Manual of Library Cataloguing by Quinn, John Henry

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MANUAL OF LIBRARY CATALOGUING

BY J. HENRY QUINN, LIBRARIAN, CHELSEA PUBLIC LIBRARIES, LONDON. (_Formerly Principal Cataloguing Assistant, Liverpool Free Libraries._)

LONDON. LIBRARY SUPPLY COMPANY, 4, AVE MARIA LANE, E.C. 1899

Printed by Marlborough, Pewtress & Co., London, E. C.

PREFACE

This little book does not claim to be a comprehensive treatise on the art of cataloguing books, nor is it intended for the use of the expert in bibliography. The rules embodied are those generally recognized as necessary for the proper cataloguing of a collection of books. By simple illustrations the author has endeavoured to deal with those difficulties which he has found most frequently arise and call for careful consideration. Information concerning the printing of catalogues has been added in order to make the book more complete.

If this Manual should prove a help to the better understanding of the true principles of cataloguing, and is found to be of practical assistance to those engaged in library work, the object of its compilation will have been attained.

J. H. Q.

_March, 1899._

CONTENTS.

CHAP.

I.--INTRODUCTORY.

II.--THE DICTIONARY CATALOGUE.

III.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 1.

IV.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 2.

V.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 3.

VI.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 4.

VII.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: CORPORATE AND OTHER FORMS, EDITORS AND TRANSLATORS.

VIII.--SUBJECT. TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES.

IX.--SUBJECT, TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES (continued).

X.--TITLE-ENTRIES AND REPETITION DASHES.

XI.--INDEXING CONTENTS.

XII.--THE CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE.

XIII.--ALPHABETIZATION AND ARRANGEMENT.

XIV.--PRINTING.

Appendix A.--LIST OF WORDS OR PHRASES OCCURRING IN CONNECTION WITH BOOKS WITH ABBREVIATIONS.

” B.--TABLE OF SIZES OF BOOKS.

” C.--SOME MODERN PSEUDONYMS WITH THE REAL NAMES, INCLUDING LADIES WITH NAMES CHANGED BY MARRIAGE.

” D.--METHOD OF CORRECTING PRINTER’S PROOF.

” E.--LIST OF SUBJECT-HEADINGS FOR A DICTIONARY CATALOGUE.

INDEX.

MANUAL OF LIBRARY CATALOGUING.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

=1.=--Most people are satisfied to believe that there is no department of a librarian’s work so easily managed as that of compiling catalogues. The catalogue of a library is often regarded as a mere list of books, calling for no more mental effort in its production than is required in that of a furniture auctioneer, or similar trade list. Professor John Fiske, in his essay on “A Librarian’s Work,”[1] says “Generally I find a library catalogue is assumed to be a thing that is somehow ‘made’ at a single stroke, as Aladdin’s palace was built, at intervals of ten or a dozen years, or whenever a ‘new catalogue’ is thought to be needed,” instead of, as he proceeds to show, being a never-ending work calling for the exercise of all the power and knowledge at the command of the cataloguer.

=2.=--There are varieties of library catalogues, from the simple inventories made by private persons for their own collection of books, to the mammoth “Catalogue of Printed Books in the British Museum,” so great in its size and extensive in the field it covers that its entries have to be almost exclusively limited to a single item for each book.

The catalogues to be compiled upon the lines laid down in this work come between these two extremes, and are intended to serve as a key to the treasure-house of knowledge and disclose its contents in a ready, but orderly, manner to all inquirers. Carlyle says, “a big collection of books, without a good catalogue, is a Polyphemus with no eye in his head.”

=3.=--A good library is virtually useless without an adequate and properly compiled catalogue, but even an indifferent collection of books can be made to render good service by means of a good catalogue. In order to compile such a catalogue it is necessary that certain particulars be given descriptive of the books, but in such a way that, while the entries afford all needful information to the person well-versed in books, they shall at the same time be so simple in character as to be understood with very little effort by anyone of average intelligence. At the same time the particulars given should be so comprehensive that a searcher in the catalogue may be able to obtain a clear idea of the nature and scope of the book described without actually examining it, though the descriptions in this respect are not expected to be of the very full order looked for in special bibliographies intended only for the use of experts.

The value of a good catalogue does not depend upon its extent or size any more than does a good book, but rather upon the exactness of the method by which the information given is digested and concentrated. There are library catalogues so elaborately compiled that they are most imposing in appearance, and very often, as a consequence, are considered to be most erudite productions by those who do not understand the art of cataloguing, whereas the persons who have to use them too often find out that they are so ill-arranged as to be little better than a hotch-potch of book titles--pedantic without being learned. “Infinite riches in a little room” might, on the other hand, be often adopted as the motto for many an insignificant-looking catalogue.

=4.=--It is a common occurrence to find a small library with quite a big catalogue. This does not always arise from the wish to make the most of the library, but often from the fact that the compilation has been undertaken by some over-zealous member of a committee who fancied he had a _penchant_ for such work, or that it has been compiled by an amateur with no experience, whose friends have secured him his appointment as librarian. Such people do not know that it is as easy, if not easier, to over-catalogue a library as to do it judiciously, and a fearful and wonderful work is often the result. There would not be much trouble in giving illustrative examples of this, but that catalogue may be cited where Green’s “Short History of the English People” obtained five entries, viz., under Green, Short, History, English History, and People (English), instead of the two entries that would have sufficed. Many of the first catalogues of the smaller free libraries are of this order. This, however, is not always the result of the above-named causes, but as often as not is brought about by committees of new libraries postponing the appointment of a librarian, to save his salary, until a few weeks before the library is announced to be opened, and then expecting him to purchase the books and produce a printed catalogue in the meantime. The conception of the matter is, far too often, that books can be selected, arranged, and listed in bulk, as groceries are bought, displayed, and ticketed, and in as short a time. The result, of course, is that the librarian, being rushed, must select and buy the books as quickly as he can, and relegate the work of cataloguing them to an assistant, who most likely has no training, and the best has to be made of a bad job. In very few instances can it be considered that the first catalogue of a new library fairly represents the ability of the librarian as a cataloguer.

=5.=--With the rapid rise of the standard of education more exact and better work is at present demanded in libraries than was the case during the first quarter of a century after the Public Libraries’ Act came into operation. The slipshod rule-of-thumb cataloguing at one time in vogue does not pass muster unnoticed now, as it did then, and consequently there is less use than ever before for the bald lists of books, compiled upon no principle in particular, sent forth to bewilder and hinder rather than help an inquiring public. The student, and that interesting personage, “the general reader,” are each year coming to a better understanding of the uses and peculiarities of books, and so look for more precise information concerning them. No better evidence is needed of the manner in which the demand for information about books has grown than is found in the large place which the reviewing of them now takes in the columns of the newspaper press, so that even minor journals cannot afford to ignore it. The dictum that a cataloguer has no right to go behind the information contained on the title-page of a book does not now find acceptance, as it did in the past.

Those persons who are possessed of even a little experience in the matter know that it is impossible to compile a catalogue in a hap-hazard fashion, and that clear and definite rules must be laid down before any part of the work is attempted, otherwise confusion and want of proportion will result. Happily of late years the rules governing the proper compilation of catalogues have been codified, particularly those for the form at present in most general use, known as the “dictionary catalogue.”

CHAPTER II.

THE DICTIONARY CATALOGUE.

=6.=--The dictionary catalogue is not the idea or invention of any individual, but has developed gradually from the requirements of librarians in dealing with readers. The earlier catalogues were limited to entries given under the authors’ names, as in the British Museum Catalogue, or were in classified form, either under the large classes into which a library was divided, or with very little other sub-division. These were followed by what may be termed “dictionary index catalogues” containing the first principles of the dictionary catalogue as now understood. They consisted of very brief entries under authors, and the simple turning about of a title to bring a certain word in it to the front as conveying its subject, in this manner:--

England under Victoria. Michelsen.

Englefield (Sir H. C.) Walk through Southampton.

English Antiquities. Eccleston. 1847.

Ennui. Edgeworth.

Entomology, Exotic. Drury. 1837.

Episodes of Insect Life. 1851.

Errand to the South. Malet.

By this method the real subject of the book was often missed, more especially if the author had made use of a fanciful title, and one subject would be found under many different entries, according to the word used on the title-page, and without cross references to bind them together. It must be confessed that to-day many of the dictionary catalogues of public libraries are no more than this “index catalogue” under the newer name. The entries may be a little fuller, but the principles of compilation remain the same.

=7.=--Prior to 1876 there was no complete code of rules for the preparation of a subject as well as author catalogue, though Prof. C. C. Jewett’s “On the construction of Catalogues of Libraries” (Washington, 1853), with its subsequent modifications, was a step in this direction. There were rules for author catalogues, for the most part based upon the British Museum rules, as well as schemes of classification for classified catalogues. In that year was published the now well-known “Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue,” by Charles A. Cutter, Librarian of the Boston Athenæum. It appeared as the second part of the “Special Report on the Public Libraries in the United States of America,” issued under the auspices of the United States Bureau of Education. A second edition of these rules was separately issued in 1889. The third edition, with further corrections and additions, appeared in 1891, and has been most liberally distributed by the United States Government to the libraries of the world. Since 1876 other rules have been formulated, principally with Cutter’s as a basis. A consensus of these will be found in the “Eclectic Card Catalog Rules, Author and Title Entries,” by K. A. Linderfelt, Librarian of the Milwaukee Public Library, Boston (Charles A. Cutter) 1890. This most useful compilation, “based on Dziatzko’s ‘Instruction’ compared with the rules of the British Museum, Cutter, Dewey, Perkins, and other authorities,” is not as well known to English librarians as it should be. The present Manual is intended to serve as an introduction to these two codes, and the instructions contained in it are based upon them. When these have not been adhered to the changes made have obtained authority in library practice. Mr. Henry B. Wheatley’s interesting little book, “How to Catalogue a Library” (Stock, 1889), must also be mentioned, and should be read as an introduction to the subject.

=8.=--The great merit of the dictionary catalogue is that it can be made to supply most of the information usually asked for by those using libraries, and by immediate reference without any preliminary study of its arrangement. It obtains its name from the circumstance that all the entries, irrespective of their nature, are put into a single alphabetical sequence, and consulted as one would consult a dictionary. It is considered to be the most acceptable form to the majority of those making use of popular libraries, and experience has proved it to be so.

The dictionary catalogue is intended to answer all of the following questions:

What books are contained in the library by a given author, as, Hall Caine? The answer to this is called the _author-entry_.

What books have you upon a specific subject, as the dynamo; or upon a particular topic, as the Eastern question? The entries answering such enquiries are the _subject-entries_.

Have you a book called, “A Daughter of Eve?” The entry supplying this information would be the _title-entry_.

Have you any volume of a series, as, “English men of letters?” This it will also answer, and the reply may be termed the _series-entry_.

There are questions, however, that the dictionary catalogue does not ordinarily answer. It would not tell what books were in the library in a particular language, say French, and it will not provide a complete and definite list of books in a particular _form_, as fiction, or poetry; or in a _class_ of literature as distinct from _subject_. For example, it will not group together all the theological works, or the scientific books, but will distribute them throughout the entire alphabet, according to the divisions of these subjects, and these divisions will in their turn be distributed according to lesser divisions and monographs.

A catalogue compiled upon the lines requisite to group such classes completely, so that a general treatise and a monograph upon a minute division will follow in natural order, would be a classified catalogue, and that form is dealt with separately in Chapter XII.

To effect a combination of both forms in such a way that they would answer any question, reasonable or otherwise, would necessitate so large a number of entries for each book that its compilation would be barely feasible, and if carried out it would be unsatisfactory, because the simplicity of the alphabetical order would be destroyed, and the result would not be worth the labour expended, to say nothing of its size and costliness.

=9.=--Therefore choice must be made at the very outset between the two forms, dictionary or classified. The point to be first considered is, which form is most likely to best suit the needs of the particular class who use the library; as a catalogue which would be most useful for a college library, or that of a scientific society, would be unsuitable for a free library in the midst of a working-class population. Then the question of cost enters into the matter, and here the classified form has the advantage, as apart from the brief index entries, one entry per book mostly suffices, whereas in the dictionary form the average is three entries. There is a still more important matter which materially affects the older libraries, and that is the impossibility of keeping the dictionary form within reasonable compass, even with curtailed entries and closely-printed pages of small type. Borrowers from a public lending library prefer to carry their catalogues with them when exchanging books, but they cannot do so if it is in two or three volumes, or so bulky as not to be portable. For this reason librarians with unbounded belief in the superior advantages of the dictionary catalogue have been compelled, against their will, to adopt the classified form. They had no alternative, except the very unsatisfactory one of extensively weeding their stock of books, and only those who have undertaken that responsibility know how difficult it is to decide whether a book is worth retaining or not. A very judicial statement of the merits of the two styles of catalogues will be found in a paper by Mr. F. T. Barrett, of the Mitchell Library, Glasgow, entitled “The Alphabetical and Classified Forms of Catalogues Compared,” in the “Transactions of the Second International Library Conference,” 1897. Mr. J. D. Brown’s views, as set forth in Chapter v. of his “Manual of Library Classification” (Library Supply Co., 1898), should also be carefully considered.

PRELIMINARIES.

=10.=--Presuming that the student is for the first time undertaking the work of cataloguing a library, he will require to provide himself with a supply of cards or slips of paper cut uniform in size. Almost any size will do, but the most convenient and more commonly used measures 5 inches by 3 inches. If the catalogue is to be written for the use of readers, then cards are necessary as they are more convenient for turning over than the paper slips which serve well enough for “copy” for a printed catalogue. If the cards or slips are to be written upon with a pen they should be ruled “feint” across and have marginal rulings to mark the “indent.” These rulings are only upon one side, as in no case should an entry be continued to the other side. If an entry is so long that it cannot be put on one card then it must be continued on the face of a second, with the author or other heading repeated. For the cataloguer’s own use or as printer’s copy, the card or slip may be lengthened as required by pasting to it a strip of paper of the same width, and folding it up within the compass of the size of the card, but exposing the heading. This cannot be done when the cards are held in place by a rod running through them. It need hardly be pointed out that for a card catalogue meant for the use of many persons the quality of the cards is of great importance, as those of a cheap, inferior material will not bear much turning over without tearing. Card catalogues are not invariably appreciated by the public, as some persons seem to experience difficulty in turning over the cards. For this reason some librarians prefer the sheaf form because it maintains the book shape, which everyone understands, and it has the same advantages as the card catalogue in allowing the insertion of additions in proper order at any time, and permits unlimited expansion, besides taking up less room.

Upon each card or slip a separate entry of each book is made, and by “book” is meant a work that may be in a single volume or in many volumes. Two works even by the same author, appearing under his name, should be entered on separate cards, as, if written together, it is usually found that another book will later have to be inserted _between_ them.

=11.=--Printers are acknowledged, as a class, to be the most exact and patient of men, but to those beginners who have not any large experience of their ways it is well to say “be careful to write boldly and plainly,” remembering always that it is a much more difficult work for a compositor to set a catalogue than probably any other form of book, because the matter does not “run on” and various types and languages commonly enter into it. Apart from the mistakes easily made when the “copy,” as the manuscript is called, is not clear and distinct, there is the risk incurred of an extra charge for “author’s corrections”--a well-known item in all printers’ bills. To write clearly is of even more importance if the catalogue is to remain in manuscript for use by readers. A handy little brochure upon this subject is “Library Handwriting,” issued by the New York State Library School, April 1898, and the style of handwriting therein shown should be studied and imitated. The specimen on the next page is taken from it.

=12.=--It is in the preparation of “copy” and in writing card catalogues for public use that the great value of the typewriter is experienced, as clearness and uniformity are insured by its use as well as economy of space. While it is hardly within the scope of this Manual to say anything by way of recommendation of any particular make of typewriter, yet experience shows that it would be a mistake to overlook the “Hammond” when considering the merits of different machines. In cataloguing it is found useful because a variety of types of a distinctive character, including the accented letters most commonly required, can be used upon a single machine.

[Illustration: SPECIMEN ALPHABETS AND FIGURES

Joined hand

Disjoined hand]

CHAPTER III.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--THE AUTHOR ENTRY, I.

=13.=--Whatever difference of opinion may exist upon various points that arise in cataloguing books all authorities are agreed that the principal or main entry giving the most particulars concerning a book should be that under its author’s name. This, then, is the first entry to be made, and the cataloguer having selected the book to be dealt with ignores any title upon the binding and, passing by the preliminary, or “half title,” turns to the title page proper, that containing the most information and with the imprint (place of publication, publisher, and date) at foot, and copies from it the following particulars, adding those not given upon the title-page by an examination of the book, and in this order, viz.--

1. The author’s surname.

2. The author’s Christian name (or prenom).

3. Titles of the author (when required for distinctive or distinguishing purposes).

4. The title of the book.

5. The editor’s name (if not the author or compiler) or the translator’s name (if to be given).

6. The edition.

7. The name of series (if any), or, if part of a book, the name of the book it is contained in.

8. The collation (if to be given), or

9. The number of volumes, when more than one.

10. The size (if to be given).

11. The place of publication.

12. The place of printing or name of printer (when the book is typographically interesting only).

13. The date of publication.

14. The shelf, press, or other location or finding mark.

15. Descriptive or explanatory note (when thought desirable).

16. Contents (if set out).

The order is that most usually adopted, but Nos. 8 to 13 may be varied at pleasure, if such variation is made at the commencement of the work and adhered to in all cases afterwards.

=14.=--As the surname of the author leads, the Christian name must follow, either enclosed in parentheses, as

Dickens (Charles),

or preceded by a comma, as

Emerson, Ralph Waldo.

The parentheses are more commonly used, but they have not so good an appearance as the comma, and their use necessitates what a printer calls “a run on sorts”--that is the use of a particular piece of type to such an extent as to require a special supply beyond that ordinarily furnished with a fount of type. This, after all, resolves itself more into a question of taste than of expediency, and the cataloguer will choose as he thinks best. It may be remarked in passing that the “cult of the trivial” is not to be altogether despised in cataloguing, as careful attention to apparently minor details ensures good and exact work.

=15.=--The points to be observed in copying the title-page and preparing the author-entry can be shown more clearly by illustration than by description. Let it be supposed that the title-page of the book in hand reads in full:

The Personal History of David Copperfield. By Charles Dickens. With eight illustrations. London: Chapman & Hall, Piccadilly.

We proceed to write the principal entry to read:--

Dickens, Charles. The personal history of David Copperfield.

From the “fly-title” we learn that this is the “Charles Dickens’ edition.” We examine the book, and find it contains six prefatory pages, these being paged in Roman numerals, and 533 others paged in Arabic, with a portrait and seven other illustrations. This statement of the number of pages and illustrations is known as the “collation,” as to examine a book for the purpose of ascertaining that it is perfect is to collate it. As the place of publication is London, it is the practice in English catalogues to omit it from the entry, such omission signifying that London is understood. The date of publication not being given, and as there are no means of finding it out with certainty, the initials “n.d.,” meaning “no date,” are added, and the full catalogue entry will be:

DICKENS, CHARLES.

The personal history of David Copperfield. (_Charles Dickens’ ed._) pp. vi., 533, port., illus. 8vo. n.d.

K 1200

The author’s name should be written at the outside left hand of the card at the top, the rest of the entry following with an indent at each side, the press mark alone coming outside at the right hand, as shown in the printed entry above.

=16.=--It is of the utmost importance that care be taken in transcribing a title, as it is much easier to make a mistake than to detect it afterwards, even at the time of printing. Errors of the hand and of the eye creep in imperceptibly. Besides, a mistake having once been made is likely to be repeated in all other entries, when copied from the first one. A very common cause of error is to let the mind become so absorbed in the consideration of a book in hand, that when a second comes to be dealt with some word from the first will unwittingly be written into its title, and if the result is not very obvious from its absurdity it escapes notice altogether until printed, and bears permanent witness against the cataloguer.

=17.=--The signs and abbreviations of words made use of in the above illustration, and all others to follow, are those customary in cataloguing, and as there is a number of well-understood abbreviations used in connection with books, a list of the most useful of these is given in Appendix A.

It is a commendable plan to take note of those it is intended to use, and to keep a list of them written on a card always at hand for reference. The list could then be put in the preface to the catalogue when printed, as a help to its better understanding by those not versed in book abbreviations. It is as well to remember that there is not very much gained in the long run by abbreviating too closely, as “illus.” is easier understood than “il.” or “ill.” and “transl.” than “tr.”

=18.=--In copying a title-page it is required that the spelling of it should be closely followed, more especially if peculiar, but not the punctuation. The punctuation in the illustrative entries throughout this Manual is that most frequently made use of in catalogues, and will be found convenient in practice. But if personal preference for other forms comes in, and a change is made, all that is needed is that such change should be uniformly carried out. Besides the ordinary rules of punctuation there are but four well-defined which can be considered to govern the matter, and these are:--

A.--That alternative titles take a semi-colon after the first title, and a comma after the word “or;” as

St. Winifred’s; or, the world of school.

B.--That explanatory sub-titles be preceded by a colon; as

The foundation of death: a study of the drink question.

C.--When additional matter in the book occupies a subsidiary place in the title-page, in order not to detach it altogether from the rest of the title, that the word “with” be preceded by a semi-colon; as

Life of Luther; with an account of the Reformation.

D.--That when an editor’s or translator’s name appears upon the title-page the word “ed.” or “transl.” be preceded by a semi-colon, as

Epictetus. Discourses; transl. by George Long.

Green fairy book; ed. by Andrew Lang.

It is necessary to point out that in cataloguing it must not be left to the printer to supply the punctuation, as is customary with other books, and therefore the cataloguer must carefully supply it as he proceeds, and not when the time comes to prepare the work for the press.

=19.=--The same rule holds good with respect to the use of capital letters. Until recently it was the general fashion in printing book-titles to give every word, or almost every word, an initial capital, but the custom has fallen into disuse. Like other old-fashioned customs it dies hard, and if not advised that the “copy” must be closely followed in this respect, the printer will as likely as not put in the capitals all the same, and this in spite of the fact that he may have to wait until he has one sheet printed off before he can set another, on account of the run on the capitals. All that is now expected is that capital letters should be used in catalogue entries as they would be in any ordinary book, viz., to proper names; to words coming after a full stop; and to words derived from proper names. In the last-named a lower-case (_i.e._ small) initial letter is sometimes used in catalogues, but such words as “christian,” “pauline,” “lutheran,” “darwinism,” “ibsenism,” have not a good appearance and should be avoided. In foreign titles the usage of the language should be followed, so that there will be fewer capitals used in Latin, French, or Italian than in English, and more in German.

=20.=--All dates and numbers should be transcribed in Arabic figures, even if they are in Roman numerals upon the title-page. Thus, “from the XVIIth Century to the Present Time” becomes “from the 17th century to the present time;” “MDCCCXCIX” becomes “1899;” and “Volume xliv.” is simply “v. 44.” The only reasonable exception to this rule is that numbers to the names of potentates be always in Roman, though in American catalogues these also are put into Arabic. We on this side of the Atlantic are not yet well enough accustomed to “Charles 2,” or even “Edward 6th,” to adopt it.

=21.=--Sometimes figures form part of the title of a book, when it is desirable for the sake of appearance to write them out in words: the transcript, of course, being kept in the language of the title-page, though “50 études pour le piano” has been seen entered in a catalogue as “Fifty études pour le piano.”

=22.=--So far as languages printed in Roman are concerned, it is the invariable rule to adhere to the language of the title-page, and not to make a translation. In ordinary libraries Greek is usually transliterated into Latin; if a Greek classic has both Greek and Latin titles, as is commonly the case, then the Latin title is taken rather than the Greek.

=23.=--Upon this point of the translation of title-pages the question of utility, in popular libraries especially, might very well be considered. It does not often happen, but it is possible, that a person may be a capable musician and not know a word of French, German, or Italian, and it is likely therefore that many of the lesser-known compositions would be made acceptable if a translation of the title-page were given as well as the original. It is very certain that in the public libraries there are many valuable foreign books upon ornament and the decorative arts, consisting almost exclusively of illustrations, that are not used as they should be. The catalogue entries of such books convey no meaning whatever to many an artisan or craftsman, and a free translation might very well be given for their benefit. If such a translation is not given, a note descriptive of the nature of the book should be added.

=24.=--It is a safe rule that the date of publication should be given in every case and in every entry, as it serves in some measure to show the particular edition of the book, and more important still in scientific and technical works, to show if the editions in a library are of recent date or obsolete. It will, however, be found quite useless in popular libraries to give the dates of publication in the entries of works of fiction, for the simple reason that many of the books in this class of literature are so often worn out and then replaced with new copies, which are very seldom of the same dates as those printed in the catalogue, and it soon becomes incorrect in this respect. Happily it is a matter of no importance, as very few fiction readers are concerned about the date of publication, and therefore it may be safely omitted from all entries. This statement does not apply to first or other editions of novels of special value, such as the first edition of “David Copperfield,” as these would be fully described as well as carefully preserved.

=25.=--A suggestion worthy of consideration has been made that the original dates of publication should be added to the entries of reprints. This would increase the information given, and might prevent persons mistaking an old book for a new one, though librarians are familiar with the fact that old books are read with as much pleasure as the newest, if got up with modern attractive illustrations and pretty bindings.

=26.=--In the illustrative entry we have marked the book as 8vo.--that is octavo in size. This we learn either by experience in the sizes of books, or by actual measurement, and it may be at once admitted that the question of size notation is a vexed one and no absolute rule can be laid down for guidance. Those who have studied the matter know that there is no satisfactory solution of the difficulty beyond that of measuring the book and giving its size in centimetres or in inches. But this encumbers the catalogue entry too much, and for ordinary every-day purposes the old signs suffice of 8vo. (octavo), 4to. (quarto), and fo. (folio), and they give a rough idea of the size. These may be qualified, if thought necessary, by la. (large), sm. (small), or obl. (oblong), if the books are of a special size. The terms 12ᵒ., 16ᵒ., 32ᵒ., &c. are sometimes used, but they do not convey any very precise information and the additional terms of “demy,” “royal,” “imperial,” and others have varying meaning nowadays, as there is no fixed standard in the sizes of paper or books. Appendix B consists of a table taken from the “Report of the Committee on Size Notation of the Library Association of the United Kingdom,” and this may be studied as an introduction to the subject, but is not to be taken as decisive. The full report of the Committee is to be found in the Library Association Monthly Notes, vol. 3, 1882, pp. 130-133. A scale made from this table will be found convenient to cataloguers, as will also the handy and better known book-size scale prepared by Mr. Madeley of the Warrington Museum. The pages of books are to be measured and not their bindings. The sizes of books are not always shown in the printed catalogues of free libraries and if they were it is most likely that the signs would confuse rather than help, as the majority of the public do not understand anything of the matter, besides the proportion of books other than octavos is not large in a lending library. The reference library usually contains a considerable number of quartos and folios and the information upon this point would be more useful in the catalogue of that department.

=27.=--The immense value of occasional explanatory or descriptive notes to the entries in a catalogue is well known, but they are not as often inserted as they might be. They should be added to author, subject, or title entry, where necessary, desirable, or in any way helpful, as far as possible briefly and to the point, and printed under the entry in a smaller type, to show they are not part of the title. The following are a few examples taken from various catalogues:

ALBERT, MARY. Holland and her heroes. 1878

Adapted from Motley’s “Dutch Republic.”

BALL (Sir Robert S.) Elements of astronomy. 1886. ill.

Knowledge of mathematics required for the study of this book.

Ball, (William P.) Are the effects of use and disuse inherited? 1890. _Nature series._

NOTE.--The author taken a negative view and attempts to prove that no improvement in mankind can take place without the aid of natural or artificial selection.

BOCCACCIO, Giovanni. Il decamerone; nuovamente correto et con diligentia stampato. pp. xii, 568. 8o. _Firenze_, 1527 [_Venice_, 1729.]

This is the counterfeit of the Giunta or “Ventisetana” Decameron of 1527.

Dupont-Auberville, _M._ Art industrial: L’ornement des tissus. 1877

Coloured designs suitable for all purposes taken from textile fabrics.

Mariette, A. E., _called_ Mariette-Bey. Outlines of ancient Egyptian history. 1890

The best brief manual.

=Persia.=

Morier, J. Hajji Baba. 1895

Remains yet a standard book upon Persian life and manners.

In adding notes of this nature it is a wise plan to keep to statements of fact, and not indulge in expressions of opinion.

CHAPTER IV.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--THE AUTHOR ENTRY, 2.

=28.=--Having laid down some of the general principles to be followed in making the author-entry in a complete form, we proceed to take further examples selected because they happen to be at hand and not for any difficulty they present. Any batch of ordinary books will contain some that are troublesome to the beginner in cataloguing, and for this reason nothing that can be regarded as of an out-of-the-way character has been taken in illustration.

The next book is:

Historic survey of German poetry, interspersed with various translations. By W. Taylor, of Norwich. London: Treuttel, &c.

The work is in three volumes, the first being dated 1828, the second 1829, and the third 1830. We ascertain by reference to a biographical dictionary, or other likely work, that the author’s name is William, and as Wm. Taylor is a somewhat common name we retain the description “of Norwich,” so that he may be distinguished from any other author of the same name. The author-entry then is:

TAYLOR, William (_of Norwich_).

Historic survey of German poetry, interspersed with various translations. 3 v. 8o. 1828-30

This book being in more than one volume a collation of each is not given, as the statement of the number of volumes is considered to give sufficient idea of its extent. If the work were illustrated this fact would still be stated, not usually as “3 v., illus.” but “Illus. 3 v.” or “illus. 3 v.” It will be seen that the date of publication of each volume is not given but the first and last dates only. It is necessary to point out that the earliest and latest dates are not always those of the first and last volumes of a set, as it sometimes happens that they are not the first or last issued. Often enough the volumes of a set are made up of two or more editions with long intervals between the dates. In all cases the earliest and latest dates are to be given, and any peculiarities of the edition can be stated in the form of a note at the end of the entry.

Taking another book we find that the title-page reads:

Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson, by Richard Garnett, LL.D. London, Walter Scott, &c. 1888

and after an exhaustive examination the entry comes out as

GARNETT, Richard.

Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. (_Great writers._) pp. 200, xiv. sm. 8o. 1888

With a bibliography by John P. Anderson.

=29.=--The desirability, or otherwise, of using initials instead of giving the Christian name in full in an author-entry depends largely upon the requirements of the library and the space taken up.

There seems to be a growing practice to search out from any available source all the names that an author was ever saddled with. The object of this for catalogues, other than those of great libraries of national importance, is not very obvious, and it should not concern the cataloguer why Dickens chose to be known as Charles simply instead of Charles John Huffam, or Du Maurier preferred to be called George rather than George Louis Palmela Busson, or even why Hall Caine has dropped the use of Thomas Henry from the fore part of his name. Yet these and other persons have appeared with all the names set out at length even in minor catalogues, and sometimes with the titles of the books cut down to the finest limit in order that the whole name might be got in. The spirit of infinite research is not always an advantage to the cataloguer.

=30.=--On the other hand, bare initials have a meagre appearance, and the middle course should be adopted even when expense is a consideration, as it adds very little to the cost of printing to give at least one name in full. It must be admitted that in many instances where there are two or more Christian names, the initials are distinctive enough for all reasonable purposes, as E. A. Abbott, A. K. H. Boyd, E. A. Freeman, and can be so used. Well-understood abbreviations, like Chas. Dickens, Geo. R. Sims, Robt. Browning, Thos. Carlyle, can also be used, but the gain is so trifling as not to be worth consideration. The first Christian name in use should be given in full, unless it happens that some other is better or specially known, as W. H. Davenport Adams, J. Percy Groves, J. Cotter Morison, R. Bosworth Smith.

=31.=--With the commoner surnames, as Smith, Brown, Jones, and the rest, there will be a number of authors who will have also the same Christian name, when particular care must be exercised not to mix the works together, and so attribute books to a wrong author. Some distinction must be given, like that shown in the “Taylor of Norwich” entry (p. 27), and these are better printed in italics. Examples of these, taken from a catalogue, are

Smith, John, _A. L. S._

Smith, John, _of Kilwinning_.

Smith, John, _of Malton_.

Thomson, James (_poet_, 1700-48).

Thomson, James (“B. V.”)

Thomson, James (_Traveller_).

When father and son with the same name are authors, and the difference between them appears in the book as “the elder,” “jun.,” “fils,” “aîné,” &c., it should be given at the time the entry is made, even though not then required for distinguishing purposes, the library only possessing the works of one or the other. Frequently such a distinction is not shown on the book, and the cataloguer must add it. Strange to say, entries like the following have been seen in catalogues:--

Frères, P. Modes et costumes historiques.

Nassau, W., _sen._ Journals kept in France and Italy.

The first book being by the Paquet frères, and the other by Nassau W. Senior.

=32.=--Biographical dictionaries of all kinds are useful to the cataloguer, but for making distinctions like those referred to above, and for general use, the most serviceable and handiest, because concise and comprehensive, is “The dictionary of biographical reference, containing one hundred thousand names,” by Lawrence B. Phillips (Sampson Low, 1871.) There is a later edition of this work, but it is merely a reprint with no new matter. It should be superfluous to name the valuable and indispensable “Dictionary of national biography” for British names. Allibone’s “Critical dictionary of English literature and British and American authors,” with its supplement by Kirk, is an every-day book of reference for cataloguers. For German biography the “Allgemeine deutsche Biographie” (Leipzig, 1875-98), is the most important, and for French names the “Biographie universelle” (Paris, 1842-65) is very serviceable, as well as for names generally. It should be supplemented by Vapereau’s “Dictionnaire des contemporains.”

=33.=--The form for author-entry is clear and simple enough, and seems easy to put into practice, but difficulties soon arise, and the amount of knowledge the cataloguer possesses upon men in general and authors in particular will be early put to the test. The next book coming before us is

Vice versâ; or, a lesson to fathers. By F. Anstey. New and revised ed. London, Smith, Elder, &c., 1883.

The author’s name in this instance is a pseudonym, and the mode of treating such names has given rise to differences of opinion, and consequently of practice. In many catalogues the real name of the author, when known, is taken for the author-entry, and a reference given from the pseudonym to it. This may be a good rule to follow in very special catalogues, but there is no doubt that it is against the convenience of the great majority of persons who use libraries; and therefore the best, because most convenient and useful, plan is to make the entry under the _best known name_, whether it be assumed or real. It has been often said, and with much truth, that it is not the business of librarians to discover the identity of an author by proving his use of an _alias_ unless for some sufficient reason. It has become quite a mania with some cataloguers to hunt and pry until they find out whether a name is real or not, and their zeal in this direction sometimes misleads them, as witness the fact that “George Eliot” has been entered as Mrs. Lewes in quite a number of catalogues, and Marie Corelli is called Marion Mackay. The cataloguer, besides putting himself to the bother of being ever on the look-out for real names, gives readers the trouble and vexation of looking in several places in the catalogue before they can find the author’s works they are in search of. People wanting books by “Ouida” do not care to be told on turning to that name to “see De la Ramé,” or “Ramée, L. de la,” or even “La Ramé.” It would be equally absurd, on the other hand, to refer from Dickens to “Boz,” or Thackeray to “Titmarsh;” therefore use the best known names. When the pseudonym is the most familiar name, and the principal entry is accordingly given under that form, then it is desirable, but not absolutely essential, to also give the real name, when known with certainty, enclosing it in parentheses, as

Anstey, F. (T. Anstey Guthrie).

Hobbes, John Oliver (Mrs. P. M. T. Craigie).

Sometimes the pseudonym is printed in italics in all entries, but this only serves to emphasise the name, without indicating that it is a known pseudonym. If it is wished to point out that the name is assumed, then the customary form of printing it in inverted commas is better understood, as

“Twain, Mark” (Samuel L. Clemens),

but this need only be in the author-entry. Upon these lines the book before us appears as

“ANSTEY, F.” (T. Anstey Guthrie).

Vice versâ; or, a lesson to fathers. New ed. 1883

To perfectly complete the author-entry and to prevent any possibility of mistake, we require a cross-reference pointing from the real name to the pseudonym under which the entry is found, thus:

Guthrie, T. Anstey. _See_ Anstey, F.

If space is of no consideration, and it is wished to make the entry as exact as possible, then the form is

Anstey, F. (_pseudonym of_ T. Anstey Guthrie),

and the reference reads

Guthrie, T. Anstey. _See_ Anstey F. (_pseud._)

=34.=--Before leaving this question of the treatment of pseudonymous books attention may be directed to other phases of it. There is the difficulty that occasionally arises of an author publishing under a pseudonym and under his real name and being equally as well-known under both. Instances of this would be the Rev. John M. Watson, whose theological works appear under his own name, and his stories under “Ian Maclaren;” and J. E. Muddock, who publishes some stories under that name and, it is said, his detective stories under the name of “Dick Donovan.” Common-sense might offer the suggestion to adhere to the rule already laid down and enter under both names, but this violates one of the first principles of dictionary cataloguing, viz., that all works by an author must be brought together under a single name. Therefore in such cases there is no option but to adopt the real name, at the same time taking care to remove all occasion of difficulty by giving cross-references, as

“Maclaren, Ian.” _See_ Watson, John M.

“Donovan, Dick.” _See_ Muddock, J. E.

=35.=--Then there are books that have a phrase for the pseudonym, like “One who has kept a diary,” or “A whistler at the plough.” These, while nominally pseudonyms, are virtually anonyms, and it is customary in full and special catalogues to make the entry under the first word not an article of such a phrase-name. It may be considered as very likely that such an entry in the majority of catalogues would be quite superfluous. Books like:

“Five years penal servitude, by One who has endured it.”

“Three in Norway, by Two of them.”

would be better dealt with if the title-entries, such as these, were taken as the principal entries and the pseudonym ignored. This is a case where the cataloguer will use his discretion as to the best course to pursue, being guided by the requirements of the library, but it is a mistake on the right side to give both forms if there is the least doubt.

=36.=--Books with initials only instead of the author’s name come between the pseudonymous and anonymous. The initials may be those of a name or indicate a title or profession. In all cases where the name veiled by the initials cannot be discovered, or their meaning ascertained, then the entry is given under the _last_ letter, but if the letters stand for a known pseudonym, as “A.L.O.E.,” or a title or degree, as “by an M.P.,” or “M.A. (Oxon),” then the first letter is taken instead of the last. Occasionally an initialism will be given like, “by B.H.W., D.D.,” when, the meaning being clear, the entry will be under the W., as

W., B.H., _D.D._

If it is known what the name is that is covered by the initials, as A.K.H.B., or L.E.L., then the entry is given under the name in full,

Boyd, A.H.K.

Landon, L.E.

but it is requisite that cross-references be given from the initialism, as

B., A.K.H. _See_ Boyd, A.K.H.

L., L.E. _See_ Landon, L.E.

The remark as to whether it is worth while in minor catalogues to give an entry under a phrase-pseudonym applies equally to the initials, and is open to the same doubts.

=37.=--In arranging the entries in alphabetical order it should be noted that initials take precedence of all other names in each particular letter, as

B., A.K.H.

B., G.W.

Baar, Thomas.

“Bab.”

The works most useful to the cataloguer in revealing real names are Halkett and Laing’s _Dictionary of the anonymous and pseudonymous literature of Great Britain_, Cushing’s _Initials and pseudonyms_, and _Les supercheries littéraires dévoilées_, par Quérard. A list of pseudonyms, mostly modern instances, with the real names, will be found in Appendix C, by those who may require it.

=38.=--The next illustration is selected because it is distinctly anonymous, that is the author is not shown in any form in the book, either by a pseudonym or initialism, and the ordinary sources of information do not enable the authorship to be discovered.

Times and days: being essays in romance and history, pp. viii, 215. sm. 8o. 1889

Upon such books, if they are worth it, the industry of the cataloguer may very well be exercised, as librarians and the public feel that they are fully justified in finding out who the author is if they can. If the book is of any importance the name of the author is sure to be revealed for general information sooner or later, and the possibility of this adds zest to the search for the name at the moment it is needed by the cataloguer. Besides the works of reference mentioned already, Watt’s _Bibliotheca Britannica_ should be consulted (for the older books), Barbier’s _Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes_, and any special bibliographies or catalogues within reach, not forgetting the great _British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books_. Local catalogues often prove valuable in this work, as the identity of an author may be well-known locally but not further. It is as well to point out that if a work is merely “ascribed,” or “said to be” by a particular person it is better to regard the book as altogether anonymous. To name a case in point, Halkett and Laing ascribe the authorship of the, at one time, celebrated “red pamphlets” on the _Mutiny of the Bengal Army_ to a Major Bunbury, whereas the author is now known to have been the late Colonel G. B. Malleson.

In the event of the search after the author’s name proving futile, the rule is that the principal entry be given under the first word of the title _not an article_, in the same way as the entries follow in the work of Halkett and Laing. Should the library be a small one of a general character it would be somewhat pedantic to adhere rigidly to this rule, more especially if the subject of the book is clearly stated upon its title-page. For example, books like, _A short history of Poland_, and _The rambler’s guide to Harrogate_, would be amply and satisfactorily dealt with if entries were alone given under “Poland” and “Harrogate” respectively, instead of under “Short” and “Rambler’s,” as required by the rule.

=39.=--When books are said to be “by the author of --” and it cannot be ascertained who the author is, then they are treated as altogether anonymous and dealt with accordingly, as

N. or M., by the author of “Honor bright.”

No entry would be made under “Honor bright” except, of course, for that book itself if it happened to be in the library.

CHAPTER V.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY--THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 3.

=40.=--There are further difficulties that arise from time to time in making the author-entry owing to the great variety in the form of authors’ names. The first book we take to illustrate one of these is:

M. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes; with a commentary by George Long. (Bibliotheca classica; ed. by George Long and A. J. Macleane.) 4 v. la. 8o. 1855-62

The rule is to transcribe Greek and Latin names either into the English form, as Cicero, Horace, Livy, Ovid, or into the Latin nominative as M. Tullius Cicero, and therefore the entry will be:

CICERO, M. Tullius. Orationes; with a commentary, by George Long. (_Bibliotheca classica_). 4 v. la. 8o. 1855-62

Greek names are not simply transcribed in Roman characters, as Homeros, but into the English or Latin form, as Homer, Homerus. All forms of the name, irrespective of the language of the original book or its translations, must be concentrated under the form adopted; thus the following three books,

The odes of Horace; transl. into English by the Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P. pp. xvi., 154. 8o. 1894

Quinti Horatii Flacci Opera omnia; with a commentary by the Rev. Arthur John Macleane, M.A. 4th ed., revised by George Long, M.A. (1869). (_Bibliotheca classica._) pp. xxxii, 771. la. 8o. 1881

Q. Orazio Flacco. Odi, epistole, satire; traduzione di Diocleziano Mancini. pp. 64. sm. 8o. _Castello_, 1897

are entered either under Horace or Horatius Flaccus (Quintus), and therefore would appear as

HORACE. Opera omnia; with a commentary, by Arthur J. Macleane. 4th ed., revised by Geo. Long (1869). (_Bibliotheca classica._) pp. xxxii, 771. la. 8o. 1881

⸻ Odi, epistole, satire; trad. di Diocleziano Mancini. pp. 64. sm. 8o. _Castello_, 1897

⸻ Odes; transl. into English by W. E. Gladstone, pp. xvi, 154. 8o. 1894

It is very rarely required to give cross-references from the one form of name to the other, especially in the case of the classical authors. It should be noted that absolute uniformity is necessary in the style of such names in a single catalogue, be the form Latin or English, as it would be inconsistent to have, say Virgilius in one place, and Livy in another--in other words, it should be Virgil and Livy or Livius and Virgilius, popular libraries adopting the English form as most suitable.

=41.=--The customary mode of arranging the entries in such a case as the Horace given above, is to give first the whole works in the original, then the whole works in translations, afterwards the portions in the original followed by translations of these in their turn, the greater parts taking precedence of the lesser, and those in the language of the original coming before translations without regard to alphabetical order.

=42.=--There are classes of persons whose names come oftener under the notice of the cataloguer for subject-than for author-entry, such as sovereigns, princes, saints, and popes; but as one rule governs both forms of entry, it may be referred to at this point. All such personages are entered under the Christian names by which they are known and not under family or titular names. With these names are included those of ancient or mediæval use before the days of fixed surnames, or when they were merely sobriquets. Omitting titles of books in illustration examples of all these with the correct form would be:

Albert, _Prince Consort_.

Albert Edward, _Prince of Wales_.

Augustine, _St._

Giraldus Cambrensis.

Leo XIII., _Pope_.

Paul, _St._

Thomas a’Becket.

Thomas a’Kempis.

Victoria, _Queen_.

William _of Malmesbury_.

It would be safer to provide cross-references for such names as Thomas a’ Becket and Thomas a’ Kempis, thus:

Becket, Thomas a’. _See_ Thomas a’ Becket.

Kempis, Thomas a’. _See_ Thomas a’ Kempis.

=43.=--Strange to say, it is quite a common mistake in catalogues to enter all the saints together under “Saint,” instead of under their names, and it has even been attempted to justify such an obvious absurdity by the contention that people naturally turn to the word “Saint” for such names. This is very likely, but it would be just as reasonable to expect to find Lord Beaconsfield’s books under “Lord” or “Earl,” and Mr. Gladstone’s under “Mr.” Besides, if such a rule were logically carried out in the case of every person canonized, Sir Thomas More would now be entered under “Blessed,” and Thomas a’ Becket under “Saint.”

=44.=--In the case of noblemen who are authors, the entry should be under the title, and not under the family name, though it may be necessary in some instances to give a cross-reference from the family name. Illustrative examples of these would be:

Beaconsfield, Earl of. Coningsby.

Disraeli, Benjamin. _See_ Beaconsfield.

Argyll, Duke of. The reign of law.

In full catalogues it is usual to give more particulars, as

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of.

Argyll, George D. Campbell, 8th Duke of.

but even in concise catalogues, if the library happens to possess books by noblemen of the same title, the distinction must be clearly shown as

Albemarle, 6th Earl of. Fifty years of my life.

Albemarle, 8th Earl of. Cycling.

or fuller still, as

Derby, Edward, 14th Earl of. The Iliad of Homer, translated.

Derby, Edward H., 15th Earl of. Speeches and addresses.

=45.=--In some exceptional and well-defined cases, it is better to place the entries under the family name, for the reason that it is more in common use and so is better known, as

Bacon, Francis, Lord Verulam.

Walpole, Horace, Earl of Orford.

It is important to remember that the title of the author to be used is not that of the time when the book happened to be published, but the highest attained to at the time the catalogue is prepared or issued.

=46.=--This brings us to the question as to the extent in which titles of honour, of professional rank, or of scholastic attainment are to be used in cataloguing, particularly in connection with authors’ names. This is a matter that has been settled more by convenience and usage than by fixed rules. It is usual to omit all titles of rank below that of a knight, all such distinctions to a name as “Baronet,” “Knight,” “Right Honourable,” and “Honourable,” as well as the initials of the various orders of knighthood, as K.G., K.C.B., C.B., &c. University degrees and initials of membership of learned or other societies, as D.D., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.Hist.S., &c., are ignored, and so are professional titles, as Professor, Colonel, Doctor, Barrister-at-Law. For example, in the “republic of letters,” as exemplified in cataloguing,

The Right Honourable Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, Bart., M.P.

becomes simply

Dilke, Sir Charles W.

and

The Right Honourable Professor F. Max Müller.

is

Müller, F. Max.

Upon the same plan most of the ecclesiastical titles are passed over, or at anyrate all under the rank of a dean, and all the prefixes as “Right Reverend,” “Rev.” are left out. Thus

The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of London, Mandell Creighton, D.D., &c.

is reduced to

Creighton, Mandell, _Bp. of London_.

or shorter still, if desired, to

Creighton, Mandell, _Bp._

It has been found that simple treatment of this kind meets every requirement, and it is quite unnecessary to waste space in a catalogue by adding superfluous matter of this kind, besides the line must be drawn somewhere, and, as the cataloguer has no reason, even for politic motives, to indulge in snobbery, there is no occasion to swell a catalogue to undue proportions.

=47.=--If it is desired, however, to include degrees or other distinctive affixes, they must follow the Christian name, as

Jones, Thomas, _LL.D._

and not

Jones, _LL.D._, Thomas.

Prefixes would be inserted in their proper order, as

Jones, _Dr._ Thomas.

Anything not actually part of the author’s name should be made distinctive by being printed in italics as here shown.

=48.=--It cannot be too often impressed on the young cataloguer how important it is to keep himself well posted in all changes occurring in the world around, and, more particularly, in the literary and social world. While many sources of information are available in a well-equipped library, yet none of these can compensate for a retentive memory and a mind keenly alive even for the comparatively trivial affairs that need to be constantly noted if error is to be avoided, or at least if the catalogue is to show the latest information. For instance, as each New Year and Queen’s Birthday comes round the lists of new honours gazetted have to be read, as an author or two may be among those raised to the peerage or be made baronets or knights and their style in the catalogue has to be altered accordingly. This may be considered unnecessary advice because catalogues of libraries are supposed to, and do, cover the whole field of human knowledge in all directions, and it is part of the cataloguer’s business to keep his knowledge modernized if his services are to be worth much. It is as well, however, to point this out to beginners, otherwise, if attention be not paid to such details, they will very soon find, or others will for them, that they have books written by the same person under two names, sometimes three, in a single catalogue. Many examples could be given of how this can be brought about, but it will suffice to give one. The first edition, 1887, of the book on cycling in the “Badminton Library” series has the names of Viscount Bury and G. L. Hillier as the authors, and the new edition of 1895 is by the Earl of Albemarle and G. L. Hillier. It would not do for a library possessing the first edition only to now enter it under “Bury,” nor for a library with both editions to enter one under “Bury” and the other under “Albemarle.”

=49.=--This point may be further emphasized by stating that ecclesiastical changes in the higher orders of the clergy have to be carefully observed from time to time, so that the very latest office is shown at the time the catalogue is printed, or that the alteration is made if in manuscript. It would not look well to continue to describe Frederick Temple as Bishop of Exeter or even as Bishop of London, Mandell Creighton as Bishop of Peterborough, or Frederick W. Farrar as Archdeacon, though their names may so appear upon the books being catalogued.

Occasionally books will be found by authors whose ecclesiastical office and not their names appear upon the title-pages, as “by William, Bishop of Chester,” “by the Archbishop of York,” when the name must be sought out and care taken to give the credit of the book to the right person. For instance, there is a book upon the Riviera, published in 1870, “by the Dean of Canterbury,” which might easily be credited to Dean Payne Smith instead of Dean Alford, and a very careless or unthinking cataloguer might even add it to Dean Farrar’s books. In this connection a very useful book of reference is _The book of dignities_, by Joseph Haydn, continued by Horace Ockerby, 1894, and of course any back volumes available of clerical directories or diocesan calendars will prove useful.

=50.=--But the ladies have to be watched with much greater care, as they are so much more apt to change their name, and that without any evidence of such change being given upon the title-page. Many examples might be given of ladies who have written under both their maiden and their married names. If the ladies continue writing under their maiden names, then the rule given for pseudonymous books would fitly apply, and the more familiar name should be used, as M. E. Braddon, and not Mrs. Maxwell, Florence Warden, and not Mrs. James. Where women authors are better known under their husbands’ names with the prefix “Mrs.,” as Mrs. Humphry Ward, Mrs. Coulson Kernahan, &c., it will be found that the best known form is also the best for use in a general or popular catalogue, though it would be more exact to give the ladies’ own names. If exactness is of prime importance, then the distinction can very well be shown, as

Ward, Mary A. (Mrs. Humphry Ward).

Kernahan, Jeanie G. (Mrs. Coulson Kernahan).

When both the maiden and married names are given upon a title-page, as “Katharine Tynan (Mrs. H. A. Hinkson),” then it is better to adopt the married name for the entry, but a cross-reference should be given, especially if books have been issued under the maiden name alone. Accordingly the entry would be

Hinkson, Katharine (Katharine Tynan).

and the reference

Tynan, Katharine. _See_ Hinkson, Katharine.

=51.=--Peculiarities of form in surnames will next demand consideration, and probably the first of these will be names with patronymic or other prefixes. If the author is English, or has virtually become so (and “English” is to be here understood in its widest sense), then the prefix is simply regarded as a part of the name, and as such it will lead off. The following are some examples of names in this form:

St. John, Percy B.

De Crespigny, E. C.

D’Israeli, Isaac

Fitz George, George

Le Gallienne, Richard.

L’Estrange, A. G.

M’Crie, Thomas.

MacDonald, George.

O’Brien, William.

Ap John, Lewis.

Van Dyck, Sir A.

=52.=--In French names the entry should not be made under the prefix “de,” but under the name next following it, unless the “de” has become so much embodied in the surname as to be an integral part of it rather than a prefix. If the prefix happens to be the definite article “le” or “la,” or the article is comprised in it, as “du,” then the entry is to be given under the prefix. The following names show the part of the name which leads off:

Maupas, C. E. de.

Decourcelle, A.

Delaroche, Paul.

La Bruyère, Jean de.

La Sizeranne, Robert de.

Le Monnier, L.

Du Boisgobey, F.

Du Camp, Maximè.

In arranging such names for alphabetical order they are placed as if the prefix were part of the name, and the last five would come in place as Labr., Lasi., Lemo., Dubo., Duca. The English names are treated in much the same manner, but contractions are to be placed as if spelt out in full, and letters omitted by elision are to be ignored. In this way the English names given above would come in order: St. John as Saint John (not as Saintj, however, but _before_ Sainte, as Sainte-Beuve), De Crespigny as Decre., D’Israeli as Disra., Le Gallienne as Legall., L’Estrange as Lestr., M’Crie as Maccrie, Mac Donald as Macdon., O’Brien as Obri., Ap John as Apjohn, and Van Dyck as Vandyck. Of course, the names must in no wise be altered from the form appearing upon the title-pages even for the purpose of harmonising them with neighbouring names in the alphabetical sequence.

=53.=--In German and Dutch names the “von” and “van” are entered after the name similarly to the French “de” as:

Ewald, G. H. A. von.

Beneden, P. J. van.

Some cataloguers keep these and the French “de” in their place as prefixes, at the same time ignoring them for alphabetical order, thus:

von Ewald, G. H. A.

van Beneden, P. J.

de Cuvier, Georges, Baron.

of course, placing them under Ewald, Beneden, Cuvier. The effect is not wholly satisfactory and it breaks the running line in the alphabet.

=54.=--The next difficulty is that of the compound names. It has been already hinted that stereotyped uniformity is not always to be recommended, but in dealing with names of this type it is as well to fix a rule and adhere rigidly to it. In the case of English compound names the best course to adopt is to give the entries under the _last_ name in all cases. Examples of such names would be

Phillipps, J. O. Halliwell.

Turner, C. Tennyson.

Dunton, Theodore Watts.

These are so well known to most people as changed names, that it would not be quite correct to give merely an initial for the first name, as

Phillipps, J. O. H.

Turner, C. T.

Dunton, Theodore W.

though in most cases of compound names, this would not signify.

Under some rules for cataloguing, it is recommended that where the author has added to his name at a late period of his life, as the above-named persons have, then the entry should be given under the first part of the name. The objection to adopting this course is that two methods would be in use, and they would likely lead to confusion, for the reason that it is not always clearly or generally known that a compound name consists in reality of the addition of a name to the original surname. It is more frequently the case, owing to fashion or foible, that two names already belonging by right to a person have simply been joined by a hyphen, and so become “compounded.” Again, it is not always shown or known that a new name has been taken, as for instance J. F. B. Firth so described himself upon his books on London Government, and not as J. F. Bottomley-Firth, though he was born Bottomley, and took the name of Firth afterwards. Therefore, all things considered, it is wiser to adhere to the last name, more especially as it is so easy to safeguard it in doubtful cases by the useful cross-reference, such as

Tennyson-Turner, C. _See_ Turner.

Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O. _See_ Phillipps.

Watts-Dunton, Theodore. _See_ Dunton.

Even these cross-references are seldom necessary, as it may reasonably be presumed that if a person fails to find the entries under the one name he turns to the other, thus if he wants books by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, and fails to find them under Baring, it is unlikely that he will conclude they are not in the library without first looking under Gould.

=55.=--But while this rule for making use of the last part of a compound name holds good for English authors, the reverse method must be adopted as correct for foreign compound names, and the entry given accordingly under the first part of such a name, as

Dreux-Brézé, Marquis de.

Martinengo-Cesaresco, Countess.

Merle d’Aubigné, J. H.

Tascher de la Pagerie, Comtesse de.

It will be seen that this form is principally governed by the custom of the country to which the author happens to belong, and cataloguers will make themselves acquainted with the usages of each country as far as they can, either by reading or by constant reference to native biographical dictionaries and authoritative catalogues.

=56.=--In an average British library oriental names will only occasionally come under the notice of the cataloguer, and then for the most part attached to English books. A general rule may be laid down that the first part of such names should be taken for the author-entry, as

Omar Khayyam. Rubàiyàt; transl. by Fitzgerald.

Wo Chang. England through Chinese spectacles.

Dosabhai Framji Karaka. History of the Parsis.

but a rule of this kind must not be blindly followed, as it is sure to have exceptions. Some other part of the name may be the best known or even correct form, as:

Ranjitsinhji, K. S. The Jubilee book of cricket.

remembering always that the surname according to Western ideas, handed on from one generation to another does not exist in the East. In every case it is a wise plan to consult any available catalogues that have been compiled by experts in oriental language and custom. Care is also necessary in dealing with these names lest it should be found when too late that the entry has been given under a title and not a name. On pages 76-97 of Linderfelt’s _Eclectic card catalog rules_ will be found a list of oriental titles and occupations with their signification, and the use of this will do much to prevent mistakes of the kind. Beale’s _Oriental biographical dictionary_; revised by H. G. Keene (W. H. Allen, 1894) is also a helpful work in this connection.

CHAPTER VI.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 4.

=57.=--When books are written in collaboration, the customary procedure is to make the entry under the first-named author, if not more than two are given on the title-page, followed by the name of the second. If there are more than two authors, then the name of the first only is given, followed by “and others,” or “&c.,” as

Woods, Robert A., and others. The poor in great cities.

It is desirable to give a cross-reference from every joint-author to the name under which the entry is placed, but it depends greatly upon the style of the catalogue whether this is done or not. In most cases it will be found that the references can be dispensed with if more than two authors, and often enough from the second when but two. It is unlikely, for example, that a reference is necessary from Rice to Besant for the novels by Besant and Rice, or from Chatrian for those by Erckmann-Chatrian. If, however, the second-named author is also the single author of other books in the library, the reference is unavoidable and must be given. In the principal entry it is unnecessary to reverse the names of any author but the first, though this is sometimes done, as

Besant, Sir Walter, and Rice, James;

but the better form is

Besant, Sir Walter, and James Rice.

=58.=--The order of arrangement for books written by an author who is also a joint-author is to give first those books written by him alone; then those books in which he has collaborated, with his name occupying the leading place upon the title-page; and lastly the references to other authors with whom he has joined, but with his name in a secondary place. The entries would be separately alphabetical in each of these divisions. The following illustrates this point:--

STEVENSON, Robert L. The black arrow.

⸻ Weir of Hermiston.

⸻ and Fanny. The dynamiter.

⸻ and Lloyd OSBOURNE. The ebb-tide.

⸻ The wrecker.

⸻ _See also_ Henley, W. E.

=59.=--As in this illustration the repeat dash has been used, it may be here stated that its purpose is to save the repetition of the author’s name in each entry after the first, and, as shown in the case of “The wrecker,” it is unnecessary to give more than a single dash in any instance, as the position of the entry denotes that it is by the same authors as the preceding book. It was owing to the misuse of this dash that the old catalogue joke arose of

Mill, J. S. On liberty.

⸻ On the Floss.

and others equally ridiculous are to be found in catalogues where the dash is not limited in use as a repeat for authors’ names, or as a repeat to a subject-heading, but this point is further dealt with under subject-cataloguing (Section 102). It must be noted that in the case of authors’ or editors’ names the dash is strictly limited in use as a repeat for second and further books by the same author, and not to repeat all authors with the same surname, as

Fletcher, Andrew.

