America: Being the Latest, and Most Accurate Description of the Nevv VVorld Containing the Original of the Inhabitants, and the Remarkable Voyages Thither. The Conquest of the Vast Empires of Mexico and Peru, and Other Large Provinces and Territories, with the Several European Plantations in Those Parts. Also Their Cities, Fortresses, Towns, Temples, Mountains, and Rivers. Their Habits, Customs, Manners, and Religions. Their Plants, Beasts, Birds, and Serpents. With an Appendix, Containing, Besides Several Other Considerable Additions, a Brief Survey of What Hath Been Discover'd of the Unknown South-land and the Arctick Region. by Ogilby, John

[Illustration: AMERICA]

AMERICA: BEING THE LATEST, AND MOST ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OF THE NEVV VVORLD; CONTAINING The Original of the Inhabitants, and the Remarkable Voyages thither. THE CONQUEST OF THE VAST EMPIRES OF Mexico and Peru, AND OTHER LARGE PROVINCES and TERRITORIES, WITH THE SEVERAL _EUROPEAN_ PLANTATIONS IN THOSE PARTS. ALSO Their Cities, Fortresses, Towns, Temples, Mountains, and Rivers. Their Habits, Customs, Manners, and Religions. Their Plants, Beasts, Birds, and Serpents. WITH An _APPENDIX_, containing, besides several other considerable Additions, a brief Survey of what hath been discover’d of the _Unknown South-Land_ and the _Arctick Region_.

Collected from most Authentick Authors, Augmented with later Observations, and Adorn’d with Maps and Sculptures, by _JOHN OGILBY_ Esq; His Majesty’s _Cosmographer_, _Geographick Printer_, and Master of the _Revels_ in the Kingdom of _IRELAND_.

_LONDON_, Printed by the Author, and are to be had at his House in _White Fryers, M. DC. LXXI_.

[Illustration]

A Catalogue of the Authors, which are either mention’d, or made use of in this Volume of _America_.

_Abraham Mellinus_ _Abraham Mylius_ _Adriaen vander Donk_ _Ælian_ _Albertus Magnus_ _Aldrete_ _Ælius Lampridius_ _Alexander Aphrodiensis_ _Alexander ab Alexandro_ _Alexander Guaginus_ _Alonso Garcia_ _Alonso de Ouagli_ _Andræas Cæsariensis_ _Angrin Jonas_ _Antonio de Herrera_ _Apuleius_ _Aristonicus Grammaticus_ _Aristotle_ _Athanasius Kircher_ _Augustinus_ _Augustin de Tarcate_ _Augustus Thuanus_ _Ayton of Armenia_

_Balthazar de Amizquita_ _Barnaba Cabo_ _Bartholomæo de las Casas_ _Benjamin Tudalensis_

_Caspar Barlæus_ _Castaldus_ _Charles Rochfort_ _Christopher Arcisseuski_ _Cicero_ _Claude de Abbeville_ _Clemens Alexandrinus_ _Conradus Gesner_ _Cornelius Nepos_ _Cornelius Witfleet_ _Ctesias_ _Curtius_ _Cyrianus_

_David Ingran_ _David Powel_ _Diodorus Siculus_ _Dionysius Halicarnassæus_ _Dirk Ruiters_ _Dithmar Blefken_ _Duarte Mendez Seraon_

_Egydius Fletcher_ _Emanuel de Moraez_ _Erasmus Stella_ _Erick Roothaer_ _Everhard Reid_ _Eusebius_ _Euthymius Zibagenus_

_Festus Avienus_ _Francisc. Burmannus_ _Francisc. Delapuente_ _Francisc. de Gomara_ _Francisc. Lopes de Gomesa_ _Francisc. Raphelingius_ _Francisc. Soarez_ _Francisc. Tirolmonte_ _Francisc. Xaverius_ _Fullerus_

_Galenus_ _Garcilasso de la Vega_ _Genebrardus_ _Gerardus Joannes Vossius_ _Guido de Brez_ _Guilielm. Piso_ _Guilielm. Postellus_

_Harmannus Moded_ _Henrick Haelbos_ _Henrick Hawks_ _Hernando de Leon_ _Herodotus_ _Hesychius_ _Hieronim. Benzo_ _Hieronim. Cardanus_ _Homer_ _Hugo Grotius_ _Hugo Linschot_

_Jacob Bontius_ _Jacob Panensis_ _Jacob Rabbi_ _Inca Garcilasso_ _Joannes Ardenois_ _Joannes Bertius_ _Joannes Chilton_ _Joannes Gysius_ _Joannes Johnstonus_ _Jean de Laet_ _Joannes de Ledesma_ _Joannes Leonclavius_ _Joannes Lery_ _Joannes Mariana_ _Joannes Nieuwhof_ _Joan. van de Sande_ _Joseph. Acosta_ _Joseph. Anchieta_ _Joseph. Scaliger_ _Isaacus Pontanus_ _Isaac. du Verne_ _Isidorus Mendes Sequera_ _Julius Cæsar_ _Julius Cæsar Scaliger_

_Lactantius_ _Lauren. Ananias_ _Lauren. Bikker_ _Lauren. Guascus Gerascius_ _Lauren. Keymis_ _Levinus Lemmius_ _Lieven Aizma_ _Lopez Vaz_ _Lucan_ _Lucretius_ _Lodowick Leo_ _Lysander_

_Manethon Persa_ _Marcus Zeno_ _Martin del Barco_ _Martin Perez_ _Matthæus van den Broeke_ _Matthiolus_ _Melchior Soiterus_ _Mich. Lithower_ _Michovius_ _Miles Philips_ _Moses_

_Nicolaus Zeno_

_Olympiodorus_

_Paulus Venetus_ _Pedro de Ancieta_ _Pedro Pizarro_ _Pedro Fernandez de Quir_ _Pedro Maria_ _Peter Martyr_ _Pedro Ordonnes de Cevallos_ _Peter van Gendt_ _Philo Judæus_ _Philippus Cluverius_ _Philippus Mornæus_ _Phylarchus_ _Piere Moreau_ _Pinedas_ _Plato_ _Pliny_ _Plutarch_ _Pomponius Mela_ _Proclus_ _Procopius_

_Quarterius_

_Rabbi Simeon_ _Robertus Comtæus_

_Sam. Purchas_ _Sebastiaen Schroten_ _Simplicius_ _Salust_ _Sigismond Baro_ _Strabo_

_Theodosio_ _Theopompus_ _Thevet_ _Tertullian_ _Trigaut_

_Vegetius_ _Virgil_

[Illustration]

THE CONTENTS of the several CHAPTERS and SECTIONS.

The first Book.

America _unknown to the Ancients_ Fol. 1

_Of the Original of the Americans, whence they came, when, how, and from what People Planted_ 11

_First Discoverers of_ America, _with_ Christopher Colonus _his Expedition_ 43

Pedro Alphonso Nigno _his Voyage_ 56

_The Voyage of_ Vincent Agnes Pinzon 58

_The Expedition of_ Americus Vesputius 60

_The Expedition of_ Alphonso Fogeda, Diego Nicuesa, Ancisus, _and_ Roderick Colmenares 65

Peter Arias _his Expedition, and the remarkable Passages of_ Vascus Nunnez 69

_The Expedition of_ Francisco Fernandez, Lupo Caizedo, Christophero Morantes, Bernardo Igniguez, _and_ Juan Grisalva 76

_The Expedition of_ Ferdinand Magaglian, _commonly call’d_ Magellan 79

Ferdinando Cortez _his Voyage_ 81

Diego Gottierez _his Expedition_ 92

_The Expedition of_ Pedro Alvarado, Francisco _and_ Gonzalvo Pizarro, _and_ Diego de Almagro 95

_The Expeditions of_ John Stade _and_ Nicholas Durando Villegagnon 103

_The Expedition of_ John Ribald, Renatus Laudonier, _and_ Gurgie 105

_Four_ English _Expeditions, under the Command of our famous Sea-Captains_, Martin Forbisher, _Sir_ Francis Drake, Thomas Candish, _and_ John Smith 108

_A_ Netherland _Expedition, by_ Jaques Mahu _and_ Simon de Cordes 110

_The Expedition of_ Oliver van Noord 113

_The Expedition of_ George van Spilbergen 115

_The Expedition of_ Corneliszoon Schouten _and_ Jacob Le Maire 117

_The Voyage of the_ Nassavian _Fleet, under the Command of_ Jaques le Heremite _and_ Hugo Schapenham 120

Henry Brewer _his Voyage_ 122

The Second Book.

_Of the Bounds of_ America, _and of the Division of the_ Mexican, Fol. _or Northern part thereof_ 125

Estotiland 126

Terra Laboratoris 128

Canada, _or_ New France 129

Accadia, _or_ Nova Scotia 133

Norumbegua 138

New England 139

New Netherland, _now call’d_ New York 168

_A new Description of_ Mary-Land 183

Virginia 192

_The Relation of Captain_ Smith’_s being taken Prisoner by_ Powhatan, _and his deliverance by his Daughter_ Pocahonta 202

Carolina 205

Florida 213

Jucatan 222

Guatimala 224

Vera Paz 227

Honduras 229

Nicaragua 232

Costarica 235

Veragua ibid.

Guatimala, _properly so call’d_ ibid.

_The Kingdom of_ Mexico, _or_ New Spain 238

Mechoacan 261

Tlascalla 264

Guaxata 268

Panuco 270

Tabasco 273

New Gallicia 281

Guadalajara 284

Xalisco 285

Chiametla ibid.

Couliacan 286

Cinoloa 288

Zacatecas 289

New Biscay 290

New Mexico 291

Cibola, Tontonteac, _and_ Nova Granada 298

Quivira 301

Terra Nova, _or_ New-found Land, _with the Island of_ Assumption 304

_The_ Bermudas, _or_ Summer-Islands 311

Hispaniola 314

Porto Rico, _and_ Monico 327

Cuba 331

Jamaica 337

_The Islands call’d_ The Lucaies 344

_The_ Caribbee-Islands 345

Anegada _and_ Sombrero 362

Las Virgines 363

Anguilla ibid.

Saba 364

St. Crux ibid.

St. Martin 365

St. Bartholomew 367

Barboude 368

Rotonda ibid.

Nevis ibid.

Eustathius 369

Antego 370

Montserrat ibid.

Guadalupe 371

Deseado 372

Marigalante ibid.

Todos Sanctos 373

De Aves ibid.

Dominico 375

Martinico 376

St. Lucia 377

Barbados ibid.

St. Vincent 380

Bekia 381

Granada ibid.

Tabago 382

St. Christophers 383

The Islands Sotavento, and the Isle Trinidado 387

Cubagua 388

California 389

The Third Book.

A Description of Peruana or, Southern America Fol. 393

Castella Aurea, _otherwise call’d_ Terra Firma 394

Panama 395

Darien 399

New Andaluzia 400

St. Martha 403

Rio de la Hacha 405

New Granada 406

Granada 408

Popayana 409

Peru 412

Quito 441

Los Quixos 446

Lima 450

Cusco 456

Los Charcas 462

Collao 466

Chile 471

Chile, _properly so call’d_ 472

Magellanica 473

Paraguay, _or_ Rio de la Plata 475

Rio de la Plata, _properly so call’d_ 476

Tucuman ibid.

La Crux de Sierra 477

Brasile ibid.

St. Vincent 495

Rio de Janeiro 496

De Spirito Santo 497

Porto Seguro 498

Los Isleos 501

Bahia de Todos los Sanctos 502

Pernambuco 505

Parayba 508

Maragnan 511

_The Lordships_ Tamarica, Rio Grande, Siara, _and_ Para 517

_A Relation of the Proceedings of the_ Netherland West-India _Company in_ Brasile, _to the Year_ 1658 518

_The Journey of_ Rodulphus Baron, _with the Description of the Customs and Manners of the_ Tapuyans 595

Grave Maurice _his Account of_ Brasile, _so far as it concern’d the_ West-India _Company_ 600

_The Councellor_ Dussen’s _Relation of so much of_ Brasile _as concern’d the_ West-India _Company_ 601

_A Description of the Palace_ Freyburgh, _two Bridges, and a Banquetting-house, all built by_ Grave Maurice 605

Guiana 607

_A Relation of the Journey of_ Francisco Orellana ibid.

Paria, _or_ New Andalusia 620

Cumana 621

Venezuela 624

_The Islands_ Margareta, Cubagua, _and_ Coche 627

_Of the Islands of_ Southern America 628

In the Appendix.

Rio de la Plata Fol. 631

Chili 634

_A View of the_ Chilesian _Language_ 635

Magellanica 649

_The_ Unknown South-Land 653

Terra Borealis, _or_ The Arctick Region 661

_Several Attempts for the discovery of the_ North-West Passage 672

_A brief View of what Places are possess’d at this day in the_ West-Indies, _by the_ English, Spaniards, French, Portuguese, _and_ Dutch 674

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Novissima et Accuratissima TOTIUS AMERICÆ DESCRIPTIO per JOHAHEM OGILUIUM Cosmographum Regium]

[Illustration]

AN ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OF AMERICA.

CHAP. I. America, _unknown to the Antients_.

[Sidenote: Description of the Ocean.]

The Sea, that takes several Denominations from the Countreys which it washeth, and surrounding the dry Land, cuts out, and shapes so many winding Bays, Creeks, and Meandring Inlets, seems no where so much confin’d and penn’d into so narrow a Channel, as the _Straights_ of _Magellan_: From whence again, soon expatiating, it spreads it self into two immense, and almost boundless Oceans, that which opens to the North, gives terminaries to the four Regions of the Earth; that to the South, onely to _Asia_ and _America_; both which, indeed, are but one continu’d Sea, extending it self round the Universal Globe.

This watry part of the World, that almost through all Ages lay Fallow, hath in these later times been Furrow’d by several Expert and Stout Captains, who now by their Art and Industry, have given a good Account of, and made clear Discoveries from East to West, where-ever the Sun rises or sets.

The Northern Bounds under the _Artick-Zone_, have been hitherto so obstructed with Ice, that the undertakings of such as adventur’d either to find by the North-East or North-West a Passage to _India_, have been utterly frustrate. Of the Southern, no such pains hath as yet been taken in the Discovery, so that for the most part it is yet unknown how far the Water, either deep or shallow, overspreads the Earth, onely thus much Experience hath made out, that the _Antartick_ needs lesser Line to Fathom, than the _Artick-Ocean_.

[Sidenote: The Ancients had little knowledge in Navigation.]

The antient _Greeks_, _Phenicians_, and _Romans_, or whosoever that were Renown’d by Antiquity, and Listed in the number of their famous Navigators, were no less Timerous than Ignorant concerning Maritim Affairs, and are not fit to stand in the least degree of competition with our later Voyagers.

[Sidenote: Navigation is very ancient.]

Of old, by an inviolable Law, made by Custom, according to _Pliny_, _Vigetius_ and others, the Sea was lock’d up, from the eleventh of _October_, to the tenth of _March_, no Ships daring to venture forth, dreading short Nights, and foul Weather; neither in Summer, did they so much as once offer, unless driven by Storms, to attempt the _Offin_, or loose sight of Land; yet there is no question, but that several Nations in former Ages, made it their business, spending their whole time, and wearying themselves in the Practical Art of Navigation.

[Sidenote: _Geograph._ lib. 1.]

[Sidenote: _Hist. Nat._ lib. 2. cap. 67.]

[Sidenote: _Ultima Thule_, suppos’d by some to be _Ireland_. _Vide Georgic._]

[Sidenote: The Voyage of _Hanno_.]

[Sidenote: Of _Eudoxus_, _Strab._ l. 2.]

The Sacred Scripture testifies, That the Kings of _Judea_, _Solomon_, _Jehosaphat_, _Ozias_, and others, prepar’d several Fleets that Sail’d through remote Seas, freighting themselves with Gold from _Ophir_, and other Rarities, which were Imported to supply and enrich the _Holy-Land_. And _Strabo_ also tells us, That King _Solomon_ being contemporary with _Homer_, then discover’d _India_. And _Pliny_ relates, That the _Romans_, in the Reign of _Augustus_, passing the _Straights_ of _Gibraltar_, and sleighting the _Ne plus ultra_, Coasted _Spain_, _France_, and _Belgium_, leaving not at the Promontory of the _Cimbrians_ (now call’d _Shager-Riff_) but also ventur’d into the Northern Ocean, which washes _Norwey_ and _Lapland_: But long before this, as _Athenæus_ relates, _Phileas Taurominites_, a _Grecian_ Captain, and several others pass’d the _Herculean-Pillars_, penetrating the Northern Seas as far as _Britain_, and adventuring, made the first Discovery of _Thule_: And to the Southward the _African_ Coasts without _Gibraltar_, and beyond _Atlas_, were now and then explor’d by several expert Captains. But more remarkable is the Voyage of _Hanno_ a _Carthaginian_, who out-sail’d these, and inspected the Coasts of _Africa_, as far as the _Gorgades_: And _Eudoxus Cyzicenus_, flying from King _Lathyrus_, set Sail from the _Arabian_ Gulph, and passing the _Great-Cape_, came to an Anchor at last in the Mouth of _Gibraltar_, having discover’d all the Eastern, Southern, and Western parts of _Africa_.

[Sidenote: Strange Voyage of some _Indians_.]

[Sidenote: Of _Menelaus_.]

Moreover, it deserves special observation, That an antient _Swedish_ King, as _Cornelius Nepos_ relates, sent as a Rarity and great Present to the _Roman_ Consul _Metellus Celer_, some _Indians_, who loosing their course, hatter’d up and down with perpetual Storms and stress of Weather, were at last driven into the Northern Ocean, where they suffer’d Shipwrack; yet saving themselves, Landed on his Coast: _Aristonicus Gramaticus_ relates, That _Menelaus_ Sailing from the _Sack_ of _Troy_, became so great a Voyager, that leaving the _Straights_, he surrounded _Africa_, and discovering _India_, after eight years re-measuring the same way he went, return’d with great Riches in safety to his own Kingdom: Which is consentaneous to _Homer_, who saith, _Odyss._ l. 4.

——_None must compare Mansions with_ Jove, _his Seats Celestial are: But with me any may, who eight years tost Through Worlds of Miseries from Coast to Coast, ’Mongst unknown Seas, of my Return small hope_, Cyprus, Phœnicia, Ægypt,[1] Æthiope, Sidon, Erembos _found, and_ Lybia, _where Their Lambs are horn’d, their Ews teem thrice a year._

——Ἤτοι ζηνὶ βροτῶν οὐκ ἄντις ἐρίζοι. Ἀθάνατοι γὰρ τοῦ γε δόμοι καὶ κτήματ ἔασιν. Ἀνδρῶν δ’ ἤκεν τίς μοί ἐρίζεται ἠὲ, καὶ οὐκὶ Κτήμασιν; ἦ γὰρ πολλὰ παθὼν, καὶ πόλλ’ ἐπαληθεὶς Ἠγαγόμην ἐν νηυσὶ, καὶ ὀγδοάτω ἔτει ἦλθον Κύπρον, φοίνικην τε καὶ ἀιγυπτίους ἐπαληθεὶς, Ἀιθιοπάς θ’ ἱκόμην, καὶ σιδονίους καὶ ἐρεμβοὺς Καὶ Λιβύην, ἵνα τ’ ἄρνευ ἄφαρ κεραοὶ τελέθουσι, Τρὶς γὰρ τίκτει μῆλα τελευφόρον εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν.

Footnote 1:

The Commentators on _Homer_ have been very inquisitive to find out _Menelaus_ Voyage into _Æthiopia_. _Crates_ suppos’d that he pass’d out at the _Straights_, doubled the Southern _Cape_, and so arriv’d thither. _Eratosthenes_ conjectures, that in the time of _Homer_ the _Straights_ Mouth was an Isthmus, and the _Ægyptian_ Isthmus overflow’d by the Sea, which afforded him a shorter passage. But that is most probable which _Strabo_ delivers, that he then went to the borders of _Æthiopia_, when he pass’d up _Ægypt_ to the City of _Thebes_; the Borders of _Æthiopia_ being not far distant from thence in _Strabo_’s time, probably very near it in _Homer_’s.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Voyage of an _Indian_ into _Egypt_,]

[Sidenote: Of _Ptolemy_]

[Sidenote: And also of _Cleopatra_.]

That which the _Grecian_ Geographers relate concerning _Ptolomy Euergetes_, King of _Egypt_, is not to be forgotten, That sending Pilots, Commission’d to take the Soundings, and settle the Land-marks in the _Arabian_ Gulph, they found by chance a forsaken Vessel, onely in it one Man half dead, lying among several other breathless Bodies, of whom, being refresh’d with convenient Cordials, they enquir’d his Fortune, but he being unable to give them any present satisfaction, neither understanding what the other said, they sent him to the Court, where soon having got a smattering of Greek, he inform’d _Euergetes_, that he was a Native _Indian_, driven from their course into the place where they found him by stress of Weather, and that his company were famish’d, all their Provision spent in their Wandrings from their intended Voyage; Thus being kindly entertain’d, he also promis’d the King to open his Passage (if so he pleas’d) into _India_. The King slept not upon this Intelligence, but immediately prepar’d a Fleet Freighted with such Commodities as were advis’d; with which setting forth by the Conduct of this their _Indian_ Pilot, they Anchor’d in their desir’d Port, and brought the King in return from thence a rich _Cargo_ of Silk, Spices, costly Drugs, and precious Gems. _Cleopatra_, about sixty years after, intending not to lose the advantages reap’d by the former discoveries, equipp’d another and greater Navy; which passing through the Red-Sea, found the Stern of a Ship, on which was Presented a Horse, whereby some of the more knowing Sea-men judg’d, that it had been a _Gibraltar_ Vessel, and Sailing about _Africa_, there by sad accident suffer’d a Wrack. This Stern was afterwards set up, and fix’d as a Memorial in the Market-place of _Memphis_.

[Sidenote: The _Venetians_ were the first that drove a trade from _Europe_ to the _East-Indies_.]

[Sidenote: How they went their journeys.]

In these later times, the first that endeavor’d to drive an _European_ Trade in _Africk_, and held Commerce with _India_, was the State of _Venice_, who Sail’d from thence through the _Adriatick_, into the _Mediterranean-Sea_: So Steering for _Alexandria_, where unlading their Goods, from thence they carry’d them over Land, and Shipping again in the _Arabian_ Gulph, Sail’d directly for _India_. Thus by Land and Water, were exchang’d several Commodities, and the _Indian_ Growth and rich Products of the Oriental World plentifully Transported to _Venice_, and from thence, all _Europe_ had ample Accommodation, until an _Egyptian Sultan_ suffer’d the Way to be infested by Thieves and Murdering Robbers, that so they were enforc’d to remove thence, and Discharge their several Cargoes at _Aleppo_; from whence, on Mules and Camels, they carry’d their Goods to _Babylon_, so to _Balsarum_, and then to _Ormus_, where they Re-ship’d thence, directly standing for _India_.

Thus they enjoy’d the benefit of so great a Trade and Commerce, until the _Portuguese_ found a Passage by Sea, saving the Expence and trouble of carrying Goods so far by Land to _India_; Of which here we will a little inlarge.

[Sidenote: By what means the _Portuguese_ came first to discover the Coasts of _Africa_ and _India_.]

[Sidenote: Why _Africa_ was no further discover’d.]

_John_, the first King of _Portugal_, who took from the _Moors_, by force of Arms, _Septa_, an _African_ City, having five Sons; _Henry_ his fourth behav’d himself so gallantly in the Leaguer of _Septa_, that after he became Master of the place, this Prince made many bold Excursions in several Parties against the Enemy, bringing in daily great store of Booty; so growing rich, he Rigg’d out two new Vessels to make farther Discoveries along the Coast of _Africa_. Yet this his Expedition went on but slowly, being much taken off in Building there a new City, then call’d _Tarzanabala_, and since _Villa Infantis_; but being Admonish’d by a Dream, and Check’d for his laying thus aside his first Design of Navigation; he soon after, _Anno 1410._ set forth the Ships that he intended, which he the more accelerated, being inform’d by some of his Prisoners Natives, that _Africa_ spread from the Basis of _Mount-Atlas_, very far towards the South: This Mountain then was the Terminary of Navigation that way, because thereabouts a long Ridge or Shelf of Sands thrust its Point under Shallow Waters so far out into the Ocean, that none durst venture to Sail into the _Offin_, being out of sight of Land to double this conceal’d _Cape_.

