The Gutenberg Webster's Unabridged Dictionary: Section C by Project Gutenberg

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Begin file 2 of 11: C. (Version 0.50) of An electronic field-marked version of:

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary Version published 1913 by the C. & G. Merriam Co. Springfield, Mass. Under the direction of Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.

This electronic version was prepared by MICRA, Inc. of Plainfield, NJ. Last edit February 11, 1999.

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C.

C. (sē) 1. C is the third letter of the English alphabet. It is from the Latin letter C, which in old Latin represented the sounds of k, and g (in go); its original value being the latter. In Anglo-Saxon words, or Old English before the Norman Conquest, it always has the sound of k. The Latin C was the same letter as the Greek Γ, γ, and came from the Greek alphabet. The Greeks got it from the Phœnicians. The English name of C is from the Latin name ce, and was derived, probably, through the French. Etymologically C is related to g, h, k, q, s (and other sibilant sounds). Examples of these relations are in L. acutus, E. acute, ague; E. acrid, eager, vinegar; L. cornu, E. horn; E. cat, kitten; E. coy, quiet; L. circare, OF. cerchier, E. search.

See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 221-228.

2. (Mus.) (a) The keynote of the normal or "natural" scale, which has neither flats nor sharps in its signature; also, the third note of the relative minor scale of the same. (b) C after the clef is the mark of common time, in which each measure is a semibreve (four fourths or crotchets); for alla breve time it is written &?;. (c) The "C clef," a modification of the letter C, placed on any line of the staff, shows that line to be middle C.

3. As a numeral, C stands for Latin centum or 100, CC for 200, etc.

C spring, a spring in the form of the letter C.

||Ca*a"ba (k&adot;*ā"b&adot;), n. [Ar. ka'bah, lit., a square building, fr. ka'b cube.] The small and nearly cubical stone building, toward which all Mohammedans must pray. [Written also kaaba.]

&fist; The Caaba is situated in Mecca, a city of Arabia, and contains a famous black stone said to have been brought from heaven. Before the time of Mohammed, the Caaba was an idolatrous temple, but it has since been the chief sanctuary and object of pilgrimage of the Mohammedan world.

Caas (käs), n. sing. & pl. Case. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Cab (kăb), n. [Abbrev. fr. cabriolet.] 1. A kind of close carriage with two or four wheels, usually a public vehicle. "A cab came clattering up." Thackeray.

&fist; A cab may have two seats at right angles to the driver's seat, and a door behind; or one seat parallel to the driver's, with the entrance from the side or front.

Hansom cab. See Hansom.

2. The covered part of a locomotive, in which the engineer has his station. Knight.

Cab (kăb), n. [Heb. qab, fr. qābab to hollow.] A Hebrew dry measure, containing a little over two (2.37) pints. W. H. Ward. 2 Kings vi. 25.

Ca*bal" (k&adot;*băl"), n. [F. cabale cabal, cabala, LL. cabala cabala, fr. Heb. qabbālēh reception, tradition, mysterious doctrine, fr. qābal to take or receive, in Piël qibbel to adopt (a doctrine).] 1. Tradition; occult doctrine. See Cabala [Obs.] Hakewill.

2. A secret. [Obs.] "The measuring of the temple, a cabal found out but lately." B. Jonson.

3. A number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in church or state by intrigue; a secret association composed of a few designing persons; a junto.

It so happend, by a whimsical coincidence, that in 1671 the cabinet consisted of five persons, the initial letters of whose names made up the word cabal; Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauderdale. Macaulay.

4. The secret artifices or machinations of a few persons united in a close design; intrigue.

By cursed cabals of women. Dryden.

Syn. -- Junto; intrigue; plot; combination; conspiracy. -- Cabal, Combination, Faction. An association for some purpose considered to be bad is the idea common to these terms. A combination is an organized union of individuals for mutual support, in urging their demands or resisting the claims of others, and may be good or bad according to circumstances; as, a combiniation of workmen or of employers to effect or to prevent a change in prices. A cabal is a secret association of a few individuals who seek by cunning practices to obtain office and power. A faction is a larger body than a cabal, employed for selfish purposes in agitating the community and working up an excitement with a view to change the existing order of things. "Selfishness, insubordination, and laxity of morals give rise to combinations, which belong particularly to the lower orders of society. Restless, jealous, ambitious, and little minds are ever forming cabals. Factions belong especially to free governments, and are raised by busy and turbulent spirits for selfish purposes". Crabb.

Ca*bal", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caballed (-băld"); p. pr. & vb. n. Caballing]. [Cf. F. cabaler.] To unite in a small party to promote private views and interests by intrigue; to intrigue; to plot.

Caballing still against it with the great. Dryden.

Cab"a*la (kăb"&adot;*l&adot;), n. [LL. See Cabal, n.] 1. A kind of occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the Scriptures among Jewish rabbis and certain mediæval Christians, which treats of the nature of god and the mystery of human existence. It assumes that every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these occult meanings. The cabalists pretend even to foretell events by this means.

2. Secret science in general; mystic art; mystery.

Cab"a*lism (kăb"&adot;*l&ibreve;z'm), n. [Cf. F. cabalisme.]

1. The secret science of the cabalists.

2. A superstitious devotion to the mysteries of the religion which one professes. [R] Emerson.

Cab"a*list (-l&ibreve;st), n. [Cf. F. cabaliste.] One versed in the cabala, or the mysteries of Jewish traditions. "Studious cabalists." Swift.

{ Cab`a*lis"tic (kăb`&adot;*l&ibreve;s"t&ibreve;k), Cab`a*lis"tic*al (-t&ibreve;*kal) } a. Of or pertaining to the cabala; containing or conveying an occult meaning; mystic.

The Heptarchus is a cabalistic exposition of the first chapter of Genesis . Hallam.

Cab`a*lis"tic*al*ly, adv. In a cabalistic manner.

Cab"a*lize (?), v. i. [Cf. F. cabaliser.] To use cabalistic language. [R] Dr. H. More.

Ca*bal"ler (k&adot;*băl"l&etilde;r), n. One who cabals.

A close caballer and tongue-valiant lord. Dryden.

Cab"al*line (kăb"al*līn), a. [L. caballinus, fr. caballus a nag. Cf. Cavalier.] Of or pertaining to a horse. -- n. Caballine aloes.

Caballine aloes, an inferior and impure kind of aloes formerly used in veterinary practice; -- called also horse aloes. -- Caballine spring, the fountain of Hippocrene, on Mount Helicon; -- fabled to have been formed by a stroke from the foot of the winged horse Pegasus.

Cab"a*ret (kăb"&adot;*r&ebreve;t; 277), n. [F.] A tavern; a house where liquors are retailed. [Obs. as an English word.]

||Ca*bas" (k&adot;*bä"), n. [F.] A flat basket or frail for figs, etc.; hence, a lady's flat workbasket, reticule, or hand bag; -- often written caba. C. Bronté.

||Ca*bas"sou (k&adot;*băs"s&oomac;), n. (Zoöl.) A species of armadillo of the genus Xenurus (X. unicinctus and X. hispidus); the tatouay. [Written also kabassou.]

Cab"bage (kăb"b&asl;j), n. [OE. cabage, fr. F. cabus headed (of cabbages), chou cabus headed cabbage, cabbage head; cf. It. capuccio a little head, cappuccio cowl, hood, cabbage, fr. capo head, L. caput, or fr. It. cappa cape. See Chief, Cape.] (Bot.) 1. An esculent vegetable of many varieties, derived from the wild Brassica oleracea of Europe. The common cabbage has a compact head of leaves. The cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, etc., are sometimes classed as cabbages.

2. The terminal bud of certain palm trees, used, like, cabbage, for food. See Cabbage tree, below.

3. The cabbage palmetto. See below.

Cabbage aphis (Zoöl.), a green plant-louse (Aphis brassicæ) which lives upon the leaves of the cabbage. -- Cabbage beetle (Zoöl.), a small, striped flea- beetle (Phyllotreta vittata) which lives, in the larval state, on the roots, and when adult, on the leaves, of cabbage and other cruciferous plants. -- Cabbage butterfly (Zoöl.), a white butterfly (Pieris rapæ of both Europe and America, and the allied P. oleracea, a native American species) which, in the larval state, devours the leaves of the cabbage and the turnip. See Cabbage worm, below. -- Cabbage fly (Zoöl.), a small two-winged fly (Anthomyia brassicæ), which feeds, in the larval or maggot state, on the roots of the cabbage, often doing much damage to the crop. -- Cabbage head, the compact head formed by the leaves of a cabbage; -- contemptuously or humorously, and colloquially, a very stupid and silly person; a numskull. -- Cabbage palmetto, a species of palm tree (Sabal Palmetto) found along the coast from North Carolina to Florida. -- Cabbage rose (Bot.), a species of rose (Rosa centifolia) having large and heavy blossoms. -- Cabbage tree, Cabbage palm, a name given to palms having a terminal bud called a cabbage, as the Sabal Palmetto of the United States, and the Euterpe oleracea and Oreodoxa oleracea of the West Indies. -- Cabbage worm (Zoöl.), the larva of several species of moths and butterflies, which attacks cabbages. The most common is usually the larva of a white butterfly. See Cabbage butterfly, above. The cabbage cutworms, which eat off the stalks of young plants during the night, are the larvæ of several species of moths, of the genus Agrotis. See Cutworm. -- Sea cabbage.(Bot.) (a) Sea kale (b). The original Plant (Brassica oleracea), from which the cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, etc., have been derived by cultivation. -- Thousand-headed cabbage. See Brussels sprouts.

Cab"bage, v. i. To form a head like that the cabbage; as, to make lettuce cabbage. Johnson.

Cab"bage, v. i. [imp. & p. p Cabbaged (-b&asl;jd); p. pr. & vb. n. Cabbaging (-b&asl;*j&ibreve;ng).] [F. cabasser, fr. OF. cabas theft; cf. F. cabas basket, and OF. cabuser to cheat.] To purloin or embezzle, as the pieces of cloth remaining after cutting out a garment; to pilfer.

Your tailor . . . cabbages whole yards of cloth. Arbuthnot.

Cab"bage, n. Cloth or clippings cabbaged or purloined by one who cuts out garments.

Cab"bler (kăb"bl&etilde;r), n. One who works at cabbling.

Cab"bling (-bl&ibreve;ng), n. (Metal.) The process of breaking up the flat masses into which wrought iron is first hammered, in order that the pieces may be reheated and wrought into bar iron.

{ ||Ca*be"ça (k&adot;*b&asl;"s&adot;), ||Ca*besse" (k&adot;*b&ebreve;s"), } n. [Pg. cabeça, F. cabesse.] The finest kind of silk received from India.

||Ca"ber (kā"b&etilde;r), n. [Gael] A pole or beam used in Scottish games for tossing as a trial of strength.

Cab`e*zon" (kăb`&asl;*z&obreve;n" or kä*b&asl;*th&osl;n"), n. [Sp., properly, big head. Cf. Cavesson.] (Zoöl.) A California fish (Hemilepidotus spinosus), allied to the sculpin.

Cab"i*ai (kăb"&ibreve;*ī), n. [Native South American name.] (Zoöl.) The capybara. See Capybara.

Cab"in (kăb"&ibreve;n), n. [OF. caban, fr. W. caban booth, cabin, dim. of cab cot, tent; or fr. F. cabane, cabine, LL. cabanna, perh. from the Celtic.] 1. A cottage or small house; a hut. Swift.

A hunting cabin in the west. E. Everett.

2. A small room; an inclosed place.

So long in secret cabin there he held Her captive. Spenser.

3. A room in ship for officers or passengers.

Cabin boy, a boy whose duty is to wait on the officers and passengers in the cabin of a ship.

Cab"in v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cabined (-&ibreve;nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Cabining.] To live in, or as in, a cabin; to lodge.

I'll make you . . . cabin in a cave. Shak.

Cab"in, v. t. To confine in, or as in, a cabin.

I am cabined, cribbed, confined, bound in To saucy doubts and fears. Shak.

Cab"i*net (kăb"&ibreve;*n&ebreve;t), n. [F., dim. of cabine or cabane. See Cabin, n.] 1. A hut; a cottage; a small house. [Obs.]

Hearken a while from thy green cabinet, The rural song of careful Colinet. Spenser.

2. A small room, or retired apartment; a closet.

3. A private room in which consultations are held.

Philip passed some hours every day in his father's cabinet. Prescott.

4. The advisory council of the chief executive officer of a nation; a cabinet council.

&fist; In England, the cabinet or cabinet council consists of those privy councilors who actually transact the immediate business of the government. Mozley & W. -- In the United States, the cabinet is composed of the heads of the executive departments of the government, namely, the Secretary of State, of the Treasury, of War, of the Navy, of the Interior, and of Agiculture, the Postmaster-general, and the Attorney-general.

5. (a) A set of drawers or a cupboard intended to contain articles of value. Hence: (b) A decorative piece of furniture, whether open like an étagère or closed with doors. See Étagère.

6. Any building or room set apart for the safe keeping and exhibition of works of art, etc.; also, the collection itself.

Cabinet council. (a) Same as Cabinet, n., 4 (of which body it was formerly the full title). (b) A meeting of the cabinet. -- Cabinet councilor, a member of a cabinet council. -- Cabinet photograph, a photograph of a size smaller than an imperial, though larger than a carte de visite. -- Cabinet picture, a small and generally highly finished picture, suitable for a small room and for close inspection.

Cab"i*net, a. Suitable for a cabinet; small.

He [Varnhagen von Ense] is a walking cabinet edition of Goethe. For. Quar. Rev.

Cab"i*net, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cabineted; p. pr. & vb. n. Cabineting.] To inclose [R.] Hewyt.

Cab"i*net*mak`er (-māk`&etilde;r), n. One whose occupation is to make cabinets or other choice articles of household furniture, as tables, bedsteads, bureaus, etc.

Cab"i*net*mak`ing, n. The art or occupation of making the finer articles of household furniture.

Cab"i*net*work` (-wûrk`), n. The art or occupation of working upon wooden furniture requiring nice workmanship; also, such furniture.

Cab`i*re"an (kăb`&ibreve;*rē"an), n. One of the Cabiri.

||Ca*bi"ri (k&adot;*bī"rī), n. pl. [ NL., fr. Gr. Ka`beiroi.] (Myth.) Certain deities originally worshiped with mystical rites by the Pelasgians in Lemnos and Samothrace and afterwards throughout Greece; -- also called sons of Hephæstus (or Vulcan), as being masters of the art of working metals. [Written also Cabeiri.] Liddell & Scott.

Ca*bir"i*an (k&adot;*b&ibreve;r"&ibreve;*an), a. Same as Cabiric.

Ca*bir"ic (k&adot;*b&ibreve;r"&ibreve;k), a. [Cf. F. Cabirique] Of or pertaining to the Cabiri, or to their mystical worship. [Written also Cabiritic.]

Ca"ble (kā"b'l), n. [F. câble, LL. capulum, caplum, a rope, fr. L. capere to take; cf. D., Dan., & G. kabel, from the French. See Capable.] 1. A large, strong rope or chain, of considerable length, used to retain a vessel at anchor, and for other purposes. It is made of hemp, of steel wire, or of iron links.

2. A rope of steel wire, or copper wire, usually covered with some protecting or insulating substance; as, the cable of a suspension bridge; a telegraphic cable.

3. (Arch) A molding, shaft of a column, or any other member of convex, rounded section, made to resemble the spiral twist of a rope; -- called also cable molding.

Bower cable, the cable belonging to the bower anchor. -- Cable road, a railway on which the cars are moved by a continuously running endless rope operated by a stationary motor. -- Cable's length, the length of a ship's cable. Cables in the merchant service vary in length from 100 to 140 fathoms or more; but as a maritime measure, a cable's length is either 120 fathoms (720 feet), or about 100 fathoms (600 feet, an approximation to one tenth of a nautical mile). -- Cable tier. (a) That part of a vessel where the cables are stowed. (b) A coil of a cable. -- Sheet cable, the cable belonging to the sheet anchor. -- Stream cable, a hawser or rope, smaller than the bower cables, to moor a ship in a place sheltered from wind and heavy seas. -- Submarine cable. See Telegraph. -- To pay out the cable, To veer out the cable, to slacken it, that it may run out of the ship; to let more cable run out of the hawse hole. -- To serve the cable, to bind it round with ropes, canvas, etc., to prevent its being, worn or galled in the hawse, et. -- To slip the cable, to let go the end on board and let it all run out and go overboard, as when there is not time to weigh anchor. Hence, in sailor's use, to die.

Ca"ble (kā"b'l), v. t. 1. To fasten with a cable.

2. (Arch.) To ornament with cabling. See Cabling.

Ca"ble, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Cabled (-b'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Cabling (-bl&obreve;ng).] To telegraph by a submarine cable [Recent]

Ca"bled (-b'ld), a. 1. Fastened with, or attached to, a cable or rope. "The cabled stone." Dyer.

2. (Arch.) Adorned with cabling.

Ca"ble*gram` (kā"b'l*grăm`), n. [Cable, n. + Gr. gra`mma a writing, a letter.] A message sent by a submarine telegraphic cable. [A recent hybrid, sometimes found in the newspapers.]

Ca"ble*laid` (-lād`), a. 1. (Naut.) Composed of three three- stranded ropes, or hawsers, twisted together to form a cable.

2. Twisted after the manner of a cable; as, a cable-laid gold chain. Simmonds.

Ca"blet (?), n. [Dim. of cable; cf. F. câblot.] A little cable less than ten inches in circumference.

Ca"bling (?), n. (Arch.) The decoration of a fluted shaft of a column or of a pilaster with reeds, or rounded moldings, which seem to be laid in the hollows of the fluting. These are limited in length to about one third of the height of the shaft.

Cab"man (?), n.; pl. Cabmen (&?;). The driver of a cab.

Ca*bob" (?), n. [Hindi kabāb] 1. A small piece of mutton or other meat roasted on a skewer; -- so called in Turkey and Persia.

2. A leg of mutton roasted, stuffed with white herrings and sweet herbs. Wright.

Ca*bob", v. t. To roast, as a cabob. Sir. T. Herbert.

Ca*boched" (?), a. [F. caboche head. Cf. 1st Cabbage.] (Her.) Showing the full face, but nothing of the neck; -- said of the head of a beast in armorial bearing. [Written also caboshed.]

Ca*boo"dle (k&adot;*b&oomac;"d'l), n. The whole collection; the entire quantity or number; -- usually in the phrase the whole caboodle. [Slang, U.S.] Bartlett.

Ca*boose" (k&adot;*b&oomac;s"), n. [Cf. D. kabuis, kombuis, Dan. kabys, Sw. kabysa, G. kabuse a little room or hut. The First part of the word seems to be allied to W. cab cabin, booth. Cf. Cabin.] [Written also camboose.] 1. (Naut.) A house on deck, where the cooking is done; -- commonly called the galley.

2. (Railroad) A car used on freight or construction trains for brakemen, workmen, etc.; a tool car. [U. S.]

Cab"o*tage (?), n. [F. cabotage, fr. caboter to sail along the coast; cf. Sp. cabo cape.] (Naut.) Navigation along the coast; the details of coast pilotage.

||Ca*brée" (k&adot;*br&aslc;"), n. [French Canadian.] (Zoöl.) The pronghorn antelope. [Also written cabrit, cabret.]

Ca*brer"ite (?), n. (Min.) An apple-green mineral, a hydrous arseniate of nickel, cobalt, and magnesia; -- so named from the Sierra Cabrera, Spain.

||Ca*bril"la (?), n. [Sp., prawn.] (Zoöl) A name applied to various species of edible fishes of the genus Serranus, and related genera, inhabiting the Meditarranean, the coast of California, etc. In California, some of them are also called rock bass and kelp salmon.

Cab"ri*ole (?), n. [F. See Cabriolet, and cf. Capriole.] (Man.) A curvet; a leap. See Capriole.

The cabrioles which his charger exhibited. Sir W. Scott.

Cab`ri*o*let" (?), n.[F., dim. of cabriole a leap, caper, from It. capriola, fr. dim. of L. caper he-goat, capra she-goat. This carriage is so called from its skipping lightness. Cf. Cab, Caper a leap.] A one-horse carriage with two seats and a calash top.

Ca*brit" (?), n. Same as Cabrée.

Cab"urn (?), n. [Cf. Cable, n.] (Naut.) A small line made of spun yarn, to bind or worm cables, seize tackles, etc.

{||Ca*cæ"mi*a (k&adot;*sē"m&ibreve;*&adot;), ||Ca*chæ"mi*a (k&adot;*k&esl;"m&ibreve;*&adot;),} n. [NL., fr. Gr. kako`s bad+ a"i^ma blood.] (Med.) A degenerated or poisoned condition of the blood.

Ca*ca"ine (?), n. (Chem.) The essential principle of cacao; -- now called theobromine.

||Ca*ca*jão" (?), n. [Pg.] (Zoöl) A South American short-tailed monkey (Pithecia melanocephala or Brachyurus melanocephala). [Written also cacajo.]

Ca*ca"o (?), n. [Sp., fr. Mex. kakahuatl. Cf. Cocoa, Chocolate] (Bot.) A small evergreen tree (Theobroma Cacao) of South America and the West Indies. Its fruit contains an edible pulp, inclosing seeds about the size of an almond, from which cocoa, chocolate, and broma are prepared.

Cach"a*lot (?), n. [F. cachalot.] (Zoöl.) The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). It has in the top of its head a large cavity, containing an oily fluid, which, after death, concretes into a whitish crystalline substance called spermaceti. See Sperm whale.

||Cache (?), n. [F., a hiding place, fr. cacher to conceal, to hide.] A hole in the ground, or hiding place, for concealing and preserving provisions which it is inconvenient to carry. Kane.

{ Ca*chec"tic (?), Ca*chec"tic*al (?), } a. [L. cachecticus, Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;: cf. F. cachectique.] Having, or pertaining to, cachexia; as, cachectic remedies; cachectical blood. Arbuthnot.

||Cache`pot" (k&adot;sh`p&osl;"), n. [F., fr. cacher to hide + pot a pot.] An ornamental casing for a flowerpot, of porcelain, metal, paper, etc.

||Cach"et (?), n. [F. fr. cacher to hide.] A seal, as of a letter.

Lettre de cachet [F.], a sealed letter, especially a letter or missive emanating from the sovereign; -- much used in France before the Revolution as an arbitrary order of imprisonment.

{ ||Ca*chex"i*a (?), Ca*chex"y (?) }, n. [L. cachexia, Gr. kachexi`a; kako`s bad + "e`xis condition.] A condition of ill health and impairment of nutrition due to impoverishment of the blood, esp. when caused by a specific morbid process (as cancer or tubercle).

Cach`in*na"tion (kăk`&ibreve;n*nā"shŭn), n. [L. cachinnatio, fr. cachinnare to laugh aloud, cf. Gr. kacha`zein.] Loud or immoderate laughter; -- often a symptom of hysterical or maniacal affections.

Hideous grimaces . . . attended this unusual cachinnation. Sir W. Scott.

Ca*chin"na*to*ry (?), a. Consisting of, or accompanied by, immoderate laughter.

Cachinnatory buzzes of approval. Carlyle.

||Ca*chi"ri (?), n. A fermented liquor made in Cayenne from the grated root of the manioc, and resembling perry. Dunglison.

Cach"o*long (?), n. [F. cacholong, said to be from Cach, the name of a river in Bucharia + cholon, a Calmuck word for stone; or fr. a Calmuck word meaning "beautiful stone"] (Min.) An opaque or milk-white chalcedony, a variety of quartz; also, a similar variety of opal.

Ca`chou" (?), n. [F. See Cashoo.] A silvered aromatic pill, used to correct the odor of the breath.

||Ca*chu"cha (?), n. [Sp.] An Andalusian dance in three-four time, resembling the bolero. [Sometimes in English spelled cachuca (&?;).]

The orchestra plays the cachucha. Longfellow.

||Ca*chun"de (?), n. [Sp.] (Med.) A pastil or troche, composed of various aromatic and other ingredients, highly celebrated in India as an antidote, and as a stomachic and antispasmodic.

||Ca*cique" (?), n. [Sp.] See Cazique.

Cack (kăk), v. i. [OE. cakken, fr. L. cacare; akin to Gr. kakka^n, and to OIr. cacc dung; cf. AS. cac.] To ease the body by stool; to go to stool. Pope.

Cack"er*el (?), n. [OF. caquerel cagarel (Cotgr.), from the root of E. cack.] (Zoöl.) The mendole; a small worthless Mediterranean fish considered poisonous by the ancients. See Mendole.

Cac"kle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cackled (-k'ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Cackling (?).] [OE. cakelen; cf. LG. kakeln, D. kakelen, G. gackeln, gackern; all of imitative origin. Cf. Gagle, Cake to cackle.] 1. To make a sharp, broken noise or cry, as a hen or goose does.

When every goose is cackling. Shak.

2. To laugh with a broken noise, like the cackling of a hen or a goose; to giggle. Arbuthnot.

3. To talk in a silly manner; to prattle. Johnson.

Cac"kle (?), n. 1. The sharp broken noise made by a goose or by a hen that has laid an egg.

By her cackle saved the state. Dryden.

2. Idle talk; silly prattle.

There is a buzz and cackle all around regarding the sermon. Thackeray.

Cac"kler (?), n. 1. A fowl that cackles.

2. One who prattles, or tells tales; a tattler.

Cac"kling, n. The broken noise of a goose or a hen.

{ ||Cac`o*chym"i*a (?), Cac"o*chym`y (?), } n. [NL. cacochymia, fr. Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;; kako`s bad + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?; juice: cf. F. cacochymie.] (Med.) A vitiated state of the humors, or fluids, of the body, especially of the blood. Dunglison.

{ Cac`o*chym"ic (?), Cac`o*chym"ic*al (?), } a. Having the fluids of the body vitiated, especially the blood. Wiseman.

Cac`o*de"mon (?), n. [Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;; kako`s bad + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; demon: cf. F. cacodémon.] 1. An evil spirit; a devil or demon. Shak.

2. (Med.) The nightmare. Dunaglison.

Cac`o*dox"ic*al (?), a. Heretical.

Cac"o*dox`y (?), n. [Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; perverted opinion; kako`s bad + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?; opinion.] Erroneous doctrine; heresy; heterodoxy. [R.]

Heterodoxy, or what Luther calls cacodoxy. R. Turnbull.

Cac"o*dyl (?), n. [Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; ill-smelling (kako`s bad + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?; to smell) + -yl.] (Chem.) Alkarsin; a colorless, poisonous, arsenical liquid, As2(CH3)4, spontaneously inflammable and possessing an intensely disagreeable odor. It is the type of a series of compounds analogous to the nitrogen compounds called hydrazines. [Written also cacodyle, and kakodyl.]

Cac`o*dyl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, cacodyl.

Cacodylic acid, a white, crystalline, deliquescent substance, (CH3)2AsO.OH, obtained by the oxidation of cacodyl, and having the properties of an exceedingly stable acid; -- also called alkargen.

||Cac`o*ë"thes (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; of ill habits, &?;&?; &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; an ill habit; kako`s bad + &?; habit] 1. A bad custom or habit; an insatiable desire; as, cacoëthes scribendi, "The itch for writing". Addison.

2. (Med.) A bad quality or disposition in a disease; an incurable ulcer.

Cac`o*gas"tric (?), a. [Gr. kako`s bad + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; stomach.] Troubled with bad digestion. [R.] Carlyle.

Cac`o*graph`ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, cacography; badly written or spelled.

Ca*cog`ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. kako`s bad + -graphy; cf. F. cacographie.] Incorrect or bad writing or spelling. Walpole.

||Ca`co*let" (?), n. [F.] A chair, litter, or other contrivance fitted to the back or pack saddle of a mule for carrying travelers in mountainous districts, or for the transportation of the sick and wounded of an army.

Ca*col"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. kako`s bad + -logy: cf. F. cacologie.] Bad speaking; bad choice or use of words. Buchanan.

{ ||Ca`co*mix"le (?), Ca`co*mix"tle (?), Ca"co*mix`l (?) }, n. [Mexican name.] A North American carnivore (Bassaris astuta), about the size of a cat, related to the raccoons. It inhabits Mexico, Texas, and California.

Ca*coon" (?), n. One of the seeds or large beans of a tropical vine (Entada scandens) used for making purses, scent bottles, etc.

{ Cac`o*phon"ic (?), Cac`o*phon"ic*al (?), Ca*coph"o*nous (?), Cac`o*pho"ni*ous (?) }, a. Harsh-sounding.

Ca*coph"o*ny (?), n.; pl. Cacophonies (#). [Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;; kako`s bad + &?;&?;&?;&?; sound: cf. F. Cacophonie.] 1. (Rhet.) An uncouth or disagreable sound of words, owing to the concurrence of harsh letters or syllables. "Cacophonies of all kinds." Pope.

2. (Mus.) A combination of discordant sounds.

3. (Med.) An unhealthy state of the voice.

Cac"o*tech`ny (?), n. [Gr. &?;; kako`s bad + &?; art.] A corruption or corrupt state of art. [R.]

{ Ca*cox"ene (?), Ca*cox"e*nite (?) }, n. [Gr. kako`s bad + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?; guest.] (Min.) A hydrous phosphate of iron occurring in yellow radiated tufts. The phosphorus seriously injures it as an iron ore.

Cac*ta"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Belonging to, or like, the family of plants of which the prickly pear is a common example.

Cac"tus (?), n. ; pl. E. Cactuses (#), Cacti (- tī). [L., a kind of cactus, Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;.] (Bot.) Any plant of the order Cactacæ, as the prickly pear and the night-blooming cereus. See Cereus. They usually have leafless stems and branches, often beset with clustered thorns, and are mostly natives of the warmer parts of America.

Cactus wren (Zoöl.), an American wren of the genus Campylorhynchus, of several species.

Ca*cu"mi*nal (?), a. [L. cacumen, cacuminis, the top, point.] (Philol.) Pertaining to the top of the palate; cerebral; -- applied to certain consonants; as, cacuminal (or cerebral) letters.

Ca*cu"mi*nate (?), v. i. [L. cacuminatus, p. p. of cacuminare to point, fr. cacumen point.] To make sharp or pointed. [Obs.]

Cad (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. cadet.] 1. A person who stands at the door of an omnibus to open and shut it, and to receive fares; an idle hanger-on about innyards. [Eng.] Dickens.

2. A lowbred, presuming person; a mean, vulgar fellow. [Cant] Thackeray.

Ca*das"tral (?), a. [F.] Of or pertaining to landed property.

Cadastral survey, or Cadastral map, a survey, map, or plan on a large scale (Usually &frac1x2500; of the linear measure of the ground, or twenty-five inches to the mile or about an inch to the acre) so as to represent the relative positions and dimensions of objects and estates exactly; -- distinguished from a topographical map, which exaggerates the dimensions of houses and the breadth of roads and streams, for the sake of distinctness. Brande & C.

{ ||Ca*das"tre, Ca*das"ter } (?), n. [f. cadastre.] (Law.) An official statement of the quantity and value of real estate for the purpose of apportioning the taxes payable on such property.

||Ca*da"ver (?), n. [L., fr cadere to fall.] A dead human body; a corpse.

Ca*dav"er*ic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a corpse, or the changes produced by death; cadaverous; as, cadaveric rigidity. Dunglison.

Cadaveric alkaloid, an alkaloid generated by the processes of decomposition in dead animal bodies, and thought by some to be the cause of the poisonous effects produced by the bodies. See Ptomaine.

Ca*dav"er*ous (?), a. [L. cadaverosus.] 1. Having the appearance or color of a dead human body; pale; ghastly; as, a cadaverous look.

2. Of or pertaining to, or having the qualities of, a dead body. "The scent cadaverous."

-- Ca*dav"er*ous*ly, adv. -- Ca*dav"er*ous*ness, n.

Cad"bait` (?), n. [Prov. E. codbait, cadbote fly.] (Zoöl.) See Caddice.

{ Cad"dice, Cad"dis } (?), n. [Prov. E. caddy, cadew; cf. G. köder bait.] (Zoöl.) The larva of a caddice fly. These larvæ generally live in cylindrical cases, open at each end, and covered externally with pieces of broken shells, gravel, bits of wood, etc. They are a favorite bait with anglers. Called also caddice worm, or caddis worm.

Caddice fly (Zoöl.), a species of trichopterous insect, whose larva is the caddice.

Cad"dis, n. [OE. caddas, Scot. caddis lint, caddes a kind of woolen cloth, cf. Gael. cada, cadadh, a kind of cloth, cotton, fustian, W. cadas, F. cadis.] A kind of worsted lace or ribbon. "Caddises, cambrics, lawns." Shak.

Cad"dish (?), a. Like a cad; lowbred and presuming.

Cad"dow (?), n. [OE. cadawe, prob. fr. ca chough + daw jackdaw; cf. Gael. cadhag, cathag. Cf. Chough, Daw, n.] (Zoöl.) A jackdaw. [Prov. Eng.]

Cad"dy (?), n.; pl. Caddies (#). [Earlier spelt catty, fr. Malay katī a weight of 1⅓ pounds. Cf. Catty.] A small box, can, or chest to keep tea in.

Cade (?), a. [Cf. OE. cad, kod, lamb, also Cosset, Coddle.] Bred by hand; domesticated; petted.

He brought his cade lamb with him. Sheldon.

Cade, v. t. To bring up or nourish by hand, or with tenderness; to coddle; to tame. [Obs.] Johnson.

Cade, n. [L. cadus jar, Gr. &?;.] A barrel or cask, as of fish. "A cade of herrings." Shak.

A cade of herrings is 500, of sprats 1,000. Jacob, Law Dict.

Cade, n. [F. & Pr.; LL. cada.] A species of juniper (Juniperus Oxycedrus) of Mediterranean countries.

Oil of cade, a thick, black, tarry liquid, obtained by destructive distillation of the inner wood of the cade. It is used as a local application in skin diseases.

Ca"dence (?), n. [OE. cadence, cadens, LL. cadentia a falling, fr. L. cadere to fall; cf. F. cadence, It. cadenza. See Chance.]

1. The act or state of declining or sinking. [Obs.]

Now was the sun in western cadence low. Milton.

2. A fall of the voice in reading or speaking, especially at the end of a sentence.

3. A rhythmical modulation of the voice or of any sound; as, music of bells in cadence sweet.

Blustering winds, which all night long Had roused the sea, now with hoarse cadence lull Seafaring men o'erwatched. Milton.

The accents . . . were in passion's tenderest cadence. Sir W. Scott.

4. Rhythmical flow of language, in prose or verse.

Golden cadence of poesy. Shak.

If in any composition much attention was paid to the flow of the rhythm, it was said (at least in the 14th and 15th centuries) to be "prosed in faire cadence." Dr. Guest.

5. (Her.) See Cadency.

6. (Man.) Harmony and proportion in motions, as of a well-managed horse.

7. (Mil.) A uniform time and place in marching.

8. (Mus.) (a) The close or fall of a strain; the point of rest, commonly reached by the immediate succession of the tonic to the dominant chord. (b) A cadenza, or closing embellishment; a pause before the end of a strain, which the performer may fill with a flight of fancy.

Imperfect cadence. (Mus.) See under Imperfect.

Ca"dence, v. t. To regulate by musical measure.

These parting numbers, cadenced by my grief. Philips.

Ca"den*cy (?), n. Descent of related families; distinction between the members of a family according to their ages.

Marks of cadency (Her.), bearings indicating the position of the bearer as older or younger son, or as a descendant of an older or younger son. See Difference (Her.).

Ca*dene" (?), n. [Cf. F. cadène.] A species of inferior carpet imported from the Levant. McElrath.

Ca"dent (?), a. [L. cadens, -entis, p. pr. of cadere to fall.] Falling. [R.] "Cadent tears." Shak.

Ca*den"za (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) A parenthetic flourish or flight of ornament in the course of a piece, commonly just before the final cadence.

Ca"der (?), n. See Cadre.

Ca*det" (?), n. [F. cadet a younger or the youngest son or brother, dim. fr. L. caput head; i. e., a smaller head of the family, after the first or eldest. See Chief, and cf. Cad.]

1. The younger of two brothers; a younger brother or son; the youngest son.

The cadet of an ancient and noble family. Wood.

2. (Mil.) (a) A gentleman who carries arms in a regiment, as a volunteer, with a view of acquiring military skill and obtaining a commission. (b) A young man in training for military or naval service; esp. a pupil in a military or naval school, as at West Point, Annapolis, or Woolwich.

&fist; All the undergraduates at Annapolis are Naval cadets. The distinction between Cadet midshipmen and Cadet engineers was abolished by Act of Congress in 1882.

Ca*det"ship (?), n. The position, rank, or commission of a cadet; as, to get a cadetship.

{ Ca*dew" (?), Cade"worm` (?), } n. A caddice. See Caddice.

Cadge (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Cadged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cadging.] [Cf. Scot. cache, caich, cadge, to toss, drive, OE. cachen to drive, catch, caggen to bind, or perh. E. cage. Cf. Cadger.]

1. To carry, as a burden. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Halliwell.

2. To hawk or peddle, as fish, poultry, etc. [Prov.]

3. To intrude or live on another meanly; to beg. [Prov. or Slang, Eng.] Wright.

Cadge, n. [Cf. 2d Cadger.] (Hawking) A circular frame on which cadgers carry hawks for sale.

Cadg"er (?), n. [From Cadge, v. t., cf. Codger.]

1. A packman or itinerant huckster.

2. One who gets his living by trickery or begging. [Prov. or Slang] "The gentleman cadger." Dickens.

Cadg"er, n. [OF. cagier one who catches hawks. Cf. Cage.] (Hawking) One who carries hawks on a cadge.

Cadg"y (?), a. Cheerful or mirthful, as after good eating or drinking; also, wanton. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

Ca"di (?), n. [Turk. See Alcalde.] An inferior magistrate or judge among the Mohammedans, usually the judge of a town or village.

{ Cad"ie, Cad"die (?), } n. A Scotch errand boy, porter, or messenger. [Written also cady.]

Every Scotchman, from the peer to the cadie. Macaulay.

Ca`di*les"ker (?), n. [Ar. qād.ī judge + al'sker the army, Per. leshker.] A chief judge in the Turkish empire, so named originally because his jurisdiction extended to the cases of soldiers, who are now tried only by their own officers.

Ca*dil"lac (?), n. [Prob. from Cadillac, a French town.] A large pear, shaped like a flattened top, used chiefly for cooking. Johnson.

Cad"is (?), n. [F.] A kind of coarse serge.

Cad*me"an (kăd*m>emac/"an), a. [L. Cadmeus, Gr. Kadmei^os, from Ka`dmos (L. Cadmus), which name perhaps means lit. a man from the East; cf. Heb. qedem east.] Of or pertaining to Cadmus, a fabulous prince of Thebes, who was said to have introduced into Greece the sixteen simple letters of the alphabet -- α, β, γ, δ, ε, ι, κ, λ, μ, ν, ο, π, ρ, σ, τ, υ. These are called Cadmean letters.

Cadmean victory, a victory that damages the victors as much as the vanquished; probably referring to the battle in which the soldiers who sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus slew each other.

Cad"mi*a (?), n. [L. cadmia calamine, Gr. &?;. Cf. Calamine.] (Min.) An oxide of zinc which collects on the sides of furnaces where zinc is sublimed. Formerly applied to the mineral calamine.

Cad"mi*an (?), a. [R.] See Cadmean.

Cad"mic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, cadmium; as, cadmic sulphide.

Cad"mi*um (?), n. [NL. See Cadmia.] (Chem.) A comparatively rare element related to zinc, and occurring in some zinc ores. It is a white metal, both ductile and malleable. Symbol Cd. Atomic weight 111.8. It was discovered by Stromeyer in 1817, who named it from its association with zinc or zinc ore.

Cadmium yellow, a compound of cadmium and sulphur, of an intense yellow color, used as a pigment.

Cad"rans (?), n. [Cf. F. cadran. Cf. Quadrant.] An instrument with a graduated disk by means of which the angles of gems are measured in the process of cutting and polishing.

||Ca"dre (?), n. [F. cadre, It. quadro square, from L. quadrum, fr. quatuor four.] (Mil.) The framework or skeleton upon which a regiment is to be formed; the officers of a regiment forming the staff. [Written also cader.]

Ca*du"ca*ry (?), a. [See Caducous.] (Law) Relating to escheat, forfeiture, or confiscation.

Ca*du"ce*an (?), a. Of or belonging to Mercury's caduceus, or wand.

Ca*du"ce*us (?), n. [L. caduceum, caduceus; akin to Gr. &?; a herald's wand, fr. &?; herald.] (Myth.) The official staff or wand of Hermes or Mercury, the messenger of the gods. It was originally said to be a herald's staff of olive wood, but was afterwards fabled to have two serpents coiled about it, and two wings at the top.

Ca*du`ci*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [L. caducus falling (fr. cadere to fall) + E. branchiate.] (Zoöl.) With temporary gills: -- applied to those Amphibia in which the gills do not remain in adult life.

Ca*du"ci*ty (?), n. [LL. caducitas: cf. F. caducité. See Caducous.] Tendency to fall; the feebleness of old age; senility. [R.]

[A] jumble of youth and caducity. Chesterfield.

Ca*du"cous (?), [L. caducus falling, inclined to fall, fr. cadere to fall. See Cadence.] (Bot. & Zoöl.) Dropping off or disappearing early, as the calyx of a poppy, or the gills of a tadpole.

Ca*duke" (?), a. [Cf. F. caduc. See Caducous.] Perishable; frail; transitory. [Obs.] Hickes.

The caduke pleasures of his world. Bp. Fisher.

Cad"y (?), n. See Cadie.

||Cæ"ca (?), n. pl. See Cæcum.

Cæ"cal (?), a. (Anat.)

1. Of or pertaining to the cæcum, or blind gut.

2. Having the form of a cæcum, or bag with one opening; baglike; as, the cæcal extremity of a duct.

||Cæ"ci*as (?), n. [L. caecias, Gr. &?;.] A wind from the northeast. Milton.

Cæ*cil"i*an (?; 106), n. [L. caecus blind. So named from the supposed blindness of the species, the eyes being very minute.] (Zoöl.) A limbless amphibian belonging to the order Cæciliæ or Ophimorpha. See Ophiomorpha. [Written also cœcilian.]

||Cæ"cum (?), n.; pl. Cæcums, L. Cæca (#). [L. caecus blind, invisible, concealed.] (Anat.) (a) A cavity open at one end, as the blind end of a canal or duct. (b) The blind part of the large intestine beyond the entrance of the small intestine; -- called also the blind gut.

&fist; The cæcum is comparatively small in man, and ends in a slender portion, the vermiform appendix; but in herbivorous mammals it is often as large as the rest of the large intestine. In fishes there are often numerous intestinal cæca.

Cæ`no*zo"ic (?), a. (Geol.) See Cenozoic.

Ca"en stone" (?), A cream-colored limestone for building, found near Caen, France.

Cæ"sar (?), n. [L.] A Roman emperor, as being the successor of Augustus Cæsar. Hence, a kaiser, or emperor of Germany, or any emperor or powerful ruler. See Kaiser, Kesar.

Malborough anticipated the day when he would be servilely flattered and courted by Cæsar on one side and by Louis the Great on the other. Macaulay.

{ Cæ*sa"re*an, Cæ*sa"ri*an (?), } a. [L. Caesareus, Caesarianus.] Of or pertaining to Cæsar or the Cæsars; imperial.

Cæsarean section (Surg.), the operation of taking a child from the womb by cutting through the walls of the abdomen and uterus; -- so called because Julius Cæsar is reported to have been brought into the world by such an operation.

Cæ"sar*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. Césarisme.] A system of government in which unrestricted power is exercised by a single person, to whom, as Cæsar or emperor, it has been committed by the popular will; imperialism; also, advocacy or support of such a system of government.

&fist; This word came into prominence in the time of Napoleon III., as an expression of the claims and political views of that emperor, and of the politicians of his court.

Cæ"si*ous (?), a. [L. caesius bluish gray.] (Nat. Hist.) Of the color of lavender; pale blue with a slight mixture of gray. Lindley.

Cæ"si*um (?), n. [NL., from L. caesius bluish gray.] (Chem.) A rare alkaline metal found in mineral water; -- so called from the two characteristic blue lines in its spectrum. It was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis, and is the most strongly basic and electro-positive substance known. Symbol Cs. Atomic weight 132.6.

Cæs"pi*tose` (?), a. Same as Cespitose.

Cæ*su"ra (?), n.; pl. E. Cæsuras (&?;), L. Cæsuræ (&?;) [L. caesura a cutting off, a division, stop, fr. caedere, caesum, to cut off. See Concise.] A metrical break in a verse, occurring in the middle of a foot and commonly near the middle of the verse; a sense pause in the middle of a foot. Also, a long syllable on which the cæsural accent rests, or which is used as a foot.

&fist; In the following line the cæsura is between study and of.

The prop | er stud | y || of | mankind | is man.

Cæ*su"ral (?), a. Of or pertaining to a cæsura.

Cæsural pause, a pause made at a cæsura.

||Ca`fé" (?), n. [F. See Coffee.] A coffeehouse; a restaurant; also, a room in a hotel or restaurant where coffee and liquors are served.

{ Caf"e*net (?), Caf"e*neh (?), } n. [Turk. qahveh khāneh coffeehouse.] A humble inn or house of rest for travelers, where coffee is sold. [Turkey]

Caf*fe"ic (?), a. [See Coffee.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, coffee.

Caffeic acid, an acid obtained from coffee tannin, as a yellow crystalline substance, C9H8O4.

Caf*fe"ine (?), n. [Cf. F. caféine. See Coffee.] (Chem.) A white, bitter, crystallizable substance, obtained from coffee. It is identical with the alkaloid theine from tea leaves, and with guaranine from guarana.

Caf`fe*tan"nic (?), a. [Caffeic + tannic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, the tannin of coffee.

Caffetannic acid, a variety of tannin obtained from coffee berries, regarded as a glucoside.

||Caf"fi*la (?), n. [Ar.] See Cafila.

Caf"fre (?), n. See Kaffir.

{ ||Ca"fi*la (?), ||Ca"fi*leh (?), } n. [Ar.] A caravan of travelers; a military supply train or government caravan; a string of pack horses.

Caf"tan (?), n. [Turk. qaftān: cf. F. cafetan.] A garment worn throughout the Levant, consisting of a long gown with sleeves reaching below the hands. It is generally fastened by a belt or sash.

Caf"tan (?), v. t. To clothe with a caftan. [R.]

The turbaned and caftaned damsel. Sir W. Scott.

Cag (?), n. See Keg. [Obs.]

Cage (?), n. [F. cage, fr. L. cavea cavity, cage, fr. cavus hollow. Cf. Cave, n., Cajole, Gabion.]

1. A box or inclosure, wholly or partly of openwork, in wood or metal, used for confining birds or other animals.

In his cage, like parrot fine and gay. Cowper.

2. A place of confinement for malefactors Shak.

Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage. Lovelace.

3. (Carp.) An outer framework of timber, inclosing something within it; as, the cage of a staircase. Gwilt.

4. (Mach.) (a) A skeleton frame to limit the motion of a loose piece, as a ball valve. (b) A wirework strainer, used in connection with pumps and pipes.

5. The box, bucket, or inclosed platform of a lift or elevator; a cagelike structure moving in a shaft.

6. (Mining) The drum on which the rope is wound in a hoisting whim.

7. (Baseball) The catcher's wire mask.

Cage (kāj), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caged (kājd); p. pr. & vb. n. Caging.] To confine in, or as in, a cage; to shut up or confine. "Caged and starved to death." Cowper.

Caged (kājd), a. Confined in, or as in, a cage; like a cage or prison. "The caged cloister." Shak.

Cage"ling (kāj"l&ibreve;ng), n. [Cage + -ling] A bird confined in a cage; esp. a young bird. [Poetic] Tennyson.

||Ca"git (kā"j&ibreve;t), n. (Zoöl) A kind of parrot, of a beautiful green color, found in the Philippine Islands.

Cag"mag (kăg"măg), n. A tough old goose; hence, coarse, bad food of any kind. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

||Ca`got" (k&adot;`g&osl;"), n. [F.] One of a race inhabiting the valleys of the Pyrenees, who until 1793 were political and social outcasts (Christian Pariahs). They are supposed to be a remnant of the Visigoths.

||Ca`hier" (k&adot;`y&asl;" or k&adot;`hēr), n. [F., fr. OF. cayer, fr. LL. quaternum. See Quire of paper. The sheets of manuscript were folded into parts.] 1. A number of sheets of paper put loosely together; esp. one of the successive portions of a work printed in numbers.

2. A memorial of a body; a report of legislative proceedings, etc.

Ca*hin"cic (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, cahinca, the native name of a species of Brazilian Chiococca, perhaps C. racemosa; as, cahincic acid.

Ca*hoot" (?), n. [Perhaps fr. f. cohorte a company or band.] Partnership; as, to go in cahoot with a person. [Slang, southwestern U. S.] Bartlett.

||Cai`ma*cam" (?), n. [Turk.] The governor of a sanjak or district in Turkey.

Cai"man (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Cayman.

Cai`no*zo"ic (?), a. (Geol.) See Cenozic.

||Ca*ïque" (?), n. [F., fr. Turk. qāīq boat.] (Naut.) A light skiff or rowboat used on the Bosporus; also, a Levantine vessel of larger size.

||Ça" i*ra" (?). [F. ça ira, ça ira, les aristocrates à la lanterne, it shall go on, it shall go on, [hang]the arictocrats to the lantern (lamp-post).] The refrain of a famous song of the French Revolution.

Caird (?), n. [Ir. ceard a tinker.] A traveling tinker; also a tramp or sturdy beggar. [Prov. Eng.]

Cairn (?), n. [Gael. carn, gen. cairn, a heap: cf. Ir. & W. carn.] 1. A rounded or conical heap of stones erected by early inhabitants of the British Isles, apparently as a sepulchral monument.

Now here let us place the gray stone of her cairn. Campbell.

2. A pile of stones heaped up as a landmark, or to arrest attention, as in surveying, or in leaving traces of an exploring party, etc. C. Kingsley. Kane.

Cairn*gorm"stone` (?). [Gael. carn a cairn + gorm azure.] (Min.) A yellow or smoky brown variety of rock crystal, or crystallized quartz, found esp, in the mountain of Cairngorm, in Scotland.

Cais"son (?), n. [F., fr. caisse, case, chest. See 1st Case.] 1. (Mil.) (a) A chest to hold ammunition. (b) A four-wheeled carriage for conveying ammunition, consisting of two parts, a body and a limber. In light field batteries there is one caisson to each piece, having two ammunition boxes on the body, and one on the limber. Farrow. (c) A chest filled with explosive materials, to be laid in the way of an enemy and exploded on his approach.

2. (a) A water-tight box, of timber or iron within which work is carried on in building foundations or structures below the water level. (b) A hollow floating box, usually of iron, which serves to close the entrances of docks and basins. (c) A structure, usually with an air chamber, placed beneath a vessel to lift or float it.

3. (Arch.) A sunk panel of ceilings or soffits.

Pneumatic caisson (Engin.), a caisson, closed at the top but open at the bottom, and resting upon the ground under water. The pressure of air forced into the caisson keeps the water out. Men and materials are admitted to the interior through an air lock. See Lock.

Cai"tiff (?), a. [OE. caitif, cheitif, captive, miserable, OF. caitif, chaitif, captive, mean, wretched, F. chétif, fr. L. captivus captive, fr. capere to take, akin to E. heave. See Heave, and cf. Captive.] 1. Captive; wretched; unfortunate. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. Base; wicked and mean; cowardly; despicable.

Arnold had sped his caitiff flight. W. Irving.

Cai"tiff, n. A captive; a prisoner. [Obs.]

Avarice doth tyrannize over her caitiff and slave. Holland.

2. A wretched or unfortunate man. [Obs.] Chaucer.

3. A mean, despicable person; one whose character meanness and wickedness meet.

The deep-felt conviction of men that slavery breaks down the moral character . . . speaks out with . . . distinctness in the change of meaning which caitiff has undergone signifying as it now does, one of a base, abject disposition, while there was a time when it had nothing of this in it. Trench.

Caj"e*put (?), n. See Cajuput.

Ca*jole" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cajoled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cajoling.] [F. cajoler, orig., to chatter like a bird in a cage, to sing; hence, to amuse with idle talk, to flatter, from the source of OF. goale, jaiole, F. geôle, dim. of cage a cage. See Cage, Jail.] To deceive with flattery or fair words; to wheedle.

I am not about to cajole or flatter you into a reception of my views. F. W. Robertson.

Syn. -- To flatter; wheedle; delude; coax; entrap.

Ca*jole"ment (?), n. The act of cajoling; the state of being cajoled; cajolery. Coleridge.

Ca*jol"er (?), n. A flatterer; a wheedler.

Ca*jol"er*y (?), n.; pl. Cajoleries (&?;). A wheedling to delude; words used in cajoling; flattery. "Infamous cajoleries." Evelyn.

Caj"u*put (?), n. [Of Malayan origin; kāyu tree + pūtih white.] (Med.) A highly stimulating volatile inflammable oil, distilled from the leaves of an East Indian tree (Melaleuca cajuputi, etc.) It is greenish in color and has a camphoraceous odor and pungent taste.

Caj"u*put*ene` (?), n. (Chem.) A colorless or greenish oil extracted from cajuput.

Cake (kāk), n. [OE. cake, kaak; akin to Dan. kage, Sw. & Icel. kaka, D. koek, G. kuchen, OHG. chuocho.]

1. A small mass of dough baked; especially, a thin loaf from unleavened dough; as, an oatmeal cake; johnnycake.

2. A sweetened composition of flour and other ingredients, leavened or unleavened, baked in a loaf or mass of any size or shape.

3. A thin wafer-shaped mass of fried batter; a griddlecake or pancake; as buckwheat cakes.

4. A mass of matter concreted, congealed, or molded into a solid mass of any form, esp. into a form rather flat than high; as, a cake of soap; an ague cake.

Cakes of rusting ice come rolling down the flood. Dryden.

Cake urchin (Zoöl), any species of flat sea urchins belonging to the Clypeastroidea. -- Oil cake the refuse of flax seed, cotton seed, or other vegetable substance from which oil has been expressed, compacted into a solid mass, and used as food for cattle, for manure, or for other purposes. -- To have one's cake dough, to fail or be disappointed in what one has undertaken or expected. Shak.

Cake, v. i. To form into a cake, or mass.

Cake, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caking.] To concrete or consolidate into a hard mass, as dough in an oven; to coagulate.

Clotted blood that caked within. Addison.

Cake, v. i. To cackle as a goose. [Prov. Eng.]

Cak"ing coal` (?). See Coal.

Cal (?), n. (Cornish Mines) Wolfram, an ore of tungsten. Simmonds.

Cal"a*bar (?), n. A district on the west coast of Africa.

Calabar bean, The of a climbing legumious plant (Physostigma venenosum), a native of tropical Africa. It is highly poisonous. It is used to produce contraction of the pupil of the eye; also in tetanus, neuralgia, and rheumatic diseases; -- called also ordeal bean, being used by the negroes in trials for witchcraft.

Cal"a*bar*ine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid resembling physostigmine and occurring with it in the calabar bean.

Cal"a*bash (kăl"&adot;*băsh), n. [Sp. calabaza, or Pg. calabaça, cabaça (cf. F. Calebasse), lit., a dry gourd, fr. Ar. qar', fem., a kind of gourd + aibas dry.] 1. The common gourd (plant or fruit).

2. The fruit of the calabash tree.

3. A water dipper, bottle, bascket, or other utensil, made from the dry shell of a calabash or gourd.

Calabash tree. (Bot.), a tree of tropical America (Crescentia cujete), producing a large gourdlike fruit, containing a purgative pulp. Its hard shell, after the removal of the pulp, is used for cups, bottles, etc. The African calabash tree is the baobab.

Cal`a*boose" (?), n. [A corruption of Sp. calabozo dungeon.] A prison; a jail. [Local, U. S.]

||Ca*lade" (?), n. [F.] A slope or declivity in a manege ground down which a horse is made to gallop, to give suppleness to his haunches.

||Ca*la"di*um (?), n. [NL.] A genus of aroideous plants, of which some species are cultivated for their immense leaves (which are often curiously blotched with white and red), and others (in Polynesia) for food.

Cal"a*ite (kăl`&asl;*īt), n. [L. callaïs, Gr. ka`lai:s, ka`llai:s; cf. F. calaïte.] A mineral. See Turquoise.

Cal`a*man"co (kăl`&adot;*mă&nsm;"k&osl;), n. [LL. calamancus, calamacus; cf. camelaucum; a head covering made of camel's hair, NGr. kamelay`kion, and F. calmande a woolen stuff.] A glossy woolen stuff, plain, striped, or checked. "A gay calamanco waistcoat." Tatler.

Cal"a*man`der wood (kăl"&adot;*măn`d&etilde;r w&oocr;d`). A valuable furniture wood from India and Ceylon, of a hazel-brown color, with black stripes, very hard in texture. It is a species of ebony, and is obtained from the Diospyros quæsita. Called also Coromandel wood.

{ Cal"a*mar (kăl"&adot;*mär), Cal"a*ma*ry, (-m&asl;*r&ybreve;r)} n. [LL. calamarium inkstand, fr. L. calamus a reed pen: cf. F. calmar, calemar, pen case, calamar.] (Zoöl.) A cephalopod, belonging to the genus Loligo and related genera. There are many species. They have a sack of inklike fluid which they discharge from the siphon tube, when pursued or alarmed, in order to confuse their enemies. Their shell is a thin horny plate, within the flesh of the back, shaped very much like a quill pen. In America they are called squids. See Squid.

Cal"am*bac (kăl"ăm*băk), n. [F. calambac, calambour, from Malay Kalambaq a king of fragrant wood.] (Bot.) A fragrant wood; agalloch.

Cal"am*bour (kăl"ăm*b&oomac;r), n. [See Calambac.] A species of agalloch, or aloes wood, of a dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and less fragrant than calambac; -- used by cabinetmakers.

Cal`a*mif"er*ous (?), a. [L. calamus reed + ferous.] Producing reeds; reedy.

Cal"a*mine (kăl"&adot;*mīn or - m&ibreve;n), n. [F. calamine, LL. calamina, fr. L. Cadmia. See Cadmia.] (min.) A mineral, the hydrous silicate of zinc.

&fist; The name was formerly applied to both the carbonate and silicate of zinc each of which is valuabic as an ore; but it is now usually restricted to the latter, the former being called smithsonite.

Cal"a*mint (-m&ibreve;nt), n. [OE. calamint, calemente (cf. F. calament) fr. L. calamintha, Gr. kalami`nqh, kala`minqos. See 1st Mint.] (Bot.) A genus of perennial plants (Calamintha) of the Mint family, esp. the C. Nepeta and C. Acinos, which are called also basil thyme.

Cal"a*mist (-m&ibreve;st), n. [L. calamus a reed.] One who plays upon a reed or pipe. [Obs.] Blount.

Cal`a*mis"trate (-m&ibreve;s"trāt), v. i. [L. calamistratus, curled with the curling iron, fr. calamistrum curling iron, fr. calamus a reed.] To curl or friz, as the hair. [Obs.] Cotgrave.

Cal`a*mis*tra"tion (kăl`&adot;*m&ibreve;s*trā"shŭn), n. The act or process of curling the hair. [Obs.] Burton.

||Cal`a*mis"trum (?), n. [L., a curling iron.] (Zoöl.) A comblike structure on the metatarsus of the hind legs of certain spiders (Ciniflonidæ), used to curl certain fibers in the construction of their webs.

Cal"a*mite (?), n. [L. calamus a reed: cf. F. calamite.] (Paleon.) A fossil plant of the coal formation, having the general form of plants of the modern Equiseta (the Horsetail or Scouring Rush family) but sometimes attaining the height of trees, and having the stem more or less woody within. See Acrogen, and Asterophyllite.

Ca*lam"i*tous (?), a. [L. Calamitosus; cf. F. calamiteux.]

1. Suffering calamity; wretched; miserable. [Obs.]

Ten thousands of calamitous persons. South.

2. Producing, or attended with distress and misery; making wretched; wretched; unhappy. "This sad and calamitous condition." South. "A calamitous prison" Milton.

Syn. -- Miserable; deplorable; distressful; afflictive; wretched; grievous; baleful; disastrous; adverse; unhappy; severe; sad; unfortunate.

-- Ca*lam"i*tous*ly, adv. -- Ca*lam"i*tous*ness, n.

Ca*lam"i*ty (?) n.; pl. Calamities (#). [L. calamitas, akin to in-columis unharmed: cf. F. calamité] 1. Any great misfortune or cause of misery; -- generally applied to events or disasters which produce extensive evil, either to communities or individuals.

The word calamity was first derived from calamus when the corn could not get out of the stalk. Bacon.

Strokes of calamity that scathe and scorch the soul. W. Irving.

2. A state or time of distress or misfortune; misery.

The deliberations of calamity are rarely wise. Burke.

Where'er I came I brought calamity. Tennyson.

Syn. -- Disaster; distress; affliction; adversity; misfortune; unhappiness; infelicity; mishap; mischance; misery; evil; extremity; exigency; downfall. -- Calamity, Disaster, Misfortune, Mishap, Mischance. Of these words, calamity is the strongest. It supposes a somewhat continuous state, produced not usually by the direct agency of man, but by natural causes, such as fire, flood, tempest, disease, etc, Disaster denotes literally ill-starred, and is some unforeseen and distressing event which comes suddenly upon us, as if from hostile planet. Misfortune is often due to no specific cause; it is simply the bad fortune of an individual; a link in the chain of events; an evil independent of his own conduct, and not to be charged as a fault. Mischance and mishap are misfortunes of a trivial nature, occurring usually to individuals. "A calamity is either public or private, but more frequently the former; a disaster is rather particular than private; it affects things rather than persons; journey, expedition, and military movements are often attended with disasters; misfortunes are usually personal; they immediately affect the interests of the individual." Crabb.

Cal"a*mus (?), n.; pl. Calami (#). [L., a reed. See Halm.] 1. (Bot.) The indian cane, a plant of the Palm family. It furnishes the common rattan. See Rattan, and Dragon's blood.

2. (Bot.) A species of Acorus (A. calamus), commonly called calamus, or sweet flag. The root has a pungent, aromatic taste, and is used in medicine as a stomachic; the leaves have an aromatic odor, and were formerly used instead of rushes to strew on floors.

3. (Zoöl.) The horny basal portion of a feather; the barrel or quill.

||Ca*lan"do (?), a. [It.] (Mus.) Gradually diminishing in rapidity and loudness.

Ca*lash" (?), n. [F. calèche; of Slavonic origin; cf. Bohem. kolesa, Russ. koliaska calash, koleso, kolo, wheel.] 1. A light carriage with low wheels, having a top or hood that can be raised or lowered, seats for inside, a separate seat for the driver, and often a movable front, so that it can be used as either an open or a close carriage.

The baroness in a calash capable of holding herself, her two children, and her servants. W. Irving.

2. In Canada, a two-wheeled, one-seated vehicle, with a calash top, and the driver's seat elevated in front.

3. A hood or top of a carriage which can be thrown back at pleasure.

4. A hood, formerly worn by ladies, which could be drawn forward or thrown back like the top of a carriage.

Ca`la*ve"rite (&?;), n. (Min.) A bronze-yellow massive mineral with metallic luster; a telluride of gold; -- first found in Calaveras County California.

Cal*ca"ne*al (?), a. (Anal.) Pertaining to the calcaneum; as, calcaneal arteries.

||Cal*ca"ne*um (?) n.; pl. E. -neums, L. -nea. [L. the heel, fr. calx, calcis, the heel.] (Anal.) One of the bones of the tarsus which in man, forms the great bone of the heel; -- called also fibulare.

Cal"car (?), n. [L. calcaria lime kiln, fr. calx, calcis, lime. See Calx.] (Glass manuf.) A kind of oven, or reverberatory furnace, used for the calcination of sand and potash, and converting them into frit. Ure.

||Cal"car, n.; L. pl. Calcaria (#). [L., a spur, as worn on the heel, also the spur of a cock, fr. calx, calcis, the heel.] 1. (Bot.) A hollow tube or spur at the base of a petal or corolla.

2. (Zoöl.) A slender bony process from the ankle joint of bats, which helps to support the posterior part of the web, in flight.

3. (Anat.) (a) A spur, or spurlike prominence. (b) A curved ridge in the floor of the leteral ventricle of the brain; the calcar avis, hippocampus minor, or ergot.

{ Cal"ca*rate (?), Cal"ca*ra`ted (?), } a. [LL. calcaratus, fr. L. calcar. See 2d Calcar.]

1. (Bot.) Having a spur, as the flower of the toadflax and larkspur; spurred. Gray.

2. (Zoöl.) Armed with a spur.

Cal*ca"re*o-ar`gil*la"ceous (?), a. consisting of, or containing, calcareous and argillaceous earths.

Cal*ca"re*o-bi*tu"mi*nous (?), a. Consisting of, or containing, lime and bitumen. Lyell.

Cal*ca"re*o-si*li"ceous (?), a.Consisting of, or containing calcareous and siliceous earths.

Cal*ca"re*ous (?), a. [L. calcarius pertaining to lime. See Calx.] Partaking of the nature of calcite or calcium carbonate; consisting of, or containing, calcium carbonate or carbonate of lime.

Calcareous spar. See as Calcite.

Cal*ca"re*ous*ness, n. Quality of being calcareous.

Cal`ca*rif"er*ous (?), a. [L. calcarius of lime + ferous.] Lime-yielding; calciferous

Cal"ca*rine (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or situated near, the calcar of the brain.

Cal`ca*vel"la (?), n. A sweet wine from Portugal; -- so called from the district of Carcavelhos. [Written also Calcavellos or Carcavelhos.]

Cal"ce*a`ted (?), a. [L. calceatus, p. p. of pelceare to ahoe, fr. catceus shoe, fr. calx, calcic, heel.] Fitted with, or wearing, shoes. Johnson.

Calced (?), a. [See Calceated.] Wearing shoes; calceated; -- in distintion from discalced or barefooted; as the calced Carmelites.

Cal"ce*don (?), n. [See Chalcedony.] A foul vein, like chalcedony, in some precious stones.

{ Cal`ce*don"ic (?), Cal`ce*do"ni*an, } a. See Chalcedonic.

Cal"ce*i*form` (kăl"s&esl;*&ibreve;*fôrm`), a. [L. calceus shoe + -form.] (Bot.) Shaped like a slipper, as one petal of the lady's-slipper; calceolate.

||cal`ce*o*la"ri*a (kăl`s&esl;*&osl;*lā"r&ibreve;*&adot;), n. [NL., fr. L. calceolarius shoemaker, fr. calceolus, a dim. of calceus shoe.] (Bot.) A genus of showy herbaceous or shrubby plants, brought from South America; slipperwort. It has a yellow or purple flower, often spotted or striped, the shape of which suggests its name.

Cal"ce*o*late (?), a. [See Calceolaria.] Slipper-ahaped. See Calceiform.

||Cal"ces (?), n. pl. See Calx.

Cal"cic (?), a. [L. calx, calcis, lime: cf. F. calcique.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, calcium or lime.

Cal*cif"er*ous (?), a. [L. calx, calcis, lime + -ferous.] Bearing, producing, or containing calcite, or carbonate of lime.

Calciferous epoch (Geol.), an epoch in the American lower Silurian system, immediately succeeding the Cambrian period. The name alludes to the peculiar mixture of calcareous and siliceous characteristics in many of the beds. See the Diagram under Geology.

Cal*cif"ic (?), a. Calciferous. Specifically: (Zoöl.) of or pertaining to the portion of the oviduct which forms the eggshell in birds and reptiles. Huxley.

Cal`ci*fi*ca"tion (kăl`s&ibreve;*f&ibreve;*kā"shŭn), n. (Physiol.) The process of change into a stony or calcareous substance by the deposition of lime salt; -- normally, as in the formation of bone and of teeth; abnormally, as in calcareous degeneration of tissue.

Cal"ci*fied (kăl"s&ibreve;*fīd), a. Consisting of, or containing, calcareous matter or lime salts; calcareous.

Cal"ci*form (kăl"s&ibreve;*fôrm), a. [L. calx, calcis, lime + - form.] In the form of chalk or lime.

Cal"ci*fy (kăl"s&ibreve;*fī), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Calcified (- fīd); p. pr. & vb. n. Calcifying.] [L. calx, calcis, lime + -fy.] To make stony or calcareous by the deposit or secretion of salts of lime.

Cal"ci*fy, v. i. To become changed into a stony or calcareous condition, in which lime is a principal ingredient, as in the formation of teeth.

Cal*cig"e*nous (?), a. [L. calx, calcis, lime + -genouse.] (Chem.) Tending to form, or to become, a calx or earthlike substance on being oxidized or burnt; as magnesium, calcium. etc.

Cal*cig"er*ous (?), a. [L. calx, calcis, lime + -gerouse.] Holding lime or other earthy salts; as, the calcigerous cells of the teeth.

Cal"ci*mine (?), n. [L. calx, calcis, lime.] A white or colored wash for the ceiling or other plastering of a room, consisting of a mixture of clear glue, Paris white or zinc white, and water. [Also spelt kalsomine.]

Cal"ci*mine, v. t. [imp. &p. p. Calcimined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calcimining.] To wash or cover with calcimine; as, to calcimine walls.

Cal"ci*mi`ner (?), n. One who calcimines.

Cal*cin"a*ble (?), a. That may be calcined; as, a calcinable fossil.

Cal"ci*nate (?), v. i. To calcine. [R.]

Cal`ci*na"tion (kăl`s&ibreve;*nā"shŭn), n. [F. calcination.]

1. (Chem.) The act or process of disintegrating a substance, or rendering it friable by the action of heat, esp. by the expulsion of some volatile matter, as when carbonic and acid is expelled from carbonate of calcium in the burning of limestone in order to make lime.

2. The act or process of reducing a metal to an oxide or metallic calx; oxidation.

Cal*cin"a*to*ry (?), n. A vessel used in calcination.

Cal*cine" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calciden (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calcining.] [F. calciner, fr. L. calx, calcis, lime. See Calx.]

1. To reduce to a powder, or to a friable state, by the action of heat; to expel volatile matter from by means of heat, as carbonic acid from limestone, and thus (usually) to produce disintegration; as to, calcine bones.

2. To oxidize, as a metal by the action of heat; to reduce to a metallic calx.

Cal*cine", v. i. To be converted into a powder or friable substance, or into a calx, by the action of heat. "Calcining without fusion" Newton.

Cal*cin"er (?), n. One who, or that which, calcines.

||Cal`ci*spon"gi*æ (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. calx, calcis, lime + spongia a sponge.] (Zoöl.) An order of marine sponges, containing calcareous spicules. See Porifera.

Cal"cite (kăl"sīt), n. [L. calx, calcis, lime.] (Min.) Calcium carbonate, or carbonate of lime. It is rhombohedral in its crystallization, and thus distinguished from aragonite. It includes common limestone, chalk, and marble. Called also calc-spar and calcareous spar.

&fist; Argentine is a pearly lamellar variety; aphrite is foliated or chalklike; dogtooth spar, a form in acute rhombohedral or scalenohedral crystals; calc- sinter and calc-tufa are lose or porous varieties formed in caverns or wet grounds from calcareous deposits; agaric mineral is a soft, white friable variety of similar origin; stalaclite and stalagmite are varieties formed from the drillings in caverns. Iceland spar is a transparent variety, exhibiting the strong double refraction of the species, and hence is called doubly refracting spar.

Cal"ci*trant (?), a. [L. calcitrans, p. pr. of calcitrare to kick, fr. calx, calcis , heel.] Kicking. Hence: Stubborn; refractory.

Cal"ci*trate (?), v. i. & i. [L. calcitratus, p. p. of calcitrare. See Calcitrant.] To kick.

Cal`ci*tra"tion (-trā"shŭn), n. Act of kicking.

Cal"ci*um (kăl"s&ibreve;*ŭm), n. [NL., from L. calx, calcis, lime; cf F. calcium. See Calx.] (Chem.) An elementary substance; a metal which combined with oxygen forms lime. It is of a pale yellow color, tenacious, and malleable. It is a member of the alkaline earth group of elements. Atomic weight 40. Symbol Ca.

&fist; Calcium is widely and abundantly disseminated, as in its compounds calcium carbonate or limestone, calcium sulphate or gypsum, calcium fluoride or fluor spar, calcium phosphate or apatite.

Calcium light, an intense light produced by the incandescence of a stick or ball of lime in the flame of a combination of oxygen and hydrogen gases, or of oxygen and coal gas; -- called also Drummond light.

Cal*civ"o*rous (?), a. [L. calx lime + vorare to devour.] Eroding, or eating into, limestone.

Cal*cog"ra*pher (?), n. One who practices calcography.

{ Cal`co*graph"ic (?), Cal`co*graph"ic*al, } a. Relating to, or in the style of, calcography.

Cal*cog"ra*phy (?), n. [L. calx, calcis, lime, chalk + -graphy.] The art of drawing with chalk.

Calc"-sin`ter (?), n. [G. kalk (L. calx, calcis) lime + E. sinter.] See under Calcite.

Calc"-spar` (?), n. [G. kalk (L. calx) lime E. spar.] Same as Calcite.

Calc"-tu`fa (?), n. [G. kalk (l. calx) lime + E. tufa.] See under Calcite.

Cal"cu*la*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. calculable.] That may be calculated or ascertained by calculation.

Cal"cu*la*ry (?), a. [L. calculus a pebble, a calculus; cf calcularius pertaining to calculation.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to calculi.

Cal"cu*la*ry, n. A congeries of little stony knots found in the pulp of the pear and other fruits.

Cal"cu*late (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calculater (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calculating (?).] [L, calculatus, p. p. of calculate, fr. calculus a pebble, a stone used in reckoning; hence, a reckoning, fr. calx, calcis, a stone used in gaming, limestone. See Calx.] 1. To ascertain or determine by mathematical processes, usually by the ordinary rules of arithmetic; to reckon up; to estimate; to compute.

A calencar exacity calculated than any othe. North.

2. To ascertain or predict by mathematical or astrological computations the time, circumstances, or other conditions of; to forecast or compute the character or consequences of; as, to calculate or cast one's nativity.

A cunning man did calculate my birth. Shak.

3. To adjust for purpose; to adapt by forethought or calculation; to fit or prepare by the adaptation of means to an end; as, to calculate a system of laws for the government and protection of a free people.

[Religion] is . . . calculated for our benefit. Abp. Tillotson.

4. To plan; to expect; to think. [Local, U. S.]

Syn. -- To compute; reckon; count; estimate; rate. -- To Calculate, Compute. Reckon, Count. These words indicate the means by which we arrive at a given result in regard to quantity. We calculate with a view to obtain a certain point of knowledge; as, to calculate an eclipse. We compute by combining given numbers, in order to learn the grand result. We reckon and count in carrying out the details of a computation. These words are also used in a secondary and figurative sense. "Calculate is rather a conjection from what is, as to what may be; computation is a rational estimate of what has been, from what is; reckoning is a conclusive conviction, a pleasing assurance that a thing will happen; counting indicates an expectation. We calculate on a gain; we compute any loss sustained, or the amount of any mischief done; we reckon on a promised pleasure; we count the hours and minutes until the time of enjoyment arrives" Crabb.

Cal"cu*late (?), v. i. To make a calculation; to forecast consequences; to estimate; to compute.

The strong passions, whether good or bad, never calculate. F. W. Robertson.

Cal"cu*la`ted (?), p. p. & a. 1. Worked out by calculation; as calculated tables for computing interest; ascertained or conjectured as a result of calculation; as, the calculated place of a planet; the calculated velocity of a cannon ball.

2. Adapted by calculation, contrivance. or forethought to accomplish a purpose; as, to use arts calculated to deceive the people.

3. Likely to produce a certain effect, whether intended or not; fitted; adapted; suited.

The only danger that attends multiplicity of publication is, that some of them may be calculated to injure rather than benefit society. Goldsmith.

The minister, on the other hand, had never gone through an experience calculated to lead him beyond the scope of generally received laws . Hawthorne.

Cal"cu*la`ting (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to mathematical calculations; performing or able to perform mathematical calculations.

2. Given to contrivance or forethought; forecasting; scheming; as, a cool calculating disposition.

Calculating machine, a machine for the mechanical performance of mathematical operations, for the most part invented by Charles Babbage and G. and E. Scheutz. It computes logarithmic and other mathematical tables of a high degree of intricacy, imprinting the results on a leaden plate, from which a stereotype plate is then directly made.

Cal"cu*la`ting, n. The act or process of making mathematical computations or of estimating results.

Cal`cu*la"tion (-lā"shŭn), n. [OE. calculation, fr. L. calculatio; cf. OF. calcucation.] 1. The act or process, or the result, of calculating; computation; reckoning, estimate. "The calculation of eclipses." Nichol.

The mountain is not so his calculation makes it. Boyle.

2. An expectation based on circumstances.

The lazy gossips of the port, Abhorrent of a calculation crost, Began to chafe as at a personal wrong. Tennyson.

Cal"cu*la*tive (?), a. Of or pertaining to calculation; involving calculation.

Long habits of calculative dealings. Burke.

Cal"cu*la*tor (?), n. [L.: cf. F. calculateur.] One who computes or reckons: one who estimates or considers the force and effect of causes, with a view to form a correct estimate of the effects.

Ambition is no exact calculator. Burke.

Cal"cu*la*to*ry (?), a. [L. calculatorius.] Belonging to calculation. Sherwood.

Cal"cule (?), n. [F. calcul, fr. L. calculus. See Calculus.] Reckoning; computation. [Obs.] Howell.

Cal"cule, v. i. To calculate [Obs.] Chaucer.

Cal"cu*li (?), n. pl. See Calculus.

Cal"cu*lous (?), a. [L. calculosus.] 1. Of the nature of a calculus; like stone; gritty; as, a calculous concretion. Sir T. Browne.

2. Caused, or characterized, by the presence of a calculus or calculi; a, a calculous disorder; affected with gravel or stone; as, a calculous person.

Cal"cu*lus (?), n.; pl. Calculi (#). [L, calculus. See Calculate, and Calcule.] 1. (Med.) Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc.

2. (Math.) A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that may involve calculation.

Barycentric calculus, a method of treating geometry by defining a point as the center of gravity of certain other points to which coëfficients or weights are ascribed. -- Calculus of functions, that branch of mathematics which treats of the forms of functions that shall satisfy given conditions. -- Calculus of operations, that branch of mathematical logic that treats of all operations that satisfy given conditions. -- Calculus of probabilities, the science that treats of the computation of the probabilities of events, or the application of numbers to chance. -- Calculus of variations, a branch of mathematics in which the laws of dependence which bind the variable quantities together are themselves subject to change. -- Differential calculus, a method of investigating mathematical questions by using the ratio of certain indefinitely small quantities called differentials. The problems are primarily of this form: to find how the change in some variable quantity alters at each instant the value of a quantity dependent upon it. -- Exponential calculus, that part of algebra which treats of exponents. -- Imaginary calculus, a method of investigating the relations of real or imaginary quantities by the use of the imaginary symbols and quantities of algebra. -- Integral calculus, a method which in the reverse of the differential, the primary object of which is to learn from the known ratio of the indefinitely small changes of two or more magnitudes, the relation of the magnitudes themselves, or, in other words, from having the differential of an algebraic expression to find the expression itself.

Cal"dron (k&add;l"drŭn), n. [OE. caldron, caudron, caudroun, OF. caudron, chauderon, F. chaudron, an aug. of F. chaudière, LL. caldaria, fr. L. caldarius suitable for warming, fr. caldus, calidus, warm, fr. calere to be warm; cf. Skr. çrā to boil. Cf. Chaldron, Calaric, Caudle.] A large kettle or boiler of copper, brass, or iron. [Written also cauldron.] "Caldrons of boiling oil." Prescott.

||Ca*lèche" (k&adot;*lāsh"), n. [F. calèche.] See Calash.

Cal`e*do"ni*a (?), n. The ancient Latin name of Scotland; -- still used in poetry.

Cal`e*do"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Caledonia or Scotland; Scottish; Scotch. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Caledonia or Scotland.

Ca*led"o*nite (?), n. (Min.) A hydrous sulphate of copper and lead, found in some parts of Caledonia or Scotland.

Cal`e*fa"cient (?), a. [L. calefaciens p. pr. of calefacere to make warm; calere to be warm + facere to make.] Making warm; heating. [R.]

Cal`e*fa"cient, n. A substance that excites warmth in the parts to which it is applied, as mustard.

Cal`e*fac"tion (?), n. [L. calefactio: cf. F. caléfaction.] 1. The act of warming or heating; the production of heat in a body by the action of fire, or by communication of heat from other bodies.

2. The state of being heated.

Cal`e*fac"tive (?), a. See Calefactory. [R.]

Cal`e*fac"tor (?), n. A heater; one who, or that which, makes hot, as a stove, etc.

Cal`e*fac"to*ry (?), a. [L. calefactorius.] Making hot; producing or communicating heat.

Cal`e*fac"to*ry, n. 1. (Eccl.) An apartment in a monastery, warmed and used as a sitting room.

2. A hollow sphere of metal, filled with hot water, or a chafing dish, placed on the altar in cold weather for the priest to warm his hands with.

Cal"e*fy (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calefied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calefying.] [L. calere to be warm + -fy] To make warm or hot.

Cal"e*fy, v. i. To grow hot or warm. Sir T. Browne.

||Cal"em*bour` (?), n. [F.] A pun.

Cal"en*dar (?), n. [OE. kalender, calender, fr. L. kalendarium an interest or account book (cf. F. calendrier, OF. calendier) fr. L. calendue, kalendae, calends. See Calends.] 1. An orderly arrangement of the division of time, adapted to the purposes of civil life, as years, months, weeks, and days; also, a register of the year with its divisions; an almanac.

2. (Eccl.) A tabular statement of the dates of feasts, offices, saints' days, etc., esp. of those which are liable to change yearly according to the varying date of Easter.

3. An orderly list or enumeration of persons, things, or events; a schedule; as, a calendar of state papers; a calendar of bills presented in a legislative assembly; a calendar of causes arranged for trial in court; a calendar of a college or an academy.

Shepherds of people had need know the calendars of tempests of state. Bacon.

Calendar clock, one that shows the days of the week and month. -- Calendar month. See under Month. -- French Republican calendar. See under Vendémiaire. -- Gregorian calendar, Julian calendar, Perpetual calendar. See under Gregorian, Julian, and Perpetual.

Cal"en*dar, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Calendared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calendaring.] To enter or write in a calendar; to register. Waterhouse.

Cal`en*da"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to the calendar or a calendar.

Cal"en*da*ry (?), a. Calendarial. [Obs.]

Cal"en*der (?), n. [F. calandre, LL. calendra, corrupted fr. L. cylindrus a cylinder, Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;. See Cylinider.] 1. A machine, used for the purpose of giving cloth, paper, etc., a smooth, even, and glossy or glazed surface, by cold or hot pressure, or for watering them and giving them a wavy appearance. It consists of two or more cylinders revolving nearly in contact, with the necessary apparatus for moving and regulating.

2. One who pursues the business of calendering.

My good friend the calender. Cawper.

Cal"en*der (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calendered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calendering.] [Cf. F. calandrer. See Calender, n.] To press between rollers for the purpose of making smooth and glossy, or wavy, as woolen and silk stuffs, linens, paper, etc. Ure.

Cal"en*der, n. [Per. qalender.] One of a sect or order of fantastically dressed or painted dervishes.

Cal`en*dog"ra*pher (?), n. [Calendar + -graph + er.] One who makes calendars. [R.]

Cal"en*drer (?), n. A person who calenders cloth; a calender.

{ Ca*len"dric (?), Ca*len"dric*al (?), } a., Of or pertaining to a calendar.

Cal"ends (?), n. pl. [OE. kalendes month, calends, AS. calend month, fr. L. calendae; akin to calare to call, proclaim, Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;. CF. Claim.] The first day of each month in the ancient Roman calendar. [Written also kalends.]

The Greek calends, a time that will never come, as the Greeks had no calends.

||Ca*len"du*la (?), n. [NL., fr. L. calendae calends.] (Bot.) A genus of composite herbaceous plants. One species, Calendula officinalis, is the common marigold, and was supposed to blossom on the calends of every month, whence the name.

Ca*len"du*lin (?), n. (Chem.) A gummy or mucilaginous tasteless substance obtained from the marigold or calendula, and analogous to bassorin.

Cal"en*ture (?), n. [F. calenture, fr. Sp. calenture heat, fever, fr. calentar to heat, fr. p. pr. of L. calere to be warm.] (Med.) A name formerly given to various fevers occuring in tropics; esp. to a form of furious delirium accompanied by fever, among sailors, which sometimes led the affected person to imagine the sea to be a green field, and to throw himself into it.

Cal"en*ture, v. i. To see as in the delirium of one affected with calenture. [Poetic]

Hath fed on pageants floating through the air Or calentures in depths of limpid flood. Wordsworth.

Ca*les"cence (?), n. [L. calescens, p. pr. of calescere, incho. of calere to be warm.] Growing warmth; increasing heat.

Calf (?), n.; pl. Calves (#). [OE. calf, kelf, AS. cealf; akin to D. kalf, G. kalb, Icel. kālfr, Sw. kalf, Dan. kalv, Goth. kalbō; cf. Skr. garbha fetus, young, Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;, Skr grabh to seize, conceive, Ir. colpa, colpach, a calf. √222.] 1. The young of the cow, or of the Bovine family of quadrupeds. Also, the young of some other mammals, as of the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and whale.

2. Leather made of the skin of the calf; especially, a fine, light-colored leather used in bookbinding; as, to bind books in calf.

3. An awkward or silly boy or young man; any silly person; a dolt. [Colloq.]

Some silly, doting, brainless calf. Drayton.

4. A small island near a larger; as, the Calf of Man.

5. A small mass of ice set free from the submerged part of a glacier or berg, and rising to the surface. Kane.

6. [Cf. Icel. kālfi.] The fleshy hinder part of the leg below the knee.

Calf's-foot jelly, jelly made from the feet of calves. The gelatinous matter of the feet is extracted by boiling, and is flavored with sugar, essences, etc.

Calf"skin` (?), n. The hide or skin of a calf; or leather made of the skin.

||Ca"li (?), n. (Hindoo Myth.) The tenth avatar or incarnation of the god Vishnu. [Written also Kali.]

{ Cal"i*ber, Cal"ibre } (?), n. [F. calibre, perh. fr. L. qualibra of what pound, of what weight; hence, of what size, applied first to a ball or bullet; cf. also Ar. qālib model, mold. Cf. Calipers, Calivere.]

1. (Gunnery) The diameter of the bore, as a cannon or other firearm, or of any tube; or the weight or size of the projectile which a firearm will carry; as, an 8 inch gun, a 12-pounder, a 44 caliber.

The caliber of empty tubes. Reid.

A battery composed of three guns of small caliber. Prescott.

&fist; The caliber of firearms is expressed in various ways. Cannon are often designated by the weight of a solid spherical shot that will fit the bore; as, a 12-pounder; pieces of ordnance that project shell or hollow shot are designated by the diameter of their bore; as, a 12 inch mortar or a 14 inch shell gun; small arms are designated by hundredths of an inch expressed decimally; as, a rifle of .44 inch caliber.

2. The diameter of round or cylindrical body, as of a bullet or column.

3. Fig.: Capacity or compass of mind. Burke.

Caliber compasses. See Calipers. -- Caliber rule, a gunner's calipers, an instrument having two scales arranged to determine a ball's weight from its diameter, and conversely. -- A ship's caliber, the weight of her armament.

Cal"i*brate (?), v. i. To ascertain the caliber of, as of a thermometer tube; also, more generally, to determine or rectify the graduation of, as of the various standards or graduated instruments.

Cal`ibra"*tion (?), n. The process of estimating the caliber a tube, as of a thermometer tube, in order to graduate it to a scale of degrees; also, more generally, the determination of the true value of the spaces in any graduated instrument.

Cal"ice (?), n. [See Calice.] See Chalice.

Cal"i*cle (?), n. [L. caliculus a small cup, dim. of calicis, a cup. Cf Calycle.] (Zoöl.) (a) One of the small cuplike cavities, often with elevated borders, covering the surface of most corals. Each is formed by a polyp. (b) One of the cuplike structures inclosing the zooids of certain hydroids. See Campanularian. [Written also calycle. See Calycle.]

Cal"i*co (?), n.; pl. Calicoes (#). [So called because first imported from Calicut, in the East Indies: cf. F. calicot.] 1. Plain white cloth made from cotton, but which receives distinctive names according to quality and use, as, super calicoes, shirting calicoes, unbleached calicoes, etc. [Eng.]

The importation of printed or stained colicoes appears to have been coeval with the establishment of the East India Company . Beck (Draper's Dict. ).

2. Cotton cloth printed with a figured pattern.

&fist; In the United States the term calico is applied only to the printed fabric.

Calico bass (Zoöl.), an edible, fresh-water fish (Pomoxys sparaides) of the rivers and lake of the Western United States (esp. of the Misissippi valley.), allied to the sunfishes, and so called from its variegated colors; -- called also calicoback, grass bass, strawberry bass, barfish, and bitterhead. -- Calico printing, the art or process of impressing the figured patterns on calico.

Cal"i*co (?), a. Made of, or having the appearance of, calico; -- often applied to an animal, as a horse or cat, on whose body are large patches of a color strikingly different from its main color. [Colloq. U. S.]

Cal"i*co*back` (?), n. (Zoöl.) (a) The calico bass. (b) An hemipterous insect (Murgantia histrionica) which injures the cabbage and other garden plants; -- called also calico bug and harlequin cabbage bug.

{ Ca*lic"u*lar (?), a. Ca*lic"u*late (?), } a. Relating to, or resembling, a cup; also improperly used for calycular, calyculate.

Cal"id (?), a. [L. calidus, fr. calere to be hot.] Hot; burning; ardent. [Obs.] Bailey.

Ca*lid"i*ty (?), n. Heat. [Obs.]

Cal"i*duct (?), n. [See Caloriduct.] A pipe or duct used to convey hot air or steam.

Subterranean caliducts have been introduced. Evelyn.

{ Ca"lif (?), n., Cal"i*fate (?), } n., etc. Same as Caliph, Caliphate, etc.

Cal`i*for"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to California. -- n. A native or inhabitant of California.

Cal`i*ga"tion (-gā"shŭn), n. [L. caligatio, fr. caligare to emit vapor, to be dark, from caligo mist, darkness.] Dimness; cloudiness. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Ca*lig`i*nos"ity (?), n. [L. caliginosus dark. See Caligation.] Darkness. [R.] G. Eliot.

Ca*lig"i*nous (?), a. [L. caliginosus; cf. F. caligineux.] Affected with darkness or dimness; dark; obscure. [R.] Blount.

The caliginous regions of the air. Hallywell.

-- Ca*lig"i*nous*ly, adv. -- Ca*lig"i*nous*ness, n.

||Ca*li"go (?), n. [L., darkness.] (Med.) Dimness or obscurity of sight, dependent upon a speck on the cornea; also, the speck itself.

Cal`i*graph"ic (?), a. See Calligraphic.

Ca*lig"ra*phy (?), n. See Caligraphy.

||Ca"lin (?), n. [F., fr. Malay kelany tin, or fr. Kala'a, a town in India, fr. which it came.] An alloy of lead and tin, of which the Chinese make tea canisters.

Cal`i*pash" (?), n. [F. carapace, Sp. carapacho. Cf Calarash, Carapace.] A part of a turtle which is next to the upper shell. It contains a fatty and gelatinous substance of a dull greenish tinge, much esteemed as a delicacy in preparations of turtle.

Cal"i*pee (?), n. [See Calipash] A part of a turtle which is attached to the lower shell. It contains a fatty and gelatinous substance of a light yellowish color, much esteemed as a delicacy. Thackeray.

Cal"i*pers (?), n. pl. [Corrupted from caliber.] An instrument, usually resembling a pair of dividers or compasses with curved legs, for measuring the diameter or thickness of bodies, as of work shaped in a lathe or planer, timber, masts, shot, etc.; or the bore of firearms, tubes, etc.; -- called also caliper compasses, or caliber compasses.

Caliper square, a draughtsman's or mechanic's square, having a graduated bar and adjustable jaw or jaws. Knight. -- Vernier calipers. See Vernier.

Ca"liph (kā"l&ibreve;f), n. [OE. caliphe, califfe, F. calife (cf. Sp. califa), fr. Ar. khalīfan successor, fr. khalafa to succed.] Successor or vicar; -- a title of the successors of Mohammed both as temporal and spiritual rulers, now used by the sultans of Turkey. [Written also calif.]

Cal"i*phate (?), n. [Cf. F. califat.] The office, dignity, or government of a caliph or of the caliphs.

Ca*lip"pic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Calippus, an Athenian astronomer.

Calippic period, a period of seventy-six years, proposed by Calippus, as an improvement on the Metonic cycle, since the 6940 days of the Metonic cycle exceeded 19 years by about a quarter of a day, and exceeded 235 lunations by something more.

Cal`i*sa"ya bark (?). A valuable kind of Peruvian bark obtained from the Cinchona Calisaya, and other closely related species.

||Cal`is*the"ne*um, n. [NL.] A gymnasium; esp. one for light physical exercise by women and children.

Cal`is*then"ic (?), a. [Gr. kalo`s beautiful + sqe`nos strength.] Of or pertaining to calisthenics.

Cal`is*then"ics (?), n. The science, art, or practice of healthful exercise of the body and limbs, to promote strength and gracefulness; light gymnastics.

Cal"i*ver (?), n. [Corrupted fr. caliber.] An early form of hand gun, a variety of the arquebus; originally a gun having a regular size of bore. [Obs.] Shak.

||Ca"lix (kā"l&ibreve;ks), n. [L.] A cup. See Calyx.

Calk (k&add;k), v. t. [imp. &p. p. Calked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calking.] [Either corrupted fr. F. calfater (cf. Pg. calafetar, Sp. calafetear), fr. Ar. qalafa to fill up crevices with the fibers of palm tree or moss; or fr. OE. cauken to tred, through the French fr. L. calcare, fr. calx heel. Cf. Calk to copy, Inculcate.] 1. To drive tarred oakum into the seams between the planks of (a ship, boat, etc.), to prevent leaking. The calking is completed by smearing the seams with melted pitch.

2. To make an indentation in the edge of a metal plate, as along a seam in a steam boiler or an iron ship, to force the edge of the upper plate hard against the lower and so fill the crevice.

Calk (kălk), v. t. [E. calquer to trace, It. caicare to trace, to trample, fr. L. calcare to trample, fr. calx heel. Cf. Calcarate.] To copy, as a drawing, by rubbing the back of it with red or black chalk, and then passing a blunt style or needle over the lines, so as to leave a tracing on the paper or other thing against which it is laid or held. [Written also calque]

Calk (k&add;k), n. [Cf. AS. calc shoe, hoof, L. calx, calcis, heel, calcar, spur.] 1. A sharp-pointed piece of iron or steel projecting downward on the shoe of a horse or an ox, to prevent the animal from slipping; -- called also calker, calkin.

2. An instrument with sharp points, worn on the sole of a shoe or boot, to prevent slipping.

Calk (k&add;k), v. i. 1. To furnish with calks, to prevent slipping on ice; as, to calk the shoes of a horse or an ox.

2. To wound with a calk; as when a horse injures a leg or a foot with a calk on one of the other feet.

Calk"er (?), n. 1. One who calks.

2. A calk on a shoe. See Calk, n., 1.

Calk"in (?), n. A calk on a shoe. See Calk, n., 1.

Calk"ing (?), n. The act or process of making seems tight, as in ships, or of furnishing with calks, as a shoe, or copying, as a drawing.

Calking iron, a tool like a chisel, used in calking ships, tightening seams in ironwork, etc.

Their left hand does the calking iron guide. Dryden.

Call (k&add;l), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Called (k&add;ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Calling] [OE. callen, AS. ceallian; akin to Icel. & Sw. kalla, Dan. kalde, D. kallen to talk, prate, OHG. kallōn to call; cf. Gr. ghry`ein to speak, sing, Skr. gar to praise. Cf. Garrulous.] 1. To command or request to come or be present; to summon; as, to call a servant.

Call hither Clifford; bid him come amain Shak.

2. To summon to the discharge of a particular duty; to designate for an office, or employment, especially of a religious character; -- often used of a divine summons; as, to be called to the ministry; sometimes, to invite; as, to call a minister to be the pastor of a church.

Paul . . . called to be an apostle Rom. i. 1.

The Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. Acts xiii. 2.

3. To invite or command to meet; to convoke; -- often with together; as, the President called Congress together; to appoint and summon; as, to call a meeting of the Board of Aldermen.

Now call we our high court of Parliament. Shak.

4. To give name to; to name; to address, or speak of, by a specifed name.

If you would but call me Rosalind. Shak.

And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. Gen. i. 5.

5. To regard or characterize as of a certain kind; to denominate; to designate.

What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common. Acts x. 15.

6. To state, or estimate, approximately or loosely; to characterize without strict regard to fact; as, they call the distance ten miles; he called it a full day's work.

[The] army is called seven hundred thousand men. Brougham.

7. To show or disclose the class, character, or nationality of. [Obs.]

This speech calls him Spaniard. Beau. & Fl.

8. To utter in a loud or distinct voice; -- often with off; as, to call, or call off, the items of an account; to call the roll of a military company.

No parish clerk who calls the psalm so clear. Gay.

9. To invoke; to appeal to.

I call God for a witness. 2 Cor. i. 23 [Rev. Ver. ]

10. To rouse from sleep; to awaken.

If thou canst awake by four o' the clock. I prithee call me. Sleep hath seized me wholly. Shak.

To call a bond, to give notice that the amount of the bond will be paid. -- To call a party (Law), to cry aloud his name in open court, and command him to come in and perform some duty requiring his presence at the time on pain of what may befall him. -- To call back, to revoke or retract; to recall; to summon back. -- To call down, to pray for, as blessing or curses. -- To call forth, to bring or summon to action; as, to call forth all the faculties of the mind. -- To call in, (a) To collect; as, to call in debts or money; ar to withdraw from cirulation; as, to call in uncurrent coin. (b) To summon to one's side; to invite to come together; as, to call in neighbors. -- To call (any one) names, to apply contemptuous names (to any one). -- To call off, to summon away; to divert; as, to call off the attention; to call off workmen from their employment. -- To call out. (a) To summon to fight; to challenge. (b) To summon into service; as, to call out the militia. -- To call over, to recite separate particulars in order, as a roll of names. -- To call to account, to demand explanation of. -- To call to mind, to recollect; to revive in memory. -- To call to order, to request to come to order; as: (a) A public meeting, when opening it for business. (b) A person, when he is transgressing the rules of debate. -- To call to the bar, to admit to practice in courts of law. -- To call up. (a) To bring into view or recollection; as to call up the image of deceased friend. (b) To bring into action or discussion; to demand the consideration of; as, to call up a bill before a legislative body.

Syn. -- To name; denominate; invite; bid; summon; convoke; assemble; collect; exhort; warn; proclaim; invoke; appeal to; designate. -- To Call, Convoke, Summon. Call is the generic term; as, to call a public meeting. To convoke is to require the assembling of some organized body of men by an act of authority; as, the king convoked Parliament. To summon is to require attendance by an act more or less stringent anthority; as, to summon a witness.

Call, v. i. 1. To speak in loud voice; to cry out; to address by name; -- sometimes with to.

You must call to the nurse. Shak.

The angel of God called to Hagar. Gen. xxi. 17.

2. To make a demand, requirement, or request.

They called for rooms, and he showed them one. Bunyan.

3. To make a brief visit; also, to stop at some place designated, as for orders.

He ordered her to call at the house once a week. Temple.

To call for (a) To demand; to require; as, a crime calls for punishment; a survey, grant, or deed calls for the metes and bounds, or the quantity of land, etc., which it describes. (b) To give an order for; to request. "Whenever the coach stopped, the sailor called for more ale." Marryat. -- To call on, To call upon, (a) To make a short visit to; as, call on a friend. (b) To appeal to; to invite; to request earnestly; as, to call upon a person to make a speech. (c) To solicit payment, or make a demand, of a debt. (d) To invoke or play to; to worship; as, to call upon God. -- To call out To call or utter loudly; to brawl.

Call (?), n. 1. The act of calling; -- usually with the voice, but often otherwise, as by signs, the sound of some instrument, or by writing; a summons; an entreaty; an invitation; as, a call for help; the bugle's call. "Call of the trumpet." Shak.

I rose as at thy call, but found thee not. Milton.

2. A signal, as on a drum, bugle, trumpet, or pipe, to summon soldiers or sailors to duty.

3. (Eccl.) An invitation to take charge of or serve a church as its pastor.

4. A requirement or appeal arising from the circumstances of the case; a moral requirement or appeal.

Dependence is a perpetual call upon humanity. Addison.

Running into danger without any call of duty. Macaulay.

5. A divine vocation or summons.

St. Paul himself believed he did well, and that he had a call to it, when he persecuted the Christians. Locke.

6. Vocation; employment. [In this sense, calling is generally used.]

7. A short visit; as, to make a call on a neighbor; also, the daily coming of a tradesman to solicit orders.

The baker's punctual call. Cowper.

8. (Hunting) A note blown on the horn to encourage the hounds.

9. (Naut.) A whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to duty.

10. (Fowling) The cry of a bird; also a noise or cry in imitation of a bird; or a pipe to call birds by imitating their note or cry.

11. (Amer. Land Law) A reference to, or statement of, an object, course, distance, or other matter of description in a survey or grant requiring or calling for a corresponding object, etc., on the land.

12. The privilege to demand the delivery of stock, grain, or any commodity, at a fixed, price, at or within a certain time agreed on. [Brokers' Cant]

13. See Assessment, 4.

At call, or On call, liable to be demanded at any moment without previous notice; as money on deposit. -- Call bird, a bird taught to allure others into a snare. -- Call boy (a) A boy who calls the actors in a theater; a boy who transmits the orders of the captain of a vessel to the engineer, helmsman, etc. (b) A waiting boy who answers a cal, or cames at the ringing of a bell; a bell boy. -- Call note, the note naturally used by the male bird to call the female. It is artificially applied by birdcatchers as a decoy. Latham. -- Call of the house (Legislative Bodies), a calling over the names of members, to discover who is absent, or for other purposes; a calling of names with a view to obtaining the ayes and noes from the persons named. -- Call to the bar, admission to practice in the courts.

Cal"la (kăl"l&adot;), n. [Linnæus derived Calla fr. Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; a cock's wattles but cf. L. calla, calsa, name of an unknown plant, and Gr. kalo`s beautiful.] (Bot.) A genus of plants, of the order Araceæ.

&fist; The common Calla of cultivation is Richardia Africana, belonging to another genus of the same order. Its large spathe is pure white, surrounding a fleshy spike, which is covered with minute apetalous flowers.

Cal"lat (?), n. Same as Callet. [Obs.]

A callat of boundless tongue. Shak.

Calle (?), n. [See Caul.] A kind of head covering; a caul. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Call"er (?), n. One who calls.

||Cal"ler (?), a. [Scot.] 1. Cool; refreshing; fresh; as, a caller day; the caller air. Jamieson.

2. Fresh; in good condition; as, caller berrings.

Cal"let (?), n. [Cf. Ir. & Gael. caile a country woman, strumpet.] A trull or prostitute; a scold or gossip. [Obs.] [Written also callat.]

Cal"let v. i. To rail or scold. [Obs.] Brathwait.

Cal"lid (?), a. [L. callidus, fr. callere to be thick-skinned, to be hardened, to be practiced, fr. callum, callus, callous skin, callosity, callousness.] Characterized by cunning or shrewdness; crafty. [R.]

Cal*lid"i*ty (?), n. [L. calliditas.] Acuteness of discernment; cunningness; shrewdness. [R.]

Her eagly-eyed callidity. C. Smart.

Cal*lig"ra*pher (?), n. One skilled in calligraphy; a good penman.

{ Cal`li*graph"ic (?), Cal`li*graph"ic*al (?), } a., [Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;; pref. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;- (fr. &?;&?;&?;&?; beautiful) + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; to write; cf. F. calligraphique.] Of or pertaining to calligraphy.

Excellence in the calligraphic act. T. Warton.

Cal*lig"ra*phist (?), n. A calligrapher

Cal*lig"ra*phy, n. [Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;: cf. F. calligraphie.] Fair or elegant penmanship.

Call"ing (?), n. 1. The act of one who calls; a crying aloud, esp. in order to summon, or to attact the attention of, some one.

2. A summoning or convocation, as of Parliament.

The frequent calling and meeting of Parlaiment. Macaulay.

3. A divine summons or invitation; also, the state of being divinely called.

Who hath . . . called us with an holy calling. 2 Tim. i. 9.

Give diligence to make yior calling . . . sure. 2 Pet. i. 10.

4. A naming, or inviting; a reading over or reciting in order, or a call of names with a view to obtaining an answer, as in legislative bodies.

5. One's usual occupation, or employment; vocation; business; trade.

The humble calling of ter female parent. Thackeray.

6. The persons, collectively, engaged in any particular professions or employment.

To impose celibacy on wholy callings. Hammond.

7. Title; appellation; name. [Obs.]

I am more proud to be Sir Rowland's son His youngest son, and would not change that calling. Shak.

Syn. -- Occupation; employment; business; trade; profession; office; engagement; vocation.

Cal*li"o*pe (kăl*lī"&osl;*p&esl;), n. [L. Calliope, Gr. Kallio`ph, lit, the beautiful-voiced; pref. kalli- (from kalo`s beautiful) + 'o`ps, 'opo`s, voice.] 1. (Class. Myth.) The Muse that presides over eloquence and heroic poetry; mother of Orpheus, and chief of the nine Muses.

2. (Astron.) One of the asteroids. See Solar.

3. A musical instrument consisting of a series of steam whistles, toned to the notes of the scale, and played by keys arranged like those of an organ. It is sometimes attached to steamboat boilers.

4. (Zoöl.) A beautiful species of humming bird (Stellula Calliope) of California and adjacent regions.

||Cal`li*op"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. kalli- (fr. kalo`s beautiful) + 'o`psis appearance.] (Bot.) A popular name given to a few species of the genus Coreopsis, especially to C. tinctoria of Arkansas.

Cal`li*pash" (&?;), n. See Calipash.

Cal`li*pee" (&?;), n. See Calipee.

Cal`li*pers (&?;), n. pl. See Calipers.

Cal`li*sec"tion (?), n. [L. callere to be insensible + E. section.] Painless vivisection; -- opposed to sentisection. B. G. Wilder.

{ Cal`lis*then"ic, a., Cal`lis*then"ics (?), n. } See Calisthenic, Calisthenics.

Cal"li*thump` (?), n. A somewhat riotous parade, accompanied with the blowing of tin horns, and other discordant noises; also, a burlesque serenade; a charivari. [U. S.]

Cal`li*thump"i*an (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a callithump. [U. S.]

Cal*lo"san (?), a. (Anat.) Of the callosum.

Cal"lose (?), a. [See Callous.] (Bot.) Furnished with protuberant or hardened spots.

Cal*los"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Callosities (#). [L. callasitas; cf. F. calosté.] A hard or thickened spot or protuberance; a hardening and thickening of the skin or bark of a part, eps. as a result of continued pressure or friction.

||Cal*lo"sum (?), n. [NL., fr. callosus callous, hard.] (Anat.) The great band commissural fibers which unites the two cerebral hemispheres. See corpus callosum, under Carpus.

Cal"lot (?), n. A plant coif or skullcap. Same as Calotte. B. Jonson.

Cal"lous (?), a. [L. callosus callous hard, fr. callum, callus, callous skin: cf. F. calleux.] 1. Hardened; indurated. "A callous hand." Goldsmith. "A callous ulcer." Dunglison.

2. Hardened in mind; insensible; unfeeling; unsusceptible. "The callous diplomatist." Macaulay.

It is an immense blessing to be perfectly callous to ridicule. T. Arnold.

Syn. -- Obdurate; hard; hardened; indurated; insensible; unfeeling; unsusceptible. See Obdurate.

-- Cal"lous*ly, adv. -- Cal"lous*ness, n.

A callousness and numbness of soul. Bentley.

Cal"low (?), a. [OE. calewe, calu, bald, AS. calu; akin to D. kaal, OHG. chalo, G. Kuhl; cf. L. calvus.]

1. Destitute of feathers; naked; unfledged.

An in the leafy summit, spied a nest, Which, o'er the callow young, a sparrow pressed. Dryden.

2. Immature; boyish; "green"; as, a callow youth.

I perceive by this, thou art but a callow maid. Old Play [1675].

Cal*low" (?), n. (Zoöl.) [Named from its note.] A kind of duck. See Old squaw.

Cal"lus (kăl"lŭs), n. [L. See Callous.] 1. (Med.) (a) Same as Callosity. (b The material of repair in fractures of bone; a substance exuded at the site of fracture, which is at first soft or cartilaginous in consistence, but is ultimately converted into true bone and unites the fragments into a single piece.

2. (Hort.) The new formation over the end of a cutting, before it puts out rootlets.

Calm (käm), n. [OE. calme, F. calme, fr. It. or Sp. calma (cf. Pg. calma heat), prob. fr. LL. cauma heat, fr. Gr. kay^ma burning heat, fr. kai`ein to burn; either because during a great heat there is generally also a calm, or because the hot time of the day obliges us seek for shade and quiet; cf. Caustic] Freedom from motion, agitation, or disturbance; a cessation or absence of that which causes motion or disturbance, as of winds or waves; tranquility; stillness; quiet; serenity.

The wind ceased, and there was a great calm. Mark. iv. 39.

A calm before a storm is commonly a peace of a man's own making. South.

Calm, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calming.] [Cf. F. calmer. See Calm, n.] 1. To make calm; to render still or quiet, as elements; as, to calm the winds.

To calm the tempest raised by Eolus. Dryden.

2. To deliver from agitation or excitement; to still or soothe, as the mind or passions.

Passions which seem somewhat calmed. Atterbury.

Syn. -- To still; quiet; appease; allay; pacify; tranquilize; soothe; compose; assuage; check; restrain.

Calm (käm), a. [Compar. Calmer (-&etilde;r); super. Calmest (-&ebreve;st)] 1. Not stormy; without motion, as of winds or waves; still; quiet; serene; undisturbed. "Calm was the day." Spenser.

Now all is calm, and fresh, and still. Bryant.

2. Undisturbed by passion or emotion; not agitated or excited; tranquil; quiet in act or speech. "Calm and sinless peace." Milton. "With calm attention." Pope.

Such calm old age as conscience pure And self-commanding hearts ensure. Keble.

Syn. -- Still; quiet; undisturbed; tranquil; peaceful; serene; composed; unruffled; sedate; collected; placid.

Calm"er (?), n. One who, or that which, makes calm.

Calm"ly (?), adv. In a calm manner.

The gentle stream which calmly flows. Denham.

Calm"ness, n. The state of quality of being calm; quietness; tranquillity; self- repose.

The gentle calmness of the flood. Denham.

Hes calmness was the repose of conscious power. E. Everett.

Syn. -- Quietness; quietude; stillness; tranquillity; serenity; repose; composure; sedateness; placidity.

Cal"mucks (?), n. pl.; sing. Calmuck. A branch of the Mongolian race inhabiting parts of the Russian and Chinese empires; also (sing.), the language of the Calmucks. [Written also Kalmucks.]

Calm"y (?), a. [Fr. Calm, n.] Tranquil; peaceful; calm. [Poet.] "A still and calmy day" Spenser.

Cal"o*mel (kăl"&osl;*m&ebreve;l), n. [Gr. kalo`s beautiful + me`las black. So called from its being white, though made from a black mixture of mercury and corrosive sublimate. Cf. F. calomélas.] (Chem.) Mild chloride of mercury, Hg2Cl2, a heavy, white or yellowish white substance, insoluble and tasteless, much used in medicine as a mercurial and purgative; mercurous chloride. It occurs native as the mineral horn quicksilver.

Cal`o*res"cence (?), n. [L. calor heat.] (Physics) The conversion of obscure radiant heat into light; the transmutation of rays of heat into others of higher refrangibility. Tyndall.

Ca*lor"ic (?), n. [L. calor heat; cf. F. calorique.] (Physics) The principle of heat, or the agent to which the phenomena of heat and combustion were formerly ascribed; -- not now used in scientific nomenclature, but sometimes used as a general term for heat.

Caloric expands all bodies. Henry.

Ca*lor"ic, a. Of or pertaining to caloric.

Caloric engine, a kind of engine operated by heated air.

Cal`o*ric"ity (?), n. (Physiol.) A faculty in animals of developing and preserving the heat necessary to life, that is, the animal heat.

Ca*lor"i*duct (?), n. [L. calor heat (fr. calere to warm) + E. duct.] A tube or duct for conducting heat; a caliduct.

Cal"o*rie (?), n. [F., fr. L. calor heat.] (Physics) The unit of heat according to the French standard; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (sometimes, one gram) of water one degree centigrade, or from 0° to 1°. Compare the English standard unit, Foot pound.

Ca*lor`i*fa"cient (?), a. (Physiol.) See Calorificient.

Ca*lor"i*fere (?), n. [F. calorifère, fr. L. calor heat + ferre to bear.] An apparatus for conveying and distributing heat, especially by means of hot water circulating in tubes.

Ca*lor`i*fi"ant (?), a. (Physiol.) See Calorificient.

Cal`o*rif"ic (?), a. [L. calorificus; calor heat + facere to make; cf. F. calorifique.] Possessing the quality of producing heat; heating.

Calorific rays, the invisible, heating rays which emanate from the sun, and from burning and heated bodies.

Ca*lor`i*fi*ca"tion (k&adot;*l&obreve;r`&ibreve;*f&ibreve;*kā"shŭn), n. [Cf. F. calorification.] Production of heat, esp. animal heat.

Ca*lor`i*fi"cient (?), a. (Physiol.) Having, or relating to the power of producing heat; -- applied to foods which, being rich in carbon, as the fats, are supposed to give rise to heat in the animal body by oxidation.

Cal`o*rim"e*ter (?), n. [L. calor heat + -meter; cf. F. calorimètre.] 1. (Physiol.) An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat contained in bodies or developed by some mechanical or chemical process, as friction, chemical combination, combustion, etc.

2. (Engineering) An apparatus for measuring the proportion of unevaporated water contained in steam.

Ca*lor`i*met"ric (?), a. Of or pertaining to the process of using the calorimeter.

Satisfactory calorimetric results. Nichol.

Cal`o*rim"e*try (?), n. (Physics) Measurement of the quantities of heat in bodies.

Ca*lor`i*mo"tor (?), n. [L. calor heat + E. motor.] (Physics) A voltaic battery, having a large surface of plate, and producing powerful heating effects.

{ ||Ca*lotte" (?), Cal"lot (?) }, n. [F. calotte, dim. of cale a sort of flat cap. Cf. Caul.] A close cap without visor or brim. Especially: (a) Such a cap, worn by English serjeants at law. (b) Such a cap, worn by the French cavalry under their helmets. (c) Such a cap, worn by the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.

To assume the calotte, to become a priest.

Cal"o*type (?), n. [Gr. kalo`s beautiful + ty`pos type.] (Photog.) A method of taking photographic pictures, on paper sensitized with iodide of silver; -- also called Talbotype, from the inventor, Mr. Fox. Talbot.

Ca*loy"er (?), n. [F., fr. NGr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?;&?; a monk; kalo`s beautiful, good + &?;&?;&?;&?;&?;, equiv. to Gr. &?;&?;&?;&?;&?; an old man.] A monk of the Greek Church; a cenobite, anchoret, or recluse of the rule of St. Basil, especially, one on or near Mt. Athos.

Calque, v. t. See 2d Calk, v. t.

{ Cal"trop (?), Cal"trap (?), } n. [OE. calketrappe, calletrappe, caltor (in both senses), fr. AS. collræppe, calcetreppe, sort of thistle; cf. F. chaussetrape star thistle, trap, It. calcatreppo, calcatreppolo, star thistle. Perh. from L. calx heel + the same word as E. trap. See 1st Trap.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of herbaceous plants (Tribulus) of the order Zygophylleæ, having a hard several- celled fruit, armed with stout spines, and resembling the military instrument of the same name. The species grow in warm countries, and are often very annoying to cattle.

2. (Mil.) An instrument with four iron points, so disposed that, any three of them being on the ground, the other projects upward. They are scattered on the ground where an enemy's cavalry are to pass, to impede their progress by endangering the horses' feet.

Ca*lum"ba (?), n. [from kalumb, its native name in Mozambique.] (Med.) The root of a plant (Jateorrhiza Calumba, and probably Cocculus palmatus), indigenous in Mozambique. It has an unpleasantly bitter taste, and is used as a tonic and antiseptic. [Written also colombo, columbo, and calombo.]

American calumba, the Frasera Carolinensis, also called American gentian. Its root has been used in medicine as bitter tonic in place of calumba.

Ca*lum"bin (?), n. (Chem.) A bitter principle extracted as a white crystalline substance from the calumba root. [Written also colombin, and columbin]

Cal"u*met (?), n. [F. calumet, fr. L. calamus reed. See Halm, and cf. Shawm.] A kind of pipe, used by the North American Indians for smoking tobacco. The bowl is usually made of soft red stone, and the tube is a long reed often ornamented with feathers.

Smoked the calumet, the Peace pipe, As a signal to the nations. Lowgfellow.

&fist; The calumet is used as a symbol of peace. To accept the calumet is to agree to terms of peace, and to refuse it is to reject them. The calumet of peace is used to seal or ratify contracts and alliances, and as an evidence to strangers that they are welcome.

Ca*lum"ni*ate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calumniated; p. pr. & vb. n. calumniating.] [L. calumniatus, p. p. of calumniari. See Calumny, and cf. Challenge, v. t.] To accuse falsely and maliciously of a crime or offense, or of something disreputable; to slander; to libel.

Hatred unto the truth did always falsely report and calumniate all godly men's doings. Strype.

Syn. -- To asperse; slander; defame; vilify; traduce; belie; bespatter; blacken; libel. See Asperse.

Ca*lum"ni*ate, v. i. To propagate evil reports with a design to injure the reputation of another; to make purposely false charges of some offense or crime.

Ca*lum`ni*a"tion (k&adot;*lŭm`n&ibreve;*ā"shŭn), n. False accusation of crime or offense, or a malicious and false representation of the words or actions of another, with a view to injure his good name.

The calumniation of her principal counselors. Bacon.

Ca*lum`ni*a"tor (?), n. [L.] One who calumniates.

Syn. -- Slanderer; defamer; libeler; traducer.

Ca*lum"ni*a*to*ry (?), a. Containing calumny; slanderous. Montagu.

Ca*lum"ni*ous (?), a. [L. calumniosus.] Containing or implying calumny; false, malicious, and injurious to reputation; slanderous; as, calumnious reports.

Virtue itself 'scapes not calumnious strokes. Shak.

. Slanderous; defamatory; scurrilous; opprobrious; derogatory; libelous; abusive.

-- Ca*lum"ni*ous*ly, adv. -- Ca*lum"ni*ous*ness, n.

Cal"um*ny (?), n.; pl. Calumnies (#). [L. calumnia, fr. calvi to devise tricks, deceive; cf. F. calomnie. Cf. Challenge, n.] False accusation of a crime or offense, maliciously made or reported, to the injury of another; malicious misrepresentation; slander; detraction. "Infamous calumnies." Motley.

Be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calumny. Shak.

||Cal*va"ri*a (kăl*vā"r&ibreve;*&adot;), n. [L. See Calvary.] (Anat.) The bones of the cranium; more especially, the bones of the domelike upper portion.

Cal"va*ry (kăl"v&adot;*r&ybreve;), n. [L. calvaria a bare skull, fr. calva the scalp without hair. fr. calvus bald; cf. F. calvaire.] 1. The place where Christ was crucified, on a small hill outside of Jerusalem. Luke xxiii. 33.

&fist; The Latin calvaria is a translation of the Greek krani`on of the Evangelists, which is an interpretation of the Hebrew Golgotha. Dr. W. Smith.

2. A representation of the crucifixion, consisting of three crosses with the figures of Christ and the thieves, often as large as life, and sometimes surrounded by figures of other personages who were present at the crucifixion.

3. (Her.) A cross, set upon three steps; -- more properly called cross calvary.

Calve (käv), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calved 3; p. pr. & vb. n. Calving.] [AS. cealfian. See Calf.] 1. To bring forth a calf. "Their cow calveth." Job xxi. 10.

2. To bring forth young; to produce offspring.

Canst thou mark when the hinds do calve? Job xxxix. 1.

The grassy clods now calved. Molton.

Cal"ver (kăl"v&etilde;r), v. i. 1. To cut in slices and pickle, as salmon. [Obs.]

For a change, leave calvered salmon and eat sprats. Massinger.

2. To crimp; as, calvered salmon. Nares.

Cal"ver, v. i. To bear, or be susceptible of, being calvered; as, grayling's flesh will calver. Catton.

Calves"*snout (?), n. (Bot.) Snapdragon.

Cal"vin*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. Calvinisme.] The theological tenets or doctrines of John Calvin (a French theologian and reformer of the 16th century) and his followers, or of the so-called calvinistic churches.

&fist; The distinguishing doctrines of this system, usually termed the five points of Calvinism, are original sin or total depravity, election or predestination, particular redemption, effectual calling, and the perseverance of the saints. It has been subject to many variations and modifications in different churches and at various times.

Cal"vin*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. Calviniste.] A follower of Calvin; a believer in Calvinism.

{ Cal`vin*is"tic (?), Cal`vin*is"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to Calvin, or Calvinism; following Calvin; accepting or Teaching Calvinism. "Calvinistic training." Lowell.

Cal"vin*ize (?), v. t. To convert to Calvinism.

Calv"ish (?), a. Like a calf; stupid. Sheldon.

Calx (?), n.; pl. E. Calxes (#), L. Calces (#). [L. Calx, calcis. limestone; cf. Gr. &?; gravel. &?;, &?;, pebble, Skr. &?; gravel, Ir. carraic rock Gael. carraig, W. careg, stone. Cf. Chalk.]

1. (Chem.) (a) Quicklime. [Obs.] (b) The substance which remains when a metal or mineral has been subjected to calcination or combustion by heat, and which is, or may be, reduced to a fine powder.

&fist; Metallic calxes are now called oxides.

2. Broken and refuse glass, returned to the post.

{ Ca*lyc`i*flo"ral (?), cal*lyc`i*flo"rous (?), } a. [L. calyx, -ycis, calyx + flos, floris, flower.] (Bot.) Having the petals and stamens adnate to the calyx; -- applied to a subclass of dicotyledonous plants in the system of the French botanist Candolle.

Ca*lyc"i*form (?), a. [L. calyx, calycis, calyx + -form.] (Bot.) Having the form or appearance of a calyx.

{ Ca*lyc"i*nal (?), Cal"y*cine (?), } a. (Bot.) Pertaining to a calyx; having the nature of a calyx.

Cal"y*cle (?), n. [L. calyculus small flower bud, calyx, dim. of calyx. See Calyx, and cf. Calicle.] (Bot.) A row of small bracts, at the base of the calyx, on the outside.

Cal"y*cled (?), a. (Bot.) Calyculate.

||Cal`y*co*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, cup or calyx a flower + &?; animal.] (Zoöl.) A group of acalephs of which Lucernaria is the type. The body is cup-shaped with eight marginal lobes bearing clavate tentacles. An aboral sucker serves for attachment. The interior is divided into four large compartments. See Lucernarida.

Ca*lyc"u*lar (?), a. (Bot.) Pertaining to, or resembling, the bracts of a calycle.

{ Ca*lyc"u*late (?), Ca*lyc"u*la`ted (?) }, a. (Bot.) Having a set of bracts resembling a calyx.