⸻ Banister.

⸻ C. R. L.

⸻ Giles.

⸻ J. S.

⸻ J. W.

This bad form should be avoided, and the surname of each person given in full, as

Fletcher, Andrew.

Fletcher, Banister.

Fletcher, C. R. L.

=60.=--Music is not usually treated upon the supposition that the librettist is joint-author with the composer. The latter is always regarded as the author and the entry given under his name only. The reason for this is that in the case of operas, oratorios, and the like the libretto is a mere secondary matter and the books are placed in libraries for the music only, and in the vocal scores of operas there is seldom a complete libretto. In this way the Gilbert-Sullivan operas are entered only under Sullivan, and if thought desirable a reference may be given from Gilbert, but it is not essential. The following is from the title-page of one of these operas.

“An entirely new and æsthetic opera in two acts entitled ‘Patience; or, Bunthorne’s bride,’ written by W. S. Gilbert, composed by Arthur Sullivan, arranged from the full score by Berthold Tours. London.”

Properly adapted this would appear in the catalogue as

SULLIVAN, Sir Arthur S.

Patience; or, Bunthorne’s bride: opera; arranged by Berthold Tours. (_Vocal score._) pp. 117. 4o. n.d.

It is hardly necessary to say that if on the other hand the libretto only of an opera or similar work were in the library, the entry would be given under the librettist, and the composer would be ignored, as there would be none of his work in the book.

Occasionally an exception to these rules will arise, and would be found in a book like

Moore’s Irish melodies; with accompaniments by M. W. Balfe.

because it is likely enough that an edition of Moore’s Melodies with music would be called for without regard to the composer, though the book may have been placed in the library more on account of the music. Therefore, both entries must be given, that under the arranger’s name being the principal, as

BALFE, Michael W.

Moore’s Irish melodies; with accompaniments. pp. viii., 192. la. 8o. n.d.

MOORE, Thomas.

Irish melodies; with accompaniments by Balfe. n.d.

=61.=--When a book consists of a collection of essays or articles by a number of authors, gathered together by an editor, it is proper to give the principal entry under the editor’s name rather than under that of the first-named author in the contents. If a book of this nature is of sufficient importance, each of its divisions can be treated as a separate work, and author-entries given, each author being credited with his share only. As to how far books of the kind are to be so dealt with must rest entirely with the cataloguer, space and utility being the two important points for his consideration. It frequently happens that a single essay or section of a book contains the essence of many volumes, and to a busy man such essays may be of more real value than a whole book. Again, if a person is interested in the work of a particular author, he will be glad not only to have the complete books, but also his contributions to miscellaneous works as well, and these are shown by indexing the contents. To do this will add to the extent and cost of a catalogue, but it will, at the same time, add to its value and usefulness. Of course there are many volumes of this miscellaneous nature, the contents of which are of a very slight or ephemeral value, and to so index them would be a waste of energy and of space. It is quite as easy to overdo this indexing of contents as to carry it out judiciously, as witness the fact that some librarians have gone to the trouble of indexing the principal contents of such obvious works of reference as the _Encyclopædia Britannica_, and the _Dictionary of National Biography_. In this matter, then, it will be seen that no fixed rule can be laid down. Sometimes the setting out of the contents under the principal entry will be sufficient. This does not imply that the contents of volumes of magazines, reviews, and the like should be so treated, as is sometimes seen attempted, of course with sorry results so far as completeness is concerned, because at best but a selection can be given, and even this necessitates wading through pages of closely-set small type; in fact, the only real purpose it serves is to show what serial stories are in a particular volume. No one can gainsay the fact that an enormous quantity of valuable material lies hidden away in back volumes of magazines, but librarians must depend upon such works as Poole’s _Index to Periodical Literature_, with its supplements, and the _Review of Reviews’ Annual Index to Periodicals_ to reveal it.

=62.=--In some libraries the contents of miscellaneous books are set out as well as indexed, but it is doubtful if it is worth while doing both in the majority of cases. The following entries show a well-known book fully treated in this way so far as the principal and author entries only are concerned:--

Essays and reviews, pp. iv., 434. la. 8o. 1860

_Contains_:--The education of the world, by Temple. Bunsen’s Biblical researches, by Williams. On the study of the evidences of Christianity, by Powell. Séances historiques de Genève: The national church, by Wilson. On the Mosaic cosmogony, by Goodwin. Tendencies of religious thought in England, 1688-1750, by Pattison. On the interpretation of scripture, by Jowett.

TEMPLE, Frederick, _Archbp._

The education of the world. (Essays and reviews). 1860

WILLIAMS, Rowland.

Bunsen’s Biblical researches. (Essays and reviews). 1860

POWELL, Baden.

On the study of the evidences of Christianity. (Essays and reviews). 1860

WILSON, Henry B.

Séances historiques de Genève: The national church. (Essays and reviews). 1860

GOODWIN, C. W.

On the Mosaic cosmogony. (Essays and reviews). 1860

PATTISON, Mark.

Tendencies of religious thought in England, 1688-1750. (Essays and reviews). 1860

JOWETT, Benjamin.

On the interpretation of scripture. (Essays and reviews). 1860

As these items would each require at least one subject entry besides, it will be seen that this book must have fifteen distinct entries to be effectually catalogued.

=63.=--The contents of collected works in more than one volume must be set out in order that the catalogue may show in what volume a particular work is to be found, in this way:--

HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel.

Complete works; with introductory notes by Geo. P. Lathrop. (_Riverside ed._) Illus. 12 v. 1883

v. 1. Twice-told tales.

v. 2. Mosses from an old manse.

v. 3. The house of the seven gables. The snow image, and other twice-told tales.

and so on through the rest of the volumes. Wherever possible, the tabulated contents of such works should be summarised when considered sufficient for all reasonable purposes, as

GRAY, Thomas.

Works; ed. by Edmund Gosse. 4 v. 1884

v. 1. Poems, journals, and essays.

v. 2-3. Letters.

v. 4. Notes on Aristophanes and Plato.

To give a list of the essays contained in the first volume is unnecessary, as all Gray’s miscellaneous essays are in that volume.

=64.=--There are books, or rather editions of books, of a composite nature, where an editor has joined together works by different authors into one volume. Examples of these are

The poetical works of Henry Kirke White and James Grahame; with memoirs, &c., by George Gilfillan. _Edin._, 1856

The dramatic works of Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar; with biographical and critical notices by Leigh Hunt. 1875

To be exact, the cataloguer may give the principal entry under the editor, as already stated, but it does not obviate the necessity under any circumstances of a separate entry under the name of each author. There is no need to include the names of the other authors in the entries, and just the same principle would apply as illustrated in the _Essays and reviews_ above. It is as well, however, to add the name of the editor to each author-entry, as it shows the particular edition. The entries in full would appear as

GILFILLAN, George (_Ed._)

The poetical works of Henry Kirke White and James Grahame; with memoirs, &c. 8o. _Edin._, 1856

WHITE, Henry Kirke. Poetical works; ed. by George Gilfillan. 1856

GRAHAME, James. Poetical works; ed. by George Gilfillan. 1856

The second book would be dealt with after the same manner, but with the Christian names supplied to the sub- or author-entries, as

HUNT, Leigh (_Ed._)

The dramatic works of Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar; with biog. and critical notices. la. 8o. 1875

WYCHERLEY, Wm.

Dramatic works; with biog., &c. notices by Leigh Hunt. 1875

and similar entries under Wm. Congreve, Sir John Vanbrugh, and George Farquhar. The entries may be made a little more concise, as

Congreve, Wm. Dramatic works; ed. by Hunt. 1875

It will be observed that neither of the above books would properly admit of a principal entry under the first-named author, as it would bring the authors’ names together in such a way as to lead to the supposition that they were joint-authors, as

White, Henry Kirke, and James Grahame. Poetical works.

Wycherley, Wm., Wm. Congreve, and others. Dramatic works.

It is true that any person with the least knowledge of English literature would know better than that these authors had collaborated, but the cataloguer has to put himself in the position of the man who knows nothing of the matter. Cross-references from one author’s name to the other in such a case would be absurd.

=65.=--Anthologies or other compilations are to be entered under the names of the editors or compilers, with the abbreviation _Ed._ (Editor) or _Comp._ (Compiler) following the name, as

Palgrave, Francis T. (_Ed._) Golden treasury of songs and lyrics. 1887

The artist of a collection of drawings or other illustrations is to be regarded as the author, and the writer of any descriptive text accompanying them placed subordinately, as

BURGESS, Walter W.

Bits of old Chelsea: a series of forty-one etchings; with letterpress descriptions by Lionel Johnson and Richard Le Gallienne. fo. 1894

It would be as well to give cross-references from the writers of the text, as

Johnson, Lionel. _See also_ Burgess, W. W.

Le Gallienne, Richard. _See also_ Burgess, W. W.

=66.=--The difference in references between “_See_” and “_See also_” must be noted. If there are entries of any kind already in the catalogue under the names of the persons referred from, then the reference is “_See also_,” and not “_See_.” The best form for writing a cross-reference is

Johnson, Lionel.

⸻ _See also_ Burgess, W. W.,

and, if it should happen that by the time the “copy” of the catalogue is being got ready for printing there was no other entry under this author’s name, it would be altered to

Johnson, Lionel. _See_ Burgess, W. W.

=67.=--It occasionally happens that both the work of the artist and of the writer of the text are of sufficient importance to warrant separate entries, but only one of the entries should be the principal entry giving the fullest particulars. A book of this kind is Ruskin’s edition of Turner’s _Harbours of England_. As this particular edition is published as one of Ruskin’s works, and Turner is more subject than author, then the main entry is

RUSKIN, John.

The harbours of England; with … illustrations by J. M. W. Turner; ed. by Thos. J. Wise. pp. xxvi, 134. sm. 8o. _Orpington_, 1895

and the subordinate entry is

TURNER, J. M. W.

The harbours of England; [text] by John Ruskin. 1895

=68.=--When a word not on the title-page is added to an entry by the cataloguer, it is customary to show this by enclosing it in brackets [ ] as the word “text” in the above example. On the other hand, if words have been left out from the transcript of the title-page as unnecessary the omission is denoted by three points … as shown in the Ruskin entry where the word “thirteen” has been passed over. In the smaller libraries it will be found that it is unnecessary to denote either additions or omissions in this way, but where perfect exactness is of importance this is the understood form for the purpose.

This Ruskin entry also shows that if it is already stated in the title that the book is illustrated there is no occasion to repeat “illus.” in the collation. There are many books of which the value lies more in the illustrations than in the text, such as those illustrated by Blake, Bewick, Cruikshank, “Phiz,” and others. It is often found sufficient in such cases to give a cross-reference from the artist to the author illustrated, like

CRUIKSHANK, George, Works illustrated by. _See_ Ainsworth, W. H.; Maxwell, W. H.

it being, of course, understood that it is stated in the author-entry that the particular edition is illustrated by the artist from whose name the reference is given, as

MAXWELL, W. H.

History of the Irish Rebellion, 1798; illus. by Geo. Cruikshank.

otherwise the reference would be worthless.

The extent to which these references are given depends altogether upon the editions, as the cheap modern reprints of books like Ainsworth’s novels do not call for notice of the illustrations, and there are not many illustrators of books--especially in these days of “process” reproduction--whose work calls for the special attention of the cataloguer.

In making references like the foregoing, or of any kind, care should be exercised to give all the names necessary, and not, as is sometimes done, but two or three, and then finishing with a comprehensive “&c.” which is less than no use, inasmuch as it only serves to show that there are other books in the library illustrated by this particular artist, but what they are the cataloguer has neglected to state and the inquirer is thus left in vexatious doubt.

CHAPTER VII.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--CORPORATE AND OTHER FORMS.--EDITORS AND TRANSLATORS.

=69.=--In cataloguing the transactions, memoirs, proceedings and other publications of the learned societies, the societies in their corporate capacity are regarded as the authors and so treated, the principal entry being placed under the first word of their names not an article, provided they are societies of a national or general character, as

Royal Society of London.

Library Association.

Linnean Society.

Royal Geographical Society.

Society of Antiquaries.

Societies of a strictly local character are to be entered under the name of the place of meeting or publication, as for example the publications of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-on-Tyne are not entered under “Literary,” but

Newcastle-on-Tyne Literary and Philosophical Society,

such an entry of course being kept quite apart from the subject-heading Newcastle-on-Tyne.

There are antiquarian and other societies whose work covers a much larger area than the particular locality in which they hold meetings or their offices happen to be situated, and they could not be fitly entered under the name of the place. For instance, the publications of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire emanate from Liverpool, but the place of meeting or publication might be changed to Manchester or Chester without in any way affecting the nature or scope of the Society’s work. Therefore the entry in such a case should not be under Liverpool or even “Historic,” but

Lancashire and Cheshire, Historic Society of.

Almost similar are the publishing societies dealing with a limited area, as the Chetham and Surtees Societies, but the specially distinctive name settles the matter, and the entries would accordingly be under those names. Societies of this class, however, are simply the publishers of collections of books, and so, in addition to the entries under the societies’ names, each book must have a separate author-entry. The entries would be after this manner:--

Navy Records Society, Publications of the. v. 1-9. la. 8o. 1894-7

v. 9 The journal of Sir George Rooke, Admiral of the Fleet, 1700-2; ed. by Oscar Browning.

(The first eight volumes would be set out in the same way in their place as are the contents of collected works).

ROOKE, Sir George, _Admiral of the Fleet_.

Journal, 1700-2; ed. by Oscar Browning. (_Navy Records Soc._, v. 9.) 1897

It would be within the scope of most catalogues to separately enter under authors and subjects any exceptionally important monographs published with or supplementary to, the transactions of scientific or other societies, but to go further than this and to catalogue in this way each separate contribution to such transactions opens up so vast a field of work that it need not be attempted. Special libraries used only by special classes of the community will have to settle the length to which they can go in this direction according to their several requirements and the means at their disposal. Something towards this end of making available the contents of transactions, proceedings, and the like has been accomplished in the _Royal Society’s Catalogue of Scientific Papers_, but there is infinitely more yet to be done and the majority of libraries will choose to wait for the promised great _International Catalogue of Scientific Literature_ rather than attempt to index the contents of whatever transactions they happen to possess in their libraries, though this great catalogue has up to the present got no further than the conference-and-dinner stage of compilation.

The publications of foreign societies are usually entered under the names of the countries if of national importance, or places where they meet if of local importance, unless they have a specially distinctive title. Government publications are entered under the names of the countries or places, as

France. Chambre des Députés.

Paris. Prefecture de la Seine.

United States Bureau of Education.

The publications of the home government cannot be grouped under one head or title in this way, and must be distributed under the names of the various departments as Board of Trade, Local Government Board, Historical Manuscripts Commission, Charity Commission, &c.

The reports of Church Councils and official publications of religious denominations occasionally call for some consideration. Important ecclesiastical councils as the Council of Trent or the Westminster Assembly of Divines are entered under the names of the places of meeting, but in the case of denominational assemblies where the place of meeting is a mere incident, the entry is to be made under the name of the denomination, and not the place of meeting. Examples of such publications are

Official report of the Church Congress, Cardiff, 1889.

Report of proceedings of the Presbyterian Alliance held in Philadelphia, 1880.

Minutes of proceedings of the yearly meeting of Friends held in London, 1896.

and the form of entry is

Church of England. Official report of the Church Congress, Cardiff, 1889.

Presbyterian Alliance. Report of proceedings, Philadelphia, 1880.

Friends, Society of. Minutes of proceedings of the yearly meeting, London, 1896.

In the same way reports or publications of particular societies meeting in annual or occasional congress as Freemasons, Good Templars, Trades Unions, or professional associations are entered under the names of the societies irrespective of the places of meetings.

=70.=--There is still one form of principal entry to be considered, and that is when there is no author, editor, or compiler whose name can be used and a title-entry becomes a principal entry. The commonest form is that of newspapers, magazines, and periodicals. These are invariably entered under the first word of the title not an article, and never under the editor’s name. The first and last volumes of the series contained in the library with the earliest and latest dates (_i.e._ years) are given, as

Chambers’s Journal, v. 1-20. la. 8o. 1854-64

Strand Magazine. Illus. v. 1-14. la. 8o. 1891-7

Times, The. 47 v. la. fo. 1881-91

If the series is incomplete then the volumes wanting must be shown by the entry, as

Chambers’s Edinburgh Journal. New ser., v. 9-15, 17, 19-20. la. 8o. 1848-54

this showing that volumes 1 to 8, 16, and 18 are not in the library.

=71.=--Another form of principal title-entry is that for the sacred books, especially for the Bible in its various editions and translations. It is customary to enter all editions in all languages of the complete scriptures, or of portions of them, under the word “Bible,” arranging the entries in this order in the first place--

1 Old and New Testament (whether inclusive of the Apocrypha or not).

2 Old Testament only.

3 Parts of Old Testament.

4 New Testament.

5 Parts of New Testament.

Each of these divisions are then arranged according to language, and each of the languages again chronologically according to the edition. When a library contains a fair collection of versions and editions of the scriptures it is as well to keep to the rule to place those first which are in the original languages, but in the average English library it will be found most convenient to lead off with the English versions, followed by those in the original texts, and afterwards with those in modern languages other than English. The entries would be after the following style, but with such distinctive bibliographical particulars as may be desirable according to the importance and interest of the collection.

BIBLE, THE

_Old and New Testaments._

_English._ The Bible in Englishe according to the translation of the great Byble. 1561

⸻ The parallel Bible. The Holy Bible: being the Authorised Version arranged in parallel columns with the Revised Version. 1885

_French._ La sainte Bible. Ed. Ostervald. 1890

_Old Testament._

_Greek._ The Septuagint version of the Old Testament; with an English translation, notes, &c. n.d.

This arrangement and sub-division is only applicable to the text, and then only if the edition is simply a version or translation and is not accompanied by a commentary. Commentaries are treated as any other original work would be and entered under the author’s name, unless they happened to be of a collective character, as _The Cambridge Bible for schools and colleges_; ed. by Perowne, when the principal-entry would be under “Bible” (_Subject_ sub-division “Commentaries”) preferably to “Cambridge Bible,” with the contents of each volume of the series set out, not alphabetically, but in the order of the books of the Bible, as

BIBLE, THE:

_Commentaries._

Cambridge Bible for schools and colleges; ed. by Perowne.

_Old Testament._

Joshua, by G. F. Maclear. 1887

Judges, by J. J. Lias. 1886

Ezra and Nehemiah, by H. E. Ryle. 1893

A cross-reference would be necessary from

Cambridge Bible for schools, &c. _See_ Bible (Commentaries)

and, if it were deemed desirable, references could be given from the editors’ names in this form

Maclear, G. F. _See_ Bible (Cambridge Bible).

=72.=--Sometimes the commentaries in a series are of sufficient importance, or of such a character, that each is virtually a book quite apart from its place as one of the series. The volumes of the _Expositor’s Bible_, edited by W. Robertson Nicoll, are of this class, and, while they should in the first place be dealt with as shown in the _Cambridge Bible_ above, yet a mere reference under the author’s names hardly suffices--they are not merely editors as in the _Cambridge Bible_ series--therefore, besides this principal-entry under Bible, entries are required, as

Farrar, F. W., _Dean_. The first Book of Kings. (_Expositor’s Bible_). 1893

⸻ The second Book of Kings. (_Expositor’s Bible_). 1894

⸻ The Book of Daniel. (_Expositor’s Bible_). 1895

or in a style more concise

Farrar, F. W., _Dean_. Expositor’s Bible:

I. and II. Kings. 2 v. 1893-4

Daniel. 1895

Though coming more correctly under the remarks on subject-headings it may be here noted in passing that commentaries in a series are regarded as a single book and not entered separately under the name of each book of the Bible throughout the catalogue, therefore the above items would not have entries under “Kings” or “Daniel.” If, however, Dean Farrar had written a separate work dealing with the Book of Daniel, it should be entered under “Daniel,” and not under “Bible.” So commentaries, or any other works upon the whole Bible, like the entire series of the Expositor’s Bible, go under “Bible,” but if the commentaries deal with the Old or New Testament, or any particular book of the Bible separately, such works are placed under the headings of “Old Testament,” “New Testament,” or under the name of the particular book dealt with, as the case may be, and not under the heading “Bible,” as in the case of the text alone, or any portion of it. There are exceptions even to this rule with regard to translations, if special, and more particularly if accompanied by an exposition, as in a case like

JOWETT, Benjamin. The epistles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians, Galatians, and Romans. 3rd ed., ed. and condensed by Lewis Campbell. 2 v. 1894

v. 1, Translation and commentary.

v. 2, Essays and dissertations.

This work would not be put under “Bible” as its subject, but would be entered either under “Paul, St.” (where all books upon his Epistles, not part of a general commentary or including any other parts of the Bible, might very well be grouped), or under the names of the churches to which the Epistles were addressed, as

Thessalonians, St. Paul’s Epistles to the.

In either case a cross-reference would be needed under the heading “Bible,” sub-division “Commentaries,” thus:

Bible.

_Commentaries._

_See also_ Paul, St.

or

_See also_ Thessalonians.

=73.=--The extent to which editors and translators are to be noticed in cataloguing is a very important one, but it also depends largely upon the requirements of the case. It should be taken for granted in large reference libraries intended principally for use by scholars that every name appearing upon a title-page, whether as author, editor, translator, compiler, or adapter, would be noticed and receive an entry, either in full or by way of cross-reference. But for an average library, and particularly lending libraries, it would be waste of energy and of space to adopt this system and fully carry it out. Thus, a work like

Easy selections adapted from Xenophon; with a vocabulary, notes, and a map, by J. Surtees Phillpotts and C. S. Jerram.

would in the former case have references from Phillpotts and Jerram to Xenophon, under which the principal entry should appear. But in most cases a single entry will be found ample, as

XENOPHON. Easy selections; adapted, &c. by Phillpotts and Jerram.

On the other hand, there are famous translations or editions that should have in every case entries under the translator’s or editor’s name, as

Chapman, George. Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey.

Jowett, Benjamin. The Republic of Plato.

These are instances where two principal entries might be given with advantage, firstly under “Homer” and “Plato,” and secondly under “Chapman” and “Jowett,” as above.

Almost in the same category come those books which have been revised and enlarged by an editor to such an extent as to leave but little of the original author’s work. Sometimes the revision and additions may not be so extensive, but still be important enough to command a separate entry under the reviser’s name. Examples of these are

PRESCOTT, Wm. H. History of the reign of the Emperor Charles V., by Wm. Robertson, extended by W. H. P.

TILDEN, Wm. A. Watts’ Manual of chemistry. v. 2, Organic chemistry. 2nd ed. 1886

these entries being in addition to those under “Robertson” and “Watts.”

=74.=--It occasionally occurs that a prefatory essay or biographical or critical introduction to a book is of so much value as to be worth a separate entry, as

COURTHORPE, Wm. J. Life of Alexander Pope. (Pope’s Works, v. 5.) 1889

The careful cataloguer will rarely overlook these important points, though it too often happens that sets of books are lumped into a catalogue without the least attention to details of this kind, leaving it incomplete and so making the library less useful.

CHAPTER VIII.

SUBJECT, TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES.

=75.=--The form of author-entry, or its equivalent, having been settled, the subject-entry now commands attention. The importance of the author-entry is recognised, but it is well known to librarians that, leaving fiction out of the question, most inquiries are made in libraries for books upon a particular subject, or for a special class of literature, rather than for the works of a particular writer, the people who know many authors not being so numerous as might be supposed. Therefore it is essential in all cataloguing work that the utmost attention be paid to the subjects. Every volume dealt with should be thoroughly examined for the purpose of ascertaining generally the nature of its contents, and definitely the subject or subjects of which it treats. This course should be pursued in every case, even if the subject is so clearly defined upon the title-page that to go beyond the statement there made would seem to be a sheer waste of time, otherwise the “pitfalls” that lie in the cataloguer’s way cannot be avoided. Besides, there may be some particularly valuable feature of the book hidden away in an appendix, or even a separate book bound up in the same cover, which the first title-page will not reveal.

=76.=--When the subject of the book has been clearly ascertained, an entry taken from the book itself or from the principal entry already written, is made under the name of the direct and definite _subject_ of the book, not under the class of literature to which it belongs or even the form in which it is written. It is of the first importance that the cataloguer should definitely decide the particular subject-name he will adopt in order to avoid the somewhat common blemish in catalogues of synonymous headings. Having so decided, it will prevent future mistakes if a cross-reference is immediately written and sorted into place with the first lot of slips alphabetized when it at once serves as a pointer in the right direction by preventing books upon a single subject being placed under two headings. Thus if the book in hand is

NEWTH, Samuel. A first book of natural philosophy. pp. viii., 136, illus. sm. 8o. 1867

and the cataloguer has decided in favour of the heading “Physics,” he will at once write a cross-reference

Natural philosophy. _See_ Physics.

which when put in its alphabetical sequence will point out if slips have been inadvertently written under “Natural Philosophy” that the chosen heading is “Physics,” and that the entries must be so altered and arranged. The subject-entry in this instance would be

Physics:

Newth, S. First book of natural philosophy. 1867

It will be here noted that under the subject-heading the author’s surname leads off as it directs to the principal entry where the fullest particulars concerning the book are to be found, and consequently it is most unusual to give the collation, size, and other information in all sub-entries. It is advisable, however, to give the date of publication in every entry excepting in the case of works of fiction under the circumstances referred to in paragraph 24.

=77.=--The forms of subject entries in dictionary catalogues can be much better shown by means of example with explanations than by statement alone, and for this reason a number of ordinary books, not selected for any difficulty they present, are given. These have been fully worked out in the dictionary system, and are accompanied in each case by the principal entry, so that the complete series of entries can be seen. The styles of types in printing commonly made use of to mark distinctions are also shown.

ABNEY, W. de W.

Colour measurement and mixture. (_Romance of science ser._) pp. 207, illus. sm. 8o. 1891

Colour.

Abney, W. de W. Colour measurement and mixture. 1891

Romance of Science series:

Abney, W. de W. Colour measurement and mixture. 1891

Science.

_See also_ Romance of science series.

It is an excellent rule to follow that a subject must have at least two books upon it before it is entitled to a “heading,” such as the second of the above entries has. In the event of the library possessing but this one book upon the subject by the time the “copy” has to be sent to the printer, it would then be reduced to title form, as

Colour measurement and mixture. Abney, W. de W. 1891

=78.=--The third entry is under the name of the series. Where space is a consideration, and only brief entries can be given, the cataloguer can omit either the name of the series from the principal entry and retain the entries under the title heading of the series, or he may reverse the process and leave out this third entry, as he may deem most expedient, but if possible both should be retained, as they afford useful information--in the first entry showing that the book is one of a particular series, and thereby giving some idea of its character and scope, indeed it would not be amiss for the same reason to include it in the second entry, and the third entry form furnishes a list of the books of this particular series in the library.

=79.=--BAILLON, Henry E. The natural history of plants; transl. by Marcus M. Hartog. Illus. 8v. la. 8o. 1871-88

This work should neither be placed under “Natural History” nor “Plants,” as some might suppose, as its subject is “Botany,” and the further entries would therefore be

Botany:

Baillon, H. E. The natural history of plants. 8v. 1871-88.

Plants. _See_ Botany.

HARTOG, Marcus M. (_Transl._) _See_ Baillon, H. E.

Besides the curtailment of information given in the principal entry already shown, the Christian names of authors are reduced to simple initials, and the names of translators and editors are omitted in all sub-entries. It is important to notice the difference between “_See_” and “_See also_” in cross-references; the first would prevent any entries being placed under the subject-heading where it is given, as already stated, but the second is intended to guide to lesser or closely-related divisions of the subject under which it appears. There may be a number of these _see alsos_ under a single heading by the time the catalogue is ready for printing, when they are to be embodied into one entry, as in the following illustration, where nine are so amalgamated

Botany.

_See also_ Algæ. Cryptogamia. Ferns. Flowers. Fungi. Grasses. Lichens. Mosses. Trees.

Of course, references of any kind must never be made in anticipation, but at the moment when the book to which they refer is being catalogued; otherwise a series of references will be the result that lead nowhere, as would be the case in the above example if the library had no books upon Algæ or the other subjects named.

=80.=--TAYLOR, Wm. (_of Norwich_). Historic survey of German poetry. 8 v. 8o. 1828-30

The subject-entries for a book such as this call for careful consideration. A title-entry under “Historic” is uncalled for, as the subject is clearly defined in the full title. But a choice of headings must be made under which the entries are to be given. The mind will waver between some of these:

German poetry.

Poetry, German.

German literature.

Literature, German.

Germany. (Sub-division Literature)

and upon a right decision hangs the usefulness and correctness of the catalogue, as it is possible that other entries will be affected by it later. An exact analysis shows that the book is specifically upon the first-named subject, but it is so clearly a part of the third-named as to be entitled to come under it in some form, either by way of entry or cross-reference. It is true that, if treated logically, the book has no absolute right of inclusion under a heading “German literature,” inasmuch as it only deals with poetical literature, but it may be taken for granted that a book with the title of “Historic survey of German prose” would be placed under such a heading without much questioning; and therefore, as concentration and convenience count for something, and are often of more moment than literal exactness, the entries might very well be

German literature.

Taylor, W. Historic survey of German poetry. 8 v. 1828-30.

German poetry. _See_ German Literature.

Catalogued in strict observance of rule, the entries would be

German poetry, Historic survey of. Taylor, W. 3 v. 1828-30

with a possible reference:

German literature.

_See also_ German poetry.

The second and fourth headings would not be chosen, for the reason that the book is neither upon “Poetry” nor “Literature” generally or in the abstract, and it is much better to reserve those headings for books of that nature or of a miscellaneous kind, putting books upon the literature of particular countries under their distinctive name. An inquirer wanting a book upon German literature is more likely to turn to “German” than to “Literature.” A general cross-reference will put the matter beyond possibility of mistake, as

Literature.

_See also the names of national literatures, as_ English, French, German, Greek, Latin.