[Sidenote: Who first ventur’d into the _Offin_.]

[Sidenote: _Madera_’s, by whom peopled.]

The first that attempted to find Deep Water, and get round about, discovering several unknown Coasts, and Uninhabited Isles belonging to that Region, were _Joannes Gonsalves_, _Tristan Varseus_, and _Ægidius Annius_; amongst which were the _Madera_’s, and _St. George de Picho_, which Prince _Henry_ first Planted with _Portuguese_, and others since with _Netherlanders_. He also obtain’d a Grant from Pope _Martin_ the Fifth, of all the discover’d Territories East-ward from the _Canaries_, for ever to be the undoubted Right, and belonging to the Crown of _Portugal_.

[Sidenote: By whom _Genny_ was discover’d.]

After _Henry_’s Decease, _Anno 1460._ the business of Navigation and Discoveries of new Countreys, lay neglected, because King _Alphonso_ turmoyl’d in a Civil War, his Crown being at stake, had not leisure to think or look after uncertain improvements by Sea; yet at last having quell’d his Enemies, he ventur’d forth some Ships, who Sail’d as far as the River _Zenaga_, and came to Anchor before the City of _Genny_, famous since for Trade, which gave its denomination to the Countrey and Coasts of _Guiny_, where they dealing, Barter’d for Ivory, Gold, Slaves, and also got so much footing into the Countrey, that they suddenly rais’d up a Fort, and Man’d it with a strong Garrison, Shipping their Slaves for _Lisbon_.

_John_ the Second succeeding his Father _Alphonso_, had a great design upon _Arabia_ and _India_, and if possible, was ambitious to open a Passage from the _Atlantick_, to the _Oriental-Seas_. But the difficulty lay in Steering so often from sight of Land, venturing into the Main Ocean, obstructed by so many dangerous Shoals that lay so far out into the _Offin_.

[Sidenote: For the Northern Constellations the _Astrolabe_ was in use long before.]

At that time flourish’d three famous Mathematicians, _Rhoderick_, _Joseph_, and _Martin Bohemus_, Pupils bred up by _Joannes Monteregius_; with which the King consulting, perswaded, that they would by their Art invent some Instrument, that by Southern Constellations, the Pole being depress’d, the Navigator might know where he was, and in what height; so guessing what distance they were from this or that Countrey; they accordingly Club’d Learning, and by their great Study, found out what since hath prov’d so useful and beneficial to Seamen, the _Astrolabe_; which help having obtain’d, the Sailers encourag’d, more frequently ventur’d into remote and unknown Seas.

[Sidenote: Remarkable passage of _Jaques Cano_.]

[Sidenote: Discovery of _Congo_.]

[Sidenote: _John_ the Second, seeks to discover _India_ by water.]

After these, King _John_ of _Portugal_ sent _Jaques Cano_ with a Fleet, who Sailing, found the River _Zaires_, where he erected a Pillar with an Inscription, _Latin_ and _Portuguese_, signifying by whom, and in what Kings Reign these _African_ Coasts were discover’d: Here he also met some of the Natives, who more civiliz’d than the rest, told him, That they had a mighty King, who Raigning over them, kept his Court some few days Journey up in the Countrey, to whom _Cano_ sending his Agents, detain’d four _Africans_ as Pledges, which he carry’d with their free consent to _Portugal_, promising to bring them back in fifteen Months, who before that time having got some smatterings of their Tongue, inform’d them, that their Native Soyl was call’d _Congo_, whither returning by the appointed time, they were according to their agreement, exchang’d for the _Portuguese_, and _Cano_ address’d himself with rich Presents to their King, whom he found sitting in their manner on an Ivory Throne, being from the middle upward Naked, his nether parts cover’d with long Silken Skirts, a Golden Armlet on his left Arm, athwart his Shoulders hung a Horses Tail, their Badge of Royal Dignity: _Cano_ humbly laid the Presents down at the Kings feet, amongst which was a Gilded Flag, or Pennon with a Cross, which Pope _Innocent_ the Eighth had Consecrated with great Ceremony. After this, many of that Nation became Christians, and the King himself receiv’d Baptism. But in short time, by the Instigations of their Diabolical Priests, and others, Christianity loosing ground, grew out of countenance: Mean while, King _John_ the Second vigorously Prosecuted the business of Discovery, sending _Jews_ and _Christians_ by Land from _Alexandria_ and other parts of _Egypt_ to _India_, and from thence to explore the Coasts on the Eastern side of _Africa_, to the _Great-Cape_; if so a way might be found fit for Navigators, having doubled that Point, to Traffick with the Oriental parts of the World.

[Sidenote: _Vasques de Gama_, his expedition.]

After this Princes Death the Work lay sill a while, but in short time, King _Emanuel_ his Successor freshly undertook the business once more, sending _Vasques de Gama_ with four Ships, who passing through many Dangers with great Difficulties, Anchor’d at last before _Calecut_, and was the first of the _Europeans_ that found a way to the _East-Indies_.

[Sidenote: _Christopher Columbus_’s.]

[Sidenote: Dividing of the earth.]

But _Christopher Columbus_, five Years before _Gama_’s Expedition to the East, had been employ’d in Western Discoveries, which prov’d so very successful, that he found no less than another World; which soon after, from _Americus Vesputius_, was call’d _America_: So that the Division of the World by the Antients, (concerning which they had so long err’d, and were utterly mistaken) was now made manifest by Experience, and undisputable Demonstration; for formerly the whole World was known by no other names than _Asia_, _Africa_, and _Europe_, but now, those three are found to make but one Part of what incircles the Universal Globe; because in the South lies a second, known no further than by its Coastings and Superficial Margents; the third part being the New-World, our _America_.

[Sidenote: A query, if _America_ was known to the Ancients.]

[Sidenote: _Atlantica. Plato in Crisis & Timæo._]

Here it will not seem amiss, having prov’d that _Africa_ was more than Coasted by the Ancients, to ingage and search with some scrutiny concerning this _America_; First, Whether at any time ’twas known by the Ancients? And next, by what People, and when first Inhabited? About the former, the Learned of these later times Jangle amongst themselves, for some of them will needs ascribe so much Honor to Antiquity, declining the Worthy Praise of those that made so wonderful a Discovery, as if they of old, and many Ages before, had done the same, or at least, that this New-World to them was not unknown, maintaining this their bold Assertion from the Authority of what they find, both in Ancient _Greek_, and _Latin_ Authors: First, especially in the Learned _Plato_, who, as you know at large, describes a New _Atlantis_, lying beyond the _Straights_ of _Gibraltar_; whose Coast is surrounded with two vast Seas that are Sow’d thick with scatter’d Islands. By these Seas they understand the Atlantick and Southern-Sea, by the many Isles, _Cuba_, _Hispaniola_, _Jamaica_, _California_, and others, which lie sprinkled along the Coasts of _America_. But it cannot be made out, that _Plato_ describes ought but a Fancy, his own _Idea_, not a Countrey that ever was, is, or shall be, though he sets it forth so Accurately, and with such Judgment, as if he had taken a Survey of the place, and found such a Land indeed.

[Sidenote: _Diod. Sic._ lib. 6.]

[Sidenote: _Arist. de Mirandis in Natura auditis._]

In like manner, _Diodorus Siculus_ undertakes to prove, That _America_ was known to the Antients; telling a Story, how the _Phenicians_ were driven by a Storm from the Coasts of _Africa_ West-ward, falling at last upon a great and altogether unknown Island, which our late Expositors take for _America_; Must it therefore be so? Surely not, for it is onely a bare Story, without any Proof or the least Testimony. They endeavor to make _Aristotle_ bolster up their opinion that he had a knowledge of this New-World, which with no small pains they pump from these Words: “Beyond the _Herculean_ Pillars, certain _Carthaginian_ Merchants penetrated the Atlantick Ocean so far, that at last they found a vast, yet un-inhabited Island, producing nothing but Herbage, Plants, and Wild-Beasts, yet interlac’d with many Meandring Rivers, abounding with several sorts of Fish, lying some days Sail from the Continent; they Landing, found a Soyl so fertile, and Air so temperate, that there they setled, and were the first Planters of that Isle. But the _Carthaginians_ having intelligence thereof, Prohibited all Persons whatsoever, upon Pain of Death, to go thither, fearing the place being so much commended, all the People would be ready to flock thither, and desert their own, and so utterly unfurnish and debilitate their then growing Common-wealth.”

[Sidenote: _Æneid._ lib. 6.]

But how could the _Carthaginians_ find _America_, without the use of the Compass? How happen’d it, that they were so taken with the fertility of this their New-found-Land, when the Adjacent Countreys and Fields about _Carthage_ are every where Flourishing, and most Luxurious? So that it may better be suppos’d, that what _Aristotle_ found so long since, may rather be the _Canary-Isles_, or _Great-Brittain_, than _America_. The _Greeks_ having then also made some Inspection into the _Brittish-Isles_. They would also make you believe, that _Virgil_ the Prince of Latin Poets, had known the New-World in these Verses; _Æneid._ lib. 6.

_There, there’s the Prince, oft promis’d us before, Divine_ Augustus Cæsar, _who once more Shall Golden Days bring to th’_ Ausonian _Land, Kingdoms that once old_ Saturn _did command, And shall His power to_ India _extend, Beyond the Annual Circle, and beyond The Sun’s long Progress, where great_ Atlas _bears, Laden with Golden Stars, the glittering Sphears;_

Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti sæpius audis, _Augustus Cæsar_, divûm genus, aurea condet Sæcula, qui rursus Latio, regnata per arva Saturno quondam, super & Garamantas & Indos Proferet imperium. Jacet extra sidera tellus, Extra anni Solisque vias, ubi cœlifer _Atlas_ Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum.

[Sidenote: _America_ was not known to the Ancients.]

But what of all this? Who finds in any of these Writings, any Marks of _America_, or the least Description thereof? Though we cannot deny that the Antient Sages and Wise Philosophers of former times might easily make out, and no question did, that the Earth and Sea made the perfect Figure of a Globe; first from the round Shadow of the Earth that Ecclipses the Moon; the different Risings and Settings of the Celestial Luminaries; and the still Variation of the Pole; so that the Earth and Sea making one Ball, they might easily conjecture, that the South-side of the Equinoctial might be Inhabited as well as the North: But all this was more grounded upon Natural Reason and Right Judgement, than any Experience of theirs, or the least certain knowledge thereof, which since these later times had the first happiness to obtain; so laying these Conjectures aside, there have been none more grosly erroneous, and so utterly mistaken in this Point, than some of the Ancients, and especially the Fathers of the Church.

[Sidenote: _Lactant._ l. 3. c. 24.]

_Lactantius Firmianus_, and St. _Austin_, who strangely jear’d at as ridiculous, and not thinking fit for a Serious Answer the Foolish Opinion of _Antipodes_, or another Habitable World beyond the _Equator_: At which, _Lactantius_ Drolling, says, _What, Forsooth, here is a fine Opinion broach’d indeed; an_ Antipodes! _heigh-day! People whose Feet tread with ours, and walk Foot to Foot with us; their Heads downwards, and yet drop not into the Sky! There, yes, very likely, the Trees loaden with Fruit grow downwards, and it Rains, Hails, and Snows upwards; the Roofs and Spires of Cities, tops of Mountains, point at the Sky beneath them, and the Rivers revers’d topsi-turvy, ready to flow into the Air out of their Channels!_

[Sidenote: _Lactant._ error concerning our _Antipodes_.]

[Sidenote: As also St. _Austin. de Civit. Dei_ l. 16. c. 9.]

But these seeming witty Observations of _Lactantius_, though they may serve for a Jest, yet are not grounded on any serious Reasons; for the Earth and Sea being Globular, making one Universal Ball; all Materials whatsoever that belong to this great Body, sink by a natural Propensity towards its Center; so that where-ever we Travel, our Feet are downwards, and our Heads upwards, the Sky above, and the Earth beneath; neither need they fear, that any where the Earth should Moulder and drop into the Clouds: But St. _Austin_ Reasons better, admitting that the Earth and Sea make a Universal Globe; yet it no way follows, that inhabited Countreys should lye opposite to our Northern, nay, altogether impossible, seeing that side which is our _Antipodes_ is all nothing but Sea; and should we allow, that there were Land and Water mixt as ours is, who could prove, that they were Peopled? or how could any get thither, over such Vast and Immense Seas? or possibly pass the extream heat of the Torrid Zone, not to be endur’d by any living Creature? And what then becomes of Sacred Scripture, which says positively, _That all Men were deriv’d from_ Adam, _and after the Floud, from_ Noah _and his three Sons_? Therefore the Nations of the _Antipodes_ must be of another Abstract, there being no possibility (as they suppos’d) of passing from this World to that: But since the Discovery of the _East_ and _West-Indies_, Experience, the best Mistress, hath taught, that in the South are mighty Lands and vast Territories, and that as far as they have been Penetrated, are found to be full of People, extending their Dominions from East to West. And though St. _Austin_ deny’d this now well-known Truth, yet long before his time, _Cicero_, _Pliny_, and others amongst the _Greeks_ and _Romans_, divided the Earth under five _Zones_; which _Virgil_ describes thus:

_Five Zones the heav’ns infold, hot Sun-beams beat Always on one, and burns with raging heat. The two Extreams to this on each hand lies Muffled with Storms, fetter’d with cruel Ice. ’Twixt Cold and Heat, two more there are, th’ aboads Assign’d poor Mortals by th’ Immortal Gods._

Quinque tenent cælum zonæ: quarum una corusco Semper Sole rubens, & torrida semper ab igni: Quam circum extremæ dextra, lævaque trahuntur Cærulea glacie concretæ, atque imbribus atris. Has inter, mediamque, duæ mortalibus ægris Munere concessæ divum: via secta per ambas, Obliquus qua se signorum verteret ordo.

[Sidenote: _Macrob. in Somnio Scipionis._ l. 2. c. 5.]

[Sidenote: _Vide Carpent. Geograph._]

With _Virgil_, _Pliny_, and the Prince of Latin Orators agree, who saith, “You see, that those that inhabit the Earth dwell in Countreys so separated one from another, that it is impossible they should have any Commerce; some of them are our _Antipodes_, walking with their Heads downwards, some their Feet against our sides, others, as we, with their Heads upright. You see how the same Earth seems to be Swath’d about with Rolls, of which, two separated by the other three, are at utmost distance one from the other, lying equi-distant under the Vertick Points of Heaven, always cover’d with Snow and Ice; but the middlemost and greatest is scorch’d by the violent heats of the Sun: Two Tracts are Habitable, one to the South, our _Antipodes_, the other North, which we Inhabit.”

[Sidenote: _Pliny_ lib. 2.]

And _Pliny_ also affirms, though against the Vulgar Opinion, this truth, “That the Earth is round about inhabited, and that people walk Foot to Foot in most parts thereof; though every one be ready to ask why our _Antipodes_ drop not into the Sky; which question, our _Antipodes_ may also ask concerning us.”

But although the Ancients upon these and the like Demonstrations well understood, that there was a Habitable World towards the South under our _Horizon_, yet they could not make out or believe, that there was any possibility to pass thither; And, according as St. _Austin_ conceiv’d, That the Earth produc’d nothing under either Pole, by reason of excessive cold, and that the _Equinoxs_ or _Middle-Zone_, was not to be penetrated, because of the insufferable heat.

[Sidenote: _Macrob. in Somno Scip._ lib. 2.]

And _Macrobius_ saith, “That the _Equinoctial_ Circle, the _Artick_ and _Antartick Lines_, bind the two Habitable _Zones_, and make Temperate by the excessive Neighboring Heats and Colds; and these Countreys onely give Animation, and comfortable Enjoyment to all Living Creatures.”

Moreover, St. _Austin_ in some places seems to clear his own Doubts, saying, “That People, if they could find a means to Sail those Vast and Undiscover’d Seas, might make Land, raising new Stars under another Sky.”

[Sidenote: How beasts came on remote Islands.]

A Learned Father, searching after the Original of all sorts of Beasts which multiply by Generation, concludes, That they must derive themselves from those that were sav’d with _Noah_ in the Ark. But how came they to the Isles? To those adjacent and near the Main Land, they might easily Swim; to the remoter, they were Transported.

[Sidenote: And chiefly the wild.]

[Sidenote: _Austin_ is contradicted.]

[Sidenote: How men came to new Countreys.]

But this Doubt is not altogether clear’d, for the Domestick and other Creatures fit for Humane use and Sustenance were thus brought thither: Yet how comes it to pass, that Voracious and Wild Creatures are also found there, such as Wolves, Tigers, Lions, and other Beasts of Prey? This puzzle putting St. _Austin_ to a stand, he had no other means to get off, but by saying, that by God’s Commands or Permission, the Angels convey’d them thither; If so, why might not God please to Plant Men there in like manner, and the rather, the Earth being created for Humane use? But what needed this, when Men can in Ships Transport themselves, either of their own accord for curious Inquest, to find new Countreys, or else enforc’d by stress of Weather, to far remoter, and altogether unknown Lands: Besides, though the Earth is here and there divided by large Bays and vast Seas, yet nevertheless, in other places it is all continu’d Land, or at least parted by some narrow In-let or Sea; so that there was no difficulty for a crouded Plantation to go over, and so ease themselves in another Countrey, till then not Inhabited; therefore none need to question, but that from _Adam_, or nearer, from _Noah_’s three Sons, _Sem_, _Ham_, and _Japhet_, those, as well as we, were extracted, that Inhabit this our other World.

[Sidenote: Reasons why _America_ was so long unknown.]

[Sidenote: Who first sail’d on the Ocean.]

[Sidenote: Several opinions of the Antients concerning it.]

[Sidenote: _Brittains_ amongst the first Inventors of Navigation.]

But one question is to be observ’d, How first after the expiration of so many Ages in these our later times, a New-World was discover’d, altogether unknown to the Antients, when they in the greatness of their Parts and Undertaking, Prowess and Prudence, were no ways inferior to the Modern, and every way as fit for great Designs and grand Exploits? We need not scruple or make the least doubt, but the Sea hath been Navigated of old; but the first attempters set forth unexperienc’d, in as pittiful and ill-contriv’d Vessels. The _Heathens_ ascribe the Art of Navigation, first to the _Cretans_, who under the Conduct of _Neptune_, set forth a Navy to explore Foraign Countries. But _Pliny_ long before gives the Invention of this Art to _Erythra_, King of _Egypt_, who upon Pieces of Timber, conjoyn’d and brac’d together, crept along the Shores, and ventur’d to Discover the Isles in the _Red-Sea_. But others give that honor to the _Trojans_, and _Micians_, when with a Fleet by Sea, they Invaded _Thrace_: Others, to the _Brittains_, who made little Vessels of Leather, and were the first that by this Invention found how to Float upon the Waters: Some plead, that the _Samothracians_ were first; Others, that _Danæus_ before all, found a way by Sea from _Egypt_ to _Greece_. But without all Contradiction, _Noah_’s Ark was the Pattern or Sample, that succeeding Ages imitating, built their Ships by; and the more probable, because his Offspring multiplying so fast, that they were enforc’d to inlarge their Colonies, by passing Seas, and other broad Rivers, to settle their Super-numeraries there.

[Sidenote: The first Inventers of several things belonging to Shipping.]

So _Jason_ Invented a Ship, which he call’d _Argos_, which _Sesostris_ King of _Egypt_ took as his Pattern. Next, the _Biremis_, a Galley with double Banks of Oars, was made by the _Erythreans_; with treble Banks, by the _Corinthian Amocles_; the addition of the _Quadruple_, the _Carthaginians_ boast; of the _Quinqueremis Nesichthon_, _Alexander the Great_, brought them to twelve Banks; _Ptolomy Soter_, to fifteen; _Demetrius_, _Antigonus_ Son, doubled them to thirty; _Ptolomy Philadelphus_, to forty; and last of all, _Philopater_ rais’d them to fifty Banks of Oars. _Hippus_ a _Tirian_, was the first that set Ships upon the Stocks; the _Rhodians_ a Ketch, and the _Batavians_ a Boat; the _Copes_ made the first Oar; _Dedalus_ the Mast and Boltsprit; _Piscus_ the Beak; the _Tyrrheans_ the Anchor; _Tiphys_ the Rudder; taking example from the motion of a Kites Stern; _Icarus_ found Sails, fancy’d by the Poets for Wings, though some ascribe that honor to his Father _Dedalus_.

[Sidenote: Why in former Ages no remote Countreys were discover’d.]

_Minos_ was the first that Ingag’d in a Sea-Fight, whereby we may easily conjecture, that of old none adventur’d far into the _Offin_, or to remote Countreys, not daring to trust their so sleight contriv’d Vessels. But these later times have strangely and suddenly improv’d this growing Art of Navigation, yet pitch’d not to that height at first, as boldly to adventure, and loose sight of Land.

[Sidenote: The manner of the Antients Sailing.]

[Sidenote: Of the _Romans_.]

[Sidenote: Why _America_ was so lately known.]

The _Tyrians_ first understood how to Steer their Course by the North-Star, and when dark and foul Weather had Clouded the Sky, that they could neither see Heaven or Earth, but onely Sea, they directed their Course by the Wind; and if they doubted the change thereof, they let some Birds flie, whom they follow’d, supposing that they stood directly to the nearest Land. But these are but poor helps, and blind Guides to shew you Land from the middle of the boundless Ocean. It is certain, that the _Romans_ in the time of _Julius Cæsar_ and _Augustus_, stretch’d the Bounds of that Empire Eastward to _Euphrates_, the _Rhyne_, and the _Danube_, and Westward to the _Ocean_ and _Mount Atlas_, Sailing up and down the _Mediterranean_, with great Fleets, which stoutly endur’d the violence both of Waves and Weather; but all this made them not so hardy, as once to think or look after new Worlds. But after the _Roman_ power decreas’d, by several Eruptions of the _Goths_, _Vandals_, _Huns_, _Normans_, _Lumbards_, and other Northern Countreys, which swarm’d with People, that overflow’d all places like a Deluge, so that _Europe_ was every where puzzel’d and Imbroyl’d, their whole business consisting in conjoyning Forces to withstand such bold Invaders, and so vexatious an Enemy.

And farther East, _Asia_ was at the same time little better, still trembling at the daily Alarms and Incursions of the _Scythians_, _Persians_, and _Saracens_; and afterwards the _Turks_ growing upon them more than any of the former, expected no other than a sad Catastrophe, so that the known World had too much work cut out for them by these Distractions and Alterations of Government, then to go in Quest of uncertainties, to find they know not where, another.

[Sidenote: _Hieron. in_ c. 2. _Ephes._]

Here also is added by St. _Jerom_, what an antient Writer saith, _Great care hath been taken in Computing the Age of this World, and if there be another which Commenc’d not with ours_, (as _Clemens_ mentions in his Epistles) _where are scituate those Seas and Lands that make that second World? Or is a part of that, in which_ Adam _was Created? Or may it not rather Metaphorically be taken for Worldly Affairs, govern’d by the Prince of the Air, ruling in the Hearts of the Children of Disobedience?_

[Sidenote: The Antients opinion of an unknown world.]

But _Pliny_, _Cicero_, and _Virgil_, the best in their kind of Latin Writers, concur, That there may be a habitable World under our _Horizon_, in the temperate Southern _Zone_, beyond the extream heat, and on this side of the _Antartick_ colds.

[Sidenote: _In Comment. super_ Obad. v. 19, 20, 21.]

[Sidenote: _And they of the south shall possess the mount of_ Elau, _and they of the plain, the_ Philistines: _and they shall possess the fields of_ Ephraim, _and the fields of_ Samaria, _and_ Benjamin _shall possess_ Gilead. _And the captivity of this host of the children of_ Israel _shall possess that of the_ Canaanites, _even unto_ Zarephath, _and the captivity of_ Jerusalem, _which is in_ Sepharad, _shall possess the Cities of the south. And saviors shall come upon mount_ Zion, _to judge the mount of_ Esau, _and the kingdom shall be the LORDS_.]