Ca*lym"e*ne (?), n. [Gr. (&?;) concealed, p. p. of &?; to conceal.] (Zoöl.) A genus of trilobites characteristic of the Silurian age.

Cal"yon (?), n. Flint or pebble stone, used in building walls, etc. Haliwell.

Ca*lyp"so (k&adot;*l&ibreve;p"s&osl;), n. [The Latinized Greek name of a beautiful nymph.] (Bot.) A small and beautiful species of orchid, having a flower variegated with purple, pink, and yellow. It grows in cold and wet localities in the northern part of the United States. The Calypso borealis is the only orchid which reaches 68° N.

Ca*lyp"tra (k&adot;*l&ibreve;p"tr&adot;), n. [NL., fr. Gr. kaly`ptra a covering for the head, fr. kaly`ptein to cover.] (Bot.) A little hood or veil, resembling an extinguisher in form and position, covering each of the small flasklike capsules which contain the spores of mosses; also, any similar covering body.

Ca*lyp"tri*form (?), a. [Calyptra + -form.] Having the form a calyptra, or extinguisher.

Ca"lyx (kā"l&ibreve;ks; 277), n.; pl. E. Calyxes (#), L. Calyces (kăl"&ibreve;*sēz). [L. calyx, -ycis, fr. Gr. ka`lyx husk, shell, calyx, from the root of kaly`ptein to cover, conceal. Cf. Chalice Helmet.] 1. (Bot.) The covering of a flower. See Flower.

&fist; The calyx is usually green and foliaceous, but becomes delicate and petaloid in such flowers as the anemone and the four-o'clock. Each leaf of the calyx is called a sepal.

2. (Anat.) A cuplike division of the pelvis of the kidney, which surrounds one or more of the renal papillæ.

Cal*zoons" (kăl*z&oomac;nz"), n. pl. [F. caleçons (cf. It. calzoni breeches), fr. L. calceus shoe.] Drawers. [Obs.]

Cam (kăm), n. [Dan. kam comb, ridge; or cf. W., Gael., and Ir., cam bent. See 1st Comb.] 1. (Med.) (a) A turning or sliding piece which, by the shape of its periphery or face, or a groove in its surface, imparts variable or intermittent motion to, or receives such motion from, a rod, lever, or block brought into sliding or rolling contact with it. (b) A curved wedge, movable about an axis, used for forcing or clamping two pieces together. (c) A projecting part of a wheel or other moving piece so shaped as to give alternate or variable motion to another piece against which it acts.

&fist; Cams are much used in machinery involving complicated, and irregular movements, as in the sewing machine, pin machine, etc.

2. A ridge or mound of earth. [Prow. Eng.] Wright.

Cam wheel (Mach.), a wheel with one or more projections (cams) or depressions upon its periphery or upon its face; one which is set or shaped eccentrically, so that its revolutions impart a varied, reciprocating, or intermittent motion.

Cam (?), a. [See Kam.] Crooked. [Obs.]

Ca*ma"ieu (?), n. [F.; of unknown origin. Cf. Cameo.] 1. A cameo. [Obs.] Crabb.

2. (Fine Arts) Painting in shades of one color; monochrome. Mollett.

Ca*mail" (?), n. [F. camail (cf. It. camaglio), fr. L. caput head + source of E. mail.] 1. (Ancient Armor) A neck guard of chain mall, hanging from the bascinet or other headpiece.

2. A hood of other material than mail; esp. (Eccl.), a hood worn in church services, -- the amice, or the like.

||Cam`a*ra*sau"rus (?), n. [NL. fr. Gr. &?; a vaulted chamber + &?; lizard.] (Paleon.) A genus of gigantic American Jurassic dinosaurs, having large cavities in the bodies of the dorsal vertebræ.

||Ca`ma*ril"la (?), n. [Sp., a small room.]

1. The private audience chamber of a king.

2. A company of secret and irresponsible advisers, as of a king; a cabal or clique.

Cam"ass (?), n. [American Indian name.] (Bot.) A blue-flowered liliaceous plant (Camassia esculenta) of northwestern America, the bulbs of which are collected for food by the Indians. [Written also camas, cammas, and quamash.]

&fist; The Eastern cammass is Camassia Fraseri.

Cam"ber (?), n. [Of. cambre bent, curved; akin to F. cambrer to vault, to bend, fr. L. camerare to arch over, fr. camera vault, arch. See Chamber, and cf. Camerate.] 1. (Shipbuilding) An upward convexity of a deck or other surface; as, she has a high camber (said of a vessel having an unusual convexity of deck).

2. (Arch.) An upward concavity in the under side of a beam, girder, or lintel; also, a slight upward concavity in a straight arch. See Hogback.

Camber arch (Arch.), an arch whose intrados, though apparently straight, has a slightly concave curve upward. -- Camber beam (Arch.), a beam whose under side has a concave curve upward.

Cam"ber, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cambered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cambering.] To cut bend to an upward curve; to construct, as a deck, with an upward curve.

Cam"ber, v. i. To curve upward.

Cam"ber*keeled (?), a. (Naut.) Having the keel arched upwards, but not actually hogged; -- said of a ship.

Cam"bi*al (?), a. [LL. cambialis, fr. cambiars. See Change.] Belonging to exchanges in commerce; of exchange. [R.]

Cam"bist (?), n. [F. cambiste, It. cambista, fr. L. cambire to exchange. See Change.] A banker; a money changer or broker; one who deals in bills of exchange, or who is skilled in the science of exchange.

Cam"bist*ry (?), n. The science of exchange, weight, measures, etc.

Cam"bi*um (?), n. [LL. cambium exchange, fr. L. cambire to exchange. It was supposed that cambium was sap changing into wood.] 1. (Bot.) A series of formative cells lying outside of the wood proper and inside of the inner bark. The growth of new wood takes place in the cambium, which is very soft.

2. (Med.) A fancied nutritive juice, formerly supposed to originate in the blood, to repair losses of the system, and to promote its increase. Dunglison.

Cam"blet (?), n. See Camlet.

Cam*boge" (?), n. See Gamboge.

Cam*boose" (?), n. (Naut.) See Caboose.

Cam"bra*sine (?), n. A kind of linen cloth made in Egypt, and so named from its resemblance to cambric.

Cam"brel (?), n. See Gambrel, n., 2. Wright.

Cam"bri*a (?), n. The ancient Latin name of Wales. It is used by modern poets.

Cam"bri*an (?), a. 1. (Geog.) Of or pertaining to Cambria or Wales.

2. (Geol.) Of or pertaining to the lowest subdivision of the rocks of the Silurian or Molluscan age; -- sometimes described as inferior to the Silurian. It is named from its development in Cambria or Wales. See the Diagram under Geology.

Cam"bri*an, n. 1. A native of Cambria or Wales.

2. (Geol.) The Cambrian formation.

Cam"bric (?), n. [OE. camerike, fr. Cambrai (Flemish Kamerik), a city of France (formerly of Flanders), where it was first made.] 1. A fine, thin, and white fabric made of flax or linen.

He hath ribbons of all the colors i' the rainbow; . . . inkles, caddises, cambrics, lawns. Shak.

2. A fabric made, in imitation of linen cambric, of fine, hardspun cotton, often with figures of various colors; -- also called cotton cambric, and cambric muslin.

Cam"bro-Brit"on (?), n. A Welshman.

Came (?), imp. of Come.

Came (?), n. [Cf. Scot. came, caim, comb, and OE. camet silver.] A slender rod of cast lead, with or without grooves, used, in casements and stained-glass windows, to hold together the panes or pieces of glass.

Cam"el (kăm"&ebreve;l), n. [Oe. camel, chamel, OF. camel, chamel, F. chameau L. camelus, fr. Gr. ka`mhlos; of Semitic origin; cf. Heb. gāmāl, Ar. jamal. Cf. As. camel, fr. L. camelus.] 1. (Zoöl.) A large ruminant used in Asia and Africa for carrying burdens and for riding. The camel is remarkable for its ability to go a long time without drinking. Its hoofs are small, and situated at the extremities of the toes, and the weight of the animal rests on the callous. The dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) has one bunch on the back, while the Bactrian camel (C. Bactrianus) has two. The llama, alpaca, and vicuña, of South America, belong to a related genus (Auchenia).

2. (Naut.) A water-tight structure (as a large box or boxes) used to assist a vessel in passing over a shoal or bar or in navigating shallow water. By admitting water, the camel or camels may be sunk and attached beneath or at the sides of a vessel, and when the water is pumped out the vessel is lifted.

Camel bird (Zoöl.), the ostrich. -- Camel locust (Zoöl.), the mantis. -- Camel's thorn (Bot.), a low, leguminous shrub (Alhagi maurorum) of the Arabian desert, from which exudes a sweetish gum, which is one of the substances called manna.

Cam"el-backed` (?), a. Having a back like a camel; humpbacked. Fuller.

Ca*me"le*on (?), n. See Chaceleon. [Obs.]

Ca*mel"li*a (?), n. [NL.; -- named after Kamel, a Jesuit who is said to have brought it from the East.] (Bot.) An Asiatic genus of small shrubs, often with shining leaves and showy flowers. Camellia Japonica is much cultivated for ornament, and C. Sassanqua and C. oleifera are grown in China for the oil which is pressed from their seeds. The tea plant is now referred to this genus under the name of Camellia Thea.

Ca*mel"o*pard (k&adot;*m&ebreve;l"&osl;*pärd or kăm"&ebreve;l*&osl;*pärd; 277), n. [LL. camelopardus, L. camelopardalus, camelopardalis, fr. Gr. kamhlopa`rdalis; ka`mhlos a camel + pa`rdalis pard, leopard: cf. F. camélopard. The camelopard has a neck and head like a camel, and is spotted like a pard. See Camel, and Pard.] (Zoöl.) An African ruminant; the giraffe. See Giraffe.

Came"lot (?), n. See Camelet. [Obs.]

Cam"els*hair` (?), a. Of camel's hair.

Camel's-hair pencil, a small brush used by painters in water colors, made of camel's hair or similar materials. -- Camel's-hair shawl. A name often given to a cashmere shawl. See Cashmere shawl under Cashmere.

Cam"e*o (?), n.; pl. Cameos (#). [It cammeo; akin to F. camée, camaïeu, Sp. camafeo, LL. camaeus, camahutus; of unknown origin.] A carving in relief, esp. one on a small scale used as a jewel for personal adornment, or like.

&fist; Most cameos are carved in a material which has layers of different colors, such stones as the onyx and sardonyx, and various kinds of shells, being used.

Cameo conch (Zoöl.), a large, marine, univalve shell, esp. Cassis cameo, C. rua, and allied species, used for cutting cameos. See Quern conch.

Cam"e*ra (?), n.; pl. E. Cameras (#), L. Camerae (#). [L. vault, arch, LL., chamber. See Chamber.] A chamber, or instrument having a chamber. Specifically: The camera obscura when used in photography. See Camera, and Camera obscura.

Bellows camera. See under Bellows. -- In camera (Law), in a judge's chamber, that is, privately; as, a judge hears testimony which is not fit for the open court in camera. -- Panoramic, or Pantascopic, camera, a photographic camera in which the lens and sensitized plate revolve so as to expose adjacent parts of the plate successively to the light, which reaches it through a narrow vertical slit; -- used in photographing broad landscapes. Abney.

Came"rade (?), n. See Comrade. [Obs.]

Cam`e*ra*lis"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to finance and public revenue.

Cam`e*ra*lis"tics (?), n. [Cf. F. caméralistique, G. kameralistik, fr. L. camera vault, LL., chamber, treasury.] The science of finance or public revenue.

||Cam"e*ra lu"ci*da (?). [L. camera chamber + L. lucidus, lucida, lucid, light.] (Opt.) An instrument which by means of a prism of a peculiar form, or an arrangement of mirrors, causes an apparent image of an external object or objects to appear as if projected upon a plane surface, as of paper or canvas, so that the outlines may conveniently traced. It is generally used with the microscope.

||Cam"e*ra ob*scu"ra (?). [LL. camera chamber + L. obscurus, obscura, dark.] (Opt.) 1. An apparatus in which the images of external objects, formed by a convex lens or a concave mirror, are thrown on a paper or other white surface placed in the focus of the lens or mirror within a darkened chamber, or box, so that the outlines may be traced.

2. (Photog.) An apparatus in which the image of an external object or objects is, by means of lenses, thrown upon a sensitized plate or surface placed at the back of an extensible darkened box or chamber variously modified; -- commonly called simply the camera.

Cam"er*ate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Camerated; p. pr. & vb. n. Camerzting.] [L. cameratus, p. p. of camerare. See Camber.] 1. To build in the form of a vault; to arch over.

2. To divide into chambers.

Cam`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. cameratio.] A vaulting or arching over. [R.]

||Ca`mer*lin"go (?), n. [It.] The papal chamberlain; the cardinal who presides over the pope's household. He has at times possessed great power. [Written also camerlengo and camarlengo.]

Cam`e*ro"ni*an (?), n. A follower of the Rev. Richard Cameron, a Scotch Covenanter of the time of Charles II.

Cameron and others refused to accept the "indulgence" offered the Presbyterian clergy, insisted on the Solemn league and Covenant, and in 1680 declared Charles II. deposed for tyranny, breach of faith, etc. Cameron was killed at the battle of Airdmoss, but his followers became a denomination (afterwards called Reformed Presbyterians) who refused to recognize laws or institutions which they believed contrary to the kingdom of Christ, but who now avail themselves of political rights.

Cam"is (kăm"&ibreve;s), n. [See Chemise.] A light, loose dress or robe. [Also written camus.] [Obs.]

All in a camis light of purple silk. Spenser.

{ Cam`i*sade" (?), Cam`i*sa"do (?), } n. [F. camisade a night attack; cf. It. camiciata. See Camis.] [Obs.] (Mil.) (a) A shirt worn by soldiers over their uniform, in order to be able to recognize one another in a night attack. (b) An attack by surprise by soldiers wearing the camisado.

Give them a camisado in night season. Holinshed.

||Cam"i*sard (?), n. [F.] One of the French Protestant insurgents who rebelled against Louis XIV, after the revocation of the edict of Nates; -- so called from the peasant's smock (camise) which they wore.

Cam"i*sa`ted (?), a. Dressed with a shirt over the other garments.

||Cam"i*sole (?), n. [F. See chemise.] 1. A short dressing jacket for women.

2. A kind of straitjacket.

Cam"let (?), n. [F. camelot (akin to Sp. camelote, chamelote, It. cambellbito, ciambellotto, LL. camelotum, camelinum, fr. Ar. khamlat camlet, fr. kaml pile, plush. The word was early confused with camel, camel's hair also being used in making it. Cf. Calamanco] A woven fabric originally made of camel's hair, now chiefly of goat's hair and silk, or of wool and cotton. [Sometimes written camelot and camblet.]

&fist; They have been made plain and twilled, of single warp and weft, of double warp, and sometimes with double weft also, with thicker yarn. Beck (Draper's Dict. )

Cam"let*ed, a. Wavy or undulating like camlet; veined. Sir T. Herbert.

Cam"mas (?), n. (Bot.) See Camass.

Cam"mock (?), n. [AS. cammoc.] (Bot.) A plant having long hard, crooked roots, the Ononis spinosa; -- called also rest- harrow. The Scandix Pecten-Veneris is also called cammock.

{ Cam"o*mile, Cham"o*mile } (?), n.[LL. camonilla, corrupted fr. Gr. &?;, lit. earth apple, being so called from the smell of its flower. See Humble, and Melon.] (Bot.) A genus of herbs (Anthemis) of the Composite family. The common camomile, A. nobilis, is used as a popular remedy. Its flowers have a strong and fragrant and a bitter, aromatic taste. They are tonic, febrifugal, and in large doses emetic, and the volatile oil is carminative.

||Ca*mon"flet (?), n. [F.] (Mil.) A small mine, sometimes formed in the wall or side of an enemy's gallery, to blow in the earth and cut off the retreat of the miners. Farrow.

{ Ca"mous (?), Ca"moys (?), } a. [F. camus (equiv. to camard) flat-nosed, fr. Celtic Cam croked + suff. -us; akin to L. camur, camurus, croked.] Flat; depressed; crooked; -- said only of the nose. [Obs.]

Ca"moused, (&?;), a. [From Camouse] Depressed; flattened. [Obs.]

Though my nose be cammoused. B. Jonson

Ca"mous*ly, adv. Awry. [Obs.] Skelton.

Camp (kămp), n. [F. camp, It. campo, fr. L. campus plant, field; akin to Gr. kh^pos garden. Cf. Campaign, Champ, n.] 1. The ground or spot on which tents, huts, etc., are erected for shelter, as for an army or for lumbermen, etc. Shak.

2. A collection of tents, huts, etc., for shelter, commonly arranged in an orderly manner.

Forming a camp in the neighborhood of Boston. W. Irving.

3. A single hut or shelter; as, a hunter's camp.

4. The company or body of persons encamped, as of soldiers, of surveyors, of lumbermen, etc.

The camp broke up with the confusion of a flight. Macaulay.

5. (Agric.) A mound of earth in which potatoes and other vegetables are stored for protection against frost; -- called also burrow and pie. [Prov. Eng.]

6. [Cf. OE. & AS. camp contest, battle. See champion.] An ancient game of football, played in some parts of England. Halliwell.

Camp bedstead, a light bedstead that can be folded up onto a small space for easy transportation. -- camp ceiling (Arch.), a kind ceiling often used in attics or garrets, in which the side walls are inclined inward at the top, following the slope of the rafters, to meet the plane surface of the upper ceiling. -- Camp chair, a light chair that can be folded up compactly for easy transportation; the seat and back are often made of strips or pieces of carpet. -- Camp fever, typhus fever. -- Camp follower, a civilian accompanying an army, as a sutler, servant, etc. -- Camp meeting, a religious gathering for open-air preaching, held in some retired spot, chiefly by Methodists. It usually last for several days, during which those present lodge in tents, temporary houses, or cottages. -- Camp stool, the same as camp chair, except that the stool has no back. -- Flying camp (Mil.), a camp or body of troops formed for rapid motion from one place to another. Farrow. -- To pitch (a) camp, to set up the tents or huts of a camp. -- To strike camp, to take down the tents or huts of a camp.

Camp (kămp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Camped (kămt; 215); p. pr. & vb n. Camping.] To afford rest or lodging for, as an army or travelers.

Had our great palace the capacity To camp this host, we all would sup together. Shak.

Camp, v. i. 1. To pitch or prepare a camp; to encamp; to lodge in a camp; - - often with out.

They camped out at night, under the stars. W. Irving.

2. [See Camp, n., 6] To play the game called camp. [Prov. Eng.] Tusser.

Cam*pa"gna (c&adot;m*pä"ny&adot;), n. [It. See Campaigg.] An open level tract of country; especially "Campagna di Roma." The extensive undulating plain which surrounds Rome.

&fist; Its length is commonly stated to be about ninety miles, and its breadth from twenty-seven to forty miles. The ground is almost entirely volcanic, and vapors which arise from the district produce malaria.

||Cam`pa`gnol" (?), n. [F. , fr. campagne field.] (Zoöl.) A mouse (Arvicala agrestis), called also meadow mouse, which often does great damage in fields and gardens, by feeding on roots and seeds.

Cam*paign" (?), n. [F. campagne, It. campagna, fr. L. Campania the level country about Naples, fr. campus field. See Camp, and cf. Champaign, Champagne.] 1. An open field; a large, open plain without considerable hills. SeeChampaign. Grath.

2. (Mil.) A connected series of military operations forming a distinct stage in a war; the time during which an army keeps the field. Wilhelm.

3. Political operations preceding an election; a canvass. [Cant, U. S.]

4. (Metal.) The period during which a blast furnace is continuously in operation.

Cam*paign" (?), v. i. To serve in a campaign.

Cam*paign"er (?), n. One who has served in an army in several campaigns; an old soldier; a veteran.

Cam*pa"na (?), n. [LL. campana bell. Cf. Campanle.] 1. (Eccl.) A church bell.

2. (Bot.) The pasque flower. Drayton.

3. (Doric Arch.) Same as Gutta.

Cam*paned" (?), a. (Her.) Furnished with, or bearing, campanes, or bells.

||Cam`pa*ne"ro (?), n. [Sp., a bellman.] (Zoöl.) The bellbird of South America. See Bellbird.

Cam*panes" (?), n. pl. [See Campana.] (Her.) Bells. [R.]

||Cam*pa"ni*a (?), n. [See Campaig.] Open country. Sir W. Temple.

Cam*pan"i*form (?), a. [LL. campana bell + -form: cf. F. companiforme.] Bell-shaped.

||Cam`pa*ni"le (?), n. [It. campanile bell tower, steeple, fr. It. & LL. campana bell.] (Arch.) A bell tower, esp. one built separate from a church.

Many of the campaniles of Italy are lofty and magnificent structures. Swift.

Cam`pa*nil"i*form (?), a. [See Campaniform.] Bell-shaped; campanulate; campaniform.

Cam`pa*nol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in campanology; a bell ringer.

Cam`pa*nol"o*gy (?), n. [LL. campana bell + -logy.] The art of ringing bells, or a treatise on the art.

||Cam*pan"u*la (kăm*păn"&usl;*l&adot;), n. [LL. campanula a little bell; dim. of campana bell.] (Bot.) A large genus of plants bearing bell-shaped flowers, often of great beauty; -- also called bellflower.

Cam*pan`u*la"ceous (kăm*păn`&usl;*lā"shŭs), a. (Bot.) Of pertaining to, or resembling, the family of plants (Campanulaceæ) of which Campanula is the type, and which includes the Canterbury bell, the harebell, and the Venus's looking-glass.

Cam*pan`u*la"ri*an (?), n. [L. campanula a bell.] (Zoöl.) A hydroid of the family Campanularidæ, characterized by having the polyps or zooids inclosed in bell-shaped calicles or hydrothecæ.

Cam*pan"u*late (?), a. (Bot.) Bell-shaped.

Camp"bell*ite (?), n. [From Alexander Campbell, of Virginia.] (Eccl.) A member of the denomination called Christians or Disciples of Christ. They themselves repudiate the term Campbellite as a nickname. See Christian, 3.

Cam*peach"y Wood` (?). [From the bay of Campeachy, in Mexico.] Logwood.

Camp"er (?), n. One who lodges temporarily in a hut or camp.

{ Cam*pes"tral (?), Cam*pes"tri*an (?), } a. [L. campester, fr. campus field.] Relating to an open field; growing in a field, or open ground.

Camp"fight` (?), n. [Cf. Camp, n., 6.] (O. Eng. Law.) A duel; the decision of a case by a duel.

Cam"phene (kăm"fēn or kăm*fēn"), n. (Chem.) One of a series of substances C10H16, resembling camphor, regarded as modified terpenes.

Cam*phine" (kăm*fēn" or kăm"f&ibreve;n), n. [From Camphor.] Rectified oil of turpentine, used for burning in lamps, and as a common solvent in varnishes.

&fist; The name is also applied to a mixture of this substance with three times its volume of alcohol and sometimes a little ether, used as an illuminant.

Cam"phire (kăm"fīr), n. An old spelling of Camphor.

Cam"pho*gen (?), n. [Camphor + -gen: -- formerly so called as derived from camphor: cf. F. camphogène.] (Chem.) See Cymene.

Cam"phol (?), n. [Camphor + -ol.] (Chem.) See Borneol.

Cam"phor (kăm"f&etilde;r), n. [OE. camfere, F. camphre (cf. It. canfora, Sp. camfora, alcanfor, LL. canfora, camphora, NGr. kafoyra`), fr. Ar. kāfūr, prob. fr. Skr. karpūra.] 1. A tough, white, aromatic resin, or gum, obtained from different species of the Laurus family, esp. from Cinnamomum camphora (the Laurus camphora of Linnæus.). Camphor, C10H16O, is volatile and fragrant, and is used in medicine as a diaphoretic, a stimulant, or sedative.

2. A gum resembling ordinary camphor, obtained from a tree (Dryobalanops camphora) growing in Sumatra and Borneo; -- called also Malay camphor, camphor of Borneo, or borneol. See Borneol.

&fist; The name camphor is also applied to a number of bodies of similar appearance and properties, as cedar camphor, obtained from the red or pencil cedar (Juniperus Virginiana), and peppermint camphor, or menthol, obtained from the oil of peppermint.

Camphor oil (Chem.), name variously given to certain oil-like products, obtained especially from the camphor tree. -- Camphor tree, a large evergreen tree (Cinnamomum Camphora) with lax, smooth branches and shining triple-nerved lanceolate leaves, probably native in China, but now cultivated in most warm countries. Camphor is collected by a process of steaming the chips of the wood and subliming the product.

Cam"phor (?), v. t. To impregnate or wash with camphor; to camphorate. [R.] Tatler.

Cam`pho*ra"ceous (?), a. Of the nature of camphor; containing camphor. Dunglison.

Cam"phor*ate (?), v. t. To impregnate or treat with camphor.

Cam"phor*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. camphorate.] (Chem.) A salt of camphoric acid.

{ Cam"phor*ate (?), Cam"por*a`ted (?), }Combined or impregnated with camphor.

Camphorated oil, an oleaginous preparation containing camphor, much used as an embrocation.

Cam*phor"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. camphorique.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, camphor.

Camphoric acid, a white crystallizable substance, C10H16O4, obtained from the oxidation of camphor.

&fist; Other acids of camphor are campholic acid, C10H18O2, and camphoronic acid, C9H12O5, white crystallizable substances.

Cam*phret"ic (?), a. [rom Camphor.] Pertaining to, or derived from camphor. [R.]

Camp"ing (?), n. 1. Lodging in a camp.

2. [See Camp, n., 6] A game of football. [Prov. Eng.]

Cam"pi*on (?), n. [Prob. fr. L. campus field.] (Bot.) A plant of the Pink family (Cucubalus bacciferus), bearing berries regarded as poisonous.

Bladder campion, a plant of the Pink family (Cucubalus Behen or Silene inflata), having a much inflated calyx. See Behen. -- Rose campion, a garden plant (Lychnis coronaria) with handsome crimson flowers.

||Cam"pus (?), n. [L., a field.] The principal grounds of a college or school, between the buildings or within the main inclosure; as, the college campus.

Cam`py*lo*sper"mous (?), a. [Gr. &?; curved + &?; seed.] (Bot.) Having seeds grooved lengthwise on the inner face, as in sweet cicely.

Cam`py*lot"ro*pous (?), a. [Gr. &?; curved + &?; a turning.] (Bot.) Having the ovules and seeds so curved, or bent down upon themselves, that the ends of the embryo are brought close together.

Cam"us (?), n. See Camis. [Obs.]

Cam"wood (?), n. See Barwood.

Can (?), an obs. form of began, imp. & p. p. of Begin, sometimes used in old poetry. [See Gan.]

With gentle words he can faile gree. Spenser.

Can, n. [OE. & AS. canne; akin to D. Kan, G. Kanne, OHG. channa, Sw. Kanna, Dan. kande.] 1. A drinking cup; a vessel for holding liquids. [Shak. ]

Fill the cup and fill can, Have a rouse before the morn. Tennyson.

2. A vessel or case of tinned iron or of sheet metal, of various forms, but usually cylindrical; as, a can of tomatoes; an oil can; a milk can.

&fist; A can may be a cylinder open at the top, as for receiving the sliver from a carding machine, or with a removable cover or stopper, as for holding tea, spices, milk, oysters, etc., or with handle and spout, as for holding oil, or hermetically sealed, in canning meats, fruits, etc. The name is also sometimes given to the small glass or earthenware jar used in canning.

Can (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Canned (?); p. pr. &vb. n. Canning.] To preserve by putting in sealed cans [U. S.] "Canned meats" W. D. Howells.

Canned goods, a general name for fruit, vegetables, meat, or fish, preserved in hermetically sealed cans.

Can (?), v. t. & i. [The transitive use is obsolete.] [imp. Could (#).] [OE. cunnen, cannen (1st sing. pres. I can), to know, know how, be able, AS. cunnan, 1st sing. pres. ic cann or can, pl. cunnon, 1st sing. imp. cūðe (for cunðe); p. p. cūð (for cunð); akin to OS. Kunnan, D. Kunnen, OHG. chunnan, G. können, Icel. kunna, Goth. Kunnan, and E. ken to know. The present tense I can (AS. ic cann) was originally a preterit, meaning I have known or Learned, and hence I know, know how. √45. See Ken, Know; cf. Con, Cunning, Uncouth.] 1. To know; to understand. [Obs.]

I can rimes of Rodin Hood. Piers Plowman.

I can no Latin, quod she. Piers Plowman.

Let the priest in surplice white, That defunctive music can. Shak.

2. To be able to do; to have power or influence. [Obs.]

The will of Him who all things can. Milton.

For what, alas, can these my single arms? Shak.

Mæcænas and Agrippa, who can most with Cæsar. Beau. & Fl.

3. To be able; -- followed by an infinitive without to; as, I can go, but do not wish to.

Syn. -- Can but, Can not but. It is an error to use the former of these phrases where the sens requires the latter. If we say, "I can but perish if I go," "But" means only, and denotes that this is all or the worst that can happen. When the apostle Peter said. "We can not but speak of the things which we have seen and heard." he referred to a moral constraint or necessety which rested upon him and his associates; and the meaning was, We cannot help speaking, We cannot refrain from speaking. This idea of a moral necessity or constraint is of frequent occurrence, and is also expressed in the phrase, "I can not help it." Thus we say. "I can not but hope," "I can not but believe," "I can not but think," "I can not but remark," etc., in cases in which it would be an error to use the phrase can but.

Yet he could not but acknowledge to himself that there was something calculated to impress awe, . . . in the sudden appearances and vanishings . . . of the masque De Quincey.

Tom felt that this was a rebuff for him, and could not but understand it as a left-handed hit at his employer. Dickens.

Ca"naan*ite (?), n. 1. A descendant of Canaan, the son of Ham, and grandson of Noah.

2. A Native or inhabitant of the land of Canaan, esp. a member of any of the tribes who inhabited Canaan at the time of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt.

Ca"naan*ite, n. [From an Aramaic word signifying "zeal."] A zealot. "Simon the Canaanite." Matt. x. 4.

&fist; This was the "Simon called Zelotes" (Luke vi. 15), i.e., Simon the zealot. Kitto.

Ca"naan*i`tish (?), a. Of or pertaining to Canaan or the Canaanites.

||Ca*ña"da (?), n. [Sp.] A small cañon; a narrow valley or glen; also, but less frequently, an open valley. [Local, Western U. S.]

Can"a*da (?), n. A British province in North America, giving its name to various plants and animals.

Canada balsam. See under Balsam. -- Canada goose. (Zoöl.) See Wild goose. -- Canada jay. See Whisky Jack. -- Canada lynx. (Zoöl.) See Lynx. -- Canada porcupine (Zoöl.) See Porcupine, and Urson. -- Canada rice (Bot.) See under Rick. -- Canada robin (Zoöl.), the cedar bird.

Ca*na"di*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Canada. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Canada.

Canadian period (Geol.), A subdivision of the American Lower Silurian system embracing the calciferous, Quebec, and Chazy epochs. This period immediately follows the primordial or Cambrian period, and is by many geologists regarded as the beginning of the Silurian age, See the Diagram, under Geology.

Ca*naille" (?), n. [F. canaille (cf. It. canaglia), prop. and orig. a pack of dogs, fr. L. Canis dog.]

1. The lowest class of people; the rabble; the vulgar.

2. Shorts or inferior flour. [Canadian]

Can"a*kin (?), n. [Dim. of can.] A little can or cup. "And let me the canakin clink." Shak.

Ca*nal" (?), n. [F. canal, from L. canalis canal, channel; prob. from a root signifying "to cut"; cf. D. kanaal, fr. the French. Cf. Channel, Kennel gutter.]

1. An artificial channel filled with water and designed for navigation, or for irrigating land, etc.

2. (Anat.) A tube or duct; as, the alimentary canal; the semicircular canals of the ear.

Canal boat, a boat for use on a canal; esp. one of peculiar shape, carrying freight, and drawn by horses walking on the towpath beside the canal. -- Canal lock. See Lock.

Can"al coal` (?). See Cannel coal.

{ Can`a*lic"u*late (?), Can`a*lic"u*la`ted (?), } a. [L. canaliculatus channeled, fr. canaliculus, dim. of canalis. See Canal.] Having a channel or groove, as in the leafstalks of most palms.

||Can`a*lic"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Canaliculi (#). [L.] (Anat.) A minute canal.

Ca*nal`i*za"tion (?), n. Construction of, or furnishing with, a canal or canals. [R.]

Ca*nard" (?), n. [F., properly, a duck.] An extravagant or absurd report or story; a fabricated sensational report or statement; esp. one set afloat in the newspapers to hoax the public.

Can`a*rese" (?), a. Pertaining to Canara, a district of British India.

Ca*na"ry (?), a. [F. Canarie, L. Canaria insula one of the Canary islands, said to be so called from its large dogs, fr. canis dog.] 1. Of or pertaining to the Canary Islands; as, canary wine; canary birds.

2. Of a pale yellowish color; as, Canary stone.

Canary grass, a grass of the genus Phalaris (P. Canariensis), producing the seed used as food for canary birds. -- Canary stone (Min.), a yellow species of carnelian, named from its resemblance in color to the plumage of the canary bird. -- Canary wood, the beautiful wood of the trees Persea Indica and P. Canariensis, natives of Madeira and the Canary Islands. -- Canary vine. See Canary bird flower, under Canary bird.

Ca*na"ry, n.; pl. Canaries (#). 1. Wine made in the Canary Islands; sack. "A cup of canary." Shak.

2. A canary bird.

3. A pale yellow color, like that of a canary bird.

4. A quick and lively dance. [Obs.]

Make you dance canary With sprightly fire and motion. Shak.

Ca*na"ry (?), v. i. To perform the canary dance; to move nimbly; to caper. [Obs.]

But to jig of a tune at the tongue's end, canary to it with your feet. Shak.

Ca*na"ry bird` (?). (Zoöl.) A small singing bird of the Finch family (Serinus Canarius), a native of the Canary Islands. It was brought to Europe in the 16th century, and made a household pet. It generally has a yellowish body with the wings and tail greenish, but in its wild state it is more frequently of gray or brown color. It is sometimes called canary finch.

Canary bird flower (Bot.), a climbing plant (Tropæolum peregrinum) with canary- colored flowers of peculiar form; -- called also canary vine.

Ca*nas"ter (?), n. [Sp. canasta, canastro, basket, fr. L. canistrum. See Canister.] A kind of tobacco for smoking, made of the dried leaves, coarsely broken; -- so called from the rush baskets in which it is packed in South America. McElrath.

Can" buoy` (?). See under Buoy, n.

||Can"can (?), n. [F.] A rollicking French dance, accompanied by indecorous or extravagant postures and gestures.

Can"cel (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Canceled or Cancelled (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Canceling or Cancelling.] [L. cancellare to make like a lattice, to strike or cross out (cf. Fr. canceller, OF. canceler) fr. cancelli lattice, crossbars, dim. of cancer lattice; cf. Gr. &?; latticed gate. Cf. Chancel.] 1. To inclose or surround, as with a railing, or with latticework. [Obs.]

A little obscure place canceled in with iron work is the pillar or stump at which . . . our Savior was scourged. Evelyn.

2. To shut out, as with a railing or with latticework; to exclude. [Obs.] "Canceled from heaven." Milton.

3. To cross and deface, as the lines of a writing, or as a word or figure; to mark out by a cross line; to blot out or obliterate.

A deed may be avoided by delivering it up to be cancelled; that is, to have lines drawn over it in the form of latticework or cancelli; though the phrase is now used figuratively for any manner of obliterating or defacing it. Blackstone.

4. To annul or destroy; to revoke or recall.

The indentures were canceled. Thackeray.

He was unwilling to cancel the interest created through former secret services, by being refractory on this occasion. Sir W. Scott.

5. (Print.) To suppress or omit; to strike out, as matter in type.

Canceled figures (Print), figures cast with a line across the face., as for use in arithmetics.

Syn. -- To blot out; obliterate; deface; erase; efface; expunge; annul; abolish; revoke; abrogate; repeal; destroy; do away; set aside. See Abolish.

Can"cel, n. [See Cancel, v. i., and cf. Chancel.]

1. An inclosure; a boundary; a limit. [Obs.]

A prison is but a retirement, and opportunity of serious thoughts, to a person whose spirit . . . desires no enlargement beyond the cancels of the body. Jer. Taylor.

2. (Print) (a) The suppression or striking out of matter in type, or of a printed page or pages. (b) The part thus suppressed.

Can`cel*ier" (?), v. i. [F. chanceler, OF. canseler, to waver, orig. to cross the legs so as not to fall; from the same word as E. cancel.] (Falconry) To turn in flight; -- said of a hawk. [Obs.] Nares.

He makes his stoop; but wanting breath, is forced To cancelier. Massinger.

{ Can`cel*ier" (?), Can"cel*eer (?) }, n. (Falconry) The turn of a hawk upon the wing to recover herself, when she misses her aim in the stoop. [Obs.]

The fierce and eager hawks, down thrilling from the skies, Make sundry canceliers ere they the fowl can reach. Drayton.

Can`cel*la"re*an (?), a. Cancellarean. [R.]

Can"cel*late (?), a. [L. cancellatus, p. p. of cancellare, See Cancel, v. t.] 1. (Bot.) Consisting of a network of veins, without intermediate parenchyma, as the leaves of certain plants; latticelike.

2. (Zoöl.) Having the surface coveres with raised lines, crossing at right angles.

Can"cel*la`ted (?), a. 1. Crossbarred; marked with cross lines. Grew.

2. (Anat.) Open or spongy, as some porous bones.

Can`cel*la"tion (?), n. [L. cancellatio: cf. F. cancellation.] 1. The act, process, or result of canceling; as, the cansellation of certain words in a contract, or of the contract itself.

2. (Math.) The operation of striking out common factors, in both the dividend and divisor.

||Can*cel"li (?), n. pl. [L., a lattice. See Cancel, v. t.] 1. An interwoven or latticed wall or inclosure; latticework, rails, or crossbars, as around the bar of a court of justice, between the chancel and the nave of a church, or in a window.

2. (Anat.) The interlacing osseous plates constituting the elastic porous tissue of certain parts of the bones, esp. in their articular extremities.

Can"cel*lous (?), a. [Cf. L. cancellosus covered with bars.] (Anat.) Having a spongy or porous structure; made up of cancelli; cancellated; as, the cancellous texture of parts of many bones.

Can"cer (?), n. [L. cancer, cancri, crab, ulcer, a sign of the zodiac; akin to Gr. karki`nos, Skr. karka&tsdot;a crab, and prob. Skr. karkara hard, the crab being named from its hard shell. Cf. Canner, Chancre.] 1. (Zoöl.) A genus of decapod Crustacea, including some of the most common shore crabs of Europe and North America, as the rock crab, Jonah crab, etc. See Crab.

2. (Astron.) (a) The fourth of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The first point is the northern limit of the sun's course in summer; hence, the sign of the summer solstice. See Tropic. (b) A northern constellation between Gemini and Leo.

3. (Med.) Formerly, any malignant growth, esp. one attended with great pain and ulceration, with cachexia and progressive emaciation. It was so called, perhaps, from the great veins which surround it, compared by the ancients to the claws of a crab. The term is now restricted to such a growth made up of aggregations of epithelial cells, either without support or embedded in the meshes of a trabecular framework.

&fist; Four kinds of cancers are recognized: (1) Epithelial cancer, or Epithelioma, in which there is no trabecular framework. See Epithelioma. (2) Scirrhous cancer, or Hard cancer, in which the framework predominates, and the tumor is of hard consistence and slow growth. (3) Encephaloid, Medullary, or Soft cancer, in which the cellular element predominates, and the tumor is soft, grows rapidy, and often ulcerates. (4) Colloid cancer, in which the cancerous structure becomes gelatinous. The last three varieties are also called carcinoma.

Cancer cells, cells once believed to be peculiar to cancers, but now know to be epithelial cells differing in no respect from those found elsewhere in the body, and distinguished only by peculiarity of location and grouping. -- Cancer root (Bot.), the name of several low plants, mostly parasitic on roots, as the beech drops, the squawroot, etc. -- Tropic of Cancer. See Tropic.

Can"cer*ate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cancerated.] [LL. canceratus eaten by a cancer. See Cancer.] To grow into a cancer; to become cancerous. Boyle.

Can`cer*a"tion (?), n. The act or state of becoming cancerous or growing into a cancer.

Can"cer*ite (?), n. [Cf. F. cancéreux.] Like a cancer; having the qualities or virulence of a cancer; affected with cancer. "Cancerous vices." G. Eliot.

Can"cer*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. cancéreux] Like a cancer; having the qualities or virulence of a cancer; affected with cancer. "cancerous vices" G. Eliot. [1913 Webster]

-- Can"cer*ous*ly, adv. -- Can"cer*ous*ness, n.

Can"cri*form (?), a. [Cancer + -form; cf. F. cancriforme.] 1. Having the form of, or resembling, a crab; crab- shaped.

2. Like a cancer; cancerous.

Can"crine (?), a. [From Cancer.] Having the qualities of a crab; crablike.

Can"cri*nite (?), n. [Named after Count Cancrin, a minister of finance in Russia.] (Min.) A mineral occurring in hexagonal crystals, also massive, generally of a yellow color, containing silica, alumina, lime, soda, and carbon dioxide.

Can"croid (?), a. [Cancer + oid.] 1. (Zoöl.) Resembling a crab; pertaining to the Cancroidea, one of the families of crabs, including the genus Cancer.

2. Like a cancer; as, a cancroid tumor.

Cand (?), n. Fluor spar. See Kand.

Can`de*la"brum (?) n.; pl. L. Candelabra (#), E. Candelabrums (#). [L., fr. candela candle. See candle.] 1. (Antiq.) (a) A lamp stand of any sort. (b) A highly ornamented stand of marble or other ponderous material, usually having three feet, -- frequently a votive offering to a temple.

2. A large candlestick, having several branches.

Can`dent (?), a. [L. candens, p. pr. of candëre to glitter. See Candid.] Heated to whiteness; glowing with heat. "A candent vessel." Boyle.

||Can"de*ros (?), n. An East Indian resin, of a pellucid white color, from which small ornaments and toys are sometimes made.

Can*des"cence (?), n. See Incandescence.

Can"di*cant (?), a. [L. candicans, p. pr. of candicare to be whitish.] Growing white. [Obs.]

Can*did (kăn"d&ibreve;d), a. [F. candide (cf. It. candido), L. candidus white, fr. candēre to be of a glowing white; akin to accend&ebreve;re, incend&ebreve;re, to set on fire, Skr. chand to shine. Cf. Candle, Incense.] 1. White. [Obs.]

The box receives all black; but poured from thence, The stones came candid forth, the hue of innocence. Dryden.

2. Free from undue bias; disposed to think and judge according to truth and justice, or without partiality or prejudice; fair; just; impartial; as, a candid opinion. "Candid and dispassionate men." W. Irving.

3. Open; frank; ingenuous; outspoken.

Syn. -- Fair; open; ingenuous; impartial; just; frank; artless; unbiased; equitable. -- Candid, Fair, Open, Frank, Ingenuous. A man is fair when he puts things on a just or equitable footing; he is candid when be looks impartially on both sides of a subject, doing justice especially to the motives and conduct of an opponent; he is open and frank when he declares his sentiments without reserve; he is ingenuous when he does this from a noble regard for truth. Fair dealing; candid investigation; an open temper; a frank disposition; an ingenuous answer or declaration.

Can"di*da*cy (?), n. The position of a candidate; state of being a candidate; candidateship.

Can"di*date (?), n. [L. Candidatus, n. (because candidates for office in Rome were clothed in a white toga.) fr. candidatus clothed in white, fr. candiduslittering, white: cf. F. candidat.] One who offers himself, or is put forward by others, as a suitable person or an aspirant or contestant for an office, privilege, or honor; as, a candidate for the office of governor; a candidate for holy orders; a candidate for scholastic honors.

Can"di*date*ship, n. Candidacy.

Can"di*da`ting (?), n. The taking of the position of a candidate; specifically, the preaching of a clergyman with a view to settlement. [Cant, U. S.]

Can"di*da*ture (?), n. Candidacy.

Can"did*ly (?), adv. In a candid manner.

Can"did*ness, n. The quality of being candid.

Can"died (?), a. [From 1st Candy.] 1. Preserved in or with sugar; incrusted with a candylike substance; as, candied fruits.

2. (a) Converted wholly or partially into sugar or candy; as candied sirup. (b) Conted or more or less with sugar; as, candidied raisins. (c) Figuratively; Honeyed; sweet; flattering.

Let the candied tongue lick absurd pomp. Shak.

3. Covered or incrusted with that which resembles sugar or candy.

Will the cold brook, Candiedwith ice, caudle thy morning tast? Shak.

Can"di*fy (?), v. t. or v. i. [L. candificare; candëre to be white + - facere to make.] To make or become white, or candied. [R.]

Can"di*ot (?), a. [Cf. F. candiote.] Of or pertaining to Candia; Cretary.

Can"dite (?), n. (Min.) A variety of spinel, of a dark color, found at Candy, in Ceylon.

Can"dle (?), n. [OE. candel, candel, AS, candel, fr. L. candela a (white) light made of wax or tallow, fr. candëre to be white. See Candid, and cf. Chandler, Cannel, Kindle.] 1. A slender, cylindrical body of tallow, containing a wick composed of loosely twisted linen of cotton threads, and used to furnish light.

How far that little candle throws his beams! So shines a good deed in a naughty world. Shak.

&fist; Candles are usually made by repeatedly dipping the wicks in the melted tallow, etc. ("dipped candles"), or by casting or running in a mold.

2. That which gives light; a luminary.

By these blessed candles of the night. Shak.

Candle nut, the fruit of a euphorbiaceous shrub (Aleurites triloba), a native of some of the Pacific islands; -- socalled because, when dry, it will burn with a bright flame, and is used by the natives as a candle. The oil has many uses. -- Candle power (Photom.), illuminating power, as of a lamp, or gas flame, reckoned in terms of the light of a standard candle. -- Electric candle, A modification of the electric arc lamp, in which the carbon rods, instead of being placed end to end, are arranged side by side, and at a distance suitable for the formation of the arc at the tip; -- called also, from the name of the inventor, Jablockoff candle. -- Excommunication by inch of candle, a form of excommunication in which the offender is allowed time to repent only while a candle burns. -- Not worth the candle, not worth the cost or trouble. -- Rush candle, a candle made of the pith of certain rushes, peeled except on one side, and dipped in grease. -- Sale by inch of candle, an auction in which persons are allowed to bid only till a small piece of candle burns out. -- Standard candle (Photom.), a special form of candle employed as a standard in photometric measurements; usually, a candle of spermaceti so constructed as to burn at the rate of 120 grains, or 7.8 grams, per hour. -- To curse by bell, book and candle. See under Bell.

Can"dle*ber`ry tree (?). (Bot.) A shrub (the Myrica cerifera, or wax-bearing myrtle), common in North America, the little nuts of which are covered with a greenish white wax, which was formerly, used for hardening candles; -- also called bayberry tree, bayberry, or candleberry.

Can"dle*bomb` (#), n. 1. A small glass bubble, filled with water, which, if placed in the flame of a candle, bursts by expansion of steam.

2. A pasteboard shell used in signaling. It is filled with a composition which makes a brilliant light when it explodes. Farrow.

Can"dle coal` (#). See Cannel coal.

Can"dle*fish` (#), n. (Zoöl.) (a) A marine fish (Thaleichthys Pacificus), allied to the smelt, found on the north Pacific coast; -- called also eulachon. It is so oily that, when dried, it may be used as a candle, by drawing a wick through it. (b) The beshow.

Can"dle*hold`er (#), n. One who, or that which, holds a candle; also, one who assists another, but is otherwise not of importance. Shak.

Can"dle*light`, n. The light of a candle.

Never went by candlelight to bed. Dryden.

Can"dle*mas (#), n. [AS. candelmæsse, candel candle + mæsse mass.] The second day of February, on which is celebrated the feast of the Purification of the Virgin Mary; -- so called because the candles for the altar or other sacred uses are blessed on that day.

Can"dle*stick` (?), n. [AS. candel-sticca; candel candle + sticca stick.] An instrument or utensil for supporting a candle.

Can"dle*wast`er (?), n. One who consumes candles by being up late for study or dissipation.

A bookworm, a candlewaster. B. Jonson.

Can"dock (?) n. [Prob. fr. can + dock (the plant). Cf. G. kannenkraut horsetail, lit. "canweed."] (Bot.) A plant or weed that grows in rivers; a species of Equisetum; also, the yellow frog lily (Nuphar luteum).

Can"dor (?), n. [Written also candour.] [L. candor, fr. candëre; cf. F. candeur. See candid.]

1. Whiteness; brightness; (as applied to moral conditions) usullied purity; innocence. [Obs.]

Nor yor unquestioned integrity Shall e'er be sullied with one taint or spot That may take from your innocence and candor. Massinger.

2. A disposition to treat subjects with fairness; freedom from prejudice or disguise; frankness; sincerity.

Attribute superior sagacity and candor to those who held that side of the question. Whewell.

Can"droy (?), n. A machine for spreading out cotton cloths to prepare them for printing.

Can"dy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Candied (?); p. pr & vb. n. Candying.] [F. candir (cf. It. candire, Sp. azúcar cande or candi), fr. Ar. & Pers. qand, fr. Skr. Khan.d.da piece, sugar in pieces or lumps, fr. khan.d., khad. to break.] 1. To conserve or boil in sugar; as, to candy fruits; to candy ginger.

2. To make sugar crystals of or in; to form into a mass resembling candy; as, to candy sirup.

3. To incrust with sugar or with candy, or with that which resembles sugar or candy.

Those frosts that winter brings Which candy every green. Drayson.

Can"dy (?), v. i. 1. To have sugar crystals form in or on; as, fruits preserved in sugar candy after a time.

2. To be formed into candy; to solidify in a candylike form or mass.

Can"dy n. [F. candi. See Candy, v. t.] A more or less solid article of confectionery made by boiling sugar or molasses to the desired consistency, and than crystallizing, molding, or working in the required shape. It is often flavored or colored, and sometimes contains fruit, nuts, etc.

||Candy, n. [Mahratta khan.d.ī, Tamil kan.d.i.] A weight, at Madras 500 pounds, at Bombay 560 pounds.

Can"dy*tuft` (?), n. (Bot.) An annual plant of the genus Iberis, cultivated in gardens. The name was originally given to the I. umbellata, first, discovered in the island of Candia.

Cane (kān), n. [OE. cane, canne, OF. cane, F. canne, L. canna, fr. Gr. ka`nna, ka`nnh; prob. of Semitic origin; cf. Heb. qāneh reed. Cf. Canister, canon, 1st Cannon.]

1. (Bot.) (a) A name given to several peculiar palms, species of Calamus and Dæmanorops, having very long, smooth flexible stems, commonly called rattans. (b) Any plant with long, hard, elastic stems, as reeds and bamboos of many kinds; also, the sugar cane. (c) Stems of other plants are sometimes called canes; as, the canes of a raspberry.

Like light canes, that first rise big and brave. B. Jonson.

&fist; In the Southern United States great cane is the Arundinaria macrosperma, and small cane is. A. tecta.

2. A walking stick; a staff; -- so called because originally made of one of the species of cane.

Stir the fire with your master's cane. Swift.

3. A lance or dart made of cane. [R.]

Judgelike thou sitt'st, to praise or to arraign The flying skirmish of the darted cane. Dryden.

4. A local European measure of length. See Canna.

Cane borer (Zoö.), A beetle (Oberea bimaculata) which, in the larval state, bores into pith and destroy the canes or stalks of the raspberry, blackberry, etc. -- Cane mill, a mill for grinding sugar canes, for the manufacture of sugar. -- Cane trash, the crushed stalks and other refuse of sugar cane, used for fuel, etc.

Cane (kān), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caned (kānd); p. pr. & vb. n. Caning.] 1. To beat with a cane. Macaulay.

2. To make or furnish with cane or rattan; as, to cane chairs.

Cane"brake` (-brāk`), n. A thicket of canes. Ellicott.

Caned (kānd), a. [Cf. L. canus white.] Filled with white flakes; mothery; -- said vinegar when containing mother. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

||Ca*nel"la (k&adot;*n&ebreve;l"l&adot;), n. [LL. (OE. canel, canelle, cinnamon, fr. F. cannelle), Dim. of L. canna a reed. Canella is so called from the shape of the rolls of prepared bark. See Cane.] (Bot.) A genus of trees of the order Canellaceæ, growing in the West Indies.

&fist; The principal species is Canella alba, and its bark is a spice and drug exported under the names of wild cinnamon and whitewood bark.

Ca*nes"cent (?), a. [L. canescens, p. pr. of canescere, v. inchoative of canere to be white.] Growing white, or assuming a color approaching to white.

Can" hook` (?). A device consisting of a short rope with flat hooks at each end, for hoisting casks or barrels by the ends of the staves.

||Ca*nic"u*la (?), n. [L. canicula, lit., a little dog, a dim. of canis dog; cf. F. canicule.] (Astron.) The Dog Star; Sirius.

Ca*nic"u*lar (?), a. [L. canicularis; cf. F. caniculaire.] Pertaining to, or measured, by the rising of the Dog Star.

Canicular days, the dog days, See Dog days. -- Canicular year, the Egyptian year, computed from one heliacal rising of the Dog Star to another.

Can"i*cule (?), n. Canicula. Addison.

Ca*ni"nal (?), a. See Canine, a.

Ca*nine" (?), a. [L. caninus, fr. canis dog: cf. F. canin. See Hound.] 1. Of or pertaining to the family Canidæ, or dogs and wolves; having the nature or qualities of a dog; like that or those of a dog.

2. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pointed tooth on each side the incisors.

Canine appetite, a morbidly voracious appetite; bulimia. -- Canine letter, the letter r. See R. -- Canine madness, hydrophobia. -- Canine tooth, a tooth situated between the incisor and bicuspid teeth, so called because well developed in dogs; usually, the third tooth from the front on each side of each jaw; an eyetooth, or the corresponding tooth in the lower jaw.

Ca*nine", n. (Anat.) A canine tooth.

||Ca"nis (kă"n&ibreve;s), n.; pl. Canes (- nēz). [L., a dog.] (Zoöl.) A genus of carnivorous mammals, of the family Canidæ, including the dogs and wolves.

||Canis major [L., larger dog], a constellation to the southeast of Orion, containing Sirius or the Dog Star. -- ||Canis minor [L., smaller dog], a constellation to the east of Orion, containing Procyon, a star of the first magnitude.

Can"is*ter (kăn"&ibreve;s*t&etilde;r), n. [L. canistrum a basket woven from reeds Gr. &?;, fr. ka`nh, ka`nna reed; cf. F. canistre. See Cane, and Canaster.] 1. A small basket of rushes, reeds, or willow twigs, etc.

2. A small box or case for holding tea, coffee, etc.

3. (Mil.) A kind of case shot for cannon, in which a number of lead or iron balls in layers are inclosed in a case fitting the gun; -- called also canister shot.

Can"ker (kă&nsm;"k&etilde;r), n. [OE. canker, cancre, AS. cancer (akin to D. kanker, OHG chanchar.), fr. L. cancer a cancer; or if a native word, cf. Gr. &?; excrescence on tree, &?; gangrene. Cf. also OF. cancre, F. chancere, fr. L. cancer. See cancer, and cf. Chancre.]

1. A corroding or sloughing ulcer; esp. a spreading gangrenous ulcer or collection of ulcers in or about the mouth; -- called also water canker, canker of the mouth, and noma.

2. Anything which corrodes, corrupts, or destroy.

The cankers of envy and faction. Temple.

3. (Hort.) A disease incident to trees, causing the bark to rot and fall off.

4. (Far.) An obstinate and often incurable disease of a horse's foot, characterized by separation of the horny portion and the development of fungoid growths; -- usually resulting from neglected thrush.

5. A kind of wild, worthless rose; the dog-rose.

To put down Richard, that sweet lovely rose. And plant this thorm, this canker, Bolingbroke. Shak.

Black canker. See under Black.

Can"ker (kă&nsm;"k&etilde;r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cankered (- k&etilde;rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Cankering.] 1. To affect as a canker; to eat away; to corrode; to consume.

No lapse of moons can canker Love. Tennyson.

2. To infect or pollute; to corrupt. Addison.

A tithe purloined cankers the whole estate. Herbert.

Can"ker, v. i. 1. To waste away, grow rusty, or be oxidized, as a mineral. [Obs.]

Silvering will sully and canker more than gliding. Bacom.

2. To be or become diseased, or as if diseased, with canker; to grow corrupt; to become venomous.

Deceit and cankered malice. Dryden.

As with age his body uglier grows, So his mind cankers. Shak.

Can"ker-bit` (?), a. Eaten out by canker, or as by canker. [Obs.]

Can"ker bloom` (?). The bloom or blossom of the wild rose or dog-rose.

Can"ker blos`som (?). That which blasts a blossom as a canker does. [Obs.]

O me! you juggler! you canker blossom! You thief of Love! Shak.

Can"kered (?), a. 1. Affected with canker; as, a cankered mouth.

2. Affected mentally or morally as with canker; sore, envenomed; malignant; fretful; ill-natured. "A cankered grandam's will." Shak.

Can"kered*ly, adv. Fretfully; spitefully.

Can"ker fly` (?). A fly that preys on fruit.

Can"ker*ous (?), a. Affecting like a canker. "Canrerous shackles." Thomson.

Misdeem it not a cankerous change. Wordsworth.

Can"ker rash` (?). (Med.) A form of scarlet fever characterized by ulcerated or putrid sore throat.

Can"ker*worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The larva of two species of geometrid moths which are very injurious to fruit and shade trees by eating, and often entirely destroying, the foliage. Other similar larvæ are also called cankerworms.

&fist; The autumnal species (Anisopteryx pometaria) becomes adult late in autumn (after frosts) and in winter. The spring species (A. vernata) remains in the ground through the winter, and matures in early spring. Both have winged males and wingless females. The larvæ are similar in appearance and habits, and belong to the family of measuring worms or spanworms. These larvæ hatch from the eggs when the leaves begin to expand in spring.

Can"ker*y (?), a. 1. Like a canker; full of canker.

2. Surly; sore; malignant.

||Can"na (?), n. [It.] A measure of length in Italy, varying from six to seven feet. See Cane, 4.

||Can"na (?), n. [L., a reed. See Cane.] (Bot.) A genus of tropical plants, with large leaves and often with showy flowers. The Indian shot (C. Indica) is found in gardens of the northern United States.

Can"na*bene (?), n. [From Cannabis.] (Chem.) A colorless oil obtained from hemp by distillation, and possessing its intoxicating properties.

Can"na*bin (?), n. (Chem.) A poisonous resin extracted from hemp (Cannabis sativa, variety Indica). The narcotic effects of hasheesh are due to this resin.

Can"na*bine (?), a. [L. cannabinus.] Pertaining to hemp; hempen. [R.]

||Can"na*bis (?), n. [L., hemp. See Canvas.] (Bot.) A genus of a single species belonging to the order Uricaceæ; hemp.

Cannabis Indica (&?;), the Indian hemp, a powerful narcotic, now considered a variety of the common hemp.

Can"nel coal` (?). [Corrupt. fr. candle coal.] A kind of mineral coal of a black color, sufficiently hard and solid to be cut and polished. It burns readily, with a clear, yellow flame, and on this account has been used as a substitute for candles.

Can"ner*y (?), n. A place where the business of canning fruit, meat, etc., is carried on. [U. S.]

Can"ni*bal (?), n. [Cf. F. cannibale. Columbus, in a letter to the Spanish monarchs written in Oct., 1498, mentions that the people of Hayti lived in great fear of the Caribales (equivalent to E. Caribbees.), the inhabitants of the smaller Antilles; which form of the name was afterward changed into NL. Canibales, in order to express more forcibly their character by a word intelligible through a Latin root "propter rabiem caninam anthropophagorum gentis." The Caribbees call themselves, in their own language. Calinago, Carinago, Calliponam, and, abbreviated, Calina, signifying a brave, from which Columbus formed his Caribales.] A human being that eats human flesh; hence, any that devours its own kind. Darwin.

Can"ni*bal (?), a. Relating to cannibals or cannibalism. "Cannibal terror." Burke.

Can"ni*bal*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. cannibalisme.] The act or practice of eating human flesh by mankind. Hence; Murderous cruelty; barbarity. Berke.

Can"ni*bal*ly, adv. In the manner of cannibal. "An he had been cannibally given." Shak.

Can"ni*kin (?), n. [Can + -kin.] A small can or drinking vessel.

Can"ni*ly, adv. In a canny manner. [N. of Eng. & Scot.]

Can"ni*ness, n. Caution; crafty management. [N. of Eng. & Scot.]

Can"non (?), n.; pl. Cannons (#), collectively Cannon. [F. cannon, fr. L. canna reed, pipe, tube. See Cane.] 1. A great gun; a piece of ordnance or artillery; a firearm for discharging heavy shot with great force.

&fist; Cannons are made of various materials, as iron, brass, bronze, and steel, and of various sizes and shapes with respect to the special service for which they are intended, as intended, as siege, seacoast, naval, field, or mountain, guns. They always aproach more or less nearly to a cylindrical from, being usually thicker toward the breech than at the muzzle. Formerly they were cast hollow, afterwards they were cast, solid, and bored out. The cannon now most in use for the armament of war vessels and for seacoast defense consists of a forged steel tube reinforced with massive steel rings shrunk upon it. Howitzers and mortars are sometimes called cannon. See Gun.

2. (Mech.) A hollow cylindrical piece carried by a revolving shaft, on which it may, however, revolve independently.

3. (Printing.) A kind of type. See Canon.

Cannon ball, strictly, a round solid missile of stone or iron made to be fired from a cannon, but now often applied to a missile of any shape, whether solid or hollow, made for cannon. Elongated and cylindrical missiles are sometimes called bolts; hollow ones charged with explosives are properly called shells. -- Cannon bullet, a cannon ball. [Obs.] -- Cannon cracker, a fire cracker of large size. -- Cannon lock, a device for firing a cannon by a percussion primer. -- Cannon metal. See Gun Metal. -- Cannon pinion, the pinion on the minute hand arbor of a watch or clock, which drives the hand but permits it to be moved in setting. -- Cannon proof, impenetrable by cannon balls. -- Cannon shot. (a) A cannon ball. (b) The range of a cannon.

Can"non, n. & v. (Billiards) See Carom. [Eng.]

Can`non*ade" (?), n. [F. Canonnade; cf. It. cannanata.] 1. The act of discharging cannon and throwing ball, shell, etc., for the purpose of destroying an army, or battering a town, ship, or fort; -- usually, an attack of some continuance.

A furious cannonade was kept up from the whole circle of batteries on the devoted towm. Prescott.

2. Fig.; A loud noise like a cannonade; a booming.

Blue Walden rolls its cannonade. Ewerson.

Can`non*ade", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cannonade; p. pr. & vb. n. Cannonading.] To attack with heavy artillery; to batter with cannon shot.

Can`non*ade", v. i. To discharge cannon; as, the army cannonaded all day.

Can"non bone (?). (Anat.) See Canon Bone.

Can"noned (&?;), a. Furnished with cannon. [Poetic] "Gilbralter's cannoned steep." M. Arnold.

{ Can`non*eer", Can`non*ier" } (?), n. [F. canonnier.] A man who manages, or fires, cannon.

Can`non*er"ing, n. The use of cannon. Burke.

Can"non*ry (?), n. Cannon, collectively; artillery.

The ringing of bells and roaring of cannonry proclaimed his course through the country. W. Irving.

Can"not (?). [Can to be able + -not.] Am, is, or are, not able; -- written either as one word or two.

Can"nu*la (?), n. [L. cannula a small tube of dim. of canna a reed, tube.] (Surg.) A small tube of metal, wood, or India rubber, used for various purposes, esp. for injecting or withdrawing fluids. It is usually associated with a trocar. [Written also canula.]

Can"nu*lar (?), a. Having the form of a tube; tubular. [Written also canular.]

Can"nu*la`ted (?), a. Hollow; affording a passage through its interior length for wire, thread, etc.; as, a cannulated (suture) needle. [Written also canulated.]

{ Can"ny, Can"nei } (?), a. [Cf. Icel. kenn skilled, learned, or E. canny. Cf. Kenn.] [North of Eng. & Scot.] 1. Artful; cunning; shrewd; wary.

2. Skillful; knowing; capable. Sir W. Scott.

3. Cautious; prudent; safe.. Ramsay.

4. Having pleasing or useful qualities; gentle. Burns.

5. Reputed to have magical powers. Sir W. Scott.

No canny, not safe, not fortunate; unpropitious. [Scot.]

Ca*noe" (?), n.; pl. Canoes (#). [Sp. canoa, fr. Caribbean canáoa.] 1. A boat used by rude nations, formed of trunk of a tree, excavated, by cutting of burning, into a suitable shape. It is propelled by a paddle or paddles, or sometimes by sail, and has no rudder.

Others devised the boat of one tree, called the canoe. Raleigh.

2. A boat made of bark or skins, used by savages.

A birch canoe, with paddles, rising, falling, on the water. Longfellow.

3. A light pleasure boat, especially designed for use by one who goes alone upon long excursions, including portage. It it propelled by a paddle, or by a small sail attached to a temporary mast.

Ca*noe" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Canoed (?) p. pr. & vb. n. Canoeing (&?;).] To manage a canoe, or voyage in a canoe.

Ca*noe"ing n. The act or art of using a canoe.

Ca*noe"ist (?), n. A canoeman.

Ca*noe"man, n.; pl. Canoemen (#). One who uses a canoe; one who travels in a canoe.

Cabins and clearing greeted the eye of the passing canoeman. Parkman.

Can"on (#), n. [OE. canon, canoun, AS. canon rule (cf. F. canon, LL. canon, and, for sense 7, F. chanoine, LL. canonicus), fr. L. canon a measuring line, rule, model, fr. Gr. &?; rule, rod, fr. &?;, &?;, red. See Cane, and cf. Canonical.] 1. A law or rule.

Or that the Everlasting had not fixed His canon 'gainst self-slaughter. Shak.

2. (Eccl.) A law, or rule of doctrine or discipline, enacted by a council and confirmed by the pope or the sovereign; a decision, regulation, code, or constitution made by ecclesiastical authority.

Various canons which were made in councils held in the second centry. Hock.

3. The collection of books received as genuine Holy Scriptures, called the sacred canon, or general rule of moral and religious duty, given by inspiration; the Bible; also, any one of the canonical Scriptures. See Canonical books, under Canonical, a.

4. In monasteries, a book containing the rules of a religious order.

5. A catalogue of saints acknowledged and canonized in the Roman Catholic Church.

6. A member of a cathedral chapter; a person who possesses a prebend in a cathedral or collegiate church.

7. (Mus.) A musical composition in which the voices begin one after another, at regular intervals, successively taking up the same subject. It either winds up with a coda (tailpiece), or, as each voice finishes, commences anew, thus forming a perpetual fugue or round. It is the strictest form of imitation. See Imitation.

8. (Print.) The largest size of type having a specific name; -- so called from having been used for printing the canons of the church.

9. The part of a bell by which it is suspended; -- called also ear and shank. [See Illust. of Bell.] Knight.

10. (Billiards) See Carom.

Apostolical canons. See under Apostolical. -- Augustinian canons, Black canons. See under Augustinian. -- Canon capitular, Canon residentiary, a resident member of a cathedral chapter (during a part or the whole of the year). -- Canon law. See under Law. -- Canon of the Mass (R. C. Ch.), that part of the mass, following the Sanctus, which never changes. -- Honorary canon, a canon who neither lived in a monastery, nor kept the canonical hours. -- Minor canon (Ch. of Eng.), one who has been admitted to a chapter, but has not yet received a prebend. -- Regular canon (R. C. Ch.), one who lived in a conventual community and follower the rule of St. Austin; a Black canon. -- Secular canon (R. C. Ch.), one who did not live in a monastery, but kept the hours.

||Ca*ñon" (?), n. [Sp., a tube or hollow, fr. caña reed, fr. L. canna. See Cane.] A deep gorge, ravine, or gulch, between high and steep banks, worn by water courses. [Mexico & Western U. S.]

Can"on bit` (?). [F. canon, fr. L. canon a rule.] That part of a bit which is put in a horse's mouth.

Can"on bone` (?). [F. canon, fr. L. canon a rule. See canon.] (Anat.) The shank bone, or great bone above the fetlock, in the fore and hind legs of the horse and allied animals, corresponding to the middle metacarpal or metatarsal bone of most mammals. See Horse.

Can"on*ess (?), n. [Cf. LL. canonissa.] A woman who holds a canonry in a conventual chapter.

Regular canoness, one bound by the poverty, and observing a strict rule of life. -- Secular canoness, one allowed to hold private property, and bound only by vows of chastity and obedience so long as she chose to remain in the chapter.

{ Ca*non"ic (?), Can*non"ic*al (?), } a. [L. cannonicus, LL. canonicalis, fr. L. canon: cf. F. canonique. See canon.] Of or pertaining to a canon; established by, or according to a , canon or canons. "The oath of canonical obedience." Hallam.

Canonical books, or Canonical Scriptures, those books which are declared by the canons of the church to be of divine inspiration; -- called collectively the canon. The Roman Catholic Church holds as canonical several books which Protestants reject as apocryphal. -- Canonical epistles, an appellation given to the epistles called also general or catholic. See Catholic epistles, under Canholic. -- Canonical form (Math.), the simples or most symmetrical form to which all functions of the same class can be reduced without lose of generality. -- Canonical hours, certain stated times of the day, fixed by ecclesiastical laws, and appropriated to the offices of prayer and devotion; also, certain portions of the Breviary, to be used at stated hours of the day. In England, this name is also given to the hours from 8 a. m. to 3 p. m. (formerly 8 a. m. to 12 m.) before and after which marriage can not be legally performed in any parish church. -- Canonical letters, letters of several kinds, formerly given by a bishop to traveling clergymen or laymen, to show that they were entitled to receive the communion, and to distinguish them from heretics. -- Canonical life, the method or rule of living prescribed by the ancient clergy who lived in community; a course of living prescribed for the clergy, less rigid than the monastic, and more restrained that the secular. -- Canonical obedience, submission to the canons of a church, especially the submission of the inferior clergy to their bishops, and of other religious orders to their superiors. - - Canonical punishments, such as the church may inflict, as excommunication, degradation, penance, etc. -- Canonical sins (Anc. Church.), those for which capital punishment or public penance decreed by the canon was inflicted, as idolatry, murder, adultery, heresy.

Ca*non"ic*al*ly (?), adv. In a canonical manner; according to the canons.

Ca*non"ic*al*ness, n. The quality of being canonical; canonicity. Bp. Burnet.

Ca*non"ic*als (?), n. pl. The dress prescribed by canon to be worn by a clergyman when officiating. Sometimes, any distinctive professional dress.

Full canonicals, the complete costume of an officiating clergyman or ecclesiastic.

i Ca*non"i*cate (?), n. [LL. canonucatus canonical: cf. F. canonicat.] The office of a canon; a canonry.

Can`on*ic"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. canonicité.] The state or quality of being canonical; agreement with the canon.

Can"on*ist, n. [Cf. F. canoniste.] A professor of canon law; one skilled in the knowledge and practice of ecclesiastical law. South.

Can`on*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a canonist. "This canonistic exposition." Milton.

Can`on*i*za"tion (?), n. [F. canonisation.]

1. (R. C. Ch.) The final process or decree (following beatifacation) by which the name of a deceased person is placed in the catalogue (canon) of saints and commended to perpetual veneration and invocation.

Canonization of saints was not known to the Christian church titl toward the middle of the tenth century. Hoock.

2. The state of being canonized or sainted.

Can"on*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Canonized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Canonizing.] [F. canoniser or LL. canonizare, fr. L. canon.. See Canon.] 1. (Eccl.) To declare (a deceased person) a saint; to put in the catalogue of saints; as, Thomas a Becket was canonized.

2. To glorify; to exalt to the highest honor.

Fame in time to come canonize us. Shak.

2. To rate as inspired; to include in the canon.[R.]

Can"on*ry (?), n. pl. Canonries (&?;). A benefice or prebend in a cathedral or collegiate church; a right to a place in chapter and to a portion of its revenues; the dignity or emoluments of a canon.

Can"on*ship (?), a. Of or pertaining to Canopus in Egypt; as, the Canopic vases, used in embalming.

||Ca*no"pus (?), n. [L. Canopus, fr. Gr. &?;, town of Egypt.] (Astron.) A star of the first magnitude in the southern constellation Argo.

Can"o*py (kăn"&osl;*p&ybreve;), n.; pl. Canopies (- p&ibreve;z). [OE. canapie, F. canapé sofa, OF. conopée, conopeu, conopieu, canopy, vail, pavilion (cf. It. canopè canopy, sofa), LL. conopeum a bed with mosquito curtains, fr. Gr. kwnwpei^on, fr. kw`nwps gnat, kw`nos cone + 'w`ps face. See Cone, and Optic.] 1. A covering fixed over a bed, dais, or the like, or carried on poles over an exalted personage or a sacred object, etc. chiefly as a mark of honor. "Golden canopies and beds of state." Dryden.

2. (Arch.) (a) An ornamental projection, over a door, window, niche, etc. (b) Also, a rooflike covering, supported on pillars over an altar, a statue, a fountain, etc.

Can"o*py, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Canopes (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Canopying.] To cover with, or as with, a canopy. "A bank with ivy canopied." Milton.

Ca*no"rous (?), a. [L. canorus, from nor melody, fr. canere to sing.] Melodious; musical. "Birds that are most canorous." Sir T. Browne.

A long, lound, and canorous peal of laughter. De Quincey.

Ca*no"rous*ness, n. The quality of being musical.

He chooses his language for its rich canorousness. Lowell.

Can"stick` (?), n. Candlestick. [Obs.] Shak.

Cant (?), n. [OF., edge, angle, prof. from L. canthus the iron ring round a carriage wheel, a wheel, Gr. &?; the corner of the eye, the felly of a wheel; cf. W. cant the stake or tire of a wheel. Cf. Canthus, Canton, Cantle.] 1. A corner; angle; niche. [Obs.]

The first and principal person in the temple was Irene, or Peace; she was placed aloft in a cant. B. Jonson.

2. An outer or external angle.

3. An inclination from a horizontal or vertical line; a slope or bevel; a titl. Totten.

4. A sudden thrust, push, kick, or other impulse, producing a bias or change of direction; also, the bias or turn so give; as, to give a ball a cant.

5. (Coopering) A segment forming a side piece in the head of a cask. Knight.

6. (Mech.) A segment of he rim of a wooden cogwheel. Knight.

7. (Naut.) A piece of wood laid upon the deck of a vessel to support the bulkheads.

Cant frames, Cant timbers (Naut.), timber at the two ends of a ship, rising obliquely from the keel.

Cant, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Canted; p. pr. & vb. n. Canting.] 1. To incline; to set at an angle; to tilt over; to tip upon the edge; as, to cant a cask; to cant a ship.

2. To give a sudden turn or new direction to; as, to cant round a stick of timber; to cant a football.

3. To cut off an angle from, as from a square piece of timber, or from the head of a bolt.

Cant, n. [Prob. from OF. cant, F. chant, singing, in allusion to the singing or whining tine of voice used by beggars, fr. L. cantus. See Chant.] 1. An affected, singsong mode of speaking.

2. The idioms and peculiarities of speech in any sect, class, or occupation. Goldsmith.

The cant of any profession. Dryden.

3. The use of religious phraseology without understanding or sincerity; empty, solemn speech, implying what is not felt; hypocrisy.

They shall hear no cant from me. F. W. Robertson

4. Vulgar jargon; slang; the secret language spoker by gipsies, thieves, tramps, or beggars.

Cant (?), a. Of the nature of cant; affected; vulgar.

To introduce and multiply cant words in the most ruinous corruption in any language. Swift.

Cant, v. i. 1. To speak in a whining voice, or an affected, singsong tone.

2. To make whining pretensions to goodness; to talk with an affectation of religion, philanthropy, etc.; to practice hypocrisy; as, a canting fanatic.

The rankest rogue that ever canted. Beau. & Fl.

3. To use pretentious language, barbarous jargon, or technical terms; to talk with an affectation of learning.

The doctor here, When he discourseth of dissection, Of vena cava and of vena porta, The meseræum and the mesentericum, What does he else but cant. B. Jonson

That uncouth affected garb of speech, or canting language, if I may so call it. Bp. Sanderson.

Cant, n. [Prob. from OF. cant, equiv. to L. quantum; cf. F. encan, fr. L. in quantum, i.e. "for how much?"] A call for bidders at a public sale; an auction. "To sell their leases by cant." Swift.

Cant, v. t. to sell by auction, or bid a price at a sale by auction. [Archaic] Swift.

Can't (?). A colloquial contraction for can not.

Can"tab (?), n. [Abbreviated from Cantabrigian.] A Cantabrigian. [Colloq.] Sir W. Scott.

||Can*ta"bi*le (?), a. [It., cantare to sing.] (Mus.) In a melodious, flowing style; in a singing style, as opposed to bravura, recitativo, or parlando.

||Can*ta"bi*le, n. (Mus.) A piece or passage, whether vocal or instrumental, peculiarly adapted to singing; -- sometimes called cantilena.

Can*ta"bri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Cantabria on the Bay of Biscay in Spain.

Can`ta*brig"i*an (?), n. A native or resident of Cambridge; esp. a student or graduate of the university of Cambridge, England.

Can"ta*lev`er (?), n. [Cant an external angle + lever a supporter of the roof timber of a house.] [Written also cantaliver and cantilever.] 1. (Arch.) A bracket to support a balcony, a cornice, or the like.

2. (Engin.) A projecting beam, truss, or bridge unsupported at the outer end; one which overhangs.

Cantalever bridge, a bridge in which the principle of the cantalever is applied. It is usually a trussed bridge, composed of two portions reaching out from opposite banks, and supported near the middle of their own length on piers which they overhang, thus forming cantalevers which meet over the space to be spanned or sustain a third portion, to complete the connection.

Can"ta*loupe (?), n. [F. cantaloup, It. cantalupo, so called from the caste of Cantalupo, in the Marca d'Ancona, in Italy, where they were first grown in Europe, from seed said to have been imported from Armenia.] A muskmelon of several varieties, having when mature, a yellowish skin, and flesh of a reddish orange color. [Written also cantaleup.]

Can*tan"ker*ous (?), a. Perverse; contentious; ugly; malicious. [Colloq.] -- Can*tan"ker*ous*ly, adv. -- Can*tan"ker*ous*ness, n.

The cantankerous old maiden aunt. Thackeray.

{ Can"tar (?), ||Can*tar"ro (?), } n. [It. cantaro (in sense 1), Sp. cantaro (in sense 2).]

1. A weight used in southern Europe and East for heavy articles. It varies in different localities; thus, at Rome it is nearly 75 pounds, in Sardinia nearly 94 pounds, in Cairo it is 95 pounds, in Syria about 503 pounds.

2. A liquid measure in Spain, ranging from two and a half to four gallons. Simmonds.

||Can*ta"ta (?), n. [It., fr. cantare to sing, fr. L. cantare intens of canere to sing.] (Mus.) A poem set to music; a musical composition comprising choruses, solos, interludes, etc., arranged in a somewhat dramatic manner; originally, a composition for a single noise, consisting of both recitative and melody.

Can*ta"tion (?), n. [L. cantatio.] A singing. [Obs.] Blount.

Cant"a*to*ry (?), a. Containing cant or affectation; whining; singing. [R.]

||Can`ta*tri"ce (k&adot;n`t&adot;*trē"ch&asl;), n. [It.] (Mus.) A female professional singer.

Cant"ed (?), a. [From 2d Cant.] 1. Having angles; as, a six canted bolt head; a canted window.

Canted column (Arch.), a column polygonal in plan.

2. Inclined at an angle to something else; tipped; sloping.

Can*teen" (kăn*tēn"), n. [F. cantine bottle case, canteen (cf. Sp. & It. cantina cellar, bottle case), either contr. fr. It. canovettina, dim. of canova cellar, or, more likely, fr. OF. cant. corner, It. & Sp. canto. See 1st Cant.] (Mil.) 1. A vessel used by soldiers for carrying water, liquor, or other drink. [Written also cantine.]

&fist; In the English service the canteen is made of wood and holds three pints; in the United States it is usually a tin flask.

2. The sutler's shop in a garrison; also, a chest containing culinary and other vessels for officers.

Can"tel (?), n. See Cantle.

Can"ter (?), n. [An abbreviation of Caner bury. See Canterbury gallop, under Canterbury.] 1. A moderate and easy gallop adapted to pleasure riding.

&fist; The canter is a thoroughly artificial pace, at first extremely tiring to the horse, and generally only to be produced in him by the restraint of a powerful bit, which compels him to throw a great part of his weight on his haunches . . . There is so great a variety in the mode adopted by different horses for performing the canter, that no single description will suffice, nor indeed is it easy . . . to define any one of them. J. H. Walsh.

2. A rapid or easy passing over.

A rapid canter in the Times over all the topics. Sir J. Stephen.

Can"ter (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cantered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cantering.] To move in a canter.

Can"ter, v. t. To cause, as a horse, to go at a canter; to ride (a horse) at a canter.

Cant"er, n. 1. One who cants or whines; a beggar.

2. One who makes hypocritical pretensions to goodness; one who uses canting language.

The day when he was a canter and a rebel. Macaulay.

Can"ter*bur*y (?), n. 1. A city in England, giving its name various articles. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury (primate of all England), and contains the shrine of Thomas à Becket, to which pilgrimages were formerly made.

2. A stand with divisions in it for holding music, loose papers, etc.

Canterbury ball (Bot.), a species of Campanula of several varieties, cultivated for its handsome bell-shaped flowers. -- Canterbury gallop, a gentle gallop such as was used by pilgrims riding to Canterbury; a canter. -- Canterbury tale, one of the tales which Chaucer puts into the mouths of certain pilgrims to Canterbury. Hence, any tale told by travelers to pass away the time.

Can*thar"*i*dal (?), a. Of or pertaining to cantharides or made of cantharides; as, cantharidal plaster.

Can*thar"i*des (?), n. pl. See Cantharis.

Can*thar"i*din (?), n. (Chem.) The active principle of the cantharis, or Spanish fly, a volatile, acrid, bitter solid, crystallizing in four-sided prisms.

Can"tha*ris (?), n.; pl. Cantharides (#). [L., a kind of beetle, esp. the Spanish fly, Gr. kanqari`s.] (Zoöl.) A beetle (Lytta, or Cantharis, vesicatoria), havin1g an elongated cylindrical body of a brilliant green color, and a nauseous odor; the blister fly or blister beetle, of the apothecary; -- also called Spanish fly. Many other species of Lytta, used for the same purpose, take the same name. See Blister beetle, under Blister. The plural form in usually applied to the dried insects used in medicine.

Cant" hook` (?). A wooden lever with a movable iron hook. hear the end; -- used for canting or turning over heavy logs, etc. [U. S.] Bartlett.

Can"tho*plas`ty (?), n. [Gr.&?;, corner of the eye + &?; to from.] (Surg.) The operation of forming a new canthus, when one has been destroyed by injury or disease.

||Can"thus (?), n.; pl. Canthi (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Anat.) The corner where the upper and under eyelids meet on each side of the eye.

Can"ti*cle (?), n.; pl. Canticles (#). [L. canticulum a little song, dim. of canticum song, fr. cantus a singing, fr. coner to sing. See Chant.] 1. A song; esp. a little song or hymn. [Obs.] Bacon.

2. pl. The Song of Songs or Song of Solomon, one of the books of the Old Testament.

3. A canto or division of a poem [Obs.] Spenser.

4. A psalm, hymn, or passage from the Bible, arranged for chanting in church service.

Can"ti*coy (?), n. [Of American Indian origin.] A social gathering; usually, one for dancing.

Can"tile (?), v. i. Same as Cantle, v. t.

||Can`ti*le"na (?), n. [It. & L.] (Mus.) See Cantabile.

Can"ti*lev`er (?), n. Same as Cantalever.

Can"til*late (?), v. i. [L. cantillatus, p. p. of cantillare to sing low, dim. of cantare. See Cantata.] To chant; to recite with musical tones. M. Stuart.

Can`til*la"tion (?), n. A chanting; recitation or reading with musical modulations.

Can*tine" (?), n. See Canteen.

Cant"ing (?), a. Speaking in a whining tone of voice; using technical or religious terms affectedly; affectedly pious; as, a canting rogue; a canting tone.

-- Cant"ing*ly, adv. -- Cant"ing*ness, n.

Canting arms, Canting heraldry (Her.), bearings in the nature of a rebus alluding to the name of the bearer. Thus, the Castletons bear three castles, and Pope Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare) bore a broken spear.

Cant"ing, n. The use of cant; hypocrisy.

||Can`ti*niere" (?), n. [F., fr. cantine a sutler's shop, canteen.] (Mil) A woman who carries a canteen for soldiers; a vivandière.

Can"tion (?), n. [L. cantio, from canere to sing.] A song or verses. [Obs.] Spenser.

Can"tle (?), n. [OF. cantel, chantel, corner, side, piece, F. chanteau a piece cut from a larger piece, dim. of OF. cant edge, corner. See 1st Cant.] 1. A corner or edge of anything; a piece; a fragment; a part. "In one cantle of his law." Milton.

Cuts me from the best of all my land A huge half moon, a monstrous cantle out. Shak.

2. The upwardly projecting rear part of saddle, opposite to the pommel. [Written also cante.]

Can"tle, v. t. To cut in pieces; to cut out from. [Obs.] [Written also cantile.]

Cant"let (?), n. [Dim. of cantle.] A piece; a fragment; a corner. Dryden.

Can"to (?), n.; pl. Cantos (#). [It. canto, fr. L. cantus singing, song. See Chant.] 1. One of the chief divisions of a long poem; a book.

2. (Mus.) The highest vocal part; the air or melody in choral music; anciently the tenor, now the soprano.

||Canto fermo (&?;) [It.] (Mus.), the plain ecclesiastical chant in cathedral service; the plain song.

Can"ton (?), n. A song or canto [Obs.]

Write loyal cantons of contemned love. Shak.

Can"ton, n. [F. canton, augm. of OF. cant edge, corner. See 1st Cant.] 1. A small portion; a division; a compartment.

That little canton of land called the "English pale" Davies.

There is another piece of Holbein's, . . . in which, in six several cantons, the several parts of our Savior's passion are represented. Bp. Burnet.

2. A small community or clan.

3. A small territorial district; esp. one of the twenty-two independent states which form the Swiss federal republic; in France, a subdivision of an arrondissement. See Arrondissement.

4. (Her.) A division of a shield occupying one third part of the chief, usually on the dexter side, formed by a perpendicular line from the top of the shield, meeting a horizontal line from the side.

The king gave us the arms of England to be borne in a canton in our arms. Evelyn.

Can"ton, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cantoned ; p. pr. & vb. n. Cantoning.] [Cf. F. cantonner.] 1. To divide into small parts or districts; to mark off or separate, as a distinct portion or division.

They canton out themselves a little Goshen in the intellectual world. Locke.

2. (Mil.) To allot separate quarters to, as to different parts or divisions of an army or body of troops.

Can"ton*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a canton or cantons; of the nature of a canton.

Can"ton crape" (krāp"). A soft, white or colored silk fabric, of a gauzy texture and wavy appearance, used for ladies' scarfs, shawls, bonnet trimmings, etc.; -- called also Oriental crape. De Colange.

Can"toned (?), a. 1. (Her.) Having a charge in each of the four corners; -- said of a cross on a shield, and also of the shield itself.

2. (Arch.) Having the angles marked by, or decorated with, projecting moldings or small columns; as, a cantoned pier or pilaster.

Can"ton flan"nel (?). See Cotton flannel.

Can"ton*ize (?), v. i. To divide into cantons or small districts.

Can"ton*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. cantonnement.] A town or village, or part of a town or village, assigned to a body of troops for quarters; temporary shelter or place of rest for an army; quarters.

&fist; When troops are sheltered in huts or quartered in the houses of the people during any suspension of hostilities, they are said to be in cantonment, or to be cantoned. In India, permanent military stations, or military towns, are termed cantonments.

Can*toon" (?), n. A cotton stuff showing a fine cord on one side and a satiny surface on the other.

Can"tor (?), n. [L., a singer, fr. caner to sing.] A singer; esp. the leader of a church choir; a precentor.

The cantor of the church intones the Te Deum. Milman.

Can"tor*al (?), a. Of or belonging to a cantor.

Cantoral staff, the official staff or baton of a cantor or precentor, with which time is marked for the singers.

Can*to"ris (?), a. [L., lit., of the cantor, gen. of cantor.] Of or pertaining to a cantor; as, the cantoris side of a choir; a cantoris stall. Shipley.

{ Can"trap (?), Can"trip (?), } n. [Cf. Icel. gandar, ODan. & OSw. gan, witchcraft, and E. trap a snare, tramp.] A charm; an incantation; a shell; a trick; adroit mischief. [Written also cantraip.] [Scot.]

{ Can"tred (?), ||Can"tref, } n. [W. cantref; cant hundred + tref dwelling place, village.] A district comprising a hundred villages, as in Wales. [Written also kantry.]

Can"ty (?), a. Cheerful; sprightly; lively; merry. "The canty dame." Wordsworth [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

Contented with little, and canty with mair. Burns.

Ca*nuck" (?), n. 1. A Canadian. [Slang]

2. A small or medium-sized hardy horse, common in Canada. [Colloq.]

{ Can"u*la (?), n., Can"u*lar (?), a., Can"u*la`ted (?), } a. See Cannula, Cannular, and Cannulated.

Can"vas (?), n. [OE. canvas, canevas, F. canevas, LL. canabacius hempen cloth, canvas, L. cannabis hemp, fr. G. &?;. See Hemp.] 1. A strong cloth made of hemp, flax, or cotton; -- used for tents, sails, etc.

By glimmering lanes and walls of canvas led. Tennyson.

2. (a) A coarse cloth so woven as to form regular meshes for working with the needle, as in tapestry, or worsted work. (b) A piece of strong cloth of which the surface has been prepared to receive painting, commonly painting in oil.

History . . . does not bring out clearly upon the canvas the details which were familiar. J. H. Newman.

3. Something for which canvas is used: (a) A sail, or a collection of sails. (b) A tent, or a collection of tents. (c) A painting, or a picture on canvas.

To suit his canvas to the roughness of the see. Goldsmith.

Light, rich as that which glows on the canvas of Claude. Macaulay.

4. A rough draft or model of a song, air, or other literary or musical composition; esp. one to show a poet the measure of the verses he is to make. Grabb.

Can"vas, a. Made of, pertaining to, or resembling, canvas or coarse cloth; as, a canvas tent.

Can"vas*back` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A Species of duck (Aythya vallisneria), esteemed for the delicacy of its flesh. It visits the United States in autumn; particularly Chesapeake Bay and adjoining waters; -- so named from the markings of the plumage on its back.

Can"vass (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. canvassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Canvassing.] [OF. Canabasser to examine curiously, to search or sift out; properly, to sift through canvas. See Canvas, n.] 1. To sift; to strain; to examine thoroughly; to scrutinize; as, to canvass the votes cast at an election; to canvass a district with reference to its probable vote.

I have made careful search on all hands, and canvassed the matter with all possible diligence. Woodward.

2. To examine by discussion; to debate.

An opinion that we are likely soon to canvass. Sir W. Hamilton.

3. To go through, with personal solicitation or public addresses; as, to canvass a district for votes; to canvass a city for subscriptions.

Can"vass, v. i. To search thoroughly; to engage in solicitation by traversing a district; as, to canvass for subscriptions or for votes; to canvass for a book, a publisher, or in behalf of a charity; -- commonly followed by for.

Can"vass, n. 1. Close inspection; careful review for verification; as, a canvass of votes. Bacon.

2. Examination in the way of discussion or debate.

3. Search; exploration; solicitation; systematic effort to obtain votes, subscribers, etc.

No previous canvass was made for me. Burke.

Can"vass*er (?), n. One who canvasses.

Can"y (?), a. [From Cane.] Of or pertaining to cane or canes; abounding with canes. Milton.

Can"yon (?), n. The English form of the Spanish word Cañon.

||Can*zo"ne (?), n. [It., a song, fr. L. cantio, fr. canere to sing. Cf. Chanson, Chant.] (Mus.) (a) A song or air for one or more voices, of Provençal origin, resembling, though not strictly, the madrigal. (b) An instrumental piece in the madrigal style.

Can`zo*net" (?), n. [It. canzonetta, dim. of canzone.] (Mus.) A short song, in one or more parts.

Caout"chin (?), n. (Chem.) An inflammable, volatile, oily, liquid hydrocarbon, obtained by the destructive distillation of caoutchouc.

Caout"chouc (?), n. [F. caoutchouc, from the South American name.] A tenacious, elastic, gummy substance obtained from the milky sap of several plants of tropical South America (esp. the euphorbiaceous tree Siphonia elastica or Hevea caoutchouc), Asia, and Africa. Being impermeable to liquids and gases, and not readly affected by exposure to air, acids, and alkalies, it is used, especially when vulcanized, for many purposes in the arts and in manufactures. Also called India rubber (because it was first brought from India, and was formerly used chiefly for erasing pencil marks) and gum elastic. See Vulcanization.

Mineral caoutchouc. See under Mineral.

Caout"chou*cin (?), n. See Caoutchin.

Cap (kăp), n. [OE. cappe, AS. cæppe, cap, cape, hood, fr. LL, cappa, capa; perhaps of Iberian origin, as Isidorus of Seville mentions it first: "Capa, quia quasi totum capiat hominem; it. capitis ornamentum." See 3d Cape, and cf. 1st Cope.] 1. A covering for the head; esp. (a) One usually with a visor but without a brim, for men and boys; (b) One of lace, muslin, etc., for women, or infants; (c) One used as the mark or ensign of some rank, office, or dignity, as that of a cardinal.

2. The top, or uppermost part; the chief.

Thou art the cap of all the fools alive. Shak.

3. A respectful uncovering of the head.

He that will give a cap and make a leg in thanks. Fuller.

4. (Zoöl.) The whole top of the head of a bird from the base of the bill to the nape of the neck.

5. Anything resembling a cap in form, position, or use; as: (a) (Arch.) The uppermost of any assemblage of parts; as, the cap of column, door, etc.; a capital, coping, cornice, lintel, or plate. (b) Something covering the top or end of a thing for protection or ornament. (c) (Naut.) A collar of iron or wood used in joining spars, as the mast and the topmast, the bowsprit and the jib boom; also, a covering of tarred canvas at the end of a rope. (d) A percussion cap. See under Percussion. (e) (Mech.) The removable cover of a journal box. (f) (Geom.) A portion of a spherical or other convex surface.

6. A large size of writing paper; as, flat cap; foolscap; legal cap.

Cap of a cannon, a piece of lead laid over the vent to keep the priming dry; -- now called an apron. -- Cap in hand, obsequiously; submissively. -- Cap of liberty. See Liberty cap, under Liberty. -- Cap of maintenance, a cap of state carried before the kings of England at the coronation. It is also carried before the mayors of some cities. -- Cap money, money collected in a cap for the huntsman at the death of the fox. -- Cap paper. (a) A kind of writing paper including flat cap, foolscap, and legal cap. (b) A coarse wrapping paper used for making caps to hold commodities. -- Cap rock (Mining), The layer of rock next overlying ore, generally of barren vein material. -- Flat cap, cap See Foolscap. -- Forage cap, the cloth undress head covering of an officer of soldier. -- Legal cap, a kind of folio writing paper, made for the use of lawyers, in long narrow sheets which have the fold at the top or "narrow edge." -- To set one's cap, to make a fool of one. (Obs.) Chaucer. -- To set one's cap for, to try to win the favor of a man with a view to marriage. [Colloq.]

Cap (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capped (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Capping.] 1. To cover with a cap, or as with a cap; to provide with a cap or cover; to cover the top or end of; to place a cap upon the proper part of; as, to cap a post; to cap a gun.

The bones next the joint are capped with a smooth cartilaginous substance. Derham.

2. To deprive of cap. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. To complete; to crown; to bring to the highest point or consummation; as, to cap the climax of absurdity.

4. To salute by removing the cap. [Slang. Eng.]

Tom . . . capped the proctor with the profoundest of bows. Thackeray.

5. To match; to mate in contest; to furnish a complement to; as, to cap text; to cap proverbs. Shak.

Now I have him under girdle I'll cap verses with him to the end of the chapter. Dryden.

&fist; In capping verses, when one quotes a verse another must cap it by quoting one beginning with the last letter of the first letter, or with the first letter of the last word, or ending with a rhyming word, or by applying any other arbitrary rule may be agreed upon.

Cap, v. i. To uncover the head respectfully. Shak.

Ca`pa*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Capabilities (#). 1. The quality of being capable; capacity; capableness; esp. intellectual power or ability.

A capability to take a thousand views of a subject. H. Taylor.

2. Capacity of being used or improved.

Ca"pa*ble (?), a. [F. capable, LL. capabilis capacious, capable, fr. L. caper to take, contain. See Heave.] 1. Possessing ability, qualification, or susceptibility; having capacity; of sufficient size or strength; as, a room capable of holding a large number; a castle capable of resisting a long assault.

Concious of joy and capable of pain. Prior.

2. Possessing adequate power; qualified; able; fully competent; as, a capable instructor; a capable judge; a mind capable of nice investigations.

More capable to discourse of battles than to give them. Motley.

3. Possessing legal power or capacity; as, a man capable of making a contract, or a will.

4. Capacious; large; comprehensive. [Obs.] Shak.

&fist; Capable is usually followed by of, sometimes by an infinitive.

Syn. -- Able; competent; qualified; fitted; efficient; effective; skillful.

Ca"pa*ble*ness, n. The quality or state of being capable; capability; adequateness; competency.

Ca*pac"i*fy (k&adot;*păs"&ibreve;*fī), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capacified (-fīd).] [L. capax, -acis, capacious + -fy.] To quality. [R.]

The benefice he is capacified and designed for. Barrow.

Ca*pa"cious (k&adot;*pā"shŭs), a. [L. capax, -acis, fr. capere to take. See Heave.] 1. Having capacity; able to contain much; large; roomy; spacious; extended; broad; as, a capacious vessel, room, bay, or harbor.

In the capacious recesses of his mind. Bancroft.

2. Able or qualified to make large views of things, as in obtaining knowledge or forming designs; comprehensive; liberal. "A capacious mind." Watts.

Ca*pa"cious*ly, adv. In a capacious manner or degree; comprehensively.

Ca*pa"cious*ness, n. The quality of being capacious, as of a vessel, a reservoir a bay, the mind, etc.

Ca*pac"i*tate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capacitated; p. pr. & vb. n. Capacitating.] To render capable; to enable; to qualify.

By this instruction we may be capaciated to observe those errors. Dryden.

Ca*pac"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Capacities (-t&ibreve;z). [L. capacitus, fr. capax, capacis; fr. F. capacité. See Capacious.] 1. The power of receiving or containing; extent of room or space; passive power; -- used in reference to physical things.

Had our great palace the capacity To camp this host, we all would sup together. Shak.

The capacity of the exhausted cylinder. Boyle.

2. The power of receiving and holding ideas, knowledge, etc.; the comprehensiveness of the mind; the receptive faculty; capability of understanding or feeling.

Capacity is now properly limited to these [the mere passive operations of the mind]; its primary signification, which is literally room for, as well as its employment, favors this; although it can not be denied that there are examples of its usage in an active sense. Sir W. Hamilton.

3. Ability; power pertaining to, or resulting from, the possession of strength, wealth, or talent; possibility of being or of doing.

The capacity of blessing the people. Alex. Hamilton.

A cause with such capacities endued. Blackmore.

4. Outward condition or circumstances; occupation; profession; character; position; as, to work in the capacity of a mason or a carpenter.

5. (Law) Legal or moral qualification, as of age, residence, character, etc., necessary for certain purposes, as for holding office, for marrying, for making contracts, wills, etc.; legal power or right; competency.

Capacity for heat, the power of absorbing heat. Substances differ in the amount of heat requisite to raise them a given number of thermometric degrees, and this difference is the measure of, or depends upon, what is called their capacity for heat. See Specific heat, under Heat.

Syn. -- Ability; faculty; talent; capability; skill; efficiency; cleverness. See Ability.

Cap`*a*pe" (?), adv. See Cap-a-pie. Shak.

||Cap`*a*pie" (?), adv. [OF. (&?;) cap-a-pie, from head to foot, now de pied en cap from foot to head; L. pes foot + caput head.] From head to foot; at all points. "He was armed cap-a-pie." Prescott.

Ca*par"i*son (?), n. [F. caparaçon, fr. Sp. caparazon a cover for a saddle, coach, etc.; capa cloak, cover (fr. LL. capa, cf. LL. caparo also fr. capa) + the term. azon. See Cap.] 1. An ornamental covering or housing for a horse; the harness or trappings of a horse, taken collectively, esp. when decorative.

Their horses clothed with rich caparison. Drylen.

2. Gay or rich clothing.

My heart groans beneath the gay caparison. Smollett.

Ca*par"i*son, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caparisoned (?) p. pr. & vb. n. Caparisoning.] [Cf. F caparaçonner.]

1. To cover with housings, as a horse; to harness or fit out with decorative trappings, as a horse.

The steeds, caparisoned with purple, stand. Dryden.

2. To adorn with rich dress; to dress.

I am caparisoned like a man. Shak.

||Ca*par"ro (?), n. [Native Indian name.] (Zoöl.) A large South American monkey (Lagothrix Humboldtii), with prehensile tail.

Cap"case` (?), n. A small traveling case or bandbox; formerly, a chest.

A capcase for your linen and your plate. Beau. & Fl.

Cape (kāp), n. [F. cap, fr. It. capo head, cape, fr. L. caput heat, end, point. See Chief.] A piece or point of land, extending beyond the adjacent coast into the sea or a lake; a promontory; a headland.

Cape buffalo (Zoöl.) a large and powerful buffalo of South Africa (Bubalus Caffer). It is said to be the most dangerous wild beast of Africa. See Buffalo, 2. -- Cape jasmine, Cape jessamine. See Jasmine. -- Cape pigeon (Zoöl.), a petrel (Daptium Capense) common off the Cape of Good Hope. It is about the size of a pigeon. -- Cape wine, wine made in South Africa [Eng.] -- The Cape, the Cape of Good Hope, in the general sense of the southern extremity of Africa. Also used of Cape Horn, and, in New England, of Cape Cod.

Cape, v. i. (Naut.) To head or point; to keep a course; as, the ship capes southwest by south.

Cape, n. [OE. Cape, fr. F. cape; cf. LL. cappa. See Cap, and cf. 1st Cope, Chape.] A sleeveless garment or part of a garment, hanging from the neck over the back, arms, and shoulders, but not reaching below the hips. See Cloak.

Cape, v. i. [See Gape.] To gape. [Obs.] Chaucer.

{ Ca"pel (kā"p&ebreve;l), Ca"ple (- p'l) }, n. [Icel. kapall; cf. L. caballus.] A horse; a nag. [Obs.] Chaucer. Holland.

Ca"pel (kā"p&ebreve;l), n. (Mining) A composite stone (quartz, schorl, and hornblende) in the walls of tin and copper lodes.

Cap"e*lan (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Capelin.

Cape"lin (?), n. [Cf. F. capelan, caplan.] (Zoöl.) A small marine fish (Mallotus villosus) of the family Salmonidæ, very abundant on the coasts of Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland, and Alaska. It is used as a bait for the cod. [Written also capelan and caplin.]

&fist; This fish, which is like a smelt, is called by the Spaniards anchova, and by the Portuguese capelina. Fisheries of U. S. (1884).

||Ca"pe*line` (?), n. [F., fr. LL. capella. See Chapel.] (Med.) A hood- shaped bandage for the head, the shoulder, or the stump of an amputated limb.

Ca*pel"la (?), n. [L., a little goat, dim. of caper a goat.] (Asrton.) A brilliant star in the constellation Auriga.

Cap"el*lane (?), n. [See Chaplain.] The curate of a chapel; a chaplain. [Obs.] Fuller.

||Ca*pel"le (?), n. [G.] (Mus.) The private orchestra or band of a prince or of a church.

Cap"el*let (?), n. [F. capelet.] (Far.) A swelling, like a wen, on the point of the elbow (or the heel of the hock) of a horse, caused probably by bruises in lying down.

||Ca*pell"meis`ter (?), n. [G., fr. capelle chapel, private band of a prince + meister a master.] The musical director in a royal or ducal chapel; a choir-master. [Written also kapellmeister.]

Ca"per (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Capered p. pr. & vb. n. capering.] [From older capreoll to caper, cf. F. se cabrer to prance; all ultimately fr. L. caper, capra, goat. See Capriole.] To leap or jump about in a sprightly manner; to cut capers; to skip; to spring; to prance; to dance.

He capers, he dances, he has eyes of youth. Shak.

Ca"per, n. A frolicsome leap or spring; a skip; a jump, as in mirth or dancing; a prank.

To cut a caper, to frolic; to make a sportive spring; to play a prank. Shak.

Ca"per, n. [D. kaper.] A vessel formerly used by the Dutch, privateer. Wright.

Ca"per, n. [F. câpre, fr. L. capparis, Gr. &?;; cf. Ar. & Per. al-kabar.] 1. The pungent grayish green flower bud of the European and Oriental caper (Capparis spinosa), much used for pickles.

2. (Bot.) A plant of the genus Capparis; -- called also caper bush, caper tree.

&fist; The Capparis spinosa is a low prickly shrub of the Mediterranean coasts, with trailing branches and brilliant flowers; -- cultivated in the south of Europe for its buds. The C. sodada is an almost leafless spiny shrub of central Africa (Soudan), Arabia, and southern India, with edible berries.

Bean caper. See Bran caper, in the Vocabulary. -- Caper sauce, a kind of sauce or catchup made of capers.

Ca"per*ber`ry (?), n. 1. The small olive-shaped berry of the European and Oriental caper, said to be used in pickles and as a condiment.

2. The currantlike fruit of the African and Arabian caper (Capparis sodado).

{ Ca"per bush` (?), Ca"per tree` (?). }See Capper, a plant, 2.

{ Ca"per*cail`zie (?), or Ca"per*cal`ly (?), } n. [Gael, capulcoile.] (Zoöl.) A species of grouse (Tetrao uragallus) of large size and fine flavor, found in northern Europe and formerly in Scotland; -- called also cock of the woods. [Written also capercaillie, capercaili.]

Ca"per*claw` (?), v. t. To treat with cruel playfulness, as a cat treats a mouse; to abuse. [Obs.] Birch.

Ca"per*er (?), n. One who capers, leaps, and skips about, or dances.

The nimble caperer on the cord. Dryden.

Cap"ful (?), n.; pl. Capfuls (&?;). As much as will fill a cap.

A capful of wind (Naut.), a light puff of wind.

||Ca"pi*as (?), n. [L. thou mayst take.] (Low) A writ or process commanding the officer to take the body of the person named in it, that is, to arrest him; -- also called writ of capias.

&fist; One principal kind of capias is a writ by which actions at law are frequently commenced; another is a writ of execution issued after judgment to satisfy damages recovered; a capias in criminal law is the process to take a person charged on an indictment, when he is not in custody. Burrill. Wharton.

Ca`pi*ba"ra (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Capybara.

Cap`il*la"ceous (?), a. [L. capillaceus hairy, fr. capillus hair.] Having long filaments; resembling a hair; slender. See Capillary.

Cap`il*laire" (?), n. [F. capillaire maiden-hair; sirop de capillaire capillaire; fr. L. herba capillaris the maidenhair.] 1. A sirup prepared from the maiden-hair, formerly supposed to have medicinal properties.

2. Any simple sirup flavored with orange flowers.

Ca*pil"la*ment (?), n. [L. capillamentum, fr. capillus hair: cf. F. capillament.] 1. (Bot.) A filament. [R.]

2. (Anat.) Any villous or hairy covering; a fine fiber or filament, as of the nerves.

Cap"il*la*ri*ness (?), n. The quality of being capillary.

Cap`il*lar"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. capillarité.]

1. The quality or condition of being capillary.

2. (Physics) The peculiar action by which the surface of a liquid, where it is in contact with a solid (as in a capillary tube), is elevated or depressed; capillary attraction.

&fist; Capillarity depends upon the relative attaction of the modecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid, and is especially observable in capillary tubes, where it determines the ascent or descent of the liquid above or below the level of the liquid which the tube is dipped; -- hence the name.

Cap"il*la*ry (kăp"&ibreve;l*l&asl;*r&ybreve; or k&adot;*p&ibreve;l"l&adot;*r&ybreve;; 277), a. [L. capillaris, fr. capillus hair. Cf. Capillaire.] 1. Resembling a hair; fine; minute; very slender; having minute tubes or interspaces; having very small bore; as, the capillary vessels of animals and plants.

2. Pertaining to capillary tubes or vessels; as, capillary action.

Capillary attraction, Capillary repulsion, the apparent attraction or repulsion between a solid and liquid caused by capillarity. See Capillarity, and Attraction. -- Capillarity tubes. See the Note under Capillarity.

Cap"il*la*ry, n.; pl. Capillaries (&?;). 1. A tube or vessel, extremely fine or minute.

2. (Anat.) A minute, thin-walled vessel; particularly one of the smallest blood vessels connecting arteries and veins, but used also for the smallest lymphatic and biliary vessels.

Cap`il*la"tion (?), n. [L. capillatio the hair.] A capillary blood vessel. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Ca*pil"la*ture (?), n. [L. capillatura.] A bush of hair; frizzing of the hair. Clarke.

Ca*pil"li*form (?), a. [L. capillus hair + -form.] In the shape or form of, a hair, or of hairs.

Cap"il*lose` (?), a. [L. capillosus.] Having much hair; hairy. [R.]

Ca*pis"trate (?), a. [L. capistratus, p. p. of capistrare halter.] (Zoöl.) Hooded; cowled.

Cap"i*tal (?), a. [F. capital, L. capitalis capital (in senses 1 & 2), fr. caput head. See Chief, and cf. Capital, n.] 1. Of or pertaining to the head. [Obs.]

Needs must the Serpent now his capital bruise Expect with mortal pain. Milton.

2. Having reference to, or involving, the forfeiture of the head or life; affecting life; punishable with death; as, capital trials; capital punishment.

Many crimes that are capital among us. Swift.

To put to death a capital offender. Milton.

3. First in importance; chief; principal.

A capital article in religion Atterbury.

Whatever is capital and essential in Christianity. I. Taylor.

4. Chief, in a political sense, as being the seat of the general government of a state or nation; as, Washington and Paris are capital cities.

5. Of first rate quality; excellent; as, a capital speech or song. [Colloq.]

Capital letter [F, lettre capitale] (Print.), a leading or heading letter, used at the beginning of a sentence and as the first letter of certain words, distinguished, for the most part, both by different form and larger size, from the small (lower-case) letters, which form the greater part of common print or writing. -- Small capital letters have the form of capital letters and height of the body of the lower-case letters. -- Capital stock, money, property, or stock invested in any business, or the enterprise of any corporation or institution. Abbott.

Syn. -- Chief; leading; controlling; prominent.

Cap"i*tal (?), n. [Cf. L. capitellum and Capitulum, a small head, the head, top, or capital of a column, dim. of caput head; F. chapiteau, OF. capitel. See Chief, and cf. Cattle, Chattel, Chapiter, Chapter.] 1. (Arch.) The head or uppermost member of a column, pilaster, etc. It consists generally of three parts, abacus, bell (or vase), and necking. See these terms, and Column.

2. [Cf. F. capilate, fem., sc. ville.] (Geog.) The seat of government; the chief city or town in a country; a metropolis. "A busy and splendid capital" Macauly.

3. [Cf. F. capital.] Money, property, or stock employed in trade, manufactures, etc.; the sum invested or lent, as distinguished from the income or interest. See Capital stock, under Capital, a.

4. (Polit. Econ.) That portion of the produce of industry, which may be directly employed either to support human beings or to assist in production. M'Culloch.

&fist; When wealth is used to assist production it is called capital. The capital of a civilized community includes fixed capital (i.e. buildings, machines, and roads used in the course of production and exchange) amd circulating capital (i.e., food, fuel, money, etc., spent in the course of production and exchange). T. Raleigh.

5. Anything which can be used to increase one's power or influence.

He tried to make capital out of his rival's discomfiture. London Times.

6. (Fort.) An imaginary line dividing a bastion, ravelin, or other work, into two equal parts.

7. A chapter, or section, of a book. [Obs.]

Holy St. Bernard hath said in the 59th capital. Sir W. Scott.

8. (Print.) See Capital letter, under Capital, a.

Active capital. See under Active, -- Small capital (Print.), a small capital letter. See under Capital, a. -- To live on one's capital, to consume one's capital without producing or accumulating anything to replace it.

Cap"i*tal*ist, n. [Cf. F. capitaliste.] One who has capital; one who has money for investment, or money invested; esp. a person of large property, which is employed in business.

The expenditure of the capitalist. Burke.

Cap"i*tal*i*za`tion (?), n. The act or process of capitalizing.

Cap"i*tal*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capitalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Capitalizing.] 1. To convert into capital, or to use as capital.

2. To compute, appraise, or assess the capital value of (a patent right, an annuity, etc.)

3. To print in capital letters, or with an initial capital.

Cap*i*tal*ly, adv. 1. In a way involving the forfeiture of the head or life; as, to punish capitally.

2. In a capital manner; excellently. [Colloq.]

Cap"i*tal*ness, n. The quality of being capital; preeminence. [R.]

{ Ca`pi*tan` Pa*sha` or Pa*cha` (?) }. [See capitan.] The chief admiral of the Turkish fleet.

Cap"i*tate (?), a. [L. capitatus fr. caput head.] 1. Headlike in form; also, having the distal end enlarged and rounded, as the stigmas of certain flowers.

2. (Bot.) Having the flowers gathered into a head.

Cap`i*ta"tim (?), a. [NL.] Of so much per head; as, a capitatim tax; a capitatim grant.

Cap`i*ta"tion (?), n. [L. capitatio a poll tax, fr. caput head; cf. F. capitation.] 1. A numbering of heads or individuals. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

2. A tax upon each head or person, without reference to property; a poll tax.

||Cap"i*te (?), n. [L., abl. of caput head.] See under Tenant.

Cap`i*tel"late (?), a. [L. capitellum, dim. of caput head.] (Bot.) Having a very small knoblike termination, or collected into minute capitula.

||Cap`i*ti*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., from L. caput, capitis, head + -branchiae gills.] (Zoöl.) A division of annelids in which the gills arise from or near the head. See Tubicola.

Cap"i*tol (?), [L. capitolium, fr. caput head: cf. F. capitole. See Chief.]

1. The temple of Jupiter, at Rome, on the Mona Capitolinus, where the Senate met.

Comes Cæsar to the Capitol to- morrow? Shak.

2. The edifice at Washington occupied by the Congress of the United States; also, the building in which the legislature of State holds its sessions; a statehouse.

{ Cap`i*to"li*an (?), Cap"i*to*line (?), } a. [L. capitolinus: cf. F. capitolin.] Of or pertaining to the Capitol in Rome. "Capitolian Jove." Macaulay.

Capitoline games (Antiq.), annual games instituted at Rome by Camillus, in honor of Jupter Capitolinus, on account of the preservation of the Capitol from the Gauls; when reinstituted by Domitian, arter a period of neglect, they were held every fifth year.

||Ca*pit"u*la (?), n. pl. See Capitulum.

Ca*pit"u*lar (?), n. [LL. capitulare, capitularium, fr. L. capitulum a small head, a chapter, dim. of capit head, chapter.] 1. An act passed in a chapter.

2. A member of a chapter.

The chapter itself, and all its members or capitulars. Ayliffe.

3. The head or prominent part.

Ca*pit"u*lar (?), a. 1. (Eccl.) Of or pertaining to a chapter; capitulary.

From the pope to the member of the capitular body. Milman.

2. (Bot.) Growing in, or pertaining to, a capitulum.

3. (Anat.) Pertaining to a capitulum; as, the capitular process of a vertebra, the process which articulates with the capitulum of a rib.

Ca*pit"u*lar*ly (?), adv. In the manner or form of an ecclesiastical chapter. Sterne.

Ca*pit"u*la*ry (?), n.; pl. Capitularies (#). [See Capitular.] 1. A capitular.

2. The body of laws or statutes of a chapter, or of an ecclesiastical council.

3. A collection of laws or statutes, civil and ecclesiastical, esp. of the Frankish kings, in chapters or sections.

Several of Charlemagne's capitularies. Hallam.

Ca*pit"u*la*ry (?), a. Relating to the chapter of a cathedral; capitular. "Capitulary acts." Warton.

Ca*pit"u*late (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Capitulated; p. pr. & vb. n. Capitulating.] [LL. capitulatus, p. p. of capitulare to capitulate: cf. F. capituler. See Capitular, n.] 1. To settle or draw up the heads or terms of an agreement, as in chapters or articles; to agree. [Obs.]

There capitulates with the king . . . to take to wife his daughter Mary. Heylin.

There is no reason why the reducing of any agreement to certain heads or capitula should not be called to capitulate. Trench.

2. To surrender on terms agreed upon (usually, drawn up under several heads); as, an army or a garrison capitulates.

The Irish, after holding out a week, capitulated. Macaulay.

Ca*pit"u*late, v. t. To surrender or transfer, as an army or a fortress, on certain conditions. [R.]

Ca*pit`u*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. capitulation, LL. capitulatio.] 1. A reducing to heads or articles; a formal agreement.

With special capitulation that neither the Scots nor the French shall refortify. Bp. Burnet.

2. The act of capitulating or surrendering to an emeny upon stipulated terms.

3. The instrument containing the terms of an agreement or surrender.

Ca*pit"u*la`tor (?), n. [LL.] One who capitulates.

Cap"i*tule (?), n. [L. capitulum small head, chapter.] A summary. [Obs.]

||Ca*pit"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Capitula (&?;). [L., a small head.] 1. A thick head of flowers on a very short axis, as a clover top, or a dandelion; a composite flower. A capitulum may be either globular or flat. Gray.

2. (Anat.) A knoblike protuberance of any part, esp. at the end of a bone or cartilage. [See Illust. of Artiodactyla.]

Ca*pi"vi (?), n. [Cf. Copaiba.] A balsam of the Spanish West Indies. See Copaiba.

Ca"ple (?), n. See Capel.

Cap"lin (?), n. See Capelin.

{ Cap"lin (?), Cap"ling (?), } n. The cap or coupling of a flail, through which the thongs pass which connect the handle and swingel. Wright.

Cap"no*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. &?; smoke + mancy: cf. F. capnomancie.] Divination by means of the ascent or motion of smoke.

Cap"no*mor (?), n. [Gr. &?; smoke + &?;, equiv. to &?; part.] (Chem.) A limpid, colorless oil with a peculiar odor, obtained from beech tar. Watts.

||Ca*poc" (?), n. [Malay kāpoq.] A sort of cotton so short and fine that it can not be spun, used in the East Indies to line palanquins, to make mattresses, etc.

Ca*poch" (?), n.; pl. Capoches (#). [Cf. Sp. capucho, It. cappucio, F. Capuce, capuchon, LL. caputium, fr. capa cloak. See Cap.] A hood; especially, the hood attached to the gown of a monk.

Ca*poch", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capoched (?).] To cover with, or as with, a hood; hence, to hoodwink or blind. Hudibras.

Ca"pon (kā"p'n or kā"pŭn; 277), n. [OE. capon, chapoun, AS. capūn (cf. F. chapon), L. capo, fr. Gr. ka`pwn akin to ko`ptein to cut, OSlav. skopiti to castrate. Cf. Comma.] A castrated cock, esp. when fattened; a male chicken gelded to improve his flesh for the table. Shak.

The merry thought of a capon. W. Irving.

Ca"pon, v. t. To castrate; to make a capon of.

Ca"pon*et (?), n. A young capon. [R.] Chapman.

Cap`o*niere" (?), n. [F. caponnière, fr. Sp. caponera, orig., a cage for fattening capons, hence, a place of refuge; cf. It. capponiera. See Capon.] (Fort.) A work made across or in the ditch, to protect it from the enemy, or to serve as a covered passageway.

Ca"pon*ize (?), v. t. To castrate, as a fowl.

Ca*pot" (?), n. [F.] A winning of all the tricks at the game of piquet. It counts for forty points. Hoyle.

Ca*pot", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capotted.] To win all the tricks from, in playing at piquet.

Ca*pote" (?), n. [Sp. capote (cf. F. capote.), fr. LL. capa cape, cloak. See Cap.] A long cloak or overcoat, especially one with a hood.

Ca*pouch" (?), n. & v. t. Same as Capoch.

Cap"pa*dine (?), n. A floss or waste obtained from the cocoon after the silk has been reeled off, used for shag.

Cap"pa`per (?), See cap, n., also Paper, n.

Cap"peak` (?), n. The front piece of a cap; -- now more commonly called visor.

||Cap*pel"la (?), n. See A cappella.

Cap"per (?), n. 1. One whose business is to make or sell caps.

2. A by-bidder; a decoy for gamblers. [Slang, U. S.]

3. An instrument for applying a percussion cap to a gun or cartridge.

Cap"ping plane` (?). (Join.) A plane used for working the upper surface of staircase rails.

||Ca"pra (?), n. [L., a she goat.] (Zoöl.) A genus of ruminants, including the common goat.

Cap"rate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of capric acid.

Cap"re*o*late (?), a. [L. capreolus wild goat, tendril, fr. caper goat: cf. F. capréolé.] (Bot.) Having a tendril or tendrils.

Cap"re*o*line (?), a. [L. capreolus wild goat, fr. caper goat.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the roebuck.

Cap"ric (?), a. [L. caper goat.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining to capric acid or its derivatives.

Capric acid, C9H19.CO2H, Caprylic acid, C7H15.CO2H, and Caproic acid, C5H11.CO2H, are fatty acids occurring in small quantities in butter, cocoanut oil, etc., united with glycerin; they are colorless oils, or white crystalline solids, of an unpleasant odor like that of goats or sweat.

||Ca*pric"cio (k&adot;*prēt"ch&osl;), n. [It. See Caprice.] 1. (Mus.) A piece in a free form, with frequent digressions from the theme; a fantasia; -- often called caprice.

2. A caprice; a freak; a fancy. Shak.

||Ca*pric*cio"so (k&adot;*prēt*chō"s&osl;), a. [It.] (Mus) In a free, fantastic style.

Ca*price" (k&adot;*prēs"), n. [F. caprice, It. capriccio, caprice (perh. orig. a fantastical goat leap), fr. L. caper, capra, goat. Cf Capriole, Cab, Caper, v. i.] 1. An abrupt change in feeling, opinion, or action, proceeding from some whim or fancy; a freak; a notion. "Caprices of appetite." W. Irving.

2. (Mus.) See Capriccio.

Syn. -- Freak; whim; crotchet; fancy; vagary; humor; whimsey; fickleness.

Ca*pri"cious (k&adot;*pr&ibreve;sh"ŭs), a. [Cf. F. capricieux, It. capriccioso.] Governed or characterized by caprice; apt to change suddenly; freakish; whimsical; changeable. "Capricious poet." Shak. "Capricious humor." Hugh Miller.

A capricious partiality to the Romish practices. Hallam.

Syn. -- Freakish; whimsical; fanciful; fickle; crotchety; fitful; wayward; changeable; unsteady; uncertain; inconstant; arbitrary.

-- Ca*pri"cious*ly, adv. -- Ca*pri"cious*ness, n.

Cap"ri*corn (?), n. [L. capricornus; caper goat + cornu horn: cf. F. capricorne.] 1. (Astron.) The tenth sign of zodiac, into which the sun enters at the winter solstice, about December 21. See Tropic.

The sun was entered into Capricorn. Dryden.