=81.=--The fifth heading is merely another form of the third heading, but it is given among the rest because in the larger catalogues of reference libraries the whole of the books upon a particular country are often grouped together under the name of the country, these again being sub-divided for convenience of reference according to the number of entries under the heading, in divisions like these:

Antiquities, architecture, and art.

Description and social life.

Education.

History and politics.

Religion.

Miscellaneous.

=82.=--The next book coming under notice is

BOOTH, Wm. (_“General” of the Salvation Army_). In darkest England, and the way out. pp. 285, xxxi, frontis. la. 8o. [1890]

Whether a title-entry is needed is open to doubt, but as the title of the book is enigmatical it is safer to give one. The rule for all title-entries is to give them under the first word not an article, and it would accordingly be

In darkest England. Booth, W. [1890]

but the probability is that nine men out of ten would remember the book as “Darkest England,” and look for it under “Darkest,” and therefore it might be more useful if the entry were

Darkest England, In. Booth, W. [1890]

=83.=--The subject of the book requires that it be entered under whatever heading may be adopted for the social question, say

Poor and poor relief.

Booth, W. In darkest England. [1890]

No entry is called for under “England,” unless everything relating directly or indirectly to the home-country is to be brought together under that heading or “Great Britain.” If this is so, and it is to be faithfully and literally carried out, it will become so large as to need very elaborate sub-division, and even then, in the catalogue of a British library at anyrate, its extent will make it of little practical value. In large catalogues page after page would be filled to no great advantage, and therefore the best course to adopt is to make the entry under the exact subject, as shown, ignoring “England” if the book deals with the country generally and not a particular corner of it. By this plan a book upon the “Poor of Essex” would be entered both under “Essex” and “Poor,” but books like

Ruskin. The art of England.

Stephen. General view of the criminal law of England.

Hobkirk. British mosses.

Fairholt. Costume in England.

Oliphant. Literary history of England.

Green. Short history of the English people,

are sufficiently dealt with if, apart from the author-entry, they appear under “Art,” “Law,” “Mosses,” “Costume,” “English literature,” and “English history,” respectively, leaving the headings “England” and “Great Britain” for books _descriptive_ of the country generally and not some special aspect of it. As already shown, books upon even special features of _other countries_ should be entered under the name of the country. In most cases it is also desirable, even necessary, to enter under the subject likewise. Thus the double subject-entries of books, like

Griffis. The religions of Japan.

Perkins. Historical handbook of Italian sculpture.

Gray. Birds of the West of Scotland.

would be under “Japan” and “Religions,” “Italy” and “Sculpture,” and “Scotland” and “Birds.” If space cannot be afforded for both entries, judgment would then have to be exercised in making choice of the best single subject-heading, and it would be found that for the above the most useful are “Japan,” “Sculpture,” and “Birds.”

In catalogues of the larger libraries a heading like “Birds” would have so many items to it that it should be sub-divided to facilitate reference, first the books upon birds generally, followed by those upon the birds of particular countries or localities like that above-named upon the birds of the West of Scotland. The arrangement under the general division would be alphabetically by authors, but it has been found convenient to arrange the “local” by the name of the place, also alphabetically, after this manner

Birds.

_Countries and local._

Africa, South, Birds of. Layard, E. L.

Asia, Birds of. Gould, J.

British. Our rarer birds. Dixon, C.

History of British birds. Seebohm, H.

Scotland. Birds of the W. of Scotland. Gray, R.

=84.=--The desirability, or otherwise, of using scientific terms for subject-headings in catalogues is governed altogether by the people for whom the library is intended. In a library used by all classes of the community, the simpler and more widely known term is the best, and therefore “Birds” is preferable to “Ornithology,” “Fishes” to “Ichthyology,” and “Insects” to “Entomology.” In a library of a college or scientific institution the reverse method would possibly prove the best, but it is essential that perfect uniformity be maintained whatever form is decided upon, as it would be somewhat ridiculous to use scientific terms in some cases and popular names in others. The cross-reference comes in most usefully in any style of catalogue as it removes all doubt, thus

Ornithology. _See_ Birds.

Catalogues compiled upon very exact lines occasionally reserve the popular name for books of a popular or miscellaneous nature, and the scientific for those intended for the scientist, but the dividing line between the two classes of books cannot always be clearly seen, and it is much better to bring all together under the same heading, marking there any differences in the character of the books by means of sub-division.

In some few instances the use of the scientific term is unavoidable as there may be no popular name that meets the case. For example, it would not be correct to put a book upon the fresh-water algæ under a heading “Sea-weeds,” and a book upon the _tunicata_ cannot be put under any other name. The fact may be again emphasised that in a dictionary catalogue a book is entered under its _definite_ subject and never under its class or general subject. Thus a book like

White, W. F. Ants and their ways,

does not go under “Insects,” or even “Hymenoptera,” but directly under “Ants,” though such a book as

Lubbock, Sir John. Ants, bees, and wasps.

would be sufficiently entered in the catalogue of a scientific library, if placed under “Hymenoptera,” but in the catalogue of a popular library should go under all three names, “Ants,” “Bees,” and “Wasps,” just as a book like

Meyrick, E. British lepidoptera.

is better placed under “Butterflies” and “Moths” with a cross-reference

Lepidoptera. _See_ Butterflies. Moths.

It would be a waste of space, however, to enter a work so comprehensive in character as

Bath, W. H. Ants, bees, dragon-flies, earwigs, crickets and flies.

under each of these as, even though it omits the butterflies, moths, and beetles, it would be well enough dealt with if entered under “Insects.”

As it is a well-understood principle that a book must be entered under the exact subject of which it treats, so a work upon the natural history of animals while coming within the popular notion of “natural history,” and may be so called by its author, as

Lydekker, Richard (_Ed._) The royal natural history. Illus. 6 v. la. 8o. 1893-6

yet from the cataloguer’s standpoint it would not be altogether correct to enter it under “Natural History,” as that term is properly held to include the flora as well as fauna, and therefore the heading should be either “Zoology” or “Animals.” This last term is frequently reserved for books dealing only with animals, and apart from birds, reptiles, etc., and for books upon animals, not written from the naturalist’s point of view. Correctness is again ensured by cross-references, as

Natural history of animals. _See_ Zoology.

Animals, Natural history of. _See_ Zoology.

=85.=--The next books are selected for the purpose of showing the difference in treatment of works similar in character:

Milman, Henry H., _Dean_. Annals of S. Paul’s Cathedral. 2nd ed. pp. xiv, 540, ports., illus. 8o. 1869

Loftie, W. J. Kensington Palace, pp. 76, illus. 8o. 1898

Hiatt, Charles. The Cathedral Church of Chester. (_Bell’s Cathedral ser._) pp. viii, 96, illus. sm. 8o. 1897

Routledge, C. F. The Church of St. Martin, Canterbury. pp. 101, illus. sm. 8o. 1898

Those upon buildings of a more national than local character situated in London are entered under the name of the buildings and not the locality, as

St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Milman, H. H. Annals of S. Paul’s Cathedral. 1869

unless the locality is embodied in the title as

Kensington Palace. Loftie, W. J. 1898

Neither of these books should be placed under a heading “London,” but a cross-reference may be given:

London.

_See also the names of buildings, as_ Kensington Palace, St. Paul’s Cathedral.

The other books should lead off with the name of the place where the building is situated, though not entered under the place-heading, as they are not books upon Chester or Canterbury. Therefore the form is

Chester, The Cathedral Church of. Hiatt, C. 1897

Canterbury, The Church of St. Martin. Routledge, C. F. 1898

or in shorter fashion:

Chester Cathedral. Hiatt, C. 1897

Canterbury, St. Martin’s Church. Routledge, C. F. 1898

Upon the same principle a history of a London parish is not entered under “London,” but under its particular name with a cross-reference from London to the places, as

London.

_See also the names of parishes, as_ Chelsea, Kensington, Southwark, Westminster.

Monographs upon buildings of national importance in foreign countries are however always entered under the name of the city where situated and not under the name of the building. Works upon St. Mark’s, Venice, or Notre Dame de Paris being entered under Venice and Paris respectively, as

Venice, St. Mark’s.

Paris, Notre Dame.

To give heed to details of this kind is not “hair-splitting,” as the novice may be disposed to imagine--it is the very essence of good cataloguing. Even with most careful attention the cataloguer may well congratulate himself if at the conclusion of his work, and especially when in print, it comes out faultless, because the perfect catalogue absolutely free from error has not yet been seen.

CHAPTER IX.

SUBJECT, TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES (_continued_).

=86.=--There remain other varieties of double or treble entries to consider. A book such as

BAKER, W. R.

Intemperance the idolatry of Britain. 3rd ed. pp. 62. sm. 8o. n.d.

has no appearance of difficulty, as it is so obviously upon intemperance, but the question of concentration of books _pro_ and _con_ upon such a subject as this must be looked into. It is most undesirable to send an inquirer to a number of headings to find all the books upon the “drink question.” To effectively group them together, developes the heading into a class rather than subject, but even so, it has more justification than the grouping of say “Natural history” would have, because it is more distinctly a single subject regarded from several standpoints, and while “temperance” cannot be “intemperance,” yet to bring the two aspects of the question together adds more to the utility of the catalogue than to separate books with these words upon their title-pages under different headings. In looking into this matter, the subject was followed up in a good catalogue compiled upon strictly orthodox lines, and was found up and down under headings like Alcohol, Drink, Inebriety, Teetotalism, Temperance, Total Abstinence, Licensed Victuallers, Public Houses, Sunday Drinking. Most of the books under these various headings might have been brought together with advantage under a general term-heading like “Drink question,” with cross-references from the other topics to bind the whole together beyond possibility of mistake. There are other questions that admit of concentration in this way, as for example books upon Free Trade, Fair Trade, Reciprocity, and Protection can all safely be entered under “Free Trade” with references from the others.

Some books, on the other hand, must have several entries, as

Ruddock, E. H. Modern medicine and surgery on homœopathic principles. 1874

requires three entries, viz., under “Medicine,” “Surgery,” “Homœopathy.” The only method of avoiding this would be to enter the book under “Homœopathy,” with cross-references from the other headings, as

Medicine. _See also_ Homœopathy.

In a small general library it would be possible to bring together all books upon subjects so closely allied as medicine and surgery under that heading, with a cross-reference,

Surgery. _See also_ Medicine and surgery.

Another example of a book needing several entries, is

Garner, R. L. Gorillas and chimpanzees.

As this is not a work upon Monkeys generally, or even upon Apes, the correct procedure is to enter it under “Gorillas” and “Chimpanzees” respectively, as

Gorillas.

Garner, R. L. Gorillas and chimpanzees.

In a small library there would most likely be other books upon Gorillas, but hardly a second upon Chimpanzees, therefore the second entry would be

Chimpanzees, Gorillas and. Garner, R. L.

To bring this book fully under the notice of those interested in the monkey tribe cross-references are necessary. Presuming that there were already entries under “Monkeys” (generally) and “Apes” (particularly), then all the entries would be bound together by

Monkeys.

_See also_ Apes.

Apes.

_See also_ Gorillas.

No cross-reference being called for to “Chimpanzees,” as they are included in the title of the book under “Gorillas.” In the event, however, of there being a second book upon Chimpanzees, then the cross-reference becomes

Apes.

_See also_ Chimpanzees. Gorillas.

=87.=--At the risk of repetition, and to make the matter clear, it may be again stated that a book must not be entered under every important word appearing upon its title-page. There is much rule-of-thumb cataloguing done that would cause a book like

Ihering, Rudolph von. The evolution of the Aryan,

to be entered under “Evolution,” whereas not even a title-entry under the word “evolution” is required, and the single subject-entry is

Aryans, The

Ihering, R. von. The evolution of the Aryan.

It may be considered unnecessary advice to say that a book so unmistakably upon the Aryan peoples should not be put under “Evolution,” when the accepted meaning of that term as a subject has nothing to do with it, yet there are catalogues at present in force of important town libraries with much worse forms. One has a heading “Natural history,” under which there are sixteen items that include such diverse matters as “Natural method of curing diseases,” “Natural theology,” “Natural philosophy,” “Nature and art,” “Drawing from nature,” because the word “natural” or “nature” happened to occur in the titles of the books. Another has a heading “School, Schoolmasters, and Schools,” which includes Molière’s “School for wives” and his “School for husbands.” Any number of examples equally ridiculous could be quoted from present-day catalogues to prove the contention that this is a common form of error. Therefore the advice to “get at the subject of the book, and never mind the particular words used on the title-page,” cannot be too often impressed upon the cataloguer.

=88.=--Books in a number of languages dealing with a single subject must all be entered under the English name for that subject. Books like

Kohlrausch, F. Kurze Darstellung der deutschen Geschichte. 1864

Green, S. G. Pictures from the German fatherland. n.d.

Breton, J. Notes d’un étudiant français en Allemagne. 1895

are to be found entered in a catalogue under Deutschen, Germany, and Allemagne, without a single binding reference. Another has books upon the United States under America, États-Unis, and United States. In one catalogue there is a reference in the following form:

États-Unis--_see_ L’Univers,

which is most flattering to our American cousins. In this connection it should be observed that references of this kind are quite wrong. In the first place there is no occasion for a reference or entry of any kind under “États-Unis” in an English catalogue, and in the second the principle of referring from a lesser to a greater subject is incorrect; the reference must always be from a greater to a lesser. In the same catalogue there are numbers of references from subjects to authors, which are also wrong in principle, as a reference should never be given in this form:

Indigestion. _See_ Douglas (Dr. Jas.),

or its reverse, equally erroneous:

Duncan, Dr. Andrew. _See_ Consumption,

otherwise the curious humour of references of this kind will soon show itself. In both cases entries were required and not references. Therefore the only references to be used are

(1) Subject to subject (connected or synonymous only).

(2) Greater subject to lesser division of the same subject.

(3) Author to author (joint-authors).

(4) Translator, editor, or compiler to author.

(5) Translator, editor, or compiler to title not containing the name of an author or not treated as author (as editor of a series).

=89.=--The next illustration is

GARNETT, Richard.

Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. (_Great writers._) pp. 300, xiv. sm. 8o. 1888

With a bibliography by John P. Anderson.

No entry is needed under the word “Life,” or under “Biographies,” as that is a class-heading and not a subject, and the book goes under the name of its direct subject, making a heading of it, as the library will contain Emerson’s works as well as other biographies of him, as

Emerson, Ralph W.

Garnett, R. Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. (_Great writers._) 1888

An entry is required under the name of the series, and to be strictly accurate the name of the author should lead, as

Great writers; ed. by Eric S. Robertson.

(_Note_:--Each volume contains a bibliography of the subject by John P. Anderson.)

Garnett, R. Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 1888

though it will be found more useful in the case of a series of a biographical nature to lead off with the subject, instead of the author, as

Great writers:

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, by R. Garnett. 1888

References to complete the matter fully may be given as

Robertson, Eric S. (_Ed._) _See_ Great writers (series).

Anderson, John P. _See_ Great writers (series).

In case of series like the Bampton, Hulsean, and Hibbert Lectures, the most convenient method is to arrange them in chronological order of the delivery of the lectures (not the date of publication) after this style:

Bampton Lectures:

1876. Alexander. The witness of the Psalms to Christ and Christianity. 1877

1880. Hatch. The organization of the early Christian churches. 1888

1891. Gore. The incarnation. 1891

The question is raised now and then as to whether it is worth while giving the list of works forming a series under the first word, other than an article, of the title of the series instead of under some other leading word. There is no occasion to lay down a hard and fast rule in the matter, but all things considered, it will be found safer to treat all series in the manner indicated and to enter them uniformly under this first word as Great artists, Great writers, Story of the nations, Leaders of religion, International scientific series, under “Great,” “Story,” “Leaders,” and “International” respectively rather than under “Artists,” “Writers,” “Nations,” “Religion,” or “Scientific.” The fact cannot be overlooked that the entry is only given because it is a series-entry and not as a make-shift form of subject-entry, and for this very reason it would be as erroneous to enter all the series of “Great artists” under the subject-heading “Artists” as to put the “Leaders of religion” under “Religion.” The difficulty is fully met by cross-references where required, as

Science. _See also_ International scientific series.

Authors. _See also_ Great writers (series).

Scots, Famous (series). _See_ Famous Scots.

If the series-entry is to be converted into a semi-subject entry, it should be by the simple transposition of the title of the series and then kept altogether apart from the subject-heading.

In a library catalogue, as distinct from a bookseller’s, it is only those series of a special and limited character that receive entries under the names of the series, and this form should not be extended so as to include long lists of books in series under publisher’s names, as Weale’s series, Pitt Press series, Macmillan’s Manuals for students. Where very full information is given, these names may be added to the principal entry and not carried further.

=90.=--Already it has been stated that in many libraries it is of the utmost importance that a catalogue should be compiled with short entries and within narrow limits so as to reduce both the size and the cost of production. To do this judiciously does not interfere in the least with the principles of good and adequate cataloguing, care only being required in curtailing the entries so as not to lose their correct character. The majority of readers in popular libraries are little concerned with precise bibliographical information provided they get a list of the books by the author, or upon the subject they want. The title of Dr. Garnett’s book mentioned above can, for example, be shortened into entries like these:--

Garnett, Richard. Life of Ralph W. Emerson. 1888

Emerson, Ralph W.

Garnett, R. Life of Emerson 1888

Great writers:

Emerson, by R. Garnett. 1888

The references from Robertson and Anderson can be dispensed with. Shorter entries than the foregoing would not be looked for, and would be worthless. Very brief entries imply little or no information, as witness the following _complete_ entries from the catalogue of a large library:

“Church’s Lament.”

Conspiracy. Ritualistic.

Workhouse. Union. Bowen.

=91.=--The next illustration is taken to further show the method of regarding a book for its subject-entry:

SAINTSBURY, George.

A history of Elizabethan literature. 1887

This is neither a book upon literature generally nor in the abstract, nor upon English literature as a whole, but only upon a particular period of it. Such a book could very properly be placed under “Elizabethan literature” with a reference from “English literature.” It might even go under the name of Elizabeth where all books pertaining to her reign in every particular could be gathered, but this is not so satisfactory. After all the most useful place for a book of this kind would be under “English literature,” and its inclusion could be better justified if the books under such a heading were sub-divided, if sufficient in number, into periods arranged chronologically as a heading like “English History” is often usefully divided. This would necessitate a cross-reference like

Elizabethan literature. _See_ English literature.

To further illustrate this point it may be said that a book like

BREWER, J. S.

The reign of Henry VIII. 2 v. 8o. 1884

is better treated in the reverse way and entered under the name of the monarch, in common with other books of a strictly historical nature dealing with a particular reign. In the first case the book is thought to be more usefully catalogued as a contribution to the larger subject of “English literature,” and in the second the book is looked upon as being more particularly concerned with Henry VIII. than with “English history”--hence the difference in the treatment. In this last instance the safe-guarding cross-reference is

English History.

_For the histories of particular reigns see under the names of monarchs, as_ Charles I., Henry VIII., Victoria.

=92.=--The following group is given (in brief form) in order to show the difference of treatment of books apparently alike in subject:

Farrar, F. W., _Dean_ (_Ed._) With the poets.

James, Henry. French poets and novelists.

Johnson, Samuel. Lives of the English poets.

Keats, John. Poetical works.

Shairp, J. C. Aspects of poetry.

Sharp, Wm. Life of Shelley.

Tennyson, Lord. Demeter and other poems.

The first entry would be placed under a heading “Poems,” because it is an anthology. This heading “Poems” should be reserved for collections of miscellaneous poems by many authors and would not include a book like the Keats, which should be entered under the name of the author only. It does not require any entry under “Poetical works,” as that is simply a form, and can no more be justified than a heading “Prose works” could be. If, however, the book has a definite title, like the Tennyson, then a title-entry must be given as

Demeter and other poems. Tennyson, Lord.

Librarians sometimes consider it necessary to give a series of references under the heading “Poems” or “Poetry” to the names of the authors represented in the catalogue, but this is on an equality with the practice of grouping all the fiction under a heading “Novels.” These being class-headings are not strictly accurate but, no doubt, are a convenience to a section of readers. So much cannot be said for all such grouping in a dictionary catalogue, and it is better to avoid it if possible. A catalogue of a very important library has a heading “Essays,” under which an attempt has been made to enter all books written in the form of essays, as well as with the word “essay” upon the title-pages, and the result is a mere jumble of titles, absolutely useless, including as it does works so widely apart in character as Baring Gould’s _Old country life_, Barrie’s _Auld licht idylls_, Doran’s _In and about Drury Lane_, and Lang’s _Books and bookmen_. To attempt this in a classified catalogue would be bad enough, but in a dictionary catalogue it shows that the first principles governing its compilation are wholly misunderstood.

The book by Henry James would be fitly placed under “French literature” and the words “poets” and “novelists” ignored. Dr. Johnson’s book should go under “Poets,” together with any other lives of poets in collected form, but the life of an individual poet, like that of Shelley, would not be so entered, as lives of individuals are entered under their names, and not under the class to which they belong. Shairp’s book being upon “Poetry” in the abstract would accordingly go under that heading, as would any book of a miscellaneous character upon poetry which could not well be placed under a more definite subject-heading.

=93.=--Sometimes in the case of biographies it will be found unnecessary to give both author and subject-entries because the biographies are written or edited by a son or other relative bearing the same name, and accordingly both entries come together in the catalogue, therefore, while it is quite correct to give both entries, yet one suffices. If the single entry is adopted it is better to make choice of the subject for the entry, not the author, as

Stokes, William: his life and works, 1804-1878, by his son [Sir] Wm. Stokes. (_Masters of medicine._) 1898

=94.=--Volumes of sermons are dealt with in the same manner as poetical works, avoiding, as far as possible, an entry under the form “Sermons.” An illustration is

Kingsley, Charles. All Saints’ Day, and other sermons. 1890

⸻ The gospel of the Pentateuch: sermons. 1890

⸻ Sermons on national subjects. 2v. 1872

⸻ Sermons for the times. 1890

⸻ Village sermons. 1890

The first and last of these simply require title-entries, as

All Saints’ Day, and other sermons. Kingsley, C. 1890

Village sermons. Kingsley, C. 1890

The second, instead of receiving a title-entry, is better placed as a contribution to its subject, as

Pentateuch, The.

Kingsley, C. The gospel of the Pentateuch: sermons. 1890

The third and fourth will also require title-entries unless there happens to be a general reference under the word, “Sermons,” after this fashion

Sermons. _For volumes of sermons with specific titles or upon definite subjects see those titles and subjects. Books with the general title of sermons will be found under the names of the following authors_:

(Here follows a list of the names, including Kingsley.)

If this form is not considered suitable then there is no alternative but to give title-entries, because a heading cannot be correctly made. The form then is:

Sermons. Le Bas, C. W. 2 v. 1828

Sermons for the times. Kingsley, C. 1890

Sermons in the East. Stanley, A. P. 1863

Sermons on national subjects. Kingsley, C. 2v. 1872

The arrangement is alphabetically by the words of the titles as in the case of any other title-entries, and not by the names of the authors.

=95.=--Dramas, Dramatic Works, are also forms calling for similar treatment to Poems, Essays, or Sermons. Collections of letters by individuals are simply entered under the names of the writers with references from the editors.

=96.=--There is a form of entry occasionally seen in catalogues that is so obviously absurd that it scarcely needs to be more than referred to, viz., a heading “Pamphlets.” Here, presumably, all the thin or unbound books in a library are entered. Under an arrangement of this description, work should be facilitated, as but two headings would be requisite--one “Books” and the other “Pamphlets”--the dividing line between the two to be fixed by the number of pages.

Almost in a line with such a ridiculous heading is the lazy cataloguer’s method of taking volumes consisting of a number of pamphlets bound together, whether upon the self-same subject or as many different subjects as there are pamphlets in the volumes, and lumping them with entries like these:

Miscellaneous pamphlets. v.d.

Pamphlets, Miscellaneous. 37 v. v.d.

Sermons, Miscellaneous. v.d.

Political pamphlets. v.d.

Of course, each pamphlet must be dealt with in precisely the same way as if it were a separate book, the fact that it is a thin book not entering into the question, unless it happens to be of so very trifling or ephemeral a character as to be unworthy of an entry, when it should either be withdrawn from the library (unless the fact of its being bound up with others prevents) or properly catalogued.

=97.=--The prolix titles of many pamphlets, especially the polemical tracts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, often need abbreviation. For example:

The succession of Solomon to the throne of David consider’d in a sermon on the occasion of the sudden death of His Majesty King George I., June 18, 1727, by Thomas Bradbury. 2nd ed. 1727

may very well be cut down to

Bradbury, Thomas. Sermon on the death of George I. 1727

and

An ordinance of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, together with rules and directions concerning suspention from the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper in cases of ignorance and scandall; also the names of such ministers and others that are appointed triers and judges of the ability of elders within the province of London. 1645

may be safely curtailed in most cases to

Lord’s Supper. An ordinance of Parliament, with rules and directions concerning suspention from the sacrament. pp. ii., 14. sm. 4o. 1645

Pamphlets are frequently collected and stored in libraries for some special reason--perhaps because they are of local interest--when this fact should be brought out in the catalogue. Accordingly a pamphlet entitled

A sermon preached in Chelsea Church at the funeral of the Hon. Mrs. Elizabeth Roberts, by Thomas Knaggs. 1710

would be entered under

Chelsea Church, Sermon preached in, at the funeral of the Hon. Mrs. Eliz. Roberts. Knaggs, T. 1710

this entry being additional to that under “Knaggs” and another under “Roberts,” if the person happened to be of some local importance in her day.

CHAPTER X.

TITLE-ENTRIES AND REPETITION DASHES.

=98.=--The extent to which title-entries, as distinct from subject-entries, are called for in a dictionary catalogue has in some measure been already shown. Works of fiction, plays, poems, volumes of essays, and sometimes sermons, nearly all demand such entries, they being for the most part sought for by their titles. Examples of each of these are

Far from the madding crowd. Hardy, T.

Michael and his lost angel: a play. Jones, H. A.

Aurora Leigh: poem. Browning, E. B. 1890

Obiter dicta. Birrell, A. 2v. 1887-96

Discipline, and other sermons. Kingsley, C. 1890

These are apart from the title-as-subject entries, such as

Miners and their works underground. Holmes, F. M. n.d.

Moravian Church, Short history of the. Hutton, J. E. 1895.

There are very few books outside the above classes that really require title-entries, and, as a rule, this feature of cataloguing is overdone. Books like

Finck, H. T. Lotos-time in Japan. 1895

Hollingshead, John. My lifetime. 2 v. 1895

Adams, W. H. D. The Maid of Orleans. 1889

Marsh, George P. Lectures on the English language. 1874

do not require entries under “Lotos,” “My Lifetime,” “Maid of Orleans,” or “Lectures,” besides those necessary under “Japan,” “Hollingshead,” “Joan of Arc,” and “English language,” yet it is quite customary to see such entries.

=99.=--It must be carefully noted that in title-entries the articles (A, An, The) are absolutely ignored, and any other first word is the leading word under which the entry is to be given. It is often desirable to include the article, especially the definite article, in such entry, when it must be got in as soon as it can be consistent with sense and sound, or at the end of the phrase, as

Guardian angel, The. _Not_ Guardian, The, angel.

Clyde, The, to the Jordan. _Not_ Clyde to the Jordan, The.

Noble life, A. _Not_ Noble, A, life.

Evil, The genesis of. _Not_ Evil, genesis of, The.

The articles are occasionally left out of such entries as

Guardian angel.

Clyde to the Jordan.

Noble life.

Evil, Genesis of.

but this applies only to the article preceding the first word of the title and _no other_.

Chariot of the flesh, The.

cannot be correctly entered as

Chariot of flesh.

The general omission of the leading article means very little, if any, saving of space, and has a bald effect, reading often like the wording of a telegram. Besides losing the clearness which its inclusion gives, it may alter the sense, as

Day’s ride. _Is not the same as_ Day’s ride, A.

Phyllis of the Sierras. _Is not the same as_ Phyllis, A, of the Sierras.

Soldier born. _Is not the same as_ Soldier born, A.

In transposing the article or any other leading word from the beginning of the title the capital initial letter must be retained, as shown in the above entries, and not in this way,

Animal’s friend, the.

Priestcraft, popular history of.

Primeval life, relics of.

In order to prevent a break in the alphabetical sequence, the articles are sometimes transposed under the authors’ names, as

“Hobbes, John Oliver.”

⸻ Bundle of life, A.

⸻ Herb-moon, The.

⸻ Sinner’s comedy, The.

but so little is gained by this form of entry that it hardly compensates for the awkwardness of it.

It is incorrect in any form, author or title, to leave out the article in foreign languages, and to do so can only be justified by usage rather than exactness. As in English the entry-word is never under the article, as

Petite paroisse, La. _Not_ La petite paroisse.

Aventure d’amour, Une. _Not_ Une aventure d’amour.

Karavane, Die. _Not_ Die Karavane.

=100.=--Many works of fiction with proper names in their titles are better known by those names, and are rarely looked for under the first word of the title. Books so well known as,

The personal history of David Copperfield.

Mr. Midshipman Easy.

History of Pendennis.

Confessions of Harry Lorrequer.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

will oftener be sought for under “David,” “Midshipman,” “Pendennis,” “Harry,” and “Huckleberry,” than “Personal,” “Mr.” “History,” “Confessions,” “Adventures,” therefore judgment should be exercised, and either a single entry given under the most likely place, or both title-entries given. If space is a consideration always omit the less-known entry. It will be seen that names in fiction are never regarded as real names, and entries must not be given under the surnames as “Copperfield,” “Easy,” “Lorrequer,” “Finn.”

=101.=--For the sake of brevity title-entries are sometimes given with the surname only of the author, after this manner

Two hundred pounds reward, by Payn.

Two in the bush, by Moore.

Two kisses, by Smart.

Two little wooden shoes, by Ouida.

and occasionally in this style:

Afloat and ashore. Cooper.

Afloat in the forest. Reid.

After dark. Collins.

In works of fiction like these there is no very great objection to the plan other than the bald appearance of the entries, but to carry it into effect with all other title and subject entries is to revert to the dark ages of cataloguing. The following selected specimens prove that such entries can have very little value for the uninitiated. The complete entry other than the shelf mark is given:

Holland, Through. By Wood.