But what signifies all this to the Discovery of _America_, which lies not onely under the scorching Heats of the _Equinox_, but under the Frosts and Snows of the _Artick_ and _Antartick-Poles_? Yet less probable is that which _Lodowick Leo_, an _Augustine_ Frier takes out of _Obadiah_; as if that Prophet in the three last Verses of his _Prophecy_ should speak of the _Spaniards_, which should not onely discover and Conquer _America_, but also Convert the Inhabitants to the _Christian Faith_, because those that are in _Sepharad_, should Inherit and Possess the Cities of the South, _And Saviours shall arise from the Mountains of_ Zion, _to judge the Mount and Wealth of_ Esau.

[Sidenote: If _America_ is known in the Scripture.]

But certainly, _Obadiah_ meant no other than the Restauration of the _Jews_ from the Captivity of _Babylon_, who after their return, should grow more powerful than ever, and they, led by their _Messias_, obtain the height of all felicity, who would send his _Evangelists_ and _Apostles_ to declare Salvation to the utmost Borders of the Earth. It is true, that the _Rabins_ Expound _Sepharad_ to be _Spain_, and therefore he concludes, that _Obadiah_ Prophesi’d of the _Spaniard_, and their Conquests in _America_; so they would prove, that _America_ was long known before Christ.

[Sidenote: _Solomon_’s Fleet sail’d not to _Peru_.]

And lastly, It signifies as little what _Pineda_ and _Levinus Lemnius_ drive at, That _Solomon_ first finding the use of the Compass, Rigg’d a Navy at _Ezion-Geber_, which from the _Red-Sea_ had no indirect Course to the _Straights_ of _Magellan_; from whence he might Lade his Vessels with the Gold of _Peru_. In whose Description it shall be manifested, that _Peru_ is not _Ophir_, as some without any shew of Reason or Truth would make us believe.

[Sidenote: _Solomon_ did not find the Compass.]

But as concerning King _Solomon_’s finding out the use of the _Magnet_, it is soon said, but not easily proved; for though that Prince exceeded all Man-kind in Wisdom and Learning, and was perfect in the Operations, and knew the Occultest Secrets of Nature, understanding what e’re belong’d to Plants, from the Cedar of _Libanus_, to Hysop, and the meanest Shrub that grows upon the Wall; yet it nothing makes out, that he knew the Mystery of the Navigable use of the _Load-Stone_: But suppose he did know, there is no where any mention of it; and if this excellent thing, the _Compass_, had been found in _Solomon_’s time, how came it afterwards so utterly to be lost?

[Sidenote: Load-stone, by whom found.]

[Sidenote: Strange operations of the Loadstone.]

[Sidenote: _De subtilitate_ l. 7.]

[Sidenote: Variance of the Compass.]

[Sidenote: _Genebrad. Chron._]

[Sidenote: When, and by whom the Compass was found.]

_Albertus Magnus_ mistakes, when he ascribes the knowledge of the _Compass_ to _Aristotle_, of which he himself makes not the least mention; neither _Galen_, _Alexander Aphrodisiensis_, _Pliny_, _Lucretius_, nor any of the _Roman_, _Greek_, _Arabian_, or other Countrey Writers whatsoever. Some give the honor thereof to an _Indian_, others to a Shepherd in _Mount Ida_, whose Clouted Shooes being full of Hob-Nails, the Iron sticking fast to the Stones on which he stood, stopt his motion. And although the Antients found out many Secrets of Nature, amongst which this of the _Load-Stone_, Attracting Iron, as being its proper Food; and the three sorts of the _Magnet_, of which some will not draw Steel, found by _Theamedes_ a _Greek_ Author, and other since, well known Properties: Yet they never attain’d that knowledge, that the _Load-Stone_ would ease Pain, and stop the effusion of Blood, though the edge piercing the Skin, open’d the Vein: as _Hieronimus Cardanus_ experienc’d on himself and others, which he had from _Laurentius Guascus_, a great Chyrurgeon. Much less, that the Needle of the _Compass_ being touch’d by the _Load-Stone_ on the Northside of the _Equinox_, respects the North; but depressing the _Artick_, and raising the _Antartick_ Pole, it looks as stedfastly towards the South: But far less dreamt they of its several variations, according to the Coasts that are nearest; as when you come from the Island _del Cuervo_, the Point varies more West; but Sailing towards the _Equinox_, it varies Eastward; by which we may absolutely conclude, that without this use of the _Load-Stone_, first found by _Flavius Melvius_ a _Neapolitan_, in the Year 1303. it was altogether impossible to reach _America_. So that _Joseph de Acosta_ mistakes, who gives the honor of the finding so great a benefit to Navigation, to some _Mahumetan_ Sea-men which _Vasques de Gama_ met with near _Mosambique_, who had Sail’d those Seas by the use thereof; whereas _Gama_’s Expedition was above a hundred years after _Melfius_, who liv’d in such a juncture of time for Mathematical Learning, that few Ages boasted the like: For then flourish’d in _England_, and were Contemporaries, besides others abroad, _Richard Wallingford_, _Nicolas de Lynna_, _John Halifax_, _Walter Britte_, _John Duns_, and _John de Lignarys_, all eminent in Astronomical Arts, belonging to Navigation, and doubtless, no small helps to _Melfius_ in this his happy Invention.

Lastly, We will relate what hath been held as a seeming Testimony, (that _America_ was known to the _Europeans_ before the Birth of our Saviour) by an antique Meddal of the Emperor _Augustus_, digg’d out of the Ground in _Peru_, and sent to his Holiness at _Rome_, which may well be reckon’d with the like Cheat contriv’d by _Hermicus Cajadus_, _Anno 1505._ near _Syntra_, a Town in _Portugal_, where three Marbles Ingraven with antient Characters, concerning a Prophecy of discovering the _East-Indies_ by the _Portuguese_, in the Reign of King _Emanuel_, were privately bury’d under Ground, and not long after, by a pretended accident digg’d out, which made such a bustle amongst the Learned, that several tired themselves about the explanation of the suppos’d Sibylline Prediction.

[Illustration]

CHAP. II. _Of the Original of the_ Americans, _whence they came, when, how, and from what People Planted_.

[Sidenote: The original of the _Americans_ much disputed on.]

About the Original of the _Americans_, the Learned Dispute so much, that they find nothing more difficult in Story, than to clear that Point; for whether inquiry be made after the time, when the _Americans_ first settled themselves where they now inhabit, or after what manner they came thither, either by Shipping or by Land; on purpose, or accidentally; driven by Storm, or else forc’d by a more powerful People, to remove from their old Plantations, and seek for new? or if any one should be yet more curious, asking the way that directed them out of another Countrey to this New World? or else enquire for those People, from whom the _Americans_ deriv’d themselves? He will find several Opinions, and the Learned still Jangling.

[Sidenote: Voyage l. 1. c. 8.]

[Sidenote: The time when _America_ was first Peopled.]

The first Doubt is concerning the time: Mr. _Purchas_, where-ever he had the Hint, endeavors to prove, that _America_ hath been but lately Planted; for which he thus argues, “That if _Asia_, or _Europe_ furnish’d _America_ with People in _Abraham_’s time, or at least before the Birth of our Saviour; then it must upon necessity, by the Expiration of so many Ages, have been much more Populous, then the _Spaniards_ found when first they discover’d it. Besides, the vast Territories yet unhabited (says he) are sufficient testimonies, that this New World hath been Planted but scatteringly, and not many Ages since, else the Countrey would have more abounded with Inhabitants, because the fertility of the Soyl was able plentifully to maintain Millions more, then were there when first discover’d: And what Marks are better to know a new People by, in any Countrey, than a rude Life and unsettled Government? just like a Family removing to another House, which takes no short time to settle their Goods and Houshold-stuff in a handsome and convenient Order.

[Sidenote: The condition of the first World after the Floud.]

“When _Noah_ went out of the Ark on Mount _Ararat_, and not long after, saw his Seed spread over _Armenia_ and _Assyria_, the new Generation of People consisted in Shepherds and Husbandmen, that setled themselves near Lakes and Rivers. Villages, Cities (and much less) whole Kingdoms, were scarce found on the Face of the Earth, and as little of Trade or Commerce; Riches, Division of Lands, costly Garments and Furniture for Houses, were not then in use, but the works of long settlements in happy Peace. To curb growing-Wickedness, and the Pride of _Libertines_, who incroach’d upon their weaker Neighbors, Laws were invented, by which Bridle, the unbroke or wild World grew tamer: And first, the _Assyrians_ were brought to endure the Bit, and answer the Reins of Government; then _Egypt_, next _Greece_, and after that the _Romans_, who spreading their Power by Arms and Martial Discipline, first civiliz’d the _Gauls_, _Spain_, _Brittain_, and lastly _Germany_.

“But because a Countrey or Pastoral Life, knowing no Commerce, but mean Hovels, and to dwell in Huts, priding in poor and no Habits, despising all greatness, unlimited by Laws, and all things else, (which the People observ’d presently after the Flood) is now found among the _Americans_, who will take them for ought else, but new Comers to that Land, as themselves acknowledge? For the _Mexicans_ boast, that they are the eldest there, and that from them, _Peru_, _Chili_, _Chika_, and other Countreys towards the South, had their Colonies, and yet the oldest Chronicles of _Mexico_ reckon not above a thousand Years.” Thus far Mr. _Purchas_.

[Sidenote: _America_ was Peopled many Ages ago.]

[Sidenote: _Purchas_ contradicted.]

But certainly, all this Muster of appearing Reasons, is not able to vanquish single Truth; For, grant that _America_ was not very Populous when the _Spaniards_ first arrived there; must this needs prove, that it was never well inhabited before? Perhaps the Civil Wars, which have been always destructive to this Nation, have much hindred the increase of People; and the more, because their Salvage Nature is such, that in several places they account Man’s Flesh Broil’d a very great Dainty. And suppose such Prodigal Excess of their Humane Bankets were not us’d in _America_, as indeed they are, Is it wonder, that such a great part of the World, not onely exceeding _Europe_ in bigness, but _Asia_ also should here and there have a Tract of Land uninhabited? These might, by reason of their Barrenness, be useless, as many such places are found in the midst of the most Populous and fertile Countreys. But above all this, it is certain, that _America_ to this day (notwithstanding almost innumerable thousands of _Indians_ formerly Slain and Massacred by the _Spaniards_) is so well inhabited, that it may stand in Competition with either _Asia_ or _Europe_. And how could such vast multitudes Plant the far-spreading Countrey of _America_, without the help of many Ages? Moreover, This truth is not without sufficient Testimonies; when any one looks on the Islands with which _America_ lies incompass’d, he may suppose they did not willingly go from the Main Continent to the Isles, but were driven thither by Wars among themselves, or as most times it happens, because of the vast increase of the Natives, the Countrey must discharge its burden.

Hereto is added, the several Languages us’d in _America_, as in _Europe_ or any other part of the known World; whereby we may easily guess, that _America_ was Peopled presently after the Confusion of Tongues at _Babel_. Furthermore, If the _Americans_ live a Rude Life, go meanly Habited, be without stately Houses; such Customs are even among us observ’d by several People; as the _Tartars_, _Numidians_, and others, which made their Antiquity be call’d in question. He also must needs have no knowledge of the Arts and Mechanick Sciences us’d by the _Americans_, who concludes, that they setled but lately in _America_. One Argument at present will be sufficient to contradict them all; and in the further Description, the contrary will be more manifest.

[Sidenote: _American_ Gold-Smiths.]

_Hieronimus Benso_ relates, That he stood amaz’d at the Gold and Silver Smiths in the Territory of _Chito_, who without any Iron Tools, made Images, and all manner of Vessels: Which work they perform’d thus, First, they made an Oval Crucible of a good Lock, round about Pasted with Earth, embody’d with the Powder of Wood Coals; which Crucible being Bak’d very hard in the Sun, they fill with Pieces of Gold or Silver, and put in the Fire; about which standing with five, six, or more Pipes made of Canes, they blow the Fire so long, till the Mettal melts, which others sitting on the ground, run it into Moulds of black Stone, and so with little trouble, Cast into what shape they please. Lastly, Though _Mexico_ can reckon but a thousand years, must it therefore follow, that the Inhabitants are no older? How many famous places (even among our selves) have no longer Registers, and if they have, they are commonly Fabulous, few Nations boasting truly their own Original; which Argument, not onely contradicts (as we suppose) Mr. _Purchas_, but all others ascribing the Plantation of _America_ to our later times.

SECT. I.

[Sidenote: After what manner the Inhabitants of _America_ came thither.]

¶ In the next place, let us enquire, how the _Americans_ were transmitted thither, whether by Sea, or Land? Both which are feasible two several ways; if they made an Expedition thither, as Discoverers, or were driven on those Coasts by stress of Weather.

The first is most unlikely, and not seeming possible, for how could they Steer thorow so vast an Ocean, to Countreys they never heard of, without the Compass, and other Necessaries for such a Voyage? for when first discover’d, their want of experience in Shipping for so long a Voyage, knowing no further than the use of small Boats or _Canoos_, plainly explode, that they willingly Steer’d from a known World, to an unknown, with no better accommodation; but some probable reasons may be made out, to induce us to believe, that they were rather driven thither by Storm.

[Illustration]

But some will say, How liv’d the little Boats, and how indur’d they in such a continual Tempest, and were not either swallow’d up amidst the Waves, or starv’d for want of Provision, which their hollow Troughs could not contain?

The first doubt is the least, for there are Examples enough by which appear, that oftentimes great Ships Bulging, are over-set or sunk in the Sea by foul Weather when the Mariners escape in their Cock-Boat; and if they were but thinly Victual’d for so long a Voyage, questionless, that little which they had, they spun out, and made it last, while the impetuous Storm shortned the passage, which fair Weather would have made much longer.

[Sidenote: _Plin_. l. 5. c. 22.]

[Sidenote: Strange voyage of a _Roman_ Slave.]

_Pliny_ tells us of _Annius Plocquius_, General of the _Red-Sea_, That one of his Slaves being Enfranchiz’d, Sailing down towards the _Arabian_ Gulf, was carry’d by a violent Tempest from the North, beyond _Caramania_, and on the fifteenth day came to an Anchor in _Hippuros_, a Haven of _Taprobane_, which _Ortelius_ judges to be _Sumatra_; but _Mercator_ and _Cluverius_, on better grounds, _Zeylon_, which is no less than three thousand _English_ Miles.

In like manner, _Joseph de Acosta_ tells us, That in fifteen days time, he got with a Northerly Wind from the _Canaries_ to _America_, and his Voyage had been shorter, durst he have born more Sails, which may partly clear the former doubts.

[Sidenote: The _Peruvians_ opinion concerning antient Sea-Voyages.]

[Sidenote: _Acosta. Histor_. _Nat._ l. 2 c. 12.]

[Sidenote: Ridiculous opinion of the _Americans_.]

Moreover, the _Peruvians_ themselves give some small Testimony (in their antient Records) of a few that Landed of old upon their Coasts, which were (as they say) mighty and cruel Giants, committing much Bloodshed, Slaughtering the Natives every where; and having subdu’d the whole Countrey, built stately Edifices, of which remain yet the Ruines of some Foundations, very Artificial and Costly. They also shew near _Manta_, and _Puerto Viejo_, many huge Bones, as they believe of Giants, three times longer and thicker than an ordinary Mans. They also tell us, that many Ages since, one _Ica_ and _Arica_ Sail’d Westward thither upon Sea Wolves Skins, blown up like Bladders: But however, without contradiction, the _Americans_ never knew, much less built any such Vessels, with which they durst venture to the _Offin_, out of sight of Land: their _Balsas_, _Periagos_, and _Canoos_, will not all amount to the Bulk of one of our small Barques; wherefore the Inhabitants of _Tumbez_, when they descry’d the _Spanish_ Fleet, sent to discover _Peru_, were amaz’d at the high Masts, spreading Sails, and bigness of the Ships, judging them first to be Rocks, cast up out of the Sea; but observing them to approach their Coast, and that they were full of Bearded-Men, thought the Gods were walking in them; by our Modern Poet, Mr. _Dryden_ in his _Indian Emperor_, thus Elegantly describ’d.

Guyomar _to_ Montezuma.

_I went in order, Sir, to your Command, To view the utmost Limits of the Land: To see that Shore, where no more World is found, But Foamy Billows, breaking on the ground; Where, for a while, my Eyes no Object met, But distant Skies, that in the Ocean set: And low-hung Clouds that dipt themselves in Rain To shake their Fleeces on the Earth again. At last, as far as I could cast my Eyes Upon the Sea, somewhat, methought did rise Like Bluish Mists, which still appearing more, Took dreadful Shapes, and mov’d towards the Shore._

Mont. _What Forms did these new Wonders represent?_

Guy. _More strange than what your Wonder can invent. The Object I could first distinctly view, Was tall straight Trees, which on the Waters flew; Wings on their sides, in stead of Leaves did grow, Which gather’d all the Breath the Winds could blow:_

_And at their Roots grew floating Palaces, Whose out-blow’n Bellies cut the yielding Seas._

Mont. _What Divine Monsters, O ye Gods, were these, That float in Air, and fly upon the Seas!_

_Came they alive or dead upon the Shore?_

Guy. _Alas, they liv’d too sure, I heard them roar._

_All turn’d their sides, and to each other spoke, I saw their Words break out in Fire and Smoke._

_Sure, ’tis their Voice that Thunders from on high, Or these, the younger Brothers of the Skie._

_Deaf with the noise, I took my hasty Flight, No Mortal Courage can support the Fright._

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ carry Oxen, and Sheep to the _American_ Isles.]

But the resolving these Doubts, starts a harder Question, _viz._ Grant that the _Americans_ were by Tempest driven thither, How then came the Beasts thither? It is certain, that those which are beneficial for humane use, as Dogs for to Hunt, great Cattel, Sheep, for Food, and other Necessaries, might easily be carry’d thither, for so the _Spaniards_ brought Cows, Horses, Swine, and other Cattel; and also Poultery from _Spain_, to the new-discover’d Isles, _Cuba_, _Hispaniola_, _Jamaica_, _Margaretta_, and _La Dominica_, when at their arrival, formerly no four-footed Beasts were found there, whose fertile Soyl hath so multiply’d their increase, that the Doggs running Wilde, and breeding as fast, do great hurt to the Grazing Herds, which they onely shoot for their Skins, leaving their Flesh, the best of Meats, onely to Manure the Ground on which they lie.

The Transporting of tame and profitable Cattel might easily be allow’d of, but who would load their Ships with Lions, Tygers, Bears, Wolves, Foxes, and other Serpents and Voracious Beasts? it is certain that some may be tam’d before they were Ship’d.

[Sidenote: How wild Beasts came in _America_, and the Isles.]

[Sidenote: In _vita Heliogabali_.]

[Sidenote: Lib. 2. cap. 17.]

[Sidenote: Strange Hunting.]

[Sidenote: Strange accident of two Leopards.]

[Sidenote: _Adv. Jovin._ l. 2.]

_Lampridius_ relates, That _Heliogabalus_ the _Roman_ Emperor, took great pleasure in Domestick Lions, and Leopards, to frighten his Guests withal; for with the third Course, they were all brought in, and sate betwixt the Invited, a Man and a Beast. The great _Cham_, as _Paulus Venetus_ an Eye-witness attests, Rides on Hunting, attended in couples with tame Leopards. The King of _Camboja_ in like manner is serv’d with Panthers: _Scaliger_ adds also, That they went not unprovided of a Lamb or Goat, to give the Panther, lest falling into his natural ferocity, provok’d by hunger, he should make the Huntsmen his Quarry, if he had no other Prey. But notwithstanding some wilde Beasts seem to forget their Voracious Nature, yet there ought great care to be taken in the Transporting of them, because they oftentimes grow wild again, which _France_ can witness, where two Leopards, a Male and a Female being tam’d, presently after the death of King _Francis_, whether negligently or on purpose, let loose, ran into the Woods, and near _Orleans_ devour’d a great number of People, and Cattel: _Gesner_ saith, That some Womens bodies were found, who were untouch’d, onely their Breasts eaten by the Leopards, as if they took them for the daintiest part; which is not unlike the antient _Jeres_, who according to Saint _Hierom_, entertain’d their Guests as a most delicious Dish, with Womens Breasts, and Mens Buttocks Roasted. Besides, the devouring nature of these Wilde Beasts, what profit could Tygers, Lions, Wolves, Bears, and the like advantage the Transporter? And how came Serpents, Adders, and other Reptiles, thither over the Ocean, that with no Art whatsoever can be made tame? Were the small Vessels just laden with such terrible Creatures, when against their wills, they were by Storm driven on a new Coast? By these impossibilities we may easily judge, that the _Americans_ came thither by Land, and no other way, but how, and upon what occasion must be our next enquiry.

SECT. II.

[Sidenote: Two reasons wherefore the people remove from their Countreys.]

¶ Histories generally gives us onely two accounts, Why People remov’d from one Countrey to another, either not, or thinly inhabited; whether driven by force, or of their own accord, so to unburthen and give ease to their too Plethorick Countreys.

[Sidenote: The Flood acknowledg’d by the _Americans_ and other _Heathens_ but mysteriously.]

Thus the banish’d _Japanners_ forsook their Native Countrey, and setled themselves in a desolate Soyl, since a flourishing Empire, shining with Riches, and Crown’d with stately Cities: So the _Batavians_ took possession of the uninhabited Isle, lying between the _Rhyne_, and the _Wael_, being driven out of _Hessen_ by Civil-Wars, and preserv’d the memory of the place, from whence they had their Original on the utmost Point of the Island, in the Villages of _Cattenwyck_; for the _Hessens_ formerly went by the name of _Catti_; others that remov’d did not onely fall upon their Neighbors, but made a way by force of Arms, chosing their Habitations under a temperate Climate, and in a fruitful Soyl. After which manner the _Franks_ enter’d _Gaul_, and afterwards the _Normans_ set upon _France_; so that the Conquer’d Countreys, have ever since from the Conquerors been call’d _France_ and _Normandy_: But although it cannot punctually be said, how the Inhabitants of _America_ remov’d, yet it is without contradiction, that they first found an empty Countrey. The Opinions which they have themselves concerning it, are full of idle Fancies; First, they question their Original from the Floud, which is so well rooted in the memory of all Nations, that the blindest and most ignorant know something of it, though deformedly alter’d and vary’d, tack’d up with additional fabulous Stories, the truth it self known onely to us, but to all others lost in Oblivion.

Who hath not heard of _Deucalion_’s Flood, how his Wife _Pyrrha_ and he only escap’d in a little Boat, and (as ’tis Fabl’d) landing on a Mountain, from thence Peopled the World again, by throwing Stones backwards over their Heads? Something of this seems to hint the true Story of _Noah_, his Wife, and Children, from whom the desolated World was replenish’d.

[Sidenote: _Prometheus_ and _Noah_ are the same.]

The same they relate of _Prometheus_, concerning whom, thus _Diodorus Siculus_: “They say that the _Nyle_ breaking through his Dams, and over-flowing his Banks, drown’d all _Egypt_, especially that part where _Prometheus_ Rul’d, where all the Inhabitants were swallow’d by the Deluge.” None can imagine but that _Diodorus_ by this makes mention of a particular Flood, and not the general one in _Noah_’s time; for as the _Greeks_ ascrib’d all things to their _Heroes_, so the _Egyptians_ in like manner did the same to _theirs_: Therefore they have of the general Flood, made a particular one in _Egypt_, though perhaps it never was: So that what is Fabled of _Prometheus_, is nothing but a Part of the Universal Deluge; which the Name _Prometheus_ proves, because it signifies, _Sprung from Heaven_, and is the same with _Noah_, whom they hold to be the first Father of all Mankind since the Flood, born of, or regenerated from his Wife _Asia_; and _Asia_ signifies _Earth_, or _The Mother of all things_; and so espousing _Noah_, being sprung from God, to _Ararat_, from whence descended the Generations of Mankind, and by degrees spread over the whole surface of the Earth.

[Sidenote: _Acosta_, l. 1. c. 25.]

[Sidenote: Strange Opinion of the _Americans_ concerning the Flood.]

[Sidenote: Original of the _American_ Kings, and their Custom.]

