Texas Honey Plants by Sanborn, Charles Emerson

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

BULLETIN NO. 102.

JANUARY 1908

--------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY.

College Station, Texas.

[Photograph: Honey Bee on Horse-mint]

_Honey Bee on Horse-mint_

TEXAS HONEY PLANTS.

C. E. Sanborn,

U. S. Cooperative Entomologist and Acting State Entomologist.

E. E. Scholl,

Assistant State Entomologist and Apiarist.

--------------------------

Postoffice,

COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS.

* * * * *

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS

--------------------------

OFFICERS.

--------------------------

GOVERNING BOARD.

(Board of Directors A. & M. College.)

K. K. LEGGETT, President Abilene

T. D. ROWELL, Vice President Jefferson

A. HAIDUSEK La Grange

J. M. GREEN Yoakum

WALTON PETEET Dallas

R. T. MILNER Austin

L. L. McINNIS Bryan

W. B. SEBASTIAN Breckenridge

STATION OFFICERS.

H. H. HARRINGTON LL. D., President of the

College and Director

J. W. CARSON Assistant to Director and

State Feed Inspector

W. G. WELBORN Vice Director and Agriculturist

M. FRANCIS Veterinarian

E. J. KYLE Horticulturist

JOHN C. BURNS Animal Husbandry

R. L. BENNETT Cotton Specialist

O. M. BALL Botanist

G. S. FRAPS Chemist

C. E. SANBORN Co-Operative Entomologist

N. C. HAMNER Assistant Chemist

E. C. CARLYLE Assistant Chemist

L. McLENNAN Deputy Feed Inspector

A. T. POTTS Deputy Feed Inspector

J. H. RODGERS Deputy Peed Inspector

H. E. HANNA Deputy Feed Inspector

C. W. CRISLER Chief Clerk

W. L. BOYETT Clerk Feed Control

F. R. Navaille Stenographer

A. S. Ware Stenographer

STATE SUB-STATIONS.

W. S. HOTCHKISS, Superintendent Troupe, Smith County

S. A. WASCHKA, Superintendent Beeville, Bee County

NOTE--The main station is located on the grounds of the

Agricultural and Mechanical College, in Brazos County. The postoffice

address is College Station, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent free

upon application to the Director.

PREFACE.

This preliminary bulletin on Texas Honey Plants represents work of

the Department of Entomology dating through the office tenures of

Professors Mally, Newell, Sanderson and Conradi. They each have

authorized and aided in the collection of the flora and data contained

in this publication.

To Mr. Louis H. Scholl, of New Braunfels, Texas, Assistant and

Apiarist from 1902 until 1906, the Department is directly indebted for

the material contained herein, except as is otherwise designated.

Mr. Ernest Scholl, now Assistant and Apiarist, has furnished

material as shown herein. He is now working on a continuation of the

subject.

Mr. D. C. Milam, of Uvalde, formerly Foul Brood Inspector, has also

contributed, as is shown.

The main body of the work, however, has been accomplished through

the services of Mr. Louis H. Scholl, and much credit is due him, since

he has done more in this Department, and perhaps more than any other

person in helping to build up the Bee Industry of Texas. His data are

followed by this mark *

INTRODUCTION.

This publication treats of many of the Texas honey plants in a brief

technical manner. In addition, wherever possible, the common name is

used in connection with the description.

The sequence followed by Coulter in his Botany of South West Texas

is herein mainly followed. In some instances quotations from Small's

Botany of Texas were used, as is shown in the publication. The plants

are discussed by families.

Not only is the honey producing qualities of the plants mentioned,

but frequent mention is also made of the respective quality and yield

of pollen and propolis. Data are included in many instances concerning

the weather conditions and its effects upon the yield of certain

plants.

It is hoped that this will be a great help to apiarists in selecting

locations for bees, since the value of bees depends entirely on the

environment under which they may be placed. Again it may help in

selecting certain plants to be planted that might prove to be very

beneficial to an established apiary.

The geographical distribution is given in a general brief way, so

that one is less apt to be confused concerning the abundance in nature

of certain plants. In this connection it must be remembered, however,

that on account of extended cultivation in Texas, some of the common

wild plants are becoming less numerous than formerly, while cultivated

varieties are becoming more common.

Two indices are contained in this bulletin. The first contains all

the common or vernacular names, and the second contains the latin or

technical names. The latter is complete, since some plants are known

only by the technical appellation.

*****

TRIPLE-LEAFED BARBERRY. Berberis trifoliata Moric.

Barberry family. Berberideae.

"On gravelly slopes and foothills from the Gulf coast to the Limpia

mountains." (Coulter). Hunter, gravelly hills; honey yield abundant,

also pollen; fine for early brood rearing. January and February.*

PRICKLY POPPY. Argemone platyceras (Link. and Otto.)

Poppy family. Papaveraceae.

"Abundant in valleys and along dry hillsides." (Coulter). Roadsides,

waste fields and prairies. Honey yield unimportant, but abundance of

pollen during the dearth of summer. May and July.*

"This plant is abundant along the Brazos valley. Bees work heavily on

it in June, carrying heavy loads of pollen, which they store in nearly

every comb, thus making it disagreeable in the honey combs sometimes."

(E. Scholl).

POPPY. Papaver rhoeas L.

Poppy family. Papaveraceae.

Cultivated in flower gardens. Honey yield not important and plants

few. May.*

PEPPERGRASS. PEPPERWORT. Lepidium Virginicum L.

Mustard family. Cruciferae.

"In all situations, Quebec to Minnesota, Kansas, Florida, Texas and

Mexico. Naturalized in Europe." (Small). Found in all kinds of places;

honey yield not important; some pollen. June to August.*

GREGGIA. Greggia camporum Gray.

Mustard family. Cruciferae.

"Mountains of Western Texas." (Coulter). Honey yield early but not

abundant; also pollen helps early brood rearing. Hunter; waste fields

and fertile prairies. Honey yield early, but not abundant; also

pollen; helps early brood rearing. February.*

COMMON TURNIP. Brassica rapa L.

Mustard family. Cruciferae.

Cultivated and sometimes escaped; bees work on the blossoms, honey

and pollen. June and July.*

BLACK MUSTARD. Brassica nigra Koch.

Mustard family. Cruciferae.

Cultivated and escaped; bees sometimes busy on it. June and July.*

MIGNONETTE. Reseda odorata L.

Mignonette family. Resedaceae.

College: cultivated on Apiary Experimental plats. Honey yield good;

plants not plentiful enough for surplus. June and July.*

PORTULACA. Portulaca grandiflora Hook.

Purslane family. Portulaceae.

Cultivated in ornamental flower beds. Honey yield good as it comes

during time when few others in bloom; also abundance of highly colored

pollen, red, orange and yellows. June until frost.*

SALT CEDAR. Tamarix gallica L.

Tamarisc family. Tamariscineae.

"A common European Mediterranean shrub which seems to have escaped in

many places in Texas." (Coulter). "On roadsides, in thickets and waste

places; warmer parts of Southern United States, naturalized from

Southern Europe." (Small). College Station; cultivated ornamental

shrub bees worked well on it, but number of trees scarce. May and

June.*

FRINGED POPPY MALLOW. Callirrhoe digitata Nutt.

Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"Common on prairies and in valleys." (Coulter). Hunter; prairies and

lowlands. Honey yield not important; some pollen. May and June. A good

pollen yielder during May at College Station.*

SPANISH APPLE. Malvaviscus drummondii. Torr & Gray.

Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"From Rio Grande to the Colorado and Northeastward." (Coulter). In

lowlands and along streams. June and July.* "Plentiful along Comal and

Guadalupe rivers, New Braunfels, Texas. Not important." (E. Scholl).

ROSE OF SHARON. SHRUBBY ALTHAEA. Hibiscus Syriacus L.

Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"In various situations New Jersey and Pennsylvania to Florida and

Texas." (Small). Cultivated ornamental, in gardens and parks; honey

yield not important and plants few, but bees work busily on it; honey

and pollen. May to Sept.*

SPRING SIDA. Sida spinosa L.

Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"In cultivated grounds, waste places on roadsides, New York to Iowa,

Florida and Texas. Widely distributed in the tropics." (Small). Waste

places, fields and along roads; some honey and pollen; not important.

June to August.*

NARROW-LEAFED SIDA. Sida angustifolia Lam.

Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"In dry soil Texas to Arizona; also in Mexico and tropical America."

(Small). In dry soils; bees found upon it; yields pollen. June to

August.*

COTTON. Gossypium herbaceum L.

Mallow family. Malvaceae.

Cultivated staple crop in the fields for fibre. Honey yield good,

steady flow till frost, honey white and of good quality. Main source

throughout cotton belt. Nectar glands on ribs of leaves and on bracts

of buds, blooms and bolls. June to frost.*

JAPANESE VARNISH TREE. Firmiana platinifolia (L.) R. Br.

Chocolate family. Buettneriaceae. HBK.

College Station: Cultivated ornamental tree on campus; honey yield

very heavy but of short duration some seasons longer. May and June.*

BASSWOOD. AMERICAN LINDEN. Tilia Americana L.

Linden family. Tiliaceae.

"A large and handsome tree of the Atlantic States, extending in

Texas to the Valley of the San Antonio River." (Coulter). On forests

of Eastern Texas, yields large quantities of excellent honey. May and

June.*

LARGE-FLOWERED CALTROP. Tribulus cistoides L.

Bean-caper family. Zygophylleae.

Hunter: in fields and waste lands; honey yield good until noon when

flowers close; also much pollen. April, August.*

GREATER CALTROP. Kallstroemia maxima (L) T. & G.

Bean-caper family. Zygophylleae.

"Tribulus maxima." (Coulter). "Common in dry soil throughout

Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: in fields and waste

lands. Honey yield good in morning, blossoms closing by noon except

in cool weather; good as it comes in the dearth of summer; also

abundance of pollen. April to August.*

YELLOW WOOD SORREL. Oxalis stricta L.

Geranium family. Geraniaceae.

"Eastern and Southern Texas." (Coulter). Waste soils and open

woodlands; not plentiful for bee forage. May, August.*

TOOTH-ACHE TREE. PRICKLY ASH. SEA ASH. PEPPERWOOD. Xanthoxylum

clava-Herculis L.

Rue family. Rutaceae.

"Colorado to Rio Grande." (Coulter). "Along or near the coast,

Virginia to Florida, Arkansas and Texas." (Small). Hunter: woodland

prairies; honey yield good; bees work busily on it. April, June.*

HOP TREE. Ptelea trifoliata L.

Rue family. Rutaceae.

"Throughout Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). In woodlands and

along rivers and creeks. Honey yield good; very good in favorable

seasons where abundant. May and July.*

HARDY ORANGE. Citrus trifoliata L.

Rue family. Rutaceae.

College: planted for hedges, scarce; honey yield fair for early

brood. Bees worked on it abundantly. March.*

TREE OF HEAVEN. Ailanthus glandulosus Desf.

Quassia family. Simarubaceae.

"In waste places and along streams, more or less extensively

naturalized in the United States and Southern British America. Native

of China." (Small). Hunter: cultivated for shade and escaped. Honey

yield fair in good seasons, pollen; also nectar glands on leaf blades.

April.*

UMBRELLA CHINA TREE. Melia azedarach L.

Melia family. Meliaceae.

"A favorite shade tree and extensively naturalized in Central and

Southern Texas." (Coulter). Cultivated ornamental shade tree and

escaped. Honey yield helps early brood rearing. February, March.*

POSSUM HAW. BEAR BERRY. Ilex decidua Walt.

Holly family. Ilicineae.

"A species of Southern States and extending in Texas to the Valley

of the San Antonio." (Coulter). College; along lowlands, creeks and

streams. Honey yield good but short; in warm spring early and valuable

for early brood. March, May.*

YOUPON. Ilex Caroliniana Trelease.

Holly family. Ilicineae.

"A species of the Gulf States and extending into Texas. Limit

uncertain." (Coulter). Hunter: low woodland thickets; not important.

March, April.*

BRASIL WOOD. LOGWOOD. Condalia obovata Hook.

Buckthorn family. Rhamneae.

"From the Guadalupe to the Rio Grande and west of New Mexico."

(Coulter). Hunter: in woodlands, dry soils; honey yield not very

important but comes well in dearth of summer. July, August.* "Abundant

along Carter's Creek. Honey yield good during May." (E. Scholl).

RATTAN VINE. Berchemia scandens Trelease.

Buckthorn family. Rhamneae.

"A species of the Southern States extending into Texas where its

western limit is uncertain." (Coulter). Along ravines and low

woodlands; honey yield good, giving surplus in favorable years but

dark amber colored, used in manufacturing-houses. April.*

COLUMBRINA TEXENSIS. Gray.

Buckthorn family. Rhamneae.

"From the Colorado to the Rio Grande westward to New Mexico."

(Coulter). Floresville, slopes, adobe hills. Honey yield good but not

enough for surplus. Also some pollen. April.*

CULTIVATED WINE GRAPES. Vitis (?) (Varieties).

Vine family. Ampelidaceae.

Cultivated in orchards; good for pollen. April, May.*

MOUNTAIN GRAPE. Vitis monticola Buckley.

Vine family. Ampelidaceae.

"Peculiar to the hilly limestone regions of Western Texas, not

extending to the low country nor to the granite mountains." (Coulter.)

Hunter: in woods and forests; honey yield fairly good and pollen

valuable for brood rearing. March.*

COW ITCH. Cissus incisa Desmoul.

Vine family. Ampelidaceae.

"In shady places from the Colorado to the Rio Grande and

westward. An ornamental vine known as "Yerba del buey."

(Coulter). Hunter: along fences and edge of thickets; honey yield

keeps bees out of mischief during dearth. Surplus where

plentiful. April, to August.*

SOAPBERRY. WILD CHINA. Sapindus marginatus Willd.

Soapberry family. Sapindaceae.

"Common along creeks throughout Texas from Louisiana to New Mexico

and Mexico. Smaller west of the Colorado river." (Coulter). Along

rivers and creeks and sometimes along uplands; honey yield good, heavy

flow in favorable seasons gives surplus. June.* Evergreen shrub,

blooms in April; yields quantities of honey and pollen where enough

bushes." (Milam, Uvalde).

COMMON BALLOON VINE. Cardiospermum Halicacabum L.

Soapberry family. Sapindaceae.