2. (Astron.) A southern constellation, represented on ancient monuments by the figure of a goat, or a figure with its fore part like a fish.

Capricorn beetle (Zoöl.), any beetle of the family Carambucidæ; one of the long-horned beetles. The larvæ usually bore into the wood or bark of trees and shrubs and are often destructive. See Girdler, Pruner.

Cap"rid (?), a. [L. caper, capra, goat.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the tribe of ruminants of which the goat, or genus Capra, is the type.

Cap`ri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. caprificatio, fr. caprificare to ripen figs by caprification, fr. caprificus the wild fig; caper goat + ficus fig.] The practice of hanging, upon the cultivated fig tree, branches of the wild fig infested with minute hymenopterous insects.

&fist; It is supposed that the little insects insure fertilization by carrying the pollen from the male flowers near the opening of the fig down to the female flowers, and also accelerate ripening the fruit by puncturing it. The practice has existed since ancient times, but its benefit has been disputed.

Cap"ri*fole (?), n. [L. caper goat + folium leaf.] The woodbine or honeysuckle. Spenser.

Cap"ri*fo`li*a`ceous (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the Honeysuckle family of plants (Caprifoliacæ.

Cap"ri*form (?), a. [L. caper goat + -form.] Having the form of a goat.

Ca*prig"e*nous (?), a. [L. caprigenus; caper goat + gegnere to produce.] Of the goat kind.

Cap"rine (?), a. [L. caprinus.] Of or pertaining to a goat; as, caprine gambols.

Cap"ri*ole (?), n. [F. capriole, cabriole, It. capriola, fr. L. caper goat. Cf. Caper, v. i. Cabriole, Caprice, Cheveril.] 1. (Man.) A leap that a horse makes with all fours, upwards only, without advancing, but with a kick or jerk of the hind legs when at the height of the leap.

2. A leap or caper, as in dancing. "With lofty turns and caprioles." Sir J. Davies.

Cap"ri*ole, v. i. To perform a capriole. Carlyle.

Cap"ri*ped (?), a. [L. capripers; caper goat + pes pedis, foot.] Having feet like those of a goat.

Cap"ro*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of caproic acid.

Ca*pro"ic (?), a. (Chem.) See under Capric.

Cap"ry*late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of caprylic acid.

Ca*pryl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) See under Capric.

Cap*sa"i*cin (?), n. [From Capsicum.] (Chem.) A colorless crystalline substance extracted from the Capsicum annuum, and giving off vapors of intense acridity.

Cap"sheaf` (?), n. The top sheaf of a stack of grain: (fig.) the crowning or finishing part of a thing.

Cap"si*cin (?), n. [From Capsicum.] (Chem.) A red liquid or soft resin extracted from various species of capsicum.

Cap"si*cine (?), n. [From Capsicum.] (Chem.) A volatile alkaloid extracted from Capsicum annuum or from capsicin.

Cap"si*cum (kăp"s&ibreve;*kŭm), n. [NL., fr. L. capsa box, chest.] (Bot.) A genus of plants of many species, producing capsules or dry berries of various forms, which have an exceedingly pungent, biting taste, and when ground form the red or Cayenne pepper of commerce. [1913 Webster]

&fist; The most important species are Capsicum baccatum or bird pepper, C. fastigiatum or chili pepper, C. frutescens or spur pepper, and C. annuum or Guinea pepper, which includes the bell pepper and other common garden varieties. The fruit is much used, both in its green and ripe state, in pickles and in cookery. See Cayenne pepper. [1913 Webster]

Cap*size" (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Capsized (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Capsizing.] [Cf. Sp. cabecear to nod, pitch, capuzar, chapuzar, to sink (a vessel) by the head; both fr. L. caput head.] To upset or overturn, as a vessel or other body.

But what if carrying sail capsize the boat? Byron.

Cap"size` (?), n. An upset or overturn.

Cap"*square (?), n. (Gun.) A metal covering plate which passes over the trunnions of a cannon, and holds it in place.

Cap"stan (?), n. [F. cabestan, fr. Sp. cabestrante, cabrestante, fr. cabestrar to bind with a halter, fr. cabestrohalter, fr. L. capistrum halter, fr. capere to hold (see Capacious); or perh. the Spanish is fr. L. caper goat + stans, p. pr. of stare to stand; cf. F. chèvre she-goat, also a machine for raising heavy weights.] A vertical cleated drum or cylinder, revolving on an upright spindle, and surmounted by a drumhead with sockets for bars or levers. It is much used, especially on shipboard, for moving or raising heavy weights or exerting great power by traction upon a rope or cable, passing around the drum. It is operated either by steam power or by a number of men walking around the capstan, each pushing on the end of a lever fixed in its socket. [Sometimes spelt Capstern, but improperly.]

Capstan bar, one of the long bars or levers by which the capstan is worked; a handspike.. -- To pawl the capstan, to drop the pawls so that they will catch in the notches of the pawl ring, and prevent the capstan from turning back. -- To rig the capstan, to prepare the for use, by putting the bars in the sockets. -- To surge the capstan, to slack the tension of the rope or cable wound around it.

Cap"stone` (?), n. (Paleon.) A fossil echinus of the genus Cannulus; -- so called from its supposed resemblance to a cap.

{ Cap"su*lar (?), Cap"su*la*ry (?), } a. [Cf. F. capsulaire.] Of or pertaining to a capsule; having the nature of a capsule; hollow and fibrous.

Capsular ligament (Anat.), a ligamentous bag or capsule surrounding many movable joints in the skeleton.

{ Cap"su*late (?), Cap"su*la`ted (?), } a. Inclosed in a capsule, or as in a chest or box.

Cap"sule (?), n. [L. capsula a little box or chest, fr. capsa chest, case, fr. capere to take, contain: cf. F. capsule.] 1. (Bot.) a dry fruit or pod which is made up of several parts or carpels, and opens to discharge the seeds, as, the capsule of the poppy, the flax, the lily, etc.

2. (Chem.) (a) A small saucer of clay for roasting or melting samples of ores, etc.; a scorifier. (b) a small, shallow, evaporating dish, usually of porcelain.

3. (Med.) A small cylindrical or spherical gelatinous envelope in which nauseous or acrid doses are inclosed to be swallowed.

4. (Anat.) A membranous sac containing fluid, or investing an organ or joint; as, the capsule of the lens of the eye. Also, a capsulelike organ.

5. A metallic seal or cover for closing a bottle.

6. A small cup or shell, as of metal, for a percussion cap, cartridge, etc.

Atrabiliary capsule. See under Atrabiliary. -- Glisson's capsule, a membranous envelope, entering the liver along with the portal vessels and insheathing the latter in their course through the organ. -- Suprarenal capsule, an organ of unknown function, above or in front of each kidney.

Cap"tain (kăp"t&ibreve;n), n. [OE. capitain, captain, OF. capitain, F. capitaine (cf. Sp. capitan, It. capitano), LL. capitaneus, capitanus, fr. L. caput the head. See under Chief, and cf. Chieftain.] 1. A head, or chief officer; as: (a) The military officer who commands a company, troop, or battery, or who has the rank entitling him to do so though he may be employed on other service. (b) An officer in the United States navy, next above a commander and below a commodore, and ranking with a colonel in the army. (c) By courtesy, an officer actually commanding a vessel, although not having the rank of captain. (d) The master or commanding officer of a merchant vessel. (e) One in charge of a portion of a ship's company; as, a captain of a top, captain of a gun, etc. (f) The foreman of a body of workmen. (g) A person having authority over others acting in concert; as, the captain of a boat's crew; the captain of a football team.

A trainband captain eke was he. Cowper.

The Rhodian captain, relying on . . . the lightness of his vessel, passed, in open day, through all the guards. Arbuthnot.

2. A military leader; a warrior.

Foremost captain of his time. Tennyson.

Captain general. (a) The commander in chief of an army or armies, or of the militia. (b) The Spanish governor of Cuba and its dependent islands. -- Captain lieutenant, a lieutenant with the rank and duties of captain but with a lieutenant's pay, -- as in the first company of an English regiment.

Cap"tain (?), v. t. To act as captain of; to lead. [R.]

Men who captained or accompanied the exodus from existing forms. Lowell.

Cap"tain, a. Chief; superior. [R.]

captain jewes in the carcanet. Shak.

Cap"tain*cy (?), n.; pl. Captaincies (&?;). The rank, post, or commission of a captain. Washington.

Captaincy general, the office, power, territory, or jurisdiction of a captain general; as, the captaincy general of La Habana (Cuba and its islands).

Cap"tain*ry (?), n. [Cf. F. capitainerie.] Power, or command, over a certain district; chieftainship. [Obs.]

Cap"tain*ship, n. 1. The condition, rank, post, or authority of a captain or chief commander. "To take the captainship." Shak.

2. Military skill; as, to show good captainship.

Cap*ta`tion (?), n. [L. captatio, fr. captare to catch, intens. of caper to take: cf. F. captation.] A courting of favor or applause, by flattery or address; a captivating quality; an attraction. [Obs.]

Without any of those dresses, or popular captations, which some men use in their speeches. Eikon Basilike.

Cap"tion (?), n. [L. captio, fr. caper to take. In senses 3 and 4, perhaps confounded in meaning with L. caput a head. See Capacious.] 1. A caviling; a sophism. [Obs.]

This doctrine is for caption and contradiction. Bacon.

2. The act of taking or arresting a person by judicial process. [R.] Bouvier.

3. (Law) That part of a legal instrument, as a commission, indictment, etc., which shows where, when, and by what authority, it was taken, found, or executed. Bouvier. Wharton.

4. The heading of a chapter, section, or page. [U. S.]

Cap"tious (?), a. [F. captieux, L. captiosus. See Caption.] 1. Apt to catch at faults; disposed to find fault or to cavil; eager to object; difficult to please.

A captious and suspicious age. Stillingfleet.

I am sensible I have not disposed my materials to abide the test of a captious controversy. Bwike.

2. Fitted to harass, perplex, or insnare; insidious; troublesome.

Captious restraints on navigation. Bancroft.

Syn. -- Caviling, carping, fault-finding; censorious; hypercritical; peevish, fretful; perverse; troublesome. -- Captious, caviling, Carping. A captious person is one who has a fault-finding habit or manner, or is disposed to catch at faults, errors, etc., with quarrelsome intent; a caviling person is disposed to raise objections on frivolous grounds; carping implies that one is given to ill-natured, persistent, or unreasonable fault- finding, or picking up of the words or actions of others.

Caviling is the carping of argument, carping the caviling of ill temper. C. J. Smith.

Cap"tious*ly, adv. In a captious manner.

Cap"tious*ness, n. Captious disposition or manner.

Cap"ti*vate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Captivated; p. pr. & vb. n. Captivating.] [L. captivatus, p. p. of captivare to capture, fr. captivus captive. See Captive.] 1. To take prisoner; to capture; to subdue. [Obs.]

Their woes whom fortune captivates. Shak.

2. To acquire ascendancy over by reason of some art or attraction; to fascinate; to charm; as, Cleopatra captivated Antony; the orator captivated all hearts.

Small landscapes of captivating loveliness. W. Irving.

Syn. -- To enslave; subdue; overpower; charm; enchant; bewitch; facinate; capture; lead captive.

Cap"ti*vate (?), p. a. [L. captivatus.] Taken prisoner; made captive; insnared; charmed.

Women have been captivate ere now. Shak.

Cap"ti*va`ting (?), a. Having power to captivate or charm; fascinating; as, captivating smiles. -- Cap"ti*va`ting*ly, adv.

Cap"ti*va`tion (?), n. [L. capticatio.] The act of captivating. [R.]

The captivation of our understanding. Bp. Hall.

Cap"tive (?), n. [L. captivus, fr. capere to take: cf. F. captif. See Caitiff.] 1. A prisoner taken by force or stratagem, esp., by an enemy, in war; one kept in bondage or in the power of another.

Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains. Milton.

2. One charmed or subdued by beaty, excellence, or affection; one who is captivated.

Cap"tive, a. 1. Made prisoner, especially in war; held in bondage or in confinement.

A poor, miserable, captive thrall. Milton.

2. Subdued by love; charmed; captivated.

Even in so short a space, my wonan's heart Grossly grew captive to his honey words. Shak.

3. Of or pertaining to bondage or confinement; serving to confine; as, captive chains; captive hours.

Cap"tive (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Captived (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Captiving.] To take prisoner; to capture.

Their inhabitans slaughtered and captived. Burke.

Cap*tiv"i*ty (?), n. [L. captivitas: cf. F. captivité.] 1. The state of being a captive or a prisoner.

More celebrated in his captivity that in his greatest triumphs. Dryden.

2. A state of being under control; subjection of the will or affections; bondage.

Sink in the soft captivity together. Addison.

Syn. -- Imprisonment; confinement; bondage; subjection; servitude; slavery; thralldom; serfdom.

Cap"tor (?), n. [L., a cather (of animals), fr. caper to take.] One who captures any person or thing, as a prisoner or a prize.

Cap"ture (?), n. [L. capture, fr. caper to take: cf. F. capture. See Caitiff, and cf. aptive.]

1. The act of seizing by force, or getting possession of by superior power or by stratagem; as, the capture of an enemy, a vessel, or a criminal.

Even with regard to captures made at sea. Bluckstone.

2. The securing of an object of strife or desire, as by the power of some attraction.

3. The thing taken by force, surprise, or stratagem; a prize; prey.

Syn. -- Seizure; apprehension; arrest; detention.

Cap"ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Captured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Capturing.] To seize or take possession of by force, surprise, or stratagem; to overcome and hold; to secure by effort.

Her heart is like some fortress that has been captured. W. Ivring.

||Ca*puc"cio (?), n. [It. cappucio. See Capoch.] A capoch or hood. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ca*puched" (?), a. [See Capoch.] Cover with, or as with, a hood. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Cap`u*chin" (?), n. [F. capucin a monk who wears a cowl, fr. It. cappuccio hood. See Capoch.]

1. (Eccl.) A Franciscan monk of the austere branch established in 1526 by Matteo di Baschi, distinguished by wearing the long pointed cowl or capoch of St. Francis.

A bare-footed and long-bearded capuchin. Sir W. Scott.

2. A garment for women, consisting of a cloak and hood, resembling, or supposed to resemble, that of capuchin monks.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) A long-tailed South American monkey (Cabus capucinus), having the forehead naked and wrinkled, with the hair on the crown reflexed and resembling a monk's cowl, the rest being of a grayish white; -- called also capucine monkey, weeper, sajou, sapajou, and sai. (b) Other species of Cabus, as C. fatuellus (the brown or horned capucine.), C. albifrons (the cararara), and C. apella. (c) A variety of the domestic pigeon having a hoodlike tuft of feathers on the head and sides of the neck.

Capuchin nun, one of an austere order of Franciscan nuns which came under Capuchin rule in 1538. The order had recently been founded by Maria Longa.

Cap"u*cine (?), n. See Capuchin, 3.

Cap"u*let (?), n. (Far.) Same as Capellet.

Cap"u*lin (-l&ibreve;n), n. [Sp. capuli.] The Mexican cherry (Prunus Capollin).

||Ca"put (kā"pŭt), n.; pl. Capita (kăp"&ibreve;*t&adot;). [L., the head.] 1. (Anat.) The head; also, a knoblike protuberance or capitulum.

2. The top or superior part of a thing.

3. (Eng.) The council or ruling body of the University of Cambridge prior to the constitution of 1856.

Your caputs and heads of colleges. Lamb.

Caput mortuum (&?;). [L., dead head.] (Old Chem.) The residuum after distillation or sublimation; hence, worthless residue.

Ca`py*ba"ra (?), n. [Sp. capibara, fr. the native name.] (Zoöl.) A large South American rodent (Hydrochærus capybara) Living on the margins of lakes and rivers. It is the largest extant rodent, being about three feet long, and half that in height. It somewhat resembles the Guinea pig, to which it is related; -- called also cabiai and water hog.

Car (?), n. [OF. car, char, F. cahr, fr. L. carrus, Wagon: a Celtic word; cf. W. car, Armor. karr, Ir. & Gael. carr. cf. Chariot.] 1. A small vehicle moved on wheels; usually, one having but two wheels and drawn by one horse; a cart.

2. A vehicle adapted to the rails of a railroad. [U. S.]

&fist; In England a railroad passenger car is called a railway carriage; a freight car a goods wagon; a platform car a goods truck; a baggage car a van. But styles of car introduced into England from America are called cars; as, tram car. Pullman car. See Train.

3. A chariot of war or of triumph; a vehicle of splendor, dignity, or solemnity. [Poetic].

The gilded car of day. Milton.

The towering car, the sable steeds. Tennyson.

4. (Astron.) The stars also called Charles's Wain, the Great Bear, or the Dipper.

The Pleiads, Hyads, and the Northern Car. Dryden.

5. The cage of a lift or elevator.

6. The basket, box, or cage suspended from a balloon to contain passengers, ballast, etc.

7. A floating perforated box for living fish. [U. S.]

Car coupling, or Car coupler, a shackle or other device for connecting the cars in a railway train. [U. S.] -- Dummy car (Railroad), a car containing its own steam power or locomotive. -- Freight car (Railrood), a car for the transportation of merchandise or other goods. [U. S.] -- Hand car (Railroad), a small car propelled by hand, used by railroad laborers, etc. [U. S.] -- Horse car, or Street car, an omnibus car, draw by horses or other power upon rails laid in the streets. [U. S.] -- Palace car, Drawing-room car, Sleeping car, Parlor car, etc. (Railroad), cars especially designed and furnished for the comfort of travelers.

Car"a*bid (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the genus Carabus or family Carabidæ. -- n. One of the Carabidæ, a family of active insectivorous beetles.

Car"a*bine (?), n. (Mil.) A carbine.

Car`a*bi*neer" (?), n. A carbineer.

Car"a*boid (?), a. [Carabus + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Like, or pertaining to the genus Carabus.

||Car"a*bus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a horned beetle.] (Zoöl.) A genus of ground beetles, including numerous species. They devour many injurious insects.

Car"ac (?), n. See Carack.

Car"a*cal (?), n. [F. caracal, fr. Turk garahgootag; garah black + goofag ear.] (Zoöl.) A lynx (Felis, or Lynx, caracal.) It is a native of Africa and Asia. Its ears are black externally, and tipped with long black hairs.

Ca`ra*ca"ra (kä`r&adot;kä"r&adot;), n. (Zoöl.) A south American bird of several species and genera, resembling both the eagles and the vultures. The caracaras act as scavengers, and are also called carrion buzzards.

&fist; The black caracara is Ibycter ater; the chimango is Milvago chimango; the Brazilian is Polyborus Braziliensis.

Car"ack (?), n. [F. caraque (cf. Sp. & Pg. carraca, It. caracca.), LL. carraca, fr. L. carrus wagon; or perh. fr. Ar. qorqūr (pl. qarāqir) a carack.] (Naut.) A kind of large ship formerly used by the Spaniards and Portuguese in the East India trade; a galleon. [Spelt also carrack.]

The bigger whale like some huge carrack lay. Waller.

Car"a*cole (?), n. [F. caracole, caracol, fr. Sp. caracol snail, winding staircase, a wheeling about.]

1. (Man.) A half turn which a horseman makes, either to the right or the left.

2. (Arch.) A staircase in a spiral form.

||En caracole (&?;) [F.], spiral; -- said of a staircase.

Car"a*cole (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caracoled (?).] [Cf. F. caracoler.] (Man.) To move in a caracole, or in caracoles; to wheel.

Prince John caracoled within the lists. Sir W. Scott.

Car"a*col`y (?), n. An alloy of gold, silver, and copper, of which an inferior quality of jewelry is made.

{ Car"a*core (?), Car"a*co`ra (?) }, n. [Malay kurakura.] A light vessel or proa used by the people of Borneo, etc., and by the Dutch in the East Indies.

||Ca*rafe" (?), n. [F.] A glass water bottle for the table or toilet; -- called also croft.

{ Car"a*geen` or Car"a*gheen` } (?), n. See Carrageen.

Ca`ram*bo"la (?), n. (Bot.) An East Indian tree (Averrhoa Carambola), and its acid, juicy fruit; called also Coromandel gooseberry.

Car"a*mel (?), n. [F. caramel (cf. Sp. caramelo), LL. canna mellis, cannamella, canamella, calamellus mellitus, sugar cane, from or confused with L. canna reed + mel, mellis, honey. See Cane.] 1. (Chem.) Burnt sugar; a brown or black porous substance obtained by heating sugar. It is soluble in water, and is used for coloring spirits, gravies, etc.

2. A kind of confectionery, usually a small cube or square of tenacious paste, or candy, of varying composition and flavor.

Ca*ran"goid (?), a. [Caranx + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Carangidæ, a family of fishes allied to the mackerels, and including the caranx, American bluefish, and the pilot fish.

||Ca"ranx (kā"ră&nsm;ks), n. (Zoöl.) A genus of fishes, common on the Atlantic coast, including the yellow or golden mackerel.

Car"a*pace (kăr"&adot;*pās), n. [F.] (Zoöl.) The thick shell or shield which covers the back of the tortoise, or turtle, the crab, and other crustaceous animals.

||Ca`ra*pa"to (kä`r&adot;*pä"t&osl;), n. [Pg. carrapato.] (Zoöl.) A south American tick of the genus Amblyomma. There are several species, very troublesome to man and beast.

Car"a*pax (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Carapace.

Car"at (kăr"ăt), n. [F. carat (cf. It. carato, OPg. quirate, Pg. & Sp. quilate), Ar. qīrāt bean or pea shell, a weight of four grains, a carat, fr. Gr. kera`tion a little horn, the fruit of the carob tree, a weight, a carat. See Horn.] 1. The weight by which precious stones and pearls are weighed.

&fist; The carat equals three and one fifth grains Troy, and is divided into four grains, sometimes called carat grains. Diamonds and other precious stones are estimated by carats and fractions of carats, and pearls, usually, by carat grains. Tiffany.

2. A twenty-fourth part; -- a term used in estimating the proportionate fineness of gold.

&fist; A mass of metal is said to be so many carats fine, according to the number of twenty-fourths of pure gold which it contains; as, 22 carats fine (goldsmith's standard) = 22 parts of gold, 1 of copper, and 1 of silver.

Car"a*van (kăr"&adot;*văn or kăr*&adot;*văn"; 277), n. [F. caravane (cf. Sp. caravana), fr. Per. karwān a caravan (in sense 1). Cf. Van a wagon.] 1. A company of travelers, pilgrims, or merchants, organized and equipped for a long journey, or marching or traveling together, esp. through deserts and countries infested by robbers or hostile tribes, as in Asia or Africa.

2. A large, covered wagon, or a train of such wagons, for conveying wild beasts, etc., for exhibition; an itinerant show, as of wild beasts.

3. A covered vehicle for carrying passengers or for moving furniture, etc.; -- sometimes shorted into van.

Car`a*van*eer" (?), n. [Cf. F. caravanier.] The leader or driver of the camels in caravan.

Car`a*van"sa*ry (?), n.; pl. Caravansaries (#). [F. caravansérai, fr. Per. karwānsarāï; karwān caravan + -sarāï palace, large house, inn.] A kind of inn, in the East, where caravans rest at night, being a large, rude, unfurnished building, surrounding a court. [Written also caravanserai and caravansera.]

Car"a*vel (kăr"&adot;*v&ebreve;l), n. [F. caravelle (cf. It. caravella, Sp. carabela), fr. Sp. caraba a kind of vessel, fr. L. carabus a kind of light boat, fr. Gr. ka`rabos a kind of light ship, NGr. kara`bi ship, vessel.] [written also carvel and caravelle.] (Naut.) A name given to several kinds of vessels. (a) The caravel of the 16th century was a small vessel with broad bows, high, narrow poop, four masts, and lateen sails. Columbus commanded three caravels on his great voyage. (b) A Portuguese vessel of 100 or 150 tons burden. (c) A small fishing boat used on the French coast. (d) A Turkish man-of- war.

Car"a*way (kăr"&adot;*w&asl;), n. [F. carvi (cf. Sp. carvi and al-caravea, al-carahueya, Pg. al-caravia) fr. Ar. karawīā, karwīā fr. Gr. ka`ron; cf. L. careum.] 1. (Bot.) A biennial plant of the Parsley family (Carum Carui). The seeds have an aromatic smell, and a warm, pungent taste. They are used in cookery and confectionery, and also in medicine as a carminative.

2. A cake or sweetmeat containing caraway seeds.

Caraways, or biscuits, or some other [comfits]. Cogan.

Car*bam"ic (kär*băm"&ibreve;k), a. [Carbon + amido.] (Chem.) Pertaining to an acid so called.

Carbamic acid (Chem.), an amido acid, NH2.CO2H, not existing in the free state, but occurring as a salt of ammonium in commercial ammonium carbonate; -- called also amido formic acid.

Car*bam"ide (kär*băm"&ibreve;d or -īd), n. [Carbonyl + amide.] (Chem.) The technical name for urea.

Car*bam"ine (kär*băm"&ibreve;n or -ēd), n. (Chem.) An isocyanide of a hydrocarbon radical. The carbamines are liquids, usually colorless, and of unendurable odor.

Car"ba*nil (?), n. [Carbonyl + aniline.] (Chem.) A mobile liquid, CO.N.C6H5, of pungent odor. It is the phenyl salt of isocyanic acid.

Car"ba*zol (?), n. [Carbon + azo + -ol.] (Chem.) A white crystallized substance, C12H8NH, derived from aniline and other amines.

Car*baz"o*tate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of carbazotic or picric acid; a picrate.

Car`ba*zot"ic (?), a. [Carbon + azole.] Containing, or derived from, carbon and nitrogen.

Carbazotic acid (Chem.), picric acid. See under Picric.

Car"bide (?), n. [Carbon + -ide.] (Chem.) A binary compound of carbon with some other element or radical, in which the carbon plays the part of a negative; -- formerly termed carburet.

Car"bi*mide (?), n. [Carbon + imide] (Chem.) The technical name for isocyanic acid. See under Isocyanic.

Car"bine (?), n. [F. carbine, OF. calabrin carabineer (cf. Ot. calabrina a policeman), fr. OF & Pr. calabre, OF. cable, chable, an engine of war used in besieging, fr. LL. chadabula, cabulus, a kind of projectile machine, fr. Gr. &?; a throwing down, fr. &?; to throw; &?; down + &?; to throw. Cf. Parable.] (Mil.) A short, light musket or rifle, esp. one used by mounted soldiers or cavalry.

Car`bi*neer" (?), n. [F. carabinier.] (Mil.) A soldier armed with a carbine.

Car"bi*nol (?), n. [Carbin (Kolbe's name for the radical) + -ol.] (Chem.) Methyl alcohol, CH3OH; -- also, by extension, any one in the homologous series of paraffine alcohols of which methyl alcohol is the type.

Car`bo*hy"drate (?), n. [Carbon + hydrate.] (Physiol. Chem.) One of a group of compounds including the sugars, starches, and gums, which contain six (or some multiple of six) carbon atoms, united with a variable number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but with the two latter always in proportion as to form water; as dextrose, C6H12O6.

Car`bo*hy"dride (?), n. [Carbon + hydrogen.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon.

Car*bol"ic (kär*b&obreve;l"&ibreve;k), a. [L. carbo coal + oleum oil.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid derived from coal tar and other sources; as, carbolic acid (called also phenic acid, and phenol). See Phenol.

Car"bo*lize (kär"b&osl;*līz), v. t. (Med.) To apply carbolic acid to; to wash or treat with carbolic acid.

Car"bon (kär"b&obreve;n), n. [F. carbone, fr. L. carbo coal; cf. Skr. çrā to cook.] (Chem.) An elementary substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in all organic compounds. Atomic weight 11.97. Symbol C. it is combustible, and forms the base of lampblack and charcoal, and enters largely into mineral coals. In its pure crystallized state it constitutes the diamond, the hardest of known substances, occuring in monometric crystals like the octahedron, etc. Another modification is graphite, or blacklead, and in this it is soft, and occurs in hexagonal prisms or tables. When united with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide, commonly called carbonic acid, or carbonic oxide, according to the proportions of the oxygen; when united with hydrogen, it forms various compounds called hydrocarbons. Compare Diamond, and Graphite.

Carbon compounds, Compounds of carbon (Chem.), those compounds consisting largely of carbon, commonly produced by animals and plants, and hence called organic compounds, though their synthesis may be effected in many cases in the laboratory.

The formation of the compounds of carbon is not dependent upon the life process. I. Remsen

-- Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide. (Chem.) See under Carbonic. -- Carbon light (Elec.), an extremely brilliant electric light produced by passing a galvanic current through two carbon points kept constantly with their apexes neary in contact. -- Carbon point (Elec.), a small cylinder or bit of gas carbon moved forward by clockwork so that, as it is burned away by the electric current, it shall constantly maintain its proper relation to the opposing point. -- Carbon tissue, paper coated with gelatine and pigment, used in the autotype process of photography. Abney. -- Gas carbon, a compact variety of carbon obtained as an incrustation on the interior of gas retorts, and used for the manufacture of the carbon rods of pencils for the voltaic, arc, and for the plates of voltaic batteries, etc.

Car"bo*na`ceous (?), a. Pertaining to, containing, or composed of, carbon.

{ Car"bo*nade (?), Car`bo*na"do (?), } n. [Cf. F. carbonnade, It. carbonata, Sp. carbonada, from L. carbo coal.] (Cookery) Flesh, fowl, etc., cut across, seasoned, and broiled on coals; a chop. [Obs.]

{ Car`bo*na"do (?), Car"bo*nade (?), } v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carbonadoed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carbonadoing.] 1. To cut (meat) across for frying or broiling; to cut or slice and broil. [Obs.]

A short-legged hen daintily carbonadoed. Bean. & Fl.

2. To cut or hack, as in fighting. [Obs.]

I'll so carbonado your shanks. Shak.

Car`bo*na"do (?), n.; pl. Carbonadoes (#). [Pg., carbonated.] (Min.) A black variety of diamond, found in Brazil, and used for diamond drills. It occurs in irregular or rounded fragments, rarely distinctly crystallized, with a texture varying from compact to porous.

Car`bo*na"rism (?), n. The principles, practices, or organization of the Carbonari.

||Car`bo*na"ro (?), n.; pl. Carbonari (#). [It., a coal man.] A member of a secret political association in Italy, organized in the early part of the nineteenth centry for the purpose of changing the government into a republic.

&fist; The origin of the Carbonari is uncertain, but the society is said to have first met, in 1808, among the charcoal burners of the mountains, whose phraseology they adopted.

Car`bon*a*ta"tion (?), n. [From Carbonate.] (Sugar Making) The saturation of defecated beet juice with carbonic acid gas. Knight.

Car"bon*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. carbonate.] (Chem.) A salt or carbonic acid, as in limestone, some forms of lead ore, etc.

Car"bon*a`ted (?), a. Combined or impregnated with carbonic acid.

Car"bone (?), v. t. [See Carbonado.] To broil. [Obs.] "We had a calf's head carboned". Pepys.

Car*bon"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. carbonique. See Carbon.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, carbon; as, carbonic oxide.

Carbonic acid (Chem.), an acid H2CO3, not existing separately, which, combined with positive or basic atoms or radicals, forms carbonates. In common language the term is very generally applied to a compound of carbon and oxygen, CO2, more correctly called carbon dioxide. It is a colorless, heavy, irrespirable gas, extinguishing flame, and when breathed destroys life. It can be reduced to a liquid and solid form by intense pressure. It is produced in the fermentation of liquors, and by the combustion and decomposition of organic substances, or other substances containing carbon. It is formed in the explosion of fire damp in mines, and is hence called after damp; it is also know as choke damp, and mephitic air. Water will absorb its own volume of it, and more than this under pressure, and in this state becomes the common soda water of the shops, and the carbonated water of natural springs. Combined with lime it constitutes limestone, or common marble and chalk. Plants imbibe it for their nutrition and growth, the carbon being retained and the oxygen given out. -- Carbonic oxide (Chem.), a colorless gas, CO, of a light odor, called more correctly carbon monoxide. It is almost the only definitely known compound in which carbon seems to be divalent. It is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon, and is an abundant constituent of water gas. It is fatal to animal life, extinguishes combustion, and burns with a pale blue flame, forming carbon dioxide.

Car"bon*ide (kär"b&obreve;n*&ibreve;d or -īd), n. A carbide. [R.]

Car`bon*if"er*ous (kär`b&obreve;n*&ibreve;f"&etilde;r*ŭs), a. [Carbon + -ferous.] Producing or containing carbon or coal.

Carboniferous age (Geol.), the age immediately following the Devonian, or Age of fishes, and characterized by the vegetation which formed the coal beds. This age embraces three periods, the Subcarboniferous, the Carboniferous, and Permian. See Age of acrogens, under Acrogen. -- Carboniferous formation (Geol.), the series of rocks (including sandstones, shales, limestones, and conglomerates, with beds of coal) which make up the strata of the Carboniferous age or period. See the Diagram under Geology.

Car`bon*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. carbonisation.] The act or process of carbonizing.

Car"bon*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carbonized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carbonizing.] [Cf. F. carboniser.] 1. To convert (an animal or vegetable substance) into a residue of carbon by the action of fire or some corrosive agent; to char.

2. To impregnate or combine with carbon, as in making steel by cementation.

Car`bon*om"e*ter (?), n. [Carbon + -meter.] An instrument for detecting and measuring the amount of carbon which is present, or more esp. the amount of carbon dioxide, by its action on limewater or by other means.

Car"bon*yl (?), n. [Carbon + -yl.] (Chem.) The radical (CO)\'b7\'b7, occuring, always combined, in many compounds, as the aldehydes, the ketones, urea, carbonyl chloride, etc.

&fist; Though denoted by a formula identical with that of carbon monoxide, it is chemically distinct, as carbon seems to be divalent in carbon monoxide, but tetravalent in carbonyl compounds.

Carbonyl chloride (Chem.), a colorless gas, COCl2, of offensive odor, and easily condensable to liquid. It is formed from chlorine and carbon monoxide, under the influence of light, and hence has been called phosgene gas; -- called also carbon oxychloride.

Car`bo*sty"ril (?), n. [Carbon + styrene.] A white crystalline substance, C9H6N.OH, of acid properties derived from one of the amido cinnamic acids.

Car*box"ide (?), n. [Carbon + oxide.] (Chem.) A compound of carbon and oxygen, as carbonyl, with some element or radical; as, potassium carboxide.

Potassium carboxide, a grayish explosive crystalline compound, C6O6K, obtained by passing carbon monoxide over heated potassium.

Car*box"yl (?), n. [Carbon + oxygen + -yl.] (Chem.) The complex radical, CO.OH, regarded as the essential and characteristic constituent which all oxygen acids of carbon (as formic, acetic, benzoic acids, etc.) have in common; -- called also oxatyl.

Car"boy (?), n. [Cf. Ir. & Gael carb basket; or Pers qurābah a sort of bottle.] A large, globular glass bottle, esp. one of green glass, inclosed in basket work or in a box, for protection; -- used commonly for carrying corrosive liquids; as sulphuric acid, etc.

Car"bun*cle (?), n. [L. carbunculus a little coal, a bright kind of precious stone, a kind of tumor, dim. of carbo coal: cf. F. carboncle. See Carbon.]

1. (Min.) A beautiful gem of a deep red color (with a mixture of scarlet) called by the Greeks anthrax; found in the East Indies. When held up to the sun, it loses its deep tinge, and becomes of the color of burning coal. The name belongs for the most part to ruby sapphire, though it has been also given to red spinel and garnet.

2. (Med.) A very painful acute local inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue, esp. of the trunk or back of the neck, characterized by brawny hardness of the affected parts, sloughing of the skin and deeper tissues, and marked constitutional depression. It differs from a boil in size, tendency to spread, and the absence of a central core, and is frequently fatal. It is also called anthrax.

3. (Her.) A charge or bearing supposed to represent the precious stone. It has eight scepters or staves radiating from a common center. Called also escarbuncle.

Car"bun*cled (?), a. 1. Set with carbuncles.

He has deserves it [armor], were it carbuncled Like holy Phabus' car. Shak.

2. Affected with a carbuncle or carbuncles; marked with red sores; pimpled and blotched. "A carbuncled face." Brome.

Car*bun"cu*lar (?), a. Belonging to a carbuncle; resembling a carbuncle; red; inflamed.

Car*bun`cu*la"tion (?), n. [L. carbunculatio.] The blasting of the young buds of trees or plants, by excessive heat or cold. Harris.

Car"bu*ret (?), n. [From Carbon.] (Chem.) A carbide. See Carbide [Archaic]

Car"bu*ret, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carbureted or Carburetted (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Carbureting or Carburetting.] To combine or to impregnate with carbon, as by passing through or over a liquid hydrocarbon; to carbonize or carburize.

By carbureting the gas you may use poorer coal. Knight.

Car"bu*ret`ant (?), n. Any volatile liquid used in charging illuminating gases.

Car"bu*ret`ed (?), a. 1. (Chem.) Combined with carbon in the manner of a carburet or carbide.

2. Saturated or impregnated with some volatile carbon compound; as, water gas is carbureted to increase its illuminating power.

[Written also carburetted.]

Carbureted hydrogen gas, any one of several gaseous compounds of carbon and hydrogen, some of with make up illuminating gas. -- Light carbureted hydrogen, marsh gas, CH4; fire damp.

Car"bu*ret`or (?), n. (Chem.) An apparatus in which coal gas, hydrogen, or air is passed through or over a volatile hydrocarbon, in order to confer or increase illuminating power. [Written also carburettor.]

Car"bu*ri*za`tion (?), n. (Chem.) The act, process, or result of carburizing.

Car"bu*rize (kär"b&usl;*rīz), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carburized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carburizing.] (Chem.) To combine with carbon or a carbon compound; -- said esp. of a process for conferring a higher degree of illuminating power on combustible gases by mingling them with a vapor of volatile hydrocarbons.

Car"ca*jou (kär"k&adot;*j&oomac;), n. [Probably a Canadian French corruption of an Indian name of the wolverene.] (Zoöl.) The wolverene; -- also applied, but erroneously, to the Canada lynx, and sometimes to the American badger. See Wolverene.

Car"ca*net (kär"k&adot;*n&ebreve;t), n. [Dim. fr. F. carcan the iron collar or chain of a criminal, a chain of precious stones, LL. carcannum, fr. Armor. kerchen bosom, neck, kelchen collar, fr. kelch circle; or Icel. kverk troat, OHG. querca throat.] A jeweled chain, necklace, or collar. [Also written carkanet and carcant.] Shak.

Car"case (kär"kas), n. See Carcass.

Car"cass (kär"kas), n.; pl. Carcasses (#). [Written also carcase.] [F. carcasse, fr. It. carcassa, fr. L. caro flesh + capsa chest, box, case. Cf. Carnal, Case a sheath.] 1. A dead body, whether of man or beast; a corpse; now commonly the dead body of a beast.

He turned to see the carcass of the lion. Judges xiv. 8.

This kept thousands in the town whose carcasses went into the great pits by cartloads. De Foe.

2. The living body; -- now commonly used in contempt or ridicule. "To pamper his own carcass." South.

Lovely her face; was ne'er so fair a creature. For earthly carcass had a heavenly feature. Oldham.

3. The abandoned and decaying remains of some bulky and once comely thing, as a ship; the skeleton, or the uncovered or unfinished frame, of a thing.

A rotten carcass of a boat. Shak.

4. (Mil.) A hollow case or shell, filled with combustibles, to be thrown from a mortar or howitzer, to set fire to buldings, ships, etc.

A discharge of carcasses and bombshells. W. Iving.

||Car`ca*vel"hos (?), n. A sweet wine. See Calcavella.

Car"ce*lage (?), n. [LL. carcelladium, carceragium, fr. L. carcer prison.] Prison fees. [Obs.]

Car"cel lamp` (?). [Named after Carcel, the inventor.] A French mechanical lamp, for lighthouses, in which a superabundance of oil is pumped to the wick tube by clockwork.

Car"cer*al (?), a. [L. carceralis, fr. carcer prison.] Belonging to a prison. [R.] Foxe.

Car`ci*no*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to carcinology.

Car`ci*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; a crab + -logy.] (Zoöl.) The department of zoölogy which treats of the Crustacea (lobsters, crabs, etc.); -- called also malacostracology and crustaceology.

||Car`ci*no"ma (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; crab, cancer. See -oma.] (Med.) A cancer. By some medical writers, the term is applied to an indolent tumor. See Cancer. Dunglison.

Car`ci*nom"a*tous (?), a. Of or pertaining to carcinoma.

||Car`ci*no"sys (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; cancer.] The affection of the system with cancer.

Card (?), n. [F. carte, fr. L. charta paper, Gr. &?; a leaf of paper. Cf. Chart.] 1. A piece of pasteboard, or thick paper, blank or prepared for various uses; as, a playing card; a visiting card; a card of invitation; pl. a game played with cards.

Our first cards were to Carabas House. Thackeray.

2. A published note, containing a brief statement, explanation, request, expression of thanks, or the like; as, to put a card in the newspapers. Also, a printed programme, and (fig.), an attraction or inducement; as, this will be a good card for the last day of the fair.

3. A paper on which the points of the compass are marked; the dial or face of the mariner's compass.

All the quartere that they know I' the shipman's card. Shak.

4. (Weaving) A perforated pasteboard or sheet-metal plate for warp threads, making part of the Jacquard apparatus of a loom. See Jacquard.

5. An indicator card. See under Indicator.

Business card, a card on which is printed an advertisement or business address. -- Card basket (a) A basket to hold visiting cards left by callers. (b) A basket made of cardboard. -- Card catalogue. See Catalogue. -- Card rack, a rack or frame for holding and displaying business or visiting card. -- Card table, a table for use inplaying cards, esp. one having a leaf which folds over. -- On the cards, likely to happen; foretold and expected but not yet brought to pass; -- a phrase of fortune tellers that has come into common use; also, according to the programme. -- Playing card, cards used in playing games; specifically, the cards cards used playing which and other games of chance, and having each pack divided onto four kinds or suits called hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades. The full or whist pack contains fifty-two cards. -- To have the cards in one's own hands, to have the winning cards; to have the means of success in an undertaking. -- To play one's cards well, to make no errors; to act shrewdly. -- To play snow one's cards, to expose one's plants to rivals or foes. -- To speak by the card, to speak from information and definitely, not by guess as in telling a ship's bearing by the compass card. -- Visiting card, a small card bearing the name, and sometimes the address, of the person presenting it.

Card, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Carded; p. pr. & vb. n. Carding.] To play at cards; to game. Johnson.

Card, n. [F. carde teasel, the head of a thistle, card, from L. carduus, cardus, thistle, fr. carere to card.]

1. An instrument for disentangling and arranging the fibers of cotton, wool, flax, etc.; or for cleaning and smoothing the hair of animals; -- usually consisting of bent wire teeth set closely in rows in a thick piece of leather fastened to a back.

2. A roll or sliver of fiber (as of wool) delivered from a carding machine.

Card clothing, strips of wire-toothed card used for covering the cylinders of carding machines.

Card (?), v. t. 1. To comb with a card; to cleanse or disentangle by carding; as, to card wool; to card a horse.

These card the short comb the longer flakes. Dyer.

2. To clean or clear, as if by using a card. [Obs.]

This book [must] be carded and purged. T. Shelton.

3. To mix or mingle, as with an inferior or weaker article. [Obs.]

You card your beer, if you guests being to be drunk. -- half small, half strong. Greene.

&fist; In the manufacture of wool, cotton, etc., the process of carding disentangles and collects together all the fibers, of whatever length, and thus differs from combing, in which the longer fibers only are collected, while the short straple is combed away. See Combing.

Car"da*mine (?), n. [L. cardamina, Gr. &?;: cf. F. cardamine.] (Bot.) A genus of cruciferous plants, containing the lady's-smock, cuckooflower, bitter cress, meadow cress, etc.

Car"da*mom (kär"d&adot;*mŭm), n. [L. cardamomun, Gr. karda`mwmon] 1. The aromatic fruit, or capsule with its seeds, of several plants of the Ginger family growing in the East Indies and elsewhere, and much used as a condiment, and in medicine.

2. (Bot.) A plant which produces cardamoms, esp. Elettaria Cardamomum and several species of Amomum.

Card"board` (kärd"bōrd`), n. A stiff compact pasteboard of various qualities, for making cards, etc., often having a polished surface.

Card"case` (kärd"kās`), n. A case for visiting cards.

Car"de*cu (kär"d&esl;*k&usl;), n. [Corrupt, from F. quart d'écu.] A quarter of a crown. [Obs.]

The bunch of them were not worth a cardecu. Sir W. Scott.

Card"er (?), n. One who, or that which cards wool flax, etc. Shak.

Car"di*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; heart, or upper orifice of the stomach.] (Anat.) (a) The heart. (b) The anterior or cardiac orifice of the stomach, where the esophagus enters it.

Car"di*ac (?), a. [L. cardiacus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; heart: cf. F. cardiaque.] 1. (Anat.) Pertaining to, resembling, or hear the heart; as, the cardiac arteries; the cardiac, or left, end of the stomach.

2. (Med.) Exciting action in the heart, through the medium of the stomach; cordial; stimulant.

Cardiac passion (Med.) cardialgia; heartburn. [Archaic] -- Cardiac wheel. (Mach.) See Heart wheel.

Car"di*ac n. (Med.) A medicine which excites action in the stomach; a cardial.

Car*di"a*cal (?), a. Cardiac.

Car"di*a*cle (?), n. A pain about the heart. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Car"di*a*graph (?), n. See Cardiograph.

{ ||Car`di*al"gl*a (?), Car"di*al`gy (?), } n. [NL. cardialgia, fr. Gr. &?;; &?; heart + &?; pain: cf. F. cardialgie.] (Med.) A burning or gnawing pain, or feeling of distress, referred to the region of the heart, accompanied with cardiac palpitation; heartburn. It is usually a symptom of indigestion.

Car"di*gan jack`et (#). [From the Earl of Cardigan, who was famous in the Crimean campaign of 1854- 55.] A warm jacket of knit worsted with or without sleeves.

Car"di*nal (?), a. [L. cardinalis, fr. cardo the hinge of a door, that on which a thing turns or depends: cf. F. cardinal.] Of fundamental importance; preëminent; superior; chief; principal.

The cardinal intersections of the zodiac. Sir T. Browne.

Impudence is now a cardinal virtue. Drayton.

But cardinal sins, and hollow hearts, I fear ye. Shak.

Cardinal numbers, the numbers one, two, three, etc., in distinction from first, second, third, etc., which are called ordinal numbers. -- Cardinal points (a) (Geol.) The four principal points of the compass, or intersections of the horizon with the meridian and the prime vertical circle, north, south east, and west. (b) (Astrol.) The rising and setting of the sun, the zenith and nadir. -- Cardinal signs (Astron.) Aries, Libra, Cancer, and Capricorn. -- Cardinal teeth (Zoöl.), the central teeth of bivalve shell. See Bivalve. -- Cardinal veins (Anat.), the veins in vertebrate embryos, which run each side of the vertebral column and returm the blood to the heart. They remain through life in some fishes. -- Cardinal virtues, preëminent virtues; among the ancients, prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. -- Cardinal winds, winds which blow from the cardinal points due north, south, east, or west.

Car"di*nal, n. [F. carinal, It. cardinale, LL. cardinalis (ecclesiæ Romanæ). See Cardinal, a.] 1. (R. C. Ch.) One of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the pope's council, or the sacred college.

The clerics of the supreme Chair are called Cardinals, as undoubtedly adhering more nearly to the hinge by which all things are moved. Pope Leo IX.

&fist; The cardinals are appointed by the pope. Since the time of Sixtus V., their number can never exceed seventy (six of episcopal rank, fifty priests, fourteen deacons), and the number of cardinal priests and deacons is seldom full. When the papel chair is vacant a pope is elected by the college of cardinals from among themselves. The cardinals take precedence of all dignitaries except the pope. The principal parts of a cardinal's costume are a red cassock, a rochet, a short purple mantle, and a red hat with a small crown and broad brim, with cords and tessels of a special pattern hanging from it.

2. A woman's short cloak with a hood.

Where's your cardinal! Make haste. Lloyd.

3. Mulled red wine. Hotten.

Cardinal bird, or Cardinal grosbeak (Zoöl.), an American song bird (Cardinalis cardinalis, or C. Virginianus), of the family Fringillidæ, or finches having a bright red plumage, and a high, pointed crest on its head. The males have loud and musical notes resembling those of a fife. Other related species are also called cardinal birds. -- Cardinal flower (Bot.), an herbaceous plant (Lobelia cardinalis) bearing brilliant red flowers of much beauty. -- Cardinal red, a color like that of a cardinal's cassock, hat, etc.; a bright red, darker than scarlet, and between scarlet and crimson.

Car"di*nal*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. cardinalat, LL. cardinalatus.] The office, rank, or dignity of a cardinal.

Car"di*nal*ize (?), v. t. To exalt to the office of a cardinal. Sheldon.

Car"di*nal*ship, n. The condition, dignity, of office of a cardinal

Card"ing (?), a. 1. The act or process of preparing staple for spinning, etc., by carding it. See the Note under Card, v. t.

2. A roll of wool or other fiber as it comes from the carding machine.

Carding engine, Carding machine, a machine for carding cotton, wool, or other fiber, by subjecting it to the action of cylinders, or drum covered with wire-toothed cards, revoling nearly in contact with each other, at different rates of speed, or in opposite directions. The staple issues in soft sheets, or in slender rolls called sivers.

Car"di*o*graph (?), n. [Gr. kardi`a heart + -graph.] (Med.) An instrument which, when placed in contact with the chest, will register graphically the comparative duration and intensity of the heart's movements.

Car`di*o*graph"ic (?), a. (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to, or produced by, a cardiograph.

Car"di*oid (?), n. [Gr. kardio-eidh`s heart-shaped; kardi`a heart + e'i^dos shape.] (Math.) An algebraic curve, so called from its resemblance to a heart.

Car`di*o*in*hib"i*to*ry (?), a. (Physiol.) Checking or arresting the heart's action.

Car`di*ol"*gy (?), n. [Gr. kardi`a heart + -ology.] The science which treats of the heart and its functions.

Car`di*om"e*try (?), n. [Gr. &?; heart + -metry.] (Med.) Measurement of the heart, as by percussion or auscultation.

Car`di*o*sphyg"mo*graph (?), n. A combination of cardiograph and sphygmograph.

||Car*di"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. kardi`a heart + -itis: cf. F. cardite.] (Med) Inflammation of the fleshy or muscular substance of the heart. See Endocarditis and Pericarditis. Dunglison.

||Car"do (kär"d&osl;), n.; pl. Cardines (#).) [L., a hinge.] (Zoöl.) (a) The basal joint of the maxilla in insects. (b) The hinge of a bivalve shell.

Car"dol (kär"dōl), n. [NL. Anacardium generic name of the cashew + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) A yellow oily liquid, extracted from the shell of the cashew nut.

Car*doon" (kär*d&oomac;n"), n. [F. cardon. The same word as F. cardon thistle, fr. L. carduus, cardus, LL. cardo. See 3d Card.] (Bot.) A large herbaceous plant (Cynara Cardunculus) related to the artichoke; -- used in cookery and as a salad.

Care (kâr), n. [AS. caru, cearu; akin to OS. kara sorrow, Goth. kara, OHG chara, lament, and perh. to Gr. gh^rys voice. Not akin to cure. Cf. Chary.] 1. A burdensome sense of responsibility; trouble caused by onerous duties; anxiety; concern; solicitude.

Care keeps his watch in every old man's eye, And where care lodges, sleep will never lie. Shak.

2. Charge, oversight, or management, implying responsibility for safety and prosperity.

The care of all the churches. 2 Cor. xi. 28.

Him thy care must be to find. Milton.

Perplexed with a thousand cares. Shak.

3. Attention or heed; caution; regard; heedfulness; watchfulness; as, take care; have a care.

I thank thee for thy care and honest pains. Shak.

4. The object of watchful attention or anxiety.

Right sorrowfully mourning her bereaved cares. Spenser.

Syn. -- Anxiety; solicitude; concern; caution; regard; management; direction; oversight. -- Care, Anxiety, Solicitude, Concern. These words express mental pain in different degress. Care belongs primarily to the intellect, and becomes painful from overburdened thought. Anxiety denotes a state of distressing uneasiness fron the dread of evil. Solicitude expresses the same feeling in a diminished degree. Concern is opposed to indifference, and implies exercise of anxious thought more or less intense. We are careful about the means, solicitous and anxious about the end; we are solicitous to obtain a good, anxious to avoid an evil.

Care, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caring.] [AS. cearian. See Care, n.] To be anxious or solicitous; to be concerned; to have regard or interest; -- sometimes followed by an objective of measure.

I would not care a pin, if the other three were in. Shak.

Master, carest thou not that we perish? Mark. iv. 38.

To care for. (a) To have under watchful attention; to take care of. (b) To have regard or affection for; to like or love.

He cared not for the affection of the house. Tennyson.

Ca*reen" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Careened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Careening.] [OF. cariner, F. caréner, fr. OF. carène, the bottom of a ship, keel, fr. L. carina.] (Naut.) To cause (a vessel) to lean over so that she floats on one side, leaving the other side out of water and accessible for repairs below the water line; to case to be off the keel.

Ca*reen" (&?;), v. i. To incline to one side, or lie over, as a ship when sailing on a wind; to be off the keel.

Ca*reen"age (?), n. [Cf. F. carénage.] (Naut.) (a) Expense of careening ships. (b) A place for careening.

Ca*reer" (?), n. [F. carrière race course, high road, street, fr. L. carrus wagon. See Car.] 1. A race course: the ground run over.

To go back again the same career. Sir P. Sidney.

2. A running; full speed; a rapid course.

When a horse is running in his full career. Wilkins.

3. General course of action or conduct in life, or in a particular part or calling in life, or in some special undertaking; usually applied to course or conduct which is of a public character; as, Washington's career as a soldier.

An impartial view of his whole career. Macaulay.

4. (Falconry) The flight of a hawk.

Ca*reer", v. i. [imp. & p. p. Careered 3; p. pr. & vb. n. Careering] To move or run rapidly.

Careering gayly over the curling waves. W. Irving.

Care"ful (kâr"f&usdot;l), a. [AS. cearful.] 1. Full of care; anxious; solicitous. [Archaic]

Be careful [Rev. Ver. "anxious"] for nothing. Phil. iv. 6.

The careful plowman doubting stands. Milton.

2. Filling with care or solicitude; exposing to concern, anxiety, or trouble; painful.

The careful cold beginneth for to creep. Spenser.

By Him that raised me to this careful height. Shak.

3. Taking care; giving good heed; watchful; cautious; provident; not indifferent, heedless, or reckless; -- often followed by of, for, or the infinitive; as, careful of money; careful to do right.

Thou hast been careful for us with all this care. 2. Kings iv, 13.

What could a careful father more have done? Dryden.

Syn. -- Anxious; solicitous; provident; thoughtful; cautious; circumspect; heedful; watchful; vigilant.

Care"ful*ly, adv. In a careful manner.

Care"ful*ness, n. Quality or state of being careful.

Care"less (?), a. [AS. cearleás.] 1. Free from care or anxiety. hence, cheerful; light-hearted. Spenser.

Sleep she as sound as careless infancy. Shak.

2. Having no care; not taking ordinary or proper care; negligent; unconcerned; heedless; inattentive; unmindful; regardless.

My brother was too careless of his charge. Shak.

He grew careless of himself. Steele.

3. Without thought or purpose; without due care; without attention to rule or system; unstudied; inconsiderate; spontaneous; rash; as, a careless throw; a careless expression.

He framed the careless rhyme. Beattie.

4. Not receiving care; uncared for. [R.]

Their many wounds and careless harms. Spenser.

Syn. -- Negligent; heedless; thoughtless; unthinking; inattentive; incautious; remiss; supine; forgetful; regardless; inconsiderate; listless.

Care"less*ly, adv. In a careless manner.

Care"less*ness, n. The quality or state of being careless; heedlessness; negligence; inattention.

Ca*rene" (?), n. [LL. carena, corrupted fr. quarentena. See Quarantine.] (Ecol.) A fast of forty days on bread and water. [Obs.]

Ca*ress" (k&adot;*r&ebreve;s"), n. [F. caresse, It. carezza, LL. caritia dearness, fr. L. carus dear. See Charity.] An act of endearment; any act or expression of affection; an embracing, or touching, with tenderness.

Wooed her with his soft caresses. Langfellow.

He exerted himself to win by indulgence and caresses the hearts of all who were under his command. Macaulay.

Ca*ress", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caressed (-r&ebreve;st"); p. pr. & vb. n. Caressing.] [F. caresser, fr. It. carezzare, fr. carezza caress. See Caress., n.] To treat with tokens of fondness, affection, or kindness; to touch or speak to in a loving or endearing manner; to fondle.

The lady caresses the rough bloodhound. Sir W. Scott.

Syn. -- To fondle; embrace; pet; coddle; court; flatter. -- Caress, Fondle. "We caress by words or actions; we fondle by actions only." Crabb.

Ca*ress"ing*ly, adv. In caressing manner.

Ca"ret (kā"r&ebreve;t or kăr"&ebreve;t), n. [L. caret there is wanting, fr. carere to want.] A mark [^] used by writers and proof readers to indicate that something is interlined above, or inserted in the margin, which belongs in the place marked by the caret.

||Ca`ret" (?), n. [F., a species of tortoise.] (Zoöl.) The hawkbill turtle. See Hawkbill.

Care"-tuned (?), a. Weary; mournful. Shak.

Care"worn` (?), a. Worn or burdened with care; as, careworn look or face.

||Ca"rex (?), n. [L., sedge.] (Bot.) A numerous and widely distributed genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the order Cypreaceæ; the sedges.

Carf (kärf), pret. of Carve. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Car"ga*son (?), n. [F. cargaison, Sp. cargazon, LL. cargare to load. See rgo.] A cargo. [Obs.]

Car"go (?), n.; pl. Cargoes (#). [Sp. cargo, carga, burden, load, from cargar to load, from cargar to load, charge, See Charge.] The lading or freight of a ship or other vessel; the goods, merchandise, or whatever is conveyed in a vessel or boat; load; freight.

Cargoes of food or clothing. E. Everett.

&fist; The term cargo, in law, is usually applied to goods only, and not to live animals or persons. Burill.

Car"goose` (?), n. [Perh. fr. Gael. & Ir. cir, cior (pronounced kir, kior), crest, comb + E. goose. Cf. Crebe.] (Zoöl.) A species of grebe (Podiceps crisratus); the crested grebe.

||Ça`ri*a"ma (sä`r&esl;*&adot;"m&adot;), n. [Native name.] (Zoöl.) A large, long-legged South American bird (Dicholophus cristatus) which preys upon snakes, etc. See Seriema.

Car"ib (?), n.; pl. Caries. [See Cannibal.] (Ethol.) A native of the Caribbee islands or the coasts of the Caribbean sea; esp., one of a tribe of Indians inhabiting a region of South America, north of the Amazon, and formerly most of the West India islands.

{ Car`ib*be"an (?), Car`ib*bee (?), } a. Of or pertaining to the Caribs, to their islands (the eastern and southern West Indies), or to the sea (called the Caribbean sea) lying between those islands and Central America.

Car"ib*bee, n. A Carib.

||Ca*ri"be (?), n. [Sp. a cannibal.] (Zoöl). A south American fresh water fish of the genus Serrasalmo of many species, remarkable for its voracity. When numerous they attack man or beast, often with fatal results.

Car"i*bou (kăr"&ibreve;*b&oomac;), n. [Canadian French.] (Zoöl.) The American reindeer, especially the common or woodland species (Rangifer Caribou).

Barren Ground caribou. See under Barren. -- Woodland caribou, the common reindeer (Rangifer Caribou) of the northern forests of America.

Car"i*ca*ture (?), n. [It. caricatura, fr. caricare to charge, overload, exaggerate. See Charge, v. t.] 1. An exaggeration, or distortion by exaggeration, of parts or characteristics, as in a picture.

2. A picture or other figure or description in which the peculiarities of a person or thing are so exaggerated as to appear ridiculous; a burlesque; a parody. [Formerly written caricatura.]

The truest likeness of the prince of French literature will be the one that has most of the look of a caricature. I. Taylor.

A grotesque caricature of virtue. Macaulay.

Car"i*ca*ture, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caricatured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caricaturing.] To make or draw a caricature of; to represent with ridiculous exaggeration; to burlesque.

He could draw an ill face, or caricature a good one, with a masterly hand. Lord Lyttelton.

Car"i*ca*tu`rist (?), n. One who caricatures.

Car"i*cous (?), a. [L. carica a kind of dry fig.] Of the shape of a fig; as, a caricous tumor. Graig.

||Ca"ri*es (?), n.[L., decay.] (Med.) Ulceration of bone; a process in which bone disintegrates and is carried away piecemeal, as distinguished from necrosis, in which it dies in masses.

Car"il*lon (?), n. [F. carillon a chime of bells, originally consisting of four bells, as if fr.. (assumed) L. quadrilio, fr. quatuer four.]

1. (Mus.) A chime of bells diatonically tuned, played by clockwork or by finger keys.

2. A tune adapted to be played by musical bells.

||Ca*ri"na (?), n. [L., keel.] 1. (Bot.) A keel. (a) That part of a papilionaceous flower, consisting of two petals, commonly united, which incloses the organs of fructification. (b) A longitudinal ridge or projection like the keel of a boat.

2. (Zoöl.) The keel of the breastbone of birds.

Car`i*na"ri*a (?), n. [NL., fr. L. carina keel.] (Zoöl.) A genus of oceanic heteropod Mollusca, having a thin, glassy, bonnet-shaped shell, which covers only the nucleus and gills.

||Car`i*na"tæ (?), n. pl. [NL., Fem. pl. fr. L. carinatus. See Carinate.] A grand division of birds, including all existing flying birds; -- So called from the carina or keel on the breastbone.

{ Car"i*nate (?), Car"i*na`ted (?) } a. [L. carinatus, fr. carina keel.] Shaped like the keel or prow of a ship; having a carina or keel; as, a carinate calyx or leaf; a carinate sternum (of a bird).

Car"i*ole (?), n. [F. carriole, dim. fr. L. carrus. See Car, and Carryall.] (a) A small, light, open one-horse carriage. (b) A covered cart. (c) A kind of calash. See Carryall.

Car`i*op"sis (?), n. See Caryopsis.

Ca`ri*os"i*ty (?), n. (Med.) Caries.

Ca"ri*ous (?), a. [L. cariosus, fr. caries dacay.] Affected with caries; decaying; as, a carious tooth.

Cark (kärk), n. [OE. cark, fr. a dialectic form of F. charge; cf. W. carc anxiety, care, Arm karg charge, burden. See Charge, and cf. Cargo.] A noxious or corroding care; solicitude; worry. [Archaic.]

His heavy head, devoid of careful cark. Spenser.

Fling cark and care aside. Motherwell.

Freedom from the cares of money and the cark of fashion. R. D. Blackmore.

Cark (kärk), v. i. To be careful, anxious, solicitous, or troubled in mind; to worry or grieve. [R.] Beau. & Fl.

Cark, v. t. To vex; to worry; to make by anxious care or worry. [R.]

Nor can a man, independently . . . of God's blessing, care and cark himself one penny richer. South.

Car"ka*net (?), n. A carcanet. Southey.

Cark"ing (?), a. Distressing; worrying; perplexing; corroding; as, carking cares.

Carl (?), n. [Icel, karl a male, a man; akin to AS. ceorl, OHG. charal, G. kerl fellow. See Churl.] [Written also carle.] 1. A rude, rustic man; a churl.

The miller was a stout carl. Chaucer.

2. Large stalks of hemp which bear the seed; -- called also carl hemp.

3. pl. A kind of food. See citation, below.

Caring or carl are gray steeped in water and fried the next day in butter or fat. They are eaten on the second Sunday before Easter, formerly called Carl Sunday. Robinson's Whitby Glossary (1875).

Car"lin (?), n. [Dim., fr. carl male.] An old woman. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

{ Car"line (?), Car"o*line (?) }, n. [F. carin; cf. It. carlino; -- so called from Carlo (Charles) VI. of Naples.] A silver coin once current in some parts of Italy, worth about seven cents. Simmonds.

{ Car"line (?), Car"ling (?) } n. [Cf. F. carlingur, Sp. Pg., & It. carlinga.] (Naut.) A short timber running lengthwise of a ship, from one transverse desk beam to another; also, one of the cross timbers that strengthen a hath; -- usually in pl.

Car"line this`tle (?). [F. carline, It., Sp., & Pg., carlina. Said to be so called from the Emperor Charlemagne, whose army is reputed to have used it as a remedy for pestilence.] (Bot.) A prickly plant of the genus Carlina (C. vulgaris), found in Europe and Asia.

Car"lings (?), n. pl. Same as Carl, 3.

Carling Sunday, a Sunday in Lent when carls are eaten. In some parts of England, Passion Sunday. See Carl, 4.

Car"list (kär"l&ibreve;st), n. A partisan of Charles X. of France, or of Don Carlos of Spain.

Car"lock (?), n. [F. carlock, fr. Russ. Karlúk'.] A sort of Russian isinglass, made from the air bladder of the sturgeon, and used in clarifying wine.

Car"lot (?), n. [From Carl.] A churl; a boor; a peasant or countryman. [Obs.] Shak.

Car`lo*vin"gi*an (?), a. [F. Carlovingen.] Pertaining to, founded by, of descended from, Charlemagne; as, the Carlovingian race of kings.

||Car`ma`gnole" (?), n. [F.] 1. A popular or Red Rebublican song and dance, of the time of the first French Revolution.

They danced and yelled the carmagnole. Compton Reade.

2. A bombastic report from the French armies.

Car"man (?), n.; pl. Carmen (&?;) A man whose employment is to drive, or to convey goods in, a car or car.

{ Car"mel*ite (?), Car"mel*in } a. Of or pertaining to the order of Carmelites.

Car"mel*ite (?), n. 1. (Eccl. Hist.) A friar of a mendicant order (the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel) established on Mount Carmel, in Syria, in the twelfth century; a White Friar.

2. A nun of the Order of Our lady of Mount Carmel.

Car"mi*na`ted (?), a. Of, relating to, or mixed with, carmine; as, carminated lake. Tomlinson.

Car*min"ative (?), a. [NL. carminativus (1622), fr. carminare to card, hence to cleanse, fr. carmen a card for freeing wool or flax from the coarser parts, and from extraneous matter: cf. F. carminatif.] Expelling wind from the body; warming; antispasmodic. "Carminative hot seeds." Dunglison.

Car*min"a*tive, n. A substance, esp. an aromatic, which tends to expel wind from the alimentary canal, or to relieve colic, griping, or flatulence.

Car"mine (?), n. [F. carmin (cf. Sp. carmin, It. carminio), contr. from LL. carmesinus purple color. See Crimson.] 1. A rich red or crimson color with a shade of purple.

2. A beautiful pigment, or a lake, of this color, prepared from cochineal, and used in miniature painting.

3. (Chem.) The essential coloring principle of cochineal, extracted as a purple-red amorphous mass. It is a glucoside and possesses acid properties; -- hence called also carminic acid.

Carmine red (Chem.), a coloring matter obtained from carmine as a purple-red substance, and probably allied to the phthaleïns.

Car*min"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to, or derived from, carmine.

Carminic acid. Same as Carmine, 3.

Car"mot (?), n. (Alchemy) The matter of which the philosopher's stone was believed to be composed.

Car"nage (?), n. [F. carnage, LL. carnaticum tribute of animals, flesh of animals, fr. L. caro, carnis, flesh. See Carnal.] 1. Flesh of slain animals or men.

A miltitude of dogs came to feast on the carnage. Macaulay.

2. Great destruction of life, as in battle; bloodshed; slaughter; massacre; murder; havoc.

The more fearful carnage of the Bloody Circuit. Macaulay.

Car"nal (?), a. [L. carnalis, fr. caro, carnis, flesh; akin to Gr. &?;, Skr. kravya; cf. F. charnel, Of. also carnel. Cf. Charnel.] 1. Of or pertaining to the body or its appetites; animal; fleshly; sensual; given to sensual indulgence; lustful; human or worldly as opposed to spiritual.

For ye are yet carnal. 1 Cor. iii. 3.

Not sunk in carnal pleasure. Milton

Carnal desires after miracles. Trench.

2. Flesh-devouring; cruel; ravenous; bloody. [Obs.]

This carnal cur Preys on the issue of his mother's body. Shak.

Carnal knowledge, sexual intercourse; -- used especially of an unlawful act on the part of the man.

Car"nal*ism (?), n. The state of being carnal; carnality; sensualism. [R.]

Car"nal*ist (?), n. A sensualist. Burton.

Car*nal"i*ty (?), n. [L. carnalitas.] The state of being carnal; fleshly lust, or the indulgence of lust; grossness of mind.

Because of the carnality of their hearts. Tillotson.

Car"nal*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carnalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carnalizing.] To make carnal; to debase to carnality.

A sensual and carnalized spirit. John Scott.

Car"nal*lite (?), n. [G. carnallit, fr. Von Carnall, a Prussian.] (Min.) A hydrous chloride of potassium and magnesium, sometimes found associated with deposits of rock salt.

Car"nal*ly (?), adv. According to the flesh, to the world, or to human nature; in a manner to gratify animal appetites and lusts; sensually.

For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace. Rom. viii. 6.

Car"nal-mind`ed (?), a. Worldly-minded.

Car"nal-mind"ed*ness, n. Grossness of mind.

Car"na*ry (?), n. [L. carnarium, fr. caro, carnis, flesh.] A vault or crypt in connection with a church, used as a repository for human bones disintered from their original burial places; a charnel house.

Car*nas"si*al (?), a. [Cf. F. carnassier carnivorous, and L. caro, carnis, flesh.] (Anat.) Adapted to eating flesh. -- n. A carnassial tooth; especially, the last premolar in many carnivores.

Car"nate (?), a. [L. carnatus fleshy.] Invested with, or embodied in, flesh.

Car*na"tion (?), n. [F. carnation the flesh tints in a painting, It carnagione, fr. L. carnatio fleshiness, fr. caro, carnis, flesh. See Carnal.] 1. The natural color of flesh; rosy pink.

Her complexion of the delicate carnation. Ld. Lytton.

2. pl. (Paint.) Those parts of a picture in which the human body or any part of it is represented in full color; the flesh tints.

The flesh tints in painting are termed carnations. Fairholt.

3. (Bot.) A species of Dianthus (D. Caryophyllus) or pink, having very beautiful flowers of various colors, esp. white and usually a rich, spicy scent.

Car*na"tioned (?), a. Having a flesh color.

||Car*nau"ba (?), n. (Bot.) The Brazilian wax palm. See Wax palm.

Car*nel"ian (?), n. [For carnelian; influenced by L. carneus fleshy, of flesh, because of its flesh red color. See Cornellan.] (Min.) A variety of chalcedony, of a clear, deep red, flesh red, or reddish white color. It is moderately hard, capable of a good polish, and often used for seals.

Car"ne*ous (?), a. [L. carneus, from caro, carnis, flesh.] Consisting of, or like, flesh; carnous; fleshy. "Carneous fibers." Ray.

Car"ney (?), n. [Cf. L. carneus flesh.] (Far.) A disease of horses, in which the mouth is so furred that the afflicted animal can not eat.

||Car"ni*fex (?), n. [L., fr. caro, carnis, flesh + facere to make.] (Antiq.) The public executioner at Rome, who executed persons of the lowest rank; hence, an executioner or hangman.

Car`ni*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. carnification.] The act or process of turning to flesh, or to a substance resembling flesh.

Car"ni*fy (?), v. i. [LL. carnificare, fr. L. caro, carnis, flesh + facere to make: cf. F. carnifier.] To form flesh; to become like flesh. Sir M. Hale.

Car"nin (?), n. [L. caro, canis , flesh.] (Chem.) A white crystalline nitrogenous substance, found in extract of meat, and related to xanthin.

Car"ni*val (?), n. [It. carnevale, prob. for older carnelevale, prop., the putting away of meat; fr. L. caro, carnis, flesh + levare to take away, lift up, fr. levis light.] 1. A festival celebrated with merriment and revelry in Roman Gatholic countries during the week before Lent, esp. at Rome and Naples, during a few days (three to ten) before Lent, ending with Shrove Tuesday.

The carnival at Venice is everywhere talked of. Addison.

2. Any merrymaking, feasting, or masquerading, especially when overstepping the bounds of decorum; a time of riotous excess. Tennyson.

He saw the lean dogs beneath the wall Hold o'er the dead their carnival Byron.

||Car*niv"o*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., neut. pl. from L. carnivorus. See Carnivorous.] (Zoöl.) An order of Mammallia including the lion, tiger, wolf bear, seal, etc. They are adapted by their structure to feed upon flesh, though some of them, as the bears, also eat vegetable food. The teeth are large and sharp, suitable for cutting flesh, and the jaws powerful.

Car*niv`o*rac"i*ty (?), n. Greediness of appetite for flesh. [Sportive.] Pope.

Car`ni*vore (?), n. [Cf. F. carnivore.] (Zoöl.) One of the Carnivora.

Car*niv"o*rous (?), a. [L. carnivorus; caro, carnis, flesh + varare to devour.] Eating or feeding on flesh. The term is applied: (a) to animals which naturally seek flesh for food, as the tiger, dog, etc.; (b) to plants which are supposed to absorb animal food; (c) to substances which destroy animal tissue, as caustics.

{ Car*nose (?), Car"*nous } (?), a. [L. carnosus, fr. caro, carnis, flesh: cf. OF. carneux, F. charneux.] 1. Of or pertaining to flesh; fleshy.

A distinct carnose muscle. Ray.

2. (Bot.) Of a fleshy consistence; -- applied to succulent leaves, stems, etc.

Car*nos"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. carnosité.]

1. (Med.) A fleshy excrescence; esp. a small excrescence or fungous growth. Wiseman.

2. Fleshy substance or quality; fleshy covering.

[Consciences] overgrown with so hard a carnosity. Spelman.

The olives, indeed be very small there, and bigger than capers; yet commended they are for their carnosity. Holland.

Car"ob (?), n. [Cf. F. caroube fruit of the carob tree, Sp. garrobo, al-garrobo, carob tree, fr. Ar. kharrūb, Per. Kharnūb. Cf. Clgaroba.] 1. (Bot.) An evergreen leguminous tree (Ceratania Siliqua) found in the countries bordering the Mediterranean; the St. John's bread; -- called also carob tree.

2. One of the long, sweet, succulent, pods of the carob tree, which are used as food for animals and sometimes eaten by man; -- called also St. John's bread, carob bean, and algaroba bean.

Ca*roche" (?), n. [OF. carrache, F. carrose from It. carrocio, carrozza, fr. carro, L. carus. See Car.] A kind of pleasure carriage; a coach. [Obs.]

To mount two-wheeled caroches. Butler.

Ca*roched" (?), a. Placed in a caroche. [Obs.]

Beggary rides caroched. Massenger.

Car"oigne (?), n. [See Carrion.] Dead body; carrion. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Car"ol (?), n. [OF. carole a kind of dance wherein many dance together, fr. caroler to dance; perh. from Celtic; cf. Armor. koroll, n., korolla, korolli, v., Ir. car music, turn, circular motion, also L. choraula a flute player, charus a dance, chorus, choir.] 1. A round dance. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. A song of joy, exultation, or mirth; a lay.

The costly feast, the carol, and the dance. Dryden

It was the carol of a bird. Byron.

3. A song of praise of devotion; as, a Christmas or Easter carol.

Heard a carol, mournful, holy. Tennyson.

In the darkness sing your carol of high praise. Keble.

4. Joyful music, as of a song.

I heard the bells on Christmans Day Their old, familiar carol play. Longfellow.

Car"ol (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caroled (?), or Carolled; p. pr. & vb. n. Caroling, or Carolling.]

1. To praise or celebrate in song.

The Shepherds at their festivals Carol her goodness. Milton.

2. To sing, especially with joyful notes.

Hovering swans . . . carol sounds harmonious. Prior.

Car"ol, v. i. To sing; esp. to sing joyfully; to warble.

And carol of love's high praise. Spenser.

The gray linnets carol from the hill. Beattie.

{ Car"ol, Car"rol }, n. [OF. carole a sort of circular space, or carol.] (Arch.) A small closet or inclosure built against a window on the inner side, to sit in for study. The word was used as late as the 16th century.

A bay window may thus be called a carol. Parker.

Car"o*lin (?), n. [L. Carolus Charles.] A former gold coin of Germany worth nearly five dollars; also, a gold coin of Sweden worth nearly five dollars.

Car`o*li"na pink` (?). (Bot.) See Pinkboot.

Car"o*line (?), n. A coin. See Carline.

Car"ol*ing (?), n. A song of joy or devotion; a singing, as of carols. Coleridge.

Such heavenly notes and carolings. Spenser.

Car`o*lin"i*an (?), n. A native or inhabitant of north or South Carolina.

Car`o*lit"ic (?), a. (Arch.) Adorned with sculptured leaves and branches.

Car"o*lus (?), n.; pl. E. Caroluses (#), L. Caroli (#). [L., Charles.] An English gold coin of the value of twenty or twenty-three shillings. It was first struck in the reign of Charles I.

Told down the crowns and Caroluses. Macawlay.

Car"om (?), n. [Prob. corrupted fr. F. carumboler to carom, carambolage a carom, carambole the red ball in billiards.] (Billiards) A shot in which the ball struck with the cue comes in contact with two or more balls on the table; a hitting of two or more balls with the player's ball. In England it is called cannon.

Car"om, v. i. (Billiards) To make a carom.

Car"o*mel (?), n. See Caramel.

Car`o*teel" (?), n. (Com.) A tierce or cask for dried fruits, etc., usually about 700 lbs. Simmonds.

Ca*rot"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; stupefying. See Carotid.] 1. Of or pertaining to stupor; as, a carotic state.

2. (Anat.) Carotid; as, the carotic arteries.

Ca*rot"id (?), n. [Gr. &?;, pl., from &?; heavy sleep: cf. F. carotide. The early Greeks believed that these arteries in some way caused drowsiness.] (Anat.) One of the two main arteries of the neck, by which blood is conveyed from the aorta to the head. [See Illust. of Aorta.]

{ Ca*rot"id (?), Ca*rot"id*al (?), } a. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or near, the carotids or one of them; as, the carotid gland.

Ca*ro"tin (?), n. (Chem.) A red crystallizable tasteless substance, extracted from the carrot.

Ca*rous"al (?), n. [See Carouse, but also cf. F. carrousel tilt.] A jovial feast or festival; a drunken revel; a carouse.

The swains were preparing for a carousal. Sterne.

Syn. -- Banquet; revel; orgie; carouse. See Feast.

Ca*rouse" (k&adot;*rouz"), n. [F. carrousse, earlier carous, fr. G. garaus finishing stroke, the entire emptying of the cup in drinking a health; gar entirely + aus out. See Yare, and Out.] 1. A large draught of liquor. [Obs.] "A full carouse of sack." Sir J. Davies.

Drink carouses to the next day's fate. Shak.

2. A drinking match; a carousal.

The early feast and late carouse. Pope.

Ca*rouse" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caroused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carousing.] To drink deeply or freely in compliment; to take part in a carousal; to engage in drunken revels.

He had been aboard, carousing to his mates. Shak.

Ca*rouse" v. t. To drink up; to drain; to drink freely or jovially. [Archaic]

Guests carouse the sparkling tears of the rich grape. Denham.

Egypt's wanton queen, Carousing gems, herself dissolved in love. Young.

Ca*rous"er (?), n. One who carouses; a reveler.

Ca*rous"ing, a. That carouses; relating to a carouse.

Ca*rous"ing*ly, adv. In the manner of a carouser.

Carp (kärp), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Carped (kärpt); p. pr. & vb. n. Carping.] [OE. carpen to say, speak; from Scand. (cf. Icel. karpa to boast), but influenced later by L. carpere to pluck, calumniate.] 1. To talk; to speak; to prattle. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. To find fault; to cavil; to censure words or actions without reason or ill-naturedly; -- usually followed by at.

Carping and caviling at faults of manner. Blackw. Mag.

And at my actions carp or catch. Herbert.

Carp, v. t. 1. To say; to tell. [Obs.]

2. To find fault with; to censure. [Obs.] Dryden.

Carp, n.; pl. Carp, formerly Carps. [Cf. Icel. karfi, Dan. karpe, Sw. karp, OHG. charpho, G. karpfen, F. carpe, LL. carpa.] (Zoöl.) A fresh-water herbivorous fish (Cyprinus carpio.). Several other species of Cyprinus, Catla, and Carassius are called carp. See Cruclan carp.

&fist; The carp was originally from Asia, whence it was early introduced into Europe, where it is extensively reared in artificial ponds. Within a few years it has been introduced into America, and widely distributed by the government. Domestication has produced several varieties, as the leather carp, which is nearly or quite destitute of scales, and the mirror carp, which has only a few large scales. Intermediate varieties occur.

Carp louse (Zoöl.), a small crustacean, of the genus Argulus, parasitic on carp and allied fishes. See Branchiura. -- Carp mullet (Zoöl.), a fish (Moxostoma carpio) of the Ohio River and Great Lakes, allied to the suckers. -- Carp sucker (Zoöl.), a name given to several species of fresh-water fishes of the genus Carpiodes in the United States; - - called also quillback.

Car"pal (?), a. [From Carpus.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the carpus, or wrist. -- n. One of the bones or cartilages of the carpus; a carpale.

Carpal angle (Zoöl.), the angle at the last joint of the folded wing of a bird.

||Car*pa"le (?), n.; pl. Carpalia (#). [NL., fr. E. carpus.] (Anat.) One of the bones or cartilages of the carpus; esp. one of the series articulating with the metacarpals.

Car*pa"thi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to a range of mountains in Austro-Hungary, called the Carpathians, which partially inclose Hungary on the north, east, and south.

{ Car"pel (kär"p&ebreve;l), ||Car*pel"lum (-p&ebreve;l"lŭm), } n. [NL. carpellum, fr. Gr. karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) A simple pistil or single-celled ovary or seed vessel, or one of the parts of a compound pistil, ovary, or seed vessel. See Illust of Carpaphore.

Car"pel*la*ry (?), a. (Bot.) Belonging to, forming, or containing carpels.

Car"pen*ter (?), n. [OF. carpentier, F. charpentier, LL. carpentarius, fr. L. carpentum wagon, carriage.] An artificer who works in timber; a framer and builder of houses, ships, etc.

Syn. -- Carpenter, Joiner. The carpenter frames and puts together roofs, partitions, floors, and other structural parts of a building. The joiner supplies stairs, doors shutters, mantelpieces, cupboards, and other parts necessary to finishing the building. In America the two trades are commonly united.

Carpenter ant (Zoöl.), any species of ant which gnaws galleries in the wood of trees and constructs its nests therein. They usually select dead or somewhat decayed wood. The common large American species is Formica Pennsylvanica. -- Carpenter bee (Zoöl.), a large hymenopterous insect of the genus Xylocopa; -- so called because it constructs its nest by gnawing long galleries in sound timber. The common American species is Xylocopa Virginica.

Car"pen*ter*ing, n. The occupation or work of a carpenter; the act of working in timber; carpentry.

Car"pen*try (?), n. [F. charpenterie, OF. also carpenterie. See Carpenter.]

1. The art of cutting, framing, and joining timber, as in the construction of buildings.

2. An assemblage of pieces of timber connected by being framed together, as the pieces of a roof, floor, etc.; work done by a carpenter.

Carp"er (?), n. One who carps; a caviler. Shak.

Car"pet (kär"p&ebreve;t), n. [OF. carpite rug, soft of cloth, F. carpette coarse packing cloth, rug (cf. It. carpita rug, blanket), LL. carpeta, carpita, woolly cloths, fr. L. carpere to pluck, to card (wool); cf. Gr. karpo`s fruit, E. Harvest.] 1. A heavy woven or felted fabric, usually of wool, but also of cotton, hemp, straw, etc.; esp. a floor covering made in breadths to be sewed together and nailed to the floor, as distinguished from a rug or mat; originally, also, a wrought cover for tables.

Tables and beds covered with copes instead of carpets and coverlets. T. Fuller.

2. A smooth soft covering resembling or suggesting a carpet. "The grassy carpet of this plain." Shak.

Carpet beetle or Carpet bug (Zoöl.), a small beetle (Anthrenus scrophulariæ), which, in the larval state, does great damage to carpets and other woolen goods; -- also called buffalo bug. -- Carpet knight. (a) A knight who enjoys ease and security, or luxury, and has not known the hardships of the field; a hero of the drawing room; an effeminate person. Shak. (b) One made a knight, for some other than military distinction or service. -- Carpet moth (Zoöl.), the larva of an insect which feeds on carpets and other woolen goods. There are several kinds. Some are the larvæ of species of Tinea (as T. tapetzella); others of beetles, esp. Anthrenus. -- Carpet snake (Zoöl.), an Australian snake. See Diamond snake, under Diamond. -- Carpet sweeper, an apparatus or device for sweeping carpets. -- To be on the carpet, to be under consideration; to be the subject of deliberation; to be in sight; -- an expression derived from the use of carpets as table cover. -- Brussels carpet. See under Brussels.

Car"pet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carpeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Carpeting.] To cover with, or as with, a carpet; to spread with carpets; to furnish with a carpet or carpets.

Carpeted temples in fashionable squares. E. Everett.

Car"pet*bag` (?), n. A portable bag for travelers; -- so called because originally made of carpet.

Car"pet*bag`ger (?), n. An adventurer; -- a term of contempt for a Northern man seeking private gain or political advancement in the southern part of the United States after the Civil War (1865). [U. S.]

Car"pet*ing, n. 1. The act of covering with carpets.

2. Cloth or materials for carpets; carpets, in general.

The floor was covered with rich carpeting. Prescott.

Car"pet*less, a. Without a carpet.

Car"pet*mon`ger (?), n. 1. One who deals in carpets; a buyer and seller of carpets.

2. One fond of pleasure; a gallant. Shak.

Car"pet*way` (?), n. (Agric.) A border of greensward left round the margin of a plowed field. Ray.

Car*phol"o*gy (kär*f&obreve;l"&osl;*j&ybreve;), n. [Gr. ka`rfos any small dry body + -logy: cf. F. carphologie.] (Med.) See Floccillation.

Carp"ing (kärp"&ibreve;ng), a. Fault-finding; censorious caviling. See Captious.

-- Carp"ing*ly, adv.

||Car`pin*te"ro (kär`p&esl;n*t&asl;"r&osl;), n. [Sp., a carpenter, a woodpecker.] A california woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), noted for its habit of inserting acorns in holes which it drills in trees. The acorns become infested by insect larvæ, which, when grown, are extracted for food by the bird.

Car`po*gen"ic (kär`p&osl;*j&ebreve;n"&ibreve;k), a. [Gr. karpo`s fruit + - gen.] (Bot.) Productive of fruit, or causing fruit to be developed.

Car"po*lite (kär"p&osl;*līt), n. [Gr. karpo`s fruit + - lite, cf. F. carpolithe.] A general term for a fossil fruit, nut, or seed.

Car`po*log"i*cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to carpology.

Car*pol"o*gist (?), n. One who describes fruits; one versed in carpology.

Car*pol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. karpo`s fruit + -logy.] That branch of botany which relates to the structure of seeds and fruit.

Car*poph"a*gous (?), a. [Gr. karpo`s fruit + &?; to eat.] Living on fruits; fruit-consuming.

Car"po*phore (?), n. [Gr. karpo`s fruit + &?; to bear.] (Bot.) A slender prolongation of the receptacle as an axis between the carpels, as in Geranium and many umbelliferous plants.

Car"po*phyll (?), n. [Gr. karpo`s fruit + &?; leaf.] (Bot.) A leaf converted into a fruit or a constituent portion of a fruit; a carpel. [See Illust. of Gymnospermous.]

Car"po*phyte (kär"p&osl;*līt), n. [Gr. karpo`s fruit + fyto`n plant.] (Bot.) A flowerless plant which forms a true fruit as the result of fertilization, as the red seaweeds, the Ascomycetes, etc.

&fist; The division of algæ and fungi into four classes called Carpophytes, Oöphytes, Protophytes, and Zygophytes (or Carposporeæ, Oösporeæ, Protophyta, and Zygosporeæ) was proposed by Sachs about 1875.

Car"po*spore (?), n. [Gr. karpo`s + -spore.] (Bot.) A kind of spore formed in the conceptacles of red algæ. -- Car`po*spor"ic (&?;), a.

||Car"pus (kär"pŭs), n.; pl. Carpi (- pī). [NL., fr. Gr. karpo`s wrist.] (Anat.) The wrist; the bones or cartilages between the forearm, or antibrachium, and the hand or forefoot; in man, consisting of eight short bones disposed in two rows.

Car"rack (?), n. See Carack.

{ Car"ra*geen` (?), Car"ri*geen` (?) }, n. A small, purplish, branching, cartilaginous seaweed (Chondrus crispus), which, when bleached, is the Irish moss of commerce. [Also written carragheen, carageen.]

||Car*ran"cha (?), n. [Native name.] (Zoöl.) The Brazilian kite (Polyborus Brasiliensis); -- so called in imitation of its notes.

Car"ra*way (?), n. See Caraway.

Car"rel (?), n. See Quarrel, an arrow.

Car"rel, n. (Arch.) Same as 4th Carol.

Car"ri*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being carried.

Car"riage (?), n. [OF. cariage luggage, carriage, chariage carriage, cart, baggage, F. charriage, cartage, wagoning, fr. OF. carier, charier, F. charrier, to cart. See Carry.] 1. That which is carried; burden; baggage. [Obs.]

David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage. 1. Sam. xvii. 22.

And after those days we took up our carriages and went up to Jerusalem. Acts. xxi. 15.

2. The act of carrying, transporting, or conveying.

Nine days employed in carriage. Chapman.

3. The price or expense of carrying.

4. That which carries of conveys, as: (a) A wheeled vehicle for persons, esp. one designed for elegance and comfort. (b) A wheeled vehicle carrying a fixed burden, as a gun carriage. (c) A part of a machine which moves and carries of supports some other moving object or part. (d) A frame or cage in which something is carried or supported; as, a bell carriage.

5. The manner of carrying one's self; behavior; bearing; deportment; personal manners.

His gallant carriage all the rest did grace. Stirling.

6. The act or manner of conducting measures or projects; management.

The passage and whole carriage of this action. Shak.

Carriage horse, a horse kept for drawing a carriage. -- Carriage porch (Arch.), a canopy or roofed pavilion covering the driveway at the entrance to any building. It is intended as a shelter for those who alight from vehicles at the door; -- sometimes erroneously called in the United States porte- cochère.

Car"riage*a*ble (?), a. Passable by carriages; that can be conveyed in carriages. [R.] Ruskin.

Car"ri*boo (?), n. See Caribou.

Car"rick (?), n. (Naut.) A carack. See Carack.

Carrick bend (Naut.), a kind of knot, used for bending together hawsers or other ropes. -- Carrick bitts (Naut.), the bitts which support the windlass. Totten.

Car"ri*er (?), n. [From Carry.] 1. One who, or that which, carries or conveys; a messenger.

The air which is but . . . a carrier of the sounds. Bacon.

2. One who is employed, or makes it his business, to carry goods for others for hire; a porter; a teamster.

The roads are crowded with carriers, laden with rich manufactures. Swift.

3. (Mach.) That which drives or carries; as: (a) A piece which communicates to an object in a lathe the motion of the face plate; a lathe dog. (b) A spool holder or bobbin holder in a braiding machine. (c) A movable piece in magazine guns which transfers the cartridge to a position from which it can be thrust into the barrel.

Carrier pigeon (Zoöl.), a variety of the domestic pigeon used to convey letters from a distant point to to its home. -- Carrier shell (Zoöl.), a univalve shell of the genus Phorus; -- so called because it fastens bits of stones and broken shells to its own shell, to such an extent as almost to conceal it. -- Common carrier (Law.) See under Common, a.

Car"ri*on (?), n. [OE. caroyne, OF. caroigne, F. charogne, LL. caronia, fr. L. caro flesh Cf. Crone, Crony.] 1. The dead and putrefying body or flesh of an animal; flesh so corrupted as to be unfit for food.

They did eat the dead carrions. Spenser.

2. A contemptible or worthless person; -- a term of reproach. [Obs.] "Old feeble carrions." Shak.

Car"ri*on, a. Of or pertaining to dead and putrefying carcasses; feeding on carrion.

A prey for carrion kites. Shak.

Carrion beetle (Zoöl.), any beetle that feeds habitually on dead animals; -- also called sexton beetle and burying beetle. There are many kinds, belonging mostly to the family Silphidæ. -- Carrion buzzard (Zoöl.), a South American bird of several species and genera (as Ibycter, Milvago, and Polyborus), which act as scavengers. See Caracara. -- Carrion crow, the common European crow (Corvus corone) which feeds on carrion, insects, fruits, and seeds.

Car"rol (?), n. (Arch.) See 4th Carol.

Car"rom (?), n. (Billiards) See Carom.

Car`ron*ade (?), n. [From Carron, in Scotland where it was first made.] (Med.) A kind of short cannon, formerly in use, designed to throw a large projectile with small velocity, used for the purpose of breaking or smashing in, rather than piercing, the object aimed at, as the side of a ship. It has no trunnions, but is supported on its carriage by a bolt passing through a loop on its under side.

Car"ron oil (?). A lotion of linseed oil and lime water, used as an application to burns and scalds; -- first used at the Carron iron works in Scotland.

Car"rot (?), n. [F. carotte, fr. L. carota; cf. Gr. &?;] 1. (Bot.) An umbelliferous biennial plant (Daucus Carota), of many varieties.

2. The esculent root of cultivated varieties of the plant, usually spindle-shaped, and of a reddish yellow color.

Car"rot*y, a. Like a carrot in color or in taste; -- an epithet given to reddish yellow hair, etc.

Car"row (?), n. [Ir & Gael. carach cunning.] A strolling gamester. [Ireland] Spenser.

Car"ry (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carried (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carrying.] [OF. carier, charier, F. carrier, to cart, from OF. car, char, F. car, car. See Car.] 1. To convey or transport in any manner from one place to another; to bear; -- often with away or off.

When he dieth he small carry nothing away. Ps. xiix. 17.

Devout men carried Stephen to his burial. Acts viii, 2.

Another carried the intelligence to Russell. Macaulay.

The sound will be carried, at the least, twenty miles. Bacon.

2. To have or hold as a burden, while moving from place to place; to have upon or about one's person; to bear; as, to carry a wound; to carry an unborn child.

If the ideas . . . were carried along with us in our minds. Locke.

3. To move; to convey by force; to impel; to conduct; to lead or guide.

Go, carry Sir John Falstaff to the Fleet. Shak.

He carried away all his cattle. Gen. xxxi. 18.

Passion and revenge will carry them too far. Locke.

4. To transfer from one place (as a country, book, or column) to another; as, to carry the war from Greece into Asia; to carry an account to the ledger; to carry a number in adding figures.

5. To convey by extension or continuance; to extend; as, to carry the chimney through the roof; to carry a road ten miles farther.

6. To bear or uphold successfully through conflict, as a leader or principle; hence, to succeed in, as in a contest; to bring to a successful issue; to win; as, to carry an election. "The greater part carries it." Shak.

The carrying of our main point. Addison.

7. To get possession of by force; to capture.

The town would have been carried in the end. Bacon.

8. To contain; to comprise; to bear the aspect of ; to show or exhibit; to imply.

He thought it carried something of argument in it. Watts.

It carries too great an imputation of ignorance. Lacke.

9. To bear (one's self); to behave, to conduct or demean; -- with the reflexive pronouns.

He carried himself so insolently in the house, and out of the house, to all persons, that he became odious. Clarendon.

10. To bear the charges or burden of holding or having, as stocks, merchandise, etc., from one time to another; as, a merchant is carrying a large stock; a farm carries a mortgage; a broker carries stock for a customer; to carry a life insurance.

Carry arms (Mil. Drill), a command of the Manual of Arms directing the soldier to hold his piece in the right hand, the barrel resting against the hollow of the shoulder in a nearly perpendicular position. In this position the soldier is said to stand, and the musket to be held, at carry. -- To carry all before one, to overcome all obstacles; to have uninterrupted success. -- To carry arms (a) To bear weapons. (b) To serve as a soldier. -- To carry away. (a) (Naut.) to break off; to lose; as, to carry away a fore-topmast. (b) To take possession of the mind; to charm; to delude; as, to be carried by music, or by temptation. -- To carry coals, to bear indignities tamely, a phrase used by early dramatists, perhaps from the mean nature of the occupation. Halliwell. -- To carry coals to Newcastle, to take things to a place where they already abound; to lose one's labor. - - To carry off (a) To remove to a distance. (b) To bear away as from the power or grasp of others. (c) To remove from life; as, the plague carried off thousands. -- To carry on (a) To carry farther; to advance, or help forward; to continue; as, to carry on a design. (b) To manage, conduct, or prosecute; as, to carry on husbandry or trade. -- To carry out. (a) To bear from within. (b) To put into execution; to bring to a successful issue. (c) To sustain to the end; to continue to the end. -- To carry through. (a) To convey through the midst of. (b) To support to the end; to sustain, or keep from falling, or being subdued. "Grace will carry us . . . through all difficulties." Hammond. (c) To complete; to bring to a successful issue; to succeed. -- To carry up, to convey or extend in an upward course or direction; to build. -- To carry weight. (a) To be handicapped; to have an extra burden, as when one rides or runs. "He carries weight, he rides a race" Cowper. (b) To have influence.

Car"ry, v. i. 1. To act as a bearer; to convey anything; as, to fetch and carry.

2. To have propulsive power; to propel; as, a gun or mortar carries well.

3. To hold the head; -- said of a horse; as, to carry well i. e., to hold the head high, with arching neck.

4. (Hunting) To have earth or frost stick to the feet when running, as a hare. Johnson.

To carry on, to behave in a wild, rude, or romping manner. [Colloq.]

Car"ry (?), n.; pl. Carries (#). A tract of land, over which boats or goods are carried between two bodies of navigable water; a carrying place; a portage. [U.S.]

Car"ry*all` (?), n. [Corrupted fr. cariole.] A light covered carriage, having four wheels and seats for four or more persons, usually drawn by one horse.

Car"ry*ing, n. The act or business of transporting from one place to another.

Carrying place, a carry; a portage. -- Carrying trade, the business of transporting goods, etc., from one place or country to another by water or land; freighting.

We are rivals with them in . . . the carrying trade. Jay.

Car"ryk (?), n. A carack. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Car"ry*tale` (?), n. A talebearer. [R.] Shak.

Carse (?), n. [Of Celtic origin; cf. W. cars bog, fen. carsen reed, Armor. kars, korsen, bog plant, reed.] Low, fertile land; a river valley. [Scot.] Jomieson.

Cart (?), n. [AS. cræt; cf. W. cart, Ir. & Gael. cairt, or Icel. kartr. Cf. Car.] 1. A common name for various kinds of vehicles, as a Scythian dwelling on wheels, or a chariot. "Phœbus' cart." Shak.

2. A two-wheeled vehicle for the ordinary purposes of husbandry, or for transporting bulky and heavy articles.

Packing all his goods in one poor cart. Dryden.

3. A light business wagon used by bakers, grocerymen, butchers, etc.

4. An open two-wheeled pleasure carriage.

Cart horse, a horse which draws a cart; a horse bred or used for drawing heavy loads. -- Cart load, or Cartload, as much as will fill or load a cart. In excavating and carting sand, gravel, earth, etc., one third of a cubic yard of the material before it is loosened is estimated to be a cart load. -- Cart rope, a stout rope for fastening a load on a cart; any strong rope. -- To put (or get or set) the cart before the horse, to invert the order of related facts or ideas, as by putting an effect for a cause.

Cart, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carted; p. pr. & vb. n. Carting.] 1. To carry or convey in a cart.

2. To expose in a cart by way of punishment.

She chuckled when a bawd was carted. Prior.

Cart, v. i. To carry burdens in a cart; to follow the business of a carter.

Cart"age (?), n. 1. The act of carrying in a cart.

2. The price paid for carting.

Cart"bote` (?), n. [Cart + bote.] (Old Eng. Law.) Wood to which a tenant is entitled for making and repairing carts and other instruments of husbandry.

||Carte (?), n. [F. See 1st Card.] 1. Bill of fare.

2. Short for Carte de visite.

{ Carte. ||Quarte (?), } n. [F. quarte, prop., a fourth. Cf. Quart.] (Fencing) A position in thrusting or parrying, with the inside of the hand turned upward and the point of the weapon toward the adversary's right breast.

||Carte` blanche" (?). [F., fr. OF. carte paper + -blanc, blanche, white. See 1st Card.] A blank paper, with a person's signature, etc., at the bottom, given to another person, with permission to superscribe what conditions he pleases. Hence: Unconditional terms; unlimited authority.

||Carte" de vi*site` (?), pl. Cartes de visite (&?;). [F.] 1. A visiting card.

2. A photographic picture of the size formerly in use for a visiting card.

Car*tel" (?), n. [F., fr. LL. cartellus a little paper, dim. fr. L. charta. See 1st Card.]

1. (Mil.) An agreement between belligerents for the exchange of prisoners. Wilhelm.

2. A letter of defiance or challenge; a challenge to single combat. [Obs.]

He is cowed at the very idea of a cartel., Sir W. Scott.

Cartel, or Cartel ship, a ship employed in the exchange of prisoners, or in carrying propositions to an enemy; a ship beating a flag of truce and privileged from capture.

Car"tel (?), v. t. To defy or challenge. [Obs.]

You shall cartel him. B. Jonson.

Cart"er (?), n. 1. A charioteer. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. A man who drives a cart; a teamster.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) Any species of Phalangium; -- also called harvestman. (b) A British fish; the whiff.

Car*te"sian (?), a. [From Renatus Cartesius, Latinized from of René Descartes: cf. F. cartésien.] Of or pertaining to the French philosopher René Descartes, or his philosophy.

The Cartesion argument for reality of matter. Sir W. Hamilton.

Cartesian coördinates (Geom), distance of a point from lines or planes; -- used in a system of representing geometric quantities, invented by Descartes. -- Cartesian devil, a small hollow glass figure, used in connection with a jar of water having an elastic top, to illustrate the effect of the compression or expansion of air in changing the specific gravity of bodies. -- Cartesion oval (Geom.), a curve such that, for any point of the curve mr + m′r′ = c, where r and r′ are the distances of the point from the two foci and m, m′ and c are constant; -- used by Descartes.

Car*te"sian, n. An adherent of Descartes.

Car*te"sian*ism, n. The philosophy of Descartes.

Car`tha*gin"i*an, a. Of a pertaining to ancient Carthage, a city of northern Africa. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Carthage.

Car"tha*min (?), n. (Chem.) A red coloring matter obtained from the safflower, or Carthamus tinctorius.

Car*thu"sian (?), n. [LL. Cartusianus, Cartusiensis, from the town of Chartreuse, in France.] (Eccl. Hist.) A member of an exceeding austere religious order, founded at Chartreuse in France by St. Bruno, in the year 1086.

Car*thu"sian, a. Pertaining to the Carthusian.

Car"ti*lage (?), n. [L. cartilago; cf. F. cartilage.] (Anat.) A translucent, elastic tissue; gristle.

&fist; Cartilage contains no vessels, and consists of a homogeneous, intercellular matrix, in which there are numerous minute cavities, or capsules, containing protoplasmic cells, the cartilage corpuscul. See Illust under Duplication.

Articular cartilage, cartilage that lines the joints. -- Cartilage bone (Anat.), any bone formed by the ossification of cartilage. -- Costal cartilage, cartilage joining a rib with he sternum. See Illust. of Thorax.

Car`ti*la*gin"e*ous (?), a. [L. cartilageneus.] See Cartilaginous. Ray.

Car`ti*la*gin`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. cartilago, -laginis, cartilage + facere to make.] The act or process of forming cartilage. Wright.

Car`ti*lag"i*nous (?), a. [L. cartilaginosus: cf. F. cartilagineux.] 1. Of or pertaining to cartilage; gristly; firm and tough like cartilage.

2. (Zoöl.) Having the skeleton in the state of cartilage, the bones containing little or no calcareous matter; said of certain fishes, as the sturgeon and the sharks.

Cart"man (?), n.; pl. Cartmen (&?;). One who drives or uses a cart; a teamster; a carter.

Car*tog"ra*pher (?), n. One who makes charts or maps.

{ Car`to*graph"ic (?), Car`to*graph"ic*al (?) }, a. Of or pertaining to cartography.

Car`to*graph"ic*al*ly, adv. By cartography.

Car*tog"ra*phy (?), n. [Cf. F. cartographie. See Card, and -graphy.] The art or business of forming charts or maps.

Car"to*man`cy (?), n. [Cf. F. cartomancie. See Card, and -mancy.] The art of telling fortunes with cards.

Car"ton (kär"t&obreve;n), n. [F. See Cartoon.] Pasteboard for paper boxes; also, a pasteboard box.

||Carton pierre (&?;), a species of papier-maché, imitating stone or bronze sculpture. Knight.

Car*toon" (?), n. [F. carton (cf. It. cartone pasteboard, cartoon); fr. L. charta. See 1st card.]

1. A design or study drawn of the full size, to serve as a model for transferring or copying; -- used in the making of mosaics, tapestries, fresco pantings and the like; as, the cartoons of Raphael.

2. A large pictorial sketch, as in a journal or magazine; esp. a pictorial caricature; as, the cartoons of "Puck."

Car*toon"ist, n. One skilled in drawing cartoons.

Car*touch" (?), n.; pl. Cartouches (#). [F. cartouche, It. cartuccia, cartoccio, cornet, cartouch, fr. L. charta paper. See 1st Card, and cf. Cartridge.]

1. (Mil.) (a) A roll or case of paper, etc., holding a charge for a firearm; a cartridge. (b) A cartridge box. (c) A wooden case filled with balls, to be shot from a cannon. (d) A gunner's bag for ammunition. (e) A military pass for a soldier on furlough.

2. (Arch.) (a) A cantalever, console, corbel, or modillion, which has the form of a scroll of paper. (b) A tablet for ornament, or for receiving an inscription, formed like a sheet of paper with the edges rolled up; hence, any tablet of ornamental form.

3. (Egyptian Antiq.) An oval figure on monuments, and in papyri, containing the name of a sovereign.

Car"tridge (kär"tr&ibreve;j), n. [Formerly cartrage, corrupted fr. F. cartouche. See Cartouch.] (Mil.) A complete charge for a firearm, contained in, or held together by, a case, capsule, or shell of metal, pasteboard, or other material.

Ball cartridge, a cartridge containing a projectile. -- Blank cartridge, a cartridge without a projectile. -- Center-fire cartridge, a cartridge in which the fulminate occupies an axial position usually in the center of the base of the capsule, instead of being contained in its rim. In the Prussian needle gun the fulminate is applied to the middle of the base of the bullet. -- Rim-fire cartridge, a cartridge in which the fulminate is contained in a rim surrounding its base. -- Cartridge bag, a bag of woolen cloth, to hold a charge for a cannon. -- Cartridge belt, a belt having pockets for cartridges. -- Cartridge box, a case, usually of leather, attached to a belt or strap, for holding cartridges. -- Cartridge paper. (a) A thick stout paper for inclosing cartridges. (b) A rough tinted paper used for covering walls, and also for making drawings upon.

Car"tu*la*ry (?), n.; pl. Cartularies. [LL. cartularium, chartularium, fr. L. charta paper: cf. F. cartulaire. See 1st Card.]

1. A register, or record, as of a monastery or church.

2. An ecclesiastical officer who had charge of records or other public papers.

Cart"way` (?), n. A way or road for carts.

Cart"wright` (?), n. [Cart + wright.] An artificer who makes carts; a cart maker.

Car"u*cage (?), n. [LL. carrucagium (OF. charuage.), fr. LL. carruca plow, fr. L. carruca coach.]

1. (Old Eng. Law.) A tax on every plow or plowland.

2. The act of plowing. [R.]

Car"u*cate (?), n. [LL. carucata, carrucata. See Carucage.] A plowland; as much land as one team can plow in a year and a day; -- by some said to be about 100 acres. Burrill.

{ Car"un*cle (?), ||Ca*run"cu*la (?), } n. [L. caruncula a little piece of flesh, dim. of caro flesh.] 1. (Anat.) A small fleshy prominence or excrescence; especially the small, reddish body, the caruncula lacrymalis, in the inner angle of the eye.

2. (Bot.) An excrescence or appendage surrounding or near the hilum of a seed.

3. (Zoöl.) A naked, flesh appendage, on the head of a bird, as the wattles of a turkey, etc.

{ Ca*run"cu*lar (?), Ca*run"cu*lous (?), } a. Of, pertaining to, or like, a caruncle; furnished with caruncles.

{ Ca*run"cu*late (?), Ca*run"cu*la`ted (?), } a. Having a caruncle or caruncles; caruncular.

||Ca"rus (kā"rŭs), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ka`ros.] (Med.) Coma with complete insensibility; deep lethargy.

Car"va*crol (kär"v&adot;*krōl), n. (Chem.) A thick oily liquid, C10H13.OH, of a strong taste and disagreeable odor, obtained from oil of caraway (Carum carui).

Carve (kärv), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carved (kärvd); p. pr. & vb. n. Carving.] [AS. ceorfan to cut, carve; akin to D. kerven, G. kerben, Dan. karve, Sw. karfva, and to Gr. gra`fein to write, orig. to scratch, and E. - graphy. Cf. Graphic.] 1. To cut. [Obs.]

Or they will carven the shepherd's throat. Spenser.

2. To cut, as wood, stone, or other material, in an artistic or decorative manner; to sculpture; to engrave.

Carved with figures strange and sweet. Coleridge.

3. To make or shape by cutting, sculpturing, or engraving; to form; as, to carve a name on a tree.

An angel carved in stone. Tennyson.

We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone. C. Wolfe.

4. To cut into small pieces or slices, as meat at table; to divide for distribution or apportionment; to apportion. "To carve a capon." Shak.

5. To cut: to hew; to mark as if by cutting.

My good blade carved the casques of men. Tennyson.

A million wrinkles carved his skin. Tennyson.

6. To take or make, as by cutting; to provide.

Who could easily have carved themselves their own food. South.

7. To lay out; to contrive; to design; to plan.

Lie ten nights awake carving the fashion of a new doublet. Shak.

To carve out, to make or get by cutting, or as if by cutting; to cut out. "[Macbeth] with his brandished steel . . . carved out his passage." Shak.

Fortunes were carved out of the property of the crown. Macaulay.

Carve, v. i. 1. To exercise the trade of a sculptor or carver; to engrave or cut figures.

2. To cut up meat; as, to carve for all the guests.

Carve, n. A carucate. [Obs.] Burrill.

Car"vel (?), n. [Contr. fr. caravel.] 1. Same as Caravel.

2. A species of jellyfish; sea blubber. Sir T. Herbert.

Car"vel*built (?), a. (Shipbuilding) Having the planks meet flush at the seams, instead of lapping as in a clinker-built vessel.

Car"ven (?), a. Wrought by carving; ornamented by carvings; carved. [Poetic]

A carven bowl well wrought of beechen tree. Bp. Hall.

The carven cedarn doors. Tennyson.

A screen of carven ivory. Mrs. Browning.

Car"vene (?), n. [F. carvi caraway.] An oily substance, C10H16, extracted from oil caraway.

Carv"er (?), n. 1. One who carves; one who shapes or fashions by carving, or as by carving; esp. one who carves decorative forms, architectural adornments, etc. "The carver's chisel." Dodsley.

The carver of his fortunes. Sharp (Richardson's Dict. )

2. One who carves or divides meat at table.

3. A large knife for carving.

Carv"ing, n. 1. The act or art of one who carves.

2. A piece of decorative work cut in stone, wood, or other material. "Carving in wood." Sir W. Temple.

3. The whole body of decorative sculpture of any kind or epoch, or in any material; as, the Italian carving of the 15th century.

Car"vist (?), n. [A corruption of carry fist.] (Falconary) A hawk which is of proper age and training to be carried on the hand; a hawk in its first year. Booth.

Car"vol (?), n. (Chem.) One of a species of aromatic oils, resembling carvacrol.

Car" wheel` (?), A flanged wheel of a railway car or truck.

{ Car`y*at"ic (?), Car`y*at"id (?), } a. Of or pertaining to a caryatid.

Car`y*at"id (?), n.; pl. Caryatids (#). [See Caryatides.] (Arch.) A draped female figure supporting an entablature, in the place of a column or pilaster.

||Car`y*at"i*des (?), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. &?; (&?;) priestesses in the temple of Diana (the Greek Artemis) at Caryæ (Gr. &?;), a village in Laconia; as an architectural term, caryatids.] (Arch) Caryatids.

&fist; Corresponding male figures were called Atlantes, Telamones, and Persians.

Car`y*o*phyl*la"ceous (?), a. [Gr. &?; clove tree; &?; nut + &?; leaf.] (Bot.) (a) Having corollas of five petals with long claws inclosed in a tubular, calyx, as the pink. (b) Belonging to the family of which the pink and the carnation are the types.

Car`y*oph"yl*lin (?), n. (Chem.) A tasteless and odorless crystalline substance, extracted from cloves, polymeric with common camphor.

Car`y*oph"yl*lous (?), a. Caryophyllaceous.

Car`y*op"sis (?), n.; pl. Caryopses (#). [NL., fr. gr. &?; hut, kernel + &?; sight, form.] (Bot.) A one-celled, dry, indehiscent fruit, with a thin membranous pericarp, adhering closely to the seed, so that fruit and seed are incorporated in one body, forming a single grain, as of wheat, barley, etc.

Ca"sal (?), a. (Gram.) Of or pertaining to case; as, a casal ending.

Cas"ca*bel (?), n. [Sp. cascabel a little bell, also (fr. the shape), a knob at the breech end of a cannon.] The projection in rear of the breech of a cannon, usually a knob or breeching loop connected with the gun by a neck. In old writers it included all in rear of the base ring. [See Illust. of Cannon.]

Cas*cade" (kăs*kād"), n. [F. cascade, fr. It. cascata, fr. cascare to fall.] A fall of water over a precipice, as in a river or brook; a waterfall less than a cataract.

The silver brook . . . pours the white cascade. Longfellow.

Now murm'ring soft, now roaring in cascade. Cowper.

Cas*cade", v. i. 1. To fall in a cascade. Lowell.

2. To vomit. [Slang] Smollett.

||Cas*cal"ho (?), n. [Pg., a chip of stone, gravel.] A deposit of pebbles, gravel, and ferruginous sand, in which the Brazilian diamond is usually found.

||Cas"ca*ra sa*gra"da (?). [Sp.] Holy bark; the bark of the California buckthorn (Rhamnus Purshianus), used as a mild cathartic or laxative.

Cas`ca*ril"la (?), n.[Sp., small thin bark, Peruvian bark, dim. of cáscara bark.] (Bot.) A euphorbiaceous West Indian shrub (Croton Eleutheria); also, its aromatic bark.

Cascarilla bark (or Cascarilla) (Med.), the bark of Croton Eleutheria. It has an aromatic odor and a warm, spicy, bitter taste, and when burnt emits a musky odor. It is used as a gentle tonic, and sometimes, for the sake of its fragrance, mixed with smoking tobacco, when it is said to occasion vertigo and intoxication.

Cas`ca*ril"lin (?), n. (Chem.) A white, crystallizable, bitter substance extracted from oil of cascarilla.

Case (kās), n. [OF. casse, F. caisse (cf. It. cassa), fr. L. capsa chest, box, case, fr. capere to take, hold. See Capacious, and cf. 4th Chase, Cash, Enchase, 3d Sash.]

1. A box, sheath, or covering; as, a case for holding goods; a case for spectacles; the case of a watch; the case (capsule) of a cartridge; a case (cover) for a book.

2. A box and its contents; the quantity contained in a box; as, a case of goods; a case of instruments.

3. (Print.) A shallow tray divided into compartments or "boxes" for holding type.

&fist; Cases for type are usually arranged in sets of two, called respectively the upper and the lower case. The upper case contains capitals, small capitals, accented and marked letters, fractions, and marks of reference: the lower case contains the small letters, figures, marks of punctuation, quadrats, and spaces.

4. An inclosing frame; a casing; as, a door case; a window case.

5. (Mining) A small fissure which admits water to the workings. Knight.

Case, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Casing.] 1. To cover or protect with, or as with, a case; to inclose.

The man who, cased in steel, had passed whole days and nights in the saddle. Prescott.

2. To strip the skin from; as, to case a box. [Obs.]

Case, n. [F. cas, fr. L. casus, fr. cadere to fall, to happen. Cf. Chance.] 1. Chance; accident; hap; opportunity. [Obs.]

By aventure, or sort, or cas. Chaucer.

2. That which befalls, comes, or happens; an event; an instance; a circumstance, or all the circumstances; condition; state of things; affair; as, a strange case; a case of injustice; the case of the Indian tribes.

In any case thou shalt deliver him the pledge. Deut. xxiv. 13.

If the case of the man be so with his wife. Matt. xix. 10.

And when a lady's in the case You know all other things give place. Gay.

You think this madness but a common case. Pope.

I am in case to justle a constable, Shak.

3. (Med. & Surg.) A patient under treatment; an instance of sickness or injury; as, ten cases of fever; also, the history of a disease or injury.

A proper remedy in hypochondriacal cases. Arbuthnot.

4. (Law) The matters of fact or conditions involved in a suit, as distinguished from the questions of law; a suit or action at law; a cause.

Let us consider the reason of the case, for nothing is law that is not reason. Sir John Powell.

Not one case in the reports of our courts. Steele.

5. (Gram.) One of the forms, or the inflections or changes of form, of a noun, pronoun, or adjective, which indicate its relation to other words, and in the aggregate constitute its declension; the relation which a noun or pronoun sustains to some other word.

Case is properly a falling off from the nominative or first state of word; the name for which, however, is now, by extension of its signification, applied also to the nominative. J. W. Gibbs.

&fist; Cases other than the nominative are oblique cases. Case endings are terminations by which certain cases are distinguished. In old English, as in Latin, nouns had several cases distinguished by case endings, but in modern English only that of the possessive case is retained.

Action on the case (Law), according to the old classification (now obsolete), was an action for redress of wrongs or injuries to person or property not specially provided against by law, in which the whole cause of complaint was set out in the writ; -- called also trespass on the case, or simply case. -- All a case, a matter of indifference. [Obs.] "It is all a case to me." L'Estrange. -- Case at bar. See under Bar, n. -- Case divinity, casuistry. -- Case lawyer, one versed in the reports of cases rather than in the science of the law. -- Case stated or agreed on (Law), a statement in writing of facts agreed on and submitted to the court for a decision of the legal points arising on them. -- A hard case, an abandoned or incorrigible person. [Colloq.] -- In any case, whatever may be the state of affairs; anyhow. -- In case, or In case that, if; supposing that; in the event or contingency; if it should happen that. "In case we are surprised, keep by me." W. Irving. -- In good case, in good condition, health, or state of body. -- To put a case, to suppose a hypothetical or illustrative case.

Syn. -- Situation, condition, state; circumstances; plight; predicament; occurrence; contingency; accident; event; conjuncture; cause; action; suit.

Case, v. i. To propose hypothetical cases. [Obs.] "Casing upon the matter." L'Estrange.

Ca`se*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. caséation. See Casein.] (Med.) A degeneration of animal tissue into a cheesy or curdy mass.

Case"-bay` (?), n. (Arch.) (a) The space between two principals or girders. (b) One of the joists framed between a pair of girders in naked flooring.

Case"hard`en (?), v. t. 1. To subject to a process which converts the surface of iron into steel.

2. To render insensible to good influences.

Case"hard`ened (?), a. 1. Having the surface hardened, as iron tools.

2. Hardened against, or insusceptible to, good influences; rendered callous by persistence in wrongdoing or resistance of good influences; -- said of persons.

Case"hard`en*ing, n. The act or process of converting the surface of iron into steel. Ure.

&fist; Casehardening is now commonly effected by cementation with charcoal or other carbonizing material, the depth and degree of hardening (carbonization) depending on the time during which the iron is exposed to the heat. See Cementation.

Ca"se*ic (?), a. [Cf. F. caséique, fr. L. caseus cheese.] Of or pertaining to cheese; as, caseic acid.

Ca"se*in (?), n. [Cf. F. caséine, fr. L. caseur cheese. Cf. Cheese.] (Physiol. Chem.) A proteid substance present in both the animal and the vegetable kingdom. In the animal kingdom it is chiefly found in milk, and constitutes the main part of the curd separated by rennet; in the vegetable kingdom it is found more or less abundantly in the seeds of leguminous plants. Its reactions resemble those of alkali albumin. [Written also caseine.]

Case" knife` (?). 1. A knife carried in a sheath or case. Addison.

2. A large table knife; -- so called from being formerly kept in a case.

Case"mate (?), n. [F. casemate, fr. It. casamatta, prob. from casa house + matto, f. matta, mad, weak, feeble, dim. from the same source as E. -mate in checkmate.]

1. (Fort.) A bombproof chamber, usually of masonry, in which cannon may be placed, to be fired through embrasures; or one capable of being used as a magazine, or for quartering troops.

2. (Arch.) A hollow molding, chiefly in cornices.

Case"ma`ted (?), a. Furnished with, protected by, or built like, a casemate. Campbell.

Case"ment (?), n. [Shortened fr. encasement. See Incase 1st Case, and cf. Incasement.] (Arch.) A window sash opening on hinges affixed to the upright side of the frame into which it is fitted. (Poetically) A window.

A casement of the great chamber window. Shak.

Case"ment*ed, a. Having a casement or casements.

Ca"se*ous (?), a. [L. caseus. Cf. Casein.] Of, pertaining to, or resembling, cheese; having the qualities of cheese; cheesy.

Caseous degeneration, a morbid process, in scrofulous or consumptive persons, in which the products of inflammation are converted into a cheesy substance which is neither absorbed nor organized.

Ca"sern (?), n. [F. caserne.] A lodging for soldiers in garrison towns, usually near the rampart; barracks. Bescherelle.

Case" shot` (?). (Mil.) A collection of small projectiles, inclosed in a case or canister.

&fist; In the United States a case shot is a thin spherical or oblong cast-iron shell containing musket balls and a bursting charge, with a time fuse; -- called in Europe shrapnel. In Europe the term case shot is applied to what in the United States is called canister. Wilhelm.

||Ca"se*um (?), n. [L. caseus cheese.] Same as Casein.

Case"worm` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A worm or grub that makes for itself a case. See Caddice.

Cash (?), n. [F. caisse case, box, cash box, cash. See Case a box.] A place where money is kept, or where it is deposited and paid out; a money box. [Obs.]

This bank is properly a general cash, where every man lodges his money. Sir W. Temple.

£20,000 are known to be in her cash. Sir R. Winwood.

2. (Com.) (a) Ready money; especially, coin or specie; but also applied to bank notes, drafts, bonds, or any paper easily convertible into money. (b) Immediate or prompt payment in current funds; as, to sell goods for cash; to make a reduction in price for cash.

Cash account (Bookkeeping), an account of money received, disbursed, and on hand. -- Cash boy, in large retail stores, a messenger who carries the money received by the salesman from customers to a cashier, and returns the proper change. [Colloq.] -- Cash credit, an account with a bank by which a person or house, having given security for repayment, draws at pleasure upon the bank to the extent of an amount agreed upon; -- called also bank credit and cash account. -- Cash sales, sales made for ready, money, in distinction from those on which credit is given; stocks sold, to be delivered on the day of transaction.

Syn. -- Money; coin; specie; currency; capital.

Cash, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Casing.] To pay, or to receive, cash for; to exchange for money; as, cash a note or an order.

Cash, v. t. [See Cashier.] To disband. [Obs.] Garges.

Cash, n.sing & pl. A Chinese coin.