The _Chineses_, _East-Indians_, _Japanners_, and other People of _Asia_ and _Africa_, have also some knowledge of a very ancient Flood; but hood-wink’t under many idle Fancies, not unlike that which the _Americans_ relate, from whom several Learned Persons find no obscure Confessions of the Deluge, which thus mystically they have wrapp’d up, That one _Viracocha_ came out of the great Lake _Titicaca_, and setled his Residence upon _Tiaguanaco_, where yet remain the Ruines of ancient Walls, built after a wonderful manner: At length removing from _Tiaguanaco_ to _Cusco_, he began to multiply the Generation of Mankind. They shew in the foremention’d Lake a small Island, under which, the _Americans_ say, the Sun sav’d himself from the Flood; wherefore in ancient Times they superstitiously observ’d that place, heightning their Bloody Sacrifices with Humane Slaughter. Others relate, That six Persons leap’d through a Hole out of a Window, from whence all Men were since Extracted; and from that new Increase, the place (after the Inhabitants of the Old World were all drown’d) got the Denomination of _Pacari Tampo_; and therefore they hold the _Tampo_’s to be the most ancient Families: From hence _Mangocapam_ deriv’d, being the Primogenitor of the _Ynca_’s or Kings; from whom sprung two Generations, _Hanon Cuzco_, and _Urim Cuzco_. They tell us also, That their _Ynca_’s, when they make War upon any People, say that the occasion, as they pretend, was, because all Territories are Tributary to them justly, from whom they were deriv’d and restor’d, being the first Planters of the New World; and withal, That the true Religion was declar’d to them from Heaven.

[Sidenote: _Americans_ Flood is taken out of the Scripture.]

This Relation, though mix’d with Fables, shews (but very darkly) that they have some knowledge of the Flood: For who are those six else that leap’d out of a Window to replenish the Generations of Mankind, but _Shem_, _Ham_, and _Japhet_, with their Wives?

[Sidenote: _Peruvians_ Opinion.]

[Sidenote: And also the _Mexicans_, of their Original.]

[Sidenote: Lib. 1. cap. 7.]

The _Americans_ can give but a little better Account of their first Original; and indeed it is no wonder, because for want of Books they can relate nothing certain, but only what they have Registred in their usual _Quipocamagos_, which is not above four hundred years old. _Acosta_ asking what Original they judg’d they were of, and from what Countrey and People deriv’d? receiv’d no other Answer, but that _America_ only was their native Countrey, and that they were deriv’d from no other elsewhere. But though the _Peruvians_ are of this Opinion, yet the _Mexicans_ are of another mind, giving the _Spaniards_ a far better Account when first they came thither, wherein we must a little deviate, _viz._ How they were remov’d from some other place, as _Robert Comtæus_ relates, who with many Learned and seemingly true Arguments affirms, That the Original of the _Americans_ must be sought for either among the _Phenicians_, _Sydonians_, _Tyrians_, or _Carthaginians_, being indeed all one People. _Herodotus_ saith thus of the _Phenicians_, “They liv’d formerly, according to their own Relation, along the Shore of the _Red-Sea_; from whence removing, they planted the Sea-Coast of the _Syrians_.” _Festus Avienus_ the _Latin_ Poet agrees with this Opinion, where he saith,

_On the_ Phenicians _Coasts the Ocean beats_, _Who through the_ Red-Sea _Sailing, chang’d their Seats. They were the first that ventur’d through the Seas, And freighted Ships with richer Merchandize: Fair or foul Weather, They without controule! Sought Foreign Trade, directed by the Pole_.

[Sidenote: Original and Habitations of the _Phenicians_, of whom, according to several Learned, the _Americans_ are extracted.]

_Aristotle_ from a _Greek_ Word calls them _Phenicians_, from their being red or bloody with the Slaughter of all Strangers that Landed on their Coast; but rather, and so indeed they are call’d _Phenicians_, or _Erythreans_, from _Esau_, or _Edom_, from whom they are deriv’d; for these two Words, or Denominations, signifie in _Greek, Red_; the two last, the like in _Hebrew_. _Phenix_ himself first planted all the Countrey lying between the River _Eleutherus_, and the _Egyptian_ City _Pelusium_; and afterwards _Damiata_, wash’d by the _Mediterrane_: But since, these Boundaries are alter’d, on the North, by _Judea_; Westward, by the _Mediterrane_; Southerly, by _Egypt_; and towards the East, by the Desart _Arabia_.

The chiefest Cities are _Ptolemais_, otherwise call’d _Acon_, _Sidon_, _Arad_, _Great Cana_, _Sarepta_, _Biblis_, _Bothris_, _Berithus_, and their Princess _Tyre_, formerly scituate in an Isle, but since joyn’d to the Main-Land by _Alexander the Great_.

[Sidenote: _Herodot._ lib. 1 .]

[Sidenote: _Salust_ in _Igurtha_.]

[Sidenote: Wonderful Power of the _Phenicians_.]

None can disown, but that the _Phenicians_ have every where been Admirals of the Sea; so that they were formidable to the greatest Princes. When the _Persian_ King _Cambyses_ came with a vast Army against the _Carthaginians_, he was forc’d to give over his Design, because the _Phenicians_ refus’d to help him with their Fleet, being allied to, and the City founded by them: But they not only built _Carthage_, which strove with _Rome_ to be the Empress of the World, but also the famous Cities _Leptis_, _Utica_, _Hippo_, and _Adrumetum_ in _Africa_, with _Cadiz_ and _Tartessus_ in _Spain_; nay, they sent Plantations of People into the Heart of _Iberia_ and _Lybia_. It will not be amiss to add _Q. Curtius_ his Relation, who tells us, “Where-ever the _Phenicians_ came with their Fleets, Landing their Men, they subdu’d whole Countreys, and by that means spread their Colonies over the known World; _Carthage_ in _Africa_, _Thebes_ in _Boetia_, and _Cadiz_ near the _Western Ocean_.” _Aristotle_ relates, “That they made such rich Returns of their Merchandize, and chiefly of their Oyl, in _Spain_, that their Anchors, Pins, and all Iron Materials belonging to a Ship, in stead of that Metal, were Silver.”

[Sidenote: Testimonies that the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the _Phenicians_.]

[Sidenote: First Testimony.]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Geogr._]

[Sidenote: _Flemmish Islands._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 17._]

But to return to our Discourse, and disprove the former Testimony, That the _Phenicians_ found _America_. The formention’d _Comtæus_ saith thus; “None can justly doubt, but that since the _Phenicians_ took the Command of the Sea from the _Rhodians_, they more and more increas’d their Fleets, and growing experter in Navigation, passing the _Gibraltar_ Northward, became Masters of _Cadiz_, and still prepar’d new Fleets, which searching beyond _Atlas_ Southward, discover’d the Coasts of _Africa_, and the adjacent Isles, driving a great Trade to the _Canaries_, and to those which lay scatter’d along _Cape de Verd_, formerly call’d the _Gorgades_. This way of Trade also was not unknown to the _Greeks_, _Iberians_, and other People; but after the _Phenicians_ assum’d it wholly to themselves, without any respect or difference of Countreys, they sunk all whomsoever they could catch.” _Curtius_ further adds, saying, “I believe that the _Phenicians_, sailing into the Main Ocean, have discover’d unknown Countreys.” And which are those? Not the _Gorgades_, or _Canary Isles_; for those were sufficiently known before; but a Main Land, far beyond. But though the _Phenicians_ were most expert, yet not skilful enough to make out such Discoveries. They indeed were the first that before any other sail’d out of the Mid-land Sea; nay, they ventur’d a good way into the main Ocean, beyond the _Straights of Gibraltar_, or the _Herculean Pillars_: But how far? Not to the _Gorgades_, above half way betwixt _Spain_ and _America_; but to the _Cassiterides_, or _Flemish Islands_, which to the number of nine lie in sight of _Spain_. _Strabo_ affirms this Truth, saying, “The _Cassiterides_ are ten, lying in order close by one another: One remains uninhabited; on the rest live a swarthy People.” This way the _Phenicians_ sail’d first, when they were in quest for Trade, from _Cadiz_. And though he reckons ten, there are indeed but nine, _viz._ _St. Michael_, _St. Mary_, _St. George_, _Tercera_, _de Pico_, or _Tenariff_, so call’d from the Mountain which vomits Fire, _Fayal_, _Las Flores_, _Del Cuervo_, and _Gratiosa_. Moreover, the same _Strabo_ relates, “That the _Carthaginians_ did not throw over-board the Traders on the remote _Gorgades_, but those especially that came from _Sardinia_ or _Cadiz_.”

[Sidenote: _Salt-Islands_ how long known.]

[Sidenote: _Joan. Mariana de Reb. Hispan._ lib. 1. cap. 20.]

[Sidenote: Very remarkable Voyage of _Hanno_ the _Carthaginian_, along the Coast of _Africa_ to the _Salt-Islands_.]

[Sidenote: Strange Vision.]

[Sidenote: The Ancients believ’d Baboons to be Men.]

Mean while, we cannot deny, but that the _Gorgades_ that lye before _Cape de Verd_ were frequented by the _Carthaginians_, long before the Birth of our Savior; but with so much admiration, that _Hanno_ their Captain in that Expedition was listed amongst the number of their Heroes, hapning thus: The _Carthaginians_ sailing for _Cadiz_, to assist the _Phenicians_ against the _Spaniards_, made that the Seat of War, which soon drew on a greater Design; for _Hamilco_ and _Hanno_ being impowr’d by the Senate at _Carthage_, manag’d the War in _Spain_. Both of them were ambitious to discover new Countreys. _Hamilco_ sail’d along the Coast of _Spain_ and _Gaule_, reaching to _Batavia_. _Hanno_ steer’d Southerly, carrying thirty thousand Men of all Trades in his Fleet, purposing to build a new City in some place or other, and got beyond the Promontory _Ampelusium_, now call’d _Cabo Spatil_; the River _Ziloa_, which washeth the City _Arzilla_; and the Stream _Lix_, now _Lusso_, where the Poets place the Gardens of the _Hesperides_, in the custody of a waking Dragon: From thence proceeding on his Voyage, he came to an Anchor in the Mouth of the River _Subur_, at this day call’d _Subu_; and afterwards before the City _Sala_, now call’d _Salle_, at that time made very dangerous by the voracious Beasts in the neighboring Woods: At last the Fleet reach’d the Foot of the lesser _Atlas_, which ends at the Point _Chaunaria_, by the Modern Navigators call’d _Cabo Non_, because it was judg’d, that none could scape with Life, that durst adventure to steer beyond _Chaunaria_; yet _Hanno_ sail’d between _Palma_, one of the _Canary-Islands_, and the Promontory _Bojadoris_, towards the pointed Coast call’d then _Cornu Hesperium_, but now _Cape Verd_, in the River _Asama_, by _Castaldus_ call’d _Omirabi_: Here he found horrible Croccodiles, and _Hippopotami_ or Sea-Horses. _Atsama_ is held to flow from the same Fountain whence the _Nyle_ hath its Original. In this Latitude _Hanno_ descried those Islands which he call’d _Gorgones_ (from the three deform’d Sisters _Medusa_, _Sthenio_, and _Euryale_, whose Heads were Periwig’d with curl’d Serpents) because they found as illfavor’d Women on these Islands, which at this day the _Hollanders_ call the _Salt-Islands_; amongst which, the chiefest is _St. Jago_, a Colony of _The Portuguese_; but the Mountains opposite to the _Gorgones_, on the main Coast of _Africa_, rising aloft with spiring tops near the River _Masitholus_, _Hanno_ call’d the _Chariots of the Gods_, now nam’d _Sierra Liona_, lying in eight Degrees Northern Latitude. When _Hanno_ and his Armado, either provok’d by an undaunted Courage, or covetous of fame, if they proceeded in their so wonderful Adventure, went forward, where they reported, that they saw Rivers of Fire falling into the Ocean, the Countrey all about burning, and the tops of the Mountains dazleing their Eyes with continual Flashes of Lightning, intermix’d with terrible Thunder; adding further, That the Natives all the Summer shelter’d themselves from the excessive Heat, in Caves under Ground; and coming forth in the night, run abroad with lighted Torches over their Ground, so gathering in their Harvest, and Officiating all other Affairs of Husbandry: Yet _Hanno_ no ways daunted at such strange Sights, sail’d from _Sierra Liona_ Southerly to the _Æquinox_, where he discover’d an Island not far from the _African_ Coast, inhabited by a rough and hairy People, to take some of whom, he us’d all possible means, yet could not; onely two Women, being incompass’d by Soldiers, were taken, and carried aboard; but being very salvage, and barbarously wild, could not be tamed, or brought to any Complacency; so they kill’d them, and carried their stuff’d-up Skins to _Carthage_, where they were a long time gaz’d upon with great admiration.

[Sidenote: The Island _St. Thomas_.]

This Island which _Hanno_ then found, can be no other but that which we call _St. Thomas_, and hath a very unhealthy Air for Strangers, but else very fruitful, and abounding with Sugar-Canes; and the hairy People which he makes mention of, were _Babeons_, or _Baboons_, which _Africa_ in this place breeds large, to the amazement of the Beholders, in great abundance; because those deform’d Monsters, more than any other Beast whatsoever, represent Humane shape.

[Sidenote: _Hanno_’s Return.]

[Sidenote: Is for his Voyage plac’d amongst the Gods.]

Here _Hanno_ stopp’d his Voyage, being hindred from going further for want of Provision. Five years he spent in this Expedition, before he Anchor’d again at _Cadiz_, from whence not long after he steer’d to his Native Countrey _Carthage_, where he was receiv’d with no less Wonder than State, insomuch that none before or after him ever gain’d greater Honor, seeming to oblige his Countrey with the hopes of future Profits from these new discover’d Regions: Nay, he receiv’d a Name, and was plac’d amongst their Gods in the Temples, which he being ambitious of, promoted after a strange manner, teaching several Birds to cry, _The great God Hanno_; which when they could speak perfect, they were let fly in the Air, where to the admiration of all People, they every where repeated their well-taught Lesson.

This the most remarkable Voyage which hapned in the time of the Ancients, considering they wanted several Mathematical Instruments belonging to Navigation, and especially the use of the Compass; and also considering the length of the Voyage to _Sierra Liona_, whither never any durst venture before: Nay, in so many Ages after _Hanno_, the famousest Navigators which were set out by the King of _Portugal_, fear’d a long time to cut their Passage through the _Æquinoctial-Line_; however in long Process of time, divers Experiments were made, which have now so much improv’d the Art of Navigation.

[Sidenote: Testimony that _America_ was not known to the Ancients.]

_Hanno_’s Voyage was four hundred years before the Birth of our Savior; therefore if none have been further than _Hanno_, until the time the _Portuguese_ sail’d beyond _Cape de Bona Esperanza_, how could _America_ be discover’d by Sea? How did they steer from the _Salt-Islands_, or _St. Thomas_, out of sight of Land, through the Main Ocean, to an unknown World? _Hanno_ himself, who was the stoutest of all Ancient Navigators, not only crept along the _African_ Coast, which made him spend so much time; but not daring to cross over those wide spreading Bays he found, left not his hold of the Shore, and measur’d and search’d every winding Inlet and Creek: And if he found a New World, why was it not known? The more, because his Ambition carry’d him on to get a Name and Reputation by such Naval Discoveries. And how true the Relation of this Expedition is, _Pliny_ tells us, saying, The Journal-Books were then to be seen which _Hanno_ writ in that his _African_ Expedition: Though many of the _Greeks_, and also of our Moderns, following _Hanno_, have found several things contrary to his Observations, wherein he makes mention of several Cities built by him, which none ever since heard of, or any have seen, neither is there the least Marks of their Ruines to be found.

This large Relation serves for nothing else, but to shew that they seek in vain herein to give the Honor of the Discovery of _America_ to the Ancients; And as little do those Testimonies signifie that are taken out of _Diodorus Siculus_, _Pliny_, _Pomponius Mela_, and _Ælian_. It will be worth our time to hear every one of them particularly.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. cap. 7._]

[Sidenote: Second Testimony, that the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the _Phenicians_.]

First, _Diodorus_ saith, “Beyond _Lybia_, in the Ocean, lies a very great Island, several days sailing in Circumference, having a very fruitful Soil, and pleasant Meadows, distinguish’d by Hills, and moistned by Navigable Rivers, unknown in Ancient Times, because it seems to be separated from the other World, and was thus found: The _Phenicians_ sailing along the _Lybian_ Coast, were several days and nights toss’d with perpetual Tempests, and at last driven to the foremention’d Island, where Anchoring, and observing the pleasant Scituation thereof, made it known to their Magistrates.”

[Sidenote: _Is contradicted._]

But how comes this nameless Island to be _America_? What Man would take that for an Island, which far exceeds the main Continent of _Asia_? And have the _Phenicians_ ascrib’d the finding of this New World to any? Whence then proceeds such great silence amongst all the Ancient Writers of a whole World, who otherwise us’d to give Denominations to the least remote Village, or Mountain, or River?

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. cap. 1._ Description of _Atlas_.]

_Pliny_ speaks after the same manner, saying, “The Writers make mention, that _Atlas_ rises out of the middle of the Sands, with a Shrubby and Bushy top towards the Sky, on the Shore of the Ocean to which he gives his Denomination; That it is full of Woods, and water’d by several Fountains on that side towards _Africa_, by which means it bears all manner of Fruit. In the Day-time none of the Inhabitants appear, all things being in silence, as in the middle of a Desart; the Approacher is struck with sudden amazement. And besides its excessive high Crown, reaching above the Clouds, and neighboring, as they say, the Circle of the Moon, appears in the Night as if it were all in a Flame, resounding far and near with Pipes, Trumpets, and Cymbals; and the Journey up thither, very long and dangerous.”

I cannot understand that _Pliny_ can mean _America_ by this, because himself, in the first Division of his Fifth Book, makes his beginning with the Description of _Africa_: And as to what further concerns the strange Relation and danger thereof, is a little before related in _Hanno_’s Voyage; and it is but a slight Argument to prove it _America_, because it seems to resound with those sorts of Instruments which the _Americans_ were observ’d to use when discover’d.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. cap. 4._]

[Sidenote: Strange Men.]

_Pomponius Mela_ being the third, hath no greater Arguments than the former. “We hear (says he) that utmost People towards the West, being the _Atlanticans_, are rather half Beasts than Men, cloven-footed, without Heads, their Faces upon their Breasts, and naked, with one great Foot, like Satyrs or Goblins, which range up and down, without any Artificial Shelters or Houses.”

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. cap. 18._]

[Sidenote: Discourse between _Midas_ and _Silenus_ concerning the Unknown World.]

Lastly, _Ælian_ seems to say something, when he sets down the Discourse between _Midas_ and _Silenus_, out of _Theopompus_, where _Silenus_ relates, “That _Europe_, _Asia_, and _Lybia_ are Islands; and that a vast Countrey lyes beyond this his tripple-divided World, mighty Populous, and abounding with all other Living Creatures, as big again as ours, and living twice as long: That they are wondrous rich; their Religions, Laws, and Customs, founded upon another Morality and Reason, quite different from ours. They boast especially of two great Cities, _Machimus_ and _Eusebes_; the Inhabitants of the first maintaining themselves by driving altogether a Trade of War, mustering up, and filling their numerous Regiments with several valiant Nations. The Listed Citizens amount in their Muster-Rolls, all bred to Soldiery, to two Millions, of whom few but scorn either dying bravely by Wounds receiv’d With Flint-edg’d Laths, and Staves, in stead of Spears, pointed with Stones, not knowing the use of Iron or Steel, but so over-stock’d with Gold and Silver, that they account it a Drug of less Value than our basest Metal. Some Years since they march’d into our World, a hundred thousand strong, as far as the _Hyperborean_ Mountains, where being inform’d, that all the Nations of our World, compar’d with them, liv’d in a poor and despicable condition; as not thinking them worth their Conquest, they return’d. But the second City _Eusebes_, deals altogether in Peace, and its Citizens are not rapacious, but exercise Justice, so much affecting Morality and Divine Worship, that they conquer Heaven by their Piety and Meekness, and the Gods themselves are pleas’d to descend, and advise with them concerning their Celestial Affairs.”

Who observes not this to be a Poetical Relation, shewing how much better the Acquirements of Peace are, than those of War; the one conquering only Men, the other, the Gods? Nor can more be taken out of _Ælian_’s Discourse, but that the Ancients believ’d there was another Habitable World to be our _Antipodes_.

[Sidenote: Inquiries whether the Constitutions of the _Phenicians_ agree with the _Americans_.]

Thus far hath been disputed concerning the Original of the _Americans_, whose Plantations from _Tyre_ or _Carthage_ by Sea, are found altogether invalid: Yet we will search a little further, to see whether the People Analogize, either in their Religion, Policy, Oeconomy, or Customs.

It is certain, that the ancient _Phenicians_ liv’d in Tents, and sometimes exchang’d eaten-up Pastures for fresh, which the _Americans_ to this day observe; by which it might appear, that they are of a _Phenician_ Extract. But why not as well deriv’d from _Numidia_, _Tartary_, or the ancient Patriarchs, who all liv’d such an unsettl’d wandering Life? Besides, the _Phenicians_ had a long time given over Pastoral Business, for Maritime Affairs of greater consequence, not only Merchandizing through all the World, but sending great Colonies in Ships to new Plantations: And moreover, the _Americans_ could not so strangely degenerate from their Ancestors, but would have built great Cities like them; of which many were found in _Phenicia_, but none of Antiquity in _America_.

[Sidenote: As also both their Religions.]

As to their Religion, if it agreed with the _Phenicians_, it was the same that all the World profess’d at that time, and therefore may as well be extracted from any other, as them: ’Tis true, we find them inclin’d to Sorcery, and dealing with Evil Spirits, as the _Phenicians_, in which they were not only guilty, but all other Nations at that time.

[Sidenote: The Known World formerly full of Witches.]

[Sidenote: _De Nat. Dæmon._ l. 3.]

[Sidenote: _Lucan._ lib. 6.]

Nay, why not as well transported out of _Asia_ or _Europe_, where were formerly many the like Tamperers, and those that dealt in such Diabolical Sciences? And why not from _Salmantica_, where, as _Laurentius Ananias_ relates, Magick-Arts were publickly taught, and they commenc’d Doctors, and took their Degrees according to their Learning? The Devil also hath publick Worship amongst the _Americans_, and so he had with the _Phenicians_: yet not only they, but the whole World had dedicated Temples to him. Here began Humane and Infernal Sacrifices, supposing that Evil Spirits were delighted, and so feasted with the Steam of Humane Offerings, whose sweetness made them milder, and so intoxicating, lull’d them into less mischief.

[Sidenote: Devil-worship formerly us’d in all the World, and now by the _Americans_.]

[Sidenote: _Lev. 17. 6._]

[Sidenote: Idols in Ships.]

How famous is _Zoroaster_, and the whole School of the Eastern Magicians? In _Moses_’s time this Wickedness had already took place: Nor can it be deny’d but that the _Phenicians_ carry’d their Idols in their Ships, as _Herodotus_ testifies, saying, “The Image of _Vulcan_ much resembles the _Phenicians Patacoioi_, which they plac’d on the Fore-castle of their Ships.”

In like manner, the _Americans_ when they go to Sea, carry their Idols with them; and the Ships took Name from the Image, which was either painted or carv’d on the Stern, or plac’d elsewhere upon the Deck.

The same Custom the _Chineses_ observe to this present: _Francis Xaverius_ relates, “That he sail’d in a _Chinese_ Vessel from _Goa_ to _Japan_, which bore an Idol in its Stern, before which the Master lighted Candles, perfum’d it with Aloe-wood, and offer’d Birds and other Food, inquiring of it the Event of his Voyage. Sometimes he judg’d from the Statues immovable Looks, that it would fall out successfully; and other times, not.”

[Sidenote: _De abstinent. Animal._ l. 2.]

[Sidenote: _Prepar. Evang._ lib. 1.]