Horace. By Martin.

Childs, George W. (1874). Grosart.

Christ, With (Sermon). Kemble.

Church, Of the (1847). Field.

Electricity. By Ferguson.

Epic of Hades. By Morris.

Essays. By Cowley.

Faraday. By Gladstone.

=102.=--This leads to the matter of repetition dashes, to which some reference has already been made in paragraph 59 upon the author-entry, and no better advice can be given to the young cataloguer than that to _avoid repetition dashes wherever possible_, and, at most, only use them in one of the following instances:

_a._ To save repeating an author’s name in author-entry (as already illustrated) or under subject-heading.

_b._ To save repeating a title-entry or title-as-subject-entry where a second copy or another edition of the _same_ work is entered.

_c._ To save repeating a subject-heading.

Illustrations of the second form are

Condé, Princes de, History of the. Aumale, Duc d’. 2 v. 1872

⸻ (French ed.) 2 v. 1863-4

Food and feeding. Thompson, Sir H. 1891

⸻ (Enlarged ed.) 1898

Household of Sir Thomas More. Manning, A. 1887

⸻ (Illus. ed.) 1896

and of the third form:

Insanity.

⸻ Hill, R. G. Insanity, its past and present. 1870

⸻ Maudsley, H. The pathology of mind. 1895

but most cataloguers are dispensing with this form, as the indent under the heading is sufficient to denote that all the entries belong to such heading. If it is used, a second dash will occasionally be needed in cases similar to this:

Ireland.

⸻ Froude, J. A. The English in Ireland in the 18th century. 3 v. 1886.

⸻ ⸻ Ireland since the Union. 1886.

⸻ Hickson, M. Ireland in the 17th century. 2 v. 1884.

Nothing is lost by avoiding this dash under headings, and some find that the indent alone, even under author’s names, is so clear that the dash can be altogether discarded, and that this will be no disadvantage the following typical and genuine examples of what has been sarcastically called the “dot and dash system” of cataloguing will show:

China Painting. By Florence Lewis.

⸻ Old highways in. By Williamson.

English Church Composers. By Barrett.

⸻ ⸻ History of the. By Perry.

Law and the Lady: a Novel. By Collins.

⸻ International. By Levi.

⸻ Physical and Moral, Difference between. By Arthur.

⸻ Reign of. By Argyll.

⸻ Science of. By Amos.

Moors, The, and the Fens. By Mrs. Riddell.

⸻ ⸻ in Spain. By S. L. Poole.

Workshop Appliances. By Shelley.

⸻ Receipts for the Use of Manufacturers, Mechanics, and Scientific Amateurs. By Spon

⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ _Second series._ By Haldane.

These are quite as absurd in their way as that from a recent index to publishers’ catalogues, viz.:

Lead, Silver and.

⸻ Kindly Light.

and attention is drawn to them simply for the purpose of showing how ridiculous such entries can be made, and that they are more hindrance than help to the users of a catalogue needs no further demonstration. Therefore it can be confidently recommended to the cataloguer to make a very limited use of these dashes, in all cases of doubt it being much better to repeat the word. The eleven dashes under “Workshop” above are unnecessary, and the proper form of entry is:

Workshop appliances. Shelley, C. P. B. 1885

Workshop receipts for the use of manufacturers, &c. Spon, E. 1885

⸻ (Second ser.) Haldane, R. 1885

CHAPTER XI.

INDEXING CONTENTS.

=103.=--The mode of setting-out the contents of books of a miscellaneous or collective character has been referred to in sections 61-62 and it has been pointed out that frequently an essay or article is more useful--even more valuable--than a whole book, as it may give the pith of the matter it deals with, and be sufficiently full for the needs of most people. Under these circumstances, it is most desirable that not only shall each subject-heading in a catalogue have all the books in the library set out under it, but also portions of books, within reasonable limits. How far these limits are to extend is a nice question, and it is certainly one that demands the consideration of English librarians, with a view to co-operation in the production of a work upon the lines of the _“A. L. A.” Index: an index to general literature, by Wm. I. Fletcher, with the coöperation of many librarians_ (Boston, 1893), to fill the place for this class of literature that Poole’s and other indexes do for periodical literature. The “A.L.A. Index” is distinctly American, and does not fit in so well with the collections in English libraries, though its value cannot be gainsaid. Pending the settlement of this question librarians must do what they can to open up for the use of their readers the valuable material hidden away in volumes of essays and others of a miscellaneous character. All the rules previously laid down for cataloguing come into application in dealing with books of this kind, because they sometimes consist of sections by a number of authors upon one subject, or of many authors upon many subjects, or by a single author on many subjects. The method usually employed of completely carrying out this indexing is shown in the following series of examples:

STEVENSON, Robert L. Familiar studies of men and books. 3rd ed. pp. xxi., 397. sm. 8o. 1888

_Contents_:--Preface, by way of criticism. Victor Hugo’s romances. Some aspects of Robert Burns. Walt Whitman. H. D. Thoreau: his character and opinions. Yoshida-Torajiro. François Villon, student, poet, and housebreaker. Charles of Orleans. Samuel Pepys. John Knox and women.

Hugo, Victor.

Stevenson, R. L. Victor Hugo’s romances. (Men and books.) 1888

Burns, Robert.

Stevenson, R. L. Some aspects of Robert Burns. (Men and books.) 1888

Whitman, Walt.

Stevenson, R. L. Walt Whitman. (Men and books.) 1888

Thoreau, Henry D.

Stevenson, R. L. Thoreau: his character and opinions. (Men and books.) 1888

Yoshida-Torajiro. Stevenson, R. L. (Men and books.) 1888

Villon, François, student, poet, and housebreaker. Stevenson, R. L. (Men and books.) 1888

Charles of Orleans. Stevenson, R. L. (Men and books.) 1888

Pepys, Samuel.

Stevenson, R. L. Samuel Pepys. (Men and books.) 1888

Knox, John.

Stevenson, R. L. John Knox and women. (Men and books.) 1888

The sixth, seventh, and eighth entries are in title form, upon the presumption that the library will have no other items upon these persons or books by them. The remainder are headings, because the probability is that there will be other books by or upon these authors.

There are alternative methods of treating books of this nature. It has already been said that the list of contents can be omitted under the principal entry, and thereby effect a slight saving. It would also be quite possible to give only the title of the whole book under the subject-heading, omitting the title of the particular essay or article, as

Hugo, Victor.

Stevenson, R. L. Men and books. 1888

The fact that the entry is given under Hugo would show that there was something in the book about him, but not that it concerned his romances only. There is also the reverse process of giving simply the title of the essay, as

Hugo, Victor.

Stevenson, R. L. Victor Hugo’s romances. 1888

The disadvantage of this form is that it would be taken for a whole book instead of an essay, but this difficulty could be got over by inserting the explanatory word “essay,” as

Hugo, Victor.

Stevenson, R. L. Victor Hugo’s romances [essay.] 1888

There is also the cross-reference form, like

Hugo, Victor.

_See also_ Stevenson, R. L. Men and books.

which is the least desirable because it is vague and also extravagant so far as space is concerned.

The next illustration is

COLLINS, John Churton.

Essays and studies. pp. xii, 369. la. 8o. 1895

_Contents_:--John Dryden. The predecessors of Shakspeare. Lord Chesterfield’s Letters. The Porson of Shaksperian criticism. Menander.

The fact that these essays are principally reviews of books necessitates a consideration of their interest in this respect as well as that which attaches to their value as contributions to the subjects, and after examination it will be found that the essays are best placed under “Dryden,” “Symonds, J. A.”; “Chesterfield”; “Theobald, Lewis”; and “Menander,” in this manner:

Dryden, John.

Collins, J. C. John Dryden. (Essays and studies.) 1895

Symonds, J. A.

Collins, J. C. The predecessors of Shakspeare. (Essays and studies.) 1895

A review of Symonds’ work on this subject.

If it were thought necessary to give the second and fourth essays under “Shakespeare” also, they could be amalgamated into one entry in this form:

Shakespeare, William.

Collins, J. C. The predecessors of Shakspeare. The Porson of Shakspearian criticism. (Essays and studies.) 1895

A further book of the kind is

NOBLE, J. Ashcroft.

The sonnet in England, and other essays. pp. x, 211. sm. 8o. 1893

_Contents_:--The sonnet in England. A pre-Raphaelite magazine. Leigh Hunt: the man and the writer. The poetry of common sense. Robert Buchanan as poet. Hawker of Morwenstow.

The word “contents” may be changed to “contains” or “containing,” or even omitted altogether, as the position or style of type would sufficiently indicate that the list was that of the contents. Due regard being paid to the exact subject of each of the essays, the entries would be given under “Sonnet” (title-entry); “Germ, The”; “Hunt, Leigh”; “Pope, Alex.”; “Buchanan, Robert”; “Hawker, Robert S.”

=104.=--It must be clearly understood that while there is a certain option in indexing the contents of books like the above, there is none whatever in dealing with collected works. That a library happens to possess say the set of the Ashburton edition of Carlyle’s Works does not imply that they are sufficiently entered if set out under “Carlyle,” and therefore they must be fully catalogued in precisely the same manner as if each book had been purchased separately in various editions. Under the author’s name they would be entered as shown in the Hawthorne illustration (section 63), and each book dealt with upon the lines already laid down, as for example

Cromwell, Oliver.

Carlyle, T. Oliver Cromwell’s letters and speeches elucidated. (Works, _Ashburton ed._, v. 6-8). 3 v. 1885-6

=105.=--There is a well understood though not formulated rule, that the contents of the great classical works do not require indexing, and upon this principle a work, say upon “Hamlet,” would simply be entered under “Shakespeare,” and not even a cross-reference is needed from “Hamlet.” So with the ancient classics. The _Iliad_ or _Odyssey_, the _Æneid_, or the _Agamemnon_ are not usually entered in any other place than under Homer, Virgil, and Æschylus respectively. This rule would also be extended according to the nature of the library. One that had a particular collection say of editions of More’s _Utopia_ would not require any entry under _Utopia_ further than a cross-reference to More, where all the editions would be set out with every necessary particular.

=106.=--The remarks made in section 103 upon the need for a co-operative index to essays and the like also applies to the need, which is probably not so much felt, for an index to plays, and further indexes might even be looked for to volumes of sermons arranged under subjects and texts. More pressing still is the want of an index to the many portraits contained in books.

CHAPTER XII.

THE CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE.

=107.=--The difference between the dictionary and classified forms of catalogues already referred to in sections 8 and 9 may be further demonstrated by taking the two well-known railway guides, “Bradshaw” and the “A.B.C.,” in illustration. Both guides have merits of their own, yet are very unlike. The “A.B.C.” will show by ready reference and without any previous study of its arrangement, the times of departure for and arrival at a particular railway station, but it does not show the stoppages at intervening stations on the journey, or supply the exhaustive information that “Bradshaw” does. But before “Bradshaw” can be satisfactorily used its arrangement and order must be studied, and so it is with the classified catalogue. Its arrangement, that is the system of classification adopted, must first be understood, and then the order of sub-division of the classes must be ascertained before it can be properly used, unless such division happens to be alphabetical rather than natural or logical. Having mastered the classification and arrangement, the user of the classified catalogue has the advantage of an exhaustive list of a whole class of literature, then of a particular subject in the aggregate and afterwards in detail, and with all its collateral subjects brought together. That at least is the theory of its compilation. This form has the further advantage, already alluded to, of economy in production, as a book seldom calls for more than a single entry other than a reference in the index, whereas the number of entries to each book in a dictionary catalogue is seldom less than three.

Again a classed catalogue can be issued in sections, a class or more at the same time, and in large or small editions of each section, according to the demand for them. To be of any real service the dictionary catalogue must be published complete, as if issued in instalments it is of no value until completed because each section is not complete in itself as a class-list is.

Having said so much for the classed catalogue, it may be pointed out that the whole of the books contained in a library by a particular author cannot be ascertained by it without some trouble, unless it has a brief-title author-index as shown in section 112, nor can the books upon a stated country, say China, be found together in one place, those upon the religions of China would not be grouped with those upon its social customs, those upon its natural history would not be with either of these, and a book dealing with all of these together, inclusive of a description of the country, would be in a separate place.

=108.=--The arguments for and against the two styles of catalogue being carefully weighed, more especially from the point of view of general usefulness to the public concerned, and with due regard to cost of production, and choice having been made of the classified form of catalogue, the cataloguer will first decide upon the scheme of classification to be adopted, presuming that the library in hand is not already classified or its system of main classes is unsatisfactory for cataloguing purposes. This having been accomplished by means of Brown’s _Manual of Library Classification_, which summarises all the various systems, the author-entry is made upon the general principles already laid down in Chapters III. to VII. of the present work which are all equally applicable.

A line or two must be left at the top of the slip on which the entry is written for the purpose of marking the classification, division, and sub-division either by their names or by numbers, if the scheme adopted has a numerical notation. Supposing for example the book is

Ward, James. Historic ornament: treatise on decorative art and architectural ornament. Illus. 2 v. 8o. 1897

the slip or card would be marked as follows on the right hand top corner, as being the most convenient for sorting,

Fine Arts. [The class].

Ornament. [The division.]

or if the well-known Dewey Classification[2] is used, the number 745 would be written in the same place, signifying the class “Fine Arts,” the division “Drawing, Decoration, Design,” and the sub-division or definite subject, “Ornamental design.”

Under Brown’s Adjustable Classification,[3] the entry would be marked C 76, denoting the class, “Fine Arts,” the division “Decoration,” and the sub-division “General practice and examples.” In the dictionary catalogue this book would be entered under “Ward” and “Ornament.”

Another example is

Willmott, Robt. A. (_Ed._) The poets of the 19th century: [selections]. pp. xx, 620, port., illus. 8o. n.d.

This would be marked “Literature,” division “English Literature,” sub-division “Poetry,” and left for more detailed sub-division when it comes to be arranged with kindred works at the time of preparation for the press. The Dewey number would be 821.08 or according to Brown’s method of marking J 12.

A further illustration is

Bird, Robert. Jesus, the carpenter of Nazareth. 8th ed. pp. xii, 498. sm. 8o. 1894

This would be marked “Theology” or “Religion,” division “Bible,” sub-division “Christ”; the Dewey number being 232.9, and that in Brown’s notation E168.

=109.=--The next illustration is one of some difficulty, inasmuch as it can be placed in three classes:

Macpherson, H. A., A. J. Stuart-Wortley, and Alex. I. Shand. The pheasant: natural history, shooting, cookery. (_Fur and feather ser._) pp. x, 265, illus. 1895

Having regard to the series in which the book appears, it cannot very well be placed under “Natural History,” nor is there much contained in it that appeals to the scientific naturalist, though a reference from the division “Game birds” in that class would be most desirable. As the pheasant has first to be shot before it can be cooked, and there are many more pages devoted to the shooting than to the cooking, the book is placed among sporting books: class “Fine Arts,” division “Recreative Arts,” sub-division “Field Sports,” further division “Shooting.” The Dewey number is accordingly 799, and the Brown mark C632.

In the dictionary catalogue a book like

Bernard, Henry M.

The apodidæ. (_Nature ser._) pp. xx. 316, illus. sm. 8o. 1892

is readily dealt with, as it is simply entered under “Apodidæ” for the subject. In the classified catalogue, however, it must be worked out to its full limits, as class “Science,” section “Natural History,” division “Zoology,” sub-division “Arthropoda” or “Articulata,” lesser division “Crustacea.” The Dewey number is 595.3, and the Brown notation is A152.

Upon a like principle, a book upon a very different subject, viz.,

Loftie, W. J.

Westminster Abbey. New ed., revised, pp. xii, 319, illus. 8o. 1891

is treated in the same manner. The class is “History,” the division “Europe,” sub-division “British Isles,” further division “England,” and lesser division “London”; the Dewey number being 942.1, and that of Brown is F742. This arrangement is upon the presumption that the book is written from the historical and topographical standpoint. It is, however, written as much from the architectural point of view, and the heading might be entirely different; as then the class would be “Fine Arts,” the division “Architecture,” and the sub-division “Ecclesiastical Architecture,” with a further section devoted to “Monographs.” This is one of those books of a composite character that can be very suitably placed in two classes, so far as the catalogue is concerned, as against shelf arrangement.

Even in cataloguing it is unusual and not easy to split up into classes and sub-divisions those books of a miscellaneous character, as volumes of essays, which are “indexed” section by section in the dictionary catalogue. These, therefore, are brought together in one place, unless the whole or the greater number of the essays or sections are upon a particular subject, when they are placed in their proper class. Though there may be no division of the contents of miscellaneous books, as distinct from collected works, this in no wise obviates the necessity for setting out in full the _contents_ of such books in the entry under the main class. Apart from the little difficulty and it not being customary, there is no very sufficient reason why these contents should not be split up in classified cataloguing and inserted in the proper classes throughout, even as they would be treated to subject-entries in the dictionary catalogue; indeed, fairly looked at, it is the only right method of procedure to adopt.

The under-mentioned books are grouped together because they are all comprised in the single class of “History” under the Dewey classification. By the Brown method “Biography and Correspondence” is separated from “History and Geography” and made into another class, though it is often very difficult to find the dividing line between history and biography in the lives of monarchs and other historical memoirs. The classes and divisions are given to each item in the form which it is advised that the catalogue slips should be marked for sorting until the time arrives for them to be prepared for printing.

History. Voyages and travels. Arctic Regions. N.-E. Passage.

Nordenskiöld, A. E.

The voyage of the Vega round Asia and Europe; transl. by Alex. Leslie, pp. viii, 414, ports., maps, illus. sm. 8o. 1886

If the Dewey or Brown classifications were in use, instead of marking with class and subject headings as above, the entry would simply be marked 919 or F1356.

History. Europe. Ireland.

Bagwell, Richard.

Ireland under the Tudors. 3 v. 8o. 1885-90

(Dewey number 941.55. Brown mark F826.)

History. Biography of Literature.

Fitzgerald, Percy.

The life of Lawrence Sterne. Port. 2 v. sm. 8o. 1896

(Dewey number 928. Brown mark G88-Sterne.)

History. Voyages and travels. Europe. Russia.

Hapgood, Isabel F.

Russian rambles. pp. xiv, 369. sm. 8o. 1895

(Dewey number 914, 7. Brown mark F 1168.)

=110.=--As already pointed out, the principal difficulty with classified catalogues, more especially if the classification is extended to its fullest limits, is that persons using the catalogue must familiarise themselves with its arrangement before they can make an adequate use of it. Thus to find a book upon Russia, the geographical order has to be thought out, and to find a life of Sterne it must first be remembered that as he was an author he will come into the literary division of biography, or if a life of William Penn is wanted, it must be found out whether it is placed in the biography of religion or of history according to the point of view from which it is regarded.

Mr. Brown’s system removes some of these difficulties, as he for the most part arranges his countries alphabetically under continents, and his biographies of individuals altogether alphabetically by the subjects. In some recent classified catalogues this idea has been carried further, and all continents and countries of the world arranged in one alphabet, as Abyssinia, Afghanistan, Africa, Algeria, Asia, and so on with such suitable sub-division under each as may be called for. This alphabetical arrangement has also been carried out under the main divisions of the classes “Fine Arts” and “Useful Arts,” and it certainly facilitates reference, though it must be admitted that it breaks away from the important principle of giving a complete view of a subject in all its bearings, first generally, then in particular down to its finest limits. This principle may very well be waived in dealing with _individual_ biography, and in such case the form of entry would be reversed, as

Biography.

Sterne, Laurence, The life of, by Percy Fitzgerald. Port. 2 v. sm. 8o. 1896

By the Dewey system works of fiction fall into place under languages, epochs, and authors in the main class “Literature” as they should, but most libraries have to make a separate class for this kind of literature. This has been allowed for in the Brown Adjustable Classification, the arrangement being alphabetically by authors with a separate section of books for juveniles, this being further divided for books specially written for boys and again for books for girls. These two main divisions of works of fiction (_i.e._ novels) and story books for children will be found sufficient in cataloguing, the entries being alphabetically by authors. The dictionary principle of a title-entry may be added with advantage, and the titles given either in separate alphabetical order or more conveniently in their place in the same alphabet with the author-entries, of course keeping all the entries together in their particular class.

=111.=--The more elaborate the classification in a classified catalogue the more need there is for an adequate index to authors and subjects. The index may be a simple reference under the author’s name to the page upon which the entry is to be found, as

Ward, James 130

but this necessitates a hunt from page to page, and almost from line to line on each page if the author has written a number of books which appear in different parts of the catalogue. For example, this is the index-entry to a catalogue so indexed:

Hamerton, P. G., 42, 84, 86, 119, 125, 149, 151, 163, 165, 174, 175, 176, 190, 213, 215, 252, 330, 366.

The only method of obviating this is to give a brief title of each book, just sufficient to identify it, and while it must be admitted this method takes up some space, yet it is worth it. The following is the form referred to:

Hamerton, P. G. Drawing and engraving, 86.

⸻ French and English, 119.

⸻ Human intercourse, 42.

⸻ Modern Frenchmen, 149.

⸻ Thoughts about art, 84.

The same difficulty would not arise in indexing subjects because the whole subject would be grouped in one place or almost so, and reference to the page or pages would be easy enough. An example of this subject-index entry taken from the same catalogue is

France (History), 124, 126, 136.

⸻ (Descriptive) 215.

⸻ The Church in, 139.

⸻ Language and Literature, 246, 280.

Franco-German War, 136.

With the Dewey and Brown notations the indexing would be by class and topic number, and not by pages, as

Ornament, 745.

Poetry, English. 821.

Christ, Lives of. E 168.

Irrespective of the system of classification made use of each separate section of a class could be numbered consecutively for indexing purposes (as this present book is) and unless the sections were unusually large, reference would thereby be much simpler and more direct than by the page.

If the section or class of prose fiction were arranged under authors alphabetically, there would be no occasion to include the authors of that section in the index, and a mere general statement at the commencement of the index, pointing to the fact that they were not so included would meet the case. Upon a similar principle it would hardly be necessary to index the _subjects_ of individual biography if they were arranged alphabetically as suggested, though it must be remembered that many of these would appear in the index as authors.

It is customary to keep the author and subject-indexes separate, sometimes printing one at the beginning and the other at the end of the catalogue. There does not seem to be any important reason for adopting this course, and both indexes might very well be amalgamated, and so add one feature of the dictionary form to the classified catalogue, besides it would be easier to refer to. In no case should a summary of the classification adopted, showing the order of its arrangement, be omitted, and this is better placed at the beginning than at the end where the index will be.

The index entries can be made, if desired, at the time of writing the main entry for the catalogue, when a smaller-sized slip should be used for them; but it is found convenient to compile the index from the printer’s proofs as the work passes through the press. With the Dewey and Brown numbering there is no occasion to wait until the work is so far advanced, and the index can be as easily compiled before any portion of the “copy” is sent to the printer as when it is in type.

=112.=--It may be necessary to add that the main entries of a classified catalogue are arranged by class and topic names or numbers, as shown in the examples, and not by authors, as in the dictionary catalogue, though the authors of books coming together under a single definite topic would be arranged alphabetically as a matter of course.

CHAPTER XIII.

ALPHABETISATION AND ARRANGEMENT.

=113.=--On the face of it, it seems a simple affair to arrange slips in alphabetical order--“as easy as a, b, c”--but, judging by the mistakes made, and the small number of persons who when put to it can alphabetise properly, it is not so simple as it appears. The arrangement is, of course, to be according to the English alphabet, and irrespective of the language of the entries, I and J and U and V to be kept apart as distinct letters, and then by each separate word.

One of the first principles is to arrange all entries leading off with the same word in accordance with what is understood as precedence and importance of entry, viz., (1) author and other personal names; (2) subject names; (3) titles of books; as, for example:

Ireland, Alex. (_Ed._) The book-lover’s enchiridion.

(Author.)

Ireland.

Bagwell, R. Ireland under the Tudors.

(Subject.)

Ireland: a tale. Martineau, H.

(Title.)

It has already been shown that initial letters precede all words with the same initial, and under the same rule all names with a particular initial for the Christian name are placed before those with the Christian name in full, as

Fitzgerald, P. F.

Fitzgerald, Percy.

Fitzgerald, S. J. A.

Fitzgerald, Samuel.

Where there are a number of persons of the same surname and initial in the catalogue it is as well, for the sake of clearness, to try and find out the full name for which the initial stands and give it. When this cannot be done it is very important to take care and not attribute books by different authors to one, or by an individual to different authors. These are mistakes much more commonly made than might be supposed.

Monarchs, as authors or as subjects, having similar names are arranged in chronological order, but with British sovereigns leading, as

William I., the Conqueror.

William III., Prince of Orange.

William IV.

William II., Emperor of Germany.

These would be followed by persons with a single name, as

William _of Malmesbury_,

and then by other persons with William as a surname, arranged in order alphabetically by their Christian names or initials. When titles are used and appear in the name, as Lord, Lady, Sir, Rev., Dr., they are ignored and not allowed to affect the arrangement in the least, not even if it happens that there is no other means of distinguishing a person, and if the Christian name cannot be ascertained such a name would be placed before that of all others of the same name and treated in precisely the same way as if the surname only were known and no title existed, as

Lamb, Lady.

Lamb, Arthur.

Lamb, Charles.

If two noblemen of the same title have the same Christian name they should be placed in order of succession with their order shown, as

Derby, Edward, 14th Earl of.

Derby, Edward, 15th Earl of.

and parents and children with similar names are arranged according to seniority, like

Dumas, Alexandre.

Dumas, Alexandre, _fils_.

It is sometimes recommended to place distinctions of this nature with the surname, as

Johnson _senior_, Thomas.

Johnson _junior_, Thomas.

but this is not a very happy form.

Names of a person in different forms must not be alphabetised under those forms, but one selected and all concentrated under it, as it would be foolish to have separate entries under say Shakspere, Shakespeare, Shakspear, Shakspeare, though the variety in the name can be shown _in the different entries_ under the form adopted.

=114.=--It has already been shown that different editions of the same work are to be arranged in order of publication as far as possible, and that editions in the language of the original are placed before translations, and complete works before parts or selections. These would in turn be followed by works _upon_ the author as subject, _i.e._, biographical and critical, when there is no occasion to repeat his name as a subject-heading, as the repeat dash may be omitted to show that he is not the author of a book upon himself, a mistake that is not likely to be made by the dullest person if the name of the author of the book upon the author in question leads off, thus

Lamb, Charles. The essays of Elia.

⸻ Mrs. Leicester’s school.

Ainger, A. Charles Lamb.

Martin, B. E. In the footprints of Lamb.

This order of arrangement may be tabulated in full in this way:--

1st. Complete works in the original (by date of publication).

2nd. Complete works in translation (by date of publication).

3rd. Semi-complete works (_i.e._ more than a single work).

4th. Single works, arranged alphabetically by titles, first in the original, and then translations of each immediately following.

5th. Works where the author is a joint-author.

6th. Works when he is only editor or compiler.

7th. References _from_ the person as _author_.

8th. Works relating to him, alphabetically by authors.

9th. References _from_ the person as _subject_.

As already stated in section 52, names with prefixes are taken as part of the name, and arranged accordingly. If the prefix is abbreviated as M’, or Mc, or St., it is placed in order as if spelled out Mac or Saint. This does not imply that the name must be so altered in the catalogue, and refers to the order only. Names like Müller should be arranged as Muller, taking care that other entries are not under Mueller, but this is a matter that can be best dealt with according to the circumstances of the case, as, for instance, Goethe should be so alphabetised, and not as Göthe. Diphthongs are alphabetised as separate letters.

=115.=--Abbreviated words in title-entries are also treated as if given in full, and consequently “Dr. Thorne” and “Mr. Isaacs” do not come immediately before “Drab” and “Mud,” but with “Doctor” and “Mister” respectively. It need hardly be said that “Mrs. Bligh” or any other Mrs. is not alphabetised in either the abbreviated or colloquial form, but as “Mistress,” and therefore does not come between “Mozley” and “Muddock.” Other abbreviated words are arranged upon the same plan. “Fo’c’s’le yarns” appearing as “Forecastle,” though the exception to this rule is found in other elisions contained in such entries, as

’Twas in Trafalgar’s Bay.

’Tween snow and fire.

Who was Philip?

Who’s to blame?

which are alphabetised as here shown, and not under “It,” “between,” or “Who is.”

Compound words, whether divided by a hyphen or printed as one word, are arranged to follow the single word, after this fashion:

Book for the hammock.

Book of nonsense.

Bookbinding.

Book-buying.

Book-keeping.

Book-plates.

Books.

New South Wales.

New Testament.

New Zealand.

Newcastle.

Newfoundland.

Newgate.

When numerals lead off in a title-entry they are alphabetised as if written or printed in words; thus

£1,000,000 bank-note, The.

97th Regiment, History of the.

£200 reward.

are put in order as, “One million,” “Ninety-seventh,” and “Two hundred” respectively.

=116.=--It is necessary to repeat the instructions to ignore the articles “A,” “An” and “The” in alphabetical arrangement, when they lead in a title or are transposed for alphabetical purposes, but not otherwise. In the middle of a title they must be reckoned with, and therefore “Under a strange mask” comes before “Under Drake’s flag,” and “Mr. and Mrs. Faulconbridge” before “Mr. Baker’s money.” The possessive is to be treated as spelled, and so “Miners and their works” comes before “Miner’s right, The,” and “Boys’ and Girls’ Book of Games” comes between “Boys’ adventures” and “Boys and I.”

Sometimes entries upon quite different subjects, which are spelled alike are, in the work of sorting, inadvertently amalgamated under a single heading, and so books like “_The Great Seals of England_” by Wyon; “_Seals of the British Seas_” by Southwell; and “_Catalogue of seals in the British Museum_” by Birch, are brought together to the confusion of the naturalist or the antiquarian. Fortunately there are not many such subjects, or the rule-of-thumb mechanical cataloguer would oftener create laughter than he now does.