&fist; The cash (Chinese tsien) is the only current coin made by the chinese government. It is a thin circular disk of a very base alloy of copper, with a square hole in the center. 1,000 to 1,400 cash are equivalent to a dollar.

Cash"book (kăsh"b&oocr;k), n. (Bookkeeping) A book in which is kept a register of money received or paid out.

Ca*shew" (k&adot;*sh&oomac;"), n. [F. acajou, for cajou, prob. from Malay kāyu tree; cf. Pg. acaju, cf. Acajou.] (Bot.) A tree (Anacardium occidentale) of the same family which the sumac. It is native in tropical America, but is now naturalized in all tropical countries. Its fruit, a kidney-shaped nut, grows at the extremity of an edible, pear- shaped hypocarp, about three inches long.

Cashew nut, the large, kidney-shaped fruit of the cashew, which is edible after the caustic oil has been expelled from the shell by roasting the nut.

Cash*ier" (kăsh*ēr"), n. [F. caissier, fr. caisse. See Cash.] One who has charge of money; a cash keeper; the officer who has charge of the payments and receipts (moneys, checks, notes), of a bank or a mercantile company.

Cash*ier", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cahiered (?); p. pr. &vb. n. Cashiering.] [Earlier cash, fr. F. casser to break, annul, cashier, fr. L. cassare, equiv. to cassum reddere, to annul; cf. G. cassiren. Cf. Quash to annul, Cass.] 1. To dismiss or discard; to discharge; to dismiss with ignominy from military service or from an office or place of trust.

They have cashiered several of their followers. Addison.

He had insolence to cashier the captain of the lord lieutenant's own body guard. Macaulay.

2. To put away or reject; to disregard. [R.]

Connections formed for interest, and endeared

By selfish views, [are] censured and cashiered. Cowper.

They absolutely cashier the literal express sense of the words. Sowth.

Cash*ier"er (?), n. One who rejects, discards, or dismisses; as, a cashierer of monarchs. [R.] Burke.

Cash"mere (?), n. 1. A rich stuff for shawls, scarfs, etc., originally made in Cashmere from the soft wool found beneath the hair of the goats of Cashmere, Thibet, and the Himalayas. Some cashmere, of fine quality, is richly embroidered for sale to Europeans.

2. A dress fabric made of fine wool, or of fine wool and cotton, in imitation of the original cashmere.

Cashmere shawl, a rich and costly shawl made of cashmere; -- often called camel's-hair shawl.

Cash`me*rette" (?), n. A kind of dress goods, made with a soft and glossy surface like cashmere.

Ca*shoo" (?), n. [F. cachou, NL. catechu, Cochin-Chin. cay cau from the tree called mimosa, or areca catechu. Cf. Catechu.] See Catechu.

Cas"ing (?), n. 1. The act or process of inclosing in, or covering with, a case or thin substance, as plaster, boards, etc.

2. An outside covering, for protection or ornament, or to precent the radiation of heat.

3. An inclosing frame; esp. the framework around a door or a window. See Case, n., 4.

Ca"sings (?), n. pl. Dried dung of cattle used as fuel. [Prov. Eng.] Waterland.

||Ca*si"no (?), n.; pl. E. Casinos (#), It. Casini (#). [It. casino, dim. of casa house, fr. L. casa cottage. Cf. Cassing.] 1. A small country house.

2. A building or room used for meetings, or public amusements, for dancing, gaming, etc.

3. A game at cards. See Cassino.

Cask (?), n. [Sp. casco potsherd, skull, helmet, prob. fr. cascar to break, fr. L. Quassure to break. Cf. Casque, Cass.] 1. Same as Casque. [Obs.]

2. A barrel-shaped vessel made of staves headings, and hoops, usually fitted together so as to hold liquids. It may be larger or smaller than a barrel.

3. The quantity contained in a cask.

4. A casket; a small box for jewels. [Obs.] Shak.

Cask, v. t. To put into a cask.

Cas"ket (?), n. [Cf. F. casquet, dim. of casque belmet, fr. Sp. casco.] 1. A small chest or box, esp. of rich material or ornamental character, as for jewels, etc.

The little casket bring me hither. Shak.

2. A kind of burial case. [U. S.]

3. Anything containing or intended to contain something highly esteemed; as: (a) The body. (Shak.) (b) The tomb. (Milton). (c) A book of selections. [poetic]

They found him dead . . . an empty casket. Shak.

Cas"ket, n. (Naut.) A gasket. See Gasket.

Cas"ket, v. t. To put into, or preserve in, a casket. [Poetic] "I have casketed my treasure." Shak.

Casque (?), n. [F. casque, fr. Sp. casco See Cask.] A piece of defensive or ornamental armor (with or without a vizor) for the head and neck; a helmet.

His casque overshadowed with brilliant plumes. Prescott.

Cass (kăs), v. t. [F. casser, LL. cassare, fr. L. cassus empty, hollow, and perhaps influenced by L. quassare to shake, shatter, v. intens. of quatere to shake. Cf. Cashier, v. t., Quash, Cask.] To render useless or void; to quash; to annul; to reject; to send away. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

Cas"sa*da (kăs"s&adot;*d&adot;; 277), n. See Cassava.

Cas"sa*reep (-rēp), n. A condiment made from the sap of the bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima) deprived of its poisonous qualities, concentrated by boiling, and flavored with aromatics. See Pepper pot.

Cas"sate (?), v. t. [LL. cassare. See Cass.] To render void or useless; to vacate or annul. [Obs.]

Cas*sa"tion (?), n. [F. cassation. See Cass.] The act of annulling.

A general cassation of their constitutions. Motley.

Court of cassation, the highest court of appeal in France, which has power to quash (Casser) or reverse the decisions of the inferior courts.

Cas"sa*va (kăs"s&adot;*v&adot;), n. [F. cassave, Sp. cazabe, fr. kasabi, in the language of Haiti.] 1. (Bot.) A shrubby euphorbiaceous plant of the genus Manihot, with fleshy rootstocks yielding an edible starch; -- called also manioc.

&fist; There are two species, bitter and sweet, from which the cassava of commerce is prepared in the West Indies, tropical America, and Africa. The bitter (Manihot utilissima) is the more important; this has a poisonous sap, but by grating, pressing, and baking the root the poisonous qualities are removed. The sweet (M. Aipi) is used as a table vegetable.

2. A nutritious starch obtained from the rootstocks of the cassava plant, used as food and in making tapioca.

Cas"se Pa"per (?). [F. papier cassé. See Cass.] Broken paper; the outside quires of a ream.

Cas"se*role (#) n. [F. a saucepan, dim. from casse a basin.] 1. (Chem.) A small round dish with a handle, usually of porcelain.

2. (Cookery) A mold (in the shape of a hollow vessel or incasement) of boiled rice, mashed potato or paste, baked, and afterwards filled with vegetables or meat.

Cas"sia (kăsh"&adot;), n. [L. cassia and casia, Gr. kassi`a and kasi`a; of Semitic origin; cf. Heb. qetsīāh, fr. qātsa' to cut off, to peel off.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of leguminous plants (herbs, shrubs, or trees) of many species, most of which have purgative qualities. The leaves of several species furnish the senna used in medicine.

2. The bark of several species of Cinnamomum grown in China, etc.; Chinese cinnamon. It is imported as cassia, but commonly sold as cinnamon, from which it differs more or less in strength and flavor, and the amount of outer bark attached.

&fist; The medicinal "cassia" (Cassia pulp) is the laxative pulp of the pods of a leguminous tree (Cassia fistula or Pudding-pipe tree), native in the East Indies but naturalized in various tropical countries.

Cassia bark, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, etc. The coarser kinds are called Cassia lignea, and are often used to adulterate true cinnamon. -- Cassia buds, the dried flower buds of several species of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, atc..). -- Cassia oil, oil extracted from cassia bark and cassia buds; -- called also oil of cinnamon.

Cas"si*can (?), n. [NL. cassicus helmeted, fr. L. cassis a belmet.] (Zoöl.) An American bird of the genus Cassicus, allied to the starlings and orioles, remarkable for its skillfully constructed and suspended nest; the crested oriole. The name is also sometimes given to the piping crow, an Australian bird.

Cas*sid"e*ous (?), a. [L. Cassis helmet.] (Bot.) Helmet-shaped; -- applied to a corolla having a broad, helmet-shaped upper petal, as in aconite.

Cas"si*do*ny (?), n. [Cf. LL. cassidonium, F. cassidoine. See Chalcedony.] (Bot.) (a) The French lavender (Lavandula Stœchas). (b) The goldilocks (Chrysocoma Linosyris) and perhaps other plants related to the genus Gnaphalium or cudweed.

Cas"si*mere (?), n. [Cf. F. casimir, prob. of the same origin as E. cashmere. Cf. Kerseymere.] A thin, twilled, woolen cloth, used for men's garments. [Written also kerseymere.]

Cas`si*nette" (?), n. [Cf. Sp. casinete, G. cassinet.] A cloth with a cotton warp, and a woof of very fine wool, or wool and silk.

Cas*sin"i*an o"vals (?). (Math.) See under Oval.

Cas*si"no (?), n. [It. casino a small house, a gaming house. See casino.] A game at cards, played by two or more persons, usually for twenty-one points.

Great cassino, the ten of diamonds. -- Little cassino, the two of spades.

Cas"si*o*ber`ry (?), n. [NL. cassine, from the language of the Florida Indians.] The fruit of the Viburnum obovatum, a shrub which grows from Virginia to Florida.

Cas`si*o*pe"ia (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Astron.) A constellation of the northern hemisphere, situated between Cepheus and Perseus; -- so called in honor of the wife of Cepheus, a fabulous king of Ethiopia.

Cassiopeia's Chair, a group of six stars, in Cassiopeia, somewhat resembling a chair.

Cas*sit"er*ite (?), n. [Gr. &?; tin.] (Min.) Native tin dioxide; tin stone; a mineral occurring in tetragonal crystals of reddish brown color, and brilliant adamantine luster; also massive, sometimes in compact forms with concentric fibrous structure resembling wood (wood tin), also in rolled fragments or pebbly (Stream tin). It is the chief source of metallic tin. See Black tin, under Black.

Cas"sius (?), n. [From the name of the discoverer, A. Cassius, a German physician of the 17th centry.] A brownish purple pigment, obtained by the action of some compounds of tin upon certain salts of gold. It is used in painting and staining porcelain and glass to give a beautiful purple color. Commonly called Purple of Cassius.

Cas"sock (?), n. [F. casaque, fr. It. casacca, perh. fr. L. casa cottage, in It., house; or of Slavic origin.]

1. A long outer garment formerly worn by men and women, as well as by soldiers as part of their uniform.

2. (Eccl.) A garment resembling a long frock coat worn by the clergy of certain churches when officiating, and by others as the usually outer garment.

Cas"socked (?), a. Clothed with a cassock.

||Cas`so*lette" (?), n. [F.] a box, or vase, with a perforated cover to emit perfumes.

Cas`son*ade" (?), n. [F., fr. casson, for caisson a large chest. This sugar comes from Brazil in large chests.] Raw sugar; sugar not refined. Mc Elrath.

Cas"so*wa*ry (?), n.; pl. Cassowaries (#). [Malay kasuāri.] (Zoöl.) A large bird, of the genus Casuarius, found in the east Indies. It is smaller and stouter than the ostrich. Its head is armed with a kind of helmet of horny substance, consisting of plates overlapping each other, and it has a group of long sharp spines on each wing which are used as defensive organs. It is a shy bird, and runs with great rapidity. Other species inhabit New Guinea, Australia, etc.

{ Cas`su*mu"nar (?), Cas`su*mu"ni*ar (?), } n. [Hind.] (Med.) A pungent, bitter, aromatic, gingerlike root, obtained from the East Indies.

Cast (k&adot;st), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cast; p. pr. & vb. n. Casting.] [Cf. Dan. kaste, Icel. & Sw. kasta; perh. akin to L. gerere to bear, carry. E. jest.] 1. To send or drive by force; to throw; to fling; to hurl; to impel.

Uzziah prepared . . . slings to cast stones. 2 Chron. xxvi. 14.

Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me. Acts. xii. 8.

We must be cast upon a certain island. Acts. xxvii. 26.

2. To direct or turn, as the eyes.

How earnestly he cast his eyes upon me! Shak.

3. To drop; to deposit; as, to cast a ballot.

4. To throw down, as in wrestling. Shak.

5. To throw up, as a mound, or rampart.

Thine enemies shall cast a trench [bank] about thee. Luke xix. 48.

6. To throw off; to eject; to shed; to lose.

His filth within being cast. Shak.

Neither shall your vine cast her fruit. Mal. iii. 11

The creatures that cast the skin are the snake, the viper, etc. Bacon.

7. To bring forth prematurely; to slink.

Thy she-goats have not cast their young. Gen. xxi. 38.

8. To throw out or emit; to exhale. [Obs.]

This . . . casts a sulphureous smell. Woodward.

9. To cause to fall; to shed; to reflect; to throw; as, to cast a ray upon a screen; to cast light upon a subject.

10. To impose; to bestow; to rest.

The government I cast upon my brother. Shak.

Cast thy burden upon the Lord. Ps. iv. 22.

11. To dismiss; to discard; to cashier. [Obs.]

The state can not with safety cast him.

12. To compute; to reckon; to calculate; as, to cast a horoscope. "Let it be cast and paid." Shak.

You cast the event of war, my noble lord. Shak.

13. To contrive; to plan. [Archaic]

The cloister . . . had, I doubt not, been cast for [an orange-house]. Sir W. Temple.

14. To defeat in a lawsuit; to decide against; to convict; as, to be cast in damages.

She was cast to be hanged. Jeffrey.

Were the case referred to any competent judge, they would inevitably be cast. Dr. H. More.

15. To turn (the balance or scale); to overbalance; hence, to make preponderate; to decide; as, a casting voice.

How much interest casts the balance in cases dubious! South.

16. To form into a particular shape, by pouring liquid metal or other material into a mold; to fashion; to found; as, to cast bells, stoves, bullets.

17. (Print.) To stereotype or electrotype.

18. To fix, distribute, or allot, as the parts of a play among actors; also to assign (an actor) for a part.

Our parts in the other world will be new cast. Addison.

To cast anchor (Naut.) See under Anchor. -- To cast a horoscope, to calculate it. -- To cast a horse, sheep, or other animal, to throw with the feet upwards, in such a manner as to prevent its rising again. -- To cast a shoe, to throw off or lose a shoe, said of a horse or ox. -- To cast aside, to throw or push aside; to neglect; to reject as useless or inconvenient. -- To cast away. (a) To throw away; to lavish; to waste. "Cast away a life" Addison. (b) To reject; to let perish. "Cast away his people." Rom. xi. 1. "Cast one away." Shak. (c) To wreck. "Cast away and sunk." Shak. -- To cast by, to reject; to dismiss or discard; to throw away. -- To cast down, to throw down; to destroy; to deject or depress, as the mind. "Why art thou cast down. O my soul?" Ps. xiii. 5. -- To cast forth, to throw out, or eject, as from an inclosed place; to emit; to send out. -- To cast in one's lot with, to share the fortunes of. -- To cast in one's teeth, to upbraid or abuse one for; to twin. -- To cast lots. See under Lot. -- To cast off. (a) To discard or reject; to drive away; to put off; to free one's self from. (b) (Hunting) To leave behind, as dogs; also, to set loose, or free, as dogs. Crabb. (c) (Naut.) To untie, throw off, or let go, as a rope. -- To cast off copy, (Print.), to estimate how much printed matter a given amount of copy will make, or how large the page must be in order that the copy may make a given number of pages. -- To cast one's self on or upon to yield or submit one's self unreservedly to, as to the mercy of another. -- To cast out, to throw out; to eject, as from a house; to cast forth; to expel; to utter. -- To cast the lead (Naut.), to sound by dropping the lead to the bottom. -- To cast the water (Med.), to examine the urine for signs of disease. [Obs.]. -- To cast up. (a) To throw up; to raise. (b) To compute; to reckon, as the cost. (c) To vomit. (d) To twit with; to throw in one's teeth.

Cast (?), v. i. 1. To throw, as a line in angling, esp, with a fly hook.

2. (Naut.) To turn the head of a vessel around from the wind in getting under weigh.

Weigh anchor, cast to starboard. Totten.

3. To consider; to turn or revolve in the mind; to plan; as, to cast about for reasons.

She . . . cast in her mind what manner of salution this should be. Luke. i. 29.

4. To calculate; to compute. [R.]

Who would cast and balance at a desk. Tennyson.

5. To receive form or shape in a mold.

It will not run thin, so as to cast and mold. Woodward.

6. To warp; to become twisted out of shape.

Stuff is said to cast or warp when . . . it alters its flatness or straightness. Moxon.

7. To vomit.

These verses . . . make me ready to cast. B. Jonson.

Cast, 3d pres. of Cast, for Casteth. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Cast, n. [Cf. Icel., Dan., & Sw. kast.] 1. The act of casting or throwing; a throw.

2. The thing thrown.

A cast of dreadful dust. Dryden.

3. The distance to which a thing is or can be thrown. "About a stone's cast." Luke xxii. 41.

4. A throw of dice; hence, a chance or venture.

An even cast whether the army should march this way or that way. Sowth.

I have set my life upon a cast, And I will stand the hazard of the die. Shak.

5. That which is throw out or off, shed, or ejected; as, the skin of an insect, the refuse from a hawk's stomach, the excrement of a earthworm.

6. The act of casting in a mold.

And why such daily cast of brazen cannon. Shak.

7. An impression or mold, taken from a thing or person; amold; a pattern.

8. That which is formed in a mild; esp. a reproduction or copy, as of a work of art, in bronze or plaster, etc.; a casting.

9. Form; appearence; mien; air; style; as, a peculiar cast of countenance. "A neat cast of verse." Pope.

An heroic poem, but in another cast and figure. Prior.

And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought. Shak.

10. A tendency to any color; a tinge; a shade.

Gray with a cast of green. Woodward.

11. A chance, opportunity, privilege, or advantage; specifically, an opportunity of riding; a lift. [Scotch]

We bargained with the driver to give us a cast to the next stage. Smollett.

If we had the cast o' a cart to bring it. Sir W. Scott.

12. The assignment of parts in a play to the actors.

13. (Falconary) A flight or a couple or set of hawks let go at one time from the hand. Grabb.

As when a cast of falcons make their flight. Spenser.

14. A stoke, touch, or trick. [Obs.]

This was a cast of Wood's politics; for his information was wholly false. Swift.

15. A motion or turn, as of the eye; direction; look; glance; squint.

The cast of the eye is a gesture of aversion. Bacon.

And let you see with one cast of an eye. Addison.

This freakish, elvish cast came into the child's eye. Hawthorne.

16. A tube or funnel for conveying metal into a mold.

17. Four; that is, as many as are thrown into a vessel at once in counting herrings, etc; a warp.

18. Contrivance; plot, design. [Obs.] Chaucer.

A cast of the eye, a slight squint or strabismus. -- Renal cast (Med.), microscopic bodies found in the urine of persons affected with disease of the kidneys; -- so called because they are formed of matter deposited in, and preserving the outline of, the renal tubes. -- The last cast, the last throw of the dice or last effort, on which every thing is ventured; the last chance.

Cas*ta"li*an (?), a. [L. Castalius] Of or pertaining to Castalia, a mythical fountain of inspiration on Mt. Parnassus sacred to the Muses. Milton.

||Cas*ta"ne*a (?), n. [L., a chestnut, fr. Gr. &?;.] (Bot.) A genus of nut-bearing trees or shrubs including the chestnut and chinquapin.

Cas"ta*net (?), n. See Castanets.

Cas"ta*nets, n. pl. [F. castagnettes, Sp. castañetas, fr. L. castanea (Sp. castaña) a chestnut. So named from the resemblance to two chestnuts, or because chestnuts were first used for castanets. See Chestnut.] Two small, concave shells of ivory or hard wood, shaped like spoons, fastened to the thumb, and beaten together with the middle finger; -- used by the Spaniards and Moors as an accompaniment to their dance and guitars.

&fist; The singular, castanet, is used of one of the pair, or, sometimes, of the pair forming the instrument.

The dancer, holding a castanet in each hand, rattles then to the motion of his feet. Moore (Encyc. of Music).

Cast"a*way (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, is cast away or shipwrecked.

2. One who is ruined; one who has made moral shipwreck; a reprobate.

Lest . . . when I have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. 1 Cor. ix. 27.

Cast"a*way, a. Of no value; rejected; useless.

Caste (?), n. [Pg. casta race, lineage, fr. L. castus pure, chaste: cf. F. caste, of same origin.] 1. One of the hereditary classes into which the Hindoos are divided according to the laws of Brahmanism.

&fist; The members of the same caste are theoretically of equal rank, and same profession or occupation, and may not eat or intermarry with those not of their own caste. The original are four, viz., the Brahmans, or sacerdotal order; the Kshatriyas, or soldiers and rulers; the Vaisyas, or husbandmen and merchants; and the Sudras, or laborers and mechanics. Men of no caste are Pariahs, outcasts. Numerous mixed classes, or castes, have sprung up in the progress of time.

2. A separate and fixed order or class of persons in society who chiefly hold intercourse among themselves.

The tinkers then formed an hereditary caste. Macaulay.

To lose caste, to be degraded from the caste to which one has belonged; to lose social position or consideration.

Cas"tel*lan (?), n. [OF. castelain, F. châtelain, L. castellanus pertaining to a castle, an occupant of a caste, LL., a governor of a castle, fr. L. castellum castle, citadel, dim. of castrum fortified place. See Castle, and cf. Chatelaine.] A governor or warden of a castle.

Cas"tel*la*ny (?), n.; pl. Castellanies (#). [LL. castellania.] The lordship of a castle; the extent of land and jurisdiction appertaining to a castle.

Cas"tel*la`ted (?), a. [LL. castellatus, fr. castellare. See Castle.] 1. Inclosed within a building; as, a fountain or cistern castellated. [Obs.] Johnson.

2. Furnished with turrets and battlements, like a castle; built in the style of a castle.

Cas`tel*la"tion (?), n. [LL. castellation, fr. castellare, fr. L. castellum. See Castle.] The act of making into a castle.

Cast"er (?), n. 1. One who casts; as, caster of stones, etc. ; a caster of cannon; a caster of accounts.

2. A vial, cruet, or other small vessel, used to contain condiments at the table; as, a set of casters.

3. A stand to hold a set of cruets.

4. A small wheel on a swivel, on which furniture is supported and moved.

Cas"ti*gate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Castigated; p. pr. & vb. n. Castigating.] [L. castigatus, p. p. of castigare to correct, punish; castus pure, chaste + agere to move, drive. See Caste, and cf. Chasten.] 1. To punish by stripes; to chastise by blows; to chasten; also, to chastise verbally; to reprove; to criticise severely.

2. To emend; to correct. [Obs.]

Cas`ti*ga"tion (?), n. [L. catigatio.]

1. Corrective punishment; chastisement; reproof; pungent criticism.

The keenest castigation of her slanderers. W. Irving.

2. Emendation; correction. [Obs.]

Cas`ti*ga"tor (?), n. [L.] One who castigates or corrects.

Cas`ti*ga*to*ry (?), a. [L. castigatorius.] Punitive in order to amendment; corrective.

Cas"ti*ga*to*ry, n. An instrument formerly used to punish and correct arrant scolds; -- called also a ducking stool, or trebucket. Blacktone.

Cas"tile soap` (?). [From Castile, or Castilia, a province in Spain, from which it originally came.] A kind of fine, hard, white or mottled soap, made with olive oil and soda; also, a soap made in imitation of the above-described soap.

Cas*til"ian (?), n. [Sp. castellano, from Castila, NL. Castilia, Castella. Castile, which received its name from the castles erected on the frontiers as a barrier against the Moors.] 1. An inhabitant or native of Castile, in Spain.

2. The Spanish language as spoken in Castile.

Cas*til"lan, a. Of or pertaining to Castile, in Spain.

Cast"ing (?), n. 1. The act of one who casts or throws, as in fishing.

2. The act or process of making casts or impressions, or of shaping metal or plaster in a mold; the act or the process of pouring molten metal into a mold.

3. That which is cast in a mold; esp. the mass of metal so cast; as, a casting in iron; bronze casting.

4. The warping of a board. Brande & C.

5. The act of casting off, or that which is cast off, as skin, feathers, excrement, etc.

Casting of draperies, the proper distribution of the folds of garments, in painting and sculpture. -- Casting line (Fishing), the leader; also, sometimes applied to the long reel line. -- Casting net, a net which is cast and drawn, in distinction from a net that is set and left. -- Casting voice, Casting vote, the decisive vote of a presiding officer, when the votes of the assembly or house are equally divided. "When there was an equal vote, the governor had the casting voice." B. Trumbull. -- Casting weight, a weight that turns a balance when exactly poised.

Cast" i`ron (?). Highly carbonized iron, the direct product of the blast furnace; -- used for making castings, and for conversion into wrought iron and steel. It can not be welded or forged, is brittle, and sometimes very hard. Besides carbon, it contains sulphur, phosphorus, silica, etc.

Cast"-i`ron, a. Made of cast iron. Hence, Fig.: like cast iron; hardy; unyielding.

Cas"tle (?), n. [AS. castel, fr. L. castellum, dim. of castrum a fortified place, castle.] 1. A fortified residence, especially that of a prince or nobleman; a fortress.

The house of every one is to him castle and fortress, as well for his defense againts injury and violence, as for his repose. Coke.

Our castle's strength Will laugh a siege to scorn. Shak.

&fist; Originally the mediæval castle was a single strong tower or keep, with a palisaded inclosure around it and inferior buidings, such as stables and the like, and surrounded by a moat; then such a keep or donjon, with courtyards or baileys and accessory buildings of greater elaboration a great hall and a chapel, all surrounded by defensive walls and a moat, with a drawbridge, etc. Afterwards the name was retained by large dwellings that had formerly been fortresses, or by those which replaced ancient fortresses.

A Donjon or Keep, an irregular building containing the dwelling of the lord and his family; B C Large round towers ferming part of the donjon and of the exterior; D Square tower, separating the two inner courts and forming part of the donjon; E Chapel, whose apse forms a half-round tower, F, on the exterior walls; G H Round towers on the exterior walls; K Postern gate, reached from outside by a removable fight of steps or inclined plane for hoisting in stores, and leading to a court, L (see small digagram) whose pavement is on a level with the sill of the postern, but below the level of the larger court, with which it communicates by a separately fortified gateway; M Turret, containing spiral stairway to all the stories of the great tower, B, and serving also as a station for signal fire, banner, etc.; N Turret with stairway for tower, C; O Echauguettes; P P P Battlemants consisting of merlons and crenels alternately, the merlons being pierced by loopholes; Q Q Machicolations (those at Q defend the postern K); R Outwork defending the approach, which is a road ascending the hill and passing under all four faces of the castle; S S Wall of the outer bailey. The road of approach enters the bailey at T and passes thence into the castle by the main entrance gateway (which is in the wall between, and defended by the towers, C H) and over two drawbridges and through fortified passages to the inner court.

2. Any strong, imposing, and stately mansion.

3. A small tower, as on a ship, or an elephant's back.

4. A piece, made to represent a castle, used in the game of chess; a rook.

Castle in the air, a visionary project; a baseless scheme; an air castle; -- sometimes called a castle in Spain (F. Château en Espagne).

Syn. -- Fortress; fortification; citadel; stronghold. See Fortress.

Cas"tle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Castled (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Castling (?).] (Chess) To move the castle to the square next to king, and then the king around the castle to the square next beyond it, for the purpose of covering the king.

Cas"tle*build`er (?), n. Fig.: one who builds castles in the air or forms visionary schemes.

-- Cas"tle*build`ing, n.

Cas"tled (?), a. Having a castle or castles; supporting a castle; as, a castled height or crag.

2. Fortified; turreted; as, castled walls.

Cas"tle-guard` (?), n. 1. The guard or defense of a castle.

2. (O. Eng. Law) A tax or imposition an a dwelling within a certain distance of a castle, for the purpose of maintaining watch and ward in it; castle- ward.

3. A feudal tenure, obliging the tenant to perform service within the realm, without limitation of time.

Cas"tle*ry (?), n. [Cf. OF. castelerie. See Castle.] The government of a castle. Blount.

Cas"tlet (?), n. A small castle. Leland.

Cas"tle*ward` (?), n. Same as Castleguard.

Cast"ling (?), n. That which is cast or brought forth prematurely; an abortion. Sir T. Browne.

Cas"tling (?), n. (Chess) A compound move of the king and castle. See Castle, v. i.

Cast"-off` (?), a. Cast or laid aside; as, cast-off clothes.

Cas"tor (?), n. [L. castor the beaver, Gr. &?;; of uncertain origin.] 1. (Zoöl.) A genus of rodents, including the beaver. See Beaver.

2. Castoreum. See Castoreum.

3. A hat, esp. one made of beaver fur; a beaver.

I have always been known for the jaunty manner in which I wear my castor. Sir W. Scott.

4. A heavy quality of broadcloth for overcoats.

Cast"or (?), n. See Caster, a small wheel.

Cas"tor (?), n. [L.] (Astron.) the northernmost of the two bright stars in the constellation Gemini, the other being Pollux.

{ Cas"tor, Cas"tor*ite (?), } n. [The minerals castor and pollux were so named because found together on the island of Elba. See Castor and Pollux.] (Min.) A variety of the mineral called petalite, from Elba.

Cas"tor and Pol"lux (?). [Castor and Pollux were twin sons of Jupiter and Leda.] (Naut.) See Saint Elmo's fire, under Saint.

Cas"tor bean` (?). (Bot.) The bean or seed of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis, or Palma Christi.)

Cas*to"re*um (?), n. [L. See Castor.] A peculiar bitter orange-brown substance, with strong, penetrating odor, found in two sacs between the anus and external genitals of the beaver; castor; -- used in medicine as an antispasmodic, and by perfumers.

Cas"to*rin (kăs"t&osl;*r&ibreve;n), n. [From 1st Castor.] (Chem.) A white crystalline substance obtained from castoreum.

Cas"tor oil (kăs"t&etilde;r oil`). A mild cathartic oil, expressed or extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis, or Palma Christi. When fresh the oil is inodorous and insipid.

Castor-oil plant. Same as Palma Christi.

Cas`tra*me*ta"tion (?), n. [F. castramétation, fr. L. castra camp + metari to measure off, fr. meta limit.] (Mil.) The art or act of encamping; the making or laying out of a camp.

Cas"trate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Castrated; p. pr. & vb. n. Castrating.] [L. castrarus, p; p. of castrare to castrate, asin to Skr. çastra knife.] 1. To deprive of the testicles; to emasculate; to geld; to alter.

2. To cut or take out; esp. to remove anything erroneous, or objectionable from, as the obscene parts of a writing; to expurgate.

My . . . correspondent . . . has sent me the following letter, which I have castrated in some places. Spectator.

Cas*tra"tion (?), n. [L. castratio; cf. F. castration.] The act of castrating.

||Cas*tra"to (?), n. [L., properly p. p. of castrare. See Castrate.] A male person castrated for the purpose of improving his voice for singing; an artificial, or male, soprano. Swift.

Cas"trel (?), n. [Cf. F. crécerelle, cristel, OF. crecel, cercele. Cf. Kestrel.] (Zoöl.) See Kestrel.

Cas*tren"sial (?), a. [L. castrensis, fr. castra camp.] Belonging to a camp. Sir T. Browne.

Cas*tren"sian (?), a. Castrensial. [R.]

Cast" steel` (?). See Cast steel, under Steel.

Cas"u*al (?), a. [OE. casuel, F. casuel, fr. L. casualis, fr. casus fall, accident, fr. cadere to fall. See Case.] 1. Happening or coming to pass without design, and without being foreseen or expected; accidental; fortuitous; coming by chance.

Casual breaks, in the general system. W. Irving.

2. Coming without regularity; occasional; incidental; as, casual expenses.

A constant habit, rather than a casual gesture. Hawthorne.

Syn. -- Accidental; fortutious; incidental; occasional; contingent; unforeseen. See Accidental.

Cas"u*al, n. One who receives relief for a night in a parish to which he does not belong; a vagrant.

Cas"u*al*ism (?), n. The doctrine that all things exist or are controlled by chance.

Cas"u*al*ist, n. One who believes in casualism.

Cas"u*al*ly, adv. Without design; accidentally; fortuitously; by chance; occasionally.

Cas"u*al*ness, n. The quality of being casual.

Cas"u*al*ty (?), n.; pl. Casualties (#). [F. casualité, LL. casualitas.] 1. That which comes without design or without being foreseen; contingency.

Losses that befall them by mere casualty. Sir W. Raleigh.

2. Any injury of the body from accident; hence, death, or other misfortune, occasioned by an accident; as, an unhappy casualty.

3. pl. (Mil. & Naval) Numerical loss caused by death, wounds, discharge, or desertion.

Casualty ward, A ward in a hospital devoted to the treatment of injuries received by accident.

Syn. -- Accident; contingency; fortuity; misfortune.

||Cas`u*a*ri"na (?), n. [NL., supposed to be named from the resemblance of the twigs to the feathers of the cassowary, of the genus Casuarius.] (Bot.) A genus of leafless trees or shrubs, with drooping branchlets of a rushlike appearance, mostly natives of Australia. Some of them are large, producing hard and heavy timber of excellent quality, called beefwood from its color.

Cas"u*ist (?), n. [L. casus fall, case; cf. F. casuiste. See Casual.] One who is skilled in, or given to, casuistry.

The judment of any casuist or learned divine concerning the state of a man's soul, is not sufficient to give him confidence. South.

Cas"u*ist, v. i. To play the casuist. Milton.

{ Cas`u*is"tic (?), Cas`u*is"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to casuists or casuistry.

Cas"u*ist*ry (?), a. 1. The science or doctrine of dealing with cases of conscience, of resolving questions of right or wrong in conduct, or determining the lawfulness or unlawfulness of what a man may do by rules and principles drawn from the Scriptures, from the laws of society or the church, or from equity and natural reason; the application of general moral rules to particular cases.

The consideration of these nice and puzzling question in the science of ethics has given rise, in modern times, to a particular department of it, distinguished by the title of casuistry. Stewart.

Casuistry in the science of cases (i.e., oblique deflections from the general rule). De Quincey.

2. Sophistical, equivocal, or false reasoning or teaching in regard to duties, obligations, and morals.

||Ca"sus (?), n. [L.] An event; an occurrence; an occasion; a combination of circumstances; a case; an act of God. See the Note under Accident.

Casus belli, an event or combination of events which is a cause war, or may be alleged as a justification of war. -- Casus fortuitus, an accident against which due prudence could not have provided. See Act of God, under Act. -- Casus omissus, a case not provided for by the statute.

Cat (kăt), n. [AS. cat; akin to D. & Dan. kat, Sw. katt, Icel. köttr, G. katze, kater, Ir. cat, W. cath, Armor. kaz, LL. catus, Bisc. catua, NGr. ga`ta, ga`tos, Russ. & Pol. kot, Turk. kedi, Ar. qitt; of unknown origin. Cf. Kitten.] 1. (Zoöl.) An animal of various species of the genera Felis and Lynx. The domestic cat is Felis domestica. The European wild cat (Felis catus) is much larger than the domestic cat. In the United States the name wild cat is commonly applied to the bay lynx (Lynx rufus) See Wild cat, and Tiger cat.

&fist; The domestic cat includes many varieties named from their place of origin or from some peculiarity; as, the Angora cat; the Maltese cat; the Manx cat.

The word cat is also used to designate other animals, from some fancied resemblance; as, civet cat, fisher cat, catbird, catfish shark, sea cat.

2. (Naut.) (a) A strong vessel with a narrow stern, projecting quarters, and deep waist. It is employed in the coal and timber trade. (b) A strong tackle used to draw an anchor up to the cathead of a ship. Totten.

3. A double tripod (for holding a plate, etc.), having six feet, of which three rest on the ground, in whatever position it is placed.

4. An old game; (a) The game of tipcat and the implement with which it is played. See Tipcat. (c) A game of ball, called, according to the number of batters, one old cat, two old cat, etc.

5. A cat o' nine tails. See below.

Angora cat, blind cat, See under Angora, Blind. -- Black cat the fisher. See under Black. -- Cat and dog, like a cat and dog; quarrelsome; inharmonious. "I am sure we have lived a cat and dog life of it." Coleridge. -- Cat block (Naut.), a heavy iron-strapped block with a large hook, part of the tackle used in drawing an anchor up to the cathead. -- Cat hook (Naut.), a strong hook attached to a cat block. - - Cat nap, a very short sleep. [Colloq.] -- Cat o' nine tails, an instrument of punishment consisting of nine pieces of knotted line or cord fastened to a handle; -- formerly used to flog offenders on the bare back. -- Cat's cradle, game played, esp. by children, with a string looped on the fingers so, as to resemble small cradle. The string is transferred from the fingers of one to those of another, at each transfer with a change of form. See Cratch, Cratch cradle. -- To let the cat out of the bag, to tell a secret, carelessly or willfully. [Colloq.] -- Bush cat, the serval. See Serval.

Cat (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. tted; p. pr. & vb. n. Catting.] (Naut.) To bring to the cathead; as, to cat an anchor. See Anchor. Totten.

Cat"a (?). [Gr. kata`.] The Latin and English form of a Greek preposition, used as a prefix to signify down, downward, under, against, contrary or opposed to, wholly, completely; as in cataclysm, catarrh. It sometimes drops the final vowel, as in catoptric; and is sometimes changed to cath, as in cathartic, catholic.

Cat`a*bap"tist (?), n. [Pref. cata + aptist. See Baptist.] (Eccl.) One who opposes baptism, especially of infants. [Obs.] Featley.

||Cat`a*ba"sion (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. kataba`sion.] A vault under altar of a Greek church.

Cat`a*bi*ot"ic (?), a. See under Force.

Cat`a*caus"tic (?), a. [Pref. cata + caustic.] (Physics) Relating to, or having the properties of, a caustic curve formed by reflection. See Caustic, a. Nichol.

Cat`a*caus"tic, n. (Physics) A caustic curve formed by reflection of light. Nichol.

Cat`a*chre"sis (?), n. [L. fr. Gr. &?; misuse, fr. &?; to misuse; kata` against + &?; to use.] (Rhet.) A figure by which one word is wrongly put for another, or by which a word is wrested from its true signification; as, "To take arms against a sea of troubles". Shak. "Her voice was but the shadow of a sound." Young.

{ Cat`a*chres"tic (?), Cat`a*chres"tic*al (?), } a. Belonging to, or in the manner of, a catachresis; wrested from its natural sense or form; forced; far-fetched.

-- Cat`a*chres"tic*al*ly, adv.

[A] catachrestical and improper way of speaking. Jer. Taylor.

Cat"a*clysm (?), n. [L. cataclysmos, Gr. kataklysmo`s, from &?; to dash over, inundate; kata` downward, against + &?; to wash or dash over: cf. F. cataclysme.] 1. An extensive overflow or sweeping flood of water; a deluge.

2. (Geol.) Any violent catastrophe, involving sudden and extensive changes of the earth's surface.

{ Cat`a*clys"mal (?), Cat`a*clys"mic (?), } a. Of or pertaining to a cataclysm.

Cat`a*clys"mist (?), n. One who believes that the most important geological phenomena have been produced by cataclysms.

Cat"a*comb (?), n. [It. catacomba, fr. L. catacumba perh. from Gr. kata` downward, down + ky`mbh cavity.] A cave, grotto, or subterraneous place of large extent used for the burial of the dead; -- commonly in the plural.

&fist; The terms is supposed to have been applied originally to the tombs under the church of St. Sebastian in Rome. The most celebrated catacombs are those near Rome, on the Appian Way, supposed to have been the place or refuge and interment of the early Christians; those of Egypt, extending for a wide distance in the vicinity of Cairo; and those of Paris, in abandoned stone quarries, excavated under a large portion of the city.

Cat`a*cous"tic (?), n. [Pref. cata + acoustics: cf. F. caraconstique.] (Physics) That part of acoustics which treats of reflected sounds or echoes See Acoustics. Hutton.

{ Cat`a*di*op"tric (?), Cat`a*di*op"tric*al (?), } a. [Pref. cata + dioptric: cf. F. catadioptrique.] (Physics) Pertaining to, produced by, or involving, both the reflection and refraction of light; as, a catadioptric light. Hutton.

Cat`a*di*op"trics (?), n. The science which treats of catadioptric phenomena, or of the used of catadioptric instruments.

Cat"a*drome (?), n. [Gr. kata`dromos race course; kata` down + dro`mos course.] 1. A race course.

2. (Mach.) A machine for raising or lowering heavy weights.

Ca*tad"ro*mous (?), a. [Gr. kata` down + dro`mos a running.] 1. (Bot.) Having the lowest inferior segment of a pinna nearer the rachis than the lowest superior one; -- said of a mode of branching in ferns, and opposed to anadromous.

2. (Zoöl.) Living in fresh water, and going to the sea to spawn; -- opposed to anadromous, and said of the eel.

||Cat`a*fal"co (?), n. [It.] See Catafalque.

Cat"a*falque` (?), n. [F., fr. It. catafalco, scaffold, funeral canopy; of uncertain origin; cf. Sp. catafalso, cadahalso, cadalso, Pr. casafalc, OF. chafaut. Cf. Scaffold.] A temporary structure sometimes used in the funeral solemnities of eminent persons, for the public exhibition of the remains, or their conveyance to the place of burial.

Cat`*ag*mat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; fracture, fr. &?; to break in places; kata` down + 'agny`nai to break: cf. F. catagmatique.] (Med.) Having the quality of consolidating broken bones.

Ca*ta"ian (?), n. A native of Cathay or China; a foreigner; -- formerly a term of reproach. Shak.

Cat"a*lan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Catalonia. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Catalonia; also, the language of Catalonia.

Catalan furnace, Catalan forge (Metal.), a kind of furnace for producing wrought iron directly from the ore. It was formerly much used, esp. in Catalonia, and is still used in some parts of the United States and elsewhere.

Cat`a*lec"tic (?), a. [L. catalecticus, Gr. &?; incomplete, fr. &?; to leave off; kata` down, wholly + lh`gein to stop.] 1. (Pros.) Wanting a syllable at the end, or terminating in an imperfect foot; as, a catalectic verse.

2. (Photog. & Chem.) Incomplete; partial; not affecting the whole of a substance. Abney.

{ Cat"a*lep`sy (?), ||Cat`a*lep"sis (?), } n. [NL. catalepsis, fr. Gr. &?; a seizure, fr. &?; to seize upon; kata` down + &?; to take, seize.] (Med.) A sudden suspension of sensation and volition, the body and limbs preserving the position that may be given them, while the action of the heart and lungs continues.

Cat`a*lep"tic (?), a. [Gr. katalhptiko`s.] Pertaining to, or resembling, catalepsy; affected with catalepsy; as, a cataleptic fit.

||Cat`al*lac"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;. See Catallactics.] (Zoöl.) A division of Protozoa, of which Magosphæra is the type. They exist both in a myxopod state, with branched pseudopodia, and in the form of ciliated bodies united in free, spherical colonies.

Cat`al*lac"tics (?) n. [Gr. &?; to exchange; kata` wholly + &?; to change.] The science of exchanges, a branch of political economy.

Cat"a*log (?), n. & v. Catalogue.

Cat"a*lo*gize (?), v. t. To insert in a catalogue; to register; to catalogue. [R.] Coles.

Cat"a*logue (?), n. [F., fr. catalogus, fr. Gr. &?; a counting up, list, fr. &?; to count up; kata` down, completely + &?; to say.] A list or enumeration of names, or articles arranged methodically, often in alphabetical order; as, a catalogue of the students of a college, or of books, or of the stars.

Card catalogue, a catalogue, as of books, having each item entered on a separate card, and the cards arranged in cases by subjects, or authors, or alphabetically. -- Catalogue raisonné (?) [F.], a catalogue of books, etc., classed according to their subjects.

Syn. -- List; roll; index; schedule; enumeration; inventory. See List.

Cat"a*logue, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Catalogued (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cataloguing (?).] To make a list or catalogue; to insert in a catalogue.

Cat"a*log`uer (?), n. A maker of catalogues; esp. one skilled in the making of catalogues.

Ca*tal"pa (?), n. [From the language of the Indians of Carolina, where Catesby discovered this tree in the year 1726.] (Bot.) A genus of American and East Indian trees, of which the best know species are the Catalpa bignonioides, a large, ornamental North American tree, with spotted white flowers and long cylindrical pods, and the C. speciosa, of the Mississipi valley; -- called also Indian bean.

Ca*tal"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Catalyse. (#) [ML., fr. Gr. &?; dissolution, fr. &?; to destroy, dissolve; kata` down, wholly + &?; to loose.]

1. Dissolution; degeneration; decay. [R.]

Sad catalysis and declension of piety. Evelyn.

2. (Chem.) (a) A process by which reaction occurs in the presence of certain agents which were formerly believed to exert an influence by mere contact. It is now believed that such reactions are attended with the formation of an intermediate compound or compounds, so that by alternate composition and decomposition the agent is apparenty left unchanged; as, the catalysis of making ether from alcohol by means of sulphuric acid; or catalysis in the action of soluble ferments (as diastase, or ptyalin) on starch. (b) The catalytic force.

Cat`a*ly"tic (?), a. Relating to, or causing, catalysis. "The catalytic power is ill understood." Ure.

Catalytic force, that form of chemical energy formerly supposed to determine catalysis.

Cat`a*lyt"ic, n. (Chem.) An agent employed in catalysis, as platinum black, aluminium chloride, etc.

Cat`a*ma*ran", n. [The native East Indian name.] 1. A kind of raft or float, consisting of two or more logs or pieces of wood lashed together, and moved by paddles or sail; -- used as a surf boat and for other purposes on the coasts of the East and West Indies and South America. Modified forms are much used in the lumber regions of North America, and at life-saving stations.

2. Any vessel with twin hulls, whether propelled by sails or by steam; esp., one of a class of double- hulled pleasure boats remarkable for speed.

3. A kind of fire raft or torpedo bat.

The incendiary rafts prepared by Sir Sidney Smith for destroying the French flotilla at Boulogne, 1804, were called catamarans. Knight.

4. A quarrelsome woman; a scold. [Colloq.]

||Cat`a*me"nia (kăt`&adot;*mē"n&ibreve;*&adot;), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ta` katamh`nia.] (Med.) The monthly courses of women; menstrual discharges; menses.

Cat`a*me"ni*al (-al), a. [Gr. katamh`nios monthly; kata` down, back, again + mh`n month.] Pertaining to the catamenia, or menstrual discharges.

Cat"a*mite (kăt"&adot;*mīt), n. [L. Catamitus, an old form of Ganymedes Ganymede, Gr. Ganymh`dhs.] A boy kept for unnatural purposes.

Cat"a*mount (-mount), n. [Cat + mount; cf. Sp. gato montes mountain cat.] (Zoöl.) The cougar. Applied also, in some parts of the United States, to the lynx.

Cat"a*nad`ro*mous (?), a. [Gr. kata` down + 'ana` up + dro`mos running, course.] (Zoöl.) Ascending and descending fresh streams from and to the sea, as the salmon; anadromous. [R.]

Cat"a*pasm (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to besprinkle; kata` down, wholly + &?; to strew, or sprinkle.] (Med.) A compound medicinal powder, used by the ancients to sprinkle on ulcers, to absorb perspiration, etc. Dunglison.

Cat`a*pel"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a catapult.

Cat`a*pet"al*ous (?), a. [Pref. cata + petalous.] (Bot.) Having the petals held together by stamens, which grow to their bases, as in the mallow.

Cat`a*phon"ic (?), a. Of or relating to cataphonics; catacoustic.

Cat`a*phon"ics (?), n. [Pref. cata + phonic: cf. F. cataphonique.] (Physics) That branch of acoustics which treats of reflected sounds; catacoustics.

Cat"a*phract (k&act;t"&ador;*frăkt), n. [L. cataphractes, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; covered, fr. &?; to cover; kata` down, wholly + fra`ssein to inclose.] 1. (Mil. Antiq.) Defensive armor used for the whole body and often for the horse, also, esp. the linked mail or scale armor of some eastern nations.

2. A horseman covered with a cataphract.

Archers and slingers, cataphracts, and spears. Milton.

3. (Zoöl.) The armor or plate covering some fishes.

Cat"a*phract`ed (?), a. (Zoöl.) Covered with a cataphract, or armor of plates, scales, etc.; or with that which corresponds to this, as horny or bony plates, hard, callous skin, etc.

Cat`a*phrac"tic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a cataphract.

Cat`a*phys"ic*al, a. [Pref. cata + physical.] Unnatural; contrary to nature. [R.]

Some artists . . . have given to Sir Walter Scott a pile of forehead which is unpleassing and cataphysical. De Quincey.

Cat"a*plasm (?), n. [L. cataplasma, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to spread over; kata` down, wholly + &?; to form, mold.] (Med.) A soft and moist substance applied externally to some part of the body; a poultice. Dunglison.

Cat"a*puce (?), n. [F.] (Bot.) Spurge. [Obs.]

Cat"a*pult (?), n. [L. catapulta, Gr. &?;, prob. from kata` down + &?; to shake, hurl.]

1. (Mil. Antiq.) An engine somewhat resembling a massive crossbow, used by the ancient Greeks and Romans for throwing stones, arrows, spears, etc.

2. A forked stick with elastic band for throwing small stones, etc.

Cat"a*ract (?), n. [L. cataracta, catarracles, a waterfall, Gr. &?;, &?;, fr. &?; to break down; in the passive, to fall or rush down (of tumors) to burst; kata` down + &?; to break.] 1. A great fall of water over a precipice; a large waterfall.

2. (Surg.) An opacity of the crystalline lens, or of its capsule, which prevents the passage of the rays of light and impairs or destroys the sight.

3. (Mach.) A kind of hydraulic brake for regulating the action of pumping engines and other machines; -- sometimes called dashpot.

Cat`a*rac"tous (?), a. Of the nature of a cataract in the eye; affected with cataract.

Ca*tarrh" (?), n. [L. catarrhus, Gr. &?;, &?;, a running down, rheum, fr. &?;; kata` down + &?; to flow. See Stream.] (Med.) An inflammatory affection of any mucous membrane, in which there are congestion, swelling, and an altertion in the quantity and quality of mucus secreted; as, catarrh of the stomach; catarrh of the bladder.

&fist; In America, the term catarrh is applied especially to a chronic inflammation of, and hypersecretion fron, the membranes of the nose or air passages; in England, to an acute influenza, resulting a cold, and attended with cough, thirst, lassitude, and watery eyes; also, to the cold itself.

Ca*tarrh"al (?), a. Pertaining to, produced by, or attending, catarrh; of the nature of catarrh.

Cat"ar*rhine (?), n. [Gr. kata`rris with hanging or curved nose; kata` down + "ri`s, "rino`s nose.] (Zoöl.) One of the Catarrhina, a division of Quadrumana, including the Old World monkeys and apes which have the nostrils close together and turned downward. See Monkey.

Ca*tarrh"ous (?), a. Catarrhal. [R.]

Cat`a*stal"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to check; kata` down, wholy + &?; to set.] (Med.) Checking evacuations through astringent or styptic qualities.

||Ca*tas"ta*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to set; kata` down + &?; to place.] 1. (Rhet.) That part of a speech, usually the exordium, in which the orator sets forth the subject matter to be discussed.

2. (Med.) The state, or condition of anything; constitution; habit of body.

Ca*tas"ter*ism (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to place among the stars.] A placing among the stars; a catalogue of stars.

The catasterisms of Eratosthenes. Whewell.

Ca*tas"tro*phe (?), n. [L. catastropha, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to turn up and down, to overturn; kata` down + &?; to turn.] 1. An event producing a subversion of the order or system of things; a final event, usually of a calamitous or disastrous nature; hence, sudden calamity; great misfortune.

The strange catastrophe of affairs now at London. Bp. Burnet.

The most horrible and portentous catastrophe that nature ever yet saw. Woodward.

2. The final event in a romance or a dramatic piece; a denouement, as a death in a tragedy, or a marriage in a comedy.

3. (Geol.) A violent and widely extended change in the surface of the earth, as, an elevation or subsidence of some part of it, effected by internal causes. Whewell.

Cat`a*stroph"ic (?), a. Of a pertaining to a catastrophe. B. Powell.

Ca*tas"tro*phism (?), n. (Geol.) The doctrine that the geological changes in the earth's crust have been caused by the sudden action of violent physical causes; -- opposed to the doctrine of uniformism.

Ca*tas"tro*phist (?), n. (Geol.) One who holds the theory or catastrophism.

Ca*taw"ba (?), n. 1. A well known light red variety of American grape.

2. A light-colored, sprightly American wine from the Catawba grape.

Ca*taw"bas (?), n. pl.; sing. Catawba. (Ethnol.) An Appalachian tribe of Indians which originally inhabited the regions near the Catawba river and the head waters of the Santee.

Cat"bird (?), n. (Zoöl.) An American bird (Galeoscoptes Carolinensis), allied to the mocking bird, and like it capable of imitating the notes of other birds, but less perfectly. Its note resembles at times the mewing of a cat.

Cat"boat` (?), n. (Naut.) A small sailboat, with a single mast placed as far forward as possible, carring a sail extended by a gaff and long boom. See Illustration in Appendix.

Cat"call` (?), n. A sound like the cry of a cat, such as is made in playhouses to express dissatisfaction with a play; also, a small shrill instrument for making such a noise.

Upon the rising of the curtain. I was very much surprised with the great consort of catcalls which was exhibited. Addison.

Catch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caught (?) or Catched (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Catching. Catched is rarely used.] [OE. cacchen, OF. cachier, dialectic form of chacier to hunt, F. chasser, fr. (assumend) LL. captiare, for L. capture, V. intens. of capere to take, catch. See Capacious, and cf. Chase, Case a box.]

1. To lay hold on; to seize, especially with the hand; to grasp (anything) in motion, with the effect of holding; as, to catch a ball.

2. To seize after pursuing; to arrest; as, to catch a thief. "They pursued . . . and caught him." Judg. i. 6.

3. To take captive, as in a snare or net, or on a hook; as, to catch a bird or fish.

4. Hence: To insnare; to entangle. "To catch him in his words". Mark xii. 13.

5. To seize with the senses or the mind; to apprehend; as, to catch a melody. "Fiery thoughts . . . whereof I catch the issue." Tennyson.

6. To communicate to; to fasten upon; as, the fire caught the adjoining building.

7. To engage and attach; to please; to charm.

The soothing arts that catch the fair. Dryden.

8. To get possession of; to attain.

Torment myself to catch the English throne. Shak.

9. To take or receive; esp. to take by sympathy, contagion, infection, or exposure; as, to catch the spirit of an occasion; to catch the measles or smallpox; to catch cold; the house caught fire.

10. To come upon unexpectedly or by surprise; to find; as, to catch one in the act of stealing.

11. To reach in time; to come up with; as, to catch a train.

To catch fire, to become inflamed or ignited. -- to catch it to get a scolding or beating; to suffer punishment. [Colloq.] -- To catch one's eye, to interrupt captiously while speaking. [Colloq.] "You catch me up so very short." Dickens. -- To catch up, to snatch; to take up suddenly.

Catch (?), v. i. 1. To attain possession. [Obs.]

Have is have, however men do catch. Shak.

2. To be held or impeded by entanglement or a light obstruction; as, a kite catches in a tree; a door catches so as not to open.

3. To take hold; as, the bolt does not catch.

4. To spread by, or as by, infecting; to communicate.

Does the sedition catch from man to man? Addison.

To catch at, to attempt to seize; to be eager to get or use. "[To] catch at all opportunities of subverting the state." Addison. -- To catch up with, to come up with; to overtake.

Catch, n. 1. Act of seizing; a grasp. Sir P. Sidney.

2. That by which anything is caught or temporarily fastened; as, the catch of a gate.

3. The posture of seizing; a state of preparation to lay hold of, or of watching he opportunity to seize; as, to lie on the catch. [Archaic] Addison.

The common and the canon law . . . lie at catch, and wait advantages one againt another. T. Fuller.

4. That which is caught or taken; profit; gain; especially, the whole quantity caught or taken at one time; as, a good catch of fish.

Hector shall have a great catch if he knock out either of your brains. Shak.

5. Something desirable to be caught, esp. a husband or wife in matrimony. [Colloq.] Marryat.

6. pl. Passing opportunities seized; snatches.

It has been writ by catches with many intervals. Locke.

7. A slight remembrance; a trace.

We retain a catch of those pretty stories. Glanvill.

8. (Mus.) A humorous canon or round, so contrived that the singers catch up each other's words.

Catch"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being caught. [R.]

Catch"-ba`sin (?), n. A cistern or vault at the point where a street gutter discharges into a sewer, to catch bulky matters which would not pass readily through the sewer. Knight.

Catch"drain` (?), n. A ditch or drain along the side of a hill to catch the surface water; also, a ditch at the side of a canal to catch the surplus water.

Catch"er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, catches.

2. (Baseball) The player who stands behind the batsman to catch the ball.

Catch"fly (?), n. (Bot.) A plant with the joints of the stem, and sometimes other parts, covered with a viscid secretion to which small insects adhere. The species of Silene are examples of the catchfly.

Catch"ing a. 1. Infectious; contagious.

2. Captivating; alluring.

Catch"ing, n. The act of seizing or taking hold of.

Catching bargain (Law), a bargain made with an heir expectant for the purchase of his expectancy at an inadequate price. Bouvier.

Catch"-mead`ow (?), n. A meadow irrigated by water from a spring or rivulet on the side of hill.

Catch"ment (?), n. A surface of ground on which water may be caught and collected into a reservoir.

Catch"pen*ny (?), a. Made or contrived for getting small sums of money from the ignorant or unwary; as, a catchpenny book; a catchpenny show. -- n. Some worthless catchpenny thing.

Catch"poll` (?), n. [OF. chacepol, chacipol.] A bailiff's assistant.

{ Catch"up (?), Cat"sup (?) }, n. [Probably of East Indian origin, because it was originally a kind of East Indian pickles.] A table sauce made from mushrooms, tomatoes, walnuts, etc. [Written also ketchup.]

Catch"wa`ter (?), n. A ditch or drain for catching water. See Catchdrain.

Catch"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) See Cleavers.

Catch"weight` (?), adv. (Horseracing) Without any additional weight; without being handicapped; as, to ride catchweight.

Catch"word` (?), n. 1. Among theatrical performers, the last word of the preceding speaker, which reminds one that he is to speak next; cue.

2. (Print.) The first word of any page of a book after the first, inserted at the right hand bottom corner of the preceding page for the assistance of the reader. It is seldom used in modern printing.

3. A word or phrase caught up and repeated for effect; as, the catchword of a political party, etc.

Catch"work` (?), n. A work or artificial water-course for throwing water on lands that lie on the slopes of hills; a catchdrain.

Cate (?), n. Food. [Obs.] See Cates.

{ Cat`e*chet"ic (?), Cat`e*chet"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;. See Catechise.] Relating to or consisting in, asking questions and receiving answers, according to the ancient manner of teaching.

Socrates introduced a catechetical method of arguing. Addison.

Cat`e*chet"ic*al*ly, adv. In a catechetical manner; by question and answer.

Cat`e*chet"ics (?), n. The science or practice of instructing by questions and answers.

Cat"e*chin (?), n. (Chem.) One of the tannic acids, extracted from catechu as a white, crystalline substance; -- called also catechuic acid, and catechuin.

Cat`e*chi*sa"tion (?), n. [LL. catechizatio.] The act of catechising.

Cat"e*chise (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Catechised (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Catechising.] [L. catechizare, Gr. &?;, equiv. to &?; to resound, sound a thing into one's ears, impress it upon one by word of mouth; &?; + &?; to sound, &?; a sound.]

1. To instruct by asking questions, receiving answers, and offering explanations and corrections, -- esp. in regard to points of religious faith.

2. To question or interrogate; to examine or try by questions; -- sometimes with a view to reproof, by eliciting from a person answers which condemn his own conduct. Swift.

Cat"e*chi`ser (kăt"&esl;*kī`z&etilde;r), n. One who catechises.

Cat"e*chism (-k&ibreve;z'm), n. [L. catechismus, fr. Gr. See Catechise.] 1. A form of instruction by means of questions and answers.

2. A book containing a summary of principles, especially of religious doctrine, reduced to the form of questions and answers.

The Jews, even till this day, have their catechisms. Hooker.

The Larger Catechism, The Shorter Catechism. See Westminster Assembly, under Assembly.

Cat`e*chis"mal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a catechism, having the form of questions and answers; catechetical.

Cat"e*chist (kăt"&esl;*k&ibreve;st), n. [L. catechista, fr. Gr.] One who instructs by question and answer, especially in religions matters.

{ Cat`e*chis"tic (-k&ibreve;s"t&ibreve;k), Cat`e*chis"tic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to a catechist or to a catechism. Dr. H. More.

Cat"e*chize, v. t. See Catechise.

Cat"e*chu (?), n. [See Cashoo.] (Chem.) A dry, brown, astringent extract, obtained by decoction and evaporation from the Acacia catechu, and several other plants growing in India. It contains a large portion of tannin or tannic acid, and is used in medicine and in the arts. It is also known by the names terra japonica, cutch, gambier, etc. Ure. Dunglison.

Cat`e*chu"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to catechu or its derivatives. See catechin.

Cat"e*chu`men (?), n. [L. catechunenus, Gr. &?; instructed, from &?;. See Catechise.] (Eccl.) One who is receiving rudimentary instruction in the doctrines of Christianity; a neophyte; in the primitive church, one officially recognized as a Christian, and admitted to instruction preliminary to admission to full membership in the church.

Cat`e*chu"men*ate (?), n. The state or condition of a catechumen or the time during which one is a catechumen.

Cat`e*chu*men"i*cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to catechumens; as, catechumenical instructions.

Cat`e*chu"men*ist, n. A catechumen. Bp. Morton.

Cat`e*gor`e*mat"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; predicate. See Category.] (Logic.) Capable of being employed by itself as a term; -- said of a word.

Cat`e*gor"ic*al (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to a category.

2. Not hypothetical or relative; admitting no conditions or exceptions; declarative; absolute; positive; express; as, a categorical proposition, or answer.

The scriptures by a multitude of categorical and intelligible decisions . . . distinguish between the things seen and temporal and those that are unseen and eternal. I. Taylor.

Cat`e*gor"ic*al*ly, adv. Absolutely; directly; expressly; positively; as, to affirm categorically.

Cat`e*gor"ic*al*ness, n. The quality of being categorical, positive, or absolute. A. Marvell.

Cat"e*go*rist (?), n. One who inserts in a category or list; one who classifies. Emerson.

Cat"e*go*rize (?), v. t. To insert in a category or list; to class; to catalogue.

Cat"e*go*ry (?), n.; pl. Categories (#). [L. categoria, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to accuse, affirm, predicate; &?; down, against + &?; to harrangue, assert, fr. &?; assembly.] 1. (Logic.) One of the highest classes to which the objects of knowledge or thought can be reduced, and by which they can be arranged in a system; an ultimate or undecomposable conception; a predicament.

The categories or predicaments -- the former a Greek word, the latter its literal translation in the Latin language -- were intended by Aristotle and his followers as an enumeration of all things capable of being named; an enumeration by the summa genera i.e., the most extensive classes into which things could be distributed. J. S. Mill.

2. Class; also, state, condition, or predicament; as, we are both in the same category.

There is in modern literature a whole class of writers standing within the same category. De Quincey.

Cat"el (?), n. [See Chattel.] Property; -- often used by Chaucer in contrast with rent, or income.

"For loss of catel may recovered be, But loss of tyme shendeth us," quod he. Chaucer.

Cat`e*lec"trode (?), n. [Pref. cata + elecrode.] (Physics) The negative electrode or pole of a voltaic battery. Faraday.

Cat`e*lec`tro*ton"ic (?), a. (Physics) Relating to, or characterized by, catelectrotonus.

||Cat`e*lec*trot"o*nus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; down + &?; (see Electro-) + &?; tone.] (Physics) The condition of increased irritability of a nerve in the region of the cathode or negative electrode, on the passage of a current of electricity through it.

||Ca*te"na (?), n.; pl. Catene (#). [L., a chain.] A chain or series of things connected with each other.

I have . . . in no case sought to construct those catenæ of games, which it seems now the fashion of commentators to link together. C. J. Ellicott.

{ Cat"e*na*ry (?), Cat`e*na"ri*an (?), } a. [L. catenarius, fr. catena a chain. See Chain.] Relating to a chain; like a chain; as, a catenary curve.

Cat"e*na*ry, n.; pl. Catenaries (&?;). (Geol.) The curve formed by a rope or chain of uniform density and perfect flexibility, hanging freely between two points of suspension, not in the same vertical line.

Cat"e*nate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Catenated; p. pr. & vb. n. Catenating.] [L. catenatus, p. p. of catenare, fr. catena chain. See Chain.] To connect, in a series of links or ties; to chain. E. Darwin.

Cat`e*na"tion (?), n. [L. catenatio.] Connection of links or union of parts, as in a chain; a regular or connected series. See Concatenation. Sir T. Browne.

Ca*ten"u*late (?), a. [L. catenuia, dim. of catena chain.] 1. Consisting of little links or chains.

2. (Zoöl.) Chainlike; -- said both or color marks and of indentations when arranged like the links of a chain, as on shells, etc.

Ca"ter (?), n. [OE. catour purchaser, caterer, OF. acator, fr. acater, F. acheter, to buy, provide, fr. LL. accaptare; L. ad + captare to strive, to seize, intens, of capere to take, seize. Cf. Acater, Capacious.] A provider; a purveyor; a caterer. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ca"ter, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Catered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Catering.] [From Cater, n.] 1. To provide food; to buy, procure, or prepare provisions.

[He] providently caters for the sparrow. Shak.

2. By extension: To supply what is needed or desired, at theatrical or musical entertainments; -- followed by for or to.

Ca"ter, n. [F. quatre four.] The four of cards or dice.

Ca"ter, v. t. To cut diagonally. [Obs.] Halliwell.

Cat"e*ran (?), n. [Gael. ceatharnach. Cf. Kern Irish foot soldier.] A Highland robber: a kind of irregular soldier. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

Ca"ter-cor`nered (?), a. [Cf. Cater to cut diagonally.] Diagonal. [Colloq.]

Ca"ter-cous`in (?), n. A remote relation. See Quater-cousin. Shak.

Ca"ter*er (?), n. One who caters.

The little fowls in the air have God for Their provider and caterer. Shelton.

Ca"ter*ess, n. A woman who caters. Milton.

Cat"er*pil`lar (?), n. [OE. catyrpel, corrupted fr. OF. chatepelouse, or cate pelue, fr. chate, F. chatte, she-cat, fem. of chat, L. catus + L. pilosus hairy, or F. pelu hairy, fr. L. pilus hair. See Cat, and Pile hair.] 1. (Zoöl.) The larval state of a butterfly or any lepidopterous insect; sometimes, but less commonly, the larval state of other insects, as the sawflies, which are also called false caterpillars. The true caterpillars have three pairs of true legs, and several pairs of abdominal fleshy legs (prolegs) armed with hooks. Some are hairy, others naked. They usually feed on leaves, fruit, and succulent vegetables, being often very destructive, Many of them are popularly called worms, as the cutworm, cankerworm, army worm, cotton worm, silkworm.

2. (Bot.) A plant of the genus Scorpiurus, with pods resembling caterpillars.

Caterpillar catcher, or Caterpillar eater (Zoöl.), a bird belonging to the family of Shrikes, which feeds on caterpillars. The name is also given to several other birds. -- Caterpillar hunter (Zoöl.), any species of beetles of the genus Callosoma and other allied genera of the family Carabidæ which feed habitually upon caterpillars.

Cat"er*waul (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caterwauled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caterwauling.] [Cat + waul, wawl, to cry as a cat.] To cry as cats in rutting time; to make a harsh, offensive noise. Coleridge.

Cat"er*waul, n. A caterwauling.

Cat"er*waul`ing, n. The cry of cats; a harsh, disagreeable noise or cry like the cry of cats. Shak.

Ca"ter*y (?), n. [See Cater, n.] The place where provisions are deposited. [Obs.]

Cates (?), n. pl. [Cf. Acates, and see Cater, n.] Provisions; food; viands; especially, luxurious food; delicacies; dainties. Shak.

Cates for which Apicius could not pay. Shurchill.

Choicest cates and the fiagon's best spilth. R. Browning.

Cat"-eyed` (?), a. Having eyes like a cat; hence, able to see in the dark.

Cat"fall` (?), n. (Naut.) A rope used in hoisting the anchor to the cathead. Totten.

Cat"fish` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A name given in the United States to various species of siluroid fishes; as, the yellow cat (Amiurus natalis); the bind cat (Gronias nigrilabrus); the mud cat (Pilodictic oilwaris), the stone cat (Noturus flavus); the sea cat (Arius felis), etc. This name is also sometimes applied to the wolf fish. See Bullhrad.

Cat"gut` (?), n. [Cat + gut.] 1. A cord of great toughness made from the intestines of animals, esp. of sheep, used for strings of musical instruments, etc.

2. A sort of linen or canvas, with wide interstices.

Cath"a*rine wheel` (?). See catherine wheel.

Cath"a*rist (?), n. [LL. catharista, fr. Gr. &?; clean, pure.] One aiming at or pretending to a greater purity of like than others about him; -- applied to persons of various sects. See Albigenses.

Cat"-harp`in (?), n. See Cat-harping.

Cat"-harp`ing n. (Naut.) One of the short ropes or iron cramps used to brace in the shrouds toward the masts so a to give freer sweep to the yards.

||Ca*thar"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;. See Cathartic.] (Med.) A natural or artificial purgation of any passage, as of the mouth, bowels, etc.

{ Ca*thar"tic (?), Ca*thar"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to cleanse, fr. &?; pure; akin to F. chaste.] 1. (Med.) Cleansing the bowels; promoting evacuations by stool; purgative.

2. Of or pertaining to the purgative principle of senna, as cathartic acid.

Ca*thar"tic, n. [Gr. &?;.] (Med.) A medicine that promotes alvine discharges; a purge; a purgative of moderate activity.

&fist; The cathartics are more energetic and certain in action that the laxatives, which simply increase the tendency to alvine evacuation; and less powerful and irritaint that the drastic purges, which cause profuse, repeated, and watery evacuations.

-- Ca*thar"tic*al*ly, adv. -- Ca*thar"tic*al*ness, n.

ca*thar"tin (?), n. (Chem.) The bitter, purgative principle of senna. It is a glucoside with the properties of a weak acid; -- called also cathartic acid, and cathartina.

Ca*thay" (?), n. China; -- an old name for the Celestial Empire, said have been introduced by Marco Polo and to be a corruption of the Tartar name for North China (Khitai, the country of the Khitans.)

Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay. Tennyson.

Cat"head` (?), n. (Naut.) A projecting piece of timber or iron near the bow of vessel, to which the anchor is hoisted and secured.

||Cath"e*dra (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; seat. See Chair.] The official chair or throne of a bishop, or of any person in high authority.

Ex cathedra [L., from the chair], in the exercise of one's office; with authority.

The Vatican Council declares that the Pope, is infallible "when he speaks ex cathedra." Addis & Arnold's Cath. Dict.

Ca*the"dral (?), n. [LL. cathedralis (sc. ecclesia): cf. F. cathédrale. See Cathedra.] The principal church in a diocese, so called because in it the bishop has his official chair (Cathedra) or throne.

Ca*the"dral, a. [LL. cathedralis: cf. F. cathédral.]

1. Pertaining to the head church of a diocese; as, a cathedral church; cathedral service.

2. Emanating from the chair of office, as of a pope or bishop; official; authoritative.

Now, what solemnity can be more required for the pope to make a cathedral determination of an article! Jer. Taylor.

3. Resembling the aisles of a cathedral; as, cathedral walks. Pope.

Cath`e*dral"ic (?), a. Cathedral. [R.]

Cath`e*dra"ted (?), a. [From Cathedra.] Relating to the chair or office of a teacher. [Obs.]

Cath`e*ret"ic (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to bring down or raze; &?; down + &?; to take.] (Med.) A mild kind caustic used to reduce warts and other excrescences. Dunglison.

Cath"er*ine wheel` (?). [So called from St. Catherine of Alexandria, who is represented with a wheel, in allusion to her martyrdom.] 1. (Geoth.Arth.) Same as Rose window and Wheel window. Called also Catherine-wheel window.

2. (Pyrotechny) A revolving piece of fireworks resembling in form the window of the same name. [Written also Catharine wheel.]

Cath"e*ter (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; a thing let down or put in, catheter, fr. &?; to send down, to let down; &?; + &?; to send.] (Med.) The name of various instruments for passing along mucous canals, esp. applied to a tubular instrument to be introduced into the bladder through the urethra to draw off the urine.

Eustachian catheter. See under Eustachian. -- Prostatic catheter, one adapted for passing an enlarged prostate.

{ Cath"e*ter*ism (?), Cath`e*ter*i*za"tion (?), } n. (Med.) The operation of introducing a catheter.

Cath"e*ter*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Catheterized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Catheterizing.] (Med.) To operate on with a catheter. Dunglison.

Cath`e*tom"e*ter (?), n. [From Gr. &?; vertical height + -meter.] An instrument for the accurate measurement of small differences of height; esp. of the differences in the height of the upper surfaces of two columns of mercury or other fluid, or of the same column at different times. It consists of a telescopic leveling apparatus (d), which slides up or down a perpendicular metallic standard very finely graduated (bb). The telescope is raised or depressed in order to sight the objects or surfaces, and the differences in vertical height are thus shown on the graduated standard. [Written also kathetometer.]

||Cath"e*tus (?), n.; pl. catheti (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?; a perpendicular line, fr. &?; let down, fr. &?;. See Catheter.] (Geom.) One line or radius falling perpendicularly on another; as, the catheti of a right-angled triangle, that is, the two sides that include the right angle. Barlow.

Cath"ode (?), n. [Gr. &?; descent; &?; down + &?; way.] (Physics) The part of a voltaic battery by which the electric current leaves substances through which it passes, or the surface at which the electric current passes out of the electrolyte; the negative pole; -- opposed to anode. Faraday.

Cathode ray (Phys.), a kind of ray generated at the cathode in a vacuum tube, by the electrical discharge.

Ca*thod"ic (k&adot;*th&obreve;d"&ibreve;k), a. (Physiol.) A term applied to the centrifugal, or efferent, course of the nervous influence. Marshall Hall.

Cat"-hole` (kăt"hōl`), n. (Naut.) One of two small holes astern, above the gunroom ports, through which hawsers may be passed.

Cath"o*lic (kăth"&osl;*&ibreve;k), a. [L. catholicus, Gr. kaqoliko`s, universal, general; kata` down, wholly + "o`los whole, probably akin to E. solid: cf. F. catholique.] 1. Universal or general; as, the catholic faith.

Men of other countries [came] to bear their part in so great and catholic a war. Southey.

&fist; This epithet, which is applicable to the whole Christian church, or its faith, is claimed by Roman Catholics to belong especially to their church, and in popular usage is so limited.

2. Not narrow-minded, partial, or bigoted; liberal; as, catholic tastes.

3. Of or pertaining to, or affecting the Roman Catholics; as, the Catholic emancipation act.

Catholic epistles, the epistles of the apostles which are addressed to all the faithful, and not to a particular church; being those of James, Peter, Jude, and John.

Cath"o*lic, n. 1. A person who accepts the creeds which are received in common by all parts of the orthodox Christian church.

2. An adherent of the Roman Catholic church; a Roman Catholic.

Old Catholic, the name assumed in 1870 by members of the Roman Catholic church, who denied the ecumenical character of the Vatican Council, and rejected its decrees, esp. that concerning the infallibility of the pope, as contrary to the ancient Catholic faith.

Ca*thol"i*cal (?), a. Catholic. [Obs.]

Ca*thol"i*cism (?), n. [Cf. F. catholicisme.]

1. The state or quality of being catholic or universal; catholicity. Jer. Taylor.

2. Liberality of sentiment; breadth of view.

3. The faith of the whole orthodox Christian church, or adherence thereto.

4. The doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto.

Cath`o*lic"i*ty (?), n. 1. The state or quality of being catholic; universality.

2. Liberality of sentiments; catholicism.

3. Adherence or conformity to the system of doctrine held by all parts of the orthodox Christian church; the doctrine so held; orthodoxy.

4. Adherence to the doctrines of the church of Rome, or the doctrines themselves.

Ca*thol"i*cize (?), v. t. & i. To make or to become catholic or Roman Catholic.

Cath"o*lic*ly (?), adv. In a catholic manner; generally; universally. Sir L. Cary.

Cath"o*lic*ness, n. The quality of being catholic; universality; catholicity.

Ca*thol"i*con (?), n. [Gr. &?;, neut. &?;, universal. See Catholic.] (Med.) A remedy for all diseases; a panacea.

||Ca*thol"i*cos (?), n. [NL. See Catholic.] (Eccl.) The spiritual head of the Armenian church, who resides at Etchmiadzin, Russia, and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over, and consecrates the holy oil for, the Armenians of Russia, Turkey, and Persia, including the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Sis.

&fist; The Patriarch of Constantinople is the civil head of the Armenians in Turkey.

Cat`i*li*na"ri*an (?), a. [L. Catilinarius.] Pertaining to Catiline, the Roman conspirator; resembling Catiline's conspiracy.

Cat"i*on (?), n. [Gr. &?; downward + &?; going, p. pr. of &?; to go.] (Chem.) An electro-positive substance, which in electro-decomposition is evolved at the cathode; -- opposed to anion. Faraday.

Cat"kin (?), n. [Cat + - kin.] (Bot.) An ament; a species of inflorescence, consisting of a slender axis with many unisexual apetalous flowers along its sides, as in the willow and poplar, and (as to the staminate flowers) in the chestnut, oak, hickory, etc. -- so called from its resemblance to a cat's tail. See Illust. of Ament.

Cat"like` (?), a. Like a cat; stealthily; noiselessly.

Cat"ling (?), n. [Cat + - ing.] 1. A little cat; a kitten. "Cat nor catling." Drummond.

2. Catgut; a catgut string. [R.] Shak.

3. (Surg.) A double-edged, sharp- pointed dismembering knife. [Spelt also catlin.] Crobb.

Cat"lin*ite (?), n. [From George Catlin, an American traveler.] A red clay from the Upper Missouri region, used by the Indians for their pipes.

{ Cat"nip` (?), Cat"mint` (?), } n. (Bot.) A well-know plant of the genus Nepeta (N. Cataria), somewhat like mint, having a string scent, and sometimes used in medicine. It is so called because cats have a peculiar fondness for it.

Cat`o-ca*thar"tic (?), n. [Gr. &?; down + &?; serving to purge. See Cathartic.] (Med.) A remedy that purges by alvine discharges.

Ca*to"ni*an (?), a. [L. Catonionus.] Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the stern old Roman, Cato the Censor; severe; inflexible.

Cat" o' nine" tails`. See under Cat.

{ Ca*top"ter (?), Ca*top"tron (?), } n. [Gr. &?; mirror, fr. &?; visible.] A reflecting optical glass or instrument; a mirror. [Obs.]

{ Ca*top"tric (?), Ca*top"tric*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;. See Catopter.] Of or pertaining to catoptrics; produced by reflection.

Catoptric light, a light in which the rays are concentrated by reflectors into a beam visible at a distance.

Ca*top"trics (?), n. [Cf. F. catoptrique. See Catropric.] (Physics) That part of optics which explains the properties and phenomena of reflected light, and particularly that which is reflected from mirrors or polished bodies; -- formerly called anacamptics.

Ca*top"tro*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. &?; mirror + -mancy. See Catopter.] (Antiq.) A species of divination, which was performed by letting down a mirror into water, for a sick person to look at his face in it. If his countenance appeared distorted and ghastly, it was an ill omen; if fresh and healthy, it was favorable.

Ca*top"tron (k&adot;*t&obreve;p"tr&obreve;n), n. [Obs.] See Catopter.

Cat`pipe" (kăt"pīp`), n. See Catcall.

Cat"-rigged` (?), a. Rigged like a catboat.

Cat"-salt` (?), n. A sort of salt, finely granulated, formed out of the bittern or leach brine.

Cat's"-eye` (kăts"ī`), n. (Min.) A variety of quartz or chalcedony, exhibiting opalescent reflections from within, like the eye of a cat. The name is given to other gems affording like effects, esp. the chrysoberyl.

Cat's`-foot (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Nepeta Glechoma) of the same genus with catnip; ground ivy.

Cat"-sil`ver (?), n. Mica. [Archaic]

Cats"kill pe`ri*od (?). (Geol.) The closing subdivision of the Devonian age in America. The rocks of this period are well developed in the Catskill mountains, and extend south and west under the Carboniferous formation. See the Diagram under Geology.

Cat"so (?), n.; pl. Catsos (#). [It. cazzo.] A base fellow; a rogue; a cheat. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Cat's"-paw` (?), n. 1. (Naut.) (a) A light transitory air which ruffles the surface of the water during a calm, or the ripples made by such a puff of air. (b) A particular hitch or turn in the bight of a rope, into which a tackle may be hooked.

2. A dupe; a tool; one who, or that which, is used by another as an instrument to a accomplish his purposes.

&fist; In this sense the term refers to the fable of the monkey using the cat's paw to draw the roasting chestnuts out of the fire.

Cat's"-tail (?), n. See Timothy, Cat-tail, Cirrus.

Cat"stick` (?), n. A stick or club employed in the game of ball called cat or tipcat. Massinger.

Cat"stitch (?), v. t. (Needlework) To fold and sew down the edge of with a coarse zigzag stitch.

Cat"sup (?), n. Same as Catchup, and Ketchup.

Cat"-tail (?), n. (Bot.) A tall rush or flag (Typha latifolia) growing in marshes, with long, flat leaves, and having its flowers in a close cylindrical spike at the top of the stem. The leaves are frequently used for seating chairs, making mats, etc. See Catkin.

&fist; The lesser cat-tail is Typha angustifolia.

Cat"tish (kăt"t&ibreve;sh), a. Catlike; feline Drummond.

Cat"tle (kăt"t'l), n. pl. [OE. calet, chatel, goods, property, OF. catel, chatel, LL. captale, capitale, goods, property, esp. cattle, fr. L. capitals relating to the head, chief; because in early ages beasts constituted the chief part of a man's property. See Capital, and cf. Chattel.] Quadrupeds of the Bovine family; sometimes, also, including all domestic quadrupeds, as sheep, goats, horses, mules, asses, and swine.

Belted cattle, Black cattle. See under Belted, Black. -- Cattle guard, a trench under a railroad track and alongside a crossing (as of a public highway). It is intended to prevent cattle from getting upon the track. -- cattle louse (Zoöl.), any species of louse infecting cattle. There are several species. The Hæmatatopinus eurysternus and H. vituli are common species which suck blood; Trichodectes scalaris eats the hair. -- Cattle plague, the rinderpest; called also Russian cattle plague. -- Cattle range, or Cattle run, an open space through which cattle may run or range. [U. S.] Bartlett. -- Cattle show, an exhibition of domestic animals with prizes for the encouragement of stock breeding; -- usually accompanied with the exhibition of other agricultural and domestic products and of implements.

Cat"ty (?), n. [Malay katī. See Caddy.] An East Indian Weight of 1⅓ pounds.

Cau*ca"sian (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to the Caucasus, a mountainous region between the Black and Caspian seas.

2. Of or pertaining to the white races of mankind, of whom the people about Mount Caucasus were formerly taken as the type.

Cau*ca"sian, n. 1. A native or inhabitant of the Caucasus, esp. a Circassian or Georgian.

2. A member of any of the white races of mankind.

Cau"cus (?), n. [Etymology uncertain. Mr. J. H. Trumbull finds the origin of caucus in the N. A. Indian word cawcawwassough or caú cau-as'u one who urges or pushes on, a promoter. See citation for an early use of the word caucus.] A meeting, especially a preliminary meeting, of persons belonging to a party, to nominate candidates for public office, or to select delegates to a nominating convention, or to confer regarding measures of party policy; a political primary meeting.

This day learned that the caucus club meets, at certain times, in the garret of Tom Dawes, the adjutant of the Boston regiment. John Adams's Diary [Feb. , 1763].

Cau"cus, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caucused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caucusing.] To hold, or meet in, a caucus or caucuses.

Cau"dad (?), adv. [L. cauda tail + ad to.] (Zoöl.) Backwards; toward the tail or posterior part.

||Cau"da gal*li, (&?;). [L., tail of a cock.] (Paleon.) A plume-shaped fossil, supposed to be a seaweed, characteristic of the lower Devonian rocks; as, the cauda galli grit.

Cauda galli epoch (Geol.), an epoch at the begining of the Devonian age in eastern America, so named from the characteristic gritty sandstone marked with impressions of cauda galli. See the Diagram under Geology.

Cau"dal (?), a. [L. Cauda tail. Cf. Coward.] Of the nature of, or pertaining to, a tail; having a tail-like appendage.

The male widow-bird, remarkable for his caudal plumes. Darwin.

Caudal fin (Zoöl.), the terminal fin (or "tail") of a fish.

||Cau*da"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. cauda tail.] (Zoöl.) See Urodela.

{ Cau"date (?), Cau"da*ted (?). } a. [L. cauda tail.] Having a tail; having a termination like a tail.

||Cau"dex (?), n.; pl. L. Caudices (#), E. Caudexes (#). [L.] (Bot.) The stem of a tree., esp. a stem without a branch, as of a palm or a tree fern; also, the perennial rootstock of an herbaceous plant.

{ Cau"di*cle (?), ||Cau*dic"u*la (?), } n. [Dim. of L. cauda tail, appendage.] (Bot.) A slender, elastic process, to which the masses of pollen in orchidaceous plants are attached.

Cau"dle (?), n. [OF. caudel, F. chaudeau, dim. of LL calidum a sweet drink, fr. L. caidus warm. See Caldron.] A kind of warm drink for sick persons, being a mixture of wine with eggs, bread, sugar, and spices.

Cau"dle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caudled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caudling (?).] 1. To make into caudle.

2. Too serve as a caudle to; to refresh. [R.] Shak.

Cauf (?), n. [Perh. akin to Celtic caff, cav, cau, L. cavus hollow, or to L. caphinus, Gr. &?; basket.] A chest with holes for keeping fish alive in water. Philips.

Cau"fle, n. A gang of slaves. Same as Coffle.

Caught (k&add;t), imp. & p. p. of Catch.

{ Cauk (k&add;k), n., Cauk"er (-&etilde;r), } n. See Cawk, Calker.

Caul (k&add;l), n. [OE. calle, kelle, prob. fr. F. cale; cf. Ir. calla a veil.] 1. A covering of network for the head, worn by women; also, a net. Spenser.

2. (Anat.) The fold of membrane loaded with fat, which covers more or less of the intestines in mammals; the great omentum. See Omentum.

The caul serves for the warming of the lower belly. Ray.

3. A part of the amnion, one of the membranes enveloping the fetus, which sometimes is round the head of a child at its birth.

It is deemed lucky to be with a caul or membrane over the face. This caul is esteemed an infallible preservative against drowning . . . According to Chysostom, the midwives frequently sold it for magic uses. Grose.

I was born with a caul, which was advertised for sale, in the newspapers, at the low price of fifteen guineas. Dickens.

Cau*les"cent (?), a. [L. caulis stalk, stem: cf. F. caulescent.] (Bot.) Having a leafy stem.

Cau"li*cle (?), n. (Bot.) A short caulis or stem, esp. the rudimentary stem seen in the embryo of seed; -- otherwise called a radicle.

||Cau*lic"u*lus (k&add;*l&ibreve;k"&usl;*lŭs), n.; pl. Cauliculi (- lī). [L. cauliculus little stalk, dim. of caulis.] (Arch.) In the Corinthian capital, one of the eight stalks rising out of the lower leafage and terminating in leaves which seem to support the volutes. See Illust. of Corinthian order, under Corinthian.

Cau"li*flow`er (?), n. [F. choufleur, modified by E. Cole. L. caulis, and by E. flower; F. chou cabbage is fr. L. caulis stalk, cabbage, and fleur flower is fr. L. flos flower. See Cole, and Flower.] 1. (Bot.) An annual variety of Brassica oleracea, or cabbage, of which the cluster of young flower stalks and buds is eaten as a vegetable.

2. The edible head or "curd" of a cauliflower plant.

Cau"li*form (?), a. [L. caulis + -form.] (Bot.) Having the form of a caulis.

Cau"line (?), a. (Bot.) Growing immediately on a caulis; of or pertaining to a caulis.

||Cau"lis (?), n.; L. pl. Caules (#). [L., a stem.] (Bot.) An herbaceous or woody stem which bears leaves, and may bear flowers.

Caulk (?), v. t. & n. See Calk.

Cau`lo*car"pous (?), a. [Gr. &?; stem + karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) Having stems which bear flowers and fruit year after year, as most trees and shrubs.

||Cau"ma (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; a burning heat.] (Med.) Great heat, as of the body in fever.

Cau"po*nize (?), v. i. [L. cauponari, fr. caupo huckster, innkeeper.] To sell wine or victuals. [Obs.] Warburfon.

Caus"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being caused.

Caus"al (?), a. [L. causalis. See Cause.] Relating to a cause or causes; inplying or containing a cause or causes; expressing a cause; causative.

Causal propositions are where two propositions are joined by causal words. Watts.

Caus"al, n. A causal word or form of speech.

Anglo-Saxon drencan to drench, causal of Anglo-Saxon drincan to drink. Skeat.

Cau*sal"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Causalities (&?;). 1. The agency of a cause; the action or power of a cause, in producing its effect.

The causality of the divine mind. Whewell.

2. (Phren.) The faculty of tracing effects to their causes. G. Combe.

Caus"al*ly (?), adv. According to the order or series of causes; by tracing effects to causes.

Caus"al*ly (?), n. (Mining.) The lighter, earthy parts of ore, carried off washing.

Cau*sa"tion (?), n. The act of causing; also the act or agency by which an effect is produced.

The kind of causation by which vision is produced. Whewell.

Law of universal causation, the theoretical or asserted law that every event or phenomenon results from, or is the sequel of, some previous event or phenomenon, which being present, the other is certain to take place.

Cau*sa"tion*ist, n. One who believes in the law of universal causation.

Caus"a*tive (?), a. [L. causativus pertaining to a lawsuit (causa), but in the English sense from E. cause.] 1. Effective, as a cause or agent; causing.

Causative in nature of a number of effects. Bacon.

2. Expressing a cause or reason; causal; as, the ablative is a causative case.

Caus"a*tive (k&add;"z&adot;*t&ibreve;v), n. A word which expresses or suggests a cause.

Caus"a*tive*ly, adv. In a causative manner.

Cau*sa"tor (k&add;*zā"t&obreve;r), n. [See Cause.] One who causes. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Cause (k&add;z), n. [F. cause, fr. L. causa. Cf. Cause, v., Kickshaw.] 1. That which produces or effects a result; that from which anything proceeds, and without which it would not exist.

Cause is substance exerting its power into act, to make one thing begin to be. Locke.

2. That which is the occasion of an action or state; ground; reason; motive; as, cause for rejoicing.

3. Sake; interest; advantage. [Obs.]

I did it not for his cause. 2 Cor. vii. 12.

4. (Law) A suit or action in court; any legal process by which a party endeavors to obtain his claim, or what he regards as his right; case; ground of action.

5. Any subject of discussion or debate; matter; question; affair in general.

What counsel give you in this weighty cause! Shak.

6. The side of a question, which is espoused, advocated, and upheld by a person or party; a principle which is advocated; that which a person or party seeks to attain.

God befriend us, as our cause is just. Shak.

The part they take against me is from zeal to the cause. Burke.

Efficient cause, the agent or force that produces a change or result. -- Final cause, the end, design, or object, for which anything is done. -- Formal cause, the elements of a conception which make the conception or the thing conceived to be what it is; or the idea viewed as a formative principle and coöperating with the matter. -- Material cause, that of which anything is made. -- Proximate cause. See under Proximate. -- To make common cause with, to join with in purposes and aims. Macaulay.

Syn. -- Origin; source; mainspring; motive; reason; incitement; inducement; purpose; object; suit; action.

Cause, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caused (?); p. pr. & v. n. Causing.] [F. causer, fr. cause, fr. L. causa. See Cause, n., and cf. Acouse.] To effect as an agent; to produce; to be the occasion of; to bring about; to bring into existence; to make; -- usually followed by an infinitive, sometimes by that with a finite verb.

I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days. Gen. vii. 4.

Cause that it be read also in the church of the Laodiceans. Col. iv. 16.

Syn. -- To create; produce; beget; effect; occasion; originate; induce; bring about.

Cause, v. i. To assign or show cause; to give a reason; to make excuse. [Obs.] Spenser.

Cause, conj. Abbreviation of Because. B. Jonson.

Cause"ful (?), n. Having a cause. [Obs.]

Cause"less, a. 1. Self- originating; uncreated.

2. Without just or sufficient reason; groundless.

My fears are causeless and ungrounded. Denham.

Cause"less, adv. Without cause or reason.

Cause"less*ness, n. The state of being causeless.

Caus"er (?), n. One who or that which causes.

||Cau`seuse" (k&osl;`z&etilde;z"), n. [F., fr. causer to talk.] A kind of sofa for two persons. A tête-à- tête.

{ Cause"way (k&add;z"w&asl;), Cau"sey ((k&add;"z&ybreve;), } n. [OE. cauci, cauchie, OF. cauchie, F. chaussée, from LL. (via) calciata, fr calciare to make a road, either fr. L. calx lime, hence, to pave with limestone (cf. E. chalk), or from L. calceus shoe, from calx heel, hence, to shoe, pave, or wear by treading.] A way or road raised above the natural level of the ground, serving as a dry passage over wet or marshy ground.

But that broad causeway will direct your way. Dryden.

The other way Satan went down The causey to Hell-gate. Milton.

{ Cause"wayed (?), Cau"seyed (?). } a. Having a raised way (causeway or causey); paved. Sir W. Scott. C. Bronté.

Cau*sid"i*cal (?), a. [L. causidicakis; causa a cause in law + dicare to say.] Pertaining to an advocate, or to the maintenance and defense of suits.

{ Caus"tic (?), Caus"tic*al (?), } a. [L. caustucs, Ge. &?;, fr. &?; to burn. Cf. Calm, Ink.] 1. Capable of destroying the texture of anything or eating away its substance by chemical action; burning; corrosive; searing.

2. Severe; satirical; sharp; as, a caustic remark.

Caustic curve (Optics), a curve to which the ray of light, reflected or refracted by another curve, are tangents, the reflecting or refracting curve and the luminous point being in one plane. -- Caustic lime. See under Lime. -- Caustic potash, Caustic soda (Chem.), the solid hydroxides potash, KOH, and soda, NaOH, or solutions of the same. -- Caustic silver, nitrate of silver, lunar caustic. -- Caustic surface (Optics), a surface to which rays reflected or refracted by another surface are tangents. Caustic curves and surfaces are called catacaustic when formed by reflection, and diacaustic when formed by refraction.

Syn. -- Stinging; cutting; pungent; searching.

Cau"stic, n. [L. causticum (sc. medicamentum). See Caustic, a.] 1. Any substance or means which, applied to animal or other organic tissue, burns, corrodes, or destroys it by chemical action; an escharotic.

2. (Optics) A caustic curve or caustic surface.

Caus"tic*al*ly, adv. In a caustic manner.

Caus*tic"i*ly (?), n. 1. The quality of being caustic; corrosiveness; as, the causticity of potash.

2. Severity of language; sarcasm; as, the causticity of a reply or remark.

Caus"tic*ness (?), n. The quality of being caustic; causticity.

Cau"tel (?), n. [F. cautèle, L. cautela, fr. cavere to be on one's guard, to take care.] 1. Caution; prudence; wariness. [Obs.] Fulke.

2. Craft; deceit; falseness. [Obs.] Shak.

Cau"te*lous (?), a. [F. cauteleux, LL. cautelosus. See Cautel.] 1. Caution; prudent; wary. [Obs.] "Cautelous, though young." Drayton.

2. Crafty; deceitful; false. [Obs.] Shak.

-- Cau"te*lous*ly, adv. -- Cau"te*lous*ness, n. [Obs.]

Cau"ter (?), n. [F. cautère, L. cauterium, fr. Gr. &?; a branding iron, fr. &?; to burn. Cf. Caustic, Cautery.] A hot iron for searing or cauterizing. Minsheu.

Cau"ter*ant (?), n. A cauterizing substance.

Cau"ter*ism (?), n. The use or application of a caustic; cautery. Ferrand.

Cau`ter*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. cautèrisation.] (Med.) The act of searing some morbid part by the application of a cautery or caustic; also, the effect of such application.

Cau"ter*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cauterized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cauterizing.] [L. cauterizare, Gr. &?;, fr. a branding iron: cf. F. cautérised.. See cauter.] 1. To burn or sear with a cautery or caustic. Dunglison.

2. To sear, as the conscience. Jer. Taylor.

Cau"ter*y (?), n.; pl. Cauteries (#). [L. cauterium, Gr. &?;. See Cauter.] 1. (Med.) A burning or searing, as of morbid flesh, with a hot iron, or by application of a caustic that will burn, corrode, or destroy animal tissue.

2. The iron of other agent in cauterizing.

Actual cautery, a substance or agent (as a hot iron) which cauterizes or sears by actual heat; or the burning so effected. -- Potential cautery, a substance which cauterizes by chemical action; as, lunar caustic; also, the cauterizing produced by such substance.

Cau"tion (?), n. [F. caution a security, L. cautio, fr. cavere (For scavere) to be on one's guard, to take care (orig.) to be on the watch, see; akin to E. show.] 1. A careful attention to the probable effects of an act, in order that failure or harm may be avoided; prudence in regard to danger; provident care; wariness.

2. Security; guaranty; bail. [R.]

The Parliament would yet give his majesty sufficient caution that the war should be prosecuted. Clarendon.

3. Precept or warning against evil of any kind; exhortation to wariness; advice; injunction.

In way of caution I must tell you. Shak.

Caution money, money deposited by way of security or guaranty, as by a student at an English university.

Syn. -- Care; forethought; forecast; heed; prudence; watchfulness; vigilance; circumspection; anxiety; providence; counsel; advice; warning; admonition.

Cau"tion v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cautioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cautioning.] To give notice of danger to; to warn; to exhort [one] to take heed.

You cautioned me against their charms. Swift.

Cau"tion*a*ry (?), a. 1. Conveying a caution, or warning to avoid danger; as, cautionary signals.

2. Given as a pledge or as security.

He hated Barnevelt, for his getting the cautionary towns out of his hands. Bp. Burnet.

3. Wary; cautious. [Obs.] Bacon.

Cau"tion*er (?), n. 1. One who cautions or advises.

2. (Scots Law) A surety or sponsor.

Cau"tion*ry (?), n. (Scots Law) Suretyship.

Cau"tious (?), a. [Cf. L. cautus, fr. caver. See Caution.] Attentive to examine probable effects and consequences of acts with a view to avoid danger or misfortune; prudent; circumspect; wary; watchful; as, a cautious general.

Cautious feeling for another's pain. Byron.

Be swift to hear; but cautious of your tongue. Watts.

Syn. -- Wary; watchful; vigilant; prudent; circumspect; discreet; heedful; thoughtful; scrupulous; anxious; careful. -- Cautious, Wary, Circumspect. A man is cautious who realizes the constant possibility of danger; one may be wary, and yet bold and active; a man who is circumspect habitually examines things on every side in order to weigh and deliberate. It is necessary to be cautious at all times; to be wary in cases of extraordinary danger; to be circumspect in matters of peculiar delicacy and difficulty.

Cau"tious*ly, adv. In a cautious manner.

Cau"tious*ness, n. The quality of being cautious.

Cav"al*cade` (?), n. [F. cavalcade, fr. It. cavalcata, fr. cavalcare to go on horseback, fr. LL. caballicare, fr. L. caballus an inferior horse, Gr. &?;. Cf. Cavalier, Cavalry.] A procession of persons on horseback; a formal, pompous march of horsemen by way of parade.

He brought back war-worn cavalcade to the city. Prescott.

{ Cav`a*le"ro, Cav`a*lie"ro (kăv`&adot;*lē"ro), } n. [Sp. caballero. See Cavalier.] A cavalier; a gallant; a libertine. Shak.

Cav`a*lier" (kăv`&adot;*lēr"), n. [F. cavalier, It. cavaliere, LL. caballarius, fr. L. caballus. See Cavalcade, and cf. Chevalier, Caballine.] 1. A military man serving on horseback; a knight.

2. A gay, sprightly, military man; hence, a gallant.

3. One of the court party in the time of king Charles I. as contrasted with a Roundhead or an adherent of Parliament. Clarendon.

4. (Fort.) A work of more than ordinary height, rising from the level ground of a bastion, etc., and overlooking surrounding parts.

Cav`a*lier", a. Gay; easy; offhand; frank.

The plodding, persevering scupulous accuracy of the one, and the easy, cavalier, verbal fluency of the other, form a complete contrast. Hazlitt.

2. High-spirited. [Obs.] "The people are naturally not valiant, and not much cavalier." Suckling.

3. Supercilious; haughty; disdainful; curt; brusque.

4. Of or pertaining to the party of King Charles I. "An old Cavalier family." Beaconsfield.

Cav`a*lier"ish (?), a. Somewhat like a cavalier.

Cav`a*lier"ism (?), n. The practice or principles of cavaliers. Sir. W. Scott.

Cav`a*lier"ly, adv. In a supercilious, disdainful, or haughty manner; arrogantly. Junius.

Cav`a*lier"ness, n. A disdainful manner.

Ca*val"ly (?), n. [Cf. Pg. cavalla a kind of fish; Sp. caballa; prob. fr. Pg. cavallo horse, Sp. caballa.] (Zoöl.) A carangoid fish of the Atlantic coast (Caranx hippos): -- called also horse crevallé. [See Illust. under Carangoid.]

Cav"al*ry (?), n. [F. cavalerie, fr. It. cavalleria. See Cavalier, and cf. chivalry.] (Mil.) That part of military force which serves on horseback.

&fist; Heavy cavalry and light cavalry are so distinguished by the character of their armament, and by the size of the men and horses.

Cav"al*ry*man (?), n.; pl. Cavalrymen (&?;). One of a body of cavalry.

||Ca`va*ti"na (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) Originally, a melody of simpler form than the aria; a song without a second part and a da capo; - - a term now variously and vaguely used.

Cave (kāv), n. [F. cave, L. cavus hollow, whence cavea cavity. Cf. Cage.] 1. A hollow place in the earth, either natural or artificial; a subterraneous cavity; a cavern; a den.

2. Any hollow place, or part; a cavity. [Obs.] "The cave of the ear." Bacon.

Cave bear (Zoöl.), a very large fossil bear (Ursus spelæus) similar to the grizzly bear, but large; common in European caves. -- Cave dweller, a savage of prehistoric times whose dwelling place was a cave. Tylor. -- Cave hyena (Zoöl.), a fossil hyena found abundanty in British caves, now usually regarded as a large variety of the living African spotted hyena. -- Cave lion (Zoöl.), a fossil lion found in the caves of Europe, believed to be a large variety of the African lion. -- Bone cave. See under Bone.

Cave, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caving.] [Cf. F. caver. See Cave, n.] To make hollow; to scoop out. [Obs.]

The mouldred earth cav'd the banke. Spenser.

Cave, v. i. 1. To dwell in a cave. [Obs.] Shak.

2. [See To cave in, below.] To fall in or down; as, the sand bank caved. Hence (Slang), to retreat from a position; to give way; to yield in a disputed matter.

To cave in. [Flem. inkalven.] (a) To fall in and leave a hollow, as earth on the side of a well or pit. (b) To submit; to yield. [Slang] H. Kingsley.

||Ca"ve*at (?), n. [L. caved let him beware, pres. subj. of cavere to be on one's guard to, beware.]

1. (Law) A notice given by an interested party to some officer not to do a certain act until the party is heard in opposition; as, a caveat entered in a probate court to stop the proving of a will or the taking out of letters of administration, etc. Bouvier.

2. (U. S. Patent Laws) A description of some invention, designed to be patented, lodged in the patent office before the patent right is applied for, and operating as a bar to the issue of letters patent to any other person, respecting the same invention.

&fist; A caveat is operative for one year only, but may be renewed.

3. Intimation of caution; warning; protest.

We think it right to enter our caveat against a conclusion. Jeffrey.

Caveat emptor [L.] (Law), let the purchaser beware, i. e., let him examine the article he is buying, and act on his own judgment.

Ca"ve*a`ting (?), n. (Fencing) Shifting the sword from one side of an adversary's sword to the other.

Ca"ve*a`tor (?), n. One who enters a caveat.

Cav"en*dish (?), n. Leaf tobacco softened, sweetened, and pressed into plugs or cakes.

Cut cavendish, the plugs cut into long shreds for smoking.

Cav"ern (?), n. [L. caverna, fr. cavus hollow: cf. F. caverne.] A large, deep, hollow place in the earth; a large cave.

Cav"erned (?), a. 1. Containing caverns.

The wolves yelled on the caverned hill. Byron.

2. Living in a cavern. "Caverned hermit." Pope.

Cav"ern*ous (?), a. [L. cavernosus: cf. F. caverneux.] 1. Full of caverns; resembling a cavern or large cavity; hollow.

2. Filled with small cavities or cells.

3. Having a sound caused by a cavity.

Cavernous body, a body of erectile tissue with large interspaces which may be distended with blood, as in the penis or clitoris. -- Cavernous respiration, a peculiar respiratory sound andible on auscultation, when the bronchial tubes communicate with morbid cavities in the lungs.

Ca*ver"nu*lous (?), a.[L. cavernula, dim. of caverna cavern.] Full of little cavities; as, cavernulous metal. Black.

{ Cav"es*son (?), Cav"e*zon (?), } n. [F. caveçon, augm. fr. LL. capitium a head covering hood, fr. L. caput head. Cf. Caberzon.] (Man.) A kind of noseband used in breaking and training horses. [Written also caveson, causson.] White.

||Ca*vet"to (k&adot;*v&ebreve;t"t&osl;), n. [It. cavetto, fr. cavo hollow, L. cavus.] (Arch.) A concave molding; -- used chiefly in classical architecture. See Illust. of Column.

{ Ca*viare" (?), Cav"i*ar (?), } n. [F. caviar, fr. It. caviale, fr. Turk. Havīār.] The roes of the sturgeon, prepared and salted; -- used as a relish, esp. in Russia.

&fist; Caviare was considered a delicacy, by some, in Shakespeare's time, but was not relished by most. Hence Hamlet says of a certain play. "'T was caviare to the general," i. e., above the taste of the common people.

Cav"i*corn (kăv"&ibreve;*kôrn), a. [L. cavus hollow + cornu horn.] (Zoöl.) Having hollow horns.

||Cav`i*cor"ni*a (kăv`&ibreve;*kôr"n&ibreve;*&adot;), n. pl. [NL.] (Zoöl.) A group of ruminants whose horns are hollow, and planted on a bony process of the front, as the ox.

Cav"il (kăv"&ibreve;l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caviled or Cavilled (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Caviling or Cavilling.] [L. cavillari to practice jesting, to censure, fr. cavilla bantering jests, sophistry: cf. OF. caviller.] To raise captious and frivolous objections; to find fault without good reason.

You do not well in obstinacy To cavil in the course of this contract. Shak.

Cav"il, v. t. To cavil at. [Obs.] Milton.

Cav"il, n. A captious or frivolous objection.

All the cavils of prejudice and unbelief. Shak.

{ Cav"il*er or Cav"il*ler (- &etilde;r), } n. One who cavils.

Cavilers at the style of the Scriptures. Boyle.

Cav"il*ing, a. Disposed to cavil; finding fault without good reason. See Captious.

His depreciatory and caviling criticism. Lewis.

Cav"il*ing*ly, adv. In a caviling manner.

Cav`il*la"tion (-lā"shŭn), n.[F. cavillation, L. cavillatio.] Frivolous or sophistical objection. [Obs.] Hooker.

{ Cav"il*ous or Cav"il*lous (?), } a. [L. cavillosus.] Characterized by caviling, or disposed to cavil; quibbing. [R.]

-- Cav"il*ous*ly, adv. [R.] -- Cav"il*ous*ness, n. [R.]

Cav"in (?), n. [F. See Cave.] (Mil.) A hollow way, adapted to cover troops, and facilitate their aproach to a place. Farrow.

Cav"i*ta*ry (?), a. (Zoöl.) Containing a body cavity; as, the cavitary or nematoid worms.

Cav"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Cavities (#). [L. cavus hollow: cf. F. cavité.] 1. Hollowness. [Obs.]

The cavity or hollowness of the place. Goodwin.

2. A hollow place; a hollow; as, the abdominal cavity.

An instrument with a small cavity, like a small spoon . Arbuthnot.

Abnormal spaces or excavations are frequently formed in the lungs, which are designated cavities or vomicæ. Quain.

Body cavity, the cœlum. See under Body.

Ca"vo-re*lie"vo (?), n. Cavo- rilievo.

||Ca"vo-ri*lie"vo (?), n. [It.] (Sculp.) Hollow relief; sculpture in relief within a sinking made for the purpose, so no part of it projects beyond the plain surface around.

Ca*vort" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cavorted; p. pr. & vb. n. Cavorting.] To prance ostentatiously; -- said of a horse or his rider. [Local slang, U. S.]

Ca"vy (?), n.; pl. Cavies (&?;). [NL. cavia, fr. Brazilian cabiai: cf. F. cabiai.] (Zoöl.) A rodent of the genera Cavia and Dolichotis, as the guinea pig (Cavia cobaya). Cavies are natives of South America.

Water cavy (Zoöl.), The capybara.

Caw (k&add;), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cawed (k&add;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Cawing.] [Imitative. √22 Cf. Chough.] To cry like a crow, rook, or raven.

Rising and cawing at the gun's report. Shak.

Caw, n. The cry made by the crow, rook, or raven.

Cawk (k&add;k), n. [Prov. E. cauk limestone. A doublet of chalk.] (Min.) An opaque, compact variety of barite, or heavy spar. [Also written cauk.]

Cawk"er (?), n. See Calker.

Cawk"y, a. Of or pertaining to cawk; like cawk.

Cax"on (?), n. A kind of wig. [Obs.] Lamb.

Cax"ton (?), n. (Bibliog.) Any book printed by William Caxton, the first English printer. Hansard.

Cay (?), n. See Key, a ledge.

Cay*enne (?), n. [From Cayenne, a town and island in French Guiana, South America.] Cayenne pepper.

Cayenne pepper. (a) (Bot.) A species of Capsicum (C. frutescens) with small and intensely pungent fruit. (b) A very pungent spice made by drying and grinding the fruits or seeds of several species of the genus Capsicum, esp. C. annuum and C. Frutescens; -- called also red pepper. It is used chiefly as a condiment.

Cay"man (kā"man), n. [From the language of Guiana: cf. Sp. caiman.] (Zoöl.) The south America alligator. See Alligator. [Sometimes written caiman.]

Ca*yu"gas (?), n. pl.; sing. Cayuga. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting western New-York, forming part of the confederacy called the Five Nations.

Cay*use" (?), n. An Indian pony. [Northw. U. S.]

{ Ca*zique", Ca*zic" } (?), n. [Sp. Cacique, fr. the language of Hayti.] A chief or petty king among some tribes of Indians in America.

Cease (sēs), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ceased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ceasing.] [OE. cessen, cesen, F. cesser, fr. L. cessare, v. intemsive fr. cedere to withdraw. See Cede , and cf. Cessation.] 1. To come to an end; to stop; to leave off or give over; to desist; as, the noise ceased. "To cease from strife." Prov. xx. 3.

2. To be wanting; to fail; to pass away.

The poor shall never cease out of the land. Deut. xv. 11.

Syn. -- To intermit; desist; stop; abstain; quit; discontinue; refrain; leave off; pause; end.

Cease, v. t. To put a stop to; to bring to an end.

But he, her fears to cease Sent down the meek-eyed peace. Milton.

Cease, then, this impious rage. Milton

Cease, n. Extinction. [Obs.] Shak.

Cease"less, a. Without pause or end; incessant.

Cease"less, adv. Without intermission or end.

||Cec`i*do*my"i*a (?), n. [Nl., fr. Gr. khki`s, &?;, a gall nut + myi^a a fly.] (Zoöl.) A genus of small dipterous files, including several very injurious species, as the Hessian fly. See Hessian fly.

Ce"ci*ty (?), n. [L. caecitas, fr. caecus blind: cf. F. cécité.] Blindness. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Ce*cu"tien*cy (?), n. [L. caecutire to be blind, fr. caecus blind.] Partial blindness, or a tendency to blindness. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Ce"dar (sē"d&etilde;r), n. [AS. ceder, fr. L. cedrus, Gr. ke`dros.] (Bot.) The name of several evergreen trees. The wood is remarkable for its durability and fragrant odor.

&fist; The cedar of Lebanon is the Cedrus Libani; the white cedar (Cupressus thyoides) is now called Chamœcyparis sphæroidea; American red cedar is the Juniperus Virginiana; Spanish cedar, the West Indian Cedrela odorata. Many other trees with odoriferous wood are locally called cedar.

Cedar bird (Zoöl.), a species of chatterer (Ampelis cedrorum), so named from its frequenting cedar trees; -- called also cherry bird, Canada robin, and American waxwing.

Ce"dar, a. Of or pertaining to cedar.

Ce"dared (?), a. Covered, or furnished with, cedars.

Ce"darn (?), a. Of or pertaining to the cedar or its wood. [R.]

Cede (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ceded; p. pr. & vb. n. Ceding.] [L. cedere to withdraw, yield; akin to cadere to fall, and to E. chance; cf. F. céder.] To yield or surrender; to give up; to resign; as, to cede a fortress, a province, or country, to another nation, by treaty.

The people must cede to the government some of their natural rights. Jay.

Ce*dil"la (?), n. [Sp. cedilla, cf. F. cédille; dim. of zeta, the Gr. name of the letter z, because this letter was formerly written after the c, to give it the sound of s.] A mark placed under the letter c [thus, ç], to show that it is to be sounded like s, as in façade.

Ce"drat (sē"drăt), n. [Cf. F. cédrat. See Cedar.] (Bot.) Properly the citron, a variety of Citrus medica, with large fruits, not acid, and having a high perfume.

Ce"drene (sē"drēn), n. (Chem.) A rich aromatic oil, C15H24, extracted from oil of red cedar, and regarded as a polymeric terpene; also any one of a class of similar substances, as the essential oils of cloves, cubebs, juniper, etc., of which cedrene proper is the type. [Written also cedren.]

Ce"drine (sē"dr&ibreve;n; 277), a. [L. cedrinus, Gr. &?;. See Cedar.] Of or pertaining to cedar or the cedar tree.

Ce"dri*ret (sē"dr&ibreve;*r&ebreve;t), n. Same as Cœrulignone.

Ce"dry (?), a. Of the nature of cedar. [R.]

Ced"ule (?), n. [F. cédule, fr. L. shedula. See Shedule.] A scroll; a writing; a schedule. [Obs.]

Ced"u*ous (?), a. [L. caeduus, fr. caedere to cut down.] Fit to be felled. [Obs.] Eyelyn.

Ceil (sēl), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ceiled (sēld); p. pr. & vb. n. Ceiling.] [From an older noun, fr. F. ciel heaven, canopy, fr. L. caelum heaven, vault, arch, covering; cf. Gr. koi^los hollow.] 1. To overlay or cover the inner side of the roof of; to furnish with a ceiling; as, to ceil a room.

The greater house he ceiled with fir tree. 2 Chron. iii. 5

2. To line or finish a surface, as of a wall, with plaster, stucco, thin boards, or the like.

Ceil"ing, n. [See Cell, v. t.] 1. (Arch.) (a) The inside lining of a room overhead; the under side of the floor above; the upper surface opposite to the floor. (b) The lining or finishing of any wall or other surface, with plaster, thin boards, etc.; also, the work when done.

2. (Naut.) The inner planking of a vessel.

Camp ceiling. See under Camp. -- Ceiling boards, Thin narrow boards used to ceil with.

Ceint (?), n. [See Cincture.] A girdle. [Obs.]

Cel"a*don (?), n. [F.] A pale sea-green color; also, porcelain or fine pottery of this tint.

Cel"an*dine (s&ebreve;l"ăn*dīn), n. [OE. celidoine, OF. celidoine, F. chélidoine, fr. L. chelidonia (sc. herba), fr. chelidonius pertaining to the swallow, Gr. chelido`nios, fr. chelidw`n the swallow, akin to L. hirundo a swallow.] (Bot.) A perennial herbaceous plant (Chelidonium majus) of the poppy family, with yellow flowers. It is used as a medicine in jaundice, etc., and its acrid saffron-colored juice is used to cure warts and the itch; -- called also greater celandine and swallowwort.

Lasser celandine, the pilewort (Ranunculus Ficaria).

Cel"a*ture (?), n. [L. caelatura, fr. caelare to engrave in relief.] 1. The act or art of engraving or embossing.

2. That which is engraved. [Obs.] Hakewill.

Cel"e*brant (?), n. [L. celebrans, p. pr. of celebrare. See Celebrate.] One who performs a public religious rite; -- applied particularly to an officiating priest in the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from his assistants.

Cel"e*brate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Celebrated; p. pr. & vb. n. Celebrating.] [L. celebratus, p. p. of celebrare to frequent, to celebrate, fr. celeber famous.] 1. To extol or honor in a solemn manner; as, to celebrate the name of the Most High.

2. To honor by solemn rites, by ceremonies of joy and respect, or by refraining from ordinary business; to observe duly; to keep; as, to celebrate a birthday.

From even unto even shall ye celebrate your Sabbath. Lev. xxiii. 32.

3. To perform or participate in, as a sacrament or solemn rite; to solemnize; to perform with appropriate rites; as, to celebrate a marriage.

Syn. -- To commemorate; distinguish; honor. -- To Celebrate, Commemorate. We commemorate events which we desire to keep in remembrance, when we recall them by some special observace; as, to commemorate the death of our Savior. We celebrate by demonstrations of joy or solemnity or by appropriate ceremonies; as, to celebrate the birthday of our Independence.

We are called upon to commemorate a revolution as surprising in its manner as happy in its consequences. Atterbury.

Earth, water, air, and fire, with feeling glee, Exult to celebrate thy festival. Thomson.

Cel"e*bra`ted (?), a. Having celebrity; distinguished; renowned.

Celebrated for the politeness of his manners. Macaulay.

Syn. -- Distinguished; famous; noted; famed; renowned; illustrious. See Distinguished.

Cel`e*bra"tion (?), n. [L. celebratio.] The act, process, or time of celebrating.

His memory deserving a particular celebration. Clarendok.

Celebration of Mass is equivalent to offering Mass Cath. Dict.

To hasten the celebration of their marriage. Sir P. Sidney.

Cel"e*bra`tor (?), n. [L.] One who celebrates; a praiser. Boyle.

Ce*le"bri*ous (?), a. Famous. [Obs.] Speed.

Ce*leb"ri*ty (?), n.; pl. Celebrities (#). [L. celebritas: cf. F. célébrité.] 1. Celebration; solemnization. [Obs.]

The celebrity of the marriage. Bacon.

2. The state or condition of being celebrated; fame; renown; as, the celebrity of Washington.

An event of great celebrity in the history of astronomy. Whewell.

3. A person of distinction or renown; -- usually in the plural; as, he is one of the celebrities of the place.

Ce*le"ri*ac (?), n. (Bot.) Turnip-rooted celery, a from of celery with a large globular root, which is used for food.

Ce*ler"i*ty (?), n. [L. celeritas, from celer swiftm speedy: sf. F. célérité.] Rapidity of motion; quickness; swiftness.

Time, with all its celerity, moves slowly to him whose whole employment is to watch its flight. Johnson.

Cel"er*y (?), n. [F. céleri, cf. Prov. It. seleno, seler; fr. Gr. &?; parsley, in Lgr. & NGr. celery. Cf. Parsley.] (Bot.) A plant of the Parsley family (Apium graveolens), of which the blanched leafstalks are used as a salad.

Ce*les"tial (?), a. [OF. celestial, celestied, fr. L. caelestic, fr. caelum heaved. See Cell.] 1. Belonging to the aërial regions, or visible heavens. "The twelve celestial signs." Shak.

2. Of or pertaining to the spiritual heaven; heavenly; divine. "Celestial spirits." "Celestial light," Milton.

Celestial city, heaven; the heavenly Jerusalem. Bunyan. -- Celestial empire, China; -- so called from the Chinese words, tien chan, Heavenly Dynasty, as being the kingdom ruled over by the dynasty appointed by heaven. S. W. Williams.

Ce*les"tial, n. 1. An inhabitant of heaven. Pope.

2. A native of China.

Ce*les"tial*ize (?), v. t. To make celestial. [R.]

Ce*les"tial*ly, adv. In a celestial manner.

Ce*les"ti*fy (?), v. t. [L. caelestis heavenly + -fly.] To make like heaven. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

{ Cel"es*tine (?), Cel"es*tite (?), }, n. [LL. caelestinus bine.] (Min.) Native strontium sulphate, a mineral so named from its occasional delicate blue color. It occurs crystallized, also in compact massive and fibrous forms.

{ Cel"es*tine (?), Cel`es*tin"i*an (?), } n. (Eccl. Hist.) A monk of the austere branch of the Franciscan Order founded by Celestine V. in the 13th centry.

Ce"li*ac (?), a. (Anat.) See Cœllac.

Ce*lib"a*cy (?), n. [See Celibate, n.] The state of being unmarried; single life, esp. that of a bachelor, or of one bound by vows not to marry. "The celibacy of the clergy." Hallom.

Cel"i*bate (?), n. [L. aelibatus, fr. caelebs unmarried, single.] 1. Celibate state; celibacy. [Obs.]

He . . . preferreth holy celibate before the estate of marriage. Jer. Taylor.

2. One who is unmarried, esp. a bachelor, or one bound by vows not to marry.

Cel"i*bate, a. Unmarried; single; as, a celibate state.

Ce*lib"a*tist (?), n. One who lives unmarried. [R.]

Cel`i*dog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?; stain, spot + -graphy: cf. F. célidographie.] A description of apparent spots on the disk of the sun, or on planets.

Cell (?), n. [OF. celle, fr. L. cella; akin to celare to hide, and E. hell, helm, conceal. Cf. Hall.] 1. A very small and close apartment, as in a prison or in a monastery or convent; the hut of a hermit.

The heroic confessor in his cell. Macaulay.

2. A small religious house attached to a monastery or convent. "Cells or dependent priories." Milman.

3. Any small cavity, or hollow place.

4. (Arch.) (a) The space between the ribs of a vaulted roof. (b) Same as Cella.

5. (Elec.) A jar of vessel, or a division of a compound vessel, for holding the exciting fluid of a battery.

6. (Biol.) One of the minute elementary structures, of which the greater part of the various tissues and organs of animals and plants are composed.

&fist; All cells have their origin in the primary cell from which the organism was developed. In the lowest animal and vegetable forms, one single cell constitutes the complete individual, such being called unicelluter orgamisms. A typical cell is composed of a semifluid mass of protoplasm, more or less granular, generally containing in its center a nucleus which in turn frequently contains one or more nucleoli, the whole being surrounded by a thin membrane, the cell wall. In some cells, as in those of blood, in the amœba, and in embryonic cells (both vegetable and animal), there is no restricting cell wall, while in some of the unicelluliar organisms the nucleus is wholly wanting. See Illust. of Bipolar.

Air cell. See Air cell. -- Cell development (called also cell genesis, cell formation, and cytogenesis), the multiplication, of cells by a process of reproduction under the following common forms; segmentation or fission, gemmation or budding, karyokinesis, and endogenous multiplication. See Segmentation, Gemmation, etc. -- Cell theory. (Biol.) See Cellular theory, under Cellular.