Lastly, _Porphyrius_ relates, “That the _Phenicians_ upon any great Exigency, as War, excessive Heat, or Mortal Distempers, by order selected one of the most comely and beautiful of their Children, to be offer’d up to _Saturn_.” And _Eusebius_ saith also out of _Porphyrius_, “That _Saturn_, whom the _Phenicians_ call _Israel_, the Learned _Vossius_ and _Hugo Grotius_ read _Il_, or _El_ (one of the ten Names of God in _Hebrew_) which they also give to the Planet _Saturn_, who when he Reign’d in _Phenicia_, having one only Son born by the Nymph _Anobret_, and was in danger to lose his Kingdom, being worsted in an unlucky War, he dress’d him in Royal Robes, and placing him on an Altar built for that purpose, sacrific’d him with his own Hands.”

[Sidenote: Men and Children used for Sacrifices by the _Phenicians_ and other People.]

[Sidenote: Who forbade the sacrificing of Men.]

And although such like cruel Oblations are us’d in _America_, must it therefore follow, that they are deriv’d from the _Phenicians_, when several other People are guilty of the same? Nay, there is scarce one Countrey, which hath not at some time or other perform’d such inhumane Acts, seeming to them Zeal in their Religion; for the most eminent of the Heathens scrupled not at it, which certainly are held to be the _Persians_, _Greeks_, and _Romans_; and yet they were not abhorr’d, though committing Humane Slaughters.

This holy Butchery and Religious Slaughter of Mankind began in _Rome_ in the Emperor _Adrian_’s Reign, so continuing till the time of _Tertullian_, _Lactantius_, and _Eusebius_. The _Greeks_ which inhabited the utmost part of _Italy_, employ’d themselves daily in Sacrificing Strangers to _Saturn_, and sometimes one another. But at last this formal Cruelty became a ridiculous Custom; for the _Romans_ by severe Edicts strictly forbad all such Humane Offerings: Yet that they might retain some memory of their former Sacrifices, they order’d thirty Images to be made of Rushes, which every year on the fifteenth of _April_, were by the _Roman_ Priests and Vestal Nuns, to be thrown from the _Milvian_ Bridge into the _Tyber_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. de Superstit._]

Moreover, _Manethon_ relates, “That the _Egyptians_ in _Heliopolis_ us’d to offer three Men at once to _Juno_; which Custom was observ’d till King _Amasis_ order’d, That in stead of Men, they should serve her with Wax Candles.”

_Amestris_, Queen to the famous _Xerxes_, caus’d twelve Men to be burn’d alive, as an Oblation, to pacifie and oblige _Pluto_ to maintain them in their present Grandeur.

[Sidenote: _Rer. Persic._ l. 1.]

_Procopius_ relates of the People about the _Arabian Gulph_, “That they oftentimes Sacrific’d Men to the Sun.”

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. sect. 8 Geogr._]

“The _Indians_, saith _Pomponius Mela_, kill their nearest Relations and Parents, before they decay by Sickness or Age, and judg’d it fit and most Religious to Feast and Banquet themselves with the Entrails of the slain.”

[Sidenote: _Lib. 11. Geog._]

The _Albanians_, as _Strabo_ relates, offer yearly one of their Priests to the Moon.

The same _Mela_ relates of the _Tauri_, That they us’d to cut the Throats of Strangers, whenever they came near to the Place of their Sacrifice.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. cap. 1_.]

The _Egyptian_ Idol _Typhon_, as you may read in _Manethon_, was daily made red-hot, and living People put in, and broyl’d to death.

[Sidenote: _Bell. Gall. Comm._]

But to pass by several other People guilty of such bloody Idolatry, How did the Altars erected in the Woods in _Gaul_ and _Germany_, for _Taran_, _Hesus_, _Teutates_, and _Woden_, continually smoke with the Blood of Humane Expiations? Of which _Cæsar_ saith thus in his _Commentaries_; “The _Gauls_ are a very Devout and Superstitious Nation; and therefore when any were dangerously sick, or likely to be worsted in Battel, they vow’d to feast their Gods that sav’d them with Humane Flesh, and if need were, would make themselves a thankful Sacrifice to those that help’d them off in such an Exigence. Concerning these bloody Rites, they consulted and imploy’d the _Druydes_, by whose advice they all believ’d that no Victim was so acceptable to the _Numens_, as pour’d-out Humane Blood, but especially that of Malefactors; which Dainty if they could not procure, their Gods must be treated with the Lives of the Innocent.”

[Sidenote: _2 Reg. 3. v. 26, 27._]

Lastly, the Holy Scripture saith thus, _When the King of_ Moab _saw that the Battel was too sore for him, he took with him seven hundred Men that drew Swords, to break through even to the King of_ Edom; _but they could not. Then he took his eldest Son, that should have reigned in his stead, and offered him for a Burnt-offering on the Wall._

These Testimonies are sufficient Witnesses, That the Ancient _Heathens_ express’d the height of their Devotion, and fury of mad Zeal, in such execrable Rites, as to this day the like is practised by the _Indians_, _Chineses_, _Japanners_, and others: Wherefore it can no ways be a sufficient ground to prove, that the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the _Phenicians_, because of their Humane Sacrifices, for that they were usual Customs in all Places.

[Sidenote: Third testimony, That the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the _Phenicians_, because their Language agrees]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

The third Proof they offer us, is borrow’d from the similitude and likeness of the _Phenician_ and _American_ Languages: _Comtœus_ sets down some Words, _viz._ the _Phenicians_ call’d a Mountain, _Abila_; Blood, _Edom_; a Mother, _Anech_; a Maid, _Hellotia_; Water, _Heni_, and _Jam_: With the first agrees the _American_ _Anthla_; with the second, _Holedonch_; with the third, _Anam_; with the fourth, _Hellotie_; with the fifth, _Ame_, and _Jame_. But those that will thus corrupt the Words, may as well make the unseemliest Comparisons. It is certain, that the _Phenicians_ and some of the _Americans_ call a Cup _Asur_, and Red Wine, _Belàsa_; But does it therefore follow by this, that the one is extracted from the other? How many Names do signifie all one, amongst People that never had any Conversation together? This proceeds only from meer accident; Or else if some Words of one, sound like the same Words us’d in a remote Countrey, and be of one signification, must they therefore be deriv’d from one another? Then upon necessity the _Greeks_, _Latins_, and _Germans_ had their Original from the _Hebrews_, or the _Latins_ from the _Greeks_, or the _Germans_ from the _Latins_, or the _Persians_ from the _Germans_; or, on the contrary, the last owe their Extract to the first. I will as a Testimony, and to give you a Pattern, pick out a few from a greater number.

[Sidenote: _Greek_ and _Hebrew_ agree]

[Sidenote: Also the _Hebrew_ and _Latin_.]

How little difference is there in many Words between the _Greek_ and _Hebrew_? The _Hebrews_ call a Church-Congregation _Sanhedrim_, the Greeks Συνέδριον; the Greeks for _I advise_, use πείθω, the other פתה; the _Hebrews_ call Wise-men _Zophei_, the other Σόφοι: And less difference there is between _Symphoniah_ and Συμφονία, _A well-set Lesson_; or _Psanterin_ and Ψαλτέριον, _A Spiritual Hymn_: And who also will not find a near resemblance in the consonating of divers _Latin_ and _Hebrew_ Words? For there is little difference betwixt _Mesurah_ and _Mensura_, _a Measure_; _Shekar_ and _Saccarus_, _a sweet Moisture_; _Levya_ and _Leæna_, _a Lioness_, _Sabbeca_ and _Sambuca_, _a Chopping-board_; _Pesa_ and _Passus_, _a Pace_.

[Sidenote: Likewise the _Teutonick_, the great Language of _Germany_, _Britain_, the _Low-Countreys_, and other Northern Nations.]

Then starting over the _Greek_ and _Latin_, the _Teutonicks_ would likewise produce many Words which have the same sound and signification with the _Hebrew_; as _Chobel_, _a Cable_; _Ethmol_ and _Etmael_, _Watching_; _Sothim_ and _Sotten_, _Fools_; the _Hebrew_ _Arets_, is in _Dutch_, _Aerde_, or as we in _English_, _Ear’d Lands_; _Phert_ and _Peert_, _a Horse_; _Levyah_ and _Leeuw_, _a Lion_; _Shad_ and _Schadea_, _Damages_; _Kisse_ and _Kussen_, in our Dialect the very same, _Kisse_; _Shaken_ and _Schenken_, _a giving_, whence we derive our _English_ _Skinker_, from serving of Drink; _Bel_ and _Beeld_, _an Image_; for _Bel_ properly signifies _Lord_, perhaps because the Images of Heroes or Lords were worshipp’d by them, or else because _Ninus_ first erected an Image for his Father _Belus_, or _Bel_, to be worshipp’d.

[Sidenote: _Greek_ and _Latin_ Tongues agree.]

[Sidenote: _Abrah. Milii, Ling. Belg._ c. 5, 6, 7, 11.]

It would make a large Volume it self, to reckon up the Consonancies of the _Hebrew_, _Greek_, and _Latin_, and their scatterings among all Languages where ever their Empire spread, the one being indeed borrow’d from the other, as all Languages that deal or have any converse together: For not only the Words, with some small Alterations of Letters, signifie the same in both Languages; but also without the least alteration. Both _Greeks_ and _Latins_ express _I do_, by _Ago_; the Number _Eight_, by _Octo_; _an Arm_, by _Brachium_ or _Brachion_, in _English_, _Branches_, and _Braces_; _I eat_, by _Edo_; _a Cup_, by _Phiale_; _a Curtain_, by _Cortina_, or _Cortine_; _Merry_, by _Hilaris_, or _Hilaros_; _a ratling Noise or Sound_, by _Clango_; _a Camel_, by _Camelus_, or _Camelos_; _a Knee_, by _Genu_, or _Gonu_; _a Bowl_ or _Chalice_, by _Calix_; _a Mouse_, by _Mus_; _Deceit_, by _Dolus_, or _Dolos_; _a House_, by _Domus_, or _Domos_; _I carry_, by _Fero_, or _Phero_; the Pronoun _I_, _Ego_; _a Lion_, by _Leo_, or Λέων; _Flax_, by _Linum_, or _Linon_; _a Mother_, by _Mater_, or _Meter_; _now_, by _nunc_, or _nun_; _the Night_, by _Nox_, or _Nux_; _a Rock-stone_, by _Petra_; _a Nick-name_, by _Scomma_, or _Skomma_; _a Boat_, by _Scapha_, or _Skaphe_; _a Treasure_, by _Thesaurus_, or _Thesauros_; _Father_, by _Pater_; _I tremble_, by _Tremo_; _an Hour_, by _Hora_; _the Evening_, by _Vespera_, or _Hespera_; and an innumerable many Words more, that are of one signification in both.

[Sidenote: _Phenician_ and _American_ Tongues have no similitude.]

[Sidenote: _Americans_ much divided in Speech and People.]

Now if there is not the hundredth part of the resemblance found between the _American_ and _Phenician_ Tongues, as there is between the _Hebrew_, _Greek_, _Latin_, and _Dutch_, according to the foremention’d Examples, which notwithstanding cannot be observ’d to be deriv’d from one another, what testimony can there be in five or six Words, which only have a few Letters that do not differ? But suppose that the agreeing of the _Phenician_ and _American_ Tongues could serve for a testimony; that these last People had their Original from the first, then there remains another doubt, _viz._ To know what _Americans_ acknowledge the _Phenicians_ for their Fathers; because their Countrey is so big, that it may almost stand in competition with all the other three parts of the Known World, being divided by so many Nations, which differ not only in their various Customs, but also in their several Languages, most of them not having the least likeness one with another: Nay, often times the Inhabitants of one Province differ so much in Dialect, that, according to _Petrus de Cieca_, the one cannot understand the other.

[Sidenote: In _America_ one Tongue is not at all like the other.]

[Sidenote: _Decad. 3._]

[Sidenote: _De Laet. Orig. Amer. obs. 5._]

_John de Laet_ observes out of _Peter Martyr_, and other Writers concerning the _West-Indies_, That there are several Languages and strange Words spoken among the divers Inhabitants of _America_; for the _Hurones_ call a Head _Sionta_; the _Mexicans_, _Tzontecontli_; the Inhabitants of _New-Netherland_, _Anonsi_; the _Brasilians_, _Acanga_; the _Jaos_, _Boppe_: the Figures One, Two, Three, and Four, the _Hurones_ tell thus, _Escate_, _Teni_, _Hachin_, _Dac_; the _Mexicans_, _Ce_, _Ome_, _Yei_, _Nabuy_; the _Sankikanders_, _Cotte_, _Nysse_, _Nacha_, _Wyve_; the _Brasilians_, _Oyepe_, _Mocoy_, _Mocapir_, _Oirundi_; the _Jaos_, _Tewyn_, _Tage_, _Terrewaw_, _Tagyne_; the Natives of _New-Netherland_, _Onsat_, _Tiggani_, _Asse_, _Cayere_. Moreover the _Hurones_ call a Father _Aystan_; the _Mexicans_, _Tathli_; the _Canadensers_, _Notaovi_; in _New-Netherland_, _Ragina_; in _Brasile_, _Tuba_: And so it is generally with all other Words, which agree not in the least one with the other; so that every Territory hath not only a several Dialect, but in many Places they use besides two, three, or more distinct Speeches, not relating in the least one to another, in one Province, by which the People inhabiting Towns and Villages are distinguish’d. The Islanders discover’d by the _Spaniards_, and destroy’d, have left few Words behind them; yet _Peter Martyr_ sets down some of them, which were formerly us’d in _Hispaniola_: They call’d Heaven _Tures_; a House, _Boa_; Gold, _Cauni_; a good Man, _Tayno_. It is worthy of observation, that they pronounce no _H_ in their Language, but what is spoken with a Vowel, and then give it a strong Aspiration, like the warbling guttural ע _Ghain_ of the _Hebrews_.

[Sidenote: _Gen. 9. v. 25, 26, 27._]

[Sidenote: _Gen. 10. v. 15._]

[Sidenote: Last Testimonies of the _Americans_ Extract from the _Phenicians_.]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

[Sidenote: _Franc. Burman._ _in_ Gen. 25. 30.]

[Sidenote: _Phenicians_ deriv’d from _Esau_.]

Our last and chiefest Testimony is _Moses_, who says thus in _Genesis_, _Cursed be_ Canaan, _a Servant of Servants shall he be unto his Brethren. Moreover he said, Blessed be the Lord God of_ Shem, _and_ Canaan _shall be his Servant: God shall inlarge_ Japhet, _and he shall dwell in the Tents of_ Shem; _and_ Canaan _shall be his Servant._ And in the next Chapter, _Canaan_ begat _Sidon_. These Scriptures are explain’d as a Testimony of the _Americans_ Extract from the _Phenicians_, which they ground on these following Reasons: The _Phenicians_ are _Canaan_’s Successors from _Sidon_, who gave name to their chief City. _Tubal_ the Issue of _Japhet_, whose Tents God promis’d to enlarge, and that _Canaan_ should be his Servant, planted _Spain_. The _Phenicians_, descendants from _Sydon_, (say they) Peopled _America_; the _Spaniards_ sprung from _Tubal_, of _Japhet_, have subjected the _Americans_, descended from _Sydon_, of _Canaan_; wherein is fulfill’d that Prophecy of _Moses_, _That_ Canaan _should be Servant to_ Japhet; but it seems a great mistake, so to derive the _Phenicians_ from _Canaan_, for they are Extracted from _Shem_, _Heber_, _Abraham_, and _Esau_, sirnam’d _Edom_, from his saying, _Adom, Adom_, when he ask’d of _Jacob_, _That Red, That Red_, because he knew not how to call the prepared Pottage by its proper Name; And _Edom_ setling himself on Mount _Seir_, a part of the Stony _Arabia_, and on the Coast of the _Red-Sea_, gave denomination to it, because that Sea was much frequented and Navigated by his Successors. The _Greeks_ call it _Erythreum_, from _Erythros_, who is the same with _Esau_, and likewise signifies _Red_. Hereto is added, That _Phænix_ and _Erythros_ have the same signification in the _Greek_; So then, these _Idumeans_ taking the name of _Phenicians_, from the great _Phœnix_, spread themselves far and near under mighty Kings, by Navigation in the _Red-Sea_, and from thence Planted several Coasts and Islands, removing at last to _Syria_.

[Sidenote: Gen. 36. 39.]

[Sidenote: _Com. in_ Jer. l. 4. c. 25.]

[Sidenote: _In_ Ps. 136. _Voss. Orig. Idol._ l. 1. c. 31.]

[Sidenote: _Punick_ Tongue.]

[Sidenote: _Hebrew._]

The seventh King of _Edom_, _Moses_ reckoneth to be _Baal-hanan_, which name, by transposing the Syllables, the famous _Carthaginian_ General _Hannibal_ bare. Moreover, it may easily be demonstrated, that the _Phenicians_ Extracted from _Heber_, have formerly spoke _Hebrew_, and since _Arabick_; for they dwelt before their removing, in the Stony-_Arabia_. St. _Jerom_ saith, the _Punick_ Tongue agrees for the most part with the _Hebrew_: And St. _Austin_ tells us, that many, nay, most of the _Carthaginian_ words are _Hebrew_. _Elisa_, _Dido_, the first Foundress of _Carthage_ proves this, for _Elisa_ or _Elissah_, with the _Hebrews_, denotes _A Lamb of my God_; and _Dido_, _A Lover_. But who can find the least likeness, between the _Hebrew_ or _Arabick_ Tongue with the _Americans_? Lastly, Since the _Phenicians_ acknowledge _Esau_ for a Father, what then concerns the _Americans_, the curse of _Canaan_, since they are no more Extracted from _Canaan_, than the _Phenicians_? Thus much concerning the _Phenicians_.

[Sidenote: If the _Americans_ were deriv’d from the _Jews_, or the ten Tribes of _Israel_.]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

Some would derive the _Americans_ from the _Jews_; others, from the ten Tribes of _Israel_, carry’d into captivity. The ground of which Opinions is, That the _Jews_ and _Israelites_ were scatter’d amongst all Nations; therefore they conclude, that _America_ was also Peopled by them, the rather, because the antient _Jews_ and _Americans_ were of one Complexion, and went a like Habited, both going without Shooes, onely wearing Sandals, and an upper Coat over a shorter Linnen Vest. Both are humble, quick of apprehension, and obliging, yet Valiant: But it is certain, they cannot be like the _Jews_, because the _Americans_ change their Habit, according as they live in cold or hot Countreys, and go not in the least like one another.

Father _Immanuel_ relates, That he saw a _Brasilian_, not onely stoutly make his party good against three _Portugal_ Soldiers, but had it not been by meer chance, worsted them.

Lastly, What Ceremonies of Religious Rites are observ’d by the _Americans_, which are used in _Judaism_? The _Jews_ indeed have transplanted their Circumcision amongst divers Eastern People, and have they onely forgot the first Ceremony and signal Badge of their Religion in _America_, which yet not onely they, but those _Mahumetans_ and other Sectaries punctually observe?

[Sidenote: _Jews_ distribution.]

[Sidenote: 1 Pet. 1. 1. _Scaliger in Notes ad N. T._]

[Sidenote: Joh. 7. 35.]

[Sidenote: _L. de Idolo. vanitate._]

This makes evident their scatterings about the Face of the Earth, but will not bring them to reach _America_. The Sacred Text sets forth a two-fold description of the _Jews_; The one before the Birth of our Saviour, when they liv’d as strangers in _Pontus_, _Galatia_, _Cappadocia_, _Asia_, and _Bythinia_. _Jerusalem_ was their Metropolis, although others had their chief residence in _Babylon_, and _Alexandria_; for there was an _Asiatick_ and a _European_ dispersion; those of _Asia_ had _Babylon_ for their chief City, and us’d in their Synagogues the _Chaldean_ Translation of the Bible. The _Europeans_ kept their Seat at _Alexandria_, where they had a Temple like that of _Jerusalem_; and whilst they employ’d themselves in the _Greek_ Version of the Holy Scripture, by the seventy two Interpreters, under _Ptolomeus Philadelphus_, they were call’d _Wandering Greeks_: Therefore, certainly the _Americans_ are not deriv’d from these _Jews_, and with as little reason from those, which by _Titus Vespasian_, after the destruction of _Jerusalem_ were driven into several Countreys, for they were never permitted (that I may borrow the words of St. _Cyprian_) to set forward one step, though but as Pilgrims, towards their Native Countrey, but strictly forbidden not to assemble or meet together in any considerable number, which would have been necessary, if they intended to Plant a new World.

[Sidenote: 2 Reg. 17. 5.]

[Sidenote: 4 Esd. 13. 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46.]

A small seeming Testimony is added, being taken out of the fourth Book of _Esdras_, that the ten Tribes of _Israel_ that were carry’d away by _Salmanassar_ with their King _Hosea_ to _Nahalah_, _Habor_, the River _Gozan_, and the Cities of the _Medes_, might be acknowledged for the first Planters of _America_: Concerning which, _Esdras_ saith thus, _The ten Tribes brought over into another Countrey, consulted that they should forsake the multitude of the_ Heathens, _and travel to a remoter Countrey, where no Generation of Mankind had ever liv’d before, there they would maintain their Laws, which they had not observ’d in their Countrey: Whereupon they went thither thorow the narrow entrances of the River_ Euphrates, _for the Almighty stopt the Vains of the River, till they were past over; for thorow the Countrey was a way of a year and halfs Journey: wherefore that Tract of Land is call’d_ Assareth, _then they liv’d there till the last time._

But since these Books of _Esdras_ were not Written by a Prophet, either in the _Hebrew_ Tongue, or allow’d by the _Jews_ to be the Word of God, or any where taken notice of in the _New Testament_; wherefore then is _Assareth_ more _America_ than any other remoter Countrey?

[Sidenote: _L. 5. in Ezek. & l. 6. in Jerom._]

[Sidenote: 4 Esd. 6. 49, 50. & 14. 21. & 4. 41.]

St. _Hierom_ (who certainly had a peculiar knowledge of the condition of the ten Tribes of _Israel_, because he liv’d in _Asia_, and held Correspondence with the _Jews_, that he might perfectly learn the _Hebrew_ Tongue,) relates, “That the ten Tribes (St. _Hierome_ liv’d about the Year four hundred, under the Emperor _Theodosius_) underwent great slavery in the Cities of _Medes_ and _Persians_; so that this strange Voyage to _Assareth_, which must have happen’d long before St. _Hierom_’s time, may be Recorded amongst the other Legends of the Rabbies, concerning their _Behemoth_ and _Leviathan_, who lock’d up the Souls of those that sleighted their Laws, in Caves under ground, as _Esdras_.”

[Sidenote: Antient condition of the _Persians_.]

[Sidenote: _Melchior Soiterus de Reb. Turc._]

And how little opportunity the _Israelites_ had to remove since his time, may appear by the horrible Destruction that was made for several Ages together in _Persia_ and _Media_; for although the _Persians_ became Masters again of the Realm, Conquer’d by _Alexander_ the Great, whilst _Alexander_’s Successors invaded one another, yet they were continually in War, either against the _Romans_, or else the _Indians_, and other Eastern People; nay, the _Saracens_ wrested the Scepter out of their hand, though but for a small time; for soon after, breaking out into Factions amongst themselves, _Muchumet Subictigenes_, _Imbrael_’s Son, establish’d his Throne on their Ruines, and incourag’d by such success, Arm’d himself against the _Indians_, and made use of the _Turks_ assistance, with which he subdu’d the _Babylonian Arabians_: After which, the _Turks_, not without great slaughter see the _Persian_ Crown on their Head, which, immediately totter’d by bloudy Commotions; for _Tangrolipix_ being King of _Persia_, clashing with his Brother _Cutlumuses_, made _Persia_ swim in the Blood of a Civil-War, till at last _Zengis Chan_ brought from _Tartary_ so great an Army, _Anno 1200._ that none durst stay to make opposition; for the _Turks_ forsook _Persia_ after a Conquest of six Ages, and made their own way for new Quarters into _Carmania_, _Phrygia_, and _Bithynia_, whence they made such incursions on the _Greek_ Empire, that at last they became sole Masters thereof. Who cannot but easily judge by this, how little opportunity the ten Tribes had, to be assembled together from remote Countreys, and to go long Journeys through untrack’d ways, and full of Enemies, to travel to _America_?

[Sidenote: _Mora_’s opinion concerning the _Americans_ Extract.]

