped parsley has been added.

CREAMED NEW POTATOES

Scrub small new potatoes with a stiff brush which will remove the skins, and boil or steam them about twenty-five minutes; then cover them with a highly seasoned white sauce.

BAKED NEW POTATOES

Scrub the skin from small new potatoes, and cook in salted boiling water about twenty minutes or until tender. Make a white sauce of 1 tablespoon of flour, 1 tablespoon butter, and 1 cup of milk seasoned highly with salt and pepper, and, after arranging the boiled potatoes in a baking dish or casserole, pour the sauce over them, and on the top of all pour 1 well-beaten egg. Put the dish in the oven and let it stay just long enough to set the egg. Sprinkle with chopped parsley before sending to the table. If preferred the egg can be added to the white sauce instead of being put on top.

MOCK NEW POTATOES

Peel the required number of large old potatoes, and with a Parisian potato cutter cut them into small balls; drop these in boiling water, and when done cover with a highly seasoned white sauce, to which is added a very little chopped parsley.

BOILED SWEET POTATOES

As the skin of sweet potatoes does not come off well after cooking it is best to peel them before baking or boiling.

Select large sweet potatoes, put them in boiling water, and let them boil from half to three quarters of an hour. Peel them and arrange them in a hot dish, with 1/2 cup of melted butter poured over them.

BAKED SWEET POTATOES

Wash and peel the sweet potatoes and put them in the oven. A medium-sized potato will take about forty minutes to bake.

MASHED SWEET POTATOES

Peel and boil 6 or 7 sweet potatoes, drain off all the water, and then mash with a wire potato-masher in the saucepan in which they were cooked; mix with them while hot 2 tablespoons of good butter, and dredge generously with salt, and serve very hot.

SWEET POTATO SOUFFLÉ

Mix with mashed sweet potatoes when slightly cooled the beaten yolks of 2 eggs and then the stiff whites of the eggs. Heap in a buttered baking dish and let brown in the oven.

ESCALLOPED SWEET POTATOES

Slice what will make 4 or 5 cups of cold boiled sweet potatoes, butter a baking dish, and arrange a layer of potatoes in the bottom, making it an inch thick. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and dot well with butter. Then arrange another layer, proceed as before, and so on until the dish is filled. Then pour over all 1/2 cup of water in which 2 tablespoons of sugar are dissolved. Put the dish in the oven, and in ten minutes baste with 2 tablespoons of water. Let cook five minutes more or until browned on top.

STUFFED SWEET POTATOES

Bake in their skins the number of potatoes required, cut them in half, scoop out the inside, and mix with chopped celery, and minced onion, and melted butter, allowing 1 tablespoon of celery and 1/2 teaspoon of onion to each potato. Season with salt and pepper, refill the skins, and let brown in the oven.

SOUTHERN SWEET POTATO PIE

Bake 4 large sweet potatoes, then scrape the inside from them, and beat into it lightly with a fork 2 tablespoons of butter, 2 tablespoons of sugar, 3 well-beaten eggs, 1 cup of warm milk, a saltspoon of salt, and a pinch of mixed spice. Line a baking dish with pastry, fill with the potato, and bake for twenty minutes.

TEXAS SWEET POTATO PIE

Boil 4 or 5 sweet potatoes for half an hour or until cooked. Line a large baking dish with pie-crust, slice the potatoes lengthwise while still hot, and put a layer of them on the crust, and cover this with long strips of pastry. Sprinkle with sugar, dot with butter, and add a little nutmeg; then place another layer of potato, and another of pastry, and so on, until the dish is nearly filled. Pour on enough boiling water to almost fill the dish, and cover the top with pastry like any deep pie, cutting it here and there to let the steam escape. Bake for about twenty minutes, or until the crust is a little browned.

MARYLAND SWEET POTATOES

Peel 6 or 8 medium-sized sweet potatoes, quarter them lengthwise, and lay them in a large saucepan having rounded sides. Add to the potatoes 2 heaping tablespoons of butter, and 3 heaping tablespoons of granulated sugar, and 2 or 3 tablespoons of water, and stir until the sugar and butter are dissolved. Cover closely and let them cook for four or five minutes undisturbed, then stir again with a wooden spoon, being careful to see that the syrup is not sticking on the bottom, re-cover, and from now on let cook only a couple of moments at a time before again stirring. The water will of course soon cook away; let the potatoes cook rapidly in the hot syrup until they begin to soften, then put them where the fire is less hot, and let them cook slowly until done. The entire cooking should not take more than fifteen or twenty minutes, and the thick brown sauce should be thoroughly scraped from the saucepan and served over the sweet potatoes.

CANDIED SWEET POTATOES

Lay pared sweet potatoes cut in slices in a buttered baking dish with a cover. Sprinkle each layer with brown sugar, salt and pepper and cinnamon, and dot with bits of butter. Pour in 1/2 cup of boiling water for 1/2 dozen potatoes and baste while cooking. Cook moderately until tender, from half an hour to three quarters, depending on the heat of the oven. The cinnamon can be omitted if not liked.

GRIDDLED SWEET POTATOES

Cut cold boiled sweet potatoes in slices, lengthwise, and lay them on a buttered griddle; when browned on one side turn with a pancake turner and brown the other side. Sprinkle with salt and serve very hot.

FRIED SWEET POTATOES

Cut cold boiled sweet potatoes in half-inch squares and fry them in melted butter. Salt well, and stir with a knife, and let brown as much as possible without burning.

FRENCH-FRIED SWEET POTATOES

Cut cold boiled sweet potatoes in sixths, lengthwise, place in a frying basket, and fry for about five minutes, or until well browned. Drain and sprinkle with salt.

GLAZED SWEET POTATOES

Let sweet potatoes boil until nearly done, then drain and cool. When cold cut them in inch-thick slices, or into rounds with a patent cutter, mix them well with melted butter and sugar, using 2 tablespoons of sugar to each 1/2 cup of butter, and put them in a deep dish in a hot oven for ten minutes, or until well browned.

CREAMED SALSIFY (OYSTER PLANT)

Remove the tops from 2 bunches of salsify, scrape and cut to shape, and put in a bowl of cold water containing some lemon juice, to retain the whiteness. Drain and put in boiling water, using enough to cover it, and let cook about three quarters of an hour, salting the water during the last half-hour's boiling. Drain and serve with highly seasoned white sauce or parsley sauce made with the water in which the salsify cooked, with the addition of a little milk or cream.

ENGLISH SALSIFY

Boil salsify as directed above, drain, and serve with bread sauce, serving fine browned bread crumbs with the sauce.

SALSIFY IN COQUILLES

Boil the salsify as directed, and press through a sieve; then beat into it 1 tablespoon of butter, season highly, arrange in buttered coquilles or ramekins, sprinkle grated cheese over the top, and let brown in the oven.

ESCALLOPED SALSIFY

Boil salsify as directed, not letting it quite finish cooking; slice, and arrange in buttered baking dish, with layers of slightly browned crumbs dotted with butter, and sprinkled with pepper, salt, and paprika. Pour 1/2 cup of milk or cream over to dampen, then cover the top with crumbs, and bake about fifteen minutes. An egg can be beaten with the milk to make the dish richer if wanted.

MASHED BLACK SALSIFY (SCHWARZWURZEL)

Proceed as with ordinary salsify, except that it is best not to peel or cut this sort of salsify until after boiling. When boiled, peel, and mash the white part, using 1 tablespoon of cream to each cup of salsify, 1 teaspoon of butter, pepper, and salt. Arrange in individual dishes or cases with crumbs on top, and bake ten minutes to brown.

FRIED SALSIFY TARTARE

Use cold boiled salsify, cut in any shape desired, dip in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat until browned. Drain well, dredge with salt, and serve with sauce Tartare.

SPINACH

Spinach should be well picked over, leaf by leaf, and washed in several different waters, and changed to a different pan each time it is washed, that the sand may be left behind with each washing. Then put it in a large kettle, with a scant cup of water for a peck of spinach, and let it cook over a slow fire until tender; in this way its own juices will be extracted, and it will be more tasty than if cooked in water. It should be then drained and chopped extremely fine, or until as nearly a pulp as possible, and then mashed in a mortar or with a potato-masher. It is then ready to prepare in any way desired for the table.

Delicious spinach can be had canned, and if this is used it needs only to be very finely chopped and mashed, then seasoned, and prepared in any of the following ways.

GERMAN SPINACH

Melt 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and in it let simmer for ten minutes 1 good-sized onion that has been finely chopped, then add 4 cups of the boiled, chopped, and mashed spinach to it, and stir well together, and season thoroughly with salt and pepper; finish with 1/2 teaspoon of grated nutmeg, and 1 or 2 tablespoons of whipped cream, and pile high in a heated dish, covering the top with the chopped whites and riced yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs.

SPINACH WITH WHITE SAUCE

Prepare as in the above recipe, using, instead of the cream, 1/2 cup of highly seasoned white sauce, and at the last add the juice of 1 lemon or 1 tablespoon of reduced vinegar.

GERMAN SPINACH WITH RHUBARB

Another German way of preparing spinach is to cook rhubarb leaves or flowers (or both) with the spinach for the purée and to add chives. If canned spinach is used the rhubarb leaves should be cooked and chopped and added to the canned spinach before it is macerated.

ITALIAN SPINACH

Wash 1/2 peck spinach and cook twenty-five minutes without water. Drain, chop to a fine pulp, mash until smooth in a mortar, season with 1 tablespoon of butter, salt and pepper, and encircle with a garnish of well-scrambled eggs to which has been added 2 tablespoons of grated cheese.

NOVELTY SPINACH

Drain a can of spinach and chop it very fine, and then mash it until smooth. Put it in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of chopped chives or grated onion, salt and pepper, and sprinkle the whole surface well with grated nutmeg. Hard boil 3 eggs, remove the yolks, and mix them thoroughly with the spinach. Chop the whites, and arrange the spinach on rounds of toast, placing 2 tablespoons on each piece, garnish with the whites of the eggs, and pour on each 2 tablespoons of cheese sauce. If the arrangement on toast is not desired, the cheese sauce can be mixed with the spinach before serving it.

SPINACH SOUFFLÉ

Take 2 cups of cooked chopped spinach, mash to a pulp, add 1 cup of white sauce and the whites of 2 eggs beaten very stiff, season well, and pile lightly in timbale cups; set these in a pan of water, and let bake in a moderate oven for fifteen minutes or less. Before serving sprinkle the top of each with riced yolk of hard-boiled egg.

BAKED SQUASH OR PUMPKIN

Cut a pumpkin or a squash in triangular or square pieces, about three inches across, scrape the seeds, etc., from each piece, and sprinkle with salt and pepper, and spread with butter. Set in a moderate oven and bake for half an hour or until browned. Serve garnished with sprigs of parsley. It should be eaten from the shell with additional butter.

CALIFORNIA SQUASH

Take a very young summer squash, which if it be young enough need not be pared, and cut it into small pieces. Fry half an onion in a tablespoon of butter, and when transparent and beginning to brown add the squash to it and season with salt and pepper. Let all cook together for ten minutes, and then add 1/4 of a cup of hot water, and let cook until the squash is quite tender.

STEWED TOMATOES

Empty 1 can of tomatoes into a double boiler, and put with them 1 cup of crumbled bread without crust, stir well together, season with pepper and salt, cover, and let cook slowly for half an hour, stirring from time to time. Just before serving add a piece of butter the size of a walnut. While the tomatoes will be ready to serve with half an hour's cooking, they are improved by cooking an hour, and are better still if warmed again after cooling.

ESCALLOPED TOMATOES

Drain the juice from 1 can of tomatoes. Butter a baking dish, and cover the bottom with the tomatoes; dot with butter, dredge with pepper and salt, and sprinkle generously with fine bread crumbs; arrange another layer of tomatoes, and crumbs, and so proceed until the dish is filled. Pour over all enough of the juice of the tomatoes to moisten well, and then finish the dish with a covering of crumbs. Bake for twenty minutes in a moderate oven.

BREADED TOMATOES

Slice large, solid tomatoes, dredge them on both sides with salt and pepper, and dip each slice in beaten egg, and then in fine bread or cracker crumbs. Arrange them in a frying basket, and plunge them in hot, deep fat for one or two minutes to brown. Drain, and garnish with sprays of parsley, or use as a garnish to other vegetables.

FRIED TOMATOES

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted lay in thickly sliced tomatoes which have been rolled in egg and crumbs; when browned on one side turn them with a pancake turner and brown the other side, seasoning with pepper and salt. Remove to the serving dish with a pancake turner, seasoning the first side cooked after they are turned onto the dish. A half a teaspoon of onion juice may be added to the butter in which they are cooking if desired. Serve plain or with white sauce.

DEVILLED TOMATOES

Cut in half and broil three or four nice solid tomatoes, and serve them with a sauce made as follows: Take the yolks of 4 hard-boiled eggs and crush them with a fork, add to them a scant teaspoon of dry mustard, 1 heaping saltspoon of salt, and several shakes of paprika, or a dash of cayenne pepper; mix these dry ingredients well together, and then add to them 5 tablespoons of melted butter, 2 tablespoons of vinegar or lemon juice, and heat in a double boiler; when it begins to thicken remove from the fire and stir in 1 well-beaten egg. Chop the whites of the boiled eggs, and put with them 2 teaspoons of chopped parsley, and decorate the centre of each broiled tomato with this before serving.

CREAMED TOMATOES

Take solid, medium-sized tomatoes, and, having cut a circular piece out of the stem-end, scoop out most of the inside, and fill with parboiled celery cut in half-inch lengths, mixed with an equal quantity of canned peas, and dampened with white sauce; heap 1 teaspoon of peas on the top of each tomato, and bake for twenty minutes or more, and serve with highly seasoned white sauce poured over each.

BAKED TOMATOES WITH MUSHROOMS

Wash good solid tomatoes and carefully cut out the inside; dredge with pepper and salt and fill the tomato with sauté mushrooms, using either fresh or canned ones, chopped and fried in butter. Bake for about twenty minutes, or until heated through but not broken.

TOMATOES WITH NUT FORCE-MEAT

Slice the stem-end from 6 large, solid tomatoes, scoop out the inside, and fill with a force-meat made of one cup of crumbs, 1/2 cup of chopped nuts, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, 1/2 tablespoon of grated onion, and 1 egg. Replace the tops on the tomatoes and bake them for about twenty minutes, watching that the skins do not break, as they will do in a too hot oven.

TOMATOES STUFFED WITH EGG AND PEPPERS

Cut the inside from solid, large tomatoes, and refill with a mixture of equal parts of chopped hard-boiled eggs and chopped sweet green peppers (or use pimentos) well moistened with melted butter and onion juice, and seasoned with salt. Put in a baking dish, cover, and let bake for twenty minutes in a moderate oven.

BAKED TOMATOES WITH GREEN PEPPERS

Scoop out the inside from solid tomatoes, and refill with the tomato meat which has been cut out of the centre and chopped with sweet green peppers, using 1 teaspoon of peppers to each tomato, and 1 teaspoon of cracker crumbs or boiled rice; season with pepper and salt, and place 1/4 teaspoon of butter in each tomato before laying the top on; then bake in a moderate oven about twenty minutes.

TOMATOES FILLED WITH EGG

Select very large solid tomatoes, and with a small, sharp knife cut a round piece out of the stem-end, then cut out a large enough space from the inside to hold a small egg, and arrange in a shallow pan. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, add 1/2 teaspoon of grated onion, and set in a hot oven for five or six minutes. Remove, and break into each tomato the yolk of 1 egg and as much of the white as it will hold without running over the edge. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and a little chopped parsley, and replace in the oven, letting them cook slowly fifteen minutes until the egg is set. Remove to individual plates for serving, taking care to not break the tomato. Garnish with cress or parsley.

Tomatoes may be stuffed in a great variety of ways,--with fillings of fried cucumber, tomato, and chopped onions, or bread dressing with sage, etc.

TOMATOES STUFFED WITH SPINACH

Cut an opening in the top of large, solid tomatoes, and scoop out some of the inside with a spoon, fill with "German spinach," and place in a hot oven for about twenty minutes; upon removing from the oven cover each with a slice of hard-boiled egg, or use the white rim filled with riced yolks. Serve alone or as a garnish for another vegetable.

TOMATOES STUFFED WITH MACARONI

Scoop the inside from 6 large, solid tomatoes and use it with 1 bay leaf and some melted butter to make a tomato sauce. Into this stir 1/2 cup of boiled macaroni (spaghetti or rice may also be used), and, after seasoning well with salt and pepper, fill the tomatoes with the macaroni, putting 1 teaspoon of grated cheese on the top of each. Bake in a moderate oven for about twenty minutes or less, and garnish with watercress or parsley.

AMERICAN RAREBIT

Put a little water and 1 large tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 large Spanish onion or 3 ordinary onions chopped fine, and let simmer slowly ten minutes. Strain the juice from a can of tomatoes, and put the tomatoes in a double boiler; when they are heated through scrape the onions into the tomatoes, and let them all cook together for half an hour; season highly with salt and pepper, and just before serving add 2 or 3 well-beaten eggs, and let stand for a few minutes until somewhat thickened; serve on toast. If the flavour of onions is liked, a larger quantity of chopped onion may be used; and to increase the quantity, 3 or 4 more eggs may be added to this rule without other changes. For chafing-dish prepare in advance to the point where the eggs are added, and add these after reheating in the chafing-dish.

TOMATOES AND ONION

Proceed as in the preceding recipe without adding the eggs.

TOMATOES CASINO

Select large, solid tomatoes, and without cutting them let them boil for fifteen minutes; then slip off the skins, halve them, and lay each piece, cut-side down, on a round of toast the same size as the tomato. Cover the top with warm Hollandaise, Bernaise, or Maître d'hôtel sauce, and in the centre lay a slice of truffle; garnish with watercress.

TOMATOES INDIENNE

Halve large, solid tomatoes, and arrange them in a shallow pan, cut-side up. Dredge with salt and pepper, and spread with curry powder and some onion juice. Put in the oven for ten minutes, or under the gas burners of the oven in a gas stove. Do not let the tomatoes soften, and serve at once to prevent this. Use alone or as a garnish to rice.

TOMATOES WITH EGGS

Strain 1 can of tomatoes and put them in a saucepan; stir well, and season with pepper and salt and 1 tablespoon of butter, and, after they have cooked fifteen or twenty minutes, stir in 3 or 4 well-beaten eggs and serve on toast after two or three minutes' further cooking.

CURRIED TOMATOES

Cut a thin slice from the stem-end of large, solid tomatoes, and scoop out some of the inside. Fill with boiled rice to which is added the tomato removed from the inside and a little curry powder (1/2 teaspoon to 1 cup of rice is a moderate amount). Season the mixture well with salt, replace the top, and bake fifteen minutes. The curry powder can be omitted from the filling and the tomatoes served with curry sauce if preferred.

SAVOURY TOMATOES

Cut in half rather large, solid tomatoes, allowing 2 halves for each person to be served, and set them, cut-side up, in a shallow tin; press capers into the spaces, then dredge heavily with celery salt, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and set under the flame of a gas oven until the tops are blackened. The flame should be hot so that this may happen as quickly as possible in order that the tomatoes may not become softened by the heat; to this end it is also necessary to leave the door of the broiling compartment open.

TOMATOES CREOLE

Cut in half, crosswise, 5 or 6 solid tomatoes, and set them, cut halves upwards, in a buttered pan. Chop 1 or 2 sweet green peppers, mix with them 1 teaspoon of chopped onion, and sprinkle this over the tomatoes; place a small piece of butter on each half, and sprinkle with salt and paprika. Let bake about twenty minutes, then remove to rounds of toast, or nests of boiled rice, and pour over them white sauce.

TOMATO LOAF

Strain the juice from 1 can of tomatoes through a sieve fine enough to stop all the seeds, and put in an enamelled saucepan to boil; season well with salt and pepper, and when it boils pour it onto enough gelatine dissolved in water to stiffen it. The amount of gelatine cannot be given, as the various vegetable gelatines, arrowroot, etc., vary in thickening power. Instructions as to the proper amount for each pint of liquid will come with every package. Set the jelly aside to cool, and arrange slices of hard-boiled egg on the bottom of custard cups or small plain moulds, and encircle these with slices of stuffed olive, pickled walnut, or truffles, or mushrooms. When the jelly is somewhat cooled, and so thick enough to hold down these garnishings when poured onto them, half fill the cups with it. Serve when set and ice-cold, turned out on lettuce leaves.