Occasionally it will be found advisable to ignore the alphabetical order of the titles of the books under an author’s name, as in the case where a number of books with varying titles are intended to be read in a particular order when it is of more advantage to so arrange them than to adhere to the alphabetical order. A note should be added, stating that the arrangement is according to sequence.

CHAPTER XIV.

PRINTING.

=117.=--The slips being sorted into alphabetical order if a dictionary catalogue, or into classes and divisions if a classified catalogue, are to be laid down on sheets of paper to send to the printer. These sheets of paper should be thin, tough, and uniform in size, but the colour and quality is of little importance and brown or cheap printing paper will do. The slips are first prepared by cutting away any part of the entry not to be printed, as the author’s name from the second and subsequent entries under his name, and in the same way cutting off the subject-heading from those slips where there are more entries than one under the subject. This is better than laying all down, and then afterwards marking out what is not to be printed. The sheets of paper should be first pasted all over, the slips laid upon them in order, usually in two columns, and then all pressed over. A little marginal space should be left for the insertion of additional entries.

If the entries are written upon cards, and it is wished to avoid the work of laying them down on sheets of paper, the names and headings not to be printed should be scored through, and the cards strung together in batches of a hundred or so by means of the hole usually perforated in them, numbering them through from beginning to end for order and safety. If the “copy” consists of the printed pages of a former catalogue with new additions to be inserted, the page should first be laid down on the sheet and the new entries below, these being numbered consecutively on each sheet separately with a corresponding number marked upon the page at the exact place where the new entry goes. Should there be a comparatively large number of such insertions, it is a much safer plan and fairer to the printer to cut up the printed page and place the additional entries in their correct order before laying them down on the sheet of paper.

=118.=--The sheets as they are got ready must be consecutively numbered throughout with a bold figure on the right hand top corner, and before sending them to the printer they should be finally looked through for revision. This is the most convenient time for marking the “copy,” for variations in type. The marking is usually as follows:

For CAPITALS underline three times in black ink.

For SMALL CAPITALS underline twice in black ink.

For _Italics_ underline once in black ink.

For =Clarendon= or other heavy type underline as above in red.

For smaller type than the body of the catalogue mark the portions down the margin in red and black, or red and blue.

Before the catalogue can be sent to be printed, its form must be decided upon as to the size of pages, quality and colour of paper, the types to be used, and the style of binding, and these being settled, a specification must be prepared to guide the printer in his work, or to obtain tenders upon if the work of printing is open to competition, as is most usual with all work done for public bodies. Personal preferences govern many matters in connection with the “get up” of a catalogue, though in most instances there is a limit imposed by the necessity for economy in cost of printing, just as there so often is for economy of compilation. The styles ordinarily adopted in the catalogues of the lending departments of the rate-supported libraries may be referred to.

=119.=--The most economical and commonest form is royal octavo in size, printed with two columns on the page in brevier type, with the subject-headings in a heavier type, and notes and list of contents in nonpareil. Sometimes the authors’ names in the principal entry are printed in capitals and small capitals, and this serves very well for distinctive purposes. Occasionally a catalogue is seen in which the subject-headings are in capitals and the authors’ names printed in heavier type, with the result that the authors are too prominent and the subjects not prominent enough. If the authors’ names in all entries are printed in blacker type and the shelf or other finding numbers as well, the appearance is greatly marred, the page having a spotted look most unrestful to the eye, and the purpose for which the heavy type is adopted is defeated. Altogether it will be found that the heavier type to be effective must be used sparingly, and as subject-headings are much less numerous than authors’ names, the most dignified and satisfactory page is obtained by the use of heavier type for the headings rather than for the authors’ names. While this refers mainly to the dictionary catalogue, it is also the best style to adopt for the classified catalogue. All type used should be as plain as possible, either old or modern-faced, without fancy letters, and the heavier type should be similar in style and size to that used in the body of the catalogue. When two sizes of type are used for distinctive purposes, it is customary to pass over a size in order that the distinction may be clearer, thus if the body type were long primer, the contents and notes should be set in brevier and not bourgeois, and nonpareil should be used with brevier, and not minion. The following specimens of types will be found useful, especially as it shows the line space occupied by each size:

SIZES OF TYPE.

[Illustration:

This line of type is modern-faced (Pica.) This line of type is modern-faced (Small Pica.) This line of type is modern-faced (Long Primer.) This line of type is modern-faced (Bourgeois.) This line of type is modern-faced (Brevier.) This line of type is modern-faced (Minion.) This line of type is modern-faced (Nonpareil.)

This line of type is old-faced (Pica.) This line of type is old-faced (Small Pica.) This line of type is old-faced (Long Primer.) This line of type is old-faced (Bourgeois.) This line of type is old-faced (Brevier.) This line of type is old-faced (Minion.) This line of type is old-faced (Nonpareil.)]

=120.=--Another style of catalogue often seen is demy octavo in size, printed across the page in long primer with “Clarendon” or “De Vinne” subject-headings and brevier notes and contents. This is a very effective form for a class-list or for the first catalogue of a new library, as it has the advantage of giving an imposing appearance to the catalogue, no matter how poor the collection of books is. Of course it is much easier to read and altogether gives a better page, but it adds considerably to the bulk and cost of the catalogue, besides giving the printer more “fat,” as the white or unprinted portions of the page are called. This style is preferable for the reference library, where the size of the catalogue is unimportant, as it has not to be carried about.

There are variations from these sizes and types ranging from a super royal octavo and crown quarto down to duodecimo, with type from small pica to nonpareil. The number of copies in the edition depends upon the number or probable number of purchasers of the catalogue during a given term of years, local circumstances alone deciding in this matter.

=121.=--Before sending out a specification for printing estimates, it is a safer, more satisfactory, and fairer plan to all concerned to have a specimen page set up, containing in it all the types to be used in something near their proportionate quantities. The cost of such a page is trifling, but the librarian then knows precisely what he is asking for and what to expect, and the printer better understands what he is tending for. All other points it is thought are included in the following illustrative specification, which is not taken from that of any particular library, but embodies concisely what are considered to be the best features of several specifications.

CORPORATION OF LAMBWELL.

_Specification for Printing the Public Library Catalogue._

The Committee of the Free Public Library invite tenders for printing a catalogue of their Lending Library upon the following conditions:

_Edition and Size._--The edition to consist of three thousand copies, royal octavo in size (say 9¼ × 6 when bound).

_Paper._--To be at least 30lbs. to the ream, of good finish, white, uniform in tint throughout.

_Type and Setting._--Old-style brevier, with occasional small capitals, italics, and clarendon or antique, with nonpareil for notes and contents, and the proper accented letters in foreign languages. To be set solid, two columns to the page, seventy lines to the column, each fifteen ems wide, with double division rules between. Turnover lines to be indented two ems, the repeat dash to be a one em rule, the class-letter and number to stand clear four ems, the nonpareil indent to be two ems. Spaces between the end of the book-entry and the class-letter to be filled with leaders. The type must not be worn or broken, and must be free from wrong founts.

_Machining._--The sheets to be well worked in perfect register, with good ink, and afterwards rolled or pressed.

_Time._--From the first receipt of copy, the work to be proceeded with at not less than two sheets of sixteen pages each per week until completed, or in default thereof the printer to pay a sum of two pounds per week as damages.

_Proofs._--Two copies of proof in galley and two copies of a revise in page to be furnished for reading and correction. The Librarian to have the right to demand a revise in galley and such revises in page as he shall deem necessary. No sheet to be sent to press until ordered by the endorsement of the Librarian thereon.

_Additions and corrections._--The Librarian to have the right to insert additional matter in galley but not in page. No charge to be allowed for author’s corrections unless pointed out and priced at the time they are made.

_Number of pages._[4]--The number of pages is estimated to be 250 more or less, but the number is not guaranteed.

_Covers._--Three thousand covers to be printed upon coloured paper, of an approved tint, not less than 34lbs. to the ream (royal). The front of this cover to be printed with the title of the catalogue.

_Binding._--The whole edition to be bound in good straw boards of suitable thickness, strongly sewn with thread, with cloth strip backs, the covers pasted on the sides and cut flush. Fourteen days will be allowed for binding beyond the time when the last sheet is sent to press.

_Delivery._--The catalogues when completed, to be tied in brown paper parcels of fifty each, and delivered to the Public Library, High Street, Lambwell.

_Tender._--The tender is to be at per page for brevier type and for nonpareil type respectively, the price to include all charges for press corrections, covers, binding, and delivery.

_Other conditions._--The work is to be carried out to the entire satisfaction of the Librarian, and if he is dissatisfied with its execution he shall have power to stop the work and refer the matter to the Library Committee, whose decision shall be final and binding.

The Committee will require the firm whose tender is accepted to enter into a contract to execute the work in accordance with this specification and its conditions.

When completed, the work to be measured up and charges allowed according to the quantity of brevier and nonpareil used, and payment made within three months afterwards.

The Committee do not bind themselves to accept the lowest or any tender.

Tenders, with samples of the paper to be used, to be sent in sealed envelopes endorsed “Catalogue,” to the undersigned on or before the 20th day of November, 1898.

JOHN E. BURKETT, _Librarian_.

=122.=--The printer and price having been fixed a supply of “copy” is sent and in due time proofs in “galley,” _i.e._ in long columns before the matter is “broken up” into pages, are received. The first proofs will not comprise the title-page, preface, and other preliminary pages, which are invariably printed last though first in order when the work is completed, and therefore the copy for this part of the catalogue need not be sent to the printer until the work is nearing its completion. The manuscript or other “copy” will be returned with the proofs and should be carefully and clearly read aloud by some qualified person to the cataloguer, who will correct the proofs by marking the corrections on the margin. When the proofs in hand have been so read over, it is advisable for the cataloguer to again read them carefully through apart from the copy before returning to the printer, as it is a much simpler matter to correct in galley than in page. At this point any additions to be inserted must be given, as they cannot be added to proofs in page without very great trouble, entailing the upsetting of work done, and consequently delay. The proofs after being fully corrected, will be returned by the printer with a clean proof (or “revise” as a proof after correction is termed) in page when all the corrections marked on the galley must be compared with the entries or the revise, to see that they have been properly attended to. At this time the headings, catch words, and numbering of the pages must be checked, and when the entries under a subject-heading have been divided by the end of a page or column the repeated headings upon the next column or page must be carefully examined. When books under an author’s name are so divided, his name should be repeated in the same way at the top of the next column or page.

These being attended to, the whole sheet should again be read through before finally sending it to press, and even with the care already expended, it is remarkable how many mistakes will then be discovered for the first time. If the corrections in page are somewhat numerous, or if any doubt exists as to their receiving proper attention, or a particular correction is one of some moment, it is as well to have another “pull” of the sheet when corrected, and make quite certain before marking it to “go to press.”

=123.=--In correcting proofs there are other mistakes to look for besides the misspelling, misplacing, or omission of words. It is of the utmost importance that the numbers or other marks whereby the books are asked for or found should be as correct as possible, as mistakes of this kind lead to vexation both on the part of the readers and officials. Attention is also required to the proper dividing of words in turning over lines, the use of letters of the right fount of type as others get sorted in, and if not changed mar the look of the page when printed, the removal of broken letters, the correct guage for indents and parts “standing clear,” the removal of quadrats or space pieces, so that they do not stand up in evidence on the printed page, and other items of this nature. The column of catalogue matter given in Appendix D has most of the errors usually made upon it with the signs used in correcting it, and is accompanied by explanations of them. The corrections are to be marked in the margins as shown in the specimen, and not upon the printed matter, else they will be overlooked. The same page as corrected is given.

If after due attention to all these details the cataloguer is enabled to produce a work free from blemish of compilation or printing he may heartily congratulate himself, though the public who use the library having such a catalogue will even then not fully appreciate the care and anxiety expended on it, and will soon after prove this by asking when “a new one will be out.”

FOOTNOTES

[1] Darwinism and other essays, by John Fiske. (Macmillan, 1879.)

[2] Decimal classification and relative index, by Melvil Dewey, 15th ed. _Boston_, 1894.

[3] Manual of library classification and shelf arrangement, by James D. Brown. (Library Supply Co.) 1898. (pp. 105-160).

[4] Even a careful estimate made from the “copy” is liable to turn out wrong when the work is in type and the tendency is to overstate the number of pages, when the printer is within his rights, according to trade usages, in claiming for profit upon the full number of pages upon which his estimate was based, therefore it is better to have a saving clause as well as to leave a safe margin on the lesser side when calculating the number of pages.

APPENDIX A.

List of words or phrases occurring in connection with books, with the abbreviations of them used in cataloguing. When an alternative abbreviation is given, that placed first is recommended.

AUTHORS, EDITORS, AND TITLES.

Editor, Edited ed. Herausgegeben hrsg. herausg. Translator, Translated transl. tr. Traduit, Tradotto trad. Compiler, Compiled comp. Illustrator illus. Introduction, Introductory intro. Anonym, Anonymous anon. Pseudonym, Pseudonymous pseud. Born b. Died d. Society Soc. (In names of societies, as _Camden Soc._) Thus (_sic_). Inserted sometimes to emphasize peculiarity of spelling or phrase.

VOLUMES AND COLLATIONS.

Volume, Volumes v. Band bd. Part, Parts Pt., pts. Number, Numbers No., nos. Series ser. New series n.s. Pamphlet, Pamphlets pamph. Pages pp. Leaves ll. Folios ff. Illustrated, Illustrations illus., ill., il. Coloured col. Portrait, Portraits port., ports. Frontispiece front., frontis. Plate, Plates pl., pls. Large paper l.p. Advertisements advts. No title-page n.t.p. Title-page wanting t.p.w.

IMPRINT.

No date n. d., N.D., s.a. (i.e., _sine anno_.) No place n.p. No place or date s.a. et l. Various dates v.d. About (Circa, followed by a date) c. Printed, Printer pr. Published, Publisher pub. Manuscript, Manuscripts MS., MSS. Reprint repr. Specimen abbreviations for places _Lon._, _Dub._, _Edin._, _Oxf._, of publication (only) _Camb._, _L’pool_, _M’chester_, _B’ham_, _N. York_. Edition ed.

BINDING.

Cloth cl. Morocco mor. Calf cf. Half hf. Bound bd. Binding bdg. Gilt edges g.e.

SIZES OF BOOKS.

Sextodecimo 16o., 16mo., S Duodecimo 12o., 12mo., duo., D. Octavo 8o., 8vo., O. Quarto 4o., 4to., Q. Folio fo., fol., F. Small sm. Large la. Super sup. Atlas atl. Imperial imp. Royal roy. Demy dy. Crown cr. Oblong obl.

APPENDIX B.

LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

COMMITTEE ON SIZE-NOTATION.

TABLE OF SIZES OF BOOKS.

--------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+-------------- | Height | | Leaves to | Wire line in Notation. | in | Width.| Signature. | laid or hand | Inches.| | | made Papers. --------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+-------------- FOLIO. | | | | | | | | Atlas fᵒ (1)|Circa 30|} |{ In }| La. fᵒ { Imp. fᵒ (5)|21½-23 |} |{ twos, }| or { Roy. fᵒ (5)|18½-21 |}⅔ to ¾|{ fours, }|Perpendicular Fᵒ (2)|13½-18 |} |{sixes, and }| Sm. fᵒ (3)(4)|8½-13 |} |{ eights. }| | | | | QUARTO. | | | | | | | | La. 4ᵒ or { Imp. 4ᵒ (5)|13½-16 |} |{ In }| { Roy. 4ᵒ (5)|11½-13 |}⅘ |{ fours, }|Horizontal 4ᵒ (2)|9½-11 |} |{sixes, and }| Sm. 4ᵒ (3)|7½-9 |} |{ eights. }| | | | | OCTAVO ET INFRA. | | | | | | | | La. 8ᵒ or { Imp. 8ᵒ (5)|10½-11 |⅔ to ¾ |{In eights, }| { | | |{ and }|Perpendicular { Roy. 8ᵒ (5)|9½-10 | ” |{ som’t’mes }| | | |{ fours. }| | | | | 8ᵒ (2)|8-9 | ” |In eights |Perpendicular | | | | Sm. 8ᵒ (3)|6½-7½ | ” |In eights |Perpendicular | | | | 12ᵒ | | ” |In sixes and | | | | twelves |Horizontal | | | | 16ᵒ (6)|⅔ to ⅘ |} |In eights & }|Horizontal & |⅔ to ¾ |}5½-6 | sixteens }|Perpendicular | | | | 18ᵒ | | |In sixes, | | | | twelves and| | | | eighteens |Horizontal | | | | 24ᵒ |} |{ ” |In sixes and | |}4-5 |{ | twelves |Perpendicular |} |{ | | 32ᵒ |} |{ ” |In eights and| | | | sixteens |Perpendicular 48ᵒ or mᵒ (7)|under 4 | ” | | --------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+--------------

1. Including “elephant,” “columbia,” &c.

2. Including “medium,” “demy” and “crown.”

3. Including “copy,” “post,” “foolscap” and “pot.”

4. Of preceding centuries.

5. Of this century.

6. Including sq. 16ᵒ, and all books of this size, in eights.

7. Including 48ᵒ, 64ᵒ, &c. “Minimo” for the smallest books.

APPENDIX C.

SOME MODERN PSEUDONYMS WITH THE REAL NAMES, INCLUDING LADIES WITH NAMES CHANGED BY MARRIAGE.

PSEUDONYM. REAL NAME.

A.L.O.E. Charlotte M. Tucker. Acheta Domestica L. M. Budgen Adams, Mrs. Leith Mrs. R. S. de Courcy Laffan Adeler, Max Charles H. Clark Ainslie, Noel Edith Lister Alexander, Mrs. Annie E. Hector Alien Mrs. L. A. Baker Allen, F. M. Edmund Downey Amateur Angler, The Edward Marston Amyand, Arthur Andrew Haggard Andom, R. Alfred W. Barrett Anstey, F. Thos. Anstey Guthrie Argles, Mrs. Mrs. Hungerford Audley, John Mrs. E. M. Davy Aunt Judy Mrs. Margaret Gatty B., A. K. H. A. K. H. Boyd B., E. V. Eleanor V. Boyle Barker, Lady Lady Broome Basil Richard Ashe King Bede, Cuthbert Edward Bradley Bell, Nancy Mrs. Arthur Bell Belloc, Marie A. Mrs. Lowndes Bickerdyke, John C. H. Cook Billings, Josh Henry W. Shaw Bird, Isabella L. Mrs. I. L. Bishop Blackburne, E. Owens Elizabeth Casey Boldrewood, Rolf Thos. A. Browne Braddon, M. E. Mrs. Maxwell Breitmann, Hans Charles G. Leland Brenda Mrs. Castle Smith Buckley, Arabella B. Mrs. Fisher Caballero, Fernan Cecilia B. de. F. Arrom Cambridge, Ada Mrs. G. F. Cross Carmen Sylva Elizabeth, Queen of Roumania Carroll, Lewis Charles L. Dodgson Cavendish Henry Jones Cellarius Thos. W. Fowle Champfleury Jules F. F. Husson-Fleury Chester, Norley Emily Underdown Cleeve, Lucas Mrs. Kingscote Collingwood, Harry Wm. J. C. Lancaster Colmore, George Mrs. Gertrude C. Dunn Connor, Marie Marie C. Leighton Conway, Derwent Henry D. Inglis Conway, Hugh F. J. Fargus Coolidge, Susan Sarah C. Woolsey Cooper, Rev. Wm. M. James G. Bertram Craddock, C. E. Mary N. Murfree Crawley, Captain G. F. Pardon Cromarty, Deas Mrs. R. A. Watson Dale, Darley Francesca M. Steele Dall, Guillaume Madame Jules Lebaudy D’Anvers, N. Mrs. Arthur Bell Dean, Mrs. Andrew Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick Donovan, Dick J. E. Muddock Dowie, Ménie M. Mrs. Henry Norman Duncan, Sara J. Mrs. Everard Cotes Egerton, George Mrs. Clairmonte Eha Edward H. Aitken Eliot, George Mary Ann Evans (afterwards Mrs. Cross) Elbon, Barbara Leonora B. Halsted Elizabeth, Charlotte Charlotte E. Tonna Ellis, Luke J. Page Hopps Fane, Violet Lady Philip Currie Farningham, Marianne Mary A. Hearne Fin Bec W. B. Jerrold Fleming, George Julia C. Fletcher France, Anatole Anatole François Thibault Francis, M. E. Mrs. M. Blundell Free Lance, A F. H. Perry Coste G. G. -- Harper Garrett, Edward Isabella F. Mayo Gaunt, Mary Mrs. Miller Gerard, Dorothea Mdme. Longard de Longgarde Gerard, Emily Mdme. de Lazowski Gift, Theo. Theodora Boulger Grand, Sarah Mrs. M’Fall Gray, Maxwell M. G. Tuttiett Grier, Sydney C. Hilda Gregg Gréville, Henry Alice M. C. Durand Grove, Lilly Mrs. J. G. Frazer Gubbins, Nathaniel Edward Spencer Gyp La comtesse de Martel de Janville Haliburton, Hugh J. L. Robertson Hall, Eliza Calvert Lina Calvert Obenchain Hamst, Olphar Ralph Thomas Hayes, Henry Mrs. E. O. Kirk Hertz-Garten, Theodor Mrs. de Mattos Hieover, Harry Charles Bindley Hobbes, John Oliver Mrs. Pearl M. T. Craigie Hoffman, Professor A. J. Lewis Holdsworth, Annie Mrs. E. Lee Hamilton Hope, Andrée Mrs. Harvey Hope, Anthony Anthony H. Hawkins Hope, Ascott R. Robt. H. Moncreiff Ingoldsby, Thomas Richard H. Barham Iota Mrs. Mannington Caffyn Iron, Ralph Mrs. O. Cronwright-Schreiner James, Croake James Paterson Janus Johann J. I. von Döllinger K., O. Mdme. Olga Novikoff (née Kireft) Keith, Leslie Mrs. G. L. Keith Johnston Kipling, Alice Mrs. Fleming L., L. E. Letitia E. MacLean (née Landon) Laffan, May Mrs. W. N. Hartley Larwood, Jacob L. R. Sadler Law, John Miss M. E. Harkness Leander, Richard R. Volkmann Lee, Holme Harriet Parr Lee, Vernon Violet Paget Legrand, Martin James Rice Lennox Lennox Pierson Loti, Pierre Louis M. J. Viaud Lyall, Edna Ada E. Bayly Maartens, Maarten J. M. W. van der Poorten Schwartz Maclaren, Ian John M. Watson Malet, Lucas Mrs. M. St. L. Harrison (née Kingsley) Manning, Anne Mrs. A. M. Rathbone Markham, Mrs. Mrs. Eliz. Penrose Marlitt. E. Henriette F. C. E. John Marlowe, Charles Harriet Jay Marryat, Florence Mrs. F. Lean Marvell, Ik. Donald G. Mitchell Mathers, Helen Mrs. H. Reeve Meade, L. T. Mrs. Toulmin Smith Meredith, Owen Earl Lytton Merriman, Henry Seton H. S. Scott Miller, Joaquin C. H. Miller Montbard, G. Charles A. Loyes Morice, Chas. Morice Gerard Morris, May Mrs. Sparling Mulholland, Rosa Lady Gilbert Nesbit, E. Edith Bland Nimrod C. J. Apperley Nordau, Max M. S. Südfeld North, Christopher Prof. John Wilson North, Pleydell Mrs. Egerton Eastwick Nye, Bill E. W. Nye Old Boomerang J. R. Houlding Oldcastle, John Wilfred Meynell Oliver, Pen Sir Henry Thompson Optic, Oliver Wm. T. Adams O’Rell, Max. Paul Blouët Otis, James J. O. Kaler Ouida Louise de la Ramée Owen, J. A. Mrs. Owen Visger Page, H. A. Alex H. Japp Pansy Isabella M. Alden Parallax Samuel B. Robotham Parley, Peter Wm. Martin Paston, George Miss E. M. Symonds Pattison, Mrs. Mark Lady E. F. S. Dilke Paull, M. A. Mrs. John Ripley Percy, Sholto and Reuben Joseph C. Robertson and Thomas Byerley Phelps, Eliz. S. Mrs. H. D. Ward Plain Woman, A Miss Ingham Prevost, Francis H. F. P. Battersby Pritchard, Martin J. Mrs. Augustus Moore Prout, Father F. Mahony Q. A. T. Quiller Couch Raimond, C. E. Elisabeth Robins Rapier A. E. T. Watson Ridley, Mrs. Edward Lady Alice Ridley Rita Mrs. W. Desmond Humphreys Rives, Amélie Mrs. A. R. Chandlers Robert (“A City Waiter”) John T. Bedford Robins, G. M. Mrs. L. Baillie Reynolds Robinson, A. Mary F. Mde. A. M. F. Darmesteter Rogers, Halliday Miss Reid Rutherford, Mark W. Hale White St. Aubyn, Alan Frances Marshall Saint-Patrice James H. Hickey Saintine, X. B. de Joseph H. Boniface Sand, George Mde. A. L. A. Dudevant Scalpel, Æsculapius Edward Berdoe Scott, Leader Lucy E. Baxter Seafield, Frank Alex. H. Grant Séguin, L. G. L. G. Strahan Setoun, Gabriel Thos. N. Hepburn Sharp, Luke Robert Barr Shirley Sir John Skelton Sigerson, Dora Mrs. Clement Shorter Sketchley, Arthur Geo. Rose Slick, Sam T. C. Haliburton Son of the Marshes, A Denham Jordan Son of the Soil, A J. S. Fletcher Spinner, Alice Mrs. Fraser Stendhal, M. de Marie Henri Beyle Stepniak, S. S. M. Kravchinsky Stonehenge John H. Walsh Strathesk, John John Tod Stretton, Hesba Hannah Smith Stuart, Esmé Miss Leroy Swan, Annie S. Mrs. Burnett Smith Tasma Madam J. Couvreur Thanet, Octave Alice French Thomas, Annie Mrs. Pender Cudlip Thorne, Whyte Richard Whiteing Tomson, Graham R. Rosamund M. Watson Travers, Graham Margt. G. Todd Turner, Ethel Mrs. H. R. Curlewis Twain, Mark Samuel L. Clemens Tynan, Katharine Mrs. H. A. Hinkson Tytler, Sarah Henrietta Keddie Uncle Remus Joel C. Harris Vivaria, Kassandra Mrs. M. Heinemann Walker, Patricius Wm. Allingham Wallis, A. S. C. Miss Opzoomer Wanderer E. H. d’Avigdor Ward, Artemus Chas. F. Browne Warden, Florence Mrs. Florence James Waters Wm. Russell Webb, Mrs. Mrs. Webb Peploe Wells, Charles J. H. L. Howard Werner, E. Elisabeth Bürstenbinder Wetherell, Eliz. Susan Warner Wharton, Grace and Philip John C. and Katharine Thomson Whitby, Beatrice Mrs. Philip Hicks Wiggin, Kate D. Mrs. J. C. Rigg Wilcox, E. G. Mrs. Egerton Allen Winchester, M. E. M. E. Whatham Winter, John Strange Mrs. H. E. V. Stannard Worboise, Emma J. Mrs. E. Guyton Yorke, Curtis Mrs. S. Richmond Lee Z. Z. Louis Zangwill Zack Gwendoline Keats

APPENDIX D.

Explanations of some of the Marks used in Correcting Proof.

Transcriber’s Note: It is not possible to give some of these marks in plain text; they are substituted with [symbol]. Refer to the HTML version for an illustration.

[symbol] Delete; to remove a letter or word not wanted.

_l.c._ Lower case; to be a small letter, and not a capital.

_cap._ Capital; to be a capital letter, and not a small.

_w.f._ Wrong fount; the letter is not the same type as the rest.

_trs._ Transpose; to alter the position of a line or word.

[symbol] Marks a broken letter.

# Space to be inserted.

= A hyphen to be inserted.

[symbol] A dash to be inserted.

[symbol] A full stop to be inserted.

[symbol] To join a word which it is not intended to divide.

[symbol] A quadrat, or some other piece not wanted, to be made not to print.

_Indent._ To set back the line to the place marked.

_Gauge._ To bring up an indented line to the place marked.

[symbol] To straighten a line which has been wrongly or leaded perpendicularly or has something [symbol] making the line crooked horizontally.

[symbol] Marks a letter which has been turned upside down or otherwise.

_Stet._ A word marked through by mistake and to be retained is underlined with dots ......... and “stet” written in the margin.

[Illustration: Specimen Page showing Marked Proof.]

[Illustration: Specimen Page Corrected.]

APPENDIX E.

A list of the principal subject-headings for a dictionary catalogue of an average general library, with references and cross-references, excepting to geographical headings. Biographical subject-headings are not included. The reference “See” implies that the heading from which it refers must not be used as it is synonymous. A more exhaustive list with a fuller series of references from greater to lesser and related divisions of subjects (_i.e._, “see alsos,”) will be found in the _List of subject headings for use in dictionary catalogues, prepared by a Committee of the American Library Association_. Boston (Library Bureau), 1895.