_Immanuel de Moraes_, who had gotten peculiar knowledge of the _Americans_ by his long Conversation with them, judgeth that they are not deriv’d from one People, but from the _Carthaginians_ and _Jews_, and that at several times, and places, they Landed in this New World; for the _Carthaginians_ Sailing thither, found the Soyl so fertile, that many forsook their Native Countrey to dwell there: Whereupon, it was forbidden upon pain of Death, to send no more thither, lest if _Carthage_ should be invaded by a foraign Enemy, it should want People for a Home-defence: From this occasion it happen’d, that those that were already Transported, became rude, and of a Salvage Disposition, and spreading their Families, planted the desolate Countreys in a ranging manner, without acknowledging any Supreme Head or Governor.

Thus being scatter’d up and down, every one invented to himself a new Language, which should neither agree with the _Carthaginians_, or any other: But this Opinion is before at large contradicted.

[Sidenote: Customs and Constitutions of the _Brasilians_ are several.]

Moreover, _Moraes_ endeavors to shew, that the _Brasilians_ are of a _Hebrew_ Extract, because that according to the example of the _Jews_, they might not Marry, but in their own Tribes; they also call their Unkles, Fathers, and their Aunts, Mothers; both mourn for the Dead a Moneth together, and wear long Garments down to their Ankles. But these Arguments seem to us of small consequence, for indeed the _Brasilians_ differ in their Marriages from the _Jews_, for they not onely Marry in their own Tribes, but frequently commix with their Sisters, and Daughters, or other their nearest Relations. Moreover, the _Jews_ call’d them Fathers, from whose Loyns they sprang many Ages before, as well as their Unkles, which the _Americans_ do not.

The Mourning for the Dead hath been an old Custom, and is not observ’d by many People, but the time of a Moneth was not setled amongst them, but was observ’d after a more unusual manner, seventy days, as in the Fields of _Moab_ for _Moses_, and elsewhere for the Patriarch _Jacob_. Lastly, all people know, that the _Romans_ and _Persians_ girt themselves about with long Clothes. Besides, the _Jews_ were strictly bound to observe Circumcision, without which they were not accounted _Jews_, which the _Brasilians_ use not, as neither their Language or Letters. How is it possible, that in _America_ they should at once have forgotten their Extract, Laws, Circumcision, Language, and other Ceremonies, when the rest of them observ’d nothing more strictly in all parts of the Earth?

[Sidenote: _Grotius_ is of opinion that the _Americans_ belong’d to _Norway_.]

The Learned _Hugo Grotius_, in his Enquiry after the original of the _Americans_, brings them with many Circumstances to belong to _Panama_, situate opposite to the Northern Parts of _Norway_, because something of their Languages agrees, and the Way thither easie and nearest to be found: for first they travell’d from _Norway_ to _Ysland_, over which the _Norwegians_ Rul’d above a thousand years since; so from _Ysland_ through _Friezland_ to _Groenland_, and from thence to _Estotiland_, being a part of the Main Continent of _America_.

[Sidenote: This Opinion is largely contradicted.]

From _Friezland_ some Fishers went thither (as he says) two Centuries before the _Spaniards_ touch’d that Shore; which _John de Laet_ contradicts. And indeed what Reasons can be given, Why the _Americans_ of the _Straights_, between _Panama_ and _Nombre de Dios_, lying Northerly, should have another original than those that live to the South, seeing the same _Straights_ are neither divided by Mountains nor Rivers; and the _Spaniards_ found no alteration in the Customs and Languages betwixt them that liv’d above or below these _Straights_. And who will believe that _Norway_, which was but indifferently peopled, could afford such numerous Colonies as could plant the Northern _America_, which far exceeds the South, and chiefly, when the great Islands that lie near the East and West, are added to it? Moreover it is certain, (if the Yslander _Angrim Jonas_ is to be credited) that some Families fled out of _Norway_ from their enraged King to _Ysland_ in the Year 874. which at that time was but meanly inhabited.

[Sidenote: _Isaac Pontanus de Reb. Danicis._]

Forty years before, _Lewis_ the Just put the _Yslanders_ under the protection of Pope _Gregory_ the fourth, who gave the Government of the _Ysland_ Church to _Ansgar_ Archbishop of _Hamburgh_. But how comes it that there is not the least spark of _Christianity_ found amongst the Northern _Americans_, if they are deriv’d from the _Ysland Christians_? and why did the _Yslanders_ remove to colder Countreys than _Groenland_ and _Friezland_, or their own native Soil, and for the most part not inhabited?

Concerning _Groenland_ and _Friezland_, it is known by our _English_ Navigators, that they are joyn’d together, and both to the Northern _America_; but not without vast Bays and Inlets, which betwixt _Groenland_ and _America_ are obstructed with floating Castles of Ice; so that the Passage is very dangerous. And full as troublesom, if not altogether impossible, would the Journey be by Land, because the Earth lies so thick cover’d with Ice and Snow, especially the Valleys, that no Traveller is able to get through.

[Sidenote: The Voyage of two _Zeno_’s.]

[Sidenote: _Relatio Marc. Zenonis._]

Moreover, that which _Grotius_ says farther of the Fishers which first discover’d _Estotiland_, is grounded on the Relation of the _Venetian_ Knights, _Nicholas_ and _Marcus Zeno_, two Brothers. _Anno 1380._ _Nicholas Zeno_ suffer’d Shipwrack on the _Friezland_ Coast; _Marcus_ inform’d thereof, steer’d his Course thither; fourteen years they spent before they came to _Estotiland_: at last they return’d again to _Friezland_, where _Nicholas_ died: But _Marcus_ returning home publish’d his Journal, wherein he relates, That _Estotiland_ is above a thousand Leagues distant from _Friezland_, and was discover’d by _Friezland_ Fisher-men that were driven thither by Storm. But he hath set down many things that have little resemblance of truth, according to what is since found by credible Navigators; and therefore we cannot depend on _Zeno_’s Discovery.

[Sidenote: The _American_ Tongue is nothing like the _Norwegian_.]

_John de Laet_ accounts it a great mistake in _Grotius_, that as a testimony of the _Americans_ original out of _Norway_, he compares their Languages. He reckons up some Places to be Northward of _Panama_, which end their words with the syllable _Lan_ instead of _Land_, because the _Spaniards_ have left out the Letter D at the end thereof. It is certain, that in the Northern _America_ lie _Cimatlan_, _Coatlan_, _Guescolan_, _Artlan_, _Quaxutatlan_, _Icatlan_, _Tapatlan_, _Cinacatlan_, _Tenuchitlan_, _Comitlan_, _Metzitlan_, _Guatitlan_, _Necotitlan_, _Curcatatlan_. Besides, that most of these Names are not of Countreys, but of Towns and Villages, and therefore no ways fitting to have the termination of _Land_: and it is well known that many _American_ words end with _Lan_, which signifie nothing less than Land: for the _Mexicans_ say _Puertatitlan_, which signifies _At the Gate below_; _Ochachitlantzitlan_, _Yet lower_; _Tenoxtitlan_, (this City is also call’d from her Founder _Mexis_, _Mexico_) that is, _Rests on a Rock_. Moreover, it may not without reason seem strange to any, that the Northern _Americans_ have remembred but three Cities out of all the _Teutonick_ Tongue, _viz._ _Lan_ in stead _Land_.

[Sidenote: _Groenland_ when discovered.]

[Sidenote: _Serm. 3. Antiq. Danic._]

Concerning _Groenland_, through which the _Norwegians_ are thought to have travell’d to _America_, _Lysander_ witnesseth, That it was accidentally discover’d by one _Eric Rauder_, _Anno 987_, and planted thirteen years after.

_Olaus_, King of _Norway_, plac’d two Bishops over the new Inhabitants, as Substitutes to the Archbishop of _Dronthen_. For four Ages they Sail’d frequently to _Groenland_; but since their King was impoverish’d by War, they left off that Trade.

We find not in any Author, that the _Norwegians_ which liv’d along the Sea-shore, ever went to seek a Way over the inaccessible Snowy Mountains of _Groenland_, to this our _New World_.

Besides, _Grotius_ stands for the _Norwegians_ as Planters, upon testimony of the _Mexicans_ themselves, who told the _Spaniards_, That their Ancestors which planted there came from the _North_, first setling themselves on _Estotiland_, where to this day there are not improbable proofs by several remarks, that they were a _Norwegian_ Colony.

[Sidenote: The opinion concerning the City _Norumbega_ in _America_.]

In the _American_ City _Norumbega_, live a People that speak the same Language, and observe the same Customs with the _Mexicans_.

In this by-Corner are found also some _Alavards_, or _Longobards_, or _Lombards_, as they say. Now the _Spaniards_ call that _New Mexico_ because last discover’d, though indeed the old, cramm’d with People eight hundred years since: for the _Mexicans_ of _New Mexico_ do not lie so far Northerly, as to the North-west: for this _Mexico_ lies in sight of _California_, which is believ’d to border on _Tartary_, or at least separated from it by a narrow Channel. But _Norumbega_ (if ever such a Place was) must, according to the _West-Indian_ Records, have been situate where a part of _New France_ lies, now planted by the _English_: between which and _New Mexico_ lies an almost unmeasurable vast Tract of Land. Mean while here is not the least sign of this City _Norumbega_ to be found: neither do the Inhabitants dwell in Cities, but live in Tents, or moveable Villages, which change their Names as oft as their Governors. Moreover, the _Norwegians_ could not get to this _Norumbega_ by Land through _Ysland_ and _Groenland_ to _Estotiland_, because of the vast Bays, and great _Midland-Sea_, discover’d by the _English_ in their North-western Discoveries; so that leaving _Estotiland_, it was altogether impossible for them to come to _Norumbega_.

[Sidenote: _Chichimecen._]

Hereto may be added what the _Mexicans_ say of themselves, who acknowledge, That travelling from the _North_, they did not find an un-inhabited Countrey before them, but were forc’d to make their Way by a long and bloody War with the _Chichimecen_, a salvage People, that knew neither Laws or Religion.

The People also dwelling opposite to _California_, differ from the Customs of the _Mexicans_, being divided into several People of contrary Constitutions, and as different Languages.

[Sidenote: Customs and Constitutions of the _Mexicans_.]

_Grotius_ scrues up his Arguments from the likeness of the _American_ Speech and Customs with the _Norwegian_: for (says he) there is little difference between _Pagod_ and _by-God_, or _like God_; _Guaira_ and _Waeijer_, that is, _A Fan_; _Ilama_ and _Lam_, in _English_, _Lamb_; _Peko_ and _Beke_, a _Brook_ or _Rivulet_. Both Customs and Constitutions have also great resemblance. The _Mexicans_ relate, that their Predecessors onely follow’d Hunting; that they divided and reckon’d the Time, not by Days, but by Nights, and wash’d their Children as soon as they were born in cold Water.

[Illustration]

They are so much inclin’d to Gaming, that they venture their Liberty at it. Every one is satisfi’d with one Wife, except some of the Nobility, which oftentimes have more. They throw up high Banks in several places to damm out the Sea; believe the Immortality of the Soul; every one eats at a peculiar Table; most of them go naked, onely cover their _Pudenda_ with a Cloth; some Sacrifice and eat Mans-flesh: all which, according to _Tacitus_, _Pliny_, _Lucan_, and other _Roman_ Writers, was observ’d by the antient _Germans_; from whom those that inhabit between the _Norwegian_ Mountains were extracted.

These Allegations, to make the _Norwegians_ to be the Parents of the Northern _Americans_, _John de Laet_ thus contradicts: “It no ways follows that one People take original from the other, because here and there are several words found, that have the same signification and found in divers Countreys; much less when they must either add, change, or diminish several Letters. Moreover, there is no small mistake in the compar’d words: for _Pagod_ is not us’d all over _America_; the _East-Indians_ about the River _Indus_, call their Idol-Temples _Pagod_, or _Pagode_, the word _Guaira_ is no where us’d in _America_, but by the _Peruvians_, and with them not signifying a _Fan_, but a little _Oven_; neither is _Ilama_ a _Lamb_, (for before the coming of the _Spaniards_ thither, neither Sheep nor Lambs were ever seen in _Peru_) but a Wool-bearing Beast, thus describ’d by _Joseph de Acosta_:

[Sidenote: A description of the strange Beast _Ilama_ in _Peru_.]

“_Ilama_ (says he) a four-footed Creature, furnishes its Master with Meat and Clothing, and supplies the office of a Beast for Burthens, and at no charge for Hay nor Provender, well satisfi’d with what he finds in the Ways or Mountains. But the _Ilama_’s are of two sorts, either woolly, or shorthair’d: the first go by the Name _Pacos_, the other _Moromoro_, being not much less than a Calf, with a long Neck like a Camel, but of several colours; for some are white, some black, and others speckled, having an odd Look, especially when they are ty’d, and stand still without any motion, staring with goggle-eyes on their Owners: Sometimes in a moody humor, upon a sudden taking a freak, they run up to the top of almost inaccessible Mountains, where both the frantick Beast and his Burthen are lost. The _Pacos_ sometimes likewise takes sudden Pets, and fustian Fits, often doing the forward _Supersalt_, tumbling over and over with their Goods, and will not be rais’d, their moodiness continuing, with beating, nay though they cut them to pieces: but the best way is to sit down by them, and wait some hours till their humor being spent they rise again of their own accords. These Beasts are much inclin’d to a Disease call’d _Carashe_ or the _Mange_, of which they generally die: and because the Disease is very catching, they straight bury the infected alive, so the better to preserve the rest.”

_Grotius_ also mistakes, when he compares the _Mexican Peke_ with the _Dutch Beke_; for though many _Mexican_ Places, Mountains, and Rivers, terminate in _Peke_, yet it signifies not a _Brook_ or _Rivulet_, for that they call _Atlauhtli_.

[Sidenote: _De Orig. Gentium Americ._]

_John de Laet_ tells also, That with great diligence he found a _Mexican_ Dictionary, Printed by the _Spaniards_ in _Mexico_, to find if there were any words in it which agreed with any of those _European_ Languages that he understood, but found not one.

It is the same case with the Customs and Constitutions between the _Norwegians_ and Northern _Americans_: for what concerns Hunting, how many People have formerly liv’d by it? The antient _Germans_, and to this day the _Tartars_ make it their whole business, excelling in that Art all other Nations. Besides, that the more serious sort of the _Mexicans_ many Ages since scorn’d to derive themselves from a Hunting Ancestry, but affirm that they found the _Chichimecen_ in those Countreys, who were great _Venators_.

[Sidenote: Customs of the _Americans._]

[Sidenote: Their Clothing.]

The accounting of Time by the Nights, extracted from the _Hebrews_, is observ’d by divers Eastern People: and although the _Germans_ dipt and wash’d their children in cold Rivers, or Brooks, so soon as they were born, yet the _Mexicans_ never did it, but the Mother lays the Child on the fourth day after its Birth, in an open place of the House, in the middle whereof stands a Pot full of Water cover’d with Broom, in which they wash the Infant. Neither are the _Americans_ so much addicted to the Vice of Gaming as other Nations, so that _Grotius_ taxeth them too severely as to that point: as on the contrary, he too much clears them of Polygamy, whereas the _Mexicans_ Marry as many Wives as they please, or are able to maintain. Father _Martyn Perez_ relates the same of the _Cinaloans_, and other _Americans_; as also _Quarterius_ of the Natives in _Nova Francia_, which lie nearest to _Norway_. And what need the _Americans_ have the _Germans_ their Teachers, to make Dams and Banks against Floods, since Nature and Necessity it self instructs it? and where are any People so ignorant, as to ascribe the same event to Men and Beasts after death? ’Tis true, their manner of eating in _America_ is several, because the People do not much converse together: but they did not go naked; for the _Spaniards_ found them not onely neatly Habited, but had a proper Name for every thing they wore. The _Virginians_ us’d long Shirts; the _Floridans_ Skins of wild Beasts; and towards the North they cover’d themselves from Head to Foot in hairy and undress’d Hydes. The sacrificing of Men was in former Ages spreading far and near over the World, and how far it was practis’d here, hath been already declar’d at large. Lastly, all the _Americans_ are not guilty of eating of Man’s-flesh, but that salvageness is confin’d to the Southern _America_.

Thus much we have said, to prove that the _Norwegians_ had no hand in planting the Northern _America_, we shall now proceed to enquire who planted the Southern Parts, from the _Straights_ between _Panama_ and _Nombre de Dios_, to the _Straights_ of _Magellan_.

The _Peruvians_, possessing a large Tract of Land along the Coast of the _South-Sea_, _Grotius_ would thus derive from _China_:

[Sidenote: Relation of _Mancocapacus_.]

“The _Peruvians_, being of a subtile Wit, and quick of Apprehension, argue sufficiently that they are not extracted from the more Northern _Americans_, but rather from the _Chineses_, which the several Wrecks of _Chinese_ Ships found on these Coasts sufficiently evidence: and no wonder, if curiosity or accident brought the _Chineses_ expert Navigators to this Countrey, separated onely by one Sea from them. To this we may add their Rites of Religion; for both worship the Sun, and call their King the Son of the Sun; they write no Letters but make Characters downwards. _Mancocapacus_ was a _Chinese_ of strange Policy; who being inform’d that his Countrey-men inhabited fruitful Countreys on the other side of the _South-Sea_, but without Laws or Government, Sail’d over thither, and gather’d the scatter’d Multitudes in a Body, and establish’d an hereditary Kingdom after the _Chinese_ manner, to him and his Successors.”

[Sidenote: The _Americans_ are not extracted from _China_.]

To which _John de Laet_ answers thus: “Though the _Peruvians_ exceed the other _Americans_ in Policy, and at the arrival of the _Spaniards_ liv’d in a handsom Order of Government, yet they can no ways be compar’d to the sharp-witted, and noble-spirited _Chineses_; nay, there are in no Place of _Peru_ found such Artificers as those of _China_, that bear the praise of all the World; no where such manner of Buildings or Cities, nor the least likeness of the _Chinese_ Curiosities. As concerning the Wrecks found in _Peru_, I find no credible Author that gives an account thereof: for certainly the _Chineses_ could much easier, and a nearer way have come through the _Atlantick Sea_ to the Coasts of _America_, lying to the East of _Peru_, than steer along the vast, and much greater _South Sea_, and endure the horrible Storms and vast Waves, which the _European_ Ships are scarce able to endure, much less the _Chinese_ Vessels, which are not so good. The _Spaniards_ which Sail yearly from _Acupulco_ to the _Philippines_ are sensible of the great danger which they endure, chiefly by the great gusts of Wind near _California_. Besides, the _Peruvians_ before the arrival of the _Spaniards_, were utterly ignorant of great Ships, and the use of Sails. How could they at once have forgotten that Art, which they brought with them thither, Moreover, it is easier to Sail from _Peru_ to _China_, than from _China_ to _Peru_, because the Winds under the Equinoctial Line commonly blow Easterly. And it is the greater wonder, that the _Chinese_ Jonks accidentally by Storm should be driven to _Peru_, because they were never stor’d with Provisions but for a short Voyage, whereas this ask’d nine Moneths. But if any one will suppose, that they purposely directed their Course thither, how came the _Chineses_ to Sail just to _Peru_, and not to _New Spain_, which is much closer to _China_? why were there no Merchandises of the _Chineses_ found in _Peru_, since they went thither for Trade? how came they to neglect that Navigation they had once found? Nor is their Sun-worship (which was formerly practis’d in most Parts of the World) of any validity to derive them from _China_? But the contrary is most apparent, for the _Peruvians_ worship for their chief God, _Viracocha_, that is, _God Almighty_, or _The Creator of all things_.

“The _Chineses_, if Confutius an eye-witness may be credited, are divided into three Sects of Religion: The first follow the Learn’d _Trigantius_, and acknowledge a King of the Heavens, which must onely be serv’d as the _Chineses_ sole Governor; to which purpose, two Temples are built in the Royal Cities _Nankin_ and _Pekin_, one Consecrate to Heaven, and the other to the Earth. The second Sect hath the name of _Sciequia_, and serve the Idol _Omyto_. The third nam’d _Lanzu_, imploy themselves in Magick and Exorcisms, Conjuring up, and laying Evil-Spirits, whose horrid representations, when they have stuck upon the Walls, they make an artificial and dreadful noise, as if Hell were broke loose, and the House full of Devils; sometimes also force the Evil-Spirits to enter into Images, from whence they receive no impertinent answers to their questions: Therefore, who will compare this Superstition of the _Peruvians_ worshipping of the Sun, to the _Chinese_ Religion, which do no such things?

[Sidenote: Embassy to the _Cham_, l. 2. c. 2.]

“The _Peruvians_ call’d their King, _A Lord of the Realm_, and not _The Son of the Sun_, as in _China_: Though the _Mexicans_ otherwise worship the Sun, and in their manner of adulation, styl’d _Hernando Cortez_, their Conqueror, _Son of the Sun_: As to what concerns the manner of writing, it is very well known, that the _Chineses_ words are all Monosyllables, so that they have as many Letters as Words, which they joyn so together, that they reckon eighty thousand, but with ten thousand they are able to express themselves in most matters. These Characters are contain’d in their _Halpien_ or Dictionary. The antient _Chineses_ us’d seventeen several sorts of Characters in their writing, some consisting of Serpents, that by several Wreathes and contortious Windings, signify’d several things; others, of all sorts of agrestick Tools belonging to Husbandry; some Characters of the Feathers of the Bird _Fum-hoar_; others of Oysters and Worms, or of Roots, of Herbs, or Birds Claws, or of Turtles, or of Herbs and Birds Feathers mingled, or of Planets, and such like; but what manner of Writing or Hieroglyphick of theirs resembles those, who by their own testimony know neither Pen, Paper, Ink, nor any manner of Writing, but reckon the antiquity of time by strung Beads, which was observ’d many ages since among several Nations.”

[Sidenote: Original of the _Americans_ very obscure.]

[Sidenote: What we may believe concerning them.]

[Sidenote: The _Americans_ are derived from several people.]

Hitherto we have discover’d the several Opinions concerning the Original of the _Americans_, or first Plantation of _America_, from all which, having receiv’d no clear or demonstrative satisfaction, we must open our way to a further scrutiny: But first, we must needs confess, that contradiction is not difficult; but it is something of Work, when we have beaten down a well-fortifi’d Opinion, to set up somewhat in stead thereof, to stand a permanent and undeniable truth, which will be the harder, in regard the Inhabitants of this new World have no old Chronologies concerning their Antiquities, and first settling there; yet if we cannot go so far absolutely to assert, yet some probabilities, grounded (as we suppose) upon better reasons, may give more satisfaction; for none will deny, but that the Generations of Mankind being strangely multiply’d after the Flood, they then living five times our Ages, and Wars not beginning till the known part of the Earth was over-stock’d, justling for Territories, and some thrust quite out, at last found _America_; which spreading it self to a vast extent, and now found almost every where well inhabited, may be guess’d, that it was not onely Planted from the first, but several times replenish’d since by various Nations; Why may not several Planters, and at several times make room for their Colonies, incroaching one upon another, either by force or compact; as the _French_ themselves upon the _Gauls_, the _Normans_ upon them, the _Goths_ among the _Spaniards_, and the _Saxons_ among the _Brittains_, and the _Normans_ again upon them?

Several people may easily Sail over thither, the _Azores_ or the _Canary_ Isles lye so, that they are ready (as if design’d) for Transportation to _America_; from whence _Acosta_ made a Voyage in fifteen days. Also _Pliny_ gives us an account, that these Islands lay uninhabited in his time; yet is it well known, that after _Pliny_’s time, Ruins of Buildings were found there, signifying, they had been formerly Planted; and why might not those ancient Inhabitants Sail thence to the neighboring _America_?

[Sidenote: _Marian. de Reb. Hisp._ l. 1. c. 18.]