TOMATOES AND HOMINY

Take 2 cups of cold boiled hominy and 2 cups of boiled tomatoes, put them in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter, season generously with salt and pepper, and serve in a deep dish when thoroughly heated through, or put into a buttered baking dish with crumbs on the top (and a little grated cheese if liked); brown before serving.

STEWED TURNIPS

Peel and wash turnips and cut them in eighths lengthwise, or in dice, and put them in boiling milk and water which covers them. Let them cook slowly for half an hour uncovered, then lift them out and place on a hot dish at the side of the stove. Make a sauce with 1 1/2 cups of the stock in which they cooked, into which beat the yolk of 1 egg and 1/2 teaspoon of lemon juice; season this with pepper and salt and pour over the turnips. Instead of this, ordinary white sauce may be made of the turnip stock.

MASHED TURNIPS

Peel and quarter 2 good-sized turnips, cover them with boiling water, and let cook until tender, which should be in from half an hour to three quarters; drain them in a colander, and press gently with a wire potato-masher to remove as much water as possible, then mash them and beat them well, stirring in 2 tablespoons of butter, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 1 saltspoon of pepper.

MASHED TURNIPS AND POTATO

Prepare turnips as for mashed turnips, and mash with them an equal quantity of boiled potatoes; add butter, pepper, and salt, and beat up very light before serving.

TURNIPS AU GRATIN

Cut boiled turnips in thin slices, and arrange them in a buttered baking dish in layers one inch deep; sprinkle each layer with melted butter, pepper, salt, and grated cheese. Finish with cheese on the top, and bake for twenty minutes.

RAGOUT OF TURNIPS

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of chopped onion and 4 cups of diced turnips, and stir until they begin to brown; season with 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 1 teaspoon of sugar, and add slowly 1 cup of vegetable broth or milk into which 1 tablespoon of flour has been made smooth. Let simmer gently for half an hour.

TELTOWER RÜBCHEN

Buy the imported "rübchen," which are the daintiest tiny turnips, and heat them in their own liquor; then drain and serve with Spanish sauce.

PARISIAN TURNIPS

Cut turnips into small rounds with a Parisian potato cutter, and boil them for half an hour or until tender, the time depending largely upon the age of the turnips. Drain, and cover with highly seasoned white sauce, to which 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley has been added.

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Journal of Education, Boston.

VEGETABLE COMBINATIONS

CHOP SUEY

Put 1 cup of onions, fried until brown, 1 cup of celery cut in two-inch pieces and then shredded and stewed in vegetable stock for half an hour, 1 cup of fried mushrooms, and 2 cups of boiled rice in a saucepan with a cup of thin brown sauce. Let all heat together for ten minutes, and season with salt and pepper.

COLCANNON

This is made by the mixture of two or more vegetables already boiled. Use equal parts of mashed potato and sprouts (or any greens) finely minced, and grated onion if wanted, and add some mashed carrots or turnips or both; season with salt and pepper. Mix 2 eggs through 4 or 5 cups of vegetables, press into a mould, and boil or steam for half an hour. Turn out to serve, and serve plain or with a brown sauce.

MACEDOINE OF VEGETABLES

Boil 1 small cauliflower and set it aside to drain; then boil 2 cups of diced carrots, drain them when tender, but reserve the stock. Add to the carrots the cauliflower carefully separated into little pieces, 2 cups of boiled peas, or 1 can, 1 cup of cooked or canned flageolets, 1/2 a cup of carrot stock, 1 1/2 teaspoons of salt, 1 small saltspoon of pepper, and 1 tablespoon of sugar. Let simmer together until heated, and then add 1 chopped onion, 2 bay leaves, 1 tablespoon of butter. If liked, a sauce made of 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 tablespoon of flour thinned with the carrot stock and highly seasoned can be strained over the vegetables before serving.

CANNED MACEDOINE OF VEGETABLES

Delicious combinations of peas, shaped carrots, flageolets, etc., can be had in bottles. Drain them, and put in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter and some pepper and salt. When hot serve or add 1/2 cup of cream. Serve to garnish, or alone, or use to fill peppers, or tomatoes, or patties.

VEGETABLE CHOWDER

Pare and slice in rather thick slices, enough potatoes to make 4 cups, and prepare the same amount of shredded cabbage, and sliced onions. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add the onions, and cook them for ten minutes. Butter a large casserole, arrange over the bottom a layer of sliced potato, then a layer of cabbage, then one of onions, seasoning each with pepper and salt, and sprinkling with chopped hard-boiled egg, and so fill the dish. Pour 2 cups of milk, into which 1 tablespoon of flour has been made smooth, over the chowder, set the dish in a shallow pan of water, and bake slowly for one hour. If the milk cooks away add a little more during the cooking. The same dish can be made in a kettle, in which case halve the potatoes and cook for three quarters of an hour.

VEGETABLE PIE (ST. GEORGE'S HOUSE)

Boil enough carrots, turnips, and large white haricot beans to make a 1/2 cup of each when chopped or sliced after cooling, and enough potatoes to make a scant cup when sliced. Slice enough Bermuda onions to make 1/2 cup, and fry in butter until golden brown; then mix the onions and prepared vegetables, and add to them 1/4 cup each of canned peas, green beans, and tomatoes. Season well with salt and pepper, stir in 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, dampen with the water in which the haricot beans cooked, heap into a deep baking dish, cover with a good crust, and bake until slightly browned.

VEGETABLE HASH

Chop separately 5 medium-sized potatoes, 2 sweet green peppers (carefully seeded), 5 fresh tomatoes, 1 cup of boiled beets (1/2 a can), and 2 raw onions.

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add the chopped onions, and let simmer slowly for five minutes, then add the tomatoes and let simmer another five minutes, then put in the potatoes, the peppers, and the beets. Dredge well with salt and pepper, and, stirring occasionally, let all cook slowly until the juices are nearly absorbed; then let the hash brown on the bottom, and turn out with the brown on top. Garnish with squares of toast.

VEGETABLE STEW

Put 4 tablespoons of butter in a large saucepan, and when melted add to it 1/2 cup of sliced onions, 1/2 cup of diced carrots, 1 cup of shredded celery, and 1/4 cup of turnips cut in oblong pieces, and toss them in the butter for fifteen minutes; then pour over them 6 cups of cold vegetable broth or water, add 1 teaspoon of salt, 2 bay leaves, 6 small onions halved, 4 carrots cut in quarters, 6 small squares of turnip, and let simmer slowly for half an hour; then add 5 potatoes cut in half, and let cook for half an hour more, and add more vegetable broth to keep the vegetables covered. Make dumplings, and drop into the boiling stew, cover tightly, and cook ten minutes more; season well with salt and pepper, and serve with enough of the stock, thickened with a little flour and butter, to cover.

VEGETABLE CASSEROLE

In order that this dish should taste and appear at its best, it should be cooked and served in an Italian casserole dish from eight to ten inches in diameter. Peel 8 medium-sized onions, and take the layers off until a centre about three quarters of an inch in diameter is left; toss the centres in hot butter until browned, and chop the outside. Cut 3 medium-sized sweet green peppers in half, lengthwise, and fill each half liberally with a mixture of bread crumbs, chopped tomato, chopped onion, and salt and pepper. Stuff 6 solid, medium-sized tomatoes in any of the ways described under stuffed tomatoes. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add to it 2 tablespoons of chopped onions; fry these for ten minutes, then stir in 2 tablespoons of flour, and use vegetable stock or milk, 2 cups of either, to make a sauce; add 1 bay leaf, and enough soup-browning to make a rich colour. Put the stuffed peppers in a casserole dish with the glazed onion hearts and the sauce, cover, and let cook for ten minutes; then arrange the stuffed tomatoes in the casserole, distribute among them 1/2 can of button mushrooms, halved, 1/2 can of flageolets or peas, and leave the cover off the dish, letting it cook for fifteen minutes very slowly. This casserole can be varied in many ways, using different filling for the peppers and tomatoes, and either truffles, string beans, or fresh mushrooms in the sauce, which should not be too thick.

VEGETABLE RAGOUT

Prepare for boiling what will make 3 cups of turnip when cut in inch squares, 1 1/2 cups of potatoes, and 1 1/2 cups of carrots. Put the carrots into slightly salted and sweetened water, let boil for ten minutes, then add the turnips and potato, and cook for ten minutes more. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 2 tablespoons of chopped onion, and fry until slightly browned; then add 2 tablespoons of flour, stir until smooth, and pour slowly into this 2 cups of the stock in which the vegetables cooked; then add 2 teaspoons of sugar, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1/2 teaspoon of pepper; and the diced vegetables; cover, and let simmer slowly for half an hour, then add 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, and serve.

BORDEAUX PIE

Slice enough Spanish onions to fill a cup 1/4 full, and fry them in butter until slightly browned. Boil carrots to equal 1/2 cup when diced, potatoes enough to fill a cup 3/4 full, and peel 2 cups of mushrooms, and toss them in a little butter in a frying pan over a moderate fire for ten minutes; hard boil 4 eggs, and make 1 cup of white sauce. Cut the vegetables in small pieces, slice the eggs, add 1/4 cup of canned peas (or fresh boiled ones), 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, salt and pepper well, put in a little grated nutmeg and 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, and mix all carefully with the white sauce. Line a large baking dish (or small individual ones) with thin crust, fill with the mixture, cover the top with crust, and bake until slightly browned.

NEW ORLEANS STEW

Slice 3 onions, and fry them in 1 large tablespoon of butter for five minutes; then add to them 3 chopped sweet green peppers, stir well, and let cook together another five minutes; then scrape the contents of the frying pan into a double boiler, add the corn cut from 3 ears of sweet corn (or 1/2 can of corn), and 3 sliced tomatoes, 1 cup of water, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 teaspoon of sugar, and let all cook together for one hour; season afresh before serving.

INDIAN CURRY

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and add to it when melted 2 onions chopped fine, and let cook very slowly for fifteen minutes. Mix 1 tablespoon of curry powder, 1 tablespoon of sour apple, or tamarind-chutney chopped fine, 1 teaspoon of salt, and enough vegetable stock to make a paste. When the onions are browned add this paste, and after stirring well put in 1 cup of boiled haricot beans, 1 cup of halved boiled chestnuts, and 1 can of halved button mushrooms, and let all simmer together for ten minutes. Have ready some stock made by putting 2 tablespoons of desiccated cocoanut into a bowl and pouring over it 1 cup of boiling water, and use this to dampen the cooking vegetables; then add 1 cup of vegetable broth, and let cook ten minutes more. We westerners are fond of this served in this way with chutney, but in India they press it through a strainer and serve it as a purée, adding to it 2 well-beaten eggs. Encircle with rice in serving.

CURRY OF LENTILS

Soak 2 or 3 cups of German or Egyptian lentils for two or three hours; drain them, and put them in boiling water, and let them cook for three quarters of an hour or until tender but not broken. Salt well when they have been cooking a short time, and when done drain them, sprinkle with salt, and heap in a pyramid on a round flat dish; garnish with 3 hard-boiled eggs cut in half, encircle with boiled rice, and pour curry sauce over the lentils only. Serve extra sauce in a sauce-boat and Indian chutney.

CURRY OF SUCCOTASH

Heat 1 can of Lima beans and 1 can of sweet corn, and when hot drain, and heap on a flat dish; cover with curry sauce, and serve with potato croquettes and Indian chutney.

CREOLE CURRY

Boil 1 cup of rice, and while it is cooking put 2 cups of okra, 2 cups of tomato, and 2 small onions cut in halves, and 1 teaspoon of butter in a double boiler, and when hot add 1 cup of hot water, into which has been dissolved 1 heaping teaspoon of curry powder, and let all cook together for half an hour; remove the onions, add the rice, season generously with salt, and serve with Indian chutney.

VARIOUS VEGETABLE CURRIES

Almost any vegetable makes a good curry,--flageolets, carrots and peas, button mushrooms, etc., and either boiled rice or rice croquettes should be served. A garnish of Spanish pimentos looks well, and the curry sauce should be plentiful. Hard-boiled eggs halved are always nice with curry, and Indian chutney should be served with it.

"Speaking of the immortality of animals in 'Our Animal Friends,' Charles Wagner says, 'Can that which comes from Life return to Chaos?--Can a work of God have an end?'"

NUT DISHES

ITALIAN CHESTNUTS

Chestnuts can be cooked either by roasting or by boiling. If roasted, the thin brown that clings to the nut is removed with the outer shell; if boiled, the inner skin often has to be removed with some trouble. Roast chestnuts by putting them in a hot oven for eight or ten minutes, then use a small, sharp knife and peel them from the point down.

To boil chestnuts put them, in their shells, in cold water and let them cook for five or six minutes after the water starts boiling, or put them in boiling water for ten or twelve minutes. Peel carefully, and serve after roasting or boiling with brown sauce or mushroom sauce, plain or in cases.

CHESTNUT PURÉE

Roast or boil 6 cups of Italian chestnuts, remove the shell and inner skin and chop them fine or put them through a vegetable mill. Put them in a double boiler with milk enough to cover them and let them cook slowly for fifteen or twenty minutes, or until the milk is all absorbed. Stir frequently, add 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 tablespoon of cream, plenty of salt and a little pepper. The purée should be the consistency of mashed potato.

PEANUT PURÉE

Shell 3 or 4 cups of peanuts, remove the inner skin, and put through a vegetable mill. Put in a double boiler with milk to cover them, season with salt, and let cook gently half an hour, or until tender. Stir frequently, and serve when the milk is absorbed and the peanut purée is the consistency of mashed potato. A tablespoon of whipped cream is an improvement if added during the last moments of cooking.

MICHAELMAS LOAF

Mix 1 cup of finely ground walnuts (or other nuts), 1 cup of finely ground roasted peanuts, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 2 1/2 cups of fine bread crumbs, 1 tablespoon of mixed sweet herbs (thyme, sage, and summer savory), and 1 large onion or 2 small ones chopped fine. When well blended bind together with 2 eggs which have been slightly beaten, mould with the hands into a loaf, place in a well buttered roasting tin, and let it cook for ten minutes in a moderately hot oven; then add 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 cup of hot water, and baste frequently during half an hour's cooking. The loaf should be well browned and carefully removed to a hot platter. Make a brown sauce in the pan in which the loaf cooked, and serve with this and cold apple sauce.

CHRISTMAS LOAF

Make as in foregoing recipe, omitting the chopped onion and adding another half tablespoon (or even more) of the sweet herbs. Serve with cranberry sauce.

ROAST NUT AND BARLEY LOAF

Make a brown sauce with 2 tablespoons of olive oil, 1/2 cup of browned flour, and use water or vegetable stock for thinning; chop 1 large onion fine, and fry it in 1 tablespoon of oil or butter, and mix the onion and the sauce with 2 cups of cold boiled pearl barley, 1 cup of finely ground roasted peanuts, 1 cup of fine bread crumbs, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 1 saltspoon of pepper. With the hands mould into a loaf, place in a roasting pan which has been well buttered, and let cook in the oven for ten minutes; then add 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 cup of hot water, and baste every five minutes for half an hour. Make a brown sauce in the same pan, or serve with Caper sauce. Garnish, if brown sauce is used, with English savoury croquettes.

STEAMED NUT AND BARLEY LOAF

Make as in the foregoing recipe, but pack into a mould, set this in boiling water, and let it steam for an hour and a half or two hours. Let cool in the mould, and turn out to serve cold, or to slice, or to use for nut hash.

A brick-shaped mould will be made by any tinsmith to order, or the large sizes of baking-powder tins can be used to steam loaf.

ROASTED NUT LOAF WITH HOMINY

Grind 2 cups of nuts,--pecans, walnuts, roasted peanuts, etc., or use peanuts only,--and mix with them 2 cups of cold boiled hominy, 1/2 cup of bread crumbs, 3 hard-boiled eggs chopped fine, 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, 1 tablespoon of grated onion, and 1 raw egg. Form into 1 large roll, or several smaller ones, put in a buttered tin, and let bake in a quick oven for half an hour; baste with a little butter and water a few times. Garnish with slices of lemon, and serve with brown sauce. This loaf may be steamed as directed for barley loaf and used hot, cold, or in hash.

NUT AND FRUIT LOAF

Chop mixed nuts enough to make 2 cups, and add to them 6 bananas chopped fine and 1/2 teaspoon of salt; mix well together, and press into a plain mould. Stand the mould in a steamer, and let it steam for three hours. Serve ice-cold, sliced, with pickles or catsup.

FOUNDATION LOAF

This loaf can be made and kept in readiness for use, as it will remain fresh for several days if it is left in the covered mould in which it cooked and is kept in a cool place. Put 2 cups of water in a saucepan, and when the water boils stir into it 1 cup of a finely ground cereal, preferably gluten flour or meal, or Scotch oatmeal, and stir until thick; then add 2 teaspoons of salt, 1/2 teaspoon of pepper, 1 tablespoon of butter, and 1 cup of shelled peanuts which have been put through a vegetable grinder twice. Pack the mixture into a loaf-shaped mould, or large round tin with a tight-fitting lid, almost immerse it in water, and let it steam for two hours. Use when cold, either for nut hash or croquettes, or with an equal amount of bread crumbs and the seasoning to make Michaelmas or Christmas loaf.

NUT HASH

Use cold steamed nut loaf and the same amount of cold boiled potatoes. Chop the potatoes and the loaf separately, and add to them, after mixing, 1/4 as much chopped onion. Turn into a frying pan which contains melted butter well covering the bottom, dredge with salt and pepper, and stir frequently with a knife during the first ten minutes' slow cooking; then let the hash brown on the bottom, shaking the pan vigorously from time to time, season afresh, and turn out with the browned portion on top. One or 2 chopped green peppers can be added to the hash, if the flavour is liked.

I say nothing of taking life--of fattening for that express purpose; diseases of animals; bad blood made; cruelty superinduced;--it will be seen to be, it will be looked back on, as a form of, a second stage of cannibalism.

George Meredith.

RICE, MACARONI, Etc.

BOILED RICE

Wash 1 cup of rice by letting water run through it in a sieve, and put it in a large double boiler, the top of which contains plenty of water at boiling point; add 1 teaspoon of salt, and let it boil, tightly covered, for twenty-five minutes; pour off the water then from the rice, still holding the cover on, and again place it over the boiler, and let the rice steam for another twenty minutes, when it will be found that each grain is separate, as it should be. Use a fork to scrape it lightly into the serving dish.

BAKED RICE

Let 1/2 cup of rice soak for several hours in 2 cups of warm water. Drain and put in a baking dish, and cover with 3 cups of milk containing 1/2 a teaspoon of salt. Cover the dish, and let bake slowly for an hour or until the milk is absorbed and the separate grains of rice are soft.

INDIAN RICE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter into a double boiler, and when melted add 1 onion chopped fine, the juice from 1 can of tomatoes, 6 tablespoons of rice, 1 teaspoon of curry powder, some salt and pepper. Cover and let cook together for three quarters of an hour.

SPANISH RICE

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1/2 cup of rice, and stir it for fifteen minutes; then add 1 chopped onion, 1 chopped tomato, and 1 clove of garlic, cover with hot water or vegetable stock, and season highly with salt and pepper; stir well, then cover, and let the rice cook slowly for forty minutes.

RICE-TOMATO STEW

Take 1 cup of cold boiled rice, and put with it in a saucepan 1 teaspoon of butter, 3 or 4 sliced tomatoes (or a cup of drained canned ones), 1 bay leaf, some celery salt, pepper and salt, and stir well together; let cook slowly for ten minutes, taking care that it does not burn; remove the bay leaf, and serve on thick slices of toast.

FRIED RICE

Press newly boiled rice into an inch-deep pan, cover with a weight, and let it become cold. Cut into two-inch squares, and fry until brown in hot butter. Serve with tomato or curry sauce.

ESCALLOPED RICE

Butter a baking dish, and sprinkle the bottom with a layer of boiled rice, and cover this with slices of hard-boiled eggs; dot well with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, then arrange another layer of rice and egg, etc., alternating thus until the dish is filled. Cover the top with bread crumbs, pour over all 2 tablespoons of melted butter, moisten with 1/2 cup of milk, and bake slowly for twenty minutes.

RICE AND CHEESE

Butter a baking dish well, and sprinkle a half-inch layer of boiled rice on the bottom; season with salt and pepper, and dot well with butter; then arrange a generous layer of grated cheese, and sprinkle this with English mustard mixed with water, then add another layer of rice, and so continue until the dish is well filled, having the rice on top. Pour over all 1/2 cup of milk, or of the water in which the rice boiled, and let cook slowly in the oven for twenty minutes.