Abbeys

Abraham

Abyssinia

Acoustics. _See_ Sound

Acting

Actors _See also_ Drama _and the names of actors_

Acts of the Apostles

Admirals

Æronautics. _See_ Ballooning

Æsthetics

Afghanistan

Africa Generally North West East and Central (or Equatorial) South

Agnosticism

Agriculture _See also_ Land, Soils

Air _See also_ Meteorology, Pneumatics

Alaska

Albania

Alcohol

Algæ

Algebra

Algeria and Algiers

Alloys

Almanacs

Alphabets

Alps, The

Alsace-Lorraine

Amazon, River

America North Central South

America, United States of. _See_ United States

American Indians

Amusements _See also_ Games

Anatomy Human Comparative _See also_ Embryology, Osteology, Physiology Artistic

Andes, The

Anecdotes

Angling. _See_ Fishing

Anglo-Saxon language and literature

Anglo-Saxons

Animal intelligence _See also_ Instinct

Animal locomotion

Animal magnetism

Animals

Animals, Natural history of. _See_ Zoology

Annelida. _See_ Worms

Antarctic Regions

Anthropology. _See_ Man

Antiquities _(Generally only). See also the names of countries and places for national or local antiquities_

Ants

Apes

Aphorisms

Apocrypha _See also_ Bible

Apostles, The

Apostles’ Creed

Aquaria _See also_ Pond Life

Arabia

Arachnida. _See_ Spiders

Archæology, Pre-historic _See also_ Antiquities

Archery

Architecture Generally (including periodicals and transactions) Classical Ecclesiastical Monumental Domestic (or otherwise according to material and requirements)

Arctic Regions _See also_ North-East Passage, North-West Passage

Ardennes, The

Argentina

Arithmetic

Armenia

Arminianism

Arms and armour

Arms, Coats of. _See_ Heraldry

Army, British _See also the names or numbers of Regiments as_ Royal Artillery, 21st Lancers

Art General Historical Treatises _See also_ Architecture, Christian Art, Painting, Sculpture

Art, Ornamental. _See_ Ornament

Artillery

Artists _See also_ Painters, Sculptors

Arts, Industrial

Aryans

Ashantee

Asia Generally Western Central Eastern

Asia Minor

Assyria _See also_ Nineveh

Astrology

Astronomers

Astronomy _See also_ Moon, Sun, _and the names of planets_

Athanasian Creed

Atheism _See also_ Scepticism

Athens

Athletics _See also_ Exercise, Gymnastics

Atlantic Ocean

Atlases

Atonement, The. _See_ Christ

Australasia

Australia Generally Southern Western

Austria

Authors

Babylon

Bacteria

Bahamas, The

Balkans, The

Ballads. _See_ Songs and Ballads

Ballooning

Baltic, The

Banking

Bankruptcy

Baptism

Barbadoes

Barbary

Bashan

Baths and bathing

Battles

Bees

Beetles

Belgium

Belief _See also_ Scepticism

Bells

Bengal

Berlin

Bermudas, The

Bible The Text Concordances & Dictionaries Commentaries & Expositions Authenticity & Inspiration History & Antiquities Miscellaneous

Bible and science

Bibliography. _See_ Books

Bicycling. _See_ Cycling

Billiards

Bimetallism

Biography (General) _See also under the names of classes, as_ Actors, Authors, _and the names of individuals_

Biology _See also_ Botany, Evolution, Heredity, Zoology

Birds _See also_ Eggs, _and the names of birds, as_ Hummingbirds

Birds, Cage _See also_ Canaries, Parrots

Bishops

Black Forest

Black Sea

Blind, The

Boating Sailing Rowing

Boilers

Book illustration. _See_ Illustration

Book of Common Prayer. _See_ Prayer Book

Bookbinding

Book-keeping

Book-plates (ex libris)

Books

Boots and shoes

Borneo

Bosnia

Boston, U.S.A.

Botany Text-books Economic British (and other countries as needed) Habits, fertilization Periodicals _See also_ Algæ, Ferns, Fungi, Grasses, Mosses, Palæontology, Trees

Boxing

Boys

Brahmanism

Brain, The

Brass founding

Brazil

Bread

Brewing

Brickwork

Bridges

Britain, Ancient _See also_ Anglo-Saxons, English History

British Columbia

British Empire _See also_ Colonies

British Isles

British Museum

Brittany

Broads, The

Bryology. _See_ Mosses

Buccaneers

Buddha and Buddhism

Building

Bulgaria

Burmah

Business

Butterflies

Byzantine Empire

Cabinet making _See also_ Furniture

Cage-birds. _See_ Birds (Cage)

Calculus (_Mathematics_)

California

Calvinism

Cambridge and the University

Canada History Description and social life Politics and miscellaneous

Canals

Canaries

Candles

Canon law

Canterbury

Cape Colony

Capital _See also_ Labour

Capital punishment

Card playing. _See also_ Whist

Caricature

Carpentry and joinery _See also_ Handrailing

Carthage

Cashmere

Caspian Sea

Castles _See also the names of castles_

Cathedrals _See also the names of cathedrals_

Catholic emancipation

Cats

Cattle

Caucasus

Celts, The

Cements

Cetacea _See also_ Whales

Ceylon

Chaldæa

Chance. _See_ Probabilities

Channel Islands

Character

Cheirosophy. _See_ Hand

Chelsea

Chemistry History General Inorganic Organic Analysis, special and miscellaneous Periodicals and societies

Cheshire

Chess

Children

Chili

China History Description and social life Politics Religions and missions

China painting

Chivalry

Christ. _Sub-divide as necessary into divisions, as_ Lives Teaching Divinity Incarnation Resurrection The Atonement

Christian art

Christian Church. _See_ Church.

Christian evidences. _See_ Christianity.

Christian unity

Christianity History Evidences Miscellaneous _See also_ Church history

Chronicles

Chronology

Church, The

Church history. _Sub-divide into epochs if required._

Church history _See also the names of particular churches and countries._

Church of England History Polity, ritual, &c. _See also_ Disestablishment, Oxford movement, Prayer Book

Church and State

Church music. (As _subject_ only.) _See also_ Music

Churches (_i.e._, generally, not particular sects)

Civil War, The (1642-49)

Civil Service

Civilisation

Classical geography. _See_ Geography

Clergy. _See also_ Preachers

Climate

Climbing mountains. _See_ Mountaineering

Clocks. _See_ Watches and clocks

Clothing

Clouds

Coach-building

Coaching

Coal, Coal-mining

Coins and medals

Coleoptera. _See_ Beetles

Collieries. _See_ Coal

Colonies, British. _See also the names of colonies_

Colour

Comets

Commandments, The

Commerce. _See also_ Free trade

Commons, House of. _See_ Parliament

Commonwealth, The _See also_ Cromwell

Communism

Companies, Commercial

Comparative anatomy. _See_ Anatomy

Composers. _See_ Musicians

Conchology. _See_ Shells

Confectionery

Confucius and Confucianism

Congo, The

Congregationalism

Conic sections

Conjuring

Conscience

Conservatism

Constantinople

Consumption

Conversation

Conversion

Cookery

Co-operation

Corals and coral-reefs

Corea

Corinthians, Epistles to the

Corn laws

Cornwall

Corsica

Costume

Cotton

Country life

Creation

Creeds

Cremation

Cricket

Crime

Crimean War

Criminal law

Criticism, Literary

Crusades

Crustacea

Cryptogamia. _See also_ Algæ, Ferns, Fungi, Mosses

Crystallography

Cuba

Culture _See also_ Education

Cumberland

Curves

Customs. _See_ Manners and customs

Cycling

Cyprus

Dairy, The

Dancing

Daniel the Prophet

Darwinism. _See also_ Evolution

David

Deafness

Death

Decoration. _See_ Ornament

Deer

Deism

Democracy

Denmark

Dentistry

Derbyshire

Descent. _See_ Evolution

Design. _See_ Ornament

Devil, The

Devonshire

Diamonds

Diatoms

Diet. _See_ Food

Digestion

Disease. _See also_ Medicine

Disestablishment

Divorce. _See_ Marriage law

Doctors

Doctrine

Dogs

Domestic economy. _See also_ Cookery, Dressmaking, Needlework, Washing

Dorsetshire

Drainage _See also_ Hygiene, Plumbing

Drama, The

Dramatists

Drawing and sketching. _See also_ Illustration, Perspective

Dreams

Dress. _See_ Costume

Dressmaking

Drink, Intoxicating. _See_ Temperance question

Driving

Dublin

Duelling

Durham

Dyeing

Dynamics _See also_ Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics

Dynamos

Ear, The _See also_ Deafness

Earth, The

Earthquakes. _See also_ Volcanoes

East, The _See also the names of Eastern countries_

Eastern Empires, Ancient. _See_ History, Ancient

Eastern Question, The

Ecclesiastical architecture. _See_ Architecture

Ecclesiastical history. _See_ Church history

Echinoderms

Economics. _See_ Political economy

Edinburgh

Education. _See also_ Culture, Kindergarten, Mind, Schools, Teaching, Technical education

Eggs, Birds’

Egypt. Ancient. (_Sub-divide_: Art. Antiquities, inscriptions and language. History. Religion) Mediæval Modern. (_Sub-divide as required._) _See also_ Soudan

Elections

Electric lighting

Electrical engineering. _See also_ Dynamos

Electricians

Electricity and magnetism

Electro-metallurgy. _See_ Metallurgy

Electro-plating

Elijah the Prophet

Elocution. _See also_ Recitations

Emblems

Embroidery

Embryology

Emigration

Emotions, The

Enamels

Encyclopædias

Energy

Engineering General Civil Mechanical Marine _See also_ Electrical engineering, Gas engines, Locomotive engine, Machinery, Steam engine, Strength of materials

Engineers

England Description Social life _See also the names of counties and of towns_

English composition

English Constitution _See also_ English history (Constitutional)

English history General (Divide into epochs as may be deemed expedient) _For the histories of particular reigns see under the names of monarchs_ Constitutional Ecclesiastical _See also_ Church of England, _and the names of denominations_ Social and Industrial

English language History Dictionaries Grammar

English literature History and manuals Miscellaneous

Engraving Wood and metal _See also_ Etching, Process

Entomology

Ephesus

Epigrams

Eschatology. _See_ Future state

Essays _For Essays upon particular subjects or with specific titles see the names of those subjects and titles. Works with the general title of “Essays” will be found under the names of the following authors_:--(Then give list of authors)

Etching

Ethics

Ethnology. _See_ Man

Etiquette

Eton

Etruria

Euclid

Europe History Descriptive Politics

Evil

Evolution _See also_ Biology, Creation, Heredity

Exercise, Physical. _See_ Gymnastics

Expression _See also_ Emotions, Physiognomy

Eye, The _See also_ Sight

Fables

Factories

Fair trade. _See_ Free trade

Fairy tales _See also_ Folk lore

Faith

Family, The

Fanaticism

Farming. _See_ Agriculture

Farriery

Fathers, The

Fenianism

Fermentation

Ferns

Feudalism

Fever

Fiction (N.B.--This heading is for books upon fiction as _subject_ only)

Fiji

Fine arts. _See_ Art

Fish

Fisheries

Fishing (including Angling) _See also the names of sporting fishes, as_ Salmon, Trout

Flags (_i.e._, Standards, colours, signals, &c.)

Florence

Flour

Flower painting. _See_ Painting

Flowers

Folk lore General Local Special

Folk songs

Food _See also_ Cookery

Football

Foraminifera

Forestry

Formosa

Fossils. _See_ Palæontology

France History _See also_ Franco-German War, French Revolution, _and the names of French monarchs_ Description and social life. _See also the names of French provinces and places_ Politics Miscellaneous

Franchise _See also_ Women’s suffrage

Franco-German War, 1870-71

Free thought

Free trade question

Free will

Freemasonry

French art. _See_ Art

French language

French literature

French polishing

French Revolution, The

Fret-cutting

Friendly societies

Friends, Society of (“Quakers”)

Frogs

Fruit

Fuel

Fungi

Furniture

Future state

Gambling

Games and sports (generally) _See also the names of games, as_ Billiards, Chess, Cricket, &c.

Gardening

Gas engines

Gas lighting

Gases

Gems. _See_ Precious stones

Genealogy

Genesis, Book of _See also_ Pentateuch

Genius

Geography Ancient Modern Commercial _See also_ Atlases _and the names of continents and countries_

Geography, Physical. _See_ Physiography

Geological Survey of the U.K. Maps Memoirs Other publications

Geology General and miscellaneous Periodicals and societies Local _See also_ Ice age, Palæontology, Physiography

Geometry _See also_ Euclid

German language

German literature

Germany History Description and social life Politics Miscellaneous

Ghosts

Gilds

Gipsies

Girls

Glaciers _See also_ Ice age

Glasgow

Glass

Gloucestershire

God _See also_ Christ, Holy Spirit, Revelation

Gold

Gold and silver work

Golf

Gorillas

Gospels, The

Gothic architecture. _See_ Architecture

Goths, The

Government General Special Utopias _See also_ Democracy, Local government, Politics

Grammar, English. _See_ English language

Grasses

Great Britain Descriptive, etc. _See also_ England, Scotland, Wales

Great Britain and Ireland. _See_ British Isles

Greece, Ancient History Antiquities and art Mythology

Greece, Modern

Greek language

Greek literature and philosophy

Greenland

Guiana

Guilds. _See_ Gilds

Gunnery. _See_ Artillery

Gunpowder Plot, The

Gymnastics and physical exercise

Hair, The

Hampshire

Hampton Court Palace

Hand, The

Handrailing and staircasing

Harbours

Harmony. _See_ Music

Harrow

Harvard University, U.S.A.

Hawaii. _See_ Sandwich Islands

Hayti

Health. _See_ Hygiene

Health resorts

Heat

Heaven

Hebrew language

Hebrew religion, Hebrews. _See_ Jews

Hebrews, Epistle to the

Hebrides, The

Hell

Heraldry

Herculaneum

Heredity

Herefordshire

Hertfordshire

Hieroglyphics _See also_ Egypt (Ancient)

Himalayas, The

Hinduism

Hindustani language

Histology

History Universal Ancient Modern Miscellaneous _For national histories see under the names of countries and peoples_

History of England. _See_ English history

Hittites, The

Hoisting machinery

Holland. (_Sub-divide as required_)

Holy Land. _See_ Palestine

Holy Spirit, The

Homœopathy

Horses _See also_ Driving, Farriery, Hunting, Racing, Riding

Horticulture. _See_ Gardening

Hospitals

House decoration

House painting

Hudson’s Bay Territory

Huguenots, The

Human species. _See_ Man

Humour. _See_ Wit

Hungary

Hunting and hunting adventures

Hydraulics

Hydropathy

Hydrophobia

Hydrostatics

Hygiene

Hymenoptera _See also_ Ants, Bees, Wasps

Hymns

Hypnotism _See also_ Animal magnetism, Mesmerism

Ice age, The

Iceland

Ichthyology. _See_ Fish

Illuminating

Illusions

Illustration _See also_ Engraving

Imagination

Immortality

Imperial federation. _See_ Colonies, British

Incarnation, The. _See_ Christ

Indexing

India History _See also_ Indian Mutiny Description and social life _See also_ Bengal, Himalayas, Parsees Natural history Religions and missions _See also_ Hinduism, Mohammedanism Miscellaneous

India, Languages of. _See_ Hindustani, Pali, Sanskrit

Indian Mutiny, The

Individualism

Indo-China. _See_ Malay Peninsula

Industrial Arts. _See_ Arts, Industrial

Industrial remuneration. _See_ Wages

Industry. _See_ Labour

Infection

Infidelity _See also_ Scepticism

Infusoria

Inquisition, The

Insanity

Insects _See also_ Ants, Bees, Beetles, Butterflies, Moths

Instinct

Insurance

Intellect. _See_ Mind

Intemperance. _See_ Temperance question

International law. _See_ Law

Invertebrates

Ireland History Description and social life Art, literature, and folk lore Politics and religion Miscellaneous

Irish language

Iron and steel

Ironwork

Isaiah

Islam. _See_ Mohammedanism

Israel. _See_ Jews

Italian language

Italian literature

Italy History Description and social life _See also_ Florence, Venice Miscellaneous

Jacob (Patriarch)

Jacobite Rebellion, The

Jamaica

Japan Art and industries Description and social life Religions and missions

Java

Jeremiah (Prophet)

Jerusalem

Jesuits

Jews History Religion Political position

Job, Book of

John, St., Gospel of

Joseph

Joshua, Book of

Judges, Book of

Jupiter (Planet)

Jurisprudence. _See_ Law

Justification

Kashmir. _See_ Cashmere

Kensington

Kent

Khiva

Kindergarten

Kings

Kings, Books of

Knighthood

Koran _See also_ Mohammed

Kurdistan

Labour question

Labrador

Lace

Lake District, English

Lake dwellings

Lambeth Palace

Lancashire

Lancaster and York, Houses of

Land question

Language _See also under the names of languages._

Lapland

Latin language

Latin literature

Latter-day saints. _See_ Mormonism

Law Theoretical History General and administrative International _See also the law of special subjects, as_ Criminal, Labour, Licensing, _and of special countries_

Lawn tennis

Leather _See also_ Tanning

Leicestershire

Lepidoptera. _See_ Butterflies, Moths

Letter painting _See also_ Alphabets

Letter-writing

Letters, Miscellaneous and collected. _See under authors’ names_

Liberalism

Liberty General Of conscience Of the subject

Liberty of the press. _See_ Newspapers

Liberty, Religious. _See_ Religious liberty

Libraries

Licensing

Lichens

Life _See also_ Biology

Lifeboats

Light

Lighthouses

Lighting _See also_ Electric light, Gas lighting

Limes, Cements

Liquor traffic. _See_ Temperance question

Literature (General and miscellaneous only) _See also the names of literatures, as_ English, French, &c.

Liturgies

Liverpool

Local government

Locomotion, Animal. _See_ Animal locomotion

Locomotive engine

Logarithms

Logic

London History Description Religious life Social life Government Miscellaneous Environs _See also the names of parishes, as_ Chelsea, Clerkenwell, Westminster, _and of institutions and places, as_ British Museum, Hyde Park, St. Paul’s Cathedral

Longevity

Lord’s Prayer, The

Lord’s Supper, The

Louisiana

Lourdes

Love

Luke, St., Gospel of

Lungs, The

Machinery and millwork _See also_ Engineering, Mechanics

Madagascar

Madeira

Magnetism. _See_ Electricity

Mahomet. _See_ Mohammed

Malay Archipelago

Malay Peninsular

Malta

Mammalia

Man

Man, Isle of

Manchester

Manitoba

Manners and customs _See also_ Folk lore

Manual training

Manufactures (Generally only) _See also under the names of particular manufactures_

Maori Land. _See_ New Zealand

Maps. _See_ Atlases _and the names of places_

Marine engineering. _See_ Engineering (Marine)

Marine insurance

Maritime law

Mark, St., Gospel of

Marriage

Marriage law

Mars (Planet)

Martyrs

Mary, The Virgin

Masai-Land

Mashonaland

Masonry. _See_ Stone

Mass, The. _See_ Lord’s Supper

Massage

Masses. _See_ Music

Materialism

Mathematics _See also_ Algebra, Arithmetic, Calculus, Conic sections, Equations, Euclid, Geometry, Logarithms, Mensuration

Matter

Matthew, St., Gospel of

Maxims

Measures. _See_ Weights and measures

Mechanical engineering. _See_ Engineering, Machinery

Mechanics _See also_ Hydrostatics, Pneumatics

Mechanism. _See_ Machinery

Medals. _See_ Coins and medals

Medicine _See also_ Disease, Homœopathy, Surgery

Mediterranean, The

Melanesia

Mensuration

Mesmerism

Metal work _See also_ Ironwork

Metallurgy

Metaphysics. _See_ Mind

Meteorology

Methodism. _See_ Wesleyan Methodism

Mexico

Michigan

Microbes _See also_ Bacteria

Microscope, The, and microscopic life

Middle Ages, The

Middlesex

Midian

Milk

Millennium, The

Millwork. _See_ Machinery

Mind

Mineralogy

Mining _See also_ Coal

Minnesota

Miracle plays

Miracles

Missions

Mohammed & Mohammedanism

Mollusca _See also_ Shells

Monasticism _See also_ Nuns

Money _See also_ Banking, Bimetallism, Capital

Mongolia

Monkeys

Monks. _See_ Monasticism

Montana

Monuments

Moon, The

Moral philosophy. _See_ Ethics

Mormonism

Morocco

Morphology

Moses _See also_ Genesis, Pentateuch

Mosses

Moths

Mountaineering _See also_ Alps

Mountains

Muscles

Museums

Music History Miscellaneous literature Dictionaries Theory (including Sol-fa) Singing _Instrumental_ Instruments (_Instruction and practice_) Instrumental for organ Instrumental for pianoforte Instrumental for violin, &c. _Vocal_ Oratorios, cantatas, anthems, masses, &c. Operas (vocal scores) Songs, with music

Musical instruments _See also the names of instruments, as_ Organ, Pianoforte, Violin (_Note._--Music for particular instruments goes under “Music” in its sub-division, but historical works or upon the making of instruments are distributed under the names of instruments throughout the catalogue)

Musicians

Mysticism

Mythology _See also_ Folk lore

Names, Personal

Names of places. _See_ Place-names

Naples

Natal

National Gallery, The

Natural history of animals. _See_ Zoology

Natural history _See also_ Biology, Botany, Microscope, Zoology

Natural philosophy. _See_ Physics

Natural theology. _See_ Theology

Navies

Navigation and seamanship

Navy, British History Description and administration

Needlework

Negro, The

Nehemiah, Book of

Nerves

Netherlands, The

Nevada

New Church, The. _See_ Swedenborgianism

New England

New Forest, The

New Guinea

New Mexico

New South Wales

New Testament Commentaries and illustrative works Critical Miscellaneous _See also the names of the gospels, epistles, &c._

New York (City)

New Zealand

Newfoundland

Newgate Gaol

Newspapers

Niagara

Nicaragua

Nile, The _See also_ Egypt, Soudan

Nineveh

Nonconformity

Norfolk

Norman Conquest, The

Normandy

Normans, The

North-East Passage

North-West Passage

Norway

Nottinghamshire

Numismatics. _See_ Coins and medals

Nursing (Invalid)

Nursing of children. _See_ Children

Oceania. _See_ Malay Archipelago, Pacific Ocean

Ohio

Oils

Old Testament, The. (_Sub-divide as New Testament_) _See also under the names of the various books of the O. T._

Ontario

Oology. _See_ Eggs (Birds’)

Operas, with music. _See_ Music

Opium

Optics. _See_ Sight

Orchids

Oregon

Organ, The

Ornament and design

Ornithology. _See_ Birds

Osteology

Oxford City

Oxford Movement, The

Oxford University

Oxfordshire

Pacific Ocean and Islands

Paganism

Painters _See also_ Artists

Painting Historical and critical Theory

Painting, House. _See_ House painting

Painting, Oil

Painting, Water-colour General Landscape and marine Flowers and trees Figure and animals

Paints

Palæography

Palæontology General Palæobotany Palæozoology

Palestine

Palmyra

Pamirs, The

Pantheism

Papacy, The. _See_ Popes, Roman Catholicism

Paper

Parables, The

Paraguay

Parasites

Paris

Parliamentary representation

Parrots

Parsees

Parthenon, The

Pastimes. _See_ Games

Patagonia

Patents

Pathology. _See_ Disease, Medicine

Pattern-making

Paul, St.

Peace question _See also_ War

Pedigrees. _See_ Genealogy

Peerages

Peninsular War, The

Pennsylvania

Pensions, Old age

Pentateuch, The

Persia

Perspective _See also_ Projection

Peru

Pessimism

Peter, St.

Petrology. _See_ Rocks

Petroleum

Philippines, The

Philology. _See_ Language

Philosophy Histories General and miscellaneous _See also_ Eclecticism, Ethics, Logic, Mind, Pessimism

Phœnicia

Phonetics

Phonography Instruction books Works in phonography

Photography

Photography, Röntgen

Phrenology

Physical education. _See_ Gymnastics

Physical geography. _See_ Physiography

Physicians. _See_ Doctors

Physics _See also_ Dynamics, Electricity, Heat, Hydrostatics, Light, Mechanics, Pneumatics, Sound

Physiognomy

Physiology _See also_ Anatomy, Biology, Histology

Pianoforte, The

Pianoforte music. _See_ Music

Pigeons

Pigs

Pilgrim Fathers, The

Place-names

Plants. _See_ Botany

Plata River

Plate

Platinotype. _See_ Photography

Plays. _See_ Drama

Plumbing _See also_ Drainage, Sanitation

Pneumatics

Poems. Poetical works. _For works bearing these general titles see the following names (Poems with specific titles will be found under those titles and the authors’ names)_:

Poetry (Anthologies)

Poets and poetry

Poisons

Poland

Polar Regions. _See_ Arctic Regions

Police

Political economy _See also_ Capital, Commerce, Free trade, Government, Labour, Land, Money, Poor, Population, Prices, Property, Taxation, Wages

Politics

Polynesia. _See_ Pacific Ocean and Islands

Polyzoa

Pompeii

Pond life

Poor and poor relief _See also_ Pensions

Popes, The _See also the names of popes as_ Pius IX., Leo XIII.

Population

Port-Royal

Portraits

Portugal

Positivism

Post Office, The

Pottery

Prayer

Prayer Book, The

Prayers

Preachers and preaching

Precious metals

Precious stones

Predestination _See also_ Calvinism

Prehistoric man. _See_ Man

Presbyterians

Prices

Priests. _See_ Clergy

Printing

Prisons

Probabilities

Progress

Projection

Pronunciation

Property

Prophecy

Protection. _See_ Free trade question

Protestantism

Provence

Proverbs

Proverbs, Book of

Psalms, The

Psychology. _See_ Mind

Pugilism. _See_ Boxing

Purgatory

Puritans, The

Pyramids, The

Pyrenees

Quakers. _See_ Friends, Society of

Quantities (Building)

Queens

Queensland

Quotations

Racing, Horse

Railways _See also the names of railways, as_ Great Northern

Rain

Rating. _See_ Taxation

Rationalism

Reciprocity. _See_ Free trade question

Recitations

Recreations. _See_ Games

Red Sea, The

Reform

Reformation, The

Religion _See also_ Revelation

Religion and science

Religions _See also the names of religions, as_ Christianity, Buddhism

Religious liberty

Religious thought

Renaissance, The

Repoussé. _See_ Metal work

Representation. _See_ Parliamentary representation

Reptiles _See also_ Frogs, Snakes

Resurrection, The. _See_ Christ

Resurrection of the dead

Revelation

Revelation, Book of

Revolution, The, 1688

Rhetoric

Rhine, The

Rhodesia _See also_ Mashonaland, Matabeleland

Riding

Rings

Ritualism

Rituals. _See_ Liturgies

Rivers _See also the names of rivers_

Riviera, The

Rocks

Rocky Mountains

Roman Catholicism

Roman law

Romance

Romances

Romans, Epistle to the

Rome, Ancient History Antiquities Miscellaneous

Rome, Medieval and Modern

Roofs

Roses

Roumania

Rowing. _See_ Boating

Royal Academy of Arts

Royal Navy. _See_ Navy

Royal Society of London

Russia History Description and social life Churches and religious life Government and politics Miscellaneous

Russian language

Rye House Plot

Sabbath, Christian. _See_ Sunday

Sacraments _See also_ Baptism, Lord’s Supper

Sailing. _See_ Boating, Yachting

Sailors

St. Albans

St. Paul’s Cathedral

St. Petersburg

Saints

Salmon

Salt

Salvation

Samoa

Sandwich Islands

Sanitation. _See_ Drainage, Hygiene, Plumbing, Sewage

Sanscrit language

Saracens, The

Scandinavia

Scepticism

Schools

Science (General and miscellaneous only)

Science and religion. _See_ Religion and science

Scotland History Description and social life Language, literature, and folk lore Miscellaneous

Scotland, Church of

Screw propeller

Scriptures, The. _See_ Bible

Sculptors

Sculpture

Sea, The

Sea-weeds. _See_ Algæ

Seals (Animals)

Seals (Personal, &c.)

Seamanship. _See_ Navigation

Secularism

Semites, The

Senses, The

Sepulchral monuments. _See_ Monuments

Sermons _For collections of sermons by various authors see their names. Volumes of sermons with specific titles or on definite subjects will be found under those titles and subjects_

Servia

Sewage

Shan States

Sheep

Shells _See also_ Mollusca

Ships and shipping _See also_ Navy, Sailors, Steamships

Shipwrecks

Shorthand _See also_ Phonography

Siam

Siberia

Sicily

Sight

Silk

Silver

Sin

Sinai

Singing. _See_ Music (Singing)

Skating

Sketching. _See_ Drawing

Skin, The

Slavery

Sleep

Smoking

Soap

Socialism

Sociology

Soils

Solomon Islands

Somali-land

Song birds. _See_ Birds

Songs and ballads

Songs with music. _See_ Music (Songs)

Soudan, The

Soul, The

Sound

South Africa. _See_ Africa, South

South Kensington Museum

South Sea. _See_ Pacific Ocean

Spain History Description, &c. Miscellaneous

Spanish Armada, 1588

Spanish language

Speaking. _See_ Voice

Spectrum analysis

Speech. _See_ Elocution, Voice

Speeches (Collections only) _For speeches by particular persons see under their names_

Spiders

Spinning

Spiritualism

Sporting adventures. _See_ Hunting

Sports. _See_ Games

Stage, The. _See_ Drama

Stars. _See_ Astronomy

Statesmen

Statics

Statistics

Steam

Steam engine

Steamships

Steel. _See_ Iron and steel

Stone and stonemasonry

Strains. _See_ Strength of materials

Stratford-upon-Avon

Strength

Strength of materials

Stuarts, The

Style (Literary)

Sugar

Suicide

Sun, The

Sunday

Supernatural, The _See also_ Ghosts, Spiritualism

Superstition

Surnames. _See_ Names

Surrey

Surveying _See also_ Building, Quantities

Sussex

Sweden

Swedenborgianism

Swimming

Switzerland

Symbols

Syria

Table talk

Tailoring

Talmud, The

Tanning

Taouism

Tapestry

Tariffs

Tasmania

Taste. _See_ Æsthetics

Taxation

Taxidermy

Tea

Teaching _See also_ Education

Technical education

Teetotalism. _See_ Temperance question

Telegraphy

Telephone, The

Telescopy

Temperance question

Temple, The

Tennis _See also_ Lawn tennis

Texas

Textile fabrics _See also_ Dyeing, Spinning, Weaving

Thames, River

Theatre, The. _See_ Actors, Drama

Theatricals, Amateur

Theism

Theology

Theosophy

Thermics. _See_ Heat

Thibet

Thirty Years’ War, The

Thrift

Tibet. _See_ Thibet

Tides

Tiles

Timber

Tithes

Tobacco _See also_ Smoking

Tonic sol-fa. _See_ Music (Singing)

Tonquin

Tools

Tower of London

Towns

Toxicology. _See_ Poisons

Trade

Trades unions _See also_ Gilds, Labour

Transubstantiation. _See_ Lord’s Supper

Transvaal, The

Trees _See also_ Timber

Trials (Collections only) _Note._--Single trials are usually entered under the name of the _defendant_

Trigonometry

Trinitarianism

Trinity, The

Trout

Troy

Tunis

Turkey

Turning

Tuscany

Typewriting

Ulster

Understanding, The. _See_ Mind

Unitarianism

United States. (_Sub-divide as required_)

Universities

Utilitarianism

Vaccination

Vases

Vatican, The

Vaudois, The

Vegetarianism

Venice

Ventilation

Vertebrates

Vestments, Church

Veterinary surgery _See also_ Dogs, Horses

Victoria, N.S.W.