"Guadalupe to Rio Grande." (Coulter). "In thickets and waste places

New Jersey, Missouri, Florida, Texas and tropical America; summer and

fall." (Small). Hunter: in creek bottoms; honey yield fair but plants

not abundant. April, July.*

MEXICAN BUCKEYE. Ungnadia speciosa Endl.

Soapberry family. Sapindaceae.

"Common along rocky valleys and in the mountains from the Valley of

the Trinity through Western Texas to New Mexico." (Coulter). Hunter:

"mountainous woodlands. Honey yield good in dearth but not plentiful.

July."

DWARF SUMACH. Rhus copallina L.

Sumach family. Anacardiaceae.

"A sumach of the Atlantic States extending through Eastern and

Southern Texas to the Rio Grande." (Coulter). Hunter: small shrubby

tree rocky hillsides and woodland prairies. Honey yield good giving

surplus in favorable seasons depending upon rains. Reported as a honey

plant in most of the beekeepers reports received. August.*

GREEN SUMACH. Rhus virens Lindh.

Sumach family. Anacardiaceae.

"From the Colorado to the Rio Grande and westward." (Coulter). In

stony, hilly woodlands. Bees are some seasons busy on it. October.*

BLUE LUPINE. BLUEBONNET. Lupinus subcarnosus Hook.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Common lupine of Southern and Western Texas, 'covering fertile

slopes with a carpet of purple blue.' (Harvard), as early as March."

(Coulter). Hunter: places in open woodlands. Honey yield good; also

pollen of very bright and orange colors. March, April.*

ALFALFA OR LUCERNE. Medicago sativa L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"An extensively cultivated forage plant which has long been an

introduced plant in Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). Cultivated

for hay crops; honey yield fair; early summer and fall; better in

irrigated regions. May, August.* "Large number of bees were seen on it

at New Braunfels, Texas. June 19th, 1907. A good thing in North

Texas." (E. Scholl).

MEDICK. BURR CLOVER. Medicago denticulata Willd.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Naturalized in Western Texas." (Coulter). College: abundant on

campus lawns. Honey yield sparingly in summer, not important. February

to May.*

SWEET CLOVER. Melilotus alba Desv.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Distribution not definite. Cultivated and along fence rows; honey

yield good and of fine quality; scarce and should be cultivated for

honey. May to October.* "An important honey plant in North Texas." (E.

Scholl).

YELLOW SWEET CLOVER. Melilotus officinalis (L) Lam.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Colorado along roadsides, escaped. Honey yield good; claimed to be

superior to and earlier than M. alba by beemen. Should be cultivated

on the poor soils of Texas. April to September.*

RED CLOVER. Trifolium pratense L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

College Station: cultivated on experimental plats. Blooms in summer;

not important, not much grown and deep corollas. June.*

WHITE CLOVER. Trifolium repens L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"May be found wild in Texas." (Coulter). Along roadsides and on

lawns. Cultivated at College, but did not grow as conditions were too

dry. Honey yield good and one of main sources in States north of

Texas. June, July.*

EYSENHARDTIA. Eysenhardtia amorphoides. H B K.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Throughout Southern and Western Texas, South of the Colorado."

(Coulter). Hunter: on light soils and woodlands and known as "Rock

Brush" by beemen. Honey yield abundant. Blooming after heavy rains.

Honey fine quality. March, May.*

BLACK LOCUST. Robinia Pseudacacia L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Native from Pennsylvania to Iowa, Georgia and Indian

Territory. Also naturalized in the northeastern part of North

America." (Small). College: cultivated on campus; honey yield good if

no cold weather; bees work on it abundantly. March, April.*

CASSIA. Daubentonia longifolia (Cav.) DC.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Low and damp places; sandy soils; bees on it frequently but

apparently of little value. July, September.*

MEXICAN GROUND-PLUM. Astragalus Mexicanus. A. DC.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Prairies throughout Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: in open prairies

honey yield abundant when season is favorable; drouth injures

it. June.*

COW PEA. Vigna (sp.)

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Honey yield good; fair quality, light color. Cultivated for forage

crops and for enriching soils. June, August.*

COW PEA. Vigna Sinensis (L) Endl. (Var. ?).

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Cultivated for forage crops and for enriching soils; honey yield

good; fair quality, light color. June, August.*

JAPANESE DELCHOS. Dolichos lablab L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Cultivated in Apiary Experimental plats; no bees on it; other plants

in bloom. June, August.*

GARDEN PEA. Pisum sativum L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Hunter: cultivated widely; honey yield unimportant, some pollen; not

visited much by bees. March, April.*

RED BUD. Cercis occidentalis Torr.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Far Western and North Mexican species extending into Western

Texas." (Coulter). Aids early brood rearing. March.*

RED BUD. JUDAS TREE. Cercis Canadensis L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"In rich soil Ontario to Minnesota, New Jersey, Florida and Texas."

(Small). Hunter: in woodlands. Honey yield fair, aiding in early brood

rearing. March, April.*

RETAMA. Parkinsonia aculeata L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Throughout Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). In sandy soils

and low swamps. Blooms spring and throughout summer; bees work on it

more or less all summer. May, Sept.*

HONEY LOCUST. Gleditschia triacanthos L.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"An Atlantic species extending at least to the Valley of the Brazos

river and common in cultivation." (Coulter). College Station: Along

ravines and valleys; very heavy honey yield but of short duration.

April.*

MEZQUIT TREE. SCREW BEAN. Prosopis juliflora DC.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"The chief woody plant of the wooded table-lands and high valleys

throughout southern and western Texas, often forming impenetrable

thickets." (Coulter) Hunter: throughout the black land prairies; honey

yield abundant, main source in State, good light honey. April, and

again in June.*

Neptunia lutea Benth.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"In Eastern and Southern Texas, extending as far up the Rio Grande

as Eagle Pass." (Coulter). College, open prairies; not plentiful, bees

rarely found on it; some pollen. May.*

SENSITIVE BRIAR. Schrankia angustata Torr. and Gray.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Found in Texas as far as San Diego and probably in the San Antonio

region." (Coulter). Hunter: open prairies; honey yield not important;

plants scarce; pollen. April to September.*

HUISACHE. Acacia Farnesiana Willd.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"From San Antonio to the Gulf Coast and lower Rio Grande."

(Coulter). Very plentiful in richer soil of Southwest Texas; honey

yield good for stimulating early brood rearing; also pollen. February,

April.*

HUAJILLI. Acacia Berlandiera Benth.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"From the Nueces to the Rio Grande and west to Devil's River. Common

on the bluffs of the lower Rio Grande." (Coulter). On dry and rocky

hills in solid masses generally. Honey yield very heavy and main

surplus in Southwest Texas; fine quality, white; considered the best

honey in Texas in quality. April.*

PARADISE FLOWER. CATSCLAW. DEVILS CLAWS. Acacia Greggii Gray.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"In dry or rocky soil, Texas, New Mexico." (Small). Floresville: All

over Southwest Texas. Honey yield very abundant, a main yielder of

fine quality honey. April.*

ROUND-FLOWERED CATSCLAW. Acacia Roemeriana Schlecht.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Throughout Texas south of the Colorado and west to El Paso."

(Coulter). Hunter: in brushy woodlands; honey yield is heavy, of fine

quality, but plants not abundant. April and May.*

Acacia amentacea DC.

Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"From the Guadalupe to the lower Rio Grande and west to the Pecos."