BAKED RICE AND TOMATOES

Butter a baking dish well, and put a layer of rice in the bottom of it, and over this arrange slices of tomatoes; dot well with butter, and season plentifully with pepper and salt and celery salt, then place another layer of rice, and so proceed until the dish is well filled. Pour 1/2 cup of canned tomato juice over the rice, sprinkle the top with grated cheese, and bake for twenty minutes.

ITALIAN RICE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add to it 2 cups of boiled rice and 1 cup of tomato sauce or tomato chutney; season well with salt and pepper, stir until heated through, and serve plentifully sprinkled with grated cheese.

RICE AU GRATIN

Put 1 cup of milk in a double boiler, when hot add to it 1 tablespoon of flour mixed with 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 teaspoon of grated onion (or a few drops of onion extract), and 1/2 teaspoon of salt; stir into this 2 cups of boiled rice, let cook for five minutes, then put in a buttered baking dish, with 1/2 cup of grated cheese on top, dredge this with paprika, sprinkle with bread crumbs, and let brown in the oven.

RICE OMELET

Beat the yolks and whites of 2 eggs separately, and to the yolks add 1/4 of a cup of milk, 1/3 of a cup of cold boiled rice, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, some salt and pepper, and finally the stiff whites of the eggs. Put in a buttered omelet pan, and proceed as in making the usual omelet, cooking over a slow fire and shaking the pan vigorously. Sprinkle with salt and a little paprika; when set, turn together; serve with a sauce if desired, and garnish with watercress.

RICE CZARINA

Butter a baking dish, and put an inch-deep layer of boiled rice in the bottom. Over this sprinkle finely chopped fresh or canned tomatoes, season with salt and pepper, and dot well with butter; then place another layer of rice somewhat thinner, and over this spread finely chopped green peppers, and so alternate tomatoes, peppers, and rice until the dish is well filled, having a layer of rice on the top. Garnish this with thin slices of tomato in the centre, and encircle the edge with thinly cut rings from the peppers. Pour 2 tablespoons of melted butter over all, cover lightly with a tin cover, and let cook in a slow oven for twenty minutes; just before serving add 2 more tablespoons of melted butter.

SAVOURY RICE

Butter a baking dish, and half fill it with freshly boiled rice, sprinkle this with salt, pepper, celery salt, and a few drops of Worcestershire Sauce, then dot with mustard mixed with water, and pour 1/2 cup of tomato sauce over the surface evenly. Fill the dish with the remaining rice, and season again with the same ingredients, adding 1/2 cup of grated cheese (sage cheese preferably); after pouring on the tomato sauce cover with a thin layer of crumbs and bake fifteen minutes in a slow oven.

UNPOLISHED RICE

Unpolished rice is used extensively in rice-growing countries, and has a quite distinct taste. When it can be obtained it makes a pleasant change, and can be served in any of the ways described for rice.

PEARL BARLEY

Pearl barley should be put in plenty of boiling water and cooked for an hour, then drained, and prepared in any of the ways described for the serving of rice.

AMERICAN MACARONI

Break 1/4 of a package of macaroni into two-inch lengths, and drop it into rapidly boiling salted water. Let it boil for twenty-five minutes, then drain, and arrange with alternate layers of grated cheese in a buttered baking dish. Season each layer with pepper and salt, and when the dish is filled pour over all 1 cup of hot milk into which 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 of butter have been made smooth. Cover the top with crumbs and bake twenty minutes or until browned.

Some makers of macaroni recommend putting the macaroni in cold water for fifteen minutes after boiling it, and then reheating it with seasoning, etc.

MACARONI AU GRATIN

Break 1/4 of a package of macaroni into two-inch lengths, and put it into 2 quarts of rapidly boiling salted water; let boil rapidly for twenty-five minutes, then drain. Butter a baking dish, and put in it a half-inch layer of the macaroni, sprinkle generously with grated cheese, and season with salt and pepper; then put another layer of macaroni, and proceed as before until the dish is well filled, having macaroni on the top. Dot evenly with butter, and bake about fifteen minutes or until a golden brown.

MACARONI BIANCA

Break half a package of macaroni into two-inch lengths, and drop it slowly into 2 quarts of rapidly boiling salted water; in fifteen minutes pour off all but 1 cup of the water, and add 1/2 cup of hot milk, stir often with a fork, and let boil until nearly dry or until tender, which will be in ten or fifteen minutes, and lift the macaroni into a strainer the instant it is cooked. Butter a baking dish, and put in it a layer of macaroni, dredge with salt and pepper, then sprinkle lightly with a layer of grated cheese (using 1 cup for the whole dish); dot well with mixed mustard, and sprinkle with Worcestershire sauce. Fill the dish with layers in this way, pour 1/2 cup of milk over all, and bake fifteen or twenty minutes, or until brown, in a quick oven.

ITALIAN MACARONI

Break 1/4 of a pound of macaroni into four-inch lengths, put in boiling salted water, and let it cook for twenty-five minutes. Drain, and put in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of melted butter and 1 1/2 cups of tomato sauce; season well with salt and pepper, and serve on a hot flat dish with grated cheese plentifully sprinkled over it.

MACARONI WITH TOMATO AND ONION SAUCE

Boil 1/4 of a package of macaroni in rapidly boiling salted water for twenty-five minutes, and whilst it is cooking prepare a sauce as follows: Put a large tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted stir into it 1 minced onion, 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, and season with salt and pepper. Let cook together for six or seven minutes, then add 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 cup of stewed and strained tomatoes, and stir well together for five minutes. Butter a baking dish, put a layer of macaroni in it, then a layer of sauce, and so on till the dish is well filled, and set in the oven for ten minutes before serving.

BAKED MACARONI ITALIAN

Boil 1/4 of a pound of macaroni broken in two-inch lengths for twenty-five minutes, then drain, and put it in a buttered baking dish with 1 cup of tomato sauce; season well with salt and pepper, and put a half-inch layer of grated cheese on the top, and bake for fifteen minutes.

MEXICAN MACARONI

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted stir into it 1/2 a can of tomatoes, 1 small sweet green pepper, seeded and chopped fine, 1 large onion chopped fine, and 1/2 teaspoon of salt. Cover, and let cook very slowly for about forty minutes. Then press through a coarse sieve, and put in a double boiler to keep hot. Boil 1/4 of a package of macaroni for twenty-five minutes, drain, and pour over it the hot sauce.

PLAIN MACARONI AND CHEESE

Put 1/4 of a package of macaroni into boiling water, and let cook twenty-five minutes; drain, add 1 cup of hot milk, 1 tablespoon of butter, salt, pepper, and paprika; let boil up once, add 1/2 cup of grated cheese, and let cook five minutes more before serving.

MACARONI RAREBIT

Put in a saucepan 2 tablespoons of butter, and when melted add 1 cup of grated cheese and stir until the cheese is melted, and then add 1/2 a teaspoon of salt, 1/2 a teaspoon of mustard, 1/2 teaspoon of paprika, and 1 tablespoon of flour dissolved in 1/2 cup of cream (or milk), to which also add 3 slightly beaten eggs; mix all together thoroughly, put in 1 cup of cooked macaroni, and serve with toast.

SPAGHETTI

Spaghetti can be cooked in any of the ways described for macaroni, but real Neapolitan spaghetti is cooked as follows:--Break 1 lb. of spaghetti into 3 or 4 inch lengths, and put in a large saucepan full of highly salted boiling water and let boil for half an hour. At the same time put 1 cup of good olive oil in a frying pan and when hot put in it 2 green peppers, seeded and chopped, and let simmer until they begin to brown, then add 4 to 6 cloves of garlic cut fine, and 4 large tomatoes, peeled, quartered, and thinly sliced. Let cook for about half an hour or until the oil is all absorbed, and stir often. When cooked to the consistency of a thick sauce, sprinkle with salt and paprika; drain the spaghetti thoroughly, mix the sauce through it and serve on a large platter, sprinkling with freshly grated Parmesan cheese.

NOODLES

To make noodles add 1/2 cup of sifted flour containing 1/4 of a teaspoon of salt to 1 large egg which has been slightly beaten. Mix well with a fork, and when stiff enough work with the fingers until the dough becomes very smooth and about the consistency of putty, and then wrap in a cloth and lay aside for half an hour. Sprinkle a bread-board well with flour, and roll the dough out upon this five or six times, rolling it thinner each time; at the last roll it as thin as possible without breaking, then roll it lightly together like a jelly-cake roll, and with a very sharp knife, beginning at one end, cut it into slices about 1/8 of an inch wide if to be used for soup, and 3/8 of an inch wide if to be used with a sauce. With the fingers shake these ribbons until they are separated, and let them dry for about half an hour.

Cut about 1/5 of the noodles very fine, and when dried, drop these in hot oil and fry until crisp and brown; serve these sprinkled over the boiled noodles.

To boil noodles, drop them in rapidly boiling salted water, cover them, and let them boil for twenty minutes, and then drain thoroughly.

Boiled noodles are delicious served with any brown sauce or tomato sauce, and can be used as directed for macaroni or spaghetti.

Very good noodles can be bought already made.

GERMAN NOODLES

Put 2 cups of dried noodles into boiling salted water, let them cook rapidly for twenty minutes, drain, and put in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 cup of brown sauce, to which has been added 1 tablespoon of reduced vinegar and a few capers if liked. Serve when thoroughly heated through, and add a little salt and pepper when in the dish.

ITALIAN NOODLES

Put 2 cups of dried noodles into boiling salted water, let cook twenty minutes, drain, and put in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 cup of tomato sauce or chutney. Season with pepper and salt, and serve on a hot dish, with the top well sprinkled with grated cheese.

Where man was all too marred with sin The Ass, the Ox were bidden in.

Where Angels were unfit to come These humble entered holydom.

There in the stable with the beast The Christmas child hath spread His feast.

These His adorers were before The Kings and Shepherds thronged the door.

And where no Angels knelt there kneeled The innocent creatures of the field.

Katherine Tynan Hinkson.

CROQUETTES

BEAN CROQUETTES

Wash 2 cups of dried beans, then soak them in water for twelve hours or more, and cook in the same water about an hour or until tender; strain off the water, press through a sieve, and add 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 1 tablespoon of butter. Stir well together, shape into croquettes, dip in beaten egg and crumbs, and fry in deep vegetable fat. Serve with tomato or horse-radish sauce.

CHEESE CROQUETTES

Beat the white of 1 egg very stiff, and stir into it 1 cup of fine bread crumbs, 1 cup of grated cheese, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1 saltspoon of paprika. Shape into balls or croquette forms, then roll in the beaten yolk of egg and crumbs, put in a frying basket, and fry in boiling vegetable fat until a golden brown. Lay on brown paper in the oven for three minutes, then arrange in a heap on a paper doily, dust with grated cheese, and garnish with watercress or parsley.

SWISS CHEESE CROQUETTES

Melt 3 tablespoons of butter, add a few drops of onion juice, 1/4 cup of flour, 1/2 cup of milk, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 cup of grated American cheese, and 1/2 cup of Swiss cheese cut into small pieces. Let cook in a double boiler until the cheese is melted, then season with salt and cayenne; let cool, then shape into croquettes, roll in crumbs, and fry in deep fat.

CHESTNUT CROQUETTES

Peel, blanch, and chop fine enough Italian chestnuts to make 2 cups, and boil them in water or milk to cover them for three quarters of an hour or until they are tender and the milk absorbed; let cool somewhat, then add 1 cup of bread crumbs, and 1 beaten egg, and 1/2 teaspoon of salt. Shape into croquettes, roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Serve with mushroom sauce or as a garnish.

EGG CROQUETTES

Hard boil 10 or 12 eggs, add to them 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, chop very fine, and season highly; then moisten with milk or cream. Mould into shape, roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat. Serve as a garnish to rice or tomatoes, or as a separate dish alone, or with curry sauce, horse-radish sauce, tomato sauce, or devilled sauce.

FARINA CROQUETTES

Put 2 cups of milk in a double boiler, and when hot add 1 cup of farina and some salt. Cook until well thickened, and then whip vigorously into it 1 beaten egg. Let cool, mould into croquettes, dip in crumbs, and fry in hot fat. Serve with savoury sauce or with jelly melted to the consistency of cream.

HOMINY CROQUETTES

Put 1 pint of cooked hominy into a saucepan, add 2 tablespoons of cream or milk, and stir over the fire until hot, then remove from the fire and season with salt; add the yolks of 2 eggs lightly beaten, shape into croquettes, roll in crumbs, and fry until nicely browned. Serve with some savoury sauce or as a garnish to scrambled or fried eggs.

LENTIL CROQUETTES

Put 1 cup of well-washed lentils into 3 cups of water or vegetable broth when at boiling point, and let them cook slowly for an hour or until tender, strain them, and mash them in water, and let them cool.

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 finely chopped onion, and let cook for ten minutes; add this to the lentils, with 2 slices of bread which have been well soaked in milk, 2 beaten eggs, and enough fine bread crumbs to make the mixture thick enough to form into croquettes. Season highly with salt and pepper, shape into form, roll in egg, and then in crumbs, put in a frying basket, and fry in deep fat. Serve with horse-radish or onion sauce.

Lentil croquettes may also be served with caper sauce, and each croquette garnished with a slice of seeded lemon.

MACARONI CROQUETTES

Have ready a kettle of salted boiling water, then shake into it 1/2 cup of macaroni, and let boil briskly for half an hour; then drain, and cut into small pieces. While the macaroni is cooking, make a sauce of 1 cup of hot milk to which is added 1 tablespoon of butter and 2 tablespoons of flour rubbed together, to which add, when thickened, the yolks of 2 eggs well beaten, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, and the chopped macaroni (the sauce must not cook after the eggs are added). Turn out to cool, and when cold form into pyramid-shaped croquettes, roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Serve with tomato sauce and a little sprinkling of grated cheese.

ITALIAN CROQUETTES

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 finely chopped onion, let cook slowly for five minutes, then add 2 cups of boiled macaroni, 1 cup of milk, cover, and stirring frequently let simmer slowly for half an hour or until the milk is absorbed; add 1 cup of drained canned tomatoes, or 2 or 3 chopped fresh ones, and 1 tablespoon of grated cheese, 1 teaspoon of mixed mustard, 1 tablespoon of highly flavoured catsup, salt and pepper. Cook for ten minutes more, then add 1/2 cup of bread crumbs and 2 teaspoons of chopped parsley. Turn into a bowl, and when somewhat cooled add 1 beaten egg and stir it well through the mixture. When cool and firm form into shapes, brush with egg, roll in crumbs, and fry a golden brown in deep fat. Serve plain or with tomato or curry sauce.

TOMATO CROQUETTES

Take 3/4 of a cup of stewed tomatoes without any juice, put in a saucepan over the fire, and stir into them 1 tablespoon of butter, 1 cup of mashed potatoes, 1/2 cup of grated bread crumbs, and some salt and pepper. Mix well together, and then add 1 lightly beaten egg. Remove from the fire, turn into a deep plate, and when cold form into croquettes; dip each in egg and bread crumbs, fry until brown, and serve with a savoury sauce.

DRIED PEA CROQUETTES

Put 1 cup of dried peas in cold water or broth, let cook for 1 1/2 hours or until tender, then strain and mash. Add to them 1 finely minced onion which has been fried ten minutes in 1 tablespoon of butter, salt, pepper, 2 tablespoons of flour, 2 eggs, and bread crumbs to make stiff enough to shape into croquettes or flat cakes. Roll in crumbs, and fry golden brown in deep fat. Serve with onion or tomato or mint sauce.

NUT CROQUETTES WITH POTATO

Chop or grind 2 cups of mixed nuts, and mix with them 2 cups of mashed potatoes, 1 teaspoon of grated onion, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 dash of nutmeg, and 2 yolks of raw eggs. Shape into croquettes, dip in egg, and crumbs, and fry in hot, deep vegetable fat.

NUT CROQUETTES WITH SALSIFY

Use 1/2 cup each of ground pecans and walnuts, and with them mix 2 cups of boiled mashed salsify, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of grated onion, 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, 2 tablespoons of bread crumbs, form into croquettes, roll in egg and crumbs and fry in deep fat. Serve with tomato chutney.

NUT CROQUETTES WITH COCOANUT

Grind 1 cup of any sort of nuts, and add to them 2 cups of bread crumbs, 1/2 cup of grated cocoanut, 4 tablespoons of peanut butter, 1/2 teaspoon of celery seed, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 1 egg, well beaten. Mix well, and form into croquettes or balls, dip in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep vegetable fat.

Nut croquettes can be made of the mixtures given for nut loaf, rolled in egg and crumbs and fried.

POTATO CROQUETTES

Take 2 cups of mashed potatoes and stir into them 2 lightly beaten eggs, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and a little paprika, and 1 tablespoon of chopped chives or parsley; form into croquettes or rolls, roll in egg and fine crumbs, and fry in deep fat.

POTATO CROQUETTES WITH CHEESE

To 2 cups of cold mashed potatoes add the beaten yolk of 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of grated cheese, 1 tablespoon of milk or cream, and a few drops of onion extract; season with pepper and salt, form into shapes and fry in deep fat.

SAVOURY POTATO CROQUETTES

To 2 cups of cold mashed potatoes add 1 beaten egg, 1 chopped onion, 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, 1 tablespoon of mixed sweet herbs, and 1 tablespoon of cream. Shape, roll in egg and fine crumbs, and fry in deep fat.

MASHED POTATO CROQUETTES WITH PEAS

To 2 cups of cold mashed potatoes add 1 egg, pepper and salt, and form into flat, small cakes; in the centre of each put 1 teaspoon of canned peas, then lap the potato mixture over these, and form into balls. Dip in egg and crumbs and fry in deep fat.

CREOLE POTATO CROQUETTES

To 2 cups of mashed potatoes add 1 beaten egg, pepper and salt, and 2 tablespoons of chopped green peppers (or chopped red pimentos) which have been fried in butter for ten minutes; shape, roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat.

SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES

To 2 cups of mashed sweet potato add 1 beaten egg, pepper and salt; shape and roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat.

SWEETENED RICE CROQUETTES

Soak 1 cup of rice three hours in warm water, then drain and put into a double boiler with 1 pint of boiling milk, and let cook for half an hour; then add 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of melted butter, and 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and let simmer ten minutes more. Let cool somewhat, and then stir in slowly 3 eggs, which have been beaten to a froth, and stir until it thickens; then add the grated peel of 1 lemon, and turn out upon a dish to cool. When cold and quite stiff form into balls or oval croquettes, dip in very fine cracker crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Serve alone with sauce or as a garnish.

CAROLINA CROQUETTES

Boil eggs ten minutes, remove the shells, press the yolks through a sieve or potato-ricer, chop the whites fine, and mix with the same amount of boiled rice; dampen with a little melted butter, season with pepper and salt, form into balls, roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in deep fat. When a golden brown drain and serve with some savoury hot sauce, or as a garnish to curry.

PLAIN RICE CROQUETTES

Mix together 2 cups of cold boiled rice, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1 tablespoon of melted butter, 1 tablespoon of flour, and 1 beaten egg. Form into balls, roll in flour, and fry in deep fat. Serve while crisp.

PINK RICE CROQUETTES

Make croquettes as above, but omit the sugar and add 1/4 teaspoon of paprika and 2 tablespoons of tomato catsup to the rice before frying.

CURRIED RICE CROQUETTES

Put 3/4 of a cup of milk in a saucepan with butter the size of an egg and let it boil; then stir into it 1 cup of rice that has boiled twenty minutes in salted water. Add 1 small teaspoon of curry powder, a few drops of onion juice, and salt to taste. When the milk boils remove from the fire and add a beaten egg to it, stirring vigorously. Let cool, shape into croquettes, and fry in hot fat. Serve apple sauce or onion sauce with these croquettes.

ENGLISH SAVOURY CROQUETTES

To each cup of fine bread crumbs use 1 tablespoon of mixed sweet herbs and 1 teaspoon of minced onions and bind all together with 1 egg, slightly beaten. Season with 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1 scant saltspoon of pepper, 1/2 teaspoon of celery salt, form into balls, roll in egg, and then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat until golden brown. Serve with a brown sauce or as a garnish to nut loaf.