Cell (s&ebreve;l), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Celled (s&ebreve;ld).] To place or inclose in a cell. "Celled under ground." [R.] Warner.

||Cel"la (?), n. [L.] (Arch.) The part inclosed within the walls of an ancient temple, as distinguished from the open porticoes.

Cel"lar (?), n. [OE. celer, OF. celier, F. celier, fr. L. cellarium a receptacle for food, pantry, fr. cella storeroom. See Cell.] A room or rooms under a building, and usually below the surface of the ground, where provisions and other stores are kept.

Cel"lar*age (?), n. 1. The space or storerooms of a cellar; a cellar. Sir W. Scott.

You hear this fellow in the cellarage. Shak.

2. Chare for storage in a cellar.

Cel"lar*er (?), n. [LL. cellararius, equiv. to L. cellarius steward: cf. F. cellérier. See Cellar.] (Eccl.) A steward or butler of a monastery or chapter; one who has charge of procuring and keeping the provisions.

Cel`lar*et" (?), n. [Dim of cellar.] A receptacle, as in a dining room, for a few bottles of wine or liquor, made in the form of a chest or coffer, or a deep drawer in a sideboard, and usually lined with metal.

Cel"lar*ist (?), n. Same as Cellarer.

Celled (?), a. Containing a cell or cells.

Cel"le*pore (?), n. [L. cella cell + porus, Gr. &?;, passage.] (Zoöl.) A genus of delicate branching corals, made up of minute cells, belonging to the Bryozoa.

Cel*lif"er*ous (?), a. [Cell + -ferous.] Bearing or producing cells.

||Cel"lo (ch&ebreve;l"l&osl;), n.; pl. E. Cellos (ch&ebreve;l"l&osl;z), It. Celli (ch&ebreve;l"lē). A contraction for Violoncello.

Cel"lu*lar (s&ebreve;l"ŭ*l&etilde;r; 135), a. [L. cellula a little cell: cf. F. cellulaire. See Cellule.] Consisting of, or containing, cells; of or pertaining to a cell or cells.

Cellular plants, Cellular cryptogams (Bot.), those flowerless plants which have no ducts or fiber in their tissue, as mosses, fungi, lichens, and algæ. -- Cellular theory, or Cell theory (Biol.), a theory, according to which the essential element of every tissue, either vegetable or animal, is a cell; the whole series of cells having been formed from the development of the germ cell and by differentiation converted into tissues and organs which, both in plants and animals, are to be considered as a mass of minute cells communicating with each other. -- Cellular tissue. (a) (Anat.) See conjunctive tissue under Conjunctive. (b) (Bot.) Tissue composed entirely of parenchyma, and having no woody fiber or ducts.

Cel"lu*la`ted (?), a. Cellular. Caldwell.

Cel"lule (s&ebreve;l"ūl), n. [L. cellula a small apartment, dim. of cella: cf. F. cellule. See Cell.] A small cell.

Cel`lu*lif"er*ous (?), a. [L. cellula + -ferous.] Bearing or producing little cells.

||Cel`lu*li"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. L. cellula + -itis.] An inflammantion of the cellular or areolar tissue, esp. of that lying immediately beneath the skin.

Cel"lu*loid` (s&ebreve;l"&usl;*loid), n. [Cellulose + -oid.] A substance composed essentially of gun cotton and camphor, and when pure resembling ivory in texture and color, but variously colored to imitate coral, tortoise shell, amber, malachite, etc. It is used in the manufacture of jewelry and many small articles, as combs, brushes, collars, and cuffs; -- originally called xylonite.

Cel"lu*lose` (s&ebreve;l"&usl;*lōs`), a. Consisting of, or containing, cells.

Cel"lu*lose`, n. (Chem.) The substance which constitutes the essential part of the solid framework of plants, of ordinary wood, linen, paper, etc. It is also found to a slight extent in certain animals, as the tunicates. It is a carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, isomeric with starch, and is convertible into starches and sugars by the action of heat and acids. When pure, it is a white amorphous mass. See Starch, Granulose, Lignin.

Unsized, well bleached linen paper is merely pure cellulose. Goodale.

Starch cellulose, the delicate framework which remains when the soluble part (granulose) of starch is removed by saliva or pepsin. Goodale.

Ce*lot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; hernia + &?; to cut.] (Med.) The act or operation of cutting, to relieve the structure in strangulated hernia. [Frequently written kelotomy.]

Cel"si*ture (?), n. [L. celstudo, from celsus high: cf. celsitude.] Height; altitude. [Obs.]

Cel"si*us (?), n. The Celsius thermometer or scale, so called from Anders Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, who invented it. It is the same as the centigrade thermometer or scale.

Celt (s&ebreve;lt), n. [L. Celtae, Gr. Keltoi`, Ke`ltai, pl.: cf. W. Celtiad one that dwells in a covert, an inhabitant of the wood, a Celt, fr. celt covert, shelter, celu to hide.] One of an ancient race of people, who formerly inhabited a great part of Central and Western Europe, and whose descendants at the present day occupy Ireland, Wales, the Highlands of Scotland, and the northern shores of France. [Written also Kelt. The letter C was pronounced hard in Celtic languages.]

Celt, n. [LL. celts a chisel.] (Archæol.) A weapon or implement of stone or metal, found in the tumuli, or barrows, of the early Celtic nations.

Celt`i*be"ri*an (?), a. [L. Celtiber, Celtibericus.] Of or pertaining to the ancient Celtiberia (a district in Spain lying between the Ebro and the Tagus) or its inhabitants the Celtiberi (Celts of the river Iberus). -- n. An inhabitant of Celtiberia.

Celt"ic (s&ebreve;lt"&ibreve;k), a. [L. Celticus, Gr. Keltiko`s. See Celt.] Of or pertaining to the Celts; as, Celtic people, tribes, literature, tongue. [Written also Keltic.]

Celt"ic, n. The language of the Celts.

&fist; The remains of the old Celtic language are found in the Gaelic, the Erse or Irish the Manx, and the Welsh and its cognate dialects Cornish and Bas Breton.

Celt"i*cism (s&ebreve;l"t&ibreve;*s&ibreve;z'm), n. A custom of the Celts, or an idiom of their language. Warton.

Celt"i*cize` (?), v. t. To render Celtic; to assimilate to the Celts.

||Cem"ba*lo (?), n. [It. See Cymbal.] An old name for the harpsichord.

Ce*ment" (s&ebreve;*m&ebreve;nt" or s&ebreve;m"&ebreve;nt), n. [OF. cement, ciment, F. ciment, fr. L. caementum a rough, unhewn stone, pieces or chips of marble, from which mortar was made, contr. fr. caedimentum, fr. caedere to cut, prob. akin to scindere to cleave, and to E. shed, v. t.] 1. Any substance used for making bodies adhere to each other, as mortar, glue, etc.

2. A kind of calcined limestone, or a calcined mixture of clay and lime, for making mortar which will harden under water.

3. The powder used in cementation. See Cementation, n., 2.

4. Bond of union; that which unites firmly, as persons in friendship, or men in society. "The cement of our love."

5. (Anat.) The layer of bone investing the root and neck of a tooth; -- called also cementum.

Hydraulic cement. See under Hydraulic.

Ce*ment" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cemented; p. pr. & vb. n. Cementing.] [Cf. F. cimenter. See Cement, n.] 1. To unite or cause to adhere by means of a cement. Bp. Burnet.

2. To unite firmly or closely. Shak.

3. To overlay or coat with cement; as, to cement a cellar bottom.

Ce*ment", v. i. To become cemented or firmly united; to cohere. S. Sharp.

Ce*ment"al (?), a. Of or pertaining to cement, as of a tooth; as, cemental tubes. R. Owen.

Cem`en*ta"tion (?), n. 1. The act or process of cementing.

2. (Chem.) A process which consists in surrounding a solid body with the powder of other substances, and heating the whole to a degree not sufficient to cause fusion, the physical properties of the body being changed by chemical combination with powder; thus iron becomes steel by cementation with charcoal, and green glass becomes porcelain by cementation with sand.

Ce*ment"a*to*ry (?), a. Having the quality of cementing or uniting firmly.

Ce*ment"er (?), n. A person or thing that cements.

Cem`en*ti"tious (?), a. [L. caementitius pertaining to quarry stones. See Cement, n. ] Of the nature of cement. [R.] Forsyth.

Cem`e*te"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a cemetery. "Cemeterial cells." [R.] Sir T. Browne.

Cem"e*ter*y (?), n.; pl. Cemeteries (&?;). [L. cemeterium, Gr. &?; a sleeping chamber, burial place, fr. &?; to put to sleep.] A place or ground set apart for the burial of the dead; a graveyard; a churchyard; a necropolis.

Ce*nan"thy (?), n. [Gr. &?; empty + &?; a flower.] (Bot.) The absence or suppression of the essential organs (stamens and pistil) in a flower.

Ce*na"tion (?), n. [L. cenatio.] Meal-taking; dining or supping. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Cen"a*to*ry (?), a. [L. cenatorius, fr. cenare to dine, sup, fr. cena, coena, dinner, supper.] Of or pertaining to dinner or supper. [R.]

The Romans washed, were anointed, and wore a cenatory garment. Sir T. Browne.

Cen"o*bite (?), n. [L. coenobita, fr. Gr. koino`bios; koino`s common + bi`os life: cf. F. cénobite.] One of a religious order, dwelling in a convent, or a community, in opposition to an anchoret, or hermit, who lives in solitude. Gibbon.

{ Cen`o*bit"ic (?), Cen`o*bit"ic*al (?) } a. [Cf. F. cénobitique.] Of or pertaining to a cenobite.

Cen"o*bi*tism (?), n. The state of being a cenobite; the belief or practice of a cenobite. Milman.

Ce*nog"a*my (s&esl;*n&obreve;g"&adot;*m&ybreve;), n. [Gr. koino`s common + ga`mos marriage.] The state of a community which permits promiscuous sexual intercourse among its members, as in certain societies practicing communism.

Cen"o*taph (s&esl;n"&osl;*t&adot;f), n. [Gr. kenota`fion; keno`s empty + ta`fos burial, tomb: cf. F. cénotaphe.] An empty tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person who is buried elsewhere. Dryden.

A cenotaph in Westminster Abbey. Macaulay.

Cen"o*taph`y (?), n. A cenotaph. [R.]

Lord Cobham honored him with a cenotaphy. Macaulay.

Ce`no*zo"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?; recent + &?; life.] (Geol.) Belonging to the most recent division of geological time, including the tertiary, or Age of mammals, and the Quaternary, or Age of man. [Written also cænozoic, cainozoic, kainozoic.] See Geology.

&fist; This word is used by many authors as synonymous with Tertiary, the Quaternary Age not being included.

Cense (?), n. [OF. cense, F. cens, L. census. See Census.] 1. A census; -- also, a public rate or tax. [Obs.] Howell. Bacon.

2. Condition; rank. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Cense, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Censed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Censing.] [Abbrev. from incense.] To perfume with odors from burning gums and spices.

The Salii sing and cense his altars round. Dryden.

Cense, v. i. To burn or scatter incense.

Cen"ser (?), n. [For incenser, fr. OF. encensier, F. encensoir, fr. LL. incensarium, incensorium, fr. L. incensum incense. See Incense, and cf. Incensory.] A vessel for perfumes; esp. one in which incense is burned.

&fist; The ecclesiastical censer is usually cup-shaped, has a cover pierced with holes, and is hung by chains. The censer bearer swings it to quicken the combustion.

Her thoughts are like the fume of frankincense Which from a golden censer forth doth rise. Spenser.

Cen"sor (?), n. [L. censor, fr. censere to value, tax.] 1. (Antiq.) One of two magistrates of Rome who took a register of the number and property of citizens, and who also exercised the office of inspector of morals and conduct.

2. One who is empowered to examine manuscripts before they are committed to the press, and to forbid their publication if they contain anything obnoxious; -- an official in some European countries.

3. One given to fault-finding; a censurer.

Nor can the most circumspect attention, or steady rectitude, escape blame from censors who have no inclination to approve. Rambler.

4. A critic; a reviewer.

Received with caution by the censors of the press. W. Irving.

Cen*so"ri*al (?), a. 1. Belonging to a censor, or to the correction of public morals. Junius.

2. Full of censure; censorious.

The censorial declamation of Juvenal. T. Warton.

Cen*so"ri*an (?), a. Censorial. [R.] Bacon.

Cen*so"ri*ous (?), a. [L. censorius pertaining to the censor. See Censor.] 1. Addicted to censure; apt to blame or condemn; severe in making remarks on others, or on their writings or manners.

A dogmatical spirit inclines a man to be consorious of his neighbors. Watts.

2. Implying or expressing censure; as, censorious remarks.

Syn. -- Fault-finding; carping; caviling; captious; severe; condemnatory; hypercritical.

-- Cen*so"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- Cen*so"ri*ous*ness, n.

Cen"sor*ship (?), n. The office or power of a censor; as, to stand for a censorship. Holland.

The press was not indeed at that moment under a general censorship. Macaulay.

Cen"su*al (?), a. [L. censualis, fr. census.] Relating to, or containing, a census.

He caused the whole realm to be described in a censual roll. Sir R. Baker.

Cen"sur*a*ble (?), a. Deserving of censure; blamable; culpable; reprehensible; as, a censurable person, or censurable conduct.

-- Cen"sur*a*bleness, n. -- Cen"sur*a*bly, adv.

Cen"sure (?), n. [L. censura fr. censere: cf. F. censure. Cf. Censor.] 1. Judgment either favorable or unfavorable; opinion. [Obs.]

Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment. Shak.

2. The act of blaming or finding fault with and condemning as wrong; reprehension; blame.

Both the censure and the praise were merited. Macaulay.

3. Judicial or ecclesiastical sentence or reprimand; condemnatory judgment.

Excommunication or other censure of the church. Bp. Burnet.

Syn. -- Blame; reproof; condemnation; reprobation; disapproval; disapprobation; reprehension; animadversion; reprimand; reflection; dispraise; abuse.

Cen"sure, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Censured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Censuring.] [Cf. F. ensurer.] 1. To form or express a judgment in regard to; to estimate; to judge. [Obs.] "Should I say more, you might well censure me a flatterer." Beau. & Fl.

2. To find fault with and condemn as wrong; to blame; to express disapprobation of.

I may be censured that nature thus gives way to loyalty. Shak.

3. To condemn or reprimand by a judicial or ecclesiastical sentence. Shak.

Syn. -- To blame; reprove; rebuke; condemn; reprehend; reprimand.

Cen"sure, v. i. To judge. [Obs.] Shak.

Cen"sur*er (?), n. One who censures. Sha.

Cen"sus (?), n. [L. census, fr. censere. See Censor.] 1. (Bot. Antiq.) A numbering of the people, and valuation of their estate, for the purpose of imposing taxes, etc.; -- usually made once in five years.

2. An official registration of the number of the people, the value of their estates, and other general statistics of a country.

&fist; A general census of the United States was first taken in 1790, and one has been taken at the end of every ten years since.

Cent (?), n. [F. cent hundred, L. centum. See Hundred.] 1. A hundred; as, ten per cent, the proportion of ten parts in a hundred.

2. A United States coin, the hundredth part of a dollar, formerly made of copper, now of copper, tin, and zinc.

3. An old game at cards, supposed to be like piquet; -- so called because 100 points won the game. Nares.

Cent"age (?), n. Rate by the hundred; percentage.

Cen"tal (?), n. [L. centum a hundred.] A weight of one hundred pounds avoirdupois; -- called in many parts of the United States a Hundredweight.

Cen"tal, n. Relating to a hundred.

Cental system, the method of buying and selling by the cental, or hundredweight.

Cen"tare` (?), n. [F. centiare; centi- (L. centum) + -are.] A measure of area, the hundredth part of an are; one square meter, or about 1⅕ square yards.

Cen"taur (s&ebreve;n"t&add;r), n. [L. centaurus, Gr. Ke`ntayros.]

1. (Class. Myth.) A fabulous being, represented as half man and half horse.

2. (Astron.) A constellation in the southern heavens between Hydra and the Southern Cross.

||Cen`tau*re"a (?), n. [NL. See Centaury.] (Bot.) A large genus of composite plants, related to the thistles and including the cornflower or bluebottle (Centaurea Cyanus) and the star thistle (C. Calcitrapa).

Cen"tau*ry (s&ebreve;n"t&add;*r&ybreve;), n. [L. centaureum and centauria, Gr. kentay`rion, kentay`reion, and kentayri`h, fr. the Centaur Chiron.] (Bot.) A gentianaceous plant not fully identified. The name is usually given to the Erytheræa Centaurium and the Chlora perfoliata of Europe, but is also extended to the whole genus Sabbatia, and even to the unrelated Centaurea.

Cen`te*na"ri*an (?), a. Of or relating to a hundred years. -- n. A person a hundred years old.

Cen"te*na*ry (?), a. [L. centenarius, fr. centum a hundred.] 1. Relating to, or consisting of, a hundred.

2. Occurring once in every hundred years; centennial. "Centenary solemnities." Fuller.

Cen"te*na*ry, n.; pl. Centenaries (&?;). 1. The aggregate of a hundred single things; specifically, a century. "Every centenary of years." Hakewill.

2. A commemoration or celebration of an event which occurred a hundred years before.

Cen*ten"ni*al (?), a. [L. centum a hundred + annus year.] 1. Relating to, or associated with, the commemoration of an event that happened a hundred years before; as, a centennial ode.

2. Happening once in a hundred years; as, centennial jubilee; a centennial celebration.

3. Lasting or aged a hundred years.

That opened through long lines Of sacred ilex and centennial pines. Longfellow.

Cen*ten"ni*al, n. The celebration of the hundredth anniversary of any event; a centenary. [U. S.]

Cen*ten"ni*al*ly, adv. Once in a hundred years.

Cen"ter (?), n. [F. centre, fr. L. centrum, fr. round which a circle is described, fr. &?; to prick, goad.] 1. A point equally distant from the extremities of a line, figure, or body, or from all parts of the circumference of a circle; the middle point or place.

2. The middle or central portion of anything.

3. A principal or important point of concentration; the nucleus around which things are gathered or to which they tend; an object of attention, action, or force; as, a center of attaction.

4. The earth. [Obs.] Shak.

5. Those members of a legislative assembly (as in France) who support the existing government. They sit in the middle of the legislative chamber, opposite the presiding officer, between the conservatives or monarchists, who sit on the right of the speaker, and the radicals or advanced republicans who occupy the seats on his left, See Right, and Left.

6. (Arch.) A temporary structure upon which the materials of a vault or arch are supported in position until the work becomes self-supporting.

7. (Mech.) (a) One of the two conical steel pins, in a lathe, etc., upon which the work is held, and about which it revolves. (b) A conical recess, or indentation, in the end of a shaft or other work, to receive the point of a center, on which the work can turn, as in a lathe.

&fist; In a lathe the live center is in the spindle of the head stock; the dead center is on the tail stock. Planer centers are stocks carrying centers, when the object to be planed must be turned on its axis.

Center of an army, the body or troops occupying the place in the line between the wings. -- Center of a curve or surface (Geom.) (a) A point such that every line drawn through the point and terminated by the curve or surface is bisected at the point. (b) The fixed point of reference in polar coördinates. See Coördinates. -- Center of curvature of a curve (Geom.), the center of that circle which has at any given point of the curve closer contact with the curve than has any other circle whatever. See Circle. -- Center of a fleet, the division or column between the van and rear, or between the weather division and the lee. -- Center of gravity (Mech.), that point of a body about which all its parts can be balanced, or which being supported, the whole body will remain at rest, though acted upon by gravity. -- Center of gyration (Mech.), that point in a rotating body at which the whole mass might be concentrated (theoretically) without altering the resistance of the intertia of the body to angular acceleration or retardation. -- Center of inertia (Mech.), the center of gravity of a body or system of bodies. -- Center of motion, the point which remains at rest, while all the other parts of a body move round it. -- Center of oscillation, the point at which, if the whole matter of a suspended body were collected, the time of oscillation would be the same as it is in the actual form and state of the body. -- Center of percussion, that point in a body moving about a fixed axis at which it may strike an obstacle without communicating a shock to the axis. -- Center of pressure (Hydros.), that point in a surface pressed by a fluid, at which, if a force equal to the whole pressure and in the same line be applied in a contrary direction, it will balance or counteract the whole pressure of the fluid.

{ Cen"ter, Cen"tre } v. i. [imp. & p. p. Centered or Centred (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Centering or Centring.] 1. To be placed in a center; to be central.

2. To be collected to a point; to be concentrated; to rest on, or gather about, as a center.

Where there is no visible truth wherein to center, error is as wide as men's fancies. Dr. H. More.

Our hopes must center in ourselves alone. Dryden.

{ Cen"ter , Cen"tre } (?), v. t. 1. To place or fix in the center or on a central point. Milton.

2. To collect to a point; to concentrate.

Thy joys are centered all in me alone. Prior.

3. (Mech.) To form a recess or indentation for the reception of a center.

{ Cen"ter*bit`, Cen"tre*bit`, } n. An instrument turning on a center, for boring holes. See Bit, n., 3.

{ Cen"ter*board`, Cen"tre*board, } (?), n. (Naut.) A movable or sliding keel formed of a broad board or slab of wood or metal which may be raised into a water-tight case amidships, when in shallow water, or may be lowered to increase the area of lateral resistance and prevent leeway when the vessel is beating to windward. It is used in vessels of all sizes along the coast of the United States

Cen"ter*fire` car"tridge. See under Cartridge.

Cen"ter*ing, n. (Arch.) Same as Center, n., 6. [Written also centring.]

{ Cen"ter*piece`, Cen"tre*piece` } (?), n. An ornament to be placed in the center, as of a table, ceiling, atc.; a central article or figure.

Cen*tes"i*mal (?), a. [L. centesimus the hundredth, fr. centum a hundred: cf. F. centésimal.] Hundredth. -- n. A hundredth part.

The neglect of a few centesimals. Arbuthnot.

Cen*tes`i*ma"tion (?), n. [L. centesimore to take out or select every hundredth, fr. centesimus hundredth.] (Mil.) The infliction of the death penalty upon one person in every hundred, as in cases of mutiny.

Cen*tes"i*mo (s&ebreve;n"t&ebreve;s"&ibreve;*m&osl;), n.; pl. -mi (- mē). [It. & Sp.] A copper coin of Italy and Spain equivalent to a centime.

Cen"tesm (s&ebreve;n"t&ebreve;z'm), n. [L. centesima.] Hundredth.

Cen"ti*are` (?), n. [F. See Centare.] See centare.

Cen`ti*cip"i*tous (?), a. [L. centiceps, -cipitis; centum a hunder + caput head.] Hundred-headed.

Cen*tif"i*dous (?), a. [L. centifidus; centum + findere to split.] Divided into a hundred parts.

Cen`ti*fo"li*ous (?), a. [L. centifolius; centum + folium leaf.] Having a hundred leaves.

Cen"ti*grade (?), a. [L. centum a hundred + gradus degree: cf. F. centigrade.] Consisting of a hundred degrees; graduated into a hundred divisions or equal parts. Specifically: Of or pertaining to the centigrade thermometer; as, 10° centigrade (or 10° C.).

Centigrade thermometer, a thermometer having the zero or 0 at the point indicating the freezing state of water, and the distance between that and the point indicating the boiling state of water divided into one hundred degrees. It is called also the Celsius thermometer, from Anders Celsius, the originator of this scale.

{ Cen"ti*gram (?), Cen"ti*gramme (?), } n. [F. centigramme; centi- (L. centum) + gramme. See Gram.] The hundredth part of a gram; a weight equal to .15432 of a grain. See Gram.

{ Cen"ti*li`ter, Cen"ti*li`tre } (?), n. [F. centilitre; centi (L. centum) + litre. See Liter.] The hundredth part of a liter; a measure of volume or capacity equal to a little more than six tenths (0.6102) of a cubic inch, or one third (0.338) of a fluid ounce.

Cen*til"o*quy (?), n. [L. centum hundred + logui to speak.] A work divided into a hundred parts. [R.] Burton.

||Cen`time" (?), n. [F., fr. L. centesimus. See Centesimal.] (F. Coinage) The hundredth part of a franc; a small French copper coin and money of account.

{ Cen"ti*me`ter, Cen"ti*me`tre } (?), n. [F. centimètre; centi- (L. centum) + mètre. See Meter.] The hundredth part of a meter; a measure of length equal to rather more than thirty-nine hundredths (0.3937) of an inch. See Meter.

Cen"ti*nel (?), n. Sentinel. [Obs.] Sackville.

Cen*tin"o*dy (?), n. [L. centum a hundred + nodus knot: cf. F. centinode.] (Bot.) A weed with a stem of many joints (Illecebrum verticillatum); also, the Polygonum aviculare or knotgrass.

Cen"ti*ped (?), n. [L. centipeda; centum a hundred + pes, pedis, foot: cf. F. centipède.] (Zoöl.) A species of the Myriapoda; esp. the large, flattened, venomous kinds of the order Chilopoda, found in tropical climates. they are many-jointed, and have a great number of feet. [Written also centipede (&?;).]

Cen"ti*stere (?), n. [F. centistère; centi- (l. centum) + stère.] The hundredth part of a stere, equal to .353 cubic feet.

Cent"ner (?), n. [Cf. G. centner a hundred-weight, fr. L. centenarius of a hundred, fr. centum a hundred.] 1. (Metal. & Assaying) A weight divisible first into a hundred parts, and then into smaller parts.

&fist; The metallurgists use a weight divided into a hundred equal parts, each one pound; the whole they call a centner: the pound is divided into thirty-two parts, or half ounces; the half ounce into two quarters; and each of these into two drams. But the assayers use different weights. With them a centner is one dram, to which the other parts are proportioned.

2. The commercial hundredweight in several of the continental countries, varying in different places from 100 to about 112 pounds.

Cen"to (?), n.; pl. Centos (#). [L. cento a garment of several pieces sewed together, patchwork, a poem made up of various verses of another poem.] A literary or a musical composition formed by selections from different authors disposed in a new order.

Cen"to*nism (?), n. The composition of a cento; the act or practice of composing a cento or centos.

Cen"tral (?), a. [L. centralis, fr. centrum: cf. F. central. See Center.] Relating to the center; situated in or near the center or middle; containing the center; of or pertaining to the parts near the center; equidistant or equally accessible from certain points.

Central force (Math.), a force acting upon a body towards or away from a fixed or movable center. -- Center sun (Astron.), a name given to a hypothetical body about which Mädler supposed the solar system together with all the stars in the Milky Way, to be revolving. A point near Alcyone in the Pleiades was supposed to possess characteristics of the position of such a body.

{ Cen"tral (?), ||Cen*tra"le (?), } n. [NL. centrale, fr. L. centralis.] (Anat.) The central, or one of the central, bones of the carpus or or tarsus. In the tarsus of man it is represented by the navicular.

Cen"tral*ism (?), n. 1. The state or condition of being central; the combination of several parts into one whole; centralization.

2. The system by which power is centralized, as in a government.

Cen*tral"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Centralities (&?;). The state of being central; tendency towards a center.

Meantime there is a great centrality, a centripetence equal to the centrifugence. R. W. Emerson.

Cen`tral*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. centralisation.] The act or process of centralizing, or the state of being centralized; the act or process of combining or reducing several parts into a whole; as, the centralization of power in the general government; the centralization of commerce in a city.

Cen"tral*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Centralized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Centralizing.] [Cf. F. centraliser.] To draw or bring to a center point; to gather into or about a center; to bring into one system, or under one control.

[To] centralize the power of government. Bancroft.

Cen"tral*ly, adv. In a central manner or situation.

Cen"tre (?), n. & v. See Center.

{ Cen"tric (?), Cen"tric*al (?), } a. Placed in the center or middle; central.

At York or some other centrical place. Sir W. Scott.

-- Cen"tric*al*ly, adv. -- Cen"tric*al*ness, n.

Cen*tric"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being centric; centricalness.

Cen*trif"u*gal (?), a. [L. centrum center + fugere to flee.] 1. Tending, or causing, to recede from the center.

2. (Bot.) (a) Expanding first at the summit, and later at the base, as a flower cluster. (b) Having the radicle turned toward the sides of the fruit, as some embryos.

Centrifugal force (Mech.), a force whose direction is from a center.

&fist; When a body moves in a circle with uniform velocity, a force must act on the body to keep it in the circle without change of velocity. The direction of this force is towards the center of the circle. If this force is applied by means of a string to the body, the string will be in a state of tension. To a person holding the other end of the string, this tension will appear to be directed toward the body as if the body had a tendency to move away from the center of the circle which it is describing. Hence this latter force is often called centrifugal force. The force which really acts on the body being directed towards the center of the circle is called centripetal force, and in some popular treatises the centripetal and centrifugal forces are described as opposing and balancing each other. But they are merely the different aspects of the same stress. Clerk Maxwell.

Centrifugal impression (Physiol.), an impression (motor) sent from a nerve center outwards to a muscle or muscles by which motion is produced. -- Centrifugal machine, A machine for expelling water or other fluids from moist substances, or for separating liquids of different densities by centrifugal action; a whirling table. -- Centrifugal pump, a machine in which water or other fluid is lifted and discharged through a pipe by the energy imparted by a wheel or blades revolving in a fixed case. Some of the largest and most powerful pumps are of this kind.

Cen*trif"u*gal, n. A centrifugal machine.

Cen*trif"u*gence (?), n. The property or quality of being centrifugal. R. W. Emerson.

Cen"tring (?), n. See Centring.

Cen*trip"e*tal (?), a. [L. centrum center + petere to move toward.] 1. Tending, or causing, to approach the center.

2. (Bot.) (a) Expanding first at the base of the inflorescence, and proceeding in order towards the summit. (b) Having the radicle turned toward the axis of the fruit, as some embryos.

3. Progressing by changes from the exterior of a thing toward its center; as, the centripetal calcification of a bone. R. Owen.

Centripetal force (Mech.), a force whose direction is towards a center, as in case of a planet revolving round the sun, the center of the system, See Centrifugal force, under Centrifugal. -- Centripetal impression (Physiol.), an impression (sensory) transmitted by an afferent nerve from the exterior of the body inwards, to the central organ.

Cen*trip"e*tence (?), n. Centripetency.

Cen*trip"e*ten*cy (?), n. Tendency toward the center.

Cen*tris"coid (?), a. [NL. Centriscus (r. Gr. &?; a kind of fish) + -oid.] (Zoöl.) Allied to, or resembling, the genus Centriscus, of which the bellows fish is an example.

Cen`tro*bar"ic (?), a. [Gr. (&?;) &?; a treatise of Archimedes on finding the center of gravity, fr. &?; gravitating toward the center; &?; center + &?; weight.] Relating to the center of gravity, or to the process of finding it.

Centrobaric method (Math.), a process invented for the purpose of measuring the area or the volume generated by the rotation of a line or surface about a fixed axis, depending upon the principle that every figure formed by the revolution of a line or surface about such an axis has for measure the product of the line or surface by the length of the path of its center of gravity; -- sometimes called theorem of Pappus, also, incorrectly, Guldinus's properties. See Barycentric calculus, under Calculus.

Cen"trode (?), n. (Kinematics) In two figures having relative motion, one of the two curves which are the loci of the instantaneous center.

Cen"troid (?), n. [L. centrum + -oid.] The center of mass, inertia, or gravity of a body or system of bodies.

Cen`tro*lec"i*thal (?), a. [Gr. &?; center + &?; yolk of an egg.] (Biol.) Having the food yolk placed at the center of the ovum, segmentation being either regular or unequal. Balfour.

Cen`tro*lin"e*ad (?), n. An instrument for drawing lines through a point, or lines converging to a center.

Cen`tro*lin"e*al (?), a. [L. centrum + linea line.] Converging to a center; -- applied to lines drawn so as to meet in a point or center.

Cen"tro*some` (?), n. [Gr. &?; center + -&?; the body.] (Biol.) A peculiar rounded body lying near the nucleus of a cell. It is regarded as the dynamic element by means of which the machinery of cell division is organized.

Cen`tro*stal"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; center + &?; checking.] (Physiol.) A term applied to the action of nerve force in the spinal center. Marshall Hall.

||Cen"trum (?), n.; pl. E. Centrums (#), L. Centra (#). [L., center.] (Anat.) The body, or axis, of a vertebra. See Vertebra.

Cen"try (?), n. See Sentry. [Obs.] Gray.

||Cen*tum"vir (?), n.; pl. Centumviri (#). [L., fr. centum hundred + Vir man.] (Rom. Hist.) One of a court of about one hundred judges chosen to try civil suits. Under the empire the court was increased to 180, and met usually in four sections.

Cen*tum"vi*ral (?), a. [L. centumvitalis.] Of or pertaining to the centumviri, or to a centumvir.

Cen*tum"vi*rate (?), n. [Cf. F. centumvirat.] The office of a centumvir, or of the centumviri.

Cen"tu*ple (?), a. [L. centuplex; centum + plicare to fold; cf. F. centuple.] Hundredfold.

Cen"tu*ple, v. t. To increase a hundredfold.

Cen*tu"pli*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Centuplicated; p. pr. & vb. n. Centuplicating.] [L. centuplicare. See Centuple, a.] To make a hundredfold; to repeat a hundred times. [R.] Howell.

Cen*tu"ri*al (?), a. [L. See Century.] Of or pertaining to a century; as, a centurial sermon. [R.]

Cen*tu"ri*ate (?), a. [L. centuriatus, p. p. of centuriare to divide (men) into centuries.] Pertaining to, or divided into, centuries or hundreds. [R.] Holland.

Cen*tu"ri*ate (?), v. t. [See century.] To divide into hundreds. [Obs.]

{ Cen*tu"ri*a`tor (?), Cen"tu*rist (?), } n. [Cf. F. centuriateur.] An historian who distinguishes time by centuries, esp. one of those who wrote the "Magdeburg Centuries." See under Century. [R.]

Cen*tu"ri*on (?), n. [L. centurio, fr. centuria; cf. F. centurion. See Century.] (Rom. Hist.) A military officer who commanded a minor division of the Roman army; a captain of a century.

A centurion of the hand called the Italian band. Acts x. 1.

Cen"tu*ry (?), n.; pl. Centuries (#). [L. centuria (in senses 1 & 3), fr. centum a hundred: cf. F. centurie. See Cent.] 1. A hundred; as, a century of sonnets; an aggregate of a hundred things. [Archaic.]

And on it said a century of prayers. Shak.

2. A period of a hundred years; as, this event took place over two centuries ago.

&fist; Century, in the reckoning of time, although often used in a general way of any series of hundred consecutive years (as, a century of temperance work), usually signifies a division of the Christian era, consisting of a period of one hundred years ending with the hundredth year from which it is named; as, the first century (a. d. 1-100 inclusive); the seventh century (a.d. 601- 700); the eighteenth century (a.d. 1701- 1800). With words or phrases connecting it with some other system of chronology it is used of similar division of those eras; as, the first century of Rome (A.U.C. 1-100).

3. (Rom. Antiq.) (a) A division of the Roman people formed according to their property, for the purpose of voting for civil officers. (b) One of sixty companies into which a legion of the army was divided. It was Commanded by a centurion.

Century plant (Bot.), the Agave Americana, formerly supposed to flower but once in a century; -- hence the name. See Agave. -- The Magdeburg Centuries, an ecclesiastical history of the first thirteen centuries, arranged in thirteen volumes, compiled in the 16th century by Protestant scholars at Magdeburg.

Ce*pev"o*rous (?), a. [L. cepa an onion + varare to devour.] Feeding upon onions. [R.] Sterling.

Ceph"a*lad (?), adv. [Gr. kefalh` head + L. ad toward.] (Zoöl.) Forwards; towards the head or anterior extremity of the body; opposed to caudad.

{ ||Ceph`a*lal"gi*a (?), Ceph"a*lal`gy (?), } n. [L. cephalalgia, Gr. &?;; &?; + &?; pain: cf. F. céphalalgie.] (Med.) Pain in the head; headache.

Ceph`a*lal"gic (?), a. [L. cephalalgicus, Gr. &?;.] (Med.) Relating to, or affected with, headache. -- n. A remedy for the headache.

||Ceph`a*lan"thi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; + &?; flower.] (Bot.) Same as Anthodium.

||Ceph`a*las"pis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. kefalh` head + &?; a shield.] (Paleon.) A genus of fossil ganoid fishes found in the old red sandstone or Devonian formation. The head is large, and protected by a broad shield-shaped helmet prolonged behind into two lateral points.

||Ceph`a*la"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. kefalh` head.] (Zoöl.) A large division of Mollusca, including all except the bivalves; -- so called because the head is distinctly developed. See Illustration in Appendix.

Ceph"a*late (?), a. (Zoöl.) Having a head.

Ce*phal"ic (?), a. [L. cephalicus, Gr. &?;, fr. kefalh` head: cf. F. céphalique.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the head. See the Note under Anterior.

Cephalic index (Anat.), the ratio of the breadth of the cranium to the length, which is taken as the standard, and equal to 100; the breadth index. -- Cephalic vein, a large vein running from the back of the head alond the arm; -- so named because the ancients used to open it for disorders of the head. Dunglison.

Ce*pha"lic, n. A medicine for headache, or other disorder in the head.

||Ceph`a*li"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. kefalh` head + -itis.] (Med.) Same as Phrenitis.

Ceph`a*li*za"tion (?), n. Domination of the head in animal life as expressed in the physical structure; localization of important organs or parts in or near the head, in animal development. Dana.

Ceph"a*lo- (?). [Gr. kefalh` head.] A combining form denoting the head, of the head, connected with the head; as, cephalosome, cephalopod.

Ceph`a*lo*cer"cal (?), a. [Cephalo- + Gr. &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) Relating to the long axis of the body.

Ceph"a*loid (?), a. [Cephalo- + -oid.] Shaped like the head. Craing.

Ceph`a*lol"o*gy (?), n. [Cephalo- + -logy.] The science which treats of the head.

Ceph"a*lo*mere (?), n. [Cephalo- + -mere.] (Zoöl.) One of the somites (arthromeres) which make up the head of arthropods. Packard.

Ceph`a*lom"e*ter (?), n. [Cephalo- + -meter.] (Med.) An instrument measuring the dimensions of the head of a fetus during delivery.

||Ceph"a*lon (?), n. (Zoöl.) The head.

||Ceph`a*loph"o*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. kefalh` head + &?; to bear.] (Zoöl.) The cephalata.

{ Ceph"a*lo*pod (?), Ceph"a*lo*pode (?) }, n. (Zoöl.) One of the Cephalopoda.

||Ceph`a*lop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., gr. Gr. kefalh` head + -poda: cf. F. céphalopode.] (Zoöl.) The highest class of Mollusca.

&fist; They have, around the front of the head, a group of elongated muscular arms, which are usually furnished with prehensile suckers or hooks. The head is highly developed, with large, well organized eyes and ears, and usually with a cartilaginous brain case. The higher forms, as the cuttlefishes, squids, and octopi, swim rapidly by ejecting a jet of water from the tubular siphon beneath the head. They have a pair of powerful horny jaws shaped like a parrot's beak, and a bag of inklike fluid which they can eject from the siphon, thus clouding the water in order to escape from their enemies. They are divided into two orders, the Dibranchiata, having two gills and eight or ten sucker-bearing arms, and the Tetrabranchiata, with four gills and numerous arms without suckers. The latter are all extinct except the Nautilus. See Octopus, Squid, Nautilus.

{ Ceph`a*lo*pod"ic (?), Ceph`a*lop"o*dous (?), } a. (Zoöl.) Belonging to, or resembling, the cephalopods.

||Ceph`a*lop"te*ra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. kefalh` head + &?; wing.] (Zoöl.) One of the generic names of the gigantic ray (Manta birostris), known as devilfish and sea devil. It is common on the coasts of South Carolina, Florida, and farther south. Some of them grow to enormous size, becoming twenty feet of more across the body, and weighing more than a ton.

Ceph"a*lo*some (?), n. [Cephalo- + -some body.] (Zoöl.) The anterior region or head of insects and other arthropods. Packard.

Ceph"a*lo*style (?), n. [Cephalo- + Gr. &?; a pillar.] (Anat.) The anterior end of the notochord and its bony sheath in the base of cartilaginous crania.

Ceph`a*lo*tho"rax (?), n. [Cephalo- + thorax.] (Zoöl.) The anterior portion of any one of the Arachnida and higher Crustacea, consisting of the united head and thorax.

Ceph"a*lo*tome (?), n. [Cephalo- + Gr. &?; to cut.] (Med.) An instrument for cutting into the fetal head, to facilitate delivery.

Ceph`a*lot"o*my (?), n. 1. Dissection or opening of the head.

2. (Med.) Craniotomy; -- usually applied to bisection of the fetal head with a saw.

Ceph"a*lo*tribe (?), n. [Cephalo- + Gr. to rub, grind.] An obstetrical instrument for performing cephalotripsy.

Ceph"a*lo*trip`sy (?), n. [See Cephalotribe.] (Med.) The act or operation of crushing the head of a fetus in the womb in order to effect delivery.

||Ceph`a*lot"ro*cha (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. kefalh` head + &?; wheel.] (Zoöl.) A kind of annelid larva with a circle of cilia around the head.

Ceph"a*lous (?), a. [Gr. kefalh` head.] (Zoöl.) Having a head; -- applied chiefly to the Cephalata, a division of mollusks.

Ce"pheus (?), n. (Astron.) A northern constellation near the pole. Its head, which is in the Milky Way, is marked by a triangle formed by three stars of the fourth magnitude. See Cassiopeia.

Ce*ra"ceous (?), a. [L. cera wax.] Having the texture and color of new wax; like wax; waxy.

Ce*ra"go (?), n. [L. cera wax.] Beebread.

Ce*ram"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?; earthenware. Cf. Keramic.] Of or pertaining to pottery; relating to the art of making earthenware; as, ceramic products; ceramic ornaments for ceilings.

Ce*ram"ics (?), n. [See Ceramic.] 1. The art of making things of baked clay; as pottery, tiles, etc.

2. pl. Work formed of clay in whole or in part, and baked; as, vases, urns, etc. Knight.

Ce*rar"gy*rite (s&esl;*rär"j&ybreve;*rīt), n. [Gr. ke`ras horn + 'a`rgyros silver.] (Min.) Native silver chloride, a mineral of a white to pale yellow or gray color, darkening on exposure to the light. It may be cut by a knife, like lead or horn (hence called horn silver).

Cer"a*sin (?), n. (Chem.) A white amorphous substance, the insoluble part of cherry gum; -- called also meta-arabinic acid.

2. (Chem.) A gummy mucilaginous substance; -- called also bassorin, tragacanthin, etc.

Ce*ras"i*nous (?), a. 1. Pertaining to, or containing, cerasin.

2. Of a cherry color.

||Ce*ras"tes (?), n. [L., a horned serpent, fr. Gr. kera`sths horned, fr. ke`ras horn.] (Zoöl.) A genus of poisonous African serpents, with a horny scale over each eye; the horned viper.

Ce"rate (?), n. [L. ceratum, ceratm, fr. cera wax.] (Med.) An unctuous preparation for external application, of a consistence intermediate between that of an ointment and a plaster, so that it can be spread upon cloth without the use of heat, but does not melt when applied to the skin.

&fist; Cerate consists essentially of wax (for which resin or spermaceti is sometimes substituted) mixed with oil, lard, and various medicinal ingredients. The cerate (formerly called simple cerate) of the United States Pharmacopoeia is a mixture of three parts of white wax and seven parts of lard.

Ce"ra*ted (?), p. a. [L. ceratus, p. p. of cerare to wax, fr. cera wax.] Covered with wax.

Cer"a*tine (?), a. [Gr. &?; the fallacy called "the horns." fr. ke`ras a horn.] (Logic.) Sophistical.

||Cer`a*to*bran"chi*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ke`ras, ke`ratos, horn + bra`gchia, n. pl., gills.] (Zoöl.) A group of nudibranchiate Mollusca having on the back papilliform or branched organs serving as gills.

Cer`a*to*bran"chi*al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the bone, or cartilage, below the epibranchial in a branchial arch. -- n. A ceratobranchial bone, or cartilage.

||Ce*rat"o*dus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ke`ras, ke`ratos horn + &?; tooth.] (Zoöl.) A genus of ganoid fishes, of the order Dipnoi, first known as Mesozoic fossil fishes; but recently two living species have been discovered in Australian rivers. They have lungs so well developed that they can leave the water and breathe in air. In Australia they are called salmon and baramunda. See Dipnoi, and Archipterygium.

Cer`a*to*hy"al (?), a. [Gr. ke`ras horn + the letter Υ.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the bone, or cartilage, below the epihyal in the hyoid arch. -- n. A ceratohyal bone, or cartilage, which, in man, forms one of the small horns of the hyoid.

||Cer`a*to*sau"rus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ke`ras a horn + &?; lizard.] (Paleon.) A carnivorous American Jurassic dinosaur allied to the European Megalosaurus. The animal was nearly twenty feet in length, and the skull bears a bony horn core on the united nasal bones. See Illustration in Appendix.

||Cer`a*to*spon"gi*æ (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ke`ras, ke`ratos horn + &?; sponge.] (Zoöl.) An order of sponges in which the skeleton consists of horny fibers. It includes all the commercial sponges.

Ce*rau"nics (?), n. [Gr. &?; thunder and lightning.] That branch of physics which treats of heat and electricity. R. Park.

Ce*rau"no*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; thunder and lightning + -scope.] An instrument or apparatus employed in the ancient mysteries to imitate thunder and lightning. T. Moore.

Cer*be"re*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to, or resembling, Cerberus. [Written also Cerberian.]

With wide Cerberean mouth. Milton.

Cer"be*rus (?), n. [L. Cerberus (in sense 1), gr. &?;.]

1. (Class. Myth.) A monster, in the shape of a three-headed dog, guarding the entrance into the infernal regions, Hence: Any vigilant custodian or guardian, esp. if surly.

2. (Zoöl.) A genus of East Indian serpents, allied to the pythons; the bokadam.

Cer"cal (?), a. [Gr. &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the tail.

||Cer*ca"ri*a (?), n.; pl. Cercarle (&?;) [NL., fr. Gr. &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) The larval form of a trematode worm having the shape of a tadpole, with its body terminated by a tail-like appendage.

Cer*ca"ri*an (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of, like, or pertaining to, the Cercariæ. -- n. One of the Cercariæ.

Cer"co*pod (?), n. [Gr. &?; tail + -pod.] (Zoöl.) One of the jointed antenniform appendages of the posterior somites of certain insects. Packard.

||Cer"cus (?), n.; pl. Cerci (&?;). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) See Cercopod.

Cere (?), n. [L. cera wax: cf. F. cire.] (Zoöl.) The soft naked sheath at the base of the beak of birds of prey, parrots, and some other birds. See Beak.

Cere, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cering.] [L. cerare, fr. cera wax: cf. F. cirer.] To wax; to cover or close with wax. Wiseman.

Ce"re*al (?), a. [L. Cerealis pert. to Ceres, and hence, to agriculture. See Ceres.] Of or pertaining to the grasses which are cultivated for their edible seeds (as wheat, maize, rice, etc.), or to their seeds or grain.

Ce"re*al n. Any grass cultivated for its edible grain, or the grain itself; -- usually in the plural.

||Ce`re*a"li*a (?), n. pl. [L. See Cereal.]

1. (Antiq.) Public festivals in honor of Ceres.

2. The cereals. Crabb.

Ce"re*a*lin (?), n. (Chem.) A nitrogenous substance closely resembling diastase, obtained from bran, and possessing the power of converting starch into dextrin, sugar, and lactic acid. Watts.

Cer"e*bel, n. The cerebellum. Derham.

{ Cer`e*bel"lar (?), Cer`e*bel"lous (?), } a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the cerebellum.

Cer`e*bel"lum (?), n.; pl. E. Cerebellums (&?;), L. Cerebella (&?;). [L., dim. of cerebrum brain.] (Anat.) The large lobe of the hind brain in front of and above the medulla; the little brain. It controls combined muscular action. See Brain.

Cer"e*bral (?), a. [L. cerebrum brain; akin to Gr. ka`ra head: cf. F. cérébral. See Cheer.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the cerebrum.

Cerebral apoplexy. See under Apoplexy.

Cer"e*bral, n. [A false translation of the Skr. mūrdhanya, lit., head-sounds.] One of a class of lingual consonants in the East Indian languages. See Lingual, n.

&fist; Prof. W. D. Whitney calls these letters linguals, and this is their usual designation in the United States.

Cer"e*bral*ism (?), n. (Philos.) The doctrine or theory that psychical phenomena are functions or products of the brain only.

Cer"e*bral*ist, n. One who accepts cerebralism.

Cer"e*brate (?), v. i. (Physiol.) To exhibit mental activity; to have the brain in action.

Cer`e*bra"tion (?), n. Action of the brain, whether conscious or unconscious.

Cer"e*bric (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or derived from, the brain.

Cerebric acid (Physiol. Chem.), a name formerly sometimes given to cerebrin.

Cer`e*bric"i*ty (?), n. Brain power. [R.]

Ce*reb"ri*form (?), a. [Cerebrum + -form.] Like the brain in form or substance.

Cer`e*brif"u*gal (?), a. [Cerebrum + L. fugere to flee.] (Physiol.) Applied to those nerve fibers which go from the brain to the spinal cord, and so transfer cerebral impulses (centrifugal impressions) outwards.

Cer"e*brin (?), n. [From Cerebrum.] (Physiol. Chem.) A nonphosphorized, nitrogenous substance, obtained from brain and nerve tissue by extraction with boiling alcohol. It is uncertain whether it exists as such in nerve tissue, or is a product of the decomposition of some more complex substance.

Cer`e*brip"e*tal (?), a. [Cerebrum + L. petere to seek.] (Physiol.) Applied to those nerve fibers which go from the spinal cord to the brain and so transfer sensations (centripetal impressions) from the exterior inwards.

||Cer`e*bri"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. E. cerebrum + -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the cerebrum.

Cer"e*broid (?), a. [Cerebrum + -oid.] Resembling, or analogous to, the cerebrum or brain.

Cer`e*brol"o*gy (?), n. [Cerebrum + -logy.] The science which treats of the cerebrum or brain.

Cer`e*brop"a*thy (?), n. [Cerebrum + Gr. &?; suffering.] (Med.) A hypochondriacal condition verging upon insanity, occurring in those whose brains have been unduly taxed; -- called also brain fag.

Cer`e*bros"co*py (?), n. [Cerebrum + -scopy.] (Med.) Examination of the brain for the diagnosis of disease; esp., the act or process of diagnosticating the condition of the brain by examination of the interior of the eye (as with an ophthalmoscope). Buck.

Cer`e*brose" (?), n. [From Cerebrum.] (Physiol. Chem.) A sugarlike body obtained by the decomposition of the nitrogenous non-phosphorized principles of the brain.

Cer`e*bro-spi"nal (?), a. [Cerebrum + spinal.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebro-spinal fluid (Physiol.), a serous fluid secreted by the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. -- Cerebro-spinal meningitis, Cerebro-spinal fever (Med.), a dangerous epidemic, and endemic, febrile disease, characterized by inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord, giving rise to severe headaches, tenderness of the back of the neck, paralysis of the ocular muscles, etc. It is sometimes marked by a cutaneous eruption, when it is often called spotted fever. It is not contagious.

Cer"e*brum (?), n.; pl. E. Cerebrums (#), L. Cerebra (#). [L., the brain.] (Anat.) The anterior, and in man the larger, division of the brain; the seat of the reasoning faculties and the will. See Brain.

Cere"cloth` (?), n. [L. cera wax + E. cloth.] A cloth smeared with melted wax, or with some gummy or glutinous matter.

Linen, besmeared with gums, in manner of cerecloth. Bacon.

Cere"ment (?), n. [L. cera wax: cf. F. cirement.] (a) A cerecloth used for the special purpose of enveloping a dead body when embalmed. (b) Any shroud or wrapping for the dead.

Cer`e*mo"ni*al (?), a. [L. caerimonialis: cf. F. cérimonial. See Ceremony.] 1. Relating to ceremony, or external rite; ritual; according to the forms of established rites.

Ceremonial observances and outward show. Hallam.

2. Observant of forms; ceremonious. [In this sense ceremonious is now preferred.] Donne.

He moves in the dull ceremonial track. Druden.

Cer`e*mo"ni*al, n. 1. A system of rules and ceremonies, enjoined by law, or established by custom, in religious worship, social intercourse, or the courts of princes; outward form.

The gorgeous ceremonial of the Burgundian court. Prescott.

2. The order for rites and forms in the Roman Catholic church, or the book containing the rules prescribed to be observed on solemn occasions.

Cer`e*mo"ni*al*ism (?), n. Adherence to external rites; fondness for ceremony.

Cer`e*mo"ni*al*ly, adv. According to rites and ceremonies; as, a person ceremonially unclean.

Cer`e*mo"ni*al*ness, n. Quality of being ceremonial.

Cer`e*mo"ni*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. cérémonieux, L. Caerimoniosus.] 1. Consisting of outward forms and rites; ceremonial. [In this sense ceremonial is now preferred.]

The ceremonious part of His worship. South.

2. According to prescribed or customary rules and forms; devoted to forms and ceremonies; formally respectful; punctilious. "Ceremonious phrases." Addison.

Too ceremonious and traditional. Shak.

Syn. -- Formal; precise; exact. See Formal.

Cer`e*mo"ni*ous*ly, adv. In a ceremonious way.

Cer`e*mo"ni*ous*ness, n. The quality, or practice, of being ceremonious.

Cer"e*mo*ny (?), n.; pl. Ceremonies (#). [F. cérémonie, L. caerimonia; perh. akin to E. create and from a root signifying to do or make.] 1. Ar act or series of acts, often of a symbolical character, prescribed by law, custom, or authority, in the conduct of important matters, as in the performance of religious duties, the transaction of affairs of state, and the celebration of notable events; as, the ceremony of crowning a sovereign; the ceremonies observed in consecrating a church; marriage and baptismal ceremonies.

According to all the rites of it, and according to all the ceremonies thereof shall ye keep it [the Passover]. Numb. ix. 3

Bring her up the high altar, that she may The sacred ceremonies there partake. Spenser.

[The heralds] with awful ceremony And trumpet's sound, throughout the host proclaim A solemn council. Milton.

2. Behavior regulated by strict etiquette; a formal method of performing acts of civility; forms of civility prescribed by custom or authority.

Ceremony was but devised at first To set a gloss on . . . hollow welcomes . . . But where there is true friendship there needs none. Shak.

Al ceremonies are in themselves very silly things; but yet a man of the world should know them. Chesterfield.

3. A ceremonial symbols; an emblem, as a crown, scepter, garland, etc. [Obs.]

Disrobe the images, If you find them decked with ceremonies. . . . Let no images Be hung with Cæsar's trophies. Shak.

4. A sign or prodigy; a portent. [Obs.]

Cæsar, I never stood on ceremonies, Yet, now they fright me. Shak.

Master of ceremonies, an officer who determines the forms to be observed, or superintends their observance, on a public occasion. -- Not to stand on ceremony, not to be ceremonious; to be familiar, outspoken, or bold.

Ce"re*ous (?), a. [L. cereus, fr. cera was.] Waxen; like wax. [Obs.] Gayton.

Ce"res (?), n. [L., Ceres, also corn, grain, akin to E. create.] 1. (Class. Myth.) The daughter of Saturn and Ops or Rhea, the goddess of corn and tillage.

2. (Actron.) The first discovered asteroid.

Cer"e*sin (?), n. [L. cera wax.] (Chem.) A white wax, made by bleaching and purifying ozocerite, and used as a substitute for beeswax.

||Ce"re*us (?), n. [L., a wax candle, fr. cera wax. So named from the resemblance of one species to the columnar shape of a wax candle.] (Bot.) A genus of plants of the Cactus family. They are natives of America, from California to Chili.

&fist; Although several species flower in the night, the name Night-blooming cereus is specially applied to the Cereus grandiflorus, which is cultivated for its beautiful, shortlived flowers. The Cereus giganteus, whose columnar trunk is sometimes sixty feet in height, is a striking feature of the scenery of New Mexico, Texas, etc.

Cer"i*al (?), a. Same as Cerrial. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ce*rif"er*ous (?), a. [L. ra wax + -ferous.] Producing wax.

Ce"rin (?), n. [L. cera wax + -in: cf. L. cerinus wax-colored.] 1. (Chem.) A waxy substance extracted by alcohol or ether from cork; sometimes applied also to the portion of beeswax which is soluble in alcohol. Watts.

2. (Min.) A variety of the mineral allanite.

Ce*rin"thi*an, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of an ancient religious sect, so called from Cerinthus, a Jew, who attempted to unite the doctrines of Christ with the opinions of the Jews and Gnostics. Hook.

Cer"iph (?), n. (Type Founding) One of the fine lines of a letter, esp. one of the fine cross strokes at the top and bottom of letters. [Spelt also seriph.] Savage.

||Ce*rise" (?), a. [F., a cherry. See Cherry.] Cherry-colored; a light bright red; -- applied to textile fabrics, especially silk.

Ce"rite (?), n. [Gr. ke`ras horn.] (Zoöl.) A gastropod shell belonging to the family Cerithiïdæ; -- so called from its hornlike form.

Ce"rite, n. [From Cherium.] (Min.) A mineral of a brownish of cherry-red color, commonly massive. It is a hydrous silicate of cerium and allied metals.

Ce"ri*um (?), n. [Named by Berzelius in 1803 from the asteroid Ceres, then just discovered (1801).] (Chem.) A rare metallic element, occurring in the minerals cerite, allanite, monazite, etc. Symbol Ce. Atomic weight 141.5. It resembles iron in color and luster, but is soft, and both malleable and ductile. It tarnishes readily in the air.

Cer"nu*ous (?), a. [L. cernuus with the face turned toward the earth.] (Bot.) Inclining or nodding downward; pendulous; drooping; -- said of a bud, flower, fruit, or the capsule of a moss.

Ce"ro (?), n. [Corrupt. fr. Sp. sierra saw, sawfish, cero.] (Zoöl.) A large and valuable fish of the Mackerel family, of the genus Scomberomorus. Two species are found in the West Indies and less commonly on the Atlantic coast of the United States, -- the common cero (Scomberomorus caballa), called also kingfish, and spotted, or king, cero (S. regalis).

Ce"ro*graph (?), n. [Gr. khro`s wax + -graph.] A writing on wax. Knight.

{ Ce`ro*graph"ic (?), Ce`ro*graph"ic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to cerography.

Ce*rog"ra*phist (?), n. One who practices cerography.

Ce*rog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. khro`s wax + -graphy.]

1. The art of making characters or designs in, or with, wax.

2. A method of making stereotype plates from inscribed sheets of wax.

Cer"o*lite (?), n. [Gr. khro`s wax + -lite.] (Min.) A hydrous silicate of magnesium, allied to serpentine, occurring in waxlike masses of a yellow or greenish color.

||Ce*ro"ma (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?; ointment for wrestlers, the place for wrestling, fr. khroy^n to wax over, fr. khro`s wax.] 1. The unguent (a composition of oil and wax) with which wrestlers were anointed among the ancient Romans.

2. (Anc. Arch.) That part of the baths and gymnasia in which bathers and wrestlers anointed themselves.

3. (Zoöl.) The cere of birds.

Cer"o*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. khro`s wax + -mancy.] Divination by dropping melted wax in water.

Ce*roon" (?), n. [See Seroon.] A bale or package. covered with hide, or with wood bound with hide; as, a ceroon of indigo, cochineal, etc.

Ce`ro*plas"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; for modeling in wax; khro`s wax + &?; to form, mold.] (Fine arts) (a) Relating to the art of modeling in wax. (b) Modeled in wax; as, a ceroplastic figure.

{ Ce`ro*plas"tics (?), Ce`ro*plas"ty (?), } n. [Gr. &?; (sc. &?; art): cf. F. céroplastique.] The art of modeling in wax.

Cer"o*sin (?), n. [L. cera wax.] (Chem.) A waxy substance obtained from the bark of the sugar cane, and crystallizing in delicate white laminæ.

Ce"rote (?), n. [Obs.] See Cerate.

Cer"o*tene (?), n. [L. cerotum a pomade. See Cerate.] (Chem.) A white waxy solid obtained from Chinese wax, and by the distillation of cerotin.

Ce*rot"ic (?), a. [See Cerotene.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, beeswax or Chinese wax; as, cerotic acid or alcohol.

Cer"o*tin (?), n. [See Cerotene.] (Chem.) A white crystalline substance, C27H55.OH, obtained from Chinese wax, and regarded as an alcohol of the marsh gas series; -- called also cerotic alcohol, ceryl alcohol.

Cer"ri*al (?), a. [L. cerreus, fr. cerrus a kind of oak.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the cerris.

Chaplets green of cerrial oak. Dryden.

||Cer"ris (?), n. [L. cerrus.] (Bot.) A species of oak (Quercus cerris) native in the Orient and southern Europe; -- called also bitter oak and Turkey oak.

Cer"tain (?), a. [F. certain, fr. (assumed) LL. certanus, fr. L. certus determined, fixed, certain, orig. p. p. of cernere to perceive, decide, determine; akin to Gr. &?; to decide, separate, and to E. concern, critic, crime, riddle a sieve, rinse, v.] 1. Assured in mind; having no doubts; free from suspicions concerning.

To make her certain of the sad event. Dryden.

I myself am certain of you. Wyclif.

2. Determined; resolved; -- used with an infinitive.

However, I with thee have fixed my lot, Certain to undergo like doom. Milton.

3. Not to be doubted or denied; established as a fact.

The dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure. Dan. ii. 45.

4. Actually existing; sure to happen; inevitable.

Virtue that directs our ways Through certain dangers to uncertain praise. Dryden.

Death, as the Psalmist saith, is certain to all. Shak.

5. Unfailing; infallible.

I have often wished that I knew as certain a remedy for any other distemper. Mead.

6. Fixed or stated; regular; determinate.

The people go out and gather a certain rate every day. Ex. xvi. 4.

7. Not specifically named; indeterminate; indefinite; one or some; -- sometimes used independenty as a noun, and meaning certain persons.

It came to pass when he was in a certain city. Luke. v. 12.

About everything he wrote there was a certain natural grace und decorum. Macaulay.

For certain, assuredly. -- Of a certain, certainly.

Syn. -- Bound; sure; true; undeniable; unquestionable; undoubted; plain; indubitable; indisputable; incontrovertible; unhesitating; undoubting; fixed; stated.

Cer"tain, n. 1. Certainty. [Obs.] Gower.

2. A certain number or quantity. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Cer"tain, adv. Certainly. [Obs.] Milton.

Cer"tain*ly, adv. Without doubt or question; unquestionably.

Cer"tain*ness, n. Certainty.

Cer"tain*ty (?), n.; pl. Certainties (#). [OF. certaineté.] 1. The quality, state, or condition, of being certain.

The certainty of punishment is the truest security against crimes. Fisher Ames.

2. A fact or truth unquestionable established.

Certainties are uninteresting and sating. Landor.

3. (Law) Clearness; freedom from ambiguity; lucidity.

Of a certainty, certainly.

Cer"tes (?), adv. [F. certes, for à certes, fr. L. certus. See Certain.] Certainly; in truth; verily. [Archaic]

Certes it great pity was to see Him his nobility so foul deface. Spenser.

Cer*tif"i*cate (?), n. [F. certificat, fr. LL. certificatus made certain, p. p. of certificare. See tify.] 1. A written testimony to the truth of any fact; as, certificate of good behavior.

2. A written declaration legally authenticated.

Trial by certificate, a trial which the testimony of the person certifying is the only proper criterion of the point in dispute; as, when the issue is whether a person was absent in the army, this is tried by the certificate of the proper officer in writing, under his seal. Blackstone.

Cer*tif"i*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Certificated; p. pr. & vb. n. Certificating.] [See Certify.]

1. To verify or vouch for by certificate.

2. To furnish with a certificate; as, to certificate the captain of a vessel; a certificated teacher.

Cer`ti*fi*ca"tion (?), n.[L. certificatio: cf. F. certification.] The act of certifying.

Cer"ti*fi`er (?), n. One who certifies or assures.

Cer"ti*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Certified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Certifying.] [F. certifier, LL. certificare; L. certus certain + facere to make. See Certain, and cf. Certificate, v. t.] 1. To give cetain information to; to assure; to make certain.

We certify the king, that . . . thou shalt have no portion on this side the river. Ezra iv. 16.

2. To give certain information of; to make certain, as a fact; to verify. Hammond.

The industry of science at once certifies and greatly extends our knowledge of the vastness of the creation. I. Taylor.

3. To testify to in writing; to make a declaration concerning, in writing, under hand, or hand and seal.

The judges shall certify their opinion to the chancellor, and upon such certificate the decree is usually founded. Blackstone.

Certified check, A bank check, the validity of which is certified by the bank on which it is drawn.

Cer`ti*o*ra"ri (?), n. [So named from the emphatic word certiorari in the Latin form of the writ, which read certiorar volumus we wish to be certified.] (Law) A writ issuing out of chancery, or a superior court, to call up the records of a inferior court, or remove a cause there depending, in order that the party may have more sure and speedy justice, or that errors and irregularities may be corrected. It is obtained upon complaint of a party that he has not received justice, or can not have an impartial trial in the inferior court.

&fist; A certiorari is the correct process to remove the proceedings of a court in which cases are tried in a manner different from the course of the common law, as of county commissioners. It is also used as an auxiliary process in order to obtain a full return to some other process. Bouvier.

Cer"ti*tude (?), n. [LL. certitudo, fr. L. certus: cf. F. certitude. See Certain.] Freedom from doubt; assurance; certainty. J. H. Newman.

Cer"ule (?), a. [L. caerulus, eguiv. to caeruleus.] Blue; cerulean. [Obs.] Dyer.

Ce*ru"le*an (?), a. [L. caeruleus.] Sky-colored; blue; azure. Cowper.

Blue, blue, as if that sky let fall

A flower from its cerulean wall. Bryant.

Ce*ru"le*ous (?), a. Cerulean. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.

Cer`u*lif"ic (?), a. [L. caerulus dark blue + facere to make.] Producing a blue or sky color. [R.]

||Ce*ru"men (?), n. [NL., fr. L. cera wax.] (Physiol.) The yellow, waxlike secretion from the glands of the external ear; the earwax.

Ce*ru"mi*nous (?), a. (Physiol.) Pertaining to, or secreting, cerumen; as, the ceruminous glands.

Ce"ruse (?), n. [F. céruse, L. cerussa.] 1. White lead, used as a pigment. See White lead, under White.

2. A cosmetic containing white lead.

To distinguish ceruse from natural bloom. Macaulay.

3. (Min.) The native carbonate of lead.

Ce"rused (?), a. Washed with a preparation of white lead; as, cerused face. Beau. & Fl.

{ Ce"ru*site (?), Ce"rus*site (?), } n. (Min.) Native lead carbonate; a mineral occurring in colorless, white, or yellowish transparent crystals, with an adamantine, also massive and compact.

Cer"van*tite (?), n. [Named from Cervantes a town in Spain.] (Min.) See under Antimony.

Cer"ve*lat (?), n. [F.] (Mus.) An ancient wind instrument, resembling the bassoon in tone.

Cer"vi*cal, a. [L. cervix, -icis, neck: cf. F. cervical.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the neck; as, the cervical vertebræ.

Cer"vi*cide (?), n. [L. cervus deer + caedere to kill.] The act of killing deer; deer-slaying. [R.]

Cer"vine (?), a. [L. cervinus, fr. cervus deer: cf. F. cervin.] (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the deer, or to the family Cervidæ.

||Cer"vix (?), n.; pl. E. Cervixes (#), L. Cervices (#). [L.] (Anat.) The neck; also, the necklike portion of any part, as of the womb. See Illust. of Bird.

||Cer"vus (?), n. [L., a deer.] (Zoöl.) A genus of ruminants, including the red deer and other allied species.

&fist; Formerly all species of deer were included in the genus Cervus.

Ce"ryl (?), n. [L. cera wax + -yl.] (Chem.) A radical, C27H55 supposed to exist in several compounds obtained from Chinese wax, beeswax, etc.

{ Ce*sa"re*an (?), Ce*sa"ri*an, } a. Same as Cæsarean, Cæsarian.

Ce"sar*ism (?), n. See Cæsarism.

Ces"pi*tine (?), n. [L. caespes, caespitis, a turf.] An oil obtained by distillation of peat, and containing various members of the pyridine series.

Ces"pi*ti`tious (?), a. [L. caespiticius, fr. caespes turf.] Same as Cespitious. [R.] Gough.

Ces"pi*tose` (?), a. [L. caespes turf.] (Bot.) Having the form a piece of turf, i. e., many stems from one rootstock or from many entangled rootstocks or roots. [Written also cæspitose.]

Ces"pi*tous (?), a. [See Cespitose.] Pertaining to, consisting, of resembling, turf; turfy.

A cespitous or turfy plant has many stems from the same root, usually forming a close, thick carpet of matting. Martyn.

Cess (?), n. [For sess, conts. from Assess.] 1. A rate or tax. [Obs. or Prof. Eng. & Scot.] Spenser.

2. Bound; measure. [Obs.]

The poor jade is wrung in the withers out of all cess. Shak.

Cess, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cessed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cessing.] To rate; to tax; to assess. Spenser.

Cess, v. i. [F. cesser. See Cease.] To cease; to neglect. [Obs.] Spenser.

Ces"sant (?) a. [L. cessans, p. pr. of cessare. See Cease.] Inactive; dormant [Obs.] W. Montagu.

Ces*sa"tion (s&ebreve;s*sā"shŭn), n. [F. cessation, L. cessatio, fr. cessare. See Cease.] A ceasing or discontinuance, as of action, whether temporary or final; a stop; as, a cessation of the war.

The temporary cessation of the papal iniquities. Motley.

The day was yearly observed for a festival by cessation from labor. Sir J. Hayward.

Cessation of arms (Mil.), an armistice, or truce, agreed to by the commanders of armies, to give time for a capitulation, or for other purposes.

Syn. -- Stop; rest; stay; pause; discontinuance; intermission; interval; respite; interruption; recess; remission.

||Ces*sa"vit (?), n. [L., he has ceased.] [O. Eng. Law] A writ given by statute to recover lands when the tenant has for two years failed to perform the conditions of his tenure.

Ces"ser (?), n. [From Cess, v. i.] (Law) a neglect of a tenant to perform services, or make payment, for two years.

Ces"si*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. cessible. See Cession.] Giving way; yielding. [Obs.] -- Ces`si*bil"i*ty (#), n. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.

Ces"sion (?), n. [L. cessio, fr. cedere to give way: cf. F. Cession. See Cede.] 1. A yielding to physical force. [Obs.] Bacon.

2. Concession; compliance. [Obs.]

3. A yielding, or surrender, as of property or rights, to another person; the act of ceding.

A cession of the island of New Orleans. Bancroft.

4. (Eccl. Law) The giving up or vacating a benefice by accepting another without a proper dispensation.

5. (Civil Law) The voluntary surrender of a person's effects to his creditors to avoid imprisonment.

Ces"sion*a*ry (?), a. [LL. cessionarius, from cessionare to cede, fr. L. cessio: cf. F. cessionnaire. See Cession.] Having surrendered the effects; as, a cessionary bankrupt. Martin.

Cess"ment (?), n. [From Cess, v. t.] An assessment or tax. [Obs.] Johnson.

Ces"sor (?), n. [From Cess, v. i. Cf. Cesser.] (Law) One who neglects, for two years, to perform the service by which he holds lands, so that he incurs the danger of the writ of cessavit. See Cessavit. Cowell.

Ces"sor, n. [From Cess, v. t.] An assessor. [Obs.]

Cess"pipe` (s&ebreve;s"pīp`), n. A pipe for carrying off waste water, etc., from a sink or cesspool. Knight.

Cess"pool` (-p&oomac;l`), n. [See Sesspol.] A cistern in the course, or the termination, of a drain, to collect sedimentary or superfluous matter; a privy vault; any receptacle of filth. [Written also sesspool.]

Cest (s&ebreve;st), n. [L. cestus: cf. OF. ceste.] A woman's girdle; a cestus. [R.] Collins.

Ces"tode (s&ebreve;s"tōd), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Cestoidea. -- n. One of the Cestoidea.

Ces"toid (s&ebreve;s"toid), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Cestoidea. -- n. One of the Cestoidea.

||Ces*toid"e*a (s&ebreve;s*toid"&esl;*&adot;), n. pl. [NL., gr. Gr. kesto`s girdle + -oid.] (Zoöl.) A class of parasitic worms (Platelminthes) of which the tapeworms are the most common examples. The body is flattened, and usually but not always long, and composed of numerous joints or segments, each of which may contain a complete set of male and female reproductive organs. They have neither mouth nor intestine. See Tapeworm. [Written also Cestoda.]

Ces*told"e*an (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Cestoidea.

Ces*tra"ci*ont (?), n. [Gr. &?; a kind of fish.] (Zoöl.) A shark of the genus Cestracion, and of related genera. The posterior teeth form a pavement of bony plates for crushing shellfish. Most of the species are extinct. The Port Jackson shark and a similar one found in California are living examples.

Ces*tra"ci*ont, a. (Zoöl.) Pertaining to, or characteristic of, the genus Cestracion.

Ces"tus (?), n. [L. cestus girdle, Gr. &?;, lit., stitched, embroidered.] 1. (Antiq.) A girdle; particularly that of Aphrodite (or Venus) which gave the wearer the power of exciting love.

2. (Zoöl.) A genus of Ctenophora. The typical species (Cestus Veneris) is remarkable for its brilliant iridescent colors, and its long, girdlelike form.

Ces"tus, n. [L. caestus, and cestus.] (Antiq.) A covering for the hands of boxers, made of leather bands, and often loaded with lead or iron.

{ ||Ces"tuy or ||Ces"tui (?), } pron. [Norm. F.] (Law) He; the one.

Cestuy que trust (&?;) [norm. F.], a person who has the equitable and beneficial interest in property, the legal interest in which is vested in a trustee. Wharton. -- Cestuy que use (&?;) [Norm. F.], a person for whose use land, etc., is granted to another.

Ce*su"ra (?), n. See Cæsura.

Ce*su"ral (?), a. See Cæsural.

||Ce*ta"ce*a (?), n. pl. [NL., from L. cetus whale, Gr. &?;.] (Zoöl.) An order of marine mammals, including the whales. Like ordinary mammals they breathe by means of lungs, and bring forth living young which they suckle for some time. The anterior limbs are changed to paddles; the tail flukes are horizontal. There are two living suborders: (a) The Mysticete or whalebone whales, having no true teeth after birth, but with a series of plates of whalebone [see Baleen.] hanging down from the upper jaw on each side, thus making a strainer, through which they receive the small animals upon which they feed. (b) The Denticete, including the dolphins and sperm whale, which have teeth. Another suborder (Zeuglodontia) is extinct. The Sirenia were formerly included in the Cetacea, but are now made a separate order.

Ce*ta"cean (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Cetacea.

Ce*ta"ceous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Cetacea.

||Ce"te (?), n. [L., pl.] (Zoöl.) One of the Cetacea, or collectively, the Cetacea.

Ce"tene (?), n. [See Cete.] (Chem.) An oily hydrocarbon, C16H32, of the ethylene series, obtained from spermaceti.

Cet"e*rach (?), n. [F. cétérac, fr. Ar. shetrak.] (Bot.) A species of fern with fronds (Asplenium Ceterach).

Cet"e*wale (?), n. [OF. citoal, F. zedoaire. See Zedoary.] Same as Zedoary. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ce"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a whale.

Ce"tin (?), n. [L. cetus whale.] (Chem.) A white, waxy substance, forming the essential part of spermaceti.

Ce`to*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to cetology.

Ce*tol"o*gist (?), a. One versed in cetology.

Ce*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; whale + -logy: cf. F. cétologie.] The description or natural history of cetaceous animals.

Ce*trar"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, the lichen, Iceland moss (Cetaria Islandica).

Cetraric acid. See Cetrarin.

Cet"ra*rin (?), n. [From Cetraria Islandica, the scientific name of Iceland moss.] (Chem.) A white substance extracted from the lichen, Iceland moss (Cetraria Islandica). It consists of several ingredients, among which is cetraric acid, a white, crystalline, bitter substance.

Ce"tyl (?), n. [Gr. &?; whale + -yl.] (Chem.) A radical, C16H33, not yet isolated, but supposed to exist in a series of compounds homologous with the ethyl compounds, and derived from spermaceti.

Ce*tyl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, spermaceti.

Cetylic alcohol (Chem.), a white, waxy, crystalline solid, obtained from spermaceti, and regarded as homologous with ordinary, or ethyl, alcohol; ethal; -- called also cetyl alcohol.

Cey"lan*ite (?), n. [F., fr. Ceylan Ceylon.] (Min.) A dingy blue, or grayish black, variety of spinel. It is also called pleonaste. [Written also ceylonite.]

Cey`lon*ese" (?), a. Of or pertaining to Ceylon. -- n. sing. & pl. A native or natives of Ceylon.

C. G. S. An abbreviation for Centimeter, Gram, Second. -- applied to a system of units much employed in physical science, based upon the centimeter as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of weight or mass, and the second as the unit of time.

Chab (chăb), n. (Zoöl.) The red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes Carolinus).

{ Chab"a*site (kăb"&adot;*sīt), Cab"a*zite (kăb"&adot;*zīt), } n. [Gr. chabazi`os one of twenty species of stones mentioned in the poem Peri` li`qwn, ascribed to Orpheus.] (Min.) A mineral occuring in glassy rhombohedral crystals, varying in color from white to yellow or red. It is essentially a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime. Called also chabasie.

||Cha*blis" (sh&adot;*blē"), n. [F.] A white wine made near Chablis, a town in France.

{ ||Cha*bouk", ||Cha*buk" (?), } n. [Hind. chābuk horsewhip.] A long whip, such as is used in the East in the infliction of punishment. Balfour.

Chace (?), n. See 3d Chase, n., 3.

Chace, v. t. To pursue. See Chase v. t.

||Cha`cha*la"ca (?), n. [Native name, prob. given in imitation of its cry.] (Zoöl.) The Texan guan (Ortalis vetula). [written also chiacalaca.]

Chack (chăk), v. i. To toss up the head frequently, as a horse to avoid the restraint of the bridle.

||Chac"ma (?), n. [Native name.] A large species of African baboon (Cynocephalus porcarius); -- called also ursine baboon. [See Illust. of Baboon.]

||Cha*conne" (?), n. [F., fr. Sp. chacona.] (Mus.) An old Spanish dance in moderate three-four measure, like the Passacaglia, which is slower. Both are used by classical composers as themes for variations.

Chad (shăd), n. See Shad. [Obs.]

||Chæ*te"tes (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; hair.] (Zoöl.) A genus of fossil corals, common in the lower Silurian limestones.

Chæ*tif"er*ous (?), a. [Gr. &?; hair + -ferous.] (Zoöl.) Bearing setæ.

Chæ"to*dont (?), n. [Gr. &?; hair + &?;, &?;, tooth.] (Zoöl.) A marine fish of the family Chætodontidæ. The chætodonts have broad, compressed bodies, and usually bright colors.

Chæto*dont, a. Of or pertaining to the Chætodonts or the family Chætodontidæ.

Chæ"tog*nath (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Chætognatha.

||Chæ*tog"na*tha (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; hair + &?; jaw.] (Zoöl) An order of free-swimming marine worms, of which the genus Sagitta is the type. They have groups of curved spines on each side of the head.

Chæ"to*pod (?), a. (Zoöl.) Pertaining to the Chætopoda. -- n. One of the Chætopoda.

||Chæ*top"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; hair + -poda.] (Zoöl.) A very extensive order of Annelida, characterized by the presence of lateral setæ, or spines, on most or all of the segments. They are divided into two principal groups: Oligochæta, including the earthworms and allied forms, and Polychæta, including most of the marine species.

Chæ"to*tax`y (?), n. [Gr. &?; hair + &?; arrangement.] (Zoöl.) The arrangement of bristles on an insect.

Chafe (chāf), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chafed (chāft); p pr. & vb. n. Chafing.] [OE. chaufen to warm, OF. chaufer, F. chauffer, fr. L. calefacere, calfacere, to make warm; calere to be warm + facere to make. See Caldron.] 1. To excite heat in by friction; to rub in order to stimulate and make warm.

To rub her temples, and to chafe her skin. Spenser.

2. To excite passion or anger in; to fret; to irritate.

Her intercession chafed him. Shak.

3. To fret and wear by rubbing; as, to chafe a cable.

Two slips of parchment which she sewed round it to prevent its being chafed. Sir W. Scott.

Syn. -- To rub; fret; gall; vex; excite; inflame.

Chafe, v. i. To rub; to come together so as to wear by rubbing; to wear by friction.

Made its great boughs chafe together. Longfellow.

The troubled Tiber chafing with her shores. Shak.

2. To be worn by rubbing; as, a cable chafes.

3. To have a feeling of vexation; to be vexed; to fret; to be irritated. Spenser.

He will chafe at the doctor's marrying my daughter. Shak.

Chafe, n. 1. Heat excited by friction.

2. Injury or wear caused by friction.

3. Vexation; irritation of mind; rage.

The cardinal in a chafe sent for him to Whitehall. Camden.

Chaf"er (?), n. 1. One who chafes.

2. A vessel for heating water; -- hence, a dish or pan.

A chafer of water to cool the ends of the irons. Baker.

Chaf"er, n. [AS. ceafor; akin to D. kever, G këfer.] (Zoöl.) A kind of beetle; the cockchafer. The name is also applied to other species; as, the rose chafer.

Chaf"er*y (?), n. [See Chafe, v. t.] (Iron Works) An open furnace or forge, in which blooms are heated before being wrought into bars.

{ Chafe"wax` (?), or Chaff"wax` (?), } n. (Eng. Law) Formerly a chancery officer who fitted wax for sealing writs and other documents.

Chafe"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) The cudweed (Gnaphalium), used to prevent or cure chafing.

Chaff (?), n. [AC. ceaf; akin to D. kaf, G. kaff.]

1. The glumes or husks of grains and grasses separated from the seed by threshing and winnowing, etc.

So take the corn and leave the chaff behind. Dryden.

Old birds are not caught with caff. Old Proverb.

2. Anything of a comparatively light and worthless character; the refuse part of anything.

The chaff and ruin of the times. Shak.

3. Straw or hay cut up fine for the food of cattle.

By adding chaff to his corn, the horse must take more time to eat it. In this way chaff is very useful. Ywatt.

4. Light jesting talk; banter; raillery.

5. (Bot.) The scales or bracts on the receptacle, which subtend each flower in the heads of many Compositæ, as the sunflower. Gray.

Chaff cutter, a machine for cutting, up straw, etc., into "chaff" for the use of cattle.

Chaff, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chaffed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chaffing.] To use light, idle language by way of fun or ridicule; to banter.

Chaff, v. t. To make fun of; to turn into ridicule by addressing in ironical or bantering language; to quiz.

Morgan saw that his master was chaffing him. Thackeray.

A dozen honest fellows . . . chaffed each other about their sweethearts. C. Kingsley.

Chaff"er, n. One who chaffs.

Chaf"fer (?), n. [OE. chaffare, cheapfare; AS. ceáp a bargain, price + faru a journey; hence, originally, a going to barain, to market. See Cheap, and Fare.] Bargaining; merchandise. [Obs.] Holished.

Chaf"fer, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chaffered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chaffering.] [OE. chaffaren, fr. chaffare, chapfare, cheapfare, a bargaining. See Chaffer, n.]

1. To treat or dispute about a purchase; to bargain; to haggle or higgle; to negotiate.

To chaffer for preferments with his gold. Dryden.

2. To talk much and idly; to chatter. Trench.

Chaf"fer, v. t. 1. To buy or sell; to trade in.

He chaffered chairs in which churchmen were set. Spenser.

2. To exchange; to bandy, as words. Spenser.

Chaf"fer*er (?), n. One who chaffers; a bargainer.

Chaf"fern (?), n. [See Chafe, v. t.] A vessel for heating water. [Obs.] Johnson.

Chaf"fer*y, n. Traffic; bargaining. [Obs.] Spenser.

Chaf"finch (?), n. [Cf. Chiff- chaff.] (Zoöl.) A bird of Europe (Fringilla cœlebs), having a variety of very sweet songs, and highly valued as a cage bird; -- called also copper finch.

Chaff"ing (?), n. The use of light, frivolous language by way of fun or ridicule; raillery; banter.

Chaff"less, a. Without chaff.

Chaff"y (?), a. 1. Abounding in, or resembling, chaff.

Chaffy grain beneath the thresher's flail. Coleridge.

2. Light or worthless as chaff.

Slight and chaffy opinion. Glanvill.

3. (Bot.) (a) Resembling chaff; composed of light dry scales. (b) Bearing or covered with dry scales, as the under surface of certain ferns, or the disk of some composite flowers.

Chaf"ing (?), n. [See Chafe, v. t.] The act of rubbing, or wearing by friction; making by rubbing.

Chafing dish, a dish or vessel for cooking on the table, or for keeping food warm, either by coals, by a lamp, or by hot water; a portable grate for coals. -- Chafing gear (Naut.), any material used to protect sails, rigging, or the like, at points where they are exposed to friction.

Cha*green" (?), n. See Shagreen.

Cha*grin" (?), n. [F., fr. chagrin shagreen, a particular kind of rough and grained leather; also a rough fishskin used for graters and files; hence (Fig.), a gnawing, corroding grief. See Shagreen.] Vexation; mortification.

I must own that I felt rather vexation and chagrin than hope and satisfaction. Richard Porson.

Hear me, and touch Belinda with chagrin. Pope.

Syn. -- Vexation; mortification; peevishness; fretfulness; disgust; disquiet. Chagrin, Vexation, Mortification. These words agree in the general sense of pain produced by untoward circumstances. Vexation is a feeling of disquietude or irritating uneasiness from numerous causes, such as losses, disappointments, etc. Mortification is a stronger word, and denotes that keen sense of pain which results from wounded pride or humiliating occurrences. Chagrin is literally the cutting pain produced by the friction of Shagreen leather; in its figurative sense, it varies in meaning, denoting in its lower degrees simply a state of vexation, and its higher degrees the keenest sense of mortification.

"Vexation arises chiefly from our wishes and views being crossed: mortification, from our self-importance being hurt; chagrin, from a mixture of the two." Crabb.

Cha*grin", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chagrined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chargrining.] [Cf. F. chagriner See Chagrin, n.] To excite ill-humor in; to vex; to mortify; as, he was not a little chagrined.

Cha*grin", v. i. To be vexed or annoyed. Fielding.

Cha*grin", a. Chagrined. Dryden.

Chain (?), n. [F. chaîne, fr. L. catena. Cf. Catenate.] 1. A series of links or rings, usually of metal, connected, or fitted into one another, used for various purposes, as of support, of restraint, of ornament, of the exertion and transmission of mechanical power, etc.

[They] put a chain of gold about his neck. Dan. v. 29.

2. That which confines, fetters, or secures, as a chain; a bond; as, the chains of habit.

Driven down To chains of darkness and the undying worm. Milton.

3. A series of things linked together; or a series of things connected and following each other in succession; as, a chain of mountains; a chain of events or ideas.

4. (Surv.) An instrument which consists of links and is used in measuring land.

&fist; One commonly in use is Gunter's chain, which consists of one hundred links, each link being seven inches and ninety-two one hundredths in length; making up the total length of rods, or sixty-six, feet; hence, a measure of that length; hence, also, a unit for land measure equal to four rods square, or one tenth of an acre.

5. pl. (Naut.) Iron links bolted to the side of a vessel to bold the dead-eyes connected with the shrouds; also, the channels.

6. (Weaving) The warp threads of a web. Knight.

Chain belt (Mach.), a belt made of a chain; -- used for transmitting power. -- Chain boat, a boat fitted up for recovering lost cables, anchors, etc. -- Chain bolt (a) (Naut.) The bolt at the lower end of the chain plate, which fastens it to the vessel's side. (b) A bolt with a chain attached for drawing it out of position. -- Chain bond. See Chain timber. -- Chain bridge, a bridge supported by chain cables; a suspension bridge. -- Chain cable, a cable made of iron links. -- Chain coral (Zoöl.), a fossil coral of the genus Halysites, common in the middle and upper Silurian rocks. The tubular corallites are united side by side in groups, looking in an end view like links of a chain. When perfect, the calicles show twelve septa. -- Chain coupling. (a) A shackle for uniting lengths of chain, or connecting a chain with an object. (b) (Railroad) Supplementary coupling together of cars with a chain. -- Chain gang, a gang of convicts chained together. -- Chain hook (Naut.), a hook, used for dragging cables about the deck. -- Chain mail, flexible, defensive armor of hammered metal links wrought into the form of a garment. -- Chain molding (Arch.), a form of molding in imitation of a chain, used in the Normal style. - - Chain pier, a pier suspended by chain. -- Chain pipe (Naut.), an opening in the deck, lined with iron, through which the cable is passed into the lockers or tiers. -- Chain plate (Shipbuilding), one of the iron plates or bands, on a vessel's side, to which the standing rigging is fastened. -- Chain pulley, a pulley with depressions in the periphery of its wheel, or projections from it, made to fit the links of a chain. -- Chain pumps. See in the Vocabulary. -- Chain rule (Arith.), a theorem for solving numerical problems by composition of ratios, or compound proportion, by which, when several ratios of equality are given, the consequent of each being the same as the antecedent of the next, the relation between the first antecedent and the last consequent is discovered. -- Chain shot (Mil.), two cannon balls united by a shot chain, formerly used in naval warfare on account of their destructive effect on a ship's rigging. -- Chain stitch. See in the Vocabulary. -- Chain timber. (Arch.) See Bond timber, under Bond. -- Chain wales. (Naut.) Same as Channels. -- Chain wheel. See in the Vocabulary. -- Closed chain, Open chain (Chem.), terms applied to the chemical structure of compounds whose rational formulæ are written respectively in the form of a closed ring (see Benzene nucleus, under Benzene), or in an open extended form. -- Endless chain, a chain whose ends have been united by a link.

Chain, v. t. [imp. p. p. Chained (chānd); p. pr. & vb. n. Chaining.] 1. To fasten, bind, or connect with a chain; to fasten or bind securely, as with a chain; as, to chain a bulldog.

Chained behind the hostile car. Prior.

2. To keep in slavery; to enslave.

And which more blest? who chained his country, say Or he whose virtue sighed to lose a day? Pope.

3. To unite closely and strongly.

And in this vow do chain my soul to thine. Shak.

4. (Surveying) To measure with the chain.

5. To protect by drawing a chain across, as a harbor.

Chain"less (?), a. Having no chain; not restrained or fettered. "The chainless mind." Byron.

Chain"let (?), n. A small chain. Sir W. Scott.

Chain" pump` (?). A pump consisting of an endless chain, running over a drum or wheel by which it is moved, and dipping below the water to be raised. The chain has at intervals disks or lifts which fit the tube through which the ascending part passes and carry the water to the point of discharge.

Chain" stitch` (?). 1. An ornamental stitch like the links of a chain; -- used in crocheting, sewing, and embroidery.

2. (Machine Sewing) A stitch in which the looping of the thread or threads forms a chain on the under side of the work; the loop stitch, as distinguished from the lock stitch. See Stitch.

Chain" wheel` (?). 1. A chain pulley, or sprocket wheel.

2. An inversion of the chain pump, by which it becomes a motor driven by water.

Chain"work` (?), n. Work looped or linked after the manner of a chain; chain stitch work.

Chair (?), n. [OE. chaiere, chaere, OF. chaiere, chaere, F. chaire pulpit, fr. L. cathedra chair, armchair, a teacher's or professor's chair, Gr. &?; down + &?; seat, &?; to sit, akin to E. sit. See Sit, and cf. Cathedral, chaise.]

1. A movable single seat with a back.

2. An official seat, as of a chief magistrate or a judge, but esp. that of a professor; hence, the office itself.

The chair of a philosophical school. Whewell.

A chair of philology. M. Arnold.

3. The presiding officer of an assembly; a chairman; as, to address the chair.

4. A vehicle for one person; either a sedan borne upon poles, or two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one horse; a gig. Shak.

Think what an equipage thou hast in air, And view with scorn two pages and a chair. Pope.

5. An iron block used on railways to support the rails and secure them to the sleepers.

Chair days, days of repose and age. -- To put into the chair, to elect as president, or as chairman of a meeting. Macaulay. -- To take the chair, to assume the position of president, or of chairman of a meeting.

Chair, v. t. [imp. & p. pr. Chaired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chairing.] 1. To place in a chair.

2. To carry publicly in a chair in triumph. [Eng.]

Chair"man (?), n.; pl. Chairmen (&?;). 1. The presiding officer of a committee, or of a public or private meeting, or of any organized body.

2. One whose business it is to cary a chair or sedan.

Breaks watchmen's heads and chairmen's glasses. Prior.

Chair"man*ship, n. The office of a chairman of a meeting or organized body.

Chaise (shāz), n. [F. chaise seat, or chair, chaise or carriage, for chaire, from a peculiar Parisian pronunciation. See Chair.] 1. A two-wheeled carriage for two persons, with a calash top, and the body hung on leather straps, or thorough-braces. It is usually drawn by one horse.

2. Loosely, a carriage in general. Cowper.

||Cha"ja (?), n. [Native name.] (Zoöl.) The crested screamer of Brazil (Palamedea, or Chauna, chavaria), so called in imitation of its notes; -- called also chauna, and faithful kamichi. It is often domesticated and is useful in guarding other poultry. See Kamichi.

||Cha*la"za (?), n.; pl. E. Chalazas, L. Chalazæ (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; hail, pimple.] 1. (Bot.) The place on an ovule, or seed, where its outer coats cohere with each other and the nucleus.

2. (Biol.) A spiral band of thickened albuminous substance which exists in the white of the bird's egg, and serves to maintain the yolk in its position; the treadle.

Cha*la"zal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the chalaza.

Cha*laze" (?), n. Same as Chalaza.

Chal`a*zif"er*ous (?), a. [Chalaza + -ferous.] Having or bearing chalazas.

||Cha*la"zi*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; dim. of &?; hail, pimple.] (Med.) A small circumscribed tumor of the eyelid caused by retention of secretion, and by inflammation of the Melbomian glands.

Chal*can"thite (?), n. [L. chalcanthum a solution of blue vitriol, Gr. &?;.] (Min.) Native blue vitriol. See Blue vitriol, under Blue.

Chal"ce*don"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to chalcedony.

Chal*ced"o*ny (kăl*s&ebreve;d"&osl;*n&ybreve; or kăl"s&esl;*d&osl;*n&ybreve;; 277), n.; pl. Chalcedonies (-n&ibreve;z). [ L. chalcedonius, fr. Gr. CHalkhdw`n Chalcedon, a town in Asia Minor, opposite to Byzantium: cf. calcédoine, OE. calcidoine, casidoyne. Cf. Cassidony.] (Min.) A cryptocrystalline, translucent variety of quartz, having usually a whitish color, and a luster nearly like wax. [Written also calcedony.]

&fist; When chalcedony is variegated with with spots or figures, or arranged in differently colored layers, it is called agate; and if by reason of the thickness, color, and arrangement of the layers it is suitable for being carved into cameos, it is called onyx. Chrysoprase is green chalcedony; carnelian, a flesh red, and sard, a brownish red variety.

||Chal`chi*huitl" (ch&adot;l`ch&esl;*w&esl;tl"), n. (Min.) The Mexican name for turquoise. See Turquoise.

Chal"cid fly` (?). [From Gr. chalko`s copper; in allusion to its metallic colors.] (Zoöl.) One of a numerous family of hymenopterous insects (Chalcididæ. Many are gallflies, others are parasitic on insects.

Chal*cid"i*an (?), n. [L. chalcis a lizard, Gr. chalki`s.] (Zoöl.) One of a tropical family of snakelike lizards (Chalcidæ), having four small or rudimentary legs.

Chal"co*cite (?), n. [Gr. chalko`s brass.] (Min.) Native copper sulphide, called also copper glance, and vitreous copper; a mineral of a black color and metallic luster. [Formerly written chalcosine.]

{ Chal*cog"ra*pher (?), Chal*cog"ra*phist (?), } n. An engraver on copper or brass; hence, an engraver of copper plates for printing upon paper.

Chal*cog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. chalko`s copper, brass + -graphy.] The act or art of engraving on copper or brass, especially of engraving for printing.

Chal`co*pyr"ite (?), n. [Gr. chalko`s brass + E. pyrite. So named from its color.] (Min.) Copper pyrites, or yellow copper ore; a common ore of copper, containing copper, iron, and sulphur. It occurs massive and in tetragonal crystals of a bright brass yellow color.

Chal*da"ic (?), a. [L. Chaldaicus.] Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- n. The language or dialect of the Chaldeans; Chaldee.

Chal"da*ism (?), n. An idiom or peculiarity in the Chaldee dialect.

Chal*de"an (?), a. [L. Chaldaeus.] Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- n. (a) A native or inhabitant of Chaldea. (b) A learned man, esp. an astrologer; -- so called among the Eastern nations, because astrology and the kindred arts were much cultivated by the Chaldeans. (c) Nestorian.

Chal"dee (?), a. Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- n. The language or dialect of the Chaldeans; eastern Aramaic, or the Aramaic used in Chaldea.

Chaldee Paraphrase, A targum written in Aramaic.

{ Chal"drich (?), Chal"der (?), } n. [Icel. tjaldr.] (Zoöl.) A kind of bird; the oyster catcher.

Chal"dron (?), n. [OF. chaldron, F. chaudron kettle. The same word as caldron.] An English dry measure, being, at London, 36 bushels heaped up, or its equivalent weight, and more than twice as much at Newcastle. Now used exclusively for coal and coke.

&fist; In the United States the chaldron is ordinarily 2,940 lbs, but at New York it is 2,500 lbs. De Colange.

||Cha*let" (?), n. [F.] 1. A herdsman's hut in the mountains of Switzerland.

Chalets are summer huts for the Swiss herdsmen. Wordsworth.

2. A summer cottage or country house in the Swiss mountains; any country house built in the style of the Swiss cottages.

Chal"ice (?), n. [OR. chalis, calice, OF. chalice, calice, F. calice, fr. L. calix, akin to Gr. &?; and E. helmet. Cf. Calice, Calyx.] A cup or bowl; especially, the cup used in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.

Chal"iced (?), a. Having a calyx or cup; cup-shaped. "Chaliced flowers." Shak.

Chalk (?), n. [AS. cealc lime, from L. calx limestone. See Calz, and Cawk.] 1. (Min.) A soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish white color, consisting of calcium carbonate, and having the same composition as common limestone.

2. (Fine Arts) Finely prepared chalk, used as a drawing implement; also, by extension, a compound, as of clay and black lead, or the like, used in the same manner. See Crayon.

Black chalk, a mineral of a bluish color, of a slaty texture, and soiling the fingers when handled; a variety of argillaceous slate. -- By a long chalk, by a long way; by many degrees. [Slang] Lowell. -- Chalk drawing (Fine Arts), a drawing made with crayons. See Crayon. -- Chalk formation. See Cretaceous formation, under Cretaceous. -- Chalk line, a cord rubbed with chalk, used for making straight lines on boards or other material, as a guide in cutting or in arranging work. -- Chalk mixture, a preparation of chalk, cinnamon, and sugar in gum water, much used in diarrheal affection, esp. of infants. -- Chalk period. (Geol.) See Cretaceous period, under Cretaceous. - - Chalk pit, a pit in which chalk is dug. -- Drawing chalk. See Crayon, n., 1. -- French chalk, steatite or soapstone, a soft magnesian mineral. -- Red chalk, an indurated clayey ocher containing iron, and used by painters and artificers; reddle.

Chalk, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chalked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chalking.] 1. To rub or mark with chalk.

2. To manure with chalk, as land. Morimer.

3. To make white, as with chalk; to make pale; to bleach. Tennyson.

Let a bleak paleness chalk the door. Herbert.

To chalk out, to sketch with, or as with, chalk; to outline; to indicate; to plan. [Colloq.] "I shall pursue the plan I have chalked out." Burke.

Chalk"cut`ter (?), n. A man who digs chalk.

Chalk"i*ness (?), n. The state of being chalky.

Chalk"stone` (?), n. 1. A mass of chalk.

As chalkstones . . . beaten in sunder. Isa. xxvii. 9.

2. (Med.) A chalklike concretion, consisting mainly of urate of sodium, found in and about the small joints, in the external ear, and in other situations, in those affected with gout; a tophus.

Chalk"y (?), a. Consisting of, or resembling, chalk; containing chalk; as, a chalky cliff; a chalky taste.

Chal"lenge (?), n. [OE. chalenge claim, accusation, challenge, OF. chalenge, chalonge, claim, accusation, contest, fr. L. calumnia false accusation, chicanery. See Calumny.] 1. An invitation to engage in a contest or controversy of any kind; a defiance; specifically, a summons to fight a duel; also, the letter or message conveying the summons.

A challenge to controversy. Goldsmith.

2. The act of a sentry in halting any one who appears at his post, and demanding the countersign.

3. A claim or demand. [Obs.]

There must be no challenge of superiority. Collier.

4. (Hunting) The opening and crying of hounds at first finding the scent of their game.

5. (Law) An exception to a juror or to a member of a court martial, coupled with a demand that he should be held incompetent to act; the claim of a party that a certain person or persons shall not sit in trial upon him or his cause. Blackstone

6. An exception to a person as not legally qualified to vote. The challenge must be made when the ballot is offered. [U. S.]

Challenge to the array (Law), an exception to the whole panel. -- Challenge to the favor, the alleging a special cause, the sufficiency of which is to be left to those whose duty and office it is to decide upon it. -- Challenge to the polls, an exception taken to any one or more of the individual jurors returned. -- Peremptory challenge, a privilege sometimes allowed to defendants, of challenging a certain number of jurors (fixed by statute in different States) without assigning any cause. -- Principal challenge, that which the law allows to be sufficient if found to be true.

Chal"lenge, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Challenged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Challenging.] [OE. chalengen to accuse, claim, OF. chalengier, chalongier, to claim, accuse, dispute, fr. L. calumniar to attack with false accusations. See Challenge, n., and cf. Calumniate.] 1. To call to a contest of any kind; to call to answer; to defy.

I challenge any man to make any pretense to power by right of fatherhood. Locke.

2. To call, invite, or summon to answer for an offense by personal combat.

By this I challenge him to single fight. Shak.

3. To claim as due; to demand as a right.

Challenge better terms. Addison.

4. To censure; to blame. [Obs.]

He complained of the emperors . . . and challenged them for that he had no greater revenues . . . from them. Holland.

5. (Mil.) To question or demand the countersign from (one who attempts to pass the lines); as, the sentinel challenged us, with "Who comes there?"

6. To take exception to; question; as, to challenge the accuracy of a statement or of a quotation.

7. (Law) To object to or take exception to, as to a juror, or member of a court.

8. To object to the reception of the vote of, as on the ground that the person in not qualified as a voter. [U. S.]

To challenge to the array, favor, polls. See under Challenge, n.

Chal"lenge, v. i. To assert a right; to claim a place.

Where nature doth with merit challenge. Shak.

Chal"lenge*a*ble (?), a. That may be challenged.

Chal"len*ger (?), n. One who challenges.

Chal"lis (?), n. [F. chaly, challis, a stuff made of goat's hair.] A soft and delicate woolen, or woolen and silk, fabric, for ladies' dresses. [Written also chally.]

Cha"lon (?), n. A bed blanket. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Cha*lyb"e*an (?), a. [L. chalybeïus, fr. chalybs steel, Gr. &?;.] 1. Of or pertaining to the Chalybes, an ancient people of Pontus in Asia Minor, celebrated for working in iron and steel.

2. Of superior quality and temper; -- applied to steel. [Obs.] Milton.

Cha*lyb"e*ate (?), a. [NL. chalybeatus, fr. chalubeïus. See Chalubean.] Impregnated with salts of iron; having a taste like iron; as, chalybeate springs.

Cha*lyb"e*ate, n. Any water, liquid, or medicine, into which iron enters as an ingredient.

Cha*lyb"e*ous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Steel blue; of the color of tempered steel.

Chal"y*bite (?), n. (Min.) Native iron carbonate; -- usually called siderite.

Cham (?), v. t. [See Chap.] To chew. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Sir T. More.

Cham (?), n. [See Khan.] The sovereign prince of Tartary; -- now usually written khan. Shak.

Cha*made (?), n. [F. chamade, fr. Pg. chamada, fr. chamar to call, fr. L. clamare.] (Mil.) A signal made for a parley by beat of a drum.

They beat the chamade, and sent us carte blanche. Addison.

||Cha"mal (?), n. [Native name.] (Zoöl.) The Angora goat. See Angora goat, under Angora.

Cham"ber (?), n. [F. chambre, fr. L. camera vault, arched roof, in LL. chamber, fr. Gr. &?; anything with a vaulted roof or arched covering; cf. Skr. kmar to be crooked. Cf. Camber, Camera, Comrade.]

1. A retired room, esp. an upper room used for sleeping; a bedroom; as, the house had four chambers.

2. pl. Apartments in a lodging house. "A bachelor's life in chambers." Thackeray.

3. A hall, as where a king gives audience, or a deliberative body or assembly meets; as, presence chamber; senate chamber.

4. A legislative or judicial body; an assembly; a society or association; as, the Chamber of Deputies; the Chamber of Commerce.

5. A compartment or cell; an inclosed space or cavity; as, the chamber of a canal lock; the chamber of a furnace; the chamber of the eye.

6. pl. (Law.) A room or rooms where a lawyer transacts business; a room or rooms where a judge transacts such official business as may be done out of court.

7. A chamber pot. [Colloq.]

8. (Mil.) (a) That part of the bore of a piece of ordnance which holds the charge, esp. when of different diameter from the rest of the bore; -- formerly, in guns, made smaller than the bore, but now larger, esp. in breech-loading guns. (b) A cavity in a mine, usually of a cubical form, to contain the powder. (c) A short piece of ordnance or cannon, which stood on its breech, without any carriage, formerly used chiefly for rejoicings and theatrical cannonades.

Air chamber. See Air chamber, in the Vocabulary. -- Chamber of commerce, a board or association to protect the interests of commerce, chosen from among the merchants and traders of a city. -- Chamber council, a secret council. Shak. -- Chamber counsel or counselor, a counselor who gives his opinion in private, or at his chambers, but does not advocate causes in court. -- Chamber fellow, a chamber companion; a roommate; a chum. -- Chamber hangings, tapestry or hangings for a chamber. -- Chamber lye, urine. Shak. -- Chamber music, vocal or instrumental music adapted to performance in a chamber or small apartment or audience room, instead of a theater, concert hall, or church. -- Chamber practice (Law.), the practice of counselors at law, who give their opinions in private, but do not appear in court. -- To sit at chambers, to do business in chambers, as a judge.

Cham"ber (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chambered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chambering.] 1. To reside in or occupy a chamber or chambers.

2. To be lascivious. [Obs.]

Cham"ber, v. t. 1. To shut up, as in a chamber. Shak.

2. To furnish with a chamber; as, to chamber a gun.

Cham"bered (?), a. Having a chamber or chambers; as, a chambered shell; a chambered gun.

Cham"ber*er (?), n. 1. One who attends in a chamber; a chambermaid. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. A civilian; a carpetmonger. [Obs.]

Cham"ber*ing, n. Lewdness. [Obs.] Rom. xiii. 13.

Cham"ber*lain (?), n. [OF. chamberlain, chambrelencF. chambellon, OHG. chamerling, chamarlinc, G. kämmerling, kammer chamber (fr. L. camera) + -ling. See Chamber, and -ling.] [Formerly written chamberlin.] 1. An officer or servant who has charge of a chamber or chambers.

2. An upper servant of an inn. [Obs.]

3. An officer having the direction and management of the private chambers of a nobleman or monarch; hence, in Europe, one of the high officers of a court.

4. A treasurer or receiver of public money; as, the chamberlain of London, of North Wales, etc.

The lord chamberlain of England, an officer of the crown, who waits upon the sovereign on the day of coronation, and provides requisites for the palace of Westminster, and for the House of Lords during the session of Parliament. Under him are the gentleman of the black rod and other officers. His office is distinct from that of the lord chamberlain of the Household, whose functions relate to the royal housekeeping.

Cham"ber*lain*ship, n. Office of a chamberlain.

Cham"ber*maid` (?), n. 1. A maidservant who has the care of chambers, making the beds, sweeping, cleaning the rooms, etc.

2. A lady's maid. [Obs.] Johnson.

||Cham`ber*tin" (?), n. A red wine from Chambertin near Dijon, in Burgundy.

Cham"brel (?), n. Same as Gambrel.

||Cha*meck" (?), n. [Native Brazilian name.] (Zoöl.) A kind of spider monkey (Ateles chameck), having the thumbs rudimentary and without a nail.

Cha*me"le*on (k&adot;*mē"l&esl;*ŭn), n. [L. Chamaeleon, Gr. chamaile`wn, lit., "ground lion;" chamai` on the ground + le`wn lion. See Humble, and Lion.] (Zoöl.) A lizardlike reptile of the genus Chamæleo, of several species, found in Africa, Asia, and Europe. The skin is covered with fine granulations; the tail is prehensile, and the body is much compressed laterally, giving it a high back.

&fist; Its color changes more or less with the color of the objects about it, or with its temper when disturbed. In a cool, dark place it is nearly white, or grayish; on admitting the light, it changes to brown, bottle-green, or blood red, of various shades, and more or less mottled in arrangment. The American chameleons belong to Anolis and allied genera of the family Iguanidæ. They are more slender in form than the true chameleons, but have the same power of changing their colors.

Chameleon mineral (Chem.), the compound called potassium permanganate, a dark violet, crystalline substance, KMnO4, which in formation passes through a peculiar succession of color from green to blue, purple, red, etc. See Potassium permanganate, under Potassium.

Cha*me"le*on*ize (?), v. t. To change into various colors. [R.]

Cham"fer (?), n. [See Chamfron.] The surface formed by cutting away the arris, or angle, formed by two faces of a piece of timber, stone, etc.

Cham"fer, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chamfered ; p. pr. & vb. n. Chamfering. (&?;)]

1. (Carp.) To cut a furrow in, as in a column; to groove; to channel; to flute.

2. To make a chamfer on.

Cham"fret (?), n. [See Chamfron.] 1. (Carp.) A small gutter; a furrow; a groove.

2. A chamfer.

Cham"fron (?), n. [F. chanfrein.] (Anc. Armor) The frontlet, or head armor, of a horse. [Written also champfrain and chamfrain.]

Cham"let (?), n. See Camlet. [Obs.]

Cham"ois (shăm"m&ybreve; or sh&adot;*moi"; 277), n. [F. chamois, prob. fr. OG. gamz, G. gemse.]

1. (Zoöl.) A small species of antelope (Rupicapra tragus), living on the loftiest mountain ridges of Europe, as the Alps, Pyrenees, etc. It possesses remarkable agility, and is a favorite object of chase.

2. A soft leather made from the skin of the chamois, or from sheepskin, etc.; -- called also chamois leather, and chammy or shammy leather. See Shammy.

Cham"o*mile (?), n. (Bot.) See Camomile.

Champ (chămp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Champed (chămt); p. pr. & vb. n. Champing.] [Prob, of Scand. orgin; cf. dial. Sw. kämsa to chew with difficulty, champ; but cf. also OF. champier, champeyer, champoyer, to graze in fields, fr. F. champ field, fr. L. campus. Cf. Camp.] 1. To bite with repeated action of the teeth so as to be heard.

Foamed and champed the golden bit. Dryden.

2. To bite into small pieces; to crunch. Steele.

Champ, v. i. To bite or chew impatiently.

They began . . . irefully to champ upon the bit. Hooker.

{ Champ, Champe, } n. [F. champ, L. campus field.] (Arch.) The field or ground on which carving appears in relief.

Cham*pagne" (?), n. [F. See Champaign.] A light wine, of several kinds, originally made in the province of Champagne, in France.

&fist; Champagne properly includes several kinds not only of sparkling but of still wines; but in America the term is usually restricted to wines which effervesce.

Cham*paign" (?), n. [OF. champaigne; same word as campagne.] A flat, open country.

Fair champaign, with less rivers interveined. Milton.

Through Apline vale or champaign wide. Wordsworth.

Cham*paign", a. Flat; open; level.

A wide, champaign country, filled with herds. Addison.

Champ"er (?), n. One who champs, or bites.

Cham"per*tor (?), n. [F. champarteur a divider of fields or field rent. See Champerty.] (Law) One guilty of champerty; one who purchases a suit, or the right of suing, and carries it on at his own expense, in order to obtain a share of the gain.

Cham"per*ty (?), n. [F. champart field rent, L. campipars; champ (L. campus) field + part (L. pars) share.] 1. Partnership in power; equal share of authority. [Obs.]

Beauté ne sleighte, strengthe ne hardyness, Ne may with Venus holde champartye. Chaucer.

2. (Law) The prosecution or defense of a suit, whether by furnishing money or personal services, by one who has no legitimate concern therein, in consideration of an agreement that he shall receive, in the event of success, a share of the matter in suit; maintenance with the addition of an agreement to divide the thing in suit. See Maintenance.

&fist; By many authorities champerty is defined as an agreement of this nature. From early times the offence of champerty has been forbidden and punishable.

Cham*pi"gnon (?), n. [F., a mushroom, ultimately fr. L. campus field. See Camp.] (Bot.) An edible species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris).

Fairy ring champignon, the Marasmius oreades, which has a strong flavor but is edible.

Cham"pi*on (chăm"p&ibreve;*ŭn), n. [F. champion, fr. LL. campio, of German origin; cf. OHG. chempho, chemphio, fighter, champf, G. kampf, contest; perh. influenced by L. campus field, taken in the sense of "field of battle."] 1. One who engages in any contest; esp. one who in ancient times contended in single combat in behalf of another's honor or rights; or one who now acts or speaks in behalf of a person or a cause; a defender; an advocate; a hero.

A stouter champion never handled sword. Shak.

Champions of law and liberty. Fisher Ames.

2. One who by defeating all rivals, has obtained an acknowledged supremacy in any branch of athletics or game of skill, and is ready to contend with any rival; as, the champion of England.

&fist; Champion is used attributively in the sense of surpassing all competitors; overmastering; as, champion pugilist; champion chess player.

Syn. -- Leader; chieftain; combatant; hero; warrior; defender; protector.

Cham"pi*on, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Championed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Championing.] [Obs.] Shak.

2. To furnish with a champion; to attend or defend as champion; to support or maintain; to protect.

Championed or unchampioned, thou diest. Sir W. Scott.

Cham"pi*on*ness (?), n. A female champion. Fairfax.

Cham"pi*on*ship, n. State of being champion; leadership; supremacy.

Cham*plain" pe"ri*od (?). (Geol.) A subdivision of the Quaternary age immediately following the Glacial period; -- so named from beds near Lake Champlain.

&fist; The earlier deposits of this period are diluvial in character, as if formed in connection with floods attending the melting of the glaciers, while the later deposits are of finer material in more quiet waters, as the alluvium.

||Cham*sin" (?), n. [F.] See Kamsin.

Chance (ch&adot;ns), n. [F. chance, OF. cheance, fr. LL. cadentia a allusion to the falling of the dice), fr. L. cadere to fall; akin to Skr. çad to fall, L. cedere to yield, E. cede. Cf. Cadence.] 1. A supposed material or psychical agent or mode of activity other than a force, law, or purpose; fortune; fate; -- in this sense often personified.

It is strictly and philosophically true in nature and reason that there is no such thing as chance or accident; it being evident that these words do not signify anything really existing, anything that is truly an agent or the cause of any event; but they signify merely men's ignorance of the real and immediate cause. Samuel Clark.

Any society into which chance might throw him. Macaulay.

That power Which erring men call Chance. Milton.

2. The operation or activity of such agent.

By chance a priest came down that way. Luke x. 31.

3. The supposed effect of such an agent; something that befalls, as the result of unknown or unconsidered forces; the issue of uncertain conditions; an event not calculated upon; an unexpected occurrence; a happening; accident; fortuity; casualty.

It was a chance that happened to us. 1 Sam. vi. 9.

The Knave of Diamonds tries his wily arts, And wins (O shameful chance!) the Queen of Hearts. Pope.

I spake of most disastrous chance. Shak.

4. A possibility; a likelihood; an opportunity; -- with reference to a doubtful result; as, a chance to escape; a chance for life; the chances are all against him.

So weary with disasters, tugged with fortune. That I would get my life on any chance, To mend it, or be rid on 't Shak.

5. (Math.) Probability.

&fist; The mathematical expression, of a chance is the ratio of frequency with which an event happens in the long run. If an event may happen in a ways and may fail in b ways, and each of these a + b ways is equally likely, the chance, or probability, that the event will happen is measured by the fraction a/a + b, and the chance, or probability, that it will fail is measured by b/a + b.

Chance comer, one who comes unexpectedly. -- The last chance, the sole remaining ground of hope. -- The main chance, the chief opportunity; that upon which reliance is had, esp. self-interest. -- Theory of chances, Doctrine of chances (Math.), that branch of mathematics which treats of the probability of the occurrence of particular events, as the fall of dice in given positions. -- To mind one's chances, to take advantage of every circumstance; to seize every opportunity.

Chance, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chancing.] To happen, come, or arrive, without design or expectation. "Things that chance daily." Robynson (More's Utopia).

If a bird's nest chance to be before thee. Deut. xxii. 6.

I chanced on this letter. Shak.

Often used impersonally; as, how chances it?

How chance, thou art returned so soon? Shak.

Chance, v. t. 1. To take the chances of; to venture upon; -- usually with it as object.

Come what will, I will chance it. W. D. Howells.

2. To befall; to happen to. [Obs.] W. Lambarde.

Chance, a. Happening by chance; casual.

Chance, adv. By chance; perchance. Gray.

Chance"a*ble (?), a. Fortuitous; casual. [Obs.]

Chance"a*bly, adv. By chance. [Obs.]

Chance"ful (?), a. Hazardous. [Obs.] Spenser.

Chan"cel (?), n. [OF. chancel, F. chanceau, cancel, fr. L. cancelli lattices, crossbars. (The chancel was formerly inclosed with lattices or crossbars) See Cancel, v. t.] (Arch.) (a) That part of a church, reserved for the use of the clergy, where the altar, or communion table, is placed. Hence, in modern use; (b) All that part of a cruciform church which is beyond the line of the transept farthest from the main front.

Chancel aisle (Arch.), the aisle which passes on either side of or around the chancel. -- Chancel arch (Arch.), the arch which spans the main opening, leading to the chancel. -- Chancel casement, the principal window in a chancel. Tennyson. -- Chancel table, the communion table.

Chan"cel*ler*y (?), n. [Cf. Chancery.] Chancellorship. [Obs.] Gower.

Chan"cel*lor (?), n. [OE. canceler, chaunceler, F. chancelier, LL. cancellarius chancellor, a director of chancery, fr. L. cancelli lattices, crossbars, which surrounded the seat of judgment. See Chancel.] A judicial court of chancery, which in England and in the United States is distinctively a court with equity jurisdiction.

&fist; The chancellor was originally a chief scribe or secretary under the Roman emperors, but afterward was invested with judicial powers, and had superintendence over the other officers of the empire. From the Roman empire this office passed to the church, and every bishop has his chancellor, the principal judge of his consistory. In later times, in most countries of Europe, the chancellor was a high officer of state, keeper of the great seal of the kingdom, and having the supervision of all charters, and like public instruments of the crown, which were authenticated in the most solemn manner. In France a secretary is in some cases called a chancellor. In Scotland, the appellation is given to the foreman of a jury, or assize. In the present German empire, the chancellor is the president of the federal council and the head of the imperial administration. In the United States, the title is given to certain judges of courts of chancery or equity, established by the statutes of separate States. Blackstone. Wharton.

Chancellor of a bishop, or of a diocese (R. C. Ch. & ch. of Eng.), a law officer appointed to hold the bishop's court in his diocese, and to assist him in matter of ecclesiastical law. -- Chancellor of a cathedral, one of the four chief dignitaries of the cathedrals of the old foundation, and an officer whose duties are chiefly educational, with special reference to the cultivation of theology. -- Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, an officer before whom, or his deputy, the court of the duchy chamber of Lancaster is held. This is a special jurisdiction. -- Chancellor of a university, the chief officer of a collegiate body. In Oxford, he is elected for life; in Cambridge, for a term of years; and his office is honorary, the chief duties of it devolving on the vice chancellor. -- Chancellor of the exchequer, a member of the British cabinet upon whom devolves the charge of the public income and expenditure as the highest finance minister of the government. -- Chancellor of the order of the Garter (or other military orders), an officer who seals the commissions and mandates of the chapter and assembly of the knights, keeps the register of their proceedings, and delivers their acts under the seal of their order. -- Lord high chancellor of England, the presiding judge in the court of chancery, the highest judicial officer of the crown, and the first lay person of the state after the blood royal. He is created chancellor by the delivery into his custody of the great seal, of which he becomes keeper. He is privy counselor by his office, and prolocutor of the House of Lords by prescription.

Chan"cel*lor*ship (ch&adot;n"s&ebreve;l*l&etilde;r*sh&ibreve;p), n. The office of a chancellor; the time during which one is chancellor.

Chance"-med`ley (?), n. [Chance + medley.] 1. (Law) The killing of another in self-defense upon a sudden and unpremeditated encounter. See Chaud-Medley.

&fist; The term has been sometimes applied to any kind of homicide by misadventure, or to any accidental killing of a person without premeditation or evil intent, but, in strictness, is applicable to such killing as happens in defending one's self against assault. Bouvier.

2. Luck; chance; accident. Milton. Cowper.

Chan"cer*y (?), n. [F. chancellerie, LL. cancellaria, from L. cancellarius. See Chancellor, and cf. Chancellery.] 1. In England, formerly, the highest court of judicature next to the Parliament, exercising jurisdiction at law, but chiefly in equity; but under the jurisdiction act of 1873 it became the chancery division of the High Court of Justice, and now exercises jurisdiction only in equity.

2. In the Unites States, a court of equity; equity; proceeding in equity.

&fist; A court of chancery, so far as it is a court of equity, in the English and American sense, may be generally, if not precisely, described as one having jurisdiction in cases of rights, recognized and protected by the municipal jurisprudence, where a plain, adequate, and complete remedy can not be had in the courts of common law. In some of the American States, jurisdiction at law and in equity centers in the same tribunal. The courts of the United States also have jurisdiction both at law and in equity, and in all such cases they exercise their jurisdiction, as courts of law, or as courts of equity, as the subject of adjudication may require. In others of the American States, the courts that administer equity are distinct tribunals, having their appropriate judicial officers, and it is to the latter that the appellation courts of chancery is usually applied; but, in American law, the terms equity and court of equity are more frequently employed than the corresponding terms chancery and court of chancery. Burrill.

Inns of chancery. See under Inn. -- To get (or to hold) In chancery (Boxing), to get the head of an antagonist under one's arm, so that one can pommel it with the other fist at will; hence, to have wholly in One's power. The allusion is to the condition of a person involved in the chancery court, where he was helpless, while the lawyers lived upon his estate.

Chan"cre (?), n. [F. chancere. See Cancer.] (Med.) A venereal sore or ulcer; specifically, the initial lesion of true syphilis, whether forming a distinct ulcer or not; -- called also hard chancre, indurated chancre, and Hunterian chancre.

Soft chancre. A chancroid. See Chancroid.

Chan"croid (?), n. [Chancre + -oil.] (Med.) A venereal sore, resembling a chancre in its seat and some external characters, but differing from it in being the starting point of a purely local process and never of a systemic disease; -- called also soft chancre.

Chan"crous (?), a. [Cf. F. chancreux.] (Med.) Of the nature of a chancre; having chancre.