(Coulter). Very plentiful throughout Southwest Texas, on prairies.

Honey yield of no importance. Bees gather pollen from it occasionally

in early summer.*

PLUM. Prunus domestica L.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

Hunter: in orchards and escaped. Honey yield good with "fruit

bloom." Helps to build up colonies of bees. February.*

WILD PLUM. Prunus (sp.)

Rose family. Rosaceae.

College Station: planted on campus. Honey yield good but of short

duration. March.*

PEACH. Amygdalus Persica L.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

"In waste places and cultivated grounds throughout the United

States." (Small). Cultivated in orchards; honey yield good; with

"fruit bloom" builds up colonies in spring. January to April.*

BRIDAL WREATH. Spiraea Virginiana Britt.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

Cultivated ornamental shrub. Honey yield unimportant; bees sometimes

busy on it. March.*

DEW-BERRY. Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

"A Southern blackberry, apparently common in Eastern, Southern and

Western Texas." (Coulter). Common wild, little cultivated; bees on it

busy; honey and pollen. February, April.*

ROSE. Rosa Tourn.

Cultivated widely; honey yield unimportant; pollen gathered from it

sometimes. Spring, summer and fall.*

APPLE. Malus malus (L) Britt.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

Cultivated in orchards; honey yield early; helps in brood rearing;

good where abundant. March, April.*

PEAR. Pyrus communis L.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

A much cultivated fruit tree, important for early honey and pollen.

February, March.*

HAWTHORN. WHITE THORN. Crataegus spathulata Michx.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

"A species of the Gulf States and extending to the lower Colorado in

Texas." (Coulter). In woodlands and creeks; good for honey and pollen.

April.*

HAWTHORN. WHITE THORN. Crataegus arborescens Ell.

Rose family. Rosaceae.

"A species of the Gulf States and extending to the lower Colorado in

Texas." (Coulter). College Station; in woodlands and creek banks;

honey yield good, bees found busily on it; also pollen. April.*

CREPE MYRTLE. Lagerstroemia Indica L.

Loose strife family. Lythraceae.

"In waste places in and near gardens; widely cultivated and

sparingly naturalized from Maryland, Florida and Texas."

(Small). Cultivated ornamental on campus; honey yield occasionally

good and visited much by bees. June, October.*

JUSSIAEA. Jussiaea repens L.

Evening Primrose family. Onagrarieae.

"In streams from the San Antonio northward and eastward." (Coulter).

In water edge of rivers and lakes. Not affected by drouth; it is

important for bees during dearth. June to September.*

JUSSIAEA. Jussiaea diffusa Forskl.

Evening Primrose family. Onagrarieae.

"In and about ponds, Kentucky to Kansas, Florida and Texas, also in

tropical America and Asia." (Small) In water edge of pasture tanks and

pools. Honey yield good; important as it is not affected by drouths

but better after rains. June, August.*

Gaura filiformis Small.

Evening Primrose family. Onagrarieae.

Sandy soils and along creeks; honey yield good; sometimes yielding

surplus in spurts when favorable season and rains prevail. June,

October.*

MUSK MELON. Cucumis Melo L.

Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Hunter: cultivated. Honey yield good; abundant during dewy mornings.

Also pollen. Early summer to fall. Important in melon growing

sections, South Texas. July and September.*

CUCUMBER. Cucumis sativa.

Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Cultivated; honey yield very good; short duration; pollen; but

plants not abundant. April, July.*

WATERMELON. Citrullus Citrullus (L) Small.

Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Cultivated; honey yield good; abundant during dewy mornings, also

pollen; from early summer to frosts in late autumn. May to October.*

"Successful in honey plant plot at College in 1905." (E. Scholl).

WILD GOURD. Cucurbita foetidissima HBK.

Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

"Abundant in the valleys of Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter).

Hunter: in a variety of places. Honey yield not important; plants

scattered and few, good for pollen. April, July.*

COMMON PUMPKIN. Cucurbita pepo L.

Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Cultivated: not important for honey, but much pollen. May, June.*

COMMON CACTUS OR PRICKLY PEAR. Opuntia englemannii Salm. & Dyk.

Cactus family. Cactaceae.

"Common throughout Southern and Western Texas. This seems to be

common "prickly pear" of Texas, though all the flat-jointed opuntias

bear that name. The joints are commonly spoken of as "leaves" and form

an important food for grazing of animals, under the name of "nopal."

The "nopal leaf" is also much used for poultices, etc."

(Coulter). Hunter: over entire Southwestern Texas; Honey yield

abundant; sometimes surplus; honey of rank flavor when first

stored. May, June.*

DOGWOOD. Cornus asperifolia Michx.

Dogwood family. Cornaceae.

"An Eastern species extending to Central Texas where the variety

Drummondii is the common form." (Coulter). Lowlands and along banks;

honey yield good and bees fairly roam over blossoms, but species not

plentiful. March, April.*

ELDER. Sambucus Canadensis L.

Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"Moist grounds throughout Texas." (Coulter). Along rivers and wet

places; honey yield good but not plentiful. April, May.*

BLACK HAW. Virburnum prunifolium L.

Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"An Atlantic species, extending westward into Texas as far as the

valley of the Guadalupe and probably the San Antonio." (Coulter).

Hunter: in woodlands and forests. Honey yield good, early, valuable

for brood rearing. March, April.*

CORAL BERRY. INDIAN CURRANT. Symphoricarpos symphorlcarpos (L) MacM.

Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"An Atlantic species extending into Texas. Near New Braunfels.

(Lindheimer)." (Coulter). In woodlands along rivers and rocky soil.

Honey yield good and of long duration. July, September.*

BUSH HONEYSUCKLE. Lonicera fragrantissima Lindle.

Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

Shrubby vine; cultivated species on campus; honey yield extremely

early, valuable to stimulate bees if weather is favorable; also

pollen. January.*

WHITE-FLOWERED HONEYSUCKLE. Lonicera albiflora Torn. & Gray.

Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"Abundant throughout Western Texas and especially in the mountains

west of the Pecos." (Coulter). Hunter: cultivated for ornamental

purposes. Honey yield good, but few plants. May, July.*

HOUSTONIA. Houstonia angustifolia Michx.

Madder family. Rubiaceae.

"Throughout Texas." (Coulter). College Station: on dry soils and

prairies. Bees work on it well but plants not abundant. May, July.*

BUTTON BUSH. Cephalanthus occidentalis L.

Madder family. Rubiaceae.

"Swamps and along streams throughout Texas." (Coulter). Hunter:

along rivers and creeks. Bees work on it. July.*

BUTTON WEED. Diodia teres Walt.

Madder family. Rubiaceae.

"Sandy soil, low grounds of Texas to mouth of Rio Grande."

(Coulter). Low sandy soils; honey yield good and valuable as it comes

during drouth. No surplus. July, August.*

BROOMWEED. Gutierrezia Texana T. & G.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Sterile plains throughout Texas." (Coulter). In open prairies;

honey yield good in fall for winter stores; dark amber and strong

flavor. September, October.*

GOLDENROD. Solidago sp. (?).

Composite family. Compositae.

Occurs in all parts of Texas. September. See A. B. C. 173.

Parthenium Hysterophorus L.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Throughout Eastern and Central Texas. Dr. Harvard remarks that it

is one of the commonest weeds about the streets of San Antonio."