MIXED VEGETABLE CROQUETTES

Boil separately ten carrots and 3 turnips and 5 potatoes and chop fine; then mash, and add to them 1 tablespoon of butter and 3 tablespoons of hot milk. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted cook slowly in it for ten minutes, or until beginning to brown, 1 large onion chopped fine. Add this to the mashed vegetables, also 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, and season with salt and pepper. When cool form them into croquettes or flat cakes, and dip in egg, and then in fine crumbs, and fry. If croquettes are made fry in deep, hot fat; if cakes are made they can be fried in a frying pan like pancakes, and browned on one side, then on the other. Serve plain, or as a garnish to other vegetables, or with Spanish sauce.

Any of the mixtures for croquettes can be moulded into flat cakes and fried until browned in butter on a griddle or in a shallow frying pan.

Take not away the life you cannot give, For all things have an equal right to live.

Dryden.

TIMBALES AND PATTIES

EGG TIMBALES

Into 1 cup of milk rub 1 heaping tablespoon of flour until smoothed, add 1 tablespoon (measured before melting) of butter, the lightly beaten yolks of 4 eggs, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, and the same amount of celery salt. Beat the whites of the eggs until very stiff, and stir these into the other ingredients with a fork. Turn into buttered timbale moulds, and set these in a pan containing hot water which almost reaches the top of the moulds. Let bake in a moderate oven for fifteen or twenty minutes or until well set. Turn out on a hot, flat dish and serve with tomato sauce or bread sauce.

SAVOURY EGG TIMBALES

Make the foregoing recipe, but add 1 tablespoon of chopped onion and 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, or substitute minced shallots, chives, or onion tops.

EGG-TOMATO TIMBALES

Make plain egg timbales, but instead of using milk use 1 cup of tomato juice from canned tomatoes. Add 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, or chives if desired.

PEA TIMBALES

Take 1 1/2 cups of boiled peas, put them through a ricer, or mash to a pulp, and when cooled add to this 2 lightly beaten eggs, 1 teaspoon of chopped mint, 1 teaspoon of grated onion (or chopped chives), 2 tablespoons of melted butter, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1 saltspoon of pepper. Fill timbale moulds, set in a pan containing some hot water, and cook in a moderate oven fifteen or twenty minutes or until well set. Turn out and serve with sauce.

CORN TIMBALES

Take 1 cup of canned corn and add to it 4 eggs slightly beaten, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, a little paprika, 1/2 teaspoon of onion juice, 1/2 teaspoon of sugar, and 1 1/4 cups of milk. Pour into buttered timbale moulds, or a large mould, and set in hot water, and bake in the oven about twenty minutes or until firm. Turn out and garnish with slices of broiled tomatoes.

POTATO AND CHEESE TIMBALES

Take 6 or 7 good-sized potatoes, boil and mash them, and beat into them 4 tablespoons of butter and 2 eggs; then add 1 cup of grated cheese, 1 teaspoon of salt, and some paprika, press into small moulds or cups, and let cook as directed above for about twenty minutes. Turn from the moulds, and serve with a sauce of melted butter to which is added a little grated cheese, paprika, and chopped parsley.

POTATO TIMBALES

Beat 3 eggs (yolks and whites together), add to them 1/4 of a cup of cream, then 2 cups of mashed potatoes, 1 teaspoon of grated onion, a little pepper, 1 teaspoon of salt, and some nutmeg; beat together until perfectly smooth, and then press into timbale moulds, the bottoms of which are covered with buttered paper. Stand these in a shallow pan containing boiling water in the oven, and let cook for about twenty minutes. Then loosen the sides with a thin knife, and turn out carefully onto a heated flat dish. Garnish with peas or macedoine vegetables, or use as a garnish.

RICE TIMBALES

To 1 cup of boiled rice add 1 chopped hard-boiled egg, 1 tablespoon of tomato catsup, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, 2 tablespoons of melted butter, and 2 well-beaten eggs. Fill well-buttered timbale moulds with this mixture, set them in a pan containing warm water, and bake in a slow oven for twenty minutes, or until well set.

Timbale cases, pastry cases, ramekins, or patties may be filled with any of the following recipes and served as a separate course at luncheon or dinner.

ARTICHOKE PATTIES

Boil Jerusalem artichokes as directed, cut in half-inch cubes, cover with a highly seasoned white sauce, and use to fill patties or cases.

ASPARAGUS PATTIES

Use only the tender ends of white or green canned asparagus, heat in white sauce, and use to fill cases or patties.

CELERY PATTIES

Use celery prepared as in creamed celery, only cut the stalks into inch-long pieces. Fill heated pastry cups or patties with the mixture.

CHESTNUTS IN CASES

Peel 2 cups of Italian chestnuts, and blanch them by pouring boiling water on them and letting them stay in it until the skins remove easily; then cut them in quarters, put them in boiling water, and boil them half an hour or until soft. While they are finishing cooking put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and let it cook slowly until a rich dark brown then add to it 1 tablespoon of flour, and stir until as smooth as it will come, then add 1 1/2 cups of milk and 1 teaspoon of caramel or soup-browning, and season highly with salt and pepper. Put the chestnuts in the sauce, and fill pastry cases with the mixture.

PATTIES OF FRESH GREEN PEAS

Use fresh green peas boiled as directed, or use canned French peas; reheat in white sauce, and use to fill patties or timbale cases. A little finely chopped mint can be added to the sauce if liked.

EGG PATTIES

Hard boil the eggs required, chop fine when cold, and reheat in parsley sauce, and use to fill heated cases or patties, or use eggs Newburg for filling.

MACEDOINE PATTIES

Use imported macedoine of vegetables, heat in a double boiler with white sauce, and use as patty filling in heated cases.

MUSHROOM PATTIES

Cut fresh mushrooms in quarters, toss them in melted butter for five minutes, then cover them with white or brown sauce, and serve in heated cases or patties. Any of the recipes given for mushrooms can be used to fill patty cases, mushrooms Newburg being especially suitable.

CANNED MUSHROOM PATTIES

Toss the mushroom buttons in hot butter for five minutes, cover them with white sauce, and use to fill heated patties.

"As I was hurrying away from the slaughter-house, three beautiful lambs were led in by a man, with a long, shining knife. Filled with horror and indignation, I said: 'How can you be so cruel as to put to death those little, innocent lambs?' 'Why, madam,' said the man, 'you wouldn't eat them alive, would you?'"

SAUCES

CARAMEL FOR COLOURING

Put 1/2 cup of powdered sugar in a small saucepan over a very low fire, stir with a wooden spoon until melted, and continue to stir until it is a rich brown; add 2 cups of warm water, and let it simmer for fifteen or twenty minutes, then skim and strain, and bottle for use in giving a rich colour to soups and sauces.

Ready-made vegetable extracts of good dark colour can be bought, and are one of the few things which seem better than the home-made product.

REDUCED VINEGAR

This adds a delicious flavour to many sauces, vegetables, and soups, and is made by putting vinegar, with a little salt and pepper, in a saucepan and letting it boil rapidly until reduced, the proportions being 2 tablespoons of vinegar, 1 saltspoon of salt, and a pinch of pepper cooked until reduced to 1 teaspoon of liquid. Strain before using.

SAUCE BERNAISE

Into 1 tablespoon of reduced vinegar beat slowly the yolks of 4 eggs to which has been added 2 tablespoons of cold water, and when well mixed hold in a small saucepan above a slow fire; put in a small bit of butter, and when melted stir in another, and so continue until 1 1/2 tablespoons have been used. When the sauce is smooth and creamy, season with salt and pepper or paprika, and add 1/2 teaspoon of tarragon vinegar, or 1 teaspoon of minced tarragon leaves. The sauce cannot be served very hot or it will curdle. It may be served cold also.

BLACK BUTTER SAUCE

Put 3 or 4 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan with 1 saltspoon of salt and a little pepper, and let cook slowly until browned; then add 1 teaspoon of reduced vinegar or lemon juice, and serve hot.

BREAD SAUCE

Put 1 large slice of bread, cut an inch thick, into 2 cups of milk with 1 onion with 4 cloves stuck in it, add pepper, salt, and 1 teaspoon of butter. Let simmer until the bread is quite soft, lift out the onion and cloves, beat well with a fork, and serve. Serve fine golden brown bread crumbs with the sauce, as these belong with it.

BROWN SAUCE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when well browned, remove from fire, add 1 tablespoon of flour, stirring until smooth; then add gradually 1 cup of vegetable stock or milk, and, when all is smooth and well thickened, 1/2 teaspoon of brown colouring, and salt and pepper. It improves the flavour to let the stock to be used simmer for ten minutes with 1 bay leaf and 1/2 an onion added to it.

VARIATIONS OF BROWN SAUCE

Add chopped button mushrooms, chopped fried peppers, tiny pearl onions, boiled eggs, etc., to vary brown sauce.

SAUCE BORDELAISE

To 1 cup of brown sauce add 1 teaspoon of grated onion, 3 minced fresh mushrooms (or 1 tablespoon of chopped canned ones), 2 teaspoons of chopped parsley, and salt and pepper. Stir over a slow fire for five minutes before serving.

DRAWN BUTTER

Melt 4 tablespoons of butter, and stir in until smooth 2 tablespoons of flour; then add slowly 2 cups of boiling vegetable stock, 1 teaspoon of salt, and a little cayenne or paprika.

CURRY SAUCE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted stir into it 1 large onion chopped fine, and let simmer for six or seven minutes; then add 1 sour apple chopped fine (or, if it can be had, 1 tablespoon of tamarind chutney), stir for three or four minutes, then add 1/2 cup of strong vegetable stock or water, and let cook gently for five minutes; pour on another 1/2 cup of vegetable stock and 1 cup of milk, into which 1 dessert spoon of curry powder has been stirred until smooth; let all boil up once, then press through a sieve, pressing well to get the juices, return to the fire, and to thicken, use 1 tablespoon of flour blended with 1 tablespoon of butter to every cup of liquid. Stir until the consistency of thick cream, and add a little salt before serving. The quantity of curry powder here named will make a mild curry sauce.

CAPER SAUCE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of flour and stir until smooth. Now add, a little at a time, 2 cups of vegetable broth, and stir until it boils and is smooth. Put in 2 heaping tablespoons of capers and 1 chopped hard-boiled egg, and season well with salt and pepper. One tablespoon of cream may be added at the last to enrich the sauce if desired.

CHEESE SAUCE

Make 1 cup of highly seasoned white sauce, and add to it 1 scant cup of grated cheese; stir in a double boiler until the cheese is melted, then add a few drops of yellow colouring extract, and salt and paprika.

FRENCH CUCUMBER SAUCE

Grate 1 cucumber and drain it well, then add to it 1/2 teaspoon of salt, a dash of cayenne, and 1 tablespoon of vinegar.

DUTCH BUTTER

To every tablespoon of melted butter add 1 teaspoon of lemon juice; season with salt.

DEVILLED SAUCE

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 tablespoon of chopped onion, and let cook slowly for five minutes. Then add 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, 2 tablespoons of vinegar, 1 tablespoon of walnut or mushroom catsup, 1 tablespoon of English mustard, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of black pepper, and a little cayenne. Thicken with 1 tablespoon of flour, and when smooth add enough vegetable stock to make the consistency of cream. The sauce may be used as it is or pressed through a sieve to strain.

EGG SAUCE

To 1 cup of well-made white sauce add 2 hard-boiled eggs chopped fine, and 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, and a little salt and paprika.

FRENCH SAUCE

Rub together 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 of butter, and put in a saucepan; as it melts add slowly 1 cup of boiling water or vegetable stock, let boil, stirring constantly, then remove from the fire, and when somewhat cooled add the juice of 1 lemon, 2 tablespoons of tarragon or chervil vinegar, 2 egg-yolks slightly beaten, and salt and pepper.

GERMAN SAUCE

Make brown sauce, add 1/2 can halved button mushrooms and 1 tablespoon of reduced vinegar, and season with salt and pepper.

GERMAN EGG SAUCE

Mix 3 beaten egg-yolks with 1 teaspoon of flour, 1 scant cup of cream or milk, 1 tablespoon of butter, and 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, season with salt and pepper, and beat vigorously, until thickened, over a hot fire, but do not let the sauce boil at all. Add 1 hard-boiled egg, chopped fine, and 1 tablespoon of minced parsley before serving.

HERB SAUCES

Make a good white sauce and to each 2 cups of sauce add the herbs selected, prepared as follows: Take a handful of the leaves, and after washing them well put them in a pan with a little salted boiling water; let cook for five minutes, then drain, and dry with a cloth, and put in a mortar with 1 tablespoon of butter, and macerate until fine; add this to the white sauce. In this way parsley, mint, tarragon, chervil, and other herb sauces can be made.

SAUCE HOLLANDAISE

To 1 tablespoon of reduced vinegar add the yolks of 4 eggs mixed with 2 tablespoons of cold water; stir well together, and cook by holding above a very slow fire, in order to prevent curdling; add 2 tablespoons of butter, stirring it in a little at a time until all is used. Season with salt and pepper and serve warm or cold.

HORSE-RADISH SAUCE

Rub together 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 of flour and put in a saucepan. When melted and smooth from stirring, add slowly 1 1/2 cups of heated milk; when properly thickened by slow cooking, put in 3 tablespoons of grated horse-radish, stir well, season with salt, add 1 teaspoon of butter, and serve on croquettes, etc.

MAÎTRE D'HÔTEL SAUCE

This is made by using sauce Hollandaise and adding to it 1 tablespoon of lemon juice and 1 tablespoon of finely chopped parsley.

MINT SAUCE

Wash the mint and take 1/2 cup of the leaves; chop them fine, macerate in a mortar, then cover with 1 cup of hot vinegar, add 1 teaspoon of sugar, and let stand a few moments before using.

MUSHROOM SAUCE

Make brown sauce and add to it 1/2 can of button mushrooms, halved. Let heat through before serving.

NUT SAUCES

For these use pignola (pine) nuts, almonds, chestnuts, or any other sort. Remove the shells, blanch in boiling water to remove the inner skin, and chop them very fine. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add to it 1 tablespoon of chopped onion, and let cook for five minutes; then add 1/2 cup of chopped nuts and stir until brown, scrape the contents of the pan into a mortar, and pound them well. Blend 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 tablespoon of butter, put in a saucepan, and when melted and smooth add 1/2 cup of milk and 1/2 of the nuts; let cook slowly two or three minutes, add another 1/2 cup of milk and the remaining nuts. Salt well, and add a little pepper; let cook very slowly, and when the sauce is the proper thickness stir in 1 tablespoon of thick cream.

The sauce can be darkened with brown colouring, or by browning the thickening flour in butter.

ONION SAUCE

Chop 4 onions very fine and brown them in 3 tablespoons of butter; add 1 tablespoon of flour, let this brown also, and thin with 1 cup of broth or water or milk. Add pepper and salt, and beat 1 egg-yolk into it before serving. Serve either strained or unstrained.

PARSLEY BUTTER

Put butter in a saucepan, and when melted add finely chopped parsley and some salt, using 1 teaspoon of parsley to every tablespoon of butter used. Serve on boiled potatoes, asparagus, etc.

PARSLEY SAUCE

Into 2 cups of white sauce stir 1 beaten egg and 2 tablespoons of finely chopped parsley.

SAUCE PROVENÇAL

To 1 cup of Spanish sauce add 1 tablespoon of white wine, 2 tablespoons of tomato sauce, and 1 tablespoon of chopped chives, and cook together slowly ten minutes before serving. Season with salt and pepper before serving.

PIQUANT SAUCE

Put 4 tablespoons of vinegar in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of chopped shallots or onions, and let cook slowly until only 1 tablespoon remains; add to this 1 cup of Spanish sauce, and when at boiling point put in the sauce 2 teaspoons of minced sour pickles, 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, and some salt and pepper; serve with croquettes or vegetables.

SAUCE RAVIGOTE

Ravigote is merely the name applied to the mixture of herbs combined with flavouring for this sauce. These are chives, cress, burnet and chervil, in equal proportions. Use 2 tablespoons of the mixed herbs, scald them in tarragon vinegar, drain them, chop them fine, and add them to 1 cup of plain mayonnaise.

SAUCE ROBERT

This is made by adding to 1 cup of Spanish sauce 2 tablespoons of white wine, 1 teaspoon of onion juice, and 1 1/2 teaspoons of mustard mixed with 2 teaspoons tarragon vinegar. Season, and make hot in a double boiler, letting all cook slowly together ten minutes.

SPANISH SAUCE

This is a rich sauce which is used as a basis for many sauces, and can be made at a leisure time and used any time within a few days. Any stock in which vegetables have been cooked may be used, but the best one is made as follows: Wash 4 or 5 cups of red beans or lentils, and after soaking them in 2 quarts of water for ten hours or more empty them with the same water into a saucepan, and put with them 3 onions halved, 3 sprigs of parsley, 1 cup of carrots quartered, 1/2 cup of diced turnips, 1 tablespoon of salt, 2 stalks of celery cut in short lengths, and a small bag containing 1 teaspoon of thyme, 2 bay leaves, 6 cloves, 6 whole peppers, and 1 teaspoon of allspice berries. Let boil hard for one minute, then set on the stove where it will simmer slowly for two hours. Strain the broth through a fine sieve, and use the vegetables in a stew, a deep pie, or a curry. To finish the Spanish sauce put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and when melted stir into it 2 tablespoons of flour and let brown, stirring constantly; then add a little stock at a time until about 2 cups have been used and the sauce is the consistency of thick cream. Darken with 1 teaspoon of brown colouring, add 1 tablespoon of sherry, and pepper and salt.

SPINACH SAUCE

Put 1 cup of freshly cooked or canned spinach, from which the juice has been pressed, into a basin or mortar, and chop or mash to a pulp. Melt 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, add to it 1 small onion chopped fine, let cook slowly for five minutes, then add the spinach, and let cook for ten minutes more. Put 1 cup of milk into a double boiler with 1 bay leaf, 1 stalk of celery (or some celery seed), and when it boils add 1 tablespoon of flour blended with 1 tablespoon of butter; season with salt and pepper, and when thickened stir the spinach into this, sprinkle with grated nutmeg, and let cook together for ten minutes. Press through a sieve before serving.

SAUCE TARTARE

Make a plain mayonnaise sauce (see Salads), and to each cup add 1 teaspoon of gherkins and 2 teaspoons of capers, both very finely minced; sprinkle a little cayenne on the sauce before serving.

TOMATO SAUCE

Use 6 fresh tomatoes, and after washing them slice them, skins and all. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 2 tablespoons of finely chopped onion, let cook slowly for five minutes, then put with them the tomatoes, 2 bay leaves, 1 clove of garlic, 1 teaspoon of sugar, some pepper and salt, and let cook gently for fifteen minutes; then strain, pressing through a sieve, and return the liquid to the fire to simmer until reduced to the proper consistency.

TOMATO SAUCE WITH OTHER VEGETABLES

Make tomato sauce, using with it chopped celery, chopped peppers, or chopped mushrooms, which have been fried for ten minutes in hot butter and added after the sauce is strained.

TOMATO SAUCE WITH NUTS

Chop 2 tablespoons of blanched nuts, fry them for ten minutes in 1 tablespoon of melted butter, and add these to strained tomato sauce.

TOMATO SAUCE WITH EGG

To each cup of strained tomato sauce add 2 hard-boiled eggs chopped fine.

SAUCE VINAIGRETTE

To each cup of French dressing add 1 tablespoon of minced onion and 1 tablespoon of macerated parsley.

WHITE SAUCE

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and as soon as it is melted stir into it slowly 3 tablespoons of flour, using 1 tablespoon at a time, then add slowly 2 cups of warm vegetable stock or milk, stirring all the while; then add 2/3 of a teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of pepper, and cook slowly for five minutes, stirring constantly; add 1 tablespoon of butter, and stir for another minute. Some flour thickens more than others, and if the sauce seems too thick, thin with a little cream or milk.

White sauce may be varied in many ways by using onion juice, mushroom catsup, chopped chives, etc.

The white sauce may be made in a double boiler. Put the milk in the top receptacle, and when boiling add the flour dissolved in a little cold milk, then the butter, etc., and let cook ten minutes or until thickened.

Some people are not to be persuaded to taste of any creatures they have daily seen and been acquainted with whilst they were alive.--In this behaviour, methinks there appears something like a consciousness of guilt; it looks as if they endeavoured to save themselves from the imputation of a crime (which they know sticks somewhere) by removing the cause of it as far as they can from themselves.

From the Essays of Douglas Jerrold.