_Tercera_ lying half way between _Spain_ and _America_, was frequented by Navigators before the Birth of our Savior; and it seems as easie to Sail from thence to _America_, as from the Main Land of _Spain_ thither: Add this, that necessity forc’d the _Spaniards_ to look about them from other Countreys, for since they lost their Victorious Champion _Baucius Gapetus_, they were every where beaten, being tired out by the _Phenician_ Forces, and that oppression over, suffer’d as much under the _Roman_ Yoke: Wherefore it seems not strange, if a considerable number remov’d from thence, that they might live some where else in quiet; for which purpose they wanted no conveniencies to Rig and set forth stout and sufficient Vessels, able to live in those Seas, having had long experience from the _Phenician_ Voyagers, whose Fleets Sail’d daily to and again in several Expeditions, from _Cadiz_ and _Gibraltar_ towards these Western Countreys: Nay, _Hanno_ himself their first Navigator that way, who gives an account of the _Gorgons_, or the Isles of _Cape Verd_, a good part of the way to _America_.

[Sidenote: _English_ famous Sea-men.]

[Sidenote: _Barat-anac_, or, _Tinland_, the _Phenician_ name, and _Brittania_ the _Greek_ name of _Brittain_.]

And though _Brittain_, _Ireland_, and the _Brittish Orcades_ lay further from _America_, yet something may be said particularly to prove, That many Ages since, Expeditions had been made from thence to the New World; and that the Inhabitants of these our Isles, in former Ages, were peculiarly famous for their skill in Navigation; insomuch, that the _Cretans_ and _Phenicians_ emulous of their skill, and jealous of their danger, made several Attacques and Invasions upon these Isles, which is the more probable, many remarks of the _Phenician_ and _Greek_ Language, remaining in the denominations of the Countrey: Of which, take first this account:

[Sidenote: Old Voyage of _Madok_ to _America_; for which see _Vet. Hist. Brit._]

_Anno 1170._ When _Owen Guyneth_, Prince of _Wales_, having Raign’d long and happily in his setled Dominions, dying, left several Sons, who quarrelling, their elder Brother, as not contented with their shares of the Principality, nor to be under him, having gotten no mean Interests and Claims to the whole by their struglings, so weakned one another, that they open’d a way to the loosing of all.

[Sidenote: _David Powel in Historia Cambriæ._]

Amongst these Brothers, _Madok_, a Prince of a milder disposition, weary of such unnatural Dissentions, threw up his share, better contented to seek new Fortunes abroad; whereupon there were many soon perswaded to venture their lives with him, where ever he would please to Transport: So Rigging a small Fleet, he Sail’d Westward, far beyond _Ireland_, where at last he discover’d an unknown and un-inhabited Countrey, but wondrous pleasant, the Air being temperate, and the Soyl most fertile: Glad of this good success (as the Story says) he returning, spreading the Fame of this his New-Found-Land, which they might exchange for a barren Soyl, hatter’d and harass’d with an endless Civil-War.

No small number flock’d to these Summons, as a most acceptable Undertaking; so that soon after he was able to send forth ten good Ships, Freighted only with Men, Women, and Children, and all other Materials fit for a new Plantation; which not long after Landed in _Acuzamil_, a Countrey in the North of _America_, as _Francis Lopez de Gomara_ believes, because there he onely found some remaining Tracks of Christianity, a People that worshipp’d the Cross, but knew no reason why or wherefore they ador’d that sign of our Redemption. Now, some will say, that this Worship of the Cross is no argument to prove, that the _Brittish_ Christians first Planted in the North of _America_; but what will not time and change of place do, where Transplanted People keep no Records, so they forget not onely Religion, Laws, and Customs, but who they were, and from whence they came, Oblivion first mutilating, and at last swallowing up all; of which, take this one late president.

[Sidenote: Strange occasion of _De la Roche_.]

_Anno 1598._ The Duke _De La Roche_ obtain’d leave of the _French_ King, to transport a Colony of Volunteers to _New France_; in his way he Landed fifty Men on the Island _De Sable_, to rest his Passengers, and that he might the better, and with more ease explore the Countrey, and when resolv’d where to settle, then to fetch them off; who accordingly, as design’d, soon after, returning thither, was met with so violent a Storm, that not being able to Weather the Isle of _Sable_, where he left his People, he lost his whole Expedition, and was driven back to a _French_ Harbor, where no sooner arriv’d, he was so highly charg’d, that he was cast into Prison, when those he had left neglected upon the Isle, were not once so much as thought of; in this interim, they never expecting to hear more of their Captain, liv’d in a wild and miserable condition, feeding upon Fish, and sometimes wild Swine, without Bread, Drink, or Salt.

When the Baron of _Leri_ went with Letters Patents, to be Governor of _Nova Francia_, and by stress of Weather in his Voyage, was forc’d to put in at _Sable_, where he found the remainder of _La Roches_ People, who being from fifty reduced to twelve, having clad themselves in Sea-Wolves Skins, they had not onely lost their former _French_ Civilities, but forgot in a manner their Religion, much of their Language, and what they were, being as if Metamorphos’d into bestial Salvages.

[Sidenote: If some did not come accidentally to _America_.]

And although we have already controverted the improbability of Peopling _America_, either by accident of Storm, or set purpose; yet it may be possible that so it might happen, for as the several vertues of Plants, Herbs, Precious-Stones, and Minerals, though strangely occult, and so altogether unknown, that what could never be found by Art, meer chance hath brought to light, and their wondrous qualities, some casual accident hath made apparent; so strange and remote Countreys never to be found in our Charts, or Maps, nor Registred in any Story, Seamen bound to their intended Harbors, have stumbled on by chance, either Hood-wink’d by blind Mists, or forc’d upon by pertinatious Weather; of which _America_ may be her own witness, for how was _Columbus_ stirr’d up, but by incitations of the Journals of a Sea-Captain, dying in his House, driven on the _American_ Islands by foul Weather.

[Sidenote: _America_ was Peopled presently after the Flood.]

[Sidenote: Giants in _America_.]

[Sidenote: _Conjurati fratres_, _Virg. Georg._]

[Sidenote: The Flood acknowledg’d there.]

Although from the foremention’d places, and after the same manner, _America_ might be furnish’d with Inhabitants; so it also gives us a more certain assurance, that the Planting of _America_ was not onely soon after the Flood, but that they came also thither by Land: And how strangely would it be against the Majesty and Wisdom of Divine Providence, to leave half the Universal Globe, a World fully supply’d with all sorts of Creatures, fit for Food and Service, Plants, Herbs, and the richest Minerals, like a House new built, and well furnish’d, without a Master or any Inhabitant, _viz._ Man, who being of Celestial Extract, should be able to acknowledge and glorifie the Creator, by admiring the Creature in his great Works: Besides, the confus’d Notions and Fables of Giants, Perpetrators of all manner of Crimes, and wallowing in all kind of sensual Debaucheries, are always remembred among the Antiquities of the _Americans_, and that they had some slender hints of antient Truth, not onely of the Giants before the Flood, but of those that soon after the rank fatness of the Earth, produc’d and fed to that pitch of Arrogance, that the covenanting Brethren defi’d God, fortifying themselves to fight him by the advantage of that their long congested Pile, _Babel_, which in a short time was transverted by the _Heathen_ Poets into their _Gigantomachia_, heaping Hills on Hills, like the _American_ Traditions: From which we may conjecture, that they came thither in the time of _Noah_; for why may not any believe, when _Noah_ liv’d three hundred years after he Landed on Mount _Ararat_, that he took care to People the World? And who will make him ignorant of this New World, who living five hundred years before, might not improbably by his own industry and the help of the former long-liv’d _Patriarchs_, been well able to make a general Survey of the Old; and he could better furnish _America_, it being nearer Mount _Ararat_, than supply _Italy_, _Spain_, _Germany_, or any Northern Territories in _Europe_, so that _America_ might be known to the first people after the Flood, nay, inhabited by them, though since that, the knowledge was lost.

_Pliny_ complaining of the Supine negligence, and stupendious sloth which reign’d then and long before as he had observ’d, among all people, and in every place, who were so far from making inquiry after discoveries of Lands for new Plantations, that they lost the old, when they had begun to settle, though under the greatest serenity of Peace; The Sea by that means lying open beyond what any juncture of former times could be proud of.

[Sidenote: _Canary Islands_, by whom discover’d.]

[Sidenote: _Hesperian_ Gardens, what they signifie.]

Yet the _Fortunate_, or _Canary_ Islands were in the first ages after _Noah_, frequented with Vessels, which in later times were altogether neglected, till _Guillaum Betancourt_, a Gentleman of _Picardye_, brought them again to be taken notice of by a fresh Trade. The Fable of the _Hesperian_ Gardens, and the Dragon that kept the Golden Fruit, with constant Vigils, is nothing but an allusion to the Sea, which with Serpentine Embraces, not onely secur’d these scatter’d Isles, but swallow’d up several Adventurers that too hardy made their unhappy approaches for discovery.

Another Allegation for the Planting of _America_ by Land, both whose sides are wash’d on the East and West, by the South and Atlantick Ocean, may be thus probably made out: The Atlantick rowls over with almost Fathomless Waters, three thousand Leagues of Ground; the South-Sea not much less, which well may be, being indeed but one continu’d Sea, encompassing, till meeting there, the Universal Ball; whence springs a more likelyhood, that _America_ might be Planted from the Southern parts, from the _Straights_ of _Magellan_, and _Le-Mayr_.

[Sidenote: _Relatio de Terra Australe._]

[Sidenote: The Description of the unknown South.]

_Peter Fernandes de Quir_ relates, That he and a Commander, _Lodowick Paes le Torres_ saw a part of the South Countrey, and in it innumerable Inhabitants, _Whites_, _Blacks_, _Sallows_, with long, black, curl’d, Woolly, and yellow Hair. They know no Walls or Fortresses for Defence, Laws or Kings, but are divided into Tribes: They use indeed Bows, Arrows, Clubs, and a kind of Spears: Their Houses are cover’d with Palm-Tree-Leaves; their Housholdstuff consists onely of a few Earthen Pots, and such Trinkets; yet they have some little skill in Weaving, and though they go naked, pride themselves in Neck-Laces and Bracelets, made of Mother of Pearl: But these for their Complexions and Constitution of Body, Customs, and manners, are rather deriv’d from the _Americans_, than they from them, and therefore we must seek for their Original from the North; from which are but two ways, one from _Ysland_ and _Groenland_, which _Grotius_ endeavors to prove, but contradicted; the other out of _Tartary_, which certainly was the first Nursery, from whence the _Americans_ were Transplanted.

[Sidenote: Description of _Tartary_.]

_Tartary_ or _Tattary_, so call’d from the River _Tatter_, which runs thorow the Countrey _Mongul_ into the Northern Ocean, covers a great part of the Terrestrial Globe; the lesser _Tartary_ makes out a considerable part of _Europe_; the greater is _Asia_.

This great _Tartary_, which is a thousand Leagues long, and six hundred broad, reckons five chief Provinces, _viz._ the wild _Tartary_, inhabited by Herdsmen; _Sagatai_, of which the Metropolis is _Samarcand_, famous for the mighty _Tamerlane_; next _Turkestan_; then _Kitai_, which the great _Cham_ Commands; and lastly, _Old Tartary_, according to _Andreas Cæsariensis_, the habitation of _Gog_ and _Magog_.

Now we must enquire from what _Tartars_ the _Americans_ are Extracted:

[Sidenote: _Thrian_ l. 67.]

[Sidenote: If the _Israelites_ were _Tartars_.]

_Mornæus_, _Postellus_, _Genebrardus_, _Poterus_, and others are of opinion, That the _Tartars_, which about the year 1228. under the Command of _Zingis Cham_ overspread the Earth like a deluge, were the Successors of the ten Tribes of _Israel_, which were carry’d into captivity to _Assyria_ by _Salmanazar_. The name _Tartary_, or rather _Tattaria_, seems to be some testimony thereof, because it signifies in the _Syrian_ or _Hebrew_ Tongue, _Remnants_ or _Remainders_, as seemingly, because these _Tartarians_ were remainders of the foremention’d Tribes; nay, the Northern _Tartary_ Herdsmen preserve to this day the Names _Dan_, _Zabulon_, and _Naphthali_: Wherefore we need not to admire, why so many _Jews_ are found in _Russia_, _Sarmatia_, and _Liefland_; nay, the nearer to _Tartary_, the more _Jews_ there are.

Circumcision hath a long time been observ’d among them, before _Mahomet_ brought in his new Law; it seems, that _Mahomet_ order’d the Circumcision and other Laws, according to _Moses_, to be observ’d by the Northern people, because that in his time, they began to Rebel, that so they might the better be kept in awe by their new Religion.

[Sidenote: _Pand. Hist. Turcica._]

_Joannes Leonclavius_ relates, That in _Liefland_ near _Riga_, he heard the wilde Natives call’d _Letti_, not without great admiration, go crying along the High-Ways and Fields, with a doleful voice, _Jeru, Jeru, Masco lou_: It is believ’d that they mourn for _Jerusalem_ and _Damascus_; but by their long continuance in the vast Wildernesses, they have forgot their Religion and Laws, and what else might enable to tell us who they were. Several learned Authors question this removal of the _Israelites_ out of _Assyria_ to _Tartary_, though to our Judgement their Arguments are too weak, to take from them of the footing they have gotten there; yet nevertheless, the _Israelites_ are not to be taken for the Planters of _America_, for why else is not _Judaisme_ as well found in _America_ as in _Tartary_. But it is already shewn, that _America_ was inhabited long before the dispersion of the _Israelites_.

[Sidenote: _Americans_ are not deriv’d from _Africa_ nor _Europe_.]

[Sidenote: But _Asia_, and chiefly out of _Tartary_.]

Now to shut up all, it is evident, that the first Planters of _America_ were not _Europeans_ from the dissimilitude of the People, both in their Complexions, Language and Persons; nor _Africans_, because that in all the far-spreading Countrey of _America_, not one _Negro_ is to be found, except a few near the River _Martha_, in the little Territory _Quarequa_, which must by Storm be drove thither from the _Guinny_ Coast: So that _Asia_, the Mother of all People, onely remains to be Implanter of our _America_, whose Western Coast, opposite to _Asia_, is more inhabited than to the East, where it respects _Europe_.

[Sidenote: _Tartary_ is not parted from _America_ by the _Straights_ of _Anian_.]

Moreover, _Armenia_, out of which, by _Noah_’s Progeny, the whole Earth was re-peopled, borders on _Scythia_, now call’d _Tartary_, and _Tartary_ faces _America_, separated onely by the _Straights_ of _Anian_; though some are of opinion, that out of the South into the Frozen Sea, there is no passage thorow these _Straights_, else (as we have already prov’d the contrary) how came all those Voracious and Poysonous Beasts into _America_, if it be clearly separated from _Asia_ by Sea?

It deserves here to be related, what happen’d to _Henry Cornelison Schaep_, and _William Byleveld_, Sailing from _Batavia_ to discover the _Tartarick_ River _Polysange_, but were taken and carry’d Prisoners to the _Japan_ Court at _Jedo_; being Commanded there by Order of the Councel to give an account of a _Japan_ Map or Card, which was laid before them, and contain’d the Provinces of _Japan_, _Amboina_, the _Molucca_ Islands, _Manilha_, the _South-Sea_, _Borneo_, _Celebes_, _Malacca_, _Tartary_, _Formosa_, _Corea_, and the vast and Mountainous Countrey or Desart of _Jesso_, separated from _Japan_ by the _Straights_ of _Sungar_; though toward the North, it joyns to _Japan_ in the Province of _Ochio_; and beginning in forty seven degrees, run North-East towards _America_, but they could not possible find the _Straights_ of _Anian_; but on the contrary, the Promontory of _Tartary_, _viz._ the Province _Kataya_ or _Katui_ lay in the same parallel with the Northern _America_.

[Sidenote: _Ennead_ 9. l. 6. Testimonies that the _Americans_ are _Tartars_.]

Hereto may be added, that _Asia_ hath no Territory any where, which may more easily with numerous Colonies supply _America_ than this part of _Tartary_, as well for the vastness of the Countrey, to which no other can compare, as for the increasing of the Inhabitants: Who doth not admire, that according to _Michalon Lithouwer_, there is scarce a City in _Tartary_ that boasted less than a thousand Temples? and to see _Canguista_ first King of _Tartary_, about the Year 1200. in Arms; and his Successor _Hoccata_ following his Fathers bloody Footsteps, whilst he prepar’d his Sons with three vast Armies? The eldest Son, _Jachis_, March’d Westward with thirty thousand Horse; _Batho_ drew with as great an Army towards the North; _Tagladais_ being the youngest fell into the _Moores_ Countrey above _Egypt_. _Hoccata_ himself March’d victoriously into the North _America_, subdu’d great part of the _Persian_ Kingdom, and beat the _Turks_, led by the General _Goniata_ with a great Army, _Anno 1241._ as _Jacob Planensis_ and _Benedictus Sarmata_, two _Monks_, sent by Pope _Innocent_ to _Hoccata_, witness: The great number of the _Tartars_ or _Scythians_, may appear by the several people, spread far and near over _Tartary_; _Pliny_ reckons some of them, _viz._ _Auchetes_, _Neuri_, _Geloni_, _Thussagetes_, _Budini_, _Basilides_, _Agathyrsi_, _Nomades_, _Anthropophagi_, _Hyperborei_, _Arimphei_, _Cimmerij_, _Cicianthi_, _Georgi_, _Sacores_, and others: What number would the Inhabitants make up that live in _America_, in _Teneneuf_, _Virginia_, _Florida_, _New Spain_, _Guadalaiara_, _Guatemala_, _Terra firma_, _New Granada_, _Peru_, _Chili_, _Rio de la Plata_, _Brasil_, _Guaiana_, _New Andaluzai_?

It will be worth our time, to compare the likeness between the _Scythians_ and Northern _Americans_; both of them are differenc’d with special Marks of a more than ordinary and natural distance between the Eyes, which much alters the whole Air of the Face, and the plumpness and swelling of their Cheeks summits above the Cheek-bone; most of these are of a middle stature, having downy Hair upon their Chin, like the Callow Feathers of an unfledg’d Bird. Lastly, as the _Tartars_, they differ amongst themselves in their Customs, yet in several things they agree one with another, according as they are govern’d by others, and yet other Princes, some powerful, and some weaker, according as every ones power be more or less. The Inhabitants of _Lucaja_ bear so great a respect, and stand so much in awe of their Governor, that if commanded to leap from a Rock, and break their Necks, they instantly obey.

The same is observ’d by the _Tartars_; the first King _Canguista_ Commanded the seven Princes of his Realm to Murder their Sons with their own Hands, which they all readily perform’d.

[Sidenote: Constitutions of the _Tartars_ and _Americans_ agree.]

In _Popaina_ they live to this day like some _Tartars_, without Laws or Law-givers, who change their places by turns, from the great increase of the _Tartars_, the _Americans_ no ways differ.

_Bartholomeus de las Casas_ writ to _Charles the Fifth_, That the _Spaniards_ in few years, onely on the Islands _Cuba_, _Hispaniola_, _Naco_, _Hondures_, in _Venezuela_ and _New Spain_, destroy’d above 2600000. Men, besides the slaughter that was made in _Peru_, _Brasil_, _Rio de la Plata_ and other places, which far exceed the foremention’d numbers.

Polygamy is still in use, both among the _Tartars_ and _Americans_; both acknowledge the Immortality of the Soul, both like _Cannibals_, Eating and Sacrificing Mans flesh. How famous amongst the Antients was the Altar of _Diana_ in _Taurica Chersonesus_, where several Men were daily Sacrificed? How delicate, according to _Sabellicus_, did the _Tartars_ account their Dishes, Sauc’d and serv’d with humane Gore?

[Sidenote: _Geogr._ l. 11 q. 7.]

_Strabo_ relates, That the antient People account it an honourable Death to be chop’d in pieces, and their flesh serv’d up in Commons. Those that die by Age, a natural death, are despis’d like Malefactors, and as a punishment according to their Demerits, left in the open Fields, a prey to Birds and Beasts; some delight in that loathsome gorging themselves with Mens flesh, others on the contrary, not onely detest humane, but all manner of flesh: And just so the _Americans_ are distinguish’d, for although the _Caribes_, _Brasilians_, the Inhabitants of _New Spain_, _New Granada_, _St. Martha_, and others, Sacrifice and eat Men, yet as many abhor and detest that odious Diet and abominable Custom.

_Giles Flesher_ Queen _Elisabeths_ Agent in _Muscow_ relates, That _Anno 1588._ _Kinach Morsey_, Grandson to the Governor of the _Chrim Tartars_, made his entrance there with a Retinue of three hundred Noblemen, and two Ladies, of which one was the Widow of his deceased Brother. The great Prince inform’d of their coming, sent him two slaughter’d Horses, whose sides and Hanches they feasted on, as we on Fallow Deer.

[Sidenote: Devil-worship in _Americ_.]

Most of the _Tartars_ use no manner of Letters or Characters; in the Voyage made into _Persia_, they first learn’d to make Letters; just so it is in _America_; their bemoaning of the dead ends in one Moneth, both by the _Tartars_ and _Americans_; with a Person of Quality, the _Tartars_ bury a live Servant; the same Custom is observ’d by some of the _Americans_; and so much do they agree in a salvage and rude life, that Merchandizing and Mechanicks are little regarded. _Ayson_ the _American_ acknowledges the _Tartars_ for a rude People in their Religion, Habits, and Dwellings, and yet in all these the _Americans_ differ but very little. Lastly, How common is it amongst them to worship the Devil? Along the River _Sagadahoc_, the Inhabitants are every new Moon miserably tormented by an Evil Spirit call’d _Tanto_. In the Temples in _Virginia_ remain yet the horrible Images of the Devils _Oka_ and _Menetto_. Not a House in _Mexico_, but hath a peculiar Chappel, set apart for this their suppos’d holy, but damnable Adoration of the Devil. Others in _Virginia_ believe, That there is a great and supreme Deity, which is Everlasting, and for ever. The _Tartars_ also are of the like perswasion.

[Sidenote: _Tartarian_ Horses.]

But this Opinion _Grotius_ hath laid a strong and dangerous Battery against, that _America_ could not be Peopled by the _Tartars_, because the _Americans_ before the _Spaniards_ coming thither, had never seen any Horses; whereas the _Tartars_ use no Beast more, either in Peace or War, nor can less want: For the _Tartarian_ Forces do not only consist in Horse; but the Wealth of this Countrey is reckon’d up in the numerous Breeds of Horses, and several Studs of Mares. Some of the Nobless keep a thousand Horse; none, though never so poor, but keep two or three; and Beggars there mounted crave Alms and Charity of the People. When they remove their Habitations, their Horses carry their Provisions and Tents: If Provisions grow short, they eat Mares Milk, high gusted with Garlick, which satisfies Hunger and Thirst; and the red Liquor which they tap warm from their Veins, serves them to help Digestion, and heighten their Humor, instead of the Blood of the Grape, our sweet Wine. The swiftest Rivers, though raging and precipitated with Land-floods, they dare adventure swimming their Horses over, hanging naked by their Manes, and guiding them by a slipp’d Rein whither they please: To their Tails they tie their Saddles, and other Necessaries, bound up in Rushes. When a Person of Quality prepares to cross any River, they tie two Horses Tail to Tail, and athwart both their Backs fasten a Mat pleited of Rushes, to sit on. When they are stopp’d at any broad River, or standing Lake, they kill and flea their worst Horses; then turning the Skins inside out, and well Liquoring, they stretch them open with the Ribs, which stand like the Bayles of a Tilted Wherry, and thus furnish’d, serves them for a Boat to carry eight Persons. When they take the Field, going to War, not any but musters three Horses; which makes their Armies, when drawn out in Campain, shew much bigger than indeed they are: And though many of them are kill’d in the Wars, or slain for Food, yet the _European Tartars_ pay yearly forty thousand Horses to the _Russians_; from whence _Grotius_ thus argues, “If _America_ joyns to _Tartary_, then the Horses which run wild at Grass might easily have found _America_ themselves, seeking to improve their Pasture, and have gone from one Countrey into the other, as it appears, that since the _Spaniards_ transported Horses to _America_, they are dispers’d over the highest Mountains, out of one Province into the other: Or if the _Straights of Anian_ run between both, the _Tartars_ never were Navigators; and suppose they had been, they would not have cross’d without Horses, without which they knew not how to subsist.” To which we only say thus, That although _Tartary_ now, and in former times, abounded in Horse, yet must we grant, that it hath been always so? or that the ancient _Scythians_, who we avouch first planted _America_, had such frequent use of them as the _Tartars_ now. This may be controverted, for that these _Scythians_ planting there in the Non-age of Time, presently after the Flood, the use of Horses was unknown, which the Ancient Poets testifie by their Fiction of _Centaurs_, who when first seen, the Horse and Rider were taken for one Creature. The like mistake the _Mexicans_ had, when they saw the mounted _Spaniards_, a thousand running away from one Cavalier.