Vienna

Violin, The

Violin music. _See_ Music

Vivisection

Voice, The

Volcanoes

Voyages and travels (Collections, generally, and round the world only)

Wages

Wales. (_Sub-divide as required_)

War

Warwickshire

Washington (City)

Wasps

Watches and clocks

Water

Water supply

Waterloo, Battle of

Wealth

Weather. See _Meteorology_

Weaving

Weights and measures

Wells

Wesleyan Methodism

West Indies

Westminster Abbey

Westminster Assembly

Whales

Whist

Wight, Isle of

Will, The

Wills

Winchester

Winds

Windsor Castle

Wine

Winter

Wit and humour

Witchcraft

Woman

Women’s suffrage

Wood carving

Wood engraving. _See_ Engraving

Woodwork _See also_ Carpentry

Wool

Work. Working classes. _See_ Labour

Workshop appliances _See also_ Tools

Worms

Wrestling

Writing

Yachting

Yorkshire

Zoology General Local Periodicals and societies _See also_ Palæontology

Zoophytes

Zoroastrianism

Zululand

INDEX.

N.B.--_The references are to the sections, not to the pages._

Abbreviated entries, 90, 97, 101

Abbreviated words, Arrangement of, 115

Abbreviated words, List of, Appendix A

Abbreviations, 17

Additions to title, 68

Alphabetical order. See Arrangement

Amateur cataloguing, 4

Annotations, 27

Anonymous books, 38, 39

Anthologies, 65, 92

Arrangement of entries, Alphabetical, &c., 37, 41, 52, 58, 113-116

⸻ Classified catalogues, 112

⸻ Author-entry, tabulated, 114

Articles (a, an, the), Use and transposition of, 99

⸻ Arrangement of, 116

Artists, 65, 67

Author-entry, The, 13-68

⸻ Arrangement of, 114

⸻ Artists, 65

⸻ Composers, 60

⸻ Compound names, 54, 55

⸻ defined, 8

⸻ Initialisms, 36

⸻ Noblemen, 44, 45

⸻ Order of information given, 13

⸻ Oriental names, 56

⸻ Patronymic, or other prefix, 51-53

⸻ Pseudonyms, 33-35

⸻ Saints, 43

⸻ Sovereigns, princes, &c., 42

⸻ Surname to lead, 14

⸻ Women with changed names, 50

Authors of same name, 28, 31

Authors, Joint, 57

Authors’ surnames only, 101

Barrett, Mr. F. T., on dictionary and classified catalogues, 9

Bible, The, 71

Bible commentaries, 72

Biographical dictionaries, 32

Biographies, 93

Brown, Mr. J. D., on classified catalogues, 9

Brown’s adjustable classification applied, 108-110

Buildings, Monographs on, 85

Canonized persons, 43

Capitals, Use of, 18

Card catalogues, 10

Catalogues, Amateur, 4

⸻ Early forms, 6

⸻ Need for rules, 5

⸻ Popular notions of, 1

⸻ Requirements of, 3, 5

⸻ Varieties of, 2

Christian names, Fullest, 29

⸻ Initials of, 30

⸻ Place of, 14

⸻ used for author-entry, 42

Church councils, 69

Classical works, contents not indexed, 105

Classified _v._ dictionary catalogues considered, 9, 107

Classified catalogue, Form of entry, with examples, 108-110

⸻ Arrangement of entries, 112

⸻ Index to, 111

Collation, The, 15, 28

Collected essays & works, 61-63

⸻ Indexing, 103-104

Compilations, 65

Compilers, 73

Composers, Music, 60

Composite books, 64

Compound names, 54, 55

Contents, Setting out and indexing, 61-63, 103-105

Corporate bodies, 69

Cross-references. _See_ References

Cutter’s Rules, 7

Dash, Repetition, Use of, 59, 102

Dates of publication, 24

⸻ Earliest and latest, 28

⸻ Not given (n.d.), 15

⸻ Omitted in works of fiction, 24

⸻ Original, in reprints, 25

⸻ Roman numerals, 20

Degrees, University, 46-47

Descriptive notes, 23, 27

Dewey’s Classification applied, 108-110

Dictionary catalogue, Merits of, 8

⸻ Development of, 6

⸻ Information it will and will not supply, 8

⸻ _v._ Classified catalogue, 9, 107

⸻ General compilation of, 13-106

⸻ List of subject-headings for, Appendix E

Distinction between authors of similar names, 31

Dramas, 95

Dutch names, 53

Ecclesiastical dignities, 46

Ecclesiastical titles, Changes in, 49

Editors, 61, 64, 73

“England” as subject-heading, 83

Entry, Form of, 15

Errors in cataloguing, 16

Essays, Collected, 61-62

⸻ Indexing, 103-105

⸻ as subject-heading, 92

Explanatory notes, 27

Fiction, Works of, in classified catalogues, 110

⸻ Dates of publication, 24

⸻ Proper names in titles of, 100

Figures and dates, Transcription of, 21

Fiske, Prof., on catalogues, 1

Foreign works under English headings, 88

Form of principal entry, 15

French names with prefixes, 52

Geographical subject-headings, 83

German names, 53

Government publications, 69

Greek title-pages, 22

⸻ names, 40

Handwriting, 11

Headings. _See_ Subject-headings

Illustrators, 65, 67-68

Indexing contents (Authors), 61-62

⸻ (Subjects), 103-104

Indexing classified catalogue, 111

Initialisms, 36, 37

Initials for Christian names, 29, 30

Introductions, 74

Jewett’s _Construction of catalogues_, 7

Joint-authors, 57

Ladies’ names changed by marriage, 50

Language of title-page, 22

Latin names, 40

Library Assoc. _Report on size-notation_, 26; Appendix B

Librettists, 60

Linderfelt’s _Eclectic card catalog rules_, 7

Local pamphlets, 97

Madeley’s book-size scale, 26

Marriage names of ladies, 50

Materials for cataloguing, 10

Mistakes, How made, 16

Monarchs’ names, 42

⸻ Arrangement of, 113

Monographs in societies’ transactions, 69

Music, Composer of, 60

Names, Compound, 54-55

⸻ Oriental, 56

⸻ as titles, 100

⸻ Arrangement, 113

Newspapers, 70

Noblemen, Titles and family names of, 44-45

Notes, Descriptive, &c., 23, 27

Numbers, Transcription of, 20, 21

Numbers in title, Arrangement of, 115

Official publications, 69

Omissions, 68

Order of entries. _See_ Arrangement

Oriental names, 56

Pamphlets, 96-97

Patronymics, 51

Periodicals, 70

Phrase-names, 34

Place of publication, 15

Plays, Need for index to, 106

Poems, poetical works, 92

Popular terms for subject-headings, 84

Portraits, Need for index to, 106

Potentates, Names of, 42

Prefatory essays, 74

Prefixes to names, 51-53

⸻ Arrangement of, 114

Princes, Names of, 42

Principal entry, The, 13-74

⸻ Order in which particulars are given, 13

Printers and catalogues, 13

Printing, Preparation for, 117-123

⸻ Specification for, 121

Proof-reading and correction, 122-123

Proof, Specimen, with corrections, Appendix D

Pseudonyms, 33-35

⸻ List of, Appendix C

Publication, Dates of. _See_ Dates

Publication, Place of, 15

Publication societies, 69

Punctuation, 18

References and cross-references, Forms of, 54, 65, 66, 68, 76, 79, 86, 88, 89

⸻ Use of, tabulated, 88

Religious societies, 69

Repeat dash, 59, 102

Reprints, Original dates to, 25

Revised editions, 73

Roman numerals, 20

Sacred books, 71

Saints, Names of, 42-43

Scientific terms for subject-headings, 84

“See” and “See also”, Difference between (Author) 66, (Subject) 79

Series entry defined, 8

Series entries, 75, 89

Sermons, 94

⸻ Need for index to, 106

Sheaf catalogues, 10

Short entries, 90, 101

Signs and abbreviations, 17

Sizes and styles of catalogues, 119-120

Sizes of books, 26

⸻ Table of, Appendix B

Social changes, Necessity for noting, 48

Societies’ transactions, &c., 69

Sovereigns, Names of, 42

Specification for printing a catalogue, 121

Subject entries defined, 8

Subject-headings, Alternative, 80

⸻ Choice of, 80, 91

⸻ Concentration of, 86

⸻ Curtailment of entry under, 79

⸻ Errors of, 87

⸻ Exact, 75

⸻ Foreign works, 88

⸻ Forms of, 77, 90

⸻ Grouping, 86

⸻ Illustrative examples, 77, 79-83, 89, 91

⸻ Importance of, 75

⸻ List of, for a dictionary catalogue, Appendix E

⸻ Method of regarding books for, 91, 92

⸻ Reduction to title-entry, 77

⸻ Scientific _v._ popular terms for, 84

⸻ Sub-division of, 81, 83

⸻ Synonymous, 76

Surnames, Similar, 31

⸻ with prefixes, 51-53

Synonymous subject-headings, 76

Title-as-subject entries, 98

Title-entry defined, 8

Title-entries, 98-101

⸻ as principal entries, 35

Title-pages, 13-15

⸻ Abbreviation of, 97

⸻ Additions, 68

⸻ Numbers on, 20-21

⸻ Omissions, 68

⸻ Peculiar, 18

⸻ Prolix, 97

⸻ Transcription of, 16

⸻ Translations of, 22-23

Titles of honour, &c., 46

Transactions, &c., of societies, 69

Translations of title-pages, 22-23

Translators, 73

Types for printing, Styles of, 119-120

⸻ Marking for, 118

⸻ Specimens tabulated, 119

Typewriter, The, 12

Volumes, Number of, 28

Wheatley’s _How to catalogue_, 7

Word entries, Erroneous, 87

Writing, Style of, 11

⸻ Specimens of, _page_ 16

THE LIBRARY SUPPLY CO.

DESIGNERS, PATENTEES, AND MAKERS OF

[Illustration]

Mechanical Appliances, Fittings, Furniture, and Supplies for Libraries, Museums and Offices.

Office and Showroom: 4, AVE MARIA LANE, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON, E.C.

* * * * *

Card Indexing for Libraries.

[Illustration]

_The Life of a Card Catalogue never ends. Additions can be made at any time, and in any place._

In all libraries, whether private or public, the Card Catalogue is an essential. In a large public library, where the stock of books is being constantly added to, it is necessary, in order to save a weary search through pages of MSS. and numerous printed supplements to have a complete index on cards carefully kept up-to-date, where the public or the staff can readily ascertain by one reference whether any particular book is in the library. In the reference library the necessity of the Card Catalogue cannot be questioned. To print a catalogue of the reference library is an expensive proceeding, as the sales seldom reach one-tenth part of the cost; and frequently the printed catalogue suffers in usefulness by the need of keeping it within certain limits.

We recommend the “Libraco” Tray Cabinets for use in Libraries, as they divide up a catalogue into many parts, and allow several persons to consult the Catalogue at one time.

_Send for full descriptive list of the Applications of the Card System--Sectional Catalogue, No. 10._

* * * * *

“LIBRACO” TRAY CABINETS.

The enormous advantages of the Card Indexing System for Libraries are beyond question. The only disadvantage alleged against the system is that only a limited number of people can consult the card catalogue at one time. The Cabinet illustrated on this page holds 18,000 cards, and is suitable for a library of 6,000 volumes. The Cabinet therefore divides the catalogue into 15 parts and allows 15 persons to use it. The trays are removable and may be carried to a counter for consultation. In a reference library it is seldom that at any given time during the day more than three or four people are desirous of consulting the catalogue, therefore the one and only disadvantage alleged against the Card System is imaginary. A properly guided Card Catalogue is easier to handle than the MSS. book. Stout cards and perfect arrangement render consultation a pleasure.

[Illustration: NO. 15A. FIFTEEN TRAY CABINET.

=In Oak. £8 net.=

_With 18,000 Thin Linen Cards, and 1,000 Guides, £16 6s. 6d._]

* * * * *

“LIBRACO” TRAY CABINETS.

Made in OAK, WALNUT, or MAHOGANY.

_SINGLE TRAY, No. 1a._

A handsome case, with cover lid, suitable for small catalogues.

[Illustration]

Price, Case only, 10s. 6d.

Case with 1,000 Thin Linen Cards and one set of A-Z Guides, complete, £1 1 0

_FOUR TRAY CABINET, No. 4a._

A finely finished Cabinet with four trays, each holding 1,000 cards, used for indexes to borrowers, additions to the lending library, &c.

[Illustration]

Price, Cabinet only, £2 5 0

Cabinet with 4,000 Thin Linen Cards and 200 Guides complete, £4 3 0

MADE IN VARIOUS SIZES.

* * * * *

“LIBRACO” SLIDE CABINETS.

The “Libraco” Slide Cabinets are thoroughly constructed of oak, mahogany or walnut throughout. They are provided with extension slides, which prevent the drawer coming out entirely, but allow it to pull out to the full extent. A full view of the contents is thus obtained. Every detail has been carefully considered and worked out, so that a loaded drawer runs noiselessly and with ease. Built in various sizes.

[Illustration: THREE DRAWER SLIDE CABINET.

In Oak, Mahogany, or Walnut, £4 0 0.

_Holds 9,000 Thin Linen Cards._]

The “Libraco” Slide Cabinets have been supplied to Science and Art Dept. (3 ten-drawer Cabinets for 100,000 cards), St. Paul’s Cathedral Library, Oxford Union Society (21 Drawer Cabinet for 84,000 cards), Hull Public Library, Bishopsgate Institute (2 eight-drawer Cabinets for 58,000 cards), Cripplegate Institute, Hove, West Ham, Carlisle, and many other public libraries.

* * * * *

PRICE LIST OF “LIBRACO” INDEX CARDS.

[Illustration]

THE BEST ENGLISH LINEN CARDS.

The material from which these cards are cut is manufactured by an English Mill to the order of the Library Supply Co. It is prepared expressly to meet the requirements of the Card System, and is not carried in stock by any Paper Merchant. The “Libraco” Index Cards are exact in height and the edges will be found true and square. The machinery for cutting these cards has been specially adapted for the purpose.

The “Libraco” Index Cards are made in three weights, thin, medium, and thick. The thin cards are mostly used because they occupy less space, and therefore reduced the cost of storage. But in all important indexes, medium and thick cards are adopted.

Price List.

=D= =Thin Linen= Cards, Ruled & Punched 10s. per 1,000. =B= ” ” ” Plain ” 7s. ”

=Z= =Medium Linen= Cards, Ruled & Punched 12s. ” =Y= ” ” ” Plain ” 10s. ”

=H= =Thick Linen= Cards, Ruled & Punched 15s. ” =F= ” ” ” Plain ” 12s. ”

MANILLA CARDS.

For temporary lists--in four colours, drab, red, yellow and blue.

Price 3s. 6d. per 1,000, Plain and Punched.

CATALOGUING SLIPS.

Of good Cartridge Paper 1s. 3d. per 1,000.

“LIBRACO” SECOND GRADE CARDS.

Are principally intended for temporary lists. They are cut as accurately and as truly as the best English linen cards, but are inferior in durability. They are made in two thicknesses--thin and thick. Stocked in ten colours:--white, salmon, green, grey, primrose, rose, fawn, lemon, silurian and celestial.

Price List.

=M= =Thin= Cards, Ruled and Punched 7s. per 1,000. =K= ” ” Plain ” 4s. 6d. ”

=Q= =Thick= Cards, Ruled and Punched 9s. ” =O= ” ” Plain ” 6s. 6d. ”

GUIDE CARDS.

Made from strong and tough material. Cut so as to form a projection above the ordinary card, one-fifth, third, or half the length of the card, according to the amount of writing desired on projecting tab. They are of great importance in a card catalogue, and should be used freely, as they enable the user to turn instantly to any desired topic, name, or title in the index, thereby reducing the wear and tear of the cards.

Blank Guides (fifths, thirds, or halves) 1s. 6d. per 100. A-Z Guides (Printed) 1s. 0d. per set. Month Guides ” 0s. 8d. ” Week Guides ” 0s. 6d. ” Day Guides ” 1s. 6d. ”

* * * * *

ADJUSTABLE SHEAF CATALOGUES.

For certain index purposes these sheaf binders are admirably suited, and appeal to those in favour of the book form of cataloguing. The sheaf catalogues are in the form of screw binders, which hold loose slotted slips. The slips can be arranged alphabetically and maintained in strict order. The screws are turned by means of a key, and thus release contents, when insertions or withdrawals can be made. When screwed up the slips are clamped firmly, and it is impossible to remove or tear out an entry without leaving a counterfoil.

[Illustration: ADJUSTABLE CATALOGUE HOLDER.

_Size of Slips, 6¾ × 3¾. Half Pigskin, finished in gilt._]

=Price 8s. net. Xylonite Label Holders, 3d. each extra.=

_Cabinets to hold these binders are made in Oak. Prices on application._

* * * * *

ADJUSTABLE PERIODICALS LIST.

Titles of papers, magazines, directories, &c., printed on separate slips of card, and inserted in proper place in frame. Of great convenience to the librarian and to the public. When ordering send list of papers.

[Illustration]

=Frames of any size are Made.=

=Prices complete, from 15s.= _Oak or Walnut frames as desired._

The same titles can be used for Periodical indicators. Frames containing list of papers to be found on each table are supplied at cheap rates. Send particulars and we will quote price.

* * * * *

THE YALE BOOK SUPPORT.

A new invention for supporting books on the shelves. Can be attached to top or underside of shelf. Made of steel, nicely japanned. The support slides along shelf, but is secured or released by a turn of the set screw. Absolutely rigid. The most effective book-support in the market.

[Illustration]

NET PRICES:

1/-each.

9/6 per 10. 46/-per 50.

90/-per 100.

* * * * *

THE YALE BOOK CARRIER.

Consists of Polished Wood base, 2-ft. long × 6¾-ins wide, and two Yale Book Supports. Exceedingly convenient to the cataloguer, and for holding ledgers on desk, etc.

=Net Price, 5/6.=

=Carriage 6d. extra.=

* * * * *

THE “LIBRACO” PERFORATING STAMP.

Cuts the name into the paper by means of a series of needles, and thus establishes the ownership of books beyond question. The impression does not mar the appearance of the printed page, or interfere with the legibility of the reading matter. It is effective and cannot be removed. The “Libraco” Perforating Stamp is absolutely essential on art plates and valuable books.

[Illustration: CORK PUBLIC LIBRARY]

=Price 38s. net.=

[Illustration: SANDEMAN PUBLIC LIBRARY PERTH]

=Price £2 net.=

* * * * *

GOLD BLOCKED NAME TABLETS.

(_For Newspapers Stands, Magazine Racks, Table Indicators, Magazine Covers_)

Consists of a red leatherette label blocked in gold, fitted in japanned metal frame, and covered with transparent material to protect label.

[Illustration: ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS]

Large Size, 15in., by 1½in., for Newspaper Stands

[Illustration: STRAND MAG]

Small Size, 6in. by ¾in., for Tables, etc.

PRICES:

Large Size Label, frames and screws complete 1/9 each. Small ” ” ” ” ” 10d. ” Large Size Label only 1/3 ” Small ” ” ” 6d. ”

=NEAT, PERMANENT AND EFFECTIVE.=

* * * * *

A SUCCESSFUL SERIES OF ACCOUNT BOOKS for LIBRARIES and MUSEUMS.

[Illustration]

_Adopted by all the latest and most important libraries._

=The “Libraco” Stock Book for 10,000 entries.= A handsomely bound folio (17-in. × 11-in.) volume, half morocco, cloth sides. Ruled and printed on sound linen paper. Contains 18 headings suitable for all purposes. Very carefully designed. Price =30s.= net.

=Library Accessions.= Foolscap folio. A Stock book for small Libraries of 5,000 vols. Bound in half leather, cloth sides. Ruled and printed on sound linen paper. Price =10s.= net.

=Shelf Register.= Foolscap folio. Uniform with above. Ruled and printed for 10 years use. Price =10s.= net.

=Library Register.= Foolscap folio. For recording issues. Price =10s.= net.

=Bindery Book.= Foolscap folio. For recording books sent to the Binder. Loose sheets, 2/- per quire. Price =10s.= net.

=Borrowers’ Register.= Foolscap folio. For numerically registering of borrowers, to be supplemented by an alphabetical card index of names. Price =10s.= net.

=Library Statistics.= Foolscap folio. For recording statistics of issue for each month. Price =12s.= net.

=Periodicals Register.= Foolscap folio. For checking the supply of periodicals to the library. Price =12s.= net.

=Proposition Book.= Foolscap folio. For recording proposals of readers. Price =10s.= net.

=Library Catalogue.= Foolscap folio. Index cut through. For alphabetical catalogue of small libraries. Price =12s.= net.

=Books Overdue.= Foolscap folio. For recording books overdue. Price =10s.= net.

=Donation Book.= Foolscap folio. For recording full particulars of donations of books, pictures, &c., to the library. Price =10s.= net.

=Visitors’ Book.= Demy folio (15 × 9¾-in.) A beautifully bound book. Ruled and printed on sound linen paper. Price =15s.= net.

=Museum Accessions.= Foolscap folio. Price =10s.= net.

* * * * *

LIBRARY AND MUSEUM NUMBERS.

_Gold Blocked Numbers and Letters on Leatherette._

These numbers and letters are easily and permanently affixed to the backs of books by means of fish glue, and whilst they cost less than one-sixth of the sum charged by a bookbinder, they are, in the opinion of many librarians, better and more effective than numbering direct on to the books, as the contrast between the colour of the leatherette and the colour of the binding emphasises the number. Besides cheapness, they are time savers, as new books can be numbered as purchased. Their neat and uniform appearance are pleasing recommendations, and sufficient to warrant the discarding of the unsightly draper’s labels commonly used.

_Numbers supplied in strips of 10, on dark green Leatherette._

_Numbers 0 to 9999._

=For any set of 100 numbers between=

0 to 1999 1/2 per 100 2000 to 3999 1/3 ” 4000 to 5999 1/4 ” 6000 to 7999 1/5 ” 8000 to 9999 1/6 ”

=For any set of 500 numbers between=

0 to 1999 5/6 per 500 2000 to 3999 6/- ” 4000 to 5999 6/6 ” 6000 to 7999 7/- ” 8000 to 9399 7/6 ”

_Numbers 10,000 to 999,999._

For any complete set of numbers between

10000 and 99999 22/- per 1000 100000 and 999999 27/6 per 1000

_Smaller Quantities supplied at Special Prices._

=For each complete 1000 Numbers.=

0 to 999 10/- per set. 1000 to 1999 10/6 ” 2000 to 2999 11/- ” 3000 to 3999 11/6 ” 4000 to 4999 12/- ” 5000 to 5999 12/6 ” 6000 to 6999 13/- ” 7000 to 7999 13/6 ” 8000 to 8999 14/- ” 9000 to 9999 15/- ”

=For each complete Set.=

0 to 999 10/- per set. 0 to 1999 20/- ” 0 to 2999 30/- ” 0 to 3999 40/- ” 0 to 4999 50/- ” 0 to 5999 60/- ” 0 to 6999 70/- ” 0 to 7999 80/- ” 0 to 8999 90/- ” 0 to 9999 100/- ”

=Letters=, put up singly in boxes of 100: A to K, 10d. 100; L to Z, 1/-100

_Letters on various coloured leatherette and strips of even numbers for the Adjustable Classification Scheme._

=Cheap Printed Numbers= from 1 to 6,000 on grey gummed paper, from 2d. per 100.

BEST FISH GLUE--6d. per Bottle.

* * * * *

SHELF LABEL HOLDERS.

[Illustration: SHELF LABEL HOLDER

Simplest, Cheapest and Best.]

Shelf Label Holders are useful in every library, especially in libraries where books are classified on the shelves. Our Label Holders are made of japanned metal, having a long flange which rests on the shelf. The edges of the holder are so turned that they hold a stout card bearing the name of subject or author. This card may be removed or renewed at pleasure. Where desired, transparent slips, to cover the cards and protect them from dust, are supplied at an extra charge. Card Labels are supplied free with our holders. Hundreds of these holders are now in use, and have practically demonstrated their usefulness and many advantages. They take the place of the unsightly labels of many colours and shapes hitherto pinned to the shelves, which were so detrimental to the woodwork.

PRICES.

5 inches wide 25/0 per 100 4 ” ” 24/0 ” 3 ” ” 23/0 ” 2½ ” ” 22/0 ”

Supplied with Stout Labels.

TRANSPARENT SLIPS, 5/-per 100 extra.

* * * * *

MARLBOROUGH PAMPHLET CASES.

These Cases supply a means of preserving pamphlets from dust and destruction, and meet with the approval of librarians, clergymen, and others desirous of preserving any kind of unbound literature or MSS., in a form at once easily accessible and secure.

[Illustration]

SIZES AND PRICES.

No. Size. s. d. 1.-- 7¾ × 5¼ × 1½ 1 0 2.-- 9 × 6 × 1½ 1 3 3.-- 10¼ × 6½ × 1½ 1 4 4.-- 11¼ × 7¾ × 1½ 1 6 5.-- 11¼ × 7¾ × 3½ 2 0 6.-- 8¾ × 7 × 1½ 1 6 7.-- 11⅝ × 9 × 1½ 2 0 8.-- 13¾ × 8¾ × 1½ 2 0 9.-- 14½ × 10¾ × 2½ 2 6 10.-- 17¼ × 12¾ × 2½ 3 0 11.-- 9 × 5¾ × 3½ 1 9 12.-- 9½ × 6½ × 3½ 2 0 13.-- 10¼ × 7⅛ × 3½ 2 0 14.-- 13¾ × 9 × 3½ 2 9 15.-- 13½ × 10¼ × 3½ 2 10 16.-- 9⅛ × 7 × 2½ 2 0 17.-- 12½ × 9¾ × 3½ 2 6 18.-- 10¼ × 7⅞ × 3½ 2 0 19.-- 10½ × 8¼ × 3½ 2 6 20.-- 11¾ × 9 × 3½ 2 9 21.-- 13⅜ × 9¼ × 3½ 2 9 22.-- 11 × 8 × 3½ 2 6 23.-- 10½ × 7¾ × 3½ 2 6 24.-- 11½ × 9 × 3½ 2 9 25.-- 12¾ × 9½ × 3½ 2 9 26.-- 12¾ × 8¼ × 3½ 2 9 27.-- 12¾ × 10¼ × 3½ 2 9 28.-- 10⅝ × 7¼ × 3½ 2 0 29.-- 11½ × 8 × 3½ 2 6 30.-- 15½ × 11¾ × 2½ 2 9 31.-- 18 × 12 × 4 4 0 32.-- 12 × 8⅛ × 2½ 2 6 33.-- 9⅞ × 6 × 2 1 8

_The sizes given are the clear inside measurements of the inner cases. In ordering, please quote the distinctive number._

* * * * *

“LIBRACO” PAMPHLET CASES.

THE CHEAPEST BOX IN THE MARKET.

A cheap, handy, and convenient box for storing pamphlets, papers, &c. Covered in special marble paper. Made with hinged half-lids, shouldered sides, and fall-down fronts. Provided with a contents label. They are dust proof, and have the advantage of taking up less space than any other form of Pamphlet Case.

[Illustration: CLOSED.]

[Illustration: OPEN.]

PRICE LIST.

Paper Cloth Covered. Covered.

No. 60, Size 5¼ × 3¼ × 2½ for Cards, &c. 4d. -- ” 62, ” 9 × 6 × 2 Demy 8vo. 7d. 1/6 ” 67, ” 11⅝ × 9 × 2½ Demy 4to. 11d. 2/0 ” 614, ” 13¾ × 9 × 3 Fcap. fol. 1s. 2/4 ” 616, ” 9⅛ × 7 × 2½ Fcap. 4to. 9d. 1/8 ” 624, ” 11 × 9 × 2½ Large 4to. 10d. 2/0

=Loose Alphabetical Index Leaves, to fit No. 624, price 11d.=

_In ordering quote distinctive No.; clear inside measurements are given._

* * * * *

LIBRARY PUBLICATIONS.

=The Library World=: Monthly. Illustrated. Subscription, 5s. 6d. per annum. Single copies, 6d. each, post free. _Established July, 1898._

SOME IMPORTANT FEATURES.

_Studies in Library Practice_:--

I. The History and Description of Library Charging Systems, by JAMES D. BROWN, Clerkenwell Public Library.

II. Classified and Annotated Cataloguing: Suggestions and Rules. By L. STANLEY JAST, Croydon Public Library

_Library Extension Work_:--

I. Lectures. Symposium.

The Library Rate.

Librarian’s Workshop: Practical Notes.

Practical Points in Library Administration.

Select Subject Lists.

&c., &c., &c.

_“Libraco” Series of Text Books on Library Economy._

=Manual of Library Classification and Shelf Arrangement.= By JAMES D. BROWN, Librarian, Clerkenwell Public Library, London. Cr. 8vo., Cloth, 4s. net, postage 3d.

=Adjustable Classification for Libraries=; with index. By JAMES D. BROWN, Librarian, Clerkenwell Public Library. (Abstracted from “MANUAL OF LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION.”) 66 pp., interleaved, Cr. 8vo., Paper Covers, 1s. 6d. net, postage 3d.

=Manual of Library Cataloguing.= By J. HENRY QUINN, Librarian, Chelsea Public Libraries, London. Cr. 8vo., Cloth, 5s., net, Postage 3d.

=Souvenir of the Annual Meeting of the Library Association= held at Southport--Preston--Wigan, 1898. Royal 8vo., 46 portraits and other illustrations, bound in Cloth. 3s. 6d. net. Post free.

PUBLISHED BY _LIBRARY SUPPLY Co., 4, Ave Maria Lane, London, E.C._