EGGS

BOILED EGGS

Eggs are very palatable when put in boiling water and cooked for three or three and a half minutes, but some cooks recommend that "boiled eggs" should never boil, but instead, be placed in a large saucepan which is filled with water that has boiled and just been removed from the fire. The instructions are to cover the saucepan closely after putting the eggs in the water, and let it stand on the back of the stove, the eggs to be removed in ten minutes if wanted soft, and in twenty minutes if liked well set. Hard-boiled eggs are certainly more palatable cooked in this way than when boiled for ten minutes in the ordinary way.

FRIED EGGS

Put a little butter into a small frying pan, and when melted break an egg into a saucer, and slide it carefully into the hot butter, and let it fry until the white is thoroughly set, cooking as many as are required, separately, in the same way. If a tight cover is put over the frying pan when the egg is put in, the yolk of the egg will be as pink as a nicely poached egg when done. Season with pepper and salt before serving. A little Worcestershire sauce or walnut catsup heated in the pan and poured over fried eggs adds variety.

POACHED EGGS

Fill a deep frying pan 2/3 full of hot water, and stir into it one teaspoon of vinegar and 1 teaspoon of salt. When the water reaches boiling point break the eggs carefully one by one into it, remove the pan from the intense heat, cover it, and let the eggs cook until the whites are firmly set. If the water is shallow the eggs will spread and be more flat, in which case the boiling water must be dipped up over the yolks with a spoon to make them pink; if the water is deep the eggs will be more round than flat. When the eggs are done lift them carefully from the water with a perforated strainer in order to drain off the water thoroughly, and serve them on hot toast.

POACHED EGGS WITH GRAVY

Poach eggs and serve them with Sauce Bernaise, or any piquant sauce.

POACHED EGGS INDIENNE

Poach the number of eggs required, and after placing them on toast pour over them a thin curry sauce.

EGGS WALDORF

Place nicely poached eggs on toast, and fit a freshly cooked mushroom as a cap over each yolk. Surround the toast with brown sauce containing quartered mushrooms.

SCRAMBLED EGGS

Break six or more into a bowl, beat them lightly with a fork, and pour them into a frying pan into which 1 tablespoon of butter has been melted; stir continually over a very slow fire until they are well set, seasoning them meanwhile with pepper and salt, and adding another 1/2 tablespoon of butter in small pieces during the cooking. Serve with a garnish of small triangular pieces of toast. One tablespoon of cream can be added to the eggs before serving if desired. Eggs may be scrambled with milk, using 1/2 cup of milk to 4 eggs, and then proceeding as above.

SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH CHEESE

Make plain scrambled eggs, and when nearly set add 2 tablespoons of grated cheese for every 6 eggs used, and 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley. Serve on toast.

SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH MUSHROOMS, PEAS, ETC.

Scramble 6 eggs, and two or three minutes before removing from the fire add to them a can of button mushrooms cut in slices, lengthwise, and 1 tablespoon of finely chopped parsley. In the same way peas, tomatoes, asparagus tips, chopped sweet peppers, etc., can be used.

SAVOURY SCRAMBLED EGGS

Prepare plain scrambled eggs, and just before taking off the fire add 2 tablespoons of chopped chives (or green stems of young onions or shallots can be used instead), and 1/2 a tablespoon of finely chopped parsley; serve on hot toast.

SCRAMBLED EGGS INDIENNE

Make plain scrambled eggs, and just before serving stir into them 1 tablespoon of cream, into which has been stirred 1 teaspoon of curry powder and 1/2 teaspoon of onion juice. Serve on hot toast.

SPANISH EGGS

For 6 eggs use 1 large tomato and 1 small onion. Chop the onion fine, and fry it five minutes in 1 tablespoon of butter; then add the chopped tomato, and stir another minute over the fire. Now pour in the eggs and scramble them, adding 1 teaspoon of salt and a saltspoon of pepper. Garnish with small triangles of toast.

SHIRRED EGGS

Butter individual gratin dishes, and break into them 1 or 2 eggs as desired. Season with salt and pepper, and a sprinkling of finely chopped parsley, and put into the oven for five minutes, or until the eggs are set. Place each dish on a small plate with a paper doily.

SHIRRED EGGS WITH TOMATOES

Use as many shallow, individual gratin dishes as there are persons to be served, and, after buttering each dish, break into it 1 egg, taking care not to break the yolk. Halve some small tomatoes, and set one half, cut side up, in each dish; season the whole with pepper and salt, and set in the oven for ten minutes or less.

GRIDDLED EGGS

Heat a griddle and butter it slightly, and break upon it 3 or 4 eggs, disturbing the yolks so as to break them. When a little browned on one side turn them with a cake-turner and fry the other side.

PLAIN OMELET

Put 3 or 4 eggs in a bowl and beat them ten or twelve times with a fork vigorously. Put 1 scant tablespoon of butter in a frying pan, and as soon as melted turn in the eggs and shake over a slow fire until they are set; season with salt and pepper, turn the omelet together as it is let to slide from the pan, and place on a hot dish. Make several small omelets rather than one large one, and place on white paper doilies, and garnish with parsley to serve. The trick of shaking an omelet is the secret of making a good one, and the egg mixture should be not over 1/2 an inch deep in the pan.

OMELET SOUFFLÉ

Take 4 to 6 fresh eggs, separate the yolks and whites, and beat each until as light as possible. Butter a deep frying pan, mix the yolks and whites lightly together with a fork, and put in the hot frying pan, smoothing somewhat with a fork to level. Season the top with pepper and salt, and shake over a slow fire until the omelet is delicately browned on the bottom; turn it together and serve on a hot platter.

HERB OMELET

Make like plain omelet, stirring with every 4 eggs used 1 teaspoon each of powdered thyme, or sweet marjoram, sage, chopped onion tops or chives, and parsley.

CHEESE OMELET

For omelet soufflé made with 6 eggs add 1/4 cup of grated cheese to the yolks of the eggs, and 1/4 cup to the beaten whites before putting them together.

In making plain omelet with cheese add 1/4 cup of cheese to 4 eggs after they are in the omelet pan. Sprinkle with grated cheese to serve, and garnish with watercress or parsley.

RUM OMELET

Make an omelet soufflé, put on a hot dish, and pour 1/2 cup of heated rum around it, and light it with a match. Rum is easily made to blaze if a teaspoon is filled with it and a lighted match held under the tip of the spoon. The rum on the platter can then be easily lighted with that in the spoon.

BAKED OMELET SOUFFLÉ

Beat the whites of 6 eggs very stiff and the yolks of 3. Mix the whites and the yolks, using a fork; then stir in the juice of half a lemon and 3 tablespoons of powdered sugar. Heap in a buttered baking dish, and cook in a hot oven about fifteen minutes.

EGGS CARMELITE

Prepare 1 cup of very finely chopped boiled spinach by adding to it 1 teaspoon of butter and 1 saltspoon of grated nutmeg, and put where it will keep warm. Hard boil 6 or 8 eggs, then cut each carefully in two, lengthwise; remove the yolks and stir them into the spinach, mashing them well, and mashing all together until the yolks are thoroughly mixed with the spinach; then season with salt and pepper and neatly fill the halves of the whites of the eggs with the spinach. Make a sauce with 2 cups of milk, 1 teaspoon of butter, and 2 tablespoons of flour, a dash of paprika, and 1 cup of grated cheese. When this has thickened arrange 2 or 3 halved eggs in each individual gratin dish, and pour around them some of the sauce, and set in the oven five minutes to make thoroughly hot, or serve on a large dish garnished with small triangular pieces of toast.

EGG WITH MASHED POTATO

Use a long, narrow gratin dish, and arrange cold mashed potato in it in ridges with a spoon, and make three or four hollows in the surface. Into each of these break an egg, and let all bake in the oven until the eggs are set. Tomato or white sauce can be served with this.

EGGS NEWBURG

Hard boil 6 eggs, plunge them into cold water for a moment, then peel, and when cooled, so they will not crumble in cutting, cut them in half. Have ready a sauce made of 1 cup of cream (or milk) and 3 tablespoons of butter, to which when hot is added 2 tablespoons of sherry, 2 tablespoons of brandy (the latter may be omitted), 1 saltspoon of pepper, and 1 teaspoon of salt. Let cook three minutes, then beat in vigorously the beaten yolks of 4 eggs, stir until thickened, add a dash of paprika, and serve over the hard-boiled eggs on toast.

EGGS LYONNAISE

Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, and when melted add 1 finely chopped onion, and let simmer slowly for eight or ten minutes; then add 1 tablespoon of flour, and stir well until smooth. Add to this 1/2 cup of milk, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1/2 saltspoon of pepper, and let cook three or four minutes only. Pour into a deep gratin dish, and break upon it 6 eggs; sprinkle with 1/2 cup of bread crumbs, and let cook in a moderate oven about five minutes, or until the eggs are set. Serve in the same dish.

DEVILLED EGGS

Hard boil the number of eggs required, halve them, and serve on toast with devilled sauce.

JAPANESE EGGS

Hard boil the number of eggs required, and, after halving them, remove the yolks, and mix them with a little butter (using 1 tablespoon to 6 eggs), pepper, salt, and a little tomato chutney or Harvey sauce. Refill the halved whites with this, and use the eggs to garnish 2 cups of boiled rice. Pour over all 1 cup of white sauce or parsley sauce to serve.

GOLDEN ROD EGGS

Hard boil 5 eggs, take off the shell, and separate the yolks from the whites, chopping the whites fine and pressing the yolks through a sieve, keeping whites and yolks separate. Put 1 cup of milk in a double boiler, and when it boils add to it 1 tablespoon of butter and 1 tablespoon of cornstarch which have been rubbed together, and when the sauce has thickened season it generously with pepper and salt, and stir into it the chopped whites of the eggs. While the sauce is cooking prepare 5 rounds of toast, and place them on a hot dish. Cover each piece of toast with a layer of white sauce, sprinkle this with a layer of the yolks, then more of the white sauce, and the remainder of the yolks, season with salt and pepper, and stand in the oven a moment or two before serving.

FROTHED EGGS

Separate the yolks and whites of as many eggs as are required, putting each yolk in its shell or in a separate dish. Beat the whites until very stiff, and fill a well-buttered custard cup half full of the white of egg; make a hole in the centre, sprinkle with salt, pepper, and lemon juice, and drop a yolk in each cup. Put in a shallow pan of boiling water with a cover on it, and when the eggs are set turn out onto buttered toast. Garnish with parsley butter.

FRIED STUFFED EGGS

Hard boil 6 eggs and halve them carefully, removing the yolks. Put the yolks through a sieve, and rub to a paste with 1 tablespoon of melted butter, salt, pepper, and 1/4 cup of cream or milk, using a little at a time, so as not to use it all unless needed to make the mixture of the right consistency for refilling the halved whites. Carefully fill the places made vacant by the removed yolks, roll the half-egg in beaten egg and crumbs, and fry in deep, hot fat. Serve with 2 cups of white sauce, and add to it 2 tablespoons of diced pickled beets, which makes the sauce pink.

This same effect may be had to some extent by simply using hard-boiled eggs, frying them, and serving with same sauce or white sauce, to which 1 tablespoon of capers has been added.

SWISS EGG TOAST

Melt 1 tablespoon of butter on a shallow or flat dish, and sprinkle over it 1 1/2 tablespoons of grated cheese; then break into the butter 3 eggs, taking care not to break the yolks. Sprinkle well with salt and pepper and 1 1/2 tablespoons of grated cheese mixed with 2 teaspoons of finely chopped parsley. Bake in the oven until the eggs are set, then cut each egg out round with a cutter, and serve on rounds of toast.

EGGS CAROLINA

To serve four persons hard boil 6 eggs, then put them in cold water for one minute, peel 2 of them, chop the whites, and mix with melted butter and 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, and form into nests on 4 pieces of hot "corn bread." Then peel the other 4 eggs, and arrange one on end in each nest. Pour a little parsley butter on each, and season with salt and pepper.

MÜNCHNER EGGS

Hard boil 6 eggs, then peel them, and put each on a leaf of lettuce or cabbage, encircling it with grated horse-radish, and serve with a sauce made of vinegar to which is added salt and dry mustard.

EGGS IN MARINADE

Hard boil the eggs required, then remove the shells, and stick 4 cloves in each egg. Put 2 cups of vinegar on to boil, and rub together a little vinegar, 1/2 teaspoon of mustard, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1/2 teaspoon of pepper, and stir into the boiling vinegar. Place the eggs in a glass jar, and pour the boiled vinegar over them. They can be used in a fortnight, halved or sliced as a garnish or in salads.

EGGS PARISIENNE

Butter as many timbale moulds as are required, and dust the inside with chopped parsley; then break into each an egg, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Set the moulds in water in a shallow pan, and place in the oven until well set or hard. Turn out onto a flat dish, or on individual dishes, and with them serve bread sauce, or any sauce desired.

EGGS PERIGORD

Butter small moulds or cups, then sprinkle them with chopped parsley, and on the bottom (which will be the top when they are turned out) place a symmetrical pattern made of cut beets and truffles or pickled walnuts. Drop one egg into each mould, dredge with salt and pepper, and set the moulds in a pan of boiling water; cover, and let cook until firm. Turn out onto rounds of toast, and serve with a hot tomato sauce, or any savoury sauce.

EGGS WITH CHEESE

Into a shallow round or oval gratin dish, or small individual dishes, put melted butter to cover the bottom, and encircle the outer edge with thinly sliced, rather dry, cheese; inside this break enough eggs to cover the bottom of the dish, taking care not to break the yolks. Season with salt and pepper, and put into the oven until the whites of the eggs are thoroughly set.

EGGS MORNAY

Drop eggs into a buttered baking dish, and then cover them with a highly seasoned white sauce to which some egg-yolks have been added (using 1 yolk to each 1/2 cup of sauce), also salt and paprika. Sprinkle the top with grated cheese, and put in the oven to bake until the egg is firmly set.

CREAMED EGGS

Butter a shallow dish, pour into it 1 scant cup of milk, and let heat. When hot cover the surface with eggs, cover, and let poach on top of stove until set; sprinkle with celery salt, and then cover with cream, and set in the oven for five minutes. Sprinkle the top with finely chopped celery tops to serve. This may be cooked in one large dish or in individual gratin dishes.

EGGS OMAR PASHA

Butter individual gratin dishes, and break 2 eggs into each, taking care not to break the yolks. Slice small onions so the separate rings are unbroken, and place a circle of these rings on the eggs around the edge of the dish. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, then with grated cheese, and bake in a slow oven until the eggs are thoroughly set.

TURKISH EGGS

Butter one large gratin dish or several small ones, break into them enough eggs to cover the bottom, taking care not to break the yolks; put them in a moderate oven until the whites are quite set, and then garnish by putting a few tablespoons of boiled rice on the eggs around the edge of the dish, alternating with button mushrooms, which have been cut in thin slices and mixed with brown sauce. Season with salt and pepper just before serving.

EGGS BEURRE-NOIR

These are best served in individual gratin dishes measuring about four inches across. Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, and let it cook over a slow fire until a rich brown, but not burnt. Add to it 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, and cover the bottom of each gratin dish with the (black) butter; then break into each dish 1 egg, or 2 if required, taking care not to break the yolk. Season with salt and pepper and arrange 8 or 10 capers on each; put in the oven eight or ten minutes, or until the eggs are well set. Set each dish on a doily on a small plate before serving, with a sprig of parsley on the side.

EGGS CREOLE

Take a shallow gratin dish large enough to contain the eggs required, allowing 2 eggs to each person, butter the gratin dish, and break the eggs carefully into it, taking care not to break the yolks; season with pepper and salt, and set in a moderate oven until the whites are stiff; while they are cooking prepare the following garnish which will be sufficient for 6 or 8 eggs. Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan; when melted add 1 onion cut into thin slices, and stir it about three or four minutes. Then add to it 1 tomato which has been peeled and chopped, 1 sweet green pepper cut in very thin slices, each broken in several pieces, and 1/2 can of button mushrooms, which are prepared by draining and washing and cutting lengthwise in 3 or 4 pieces. Let all cook slowly together for eight or ten minutes, stirring carefully and adding more butter if necessary. When nearly cooked season generously with pepper and salt, add 1 tablespoon of tomato sauce, and when the eggs are removed from the oven place this garnish on the eggs, encircling the outer edge. This garnish can be varied as to quantities to suit taste, using more or less tomatoes or onions. This is very nice done in individual gratin dishes, 2 eggs being used in each dish.

EGGS IN SAVOURY BUTTER

Savoury butter is made by melting good butter, and adding to it any chopped herb,--chives, parsley, etc. Put a little of this in individual gratin dishes, and break into them 1 or 2 eggs as desired. Pour a little of the savoury butter over the top of each egg, season with salt and pepper, and put in the oven until the eggs are thoroughly set. If fresh tarragon is available, two nicely shaped leaves crossed on the yolk of the egg make a pretty garnish, or two leaves of lemon verbena may be used instead.

EGG MOULD FOR VEGETABLES

Make egg mixture as for egg timbales, and pour into a buttered ring mould. Cook in pan of water in the oven twenty minutes or until set, and then turn out onto a hot, round, flat dish, and fill the centre with hot button mushrooms which are mixed with tomato sauce, or with peas, either with or without the sauce.

CANUCK EGG TOAST

Sprinkle fresh toast with walnut, mushroom, or any savoury catsup, then heap on it nicely scrambled eggs in which milk has been used, and on top put a generous layer of grated cheese; season with pepper and salt, and put under the oven flame of a gas stove. Let the cheese brown, then remove and garnish the top with slices cut from black pickled walnuts, or a few capers, or with thin strips of pimentos, or chopped chives.

ESCALLOPED EGGS

Hard boil 8 eggs, cut the whites into medium-sized pieces, and press the yolks through a sieve or ricer. Put 1 cup of milk in a double boiler, and with it 1 tablespoon of finely minced onion, shallot, or chives. When the milk boils add to it 1 tablespoon of thickening flour dissolved in a little milk and stir until thickened. Season with 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1/4 teaspoon of pepper, a dash of paprika, and stir in the riced egg-yolks and the diced whites. Serve in small dishes, or covered with crumbs and browned in the oven, or on rounds of toast. One or 2 sweet green peppers finely chopped vary this dish.

I would not enter on my list of friends, though graced with polished manners and fine sense, yet wanting sensibility, the man who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.

Cowper.

CHEESE

CHEESE RAMEKINS

Take 1 cup of bread crumbs and 1 cup of milk, and cook together until smooth; then add 2 tablespoons of melted butter, 1 scant teaspoon of mustard, and 6 tablespoons of grated cheese. Stir over the fire for one minute, then remove, and add salt and cayenne pepper, and the lightly beaten yolks of 2 eggs; afterwards stir in with a fork the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Pour into ramekin dishes, and bake for fifteen minutes in a moderate oven, or cook and serve in a baking dish.

BAKED CHEESE AND BREAD

Soak 1 cup of bread crumbs for two or three minutes in 2 cups of milk, then beat in the yolks of 2 eggs thoroughly beaten, and 1 cup of grated cheese, and lastly the whites of the 2 eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Put into a buttered baking dish, dot the top with butter, sprinkle with bread crumbs, and bake until a light brown, which will be in from twenty minutes to half an hour.

CHEESE FONDU

Put 1 tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, and when melted add 1 cup of milk, or cream if desired, 1 cup of fine bread crumbs, 2 cups of grated cheese, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1/2 teaspoon of dry mustard, and some cayenne pepper. Stir constantly until well heated through, and then add 2 lightly beaten eggs, and serve on rounds of toast.

CHEESE RELISH

Put 1 cup of milk into a double boiler, season with pepper and salt, and when hot stir in 1 cup of grated cheese, and let cook for five minutes; then add 3 crumbed soda crackers and serve on toast, with a sprinkling of paprika.

CHEESE MÉRINGUES

Beat the whites of 2 eggs to a stiff froth, and stir into them with a fork 2 tablespoons of Parmesan or grated cheese, 2 drops of tabasco, a little salt and paprika; drop 1 tablespoon at a time into hot fat, and fry until brown; then drain and sprinkle with fresh salt and paprika before serving.

CREAMED CHEESE

Make 2 cups of well-seasoned white sauce, add a few drops of golden yellow colouring, stir into it 1/2 cup of cheese cut into dice (or grated if preferred), and when the cheese is softened and hot serve on rounds of toast and sprinkle with paprika.

CHEESE PANCAKES

Make small pancakes of 1 cup of milk, 1 egg, and enough flour to thicken, and spread them with grated cheese moistened with a little melted butter; sprinkle chopped chives mixed with parsley over the cheese, and a dash of any savoury catsup (if liked), season with salt and pepper, roll the pancakes after cooking, and serve as a savoury or luncheon dish.