(Coulter). Hunter: in waste places and open town lots of which it

takes possession. Honey yield good in favorable seasons when not too

dry. White pollen. April, November.*

ROMAN WORMWOOD. Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L.

Composite family. Compositae.

"A common weed of waste grounds, extremely variable." (Coulter). Dry

upland soils and waste places; probably pollen only. July, August.*

TALL RAGWEED. Ambrosia aptera DC.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Low grounds in Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter:

along field fences and low places. Some honey but more pollen of a

resinous nature. July and August.*

GREAT RAGWEED. Ambrosia trifida L.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Moist river banks throughout Eastern and Central Texas." (Coulter).

College: in low moist creeks and along Brazos river. Honey yield not

important, but yields much pollen. July and August.*

COCKLE-BURR. CLOT BURR. Xanthium Canadense Mill.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Alluvial shores and waste ground." (Coulter). Hunter: along creeks,

in pastures and fields; not important; furnishes pollen late in the

fall. September, October.*

CONE FLOWER. NIGGER HEAD. Rudbeckia hirta L.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Dry and open ground throughout Texas." (Coulter). Waysides and

prairies; of no importance; bees gather propolis from resinous heads

sometimes. May, June.*

CONE FLOWER. NIGGER HEAD. Rudbeckia bicolor Nutt.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Pine woods or sandy soil, Eastern and Southern Texas."

(Coulter). "In woods and sandy soil, Arkansas to Alabama and Texas."

(Small). Waysides and prairies; of no importance; bees gather

propolis from resinous heads sometimes. May, June.*

COMMON SUNFLOWER. Helianthus annuus L.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Abundant in all valleys." (Coulter). Hunter: along roadsides and in

waste fields. Honey yield sometimes good in the fall but strong in

flavor. Much propolis gathered from the large composite heads of the

flower and stems and leaves of the plant. May, September.*

VIRGINIAN CROWN-BEARD. Verbesina Virginica L.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Rich dry soil from the Mississippi and Gulf States through Texas to

Mexico." (Coulter). In rich soils, lowlands and woodlands; honey yield

very abundant, depending upon seasons; fine quality of honey.

October.*

SNEEZE WEED. BITTER WEED. Helenium tenuifolium Nutt.

Composite family. Compositae.

"River bottoms, etc., extending from the Gulf and Mississippi States

to Western Texas." (Coulter). College: abundant on open woodland

prairies and plains of Eastern Texas. Honey yield good in favorable

seasons; pollen; honey golden yellow, heavy body but very bitter, as

if 50 per cent quinine and some pepper was added. June to October.*

MARIGOLD. Gaillardia pulchella Foug.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Extending from plains of Arkansas and Louisiana through Texas to

those of Arizona and Mexico." (Coulter). Hunter: waysides and

prairies. Honey yield of good quality, dark amber colored. A main

yielder of surplus. May, June.*

BLUE THISTLE. Cnicus altissimus Willd.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Borders of woods and open ground. Common in the Atlantic States and

extending into Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: scattered over open

prairies; honey yield unimportant; some pollen. July, August.* "Bees

working heavily on it in June, 1907 along Guadalupe River, New

Braunfels, Texas, where some of the pastures were literally covered

with it." (E. Scholl).

AMERICAN KNAPWEED. Centaurea Americana Nutt.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Extending from the plains of Arkansas and Louisiana through Texas

to Arizona and adjacent Mexico." (Coulter). Hunter: open prairies and

pastures. Not important. July, August.*

DANDELION. Taraxacum officinale Weber.

Composite family. Compositae.

"Common everywhere; an introduction from Europe." (Coulter). See

A. B. C. of Bee Culture. February.*

MARIGOLD. Tagetes patalus L.

Composite family. Compositae.

Cultivated in flower gardens; honey yield not important; bees only

occasionally visiting it. July.*

NARROW-LEAFED IRON WOOD. Bumelia angustifolia Nutt.

Appodilla family. Sapotaceae.

"Valley of the lower Rio Grande." (Coulter). Specimen sent from the

Nueces River. (Cotulla). June.*

MEXICAN PERSIMMON. Diospyros Texana Scheele.

Ebony family. Ebenaceae.

"Woods along streams, Matagorda Bay to the Concho River and

southward." (Coulter). "Mexicans call it "Chapote," also known as

"black persimmon." Often found on rocky mesas but thrives best in

canyons and on the edges of ravines." (Harvard). Hunter: in woodlands:

honey yield abundant, not harmed by showers on account of bell-shaped

flowers. April.*

PERSIMMON (COMMON). Diospyros Virginiana L.

Ebony family. Ebenaceae.

"A common tree of the Atlantic States. Extending Into Texas to the

valley of the Colorado." (Coulter). Throughout East Texas; honey yield

good, not long and trees not abundant. Bell-shaped blossoms are

protected in rain. April.*

CALIFORNIA PRIVET. Ligustrum vulgare L.

Olive family. Oleaceae.

"Thickets and on roadsides, Ontario to Pennsylvania and North

Carolina." (Small). Ornamental shrub cultivated for hedges, etc.,

honey yield good; flowering trees scarce, trimmed and kept down in

hedges. April, May.* "A good flow at College Station in 1906." (E.

Scholl).

SILVER BERRY. Elaeagnus argentia, Pursh.

Oleaster family. Elaeagnaceae.

College Station; cultivated ornamental on campus. Honey yield

abundant in narrowly funnel-shaped blossoms hanging downward. Nectar

runs to mouth of flower. Protected from rains. Corolla

8mm. deep. Long-tongue bees would be of advantage. October, November.*

SWEET OLIVE. Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

Oleaster family. Elaeagnaceae.

College Station: cultivated ornamental shrub on campus; honey yield

good; bees work on blossom. April.*

SILK WEED. Asclepias sp.

Milk weed family. Asclepiadeae.

Beeville; on plains and prairies. Honey yield good but pollen

attaches to bee's feet and cripples them. March.*

DENSE-FLOWERED PHACELIA. Phacelia congesta Hook.

Water-leaf family. Hydrophyllaceae.

"Throughout Texas." (Coulter). Rich places and moist woods; honey

yield sparing. April, June.*

Phacelia glabra Nutt.

Water-leaf family. Hydrophyllaceae.

"Low prairies Arkansas and East Texas." (Coulter). On prairies

Eastern Texas. March, April.*

BORAGE. Borage officinalis L.

Borage family. Boragineae.

College: cultivated; honey yield good; bees working busily on it

during June. Old stalks die down in July and large lower leaves

protect root stock during severe drouth and sprout out for bees to

work on bloom in August. June, July.*

MORNING GLORY. Ipomoea Caroliniana Pursh.

Convolvulus family. Convolvulaceae.

Most common in cultivated fields. Honey yield light, pollen. June to

November.*

NIGHT-SHADE. Solanum rostratum Dunal.

Night-shade family. Solanaceae.

"Plains throughout Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: waste lands, prairies

and roadsides. Honey very little; some pollen. May, October.*

TRUMPET CREEPER. TRUMPET FLOWER. Campsis radicans (L) Seem.

Bigonia family. Bignoniaceae.

"Moist soil, extending from Atlantic and Gulf States into Texas and

common in cultivation." (Coulter). Cultivated and along river bottoms:

honey yield of little importance; external nectar glands; pollen from

flowers. July to October.*

LARGE-FLOWERED VERBENA. Verbena urticaefolia L.

Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Waste or open grounds, extending from the Atlantic regions through

Texas to tropical America." (Coulter). College Station: in waste open

ground. April, August.*

BLUE VERVAIN. Verbena xutha Lehm.

Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Extending from Louisiana through Texas to Southern California and

Mexico." (Coulter). College: in sandy soils, honey yield sparing and

scattering throughout its season. April, August.*

SPATULATE-LEAFED FOG-FRUIT. Lippia nodiflora Michx.

Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Low ground extending from the Gulf States to Western Texas."

(Coulter). In moist places, rivers and creeks; honey yield very light

and of little importance. July.*

WHITE BRUSH. Lippia ligustrina Britt.

Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Common on rocky slopes throughout Texas." (Coulter). "Foliage eaten

by cattle, sheep and goats." (Harvard). All over Southwest Texas;

honey yield very heavy of fine quality but very short duration, only a

few days; blooms after each rain during season. May to November.*

LANTANA. Lantana Camara L.

Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Extending from the Gulf States through Southeastern Texas to

tropical America." (Coulter). On light soils of Southwest Texas;

unimportant; bees seldom on it. April, October.*

FRENCH MULBERRY. Callicarpa Americana L.

Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Rich or moist grounds, extending from Gulf States to Southern

Texas." (Coulter). Brazos bottoms, College; rich soil in woods,

abundant: honey yield only fair. May.*

ROEMER'S SAGE. Salvia Roemeriana Scheele.

Mint family. Labiatae.

"In light fertile soils, Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: rich

soils in forests. Unimportant as a honey plant; not abundant; deep

corollas. May, June.*

BLUE SAGE. Salvia azurea Lam.

Mint family. Labiatae.

"From Gulf States to extreme Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: dry

soil and waste places; corolla deep and visited much more frequently

by bumble bees than honey bees. April, October.*

CATNIP. Nepeta cataria L.

Mint family. Labiatae.

Cultivated on Apiary Experimental Plats, 1904; only a few plants

grew and bloomed. A few bees visited it. Soon died. July.*

WILD BERGAMONT. Monarda fistulosa L.

Mint family. Labiatae.

"Dry soil throughout Texas, etc." (Coulter). College: along banks of

ravines. Honey yield good but plants not abundant. May, July.*

HORSE-MINT. Monarda clinopodioides Gray.

Mint family. Labiatae.

"Eastern and Southern Texas." (Coulter). Prairies and waste land;

honey yield abundant; one of the main yielders; honey compared to

bass-wood in flavor. May, June.*

HORSE-MINT. Monarda punctata L. (See frontis-piece).

Mint family. Labiatae.

"Sandy ground extending from the Atlantic regions to Southern and

Western Texas." (Coulter). In open prairies and waste land; honey

yield abundant; one of the main crop yielders; honey compared with

basswood. May, July.* "A good yielder in Brazos bottoms. College

Station, Texas, in 1907, June." (E. Scholl).

DRUMMOND'S SKULL-CAP. Scutellaria drummondii Benth.

Mint family. Labiatae.

"Common throughout Texas in damp rich soil." (Coulter). "On

prairies, Kansas to Texas." (Small). Hunter: waste places in fields

and prairies. Honey yield abundant in spring; much visited by

bees. April, May.*

COMMON HOARHOUND. Marrubium vulgare L.

Mint family. Labiatae.

"A common escape in waste or open ground." (Coulter). Hunter: most

all parts of the South; fertile places; fence corners and pens; honey

yield abundant; steady flow; dark amber colored. Claimed bitter by

some. February, July.*

COLEUS. Coleus blumei Benth.

Mint family. Labiatae.

College; ornament for borders, etc. Honey yield of no

importance. Bees gather pollen from it only occasionally. July.*

COMMON PIGWEED. Amaranthus retroflexus L.

Amaranth family. Amaranthaceae.

"Throughout Texas." (Coulter). Waste lands and fields; honey yield

of no importance; some pollen. July, September.*

THORNY AMARANTH. Amaranthus spinosus L.

Amaranth family. Amaranthaceae.

"From Tom Green County to Laredo." (Coulter). Annual weedy herbs. In

waste places and cultivated soils presumably pollen only; not

important. August.*

MADEIRA VINE. Anredera scandens (L). Moq.

Goosefoot family. Chenopodiaceae.

"From the upper Pecos to the lower Rio Grande, (Ringgold)."

(Coulter). Hunter. Texas; cultivated for shade on verandas; honey

yield fair, bees work on it industriously, but the plants are

scarce. May, September.*

JAPANESE BUCKWHEAT. Fagopyrum fagopyrum (L) Karst.

Buckwheat family. Polygonaceae.

Cultivated in fields in a small way; honey yield good on favorable

moist mornings, not in dry weather. Honey very dark and strong in

flavor; not important for bees in Texas. June, July.* "A good yielder

to bridge over from early spring flower to cotton bloom at College

Station, Texas." (E. Scholl).

AMERICAN MISTLETOE. Phoradendron flavescens Nutt.

Mistletoe family. Loranthaceae.

"From Eagle Pass to Central Texas. Reported on Ulmus, Prosopis,

Quercus, etc." (Coulter). Honey yield abundant and also pollen, very

valuable for early brood rearing. The first source for bees in the

season. December, January.* "Blooms in January and February if weather

is not too cold, yields pollen and honey." (Milam, D. C, Uvalde,

Texas).

SPURGE. Euphorbia marginata Pursh.

Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"Throughout the valleys of the Pecos and Rio Grande."

(Coulter). Along valleys and lowlands; honey yield of no

importance. June, October.*

SONORA CROTON. Croton Sonorae Torr.

Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"On rocky bluffs of the upper Llano." (Coulter). Hunter: open places

in woodland bluffs; honey yield only light, but comes in dearth and

good if rains; pollen. July, August.*

CROTON CAPITATUS MICHX.

Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"From the Pecos to Southern and Central Texas." (Coulter). Roadsides

and prairies; unimportant; some pollen when no other bloom. July,

September.* "Plenty of pollen at College Station in August, 1907." (E.

Scholl).

TEXAS CROTON. Croton Texensis Muell.

Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"From the staked plains to Corpus Christi." (Coulter). Hunter:

roadsides and fields; honey yield very light, not important. June,

August.*

ONE-SEEDED CROTON. Croton monanthogynus Michx.

Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"Central and Southern Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: open prairies and

pastures; honey yield fair, but unimportant. May, June.

CASTOR-OIL PLANT. Ricinus communis L.

Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"Cultivated extensively for ornament and sparingly escaped in

Missouri and southwestward to Central Mexico." (Coulter). Planted for

ornamental purposes; honey yield good in favorable seasons; pollen;

has glands at base of leaves. March, April.*

AMERICAN OR WHITE ELM. Ulmus Americana L.

Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Extending westward to the streams of Southern and Central Texas."

(Coulter). College: along moist creeks and streams; honey yield good

but not very plentiful. August.*

WINGED ELM or WAHOO. Ulmus alata Michx.

Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"On streams extending to the valley of the Trinity." (Coulter). Tree

with corky winged branches, along streams and low soils in woods;

honey yield good sometimes giving surplus; much pollen; honey of amber

color and strong characteristic aroma. August, September.*

GRANJENO. Celtis pallida Torr.

Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Very common on all mesas and foot-hills of Western and Southern

Texas." (Coulter). Beekeepers value it as an important plant in

Southwest Texas. March, April.*

HACKBERRY. Celtis Mississippiensis Bosc.

Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Extending to Central Texas." (Coulter). In woodlands; much planted

for shade; honey yield fair, valuable for pollen in the spring. March,

April.*

HACKBERRY. Celtis occidentalis L.

Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Very common in the valleys of Western and Southwestern Texas, 'Palo

Blanco'" (Coulter). In woods and valleys, planted for shade; honey

yield fair, much pollen, valuable for early brood rearing. March,

April.*

OSAGE ORANGE. Toxylon pomiferum Raf.

Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Near waters from Eastern to Central and Southern Texas. Extensively

used for hedges." (Coulter). Planted for hedges and timber; honey

yield not important on account of scarcity of trees. April.*

PECAN-NUT. Hicoria Pecan (Marsh) Britt.

Walnut family. Juglandeae.

"Extending from the Mississippi States to the streams of Central and

Southwestern Texas as far west as Fort Concho." (Coulter). Along

rivers and creeks; honey yield where plentiful; valuable for brood

rearing on account of its pollen. March.*

MOCKERNUT. WHITEHEART HICKORY. Hicoria alba (L) Britt.

Walnut family. Juglandeae.

"Extending to the Valley of the Brazos." (Coulter). College Station,

Brazos River. Abundant in the sandy valley land; some honey and

pollen. March.*

BLACK WALNUT. Juglans nigra L.

Walnut family. Juglandeae.

"Extending from the east to the valley of the Colorado and San

Antonio." (Coulter). In forests, along creeks and rivers; some honey,

more pollen; good to stimulate bees. March.*

POST OAK. Quercus minor (Marsh) Sarg.

Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Sandy or sterile soils, extending from the Atlantic States to

Central Texas." (Coulter). In sandy land sections of the country;

honey yield inferior but with large amount of pollen; good for early

brood rearing. March, April.*

LIVE OAK. Quercus Virginiana Mill.

Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Common along water courses extending from the Gulf States through

Southern and Western Texas to the mountains of New Mexico." (Coulter).

Hunter: in forests, honey yield good, poor in quality, dark; valuable

for early brood rearing; much pollen. March.*

RED OAK. Quercus rubra L.

Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Extending to the valleys of the Colorado and San Antonio. Not

abundant and timber poor." (Coulter). Along creeks and low-lands;

scarce; pollen. March, April.*

SWAMP, SPANISH, or PIN OAK. Quercus palustris Du Roi.

Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Low grounds extending to the valley of the Colorado." (Coulter).

Forests; good honey yield and also pollen; valuable for brood rearing,

March, April.*

WATER OAK. Quercus aquatica Walt.

Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Wet grounds extending from the South Atlantic States to the valley

of the Colorado." (Coulter). College: along creeks and streams; scarce

and scattering; pollen. March.*

BLACK JACK or BARREN OAK. Quercus nigra L.

Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Extending to the valleys of the Colorado and Nueces." (Coulter). In

post oak woods in sandy sections of the country; early pollen. March,

April.*

BLACK WILLOW. Salix nigra Marsh.

Willow family. Salicineae.

"On banks bending over the water of most streams of Western Texas."

(Coulter). Along rivers and creeks; honey yield good and valuable for

brood rearing, and for abundance of pollen. February to April.*

COTTONWOOD. NECKLACE POPLAR. Populus monilifera Ait.

Willow family. Salicineae.

"Extending into the mountains of Western Texas." (Coulter). Lowlands

and along streams; some honey but more pollen; valuable for early

brood rearing. March.*

GREEN BRIAR. CAT BRIAR. Smilax bona-nox L.

Lily family. Liliaceae.

"Abundant along the Rio Grande and Pecos." (Coulter). "In thickets

Massachusetts to Florida and Texas. Stretch berry." (Small). In

thickets; honey yield fair; bees work on it well, but of short

duration. April.*

ASPARAGUS. Asparagus officinalis Linn.

Lily family. Liliaceae.

"In waste places and salt marshes. New Brunswick to Georgia and

Louisiana. Naturalized from Europe." (Small). Cultivated for its young

shoots for food; honey yield of no importance, but good for pollen.

March, April.*

VIRGINIAN SPIDERWORT. Commelina Virginica L.

Spiderwort family. Commelinaceae.

"Moist thickets and borders of rivers southern and southwestern

Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: moist fence corners and open woods; honey

yield unimportant, valuable for pollen. April, May.*

SPIDERWORT. Tradescantia gigantea Rose.

Spiderwort family. Commelinaceae.

"On plains or prairies, Texas." (Small). New Braunfels; in and about

hedges of woodlands; honey yield unimportant but good for early

pollen. March, May.*

SORGHUM. Sorghum vulgare Pers.

Grass family. Gramineae.

Hunter: cultivated for hay crops, etc., valuable for abundant yield

of pollen; some honey. June, August.*

INDIAN CORN. Zea mays L.

Grass family. Gramineae.

"Cultivated in fields for grain; honey yield not positively known;

valuable for its pollen in abundance. May, June.*

INDEX

Latin or Technical Names.