Chan`de*lier" (?), n. [F. See Chandler.] 1. A candlestick, lamp, stand, gas fixture, or the like, having several branches; esp., one hanging from the ceiling.

2. (Fort.) A movable parapet, serving to support fascines to cover pioneers. [Obs.]

Chan"dler (?), n. [F. chandelier a candlestick, a maker or seller of candles, LL. candelarius chandler, fr. L. candela candle. See Candle, and cf. Chandelier.] 1. A maker or seller of candles.

The chandler's basket, on his shoulder borne, With tallow spots thy coat. Gay.

2. A dealer in other commodities, which are indicated by a word prefixed; as, ship chandler, corn chandler.

Chan"dler*ly (?), a. Like a chandler; in a petty way. [Obs.] Milton.

Chan"dler*y (?), n. Commodities sold by a chandler.

||Chan*doo" (?), n. An extract or preparation of opium, used in China and India for smoking. Balfour.

Chan"dry (?), n. Chandlery. [Obs.] "Torches from the chandry." B. Jonson.

Chan"frin (?), n. [F. chanfrein. Cf. Chamfron.] The fore part of a horse's head.

Change (chānj), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Changed (chānjd); p. pr. & vb. n. Changing.] [F. changer, fr. LL. cambiare, to exchange, barter, L. cambire. Cf. Cambial.] 1. To alter; to make different; to cause to pass from one state to another; as, to change the position, character, or appearance of a thing; to change the countenance.

Therefore will I change their glory into shame. Hosea. iv. 7.

2. To alter by substituting something else for, or by giving up for something else; as, to change the clothes; to change one's occupation; to change one's intention.

They that do change old love for new, Pray gods, they change for worse! Peele.

3. To give and take reciprocally; to exchange; -- followed by with; as, to change place, or hats, or money, with another.

Look upon those thousands with whom thou wouldst not, for any interest, change thy fortune and condition. Jer. Taylor.

4. Specifically: To give, or receive, smaller denominations of money (technically called change) for; as, to change a gold coin or a bank bill.

He pulled out a thirty-pound note and bid me change it. Goldsmith.

To change a horse, or To change hand (Man.), to turn or bear the horse's head from one hand to the other, from the left to right, or from the right to the left. -- To change hands, to change owners. -- To change one's tune, to become less confident or boastful. [Colloq.] -- To change step, to take a break in the regular succession of steps, in marching or walking, as by bringing the hollow of one foot against the heel of the other, and then stepping off with the foot which is in advance.

Syn. -- To alter; vary; deviate; substitute; innovate; diversify; shift; veer; turn. See Alter.

Change, v. i. 1. To be altered; to undergo variation; as, men sometimes change for the better.

For I am Lord, I change not. Mal. iii. 6.

2. To pass from one phase to another; as, the moon changes to-morrow night.

Change, n. [F. change, fr. changer. See Change. v. t.] 1. Any variation or alteration; a passing from one state or form to another; as, a change of countenance; a change of habits or principles.

Apprehensions of a change of dynasty. Hallam.

All the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come. Job xiv. 14.

2. A succesion or substitution of one thing in the place of another; a difference; novelty; variety; as, a change of seasons.

Our fathers did for change to France repair. Dryden.

The ringing grooves of change. Tennyson.

3. A passing from one phase to another; as, a change of the moon.

4. Alteration in the order of a series; permutation.

5. That which makes a variety, or may be substituted for another.

Thirty change (R.V. changes) of garments. Judg. xiv. 12.

6. Small money; the money by means of which the larger coins and bank bills are made available in small dealings; hence, the balance returned when payment is tendered by a coin or note exceeding the sum due.

7. [See Exchange.] A place where merchants and others meet to transact business; a building appropriated for mercantile transactions. [Colloq. for Exchange.]

8. A public house; an alehouse. [Scot.]

They call an alehouse a change. Burt.

9. (Mus.) Any order in which a number of bells are struck, other than that of the diatonic scale.

Four bells admit twenty-four changes in ringing. Holder.

Change of life, the period in the life of a woman when menstruation and the capacity for conception cease, usually occurring between forty-five and fifty years of age. -- Change ringing, the continual production, without repetition, of changes on bells, See def. 9. above. -- Change wheel (Mech.), one of a set of wheels of different sizes and number of teeth, that may be changed or substituted one for another in machinery, to produce a different but definite rate of angular velocity in an axis, as in cutting screws, gear, etc. -- To ring the changes on, to present the same facts or arguments in variety of ways.

Syn. -- Variety; variation; alteration; mutation; transition; vicissitude; innovation; novelty; transmutation; revolution; reverse.

Change`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Changeableness.

Change"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. changeable.] 1. Capable of change; subject to alteration; mutable; variable; fickle; inconstant; as, a changeable humor.

2. Appearing different, as in color, in different lights, or under different circumstances; as, changeable silk.

Syn. -- Mutable; alterable; variable; inconstant; fitful; vacillating; capricious; fickle; unstable; unsteady; unsettled; wavering; erratic; giddy; volatile.

Change"a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being changeable; fickleness; inconstancy; mutability.

Change"a*bly, adv. In a changeable manner.

Change"ful (?), a. Full of change; mutable; inconstant; fickle; uncertain. Pope.

His course had been changeful. Motley.

-- Change"ful*ly, adv. -- Change"ful*ness, n.

Change"less, a. That can not be changed; constant; as, a changeless purpose.

-- Change"less*ness, n.

Change"ling, n. [Change + -ling.] 1. One who, or that which, is left or taken in the place of another, as a child exchanged by fairies.

Such, men do changelings call, so changed by fairies' theft. Spenser.

The changeling [a substituted writing] never known. Shak.

2. A simpleton; an idiot. Macaulay.

Changelings and fools of heaven, and thence shut out.

Wildly we roam in discontent about. Dryden.

3. One apt to change; a waverer. "Fickle changelings." Shak.

Change"ling, a. 1. Taken or left in place of another; changed. "A little changeling boy." Shak.

2. Given to change; inconstant. [Obs.]

Some are so studiously changeling. Boyle.

Chan"ger (?), n. 1. One who changes or alters the form of anything.

2. One who deals in or changes money. John ii. 14.

3. One apt to change; an inconstant person.

||Chank" (chă&nsm;k), n. [Skr. ça&ndot;kha. See Conch.] (Zoöl.) The East Indian name for the large spiral shell of several species of sea conch much used in making bangles, esp. Turbinella pyrum. Called also chank shell.

Chan"nel (chăn"n&ebreve;l), n. [OE. chanel, canel, OF. chanel, F. chenel, fr. L. canalis. See Canal.] 1. The hollow bed where a stream of water runs or may run.

2. The deeper part of a river, harbor, strait, etc., where the main current flows, or which affords the best and safest passage for vessels.

3. (Geog.) A strait, or narrow sea, between two portions of lands; as, the British Channel.

4. That through which anything passes; means of passing, conveying, or transmitting; as, the news was conveyed to us by different channels.

The veins are converging channels. Dalton.

At best, he is but a channel to convey to the National assembly such matter as may import that body to know. Burke.

5. A gutter; a groove, as in a fluted column.

6. pl. [Cf. Chain wales.] (Naut.) Flat ledges of heavy plank bolted edgewise to the outside of a vessel, to increase the spread of the shrouds and carry them clear of the bulwarks.

Channel bar, Channel iron (Arch.), an iron bar or beam having a section resembling a flat gutter or channel. -- Channel bill (Zoöl.), a very large Australian cuckoo (Scythrops Novæhollandiæ. -- Channel goose. (Zoöl.) See Gannet.

Chan"nel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Channeled (?), or Channelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Channeling, or Channelling.] 1. To form a channel in; to cut or wear a channel or channels in; to groove.

No more shall trenching war channel her fields. Shak.

2. To course through or over, as in a channel. Cowper.

Chan"nel*ing, n. 1. The act or process of forming a channel or channels.

2. A channel or a system of channels; a groove.

Chan"son, n. [F., fr. L. cantion song. See Cantion, Canzone.] A song. Shak.

||Chan`son*nette" (?), n.; pl. Chansonnettes (#). [F., dim. of chanson.] A little song.

These pretty little chansonnettes that he sung. Black.

Chant (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chanted; p. pr. & vb. n. Chanting.] [F. chanter, fr. L. cantare, intens. of canere to sing. Cf. Cant affected speaking, and see Hen.] 1. To utter with a melodious voice; to sing.

The cheerful birds . . . do chant sweet music. Spenser.

2. To celebrate in song.

The poets chant in the theaters. Bramhall.

3. (Mus.) To sing or recite after the manner of a chant, or to a tune called a chant.

Chant, v. i. 1. To make melody with the voice; to sing. "Chant to the sound of the viol." Amos vi. 5.

2. (Mus.) To sing, as in reciting a chant.

To chant (or chaunt) horses, to sing their praise; to overpraise; to cheat in selling. See Chaunter. Thackeray.

Chant, n.[F. chant, fr. L. cantus singing, song, fr. canere to sing. See Chant, v. t.] 1. Song; melody.

2. (Mus.) A short and simple melody, divided into two parts by double bars, to which unmetrical psalms, etc., are sung or recited. It is the most ancient form of choral music.

3. A psalm, etc., arranged for chanting.

4. Twang; manner of speaking; a canting tone. [R.]

His strange face, his strange chant. Macaulay.

Ambrosian chant, See under Ambrosian. Chant royal [F.], in old French poetry, a poem containing five strophes of eleven lines each, and a concluding stanza. -- each of these six parts ending with a common refrain. -- Gregorian chant. See under Gregorian.

||Chan`tant" (?), a. [F. singing.] (Mus.) Composed in a melodious and singing style.

Chant"er (ch&adot;nt"&etilde;r), n. [Cf. F. chanteur.] 1. One who chants; a singer or songster. Pope.

2. The chief singer of the chantry. J. Gregory.

3. The flute or finger pipe in a bagpipe. See Bagpipe.

4. (Zoöl.) The hedge sparrow.

||Chan`te*relle" (?), n. [F.] (Bot.) A name for several species of mushroom, of which one (Cantharellus cibrius) is edible, the others reputed poisonous.

Chan"ti*cleer (chăn"t&ibreve;*klēr), n. [F. Chanteclair, name of the cock in the Roman du Renart (Reynard the Fox); chanter to chant + clair clear. See Chant, and Clear.] A cock, so called from the clearness or loudness of his voice in crowing.

Chant"ing (ch&adot;nt"&ibreve;ng), n. Singing, esp. as a chant is sung.

Chanting falcon (Zoöl.), an African falcon (Melierax canorus or musicus). The male has the habit, remarkable in a bird of prey, of singing to his mate, while she is incubating.

Chant"or (?), n. A chanter.

Chant"ress (?), n. [Cf. OF. chanteresse.] A female chanter or singer. Milton.

Chant"ry (?), n.; pl. Chantries (#). [OF. chanterie, fr. chanter to sing.] 1. An endowment or foundation for the chanting of masses and offering of prayers, commonly for the founder.

2. A chapel or altar so endowed. Cowell.

Cha"o*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. &?; the atmosphere + -mancy.] Divination by means of appearances in the air.

Cha"os (kā"&obreve;s), n. [L. chaos chaos (in senses 1 & 2), Gr. cha`os, fr. cha`inein (root cha) to yawn, to gape, to open widely. Cf. Chasm.] 1. An empty, immeasurable space; a yawning chasm. [Archaic]

Between us and there is fixed a great chaos. Luke xvi. 26 (Rhemish Trans.).

2. The confused, unorganized condition or mass of matter before the creation of distinct and orderly forms.

3. Any confused or disordered collection or state of things; a confused mixture; confusion; disorder.

Cha*ot"ic (k&asl;*&obreve;t"&ibreve;k), a. Resembling chaos; confused.

Cha*ot"ic*al*ly (?), adv. In a chaotic manner.

Chap (chăp or ch&obreve;p), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chapped (chăpt or ch&obreve;pt); p. pr. & vb. n. Chapping.] [See Chop to cut.] 1. To cause to open in slits or chinks; to split; to cause the skin of to crack or become rough.

Then would unbalanced heat licentious reign, Crack the dry hill, and chap the russet plain. Blackmore.

Nor winter's blast chap her fair face. Lyly.

2. To strike; to beat. [Scot.]

Chap, v. i. 1. To crack or open in slits; as, the earth chaps; the hands chap.

2. To strike; to knock; to rap. [Scot.]

Chap, n. [From Chap, v. t. & i.] 1. A cleft, crack, or chink, as in the surface of the earth, or in the skin.

2. A division; a breach, as in a party. [Obs.]

Many clefts and chaps in our council board. T. Fuller.

3. A blow; a rap. [Scot.]

Chap (ch&obreve;p), n. [OE. chaft; of Scand. origin; cf. Icel kjaptr jaw, Sw. Käft, D. kiæft; akin to G. kiefer, and E. jowl. Cf. Chops.] 1. One of the jaws or the fleshy covering of a jaw; -- commonly in the plural, and used of animals, and colloquially of human beings.

His chaps were all besmeared with crimson blood. Cowley.

He unseamed him [Macdonald] from the nave to the chaps. Shak.

2. One of the jaws or cheeks of a vise, etc.

Chap (chăp), n. [Perh. abbreviated fr. chapman, but used in a more general sense; or cf. Dan. kiæft jaw, person, E. chap jaw.] 1. A buyer; a chapman. [Obs.]

If you want to sell, here is your chap. Steele.

2. A man or boy; a youth; a fellow. [Colloq.]

Chap, v. i. [See Cheapen.] To bargain; to buy. [Obs.]

||Cha`par*ral" (?), n. [Sp., fr. chaparro an evergeen oak.] 1. A thicket of low evergreen oaks.

2. An almost impenetrable thicket or succession of thickets of thorny shrubs and brambles.

Chaparral cock; fem. Chaparral hen (Zoöl.), a bird of the cuckoo family (Geococcyx Californianus), noted for running with great speed. It ranges from California to Mexico and eastward to Texas; -- called also road runner, ground cuckoo, churea, and snake killer.

Chap"book` (?), n. [See Chap to cheapen.] Any small book carried about for sale by chapmen or hawkers. Hence, any small book; a toy book.

Chape (?), n. [F., a churchman's cope, a cover, a chape, fr. L. cappa. See Cap.] 1. The piece by which an object is attached to something, as the frog of a scabbard or the metal loop at the back of a buckle by which it is fastened to a strap.

2. The transverse guard of a sword or dagger.

3. The metal plate or tip which protects the end of a scabbard, belt, etc. Knight.

Cha`peau" (?), n.; pl. Chapeux (#). [F., fr. OF. chapel hat. See Chaplet.] 1. A hat or covering for the head.

2. (Her.) A cap of maintenance. See Maintenance.

||Chapeau bras (&?;) [F. chapeau hat + bras arm], a hat so made that it can be compressed and carried under the arm without injury. Such hats were particularly worn on dress occasions by gentlemen in the 18th century. A chapeau bras is now worn in the United States army by general and staff officers.

Chaped (?), p. p. or a. Furnished with a chape or chapes. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chap"el (?), n. [OF. chapele, F. chapelle, fr. LL. capella, orig., a short cloak, hood, or cowl; later, a reliquary, sacred vessel, chapel; dim. of cappa, capa, cloak, cape, cope; also, a covering for the head. The chapel where St. Martin's cloak was preserved as a precious relic, itself came to be called capella, whence the name was applied to similar paces of worship, and the guardian of this cloak was called capellanus, or chaplain. See Cap, and cf. Chaplain., Chaplet.] 1. A subordinate place of worship; as, (a) a small church, often a private foundation, as for a memorial; (b) a small building attached to a church; (c) a room or recess in a church, containing an altar.

&fist; In Catholic churches, and also in cathedrals and abbey churches, chapels are usually annexed in the recesses on the sides of the aisles. Gwilt.

2. A place of worship not connected with a church; as, the chapel of a palace, hospital, or prison.

3. In England, a place of worship used by dissenters from the Established Church; a meetinghouse.

4. A choir of singers, or an orchestra, attached to the court of a prince or nobleman.

5. (Print.) (a) A printing office, said to be so called because printing was first carried on in England in a chapel near Westminster Abbey. (b) An association of workmen in a printing office.

Chapel of ease. (a) A chapel or dependent church built for the ease or a accommodation of an increasing parish, or for parishioners who live at a distance from the principal church. (b) A privy. (Law) -- Chapel master, a director of music in a chapel; the director of a court or orchestra. -- To build a chapel (Naut.), to chapel a ship. See Chapel, v. t., 2. -- To hold a chapel, to have a meeting of the men employed in a printing office, for the purpose of considering questions affecting their interests.

Chap"el (?), v. t. 1. To deposit or inter in a chapel; to enshrine. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

2. (Naut.) To cause (a ship taken aback in a light breeze) so to turn or make a circuit as to recover, without bracing the yards, the same tack on which she had been sailing.

Chape"less (?), a. Without a chape.

Chap"e*let (?), n. [F. See Chaplet.] 1. A pair of straps, with stirrups, joined at the top and fastened to the pommel or the frame of the saddle, after they have been adjusted to the convenience of the rider. [Written also chaplet.]

2. A kind of chain pump, or dredging machine.

Chap"el*la*ny (?), n.; pl. Chapellanies (#). [Cf. E. chapellenie, LL. capellania. See Chaplain.] A chapel within the jurisdiction of a church; a subordinate ecclesiastical foundation.

Chap"el*ry (?), n. [Cf. OF. chapelerie.] The territorial district legally assigned to a chapel.

Chap"er*on (?), n. [F. chaperon. See Chape, Cape, Cap.] 1. A hood; especially, an ornamental or an official hood.

His head and face covered with a chaperon, out of which there are but two holes to look through. Howell.

2. A device placed on the foreheads of horses which draw the hearse in pompous funerals.

3. A matron who accompanies a young lady in public, for propriety, or as a guide and protector.

Chap"er*on, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chaperoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chaperoning.] [Cf. F. chaperonner, fr. chaperon.] To attend in public places as a guide and protector; to matronize.

Fortunately Lady Bell Finley, whom I had promised to chaperon, sent to excuse herself. Hannah More.

Chap"er*on`age (?), n. Attendance of a chaperon on a lady in public; protection afforded by a chaperon.

Chap"fall`en (?), a. Having the lower chap or jaw drooping, -- an indication of humiliation and dejection; crestfallen; discouraged. See Chopfallen.

Chap"i*ter (?), n. [OF. chapitel, F. chapiteau, from L. capitellum, dim. of caput head. Cf. Capital, Chapter.] 1. (Arch.) A capital [Obs.] See Chapital. Ex. xxxvi. 38.

2. (Old Eng. Law) A summary in writing of such matters as are to be inquired of or presented before justices in eyre, or justices of assize, or of the peace, in their sessions; -- also called articles. Jacob.

Chap"lain (?), n. [F. chapelain, fr. LL. capellanus, fr. capella. See Chapel.] 1. An ecclesiastic who has a chapel, or who performs religious service in a chapel.

2. A clergyman who is officially attached to the army or navy, to some public institution, or to a family or court, for the purpose of performing divine service.

3. Any person (clergyman or layman) chosen to conduct religious exercises for a society, etc.; as, a chaplain of a Masonic or a temperance lodge.

Chap"lain*cy (?), n.; pl. Chaplaincies (&?;). The office, position, or station of a chaplain. Swift.

Chap"lain*ship, n. 1. The office or business of a chaplain.

The Bethesda of some knight's chaplainship. Milton.

2. The possession or revenue of a chapel. Johnson.

Chap"less (?), a. Having no lower jaw; hence, fleshless. [R.] "Yellow, chapless skulls." Shak.

Chap"let (?), n. [F. chapelet, dim. of OF. chapel hat, garland, dim. fr. LL. cappa. See Cap, and cf. Chapelet, Chapeau.] 1. A garland or wreath to be worn on the head.

2. A string of beads, or part of a string, used by Roman Catholic in praying; a third of a rosary, or fifty beads.

Her chaplet of beads and her missal. Longfellow.

3. (Arch.) A small molding, carved into beads, pearls, olives, etc.

4. (Man.) A chapelet. See Chapelet, 1.

5. (Founding) A bent piece of sheet iron, or a pin with thin plates on its ends, for holding a core in place in the mold.

6. A tuft of feathers on a peacock's head. Johnson.

Chap"let, n. A small chapel or shrine.

Chap"let, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chapleted.] To adorn with a chaplet or with flowers. R. Browning.

Chap"man (?), n.; pl. Chapmen (#). [AS. ceápman; ceáp trade + man man; akin to D. koopman, Sw. köpman, Dan. kiöpmand, G. kaufmann.f. Chap to cheapen, and see Cheap.] 1. One who buys and sells; a merchant; a buyer or a seller. [Obs.]

The word of life is a quick commodity, and ought not, as a drug to be obtruded on those chapmen who are unwilling to buy it. T. Fuller.

2. A peddler; a hawker.

Chap"py (?), Full of chaps; cleft; gaping; open.

Chaps (?), n. pl. The jaws, or the fleshy parts about them. See Chap. "Open your chaps again." Shak.

Chap"ter (?), n. [OF. chapitre, F. chapitre, fr. L. capitulum, dim. of caput head, the chief person or thing, the principal division of a writing, chapter. See Chief, and cf, Chapiter.] 1. A division of a book or treatise; as, Genesis has fifty chapters.

2. (Eccl.) (a) An assembly of monks, or of the prebends and other clergymen connected with a cathedral, conventual, or collegiate church, or of a diocese, usually presided over by the dean.(b) A community of canons or canonesses.(c) A bishop's council.(d) A business meeting of any religious community.

3. An organized branch of some society or fraternity as of the Freemasons. Robertson.

4. A meeting of certain organized societies or orders.

5. A chapter house. [R.] Burrill.

6. A decretal epistle. Ayliffe.

7. A location or compartment.

In his bosom! In what chapter of his bosom? Shak.

Chapter head, or Chapter heading, that which stands at the head of a chapter, as a title. -- Chapter house, a house or room where a chapter meets, esp. a cathedral chapter. -- The chapter of accidents, chance. Marryat.

Chap"ter (?), v. t. 1. To divide into chapters, as a book. Fuller.

2. To correct; to bring to book, i. e., to demand chapter and verse. [Obs.] Dryden.

Chap"trel (?), n. [See Chapiter.] (Arch.) An impost. [Obs.]

{ Char, Charr (?), } n. [Ir. cear, Gael. ceara, lit., red, blood-colored, fr. cear blood. So named from its red belly.] (Zoöl.) One of the several species of fishes of the genus Salvelinus, allied to the spotted trout and salmon, inhabiting deep lakes in mountainous regions in Europe. In the United States, the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is sometimes called a char.

Char, n. [F.] A car; a chariot. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Char (?), n. [OE. cherr, char a turning, time, work, AS. cerr, cyrr, turn, occasion, business, fr. cerran, cyrran, to turn; akin to OS. kërian, OHG. chëran, G. kehren. Cf. Chore, Ajar.] Work done by the day; a single job, or task; a chore. [Written also chare.] [Eng.]

When thou hast done this chare, I give thee leave To play till doomsday. Shak.

{ Char, Chare, } v. t. [See 3d Char.] 1. To perform; to do; to finish. [Obs.] Nores.

Thet char is chared, as the good wife said when she had hanged her husband. Old Proverb.

2. To work or hew, as stone. Oxf. Gloss.

{ Char, Chare, } v. i. To work by the day, without being a regularly hired servant; to do small jobs.

Char (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Charring.] [Prob. the same word as char to perform (see Char, n.), the modern use coming from charcoal, prop. coal- turned, turned to coal.] 1. To reduce to coal or carbon by exposure to heat; to reduce to charcoal; to burn to a cinder.

2. To burn slightly or partially; as, to char wood.

||Cha"ra (?), n. [NL., of uncertain origin.] (Bot.) A genus of flowerless plants, having articulated stems and whorled branches. They flourish in wet places.

||Char`-a-bancs" (?), n.; pl. Chars-a-banc (#). [F.] A long, light, open vehicle, with benches or seats running lengthwise.

Char"act (?), n. A distinctive mark; a character; a letter or sign. [Obs.] See Character.

In all his dressings, characts, titles, forms. Shak.

Char"ac*ter (?), n. [L., an instrument for marking, character, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to make sharp, to cut into furrows, to engrave: cf. F. caractère.]

1. A distinctive mark; a letter, figure, or symbol.

It were much to be wished that there were throughout the world but one sort of character for each letter to express it to the eye. Holder.

2. Style of writing or printing; handwriting; the peculiar form of letters used by a particular person or people; as, an inscription in the Runic character.

You know the character to be your brother's? Shak.

3. The peculiar quality, or the sum of qualities, by which a person or a thing is distinguished from others; the stamp impressed by nature, education, or habit; that which a person or thing really is; nature; disposition.

The character or that dominion. Milton.

Know well each Ancient's proper character; His fable, subject, scope in every page; Religion, Country, genius of his Age. Pope.

A man of . . . thoroughly subservient character. Motley.

4. Strength of mind; resolution; independence; individuality; as, he has a great deal of character.

5. Moral quality; the principles and motives that control the life; as, a man of character; his character saves him from suspicion.

6. Quality, position, rank, or capacity; quality or conduct with respect to a certain office or duty; as, in the miserable character of a slave; in his character as a magistrate; her character as a daughter.

7. The estimate, individual or general, put upon a person or thing; reputation; as, a man's character for truth and veracity; to give one a bad character.

This subterraneous passage is much mended since Seneca gave so bad a character of it. Addison.

8. A written statement as to behavior, competency, etc., given to a servant. [Colloq.]

9. A unique or extraordinary individuality; a person characterized by peculiar or notable traits; a person who illustrates certain phases of character; as, Randolph was a character; Cæsar is a great historical character.

10. One of the persons of a drama or novel.

&fist; "It would be well if character and reputation were used distinctively. In truth, character is what a person is; reputation is what he is supposed to be. Character is in himself, reputation is in the minds of others. Character is injured by temptations, and by wrongdoing; reputation by slanders, and libels. Character endures throughout defamation in every form, but perishes when there is a voluntary transgression; reputation may last through numerous transgressions, but be destroyed by a single, and even an unfounded, accusation or aspersion." Abbott.

Char"ac*ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charactered (?).]

1. To engrave; to inscribe. [R.]

These trees shall be my books. And in their barks my thoughts I 'll character. Shak.

2. To distinguish by particular marks or traits; to describe; to characterize. [R.] Mitford.

Char"ac*ter*ism (?), n. [Gr. &?; a characterizing.] A distinction of character; a characteristic. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Char`ac*ter*is"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?;: cf. F. charactéristique.] Pertaining to, or serving to constitute, the character; showing the character, or distinctive qualities or traits, of a person or thing; peculiar; distinctive.

Characteristic clearness of temper. Macaulay.

Char`ac*ter*is"tic, n. 1. A distinguishing trait, quality, or property; an element of character; that which characterized. Pope.

The characteristics of a true critic. Johnson.

2. (Math.) The integral part (whether positive or negative) of a logarithm.

Char`ac*ter*is"tic*al (?), a. Characteristic.

Char`ac*ter*is"tic*al*ly, adv. In a characteristic manner; in a way that characterizes.

Char`ac*ter*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of characterizing.

Char"ac*ter*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Characterized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Characterizing.] [LL. characterizare, Gr. &?;: cf. F. charactériser.] 1. To make distinct and recognizable by peculiar marks or traits; to make with distinctive features.

European, Asiatic, Chinese, African, and Grecian faces are Characterized. Arbuthnot.

2. To engrave or imprint. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

3. To indicate the character of; to describe.

Under the name of Tamerlane he intended to characterize King William. Johnson.

4. To be a characteristic of; to make, or express the character of.

The softness and effeminacy which characterize the men of rank in most countries. W. Irving.

Syn. -- To describe; distinguish; mark; designate; style; particularize; entitle.

Char"ac*ter*less, a. Destitute of any distinguishing quality; without character or force.

Char"ac*ter*y (?), n. 1. The art or means of characterizing; a system of signs or characters; symbolism; distinctive mark.

Fairies use flowers for their charactery. Shak.

2. That which is charactered; the meaning. [Obs.]

I will construe to thee All the charactery of my sad brows. Shak.

Cha*rade" (?), n. [F. charade, cf. Pr. charrada long chat, It ciarlare to chat, whence E. charlatan.] A verbal or acted enigma based upon a word which has two or more significant syllables or parts, each of which, as well as the word itself, is to be guessed from the descriptions or representations.

Char"bo*cle (?), n. Carbuncle. [Written also Charboncle.] [Obs.] Chaucer.

Char"bon (?), n. [F., coal, charbon.] 1. (Far.) A small black spot or mark remaining in the cavity of the corner tooth of a horse after the large spot or mark has become obliterated.

2. A very contagious and fatal disease of sheep, horses, and cattle. See Maligmant pustule.

Char"coal` (?), n. [See Char, v. t., to burn or to reduce to coal, and Coal.] 1. Impure carbon prepared from vegetable or animal substances; esp., coal made by charring wood in a kiln, retort, etc., from which air is excluded. It is used for fuel and in various mechanical, artistic, and chemical processes.

2. (Fine Arts) Finely prepared charcoal in small sticks, used as a drawing implement.

Animal charcoal, a fine charcoal prepared by calcining bones in a closed vessel; -- used as a filtering agent in sugar refining, and as an absorbent and disinfectant. -- Charcoal blacks, the black pigment, consisting of burnt ivory, bone, cock, peach stones, and other substances. -- Charcoal drawing (Fine Arts), a drawing made with charcoal. See Charcoal, 2. Until within a few years this material has been used almost exclusively for preliminary outline, etc., but at present many finished drawings are made with it. -- Charcoal point, a carbon pencil prepared for use in an electric light apparatus. -- Mineral charcoal, a term applied to silky fibrous layers of charcoal, interlaminated in beds of ordinary bituminous coal; -- known to miners as mother of coal.

Chard (chärd), n. [Cf. F. carde esculent thistle.] 1. The tender leaves or leafstalks of the artichoke, white beet, etc., blanched for table use.

2. A variety of the white beet, which produces large, succulent leaves and leafstalks.

Chare (châr), n. A narrow street. [Prov. Eng.]

Chare, n. & v. A chore; to chore; to do. See Char.

Charge (chärj), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charged (chärjd); p. pr. & vb. n. Charging.] [OF. chargier, F. charger, fr. LL. carricare, fr. L. carrus wagon. Cf. Cargo, Caricature, Cark, and see Car.] 1. To lay on or impose, as a load, tax, or burden; to load; to fill.

A carte that charged was with hay. Chaucer.

The charging of children's memories with rules. Locke.

2. To lay on or impose, as a task, duty, or trust; to command, instruct, or exhort with authority; to enjoin; to urge earnestly; as, to charge a jury; to charge the clergy of a diocese; to charge an agent.

Moses . . . charged you to love the Lord your God. Josh. xxii. 5.

Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition. Shak.

3. To lay on, impose, or make subject to or liable for.

When land shall be charged by any lien. Kent.

4. To fix or demand as a price; as, he charges two dollars a barrel for apples.

5. To place something to the account of as a debt; to debit, as, to charge one with goods. Also, to enter upon the debit side of an account; as, to charge a sum to one.

6. To impute or ascribe; to lay to one's charge.

No more accuse thy pen, but charge the crime On native sloth and negligence of time. Dryden.

7. To accuse; to make a charge or assertion against (a person or thing); to lay the responsibility (for something said or done) at the door of.

If he did that wrong you charge him with. Tennyson.

8. To place within or upon any firearm, piece of apparatus or machinery, the quantity it is intended and fitted to hold or bear; to load; to fill; as, to charge a gun; to charge an electrical machine, etc.

Their battering cannon charged to the mouths. Shak.

9. To ornament with or cause to bear; as, to charge an architectural member with a molding.

10. (Her.) To assume as a bearing; as, he charges three roses or; to add to or represent on; as, he charges his shield with three roses or.

11. To call to account; to challenge. [Obs.]

To charge me to an answer. Shak.

12. To bear down upon; to rush upon; to attack.

Charged our main battle's front. Shak.

Syn. -- To intrust; command; exhort; instruct; accuse; impeach; arraign. See Accuse.

Charge (?), v. i. 1. To make an onset or rush; as, to charge with fixed bayonets.

Like your heroes of antiquity, he charges in iron. Glanvill.

"Charge for the guns!" he said. Tennyson.

2. To demand a price; as, to charge high for goods.

3. To debit on an account; as, to charge for purchases.

4. To squat on its belly and be still; -- a command given by a sportsman to a dog.

Charge (?), n. [F. charge, fr. charger to load. See Charge, v. t., and cf. Cargo, Caricature.] 1. A load or burder laid upon a person or thing.

2. A person or thing commited or intrusted to the care, custody, or management of another; a trust.

&fist; The people of a parish or church are called the charge of the clergyman who is set over them.

3. Custody or care of any person, thing, or place; office; responsibility; oversight; obigation; duty.

'Tis a great charge to come under one body's hand. Shak.

4. Heed; care; anxiety; trouble. [Obs.] Chaucer.

5. Harm. [Obs.] Chaucer.

6. An order; a mandate or command; an injunction.

The king gave cherge concerning Absalom. 2. Sam. xviii. 5.

7. An address (esp. an earnest or impressive address) containing instruction or exhortation; as, the charge of a judge to a jury; the charge of a bishop to his clergy.

8. An accusation of a wrong of offense; allegation; indictment; specification of something alleged.

The charge of confounding very different classes of phenomena. Whewell.

9. Whatever constitutes a burden on property, as rents, taxes, lines, etc.; costs; expense incurred; -- usually in the plural.

10. The price demanded for a thing or service.

11. An entry or a account of that which is due from one party to another; that which is debited in a business transaction; as, a charge in an account book.

12. That quantity, as of ammunition, electricity, ore, fuel, etc., which any apparatus, as a gun, battery, furnace, machine, etc., is intended to receive and fitted to hold, or which is actually in it at one time

13. The act of rushing upon, or towards, an enemy; a sudden onset or attack, as of troops, esp. cavalry; hence, the signal for attack; as, to sound the charge.

Never, in any other war afore, gave the Romans a hotter charge upon the enemies. Holland.

The charge of the light brigade. Tennyson.

14. A position (of a weapon) fitted for attack; as, to bring a weapon to the charge.

15. (Far.) A sort of plaster or ointment.

16. (Her.) A bearing. See Bearing, n., 8.

17. [Cf. Charre.] Thirty-six pigs of lead, each pig weighing about seventy pounds; -- called also charre.

18. Weight; import; value.

Many suchlike "as's" of great charge. Shak.

Back charge. See under Back, a. -- Bursting charge. (a (Mil.) The charge which bursts a shell, etc. (b (Mining) A small quantity of fine powder to secure the ignition of a charge of coarse powder in blasting. -- Charge and discharge (Equity Practice), the old mode or form of taking an account before a master in chancery. -- Charge sheet, the paper on which are entered at a police station all arrests and accusations. -- To sound the charge, to give the signal for an attack.

Syn. -- Care; custody; trust; management; office; expense; cost; price; assault; attack; onset; injunction; command; order; mandate; instruction; accusation; indictment.

Charge"a*ble (?), a. 1. That may be charged, laid, imposed, or imputes; as, a duty chargeable on iron; a fault chargeable on a man.

2. Subject to be charge or accused; liable or responsible; as, revenues chargeable with a claim; a man chargeable with murder.

3. Serving to create expense; costly; burdensome.

That we might not be chargeable to any of you. 2. Thess. iii. 8.

For the sculptures, which are elegant, were very chargeable. Evelyn.

Charge"a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being chargeable or expensive. [Obs.] Whitelocke.

Charge"a*bly (?), adv. At great cost; expensively. [Obs.]

Char"geant (?), a. [F. chargeant, fr. charger to load.] Burdensome; troublesome. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Char`gé" d'af`faires" (?), n.; pl. Chargés d'affaires. [F., "charged with affairs."] A diplomatic representative, or minister of an inferior grade, accredited by the government of one state to the minister of foreign affairs of another; also, a substitute, ad interim, for an ambassador or minister plenipotentiary.

Charge"ful (?), a. Costly; expensive. [Obs.]

The fineness of the gold and chargeful fashion. Shak.

Charge"house` (?), n. A schoolhouse. [Obs.]

Charge"less, a. Free from, or with little, charge.

Char"geous (?), a. Burdensome. [Obs.]

I was chargeous to no man. Wyclif, (2 Cor. xi. 9).

Char"ger (?), n. 1. One who, or that which charges.

2. An instrument for measuring or inserting a charge.

3. A large dish. [Obs.]

Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger. Matt. xiv. 8.

4. A horse for battle or parade. Macaulay.

And furious every charger neighed. Campbell.

Char*ge"ship (?), n. The office of a chargé d'affaires.

Char"i*ly (?), adv. In a chary manner; carefully; cautiously; frugally.

Char"i*ness, n. The quality of being chary.

Char"i*ot (?), n. [F. Chariot, from char car. See Car.] 1. (Antiq.) A two-wheeled car or vehicle for war, racing, state processions, etc.

First moved the chariots, after whom the foot. Cowper.

2. A four-wheeled pleasure or state carriage, having one seat. Shak.

Char"i*ot, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charioted; p. pr. & vb. n. Charioting.] To convey in a chariot. Milton.

Char`i*ot*ee" (?), n. A light, covered, four-wheeled pleasure carriage with two seats.

Char`i*ot*eer" (?), n.

1. One who drives a chariot.

2. (Astron.) A constellation. See Auriga, and Wagones.

Cha"rism (?), n. [Gr. &?; gift.] (Eccl.) A miraculously given power, as of healing, speaking foreign languages without instruction, etc., attributed to some of the early Christians.

Char`is*mat"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a charism.

Char"i*ta*ble (?), a.[F. See Charity.]

1. Full of love and good will; benevolent; kind.

Be thy intents wicked or charitable, . . . . . . I will speak to thee. Shak.

2. Liberal in judging of others; disposed to look on the best side, and to avoid harsh judgment.

3. Liberal in benefactions to the poor; giving freely; generous; beneficent.

What charitable men afford to beggars. Shak.

4. Of or pertaining to charity; springing from, or intended for, charity; relating to almsgiving; eleemosynary; as, a charitable institution.

5. Dictated by kindness; favorable; lenient.

By a charitable construction it may be a sermon. L. Andrews.

Syn. -- Kind; beneficent; benevolent; generous; lenient; forgiving; helpful; liberal; favorable; indulgent.

Char"i*ta*ble*ness, n. The quality of being charitable; the exercise of charity.

Char"i*ta*bly, adv. In a charitable manner.

Char"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Charities (#). [F. charité fr. L. caritas dearness, high regard, love, from carus dear, costly, loved; asin to Skr. kam to wish, love, cf. Ir. cara a friend, W. caru to love. Cf. Caress.]

1. Love; universal benevolence; good will.

Now abideth faith, hope, charity, three; but the greatest of these is charity. 1. Cor. xiii. 13.

They, at least, are little to be envied, in whose hearts the great charities . . . lie dead. Ruskin.

With malice towards none, with charity for all. Lincoln.

2. Liberality in judging of men and their actions; a disposition which inclines men to put the best construction on the words and actions of others.

The highest exercise of charity is charity towards the uncharitable. Buckminster.

3. Liberality to the poor and the suffering, to benevolent institutions, or to worthy causes; generosity.

The heathen poet, in commending the charity of Dido to the Trojans, spake like a Christian. Dryden.

4. Whatever is bestowed gratuitously on the needy or suffering for their relief; alms; any act of kindness.

She did ill then to refuse her a charity. L'Estrange.

5. A charitable institution, or a gift to create and support such an institution; as, Lady Margaret's charity.

6. pl. (Law) Eleemosynary appointments [grants or devises] including relief of the poor or friendless, education, religious culture, and public institutions.

The charities that soothe, and heal, and bless, Are scattered at the feet of man like flowers. Wordsworth.

Sisters of Charity (R. C. Ch.), a sisterhood of religious women engaged in works of mercy, esp. in nursing the sick; -- a popular designation. There are various orders of the Sisters of Charity.

Syn. -- Love; benevolence; good will; affection; tenderness; beneficence; liberality; almsgiving.

||Cha*ri`va*ri" (?), n. [F.] A mock serenade of discordant noises, made with kettles, tin horns, etc., designed to annoy and insult.

&fist; It was at first performed before the house of any person of advanced age who married a second time.

Chark (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. charcoal.] Charcoal; a cinder. [Obs.] DeFoe.

Chark, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charked (?).] To burn to a coal; to char. [Obs.]

Char"la*tan (?), n. [F. charlatan, fr. It. ciarlatano, fr. ciarlare to chartter, prate; of imitative origin; cf. It. zirlare to whistle like a thrush.] One who prates much in his own favor, and makes unwarrantable pretensions; a quack; an impostor; an empiric; a mountebank.

{ Char`la*tan"ic (?), Char`la*tan"ic*al (?), } a. Of or like a charlatan; making undue pretension; empirical; pretentious; quackish. -- Char`la*tan"ic*al*ly, adv.

Char"la*tan*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. charlatanisme.] Charlatanry.

Char"la*tan*ry (?), n. [F. charlatanrie, from It. ciarlataneria. See Charlatan.] Undue pretensions to skill; quackery; wheedling; empiricism.

Charles's Wain (?). [Charles + wain; cf. AS. Carles w&?;n (for wægn), Sw. karlvagnen, Dan. karlsvogn. See Churl, and Wain.] (Astron.) The group of seven stars, commonly called the Dipper, in the constellation Ursa Major, or Great Bear. See Ursa major, under Ursa.

&fist; The name is sometimes also applied to the Constellation.

Char"lock (?), n. [AS. cerlic; the latter part perh. fr. AS. leác leek. Cf. Hemlock.] (Bot.) A cruciferous plant (Brassica sinapistrum) with yellow flowers; wild mustard. It is troublesome in grain fields. Called also chardock, chardlock, chedlock, and kedlock.

Jointed charlock, White charlock, a troublesome weed (Raphanus Raphanistrum) with straw-colored, whitish, or purplish flowers, and jointed pods: wild radish.

Char"lotte (?), n. [F.] A kind of pie or pudding made by lining a dish with slices of bread, and filling it with bread soaked in milk, and baked.

Charlotte Russe (&?;), or ||Charlotte à la russe [F., lit., Russian charlotte] (Cookery), a dish composed of custard or whipped cream, inclosed in sponge cake.

Charm (chärm), n. [F. charme, fr. L. carmen song, verse, incantation, for casmen, akin to Skr. çasman, çasā, a laudatory song, from a root signifying to praise, to sing.] 1. A melody; a song. [Obs.]

With charm of earliest birds. Milton.

Free liberty to chant our charms at will. Spenser.

2. A word or combination of words sung or spoken in the practice of magic; a magical combination of words, characters, etc.; an incantation.

My high charms work. Shak.

3. That which exerts an irresistible power to please and attract; that which fascinates; any alluring quality.

Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the soul. Pope.

The charm of beauty's powerful glance. Milton.

4. Anything worn for its supposed efficacy to the wearer in averting ill or securing good fortune.

5. Any small decorative object worn on the person, as a seal, a key, a silver whistle, or the like. Bunches of charms are often worn at the watch chain.

Syn. - Spell; incantation; conjuration; enchantment; fascination; attraction.

Charm, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Charming.] [Cf. F. charmer. See Charm, n.] 1. To make music upon; to tune. [Obs. & R.]

Here we our slender pipes may safely charm. Spenser.

2. To subdue, control, or summon by incantation or supernatural influence; to affect by magic.

No witchcraft charm thee! Shak.

3. To subdue or overcome by some secret power, or by that which gives pleasure; to allay; to soothe.

Music the fiercest grief can charm. Pope.

4. To attract irresistibly; to delight exceedingly; to enchant; to fascinate.

They, on their mirth and dance Intent, with jocund music charm his ear. Milton.

5. To protect with, or make invulnerable by, spells, charms, or supernatural influences; as, a charmed life.

I, in my own woe charmed, Could not find death. Shak.

Syn. - To fascinate; enchant; enrapture; captivate; bewitch; allure; subdue; delight; entice; transport.

Charm, v. i. 1. To use magic arts or occult power; to make use of charms.

The voice of charmers, charming never so wisely. Ps. lviii. 5.

2. To act as, or produce the effect of, a charm; to please greatly; to be fascinating.

3. To make a musical sound. [Obs.] Milton.

||Char"mel (?), n. [Heb.] A fruitful field.

Libanus shall be turned into charmel, and charmel shall be esteemed as a forest. Isa. xxix. 17 (Douay version).

Charm"er (?), n. 1. One who charms, or has power to charm; one who uses the power of enchantment; a magician. Deut. xviii. 11.

2. One who delights and attracts the affections.

Charm"er*ess (?), n. An enchantress. Chaucer.

Charm"ful (?), a. Abounding with charms. "His charmful lyre." Cowley.

Charm"ing, a. Pleasing the mind or senses in a high degree; delighting; fascinating; attractive.

How charming is divine philosophy. Milton.

Syn. - Enchanting; bewitching; captivating; enrapturing; alluring; fascinating; delightful; pleasurable; graceful; lovely; amiable; pleasing; winning.

-- Charm"ing*ly, adv. -- Charm"ing*ness, n.

Charm"less, a. Destitute of charms. Swift.

{ Char"ne*co, Char"ni*co (?) }, n. A sort of sweet wine. [Obs.] Shak.

Char"nel (?), a. [F. charnel carnal, fleshly, fr. L. carnalis. See Carnal.] Containing the bodies of the dead. "Charnel vaults." Milton.

Charnel house, a tomb, vault, cemetery, or other place where the bones of the dead are deposited; originally, a place for the bones thrown up when digging new graves in old burial grounds.

Char"nel, n. A charnel house; a grave; a cemetery.

In their proud charnel of Thermopylæ. Byron.

Cha"ron (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;.] (Cless. Myth.) The son of Erebus and Nox, whose office it was to ferry the souls of the dead over the Styx, a river of the infernal regions. Shak.

||Char"pie (?), n. [F., properly fem. p. p. of OF. charpir, carpir, to pluck, fr. L. carpere. Cf. Carpet.] (Med.) Straight threads obtained by unraveling old linen cloth; -- used for surgical dressings.

||Char"qui (?), n. [Sp. A term used in South America, Central America, and the Western United States.] Jerked beef; beef cut into long strips and dried in the wind and sun. Darwin.

Charr (?), n. See 1st Char.

||Char"ras (?), n. The gum resin of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Same as Churrus. Balfour.

Charre (?), n. [LL. charrus a certain weight.] See Charge, n., 17.

Char"ry (?), a. [See 6th Char.] Pertaining to charcoal, or partaking of its qualities.

Chart (?), n. [A doublet of card: cf. F. charte charter, carte card. See Card, and cf. Charter.] 1. A sheet of paper, pasteboard, or the like, on which information is exhibited, esp. when the information is arranged in tabular form; as, an historical chart.

2. A map; esp., a hydrographic or marine map; a map on which is projected a portion of water and the land which it surrounds, or by which it is surrounded, intended especially for the use of seamen; as, the United States Coast Survey charts; the English Admiralty charts.

3. A written deed; a charter.

Globular chart, a chart constructed on a globular projection. See under Globular. -- Heliographic chart, a map of the sun with its spots. -- Mercator's chart, a chart constructed on the principle of Mercator's projection. See Projection. -- Plane chart, a representation of some part of the superficies of the globe, in which its spherical form is disregarded, the meridians being drawn parallel to each other, and the parallels of latitude at equal distances. -- Selenographic chart, a map representing the surface of the moon. -- Topographic chart, a minute delineation of a limited place or region.

Chart, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charted.] To lay down in a chart; to map; to delineate; as, to chart a coast.

||Char"ta (?), n. [L., leaf of paper. See Chart.] (Law) (a) Material on which instruments, books, etc., are written; parchment or paper. (b) A charter or deed; a writing by which a grant is made. See Magna Charta.

Char*ta"ceous (?), a. [L. chartaceus. See Charta.] Resembling paper or parchment; of paper-like texture; papery.

||Charte (?), n. [F. See Chart.] The constitution, or fundamental law, of the French monarchy, as established on the restoration of Louis XVIII., in 1814.

Char"ter (?), n. [OF. chartre, F. chartre, charte, fr. L. chartula a little paper, dim. of charta. See Chart, Card.] 1. A written evidence in due form of things done or granted, contracts made, etc., between man and man; a deed, or conveyance. [Archaic]

2. An instrument in writing, from the sovereign power of a state or country, executed in due form, bestowing rights, franchises, or privileges.

The king [John, a.d. 1215], with a facility somewhat suspicious, signed and sealed the charter which was required of him. This famous deed, commonly called the "Great Charter," either granted or secured very important liberties and privileges to every order of men in the kingdom. Hume.

3. An act of a legislative body creating a municipal or other corporation and defining its powers and privileges. Also, an instrument in writing from the constituted authorities of an order or society (as the Freemasons), creating a lodge and defining its powers.

4. A special privilege, immunity, or exemption.

My mother, Who has a charter to extol her blood, When she does praise me, grieves me. Shak.

5. (Com.) The letting or hiring a vessel by special contract, or the contract or instrument whereby a vessel is hired or let; as, a ship is offered for sale or charter. See Charter party, below.

Charter land (O. Eng. Law), land held by charter, or in socage; bookland. -- Charter member, one of the original members of a society or corporation, esp. one named in a charter, or taking part in the first proceedings under it. -- Charter party [F. chartre partie, or charte partie, a divided charter; from the practice of cutting the instrument of contract in two, and giving one part to each of the contractors] (Com.), a mercantile lease of a vessel; a specific contract by which the owners of a vessel let the entire vessel, or some principal part of the vessel, to another person, to be used by the latter in transportation for his own account, either under their charge or his. -- People's Charter (Eng. Hist.), the document which embodied the demands made by the Chartists, so called, upon the English government in 1838.

Char"ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chartered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chartering.] 1. To establish by charter.

2. To hire or let by charter, as a ship. See Charter party, under Charter, n.

Char"tered (?), a. 1. Granted or established by charter; having, or existing under, a charter; having a privilege by charter.

The sufficiency of chartered rights. Palfrey.

The air, a chartered libertine. Shak.

2. Hired or let by charter, as a ship.

Char"ter*er (?), n. One who charters; esp. one who hires a ship for a voyage.

Char"ter*house` (?), n. A well known public school and charitable foundation in the building once used as a Carthusian monastery (Chartreuse) in London.

Char"ter*ist, n. Same as Chartist.

Chart"ism (?), n. [F. charte charter. Cf. Charte, Chart.] The principles of a political party in England (1838-48), which contended for universal suffrage, the vote by ballot, annual parliaments, equal electoral districts, and other radical reforms, as set forth in a document called the People's Charter.

Chart"ist (?), n. A supporter or partisan of chartism. [Eng.]

Chart"less, a. 1. Without a chart; having no guide.

2. Not mapped; uncharted; vague. Barlow.

Char*tog"ra*pher (?), n., Char`to*graph"ic (&?;), a., Char*tog"ra*phy (&?;), n., etc. Same as Cartographer, Cartographic, Cartography, etc.

Char"to*man`cy (?), n. [L. charta paper + -mancy. Cf. Cartomancy.] Divination by written paper or by cards.

Char*tom"e*ter (?), n. [Chart + -meter.] An instrument for measuring charts or maps.

||Char`treuse" (?), n. [F.] 1. A Carthusian monastery; esp. La Grande Chartreuse, mother house of the order, in the mountains near Grenoble, France.

2. An alcoholic cordial, distilled from aromatic herbs; -- made at La Grande Chartreuse.

||Char`treux" (?), n. [F.] A Carthusian.

Char"tu*la*ry (?), n. See Cartulary.

Char"wom`an (?), n.; pl. Charwomen (#). [See Char a chore.] A woman hired for odd work or for single days.

Char"y (?), a. [AS. cearig careful, fr. cearu care. See Care.] Careful; wary; cautious; not rash, reckless, or spendthrift; saving; frugal.

His rising reputation made him more chary of his fame. Jeffrey.

Cha*ryb"dis (?), n. [L., Gr. &?;.] A dangerous whirlpool on the coast of Sicily opposite Scylla on the Italian coast. It is personified as a female monster. See Scylla.

Chas"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being chased; fit for hunting. Gower.

Chase (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chasing.] [OF. chacier, F. chasser, fr. (assumed) LL. captiare, fr. L. captare to strive to seize. See Catch.] 1. To pursue for the purpose of killing or taking, as an enemy, or game; to hunt.

We are those which chased you from the field. Shak.

Philologists, who chase A panting syllable through time and place. Cowper.

2. To follow as if to catch; to pursue; to compel to move on; to drive by following; to cause to fly; -- often with away or off; as, to chase the hens away.

Chased by their brother's endless malice from prince to prince and from place to place. Knolles.

3. To pursue eagerly, as hunters pursue game.

Chasing each other merrily. Tennyson.

Chase, v. i. To give chase; to hunt; as, to chase around after a doctor. [Colloq.]

Chase, n. [Cf. F. chasse, fr. chasser. See Chase, v.] 1. Vehement pursuit for the purpose of killing or capturing, as of an enemy, or game; an earnest seeking after any object greatly desired; the act or habit of hunting; a hunt. "This mad chase of fame." Dryden.

You see this chase is hotly followed. Shak.

2. That which is pursued or hunted.

Nay, Warwick, seek thee out some other chase, For I myself must hunt this deer to death. Shak.

3. An open hunting ground to which game resorts, and which is private properly, thus differing from a forest, which is not private property, and from a park, which is inclosed. Sometimes written chace. [Eng.]

4. (Court Tennis) A division of the floor of a gallery, marked by a figure or otherwise; the spot where a ball falls, and between which and the dedans the adversary must drive his ball in order to gain a point.

Chase gun (Naut.), a cannon placed at the bow or stern of an armed vessel, and used when pursuing an enemy, or in defending the vessel when pursued. -- Chase port (Naut.), a porthole from which a chase gun is fired. -- Stern chase (Naut.), a chase in which the pursuing vessel follows directly in the wake of the vessel pursued.

Chase, n. [F. cháse, fr. L. capsa box, case. See Case a box.] (Print.) 1. A rectangular iron frame in which pages or columns of type are imposed.

2. (Mil.) The part of a cannon from the reënforce or the trunnions to the swell of the muzzle. See Cannon.

3. A groove, or channel, as in the face of a wall; a trench, as for the reception of drain tile.

4. (Shipbuilding) A kind of joint by which an overlap joint is changed to a flush joint, by means of a gradually deepening rabbet, as at the ends of clinker-built boats.

Chase, v. t. [A contraction of enchase.] 1. To ornament (a surface of metal) by embossing, cutting away parts, and the like.

2. To cut, so as to make a screw thread.

Chas"er (?), n. 1. One who or that which chases; a pursuer; a driver; a hunter.

2. (Naut.) Same as Chase gun, esp. in terms bow chaser and stern chaser. See under Bow, Stern.

Chas"er, n. 1. One who chases or engraves. See 5th Chase, and Enchase.

2. (Mech.) A tool with several points, used for cutting or finishing screw threads, either external or internal, on work revolving in a lathe.

Chas"i*ble (?), n. See Chasuble.

Chas"ing (?), n. The art of ornamenting metal by means of chasing tools; also, a piece of ornamental work produced in this way.

Chasm (?), n. [L. chasma, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to grape, to open wide. See Chaos.] 1. A deep opening made by disruption, as a breach in the earth or a rock; a yawning abyss; a cleft; a fissure.

That deep, romantic chasm which slanted down the green hill. Coleridge.

2. A void space; a gap or break, as in ranks of men.

Memory . . . fills up the chasms of thought. Addison.

Chasmed (?), a. Having gaps or a chasm. [R.]

Chas"my (?), a. Of or pertaining to a chasm; abounding in chasms. Carlyle.

They cross the chasmy torrent's foam-lit bed. Wordsworth.

Chas`se" (?), n. [F., fr. chassé, p. p. of chasser to chase.] A movement in dancing, as across or to the right or left.

Chas`se", v. i. (Dancing) To make the movement called chassé; as, all chassé; chassé to the right or left.

Chas"se*las (?), n. [F., from the village of Chasselas.] A white grape, esteemed for the table.

||Chasse`pot" (?), n. [From the French inventor, A. A. Chassepot.] (Mil.) A kind of breechloading, center-fire rifle, or improved needle gun.

Chas`seur" (?), n. [F., a huntsman. See Chase to pursue.] 1. (Mil.) One of a body of light troops, cavalry or infantry, trained for rapid movements.

2. An attendant upon persons of rank or wealth, wearing a plume and sword.

The great chasseur who had announced her arrival. W. Irving.

Chas"sis (?), n. [F. châssis.] (Mil.) A traversing base frame, or movable railway, along which the carriage of a barbette or casemate gun moves backward and forward. [See Gun carriage.]

Chast (chāst), v. t. to chasten. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chaste (chāst), a. [F. chaste, from L. castus pure, chaste; cf. Gr. kaqaro`s pure, Skr. çudth to purify.]

1. Pure from unlawful sexual intercourse; virtuous; continent. "As chaste as Diana." Shak.

Whose bed is undefiled and chaste pronounced. Milton.

2. Pure in thought and act; innocent; free from lewdness and obscenity, or indecency in act or speech; modest; as, a chaste mind; chaste eyes.

3. Pure in design and expression; correct; free from barbarisms or vulgarisms; refined; simple; as, a chaste style in composition or art.

That great model of chaste, lofty, and eloquence, the Book of Common Prayer. Macaulay.

4. Unmarried. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Syn. -- Undefiled; pure; virtuous; continent; immaculate; spotless.

Chaste tree. Same as Agnus castus.

Chaste"ly, adv. In a chaste manner; with purity.

Chas"ten (chā"s'n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chastened (-s'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Chastening.] [OE. chastien, OF. Chastier, F. Ch&?;tier, fr. L. castigare to punish, chastise; castus pure + agere to lead, drive. See Chaste, Act, and cf. Castigate, Chastise.] 1. To correct by punishment; to inflict pain upon the purpose of reclaiming; to discipline; as, to chasten a son with a rod.

For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth. Heb. xii. 6.

2. To purify from errors or faults; to refine.

They [classics] chasten and enlarge the mind, and excite to noble actions. Layard.

Syn. -- To chastise; punish; correct; discipline; castigate; afflict; subdue; purify. To Chasten, Punish, Chastise. To chasten is to subject to affliction or trouble, in order to produce a general change for the better in life or character. To punish is to inflict penalty for violation of law, disobedience to authority, or intentional wrongdoing. To chastise is to punish a particular offense, as with stripes, especially with the hope that suffering or disgrace may prevent a repetition of faults.

Chas"tened (?), a. Corrected; disciplined; refined; purified; toned down. Sir. W. Scott.

Of such a finished chastened purity. Tennyson.

Chas"ten*er (?), n. One who chastens.

Chaste"ness (?), n. 1. Chastity; purity.

2. (Literature & Art) Freedom from all that is meretricious, gaudy, or affected; as, chasteness of design.

Chas*tis"a*ble (?), a. Capable or deserving of chastisement; punishable. Sherwood.

Chas*tise" (chăs*tīz"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chastised (- tīzd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Chastising.] [OE. chastisen; chastien + ending -isen + modern -ise, -ize, L. - izare, Gr. -i`zein. See Chasten.] 1. To inflict pain upon, by means of stripes, or in any other manner, for the purpose of punishment or reformation; to punish, as with stripes.

How fine my master is! I am afraid He will chastise me. Shak.

I am glad to see the vanity or envy of the canting chemists thus discovered and chastised. Boyle.

2. To reduce to order or obedience; to correct or purify; to free from faults or excesses.

The gay, social sense, by decency chastised. Thomson.

Syn. -- See Chasten.

Chas"tise*ment (?), n. [From Chastise.] The act of chastising; pain inflicted for punishment and correction; discipline; punishment.

Shall I so much dishonor my fair stars, On equal terms to give him chastesement! Shak.

I have borne chastisement; I will not offend any more. Job xxxiv. 31.

Chas*tis"er (?), n. One who chastises; a punisher; a corrector. Jer. Taylor.

The chastiser of the rich. Burke.

Chas"ti*ty (?), n. [F. chasteté, fr. L. castitas, fr. castus. See Chaste.] 1. The state of being chaste; purity of body; freedom from unlawful sexual intercourse.

She . . . hath preserved her spotless chastity. T. Carew.

2. Moral purity.

So dear to heaven is saintly chastity, That, when a soul is found sicerely so A thousand liveried angels lackey her. Milton.

3. The unmarried life; celibacy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

4. (Literature & Art) Chasteness.

Chas"u*ble (?), n. [F. chasuble, LL. casubula, cassibula, casula, a hooded garment, covering the person like a little house; cf. It. casupola, casipola, cottage, dim of L. casa cottage.] (Eccl.) The outer vestment worn by the priest in saying Mass, consisting, in the Roman Catholic Church, of a broad, flat, back piece, and a narrower front piece, the two connected over the shoulders only. The back has usually a large cross, the front an upright bar or pillar, designed to be emblematical of Christ's sufferings. In the Greek Church the chasuble is a large round mantle. [Written also chasible, and chesible.]

Chat (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chatted; p. pr. & vb. n. Chatting.] [From Chatter. √22.] To talk in a light and familiar manner; to converse without form or ceremony; to gossip. Shak.

To chat a while on their adventures. Dryden.

Syn. -- To talk; chatter; gossip; converse.

Chat, v. t. To talk of. [Obs.]

Chat, n. 1. Light, familiar talk; conversation; gossip.

Snuff, or fan, supply each pause of chat, With singing, laughing, ogling, and all that. Pope.

2. (Zoöl.) A bird of the genus Icteria, allied to the warblers, in America. The best known species are the yellow-breasted chat (I. viridis), and the long-tailed chat (I. longicauda). In Europe the name is given to several birds of the family Saxicolidæ, as the stonechat, and whinchat.

Bush chat. (Zoöl.) See under Bush.

Chat, n. 1. A twig, cone, or little branch. See Chit.

2. pl. (Mining) Small stones with ore.

Chat potatoes, small potatoes, such as are given to swine. [Local.]

||Cha`teau" (?), n.; pl. Chateux (#). [F. château a castle. See Castle.] 1. A castle or a fortress in France.

2. A manor house or residence of the lord of the manor; a gentleman's country seat; also, particularly, a royal residence; as, the chateau of the Louvre; the chateau of the Luxembourg.

&fist; The distinctive, French term for a fortified castle of the middle ages is château-fort.

||Chateau en Espagne (&?;) [F.], a castle in Spain, that is, a castle in the air, Spain being the region of romance.

Chat"e*laine (?), n. [F. châtelaine the wife of a castellan, the mistress of a chateau, a chatelaine chain.] An ornamental hook, or brooch worn by a lady at her waist, and having a short chain or chains attached for a watch, keys, trinkets, etc. Also used adjectively; as, a chatelaine chain.

Chat"e*let (?), n. [F. châtelet, dim. of château. See Castle.] A little castle.

Chat"el*la*ny (?), n. [F. châtellenie.] Same as Castellany.

||Cha`ti" (?), n. [Cf. F. chat cat.] (Zoöl.) A small South American species of tiger cat (Felis mitis).

Cha*toy"ant (?), a. [F., p. pr. of chatoyer to be chatoyant, fr. chat cat.] (Min.) Having a changeable, varying luster, or color, like that of a changeable silk, or oa a cat's eye in the dark.

Cha*toy"ant, n. (Min.) A hard stone, as the cat's-eye, which presents on a polished surface, and in the interior, an undulating or wary light.

Cha*toy"ment (?), n. [F. chatoiement. See Chatoyant.] Changeableness of color, as in a mineral; play of colors. Cleaceland.

Chat"tel (?), n. [OF. chatel; another form of catel. See Cattle.] (Law) Any item of movable or immovable property except the freehold, or the things which are parcel of it. It is a more extensive term than goods or effects.

&fist; Chattels are personal or real: personal are such as are movable, as goods, plate, money; real are such rights in land as are less than a freehold, as leases, mortgages, growing corn, etc.

Chattel mortgage (Law), a mortgage on personal property, as distinguished from one on real property.

Chat"tel*ism (?), n. The act or condition of holding chattels; the state of being a chattel.

Chat"ter (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chattered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chattering.] [Of imitative origin. Cf. Chat, v. i. Chitter.] 1. To utter sounds which somewhat resemble language, but are inarticulate and indistinct.

The jaw makes answer, as the magpie chatters. Wordsworth.

2. To talk idly, carelessly, or with undue rapidity; to jabber; to prate.

To tame a shrew, and charm her chattering tongue. Shak.

3. To make a noise by rapid collisions.

With chattering teeth, and bristling hair upright. Dryden.

Chat"ter, v. t. To utter rapidly, idly, or indistinctly.

Begin his witless note apace to chatter. Spenser.

Chat"ter, n. 1. Sounds like those of a magpie or monkey; idle talk; rapid, thoughtless talk; jabber; prattle.

Your words are but idle and empty chatter. Longfellow.

2. Noise made by collision of the teeth, as in shivering.

Chat*ter*a"tion (?), n. The act or habit of chattering. [Colloq.]

Chat"ter*er (?), n. 1. A prater; an idle talker.

2. (Zoöl.) A bird of the family Ampelidæ -- so called from its monotonous note. The Bohemion chatterer (Ampelis garrulus) inhabits the arctic regions of both continents. In America the cedar bird is a more common species. See Bohemian chatterer, and Cedar bird.

Chat"ter*ing (?), n. The act or habit of talking idly or rapidly, or of making inarticulate sounds; the sounds so made; noise made by the collision of the teeth; chatter.

Chat"ti*ness (?), n. The quality of being chatty, or of talking easily and pleasantly.

Chat"ty (?), a. Given to light, familiar talk; talkative. Lady M. W. Montagu.

||Chat"ty, n. [Tamil shāti.] A porous earthen pot used in India for cooling water, etc.

Chat"wood` (?), n. [Chat a little stick + wood.] Little sticks; twigs for burning; fuel. Johnson.

Chaud"-med`ley (?), n. [F. chaude mêlée; chaud hot + mêler (Formerly sometimes spelt medler) to mingle.] (Law) The killing of a person in an affray, in the heat of blood, and while under the influence of passion, thus distinguished from chance-medley or killing in self- defense, or in a casual affray. Burrill.

Chau"dron (?), n. See Chawdron. [Obs.]

Chauf"fer (?), n. [Cf. F. chauffoir a kind of stone, fr. chauffer to heat. See Chafe.] (Chem.) A table stove or small furnace, usually a cylindrical box of sheet iron, with a grate at the bottom, and an open top.

Chaul"dron (?), n. See Chawdron. [Obs.]

Chaun (?), n. A gap. [Obs.] Colgrave.

Chaun, v. t. & i. To open; to yawn. [Obs.]

O, chaun thy breast. Marston.

Chaunt (?), n. & v. See Chant.

Chaunt"er (?), n. 1. A street seller of ballads and other broadsides. [Slang, Eng.]

2. A deceitful, tricky dealer or horse jockey. [Colloq.]

He was a horse chaunter; he's a leg now. Dickens.

3. The flute of a bagpipe. See Chanter, n., 3.

Chaunt"er*ie (?), n. See Chantry. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Cha"us (?), n. (Zoöl.) a lynxlike animal of Asia and Africa (Lynx Lybicus).

||Chausses (?), n. pl. [F.] The garment for the legs and feet and for the body below the waist, worn in Europe throughout the Middle Ages; applied also to the armor for the same parts, when fixible, as of chain mail.

||Chaus`sure" (?), n. [F.] A foot covering of any kind.

Chau"vin*ism (?), n. [F. chauvinisme, from Chauvin, a character represented as making grotesque and threatening displays of his attachment to his fallen chief, Napoleon I., in 1815.] Blind and absurd devotion to a fallen leader or an obsolete cause; hence, absurdly vainglorious or exaggerated patriotism.

-- Chau"vin*ist, n. -- Chau`vin*is"tic (&?;), a.

&fist; To have a generous belief in the greatness of one's country is not chauvinism. It is the character of the latter quality to be wildly extravagant, to be fretful and childish and silly, to resent a doubt as an insult, and to offend by its very frankness. Prof. H. Tuttle.

Chav"en*der (?), n. [Cf. Cheven.] (Zoöl.) The chub. Walton.

Chaw (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chawing.] [See Chew.] 1. To grind with the teeth; to masticate, as food in eating; to chew, as the cud; to champ, as the bit.

The trampling steed, with gold and purple trapped, Chawing the foamy bit, there fiercely stood. Surrey.

2. To ruminate in thought; to consider; to keep the mind working upon; to brood over. Dryden.

A word formerly in good use, but now regarded as vulgar.

Chaw, n. [See Chaw, v. t.] 1. As much as is put in the mouth at once; a chew; a quid. [Law]

2. [Cf. Jaw.] The jaw. [Obs.] Spenser.

Chaw bacon, a rustic; a bumpkin; a lout. (Law) -- Chaw tooth, a grinder. (Law)

Chaw"dron (?), n. [OF. chaudun, caudun, caldun; cf. G. kaldaunen guts, bowels, LL. calduna intestine, W. coluddyn gut, dim. of coludd bowels.] Entrails. [Obs.] [Written also chaudron, chauldron.] Shak.

Chay" root` (?). [Tamil shāya.] The root of the Oldenlandia umbellata, native in India, which yieds a durable red dyestuff. [Written also choy root.]

Cha*zy" ep"och (?). (Geol.) An epoch at the close of the Canadian period of the American Lower Silurian system; -- so named from a township in Clinton Co., New York. See the Diagram under Geology.

Cheap (chēp), n. [AS. ceáp bargain, sale, price; akin to D. koop purchase, G. kauf, Icel. kaup bargain. Cf. Cheapen, Chapman, Chaffer, Cope, v. i.] A bargain; a purchase; cheapness. [Obs.]

The sack that thou hast drunk me would have bought me lights as good cheap at the dearest chandler's in Europe. Shak.

Cheap, a. [Abbrev. fr. "good cheap": a good purchase or bargain; cf. F. bon marché, à bon marché. See Cheap, n., Cheapen.] 1. Having a low price in market; of small cost or price, as compared with the usual price or the real value.

Where there are a great sellers to a few buyers, there the thing to be sold will be cheap. Locke.

2. Of comparatively small value; common; mean.

You grow cheap in every subject's eye. Dryden.

Dog cheap, very cheap, -- a phrase formed probably by the catachrestical transposition of good cheap. [Colloq.]

Cheap, adv. Cheaply. Milton.

Cheap, v. i. To buy; to bargain. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Cheap"en (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cheapened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cheapening.] [OE. cheapien, chepen, to trade, buy, sell, AS. ceápian; akin to D. koopen to buy, G. kaufen, Icel. kaupa, Goth. kaupōn to trade. Cf. Chap to bargain.] 1. To ask the price of; to bid, bargain, or chaffer for. [Obsoles.]

Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy. Swift.

2. [Cf. Cheap, a.] To beat down the price of; to lessen the value of; to depreciate. Pope.

My proffered love has cheapened me. Dryden.

Cheap"en*er (?), n. One who cheapens.

{ Cheap"-jack` (?), Cheap"-john` (?), } n. A seller of low-priced or second goods; a hawker.

Cheap"ly (?), adv. At a small price; at a low value; in a common or inferior manner.

Cheap"ness (?), n. Lowness in price, considering the usual price, or real value.

Chear (?), n. & v. [Obs.] See Cheer.

Cheat (?), n. [rob. an abbrevation of escheat, lands or tenements that fall to a lord or to the state by forfeiture, or by the death of the tenant without heirs; the meaning being explained by the frauds, real or supposed, that were resorted to in procuring escheats. See Escheat.] 1. An act of deception or fraud; that which is the means of fraud or deception; a fraud; a trick; imposition; imposture.

When I consider life, 'tis all a cheat. Dryden.

2. One who cheats or deceives; an impostor; a deceiver; a cheater.

Airy wonders, which cheats interpret. Johnson

3. (Bot.) A troublesome grass, growing as a weed in grain fields; -- called also chess. See Chess.

4. (Law) The obtaining of property from another by an intentional active distortion of the truth.

&fist; When cheats are effected by deceitful or illegal symbols or tokens which may affect the public at large and against which common prudence could not have guarded, they are indictable at common law. Wharton.

Syn. -- Deception; imposture; fraud; delusion; artifice; trick; swindle; deceit; guile; finesse; stratagem.

Cheat, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cheated; p. pr. & vb. n. Cheating.] [See Cheat, n., Escheat.] 1. To deceive and defraud; to impose upon; to trick; to swindle.

I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer, that by his cunning hath cheated me of this island. Shak.

2. To beguile. Sir W. Scott.

To cheat winter of its dreariness. W. Irving.

Syn. -- To trick; cozen; gull; chouse; fool; outwit; circumvent; beguile; mislead; dupe; swindle; defraud; overreach; delude; hoodwink; deceive; bamboozle.

Cheat, v. i. To practice fraud or trickery; as, to cheat at cards.

Cheat, n. [Perh. from OF. cheté goods, chattels.] Wheat, or bread made from wheat. [Obs.] Drayton.

Their purest cheat, Thrice bolted, kneaded, and subdued in paste. Chapman.

Cheat"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being cheated.

Cheat"a*ble*ness, n. Capability of being cheated.

Cheat"er (?), n. 1. One who cheats.

2. An escheator. [R.] Shak.

Che*bac"co (?), n. [From Chebacco, the former name of Essex, a town in Massachusetts where such vessels were built.] (Naut.) A narrow-sterned boat formerly much used in the Newfoundland fisheries; -- called also pinkstern and chebec. Bartlett.

Che"bec (?), n. (Naut.) See Chebacco.

Che*bec" (?), n. [Named from its note.] (Zoöl.) A small American bird (Empidonax minimus); the least flycatcher.

Check (?), n. [OE. chek, OF. eschec, F. échec, a stop, hindrance, orig. check in the game of chess, pl. échecs chess, through AR., fr. Pers. shāh king. See Shah, and cf. Checkmate, Chess, Checker.] 1. (Chess) A word of warning denoting that the king is in danger; such a menace of a player's king by an adversary's move as would, if it were any other piece, expose it to immediate capture. A king so menaced is said to be in check, and must be made safe at the next move.

2. A condition of interrupted or impeded progress; arrest; stop; delay; as, to hold an enemy in check.

Which gave a remarkable check to the first progress of Christianity. Addison.

No check, no stay, this streamlet fears. Wordsworth.

3. Whatever arrests progress, or limits action; an obstacle, guard, restraint, or rebuff.

Useful check upon the administration of government. Washington.

A man whom no check could abash. Macaulay.

4. A mark, certificate, or token, by which, errors may be prevented, or a thing or person may be identified; as, checks placed against items in an account; a check given for baggage; a return check on a railroad.

5. A written order directing a bank or banker to pay money as therein stated. See Bank check, below.

6. A woven or painted design in squares resembling the patten of a checkerboard; one of the squares of such a design; also, cloth having such a figure.

7. (Falconry) The forsaking by a hawk of its proper game to follow other birds.

8. Small chick or crack.

Bank check, a written order on a banker or broker to pay money in his keeping belonging to the signer. -- Check book, a book containing blank forms for checks upon a bank. -- Check hook, a hook on the saddle of a harness, over which a checkrein is looped. -- Check list, a list or catalogue by which things may be verified, or on which they may be checked. -- Check nut (Mech.), a secondary nut, screwing down upon the primary nut to secure it. Knight. -- Check valve (Mech.), a valve in the feed pipe of a boiler to prevent the return of the feed water. -- To take check, to take offense. [Obs.] Dryden.

Syn. -- Hindrance; setback; interruption; obstruction; reprimand; censure; rebuke; reproof; repulse; rebuff; tally; counterfoil; counterbalance; ticket; draft.

Check, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Checked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. checking.] 1. (Chess) To make a move which puts an adversary's piece, esp. his king, in check; to put in check.

2. To put a sudden restraint upon; to stop temporarily; to hinder; to repress; to curb.

So many clogs to check and retard the headlong course of violence and oppression. Burke.

3. To verify, to guard, to make secure, by means of a mark, token, or other check; to distinguish by a check; to put a mark against (an item) after comparing with an original or a counterpart in order to secure accuracy; as, to check an account; to check baggage.

4. To chide, rebuke, or reprove.

The good king, his master, will check him for it. Shak.

5. (Naut.) To slack or ease off, as a brace which is too stiffly extended.

6. To make checks or chinks in; to cause to crack; as, the sun checks timber.

Syn. -- To restrain; curb; bridle; repress; control; hinder; impede; obstruct; interrupt; tally; rebuke; reprove; rebuff.

Check (?), v. i. To make a stop; to pause; -- with at.

The mind, once jaded by an attempt above its power, either is disabled for the future, or else checks at any vigorous undertaking ever after. Locke.

2. To clash or interfere. [R.] Bacon.

3. To act as a curb or restraint.

It [his presence] checks too strong upon me. Dryden.

4. To crack or gape open, as wood in drying; or to crack in small checks, as varnish, paint, etc.

5. (Falconry) To turn, when in pursuit of proper game, and fly after other birds.

And like the haggard, check at every feather That comes before his eye. Shak.

Check, a. Checkered; designed in checks.

Check"age (?), n. 1. The act of checking; as, the checkage of a name or of an item in a list.

2. The items, or the amount, to which attention is called by a check or checks.

Check"er, n. [From Check, v. t.] One who checks.

Check"er (ch&ebreve;k"&etilde;r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Checkered (- &etilde;rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Checkering.] [From OF. eschequier a chessboard, F. échiquier. See Check, n., and cf. 3d Checker.] 1. To mark with small squares like a checkerboard, as by crossing stripes of different colors.

2. To variegate or diversify with different qualities, colors, scenes, or events; esp., to subject to frequent alternations of prosperity and adversity.

Our minds are, as it were, checkered with truth and falsehood. Addison.

Check"er, n. [OF. eschequier. See Checker, v. t.]

1. A piece in the game of draughts or checkers.

2. A pattern in checks; a single check.

3. Checkerwork.

&fist; This word is also written chequer.

Check"er*ber`ry (-b&ebreve;r`r&ybreve;), n.; pl. Checkerberries (#). (Bot.) A spicy plant and its bright red berry; the wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens). Also incorrectly applied to the partridge berry (Mitchella repens).

Check"er*board (-bōrd`), n. A board with sixty-four squares of alternate color, used for playing checkers or draughts.

Check"ered (-&etilde;rd), a. 1. Marked with alternate squares or checks of different color or material.

Dancing in the checkered shade. Milton.

2. Diversified or variegated in a marked manner, as in appearance, character, circumstances, etc.

This checkered narrative. Macaulay.

Check"ers (ch&ebreve;k"&etilde;rz), n. pl. [See Checher, v.] A game, called also daughts, played on a checkerboard by two persons, each having twelve men (counters or checkers) which are moved diagonally. The game is ended when either of the players has lost all his men, or can not move them.

Check"er*work` (?), n. 1. Work consisting of or showing checkers varied alternately as to colors or materials.

2. Any aggregate of varied vicissitudes.

How strange a checkerwork of Providence is the life of man. De Foe.

Check"la*ton (?), n. 1. Ciclatoun. [Obs.]

2. Gilded leather. [Obs.] Spenser.

Check"less, a. That can not be checked or restrained.

Check"mate, n. [F. échec et mat, fr. Per. shāh māt ceckmate, lit., the king is dead, fr. Ar. māta he died, is dead. The king, when made prisoner, or checkmated, is assumed to be dead, and the game is finished. See Chess.] 1. The position in the game of chess when a king is in check and cannot be released, -- which ends the game.

2. A complete check; utter defeat or overthrow.

Check"mate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Checkmated; p. pr. & vb. n. Checkmating.] 1. (Chess) To check (an adversary's king) in such a manner that escape in impossible; to defeat (an adversary) by putting his king in check from which there is no escape.

2. To defeat completely; to terminate; to thwart.

To checkmate and control my just demands. Ford.

Check"rein` (?), n. 1. A short rein looped over the check hook to prevent a horse from lowering his head; -- called also a bearing rein.

2. A branch rein connecting the driving rein of one horse of a span or pair with the bit of the other horse.

Check"roll` (?), n. A list of servants in a household; -- called also chequer roll.

Check"string` (?), n. A cord by which a person in a carriage or horse car may signal to the driver.

Check"work (?), n. Anything made so as to form alternate squares like those of a checkerboard.

Check"y (ch&ebreve;k"&ybreve;), a. (Her.) Divided into small alternating squares of two tinctures; -- said of the field or of an armorial bearing. [Written also checquy, chequy.]

Ched"dar (?), a. Of or pertaining to, or made at, Cheddar, in England; as, Cheddar cheese.

Cheek (chēk), n. [OE. cheke, cheoke, AS. ceàce, ceòce; cf. Goth. kukjan to kiss, D. kaak cheek; perh. akin to E. chew, jaw.] 1. The side of the face below the eye.

2. The cheek bone. [Obs.] Caucer.

3. pl. (Mech.) Those pieces of a machine, or of any timber, or stone work, which form corresponding sides, or which are similar and in pair; as, the cheeks (jaws) of a vise; the cheeks of a gun carriage, etc.

4. pl. The branches of a bridle bit. Knight.

5. (Founding) A section of a flask, so made that it can be moved laterally, to permit the removal of the pattern from the mold; the middle part of a flask.

6. Cool confidence; assurance; impudence. [Slang]

Cheek of beef. See Illust. of Beef. -- Cheek bone (Anat.) the bone of the side of the face; esp., the malar bone. -- Cheek by jowl, side by side; very intimate. -- Cheek pouch (Zoöl.), a sacklike dilation of the cheeks of certain monkeys and rodents, used for holding food. -- Cheeks of a block, the two sides of the shell of a tackle block. -- Cheeks of a mast, the projection on each side of a mast, upon which the trestletrees rest. -- Cheek tooth (Anat.), a hinder or molar tooth. -- Butment cheek. See under Butment.

Cheek (chēk), v. t. To be impudent or saucy to. [Slang.]

Cheeked (chēkt), a. Having a cheek; -- used in composition. "Rose- cheeked Adonis." Shak.

Cheek"y, a Brazen-faced; impudent; bold. [Slang.]

Cheep (chēp), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cheeped (chēpt).] [Cf. Chirp]. To chirp, as a young bird.

Cheep, v. t. To give expression to in a chirping tone.

Cheep and twitter twenty million loves. Tennyson.

Cheep, n. A chirp, peep, or squeak, as of a young bird or mouse.

Cheer (chēr), n. [OE. chere face, welcome, cheer, OF. chiere, F. chère, fr. LL. cara face, Gr. ka`ra head; akin to Skr. çiras, L. cerebrum brain, G. hirn, and E. cranium.] 1. The face; the countenance or its expression. [Obs.] "Sweat of thy cheer." Wyclif.

2. Feeling; spirit; state of mind or heart.

Be of good cheer. Matt. ix. 2.

The parents . . . fled away with heavy cheer. Holland.

3. Gayety; mirth; cheerfulness; animation.

I have not that alacrity of spirit, Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have. Shak.

1. That which promotes good spirits or cheerfulness; provisions prepared for a feast; entertainment; as, a table loaded with good cheer.

5. A shout, hurrah, or acclamation, expressing joy enthusiasm, applause, favor, etc.

Welcome her, thundering cheer of the street. Tennyson.

Whzt cheer? Now do you fare? What is there that is cheering?

Cheer, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cheered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. cheering.] 1. To cause to rejoice; to gladden; to make cheerful; -- often with up. Cowpe.

2. To infuse life, courage, animation, or hope, into; to inspirit; to solace or comfort.

The proud he tamed, the penitent he cheered. Dryden.

3. To salute or applaud with cheers; to urge on by cheers; as, to cheer hounds in a chase.

To cheer ship, to salute a passing ship by cheers of sailors stationed in the rigging.

Syn. -- To gladden; encourage; inspirit; comfort; console; enliven; refresh; exhilarate; animate; applaud.

Cheer, v. i. 1. To grow cheerful; to become gladsome or joyous; -- usually with up.

At sight of thee my gloomy soul cheers up. A. Philips.

2. To be in any state or temper of mind. [Obs.]

How cheer'st thou, Jessica? Shak.

3. To utter a shout or shouts of applause, triumph, etc.

And even the ranks of Tusculum Could scare forbear to cheer. Macaulay.

Cheer"er (?), n. One who cheers; one who, or that which, gladdens. "Thou cheerer of our days." Wotton. "Prime cheerer, light." Thomson.

Cheer"ful (?), a. Having or showing good spirits or joy; cheering; cheery; contented; happy; joyful; lively; animated; willing.

To entertain a cheerful disposition. Shak.

The cheerful birds of sundry kind Do chant sweet music. Spenser.

A cheerful confidence in the mercy of God. Macaulay.

This general applause and cheerful shout. Shak.

Syn. -- Lively; animated; gay; joyful; lightsome; gleeful; blithe; airy; sprightly; jocund; jolly; joyous; vivacious; buoyant; sunny; happy; hopeful.

Cheer"ful*ly, adv. In a cheerful manner, gladly.

Cheer"ful*ness, n. Good spirits; a state of moderate joy or gayety; alacrity.

Cheer"i*ly (?), adv. In a cheery manner.

Cheer"i*ness, n. The state of being cheery.

Cheer"ing*ly (?), adv. In a manner to cheer or encourage.

Cheer"is*ness, n. Cheerfulness. [Obs.]

There is no Christian duty that is not to be seasoned and set off with cheerishness. Milton.

Cheer"less, a. Without joy, gladness, or comfort.

-- Cheer"less*ly, adv. -- Cheer"less*ness, n.

My cheerful day is turned to cheerless night. Spenser.

Syn. -- Gloomy; sad; comfortless; dispiriting; dicsconsolate; dejected; melancholy; forlorn.

Cheer"ly (?), a. Gay; cheerful. [Obs.] Shak.

Cheer"ly, adv. Cheerily. [Archaic] Tennyson.

Cheer"ry (?), a. Cheerful; lively; gay; bright; pleasant; as, a cheery person.

His cheery little study, where the sunshine glimmered so pleasantly. Hawthorne.

Cheese (?), n. [OE. chese, AS. cēse, fr. L. caseus, LL. casius. Cf. Casein.] 1. The curd of milk, coagulated usually with rennet, separated from the whey, and pressed into a solid mass in a hoop or mold.

2. A mass of pomace, or ground apples, pressed together in the form of a cheese.

3. The flat, circular, mucilaginous fruit of the dwarf mallow (Malva rotundifolia). [Colloq.]

4. A low courtesy; -- so called on account of the cheese form assumed by a woman's dress when she stoops after extending the skirts by a rapid gyration. De Quincey. Thackeray.

Cheese cake, a cake made of or filled with, a composition of soft curds, sugar, and butter. Prior. -- Cheese fly (Zoöl.), a black dipterous insect (Piophila casei) of which the larvæ or maggots, called skippers or hoppers, live in cheese. -- Cheese mite (Zoöl.), a minute mite (Tryoglyhus siro) in cheese and other articles of food. -- Cheese press, a press used in making cheese, to separate the whey from the curd, and to press the curd into a mold. -- Cheese rennet (Bot.), a plant of the Madder family (Golium verum, or yellow bedstraw), sometimes used to coagulate milk. The roots are used as a substitute for madder. -- Cheese vat, a vat or tub in which the curd is formed and cut or broken, in cheese making.

Cheese"lep (?), n. [Cf. Keslop.] A bag in which rennet is kept.

Cheese"mon`ger (?), n. One who deals in cheese. B. Jonson.

Cheese"par`ing (?), n. A thin portion of the rind of a cheese. -- a. Scrimping; mean; as, cheeseparing economy.

Chees"i*ness (?), n. The quality of being cheesy.

Chees"y (?), a. Having the nature, qualities, taste, form, consistency, or appearance of cheese.

Chee"tah (?), n. [Hind. chītā.] (Zoöl.) A species of leopard (Cynælurus jubatus) tamed and used for hunting in India. The woolly cheetah of South Africa is C. laneus. [Written also chetah.]

||Chef (?), n. [F.] 1. A chief of head person.

2. The head cook of large establishment, as a club, a family, etc.

3. (Her.) Same as Chief.

||Chef`-d'œuvre" (?), n.; pl. Chefs-d'œuvre (#). [F.] A masterpiece; a capital work in art, literature, etc.

{ Cheg"oe (?), Cheg"re (?) }, n. See Chigoe.

Chei"lo*plas`ty (?), n. [Gr. &?; a lip + -plasty.] (Surg.) The process of forming an artificial tip or part of a lip, by using for the purpose a piece of healthy tissue taken from some neighboring part.

||Chei*lop"o*da (?), n. [NL.] (Zoöl.) See Chilopoda.

Chei*rop"ter (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Cheiroptera.

||Chei*rop"te*ra (k>isl/*r&obreve;p"t&etilde;r), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. chei`r hand + ptero`n wing.] (Zoöl.) An order of mammalia, including the bats, having four toes of each of the anterior limbs elongated and connected by a web, so that they can be used like wings in flying. See Bat.

Chei*rop"ter*ous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Belonging to the Cheiroptera, or Bat family.

||Chei*rop`te*ryg"i*um (?), n.; pl. Cheiropterygia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; hand + &?;; &?; wing, fin.] (Anat.) The typical pentadactyloid limb of the higher vertebrates.

Chei*ros"o*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?; hand + &?; knowledge.] The art of reading character as it is delineated in the hand.

-- Chei*ros"o*phist (&?;), n.

||Chei`ro*the"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; hand + &?; beast.] (Poleon.) A genus of extinct animals, so named from fossil footprints rudely resembling impressions of the human hand, and believed to have been made by labyrinthodont reptiles. See Illustration in Appendix.

Chek`e*la*toun" (?), n. See Ciclatoun. [Obs.] Chaucer.

||Chek"mak (?), n. A turkish fabric of silk and cotton, with gold thread interwoven.

||Che"la (?), n.; pl. Chelæ (#). [NL., fr. Gr. chhlh` claw.] (Zoöl.) The pincherlike claw of Crustacea and Arachnida.

Che"late (?), a. (Zoöl.) Same as Cheliferous.

Chel`e*ryth"rine (?), n. [Gr. &?; celandine + 'eryqro`s red.] (Chem.) An alkaloidal principle obtained from the celandine, and named from the red color of its salts. It is a colorless crystalline substance, and acts as an acrid narcotic poison. It is identical with sanguinarine.

||Che*lic"e*ra (k&esl;*l&ibreve;s"&esl;*r&adot;), n.; pl. Cheliceræ (-rē). [NL., fr. Gr. chhlh` claw + ke`ras horn.] (Zoöl.) One of the anterior pair of mouth organs, terminated by a pincherlike claw, in scorpions and allied Arachnida. They are homologous with the falcers of spiders, and probably with the mandibles of insects.

Chel"i*don (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. chelidw`n.] (Anat.) The hollow at the flexure of the arm.

Chel`i*don"ic (?), a. [See Celandine.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, the celandine.

Chelidonic acid, a weak acid extracted from the celandine (Chelidonium majus), as a white crystalline substance.

||Chel`i*do"ni*us (?), n. [L. (sc. lapillus.)] A small stone taken from the gizzard of a young swallow. -- anciently worn as a medicinal charm.

Chel"i*fer (?), n. [Gr. chhlh` claw + -fer.] (Zoöl.) See Book scorpion, under Book.

Che*lif"er*ous (?), a. [Gr. chhlh` claw + -ferous.] (Zoöl.) Having cheliform claws, like a crab.

Chel"i*form (?), a. [Gr. chhlh` claw + -form.] (Zoöl.) Having a movable joint or finger closing against a preceding joint or a projecting part of it, so that the whole may be used for grasping, as the claw of a crab; pincherlike.

||Che*lo"ne (?), n. [Gr. chelw`nh a tortoise. So named from shape of the upper lip of the corolla.] (Bot.) A genus of hardy perennial flowering plants, of the order Scrophulariaceæ, natives of North America; -- called also snakehead, turtlehead, shellflower, etc.

||Che*lo"ni*a (k&esl;*lō"n&ibreve;*&adot;), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. chelw`nh a tortoise.] (Zoöl.) An order of reptiles, including the tortoises and turtles, peculiar in having a part of the vertebræ, ribs, and sternum united with the dermal plates so as to form a firm shell. The jaws are covered by a horny beak. See Reptilia; also, Illust. in Appendix.

Che*lo"ni*an (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to animals of the tortoise kind. -- n. One of the Chelonia.

||Che*lu"ra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. chhlh` claw + &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) A genus of marine amphipod crustacea, which bore into and sometimes destroy timber.

Che"ly (?), n. A claw. See Chela. [Obs.]

Chem"ic (?), n. [See Chenistry.] 1. A chemist; an alchemist. [Obs.]

2. (Bleaching) A solution of chloride of lime.

Chem"ic, a. Chemical. Blackw. Mag.

Chem"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to chemistry; characterized or produced by the forces and operations of chemistry; employed in the processes of chemistry; as, chemical changes; chemical combinations.

Chemical attraction or affinity. See under Attraction.

Chem"ic*al, n. A substance used for producing a chemical effect; a reagent.

Chem"ic*al*ly, adv. According to chemical principles; by chemical process or operation.

Chem`i*glyph"ic (?), a. [Chemical + &?; to engrave.] Engraved by a voltaic battery.

Chem`i*loon" (?), n. A garment for women, consisting of chemise and drawers united in one. [U. S.]

Che*mise" (?), n. [F., shirt, fr. LL. camisa, camisia, shirt, thin dress; cf. G. hemd, or OIr. caimmse sort of garment. Cf. Camis.] 1. A shift, or undergarment, worn by women.

2. A wall that lines the face of a bank or earthwork.

Chem`i*sette" (?), n.[F., dim. of chemise.] An under-garment, worn by women, usually covering the neck, shoulders, and breast.

Chem"ism (?), n. [Cf. F. chimisme. See Chemistry.] The force exerted between the atoms of elementary substance whereby they unite to form chemical compounds; chemical attaction; affinity; -- sometimes used as a general expression for chemical activity or relationship.

Chem"ist, n. [Shortened from alchemist; cf. F. chimiste.] A person versed in chemistry or given to chemical investigation; an analyst; a maker or seller of chemicals or drugs.

Chem"is*try (k&ebreve;m"&ibreve;s*tr&ybreve;; 277), n. [From Chemist. See Alchemy.] 1. That branch of science which treats of the composition of substances, and of the changes which they undergo in consequence of alterations in the constitution of the molecules, which depend upon variations of the number, kind, or mode of arrangement, of the constituent atoms. These atoms are not assumed to be indivisible, but merely the finest grade of subdivision hitherto attained. Chemistry deals with the changes in the composition and constitution of molecules. See Atom, Molecule.

&fist; Historically, chemistry is an outgrowth of alchemy (or alchemistry), with which it was anciently identified.

2. An application of chemical theory and method to the consideration of some particular subject; as, the chemistry of iron; the chemistry of indigo.

3. A treatise on chemistry.

&fist; This word and its derivatives were formerly written with y, and sometimes with i, instead of e, in the first syllable, chymistry, chymist, chymical, etc., or chimistry, chimist, chimical, etc.; and the pronunciation was conformed to the orthography.

Inorganic chemistry, that which treats of inorganic or mineral substances. -- Organic chemistry, that which treats of the substances which form the structure of organized beings and their products, whether animal or vegetable; -- called also chemistry of the carbon compounds. There is no fundamental difference between organic and inorganic chemistry. -- Physiological chemistry, the chemistry of the organs and tissues of the body, and of the various physiological processes incident to life. -- Practical chemistry, or Applied chemistry, that which treats of the modes of manufacturing the products of chemistry that are useful in the arts, of their applications to economical purposes, and of the conditions essential to their best use. -- Pure chemistry, the consideration of the facts and theories of chemistry in their purely scientific relations, without necessary reference to their practical applications or mere utility.

Chem"i*type (?), n. [Chemical + -type.] (Engraving) One of a number of processes by which an impression from an engraved plate is obtained in relief, to be used for printing on an ordinary printing press.

Che*mol"y*sis (?), n. [Chemical + Gr. &?; a loosing.] A term sometimes applied to the decomposition of organic substance into more simple bodies, by the use of chemical agents alone. Thudichum.

Chem`os*mo"sis (?), n. [Chemical + osmosis.] Chemical action taking place through an intervening membrane.

Chem`os*mot"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or produced by, chemosmosis. [R.]

Che*mung" pe"ri*od (?), (Geol.) A subdivision in the upper part of the Devonian system in America, so named from the Chemung River, along which the rocks are well developed. It includes the Portage and Chemung groups or epochs. See the Diagram under Geology.

||Cheng (?), n. [Chinese.] A chinese reed instrument, with tubes, blown by the mouth.

Che*nille" (sh&esl;*nēl"), n. [F., prop., a caterpillar.] Tufted cord, of silk or worsted, for the trimming of ladies' dresses, for embroidery and fringes, and for the weft of Chenille rugs.

||Che`no*mor"phæ (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. &?; the wild goose + &?; form.] (Zoöl.) An order of birds, including the swans, ducks, geese, flamingoes and screamers.

Chep"ster (ch&ebreve;p"st&etilde;r), n. (Zoöl.) The European starling. [Local, Eng.]

Cheque (ch&ebreve;k), n. See Check.

Cheq"uer (ch&ebreve;k"&etilde;r), n. & v. Same as Checker.

Che*quin" (ch&esl;*kēn"), n. A coin. See Sequin. Shak.

Cheq"uy (?), n. (Her.) Same as Checky.

Cher"if (sh&ebreve;r"&ibreve;f), n. See Sherif.

Cher`i*moy"er (?), n. [F. chérimolier.] (Bot.) 1. A small downy-leaved tree (Anona Cherimolia), with fragrant flowers. It is a native of Peru.

2. Its delicious fruit, which is succulent, dark purple, and similar to the custard apple of the West Indies.

Cher"ish (ch&ebreve;r"&ibreve;sh), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cherished (- &ibreve;sht); p. pr. & vb. n. Cherising.] [F. chérir, fr. cher dear, fr. L. carus. See Caress, Finish.] 1. To treat with tenderness and affection; to nurture with care; to protect and aid.

We were gentle among you, even as a nurse cherisheth her children. 1 Thess. ii. 7.

2. To hold dear; to embrace with interest; to indulge; to encourage; to foster; to promote; as, to cherish religious principle.

To cherish virtue and humanity. Burke.

Syn. -- To nourish; foster; nurse; nurture; entertain; encourage; comfort; protect; support; See Nurture.

Cher"ish*er (ch&ebreve;r"&ibreve;sh*&etilde;r), n. One who cherishes.

The cherisher of my flesh and blood. Shak.

Cher"ish*ment (?), n. Encouragement; comfort. [Obs.]

Rich bounty and dear cherishment. Spenser.

Cher"mes (?), n. See Kermes.

Cher"o*gril (?), n. [L. choerogryllus, Gr. &?;; &?; a young swine + &?; a pig.] (Zoöl.) See Cony.

Cher`o*kees" (?), n. pl.; sing. Cherokee. (Ethnol.) An Appalachian tribe of Indians, formerly inhabiting the region about the head waters of the Tennessee River. They are now mostly settled in the Indian Territory, and have become one of the most civilized of the Indian Tribes.

Che*root" (ch&esl;*r&oomac;t"; 277), n. [Tamil shuru&tsdot;&tsdot;u, prop., a roll.] A kind of cigar, originally brought from Manila, in the Philippine Islands; now often made of inferior or adulterated tobacco.

Cher"ry (ch&ebreve;r"r&ybreve;), n. [OE. chery, for cherys, fr. F. cerise (cf. AS. cyrs cherry), fr. LL. ceresia, fr. L. cerasus Cherry tree, Gr. keraso`s, perh. fr. ke`ras horn, from the hardness of the wood.] 1. (Bot.) A tree or shrub of the genus Prunus (Which also includes the plum) bearing a fleshy drupe with a bony stone; (a) The common garden cherry (Prunus Cerasus), of which several hundred varieties are cultivated for the fruit, some of which are, the begarreau, blackheart, black Tartarian, oxheart, morelle or morello, May-duke (corrupted from Médoc in France). (b) The wild cherry; as, Prunus serotina (wild black cherry), valued for its timber; P. Virginiana (choke cherry), an American shrub which bears astringent fruit; P. avium and P. Padus, European trees (bird cherry).

2. The fruit of the cherry tree, a drupe of various colors and flavors.

3. The timber of the cherry tree, esp. of the black cherry, used in cabinetmaking, etc.

4. A peculiar shade of red, like that of a cherry.

Barbadoes cherry. See under Barbadoes. -- Cherry bird (Zoöl.), an American bird; the cedar bird; -- so called from its fondness for cherries. -- Cherry bounce, cherry brandy and sugar. -- Cherry brandy, brandy in which cherries have been steeped. -- Cherry laurel (Bot.), an evergreen shrub (Prunus Lauro- cerasus) common in shrubberies, the poisonous leaves of which have a flavor like that of bitter almonds. -- Cherry pepper (Bot.), a species of Capsicum (C. cerasiforme), with small, scarlet, intensely piquant cherry-shaped fruit. -- Cherry pit. (a) A child's play, in which cherries are thrown into a hole. Shak. (b) A cherry stone. -- Cherry rum, rum in which cherries have been steeped. -- Cherry sucker (Zoöl.), the European spotted flycatcher (Musicapa grisola); -- called also cherry chopper cherry snipe. -- Cherry tree, a tree that bears cherries. -- Ground cherry, Winter cherry, See Alkekengi.

Cher"ry (ch&ebreve;r"r&ybreve;), a. Like a red cherry in color; ruddy; blooming; as, a cherry lip; cherry cheeks.

Cher"so*nese (k&etilde;r"s&osl;*nēs), n. [Gr. cherso`nhsos; che`rsos land + nh`sos island.] A peninsula; a tract of land nearly surrounded by water, but united to a larger tract by a neck of land or isthmus; as, the Cimbric Chersonese, or Jutland; the Tauric Chersonese, or Crimea.

Chert (ch&etilde;rt), n. [Ir. ceart stone, perh. akin to E. crag.] (Min.) An impure, massive, flintlike quartz or hornstone, of a dull color.

Chert"y (?), a. Like chert; containing chert; flinty.

Cher"ub (?), n.; pl. Cherubs (#); but the Hebrew plural Cherubim (#) is also used. [Heb. kerūb.] 1. A mysterious composite being, the winged footstool and chariot of the Almighty, described in Ezekiel i. and x.

I knew that they were the cherubim. Ezek. x. 20.

He rode upon a cherub and did fly. Ps. xviii. 10.

2. A symbolical winged figure of unknown form used in connection with the mercy seat of the Jewish Ark and Temple. Ez. xxv. 18.

3. One of a order of angels, variously represented in art. In European painting the cherubim have been shown as blue, to denote knowledge, as distinguished from the seraphim (see Seraph), and in later art the children's heads with wings are generally called cherubs.

4. A beautiful child; -- so called because artists have represented cherubs as beautiful children.

{ Che*ru"bic (?), Che*ru"bic*al (?), } a. Of or pertaining to cherubs; angelic. "The cherubic host." Milton.

Cher"u*bim (?), n. The Hebrew plural of Cherub.. Cf. Seraphim.

&fist; Cherubims, in the King James version of the bible, is an incorrect form, made by adding the English plural termination to the Hebrew plural cherubim instead of to the singular cherub.

Cher"u*bin (?), a. Cherubic; angelic. [Obs.] Shak.

Cher"u*bin, n. A cherub. [Obs.] Dryden.

Cher"up (?), v. i. [Prob. fr. chirp.] To make a short, shrill, cheerful sound; to chirp. See Chirrup. "Cheruping birds." Drayton.

Cher"up, v. t. To excite or urge on by making a short, shrill, cheerful sound; to cherup to. See Chirrup.

He cherups brisk ear-erecting steed. Cowper.

Cher"up, n. A short, sharp, cheerful noise; a chirp; a chirrup; as, the cherup of a cricket.

Cher"vil (?), n. [AS. cerfille, fr. L. caerefolium, chaerephyllum, Gr. &?;; &?; to rejoice + &?; leaf.] (Bot.) A plant (Anthriscus cerefolium) with pinnately divided aromatic leaves, of which several curled varieties are used in soups and salads.

Ches (?), pret. of Chese. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chese (?), v. t. To choose [Obs.] Chaucer.

Ches"i*ble (?), n. See Chasuble.

Ches"lip (?), n. (Zoöl.) The wood louse. [Prov. Eng.]

Chess (?), n. [OE. ches, F. échecs, prop. pl. of échec check. See 1st Check.] A game played on a chessboard, by two persons, with two differently colored sets of men, sixteen in each set. Each player has a king, a queen, two bishops, two knights, two castles or rooks, and eight pawns.

Chess, n. (Bot.) A species of brome grass (Bromus secalinus) which is a troublesome weed in wheat fields, and is often erroneously regarded as degenerate or changed wheat; it bears a very slight resemblance to oats, and if reaped and ground up with wheat, so as to be used for food, is said to produce narcotic effects; -- called also cheat and Willard's bromus. [U. S.]

&fist; Other species of brome grass are called upright chess, soft chess, etc.

Chess"-ap`ple (?), n. The wild service of Europe (Purus torminalis).

Chess"board` (?), n. The board used in the game of chess, having eight rows of alternate light and dark squares, eight in each row. See Checkerboard.

&fist; The chessboard and the checkerboard are alike.

Ches"sel (?), n. The wooden mold in which cheese is pressed. Simmonds.

Chess"es (?), n. pl. [Cf. F. chassis a framework of carpenty.] (Mil.) The platforms, consisting of two or more planks doweled together, for the flooring of a temporary military bridge. Wilhelm.

&fist;A singular, chess, is sometimes used. "Each chess consists of three planks." Farrow.

Ches"sil (?), n. [OE. chesil, AS. ceosel gravel, sand.] Gravel or pebbles. Halliwell.

Chess"man (?), n.; pl. Chessmen (#). A piece used in the game of chess.

Ches"som (#), n. [Cf. Chisley.] Mellow earth; mold. [Obs.] Bacon.

Chess"tree` (?), n. [Cf. F. chassis a framework of carpentry.] (Naut.) A piece of oak bolted perpendicularly on the side of a vessel, to aid in drawing down and securing the clew of the mainsail.

Ches`sy" cop"per (?). (Min.) The mineral azurite, found in fine crystallization at Chessy, near Lyons; called also chessylite.

Chest (ch&ebreve;st), n. [OE. chest, chist, AS. cest, cist, cyst, L. cista, fr. Gr. ki`sth. Cf. Cist, Cistern.] 1. A large box of wood, or other material, having, like a trunk, a lid, but no covering of skin, leather, or cloth.

Heaps of money crowded in the chest. Dryden.

2. A coffin. [Obs.]

He is now dead and mailed in his cheste. Chaucer.

3. The part of the body inclosed by the ribs and breastbone; the thorax.

4. (Com.) A case in which certain goods, as tea, opium, etc., are transported; hence, the quantity which such a case contains.

5. (Mech.) A tight receptacle or box, usually for holding gas, steam, liquids, etc.; as, the steam chest of an engine; the wind chest of an organ.

Bomb chest, See under Bomb. -- Chest of drawers, a case or movable frame containing drawers.

Chest (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chested.] 1. To deposit in a chest; to hoard.

2. To place in a coffin. [Obs.]

He dieth and is chested. Gen. 1. 26 (heading).

Chest (?), n. [AS. ceást.] Strife; contention; controversy. [Obs.] P. Plowman.

Chest"ed, a. Having (such) a chest; -- in composition; as, broad-chested; narrow- chested.

Ches"ter*lite (?), n. [See - lite.] A variety of feldspar found in crystals in the county of Chester, Pennsylvania.

Ches"teyn (?), n. The chestnut tree. [Obs.]

Wilwe, elm, plane, assch, box, chesteyn. Chaucer.

Chest" foun`der (?). (Far.) A rheumatic affection of the muscles of the breast and fore legs of a horse, affecting motion and respiration.

Chest"nut (ch&ebreve;s"nŭt), n. [For chesten-nut; OE. chestein, chesten, chastein, chestnut, fr. AS. cisten in cisten-beám chestnut tree, influenced by OF. chastaigne, F. châtaigne, both the AS. and the F. words coming from L. castanea a chestnut, Gr. ka`stanon, fr. Ka`stana a city of Pontus, where chestnut trees grew in abundance, and whence they were introduced into Europe. Cf. Castanets.] 1. (Bot.) The edible nut of a forest tree (Castanea vesca) of Europe and America. Commonly two or more of the nuts grow in a prickly bur.

2. The tree itself, or its light, coarse- grained timber, used for ornamental work, furniture, etc.

3. A bright brown color, like that of the nut.

4. The horse chestnut (often so used in England).

5. One of the round, or oval, horny plates on the inner sides of the legs of the horse, and allied animals.

6. An old joke or story. [Slang]

Chestnut tree, a tree that bears chestnuts.

Chest"nut, a. Of the color of a chestnut; of a reddish brown color; as, chestnut curls.

Che"tah (chē"t&adot;), n. (Zoöl.) See Cheetah.

Chet"vert (ch&ebreve;t"v&etilde;rt), n. [Russ. chetverte.] A measure of grain equal to 0.7218 of an imperial quarter, or 5.95 Winchester bushels. [Russia]

Chev"a*chie` (?), n. See Chivachie. [Obs.]

Che"vage (chē"v&asl;j), n. See Chiefage. [Obs.]

||Che*val" (she*v&adot;l"), n.; pl. Chevaux (- vō"). [F. See Cavalcade.] A horse; hence, a support or frame.

Cheval glass, a mirror swinging in a frame, and large enough to reflect the full length figure.

||Che*val"-de-frise" (?), n.; commonly used in the pl. Chevaux-de- frise. [F.; cheval horse + Frise Friesland, where it was first used.] (Mil.) A piece of timber or an iron barrel traversed with iron-pointed spikes or spears, five or six feet long, used to defend a passage, stop a breach, or impede the advance of cavalry, etc.

Obstructions of chain, boom, and cheval-de- frise. W. Irving.

Che`va*lier" (?), n. [F., fr. LL. caballarius. See Cavaller.] 1. A horseman; a knight; a gallant young man. "Mount, chevaliers; to arms." Shak.

2. A member of certain orders of knighthood.

||Chevalier d'industrie (&?;) [F.], one who lives by persevering fraud; a pickpocket; a sharper. -- The Chevalier St. George (Eng. Hist.), James Francis Edward Stuart (son of James II.), called "The Pretender." -- The Young Chevalier, Charles Edward Stuart, son of the Chevalier St. George.

||Che*vaux" (she*vō"), n. pl. See Cheval.

Cheve (chēv), v. i. [OF. chevir. See Chievance.] To come to an issue; to turn out; to succeed; as, to cheve well in a enterprise. [Prov. or Obs.] Holland.

||Cheve*lure" (?), n. [F., head of hair.] A hairlike envelope.

The nucleus and chevelure of nebulous star. Sir. W. Hershel.

Chev"en (?), n. [Cf. F. chevanne. Cf. Chavender.] (Zoöl.) A river fish; the chub. Sir T. Browne.

Chev"en*tein (?), n. A variant of Chieftain. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chev"er*il (?), n. [OF. chevrel, F. chevreau, kid, dim. of chevre goat, fr. L. capra. See Caper, v. i.] Soft leather made of kid skin. Fig.: Used as a symbol of flexibility. [Obs.]

Here's wit of cheveril, that stretches from an inch narrow to an ell broad. Shak.

Chev"er*il, a. Made of cheveril; pliant. [Obs.]

A cheveril conscience and a searching wit. Drayton.

Chev"er*li*ize (?), v. i. To make as pliable as kid leather. [Obs.] Br. Montagu.

||Che*vet" (?), n. [F., head of the bed, dim. fr. chef head. See Chief.] (Arch.) The extreme end of the chancel or choir; properly the round or polygonal part.

Chev"i*ot (?), n. 1. A valuable breed of mountain sheep in Scotland, which takes its name from the Cheviot hills.

2. A woolen fabric, for men's clothing.

Chev"i*sance (?), n. [Of. chevisance, chevissance, fr. chevircome to an end, perform, fr. chef head, end, from L. caput head. See Chieve, Chief.]

1. Achievement; deed; performance. [Obs.]

Fortune, the foe of famous chevisance. Spenser.

2. A bargain; profit; gain. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

3. (O. Eng. Law) (a) A making of contracts. (b) A bargain or contract; an agreement about a matter in dispute, such as a debt; a business compact. (c) An unlawful agreement or contract.

Chev*rette" (?), n. [F., fr. chévre goat, fr. L. capra. Cf. Chevron.] (Mil.) A machine for raising guns or mortar into their carriages.

Chev"ron (?), n. [F., rafter, chevron, from chévre goat, OF. chevre, fr. L. capra she-goat. See Cheveril.] 1. (Her.) One of the nine honorable ordinaries, consisting of two broad bands of the width of the bar, issuing, respectively from the dexter and sinister bases of the field and conjoined at its center.

2. (Mil.) A distinguishing mark, above the elbow, on the sleeve of a non-commissioned officer's coat.

3. (Arch.) A zigzag molding, or group of moldings, common in Norman architecture.

Chevron bones (Anat.), The V- shaped subvertebral arches which inclose the caudal blood vessels in some animals.

Chev"roned (?), p. a. Having a chevron; decorated with an ornamental figure of a zigzag from.

[A garment] whose nether parts, with their bases, were of watchet cloth of silver, chevroned all over with lace. B. Jonson.

Chev"ron*el (?), n. (Her.) A bearing like a chevron, but of only half its width.

Chev"ron*wise` (?), adv. (Her.) In the manner of a chevron; as, the field may be divided chevronwise.

Chev`ro*tain" (?), n. [F. chevrotin, OF. chevrot little goat, roe, dim. of chevre goat. See Chevron.] (Zoöl.) A small ruminant of the family Tragulidæ a allied to the musk deer. It inhabits Africa and the East Indies. See Kanchil.

Chev"y (?), v. t. See Chivy, v. t. [Slang, Eng.]

One poor fellow was chevied about among the casks in the storm for ten minutes. London Times.

Chew (ch&udd;), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chewed (ch&udd;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Chewing.] [As ceówan, akin to D. kauwen, G. kauen. Cf. Chaw, Jaw.] 1. To bite and grind with the teeth; to masticate.

2. To ruminate mentally; to meditate on.

He chews revenge, abjuring his offense. Prior.

To chew the cud, to chew the food over again, as a cow; to ruminate; hence, to meditate.

Every beast the parteth the hoof, and cleaveth the cleft into two claws, and cheweth the cud among the beasts, that ye shall eat. Deut. xxiv. 6.

Chew, v. i. To perform the action of biting and grinding with the teeth; to ruminate; to meditate.

old politicians chew wisdom past. Pope.

Chew, n. That which is chewed; that which is held in the mouth at once; a cud. [Law]

Chew"er (?), n. One who chews.

Chew"et, n. A kind of meat pie. [Obs.]

Che"wink (?), n. (Zoöl.) An american bird (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) of the Finch family, so called from its note; -- called also towhee bunting and ground robin.

Chey*ennes" (?), n. pl.; sing. cheyenne. (Ethnol.) A warlike tribe of indians, related to the blackfeet, formerly inhabiting the region of Wyoming, but now mostly on reservations in the Indian Territory. They are noted for their horsemanship.

Chi"an (?) a. [L. chius, fr. Chios the island Chios, Gr. &?;.] Of or pertaining to Chios, an island in the Ægean Sea.

Chian earth, a dense, compact kind of earth, from Chios, used anciently as an astringent and a cosmetic. -- Chian turpentine, a fragrant, almost transparent turpentine, obtained from the Pistacia Terebinthus.

Chi*a`ros*cu"rist (?), n. A painter who cares for and studies light and shade rather than color.

{ ||Chia`ro*scu"ro (?), ||Chi*a"ro-os*cu"ro (?), } n. [It., clear dark.] (a) The arrangement of light and dark parts in a work of art, such as a drawing or painting, whether in monochrome or in color. (b) The art or practice of so arranging the light and dark parts as to produce a harmonious effect. Cf. Clair-obscur.

{ Chi"asm (kī"ăz'm), ||Chi*as"ma (k&isl;*ăz"m&adot;), } n. [NL. chiasma, fr. Gr. chi`asma two lines placed crosswise, fr. &?; to mark with a χ.] (Anat.) A commissure; especially, the optic commissure, or crucial union of the optic nerves. -- Chi*as"mal (&?;), a..

||Chi*as"mus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. chiasmo`s a placing crosswise, fr. chia`zein. See Chiasm.] (Rhet.) An inversion of the order of words or phrases, when repeated or subsequently referred to in a sentence; thus,

If e'er to bless thy sons My voice or hands deny, These hands let useful skill forsake, This voice in silence die. Dwight.

Chi*as"to*lite (k&isl;*ăs"t&osl;*līt), n. [Gr. chiasto`s marked with a χ + -lite. See Chiasm. So called from the resemblance of the cross cuts of its crystals to the Greek letter χ.] (Min.) A variety of andalusite; -- called also macle. The tessellated appearance of a cross section is due to the symmetrical arrangement of impurities in the crystal.

Chib"bal (?), n. (Bot.) See Cibol.

{ ||Chi*bouque", Chi*bouk" } (?), n. [F. chibouque, fr. Turk.] A Turkish pipe, usually with a mouthpiece of amber, a stem, four or five feet long and not pliant, of some valuable wood, and a bowl of baked clay.

||Chic (?), n. [F.] Good form; style. [Slang]

||Chi"ca (?), n. [Sp.] A red coloring matter. extracted from the Bignonia Chica, used by some tribes of South American Indians to stain the skin.

2. A fermented liquor or beer made in South American from a decoction of maize.

3. A popular Moorish, Spanish, and South American dance, said to be the original of the fandango, etc.

Chi*cane" (?), n. [F., prob. earlier meaning a dispute, orig. in the game of mall (F. mail), fr. LGr. &?; the game of mall, fr Pers chaugān club or bat; or possibly ultimated fr. L. ciccus a trible.] The use of artful subterfuge, designed to draw away attention from the merits of a case or question; -- specifically applied to legal proceedings; trickery; chicanery; caviling; sophistry. Prior.

To shuffle from them by chicane. Burke.

To cut short this chicane, I propound it fairly to your own conscience. Berkeley.

Chi*cane", v. i. [Cf. F. chicaner. See Chicane, n.] To use shifts, cavils, or artifices. Burke.

Chi*can"er (?), n. [Cf. F. chicaneur.] One who uses chicanery. Locke.

Chi*can"er*y (?), n. [F. chicanerie.] Mean or unfair artifice to perplex a cause and obscure the truth; stratagem; sharp practice; sophistry.

Irritated by perpetual chicanery. Hallam.

Syn. -- Trickery; sophistry; stratagem.

Chic"co*ry (?), n. See Chicory.

Chich (?), n.; pl. Chiches (&?;). [F. chiche, pois chiche, a dwarf pea, from L. cicer the chick-pea.] (Bot.) The chick-pea.

||Chi"cha (?), n. [Sp.] See Chica.

||Chiche"vache` (?), n. [F. chiche lean + vache cow.] A fabulous cow of enormous size, whose food was patient wives, and which was therefore in very lean condition.

{ Chich"ling (?), Chich"ling vetch` (?), } n. [Chich + -ling.] (Bot.) A leguminous plant (Lathyrus sativus), with broad flattened seeds which are sometimes used for food.

Chick (ch&ibreve;k), v. i. [OE. chykkyn, chyke, chicken.] To sprout, as seed in the ground; to vegetate. Chalmers.

Chick, n. 1. A chicken.

2. A child or young person; -- a term of endearment. Shak.

Chick"a*bid`dy (?), n. A chicken; a fowl; also, a trivial term of endearment for a child.

Chick"a*dee` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small bird, the blackcap titmouse (Parus atricapillus), of North America; -- named from its note.

Chick"a*ree` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The American red squirrel (Sciurus Hudsonius); -- so called from its cry.

Chick"a*saws (?), n. pl.; sing. Chickasaw. (Ethnol.) A tribe of North American Indians (Southern Appalachian) allied to the Choctaws. They formerly occupied the northern part of Alabama and Mississippi, but now live in the Indian Territory.

Chick"en (?), n. [AS. cicen, cyceun, dim. of coc cock; akin to LG. kiken, küken, D. Kieken, kuiken, G. küchkein. See Cock the animal.] 1. A young bird or fowl, esp. a young barnyard fowl.

2. A young person; a child; esp. a young woman; a maiden. "Stella is no chicken." Swift.

Chicken cholera, a contagious disease of fowls; -- so called because first studied during the prevalence of a cholera epidemic in France. It has no resemblance to true cholera.

Chick"en-breast`ed (?), a. Having a narrow, projecting chest, caused by forward curvature of the vertebral column.

Chick"en-heart`ed (?), a. Timid; fearful; cowardly. Bunyan.

Chick"en pox" (?). (Med.) A mild, eruptive disease, generally attacking children only; varicella.

Chick"ling (ch&ibreve;k"l&ibreve;ng), n. [Chick + -ling.] A small chick or chicken.

Chick"-pea` (-pē`), n. [See Chich.] 1. (Bot.) A Small leguminous plant (Cicer arietinum) of Asia, Africa, and the south of Europe; the chich; the dwarf pea; the gram.

2. Its nutritious seed, used in cookery, and especially, when roasted (parched pulse), as food for travelers in the Eastern deserts.

Chick"weed` (-wēd`), n. (Bot.) The name of several caryophyllaceous weeds, especially Stellaria media, the seeds and flower buds of which are a favorite food of small birds.

Chick"y (ch&ibreve;k"&ybreve;), n. A chicken; -- used as a diminutive or pet name, especially in calling fowls.

Chic"o*ry (?), n. [F. chicorée, earlier also cichorée, L. cichorium, fr. Gr. &?;, &?;, Cf. Succory.] 1. (Bot.) A branching perennial plant (Cichorium Intybus) with bright blue flowers, growing wild in Europe, Asia, and America; also cultivated for its roots and as a salad plant; succory; wild endive. See Endive.

2. The root, which is roasted for mixing with coffee.

Chide (chīd), v. t. [imp. Chid (ch&ibreve;d), or Chode (chīd Obs.); p. p. Chidden (?), Chid; p. pr. & vb. n. Chiding.] [AS. cīdan; of unknown origin.] 1. To rebuke; to reprove; to scold; to find fault with.

Upbraided, chid, and rated at. Shak.

2. Fig.: To be noisy about; to chafe against.

The sea that chides the banks of England. Shak.

To chide hither, chide from, or chide away, to cause to come, or to drive away, by scolding or reproof.

Syn. -- To blame; rebuke; reprove; scold; censure; reproach; reprehend; reprimand.

Chide, v. i. 1. To utter words of disapprobation and displeasure; to find fault; to contend angrily.

Wherefore the people did chide with Moses. Ex. xvii. 2.

2. To make a clamorous noise; to chafe.

As doth a rock againts the chiding flood. Shak.

Chide, n. [AS. cīd] A continuous noise or murmur.

The chide of streams. Thomson.

Chid"er (?), n. One who chides or quarrels. Shak.

Chid"er*ess, n. She who chides. [Obs.]

Chide"ster (?), n. [Chide + -ster.] A female scold. [Obs.]

Chid"ing*ly (?), adv. In a chiding or reproving manner.

Chief (chēn), n. [OE. chief, chef, OF. chief, F. chef, fr. L. caput head, possibly akin to E. head. Cf. Captain, Chapter] 1. The head or leader of any body of men; a commander, as of an army; a head man, as of a tribe, clan, or family; a person in authority who directs the work of others; the principal actor or agent.

2. The principal part; the most valuable portion.

The chief of the things which should be utterly destroyed. 1 Sam. xv. 21

3. (Her.) The upper third part of the field. It is supposed to be composed of the dexter, sinister, and middle chiefs.

In chief. (a) At the head; as, a commander in chief. (b) (Eng. Law) From the king, or sovereign; as, tenure in chief, tenure directly from the king.