COTTAGE CHEESE

Take 2 quarts or more of sour milk or cream, and add to it the same quantity of rapidly boiling water, turn into a straining-bag, and hang up until dry. When ready to use, turn out of the bag and rub until smooth; add a seasoning of salt and pepper and a little sweet cream. Beat until light and serve ice-cold. A little cream can be served to eat upon it, if liked.

This can also be made by heating the sour milk or cream and using no water, but the milk must only be heated enough to separate and not enough to boil.

WELSH RAREBIT

Cut in very small thin pieces 1 pound of American cheese; put it in a chafing-dish and stir until melted, then add 1 teaspoon of mustard, some salt, and slowly stir in 1/2 a glass of beer or ale, and season with cayenne or paprika just before serving on toast.

BACHELOR'S RAREBIT

Make Welsh rarebit, and five minutes before serving stir into it 1 tablespoon of chopped green peppers and 1 tablespoon of chopped Spanish pimentos.

DELMONICO RAREBIT

Cut in small pieces 1 pound of American cheese, put it in a chafing-dish and stir until melted; then add 1/2 a glass of beer or ale, some salt and cayenne or paprika, 1 teaspoon dry mustard, the yolk of 1 egg, then the whipped white of the egg, and serve at once on toast. The white of the egg militates against any "stringiness" which is apt to come from cooking certain sorts of cheese. A little milk can be used, if desired, instead of beer.

PINK RAREBIT

Drain 1 can of tomatoes and put them in a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter; season them well with pepper and salt, and after they have cooked fifteen or twenty minutes add 1 pound of fresh American cheese cut into thin slices, and stir until melted; season generously with salt and pepper, and serve on rounds of toast.

LIPTAUER CHEESE

Remove the paper from the smallest Neufchâtel cream cheese, which is nearer like real Liptauer than any other that can be had in America, and set it in the centre of a plate; surround it with 1 teaspoon of paprika, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, a small mustard spoon of French mustard, a piece of fresh butter half the size of the cheese, 2 teaspoons of minced onion, and 1 teaspoon of capers. The "Liptauer" should be blended at the table with a silver knife. Add first the butter, then the capers, then the onion, then the seasoning, and make into a cream. Serve on brown or white bread, or crackers.

ROQUEFORT CHEESE GOURMET

Cream 1/2 pound of Roquefort cheese with 1 tablespoon of butter and some salt and 1 tablespoon of sherry, and serve on water crackers.

CAMEMBERT CHEESE

A pretty way to serve Camembert cheese is to place the cheese, when removed from its box and paper, on a round paper doily on a large plate, and surround it with a heavy wreath of watercress and radishes cut to look like flowers.

CHEESE "DREAMS"

Cut fresh cheese into thin slices, spread with made mustard, sprinkle with paprika, lay between two trimmed slices of bread, and toast on both sides until nicely browned, using a very slow fire.

GRATED CHEESE

Instead of throwing away bits of dried cheese these should be grated and put in a wide mouthed, covered glass jar.

"If Plutarch's advice, that those who affirm that they were intended by nature for a diet of flesh food, 'should themselves kill what they wish to eat,' were always followed, the question would to most take on a different aspect. Few can endure unmoved the horrible sights of the slaughter-house; far less could they participate in the slaughter."

SALADS

There is no end to the combinations of vegetables for salads; the few here given are the best ones I have tried. The dressing should never be put on a fresh green salad until just as it is to be used; other salads, like potato, beans, etc., are sometimes improved by standing. Lettuce for salads should be carefully looked over; and clean, inner leaves not washed unless they are muddy; but all the leaves used which are washed should be thoroughly dried before adding the dressing. In France the salad basket is one of the most used kitchen utensils, and the salad leaves after washing are shaken in this until absolutely dry. The dressing should be very well mixed with the vegetables, and a little dry salt and pepper added as the salad is served.

FRENCH DRESSING

An absolute rule for making good salad dressing is an almost impossible thing, as this seems to be the one place in cookery where it is not only allowable but commendable to "guess" at proper proportions. The following is as nearly accurate as it seems well to be. Put 1 scant teaspoon of salt and 1 saltspoon of black pepper in a bowl, and stir into them with a wooden fork, very slowly, 3 or 4 tablespoons of fresh oil, and then add half as much or less vinegar, mixing it well with the oil.

TARRAGON VINEGAR

Good tarragon vinegar can be bought in any city, but it is so easily prepared at home that it is worth doing. Put a handful of tarragon in a quart jar, and cover with cold or heated vinegar. Seal the jar and set it in a dark place for a month or so before using.

Make chervil vinegar in the same way.

PLAIN MAYONNAISE DRESSING

Put 2 chilled egg-yolks in a cold soup plate, and stir into them 1 teaspoon of salt and 1/2 teaspoon of mustard, using a silvered spoon, and after these are well mixed in begin to add oil, actually drop by drop, from 1 scant cup of cool olive oil, and do this until the eggs are so thickened that it is not possible to make them more so; then the remaining oil may be added less slowly. If this first process is not properly done, no amount of stirring will ever thicken the sauce. A fork or whisk may be used to finish the stirring. When the oil is added, beat in slowly 1 tablespoon of vinegar, and 1 of lemon juice, and 1/2 saltspoon of cayenne pepper. Put on the ice until wanted.

Tarragon mayonnaise is made by substituting tarragon vinegar for plain vinegar.

GREEN COLOURING FOR MAYONNAISE

This may be made of mixed herbs or spinach. If herbs are used take 1 tablespoon of parsley, 1 of watercress, and 1 of chervil, put them into boiling water, let them cook eight minutes, then drain and pound in a mortar, and press the pulp through a fine sieve. Use this with mayonnaise to make a light delicate green colour.

If spinach is used press 1 tablespoon of chopped spinach through a sieve, and use it to colour the sauce.

SALAD CHEESE BALLS

Use equal quantities of Neufchâtel cheese and grated American (or Parmesan) cheese, sprinkle with cayenne, and dampen with a little melted butter. Shape into tiny balls and use very cold as a salad garnish.

AMERICAN SALAD

Use 1 cup of scraped thinly sliced celery, 1 cup of diced apples, 1/2 cup of chopped English walnuts, and 1/2 cup of seeded white grapes. Mix well with mayonnaise, and serve on large curled lettuce leaves.

ARTICHOKE SALAD

Use cold boiled fresh artichokes, remove the thistles, and fill the artichokes with finely minced chopped onion, apple, and beet, blended with green mayonnaise; serve extra mayonnaise in which to dip the artichoke leaves.

GREEN BEAN SALAD

Put a can of good "stringless" beans on the ice an hour before wanted, open, drain, and arrange in a salad bowl with 2 teaspoons of grated or finely chopped onion and 1 cup of French dressing. Serve ice-cold.

WAX BEAN SALAD

Make like the preceding, using 1 tablespoon of chopped chives or shallots, or green onion tops instead of chopped onion.

BEET SALAD WITH CELERY

Cut boiled beets in thin slices and use a vegetable cutter to cut them into fancy shapes. Mix 1 cup of beets with 1 cup of thinly sliced celery, cover well with mayonnaise, serve on lettuce leaves.

CABBAGE SALAD

Slice firm white cabbage as thin as possible, then cut it across, mix it with mayonnaise dressing, and serve on small white cabbage leaves.

CELERY AND PINEAPPLE SALAD

Use equal parts of thin strips of celery and shredded pineapple. Select a perfectly ripe pineapple. Put the celery and pineapple each by itself, and place on the ice. When time to serve mix them together with mayonnaise, garnish with celery leaves, and serve at once.

CHERRY SALAD

When fresh cherries are available they are best, but the large cherries in glass bottles are also suitable. Remove the stones from fresh cherries, and in their places put blanched filberts or hazelnuts. Put on curled lettuce leaves with a tablespoon of green mayonnaise on each.

CUCUMBER SALAD

Soak 2 unpeeled cucumbers in ice-cold water for twenty minutes or more, then peel and use a patent scraper on the sides to serrate the edges, or do this by drawing a silver fork firmly down the length of the cucumber; this will make the slices have fancy edges. Slice, and arrange with small white lettuce leaves in a salad bowl. Cover with French dressing and add a sprinkling of paprika to the salad itself before serving. Some sliced radishes may be added if liked.

COUNTRY SALAD

Use 1 cup each of finely sliced firm white cabbage, diced celery, and chopped apple; mix them well with mayonnaise dressing, and serve in the inner leaves from the cabbage.

RUSSIAN CUCUMBER SALAD

Prepare like plain cucumber salad, but put with the sliced cucumbers 1 small onion sliced thin, with the slices separated into rings. One tablespoon of chives may be added, or more chives used and the onion slices omitted.

DENT DE LION SALAD

Take young dandelion leaves, trim off all the stem below the leaf, and mix with a French dressing to which has been added onion juice or chopped chives; use 1 tablespoon of either to each cup of dressing. Hard-boiled eggs, sliced or chopped, are sometimes used to garnish this salad.

PINK EGG SALAD

Boil 6 or 8 eggs for ten minutes, put in cold water for two or three minutes, then peel and put in a jar of pickled beets, well covered with vinegar. Let them stand a few hours and serve with the beets.

ENDIVE SALAD

Wash heads of endive and use the crisp, white, light leaves. Shake dry and cover with French dressing. Add 1 teaspoon of minced onion before dressing.

FETTICUS OR CORN SALAD

Wash 2 cups of fetticus and dry the leaves well, then cover with French dressing, and add 1 teaspoon of grated onion.

GARDEN SALAD

Take a handful of sorrel, 2 sprigs of chervil, 4 leaves of tarragon (or use tarragon vinegar), 1 teaspoon of chopped chives, and the small leaves from the heart of a head lettuce. Blend all well with French dressing.

GRAPE-FRUIT SALAD

Wash and shake dry the fine leaves from a head lettuce, and arrange with them in layers very thin slices of grape-fruit; mix well with French dressing before serving.

ITALIAN SALAD

Having prepared 2 nice heads of head lettuce, arrange them in the salad bowl with 2 seedless oranges which have been neatly peeled, and cut into thin slices with a very sharp knife. Season with salt and pepper, and then mix thoroughly with French dressing. The oranges and lettuce should have been chilled so that the salad will be very cold.

LETTUCE SALAD

Pull apart a fresh head lettuce, breaking the leaves neatly from the stalk, and wash those that need it and shake them dry. Put in a salad bowl with French dressing or sauce vinaigrette, and mix well together before serving.

MACEDOINE SALAD

Open a glass or can of imported macedoine of vegetables, drain, and cover with French dressing. Arrange with lettuce leaves in a bowl or on separate plates. Freshness can be added by a tablespoon of chopped chives, or shallots, or parsley.

SPECIAL MIXED SALAD

Use 1 cup of chopped tomato, 1 cup of chopped cucumber, 1/2 cup of thinly sliced radishes, 1/2 cup of chopped apple, and 2 tablespoons of the German pearl pickled onions. Mix all together with 1 cup of mayonnaise, and arrange in a salad bowl with lettuce leaves, which should be used to hold the salad in serving.

MUSHROOM SALAD

Select fresh, firm mushrooms that are small, wash them carefully without peeling, and stir them in French dressing that contains rather more oil than usual. Put 1 crisp lettuce leaf on each plate, fill it with the mushrooms, sprinkle with salt and a little paprika, and serve very cold.

NARRAGANSETT SALAD

Wash and shake dry the fine white centre of endive or chicory, and arrange with it quartered tomatoes from which the skin has been removed; serve with a French dressing to which a tablespoon of chopped parsley, 1/2 teaspoon of chopped onion, and 1 finely chopped egg has been added.

PHILADELPHIA SALAD

Select large tomatoes, remove the skins by putting in boiling water, cut out the inside, and refill with finely chopped pineapple, celery, and apple in equal proportions, all well blended with plain mayonnaise. Serve on lettuce leaves on separate plates, or use watercress instead of lettuce.

PIMENTO SALAD WITH CHEESE BALLS

Mix 2 Neufchâtel cheeses with 1 cup of grated cheese, and when creamed together add 6 olives stoned and chopped fine and 1 teaspoon of chopped pimento; season generously with salt and pepper, moisten with cream, and mould into balls an inch and a quarter through. Pimolas (which are olives stuffed with pimentos) can of course be used if more convenient, and a few drops of onion extract or a very little onion juice adds piquancy to the cheese balls. Take lettuce which has been in cold water and is therefore crisp, shake it dry, and arrange with it pimentos cut in long half-inch strips, mix thoroughly with a French dressing, and garnish with the cheese balls.

POLISH SALAD

Use boiled beets, sliced and mixed with French dressing, and over all sprinkle chopped white of hard-boiled egg.

A little grated horse-radish is sometimes used with good effect in beet salad.

GERMAN POTATO SALAD

Boil 6 medium-sized potatoes, and after draining shake them over the fire a moment or two to dry; then peel and slice while warm, and cover at once with a dressing made of 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 saltspoon of black pepper, 1 tablespoon of chopped parsley, 1 chopped onion, 5 tablespoons of oil, and 3 tablespoons of vinegar. Mix and let stand on ice for an hour or so, then put with crisp lettuce leaves in a salad bowl, and garnish with chopped boiled or pickled beets.

AMERICAN POTATO SALAD

Mix cold sliced boiled potatoes with mayonnaise dressing and add 1 tablespoon of capers.

RED POTATO SALAD

Use equal quantities of boiled beets (canned ones are convenient) and boiled potatoes. Dice both and mix well together, adding 1 tablespoon of vinegar. Let stand until the potatoes are reddened, then add 1 tablespoon of grated onion, mix well with French dressing, and garnish with slices of hard-boiled egg. Place in a salad bowl, with fine white cabbage or crisp lettuce leaves.

ROMAINE SALAD

Pick over crisp heads of romaine, let stand a few minutes in cold water, then shake until dry, and serve with French dressing to which grated onion is added, using 1 teaspoon of it to each cup of dressing.

SOUTHERN SALAD

To 2 cups of cold boiled rice add 2 chopped hard-boiled eggs and blend well with mayonnaise. Arrange on crisp lettuce leaves with a garnish of egg slices, and beet, and sliced olives.

SORREL SALAD

A refreshing salad may be made from the sorrel found growing wild. Wash it well, cut the stalks off, and dredge with salt, pepper, celery salt, and then mix with oil, and sprinkle well with tarragon vinegar and a little grated onion.

SPANISH SALAD

Remove the skins from large, solid tomatoes and 1 small cucumber, take the seeds from 1 small sweet green pepper, pare 1 small Spanish onion, and cut all in slices, making the peppers extremely thin. Mix with 1 tablespoon of chopped nasturtium leaves or stems or seeds, and cover with French dressing, mixing well. Let stand on ice an hour before serving. Serve with cheese balls.

SUNDAY-NIGHT SALAD

Wash 1 large head of crisp head lettuce, separate the leaves, rejecting all but perfect ones, and shake them dry. Put them in a large salad bowl, and with them put 1 onion chopped very fine, 5 sliced tomatoes, and the leaves from 3 or 4 sprigs of watercress. At the table dredge the salad generously with salt, and sprinkle with black pepper, covering the entire surface; then pour from an oil bottle 3 or 4 tablespoons of oil over the vegetables slowly, and follow this with about 2 tablespoons of vinegar; add 1 tablespoon of tarragon vinegar, then dredge with celery salt, and add a little cayenne, and mix all together with a wooden fork and spoon, turning the whole mass over and over ten or more times. The bowl may be well rubbed with garlic and the onion omitted.

RUSSIAN TOMATO SALAD

Slice 5 or 6 very small tomatoes, and put with them 2 onions sliced and divided into rings. Cover with French dressing.

SLICED TOMATO WITH CHIVES

Slice 4 tomatoes, put with them 3 tablespoons of chopped chives, and cover with French dressing. Serve on lettuce leaves.

WALDORF SALAD

Use 1 cup of shelled walnuts, broken or chopped, 1 cup of diced tart apple, 1 cup of crisp celery cut in small pieces, and mix well with mayonnaise dressing. Serve on curly lettuce leaves.

WATERCRESS SALAD WITH ORANGES

Cut two inches off the bottom of a bunch of watercress with a sharp knife, wash the cress thoroughly in ice-cold water, drain, and arrange in a salad bowl with 3 seedless oranges cut in thin slices, and mix all together with a dressing made of 1 tablespoon each of tarragon vinegar, olive oil, and brandy; season well with salt and pepper, and serve very cold.

Grape fruit can be substituted for the orange, or equal amounts of orange and grape fruit used.

YOKOHAMA SALAD

Cut into small cubes 2 fresh cucumbers that have been on ice until chilled and then peeled, and put with them 1 diced sour apple, 1 tablespoon of shredded pimentos, 1 small bunch of watercress (using the leaves only), and 2 tablespoons of chopped mint leaves. Mix with French dressing and serve on lettuce leaves.

A SALAD SUPPER

Use large dinner plates, and on each arrange 6 of the large light green leaves from the inner part of head lettuce, putting 5 of them with the stalk-end toward the centre of the plate, and another small one in the centre. Fill the centre leaf with radishes (cut like roses) and olives, and fill the others as follows: In one put 2 tablespoons of canned green beans, well mixed, before putting on the leaf, with a little grated onion and French dressing, on the second put 3 or 4 slices of tomato and 2 teaspoons of mayonnaise, on the third arrange 3 stalks of canned asparagus (white preferred) dipped in French dressing and sprinkled with chopped chives, on the fourth put 2 half-lengths of a quartered cucumber to be dipped in salt in eating, and on the fifth put 1 tablespoon of tiny German pearl onions, 2 pickled walnuts, and 2 gherkins. Serve nut or plain bread, or creamed cheese sandwiches, or all three. This supper may be varied in many ways; one is to use potato salad or beet and egg instead of the beans. This as it stands was the result of an emergency when six persons were suddenly to be served to a late supper and no preparation made. A well-stocked store-room of preserved goods and a small kitchen garden filled the need.

No flocks that range the valley free, To slaughter I condemn; Taught by the power that pities me, I learn to pity them.

Oliver Goldsmith.

SAVOURIES

The savoury begins a meal well, and is a convenient dainty for late suppers. The variety is practically endless, and those given here may be altered and added to indefinitely.

FRESH MUSHROOM "COCKTAILS"

Put a small handleless cup or glass in the centre of a plate and encircle it with 6 of the smallest white leaves of lettuce. On each leaf place 2 small white firm button mushrooms, which have been freshly gathered and carefully washed but not peeled. Fill the cocktail glass three quarters full of sauce made of 1/2 cup of tomato chutney, 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, 2 drops of tabasco (more if liked very hot), and 1/2 teaspoon of salt. Set the plates in the refrigerator for half an hour. Deliciously prepared "Cocktail" sauce can be purchased in bottles.

CANNED MUSHROOM "COCKTAILS"

In each cocktail glass put 8 or 10 button mushrooms, and cover them well with the cocktail sauce. Or use canned cêpes and serve in green pepper cases.

PIMENTO "COCKTAILS"

Cut squares, an inch across, from sweet pimentos (canned), and put 8 or 10 of these in each glass; cover well with cocktail sauce and serve ice-cold, with celery.

BEET SAVOURY

Use 1 large pickled beet and arrange neat slices on squares of bread; in the centre of the beet put a ring of hard-boiled sliced egg, filled with the riced egg-yolk, and fill each corner with chopped chives.

BEET AND EGG SAVOURY

Chop equal parts of pickled beet and the whites of hard-boiled eggs together, and arrange on toast or bread with the riced yolks of the eggs, mixed with a little chopped chives or parsley, in a cone on the centre. Season well.

BROWN-BREAD SAVOURY

Cut brown bread into shapes, spread with butter, then heavily with cream cheese containing some salt, and cross two evenly cut strips of pimento on each piece of bread thus prepared. At the juncture of the strips of pimento place a slice of pimola, and put one in each space on the cheese. Sprinkle with paprika, and put a few capers here and there.

CUCUMBER SAVOURY

Cut bread in rounds and arrange on it neat slices of cucumber, the edges serrated before slicing by drawing a silver fork lengthwise of the cucumber. Sprinkle with salt and paprika, and on each slice put a ring from a small sliced onion, or arrange instead the tiny German pearl pickled onions between the slices of cucumber. Sprinkle a little lemon juice over to serve. A variation is made by using chopped chives only, or each ring of onion may be filled with them.

CREOLE SAVOURY

Toast one side of shaped pieces of bread, and butter the untoasted side, and on it spread a layer of chopped tomato mixed with half as much chopped green pepper and some salt. Put in the oven or under the gas flame for five minutes, and upon removing arrange a cone of finely chopped onion in the centre of each.