Acacia amentacea

Acacia Berlandiera

Acacia Farnesiana

Acacia Greggii

Acacia Roemeriana

Ailanthus glandulosus

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus retroflexus

Amaranthus spinosus

Ambrosia aptera

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia

Ambrosia trifida

Ampelidaceae

Amygdalus Persica

Anacardiaceae

Anredera scandens

Argemone platyceras

Asclepiadeae

Asclepias sp

Asparagus officinalis

Astragalus Mexicanus

Berberideae

Berberis trifoliata

Bignoniaceae

Berchemia scandens

Borage officinalis

Boragineae

Brassica nigra

Brassica rapa

Bumelia angustifolia

Callicarpa Americana

Callirrhoe digitata

Cactaceae

Campsis radicans

Caprifoliaceae

Cardiospermum Halicacabum

Celtis pallida

Celtis occidentalis

Celtis Mississippiensis

Centaurea Americana

Cephalanthus occidentalis

Cercis Canadensis

Cercis occidentalis

Chenopodiaceae

Cissus incisa

Citrullus Citrullus

Citrus trifoliata

Cnicus altissimus

Coleus blumei

Columbrina Texensis

Commelinaceae

Commelina Virginica

Compositae

Condalia obovata

Convolvulaceae

Cornaceae

Cornus asperifolia

Crataegus arborescens

Crataegus spathulata

Croton Capitatus

Croton monanthogynus

Croton Sonorae

Croton Texensis

Cruciferae

Cucumis Melo

Cucumis sativa

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbita foetidissima

Cucurbita pepo

Cupuliferae

Daubentonia longifolia

Diodia teres

Diospyros Texana

Diospyros Virginiana

Dolichos lablab

Ebenaceae

Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Elaeagnus argentia

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia marginata

Eysenhardtia amorphoides

Firmiana platinifolia

Fagopyrum fagopyrum

Gaillardia pulchella

Gaura filiformis

Geraniaceae

Gleditschia triacanthos

Gossypium herbaceum

Gramineae

Greggia camporum

Gutierrezia Texana

Helenium tenuifolium

Helianthus annuus

Hibiscus syriacus

Hicoria alba

Hicoria Pecan

Houstonia angustifolia

Hydrophyllaceae

Ilex Caroliniana

Ilex decidua

Ilicineae

Ipomoea Caroliniana

Juglandeae

Juglans nigra

Jussiaea diffusa

Jussiaea repens

Kallstroemia maxima

Labiatae

Lagerstroemia Indica

Lantana Camara

Leguminosae

Lepidium virginicum

Ligustrum vulgare

Liliaceae

Lippia ligustrina

Lippia nodiflora

Lonicera albiflora

Lonicera fragrantissima

Loranthaceae

Lupinus subcarnosus

Lythraceae

Malus malus

Malvaceae

Malvaviscus drummondii

Marrubium vulgare

Medicago denticulata

Medicago sativa

Meliaceae

Melia azedarach

Melilotus alba

Melilotus officinalis

Monarda clinopodioides

Monarda fistulosa

Monarda punctata

Nepeta cataria

Neptunia lutea

Oleaceae

Onagrarieae

Opuntia englemannii

Oxalis stricta

Papaveraceae

Papaver rhoeas

Parkinsonia aculeata

Parthenium Hysterophorus

Phacelia congesta

Phacelia glabra

Phoradendron flavescens

Pisum sativum

Polygonaceae

Populus monilifera

Portulaceae

Portulaca grandiflora

Prosopis juliflora

Prunus (sp.)

Prunus domestica

Ptelea trifoliata

Pyrus communis

Quercus aquatica

Quercus minor

Quercus nigra

Quercus palustris

Quercus rubra

Quercus Virginiana

Reseda odorata

Resedaceae

Rhamneae

Rhus copallina

Rhus virens

Ricinus communis

Robinia Pseudacacia

Rosa

Rosaceae

Rudbeckia bicolor

Rudbeckia hirta

Rubiaceae

Rubus trivialis

Rutaceae

Salicineae

Salix nigra

Salvia azurea

Salvia Roemeriana

Sambucus Canadensis

Sapindaceae

Sapindus marginatus

Sapotaceae

Schrankia angustata

Scutellaria drummondii

Sida spinosa

Sida angustifolia

Simarubaceae

Smilax bona-nox

Solanaceae

Solanum rostratum

Solidago sp. (?)

Sorghum vulgare

Spiraea Virginiana

Symphoricarpos symphorlcarpos

Tagetes patalus

Tamariscineae

Tamarix gallica

Taraxacum officinale

Tilia Americana

Tiliaceae

Toxylon pomiferum

Tradescantia gigantea

Tribulus cistoides

Trifolium pratense

Trifolium repens

Ulmus Americana

Ulmus alata

Ungnadia speciosa

Urticaceae

Verbenaceae

Verbena urticaefolia

Verbena xutha

Verbesina Virginica

Vigna sinensis (Var. ?)

Vigna (sp).

Virburnum prunifolium

Vitis monticola

Vitis (?) (Varieties)

Xanthium Canadense

Xanthoxylum clava-Herculis

Zea mays

Zygophylleae

INDEX

Vernacular or Common Names.

Alfalfa or Lucerne

Amaranth family

American Knapweed

American mistletoe

American or White elm

Apple

Appodilla family

Asparagus

Barberry family

Basswood. American linden

Bean-caper family

Bigonia family

Black haw

Black jack or Barren oak

Black locust

Black walnut

Black willow

Blue lupine. Bluebonnet

Blue sage

Blue thistle

Blue vervain

Borage

Borage family

Brasil wood

Bridal wreath

Broomweed

Buckthorn family

Buckwheat family

Bush honeysuckle

Button bush

Button weed

Cactus family

California privet

Cassia

Castor-oil plant

Catnip

Catsclaw

Cockle-burr. Clot-burr

Coleus

Common Balloon Vine

Common cactus or Prickly pear

Common hoarhound

Common pigweed

Common pumpkin

Common Sunflower

Common turnip

Composite family

Cone flower. Nigger Head

Convolvulus family

Coral berry. Indian currant

Cotton

Cottonwood. Necklace poplar

Cow itch

Crepe myrtle

Cucumber

Cultivated wine grapes

Cow pea

Dandelion

Dense-flowered phacelia

Devils claws

Dew-berry

Dogwood family

Drummond's skull-cap

Dwarf sumach

Ebony family

Elder

Evening primrose family

Eysenhardtia

French mulberry

Fringed poppy mallow

Garden pea

Geranium family

Goldenrod

Goosefoot family

Gourd family

Grass family

Granjeno

Greater caltrop

Great ragweed

Green briar. Cat briar

Green sumach

Greggia

Hardy orange

Hackberry

Hawthorn. White thorn

Holly family

Honey locust

Honey suckle family

Hop tree

Horse-mint

Houstonia

Huajilla

Huisache

Indian corn

Japanese buckwheat

Japanese delchos

Japanese varnish tree

Jussiaea

Lantana

Large-flowered caltrop

Large-flowered verbena

Lily family

Linden family

Live oak

Loose strife family

Madder family

Madeira vine

Mallow family

Marigold

Medick. Burr clover

Melia family

Mezquit tree. Screw bean

Mexican buckeye

Mexican ground plum

Mexican persimmon

Mignonette

Mignonette family

Milk weed family

Mint family

Mistletoe family

Mockernut. Whiteheart Hickory

Morning glory

Mountain grape

Musk melon

Mustard family

Narrow-leafed iron wood

Narrow-leafed sida

Nettle family

Night-shade

Night-shade family

Oak family

Oleaster family

Olive family

One-seeded croton

Osage orange

Paradise flower

Peach

Pear

Pecan-nut

Persimmon (common)

Peppergrass. Pepperwort

Plum

Poppy family

Portulaca

Possum haw. Bear berry

Post oak

Prickly poppy

Pulse family

Purslane family

Quassia family

Rattan vine

Red bud

Red bud. Judas tree

Red clover

Red oak

Retama

Roemer's sage

Roman wormwood

Rose

Rose family

Rose of sharon. Shrubby althaea

Round-flowered catsclaw

Rue family

Salt cedar

Sensitive briar

Silk weed

Silver berry

Sneeze weed. Bitter weed

Soapberry. Wild china

Soapberry family

Sonora croton

Sorgum

Spanish apple

Spatulate-leafed fog-fruit

Spiderwort family

Spring sida

Spurge

Spurge family

Sumach family

Swamp, Spanish, or Pin oak

Sweet clover

Sweet olive

Tall ragweed

Tamarisc family

Texas croton

Thorny amaranth

Tooth-ache tree. Prickly ash. Sea ash. Pepperwood

Tree of heaven

Triple-leafed barberry

Trumpet creeper. Trumpet flower

Umbrella china tree

Vervain family

Vine family

Virginian crown-beard

Virginian spiderwort

Walnut family

Water-leaf family

Watermelon

Water oak

White brush

White clover

White-flowered honey suckle

Willow family

Wild bergamont

Wild gourd

Wild plum

Winged elm or Wahoo

Yellow Wood sorrel

Yellow sweet clover

Youpon

----------------------------------------------------------------------

[Transcriber's note:

Electronic version produced by Frank Zago - April 2nd, 2012.

Notes about this edition: only the obvious typos were fixed; and

several missing opening or closing quotes were added. Otherwise no

other change was made.

The original book used is freely available from Texas A&M University

at: http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/3440]