Syn. -- Chieftain; captain; general; commander; leader; head; principal; sachem; sagamore; sheik. -- Chief, chieftain, Commander, Leader. These words fluctuate somewhat in their meaning according to circumstances, but agree in the general idea of rule and authority. The term chief is now more usually applied to one who is a head man, leader, or commander in civil or military affairs, or holds a hereditary or acquired rank in a tribe or clan; as, the chief of police; the chief of an Indian tribe. A chieftain is the chief of a clan or tribe , or a military leader. A commander directs the movements of or has control over a body of men, as a military or naval force. A leader is one whom men follow, as in a political party, a legislative body, a military or scientific expedition, etc., one who takes the command and gives direction in particular enterprises.

Chief, a. 1. Highest in office or rank; principal; head. "Chief rulers." John. xii. 42.

2. Principal or most eminent in any quality or action; most distinguished; having most influence; taking the lead; most important; as, the chief topic of conversation; the chief interest of man.

3. Very intimate, near, or close. [Obs.]

A whisperer separateth chief friends. Prov. xvi. 28.

Syn. -- Principal; head; leading; main; paramount; supreme; prime; vital; especial; great; grand; eminent; master.

Chief"age (-&asl;j), n. [OF. chevage, fr. chief head. See Chief.] A tribute by the head; a capitation tax. [Written also chevage and chivage.] [Obs.]

Chief" bar"on (?). (Eng. Law) The presiding judge of the court of exchequer.

Chief"est, a. [Superl. of Chief.] First or foremost; chief; principal. [Archaic] "Our chiefest courtier." Shak.

The chiefest among ten thousand. Canticles v. 10.

Chief" hare` (?). (Zoöl.) A small rodent (Lagamys princeps) inhabiting the summits of the Rocky Mountains; -- also called crying hare, calling hare, cony, American pika, and little chief hare.

&fist; It is not a true hare or rabbit, but belongs to the curious family Lagomyidæ.

Chief" jus"tice (?). The presiding justice, or principal judge, of a court.

Lord Chief Justice of England, The presiding judge of the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice. The highest judicial officer of the realm is the Lord High Chancellor. -- Chief Justice of the United States, the presiding judge of the Supreme Court, and Highest judicial officer of the republic.

Chief"-jus"tice*ship, n. The office of chief justice.

Jay selected the chief-justiceship as most in accordance with his tastes. The Century.

Chief"less (?), a. Without a chief or leader.

Chief"ly (?), adv. 1. In the first place; principally; preëminently; above; especially.

Search through this garden; leave unsearched no nook; But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge. Milton.

2. For the most part; mostly.

Those parts of the kingdom where the . . . estates of the dissenters chiefly lay. Swift.

Chief"rie (?), n. A small rent paid to the lord paramount. [Obs.] Swift.

Chief"tain (?), n. [OE. cheftayn, chevetayn, OF. chevetain, F. capitaine, LL. capitanus, fr. L. caput head. Cf. Captain, and see chief.] A captain, leader, or commander; a chief; the head of a troop, army, or clan.

Syn. -- Chief; commander; leader; head. See Chief.

{ Chief"tain*cy (?), Chief"tain*ship, } n. The rank, dignity, or office of a chieftain.

Chier"te (?), n. [OF. cherté. See Charity.] Love; tender regard. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chiev"ance (?), n. [OF. chevance property, equiv. To chevisance, fr. chevir to accomplish. See Chevisance.] An unlawful bargain; traffic in which money is exported as discount. [Obs.] Bacon.

Chieve (?), v. i. See Cheve, v. i. [Obs.]

Chiff"-chaff (&?;), n. [So called from its note.] (Zoöl.) A species of European warbler (Sylvia hippolais); -- called also chip- chap, and pettychaps.

{ Chif`fo*nier" (?), fem. Chif`fo*nière" (?), } n. [F. chiffonnier, fem. chiffonnière, fr. chiffon rag, fr. chiffe a rag, flimsy cloth.] 1. One who gathers rags and odds and ends; a ragpicker.

2. A receptacle for rags or shreds.

3. A movable and ornamental closet or piece of furniture with shelves or drawers. G. Eliot.

||Chi"gnon (&?;), n. [F., prop. equiv. to chaînon link, fr. chaîne chain, fr. L. catena Cf. Chain.] A knot, boss, or mass of hair, natural or artificial, worn by a woman at the back of the head.

A curl that had strayed from her chignon. H. James.

{ Chig"oe (?), Chig"re (?), } n. [Cf. F. chigue, perh. fr. Catalan chic small, Sp. chico; or of Peruvian origin.] (Zoöl.) A species of flea (Pulex penetrans), common in the West Indies and South America, which often attacks the feet or any exposed part of the human body, and burrowing beneath the skin produces great irritation. When the female is allowed to remain and breed, troublesome sores result, which are sometimes dangerous. See Jigger. [Written also chegre, chegoe, chique, chigger, jigger.]

&fist; The name is sometimes erroneously given to certain mites or ticks having similar habits.

||Chi*ka"ra (&?;), n. [Hind.] (Zoöl.) (a) The goat antelope (Tragops Bennettii) of India. (b) The Indian four-horned antelope (Tetraceros quadricornis).

Chil"blain` (?), n. [Chill + Blain.] A blain, sore, or inflammatory swelling, produced by exposure of the feet or hands to cold, and attended by itching, pain, and sometimes ulceration.

Chil"blain`, v. t. To produce chilblains upon.

Child (chīld), n.; pl. Children (ch&ibreve;l"dr&ebreve;n). [AS. cild, pl. cildru; cf. Goth. kilþei womb, in-kilþō with child.] 1. A son or a daughter; a male or female descendant, in the first degree; the immediate progeny of human parents; -- in law, legitimate offspring. Used also of animals and plants.

2. A descendant, however remote; -- used esp. in the plural; as, the children of Israel; the children of Edom.

3. One who, by character of practice, shows signs of relationship to, or of the influence of, another; one closely connected with a place, occupation, character, etc.; as, a child of God; a child of the devil; a child of disobedience; a child of toil; a child of the people.

4. A noble youth. See Childe. [Obs.] Chaucer.

5. A young person of either sex. esp. one between infancy and youth; hence, one who exhibits the characteristics of a very young person, as innocence, obedience, trustfulness, limited understanding, etc.

When I was child. I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. 1. Cor. xii. 11.

6. A female infant. [Obs.]

A boy or a child, I wonder? Shak.

To be with child, to be pregnant. - - Child's play, light work; a trifling contest.

Child, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Childed; p. pr. & vb. n. Childing.] To give birth; to produce young.

This queen Genissa childing died. Warner.

It chanced within two days they childed both. Latimer.

Child"bear`ing (?), n. The act of producing or bringing forth children; parturition. Milton. Addison.

Child"bed (?), n. The state of a woman bringing forth a child, or being in labor; parturition.

Child"birth (?), n. The act of bringing forth a child; travail; labor. Jer. Taylor.

Child"crow`ing (?), n. (Med.) The crowing noise made by children affected with spasm of the laryngeal muscles; false croup.

Childe (?), n. A cognomen formerly prefixed to his name by the oldest son, until he succeeded to his ancestral titles, or was knighted; as, Childe Roland.

Child"ed (?), a. Furnished with a child. [Obs.]

Chil"dermas day` (?). [AS. cildamæsse- dæg; cild child +dæg day.] (Eccl.) A day (December 28) observed by mass or festival in commemoration of the children slain by Herod at Bethlehem; -- called also Holy Innocent's Day.

Child"hood (chīld"h&oocr;d), n. [AS. cildhād; cild child + -hād. See Child, and -hood.] 1. The state of being a child; the time in which persons are children; the condition or time from infancy to puberty.

I have walked before you from my childhood. 1. Sam. xii. 2.

2. Children, taken collectively. [R.]

The well-governed childhood of this realm. Sir. W. Scott.

3. The commencement; the first period.

The childhood of our joy. Shak.

Second childhood, the state of being feeble and incapable from old age.

Child"ing (?), a. [See Child, v. i.] Bearing Children; (Fig.) productive; fruitful. [R.] Shak.

Child"ish, a. 1. Of, pertaining to, befitting, or resembling, a child. "Childish innocence." Macaulay.

2. Puerile; trifling; weak.

Methinks that simplicity in her countenance is rather childish than innocent. Addison.

&fist; Childish, as applied to persons who are grown up, is in a disparaging sense; as, a childish temper.

Child"ish*ly, adv. In the manner of a child; in a trifling way; in a weak or foolish manner.

Child"ish*ness, n. The state or quality of being childish; simplicity; harmlessness; weakness of intellect.

Child"less*ness, n. The state of being childless.

Child"like (?), a. Resembling a child, or that which belongs to children; becoming a child; meek; submissive; dutiful. "Childlike obedience." Hooker.

&fist; Childlike, as applied to persons grown up, is commonly in a good sense; as, childlike grace or simplicity; childlike modesty.

Child"ly, a. Having the character of a child; belonging, or appropriate, to a child. Gower.

Child"ly, adv. Like a child. Mrs. Browning.

Child"ness, n. The manner characteristic of a child. [Obs.] "Varying childness." Shak.

Chil"dren (?), n.; pl. of Child.

Child"ship, n. The state or relation of being a child.

Chil"i (?), n. [Sp. chili, chile.] A kind of red pepper. See Capsicum [Written also chilli and chile.]

Chil"i*ad (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, fr. &?; a thousand.] A thousand; the aggregate of a thousand things; especially, a period of a thousand years.

The world, then in the seventh chiliad, will be assumed up unto God. Sir. T. More.

Chil"i*a*gon (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; a thousand + &?; angle.] A plane figure of a thousand angles and sides. Barlow.

Chil"i*a*hedron (?), n. [Gr. &?; a thousand + &?; base, fr. &?; to sit.] A figure bounded by a thousand plane surfaces [Spelt also chiliaëdron.]

Chil"i*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Chili. -- n. A native or citizen of Chili.

{ Chil"i*an (?), Chil"i*arch` (?), } n. [Gr. &?;, &?;; &?; a thousand + &?; leader, &?; to lead.] The commander or chief of a thousand men.

Chil"i*arch`y (?), n. [Gr. &?;.] A body consisting of a thousand men. Mitford.

Chil"i*asm (?), n. [Gr. &?;, fr. &?;. See Chiliad.] 1. The millennium.

2. The doctrine of the personal reign of Christ on earth during the millennium.

Chil"i*ast (?), n. [Gr. &?;. See Chiliasm.] One who believes in the second coming of Christ to reign on earth a thousand years; a millenarian.

Chili*astic (?), a. Millenarian. "The obstruction offered by the chiliastic errors." J. A. Alexander.

Chill (ch&ibreve;l), n. [AS. cele, cyle, from the same root as celan, calan, to be cold; akin to D. kil cold, coldness, Sw. kyla to chill, and E. cool. See Cold, and cf. Cool.]

1. A moderate but disagreeable degree of cold; a disagreeable sensation of coolness, accompanied with shivering. "[A] wintry chill." W. Irving.

2. (Med.) A sensation of cold with convulsive shaking of the body, pinched face, pale skin, and blue lips, caused by undue cooling of the body or by nervous excitement, or forming the precursor of some constitutional disturbance, as of a fever.

3. A check to enthusiasm or warmth of feeling; discouragement; as, a chill comes over an assembly.

4. An iron mold or portion of a mold, serving to cool rapidly, and so to harden, the surface of molten iron brought in contact with it. Raymond.

5. The hardened part of a casting, as the tread of a car wheel. Knight.

Chill and fever, fever and ague.

Chill, a. 1. Moderately cold; tending to cause shivering; chilly; raw.

Noisome winds, and blasting vapors chill. Milton.

2. Affected by cold. "My veins are chill." Shak.

3. Characterized by coolness of manner, feeling, etc.; lacking enthusiasm or warmth; formal; distant; as, a chill reception.

4. Discouraging; depressing; dispiriting.

Chill, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chilled (ch&ibreve;ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Chilling.] 1. To strike with a chill; to make chilly; to cause to shiver; to affect with cold.

When winter chilled the day. Goldsmith.

2. To check enthusiasm or warmth of feeling of; to depress; to discourage.

Every thought on God chills the gayety of his spirits. Rogers.

3. (Metal.) To produce, by sudden cooling, a change of crystallization at or near the surface of, so as to increase the hardness; said of cast iron.

Chill, v. i. (Metal.) To become surface-hardened by sudden cooling while solidifying; as, some kinds of cast iron chill to a greater depth than others.

Chilled (?), a. 1. Hardened on the surface or edge by chilling; as, chilled iron; a chilled wheel.

2. (Paint.) Having that cloudiness or dimness of surface that is called "blooming."

Chil"li (?), n. See Chili.

Chill"i*ness (?), n. 1. A state or sensation of being chilly; a disagreeable sensation of coldness.

2. A moderate degree of coldness; disagreeable coldness or rawness; as, the chilliness of the air.

3. Formality; lack of warmth.

Chill"ing (?), a. Making chilly or cold; depressing; discouraging; cold; distant; as, a chilling breeze; a chilling manner.

-- Chill"ing"ly, adv.

Chill"ness, n. Coolness; coldness; a chill.

Death is the chillness that precedes the dawn. Longfellow.

Chill"y (?), a. Moderately cold; cold and raw or damp so as to cause shivering; causing or feeling a disagreeable sensation of cold, or a shivering.

Chi"log*nath (?), n. (Zoöl.) A myriapod of the order Chilognatha.

||Chi*log"na*tha (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; lip + gna`qos Jaw.] (Zoöl.) One of the two principal orders of myriapods. They have numerous segments, each bearing two pairs of small, slender legs, which are attached ventrally, near together.

Chi*lo"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; lip, fr. &?; lip. See -oma.] (Zoöl.) The tumid upper lip of certain mammals, as of a camel.

Chi"lo*pod (?), n. (Zoöl.) A myriapod of the order Chilopoda.

||Chi*lop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; lip + -poda.] (Zoöl.) One of the orders of myriapods, including the centipeds. They have a single pair of elongated legs attached laterally to each segment; well developed jaws; and a pair of thoracic legs converted into poison fangs. They are insectivorous, very active, and some species grow to the length of a foot.

{ ||Chi*los"to*ma (?), Chi*lo*stom"a*ta (?), } n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; + &?;, &?;, outh.] (Zoöl.) An extensive suborder of marine Bryozoa, mostly with calcareous shells. They have a movable lip and a lid to close the aperture of the cells. [Also written Chillostomata.]

Chi`lo*stoma*tous (?), a. (Zoöl.) Of or pertaining to the Chilostoma.

Chiltern Hundreds (?). [AS. Chiltern the Chiltern, high hills in Buckinghamshire, perh. Fr. ceald cold + ern, ærn, place.] A tract of crown land in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, England, to which is attached the nominal office of steward. As members of Parliament cannot resign, when they wish to go out they accept this stewardship, which legally vacates their seats.

||Chi*mæ"ra (?), n. [NL. See Chimera.] (Zoöl.) A cartilaginous fish of several species, belonging to the order Holocephali. The teeth are few and large. The head is furnished with appendages, and the tail terminates in a point.

Chi*mæ"roid (?), a. [Chimæra + old.] (Zoöl.) Related to, or like, the chimæra.

Chi*man"go [Native name] (Zoöl.) A south American carrion buzzard (Milvago chimango). See Caracara.

Chimb (chīm), n. [AS. cim, in cimstān base of a pillar; akin to D. kim, f. Sw. kim., G. kimme f.] The edge of a cask, etc; a chine. See Chine, n., 3. [Written also chime.]

Chimb, v. i. Chime. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chime (chīm), n. [See Chimb.] See Chine, n., 3.

Chime (chīm), n. [OE. chimbe, prop., cymbal, OF. cymbe, cymble, in a dialectic form, chymble, F. cymbale, L. cymbalum, fr. Gr. ky`mbalon. See Cymbal.] 1. The harmonious sound of bells, or of musical instruments.

Instruments that made melodius chime. Milton.

2. A set of bells musically tuned to each other; specif., in the pl., the music performed on such a set of bells by hand, or produced by mechanism to accompany the striking of the hours or their divisions.

We have heard the chimes at midnight. Shak.

3. Pleasing correspondence of proportion, relation, or sound. "Chimes of verse." Cowley.

Chime, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chimed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chiming.] [See Chime, n.] 1. To sound in harmonious accord, as bells.

2. To be in harmony; to agree; to suit; to harmonize; to correspond; to fall in with.

Everything chimed in with such a humor. W. irving.

3. To join in a conversation; to express assent; -- followed by in or in with. [Colloq.]

4. To make a rude correspondence of sounds; to jingle, as in rhyming. Cowley

Chime (?), v. i. 1. To cause to sound in harmony; to play a tune, as upon a set of bells; to move or strike in harmony.

And chime their sounding hammers. Dryden.

2. To utter harmoniously; to recite rhythmically.

Chime his childish verse. Byron.

Chim"er (?), n. One who chimes.

Chime"ra (?), n.; pl. Chimeras (#). [L. chimaera a chimera (in sense 1), Gr. &?; a she-goat, a chimera, fr. &?; he-goat; cf. Icel. qymbr a yearling ewe.] 1. (Myth.) A monster represented as vomiting flames, and as having the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon. "Dire chimeras and enchanted isles." Milton.

2. A vain, foolish, or incongruous fancy, or creature of the imagination; as, the chimera of an author. Burke.

Chi*mere" (?), n. [OF. chamarre., F. simarre (cf. It. zimarra), fr. Sp. chamarra, zamarra, a coat made of sheepskins, a sheepskin, perh. from Ar. sammūr the Scythian weasel or marten, the sable. Cf. Simarre.] The upper robe worn by a bishop, to which lawn sleeves are usually attached. Hook.

Chi*mer"ic (?), a. Chimerical.

Chi*mer"ic*al (?), a. Merely imaginary; fanciful; fantastic; wildly or vainly conceived; having, or capable of having, no existence except in thought; as, chimerical projects.

Syn. -- Imaginary; fanciful; fantastic; wild; unfounded; vain; deceitful; delusive.

Chi*mer"ic*al*ly, adv. Wildy; vainly; fancifully.

Chim"i*nage (?), n. [OF. cheminage, fr. chemin way, road.] (Old Law) A toll for passage through a forest. [Obs.] Cowell.

Chim"ney, n.; pl. Chimneys (#). [F. cheminée, LL. caminata, fr. L. caminus furnace, fireplace, Gr. &?; furnace, oven.] 1. A fireplace or hearth. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

2. That part of a building which contains the smoke flues; esp. an upright tube or flue of brick or stone, in most cases extending through or above the roof of the building. Often used instead of chimney shaft.

Hard by a cottage chimney smokes. Milton.

3. A tube usually of glass, placed around a flame, as of a lamp, to create a draft, and promote combustion.

4. (Min.) A body of ore, usually of elongated form, extending downward in a vein. Raymond.

Chimney board, a board or screen used to close a fireplace; a fireboard. -- Chimney cap, a device to improve the draught of a chimney, by presenting an exit aperture always to leeward. -- Chimney corner, the space between the sides of the fireplace and the fire; hence, the fireside. -- Chimney hook, a hook for holding pats and kettles over a fire, -- Chimney money, hearth money, a duty formerly paid in England for each chimney. -- Chimney pot (Arch.), a cylinder of earthenware or sheet metal placed at the top of a chimney which rises above the roof. -- Chimney swallow. (Zoöl.) (a) An American swift (Chæture pelasgica) which lives in chimneys. (b) In England, the common swallow (Hirundo rustica). -- Chimney sweep, Chimney sweeper, one who cleans chimneys of soot; esp. a boy who climbs the flue, and brushes off the soot.

Chim"ney-breast` (?), n. (Arch.) The horizontal projection of a chimney from the wall in which it is built; -- commonly applied to its projection in the inside of a building only.

Chim"ney-piece` (?), n. (Arch.) A decorative construction around the opening of a fireplace.

Chim*pan"zee (ch&ibreve;m*păn"z&esl;; 277), n. [From the native name: cf. F. chimpanzé, chimpansé, chimpanzée.] (Zoöl.) An african ape (Anthropithecus troglodytes or Troglodytes niger) which approaches more nearly to man, in most respects, than any other ape. When full grown, it is from three to four feet high.

Chin (ch&ibreve;n), n. [AS. cin, akin to OS. kin, G kinn, Icel. kinn, cheek, Dan. & Sw. kind, L. gena, Gr. &?;; cf. Skr. hanu. √232.] 1. The lower extremity of the face below the mouth; the point of the under jaw.

2. (Zoöl.) The exterior or under surface embraced between the branches of the lower jaw bone, in birds.

Chi"na (?), n. 1. A country in Eastern Asia.

2. China ware, which is the modern popular term for porcelain. See Porcelain.

China aster (Bot.), a well-known garden flower and plant. See Aster. -- China bean. See under Bean, 1. -- China clay See Kaolin. -- China grass, Same as Ramie. -- China ink. See India ink. -- China pink (Bot.), an anual or biennial species of Dianthus (D. Chiensis) having variously colored single or double flowers; Indian pink. -- China root (Med.), the rootstock of a species of Smilax (S. China, from the East Indies; -- formerly much esteemed for the purposes that sarsaparilla is now used for. Also the galanga root (from Alpinia Gallanga and Alpinia officinarum). -- China rose. (Bot.) (a) A popular name for several free-blooming varieties of rose derived from the Rosa Indica, and perhaps other species. (b) A flowering hothouse plant (Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis) of the Mallow family, common in the gardens of China and the east Indies. -- China shop, a shop or store for the sale of China ware or of crockery. -- China ware, porcelain; -- so called in the 17th century because brought from the far East, and differing from the pottery made in Europe at that time; also, loosely, crockery in general. -- Pride of China, China tree. (Bot.) See Azedarach.

Chin*al"dine (?), n. [NL. chinium quinine + aldehyde.] (Chem.) See Quinaldine.

Chi"na*man (?), n.; pl. Chinamen (&?;). A native of China; a Chinese.

Chin"ca*pin (?), n. See Chinquapin.

Chinch (?), n. [Cf. Sp. chinche, fr. L. cimex.] 1. (Zoöl.) The bedbug (Cimex lectularius).

2. (Zoöl.) A bug (Blissus leucopterus), which, in the United States, is very destructive to grass, wheat, and other grains; -- also called chiniz, chinch bug, chink bug. It resembles the bedbug in its disgusting odor.

Chin"cha (?), n. [Cf. Chinchilla.] (Zoöl.) A south American rodent of the genus Lagotis.

Chinche (?), a. [F. chiche miserly.] Parsimonious; niggardly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chinch"er*ie (?), n. Penuriousness. [Obs.]

By cause of his skarsete and chincherie. Caucer.

Chin*chil"la (?), n. [Sp.] 1. (Zoöl.) A small rodent (Chinchilla lanigera), of the size of a large squirrel, remarkable for its fine fur, which is very soft and of a pearly gray color. It is a native of Peru and Chili.

2. The fur of the chinchilla.

3. A heavy, long-napped, tufted woolen cloth.

{ Chin*cho"na (?), Chin*co"na (?). }See Cinchona.

Chin" cough" (?). [For chink cough; cf. As. cincung long laughter, Scot. kink a violent fit of coughing, akin to MHG. kīchen to pant. Cf. Kinknaust, Cough.] Whooping cough.

Chine (?), n. [Cf. Chink.] A chink or cleft; a narrow and deep ravine; as, Shanklin Chine in the Isle of Wight, a quarter of a mile long and 230 feet deep. [Prov. Eng.] "The cottage in a chine." J. Ingelow.

Chine (?), n.[OF. eschine, F. échine, fr. OHG. skina needle, prickle, shin, G. schiene splint, schienbein shin. For the meaning cf. L. spina thorn, prickle, or spine, the backbone. Cf. Shin.] 1. The backbone or spine of an animal; the back. "And chine with rising bristles roughly spread." Dryden.

2. A piece of the backbone of an animal, with the adjoining parts, cut for cooking. [See Illust. of Beef.]

3. The edge or rim of a cask, etc., formed by the projecting ends of the staves; the chamfered end of a stave.

Chine, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chined (?).] 1. To cut through the backbone of; to cut into chine pieces.

2. Too chamfer the ends of a stave and form the chine..

Chined (?), a. 1. Pertaining to, or having, a chine, or backbone; -- used in composition. Beau. & Fl.

2. Broken in the back. [Obs.]

He's chined, goodman. Beau. & Fl.

Chi"nese" (?), a. Of or pertaining to China; peculiar to China.

Chinese paper. See India paper, under India. -- Chinese wax, a snowy-white, waxlike substance brought from China. It is the bleached secretion of certain insects of the family Coccidæ especially Coccus Sinensis.

Chi*nese", n. sing. & pl. 1. A native or natives of China, or one of that yellow race with oblique eyelids who live principally in China.

2. sing. The language of China, which is monosyllabic.

&fist; Chineses was used as a plural by the contemporaries of Shakespeare and Milton.

Chink (ch&ibreve;&nsm;k), n. [OE. chine, AS. cīne fissure, chink, fr. cīnan to gape; akin to Goth. Keinan to sprout, G. keimen. Cf. Chit.] A small cleft, rent, or fissure, of greater length than breadth; a gap or crack; as, the chinks of a wall.

Through one cloudless chink, in a black, stormy sky. Shines out the dewy morning star. Macaulay.

Chink, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chinked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chinking.] To crack; to open.

Chink, v. t. 1. To cause to open in cracks or fissures.

2. To fill up the chinks of; as, to chink a wall.

Chink, n. [Of imitative origin. Cf. Jingle.] 1. A short, sharp sound, as of metal struck with a slight degree of violence. "Chink of bell." Cowper.

2. Money; cash. [Cant] "To leave his chink to better hands." Somerville.

Chink, v. t. To cause to make a sharp metallic sound, as coins, small pieces of metal, etc., by bringing them into collision with each other. Pope.

Chink, v. i. To make a slight, sharp, metallic sound, as by the collision of little pieces of money, or other small sonorous bodies. Arbuthnot.

Chink"y (?), a. Full of chinks or fissures; gaping; opening in narrow clefts. Dryden.

Chinned (ch&ibreve;nd), a. Having a chin; -- used chiefly in compounds; as, short- chinned.

Chi*noid"ine (?), n. [NL. chinium quinine (cf. G. & F. china Peruvian bark) + --oil + -ine.] (Chem.) See Quinodine.

Chin"o*line (?), n. [NL. chinium quinine (see Chinoldine) + L. oleum oil + -ine.] (Chem.) See Quinoline.

Chi"none (?), n. [NL. chinium quinine (see Chinoidine.) + -one.] (Chem.) See Quinone.

Chi*nook" (?), n. 1. (Ethnol.) One of a tribe of North American Indians now living in the state of Washington, noted for the custom of flattening their skulls. Chinooks also called Flathead Indians.

2. A warm westerly wind from the country of the Chinooks, sometimes experienced on the slope of the Rocky Mountains, in Montana and the adjacent territory.

3. A jargon of words from various languages (the largest proportion of which is from that of the Chinooks) generally understood by all the Indian tribes of the northwestern territories of the United States.

Chin"qua*pin (?), n. (Bot.) A branching, nut-bearing tree or shrub (Castanea pumila) of North America, from six to twenty feet high, allied to the chestnut. Also, its small, sweet, edible nat. [Written also chincapin and chinkapin.]

Chinquapin oak, a small shrubby oak (Quercus prinoides) of the Atlantic States, with edible acorns. -- Western Chinquapin, an evergreen shrub or tree (Castanopes chrysophylla) of the Pacific coast. In California it is a shrub; in Oregon a tree 30 to 125 feet high.

Chinse (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Chinsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chinsing.] (Naut.) To thrust oakum into (seams or chinks) with a chisel , the point of a knife, or a chinsing iron; to calk slightly.

Chinsing iron, a light calking iron.

Chintz (?), n.; pl. Chintzes (#). [Hindi chīnt spotted cotton clooth, chīntā spot.] Cotton cloth, printed with flowers and other devices, in a number of different colors, and often glazed. Swift.

Chiop*pine" (?), n. Same as Chopine, n.

Chip (ch&ibreve;p), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chipped (ch&ibreve;pt); p. pr. & vb. n. Chipping.] [Cf. G. kippen to cut off the edge, to clip, pare. Cf. Chop to cut.] 1. To cut small pieces from; to diminish or reduce to shape, by cutting away a little at a time; to hew. Shak.

2. To break or crack, or crack off a portion of, as of an eggshell in hatching, or a piece of crockery.

3. To bet, as with chips in the game of poker.

To chip in, to contribute, as to a fund; to share in the risks or expenses of. [Slang. U. S.]

Chip, v. i. To break or fly off in small pieces.

Chip, n. 1. A piece of wood, stone, or other substance, separated by an ax, chisel, or cutting instrument.

2. A fragment or piece broken off; a small piece.

3. Wood or Cuban palm leaf split into slips, or straw plaited in a special manner, for making hats or bonnets.

4. Anything dried up, withered, or without flavor; -- used contemptuously.

5. One of the counters used in poker and other games.

6. (Naut.) The triangular piece of wood attached to the log line.

Buffalo chips. See under Buffalo. -- Chip ax, a small ax for chipping timber into shape. -- Chip bonnet, Chip hat, a bonnet or a hat made of Chip. See Chip, n., 3. -- A chip off the old block, a child who resembles either of his parents. [Colloq.] Milton. -- Potato chips, Saratoga chips, thin slices of raw potato fried crisp.

Chip"munk` (?), n. [Indian name.] (Zoöl.) A squirrel-like animal of the genus Tamias, sometimes called the striped squirrel, chipping squirrel, ground squirrel, hackee. The common species of the United States is the Tamias striatus. [Written also chipmonk, chipmuck, and chipmuk.]

Chip"per (?), v. i. [Cf. Cheep, Chirp.] To chirp or chirrup. [Prov. Eng.] Forby.

Chip"per, a. Lively; cheerful; talkative. [U. S.]

Chip"pe*ways (?), n. pl.; sing. Chippeway. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting the northern and western shores of Lake Superior; -- called also Objibways.

Chip"ping (?), n. 1. A chip; a piece separated by a cutting or graving instrument; a fragment.

2. The act or process of cutting or breaking off small pieces, as in dressing iron with a chisel, or reducing a timber or block of stone to shape.

3. The breaking off in small pieces of the edges of potter's ware, porcelain, etc.

Chip"ping bird` (?). (Zoöl.) The chippy.

Chip"ping squir"rel (?). See Chipmunk.

Chip"py (?), a. Abounding in, or resembling, chips; dry and tasteless.

Chip"py (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small American sparrow (Spizella socialis), very common near dwelling; -- also called chipping bird and chipping sparrow, from its simple note.

Chips (?), n. (Naut.) A ship's carpenter. [Cant.]

||Chi*ra"gra (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;; &?; hand + &?; seizure.] (Med.) Gout in the hand.

Chi*rag"ric*al (?), a. Having the gout in the hand, or subject to that disease. Sir. T. Browne.

||Chi*ret"ta (?), n. [Hind. chirāītā.] A plant (Agathotes Chirayta) found in Northern India, having medicinal properties to the gentian, and esteemed as a tonic and febrifuge.

Chirk (?), v. i. [Cf. Chirp, also Creak.] 1. To shriek; to gnash; to utter harsh or shrill cries. [Obs.]

All full of chirkyng was that sorry place. Cheucer.

2. To chirp like a bird. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chirk, v. t. To cheer; to enliven; as, to chirk one up. [Colloq. New Eng. ]

Chirk, a. [From Chirk, v. i.] Lively; cheerful; in good spirits. [Colloq. New Eng.]

Chirm (?), v. i. [Cf. AS. cyrman, cirman, to cry out. √24 Cf. Chirp.] To chirp or to make a mournful cry, as a bird. [Obs.] Huloet.

Chi*rog"no*my (?), n. [Gr. chei`r hand + &?; understanding.] The art of judging character by the shape and appearance of the hand.

Chi"ro*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; written with the hand; chei`r hand + gra`fein to write.] (Old. Law) (a) A writing which, requiring a counterpart, was engrossed twice on the same piece of parchment, with a space between, in which was written the word chirographum, through which the parchment was cut, and one part given to each party. It answered to what is now called a charter party. (b) The last part of a fine of land, commonly called the foot of the fine. Bouvier.

Chi*rog"ra*pher (?), n. 1. One who practice the art or business of writing or engrossing.

2. See chirographist, 2.

Chirographer of fines (Old Eng. Law), an officer in the court of common pleas, who engrossed fines.

{ Chi`ro*graph"ic (?), Chi`ro*graph"ic*al (?) } a. Of or pertaining to chirography.

Chi*rog"ra*phist (?), n. 1. A chirographer; a writer or engrosser.

2. One who tells fortunes by examining the hand.

Chi*rog"ra*phy (?), n. 1. The art of writing or engrossing; handwriting; as, skilled in chirography.

2. The art of telling fortunes by examining the hand.

Chi`ro*gym"nast (?), n. [Gr. chei`r hand + &?; trainer of athletes, gymnast.] A mechanical contrivance for exercising the fingers of a pianist.

Chi`ro*log"ic*al (?), a. Relating to chirology.

Chi*rol"o*gist (?), n. One who communicates thoughts by signs made with the hands and fingers.

Chi*rol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. chei`r hand + -logy.] The art or practice of using the manual alphabet or of communicating thoughts by sings made by the hands and fingers; a substitute for spoken or written language in intercourse with the deaf and dumb. See Dactylalogy.

Chi"ro*man`cer (?), n. One who practices chiromancy. Dryden.

Chi"ro*mancy (?), n. [Gr. chei`r hand + -mancy.] The art or practice of foretelling events, or of telling the fortunes or the disposition of persons by inspecting the hand; palmistry.

{ Chi"ro*man`ist (?), Chi"ro*man`tist (?) } n. [Gr. &?;.] A chiromancer.

{ Chi`ro*man"tic (?), Chi`ro*man"tic*al (?) } a. Of or pertaining to chiromancy.

Chi`ro*mon"ic (?), a. Relating to chironomy.

Chi*ron"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?;; chei`r hand + &?; to manage.] The art of moving the hands in oratory or in pantomime; gesture [Obs.]

Chi"ro*plast (?), n. [Gr. &?; formed by hand; chei`r hand + &?; to shape.] (Mus.) An instrument to guid the hands and fingers of pupils in playing on the piano, etc.

Chi*rop"o*dist (?), n. [Gr. chei`r hand + &?;; &?;, foot.] One who treats diseases of the hands and feet; especially, one who removes corns and bunions.

Chirop"ody (?), n. The art of treating diseases of the hands and feet.

Chiros"ophist (?), n. [Gr. chei`r hand + &?; skillful, wise. See Sophist.] A fortune teller.

Chirp (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chirped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chirping.] [Of imitative orgin. Cf. Chirk, Chipper, Cheep, Chirm, Chirrup.] To make a shop, sharp, cheerful, as of small birds or crickets.

Chirp, n. A short, sharp note, as of a bird or insect. "The chirp of flitting bird." Bryant.

Chirp"er (?), n. One who chirps, or is cheerful.

Chirp"ing (?), a. Cheering; enlivening.

He takes his chirping pint, he cracks his jokes. Pope.

Chirp"ing*ly, adv. In a chirping manner.

Chirre (?), v. i. [Cf. G. girren, AS. corian to murmur, complain. √24.] To coo, as a pigeon. [Obs.]

Chir"rup (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chirruped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chirruping.] [See Chirp.] To quicken or animate by chirping; to cherup.

Chir"rup, v. i. To chirp. Tennyson.

The criket chirrups on the hearth. Goldsmith.

Chir"rup, n. The act of chirping; a chirp.

The sparrows' chirrup on the roof. Tennyson.

Chir"rupy (?), a. Cheerful; joyous; chatty.

Chi*rur"geon (?), n. [F. chirurgien, from chirurgie surgery, fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; working or operating with the hand; chei`r hand + &?; work. Cf. Surgeon, Work.] A surgeon. [Obs.]

Chi*rur"geon*ly, adv. Surgically. [Obs.] Shak.

Chi*rur"ger*y (?), n. [See Chirurgeon, and cf. Surgery.] Surgery. [Obs.]

{ Chi*rur"gic (?), Chirur"gical (?), } a. [Cf. F. chirurgiquerurgical, L. Chirurgicus, Gr. &?;. See Chirurgeon, and cf. Surgical.] Surgical [Obs.] "Chirurgical lore" Longfellow.

Chis"el (?), n. [OF. chisel, F. ciseau, fr. LL. cisellus, prob. for caesellus, fr. L. caesus, p. p. of caedere to cut. Cf. Scissors.] A tool with a cutting edge on one end of a metal blade, used in dressing, shaping, or working in timber, stone, metal, etc.; -- usually driven by a mallet or hammer.

Cold chisel. See under Cold, a.

Chis"el, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chiseled (?), or Chiselled (&?;); p. pr. & vb. n. Chiseling, or Chiselling.] [Cf. F. ciseler.] 1. To cut, pare, gouge, or engrave with a chisel; as, to chisel a block of marble into a statue.

2. To cut close, as in a bargain; to cheat. [Slang]

Chis"leu (?), n. [Heb.] The ninth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, answering to a part of November with a part of December.

Chis"ley (ch&ibreve;z"l&ybreve;), a. [AS. ceosel gravel or sand. Cf. Chessom.] Having a large admixture of small pebbles or gravel; -- said of a soil. Gardner.

Chit (ch&ibreve;t), n. [Cf. AS. cīð shoot, sprig, from the same root as cīnan to yawn. See Chink a cleft.] 1. The embryo or the growing bud of a plant; a shoot; a sprout; as, the chits of Indian corn or of potatoes.

2. A child or babe; as, a forward chit; also, a young, small, or insignificant person or animal.

A little chit of a woman. Thackeray.

3. An excrescence on the body, as a wart. [Obs.]

4. A small tool used in cleaving laths. Knight.

Chit, v. i. To shoot out; to sprout.

I have known barley chit in seven hours after it had been thrown forth. Mortimer.

Chit, 3d sing. of Chide. Chideth. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chit"chat (?), n. [From Chat, by way of reduplication.] Familiar or trifling talk; prattle.

Chi"tin (?), n. [See Chiton.] (Chem.) A white amorphous horny substance forming the harder part of the outer integument of insects, crustacea, and various other invertebrates; entomolin.

Chi`ti*ni*za"tion (?), n. The process of becoming chitinous.

Chi"ti*nous (?), a. Having the nature of chitin; consisting of, or containing, chitin.

||Chi"ton (?), n. [Gr. &?; a chiton (in sense 1).] 1. An under garment among the ancient Greeks, nearly representing the modern shirt.

2. (Zoöl.) One of a group of gastropod mollusks, with a shell composed of eight movable dorsal plates. See Polyplacophora.

Chit"ter (?), v. i. [Cf. Chatter.] 1. To chirp in a tremulous manner, as a bird. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. To shiver or chatter with cold. [Scot.] Burns.

Chit"ter*ling (?), n. The frill to the breast of a shirt, which when ironed out resembled the small entrails. See Chitterlings. [Obs.] Gascoigne.

Chit"ter*lings (?), n. pl. [Cf. AS. cwiþ womb, Icel. kvið, Goth. qiþus, belly, womb, stomach, G. kutteln chitterlings.] (Cookery) The smaller intestines of swine, etc., fried for food.

||Chit"tra (?), n. [Native Indian name.] (Zoöl.) The axis deer of India.

Chit"ty (?), a. 1. Full of chits or sprouts.

2. Childish; like a babe. [Obs.]

Chiv"a*chie` (?), n. [OF. chevauchie, chevauchée; of the same origin as E. cavalcade.] A cavalry raid; hence, a military expedition. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Chiv"al*ric (?), a. [See Chivalry.] Relating to chivalry; knightly; chivalrous.

Chiv"al*rous (?), a. [OF. chevalerus, chevalereus, fr. chevalier. See Chivalry.] Pertaining to chivalry or knight-errantry; warlike; heroic; gallant; high-spirited; high-minded; magnanimous.

In brave pursuit of chivalrous emprise. Spenser.

Chiv"al*rous*ly, adv. In a chivalrous manner; gallantly; magnanimously.

Chiv"al*ry (?), n. [F. chevalerie, fr. chevalier knight, OF., horseman. See Chevalier, and cf. Cavalry.] 1. A body or order of cavaliers or knights serving on horseback; illustrious warriors, collectively; cavalry. "His Memphian chivalry." Milton.

By his light Did all the chivalry of England move, To do brave acts. Shak.

2. The dignity or system of knighthood; the spirit, usages, or manners of knighthood; the practice of knight-errantry. Dryden.

3. The qualifications or character of knights, as valor, dexterity in arms, courtesy, etc.

The glory of our Troy this day doth lie On his fair worth and single chivalry. Shak.

4. (Eng. Law) A tenure of lands by knight's service; that is, by the condition of a knight's performing service on horseback, or of performing some noble or military service to his lord.

5. Exploit. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

Court of chivalry, a court formerly held before the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as judges, having cognizance of contracts and other matters relating to deeds of arms and war. Blackstone.

Chive (?), n. (Bot.) A filament of a stamen. [Obs.]

Chive (?), n. [F. cive, fr. L. cepa, caepa, onion. Cf. Cives, Cibol.] (Bot.) A perennial plant (Allium Schœnoprasum), allied to the onion. The young leaves are used in omelets, etc. [Written also cive.]

Chiv"y (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chivied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chivying.] [Cf. Chevy.] To goad, drive, hunt, throw, or pitch. [Slang, Eng.] Dickens.

Chlam"y*date (?), a. [L. chlamydatus dressed in a military cloak. See Chlamys.] (Zoöl.) Having a mantle; -- applied to certain gastropods.

Chlam"y*phore (?), n. [Gr. &?; cloak + &?; to bear.] (Zoöl.) A small South American edentate (Chlamyphorus truncatus, and C. retusus) allied to the armadillo. It is covered with a leathery shell or coat of mail, like a cloak, attached along the spine.

||Chla"mys (?), n.; pl. E. Chlamyses (#), L. Chlamydes (#). [L., from Gr. &?;.] A loose and flowing outer garment, worn by the ancient Greeks; a kind of cloak.

||Chlo*as"ma (?), n. [Gr. &?; to be green.] (Med.) A cutaneous affection characterized by yellow or yellowish brown pigmented spots.

Chlo"ral (?), n. [Chlorine + alcohol.] 1. (Chem.) A colorless oily liquid, CCl3.CHO, of a pungent odor and harsh taste, obtained by the action of chlorine upon ordinary or ethyl alcohol.

2. (Med.) Chloral hydrate.

Chloral hydrate, a white crystalline substance, obtained by treating chloral with water. It produces sleep when taken internally or hypodermically; -- called also chloral.

Chlo"ral*am`ide (?), n. [Chloral + amide.] (Chem.) A compound of chloral and formic amide used to produce sleep.

Chlo"ral*ism (?), n. (Med.) A morbid condition of the system resulting from excessive use of chloral.

Chlor`al"um (?), n. [Chlorine + aluminium.] An impure aqueous solution of chloride of aluminium, used as an antiseptic and disinfectant.

Chlor`an"il (?), n. [Chlorine + aniline.] (Chem.) A yellow crystalline substance, C6Cl4.O2, regarded as a derivative of quinone, obtained by the action of chlorine on certain benzene derivatives, as aniline.

Chlo"rate (?), n. [Cf. F. chlorate. See Chlorine.] (Chem.) A salt of chloric acid; as, chlorate of potassium.

Chlor`au"rate (?), n. [Chlorine + aurate.] (Chem.) See Aurochloride.

Chlor`hy"dric (?), a. [Chlorine + hydrogen + -ic.] (Chem.) Same as Hydrochloric.

Chlor`hy"drin (?), n. (Chem.) One of a class of compounds formed from certain polybasic alcohols (and especially glycerin) by the substitution of chlorine for one or more hydroxyl groups.

Chlo"ric (?), a. [From Chlorine.] Pertaining to, or obtained from, chlorine; -- said of those compounds of chlorine in which this element has a valence of five, or the next to its highest; as, chloric acid, HClO3.

Chloric ether (Chem.), ethylene dichloride. See Dutch liquid, under Dutch.

Chlo"ri*date (?), v. t. To treat or prepare with a chloride, as a plate with chloride of silver, for the purposes of photography. R. Hunt.

Chlo"ride (?), n. (Chem.) A binary compound of chlorine with another element or radical; as, chloride of sodium (common salt).

Chloride of ammonium, sal ammoniac. -- Chloride of lime, bleaching powder; a grayish white substance, CaOCl2, used in bleaching and disinfecting; -- called more properly calcium hypochlorite. See Hypochlorous acid, under Hypochlorous. -- Mercuric chloride, corrosive sublimate.

Chlo*rid"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a chloride; containing a chloride.

Chlo"rid*ize (?), v. t. See Chloridate.

Chlo*rim"e*try (?), n. See Chlorometry.

Chlo"rin*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chlorinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chlorinating.] (Chem.) To treat, or cause to combine, with chlorine.

Chlo`ri*na"tion (?), n. The act or process of subjecting anything to the action of chlorine; especially, a process for the extraction of gold by exposure of the auriferous material to chlorine gas.

Chlo"rine (?), n. [Gr. &?; pale green, greenish yellow. So named from its color. See Yellow.] (Chem.) One of the elementary substances, commonly isolated as a greenish yellow gas, two and one half times as heavy as air, of an intensely disagreeable suffocating odor, and exceedingly poisonous. It is abundant in nature, the most important compound being common salt. It is powerful oxidizing, bleaching, and disinfecting agent. Symbol Cl. Atomic weight, 35.4.

Chlorine family, the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine, called the halogens, and classed together from their common peculiarities.

Chlor`i*od"ic (?), a. Compounded of chlorine and iodine; containing chlorine and iodine.

Chlor`i"o*dine (?), n. A compound of chlorine and iodine. [R.]

Chlo"rite (?), n. [Gr. &?; (sc. &?;), fr. chlwro`s light green.] (Min.) The name of a group of minerals, usually of a green color and micaceous to granular in structure. They are hydrous silicates of alumina, iron, and magnesia.

Chlorite slate, a schistose or slaty rock consisting of alumina, iron, and magnesia.

Chlo"rite, n. [Chlorous + -ite.] (Chem.) Any salt of chlorous acid; as, chlorite of sodium.

Chlo*rit"ic (?), a. [From 1st Chlorite.] Pertaining to, or containing, chlorite; as, chloritic sand.

Chlor`meth"ane (?), n. (Chem.) A colorless gas, CH3Cl, of a sweet odor, easily condensed to a liquid; -- called also methyl chloride.

Chlo"ro- (?). (Chem.) A prefix denoting that chlorine is an ingredient in the substance named.

Chlo`ro*cru"o*rin (?), n. [Gr. chlwro`s light green + E. cruorin.] (Physiol.) A green substance, supposed to be the cause of the green color of the blood in some species of worms. Ray Lankester.

Chlo"ro*dyne (?), n. [From chlorine, in imitation of anodyne.] (Med.) A patent anodyne medicine, containing opium, chloroform, Indian hemp, etc.

Chlo"ro*form (?), n. [Chlorine + formyl, it having been regarded as a trichloride of this radical: cf. F. chloroforme, G. chloroform.] (Chem.) A colorless volatile liquid, CHCl3, having an ethereal odor and a sweetish taste, formed by treating alcohol with chlorine and an alkali. It is a powerful solvent of wax, resin, etc., and is extensively used to produce anæsthesia in surgical operations; also externally, to alleviate pain.

Chlo"ro*form (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chloroformed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chloroforming.] To treat with chloroform, or to place under its influence.

Chlo`ro*leu"cite (?), n. [Gr. chlwro`s light green + E. leucite.] (Bot.) Same as Chloroplastid.

Chlo*rom"e*ter (?), n. [Cf. F. chloromètre. See Chlorine, and - meter.] An instrument to test the decoloring or bleaching power of chloride of lime.

Chlo*rom"e*try (?), n. The process of testing the bleaching power of any combination of chlorine.

Chlo*ro"pal (?), n. [Gr. chlwro`s light green + E. opal.] (Min.) A massive mineral, greenish in color, and opal-like in appearance. It is essentially a hydrous silicate of iron.

Chlo`ro*pep"tic (?), a. [Chlorine + peptic.] (Physiol. Chem.) Of or pertaining to an acid more generally called pepsin- hydrochloric acid.

Chlo"ro*phane (?), n. [Gr. chlwro`s light green + &?; to show: cf. F. chlorophane.] 1. (Min.) A variety of fluor spar, which, when heated, gives a beautiful emerald green light.

2. (Physiol.) The yellowish green pigment in the inner segment of the cones of the retina. See Chromophane.

Chlo"ro*phyll (?), n. [Gr. chlwro`s light green + fy`llon leaf: cf. F. chlorophylle.] (Bot.) Literally, leaf green; a green granular matter formed in the cells of the leaves (and other parts exposed to light) of plants, to which they owe their green color, and through which all ordinary assimilation of plant food takes place. Similar chlorophyll granules have been found in the tissues of the lower animals. [Written also chlorophyl.]

Chlo`ro*plas"tid (?), n. [Gr. chlwro`s light green + E. plastid.] (Bot.) A granule of chlorophyll; -- also called chloroleucite.

Chlo`ro*pla*tin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) See Platinichloric.

||Chlo*ro"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. chlwro`s light green: cf. F. chlorose.] 1. (Med.) The green sickness; an anæmic disease of young women, characterized by a greenish or grayish yellow hue of the skin, weakness, palpitation, etc.

2. (Bot.) A disease in plants, causing the flowers to turn green or the leaves to lose their normal green color.

Chlo*rot"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. chlorotique.] Pertaining to, or affected by, chlorosis.

Chlo"rous (?), a. [See Chlorine.] 1. Of, pertaining to, or derived from, chlorine; -- said of those compounds of chlorine in which this element has a valence of three, the next lower than in chloric compounds; as, chlorous acid, HClO2.

2. (Chem. Physics) Pertaining to, or resembling, the electro-negative character of chlorine; hence, electro-negative; -- opposed to basylous or zincous. [Obs.]

Chlor`pi"crin (?), n. (Chem.) A heavy, colorless liquid, CCl3.NO2, of a strong pungent odor, obtained by subjecting picric acid to the action of chlorine. [Written also chloropikrin.]

Chlo"ru*ret (?), n. [Cf. F. chlorure.] (Chem.) A chloride. [Obs.]

Choak (?), v. t. & i. See Choke.

Cho"a*noid (?), a. [Gr. &?; funnel + -oid.] (Anat.) Funnel-shaped; -- applied particularly to a hollow muscle attached to the ball of the eye in many reptiles and mammals.

Cho"card (?), n. (Zoöl.) The chough.

Chock (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chocked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chocking.] To stop or fasten, as with a wedge, or block; to scotch; as, to chock a wheel or cask.

Chock, v. i. To fill up, as a cavity. "The woodwork . . . exactly chocketh into joints." Fuller.

Chock, n. 1. A wedge, or block made to fit in any space which it is desired to fill, esp. something to steady a cask or other body, or prevent it from moving, by fitting into the space around or beneath it.

2. (Naut.) A heavy casting of metal, usually fixed near the gunwale. It has two short horn- shaped arms curving inward, between which ropes or hawsers may pass for towing, mooring, etc.

Chock, adv. (Naut.) Entirely; quite; as, chock home; chock aft.

Chock, v. t. [F. choquer. Cf. Shock, v. t.] To encounter. [Obs.]

Chock, n. An encounter. [Obs.]

Chock"a*block (?), a. (Naut.) Hoisted as high as the tackle will admit; brought close together, as the two blocks of a tackle in hoisting.

Chock"-full` (?), a. Quite full; choke-full.

Choc"o*late (?), n. [Sp., fr. the Mexican name of the cacao. Cf. Cacao, Cocoa.] 1. A paste or cake composed of the roasted seeds of the Theobroma Cacao ground and mixed with other ingredients, usually sugar, and cinnamon or vanilla.

2. The beverage made by dissolving a portion of the paste or cake in boiling water or milk.

Chocolate house, a house in which customers may be served with chocolate. -- Chocolate nut. See Cacao.

Choc"taws (?), n. pl.; sing. Choctaw. (Ethnol.) A tribe of North American Indians (Southern Appalachian), in early times noted for their pursuit of agriculture, and for living at peace with the white settlers. They are now one of the civilized tribes of the Indian Territory.

Chode (chōd), the old imp. of chide. See Chide.

Chog"set (?), n. (Zoöl.) See Cunner.

Choice (chois), n. [OE. chois, OF. chois, F. choix, fr. choisir to choose; of German origin; cf. Goth. kausjan to examine, kiusan to choose, examine, G. kiesen. √46. Cf. Choose.] 1. Act of choosing; the voluntary act of selecting or separating from two or more things that which is preferred; the determination of the mind in preferring one thing to another; election.

2. The power or opportunity of choosing; option.

Choice there is not, unless the thing which we take be so in our power that we might have refused it. Hooker.

3. Care in selecting; judgment or skill in distinguishing what is to be preferred, and in giving a preference; discrimination.

I imagine they [the apothegms of Cæsar] were collected with judgment and choice. Bacon.

4. A sufficient number to choose among. Shak.

5. The thing or person chosen; that which is approved and selected in preference to others; selection.

The common wealth is sick of their own choice. Shak.

6. The best part; that which is preferable.

The flower and choice Of many provinces from bound to bound. Milton.

To make a choice of, to choose; to select; to separate and take in preference.

Syn. - See Volition, Option.

Choice, a. [Compar. Choicer (?); superl. Choicest (?).] 1. Worthly of being chosen or preferred; select; superior; precious; valuable.

My choicest hours of life are lost. Swift.

2. Preserving or using with care, as valuable; frugal; -- used with of; as, to be choice of time, or of money.

3. Selected with care, and due attention to preference; deliberately chosen.

Choice word measured phrase. Wordsworth.

Syn. - Select; precious; exquisite; uncommon; rare; chary; careful/

Choice"ful (?), a. Making choices; fickle. [Obs.]

His choiceful sense with every change doth fit. Spenser.

Choice"ly, adv. 1. With care in choosing; with nice regard to preference. "A band of men collected choicely, from each county some." Shak.

2. In a preferable or excellent manner; excellently; eminently. "Choicely good." Walton.

Choice"ness, n. The quality of being of particular value or worth; nicely; excellence.

Choir (?), n. [OE. quer, OF. cuer, F. chœur, fr. L. chorus a choral dance, chorus, choir, fr. Gr. &?;, orig. dancing place; prob. akin to &?; inclosure, L. hortus garden, and E. yard. See Chorus.] 1. A band or organized company of singers, especially in church service. [Formerly written also quire.]

2. That part of a church appropriated to the singers.

3. (Arch.) The chancel.

Choir organ (Mus.), one of the three or five distinct organs included in the full organ, each separable from the rest, but all controlled by one performer; a portion of the full organ, complete in itself, and more practicable for ordinary service and in the accompanying of the vocal choir. -- Choir screen, Choir wall (Arch.), a screen or low wall separating the choir from the aisles. -- Choir service, the service of singing performed by the choir. T. Warton.

Choke (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Choked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Choking.] [OE. cheken, choken; cf. AS. āceocian to suffocate, Icel. koka to gulp, E. chincough, cough.] 1. To render unable to breathe by filling, pressing upon, or squeezing the windpipe; to stifle; to suffocate; to strangle.

With eager feeding food doth choke the feeder. Shak.

2. To obstruct by filling up or clogging any passage; to block up. Addison.

3. To hinder or check, as growth, expansion, progress, etc.; to stifle.

Oats and darnel choke the rising corn. Dryden.

4. To affect with a sense of strangulation by passion or strong feeling. "I was choked at this word." Swift.

5. To make a choke, as in a cartridge, or in the bore of the barrel of a shotgun.

To choke off, to stop a person in the execution of a purpose; as, to choke off a speaker by uproar.

Choke, v. i. 1. To have the windpipe stopped; to have a spasm of the throat, caused by stoppage or irritation of the windpipe; to be strangled.

2. To be checked, as if by choking; to stick.

The words choked in his throat. Sir W. Scott.

Choke, n. 1. A stoppage or irritation of the windpipe, producing the feeling of strangulation.

2. (Gun.) (a) The tied end of a cartridge. (b) A constriction in the bore of a shotgun, case of a rocket, etc.

Choke"ber`ry (?), n. (Bot.) The small apple-shaped or pear-shaped fruit of an American shrub (Pyrus arbutifolia) growing in damp thickets; also, the shrub.

Choke"cher`ry (?), n. (Bot.) The astringent fruit of a species of wild cherry (Prunus Virginiana); also, the bush or tree which bears such fruit.

Choke" damp` (?). See Carbonic acid, under Carbonic.

||Cho`ke*dar" (?), n. [Hindi chaukī-dār.] A watchman; an officer of customs or police. [India]

Choke"-full` (?), a. Full to the brim; quite full; chock-full.

Choke" pear` (?). 1. A kind of pear that has a rough, astringent taste, and is swallowed with difficulty, or which contracts the mucous membrane of the mouth.

2. A sarcasm by which one is put to silence; anything that can not be answered. [Low] S. Richardson.

Chok"er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, chokes.

2. A stiff wide cravat; a stock. [Slang]

Choke"-strap` (?), n. (Saddlery) A strap leading from the bellyband to the lower part of the collar, to keep the collar in place.

Chok"ing (?), a. 1. That chokes; producing the feeling of strangulation.

2. Indistinct in utterance, as the voice of a person affected with strong emotion.

{ Chok"y Chok"ey } (?), a. 1. Tending to choke or suffocate, or having power to suffocate.

2. Inclined to choke, as a person affected with strong emotion. "A deep and choky voice." Aytoun.

The allusion to his mother made Tom feel rather chokey. T. Hughes.

||Cho*læ"ma*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; bile + &?; blood.] (Med.) A disease characterized by severe nervous symptoms, dependent upon the presence of the constituents of the bile in the blood.

Chol"a*gogue (?), a. [Gr. &?;; &?; bile + &?; leading, &?; to lead: cf. F. cholagogue.] (Med.) Promoting the discharge of bile from the system. -- n. An agent which promotes the discharge of bile from the system.

Cho"late (?), n. [Gr. &?; bile.] (Chem.) A salt of cholic acid; as, sodium cholate.

||Chol`e*cys"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; bile + &?; bladder.] (Anat.) The gall bladder.

Chol`e*cys*tot"o*my (?), n. [Cholecystis + Gr. &?; to cut.] (Surg.) The operation of making an opening in the gall bladder, as for the removal of a gallstone.

Chol`e*dol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; bile + -logy. Cf. F. cholédologie.] (Med.) A treatise on the bile and bilary organs. Dunglison.

&fist; Littré says that the word cholédologie is absolutely barbarous, there being no Greek word &?;. A proper form would be cholology.

Cho*le"ic (?), a. (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, bile; as, choleic acid.

Chol"er (?), n. [OE. coler, F. colère anger, L. cholera a bilious complaint, fr. Gr. &?; cholera, fr. &?;, &?;, bile. See Gall, and cf. Cholera.] 1. The bile; -- formerly supposed to be the seat and cause of irascibility. [Obs.]

His [Richard Hooker's] complexion . . . was sanguine, with a mixture of choler; and yet his motion was slow. I. Warton.

2. Irritation of the passions; anger; wrath.

He is rash and very sudden in choler. Shak.

Chol"er*a (?), n. [L., a bilious disease. See Choler.] (Med.) One of several diseases affecting the digestive and intestinal tract and more or less dangerous to life, esp. the one commonly called Asiatic cholera.

Asiatic cholera, a malignant and rapidly fatal disease, originating in Asia and frequently epidemic in the more filthy sections of other lands, to which the germ or specific poison may have been carried. It is characterized by diarrhea, rice-water evacuations, vomiting, cramps, pinched expression, and lividity, rapidly passing into a state of collapse, followed by death, or by a stage of reaction of fever. -- Cholera bacillus. See Comma bacillus. -- Cholera infantum, a dangerous summer disease, of infants, caused by hot weather, bad air, or poor milk, and especially fatal in large cities. -- Cholera morbus, a disease characterized by vomiting and purging, with gripings and cramps, usually caused by imprudence in diet or by gastrointestinal disturbance. -- Chicken cholera. See under Chicken. -- Hog cholera. See under Hog. -- Sporadic cholera, a disease somewhat resembling the Asiatic cholera, but originating where it occurs, and rarely becoming epidemic.

Chol`er*a"ic (?), a. Relating to, or resulting from, or resembling, cholera.

Chol"er*ic (?), a. [L. cholericus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. cholérique.] 1. Abounding with, or producing choler, or bile. Dryden.

2. Easily irritated; irascible; inclined to anger.

3. Angry; indicating anger; excited by anger. "Choleric speech." Sir W. Raleigh.

Choleric temperament, the bilious temperament.

Chol"er*ic*ly, adv. In a choleric manner; angrily.

Chol"er*i*form` (?), a. [Cholera + -form.] Resembling cholera.

Chol"er*ine (?), n. (Med.) (a) The precursory symptoms of cholera. (b) The first stage of epidemic cholera. (c) A mild form of cholera.

Chol"er*oid, a. [Cholera + -oid.] Choleriform.

Cho`les*ter"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. cholestérique.] Pertaining to cholesterin, or obtained from it; as, cholesteric acid. Ure.

Cho*les"ter*in (?), n. [Gr. &?; bile + &?; stiff fat: F. cholestérine. See Stearin.] (Chem.) A white, fatty, crystalline substance, tasteless and odorless, found in animal and plant products and tissue, and especially in nerve tissue, in the bile, and in gallstones.

{ Cho"li*amb (?), Cho`li*am"bic (?), } n. [L. choliambus, Gr. &?;; &?; lame + &?; an iambus.] (Pros.) A verse having an iambus in the fifth place, and a spondee in the sixth or last.

{ Chol"ic (?), Cho*lin"ic (?), } a. [Gr. &?;, from &?; bile.] (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, the bile.

Cholic acid (Chem.), a complex organic acid found as a natural constituent of taurocholic and glycocholic acids in the bile, and extracted as a resinous substance, convertible under the influence of ether into white crystals.

Cho"line (?), n. [Gr. &?; bile.] (Physiol. Chem.) See Neurine.

Chol"o*chrome (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, bile + &?; color.] (Physiol.) See Bilirubin.

Chol`o*phæ"in (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, bile + &?; dusky.] (Physiol.) See Bilirubin.

||Chol"try (?), n. A Hindoo caravansary.

Chomp (?), v. i. To chew loudly and greedily; to champ. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U. S.] Halliwell.

Chon`dri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. (Physiol.) Formation of, or conversion into, cartilage.

Chon"dri*fy (?), v. t. & i. [Gr. &?; cartilage + -fy.] To convert, or be converted, into cartilage.

Chon"dri*gen (?), n. [Gr. &?; cartilage + -gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) The chemical basis of cartilage, converted by long boiling in water into a gelatinous body called chondrin.

Chon*drig"e*nous (?), a. [Gr. &?; cartilage + -genous.] (Physiol.) Affording chondrin.

Chon"drin (?), n. [Gr. &?; cartilage.] (Physiol. Chem.) A colorless, amorphous, nitrogenous substance, tasteless and odorless, formed from cartilaginous tissue by long-continued action of boiling water. It is similar to gelatin, and is a large ingredient of commercial gelatin.

Chon"drite (?), n. [Gr. &?; a grain (of wheat or spelt), cartilage.] (Min.) A meteoric stone characterized by the presence of chondrules.

Chon*drit"ic (?), a. (Min.) Granular; pertaining to, or having the granular structure characteristic of, the class of meteorites called chondrites.

||Chon*dri"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; cartilage + -itis.] (Med.) An inflammation of cartilage.

Chon"dro- (?). [Gr. &?; a grain (of wheat or spelt), cartilage.] A combining form meaning a grain, granular, granular cartilage, cartilaginous; as, the chondrocranium, the cartilaginous skull of the lower vertebrates and of embryos.

Chon"dro*dite (?), n. [Gr. &?; a grain (of wheat or spelt), cartilage.] (Min.) A fluosilicate of magnesia and iron, yellow to red in color, often occurring in granular form in a crystalline limestone.

||Chon`dro*ga*noi"de*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; cartilage + NL. ganoidei. See Ganoid.] (Zoöl.) An order of ganoid fishes, including the sturgeons; -- so called on account of their cartilaginous skeleton.

Chon"dro*gen (?), n. [Gr. &?; cartilage + -gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) Same as Chondrigen.

Chon`dro*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Gr. &?; cartilage + genesis.] (Physiol.) The development of cartilage.

Chon"droid (?), a. [Gr. &?; cartilage + -oid.] Resembling cartilage.

Chon*drol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; cartilage + -logy: cf. F. chondrologie.] (Anat.) The science which treats of cartilages. Dunglison.

||Chon*dro"ma (?), n.; pl. Chondromata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. &?; cartilage + -oma.] A cartilaginous tumor or growth.

Chon*drom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; a grain (of wheat or spelt), cartilage + -meter.] A steelyard for weighting grain.

Chon*drop`ter*yg"i*an (?), a. [Cf. F. chondropterygien.] Having a cartilaginous skeleton. -- n. One of the Chondropterygii.

||Chon*drop`te*ryg"i*i (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; cartilage + &?;, &?;, wing, fin.] (Zoöl.) A group of fishes, characterized by cartilaginous fins and skeleton. It includes both ganoids (sturgeons, etc.) and selachians (sharks), but is now often restricted to the latter. [Written also Chondropterygia.]

||Chon*dros"te*i (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; cartilage + &?; bone.] (Zoöl.) An order of fishes, including the sturgeons; -- so named because the skeleton is cartilaginous.

Chon*drot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?; + &?; a cutting.] (Anat.) The dissection of cartilages.

Chon"drule (?), n. [Dim. from Gr. &?; a grain (of wheat or spelt), cartilage.] (Min.) A peculiar rounded granule of some mineral, usually enstatite or chrysolite, found imbedded more or less abundantly in the mass of many meteoric stones, which are hence called chondrites.

Choose (?), v. t. [imp. Chose (?); p. p. Chosen (?), Chose (Obs.); p. pr. & vb. n. Choosing.] [OE. chesen, cheosen, AS. ceósan; akin to OS. kiosan, D. kiezen, G. kiesen, Icel. kjōsa, Goth. kiusan, L. gustare to taste, Gr. &?;, Skr. jush to enjoy. √46. Cf. Choice, 2d Gust.] 1. To make choice of; to select; to take by way of preference from two or more objects offered; to elect; as, to choose the least of two evils.

Choose me for a humble friend. Pope.

2. To wish; to desire; to prefer. [Colloq.]

The landlady now returned to know if we did not choose a more genteel apartment. Goldsmith.

To choose sides. See under Side.

Syn. - To select; prefer; elect; adopt; follow. -- To Choose, Prefer, Elect. To choose is the generic term, and denotes to take or fix upon by an act of the will, especially in accordance with a decision of the judgment. To prefer is to choose or favor one thing as compared with, and more desirable than, another, or more in accordance with one's tastes and feelings. To elect is to choose or select for some office, employment, use, privilege, etc., especially by the concurrent vote or voice of a sufficient number of electors. To choose a profession; to prefer private life to a public one; to elect members of Congress.

Choose, v. i. 1. To make a selection; to decide.

They had only to choose between implicit obedience and open rebellion. Prescott.

2. To do otherwise. "Can I choose but smile?" Pope.

Can not choose but, must necessarily.

Thou canst not choose but know who I am. Shak.

Choos"er (?), n. One who chooses; one who has the power or right of choosing; an elector. Burke.

Chop (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chopped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chopping.] [Cf. LG. & D. kappen, Dan. kappe, Sw. kappa. Cf. Chap to crack.] 1. To cut by striking repeatedly with a sharp instrument; to cut into pieces; to mince; -- often with up.

2. To sever or separate by one more blows of a sharp instrument; to divide; -- usually with off or down.

Chop off your hand, and it to the king. Shak.

3. To seize or devour greedily; -- with up. [Obs.]

Upon the opening of his mouth he drops his breakfast, which the fox presently chopped up. L'estrange.

Chop (?), v. i. 1. To make a quick strike, or repeated strokes, with an ax or other sharp instrument.

2. To do something suddenly with an unexpected motion; to catch or attempt to seize.

Out of greediness to get both, he chops at the shadow, and loses the substance. L'Estrange.

3. To interrupt; -- with in or out.

This fellow interrupted the sermon, even suddenly chopping in. Latimer.

Chop, v. t. [Cf. D. koopen to buy. See Cheapen, v. t., and cf. Chap, v. i., to buy.] 1. To barter or truck.

2. To exchange; substitute one thing for another.

We go on chopping and changing our friends. L'Estrange.

To chop logic, to dispute with an affected use of logical terms; to argue sophistically.

Chop, v. i. 1. To purchase by way of truck.

2. (Naut.) To vary or shift suddenly; as, the wind chops about.

3. To wrangle; to altercate; to bandy words.

Let not the counsel at the bar chop with the judge. Bacon.

Chop, n. A change; a vicissitude. Marryat.

Chop, v. t. & i. To crack. See Chap, v. t. & i.

Chop, n. 1. The act of chopping; a stroke.

2. A piece chopped off; a slice or small piece, especially of meat; as, a mutton chop.

3. A crack or cleft. See Chap.

Chop, n. [See Chap.] 1. A jaw of an animal; -- commonly in the pl. See Chops.

2. A movable jaw or cheek, as of a wooden vise.

3. The land at each side of the mouth of a river, harbor, or channel; as, East Chop or West Chop. See Chops.

Chop, n. [Chin. & Hind. chāp stamp, brand.]

1. Quality; brand; as, silk of the first chop.

2. A permit or clearance.

Chop dollar, a silver dollar stamped to attest its purity. -- chop of tea, a number of boxes of the same make and quality of leaf. -- Chowchow chop. See under Chowchow. -- Grand chop, a ship's port clearance. S. W. Williams.

Chop"boat` (?), n. [Chin. chop sort, quality.] A licensed lighter employed in the transportation of goods to and from vessels. [China] S. W. Williams.

Chop"church` (?), n. [See Chop to barter.] (Old Eng. Law) An exchanger or an exchange of benefices. [Cant]

Chop`fall`en (?), a. Having the lower chop or jaw depressed; hence, crestfallen; dejected; dispirited; downcast. See Chapfallen.

Chop"house` (?), n. A house where chops, etc., are sold; an eating house.

The freedom of a chophouse. W. Irving.

Chop"house`, n. [See Chop quality.] A customhouse where transit duties are levied. [China] S. W. Williams.

Chop"in (?), n. [F. chopine, fr. G. schoppen.] A liquid measure formerly used in France and Great Britain, varying from half a pint to a wine quart.

Chop"in, n. See Chopine.

Cho*pine" (?), n. [Cf. OF. chapin, escapin, Sp. chapin, Pg. chapim.] A clog, or patten, having a very thick sole, or in some cases raised upon a stilt to a height of a foot or more. [Variously spelt chioppine, chopin, etc.]

Your ladyship is nearer to heaven than when I saw you last, by the altitude of a chopine. Shak.

Chop"-log`ic (?), n. One who bandies words or is very argumentative. [Jocular] Shak.

Chop"ness (?), n. A kind of spade. [Eng.]

Chop"per (?), n. One who, or that which, chops.

Chop"ping (?), a. [Cf. Chubby.] Stout or plump; large. [Obs.] Fenton.

Chop"ping, a. [See Chop to barter.] Shifting or changing suddenly, as the wind; also, having tumbling waves dashing against each other; as, a chopping sea.

Chop"ping, n. Act of cutting by strokes.

Chopping block, a solid block of wood on which butchers and others chop meat, etc. -- Chopping knife, a knife for chopping or mincing meat, vegetables, etc.; -- usually with a handle at the back of the blade instead of at the end.

Chop"py (?), a. [Cf. Chappy.] 1. Full of cracks. "Choppy finger." Shak.

2. [Cf. Chop a change.] Rough, with short, tumultuous waves; as, a choppy sea.

Chops (ch&obreve;ps), n. pl. [See Chop a jaw.] 1. The jaws; also, the fleshy parts about the mouth.

2. The sides or capes at the mouth of a river, channel, harbor, or bay; as, the chops of the English Channel.

Chop"stick" (ch&obreve;p"st&ibreve;k`), n. One of two small sticks of wood, ivory, etc., used by the Chinese and Japanese to convey food to the mouth.

Cho*rag"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, &?;.] Of or pertaining to a choragus.

Choragic monument, a building or column built by a victorious choragus for the reception and exhibition of the tripod which he received as a prize. Those of Lysicrates and Thrasyllus are still to be seen at Athens.

||Cho*ra"gus (?), n.; pl. Choragi (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?;, &?;; &?; chorus + &?; to lead.] (Gr. Antiq.) A chorus leader; esp. one who provided at his own expense and under his own supervision one of the choruses for the musical contents at Athens.

Cho"ral (?), a. [LL. choralis, fr. L. chorus. See Chorus.] Of or pertaining to a choir or chorus; singing, sung, or adapted to be sung, in chorus or harmony.

Choral service, a service of song.

Cho"ral, n. (Mus.) A hymn tune; a simple sacred tune, sung in unison by the congregation; as, the Lutheran chorals. [Sometimes written chorale.]

Cho"ral*ist (?), n. A singer or composer of chorals.

Cho"ral*ly, adv. In the manner of a chorus; adapted to be sung by a choir; in harmony.

Chord (kôrd), n. [L chorda a gut, a string made of a gut, Gr. chordh`. In the sense of a string or small rope, in general, it is written cord. See Cord.] 1. The string of a musical instrument. Milton.

2. (Mus.) A combination of tones simultaneously performed, producing more or less perfect harmony, as, the common chord.

3. (Geom.) A right line uniting the extremities of the arc of a circle or curve.

4. (Anat.) A cord. See Cord, n., 4.

5. (Engin.) The upper or lower part of a truss, usually horizontal, resisting compression or tension. Waddell.

Accidental, Common, ∧ Vocal chords. See under Accidental, Common, and Vocal. -- Chord of an arch. See Illust. of Arch. -- Chord of curvature, a chord drawn from any point of a curve, in the circle of curvature for that point. -- Scale of chords. See Scale.

Chord, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chorded; p. pr. & vb. n. Chording.] To provide with musical chords or strings; to string; to tune.

When Jubal struck the chorded shell. Dryden.

Even the solitary old pine tree chords his harp. Beecher.

Chord, v. i. (Mus.) To accord; to harmonize together; as, this note chords with that.

||Chor"da (?), n. [NL., fr. L. chorda. See Chord.] (Anat.) A cord.

||Chorda dorsalis (&?;). [NL., lit., cord of the back.] (Anat.) See Notochord.

Chor"dal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a chord.

||Chor*da"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. chorda cord.] (Zoöl.) A comprehensive division of animals including all Vertebrata together with the Tunicata, or all those having a dorsal nervous cord.

Chor*dee" (?), n. [F. cordé, cordée, p. p. of corder to cord.] (Med.) A painful erection of the penis, usually with downward curvature, occurring in gonorrhea.

Chore (?), n. [The same word as char work done by the day.] A small job; in the pl., the regular or daily light work of a household or farm, either within or without doors. [U. S.]

Chore, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Choring.] To do chores. [U. S.]

Chore (?), n. A choir or chorus. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

||Cho*re"a (?). n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; dance.] (Med.) St. Vitus's dance; a disease attended with convulsive twitchings and other involuntary movements of the muscles or limbs.

Cho*ree" (?), n. [F. chorée.] See Choreus.

{ Cho`re*graph"ic (?), Cho`re*graph"ic*al (?), } a. Pertaining to choregraphy.

Cho*reg"ra*phy (?), n. [GR. &?; d&?;nce + -graphy.] The art of representing dancing by signs, as music is represented by notes. Craig.

Cho*re"ic (?), a. Of the nature of, or pertaining to, chorea; convulsive.

Cho`re*pis"co*pal (?), a. Pertaining to a chorepiscopus or his charge or authority.

||Cho`re*pis"co*pus (?), n.; pl. Chorepiscopi (#). [L., fr. Gr. &?;; chw^ros, chw`ra, place, country + &?; bishop. Cf. Bishop.] (Eccl.) A "country" or suffragan bishop, appointed in the ancient church by a diocesan bishop to exercise episcopal jurisdiction in a rural district.

||Cho*re"us (?), Cho*ree" (&?;), n. [L. choreus, Gr. &?;, prop. an adj. meaning belonging to a chorus; cf. F. chorée.] (Anc. Pros.) (a) a trochee. (b) A tribrach.

Cho"ri*amb (?), n.; pl. Choriambs (&?;). Same as Choriambus.

Cho`ri*am"bic (?), a. [L. choriambicus, gr. &?;.] Pertaining to a choriamb. -- n. A choriamb.

Cho`ri*am"bus (?), n.; pl. L. Choriambi (#), E. Choriambuses (#). [L. choriambus, Gr. &?;; &?; a choreus + &?; iambus.] (Anc. Pros.) A foot consisting of four syllables, of which the first and last are long, and the other short (- ⌣ ⌣ -); that is, a choreus, or trochee, and an iambus united.

Cho"ric (?), a. [L. choricus, Gr. &?;.] Of or pertaining to a chorus.

I remember a choric ode in the Hecuba. Coleridge.

||Cho"ri*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?;.]

1. (Anat.) (a) The outer membrane which invests the fetus in the womb; also, the similar membrane investing many ova at certain stages of development. (b) The true skin, or cutis.

2. (Bot.) The outer membrane of seeds of plants.

||Cho"ri*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; separation.] (Bot.) The separation of a leaf or floral organ into two more parts.

&fist; In collateral chorisis the parts are side by side. -- In parallel or median chorisis they are one in front of another.

Cho"rist (?), n. [F. choriste.] A singer in a choir; a chorister. [R.]

Chor"is*ter (?), n. [See Chorus.] 1. One of a choir; a singer in a chorus. Dryden.

2. One who leads a choir in church music. [U. S.]

Cho*ris"tic (?), a. Choric; choral. [R.]

Cho"ro*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; place + -graph.] An instrument for constructing triangles in marine surveying, etc.

Cho*rog"ra*pher (?), n. 1. One who describes or makes a map of a district or region. "The chorographers of Italy." Sir T. Browne.

2. A geographical antiquary; one who investigates the locality of ancient places.

Cho`ro*graph"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to chorography. -- Cho`ro*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.

Cho*rog"ra*phy (?), n. [L. chorographia, Gr. &?;; &?; place + &?; to describe.] the mapping or description of a region or district.

The chorography of their provinces. Sir T. Browne.

Cho"roid (?), a. [gr. &?;; &?; chorion + &?; form.] (Anat.) resembling the chorion; as, the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and the choroid coat of the eyeball. -- n. The choroid coat of the eye. See Eye.

Choroid plexus (Anat.), one of the delicate fringelike processes, consisting almost entirely of blood vessels, which project into the ventricles of the brain.

Cho*roid"al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the choroid coat.

Cho*rol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?; place + -logy.] (Biol.) The science which treats of the laws of distribution of living organisms over the earth's surface as to latitude, altitude, locality, etc.

Its distribution or chorology. Huxley.

Cho*rom"e*try (?), n. [Gr. &?; place + -metry.] The art of surveying a region or district.

Cho"rus (?), n.; pl. Choruses (#). [L., a dance in a ring, a dance accompanied with song; a chorus, a band of dancers and singers. Gr. &?;. See Choir.]

1. (Antiq.) A band of singers and dancers.

The Grecian tragedy was at first nothing but a chorus of singers. Dryden.

2. (Gr. Drama) A company of persons supposed to behold what passed in the acts of a tragedy, and to sing the sentiments which the events suggested in couplets or verses between the acts; also, that which was thus sung by the chorus.

What the lofty, grave tragedians taught In chorus or iambic. Milton.

3. An interpreter in a dumb show or play. [Obs.]

4. (Mus.) A company of singers singing in concert.

5. (Mus.) A composition of two or more parts, each of which is intended to be sung by a number of voices.

6. (Mus.) Parts of a song or hymn recurring at intervals, as at the end of stanzas; also, a company of singers who join with the singer or choir in singer or choir in singing such parts.

7. The simultaneous of a company in any noisy demonstration; as, a Chorus of shouts and catcalls.

Cho"rus, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chorused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chorusing.] To sing in chorus; to exclaim simultaneously. W. D. Howells.

||Chose (?), n.; pl. Choses (#). [F., fr. L. causa cause, reason. See Cause.] (Law) A thing; personal property.

Chose in action, a thing of which one has not possession or actual enjoyment, but only a right to it, or a right to demand it by action at law, and which does not exist at the time in specie; a personal right to a thing not reduced to possession, but recoverable by suit at law; as a right to recover money due on a contract, or damages for a tort, which can not be enforced against a reluctant party without suit. -- Chose in possession, a thing in possession, as distinguished from a thing in action. -- Chose local, a thing annexed to a place, as a mill. -- Chose transitory, a thing which is movable. Cowell. Blount.

Chose (?), imp. & p. p. of Choose.

Cho"sen (?), p. p. of Choose. Selected from a number; picked out; choice.

Seven hundred chosen men left-handed. Judg. xx. 16.

Cho"sen, n. One who, or that which is the object of choice or special favor.

Chou"an (?), n. [F.] One of the royalist insurgents in western France (Brittany, etc.), during and after the French revolution.

Chough (?), n. [OE. choughe, kowe (and cf. OE. ca), fr. AS. ceó; cf. also D. kauw, OHG. chāha; perh. akin to E. caw. √22. Cf. Caddow.] (Zoöl.) A bird of the Crow family (Fregilus graculus) of Europe. It is of a black color, with a long, slender, curved bill and red legs; -- also called chauk, chauk-daw, chocard, Cornish chough, red-legged crow. The name is also applied to several allied birds, as the Alpine chough.

Cornish chough (Her.), a bird represented black, with red feet, and beak; -- called also aylet and sea swallow.

||Chou"i*cha (?), n. [Native name] (Zoöl.) The salmon of the Columbia River or California. See Quinnat.

||Chou"ka (?), n. [Native name] (Zoöl.) The Indian four-horned antelope; the chikara.

Choule (?), n. [Obs.] See Jowl. Sir W. Scott.

||Choul"try (?), n. See Choltry.

Chouse (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Choused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chousing.] [From Turk. chāūsh a messenger or interpreter, one of whom, attached to the Turkish embassy, in 1609 cheated the Turkish merchants resident in England out of £4,000.] To cheat, trick, defraud; -- followed by of, or out of; as, to chouse one out of his money. [Colloq.]

The undertaker of the afore-cited poesy hath choused your highness. Landor.

Chouse, n. 1. One who is easily cheated; a tool; a simpleton; a gull. Hudibras.

2. A trick; sham; imposition. Johnson.

3. A swindler. B. Jonson.

||Chout (?), n. [Mahratta chauth one fourth part.] An assessment equal to a fourth part of the revenue. [India] J. Mill.

Chow"chow` (?), a. [Chin.] Consisting of several kinds mingled together; mixed; as, chowchow sweetmeats (preserved fruits put together).

Chowchow chop, the last lighter containing the small sundry packages sent off to fill up a ship. S. W. Williams.

Chow"chow` (chou"chou`), n. (Com.) A kind of mixed pickles.

Chow"der (-d&etl;r), n. [F. chaudière a kettle, a pot. Cf. Caldron.] 1. (Cookery) A dish made of fresh fish or clams, biscuit, onions, etc., stewed together.

2. A seller of fish. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Chowder beer, a liquor made by boiling black spruce in water and mixing molasses with the decoction.

Chow"der, v. t. To make a chowder of.

||Chow"ry (-r&ybreve;), n. [Hind. chaunri.] A whisk to keep off files, used in the East Indies. Malcom.

Chow"ter (-t&etilde;r), v. t. [Cf. OE. chowre, and Prov. E. chow, to grumble.] To grumble or mutter like a froward child. [Obs.] E. Phillips.

Choy" root` (choi" r&oomac;t`). See Chay root.

Chre`ma*tis"tics (?), n. [Gr. &?; 9sc. &?;) the art of traffic, fr. &?; goods, money, fr. &?; to use.] The science of wealth; the science, or a branch of the science, of political economy.

Chre`o*tech"nics (?), n. [Gr. &?; useful + &?; art.] The science of the useful arts, esp. agriculture, manufactures, and commerce. [R.]

Chres`to*math"ic (?), a. Teaching what is useful. "A chrestomathic school." Southey.

Chres*tom"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; &?; useful + &?;, &?;, to learn.] A selection of passages, with notes, etc., to be used in acquiring a language; as, a Hebrew chrestomathy.

Chrism (?), n. [OE. crisme, from AS. crisma; also OE. creme, fr. OF. cresme, like the AS. word fr. LL. chrisma, fr. Gr. &?;, fr. &?; to anoint; perh. akin to L. friare, fricare, to rub, Skr. gharsh, E. friable, friction. Cf. Chrisom.] (Gr. & R. C. Church&?;s)

1. Olive oil mixed with balm and spices, consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday, and used in the administration of baptism, confirmation, ordination, etc.

2. The same as Chrisom.

Chris"mal (?), a. [LL. chrismalis.] Of or pertaining to or used in chrism.

Chris*ma"tion (?), n. [LL. chrismatio.] The act of applying the chrism, or consecrated oil.

Chrismation or cross-signing with ointment, was used in baptism. Jer. Taylor.

Chris"ma*to*ry (?), n. [LL. chrismatorium.] A cruet or vessel in which chrism is kept.

Chris"om (?), n. [See Chrism.]

1. A white cloth, anointed with chrism, or a white mantle thrown over a child when baptized or christened. [Obs.]

2. A child which died within a month after its baptism; -- so called from the chrisom cloth which was used as a shroud for it. [Obs.] Blount.

Christ (?), n. [L. Christus, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; anointed, fr. chri`ein to anoint. See Chrism.] The Anointed; an appellation given to Jesus, the Savior. It is synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah.

Christ"cross` (?), n. 1. The mark of the cross, as cut, painted, written, or stamped on certain objects, -- sometimes as the sign of 12 o'clock on a dial.

The fescue of the dial is upon the christcross of noon. Old Play. Nares.

2. The beginning and the ending. [Obs.] Quarles.

Christ"cross-row` (?), The alphabet; -- formerly so called, either from the cross usually set before it, or from a superstitious custom, sometimes practiced, of writing it in the form of a cross, by way of a charm.

From infant conning of the Christcross- row. Wordsworth.

Chris"ten (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Christened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Christening.] [AS. cristnian to make a Christian, fr. cristen a Christian.]

1. To baptize and give a Christian name to.

2. To give a name; to denominate. "Christen the thing what you will." Bp. Burnet.

3. To Christianize. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.

4. To use for the first time. [Colloq.]

Chris"ten*dom (?), n. [AS. cristend&?;m; cristen a Christian + -dom.] 1. The profession of faith in Christ by baptism; hence, the Christian religion, or the adoption of it. [Obs.] Shak.

2. The name received at baptism; or, more generally, any name or appelation. [Obs.]

Pretty, fond, adoptious christendoms. Shak.

3. That portion of the world in which Christianity prevails, or which is governed under Christian institutions, in distinction from heathen or Mohammedan lands.

The Arian doctrine which then divided Christendom. Milton

A wide and still widening Christendom. Coleridge.

4. The whole body of Christians. Hooker.

Chris"tian (?), n. [L. christianus, Gr. &?;; cf. AS. cristen. See Christ.]

1. One who believes, or professes or is assumed to believe, in Jesus Christ, and the truth as taught by Him; especially, one whose inward and outward life is conformed to the doctrines of Christ.

The disciples were called Christians first in Antioch. Acts xi. 26.

2. One born in a Christian country or of Christian parents, and who has not definitely becomes an adherent of an opposing system.

3. (Eccl.) (a) One of a Christian denomination which rejects human creeds as bases of fellowship, and sectarian names. They are congregational in church government, and baptize by immersion. They are also called Disciples of Christ, and Campbellites. (b) One of a sect (called Christian Connection) of open-communion immersionists. The Bible is their only authoritative rule of faith and practice.

&fist; In this sense, often pronounced, but not by the members of the sects, krīs"chan.

Chris"tian (?), a. 1. Pertaining to Christ or his religion; as, Christian people.

3. Pertaining to the church; ecclesiastical; as, a Christian court. Blackstone.

4. Characteristic of Christian people; civilized; kind; kindly; gentle; beneficent.

The graceful tact; the Christian art. Tennyson.

Christian Commission. See under Commission. -- Christian court. Same as Ecclesiastical court. -- Christian era, the present era, commencing with the birth of Christ. It is supposed that owing to an error of a monk (Dionysius Exiguus, d. about 556) employed to calculate the era, its commencement was fixed three or four years too late, so that 1890 should be 1893 or 1894. -- Christian name, the name given in baptism, as distinct from the family name, or surname.

Chris`tian*ism (?), n. [L. christianismus, Gr. &?;: cf. F. christianisme.] 1. The Christian religion. [Obs.] Milton.

2. The Christian world; Christendom. [Obs.] Johnson

Chris"tian*ite (?), n. [In sense (a) named after Christian Frederic, of Denmark; in sense (b) after Christian VII., of Denmark.] (Min.) (a) Same as Anorthite. [R.] (b) See Phillipsite.

Chris*tian"i*ty (?), n. [OE. cristiente, OF. cristienté, F. chrétienté, fr. L. christianitas. ]

1. The religion of Christians; the system of doctrines and precepts taught by Christ.

2. Practical conformity of one's inward and outward life to the spirit of the Christian religion

3. The body of Christian believers. [Obs.]

To Walys fled the christianitee Of olde Britons. Chaucer.

Chris`tian*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of converting or being converted to a true Christianity.

Chris"tian*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Christianized (&?;); p. pr. vb. n. Christianizing.] [Cf. F. christianiser, L. christianizare, fr. Gr. &?;.]

1. To make Christian; to convert to Christianity; as, to Christianize pagans.

2. To imbue with or adapt to Christian principles.

Christianized philosophers. I. Taylor.

Chris"tian*ize, v. i. To adopt the character or belief of a Christian; to become Christian.

The pagans began to Christianize. Latham.

Chris"tian*like` (?), a. Becoming to a Christian.

A virtuous and a Christianlike conclusion. Shak.

Chris"tian*ly, adv. In a manner becoming the principles of the Christian religion.

Sufferings . . . patiently and Christianly borne. Sharp.

Chris"tian*ly, a. Christianlike. Longfellow.

Chris"tian*ness, n. Consonance with the doctrines of Christianity. [Obs.] Hammond.

Christ"less (?), a. Without faith in Christ; unchristian. Tennyson.

Christ"like` (?), a. Resembling Christ in character, actions, etc. -- Christ"like`ness, n.

Christ"ly, a. Christlike. H. Bushnell.

Christ"mas (?), n. [Christ + mass.] An annual church festival (December 25) and in some States a legal holiday, in memory of the birth of Christ, often celebrated by a particular church service, and also by special gifts, greetings, and hospitality.

Christmas box. (a) A box in which presents are deposited at Christmas. (b) A present or small gratuity given to young people and servants at Christmas; a Christmas gift. -- Christmas carol, a carol sung at, or suitable for, Christmas. -- Christmas day. Same as Christmas. -- Christmas eve, the evening before Christmas. -- Christmas fern (Bot.), an evergreen North American fern (Aspidium acrostichoides), which is much used for decoration in winter. -- Christmas flower, Christmas rose, the black hellebore, a poisonous plant of the buttercup family, which in Southern Europe often produces beautiful roselike flowers midwinter. -- Christmas tree, a small evergreen tree, set up indoors, to be decorated with bonbons, presents, etc., and illuminated on Christmas eve.

Christ"mas*tide` (?), n. [Christmas + tide time.] The season of Christmas.

Chris"to*cen"tric (?), a. [Christ + centric.] Making Christ the center, about whom all things are grouped, as in religion or history; tending toward Christ, as the central object of thought or emotion. J. W. Chadwick.

Chris*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Crist + -logy.] A treatise on Christ; that department of theology which treats of the personality, attributes, or life of Christ.

Chris"tom (?), n. See Chrisom. [Obs.] Shak.

Chris*toph"a*ny (?), n. [Christ + Gr. &?; to show.] An appearance of Christ, as to his disciples after the crucifixion.

Christ's-thorn` (?), n. (Bot.) One of several prickly or thorny shrubs found in Palestine, especially the Paliurus aculeatus, Zizyphus Spina-Christi, and Z. vulgaris. The last bears the fruit called jujube, and may be considered to have been the most readily obtainable for the Crown of Thorns.

Chro"ma*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + -scope.] An instrument for showing the optical effects of color.

Chro"mate (?), n. [Cf. F. chromate. See Chrome.] (Chem.) A salt of chromic acid.

Chro*mat"ic (?), a. [L. chromaticus, Gr. &?;, suited for color, fr. &?;, &?;, color; akin to &?; color, &?; skin, color of the skin.] 1. Relating to color, or to colors.

2. (Mus.) Proceeding by the smaller intervals (half steps or semitones) of the scale, instead of the regular intervals of the diatonic scale.

&fist; The intermediate tones were formerly written and printed in colors.

Chromatic aberration. (Opt.) See Aberration, 4. -- Chromatic printing, printing from type or blocks covered with inks of various colors. -- Chromatic scale (Mus.), the scale consisting of thirteen tones, including the eight scale tones and the five intermediate tones.

Chro*mat"ic*al (?), a. Chromatic. [Obs.]

Chro*mat"ic*al*ly, adv. In a chromatic manner.

Chro*mat"ics (?), n. The science of colors; that part of optics which treats of the properties of colors.

Chro"ma*tin (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, color.] (Biol.) Tissue which is capable of being stained by dyes.

Chro"ma*tism (?), n. [Gr. &?; a coloring.]

1. (Optics) The state of being colored, as in the case of images formed by a lens.

2. (Bot.) An abnormal coloring of plants.

Chro`ma*tog"e*nous (?), a. [Gr. &?;, &?;, color + -genous.] Producing color.

Chro`ma*tog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, color + -graphy.] A treatise on colors

Chro`ma*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, color + -logy.] A treatise on colors.

Chro"ma*to*phore` (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, color + &?; to bear.] 1. (Zoöl.) A contractile cell or vesicle containing liquid pigment and capable of changing its form or size, thus causing changes of color in the translucent skin of such animals as possess them. They are highly developed and numerous in the cephalopods.

2. (Bot.) One of the granules of protoplasm, which in mass give color to the part of the plant containing them.

Chro"ma*to*scope` (?), n. [Gr. &?;, &?;, color + -scope.] (Astron.) A reflecting telescope, part of which is made to rotate eccentrically, so as to produce a ringlike image of a star, instead of a point; -- used in studying the scintillation of the stars.

Chro"ma*to*sphere` (?), n. A chromosphere. [R.]

Chro"ma*trope (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + &?; turn, rotation, &?; to turn.] 1. (Physics) An instrument for exhibiting certain chromatic effects of light (depending upon the persistence of vision and mixture of colors) by means of rapidly rotating disks variously colored.

2. A device in a magic lantern or stereopticon to produce kaleidoscopic effects.

Chro"ma*type (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + &?; type.]

1. (Photog.) A colored photographic picture taken upon paper made sensitive with potassium bichromate or some other salt of chromium.

2. The process by which such picture is made.

Chrome (?), n. Same as Chromium.

Chrome alum (Chem.), a dark violet substance, (SO4)3Cr2. K2SO4.24H2O, analogous to, and crystallizing like, common alum. It is regarded as a double sulphate of chromium and potassium. -- Chrome green (a) The green oxide of chromium, Cr2O3, used in enamel painting, and glass staining. (b) A pigment made by mixing chrome yellow with Prussian blue. -- Chrome red, a beautiful red pigment originally prepared from the basic chromate of lead, but now made from red oxide of lead. -- Chrome yellow, a brilliant yellow pigment, PbCrO4, used by painters.

Chro"mic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, chromium; -- said of the compounds of chromium in which it has its higher valence.

Chromic acid, an acid, H2CrO4, analogous to sulphuric acid, not readily obtained in the free state, but forming well known salts, many of which are colored pigments, as chrome yellow, chrome red, etc. -- Chromic anhydride, a brilliant red crystalline substance, CrO3, regarded as the anhydride of chromic acid. It is one of the most powerful oxidizers known.

Chro"mid (?), n. [Gr. &?; a kind of fish.] (Zoöl.) One of the Chromidæ, a family of fresh-water fishes abundant in the tropical parts of America and Africa. Some are valuable food fishes, as the bulti of the Nile.

||Chro`mi*dro"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; color + &?; sweat.] (Med.) Secretion of abnormally colored perspiration.

Chro"mism (?), n. Same as Chromatism.

Chro"mite (?), n. 1. (Min.) A black submetallic mineral consisting of oxide of chromium and iron; -- called also chromic iron.

2. (Chem.) A compound or salt of chromous hydroxide regarded as an acid. [R.]

Chro"mi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; color.] (Chem.) A comparatively rare element occurring most abundantly in the mineral chromite. Atomic weight 52.5. Symbol Cr. When isolated it is a hard, brittle, grayish white metal, fusible with difficulty. Its chief commercial importance is for its compounds, as potassium chromate, lead chromate, etc., which are brilliantly colored and are used dyeing and calico printing. Called also chrome.

Chro"mo (?), n.; pl. Chromos (#). [Abbrev. from chromolithograph.] A chromolithograph.

Chro"mo*blast (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + -blast.] An embryonic cell which develops into a pigment cell.

Chro"mo*gen (?), [Gr. &?; color + -gen.]

1. (Biol.) Vegetable coloring matter other than green; chromule.

2. (Chem.) Any colored compound, supposed to contain one or more chromophores.

Chro"mo*gen"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Containing, or capable of forming, chromogen; as, chromogenic bacteria.

Chro"mo*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + -graph.] An apparatus by which a number of copies of written matter, maps, plans, etc., can be made; -- called also hectograph.

Chro`mo*leu"cite (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + E. leucite.] (Bot.) A chromoplastid.

Chro`mo*lith"o*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + E. lithograph.] A picture printed in tints and colors by repeated impressions from a series of stones prepared by the lithographic process.

Chro`mo*li*thog"ra*pher (?), n. One who is engaged in chromolithography.

Chro"mo*lith`o*graph"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or made by, chromolithography.

Chro"mo*li*thog"ra*phy (?), n. Lithography adapted to printing in inks of various colors.

Chro"mo*phane (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + &?; to show.] (Physiol.) A general name for the several coloring matters, red, green, yellow, etc., present in the inner segments in the cones of the retina, held in solution by fats, and slowly decolorized by light; distinct from the photochemical pigments of the rods of the retina.

Chro"mo*phore (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + &?; to bear.] (Chem.) Any chemical group or residue (as NO2; N2; or O2) which imparts some decided color to the compound of which it is an ingredient.

Chro`mo*pho*tog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + E. photography.] The art of producing photographs in colors.

Chro"mo*pho`to*lith"o*graph (?), n. A photolithograph printed in colors.

Chro`mo*plas"tid (?), n. [Gr. &?; + E. plastid.] (Bot.) A protoplasmic granule of some other color than green; -- also called chromoleucite.

Chro"mo*some` (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + &?; the body.] (Biol.) One of the minute bodies into which the chromatin of the nucleus is resolved during mitotic cell division; the idant of Weismann.

Chro"mo*sphere (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + E. sphere.] (Astron.) An atmosphere of rare matter, composed principally of incandescent hydrogen gas, surrounding the sun and enveloping the photosphere. Portions of the chromosphere are here and there thrown up into enormous tongues of flame.

Chro`mo*spher"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the chromosphere.

Chro"mo*type (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + -type.] 1. A sheet printed in colors by any process, as a chromolithograph. See Chromolithograph.

2. A photographic picture in the natural colors.

Chro"mous (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or derived from, chromium, when this element has a valence lower than that in chromic compounds.

Chromous acid, a bluish gray powder, CrO.OH, of weak acid properties and regard as an acid.

Chro"mule (?), n. [Gr. &?; color + &?; matter.] (Bot.) A general name for coloring matter of plants other than chlorophyll, especially that of petals.

Chron"ic (?), a. [L. chronicus, Gr. &?; concerning time, from &?; time: cf. F. chronique.] 1. Relating to time; according to time.

2. Continuing for a long time; lingering; habitual.

Chronic disease, one which is inveterate, of long continuance, or progresses slowly, in distinction from an acute disease, which speedly terminates.

Chron"ic*al (?), a. Chronic.

Partly on a chronical, and partly on a topical method. J. A. Alexander.

Chron"i*cle (?), n. [OE. cronicle, fr. cronique, OF. cronique, F. chronique, L. chronica, fr. Gr. &?;, neut. pl. of &?;. See Chronic.] 1. An historical register or account of facts or events disposed in the order of time.

2. A narrative of events; a history; a record.

3. pl. The two canonical books of the Old Testament in which immediately follow 2 Kings.

Syn. - Register; record; annals. See History.

Chron"i*cle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chronicled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chronicling (?).] To record in a history or chronicle; to record; to register. Shak.

Chron"i*cler (?), n. A writer of a chronicle; a recorder of events in the order of time; an historian.

Such an honest chronicler as Griffith. Shak.

||Chro`nique" (?), n. [F. See Chronicle.] A chronicle. L. Addison.

Chron"o*gram (?), n. [Gr. &?; time + &?; writing, character: cf. F. chronogramme.] 1. An inscription in which certain numeral letters, made to appear specially conspicuous, on being added together, express a particular date or epoch, as in the motto of a medal struck by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632: ChrIstVs DVX; ergo trIVMphVs. - the capitals of which give, when added as numerals, the sum 1632.

2. The record or inscription made by a chronograph.

{ Chron`o*gram*mat"ic (?), Chron`o*gram*mat"ic*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. chronogrammatique.] Belonging to a chronogram, or containing one.

Chron`o*gram"ma*tist (?), n. A writer of chronograms.

Chron"o*graph (?), n. [Gr. &?; time + -graph: cf. F. chronographe.] 1. An instrument for measuring or recording intervals of time, upon a revolving drum or strip of paper moved by clockwork. The action of the stylus or pen is controlled by electricity.

2. Same as Chronogram, 1. [R.]

3. A chronoscope.

Chro*nog"ra*pher (?), n. One who writes a chronography; a chronologer. Tooke.

Chron`o*graph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a chronograph.

Chro*nog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?;. See Chronograph.] A description or record of past time; history. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

Chro*nol"o*ger (?), n. Same as Chronologist.

{ Chron`o*log"ic (?), Chron`o*log"ic*al (?), } a. [Gr. &?;.] Relating to chronology; containing an account of events in the order of time; according to the order of time; as, chronological tables. Raleigh. -- Chron`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.

{ Chro*nol"o*gist (?), Chro*nol"o*ger (?) }, n. [Gr. &?;.] A person who investigates dates of events and transactions; one skilled in chronology.

That learned noise and dust of the chronologist is wholly to be avoided. Locke.

THe most exact chronologers tell us that Christ was born in October, and not in December. John Knox.

Chro*nol"o*gy (?), n.; pl. Chronologies (#). [Gr. &?;; &?; time + &?; discourse: cf. F. chronologie.] The science which treats of measuring time by regular divisions or periods, and which assigns to events or transactions their proper dates.

If history without chronology is dark and confused, chronology without history is dry and insipid. A. Holmes.

Chro*nom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; time + -meter: cf. F. chronomètre.] 1. An instrument for measuring time; a timekeeper.

2. A portable timekeeper, with a heavy compensation balance, and usually beating half seconds; -- intended to keep time with great accuracy for use an astronomical observations, in determining longitude, etc.

3. (Mus.) A metronome.

Box chronometer. See under Box. -- Pocket chronometer, a chronometer in the form of a large watch. -- To rate a chronometer. See Rate, v. t.

{ Chron`o*met"ric (?), Chron`o*met"ric*al (?), } a. [Cf. F. chronométrique.] Pertaining to a chronometer; measured by a chronometer.

Chro*nom"e*try (?), n. [Cf. F. chronométrie.] The art of measuring time; the measuring of time by periods or divisions.

Chron"o*pher (?), n. [Gr. &?; time + &?; to carry.] An instrument signaling the correct time to distant points by electricity.

Chron"o*scope (?), n. [Gr. &?; time + -scope.] An instrument for measuring minute intervals of time; used in determining the velocity of projectiles, the duration of short-lived luminous phenomena, etc.

Chrys"a*lid (?), a. Pertaining to a chrysalis; resembling a chrysalis.

Chrys"a*lid, n.; pl. Chrysalids. See Chrysalis.

Chrys"a*lis (?), n.; pl. Chrysalides (#). [L. chrysallis the gold-colored pupa of butterflies, Gr. &?;, fr. &?; gold. Cf. Aurelia.] (Zoöl.) The pupa state of certain insects, esp. of butterflies, from which the perfect insect emerges. See Pupa, and Aurelia (a).

Chrys*an"i*line (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + E. anilene.] (Chem.) A yellow substance obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of rosaniline. It dyes silk a fine golden-yellow color.

Chrys*an"the*mum (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. &?;; chryso`s gold + &?; flower.] (Bot.) A genus of composite plants, mostly perennial, and of many species including the many varieties of garden chrysanthemums (annual and perennial), and also the feverfew and the oxeye daisy.

Chrys`a*ro"bin (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + araroba a foreign name of Goa powder + -in.] (Chem.) A bitter, yellow substance forming the essential constituent of Goa powder, and yielding chrysophanic acid proper; hence formerly called also chrysphanic acid.

Chrys*au"rin (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + L. aurum gold. So called from its color.] An orange-colored dyestuff, of artificial production.

Chrys`el*e*phan"tine (?), a. [Gr. chryso`s gold + &?; made of ivory, fr. &?; ivory, elephant.] Composed of, or adorned with, gold and ivory.

&fist; The chryselephantine statues of the Greeks were built up with inferior materials, veneered, as it were, with ivory for the flesh, and gold decorated with color for the hair and garments.

Chry"sene (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold.] (Chem.) One of the higher aromatic hydrocarbons of coal tar, allied to naphthalene and anthracene. It is a white crystalline substance, C18H12, of strong blue fluorescence, but generally colored yellow by impurities.

Chrys"o*ber`yl (?), n. [L. chrysoberyllus, Gr. &?;; chryso`s gold + &?; beryl.] (Min.) A mineral, found in crystals, of a yellow to green or brown color, and consisting of aluminia and glucina. It is very hard, and is often used as a gem.

Chrys"o*chlore (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + chlwro`s light green: cf. F. chrysochlore.] (Zoöl.) A South African mole of the genus Chrysochloris; the golden mole, the fur of which reflects brilliant metallic hues of green and gold.

Chrys"o*col`la (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. chryso`kolla gold solder; chryso`s gold + &?; glue.] (Min.) A hydrous silicate of copper, occurring massive, of a blue or greenish blue color.

Chrys"o*gen (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + -gen.] (Chem.) A yellow crystalline substance extracted from crude anthracene.

Chry*sog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. &?;; chryso`s gold + &?; to write.] 1. The art of writing in letters of gold.

2. A writing executed in letters of gold.

Chrys*o"ï*dine (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + -oid + -ine.] (Chem.) An artificial, yellow, crystalline dye, C6H5N2.C6H3 (NH2)2. Also, one of a group of dyestuffs resembling chrysoïdine proper.

Chrys"o*lite (?), n. [L. chrysolithos, Gr. &?;; chryso`s gold + &?; stone: cf. F. chrysolithe.] (Min.) A mineral, composed of silica, magnesia, and iron, of a yellow to green color. It is common in certain volcanic rocks; -- called also olivine and peridot. Sometimes used as a gem. The name was also early used for yellow varieties of tourmaline and topaz.

Chry*sol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + -logy.] That branch of political economy which relates to the production of wealth.

||Chrys*o"pa (?), n. [NL., from Gr. chryso`s gold + &?;, &?;, eye, face.] (Zoöl.) A genus of neuropterous insects. See Lacewing.

Chrys"o*phane (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + &?; to show.] (Chem.) A glucoside extracted from rhubarb as a bitter, yellow, crystalline powder, and yielding chrysophanic acid on decomposition.

Chrys`o*phan"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, or resembling, chrysophane.

Chrysophanic acid (Chem.), a yellow crystalline substance extracted from rhubarb, yellow dock, sienna, chrysarobin, etc., and shown to be a derivative of an anthracene. It is used in the treatment of skin diseases; -- called also rhein, rheic acid, rhubarbarin, etc.

Chrys"o*prase (?), n. [OE. crisopace, OF. crisoprace, F. chrysoprase, L. chrysoprasus, fr. Gr. &?;; chryso`s gold + &?; leek.] (Min.) An apple-green variety of chalcedony, colored by nickel. It has a dull flinty luster, and is sometimes used in jewelry.

||Chry*sop"ra*sus (?), n. [L.] See Chrysoprase. Rev. xxi. 20.

Chrys"o*sperm (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + &?; seed.] The seed of gold; a means of creating gold. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Chrys"o*type (?), n. [Gr. chryso`s gold + -type.] 1. A photographic picture taken upon paper prepared by the use of a sensitive salt of iron and developed by the application of chloride of gold. Abney.

2. 2process, invented by Sir J.Herschel.

Chthon"ic (?), a. [Gr. &?;, &?;, the earth.] Pertaining to the earth; earthy; as, chthonic religions.

[The] chthonic character of the wife of Zeus. Max Müller.

{ ||Chthon`o*pha"gi*a (?), Chtho*noph"a*gy (?), } n. [NL. chthonophagia; Gr. &?;, &?;, earth + &?; to eat.] A disease characterized by an irresistible desire to eat earth, observed in some parts of the southern United States, the West Indies, etc.

Chub (?), n. [This word seems to signify a large or thick fish. Cf. Sw. kubb a short and thick piece of wood, and perh. F. chabot chub.] (Zoöl.) A species to fresh-water fish of the Cyprinidæ or Carp family. The common European species is Leuciscus cephalus; the cheven. In America the name is applied to various fishes of the same family, of the genera Semotilus, Squalius, Ceratichthys, etc., and locally to several very different fishes, as the tautog, black bass, etc.

Chub mackerel (Zoöl.), a species of mackerel (Scomber colias) in some years found in abundance on the Atlantic coast, but absent in others; -- called also bull mackerel, thimble-eye, and big- eye mackerel. -- Chub sucker (Zoöl.), a fresh-water fish of the United States (Erimyzon sucetta); -- called also creekfish.

Chub"bed (?), a. Chubby. [R.] H. Brooke.

Chub"bed*ness, n. The state of being chubby.

Chub"by (?), a. Like a chub; plump, short, and thick. "Chubby faces." I. Taylor.

Chub"-faced` (?), a. Having a plump, short face.

Chuck (chŭk), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chucked (chŭkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Chucking.] [Imitative of the sound.] 1. To make a noise resembling that of a hen when she calls her chickens; to cluck.

2. To chuckle; to laugh. [R.] Marston.

Chuck, v. t. To call, as a hen her chickens. Dryden.

Chuck, n. 1. The chuck or call of a hen.

2. A sudden, small noise.

3. A word of endearment; -- corrupted from chick. "Pray, chuck, come hither." Shak.

Chuck, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chucked (chŭkt); p. pr. & vb. n. Chucking.] [F. choquer to strike. Cf. Shock, v. t.] 1. To strike gently; to give a gentle blow to.

Chucked the barmaid under the chin. W. Irving.

2. To toss or throw smartly out of the hand; to pitch. [Colloq.] "Mahomet Ali will just be chucked into the Nile." Lord Palmerson.

3. (Mech.) To place in a chuck, or hold by means of a chuck, as in turning; to bore or turn (a hole) in a revolving piece held in a chuck.

Chuck, n. 1. A slight blow or pat under the chin.

2. A short throw; a toss.

3. (Mach.) A contrivance or machine fixed to the mandrel of a lathe, for holding a tool or the material to be operated upon.

Chuck farthing, a play in which a farthing is pitched into a hole; pitch farthing. -- Chuck hole, a deep hole in a wagon rut. -- Elliptic chuck, a chuck having a slider and an eccentric circle, which, as the work turns round, give it a sliding motion across the center which generates an ellipse. Knight.

Chuck (chŭk), n. 1. A small pebble; -- called also chuckstone and chuckiestone. [Scot.]

2. pl. A game played with chucks, in which one or more are tossed up and caught; jackstones. [Scot.]

Chuck, n. A piece of the backbone of an animal, from between the neck and the collar bone, with the adjoining parts, cut for cooking; as, a chuck steak; a chuck roast. [Colloq.]

Chuc"kle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chuckled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chuckling (?).] [From 1st Chuck.]

1. To call, as a hen her chickens; to cluck. [Obs.] Dryden.

2. To fondle; to cocker. [Obs.] Dryden.

Chuc"kle, n. A short, suppressed laugh; the expression of satisfaction, exultation, or derision.

Chuc"kle, v. i. [From 1st Chuck.] To laugh in a suppressed or broken manner, as expressing inward satisfaction, exultation, or derision.

Chuc"kle*head` (?), n. A person with a large head; a numskull; a dunce. [Low] Knowles.

Chuc"kle*head`ed, a. Having a large head; thickheaded; dull; stupid. Smart.

Chuck`-Will's-wid"ow (?), n. (Zool.) A species of goatsucker (Antrostomus Carolinensis), of the southern United States; -- so called from its note.

Chud (?), v. t. [Cf. Chew, Cud.] To champ; to bite. [Obs.] A. Stafford.

Chu"et (?), n. [From Chew, v. t.] Minced meat. [Obs.] Bacon.

||Chu"fa (?), n. [Sp.] (Bot.) A sedgelike plant (Cyperus esculentus) producing edible tubers, native about the Mediterranean, now cultivated in many regions; the earth almond.

Chuff (?), n. [Perh. a modification of chub: cf. W. cyff stock, stump.] A coarse or stupid fellow. Shak.

Chuff, a. Stupid; churlish. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

Chuff"i*ly (?), adv. Clownishly; surlily.

Chuff"i*ness, n. The quality of being chuffy.

Chuff"y (?), a. 1. Fat or puffed out in the cheeks.

2. Rough; clownish; surly.

Chu"lan (?), n. (Bot.) The fragrant flowers of the Chloranthus inconspicuus, used in China for perfuming tea.

Chum (?), n. [Perh. a contraction fr. comrade or chamber fellow: cf. also AS. cuma a comer, guest.] A roommate, especially in a college or university; an old and intimate friend.

Chum, v. i. [imp. p. p. Chummed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chumming.] To occupy a chamber with another; as, to chum together at college. [U. S.]

Chum, n. Chopped pieces of fish used as bait. [U. S.]

Chump (?), n. [Cf. Icel. kumbr a chopping, E. chop.] A short, thick, heavy piece of wood. Morton.

Chump end, the thick end; as, the chump end of a joint of meat. Dickens.

||Chu*nam" (?), n. [Hind. chūnā, from Skr. cūrn.a powder, dust; or a Dravidian word.] Quicklime; also, plaster or mortar. [India] Whitworth.

Chunk (?), n. [Cf. Chump.] A short, thick piece of anything. [Colloq. U. S. & Prov. Eng.]

Chunk"y (?), a. Short and thick. [U. S.] Kane.

Church (?), n. [OE. chirche, chireche, cherche, Scot. kirk, from AS. circe, cyrice; akin to D. kerk, Icel. kirkja, Sw. kyrka, Dan. kirke, G. kirche, OHG. chirihha; all fr. Gr. &?; the Lord's house, fr. &?; concerning a master or lord, fr. &?; master, lord, fr. &?; power, might; akin to Skr. çūra hero, Zend. çura strong, OIr. caur, cur, hero. Cf. Kirk.]

1. A building set apart for Christian worship.

2. A Jewish or heathen temple. [Obs.] Acts xix. 37.

3. A formally organized body of Christian believers worshiping together. "When they had ordained them elders in every church." Acts xiv. 23.

4. A body of Christian believers, holding the same creed, observing the same rites, and acknowledging the same ecclesiastical authority; a denomination; as, the Roman Catholic church; the Presbyterian church.

5. The collective body of Christians.

6. Any body of worshipers; as, the Jewish church; the church of Brahm.

7. The aggregate of religious influences in a community; ecclesiastical influence, authority, etc.; as, to array the power of the church against some moral evil.

Remember that both church and state are properly the rulers of the people, only because they are their benefactors. Bulwer.

&fist; Church is often used in composition to denote something belonging or relating to the church; as, church authority; church history; church member; church music, etc.

Apostolic church. See under Apostolic. -- Broad church. See Broad Church. -- Catholic or Universal church, the whole body of believers in Christ throughout the world. -- Church of England, or English church, the Episcopal church established and endowed in England by law. -- Church living, a benefice in an established church. - - Church militant. See under Militant. -- Church owl (Zoöl.), the white owl. See Barn owl. -- Church rate, a tax levied on parishioners for the maintenance of the church and its services. -- Church session. See under Session. -- Church triumphant. See under Triumphant. -- Church work, work on, or in behalf of, a church; the work of a particular church for the spread of religion. -- Established church, the church maintained by the civil authority; a state church.

Church, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Churched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Churching.] To bless according to a prescribed form, or to unite with in publicly returning thanks in church, as after deliverance from the dangers of childbirth; as, the churching of women.

Church"-ale` (?), n. A church or parish festival (as in commemoration of the dedication of a church), at which much ale was used. Wright. Nares.

Church"-bench` (?), n. A seat in the porch of a church. Shak.

Church"dom (?), n. The institution, government, or authority of a church. [R.] Bp. Pearson.

Church"go`er (?), n. One who attends church.

Church"go`ing, a. 1. Habitually attending church.

2. Summoning to church.

The sound of the churchgoing bell. Cowper.

Church"-haw` (?), n. [Church + haw a yard.] Churchyard. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Church"ism (?), n. Strict adherence to the forms or principles of some church organization; sectarianism.

Church"less (?), a. Without a church. T. Fuller.

Church"like` (?), a. Befitting a church or a churchman; becoming to a clergyman. Shak.

Church"li*ness (?), n. Regard for the church.

Church"ly, a. Pertaining to, or suitable for, the church; ecclesiastical.

Church"man (?), n.; pl. Churchmen (#). 1. An ecclesiastic or clergyman.

2. An Episcopalian, or a member of the Established Church of England. "A zealous churchman." Macaulay.

3. One was is attached to, or attends, church.

Church"man*ly, a. Pertaining to, or becoming, a churchman. Milman.

Church"man*ship, n. The state or quality of being a churchman; attachment to the church.

Church" modes` (?). (Mus.) The modes or scales used in ancient church music. See Gregorian.

Church"ship, n. State of being a church. South.

Church"ward`en (?), n. 1. One of the officers (usually two) in an Episcopal church, whose duties vary in different dioceses, but always include the provision of what is necessary for the communion service.

2. A clay tobacco pipe, with a long tube. [Slang, Eng.]

There was a small wooden table placed in front of the smoldering fire, with decanters, a jar of tobacco, and two long churchwardens. W. Black.

Church"ward`en*ship, n. The office of a churchwarden.

Church"y, a. Relating to a church; unduly fond of church forms. [Colloq.]

Church"yard` (?), n. The ground adjoining a church, in which the dead are buried; a cemetery.

Like graves in the holy churchyard. Shak.

Syn. -- Burial place; burying ground; graveyard; necropolis; cemetery; God's acre.

Churl (?), n. [AS. ceorl a freeman of the lowest rank, man, husband; akin to D. karel, kerel, G. kerl, Dan. & Sw. karl, Icel. karl, and to the E. proper name Charles (orig., man, male), and perh. to Skr. jāra lover. Cf. Carl, Charles's Wain.] 1. A rustic; a countryman or laborer. "A peasant or churl." Spenser.

Your rank is all reversed; let men of cloth Bow to the stalwart churls in overalls. Emerson.

2. A rough, surly, ill-bred man; a boor.

A churl's courtesy rarely comes, but either for gain or falsehood. Sir P. Sidney.

3. A selfish miser; an illiberal person; a niggard.

Like to some rich churl hoarding up his pelf. Drayton.

Churl, a. Churlish; rough; selfish. [Obs.] Ford.

Churl"ish, a. 1. Like a churl; rude; cross-grained; ungracious; surly; illiberal; niggardly. "Churlish benefits." Ld. Burleigh.

Half mankind maintain a churlish strife. Cowper.

2. Wanting pliancy; unmanageable; unyielding; not easily wrought; as, a churlish soil; the churlish and intractable nature of some minerals. Boyle.

Churl"ish*ly, adv. In a churlish manner.

Churl"ish*ness, n. Rudeness of manners or temper; lack of kindness or courtesy.

Churl"y (?), a. Rude; churlish; violent. Longfellow.

{ Churme (?), Chirm (?) }, n. [See Chirm.] Clamor, or confused noise; buzzing. [Obs.]

The churme of a thousand taunts and reproaches. Bacon.

Churn (chûrn), n. [OE. chirne, cherne, AS. ceren, cyrin; akin to D. karn, Dan. kierne. See Churn, v. t.] A vessel in which milk or cream is stirred, beaten, or otherwise agitated (as by a plunging or revolving dasher) in order to separate the oily globules from the other parts, and obtain butter.

Churn, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Churned (chûrnd); p. pr. & vb. n. Churning.] [OE. chernen, AS. cernan; akin to LG. karnen, G. kernen, D. karnen, Dan. kierne, Sw. kärna, and also to E. corn, kernel, the meaning coming from the idea of extracting the kernel or marrow. See Kernel.] 1. To stir, beat, or agitate, as milk or cream in a churn, in order to make butter.

2. To shake or agitate with violence.

Churned in his teeth, the foamy venom rose. Addison.

Churn, v. i. To perform the operation of churning.

Churn"ing, n. 1. The act of one who churns.

2. The quantity of butter made at one operation.

||Chur"rus (?), n. [Hind. charas.] A powerfully narcotic and intoxicating gum resin which exudes from the flower heads, seeds, etc., of Indian hemp.

Churr"worm` (?), n. [AS. cyrran, cerran, to turn.] (Zoöl.) An insect that turns about nimbly; the mole cricket; -- called also fan cricket. Johnson.

Chuse (?), v. t. See Choose. [Obs.]

Chute (?), n. [F. chute, prop. a fall.] 1. A framework, trough, or tube, upon or through which objects are made to slide from a higher to a lower level, or through which water passes to a wheel.

2. See Shoot.

{ Chut"ney (?), Chut"nee (?), } n. [Hind. chatnī.] A warm or spicy condiment or pickle made in India, compounded of various vegetable substances, sweets, acids, etc.

Chy*la"ceous (?), a. (Physiol.) Possessed of the properties of chyle; consisting of chyle.

Chy*la"que*ous (?), a. [Chyle + aqueous.] (Zoöl.) Consisting of chyle much diluted with water; -- said of a liquid which forms the circulating fluid of some inferior animals.

Chyle (?), n. [NL. chylus, Gr. &?; juice, chyle, fr. &?; to pour: cf. F. chyle; prob. akin to E. fuse to melt.] (Physiol.) A milky fluid containing the fatty matter of the food in a state of emulsion, or fine mechanical division; formed from chyme by the action of the intestinal juices. It is absorbed by the lacteals, and conveyed into the blood by the thoracic duct.

Chyl`i*fac"tion (?), n. [Chyle + L. facere to make.] (Physiol.) The act or process by which chyle is formed from food in animal bodies; chylification, -- a digestive process.

Chyl`i*fac"tive (?), a. (Physiol.) Producing, or converting into, chyle; having the power to form chyle.

Chy*lif"er*ous (?), a. [Chyle + -ferous: cf. F. chylifère.] (Physiol.) Transmitting or conveying chyle; as, chyliferous vessels.

Chy*lif"ic (?), a. Chylifactive.

Chyl`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. (Physiol.) The formation of chyle. See Chylifaction.

Chy*lif"i*ca*to*ry (? or ?), a. Chylifactive.

Chy"li*fy (?), v. t. & i. [Chyle + -ly.] (Physiol.) To make chyle of; to be converted into chyle.