EGG SAVOURY

Use fresh bread slightly toasted or less soft bread without toasting. Cut in squares, diamonds, or rounds, and sprinkle with Worcestershire sauce, or any good sauce, then cover neatly with the chopped whites of hard-boiled, well-salted eggs, on which arrange a centre of the riced yolks. Put a round slice from a black pickled walnut on each corner, dot with capers, and sprinkle with paprika.

HORSE-RADISH SAVOURY

Spread oblong pieces of bread thinly with mustard, cover with a layer of chopped whites of hard-boiled eggs mixed with a little grated horse-radish, arrange capers in strips crosswise of the bread, and between these sprinkle the hard-boiled yolks of the eggs which have been riced or pressed through a sieve. At the corners and in the centre place thin slices of gherkins.

MUSTARD SAVOURY

Cut shaped pieces of bread and spread with made mustard. Cover them with chopped hard-boiled eggs mixed with a little chopped chives. Arrange capers in lines or any pattern on this. Season well.

NEUFCHÂTEL SAVOURY

Mix Neufchâtel cheese with 1/4 as much butter and rub to a cream, and then squeeze through a tube onto salted, hot crackers, forming star-like rosettes. Sprinkle with paprika, garnish with capers.

ONION SAVOURY

Use shaped pieces of bread and spread thinly with butter, then arrange a quarter-inch layer of finely minced Spanish onion mixed with chopped parsley and slightly dampened with tomato sauce; put in the centre of each the ring of a slice of hard-boiled egg, with a slice of pickled walnut fitted into it.

PICKLE SAVOURY

Spread any savoury sauce and then cream cheese on oblong pieces of bread, and arrange on this thin slices of small sour pickles in a neat row, lengthwise. Sprinkle with paprika.

STUFFED OLIVE SAVOURY

Arrange on squares of bread spread with tomato or any tart sauce strips of riced yolk of hard-boiled egg; form squares by placing them both ways of the bread, and in each put a ring of the white of hard-boiled egg sliced, and fill the centre with a slice of pimola or any other stuffed olive.

CAPER SAVOURY

Make same as the above using capers to fill the egg rings.

TOMATO MAYONNAISE SAVOURY

Chop tomatoes and mix with them a thick mayonnaise, either plain or flavoured with herbs. Spread on shaped pieces of bread, and garnish with thin rings sliced from green peppers.

TOMATO SAVOURY

Cut rounds of bread the size of the tomatoes to be used and toast one side; then butter the other side and arrange on each a slice of tomato, dredge with salt, pepper, and dry mustard, sprinkle with mushroom catsup or walnut catsup, and set under the burners of a gas stove for five minutes or until heated but not softened. Garnish with watercress to serve.

LIPTAUER SAVOURY

Spread shaped pieces of bread with "Liptauer cheese" and garnish with slices of pickle.

SWEET PIMENTO SAVOURY

Toast fresh bread slightly, cut into shapes and butter one side, and on this arrange a trimmed piece of canned Spanish pimento sprinkled with celery salt, and set under the gas flame of a gas stove for five minutes to heat.

ROUNDS OF TOAST

To make rounds of bread or toast take an empty tin the size required and press it firmly into a slice of bread, thus cutting the round evenly and neatly.

Cutters for cutting vegetables into fancy shapes are convenient for savouries.

One farmer said to me, "You cannot live on vegetable food, for it furnishes nothing to make bones with;" and so he religiously devotes a part of his day to supplying his system with the raw material of bones, walking all the while he talks, behind his oxen, who, with vegetable made bones, jerk him and his lumbering plow along in spite of obstacles.

I have found repeatedly of late years that I cannot fish without falling a little in self-respect.

Henry David Thoreau.

SANDWICHES

The recipes given under Savouries can also be used in making sandwiches, and originality can have full play here as in the making of dainty and appetising savouries.

SAVOURY BUTTER SANDWICHES

Use unsalted or slightly salted butter, and with a silver knife press into it any flavour desired,--onion juice, paprika, various sauces, chopped peppers, or capers,--using 1 teaspoon of minced herbs, etc., to each tablespoon of butter. Spread in sandwiches.

PROVIDENCE HOUSE CLUB SANDWICHES

Cut fresh bread in medium thick slices, trim the four edges, and butter it with butter somewhat softened by warmth. On one side of two slices which belong next to each other put thinly sliced peeled tomatoes, filling in bits to cover the bread neatly. Press 4 or 5 slices cut from pickled walnuts into the juicy parts of the tomatoes, lay 6 or 7 capers also in, and use half a teaspoon of the tiny German pearl onion pickles to each sandwich. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and celery salt, and spread with mayonnaise. Press the other piece of bread firmly on, and wrap in waxed paper for picnics.

Vary with chopped chives, tarragon leaves, French dressing, etc.

APPLE SANDWICHES

Arrange thinly sliced, cored apples between layers of buttered bread from which the crust has been cut. Sprinkle with salt and spread with mayonnaise, into which a few chopped nuts have been mixed.

CREOLE SANDWICHES

Trim and butter squares of bread and fit to them thinly sliced tomatoes, and spread with thin mustard; slice green peppers very thin, and arrange sections of the rings here and there over the tomatoes. Use a little minced chives or shallot, or onions, and season with salt and pepper and lemon juice or some sauce.

BOMBAY SANDWICHES

Spread squares of bread with curry paste, and cover with chopped tomato to which is added a little chopped onion and the same amount of chopped sour apples. Season with salt.

PEANUT-BUTTER SANDWICHES

Spread small oblong pieces of bread, from which the crust is cut, with peanut butter blended with cream, and press firmly together.

EGG SANDWICHES

Break 2 eggs into a frying pan containing a little melted butter and let them spread, breaking the yolk with a spoon after they are in the pan; let them fry until the edges begin to brown, then season with salt and pepper, and sprinkle with chopped chives. Cut pieces out to fit the bread slices to be used, and, after trimming and buttering the bread, arrange them on one side of the sandwich. Use with no other flavouring, or sprinkle with Worcestershire sauce, or spread with mustard. Wrap in waxed paper for picnics.

NUT SANDWICHES

Mix chopped nuts in thick cream or mayonnaise, and spread between slices of bread, either with or without a lettuce leaf. Sprinkle with cayenne.

LETTUCE SANDWICHES

Spread oblong slices of trimmed bread with butter, lay a lettuce leaf between, trimmed to size, and spread with plain or green mayonnaise.

PIMOLA SANDWICHES

Butter small squares of bread and arrange on them sliced pimolas or any stuffed olives, sprinkle with lemon juice, or spread with mayonnaise.

PICKLE SANDWICHES

Slice large pickles and arrange them between buttered bread slices. If German Dill pickles are used and German flavours liked sprinkle with caraway seeds, and use rye bread.

CHEESE SANDWICHES

Cut American or Swiss cheese very thin, spread with mustard, and place a piece, trimmed to the size of the bread used, between two pieces of buttered white or rye bread.

GERMAN SANDWICHES

Use rye or "black" bread, with caraway seeds baked in it, spread the two slices with unsalted butter, and on one arrange thin slices of Swiss cheese; spread this with German or French mustard, and arrange on it 2 or 3 slices of Dill pickles.

HONOLULU SANDWICHES

Pare and core 3 apples, stem and seed 2 sweet green peppers, and put them through a vegetable mill. Mix them into 2 Neufchâtel cheeses, and use as filling for brown or white bread sandwiches.

He prayeth well who loveth well Both man and bird and beast; He prayeth best who loveth best All things both great and small; For the dear God who loveth us, He made and loveth all.

Coleridge.

PASTRY, PATTY CASES, Etc.

PIE-CRUST

Shortened pie-crust is made by using for one pie 2/3 of a cup of flour, with 1/3 of a teaspoon of baking powder and 1/4 of a teaspoon of salt in it. Sift this onto 1/2 a cup of cocoanut butter or 1/2 a cup of butter, or these two in equal proportions, dampen with ice-water, and roll out five or six times. Keep ice-cold until used.

EASY PUFF PASTE

Use a chopping bowl for mixing the paste, and into it put 4 cups of flour (sifted), 1 tablespoon of sugar and 1 teaspoon of salt, adding it a spoonful at a time. Use 2 cups of butter, chopping it into the flour until it is as fine as possible. Beat 2 eggs for five minutes and add to them the juice of one lemon and 1/2 cup of very cold water, and stir this gradually into the paste. When mixed lift the paste to a well-floured pastry board, roll it into a rectangular shape, fold it over onto itself from the four sides, then roll again, and repeat this process four times. Now fold into a thin piece of linen, and place on a plate near the ice in the refrigerator, and let it stand half an hour or more. Roll out again and use for patties, or pie-crust.

TIMBALE CASES

Make a batter of 3/4 of a cup of flour, 1/2 cup of milk in which 1 egg has been beaten, 1 teaspoon of sugar, 1 saltspoon of salt, and at the very last add 1 tablespoon of olive oil. Dip the timbale iron in the batter, then in hot vegetable fat, taking care it does not touch the bottom of the pan. When a golden brown remove and place on paper to drain, and proceed thus until a sufficient number has been made. Fill with chestnuts, mushrooms, etc., in sauce, and reheat in the oven after filling.

BATTER FOR FRITTERS

Make as for timbale cases and dip the vegetables or fruit to be fried in it, and fry until golden brown in hot fat.

PASTRY FOR PATTY PANS OR CASES

Instead of frying-batter for timbale cases a paste can be made with 1 1/2 cups of flour, 1 egg-yolk, and 3 tablespoons of butter well-mixed and dampened to the proper consistency by using perhaps 1/2 cup of cold water. Roll out very thin, about 1/16 of an inch, and press into the small pans or moulds after buttering them. Trim neatly, and press a little cup of buttered tissue paper in each, fill this with rice to protect the inside from too much heat and to keep flat on the bottom, and bake in a rather slow oven. Do not turn out until cooled, and do not fill until wanted.

Ordinary pastry may be used also to line moulds for patty cases, timbales, etc.

POTATO CRUST

Boil good-sized potatoes with the skins on, peel while hot, and press through a ricer or sieve, mix with an equal quantity of white flour or whole wheat flour and a little salt, and dampen with cream. Press together and roll out for top crust of vegetable pies.

ESSEX PASTRY

Mix equal parts of mashed potato and flour pastry, and use baked in small squares as a garnish, or as a covering for deep vegetable pie.

DUMPLINGS

Sift 2 cups of flour, add to it 1 heaping teaspoon of baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and sift again. Stir into this 1 scant cup of milk, or just enough to make a dough that can scarcely be handled without sticking to the fingers. Drop in boiling vegetable stock or into a stew and let boil rapidly ten minutes, taking great care not to uncover the kettle until just as the dumplings are removed. Serve at once in the stew or with brown sauce.

CROUTONS

Cut slices 1/4 of an inch thick of stale bread, and with a knife cut across both ways to make tiny squares. Dry a few moments, then toss in a little hot butter to brown and serve warm.

BREAD CRUMBS

A jar of bread crumbs should always be kept on hand. Use stale bread, break it into bits, and brown it slightly in the oven. Then with a roller, or in a mortar, crumble it and crush it to powdered crumbs. If a jar of light crumbs and one of golden brown crumbs are kept ready, they will be found most convenient.

A small unkindness is a great offence.

Hannah More.

A FEW HOT BREADS

BAKING POWDER BISCUITS

Take 2 tablespoons of butter and sift onto them lightly 2 cups of flour in which 1 heaping teaspoon of baking powder is mixed, and with freshly washed, cool hands mix the flour and butter thoroughly together, then pour on slowly, stirring with a wooden spoon, 1 cup of milk; with most flours this cup of milk or a very little less will make the biscuit dough of the proper consistency, but if too thin or too thick, judgment must be used, as the dough should be so that with well-floured hands it can scarcely be handled, but can with rapid motions be made into a roll which will keep its shape when put on a well-floured bread board. It should then be rolled lightly with a roller to the thickness of three quarters of an inch, and with a biscuit cutter, the edge of which should be dipped in flour before using, cut the rounds quickly out and place them at once in a shallow buttered pan and set in the oven. They should be properly cooked in eighteen or twenty minutes. The smallest sized baking powder tin is exactly the right size for a biscuit cutter.

This same recipe makes dumplings, strawberry short-cake, and the top of vegetable pies.

POP OVERS

Mix 1 saltspoon of salt with 1 cup of flour, and add slowly enough from 1 cup of milk to just make a smooth paste; stir this well, then add the remaining milk and the beaten yolk of 1 egg, and then the white whisked to a stiff froth. Put the batter in buttered gem pans or earthenware cups, and cook in the oven about twenty-five minutes, or until browned and standing very high. Serve at once.

GRAHAM GEMS

Mix 2 cups of whole wheat flour, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of sugar, and stir onto this 1 cup of milk containing the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, then add the beaten whites of the eggs, and put in hot buttered gem pans. Bake about twenty-five minutes.

TENNESSEE CORN BREAD

Beat 2 eggs in a mixing bowl, add 1 heaping teaspoon of granulated sugar, and 1 cup of milk; mix 1/2 cup of white flour, 1 cup of yellow corn meal, and 3 teaspoons of baking powder, and sift these into the milk, stirring constantly. The batter should be thin enough to spread readily when poured into the inch-deep baking pan. Just before pouring in the batter put 1 tablespoon of butter in the baking tin and when it melts, stir the batter into it; this is the secret of crisp brown bottom crust and was learned from an old negro cook. Bake twenty minutes to half an hour or until tinged with brown.

SOUTHERN RICE MUFFINS

With 1 cup of boiled rice put 1 cup of milk, 1 tablespoon of butter, the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, 1 1/2 cups of flour, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and 1 heaping teaspoon of baking powder. After mixing well add the well-beaten whites of the eggs, pour into hot buttered gem pans, and bake in a quick oven from twenty to twenty-five minutes.

RICE GRIDDLECAKES

Mix well together 2 eggs, 2 cups of milk, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 2 cups of flour, 2 teaspoons of baking powder, and 1 1/2 cups of boiled rice. Bake on a hot buttered griddle, browning both sides.

CORN CAKES

In 1 1/2 cups of sour milk put 1 teaspoon of soda, 1 beaten egg, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 scant 1/2 cup of white flour, and thicken with enough yellow corn meal to make a thin batter. Fry a golden brown on a hot buttered griddle.

WHEAT CAKES

Beat 2 eggs lightly and pour over them 2 cups of milk; mix 2 teaspoons of baking powder with 2 cups of flour and 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and sift lightly into the milk, stirring constantly. Cook in small pancakes on a hot buttered griddle.

GINGERBREAD

Beat the yolks of 2 eggs lightly, melt 1/2 cup of butter and add to the eggs, then stir in 1/2 cup of milk, 1 teaspoon of soda, and 1 1/2 cups of dark molasses. Then add slowly 3 cups of sifted flour and 1 tablespoon of ginger, and after beating the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth stir them in with a fork. Bake in an inch-deep baking pan in a slow oven for three quarters of an hour.

SUNDAY MORNING WAFFLES

Beat 2 eggs thoroughly, and add to them 2 cups of milk and 1 saltspoon of salt, and sift into the milk 2 cups of flour containing 2 heaping teaspoons of baking powder, stirring constantly. Some flour thickens more than others, and if more must be added sift it before stirring in. The secret of the excellence of waffles is not getting the batter too thick; it must spread readily when put upon the iron but not run. Melt 1 tablespoon of butter and put it in the batter at the last moment. Butter the hot waffle iron, using a bristle brush an inch or so wide for the purpose, over half-fill the iron with batter (using a large spoon), let one side brown, and then turn, to brown the other. Divide into the four parts indicated by the iron and serve with maple syrup.

God made all the creatures And gave them our love and our fear, To give sign that we and they Are His children,--one family here.

Robert Browning.

PLUM PUDDING AND MINCE PIE

PLUM PUDDING

Blanch 1 cup of almonds and 1/2 cup of Brazil nuts, and put them through a fine grinder; add to them 1 cup of blanched chopped walnuts, and mix with these 2 cups of very fine bread crumbs, 1/2 cup of butter, 1/2 cup of brown sugar, the grated rind of 3 lemons (washed well before grating), 2 cups of seedless raisins, 2 cups of currants, 2 cups of light Sultana raisins, 1 cup of mixed candied peel finely shredded, and when well blended stir into this six slightly beaten eggs and 1 teaspoon of salt. Put in a pudding basin and steam or boil for eight hours; boil several hours to reheat the day it is to be used. Serve with brandy sauce and nun's butter.

PLUM PUDDING SAUCE

Beat 1 egg until very light, stir into it 1 cup of sugar, and when blended add 3 tablespoons of boiling water and cook over boiling water for five minutes, adding 1 wineglass of brandy during the last two minutes' cooking.

NUN'S BUTTER

Beat 1/2 cup of butter until creamy, and add slowly to it 1 cup of powdered (or granulated) sugar. Add 1 tablespoon of vanilla, lemon, or brandy, and a sprinkling of grated nutmeg.

MINCE PIE

Bake 3 large apples, and press them through a sieve to remove skins and cores; grate the rinds from 3 lemons, and add this and the juice of the lemons to the apple pulp; wash, pick over, and bruise in a mortar 1 cup of currants; stone 2 cups of raisins, and cut them in slices. Mix these all well together, chop into them 1 cup of butter (or cocoanut butter), a little salt, 4 cups of brown sugar, 1 tablespoon of candied lemon peel, 1 tablespoon of candied citron, and 1 tablespoon of candied orange peel, all well minced, and after stirring well, add 2 tablespoons of orange marmalade and 1/2 cup of good brandy. Put in sealed glass jars, cover with wax or brandied paper before the jar is closed, and use for pies in two weeks.

"Wilt thou draw near the Nature of the gods? Draw near them in being merciful. Sweet mercy is nobility's true badge."

Shakspere.

MENUS

Menus in a cook-book are perhaps not always worth the space devoted to them, but as the beginner in Vegetarianism often finds the arranging of a menu in such a way that it does not depart too far from the accustomed manner of serving food the most difficult part of the task she has set herself, a few menus are here given, more with an idea of showing what dishes are most suitable as Entremets, Piecès de Resistance, and Entrées, than with the thought that they will be followed absolutely, for they can of course be changed in many ways, and very much simplified for ordinary use, and amplified for formal occasions.

THANKSGIVING DINNER

FRESH MUSHROOM COCKTAIL

PIMOLAS CELERY

...

CREAM OF ARTICHOKES

CRACKERS RADISHES

...

ASPARAGUS IN DUTCH BUTTER

...

MICHAELMAS LOAF

MASHED POTATOES ROAST SWEET POTATOES CRANBERRY SAUCE BAKED CELERY

...

TOMATO SALAD WITH MAYONNAISE

...

FROZEN CRANBERRY PUNCH

MINCE PIE PUMPKIN PIE NUTS AND RAISINS FRUIT

COFFEE

CHRISTMAS DINNER

PIMENTO COCKTAIL OLIVES

...

MUSHROOM STEW

CRACKERS CELERY

...

FRIED EGG-PLANT WITH SAUCE TARTARE

...

CHRISTMAS LOAF

POTATOES SOUFFLÉ GLAZED ONIONS

CHILLED APPLE SAUCE

...

CRÊME DE MENTHE PUNCH

...

WALDORF SALAD

...

PLUM PUDDING

BRANDT SAUCE HARD SAUCE

...

NUTS RAISINS FRUIT

COFFEE

EASTER DINNER

CREAM OF GREEN PEA IN CUPS

...

FRESH MUSHROOM PATTIES

...

ROAST NUT AND BARLEY LOAF

CREAMED NEW POTATOES MINT SAUCE

NEW PEAS PAYSANNE

...

FRUIT SHERBET

...

DESSERT

A DOZEN DINNERS

BLACK BEAN SOUP OLIVES

...

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES IN BUTTER

STUFFED TOMATOES GERMAN SPINACH DELMONICO POTATOES

...

LETTUCE SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

BEET SAVOURY

...

TOMATO-OKRA SOUP

SMALL CRACKERS CELERY

...

GLORIFIED CARROTS

...

ASPARAGUS TIPS IN BUTTER

POTATO CASES PEAS

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CREAM OF CARROTS

GREEN PEAS IN PATTY CASES

...

BRUSSELS SPROUTS WITH CHESTNUTS TURNIPS WITH POTATO CREAMED ONIONS

...

NARRAGANSETT SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CALCUTTA BISQUE

...

TOMATOES CASINO

...

STEAMED NUT LOAF WITH CAPER SAUCE

LEEKS IN BUTTER ROAST POTATOES

...

CELERY SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

HEILBRONN SOUP

...

BUTTON MUSHROOMS IN TIMBALE CASES

...

CELERY IN CASSEROLE

POTATO CROQUETTES SPINACH SOUFFLÉ

...

PIMENTO SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CLEAR CONSOMMÉ CROUTONS

...

GLOBE ARTICHOKE WITH SAUCE HOLLANDAISE

...

STUFFED PEPPERS POTATO STRAWS

GRILLED TOMATOES

...

WATERCRESS SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CREAM OF GREEN PEA

...

FRESH ASPARAGUS ON TOAST

...

STUFFED CUCUMBERS.

NEW POTATOES, CREAMED DEVILLED TOMATOES

...

MUSHROOMS IN CASES

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

...

LADIES CABBAGE IN RAMEKINS

...

CHESTNUT PURÉE

MOCK NEW POTATOES CREAMED BEETS

...

FETTICUS SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

JULIENNE SOUP

...

CREAMED SALSIFY PATTIES

...

MUSHROOMS IN CASSEROLE

MASHED POTATOES GREEN STRING BEANS

...

BANANA FRITTERS

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CREAM OF CELERY

OLIVES RADISHES

...

CHESTNUTS IN CASES

...

BRUSSELS SPROUTS CREAMED

ROAST POTATOES FRENCH BEANS

CREOLE CROQUETTES

...

CELERY SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

COCKIE-LEEKIE SOUP

...

FRIED ARTICHOKES TARTARE

...

ITALIAN CAULIFLOWER RICED POTATOES

NUT CROQUETTES

...

RUSSIAN CUCUMBER SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

PURÉE MONGOLE

OLIVES

...

ESCALLOPED POTATOES VEGETABLE CASSEROLE

...

CELERY PATTIES

...

ROMAINE SALAD

...

DESSERT

A DOZEN LUNCHEONS

CREAM OF CORN IN CUPS

...

EGG TIMBALES WITH TOMATO SAUCE

...

ARTICHOKES VINAIGRETTE

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

BUTTON MUSHROOM COCKTAILS IN PEPPER CASES

...

BAKED CELERY

PEAS IN CASES POTATO NUT CROQUETTES

...

ITALIAN SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CREAM OF SPINACH

...

FRIED EGG-PLANT WITH TOMATO SAUCE

...

SPINACH WITH CHEESE, IN PATTY CASES

POTATOES AU GRATIN

...

GRAPE-FRUIT SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

BROWN BREAD SAVOURY

...

CLEAR CONSOMMÉ IN CUPS

...

EGGS CARMELITE FRIED POTATOES SOUFFLÉ CAULIFLOWER FRITTERS

...

LETTUCE-PIMENTO SALAD WITH CHEESE BALLS

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

TOMATO-CORN CREAM

...

FILLED MUSHROOMS STUFFED PEPPERS CREAMED TOMATOES POTATOES AND CHEESE

...

CHERRY SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

TOMATO-MAYONNAISE SAVOURY

...

CREAM OF RICE

...

BOILED BANANAS WITH TOMATO SAUCE MUSHROOM LOAF PHILADELPHIA SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CREAMED PIMENTOS

...

SALSIFY IN COQUILLES

...

MUSHROOMS SUR CLOCHE

...

PINEAPPLE AND CELERY SALAD

...

DESSERT

----====||||====----

CANTON STEW

...

NUT CROQUETTES WITH SAUCE

...

RICE CZARINA POTATOES IN CRADLES

...

PINK-EGG SALAD

...

DESSERT

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PIMENTO COCKTAIL

...

CORN IN TOMATO CASES

...

MACARONI BIANCA

...

SPECIAL MIXED SALAD

...

DESSERT

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CAPER SAVOURY

...

CREAM OF ARTICHOKE

...

CHOP SUEY ITALIAN CROQUETTES

...

POLISH SALAD

...

DESSERT

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FRESH MUSHROOM COCKTAIL

...

LIMA BEAN CREAM IN CUPS

...

BORDEAUX PIE PARISIAN POTATOES

...

ASPARAGUS VINAIGRETTE

...

DESSERT

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CREOLE SAVOURY

...

CARROTS DELMONICO EN CASES

...

MUSHROOMS IN CASSEROLE

STUFFED TOMATOES POTATOES DUCHESSE

...

ARTICHOKE SALAD

...

DESSERT

The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den.

They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.

Isaiah xi, 6-9.

INDEX

Introduction, 11 The Kitchen, 29 The Dining Room, 35 Seasoning, 39 Measuring, 39 Thickening, 40 An Herb Garden, 40 Gelatine, 41 Fat for Frying, 41 Canned Goods, 41

SOUPS

Vegetable Stock, 45 A Simple Consommé, 45 Clear Bouillon, 46 Cream of Artichoke, 47 with Nasturtiums, 47 Lima Beans, 50 Carrot and Onion, 52 Carrots, 53 Cauliflower, 53 Celery, 54 Cheese, 53 Chestnut, 55 Corn, 55 Curry, 56 Lentil, 59 Onion, 61 Green Pea, 63 Rice, 65 Spinach, 67 Tomato, 70 Vegetable, 74 Soup, Asparagus, 48 Barley and Tomato, 48 Black Bean, 48 Belgian, 49 Plain Bean, 49 Brown Bean, 49 Red Bean, 50 Dutch Cabbage, 51 Calcutta Bisque, 51 Canton Stew, 51 Carrot Broth, 52 Chestnut, 54 Cockie-Leekie, 56 Creole, 56 Florentine, 57 Heilbronn, 57 Julienne, 58 Red Lentil, 58 Purée Mongole, 59 Hungarian, 59 Mushroom Bisque, 60 Mushroom, 60 Mushroom Stew, 61 Noodle, 61 Okra, 61 Onion au Fromage, 62 New Green Pea, 62 Split Pea, 63 Princess, 64 Potato, 64 German Potato, 64 Potato (Flora), 65 Rice and Tomato, 65 Rice-Okra, 66 Salsify (Oyster Plant), 66 Spinach-Tomato, 67 Sorrel (French), 68 Sorrel (German), 68 St. Germaine, 68 Spaghetti, 69 Scotch Broth, 69 Spanish Tomato, 70 Tomato-Tapioca, 70 Tomato and Corn, 71 Tomato-Macaroni, 71 Tomato, 71 Tomato-Okra, 71 Mulligatawny, 72 Vegetable No. 1, 72 Vegetable No. 2, 73 Vegetable No. 3, 73 Vegetable No. 4, 73 Vegetable No. 5, 74 Vegetable Marrow, 75

VEGETABLES

Artichokes (Jerusalem) in Butter, 79 au Gratin, 79 with Tomato Sauce, 79 with French Sauce, 80 Fritters, 80 Fried, 80 French Fried, 80 Tartare, 81 Fried with Tomato Sauce, 81 Lyonnaise, 81 Purée, 81 Newburg, 82 Artichokes (Globe), 82 to steam, 83 to boil, 83 with Mushrooms, 84 Vinaigrette, 84 Fonds, 84 Asparagus, 85 with White Sauce, 85 with Dutch Butter, 85 Tips, 86 White, 86 Vinaigrette, 86 Fried Tips, 86 Tips with White Sauce, 87 in Bread Cases, 87 Escalloped, 87 Apples, Griddled, 88 Apple Fritters, 88 Bananas, boiled, 88 with Tomatoes, 88 Banana Fritters, 89 Boston Beans, 89 Beans, Green String, 90 Golden Wax, 90 French, 90 Deutschland, 90 Florentine, 91 and Corn, 91 Italian, 91 Spanish, 92 Lima, 92 Lima Hollandaise, 93 Lima Creamed, 93 Lima Sauquetash, 93 Beets, 94 Creamed, 94 Virginia, 94 Piquant, 95 German, 95 Pickled, 95 Brussels Sprouts, 96 in Dutch Butter, 96 with Celery, 96 with Chestnuts, 97 Lyonnaise, 97 Creamed, 97 in Bread Cases, 97 Cabbage, 98 New England, 98 Western, 98 Sarmas, 99 Lichtenstein, 99 Lady, 100 Cold Slaw, 100 German Red, 100 Hungarian, 100 Pickled Red, 101 Carrots, Creamed, 101 with Potatoes, 102 Sauté, 102 Glorified, 102 Glazed, 103 Delmonico, 103 Soufflé, 104 Cauliflower, 104 Creamed, 104 au Gratin, 105 German, 105 Italian, 105 Fritters, 105 Celery, Creamed, 106 in Brown Sauce, 106 in Casserole, 106 Baked, 107 Cêpes, 107 Corn, Boiled, 108 Roasted, 108 Pudding, 108 in Cases, 108 Creole, 109 and Tomato Pie, 109 Chowder, 109 Rhode Island Escallop, 110 Cucumbers, Stewed, 110 Stuffed, 110 Egg Plant with Sauce Tartare, 111 with Tomato Sauce, 111 Endive, Creamed, 111 Kohlrabi, 112 au Gratin, 112 Lentils, Egyptian, 112 German, 113 Lentil Pie, 112 Leeks, 113 Mushrooms, 114 Stewed, 114 German, 114 Newburg, 115 on Toast, 115 Grilled, 116 Sur Cloche, 116 in Casserole, 116 Filled, 117 with Truffles, 117 with Peas, 117 with Onions, 117 with Egg, 118 Canned, 118 Czarina, 119 Mushroom and Chestnut Ragout, 115 Loaf, 119 Okra, Stewed, 120 Okra and Grilled Tomatoes, 120 with Tomato Sauce, 120 and Tomato Escallop, 120 Onions, Boiled, 121 Creamed, 121 with Brown Sauce, 121 au Gratin, 122 with Cheese, 122 Escalloped, 122 Baked with Chestnuts, 122 Soufflé, 123 Bordeaux, 123 and Tomato Escallop, 124 Beatrice, 124 Stuffed, 124 Fried, 125 French Fried, 125 in Potato Cradles, 126 Small, 126 Glazed, 126 and Apples, 126 Parsnips, Boiled, 127 in Butter, 127 Fried, 127 French Fried, 127 Broiled, 128 Peas, Green, 128 Paysanne, 128 Canned, 128 with Onion, 128 Peppers, Stuffed, 129 with Mushrooms, 129 with Rice, 129 with Egg, 130 with Corn, 130 Escalloped with Corn, 130 Fried, 131 Pimentos, Creamed, 131 Rolled, 131 with Okra, 132 with Tomato, 132 Potatoes, 132 Mashed, 133 in cases, 133 Soufflé, 134 Riced, 134 Mashed with Onion, 135 Baked, 135 Roast, 135 Denver, 135 Broiled, 136 Fried Soufflé, 136 Whole Fried, 136 French Fried, 137 Parisian, 137 Lyonnaise, 138 German Fried, 138 Creamed, 139 Escalloped, 139 Delmonico, 140 Oak Hill, 140 Heilbronn, 140 Curried, 142 Rennequin, 142 and Cheese, 143 Escallop with Onion, 143 New, in Butter, 143 Creamed New, 144 Baked New, 144 Mock New, 144 Potato Fritters, 134 Straws, 137 Cradles, 138 Savoury, 139 Cakes, 141 Hash, 141 Omelet, 141 Fricassee, 142 Saratoga Chips, 137 Sweet Potatoes, Boiled, 145 Baked, 145 Mashed, 145 Soufflé, 145 Escalloped, 146 Stuffed, 146 Maryland, 147 Candied, 148 Griddled, 148 Fried, 148 French Fried, 148 Glazed, 149 Sweet Potato Pie, 146 Texas, 147 Salsify (Oyster Plant), 149 English, 149 in Coquilles, 149 Escalloped, 150 Tartare, 150 Black, 150 Spinach, 150 German, 151 with White Sauce, 151 with Rhubarb, 151 Italian, 152 Novelty, 152 Soufflé, 152 Squash, Baked, 153 California, 153 Tomatoes, Stewed, 153 Escalloped, 154 Breaded, 154 Fried, 154 Devilled, 155 Creamed, 155 Baked with Mushrooms, 156 with Nut Force-meat, 156 Stuffed with Egg and Peppers, 156 Baked with Peppers, 156 Filled with Egg, 157 Stuffed with Spinach, 157 with Macaroni, 158 and Onion, 158 Casino, 159 Indienne, 159 with Eggs, 159 Curried, 159 Savoury, 160 Creole, 160 and Hominy, 161 Loaf, 160 American Rarebit, 158 Turnips, Stewed, 161 Mashed, 162 with Potato, 162 au Gratin, 162 Ragout of, 162 Parisian, 163 Teltower Rübchen, 163

VEGETABLE COMBINATIONS

Chop Suey, 167 Colcannon, 167 Macedoine of Vegetables, 167 Canned, 168 Vegetable Chowder, 168 Hash, 169 Stew, 169 Casserole, 170 Ragout, 171 Vegetable Pie St. Georges, 169 Bordeaux, 171 New Orleans Stew, 172 Curry, Indian, 172 Lentils, 173 Succotash, 173 Creole, 173 Various, 174

NUT DISHES

Chestnuts, Italian, 177 Purée, 177 Peanut Purée, 178 Michaelmas Loaf, 178 Christmas Loaf, 178 Nut and Barley Loaf (Roast), 179 Nut and Barley Loaf (Steamed), 179 and Hominy Loaf, 179 and Fruit Loaf, 180 Foundation Loaf, 180 Nut Hash, 181

RICE, MACARONI, ETC.

Rice, Boiled, 185 Baked, 185 Indian, 185 Spanish, 186 Tomato Stew, 186 Fried, 186 Escalloped, 186 and Cheese, 187 and Tomatoes Baked, 187 Italian, 187 au Gratin, 188 Omelet, 188 Czarina, 188 Savoury, 189 Unpolished, 189 Pearl Barley, 189 Macaroni, American, 190 au Gratin, 190 Bianca, 190 Italian, 191 Baked Italian, 192 with Tomato and Onion, 191 Mexican, 192 and Cheese, 192 Rarebit, 192 Spaghetti, 193 Noodles, 193 German, 194 Italian, 194

CROQUETTES

Croquettes, Bean, 197 Cheese, 197 Swiss Cheese, 197 Chestnut, 198 Egg, 198 Farina, 198 Hominy, 199 Lentil, 199 Macaroni, 199 Italian, 200 Tomato, 200 Dried Pea, 201 Nut and Potato, 201 and Salsify, 201 and Cocoanut, 202 Potato, 202 with Cheese, 202 Savoury, 202 Mashed, 203 Creole, 203 Sweet, 203 Rice, 204 Sweetened, 203 Pink, 204 Curried, 204 Carolina, 204 English Savoury, 205 Mixed Vegetable, 205

TIMBALES AND PATTIES

Timbales, Corn, 210 Egg, 209 Egg-Tomato, 209 Pea, 210 Potato, 211 and Cheese, 210 Rice, 211 Savoury Egg, 209 Patties, Artichoke, 211 Asparagus, 212 Celery, 212 Chestnut, 212 Green Pea, 212 Egg, 213 Macedoine, 213 Mushroom, 213 Canned, 213

SAUCES

Caramel for Colouring, 217 Reduced Vinegar, 217 Sauce Bernaise, 217 Black Butter, 218 Bread, 218 Brown, 218 Various Brown, 219 Bordelaise, 219 Curry, 219 Caper, 220 Cheese, 220 Cucumber, 220 Devilled, 221 Egg, 221 French, 221 German, 221 Egg, 222 Herb, 222 Hollandaise, 222 Horse-Radish, 222 Maître d'Hôtel, 223 Mint, 223 Nut, 223 Onion, 224 Parsley, 224 Provençal, 224 Piquant, 225 Ravigote, 225 Robert, 225 Spanish, 225 Spinach, 226 Tartare, 227 Tomato, 227 with other Vegetables, 227 with Nuts, 227 with Egg, 228 Vinaigrette, 228 White, 228 Drawn Butter, 219 Dutch Butter, 220 Parsley Butter, 224 Salad Dressing, 257 Mayonnaise, 258

EGGS

Eggs, Boiled, 231 Fried, 231 Poached, 232 with Gravy, 232 Indienne, 232 Waldorf, 232 Scrambled, 233 with Cheese, 233 with Mushrooms, etc., 233 Savoury, 233 Indienne, 234 Spanish, 234 Shirred, 234 with Tomatoes, 234 Griddled, 235 Carmelite, 237 with Potato, 237 Newburg, 237 Lyonnaise, 238 Devilled, 238 Japanese, 238 Golden Rod, 239 Frothed, 239 Fried Stuffed, 239 Carolina, 240 Münchner, 241 in Marinade, 241 Parisienne, 241 Perigord, 241 with Cheese, 242 Mornay, 242 Creamed, 242 Omar Pasha, 243 Turkish, 243 Beurre-Noir, 243 Creole, 244 in Savoury Butter, 244 Escalloped, 245 Omelet, Plain, 235 Soufflé, 235 Baked, 236 Herb, 236 Cheese, 236 Rum, 236 Swiss Egg Toast, 240 Canuck Egg Toast, 245 Egg Mould, 245

CHEESE

Cheese Ramekins, 249 Baked with Bread, 249 Fondu, 249 Relish, 250 Méringues, 250 Creamed, 250 Pancakes, 250 Cottage, 251 Liptauer, 252 Camembert, 253 Dreams, 253 Roquefort Gourmet, 253 Grated, 253 Rarebit, Welsh, 251 Bachelor's, 251 Delmonico, 252 Pink, 252

SALADS

Salad, American, 259 Artichoke, 259 Green Bean, 259 Wax Bean, 260 Beet with Celery, 260 Cabbage, 260 Celery and Pineapple, 260 Cherry, 260 Cucumber, 261 Cucumber, Russian, 261 Country, 261 Dent de Lion, 261 Pink Egg, 262 Endive, 262 Fetticus, 262 Garden, 262 Grape Fruit, 262 Italian, 263 Lettuce, 263 Macedoine, 263 Mixed, 263 Mushroom, 264 Narragansett, 264 Philadelphia, 264 Pimento, 264 Polish, 265 Potato (German), 265 Potato (American), 265 Potato (Red), 266 Romaine, 266 Southern, 266 Sorrel, 266 Spanish, 267 Sunday night, 267 Tomato (Russian), 267 with Chives, 268 Waldorf, 268 Watercress with Oranges, 268 Yokohama, 268 A Salad Supper, 269 French Dressing, 257 Mayonnaise Dressing, 258 Green Colouring for Mayonnaise, 258 Tarragon Vinegar, 258

SAVOURIES

Fresh Mushroom Cocktails, 273 Canned Mushroom Cocktails, 273 Pimento Cocktails, 273 Savoury, Beet, 274 Beet and Egg, 274 Brown Bread, 274 Cucumber, 274 Creole, 275 Egg, 275 Horse-Radish, 275 Mustard, 276 Neufchâtel, 276 Onion, 276 Pickle, 276 Stuffed Olive, 276 Caper, 277 Tomato, 277 Mayonnaise, 277 Liptauer, 277 Pimento, 277 Rounds of Toast, 278

SANDWICHES

Sandwiches, Apple, 282 Bombay, 282 Cheese, 284 Creole, 282 Egg, 282 German, 284 Honolulu, 284 Lettuce, 283 Nut, 283 Peanut Butter, 282 Pimola, 283 Pickle, 283 Providence House, 281 Savoury Butter, 281

PASTRY, PATTY CASES, ETC.

Pie-Crust, 287 Easy Puff Paste, 287 Timbale Cases, 288 Batter for Fritters, 288 Pastry for Patty Cases, 288 Potato Crust, 289 Essex Pastry, 289 Dumplings, 289 Croutons, 289 Bread Crumbs, 290

A FEW HOT BREADS

Baking Powder Biscuits, 293 Pop Overs, 293 Graham Gems, 294 Tennessee Corn Bread, 294 Southern Rice Muffins, 294 Rice Griddle Cakes, 295 Corn Griddle Cakes, 295 Wheat Griddle Cakes, 295 Gingerbread, 295 Sunday Morning Waffles, 296

TWO NECESSARY DESSERTS

Plum Pudding, 299 Plum Pudding Sauce, 299 Nun's Butter, 299 Mince Pie, 300

MENUS

Thanksgiving Dinner, 303 Christmas Dinner, 304 Easter Dinner, 304 A Dozen Dinners, 305 A Dozen Luncheons, 308