Chy`lo*po*et"ic (?), a. [Gr. chylopoiei^n to make into juice, chylo`s juice, chyle + poiei^n to make.] (Physiol.) Concerned in the formation of chyle; as, the chylopoetic organs.

Chy"lous (?), a. [Cf. F. chyleux.] (Physiol.) Consisting of, or similar to, chyle.

||Chy*lu"ri*a (?), n. [NL. from Gr. &?; chyle + &?; urine.] (Med.) A morbid condition in which the urine contains chyle or fatty matter, giving it a milky appearance.

Chyme (?), n. [L. chymus chyle, Gr. &?; juice, like &?;, fr. &?; to pour: cf. F. chyme. See Chyle.] (Physiol.) The pulpy mass of semi-digested food in the small intestines just after its passage from the stomach. It is separated in the intestines into chyle and excrement. See Chyle.

{ Chym"ic (?), Chym"ist, Chym"is*try (?). } [Obs.] See Chemic, Chemist, Chemistry.

Chy*mif"er*ous (?), a. [Chyme + -ferous.] (Physiol.) Bearing or containing chyme.

Chym`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Chyme + L. facere to make: cf. F. Chymification.] (Physiol.) The conversion of food into chyme by the digestive action of gastric juice.

Chym"i*fy (?), v. t. [Chyme + -fy: cf. F. chymifier.] (Physiol.) To form into chyme.

Chy"mous (?), a. Of or pertaining to chyme.

Chy*om"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. &?; to pour + -meter.] (Chem.) An instrument for measuring liquids. It consists of a piston moving in a tube in which is contained the liquid, the quantity expelled being indicated by the graduation upon the piston rod.

Ci*ba"ri*ous (?), a. [L. cibaruus, fr. cibus food.] Pertaining to food; edible. Johnson.

Ci*ba"tion (?), n. [L. cibatio, fr. cibare to feed.] 1. The act of taking food.

2. (Alchemy) The process or operation of feeding the contents of the crucible with fresh material. B. Jonson.

Cib"ol (?), n. [F. ciboule, LL. cepula, cepola, dim. of L. cepa, caepa, caepe, an onion. Cf. Chibbal, Cives.] A perennial alliaceous plant (Allium fistulosum), sometimes called Welsh onion. Its fistular leaves areused in cookery.

||Ci*bo"ri*um (?), n.: pl. Ciboria (#). [LL., fr. L. ciborium a cup, fr. Gr. &?; a seed vessel of the Egyptian bean; also, a cup made from its largeleaves, or resembling its seed vessel in shape.] 1. (Arch.) A canopy usually standing free and supported on four columns, covering the high altar, or, very rarely, a secondary altar.

2. (R. C. Ch.) The coffer or case in which the host is kept; the pyx.

Ci*ca"da (s&ibreve;*kā"d&adot;), n.; pl. E. Cicadas (- d&adot;z), L. Cicadæ (-dē). [L.] (Zoöl.) Any species of the genus Cicada. They are large hemipterous insects, with nearly transparent wings. The male makes a shrill sound by peculiar organs in the under side of the abdomen, consisting of a pair of stretched membranes, acted upon by powerful muscles. A noted American species (C. septendecim) is called the seventeen year locust. Another common species is the dogday cicada.

||Ci*ca"la (ch&esl;*kä"l&adot;), n. [It., fr. L. cicada.] A cicada. See Cicada. "At eve a dry cicala sung." Tennison.

Cic"a*trice (?), n. [F., fr. L. cicatrix.] A cicatrix.

Cic`a*tri"cial (?), a. (Med.) Relating to, or having the character of, a cicatrix. Dunglison.

Cic"a*tri`cle (?), n. [Cf. F. cicatricule, fr. L. cicatricula a small scar, fr. cicatrix a scar.] (Biol.) The germinating point in the embryo of a seed; the point in the yolk of an egg at which development begins.

Cic"a*tri`sive (?), a. Tending to promote the formation of a cicatrix; good for healing of a wound.

||Ci*ca"trix (?), n.; pl. Cicatrices (#). [L.] (Med.) The pellicle which forms over a wound or breach of continuity and completes the process of healing in the latter, and which subsequently contracts and becomes white, forming the scar.

Cic"a*tri`zant (?), n. [Cf. F. cicatrisant, properly p. pr. of cicatriser.] (Med.) A medicine or application that promotes the healing of a sore or wound, or the formation of a cicatrix.

Cic`a*tri*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. cicatrisation.] (Med.) The process of forming a cicatrix, or the state of being cicatrized.

Cic"a*trize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cicatrized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cicatrizing.] [Cf. F. cicatriser, fr. cicatrice, L. cicatrix, scar.] (Med.) To heal or induce the formation of a cicatrix in, as in wounded or ulcerated flesh. Wiseman.

Cic"a*trize, v. i. (Med.) To heal; to have a new skin.

Cic"a*trose` (?), a. Full of scars. Craig.

Cic"e*ly (?), n. [L. seselis, Gr. &?;, &?;; perh. ultimately of Egyptian origin.] (Bot.) Any one of several umbelliferous plants, of the genera Myrrhis, Osmorrhiza, etc.

Cic"e*ro (?), n. (Print.) Pica type; -- so called by French printers.

||Ci`ce*ro"ne (?), n.; pl. It. Ciceroni (#), E. Cicerones (#). [It., fr. L. Cicero, the Roman orator. So called from the ordinary talkativeness of such a guide.] One who shows strangers the curiosities of a place; a guide.

Every glib and loquacious hireling who shows strangers about their picture galleries, palaces, and ruins, is termed by them [the Italians] a cicerone, or a Cicero. Trench.

Cic`e*ro"ni*an (?), a. [L. Ciceronianus, fr. Cicero, the orator.] Resembling Cicero in style or action; eloquent.

Cic`e*ro"ni*an*ism (?), n. Imitation of, or resemblance to, the style or action Cicero; a Ciceronian phrase or expression. "Great study in Ciceronianism, the chief abuse of Oxford." Sir P. Sidney.

Cich`o*ra"ceous (?), a. [See Chicory.] Belonging to, or resembling, a suborder of composite plants of which the chicory (Cichorium) is the type.

Cich"-pea` (?), n. The chick- pea. Holland.

Ci*cis"be*ism (?), n. The state or conduct of a cicisbeo.

||Ci`cis*be"o (?), n.; pl. It. Cicisbei (#). [It.]

1. A professed admirer of a married woman; a dangler about women.

2. A knot of silk or ribbon attached to a fan, walking stick, etc. [Obs.]

Cic"la*toun` (?), n. [Of. ciclaton.] A costly cloth, of uncertain material, used in the Middle Ages. [Obs.] [Written also checklaton, chekelatoun.]

His robe was of ciclatoun, That coste many a Jane. Chaucer.

Cic"u*rate (?), v. t. [L. cicurare to tame, fr. cicur tame.] To tame. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Cic`u*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. cicuration.] The act of taming. [Obs.] Ray.

||Ci*cu"ta (?), n. [L., the poison hemlock.] (Bot.) a genus of poisonous umbelliferous plants, of which the water hemlock or cowbane is best known.

&fist; The name cicuta is sometimes erroneously applied to Conium maculatum, or officinal hemlock.

Cic`u*tox"in (?), n. (Chem.) The active principle of the water hemlock (Cicuta) extracted as a poisonous gummy substance.

Cid (?), n. [Sp., fr. Ar. seid lord.]

1. Chief or commander; in Spanish literature, a title of Ruy Diaz, Count of Bivar, a champion of Christianity and of the old Spanish royalty, in the 11th century.

2. An epic poem, which celebrates the exploits of the Spanish national hero, Ruy Diaz.

Ci"der (?), n. [F. cidre, OF. sidre, fr. L. sicera a kind of strong drink, Gr. &?;; of Oriental origin; cf. Heb. shākar to be intoxicated, shēkār strong drink.] The expressed juice of apples. It is used as a beverage, for making vinegar, and for other purposes.

&fist; Cider was formerly used to signify the juice of other fruits, and other kinds of strong liquor, but was not applied to wine.

Cider brandy, a kind of brandy distilled from cider. -- Cider mill, a mill in which cider is made. -- Cider press, the press of a cider mill.

Ci`der*ist, n. A maker of cider. [Obs.] Mortimer.

Ci"der*kin (?), n. [Cider + -kin.] A kind of weak cider made by steeping the refuse pomace in water.

Ciderkin is made for common drinking, and supplies the place of small beer. Mortimer.

||Ci`-de*vant" (?), a. [F., hitherto, formerly.] Former; previous; of times gone by; as, a ci-devant governor.

||Cierge (?), n. [F., fr. L. cera wax.] A wax candle used in religous rites.

Ci*gar" (s&ibreve;*gär"), n. [Sp. cigarro, orig., a kind of tobacco in the island of Cuba: cf. F. cigare.] A small roll of tobacco, used for smoking.

Cigar fish (Zoöl.), a fish (Decapterus punctatus), allied to the mackerel, found on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.

Cig`a*rette" (?), n. [F. cigarette.] A little cigar; a little fine tobacco rolled in paper for smoking.

||Cil"i*a (?), n. pl. Cilium, the sing., is rarely used. [L. cilium eyelid.] 1. (Anat.) The eyelashes.

2. (Biol.) Small, generally microscopic, vibrating appendages lining certain organs, as the air passages of the higher animals, and in the lower animals often covering also the whole or a part of the exterior. They are also found on some vegetable organisms. In the Infusoria, and many larval forms, they are locomotive organs.

3. (Bot.) Hairlike processes, commonly marginal and forming a fringe like the eyelash.

4. (Zoöl.) Small, vibratory, swimming organs, somewhat resembling true cilia, as those of Ctenophora.

Cil"ia*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. ciliaire.]

1. (Anat.) Pertaining to the cilia, or eyelashes. Also applied to special parts of the eye itself; as, the ciliary processes of the choroid coat; the ciliary muscle, etc.

2. (Biol.) Pertaining to or connected with the cilia in animal or vegetable organisms; as, ciliary motion.

||Cil`i*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Cilia.] (Zoöl.) One of the orders of Infusoria, characterized by having cilia. In some species the cilia cover the body generally, in others they form a band around the mouth.

{ Cil"i*ate (?), Cil"i*a`ted (?), } a. Provided with, or surrounded by, cilia; as, a ciliate leaf; endowed with vibratory motion; as, the ciliated epithelium of the windpipe.

Cil"ice (?), n. [F. See Cilicious.] A kind of haircloth undergarment. Southey.

Ci*li"cian (?), a. Of or pertaining to Cilicia in Asia Minor. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Cilicia.

Ci*li"cious (?), a. [L. cilicium a covering, orig. made of Cilician goat's hair, fr. Cilicious Cilician, fr. Cilicia, a province of Asia Minor.] Made, or consisting, of hair. [Obs.]

A Cilicious or sackcloth habit. Sir T. Browne.

{ Cil"i*form (?), Cil"i*i*form` (?), } a. [Cilium + -form] Having the form of cilia; very fine or slender.

Cil"i*o*grade (?), a. [Cilium + L. gradi to step: cf. F. ciliograde.] (Zoöl.) Moving by means of cilia, or cilialike organs; as, the ciliograde Medusæ.

||Cil"i*um (?), n. [L., eyelid.] See Cilia.

Cill (?), n. See Sill., n. a foundation.

||Cil*lo"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. L. cilium eyelid.] (Med.) A spasmodic trembling of the upper eyelid.

Ci"ma (?), n. (Arch.) A kind of molding. See Cyma.

Ci*mar" (?), n. See Simar.

Cim"bal (?), n. [It. ciambella.] A kind of confectionery or cake. [Obs.] Nares.

Cim"bi*a (?), n. (Arch.) A fillet or band placed around the shaft of a column as if to strengthen it. [Written also cimia.]

Cim"bri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Cimbri. -- n. One of the Cimbri. See Cimbric.

Cim"bric (?), a. Pertaining to the Cimbri, an ancient tribe inhabiting Northern Germany. -- n. The language of the Cimbri.

Ci*me"li*arch (?), n. [L. cimeliarcha, Gr. &?;, treasurer.] A superintendent or keeper of a church's valuables; a churchwarden. [Obs.] Bailey.

Cim"e*ter (?), n. See Scimiter.

||Ci"mex (?), n.; pl. Cimices (#). [L., a bug.] (Zoöl.) A genus of hemipterous insects of which the bedbug is the best known example. See Bedbug.

Cim"i*a (?), n. (Arch.) See Cimbia.

Ci"miss (?), n. [L. cimex, -icis, a bug.] (Zoöl.) The bedbug. [Obs.] Wright.

Cim*me"ri*an (?), a. [L. Cimmerius.] [Written also Kimmerian.] 1. Pertaining to the Cimmerii, a fabulous people, said to have lived, in very ancient times, in profound and perpetual darkness.

2. Without any light; intensely dark.

In dark Cimmerian desert ever dwell. Milton.

Cim"o*lite (?), n. [Gr. &?; (sc. &?;) Cimolian earth, fr. &?;, L. Cimolus, an island of the Cyclades.] (Min.) A soft, earthy, clayey mineral, of whitish or grayish color.

Cinch (?), n. [Sp. cincha, fr. L. cingere to gird.]

1. A strong saddle girth, as of canvas. [West. U. S.]

2. A tight grip. [Colloq.]

Cin*cho"na (?), n. [So named from the wife of Count Chinchon, viceroy of Peru in the seventeenth century, who by its use was freed from an intermittent fever, and after her return to Spain, contributed to the general propagation of this remedy.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of trees growing naturally on the Andes in Peru and adjacent countries, but now cultivated in the East Indies, producing a medicinal bark of great value.

2. (Med.) The bark of any species of Cinchona containing three per cent. or more of bitter febrifuge alkaloids; Peruvian bark; Jesuits' bark.

Cin`cho*na"ceous (?), a. Allied or pertaining to cinchona, or to the plants that produce it.

Cin*chon"ic (?), a. Belonging to, or obtained from, cinchona. Mayne.

Cin*chon"i*dine (?), n. [From Cinchona.] (Chem.) One of the quinine group of alkaloids, found especially in red cinchona bark. It is a white crystalline substance, C19H22N2O, with a bitter taste and qualities similar to, but weaker than, quinine; -- sometimes called also cinchonidia.

Cin"cho*nine (?), n. [From Cinchona: cf. F. cinchonine.] (Chem.) One of the quinine group of alkaloids isomeric with and resembling cinchonidine; -- called also cinchonia.

Cin"cho*nism (?), n. [From Cinchona.] (Med.) A condition produced by the excessive or long-continued use of quinine, and marked by deafness, roaring in the ears, vertigo, etc.

Cin"cho*nize (?), v. t. To produce cinchonism in; to poison with quinine or with cinchona.

Cin`cin*na"ti ep"och (?). (Geol.) An epoch at the close of the American lower Silurian system. The rocks are well developed near Cincinnati, Ohio. The group includes the Hudson River and Lorraine shales of New York.

Cinc"ture (?), n. [L. cinctura, fr. cingere, cinctum, to gird.] 1. A belt, a girdle, or something worn round the body, -- as by an ecclesiastic for confining the alb.

2. That which encompasses or incloses; an inclosure. "Within the cincture of one wall." Bacon.

3. (Arch.) The fillet, listel, or band next to the apophyge at the extremity of the shaft of a column.

Cinc"tured (?), n. Having or wearing a cincture or girdle.

Cin"der (s&ibreve;n"d&etilde;r), n. [AS. sinder slag, dross; akin to Icel. sindr dross, Sw. sinder, G. sinter, D. sintel; perh. influenced by F. cendre ashes, fr. L. cinis. Cf. Sinter.] 1. Partly burned or vitrified coal, or other combustible, in which fire is extinct.

2. A hot coal without flame; an ember. Swift.

3. A scale thrown off in forging metal.

4. The slag of a furnace, or scoriaceous lava from a volcano.

Cinder frame, a framework of wire in front of the tubes of a locomotive, to arrest the escape of cinders. -- Cinder notch (Metal.), the opening in a blast furnace, through which melted cinder flows out.

Cin"der*y (?), a. Resembling, or composed of, cinders; full of cinders.

Cin`e*fac"tion (?), n. [LL. cinefactio: L. cinis ashes + facere to make: cf. F. cinéfaction.] Cineration; reduction to ashes. [Obs.]

{ Cin`e*mat"ic (?), Cin`e*mat"ic*al (?) }, a. See Kinematic.

Cin`e*mat"ics (?), n. sing. See Kinematics.

Cin`er*a"ceous (?), a. [L. cineraceus, fr. cinis ashes.] Like ashes; ash- colored; cinereous.

||Cin`e*ra"ri*a (?), n. [NL., fr. LL. cinerarius pert. to ashes, fr. cinis ashes. So called from the ash-colored down on the leaves.] (Bot.) A Linnæan genus of free-flowering composite plants, mostly from South Africa. Several species are cultivated for ornament.

Cin"er*a*ry (?), a. [L. cinerarius, fr. cinis ashes.] Pertaining to ashes; containing ashes.

Cinerary urns, vessels used by the ancients to preserve the ashes of the dead when burned.

Cin`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. cinis ashes: cf. F. cinération.] The reducing of anything to ashes by combustion; cinefaction.

Ci*ne"re*ous (?), a. [L. cinereus, fr. cinis ashes.] Like ashes; ash- colored; grayish.

Cin`er*es"cent (?), a. Somewhat cinereous; of a color somewhat resembling that of wood ashes.

Cin`er*i"tious (?), a. [L. cineritius, cinericius, fr. cinis ashes.] Like ashes; having the color of ashes, -- as the cortical substance of the brain.

Ci*ner"u*lent (?), a. Full of ashes. [Obs.]

Cin`ga*lese" (?), n. sing. & pl. [Cf. F. Cingalais.] A native or natives of Ceylon descended from its primitive inhabitants; also (sing.), the language of the Cingalese. -- a. Of or pertaining to the Cingalese. [Written also Singhalese.]

&fist; Ceylonese is applied to the inhabitants of the island in general.

Cin"gle (?), n. [L. cingula, cingulum, fr. cingere to gird.] A girth. [R.] See Surcingle.

||Cin"gu*lum (?), n. [L., a girdle.] (Zoöl.) (a) A distinct girdle or band of color; a raised spiral line as seen on certain univalve shells. (b) The clitellus of earthworms. (c) The base of the crown of a tooth.

Cin"na*bar (?), n. [L. cinnabaris, Gr. &?;; prob. of Oriental origin; cf. Per. qinbār, Hind. shangarf.]

1. (Min.) Red sulphide of mercury, occurring in brilliant red crystals, and also in red or brown amorphous masses. It is used in medicine.

2. The artificial red sulphide of mercury used as a pigment; vermilion.

Cinnabar Græcorum (&?;). [L. Graecorum, gen. pl., of the Greeks.] (Med.) Same as Dragon's blood. -- Green cinnabar, a green pigment consisting of the oxides of cobalt and zinc subjected to the action of fire. -- Hepatic cinnabar (Min.), an impure cinnabar of a liver-brown color and submetallic luster.

Cin"na*ba*rine (?), a. [Cf. F. cinabarin.] Pertaining to, or resembling, cinnabar; consisting of cinnabar, or containing it; as, cinnabarine sand.

Cin"na*mene (?), n. [From Cinnamic.] (Chem.) Styrene (which was formerly called cinnamene because obtained from cinnamic acid). See Styrene.

Cin*nam"ic (?), a. [From Cinnamon.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, cinnamon.

Cinnamic acid (Chem.), a white, crystalline, odorless substance. C6H5. C2H2C2H2.CO2H, formerly obtained from storax and oil of cinnamon, now made from certain benzene derivatives in large quantities, and used for the artificial production of indigo.

Cin`na*mom"ic (?), a. [L. cinnamomum cinnamon.] (Chem.) See Cinnamic.

Cin"na*mon (?), n. [Heb. qinnāmōn; cf. Gr. &?;, &?;, cinnamomum, cinnamon. The Heb. word itself seems to have been borrowed from some other language; cf. Malay kājū mānis sweet wood.] (a) The inner bark of the shoots of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, a tree growing in Ceylon. It is aromatic, of a moderately pungent taste, and is one of the best cordial, carminative, and restorative spices. (b) Cassia.

Cinnamon stone (Min.), a variety of garnet, of a cinnamon or hyacinth red color, sometimes used in jewelry. -- Oil of cinnamon, a colorless aromatic oil obtained from cinnamon and cassia, and consisting essentially of cinnamic aldehyde, C6H5.C2H2.CHO. - - Wild cinnamon. See Canella.

Cin"na*mone (?), n. [Cinnamic + -one.] A yellow crystalline substance, (C6H5. C2H2)2CO, the ketone of cinnamic acid.

Cin"na*myl (?), n. [Cinnamic + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical, (C6H5. C2H2)2C, of cinnamic compounds. [Formerly written also cinnamule.]

Cin"no*line (?), n. [Cinnamic + quinoline.] A nitrogenous organic base, C8H6N2, analogous to quinoline, obtained from certain complex diazo compounds.

Cinque (?), n. [F. cinq, fr. L. quinque five. See Five.] Five; the number five in dice or cards.

||Cin`que*cen"to (?), n. & a. [It., five hundred, abbrev. for fifteen hundred. The Cinquecento style was so called because it arose after the year 1500.] The sixteenth century, when applied to Italian art or literature; as, the sculpture of the Cinquecento; Cinquecento style.

Cinque"foil` (?), n. [Cinque five + foil, F. feuille leaf. See Foil.] 1. (Bot.) The name of several different species of the genus Potentilla; -- also called five-finger, because of the resemblance of its leaves to the fingers of the hand.

2. (Arch.) An ornamental foliation having five points or cups, used in windows, panels, etc. Gwilt.

Marsh cinquefoil, the Potentilla palustris, a plant with purple flowers which grows in fresh- water marshes.

Cinque"-pace` (?), n. [Cinque + pace.] A lively dance (called also galliard), the steps of which were regulated by the number five. [Obs.] Nares. Shak.

Cinque" Ports` (?). [Cinque + port.] (Eng. Hist.) Five English ports, to which peculiar privileges were anciently accorded; -- viz., Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich; afterwards increased by the addition of Winchelsea, Rye, and some minor places.

Baron of the Cinque Ports. See under Baron.

Cinque"-spot`ted, a. Five- spotted. [R.] Shak.

Cin"ter (?), n. [F. cintre.] (Arch.) See Center.

||Ci*nu"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; To move + &?; tail.] (Zoöl.) The group of Thysanura which includes Lepisma and allied forms; the bristletails. See Bristletail, and Lepisma.

Ci"on (?), n. [OF. cion. See Scion.] See Scion.

The cion overruleth the stock; and the stock is but passive, and giveth aliment, but no motion, to the graft. Bacon.

Ci"pher (?), n. [OF. cifre zero, F. Chiffre figure (cf. Sp. cifra, LL. cifra), fr. Ar. çifrun, çafrun, empty, cipher, zero, fr. çafira to be empty. Cf. Zero.]

1. (Arith.) A character [0] which, standing by itself, expresses nothing, but when placed at the right hand of a whole number, increases its value tenfold.

2. One who, or that which, has no weight or influence.

Here he was a mere cipher. W. Irving.

3. A character in general, as a figure or letter. [Obs.]

This wisdom began to be written in ciphers and characters and letters bearing the forms of creatures. Sir W. Raleigh.

4. A combination or interweaving of letters, as the initials of a name; a device; a monogram; as, a painter's cipher, an engraver's cipher, etc. The cut represents the initials N. W.

5. A private alphabet, system of characters, or other mode of writing, contrived for the safe transmission of secrets; also, a writing in such characters.

His father . . . engaged him when he was very young to write all his letters to England in cipher. Bp. Burnet.

Cipher key, a key to assist in reading writings in cipher.

Ci"pher, a. Of the nature of a cipher; of no weight or influence. "Twelve cipher bishops." Milton.

Ci"pher, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ciphered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ciphering.] To use figures in a mathematical process; to do sums in arithmetic.

"T was certain he could write and cipher too. Goldsmith.

Ci"pher, v. t. 1. To write in occult characters.

His notes he ciphered with Greek characters. Hayward.

2. To get by ciphering; as, to cipher out the answer.

3. To decipher. [Obs.] Shak.

4. To designate by characters. [Obs.] Shak.

Ci"pher*er (?), n. One who ciphers.

Ci"pher*hood (?), n. Nothingness. [R.] Goodwin.

Cip"o*lin (?), n. [It. cippollino, prop., a little onion, fr. cipolla onion (cf. E. cibol). So called because its veins consist, like onions, of different strata, one lying upon another.] (Min.) A whitish marble, from Rome, containiing pale greenish zones. It consists of calcium carbonate, with zones and cloudings of talc.

||Cip"pus (?), n.; pl. Cippi (#). [L., stake, post.] A small, low pillar, square or round, commonly having an inscription, used by the ancients for various purposes, as for indicating the distances of places, for a landmark, for sepulchral inscriptions, etc. Gwilt.

Circ (?), n. [See Circus.] An amphitheatrical circle for sports; a circus. [R.] T. Warton.

||Cir*car" (?), n. [See Sircar.] A district, or part of a province. See Sircar. [India]

Cir*cas"sian (?), a. Of or pertaining to Circassia, in Asia. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Circassia.

Cir*ce"an (?), a. [L. Circaeus.] Having the characteristics of Circe, daughter of Sol and Perseis, a mythological enchantress, who first charmed her victims and then changed them to the forms of beasts; pleasing, but noxious; as, a Circean draught.

{ Cir*cen"sial (?), Cir*cen"sian (?), } a. [L. Circensis, ludi Circenses, the games in the Circus Maximus.] Of or pertaining to, or held in, the Circus, In Rome.

The pleasure of the Circensian shows. Holyday.

Cir"ci*nal (?), a. [Gr. &?; a circle.] (Bot.) Circinate.

Cir"ci*nate (?), a. [L. circinatus, p. p. of circinare to make round, fr. circinus a pair of compasses, from Gr. &?; a circle.] (Bot.) Rolled together downward, the tip occupying the center; -- a term used in reference to foliation or leafing, as in ferns. Gray.

Cir"ci*nate (?), v. t. To make a circle around; to encompass. [Obs.] Bailey.

Cir`ci*na"tion (?), n. [L. circinatio circle.]

1. An orbicular motion. [Obs.] bailey.

2. A circle; a concentric layer. [Obs.] "The circinations and spherical rounds of onions." Sir T. Browne.

Cir"cle (s&etilde;r"k'l), n. [OE. cercle, F. cercle, fr. L. circulus (Whence also AS. circul), dim. of circus circle, akin to Gr. kri`kos, ki`rkos, circle, ring. Cf. Circus, Circum-.]

1. A plane figure, bounded by a single curve line called its circumference, every part of which is equally distant from a point within it, called the center.

2. The line that bounds such a figure; a circumference; a ring.

3. (Astron.) An instrument of observation, the graduated limb of which consists of an entire circle.

&fist; When it is fixed to a wall in an observatory, it is called a mural circle; when mounted with a telescope on an axis and in Y's, in the plane of the meridian, a meridian or transit circle; when involving the principle of reflection, like the sextant, a reflecting circle; and when that of repeating an angle several times continuously along the graduated limb, a repeating circle.

4. A round body; a sphere; an orb.

It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth. Is. xi. 22.

5. Compass; circuit; inclosure.

In the circle of this forest. Shak.

6. A company assembled, or conceived to assemble, about a central point of interest, or bound by a common tie; a class or division of society; a coterie; a set.

As his name gradually became known, the circle of his acquaintance widened. Macaulay.

7. A circular group of persons; a ring.

8. A series ending where it begins, and repeating itself.

Thus in a circle runs the peasant's pain. Dryden.

9. (Logic) A form of argument in which two or more unproved statements are used to prove each other; inconclusive reasoning.

That heavy bodies descend by gravity; and, again, that gravity is a quality whereby a heavy body descends, is an impertinent circle and teaches nothing. Glanvill.

10. Indirect form of words; circumlocution. [R.]

Has he given the lie, In circle, or oblique, or semicircle. J. Fletcher.

11. A territorial division or district.

&fist; The Circles of the Holy Roman Empire, ten in number, were those principalities or provinces which had seats in the German Diet.

Azimuth circle. See under Azimuth. -- Circle of altitude (Astron.), a circle parallel to the horizon, having its pole in the zenith; an almucantar. -- Circle of curvature. See Osculating circle of a curve (Below). -- Circle of declination. See under Declination. -- Circle of latitude. (a) (Astron.) A great circle perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, passing through its poles. (b) (Spherical Projection) A small circle of the sphere whose plane is perpendicular to the axis. -- Circles of longitude, lesser circles parallel to the ecliptic, diminishing as they recede from it. -- Circle of perpetual apparition, at any given place, the boundary of that space around the elevated pole, within which the stars never set. Its distance from the pole is equal to the latitude of the place. -- Circle of perpetual occultation, at any given place, the boundary of the space around the depressed pole, within which the stars never rise. -- Circle of the sphere, a circle upon the surface of the sphere, called a great circle when its plane passes through the center of the sphere; in all other cases, a small circle. -- Diurnal circle. See under Diurnal. -- Dress circle, a gallery in a theater, generally the one containing the prominent and more expensive seats. -- Druidical circles (Eng. Antiq.), a popular name for certain ancient inclosures formed by rude stones circularly arranged, as at Stonehenge, near Salisbury. -- Family circle, a gallery in a theater, usually one containing inexpensive seats. -- Horary circles (Dialing), the lines on dials which show the hours. -- Osculating circle of a curve (Geom.), the circle which touches the curve at some point in the curve, and close to the point more nearly coincides with the curve than any other circle. This circle is used as a measure of the curvature of the curve at the point, and hence is called circle of curvature. -- Pitch circle. See under Pitch. -- Vertical circle, an azimuth circle. -- Voltaic circle or circuit. See under Circuit. -- To square the circle. See under Square.

Syn. -- Ring; circlet; compass; circuit; inclosure.

Cir"cle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Circling (?).] [OE. cerclen, F. cercler, fr. L. circulare to make round. See Circle, n., and cf. Circulate.]

1. To move around; to revolve around.

Other planets circle other suns. Pope.

2. To encompass, as by a circle; to surround; to inclose; to encircle. Prior. Pope.

Their heads are circled with a short turban. Dampier.

So he lies, circled with evil. Coleridge.

To circle in, to confine; to hem in; to keep together; as, to circle bodies in. Sir K. Digby.

Cir"cle, v. i. To move circularly; to form a circle; to circulate.

Thy name shall circle round the gaping through. Byron.

Cir"cled (?), a. Having the form of a circle; round. "Monthly changes in her circled orb." Shak.

Cir"cler (?), n. A mean or inferior poet, perhaps from his habit of wandering around as a stroller; an itinerant poet. Also, a name given to the cyclic poets. See under Cyclic, a. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

Cir"clet (?), n. 1. A little circle; esp., an ornament for the person, having the form of a circle; that which encircles, as a ring, a bracelet, or a headband.

Her fair locks in circlet be enrolled. Spenser.

2. A round body; an orb. Pope.

Fairest of stars . . . that crown'st the smiling morn With thy bright circlet. Milton.

3. A circular piece of wood put under a dish at table. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Cir"co*cele (?), n. See Cirsocele.

Cir"cuit (?), n. [F. circuit, fr. L. circuitus, fr. circuire or circumire to go around; circum around + ire to go.] 1. The act of moving or revolving around, or as in a circle or orbit; a revolution; as, the periodical circuit of the earth round the sun. Watts.

2. The circumference of, or distance round, any space; the measure of a line round an area.

The circuit or compass of Ireland is 1,800 miles. J. Stow.

3. That which encircles anything, as a ring or crown.

The golden circuit on my head. Shak.

4. The space inclosed within a circle, or within limits.

A circuit wide inclosed with goodliest trees. Milton.

5. A regular or appointed journeying from place to place in the exercise of one's calling, as of a judge, or a preacher.

6. (a) (Law) A certain division of a state or country, established by law for a judge or judges to visit, for the administration of justice. Bouvier. (b) (Methodist Church) A district in which an itinerant preacher labors.

7. Circumlocution. [Obs.] "Thou hast used no circuit of words." Huloet.

Circuit court (Law), a court which sits successively in different places in its circuit (see Circuit, 6). In the United States, the federal circuit courts are commonly presided over by a judge of the supreme court, or a special circuit judge, together with the judge of the district court. They have jurisdiction within statutory limits, both in law and equity, in matters of federal cognizance. Some of the individual States also have circuit courts, which have general statutory jurisdiction of the same class, in matters of State cognizance. -- Circuit or Circuity of action (Law), a longer course of proceedings than is necessary to attain the object in view. -- To make a circuit, to go around; to go a roundabout way. -- Voltaic or Galvanic circuit or circle, a continous electrical communication between the two poles of a battery; an arrangement of voltaic elements or couples with proper conductors, by which a continuous current of electricity is established.

Cir"cuit, v. i. To move in a circle; to go round; to circulate. [Obs.] J. Philips.

Cir"cuit, v. t. To travel around. [Obs.] "Having circuited the air." T. Warton.

Cir`cuit*eer" (?), n. A circuiter. Pope.

Cir"cuit*er (?), n. One who travels a circuit, as a circuit judge. [R.] R. Whitlock.

Cir`cu*i"tion (?), n. [L. circuitio. See Circuit.] The act of going round; circumlocution. [R.]

Cir*cu"i*tous (?), a. [LL. circuitosus.] Going round in a circuit; roundabout; indirect; as, a circuitous road; a circuitous manner of accomplishing an end. -- Cir*cu"i*tous*ly, adv. -- Cir*cu"i*tous*ness, n.

Syn. -- Tortuous; winding; sinuous; serpentine.

Cir*cu"i*ty (?), n. A going round in a circle; a course not direct; a roundabout way of proceeding.

Cir"cu*la*ble (?), a. That may be circulated.

Cir"cu*lar (?), a. [L. circularis, fr. circulus circle: cf. F. circulaire. See Circle.]

1. In the form of, or bounded by, a circle; round.

2. repeating itself; ending in itself; reverting to the point of beginning; hence, illogical; inconclusive; as, circular reasoning.

3. Adhering to a fixed circle of legends; cyclic; hence, mean; inferior. See Cyclic poets, under Cyclic.

Had Virgil been a circular poet, and closely adhered to history, how could the Romans have had Dido? Dennis.

4. Addressed to a circle, or to a number of persons having a common interest; circulated, or intended for circulation; as, a circular letter.

A proclamation of Henry III., . . . doubtless circular throughout England. Hallam.

5. Perfect; complete. [Obs.]

A man so absolute and circular In all those wished-for rarities that may take A virgin captive. Massinger.

Circular are, any portion of the circumference of a circle. -- Circular cubics (Math.), curves of the third order which are imagined to pass through the two circular points at infinity. -- Circular functions. (Math.) See under Function. -- Circular instruments, mathematical instruments employed for measuring angles, in which the graduation extends round the whole circumference of a circle, or 360°. -- Circular lines, straight lines pertaining to the circle, as sines, tangents, secants, etc. -- Circular note or letter. (a) (Com.) See under Credit. (b) (Diplomacy) A letter addressed in identical terms to a number of persons. -- Circular numbers (Arith.), those whose powers terminate in the same digits as the roots themselves; as 5 and 6, whose squares are 25 and 36. Bailey. Barlow. -- Circular points at infinity (Geom.), two imaginary points at infinite distance through which every circle in the plane is, in the theory of curves, imagined to pass. -- Circular polarization. (Min.) See under Polarization. -- Circular or Globular sailing (Naut.), the method of sailing by the arc of a great circle. -- Circular saw. See under Saw.

Cir"cu*lar, n. [Cf. (for sense 1) F. circulaire, lettre circulaire. See Circular, a.]

1. A circular letter, or paper, usually printed, copies of which are addressed or given to various persons; as, a business circular.

2. A sleeveless cloak, cut in circular form.

circularise v. 1. to canvass by distributing letters. Syn. -- circularize. [WordNet 1.5]

2. to distribute circulars to. Syn. -- circularize. [WordNet 1.5]

3. to to pass around, as information. Syn. -- circulate, circularize, distribute, disseminate, propagate, broadcast, spread, diffuse, disperse. [WordNet 1.5]

Cir`cu*lar"i*ty (?), n. [LL. circularitas.] The quality or state of being circular; a circular form.

Cir"cu*lar*ly (?), adv. In a circular manner.

Cir"cu*la*ry (?), a. Circular; illogical. [Obs. & .] "Cross and circulary speeches." Hooker.

Cir"cu*late (#), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Circulated; p. pr. & vb. n. Circulating.] [L. circulatus, p. p. of circulare, v. t., to surround, make round, circulari, v. i., to gather into a circle. See Circle.]

1. To move in a circle or circuitously; to move round and return to the same point; as, the blood circulates in the body. Boyle.

2. To pass from place to place, from person to person, or from hand to hand; to be diffused; as, money circulates; a story circulates.

Circulating decimal. See Decimal. -- Circulating library, a library whose books are loaned to the public, usually at certain fixed rates. -- Circulating medium. See Medium.

Cir"cu*late (?), v. t. To cause to pass from place to place, or from person to person; to spread; as, to circulate a report; to circulate bills of credit.

Circulating pump. See under Pump.

Syn. -- To spread; diffuse; propagate; disseminate.

Cir`cu*la"tion (?), n. [L. circulatio: cf. F. circulation.] 1. The act of moving in a circle, or in a course which brings the moving body to the place where its motion began.

This continual circulation of human things. Swift.

2. The act of passing from place to place or person to person; free diffusion; transmission.

The true doctrines of astronomy appear to have had some popular circulation. Whewell.

3. Currency; circulating coin; notes, bills, etc., current for coin.

4. The extent to which anything circulates or is circulated; the measure of diffusion; as, the circulation of a newspaper.

5. (Physiol.) The movement of the blood in the blood-vascular system, by which it is brought into close relations with almost every living elementary constituent. Also, the movement of the sap in the vessels and tissues of plants.

Cir"cu*la*tive (?), a. Promoting circulation; circulating. [R.] Coleridge.

Cir"cu*la`tor (?), n. [Cf. L. circulator a peddler.] One who, or that which, circulates.

Cir`cu*la*to"ri*ous (?), a. Travelling from house to house or from town to town; itinerant. [Obs.] "Circulatorious jugglers." Barrow.

Cir"cu*la*to*ry (?), a. [L. circulatorius pert. to a mountebank: cf. F. circulatoire.]

1. Circular; as, a circulatory letter. Johnson.

2. Circulating, or going round. T. Warton.

3. (Anat.) Subserving the purposes of circulation; as, circulatory organs; of or pertaining to the organs of circulation; as, circulatory diseases.

Cir"cu*la*to*ry, n. A chemical vessel consisting of two portions unequally exposed to the heat of the fire, and with connecting pipes or passages, through which the fluid rises from the overheated portion, and descends from the relatively colder, maintaining a circulation.

Cir"cu*let (?), n. A circlet. [Obs.] Spenser.

Cir"cu*line (?), a. Proceeding in a circle; circular. [Obs.] "With motion circuline". Dr. H. More.

Cir"cum- (?). [Akin to circle, circus.] A Latin preposition, used as a prefix in many English words, and signifying around or about.

Cir`cum*ag"i*tate (?), v. t. [Pref. circum + agitate.] To agitate on all sides. Jer. Taylor.

Cir`cum*am"bage (?), n. [Pref. circum- + ambage, obs. sing. of ambages.] A roundabout or indirect course; indirectness. [Obs.] S. Richardson.

Cir`cum*am"bi*en*cy (?), n. The act of surrounding or encompassing. Sir T. Browne.

Cir`cum*am"bi*ent (?), a. [Pref. circum- + ambient.] Surrounding; inclosing or being on all sides; encompassing. "The circumambient heaven." J. Armstrong.

Cir`cum*am"bu*late (?), v. t. [L. circumambulatus, p. p. of circumambulare to walk around; circum + ambulare. See Ambulate.] To walk round about. -- Cir`cum*am`bu*la"tion (#), n.

Cir`cum*bend"i*bus (?), n. A roundabout or indirect way. [Jocular] Goldsmith.

Cir`cum*cen"ter (?), n. (Geom.) The center of a circle that circumscribes a triangle.

Cir"cum*cise (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumcised (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Circumcising.] [L. circumcisus, p. p. of circumcidere to cut around, to circumcise; circum + caedere to cut; akin to E. cæsura, homicide, concise, and prob. to shed, v. t.] 1. To cut off the prepuce of foreskin of, in the case of males, and the internal labia of, in the case of females.

2. (Script.) To purify spiritually.

Cir"cum*ci`ser (?), n. One who performs circumcision. Milton.

Cir`cum*cision (?), n. [L. circumcisio.] 1. The act of cutting off the prepuce or foreskin of males, or the internal labia of females.

&fist; The circumcision of males is practiced as a religious rite by the Jews, Mohammedans, etc.

2. (Script.) (a) The Jews, as a circumcised people. (b) Rejection of the sins of the flesh; spiritual purification, and acceptance of the Christian faith.

Cir`cum*clu"sion (?), n. [L. circumcludere, -clusum, to inclose.] Act of inclosing on all sides. [R.]

Cir`cum*cur*sa"tion (?), n. [L. circumcursare, -satum, to run round about.] The act of running about; also, rambling language. [Obs.] Barrow.

Cir`cum*den`u*da"tion (?), n. [Pref. circum- + denudation.] (Geol.) Denudation around or in the neighborhood of an object.

Hills of circumdenudation, hills which have been produced by surface erosion; the elevations which have been left, after denudation of a mass of high ground. Jukes.

Cir`cum*duce" (?), v. t. [See Circumduct.] (Scots Law) To declare elapsed, as the time allowed for introducing evidence. Sir W. Scott.

Cir`cum*duct" (?), v. t. [L. circumductus, p. p. of circumducere to lead around; circum + ducere to lead.] 1. To lead about; to lead astray. [R.]

2. (Law) To contravene; to nullify; as, to circumduct acts of judicature. [Obs.] Ayliffe.

Cir`cum*duc"tion (?), n. [L. circumductio.] 1. A leading about; circumlocution. [R.] Hooker.

2. An annulling; cancellation. [R.] Ayliffe.

3. (Physiol.) The rotation of a limb round an imaginary axis, so as to describe a conical surface.

Cir`cum*e*soph"a*gal (?), a. [Pref. circum- + esophagal.] (Anat.) Surrounding the esophagus; -- in Zoöl. said of the nerve commissures and ganglia of arthropods and mollusks.

Cir`cum*e`so*phag"e*al (?), a. (Anat.) Circumesophagal.

Cir"cum*fer (?), v. t. [L. circumferre; circum- + ferre to bear. See 1st Bear.] To bear or carry round. [Obs.] Bacon.

Cir*cum"fer*ence (?), n. [L. circumferentia.]

1. The line that goes round or encompasses a circular figure; a periphery. Millon.

2. A circle; anything circular.

His ponderous shield . . . Behind him cast. The broad circumference Hung on his shoulders like the moon. Milton.

3. The external surface of a sphere, or of any orbicular body.

Cir*cum"fer*ence, v. t. To include in a circular space; to bound. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

Cir*cum`fer*en"tial (?), a. [LL. circumferentialis.] Pertaining to the circumference; encompassing; encircling; circuitous. Parkhurst.

Cir*cum`fer*en"tial*ly (?), adv. So as to surround or encircle.

Cir*cum`fer*en"tor (?), n. [See Circumfer.]

1. A surveying instrument, for taking horizontal angles and bearings; a surveyor's compass. It consists of a compass whose needle plays over a circle graduated to 360°, and of a horizontal brass bar at the ends of which are standards with narrow slits for sighting, supported on a tripod by a ball and socket joint.

2. A graduated wheel for measuring tires; a tire circle.

Cir"cum*flant (?), a. [L. circumflans, p. pr. of circumflare.] Blowing around. [Obs.] Evelyn.

Cir"cum*flect (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumflected; p. pr. & vb. n. Circumflecting.] [L. circumflectere. See Circumflex.] 1. To bend around.

2. To mark with the circumflex accent, as a vowel. [R.]

Cir`cum*flec"tion (?), n. See Circumflexion.

Cir"cum*flex (?), n. [L. circumflexus a bending round, fr. circumflectere, circumflexum, to bend or turn about; circum + flectere to bend. See Flexible.]

1. A wave of the voice embracing both a rise and fall or a fall and a rise on the same a syllable. Walker.

2. A character, or accent, denoting in Greek a rise and of the voice on the same long syllable, marked thus [~ or &?;]; and in Latin and some other languages, denoting a long and contracted syllable, marked [&?; or ^]. See Accent, n., 2.

Cir"cum*flex, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumflexed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Circumflexing (?).] To mark or pronounce with a circumflex. Walker.

Cir"cum*flex, a. [Cf. L. circumflexus, p. p.]

1. Moving or turning round; circuitous. [R.] Swift.

2. (Anat.) Curved circularly; -- applied to several arteries of the hip and thigh, to arteries, veins, and a nerve of the shoulder, and to other parts.

Cir`cum*flex"ion (?), n. 1. The act of bending, or causing to assume a curved form.

2. A winding about; a turning; a circuity; a fold.

Cir*cum"flu*ence (?), n. A flowing round on all sides; an inclosing with a fluid.

{ Cir*cum"flu*ent (?), Cir*cum"flu*ous (?), } a. [L. circumfluere, p. pr. of circumfluere; circum + fluere to flow; also L. circumfluus.] Flowing round; surrounding in the manner of a fluid. "The deep, circumfluent waves." Pope.

{ Cir`cum*fo*ra"ne*an (?), Cir`cum*fo*ra"ne*ous (?), } a. [L. circumforaneus found in markets; circum + forum a market place.] Going about or abroad; walking or wandering from house to house. Addison.

Cir`cum*ful"gent (?), a. [Pref. circum- + fulgent.] Shining around or about.

Cir`cum*fuse" (?), v. t. [L. circumfusus, p. p. of circumfundere to pour around; circum + fundere to pour.] To pour round; to spread round.

His army circumfused on either wing. Milton.

Cir`cum*fu"sile (?), a. [Pref. circum- + L. fusilis fusil, a.] Capable of being poured or spread round. "Circumfusile gold." Pope.

Cir`cum*fu"sion (?), n. [L. circumfusio.] The act of pouring or spreading round; the state of being spread round. Swift.

Cir`cum*ges*ta"tion (?), n. [L. circumgestare to carry around; circum + gestare to carry.] The act or process of carrying about. [Obs.]

Circumgestation of the eucharist to be adored. Jer. Taylor.

Cir`cum*gy"rate (?), v. t. & i. [Pref. circum- + gyrate.] To roll or turn round; to cause to perform a rotary or circular motion. Ray.

Cir`cum*gy*ra"tion (?), n. The act of turning, rolling, or whirling round.

A certain turbulent and irregular circumgyration. Holland.

Cir`cum*gy"ra*to*ry (?), a. Moving in a circle; turning round. Hawthorne.

Cir`cum*gyre" (?), v. i. To circumgyrate. [Obs.]

Cir`cum*in*ces"sion (?), n. [Pref. circum- + L. incedere, incessum, to walk.] (Theol.) The reciprocal existence in each other of the three persons of the Trinity.

Cir`cum*ja"cence (?), n. Condition of being circumjacent, or of bordering on every side.

Cir`cum*ja"cent (?), a. [L. circumjacens, p. pr. of circumjacere; circum + jacēre to lie.] Lying round; bordering on every side. T. Fuller.

Cir`cum*jo"vi*al (?), n. [Pref. circum- + L. Jupiter, gen. Jovis, Jove.] One of the moons or satellites of the planet Jupiter. [Obs.] Derham.

Cir`cum*lit"to*ral (?), a. [Pref. circum- + L. littus, littoris, shore; preferable form, litus, litoris.] Adjointing the shore.

Cir`cum*lo*cu"tion (?), n. [L. circumlocutio, fr. circumloqui, -locutus, to make use of circumlocution; circum + loqui to speak. See Loquacious.] The use of many words to express an idea that might be expressed by few; indirect or roundabout language; a periphrase.

the plain Billingsgate way of calling names . . . would save abundance of time lost by circumlocution. Swift.

Circumlocution office, a term of ridicule for a governmental office where business is delayed by passing through the hands of different officials.

Cir`cum*lo*cu"tion*al (?), a. Relating to, or consisting of, circumlocutions; periphrastic; circuitous.

Cir`cum*loc"u*to*ry (?), a. Characterised by circumlocution; periphrastic. Shenstone.

The officials set to work in regular circumlocutory order. Chambers's Journal.

Cir`cum*me*rid"i*an (?), a. [Pref. circum- + meridian.] About, or near, the meridian.

Cir`cum*mure" (?), v. t. [Pref. circum- + mure, v. t.] To encompass with a wall. Shak.

Cir`cum*nav"i*ga*ble (?), a. Capable of being sailed round. Ray.

Cir`cum*nav"i*gate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumnavigated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Circumnavigating (?).] [L. circumnavigatus, p. p. of circumnavigare to sail round; circum + navigare to navigate.] To sail completely round.

Having circumnavigated the whole earth. T. Fuller.

Cir`cum*nav`i*ga"tion (?), n. The act of circumnavigating, or sailing round. Arbuthnot.

Cir`cum*nav"iga`tor (?), n. One who sails round. W. Guthrie.

Cir`cum*nu"tate (?), v. i. [Pref. circum- + nutate.] To pass through the stages of circumnutation.

Cir`cum*nu*ta"tion (?), n. (Bot.) The successive bowing or bending in different directions of the growing tip of the stems of many plants, especially seen in climbing plants.

Cir`cum*po"lar (?), a. [Pref. circum- + polar.] About the pole; -- applied to stars that revolve around the pole without setting; as, circumpolar stars.

Cir`cum*po*si"tion (?), n. [L. circumpositio, fr. circumponere, - positium, to place around.] The act of placing in a circle, or round about, or the state of being so placed. Evelyn.

{ Cir`cum*ro"tary (?), Cir`cum*ro"ta*to*ry (?), } a. [Pref. circum- + rotary, rotatory.] turning, rolling, or whirling round.

Cir`cum*ro"tate (?), v. t. & i. [L. circumrotare; circum + rotare to turn round.] To rotate about. [R.]

Cir`cum*ro*ta"tion (?), n. The act of rolling or revolving round, as a wheel; circumvolution; the state of being whirled round. J. Gregory.

Cir`cum*scis"sile (?), a. [Pref. circum- + scissle.] (Bot.) Dehiscing or opening by a transverse fissure extending around (a capsule or pod). See Illust. of Pyxidium.

Cir`cum*scrib"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being circumscribed.

Cir`cum*scribe" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumscribed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Circumscribing.] [L. circumscribere, -scriptum; circum + scribere to write, draw. See Soribe.]

1. to write or engrave around. [R.]

Thereon is circumscribed this epitaph. Ashmole.

2. To inclose within a certain limit; to hem in; to surround; to bound; to confine; to restrain.

To circumscribe royal power. Bancroft.

3. (Geom.) To draw a line around so as to touch at certain points without cutting. See Inscribe, 5.

Syn. -- To bound; limit; restrict; confine; abridge; restrain; environ; encircle; inclose; encompass.

Cir`cum*scrib"er (?), n. One who, or that which, circumscribes.

Cir`cum*scrip"ti*ble (?), a. Capable of being circumscribed or limited by bounds.

Cir`cum*scrip"tion (?), n. [L. circumscriptio. See Circumscribe.] 1. An inscription written around anything. [R.] Ashmole.

2. The exterior line which determines the form or magnitude of a body; outline; periphery. Ray.

3. The act of limiting, or the state of being limited, by conditions or restraints; bound; confinement; limit.

The circumscriptions of terrestrial nature. Johnson.

I would not my unhoused, free condition Put into circumscription and confine. Shak.

Cir`cum*scrip"tive (?), a. Circumscribing or tending to circumscribe; marcing the limits or form of.

Cir`cum*scrip"tive*ly, adv. In a limited manner.

Cir"cum*script`ly (?), adv. In a literal, limited, or narrow manner. [R.] Milton.

Cir"cum*spect (?), a. [L. circumspectus, p. p. of circumspicere to look about one's self, to observe; circum + spicere, specere, to look. See Spy.] Attentive to all the circumstances of a case or the probable consequences of an action; cautious; prudent; wary.

Syn. -- See Cautious.

Cir`cum*spec"tion (?), n. [L. circumspectio.] Attention to all the facts and circumstances of a case; caution; watchfulness.

With silent circumspection, unespied. Milton.

Syn. -- Caution; prudence; watchfulness; deliberation; thoughtfulness; wariness; forecast.

Cir`cum*spec"tive (s&etilde;r`kŭm*sp&ebreve;k"t&ibreve;v), a. Looking around every way; cautious; careful of consequences; watchful of danger. "Circumspective eyes." Pope.

Cir`cum*spec"tive*ly, adv. Circumspectly.

Cir"cum*spect"ly (-sp&ebreve;kt"l>ycr/), adv. In a circumspect manner; cautiously; warily.

Cir"cum*spect"ness, n. Vigilance in guarding against evil from every quarter; caution.

[Travel] forces circumspectness on those abroad, who at home are nursed in security. Sir H. Wotton.

Cir"cum*stance (?), n. [L. circumstantia, fr. circumstans, -antis, p. pr. of circumstare to stand around; circum + stare to stand. See Stand.] 1. That which attends, or relates to, or in some way affects, a fact or event; an attendant thing or state of things.

The circumstances are well known in the country where they happened. W. Irving.

2. An event; a fact; a particular incident.

The sculptor had in his thoughts the conqueror weeping for new worlds, or the like circumstances in history. Addison.

3. Circumlocution; detail. [Obs.]

So without more circumstance at all I hold it fit that we shake hands and part. Shak.

4. pl. Condition in regard to worldly estate; state of property; situation; surroundings.

When men are easy in their circumstances, they are naturally enemies to innovations. Addison.

Not a circumstance, of no account. [Colloq.] -- Under the circumstances, taking all things into consideration.

Syn. -- Event; occurrence; incident; situation; condition; position; fact; detail; item. See Event.

Cir"cum*stance, v. t. To place in a particular situation; to supply relative incidents.

The poet took the matters of fact as they came down to him and circumstanced them, after his own manner. Addison.

Cir"cum*stanced (?), p. a. 1. Placed in a particular position or condition; situated.

The proposition is, that two bodies so circumstanced will balance each other. Whewell.

2. Governed by events or circumstances. [Poetic & R.] "I must be circumstanced." Shak.

Cir"cum*stant (?), a. [L. circumstans. See Circumstance.] Standing or placed around; surrounding. [R.] "Circumstant bodies." Sir K. Digby.

Cir`cum*stan"tia*ble (?), a. Capable of being circumstantiated. [Obs.] Jer Taylor.

Cir`cum*stan"tial (?), a. [Cf. F. circonstanciel.]

1. Consisting in, or pertaining to, circumstances or particular incidents.

The usual character of human testimony is substantial truth under circumstantial variety. Paley.

2. Incidental; relating to, but not essential.

We must therefore distinguish between the essentials in religious worship . . . and what is merely circumstantial. Sharp.

3. Abounding with circumstances; detailing or exhibiting all the circumstances; minute; particular.

Tedious and circumstantial recitals. Prior.

Circumstantial evidence (Law), evidence obtained from circumstances, which necessarily or usually attend facts of a particular nature, from which arises presumption. According to some authorities circumstantial is distinguished from positive evidence in that the latter is the testimony of eyewitnesses to a fact or the admission of a party; but the prevalent opinion now is that all such testimony is dependent on circumstances for its support. All testimony is more or less circumstantial. Wharton.

Syn. -- See Minute.

Cir`cum*stan"tial, n. Something incidental to the main subject, but of less importance; opposed to an essential; -- generally in the plural; as, the circumstantials of religion. Addison.

Cir`cum*stan`ti*al"i*ty (?), n. The state, characteristic, or quality of being circumstantial; particularity or minuteness of detail. "I will endeavor to describe with sufficient circumstantiality." De Quincey.

Cir`cum*stan"tial*ly (?), adv. 1. In respect to circumstances; not essentially; accidentally.

Of the fancy and intellect, the powers are only circumstantially different. Glanvill.

2. In every circumstance or particular; minutely.

To set down somewhat circumstantially, not only the events, but the manner of my trials. Boyle.

Cir`cum*stan"ti*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumstantiated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Circumstantiating (?).] [See Circumstantiating (&?;).]

1. To place in particular circumstances; to invest with particular accidents or adjuncts. [R.]

If the act were otherwise circumstantiated, it might will that freely which now it wills reluctantly. Bramhall.

2. To prove or confirm by circumstances; to enter into details concerning.

Neither will time permint to circumstantiate these particulars, which I have only touched in the general. State Trials (1661).

Cir`cum*ter*ra"ne*ous (?), a. [Pref. circum- + L. terra earth.] Being or dwelling around the earth. "Circumterraneous demouns." H. Hallywell.

Cir`cum*un"du*late (?), v. t. [Pref. circum- + undulate.] To flow round, as waves. [R.]

Cir`cum*val"late (?), v. t. [L. circumvallatus, p. p. of circumvallare to surround with a wall; circum + vallare to wall, fr. vallum rampart.] To surround with a rampart or wall. Johnson.

Cir`cum*val"late (?), a. 1. Surrounded with a wall; inclosed with a rampart.

2. (Anat.) Surrounded by a ridge or elevation; as, the circumvallate papillæ, near the base of the tongue.

Cir`cum*val*la"tion (?), n. (Mil.) (a) The act of surrounding with a wall or rampart. (b) A line of field works made around a besieged place and the besieging army, to protect the camp of the besiegers against the attack of an enemy from without.

Cir`cum*vec"tion (?), n. [L. circumvectio; circum + vehere to carry.] The act of carrying anything around, or the state of being so carried.

Cir`cum*vent" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumvented; p. pr. vb. n. Circumventing.] [L. circumventis, p. p. of circumvenire, to come around, encompass, deceive; circum + venire to come, akin to E. come.] To gain advantage over by arts, stratagem, or deception; to decieve; to delude; to get around.

I circumvented whom I could not gain. Dryden.

Cir`cum*ven"tion (?), n. [L. circumventio.] The act of prevailing over another by arts, address, or fraud; deception; fraud; imposture; delusion.

A school in which he learns sly circumvention. Cowper.

Cir`cum*vent"ive (?), a. Tending to circumvent; deceiving by artifices; deluding.

Cir`cum*vent"or (?), n. [L.] One who circumvents; one who gains his purpose by cunning.

Cir`cum*vest" (?), v. t. [L. circumvestire; circum + vestire to clothe.] To cover round, as with a garment; to invest. [Obs.]

Circumvested with much prejudice. Sir H. Wotton.

Cir*cum"vo*lant (?), a. [L. circumvolans, p. pr. See Circumvolation.] Flying around.

The circumvolant troubles of humanity. G. Macdonald.

Cir`cum*vo*la"tion (?), n. [L. circumvolate. -volatum, to fly around; circum + volare to fly.] The act of flying round. [R.]

Cir`cum*vo*lu"tion (?), n. [See Circumvolve.]

1. The act of rolling round; the state of being rolled.

2. A thing rolled round another. Arbuthnot.

3. A roundabout procedure; a circumlocution.

He had neither time nor temper for sentimental circumvolutions. Beaconsfield.

Cir`cum*volve" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circumvolved (?); p. pr. vb. n. Circumvolving.] [L. circumvolvere, -volutum; circum + volvere to roll.] To roll round; to cause to revolve; to put into a circular motion. Herrick.

Cir`cum*volve", v. i. To roll round; to revolve.

Cir"cus (?), n.; pl. Circuses (#). [L. circus circle, ring, circus (in sense 1). See Circle, and cf. Cirque.]

1. (Roman Antiq.) A level oblong space surrounded on three sides by seats of wood, earth, or stone, rising in tiers one above another, and divided lengthwise through the middle by a barrier around which the track or course was laid out. It was used for chariot races, games, and public shows.

&fist; The Circus Maximus at Rome could contain more than 100,000 spectators. Harpers' Latin Dict.

2. A circular inclosure for the exhibition of feats of horsemanship, acrobatic displays, etc. Also, the company of performers, with their equipage.

3. Circuit; space; inclosure. [R.]

The narrow circus of my dungeon wall. Byron.

Cirl" bun`ting (?). [Cf. It. cirlo.] (Zoöl.) A European bunting (Emberiza cirlus).

Cirque (?), n. [F., fr. L. circus.]

1. A circle; a circus; a circular erection or arrangement of objects.

A dismal cirque Of Druid stones upon a forlorn moor. Keats.

2. A kind of circular valley in the side of a mountain, walled around by precipices of great height.

Cir"rate (?), a. [L. cirratus having ringlets, fr. cirrus a curl.] (Zoöl.) Having cirri along the margin of a part or organ.

Cir*rhif"er*ous (?), a. See Cirriferous.

Cir"rhose (?), a. Same as Cirrose.

||Cir*rho"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; orange-colored: cf. F. cirrhose. So called from the yellowish appearance which the diseased liver often presents when cut.] (Med.) A disease of the liver in which it usually becomes smaller in size and more dense and fibrous in consistence; hence sometimes applied to similar changes in other organs, caused by increase in the fibrous framework and decrease in the proper substance of the organ.

Cir*rhot"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, caused by, or affected with, cirrhosis; as, cirrhotic degeneration; a cirrhotic liver.

Cir"rhous (?), a. See Cirrose.

Cir"rhus (?), n. Same as Cirrus.

||Cir"ri (?), n. pl. See Cirrus.

Cir*rif"er*ous (?), a. [Cirrus + -ferous.] Bearing cirri, as many plants and animals.

Cir"ri*form (?), a. [Cirrus + -form.] (Biol.) Formed like a cirrus or tendril; -- said of appendages of both animals and plants.

Cir*rig"er*ous (?), a. [Cirrus + -gerous.] (Biol.) Having curled locks of hair; supporting cirri, or hairlike appendages.

Cir"ri*grade (?), a. [Cirrus + L. gradi to walk.] (Biol.) Moving or moved by cirri, or hairlike appendages.

Cir"ri*ped (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Cirripedia.

||Cir`ri*pe"di*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. cirrus curl + pes, pedis, foot.] (Zoöl.) An order of Crustacea including the barnacles. When adult, they have a calcareous shell composed of several pieces. From the opening of the shell the animal throws out a group of curved legs, looking like a delicate curl, whence the name of the group. See Anatifa.

||Cir`ro*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. E. cirrus + L. branchiae gills.] (Zoöl.) A division of Mollusca having slender, cirriform appendages near the mouth; the Scaphopoda.

Cir`ro-cu"mu*lus (?), n. [Cirrus + cumulus.] (Meteor.) See under Cloud.

Cir"rose (?), a. [See Cirrus.] (Bot.) (a) Bearing a tendril or tendrils; as, a cirrose leaf. (b) Resembling a tendril or cirrus. [Spelt also cirrhose.]

||Cir`ros"to*mi (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. E. cirrus + Gr. &?; mouth.] (Zoöl.) The lowest group of vertebrates; -- so called from the cirri around the mouth; the Leptocardia. See Amphioxus.

Cir`ro-stra"tus (?), n. [Cirrus + stratus.] (Meteor.) See under Cloud.

Cir"rous (?), a. 1. (Bot.) Cirrose.

2. (Zoöl.) Tufted; -- said of certain feathers of birds.

||Cir"rus (?), n.; pl. Cirri (#). [L., lock, curl, ringlet.] [Also written cirrhus.]

1. (Bot.) A tendril or clasper.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) A soft tactile appendage of the mantle of many Mollusca, and of the parapodia of Annelida. Those near the head of annelids are Tentacular cirri; those of the last segment are caudal cirri. (b) The jointed, leglike organs of Cirripedia. See Annelida, and Polychæta.

&fist; In some of the inferior animals the cirri aid in locomotion; in others they are used in feeding; in the Annelida they are mostly organs of touch. Some cirri are branchial in function.

3. (Zoöl.) The external male organ of trematodes and some other worms, and of certain Mollusca.

4. (Meteor.) See under Cloud.

Cir"so*cele (?), n. [Gr. &?; a dilated vein + &?; tumor.] (Med.) The varicose dilatation of the spermatic vein.

Cir"soid (?), a. [Gr. &?; a dilated vein + -oid.] (Med.) Varicose.

Cirsoid aneurism, a disease of an artery in which it becomes dilated and elongated, like a varicose vein.

Cir*sot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. &?; a dilated vein + &?; to cut.] (Surg.) Any operation for the removal of varices by incision. Dunglison.

Cis- (?). A Latin preposition, sometimes used as a prefix in English words, and signifying on this side.

Cis*al"pine (?), a. [L. Cisalpinus; cis on this side + Alpinus Alpine.] On the hither side of the Alps with reference to Rome, that is, on the south side of the Alps; -- opposed to transalpine.

Cis`at*lan"tic (?), a. [Pref. cis- + Atlantic.] On this side of the Atlantic Ocean; -- used of the eastern or the western side, according to the standpoint of the writer. Story.

Cis"co (?), n. (Zoöl.) The Lake herring (Coregonus Artedi), valuable food fish of the Great Lakes of North America. The name is also applied to C. Hoyi, a related species of Lake Michigan.

||Ci`se*lure" (?), n. [F.] The process of chasing on metals; also, the work thus chased. Weale.

Cis*lei"than (?), a. [Pref. cis- + Leitha.] On the Austrian side of the river Leitha; Austrian.

Cis*mon"tane (?), a. [Pref. cis- + L. mons mountain.] On this side of the mountains. See under Ultramontane.

Cis"pa*dane` (?), a. [Pref. cis- + L. Padanus, pert. to the Padus or Po.] On the hither side of the river Po with reference to Rome; that is, on the south side.

Cis"soid (?), n. [Gr. &?; like ivy; &?; ivy + &?; form.] (Geom.) A curve invented by Diocles, for the purpose of solving two celebrated problems of the higher geometry; viz., to trisect a plane angle, and to construct two geometrical means between two given straight lines.

Cist (?), n. [L. cista box, chest, Gr. &?; Cf. Chest.]

1. (Antiq.) A box or chest. Specifically: (a) A bronze receptacle, round or oval, frequently decorated with engravings on the sides and cover, and with feet, handles, etc., of decorative castings. (b) A cinerary urn. See Illustration in Appendix.

2. See Cyst.

Cist"ed, a. Inclosed in a cyst. See Cysted.

Cis*ter"cian (?), n. [LL. Cistercium. F. Cîteaux, a convent not far from Dijon, in France: cf. F. cistercien.] (Eccl.) A monk of the prolific branch of the Benedictine Order, established in 1098 at Cîteaux, in France, by Robert, abbot of Molesme. For two hundred years the Cistercians followed the rule of St. Benedict in all its rigor. -- a. Of or pertaining to the Cistercians.

Cis"tern (?), n. [OE. cisterne, OF. cisterne, F. cisterne, fr. L. cisterna, fr. cista box, chest. See Cist, and cf. chest.] 1. An artificial reservoir or tank for holding water, beer, or other liquids.

2. A natural reservoir; a hollow place containing water. "The wide cisterns of the lakes." Blackmore.

Cist"ic (?), a. See Cystic.

Cit (&?;), n. [Contr. fr. citizen.] A citizen; an inhabitant of a city; a pert townsman; -- used contemptuously. "Insulted as a cit". Johnson

Which past endurance sting the tender cit. Emerson.

Cit"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being cited.

Cit"a*del (?), n. [F. citadelle, It. citadella, di&?;. of citt&?; city, fr. L. civitas. See City.] A fortress in or near a fortified city, commanding the city and fortifications, and intended as a final point of defense.

Syn. -- Stronghold. See Fortress.

Cit"al (?), n. [From Cite] 1. Summons to appear, as before a judge. [R.] Johnson

2. Citation; quotation [R.] Johnson.

Ci*ta"tion (?), n. [F. citation, LL. citatio, fr.L. citare to cite. See Cite] 1. An official summons or notice given to a person to appear; the paper containing such summons or notice.

2. The act of citing a passage from a book, or from another person, in his own words; also, the passage or words quoted; quotation.

This horse load of citations and fathers. Milton.

3. Enumeration; mention; as, a citation of facts.

4. (Law) A reference to decided cases, or books of authority, to prove a point in law.

Ci*ta"tor (?), n. One who cites. [R]

Ci"ta*to*ry (?), a. [LL. citatirius.] Having the power or form of a citation; as, letters citatory.

Cite (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cited; p. pr. & vb. n. Citing] [F. citer, fr. L. citare, intens. of cire, ciēre, to put in motion, to excite; akin to Gr.&?; to go, Skr. &?; to sharpen.] 1. To call upon officially or authoritatively to appear, as before a court; to summon.

The cited dead, Of all past ages, to the general doom Shall hasten. Milton.

Cited by finger of God. De Quincey.

2. To urge; to enjoin. [R.] Shak.

3. To quote; to repeat, as a passage from a book, or the words of another.

The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose. Shak.

4. To refer to or specify, as for support, proof, illustration, or confirmation.

The imperfections which you have cited. Shak.

5. To bespeak; to indicate. [Obs.]

Aged honor cites a virtuous youth. Shak.

6. (Law) To notify of a proceeding in court. Abbot

Syn. -- To quote; mention, name; refer to; adduce; select; call; summon. See Quote.

Cit"er (?), n. One who cites.

Cit"ess (?), n. [From Cit.] A city woman [R.]

Cith"a*ra (?), n. [L. Cf. Cittern, Guitar.] (Mus.) An ancient instrument resembling the harp.

Cith`a*ris"tic (?), a. [Gr.&?;, fr.&?; cithara.] Pertaining, or adapted, to the cithara.

Cith"ern (?), n. See Cittern.

Cit"i*cism (?), n. [From cit.] The manners of a cit or citizen.

Cit"ied (?), a. 1. Belonging to, or resembling, a city. "Smoky, citied towns" [R.] Drayton.

2. Containing, or covered with, cities. [R.] "The citied earth." Keats.

Cit"i*fied (?), a. [City +-fy.] Aping, or having, the manners of a city.

||Cit`i*gra"dæ (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. citus swift (p. p. of cire, ciere, to move) + gradi to walk. See Cite.] (Zoöl.) A suborder of Arachnoidea, including the European tarantula and the wolf spiders (Lycosidae) and their allies, which capture their prey by rapidly running and jumping. See Wolf spider.

Cit"i*grade (?), a. [Cf. F. citigrade.] (Zoöl.) Pertaining to the Citigradæ. -- n. One of the Citigradæ.

Cit"i*ner (?), n. One who is born or bred in a city; a citizen. [Obs.] Champan.

Cit"i*zen (?), n. [OE. citisein, OF. citeain, F. citoyen, fr. cité city. See City, and cf. Cit.] 1. One who enjoys the freedom and privileges of a city; a freeman of a city, as distinguished from a foreigner, or one not entitled to its franchises.

That large body of the working men who were not counted as citizens and had not so much as a vote to serve as an anodyne to their stomachs. G. Eliot.

2. An inhabitant of a city; a townsman. Shak.

3. A person, native or naturalized, of either sex, who owes allegiance to a government, and is entitled to reciprocal protection from it.

&fist; This protection is . . . national protection, recognition of the individual, in the face of foreign nations, as a member of the state, and assertion of his security and rights abroad as well as at home. Abbot

4. One who is domiciled in a country, and who is a citizen, though neither native nor naturalized, in such a sense that he takes his legal status from such country.

Cit"i*zen, a. 1. Having the condition or qualities of a citizen, or of citizens; as, a citizen soldiery.

2. Of or pertaining to the inhabitants of a city; characteristic of citizens; effeminate; luxurious. [Obs.]

I am not well, But not so citizen a wanton as To seem to die ere sick. Shak.

Cit"i*zen*ess, n. A female citizen. [R.]

Cit"i*zen*ship, n. The state of being a citizen; the status of a citizen.

Cit"ole (?), n. [OF. citole, fr. L. cithara. See Cittern.] (Mus.) A musical instrument; a kind of dulcimer. [Obs.]

Cit`ra*con"ic (?), a. [Citric + aconitic.] Pertaining to, derived from, or having certain characteristics of, citric and aconitic acids.

Citraconic acid (Chem.), a white, crystalline, deliquescent substance, C3H4(CO2H)2, obtained by distillation of citric acid. It is a compound of the ethylene series.

Cit"rate (?), n. [From Citric.] (Chem.) A salt of citric acid.

Cit"ric (?), a. [Cf. F. citrique. See Citron.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, the citron or lemon; as, citric acid.

Citric acid (Chem.), an organic acid, C3H4OH.(CO2H)3, extracted from lemons, currants, gooseberries, etc., as a white crystalline substance, having a pleasant sour taste.

Cit`ri*na"tion (?), n. [See Citrine.] The process by which anything becomes of the color of a lemon; esp., in alchemy, the state of perfection in the philosopher's stone indicated by its assuming a deep yellow color. Thynne.

Cit"rine (?), a. [F. citrin. See Citron.] Like a citron or lemon; of a lemon color; greenish yellow.

Citrine ointment (Med.), a yellowish mercurial ointment, the unguentum hydrargyri nitratis.

Cit"rine, n. A yellow, pellucid variety of quartz.

Cit"ron (s&ibreve;t"rŭn), n. [F. citron, LL. citro, fr. L. citrus citron tree (cf. citreum, sc. malum, a citron), from Gr. ki`tron citron] 1. (Bot) A fruit resembling a lemon, but larger, and pleasantly aromatic. The thick rind, when candied, is the citron of commerce.

2. A citron tree.

3. A citron melon.

Citron melon. (a) A small variety of muskmelon with sugary greenish flesh. (b) A small variety of watermelon, whose solid white flesh is used in making sweetmeats and preserves. -- Citron tree (Bot.), the tree which bears citrons. It was probably a native of northern India, and is now understood to be the typical form of Citrus Medica.

||Cit"rus (s&ibreve;t"rŭs), n. [L., a citron tree.] (Bot.) A genus of trees including the orange, lemon, citron, etc., originally natives of southern Asia.

Cit"tern (?), n. [L. cithara, Gr. kiqa`ra. Cf. Cithara, Gittern.] (Mus.) An instrument shaped like a lute, but strung with wire and played with a quill or plectrum. [Written also cithern.] Shak.

&fist; Not to be confounded with zither.

Cit"tern-head` (?), n. Blockhead; dunce; -- so called because the handle of a cittern usually ended with a carved head. Marsion

Cit"y (s&ibreve;t"&ybreve;), n.; pl. Cities (-&ibreve;z). [OE. cite, F. cité, fr. L. civitas citizenship, state, city, fr. civis citizen; akin to Goth. heiwa (in heiwafrauja man of the house), AS. hīwan, pl., members of a family, servants, hīred family, G. heirath marriage, prop., providing a house, E. hind a peasant.] 1. A large town.

2. A corporate town; in the United States, a town or collective body of inhabitants, incorporated and governed by a mayor and aldermen or a city council consisting of a board of aldermen and a common council; in Great Britain, a town corporate, which is or has been the seat of a bishop, or the capital of his see.

A city is a town incorporated; which is, or has been, the see of a bishop; and though the bishopric has been dissolved, as at Westminster, it yet remaineth a city. Blackstone

When Gorges constituted York a city, he of course meant it to be the seat of a bishop, for the word city has no other meaning in English law. Palfrey

3. The collective body of citizens, or inhabitants of a city. "What is the city but the people?" Shak.

Syn. -- See Village.

Cit"y, a. Of or pertaining to a city. Shak.

City council. See under Council. -- City court, The municipal court of a city. [U. S.] -- City ward, a watchman, or the collective watchmen, of a city. [Obs.] Fairfax.

Cive (sīv), n. (Bot.) Same as Chive.

Civ"et (s&ibreve;v"&ebreve;t), n. [F. civette (cf. It. zibetto) civet, civet cat, fr. LGr. zape`tion, fr. Ar. zubād, zabād, civet.] 1. A substance, of the consistence of butter or honey, taken from glands in the anal pouch of the civet (Viverra civetta). It is of clear yellowish or brownish color, of a strong, musky odor, offensive when undiluted, but agreeable when a small portion is mixed with another substance. It is used as a perfume.

2. (Zoöl) The animal that produces civet (Viverra civetta); -- called also civet cat. It is carnivorous, from two to three feet long, and of a brownish gray color, with transverse black bands and spots on the body and tail. It is a native of northern Africa and of Asia. The name is also applied to other species of the subfamily Viverrinae.

Civ"et (?), v. t. To scent or perfume with civet. Cowper

Civ"ic (?), a. [L.civicus, fr. civis citizen. See City.] Relating to, or derived from, a city or citizen; relating to man as a member of society, or to civil affairs.

Civic crown (Rom. Antiq.), a crown or garland of oak leaves and acorns, bestowed on a soldier who had saved the life of a citizen in battle.

Civ"i*cism (?), n. The principle of civil government.

Civ"ics (?), n. The science of civil government.

Civ"il (?), a. [L. civilis, fr. civis citizen: cf. F. civil. See City.] 1. Pertaining to a city or state, or to a citizen in his relations to his fellow citizens or to the state; within the city or state.

2. Subject to government; reduced to order; civilized; not barbarous; -- said of the community.

England was very rude and barbarous; for it is but even the other day since England grew civil. Spenser.

3. Performing the duties of a citizen; obedient to government; -- said of an individual.

Civil men come nearer the saints of God than others; they come within a step or two of heaven. Preston

4. Having the manners of one dwelling in a city, as opposed to those of savages or rustics; polite; courteous; complaisant; affable.

&fist; "A civil man now is one observant of slight external courtesies in the mutual intercourse between man and man; a civil man once was one who fulfilled all the duties and obligations flowing from his position as a 'civis' and his relations to the other members of that 'civitas.'" Trench

5. Pertaining to civic life and affairs, in distinction from military, ecclesiastical, or official state.

6. Relating to rights and remedies sought by action or suit distinct from criminal proceedings.

Civil action, an action to enforce the rights or redress the wrongs of an individual, not involving a criminal proceeding. -- Civil architecture, the architecture which is employed in constructing buildings for the purposes of civil life, in distinction from military and naval architecture, as private houses, palaces, churches, etc. -- Civil death. (Law.) See under Death. - - Civil engineering. See under Engineering. -- Civil law. See under Law. -- Civil list. See under List. -- Civil remedy (Law), that given to a person injured, by action, as opposed to a criminal prosecution. -- Civil service, all service rendered to and paid for by the state or nation other than that pertaining to naval or military affairs. -- Civil service reform, the substitution of business principles and methods for the spoils system in the conduct of the civil service, esp. in the matter of appointments to office. -- Civil state, the whole body of the laity or citizens not included under the military, maritime, and ecclesiastical states. -- Civil suit. Same as Civil action. -- Civil war. See under War. -- Civil year. See under Year.

Ci*vil"ian (?), n. [From Civil] 1. One skilled in the civil law.

Ancient civilians and writers upon government. Swift.

2. A student of the civil law at a university or college. R. Graves.

3. One whose pursuits are those of civil life, not military or clerical.

Civ"il*ist (?), n. A civilian. [R.] Warburton.

Ci*vil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Civilities (#). [L. civilitas: cf. F. civilité. See Civil.] 1. The state of society in which the relations and duties of a citizen are recognized and obeyed; a state of civilization. [Obs.]

Monarchies have risen from barbarrism to civility, and fallen again to ruin. Sir J. Davies.

The gradual depature of all deeper signification from the word civility has obliged the creation of another word -- civilization. Trench.

2. A civil office, or a civil process [Obs.]

To serve in a civility. Latimer.

3. Courtesy; politeness; kind attention; good breeding; a polite act or expression.

The insolent civility of a proud man is, if possible, more shocking than his rudeness could be. Chesterfield.

The sweet civilities of life. Dryden.

Syn. -- Urbanity; affability; complaisance.

Civ"i*li`za*ble (?), a. Capable of being civilized.

Civ`i*li*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. civilisation.] 1. The act of civilizing, or the state of being civilized; national culture; refinement.

Our manners, our civilization, and all the good things connected with manners, and with civilization, have, in this European world of ours, depended for ages upon two principles -- . . . the spirit of a gentleman, and spirit of religion. Burke

2. (Law) Rendering a criminal process civil. [Obs.]

Civ"i*lize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Civilized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Civilizing.] [Cf. F. civilizer, fr.L. civilis civil. See Civil.] 1. To reclaim from a savage state; to instruct in the rules and customs of civilization; to educate; to refine.

Yet blest that fate which did his arms dispose Her land to civilize, as to subdue. Dryden

2. To admit as suitable to a civilized state. [Obs. or R.] "Civilizing adultery." Milton.

Syn. -- To polish; refine; humanize.

Civ"i*lized (?), a. Reclaimed from savage life and manners; instructed in arts, learning, and civil manners; refined; cultivated.

Sale of conscience and duty in open market is not reconcilable with the present state of civilized society. J. Quincy.

Civ"i*li*zer (?), n. One who, or that which, civilizes or tends to civilize.

Civ"i*ly (?), adv. In a civil manner; as regards civil rights and privileges; politely; courteously; in a well bred manner.

Civ"ism (?), n. [Cf. F. civisme, fr.L. civis citizen.] State of citizenship. [R.] Dyer.

Ciz"ar (?), v. i. [From Cizars.] To clip with scissors. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Ciz"ars (?), n. pl. Scissors. [Obs.] Swift.

Cize (?), n. Bulk; largeness. [Obs.] See Size.

Clab"ber (?), n. [See Bonnyclabber] Milk curdled so as to become thick.

Clab"ber, v. i. To become clabber; to lopper.

Clach"an (?), n. [Scot., fr. Gael.] A small village containing a church. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott

Sitting at the clachon alehouse. R. L. Stevenson.

Clack (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Clacked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clacking.] [Prob. of imitative origin; cf. F. claquer to clap, crack, D. klakken, MHG. klac crack, Ir. clagaim I make a noise, ring. Cf. Clack, n., Clatter, Click.] 1. To make a sudden, sharp noise, or a succesion of such noises, as by striking an object, or by collision of parts; to rattle; to click.

We heard Mr.Hodson's whip clacking on the ahoulders of the poor little wretches. Thackeray.

2. To utter words rapidly and continually, or with abruptness; to let the tongue run.

Clack (?), v. t. 1. To cause to make a sudden, sharp noise, or succession of noises; to click.

2. To utter rapidly and inconsiderately. Feltham.

To clack wool, to cut off the sheep's mark, in order to make the wool weigh less and thus yield less duty. [Eng.]

Clack, n. [Cf. F. claque a slap or smack, MHG. klac crack, W. clec crack, gossip. See Clack, v. t.] 1. A sharp, abrupt noise, or succession of noises, made by striking an object.

2. Anything that causes a clacking noise, as the clapper of a mill, or a clack valve.

3. Continual or importunate talk; prattle; prating.

Whose chief intent is to vaunt his spiritual clack. South.

Clack box (Mach.), the box or chamber in which a clack valve works. -- Clack dish, a dish with a movable lid, formerly carried by beggars, who clacked the lid to attract notice. Shak.

Clack door (Mining), removable cover of the opening through which access is had to a pump valve. -- Clack valve (Mach.), a valve; esp. one hinged at one edge, which, when raised from its seat, falls with a clacking sound.

Clack"er (?), n. 1. One who clacks; that which clacks; especially, the clapper of a mill.

2. A claqueur. See Claqueur.

Clad (?), v. t. To clothe. [Obs.] Holland.

Clad, imp. & p. p. of Clothe.

||Cla*doc"e*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. &?; a sprout + &?; a horn.] (Zoöl.) An order of the Entomostraca.

&fist; They have a bivalve shell, covering the body but not the head, and from four to six pairs of legs and two pairs of antenæ, for use in swimming. They mostly inhabit fresh water.

Clad"o*phyll (?), n. [Gr. &?; a sprout + &?; a leaf.] (Bot.) A special branch, resembling a leaf, as in the apparent foliage of the broom (Ruscus) and of the common cultivated smilax (Myrsiphillum).

Clag"gy (?), a. [Cf. Clog.] Adhesive; -- said of a roof in a mine to which coal clings.

Claik (?), n. See Clake.

Claim (klām), v.&?;. [imp. & p. p. Claimed (klāmd); p. pr. & vb. n. Claiming.] [OE. clamen, claimen, OF. clamer, fr. L. clamare to cry out, call; akin to calare to proclaim, Gr. &?; to call, Skr. kal to sound, G. holen to fetch, E. hale haul.] 1. To ask for, or seek to obtain, by virtue of authority, right, or supposed right; to challenge as a right; to demand as due.

2. To proclaim. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. To call or name. [Obs.] Spenser.

4. To assert; to maintain. [Colloq.]

Claim, v. i. To be entitled to anything; to deduce a right or title; to have a claim.

We must know how the first ruler, from whom any one claims, came by his authority. Locke.

Claim, n. [Of. claim cry, complaint, from clamer. See Claim, v. t.] 1. A demand of a right or supposed right; a calling on another for something due or supposed to be due; an assertion of a right or fact.

2. A right to claim or demand something; a title to any debt, privilege, or other thing in possession of another; also, a title to anything which another should give or concede to, or confer on, the claimant. "A bar to all claims upon land." Hallam.

3. The thing claimed or demanded; that (as land) to which any one intends to establish a right; as a settler's claim; a miner's claim. [U.S. & Australia]

4. A loud call. [Obs.] Spenser

To lay claim to, to demand as a right. "Doth he lay claim to thine inheritance?" Shak.

Claim"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being claimed.

Claim"ant (?), n. [Cf. OF. clamant, p. pr. of clamer. Cf. Clamant.] One who claims; one who asserts a right or title; a claimer.

Claim"er (?), n. One who claims; a claimant.

Claim"less, a. Having no claim.

||Clair"-ob*scur" (&?;), n. [F. See Clare-obscure.] See Chiaroscuro.

Clair*voy"ance (?), n. [F.] A power, attributed to some persons while in a mesmeric state, of discering objects not perceptible by the senses in their normal condition.

Clair*voy"ant (?), a. [F., fr. clair clear + voyant, p. pr. of voir to see. See Clear, and Vision.] Pertaining to clairvoyance; discerning objects while in a mesmeric state which are not present to the senses.

Clair*voy"ant n. One who is able, when in a mesmeric state, to discern objects not present to the senses.

{ Clake, Claik (?), } n. (Zoöl.) The bernicle goose; -- called also clack goose.

Clam (?), n. [Cf. Clamp, Clam, v. t., Clammy.] 1. (Zoöl.) A bivalve mollusk of many kinds, especially those that are edible; as, the long clam (Mya arenaria), the quahog or round clam (Venus mercenaria), the sea clam or hen clam (Spisula solidissima), and other species of the United States. The name is said to have been given originally to the Tridacna gigas, a huge East Indian bivalve.

You shall scarce find any bay or shallow shore, or cove of sand, where you may not take many clampes, or lobsters, or both, at your pleasure. Capt. John Smith (1616).

Clams, or clamps, is a shellfish not much unlike a cockle; it lieth under the sand. Wood (1634).

2. (Ship Carp.) Strong pinchers or forceps.

3. pl. (Mech.) A kind of vise, usually of wood.

Blood clam. See under Blood.

Clam (clăm), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clammed (klămd); p. pr. & vb. n. Clamming.] [Cf. AS. clæman to clam, smear; akin to Icel. kleima to smear, OHG. kleimjan, chleimen, to defile, or E. clammy.] To clog, as with glutinous or viscous matter.

A swarm of wasps got into a honey pot, and there they cloyed and clammed Themselves till there was no getting out again. L'Estrange.

Clam, v. i. To be moist or glutinous; to stick; to adhere. [R.] Dryden

Clam, n. Claminess; moisture. [R.] "The clam of death." Carlyle.

Clam, n. [Abbrev. fr. clamor.] A crash or clangor made by ringing all the bells of a chime at once. Nares.

Clam, v. t. & i. To produce, in bell ringing, a clam or clangor; to cause to clang. Nares.

Cla"mant (?), a. [L. clamans, p. pr. of clamare to call. Cf. Claimant.] Crying earnestly, beseeching clamorously. "Clamant children." Thomson.

Cla*ma"tion (?), n. [LL. clamatio, fr. L. clamare to call.] The act of crying out. Sir T. Browne.

||Clam`a*to"res (?), n. pl. [L. clamator, pl. clamatores, a bawler.] (Zoöl.) A division of passerine birds in which the vocal muscles are but little developed, so that they lack the power of singing.

Clam`a*to"rial (?), a. (Zoöl.) Like or pertaining to the Clamatores.

Clam"bake (?), n. The backing or steaming of clams on heated stones, between layers of seaweed; hence, a picnic party, gathered on such an occasion.

Clam"ber (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Clambered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clambering.] [OE clambren, clameren, to heap together, climb; akin to Icel. klambra to clamp, G. klammern. Cf. Clamp, Climb.] To climb with difficulty, or with hands and feet; -- also used figuratively.

The narrow street that clambered toward the mill. Tennyson.

Clam"ber, n. The act of clambering. T. Moore.

Clam"ber, v. t. To ascend by climbing with difficulty.

Clambering the walls to eye him. Shak.

Clam*jam"phrie (?), n. Low, worthless people; the rabble. [Scot.] Jamieson.

Clam"mi*ly (?), adv. In a clammy manner. "Oozing so clammily." Hood.

Clam"mi*ness, n. State of being clammy or viscous.

Clam"my (?), a. [Compar. Clammier (?); superl. Clammiest.] [Cf. AS. clām clay. See Clam to clog, and cf. Clay.] Having the quality of being viscous or adhesive; soft and sticky; glutinous; damp and adhesive, as if covered with a cold perspiration.

Clam"or (?), n. [OF. clamour, clamur, F. clameur, fr. L. clamor, fr. clamare to cry out. See Claim.] 1. A great outcry or vociferation; loud and continued shouting or exclamation. Shak.

2. Any loud and continued noise. Addison.

3. A continued expression of dissatisfaction or discontent; a popular outcry. Macaulay.

Syn. -- Outcry; exclamation; noise; uproar.

Clam"or, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clamored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clamoring.] 1. To salute loudly. [R.]

The people with a shout Rifted the air, clamoring their god with praise. Milton.

2. To stun with noise. [R.] Bacon.

3. To utter loudly or repeatedly; to shout.

Clamored their piteous prayer incessantly. Longfellow.

To clamor bells, to repeat the strokes quickly so as to produce a loud clang. Bp. Warbur&?;ion.

Clam"or, v. i. To utter loud sounds or outcries; to vociferate; to complain; to make importunate demands.

The obscure bird Clamored the livelong night. Shak.

Clam"or*er (?), n. One who clamors.

Clam"or*ous (?), a. [LL. clamorosus, for L. Clamosus: cf. OF. clamoreux.] Speaking and repeating loud words; full of clamor; calling or demanding loudly or urgently; vociferous; noisy; bawling; loud; turbulent. "My young ones were clamorous for a morning's excursion." Southey.

-- Clam"or*ous*ly, adv. -- Clam"or*ous*ness, n.

Clamp (klămp), n. [Cf. LG. & D. klamp, Dan. klampe, also D. klampen to fasten, clasp. Cf. Clamber, Cramp.] 1. Something rigid that holds fast or binds things together; a piece of wood or metal, used to hold two or more pieces together.

2. (a) An instrument with a screw or screws by which work is held in its place or two parts are temporarily held together. (b) (Joinery) A piece of wood placed across another, or inserted into another, to bind or strengthen.

3. One of a pair of movable pieces of lead, or other soft material, to cover the jaws of a vise and enable it to grasp without bruising.

4. (Shipbuilding) A thick plank on the inner part of a ship's side, used to sustain the ends of beams.

5. A mass of bricks heaped up to be burned; or of ore for roasting, or of coal for coking.

6. A mollusk. See Clam. [Obs.]

Clamp nails, nails used to fasten on clamps in ships.

Clamp (klămp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clamped (klămt; 215) p. pr. & vb. n. Clamping.] 1. To fasten with a clamp or clamps; to apply a clamp to; to place in a clamp.

2. To cover, as vegetables, with earth. [Eng.]

Clamp, n. [Prob. an imitative word. Cf. Clank.] A heavy footstep; a tramp.

Clamp, v. i. To tread heavily or clumsily; to clump.

The policeman with clamping feet. Thackeray.

Clamp"er (?), n. An instrument of iron, with sharp prongs, attached to a boot or shoe to enable the wearer to walk securely upon ice; a creeper. Kane.

Clan (klăn), n. [Gael. clann offspring, descendants; akin to Ir. clann, cland, offspring, tribe, family; perh. from L. plania scion, slip, cutting. Cf. Plant, n.] 1. A tribe or collection of families, united under a chieftain, regarded as having the same common ancestor, and bearing the same surname; as, the clan of Macdonald. "I have marshaled my clan." Campbell.

2. A clique; a sect, society, or body of persons; esp., a body of persons united by some common interest or pursuit; -- sometimes used contemptuously.

Partidge and the rest of his clan may hoot me. Smolett.

The whole clan of the enlightened among us. Burke.

Clan"cu*lar (?), a. [L. clancularius , from clanculum secretly, adv. dim. of clam secretly.] Conducted with secrecy; clandestine; concealed. [Obs.]

Not close and clancular, but frank and open. Barrow.

Clan"cu*lar*ly, adv. privately; secretly. [Obs.]

Clan*des"tine (?), a. [L. clandestinus, fr. clam secretly; akin to celare, E. conceal: cf. F. clandestin.] Conducted with secrecy; withdrawn from public notice, usually for an evil purpose; kept secret; hidden; private; underhand; as, a clandestine marriage. Locke.

Syn. -- Hidden; secret; private; concealed; underhand; sly; stealthy; surreptitious; furtive; fraudulent.

-- Clan*des"tine*ly, adv. -- Clan*des"tine*ness, n.

Clan`des*tin"i*ty (?), n. Privacy or secrecy. [R.]

Clang (klăng), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clanged (klăngd); p. pr. & vb. n. Clanging.] [L. clangere; akin to Gr. kla`zein to clash, scream; or perh. to E. clank.] To strike together so as to produce a ringing metallic sound.

The fierce Caretes . . . clanged their sounding arms. Prior.

Clang, v. i. To give out a clang; to resound. "Clanging hoofs." Tennyson.

Clang, n. 1. A loud, ringing sound, like that made by metallic substances when clanged or struck together.

The broadsword's deadly clang, As if a thousand anvils rang. Sir W. Scott.

2. (Mus.) Quality of tone.

Clan"gor (klă&nsm;"g&etilde;r), n. [L., fr. clangere. See Clang, v. t.] A sharp, harsh, ringing sound. Dryden.

Clan"gor*ous (?), a. [LL. clangorosus.] Making a clangor; having a ringing, metallic sound.

Clan"gous (?), a. Making a clang, or a ringing metallic sound. [Obs.]

Clan*jam"frie (?), n. Same as Clamjamphrie. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

Clank (klă&nsm;k), n. [Akin to clink, and of imitative origin; cf. G. klang sound, D. klank. Cf. Clang.] A sharp, brief, ringing sound, made by a collision of metallic or other sonorous bodies; -- usually expressing a duller or less resounding sound than clang, and a deeper and stronger sound than clink.

But not in chains to pine, His spirit withered with tyeur clank. Byron.

Clank, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clanked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clanking.] To cause to sound with a clank; as, the prisoners clank their chains.

Clank, v. i. To sound with a clank.

Clank"less, a. Without a clank. Byreon.

Clan"nish (?), a. Of or pertaining to a clan; closely united, like a clan; disposed to associate only with one's clan or clique; actuated by the traditions, prejudices, habits, etc., of a clan.

-- Clan"nish*ly, adv. -- Clan"nish*ness, n.

Clan"ship, n. A state of being united together as in a clan; an association under a chieftain.

Clans"man (?), n.; pl. Clansmen (#). One belonging to the same clan with another.

Clap (klăp), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clapped (klăpt); p. pr. & vb. n. Clapping.] [AS. clappan; akin to Icel. & Sw. klappa, D, klappen, to clap, prate, G. klaffen, v. i., to split open, yelp, klopfen, v. t. & i., to knock.] 1. To strike; to slap; to strike, or strike together, with a quick motion, so, as to make a sharp noise; as, to clap one's hands; a clapping of wings.

Then like a bird it sits and sings, And whets and claps its silver wings. Marvell.

2. To thrust, drive, put, or close, in a hasty or abrupt manner; -- often followed by to, into, on, or upon.

He had just time to get in and clap to the door. Locke

Clap an extinguaisher upon your irony. Lamb.

3. To manifest approbation of, by striking the hands together; to applaud; as, to clap a performance.

To clap hands. (a) To pledge faith by joining hands. [Obs.] Shak. (b) To express contempt or derision. [Obs.] Lam. ii. 15. -- To clap hold of, to seize roughly or quickly. -- To clap up. (a) To imprison hastily or without due formality. (b) To make or contrive hastily. [Obs.] "Was ever match clapped up so suddenly?" Shak.

Clap (?), v. i. 1. To knock, as at a door. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. To strike the hands together in applause.

Their ladies bid them clap. Shak.

3. To come together suddenly with noise.

The doors around me clapped. Dryden.

4. To enter with alacrity and briskness; -- with to or into. [Obs.] "Shall we clap into it roundly, without . . . saying we are hoarse?" Shak.

5. To talk noisily; to chatter loudly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Clap (klăp), n. 1. A loud noise made by sudden collision; a bang. "Give the door such a clap, as you go out, as will shake the whole room." Swift.

2. A burst of sound; a sudden explosion.

Horrible claps of thunder. Hakewill.

3. A single, sudden act or motion; a stroke; a blow.

What, fifty of my followers at a clap! Shak.

4. A striking of hands to express approbation.

Unextrected claps or hisses. Addison.

5. Noisy talk; chatter. [Obs.] Chaucer.

6. (Falconry) The nether part of the beak of a hawk.

Clap dish. See Clack dish, under Clack, n. -- Clap net, a net for taking birds, made to close or clap together.

Clap (?), n. [Cf. OF. clapoir.] Gonorrhea.

Clap"board (?), n. 1. A narrow board, thicker at one edge than at the other; -- used for weatherboarding the outside of houses. [U. S.]

2. A stave for a cask. [Eng.] Halliwell.

Clap"board, v. t. To cover with clapboards; as, to clapboard the sides of a house. [U. S.] Bartlett.

{ Clap"bread` (?), Clap"cake` (?) }, n. Oatmeal cake or bread clapped or beaten till it is thin. [Obs.] Halliwell.

Clape (?), n. (Zoöl.) A bird; the flicker.

Clap"per (?), n. 1. A person who claps.

2. That which strikes or claps, as the tongue of a bell, or the piece of wood that strikes a mill hopper, etc. See Illust. of Bell.

Clapper rail (Zoöl.), an Americam species of rail (Rallus scepitans).

Clap"per, n. [F. clapier.] A rabbit burrow. [Obs.]

Clap"per*claw (klăp"p&etilde;r*kl&add;), v. t. [Clap + claw.] 1. To fight and scratch. C. Smart.

2. To abuse with the tongue; to revile; to scold.

Claps (klăp), v. t. Variant of Clasp [Obs.] Chaucer.

Clap"trap` (klăp"trăp`), n. 1. A contrivance for clapping in theaters. [Obs.]

2. A trick or device to gain applause; humbug.

Clap"trap`, a. Contrived for the purpose of making a show, or gaining applause; deceptive; unreal.

||Claque (?), n. [F.] A collection of persons employed to applaud at a theatrical exhibition.

||Cla`queur" (?), n. [F.] One of the claque employed to applaud at a theater.

Clare (?), n. A nun of the order of St. Clare.

Clar"ence (?), n. A close four-wheeled carriage, with one seat inside, and a seat for the driver.

{ Clar"en*ceux, Clar"en*cieux } (?), n. (Her.) See King-at- arms.

Clar"en*don (?), n. A style of type having a narrow and heave face. It is made in all sizes.

&fist; This line is in nonpareil Clarendon.

Clare"-ob*scure" (?), n. [L. clarus clear + obscurus obscure; cf. F. clair- obscur. Cf. Chiaroscuro.] (Painting) See Chiaroscuro.

Clar"et (klăr"&ebreve;t), n. [OE. claret, clare, clarry, OF. claret, claré, fr. cler, F. clair, clear, fr. L. clarus clear. See Clear.] The name first given in England to the red wines of Médoc, in France, and afterwards extended to all the red Bordeaux wines. The name is also given to similar wines made in the United States.

Clar`i*bel"la (?), n. [NL., from L. clarus clear + bellus fine.] (Mus.) A soft, sweet stop, or set of open wood pipes in an organ.

Clar"i*chord (?), n. [F. clatocorde, fr.L. clarus clear + chorda string. See Chord.] A musical instrument, formerly in use, in form of a spinet; -- called also manichord and clavichord.

Clar`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. clarification, L. clarificatio glorification.] 1. The act or process of making clear or transparent, by freeing visible impurities; as, the clarification of wine.

2. The act of freeing from obscurities.

The clarification of men's ideas. Whewell.

Clar"i*fi`er (?), n. 1. That which clarifies.

2. A vessel in which the process of clarification is conducted; as, the clarifier in sugar works. Ure.

Clar"i*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clarified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clarifying.] [F. clarifier, from L. clarificare; clarus clear + facere to make. See Clear, and Fact.] 1. To make clear or bright by freeing from feculent matter; to defecate; to fine; -- said of liquids, as wine or sirup. "Boiled and clarified." Ure.

2. To make clear; to free from obscurities; to brighten or illuminate.

To clarify his reason, and to rectify his will. South.

3. To glorify. [Obs.]

Fadir, clarifie thi name. Wyclif (John ii. 28).

Clar"i*fy, v. i. 1. To grow or become clear or transparent; to become free from feculent impurities, as wine or other liquid under clarification.

2. To grow clear or bright; to clear up.

Whosoever hath his mind fraught with many thoughts, his wits and understanding do clarify and break up in the discoursing with another. Bacon.

Clar"i*gate (?), v. i. [L. clarigare] To declare war with certain ceremonies. [Obs.] Holland.

Clar"i*net` (?), n. [F. clarinette, dim. of clarine, from L. clarus. See Clear, and cf. Clarion.] (Mus.) A wind instrument, blown by a single reed, of richer and fuller tone than the oboe, which has a double reed. It is the leading instrument in a military band. [Often improperly called clarionet.]

||Cla*ri"no (?), n. [It. a trumpet.] (Mus.) A reed stop in an organ.

Clar"i*on (?), n. [OE. clarioun, OF. clarion, F. clairon, LL. clario, claro; so called from its clear tone, fr. L. clarus clear. See Clear.] A kind of trumpet, whose note is clear and shrill.

He sounds his imperial clarion along the whole line of battle. E. Everett.

Clar`i*o*net" (?), n. [See Clarion, Clarinet.] (Mus.) See Clarinet.

Cla*ris"o*nus (?), a. [L. clarisonus; clarus + sonus.] Having a clear sound. [Obs.] Ash.

Clar"i*tude (?), n. [L. claritudo, fr. clarus clear.] Clearness; splendor. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

Clar"i*ty (?), n. [L. claritas, fr. clarus clear: cf. F. clarté.] Clearness; brightness; splendor.

Floods, in whose more than crystal clarity, Innumerable virgin graces row. Beaumont.

Cla"ro-ob*scu"ro (?), n. See Chiaroscuro.

Clar`ré", n. [See Claret.] Wine with a mixture of honey and species. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Clart (?), v. t. [Cf. Armor. kalar mud, mire, kalara to dirt, Sw. lort mud.] To daub, smear, or spread, as with mud, etc. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Clart"y (?), a. Sticky and foul; muddy; filthy; dirty. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

Clar"y (?), v. i. [Cf. Clarion.] To make a loud or shrill noise. [Obs.] Golding.

Cla"ry (?), n. [Cf. LL. sclarea, scarlea, D. & G. scharlei, F. sclarée.] (Bot.) A plant (Salvia sclarea) of the Sage family, used in flavoring soups.

Clary water, a composition of clary flowers with brandy, etc., formerly used as a cardiac.

Clash (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Clashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clashing.] [Of imitative origin; cf. G. klatschen, Prov. G. kleschen, D. kletsen, Dan. klaske, E. clack.] 1. To make a noise by striking against something; to dash noisily together.

2. To meet in opposition; to act in a contrary direction; to come onto collision; to interfere.

However some of his interests might clash with those of the chief adjacent colony. Palfrey.

Clash, v. t. To strike noisily against or together.

Clash n. 1. A loud noise resulting from collision; a noisy collision of bodies; a collision.

The roll of cannon and clash of arms. Tennyson.

2. Opposition; contradiction; as between differing or contending interests, views, purposes, etc.

Clashes between popes and kings. Denham.

Clash"ing*ly, adv. With clashing.

Clasp (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clasped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Clasping] [OE. claspen, clapsen, prob. akin to E. clap.] 1. To shut or fasten together with, or as with, a clasp; to shut or fasten (a clasp, or that which fastens with a clasp).

2. To inclose and hold in the hand or with the arms; to grasp; to embrace.

3. To surround and cling to; to entwine about. "Clasping ivy." Milton.

Clasp, n. 1. An adjustable catch, bent plate, or hook, for holding together two objects or the parts of anything, as the ends of a belt, the covers of a book, etc.

2. A close embrace; a throwing of the arms around; a grasping, as with the hand.

Clasp knife, a large knife, the blade of which folds or shuts into the handle. -- Clasp lock, a lock which closes or secures itself by means of a spring.

Clasp"er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, clasps, as a tendril. "The claspers of vines." Derham.

2. (Zoöl.) (a) One of a pair of organs used by the male for grasping the female among many of the Crustacea. (b) One of a pair of male copulatory organs, developed on the anterior side of the ventral fins of sharks and other elasmobranchs. See Illust. of Chimæra.

Clasp"ered (?), a. Furnished with tendrils.

Class (kl&adot;s), n. [F. classe, fr. L. classis class, collection, fleet; akin to Gr. klh^sis a calling, kalei^n to call, E. claim, haul.] 1. A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes.

2. A number of students in a school or college, of the same standing, or pursuing the same studies.

3. A comprehensive division of animate or inanimate objects, grouped together on account of their common characteristics, in any classification in natural science, and subdivided into orders, families, tribes, genera, etc.

4. A set; a kind or description, species or variety.

She had lost one class energies. Macaulay.

5. (Methodist Church) One of the sections into which a church or congregation is divided, and which is under the supervision of a class leader.

Class of a curve (Math.), the kind of a curve as expressed by the number of tangents that can be drawn from any point to the curve. A circle is of the second class. -- Class meeting (Methodist Church), a meeting of a class under the charge of a class leader, for counsel and relegious instruction.

Class (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Classed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Classing.] [Cf. F. classer. See Class, n.] 1. To arrange in classes; to classify or refer to some class; as, to class words or passages.

&fist; In scientific arrangement, to classify is used instead of to class. Dana.

2. To divide into classes, as students; to form into, or place in, a class or classes.

Class, v. i. To grouped or classed.

The genus or famiky under which it classes. Tatham.

Class"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being classed.

{ Clas"sic (?), Clas"sic*al (?), } a. [L. classicus relating to the classes of the Roman people, and especially to the frist class; hence, of the first rank, superior, from classis class: cf. F. classique. See Class, n.] 1. Of or relating to the first class or rank, especially in literature or art.

Give, as thy last memorial to the age, One classic drama, and reform the stage. Byron.

Mr. Greaves may justly be reckoned a classical author on this subject [Roman weights and coins]. Arbuthnot.

2. Of or pertaining to the ancient Greeks and Romans, esp. to Greek or Roman authors of the highest rank, or of the period when their best literature was produced; of or pertaining to places inhabited by the ancient Greeks and Romans, or rendered famous by their deeds.

Though throned midst Latium's classic plains. Mrs. Hemans.

The epithet classical, as applied to ancient authors, is determined less by the purity of their style than by the period at which they wrote. Brande & C.

He [Atterbury] directed the classical studies of the undergraduates of his college. Macaulay.

3. Conforming to the best authority in literature and art; chaste; pure; refined; as, a classical style.

Classical, provincial, and national synods. Macaulay.

Classicals orders. (Arch.) See under Order.

Clas"sic, n. 1. A work of acknowledged excellence and authority, or its author; -- originally used of Greek and Latin works or authors, but now applied to authors and works of a like character in any language.

In is once raised him to the rank of a legitimate English classic. Macaulay.

2. One learned in the literature of Greece and Rome, or a student of classical literature.

Clas"sic*al*ism (?), n. 1. A classical idiom, style, or expression; a classicism.

2. Adherence to what are supposed or assumed to be the classical canons of art.

Clas"sic*al*ist, n. One who adheres to what he thinks the classical canons of art. Ruskin.

{ Clas`si*cal"i*ty (?), Clas"sic*al*ness (?), } n. The quality of being classical.

Clas"sic*al*ly, adv. 1. In a classical manner; according to the manner of classical authors.

2. In the manner of classes; according to a regular order of classes or sets.

Clas"si*cism (?), n. A classic idiom or expression; a classicalism. C. Kingsley.

Clas"si*cist (?), n. One learned in the classics; an advocate for the classics.

Clas"si*fi`a*ble (?), a. Capable of being classified.

Clas*sif"ic (?), a. Characterizing a class or classes; relating to classification.

Clas`si*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. classification.] The act of forming into a class or classes; a distribution into groups, as classes, orders, families, etc., according to some common relations or affinities.

Artificial classification. (Science) See under Artifitial.

Clas"si*fi*ca`to*ry (?), a. Pertaining to classification; admitting of classification. "A classificatory system." Earle.

Clas"si*fi`er (?), n. One who classifies.

Clas"si*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & pp. Classified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Classifying.] [L. classis class + &?;] To distribute into classes; to arrange according to a system; to arrange in sets according to some method founded on common properties or characters.

Syn. -- To arrange; distribute; rank.

||Clas"sis (?), n.; pl. Classes (#). [L. See Class, n.] 1. A class or order; sort; kind. [Obs.]

His opinion of that classis of men. Clarendon.

2. (Eccl.) An ecclesiastical body or judicatory in certain churches, as the Reformed Dutch. It is intermediate between the consistory and the synod, and corresponds to the presbytery in the Presbyterian church.

Class"man (?), n.; pl. Classmen(#). 1. A member of a class; a classmate.

2. A candidate for graduation in arts who is placed in an honor class, as opposed to a passman, who is not classified. [Oxford, Eng.]

Class"mate` (?), n. One who is in the same class with another, as at school or college.

Clas"tic (?), a. [Gr. &?; br&?;, fr. &?; to break.] 1. Pertaining to what may be taken apart; as, clastic anatomy (of models).

2. (Min.) Fragmental; made up of brok&?; fragments; as, sandstone is a clastic rock.

Clath"rate (klăth"r&asl;t), a. [L. clathri lattice, Gr. klh,qra.] 1. (Bot.) Shaped like a lattice; cancellate. Gray.

2. (Zoöl.) Having the surface marked with raised lines resembling a lattice, as many shells.

Clat"ter (klăt"t&etilde;r), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Clattered (- t&etilde;rd); p. pr. & vb. n. Clattering.] [AS. clatrung a rattle, akin to D. klateren to rattle. Cf. Clack.] 1. To make a rattling sound by striking hard bodies together; to make a succession of abrupt, rattling sounds.

Clattering loud with iron clank. Longfellow.

2. To talk fast and noisily; to rattle with the tongue.

I see thou dost but clatter. Spenser.

Clat"ter, v. t. To make a rattling noise with.

You clatter still your brazen kettle. Swift.

Clat"ter, n. 1. A rattling noise, esp. that made by the collision of hard bodies; also, any loud, abrupt sound; a repetition of abrupt sounds.

The goose let fall a golden egg With cackle and with clatter. Tennyson.

2. Commotion; disturbance. "Those mighty feats which made such a clatter in story." Barrow.

3. Rapid, noisy talk; babble; chatter. "Hold still thy clatter." Towneley Myst. (15 th Cent. ).

Throw by your clatter And handle the matter. B. Jonson

Clat"ter*er (?), n. One who clatters.

Clat"ter*ing*ly, adv. With clattering.

Claude" Lor*raine" glass` (?). [Its name is supposed to be derived from the similarity of the effects it gives to those of a picture by Claude Lorrain (often written Lorraine).] A slightly convex mirror, commonly of black glass, used as a toy for viewing the reflected landscape.

Clau"dent (?), a. [L. claudens, p. pr. of claudere to shut.] Shutting; confining; drawing together; as, a claudent muscle. [R.] Jonson

Clau"di*cant (?), a. [L. claudicans, p. pr. of claudicare to limp, fr. claudus lame.] Limping. [R.]

Clau`di*ca"tion (?), n. [L. claudicatio.] A halting or limping. [R.] Tatler.

Clause (?), n. [F. clause, LL. clausa, equiv. to L. clausula clause, prop., close of &?; rhetorical period, close, fr. claudere to shut, to end. See Close.] 1. A separate portion of a written paper, paragraph, or sentence; an article, stipulation, or proviso, in a legal document.

The usual attestation clause to a will. Bouvier.

2. (Gram.) A subordinate portion or a subdivision of a sentence containing a subject and its predicate.

Clause, n. [Obs.] See Letters clause or close, under Letter.

Claus"tral (?), a. [F., fr. LL. claustralis, fr. L. claustrum. See Cloister.] Cloistral. Ayliffe

||Claus"trum (?), n.; pl. Claustra. [L., a bolt or bar.] (Anat.) A thin lamina of gray matter in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain of man. -- Claus"tral, a.

Clau"su*lar (?; 135), a. [From L. clausula. See Clause, n.] Consisting of, or having, clauses. Smart.

Clau"sure (?; 135), n. [L. clausura. See Closure.] The act of shutting up or confining; confinement. [R.] Geddes.

{ Cla"vate (?), Cla"va*ted (?), } a. [L. clava club.] (Bot. & Zoöl.) Club-shaped; having the form of a club; growing gradually thicker toward the top. [See Illust. of Antennae.]

Clave (?), imp. of Cleave. [Obs.]

Clav"e*cin (?), n. [F.] The harpsichord.

Cla"vel (?), n. See Clevis.

Clav"el*late (?), a. See Clavate.

Clav"el*la`ted (?), a. [Cf. LL. cineres clavelatti ashes of burnt lees or dregs of wine, F. clavel an inferior sort of soda, E. clavate.] (Old Chem.) Said of potash, probably in reference to its having been obtained from billets of wood by burning. [Obs.]

Clav"er (?), n. [Obs.] See Clover. Holland.

Clav"er, n. Frivolous or nonsensical talk; prattle; chattering. [Scot. & North of Eng.]

Emmy found herself entirely at a loss in the midst of their clavers. Thackeray.

Clav"i*chord (?), n. [F. clavicorde, fr. L. clavis key + chorda string.] (Mus.) A keyed stringed instrument, now superseded by the pianoforte. See Clarichord.

Clav"i*cle (?), n. [F. clavicule, fr. L. clavicula a little key, tendril, dim. of clavis key, akin to claudere to shut. See Close, and cf. Clef.] (Anat.) The collar bone, which is joined at one end to the scapula, or shoulder blade, and at the other to the sternum, or breastbone. In man each clavicle is shaped like the letter &?;, and is situated just above the first rib on either side of the neck. In birds the two clavicles are united ventrally, forming the merrythought, or wishbone.

Clav"i*corn (?), a. [Cf. F. clavicorne.] (Zoöl.) Having club-shaped antennæ. See Antennæ -- n. One of the Clavicornes.

||Clav`i*cor"nes (?), n. pl. [NL.; Fr. L. clava club + cornu horn.] (Zoöl.) A group of beetles having club-shaped antennæ.

Cla*vic"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. claviculaire. See Clavicle.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the clavicle.

Cla"vi*er (? F. ?), n. [F., fr. L. clavis key.] (Mus.) The keyboard of an organ, pianoforte, or harmonium.

&fist; Clavier (&?;) is the German name for a pianoforte.

Clav"i*form (?), a. [L. clava club + -form.] (Bot.) Club- shaped; clavate. Craig.

||Clav"i*ger (?), n. [L., fr. clavis key + gerere to carry.] One who carries the keys of any place.

||Clav"i*ger, n. [L., fr. clava club + gerere to carry.] One who carries a club; a club bearer.

Cla*vig"er*ous (?), a. Bearing a club or a key.

||Cla"vis (?), n.; pl. L. Claves (#), E. Clavises (#). [L.] A key; a glossary.

||Cla"vus (?), n. [L., a nail.] A callous growth, esp. one the foot; a corn.

Cla"vy (?), n.; pl. Clavies (#). [Cf. F. claveau centerpiece of an arch.] (Arch.) A mantelpiece.

Claw (kl&add;), n. [AS. clawu, clā, cleó; akin to D. klaauw, G. klaue, Icel. klō, Sw. & Dan. klo, and perh. to E. clew.] 1. A sharp, hooked nail, as of a beast or bird.

2. The whole foot of an animal armed with hooked nails; the pinchers of a lobster, crab, etc.

3. Anything resembling the claw of an animal, as the curved and forked end of a hammer for drawing nails.

4. (Bot.) A slender appendage or process, formed like a claw, as the base of petals of the pink. Gray.

Claw hammer, a hammer with one end of the metallic head cleft for use in extracting nails, etc. -- Claw hammer coat, a dress coat of the swallowtail pattern. [Slang] -- Claw sickness, foot rot, a disease affecting sheep.

Claw (kl&add;), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clawed (kl&add;d); p. pr. & vb. n. Clawing.] [AS. clawan. See Claw, n.] 1. To pull, tear, or scratch with, or as with, claws or nails.

2. To relieve from some uneasy sensation, as by scratching; to tickle; hence, to flatter; to court. [Obs.]

Rich men they claw, soothe up, and flatter; the poor they contemn and despise. Holland.

3. To rail at; to scold. [Obs.]

In the aforesaid preamble, the king fairly claweth the great monasteries, wherein, saith he, religion, thanks be to God, is right well kept and observed; though he claweth them soon after in another acceptation. T. Fuller

Claw me, claw thee, stand by me and I will stand by you; -- an old proverb. Tyndale. -- To claw away, to scold or revile. "The jade Fortune is to be clawed away for it, if you should lose it." L'Estrange. -- To claw (one) on the back, to tickle; to express approbation. (Obs.) Chaucer. -- To claw (one) on the gall, to find fault with; to vex. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Claw, v. i. To scrape, scratch, or dig with a claw, or with the hand as a claw. "Clawing [in ash barrels] for bits of coal." W. D. Howells.

To claw off (Naut.), to turn to windward and beat, to prevent falling on a lee shore.

Claw"back` (?), n. A flatterer or sycophant. [Obs.] "Take heed of these clawbacks." Latimer.

Claw"back`, a. Flattering; sycophantic. [Obs.]

Like a clawback parasite. Bp. Hall.

Claw"back`, v. t. To flatter. [Obs.] Warner.

Clawed (kl&add;d), a. Furnished with claws. N. Grew.

Claw"less, a. Destitute of claws.

Clay (klā), n. [AS. cl&aemacr;g; akin to LG. klei, D. klei, and perh. to AS. clām clay, L. glus, gluten glue, Gr. gloio`s glutinous substance, E. glue. Cf. Clog.] 1. A soft earth, which is plastic, or may be molded with the hands, consisting of hydrous silicate of aluminium. It is the result of the wearing down and decomposition, in part, of rocks containing aluminous minerals, as granite. Lime, magnesia, oxide of iron, and other ingredients, are often present as impurities.

2. (Poetry & Script.) Earth in general, as representing the elementary particles of the human body; hence, the human body as formed from such particles.

I also am formed out of the clay. Job xxxiii. 6.

The earth is covered thick with other clay, Which her own clay shall cover. Byron.

Bowlder clay. See under Bowlder. -- Brick clay, the common clay, containing some iron, and therefore turning red when burned. -- Clay cold, cold as clay or earth; lifeless; inanimate. -- Clay ironstone, an ore of iron consisting of the oxide or carbonate of iron mixed with clay or sand. -- Clay marl, a whitish, smooth, chalky clay. -- Clay mill, a mill for mixing and tempering clay; a pug mill. -- Clay pit, a pit where clay is dug. -- Clay slate (Min.), argillaceous schist; argillite. -- Fatty clays, clays having a greasy feel; they are chemical compounds of water, silica, and aluminia, as halloysite, bole, etc. -- Fire clay , a variety of clay, entirely free from lime, iron, or an alkali, and therefore infusible, and used for fire brick. -- Porcelain clay, a very pure variety, formed directly from the decomposition of feldspar, and often called kaolin. - - Potter's clay, a tolerably pure kind, free from iron.

Clay, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Clayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Claying.] 1. To cover or manure with clay.

2. To clarify by filtering through clay, as sugar.

Clay"-brained` (?), a. Stupid. [Obs.] Shak.

Clayes (?), n. pl. [F. claie hurdle.] (Fort.) Wattles, or hurdles, made with stakes interwoven with osiers, to cover lodgments. [Obs.]

Clay"ey (?), a. Consisting of clay; abounding with clay; partaking of clay; like clay.

Clay"ish, a. Partaking of the nature of clay, or containing particles of it.

Clay"more` (?), n. [Gael. claidheamhmor a broadsword; Gael. claidheamh sword + mor great, large. Cf. Claymore.] A large two-handed sword used formerly by the Scottish Highlanders.

||Clay*to"ni*a (?), n. [Named after Dr.John Clayton, an American botanist.] (Bot.) An American genus of perennial herbs with delicate blossoms; -- sometimes called spring beauty.

Clead"ing (?), n. [Scot., clothing. See Cloth.]

1. A jacket or outer covering of wood, etc., to prevent radiation of heat, as from the boiler, cylinder. etc., of a steam engine.

2. The planking or boarding of a shaft, cofferdam, etc.

Clean (klēn), a. [Compar. Cleaner (&?;); superl. Cleanest.] [OE. clene, AS. cl&aemacr;ne; akin to OHG. chleini pure, neat, graceful, small, G. klein small, and perh. to W. glan clean, pure, bright; all perh. from a primitive, meaning bright, shining. Cf. Glair.] 1. Free from dirt or filth; as, clean clothes.

2. Free from that which is useless or injurious; without defects; as, clean land; clean timber.

3. Free from awkwardness; not bungling; adroit; dexterous; as, a clean trick; a clean leap over a fence.

4. Free from errors and vulgarisms; as, a clean style.

5. Free from restraint or neglect; complete; entire.

When ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of corners of thy field. Lev. xxiii. 22.

6. Free from moral defilement; sinless; pure.

Create in me a clean heart, O God. Ps. li. 10

That I am whole, and clean, and meet for Heaven Tennyson.

7. (Script.) Free from ceremonial defilement.

8. Free from that which is corrupting to the morals; pure in tone; healthy. "Lothair is clean." F. Harrison.

9. Well-proportioned; shapely; as, clean limbs.

A clean bill of health, a certificate from the proper authority that a ship is free from infection. -- Clean breach. See under Breach, n., 4. -- To make a clean breast. See under Breast.

Clean, adv. 1. Without limitation or remainder; quite; perfectly; wholly; entirely. "Domestic broils clean overblown." Shak.

"Clean contrary." Milton.

All the people were passed clean over Jordan. Josh. iii. 17.

2. Without miscarriage; not bunglingly; dexterously. [Obs.] "Pope came off clean with Homer." Henley.

Clean (klēn), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cleaned (klēnd); p. pr. & vb. n. Cleaning.] [See Clean, a., and cf. Cleanse.] To render clean; to free from whatever is foul, offensive, or extraneous; to purify; to cleanse.

To clean out, to exhaust; to empty; to get away from (one) all his money. [Colloq.] De Quincey.

Clean"-cut` (klēn"kŭt), a. See Clear-cut.

Clean"er (?), n. One who, or that which, cleans.

Clean"ing, n. 1. The act of making clean.

2. The afterbirth of cows, ewes, etc. Gardner.

Clean"li*ly (?), adv. In a cleanly manner.

Clean