As to their coming thither of themselves, it may easily be confuted: Who knows not, that there is no Countrey a continu’d Pasture, but luxurious Vales separated with inaccessible Mountains, Lakes, and vast Wildernesses. But _David Ingram_ relates, “That he saw some Horses in the Northern _America_, which the _Mexicans_, and other Conquests of the _Spaniards_ never heard of:” Whereupon we may conclude, and we suppose without all peradventure, That the _Americans_ have absolutely their Original from _Tartary_, which bordering _Armenia_, where _Noah_’s Ark first rested, hath a convenient way, though beyond the _Artick Circle_, through a temperate Climate betwixt Heat and Cold, to _Cathay_, in the same Parallel with the neighboring _America_.

[Illustration]

CHAP. III. _First Discoverers of_ America. Christopher Colonus _his Expedition_.

[Sidenote: _Pet Bizari Res Genoan._ lib. 16.]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 11. Hist. Georg._]

[Sidenote: _Christoph. Colonus_’s Birth.]

_Christopher Colonus_, generally (though by mistake) call’d _Columbus_, was born in _Arbizolo_, a Village in the Dominion of _Genoa_, near _Savona_; his Father liv’d by Fishing in the Midland-Sea: So that _Sebastian Schroter_, and others besides him, are mistaken, saying, _Colonus_ was born in the City _Cucureum_, and descended of the Noble Family _Pilistrelli_: For _Peter Bezarus_, _Colonus_ his Countrey-man, gives unquestionable Proofs of his mean Extract; and amongst other things, That the Common-wealth of _Genoa_ refus’d to receive the great Legacy which _Colonus_ left them in his Will, because they fondly thought it a derogation to their Honor, being so great a Republick, to take any thing of Bequest from a Fishers Son: Yet his Majesty of _Castile_ thought otherwise, not onely enriching him with Wealth, and a fair Revenue for his Discovery of the _West-Indies_; but also, though of a low derivation, rais’d him to great Honor, Ennobling him the first of his Family with Dignities, Titles, and Escutcheon, which rank’d him in place among his Prime Nobility.

[Sidenote: His Life.]

[Sidenote: Strange Accident. _Hist. Peru._]

[Sidenote: Makes his Address at _Genoa_.]

[Sidenote: _To the Portuguese_,]

[Sidenote: _English_,]

[Sidenote: And _Castilian_ King, concerning a New World.]

[Sidenote: Sails from _Cadiz_ to discover New Countreys.]

[Sidenote: His People rebel.]

[Sidenote: Discovers _Hispaniola_.]

[Sidenote: Trades with the Natives.]

_Colonus_, whom we shall henceforth call _Columbus_, spent his Youth near the Sea, where he was busie exploring the Winds, considering their Natures, and the Quarters whence they rose, especially with the setting of the Current from the _Atlantick_ to the _Mediterrane_. The Western Winds, which often, as well as the _Levant_, blow several days together from the great Ocean, much amusing him, hinted at last some Notions, that there might be another World, and new Places to be discover’d, beyond the setting of the Sun; and that the _Ne plus ultra_ should not be, if he could help it, the commanding Terminary of the Earth that way. He also spent much time, being of a solid Judgment, in the Emendations of Charts and Maps, then very much improvable: And the _Portuguese_, who at that time had got the start in Navigation from all other People, being then busie to find a way by the South of _Africa_ to the _East-Indies_, not contented to go by hearsay, he went himself in Person a Voyage with them. Soon after _Columbus_ settled himself in the Island _Madera_, where an Accident hapned, which _Francis Lopez de Gomesa_ relates thus: “The Master of a Ship, whose Name and Countrey lies buried in Oblivion (though some would have him to be of _Spain_, some an _Andalusian_ or _Biscayner_, and others a _Portuguese_) Trading the _Canaries_ and _Flemmish-Isles_, was surpris’d by a hideous Tempest from the East, which hurried him _nolens volens_ through dreadful Waves, where at last he found himself ingag’d upon a Western Coast, altogether unknown. The Storm ceasing, without making further Discoveries, he pick’d his way homeward, at last Landing in the Haven of _Madera_: All his Crew but three and himself, with hardship, want, and the long Voyage having perish’d, himself dangerously sick, was carried into _Columbus_ his House; where lying on his Death-Bed, he bequeath’d to _Columbus_ his Maps, Journals, and other Observations of this his unfortunate Voyage.” _Columbus_ being by these Papers more confirm’d than ever in his Opinion of a New World in the West, declar’d what he verily believ’d, to the States of _Genoa_; but they look’d upon him as a vain and idle Fellow; yet _Columbus_ full of his great Project, thus slighted and scornfully rejected, sate not so down, but address’d himself to the King of _Portugal_, where they wearied him, spending long time with dilatory Answers, to no effect; the Opinion of a whole Court of expert Navigators having cast his Declaration out, as a _Chimera_ or meer Fancy. Soon after _Columbus_ sending his Brother into _England_, to move the Business to King _Henry_ the Seventh, he being taken Prisoner by the way, and lying long er’e his Release, came too late to the _English_ Court, prevented by the News of _Christopher_’s return with Success from his intended Voyage: For mean while _Ferdinando_ and _Isabella_ King of _Castile_, having finish’d his Wars with the _Moors_, had furnish’d him out for the Expedition; which he effected by the favor of _Alfonso Mendotio_ and _Alfonso Quintavilia_, both great Ministers of State under _Ferdinand_ and _Isabel_, and obtain’d so much at last, that he was sent with a hundred and twenty Souldiers, besides Sea-men, in two Ships, and one Pinnace. Thus supplied, he set Sail from _Cadiz_ upon the Kings account the fourth of _August, Anno 1492._ and first reach’d the _Canary-Islands_, and from thence steering South-West, the Wind in thirty three days scarce varying one Point: But though the Weather blew so constant, yet the Sea-men chang’d their Minds, and Storm’d quite contrary, crying, That _Columbus_ was guilty of all their Deaths: _For_ (said they, after they had lost sight of the _Canaries_ so many days, nothing appearing but Sea and Sky) _Who can hope for any Success or happy conclusion of so desperate a Voyage, so rashly undertaken, and found now so full of eminent danger?_ Yet _Columbus_ bore bravely up, and weather’d all their Exclamations, although they threatned no less than his Murder: At last Articling, they came to this Agreement, _That if after sailing forwards three days more, no Land were discover’d, they should return_: But about two a Clock the next Night, _Columbus_ saw a glimmering like Fire in the Sky, and in the Morning found himself close aboard a most pleasant Coast, where Landing with twelve Men, he erected a Cross cut out of a Tree. Thence he sail’d over to _Cuba_, where the Sea was so rough, that he was forc’d to stand off, fearing Rocks and Shallow Water. Soon after he got to the Northward of the Island _Haytin_, which he call’d _Hispaniola_: Here his best Ship was bulged upon a Rock, on which they had all perish’d, had it not been flat on the top, so that the Soldiers and the whole Crew of Sea-men were sav’d by the two Vessels. The Inhabitants stark naked, seeing these Strangers, fled to the Woods; but the _Spaniards_ overtaking a Woman, they entertain’d her with Sweet-meats and _Spanish_ Wine, and putting her on a white Shirt, sent her again to the rest of the Natives, where return’d, she told what good Entertainment she had had to her Companions; whereupon divers of the Islanders came aboard of the _Spaniards_, in Boats made of one piece of Wood, where they barter’d Gold for Beads, pieces of Glass, Knives, Shells, and other Trifles. The King of _Guaccanarillo_ gave testimony of peculiar inclination to the _Spaniards_, helping them to Fish up the remaining Goods of the Wreck, and inform’d them, That some Rivers flowing from the tops of high Mountains, wash’d down the Gold amongst the Sand: notwithstanding a strange Prophecy had been told to these Islanders, namely, _That Bearded Men out of remote Countries should destroy their Goods, take their Land, and massacre their Children_. He also told them what made them fly, and betake them to their Heels at the arrival of the _Spaniards_, because they were oftentimes surpris’d by the _Cannibals_, who snatch’d up all they could lay hold on: Their Boys and Striplings they gelded, cooping and cramming them up, as we our Capons, for Feasts: The young and well-grown Men they chopp’d to pieces, salted, and Barrel’d up: Young Women they preserv’d for breed, and old ones they made Slaves. These _Cannibals_ were so terrible to the Inhabitants of _Haytin_, that a thousand of them durst not venture to engage against ten, but would run every way, dispers’d like Flocks of Sheep before the Wolf.

Lastly, Their King permitted the _Spaniards_ to build a Lodge or Hovel, wherein thirty or forty of them might shelter; but indeed so taking possession in right of the King of _Spain_.

[Sidenote: Returns to _Spain_.]

[Sidenote: Is highly honor’d.]

[Sidenote: Goes with seventeen Sail a second time to _Hispaniola_.]

Mean while _Columbus_ return’d in safety to _Spain_, and was receiv’d with great joy, King _Ferdinand_ making him Admiral of the Sea, and sending his Brother _Bartholomew_ Governor to _Haytin_, now call’d _Hispaniola_. The Gold, Parrots, Mastick, Aloes, the strange Bread _Jucca_, whose extracted Juyce is rank Poyson, but the Body makes good Meal, which kneaded and bak’d, yields a fine Manchet and wholesom Food, they look’d upon with great delight and admiration; but two of the Natives being naked, with Gold Rings through their Noses and Ears, Ornaments with them of high esteem, and signifying their no mean Quality, the People old and young came in Throngs to wonder at, never weary of gazing upon them. But the King, encourag’d by this Success, took no dilatory Course, but suddenly, and before any could expect, built fourteen stout Carvels, and three Frigats, and as soon mann’d them with twelve hundred Soldiers, besides a great number of Artificers of all sorts, with their Wives and Children, freighting them with Horses, Swine, Goats, Cattel for Breed, all sorts of _European_ Corn to sow, Fruit-Trees and Vines to plant, and some Priests to instruct and convert the Natives to their Religion.

[Sidenote: _The Barbadoes_, _St. Christophers_, _&c._]

[Sidenote: The Huts of the _Cannibals_.]

The second of _September_, _Anno 1493._ they set sail from _Cadiz_, and Anchor’d before _Ferreo_, the last and furthest of the _Canary-Islands_, where they could get no Water, but what dropp’d from the Dew hanging on Trees into Troughs. After that, _Columbus_ came on the one and twentieth day amongst the _Caribby-Islands_, where he dropp’d Anchor before one, which he call’d _Dominico_; but finding it desolate, set sail further, and discover’d several other Coasts, where he likewise found nothing but very great Porcupines or Hedg-hogs, and sweet-smelling Trees. Steering forward, he found the Coasts of the _Cannibals_, which inhabited along the Shore in little Huts or Hovels, built round of Wood, and stak’d about on the out-side with long Poles, like _Palisado_’s: They have also Posts within, which are shorter, pleited and fastned together with Cotton, or long Roots of Trees, plyant like our Osiars, over which they hang Cloths painted with horrible Figures and strange Representations: The Roofs rise like our Canopy’d Tents, highest in the middle, cover’d with Palm-Tree Leaves to keep off the Rain: At the Entrances hang two Hairy Images on Poles, not for Religion sake, but Ornament: Their Bed-steads being high from the Ground, are fill’d with a kind of Straw; and in long Hovels fitted for that purpose they store their Sugar.

[Sidenote: Island _Guadalupe_.]

_Columbus_ landing here, found all the _Cannibals_ fled; but their Houses full of Stone Vessels, Cruises, Pans, and Pots, boyling with Mens Flesh, Parrots, and Wild-foul; the Hanches and Sides of young Men, on Spits roasting at the Fire, with the Splinters of whose broken Bones they headed their Arrows. This Island by the Inhabitants call’d _Carucueria_, _Columbus_ chang’d to _Guadalupe_, because the Mountains rise up with their tops not unlike _Estremadura_ in _Spain_, famous there for the wonderful Representation of our Lady, as that of the Lady of _Loretto_ in _Italy_. Thirty Women which he had taken from the neighboring Isles, he sent with Presents to the fled _Canibals_, which the next day returning, made a great appearance near the Shore; but when they had gaz’d a while upon the _Spaniards_, looking stedfastly on one another, they suddenly ran back again, sheltring themselves in the Covert of the Woods. _Columbus_ thinking it not worth his while to expect their return, seeing their barbarous Life, burnt and destroy’d all their Boats, and spoiling whatever he could, sail’d to _Matanino_.

[Sidenote: Strange Women in _Matanino_.]

The releas’d Women in _Guadalupe_, that came back again, inform’d the _Spaniards_, That _Matanino_ was an Isle onely inhabited by Women, which at accustom’d times row’d over to these _Cannibals_, where a while they drove a Trade and Commerce of Love, the Product of which, if Girls, they kept; but the Boys they sent over to their Fathers. They live in Caves, the Mouths and Entrances of which they maintain and stoutly make good with their Bowe, shooting Arrows as thick as Hail at the approach of Men, after their impregnating by the _Cannibals_.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Passage of _Columbus_.]

[Sidenote: Salvageness of the _Indians_.]

From hence the Fleet pass’d by several other fruitful Islands, _Columbus_ giving them the Names of _Montseratto_, _Rodondo_, _St. Martin_, _Santa Cruz_, formerly by the Inhabitants call’d _Ayaya_. On this last Island he landed thirty Men, who took four Women, which held out their Hands before them, as if Petitioners that begg’d Quarter, or praying, and then conceal’d themselves in Ambuscade, the better to surprize more; when by chance they spied an _Indian_ _Canoo_ at Sea, with eight Men, and as many Women; whereupon those in Ambuscade made a Signal to the next Ship, which immediately sent off some Boats well Mann’d; but before they drew near them, or expected an On-set, one of the _Spaniards_ was kill’d, and another wounded with their Arrows; amongst whom a Woman, to whom all the rest shew’d greatest Respect and Reverence, aim’d very exactly. Their barbed Shafts were poyson’d; whereupon the _Spaniards_ enrag’d, stemm’d the _Canoo_, and oversetting, row’d quite over; which little or nothing avail’d; for they all swam, and though separated, shot their Arrows at them, as if the Boat had been a But. At last the _Indians_ got upon a blind Rock, cover’d with Shole Water, which gave them fresh Courage; but the _Spaniards_ having more aid sent them from the Fleet, took them all Prisoners; but the Queens Son being wounded in the Scuffle, and dying soon after, was thrown overboard. The Prisoners being brought before _Columbus_, foam’d at the Mouth for raging madness; and being afterwards carried to _Castile_, so retain’d their fierce and salvage Nature, that they scar’d away and frighted the safe Beholders.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ comes to _Hispaniola_.]

[Sidenote: Finds the _Spaniards_ slain.]

[Sidenote: His Discourse with the King _Guaccanarillo_.]

[Sidenote: Strange gathering of Gold.]

[Sidenote: _Decas 1. De Orba Novo._]

Mean while the _Spanish_ Fleet proceeded on their Voyage, between several Islands, to _Hispaniola_, of which some appear desolate and barren, others green and Woody; the small Vessels sailing close under the Shore, and the great ones standing further off at Sea, which was very turbulent, and beat exceedingly against the Shole Rocks. The Island _Burichema_, _Columbus_ call’d _St. Johns_, to which belong’d some of the Women sent forth in _Guadalupe_, who inform’d them, That _Burichema_ was well inhabited by a kind and hospitable People, who when the _Cannibals_ landed there fought them, and if Conquerors, were so much exasperated with their inhumane Barbarisms, that they seiz’d on them like Mastiffs open-mouth’d, and tore them piece-meal with their Teeth; yet themselves abhorring the Custom of eating Mens Flesh. Here the _Spaniards_ found onely a large House, surrounded with twelve lesser ones, all deserted; for the Inhabitants with their King _Chiasichio_ were then retir’d into the cool and more sheltring Woods, from the mid-day Heat. All this the _Indians_ told him, which he brought back with him from _Spain_. Coming to an Anchor at _Hispaniola_, he sent one of the _Indians_ ashore, that he might tell what brave things he had seen in the _Spanish_ Court; but the remaining three took the advantage of the following Night, and leaping over-board, swam to Shore. But this Accident he not much regarded, trusting to have a sufficient Account from his eight and thirty _Spaniards_ which he had left in the Fort upon the Island; and the more, because King _Guaccanarillo_’s brother, in sign of Friendship, had presented him with two Golden Images: But all these Conjectures fail’d him, so that hearing nothing, he landed, where he found the _Spanish_ Garrison utterly destroy’d, and the Royal Fort burnt down to the Ground, and lying in a heap of Ashes. Then they fired several Guns, to give notice, that if any of them had conceal’d themselves, and lay sculking in the Woods, or otherwise, they should discover themselves, and come to the succour of their Friends: But all in vain, for none came; for as they were afterwards inform’d, the Inhabitants had slain them, because of their insupportable behavior, insolently committing Robberies, Rapes, and Murders: Hereupon he sent Messengers to the King _Guaccanarillo_, to inquire why they had fired his Fort, and what they had done with his Men, who brought him this Return, That over that mighty Island were many Princes, of which two being provok’d by the reports of the Strangers that were entertain’d in the Island, came marching upon them, each with their Armies; but that he endeavor’d what he could, and came with a Power to assist the Strangers; yet all he got for his Kindness, was a Wound in his Leg, which had been so sore and troublesom, that forc’d him to keep his Bed, and no less than seven Concubines to attend him, and dress the Wound: But he told his Tale so ill, and feign’d his Lameness worse, that _Sibilius_, one of the Messengers sent by _Columbus_, lifting up the Coverlet, saw that he ail’d nothing, which soon confirm’d his doubt, that he was confederated with the rest, and alike guilty of the Slaughter. At last _Guaccanarillo_ being desir’d, came in Person to _Columbus_, in whose presence he held a long Discourse with an _Indian_ Woman, which they had brought from the Island of _Santa Cruz_, there Christned by the Name of _Catharine_: At length _Guaccanarillo_ was dismiss’d, and the Night following this _Catharine_, with seven more of the _Indian_ Women, leap’d over-board, and swom almost a League to Shore, so going thence directly to their King _Guaccanarillo_. This Accident gave more suspicion to _Columbus_, who thereupon sent three hundred Men, commanded by _Melchior_, _Hoieda_, and _Gorvalano_, to march through the Island three several ways, and with special Commission to secure as their Prisoner _Guaccanarillo_. _Melchior_ discover’d a wide River, full of Reaches and winding Bays, gliding between high Hills cover’d with Woods, resounding with the ecchoing noises of harmonious Birds, and disemboguing his Waters, enlarg’d by two other Rivers, into the Sea, so making a convenient Harbor for Ships. Here a hundred of the Islanders, well Arm’d after their manner, met them, crying aloud, _We are no_ Cannibals, _but_ Taynos, that is, _a People more civil than they are cruel_. The _Spaniards_ making Signs of Peace, the _Taynos_ approach’d, and joyn’d their Forces in a friendly manner. Near the place of this Meeting appear’d a House built in an Oval fashion, being thirty two Paces in the Circumference, the Roof curiously pleited of divers colour’d Rushes, round about which stood thirty lesser Dwellings. Mean while, in his March _Hoieda_ discover’d a River that descended from a high Mountain, where the Inhabitants gather’d much Gold after this manner: They dig a Hole about two Foot deep; then taking up their left Hand full of Sand, with their right Hand they cull out the precious Ingots, which little accounting of, as they gather’d, they dealt away to the _Spaniards_. Most of the Pieces were as big as Pease, yet some so large, that they weigh’d nine Ounces. _Peter Martyr_, Councellor to the Emperor _Charles_, tells us, That he hath seen of them in the _Spanish_ Court, that were brought over thither by _Columbus_. Moreover, _Hoieda_ was inform’d here, That this Gold-River took its Original in the Province belonging to _Cacicus Caunaboa_, signifying, _The King of the Golden Palace_.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ builds a City.]

[Sidenote: Strange fruitfulness there.]

Mean time _Columbus_ selected a piece of Ground on a rising Hill, on the North part of the Isle, where he intended to build a City, because close by the Hill on one side rises a Mountain, pregnant with Stone and Chalk; on the other, a Plain, so exceeding fruitful and pleasant, that the Sun scarce shines upon a more delightful and fertile Soil, which they found afterwards by experience. Here Melons are set and ripe in thirty six days; Corn, in two Months; twice a Year the Trees and Plants bring forth their several Products; the Vines come to maturity, and are loaden with Clusters of Grapes, in two Years, and Sugar-Canes grow as thick as a Mans Arm in fifteen days. On this pleasant Soil, accommodated with a convenient Haven, _Columbus_ afterwards built the City _Isabella_, fortified with Walls and Trenches against all Invasions, over which he made his Brother _Bartholomew Columbus_ first Governor.

Mean while the Admiral _Columbus_ himself march’d up into the Countrey with three hundred Men, in quest of the Gold Mines. Seventy two Leagues the Valley _Cibava_ lies distant from _Isabella_, to which _Columbus_ pass’d over swift Currents and high Mountains, where he built a Fort, which he call’d _St. Thomas_; and exchang’d with the Inhabitants Toys and Trifles, for Pieces and Ingots of Gold, which the Inhabitants, as before-mention’d, found in the Sand of their Rivers: And besides, they inform’d him, That about half a days Journey further, greater Quantities of Gold were to be found, in a browner colour’d Soil: Whereupon _Luxanus_, one of his Officers, was sent with a sufficient Party thither, who march’d through a delightful way, cool with shady Boughs, and pleasant with the prospect of spacious Meadows, where they mow’d Grass for their Horses, which in four days time grew up again higher than our tallest Wheat.

[Sidenote: Goes to Sea to discover new Countreys.]

Mean time _Columbus_ being return’d with great Riches to his new City _Isabella_, went soon after by Sea, with three Vessels, to discover new Countreys more remote; which his Design fell out also successfully; for he fell first upon _Jamaica_, where he found more stout Opposition than elsewhere, by the Natives, at his Landing; but finding themselves over-power’d, they came to Agreement, and accepting an amicable Composure, presently struck up a Peace. From thence putting to Sea, he next discover’d _Cuba_, which sailing round about, he found also to be an Island; where Landing in a convenient Harbor, on each fenc’d with a high and jutting Rock, he espied two little Hovels, wherein was abundance of Fish, besides two great Snakes or Serpents, each having eight Feet, spitted, and ready to be laid to the Fire to be roasted; but neither Man, Woman, nor Child to be seen, they being gone with part of the Fish they had dress’d, into the adjacent Woods; whither the _Spaniards_ following, saw hanging by small Strings, on the Branches of Trees, abundance of Snakes, some of which had their Mouths tied together, others their Tongue and Teeth pull’d out. Hence marching on, a little beyond they saw a Company of the Natives, which they judg’d to be about seventy Men, covering the top or summit of a Hill, to whom the _Spaniards_ made Signs, and to entice them near, shew’d several of their gawdy Trifles; but in vain, till at last one adventur’d, descending from the Hill, to whom one of the Natives (who in the first Voyage that the Admiral made, was taken from the Island _Guanabaini_ near _Cuba_, carried to _Spain_, and there Christned) call’d aloud, telling him they need not fear, they should have no harm done them; which said, they came down all together, and inform’d them, That they were sent by their King to catch Fish for another King, which was with him at Dinner; and if they had not eaten the Serpents, they gave them many thanks; for they were provided for the second Course, and very scarce to be got, being a greater Dainty than any Fish.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Discovers not without great Accidents, several New Countreys.]

_Columbus_ from hence proceeding on further Westward, discover’d a fruitful Coast, verging the Mouth of a River, whose Water runs boyling hot into the Sea. Somewhat further he saw very strange Fishes, especially the _Guaican_, not unlike an Eel, but with an extraordinary great Head, over which hangs a Skin like a Bag. This Fish is the Natives Fisher; for having a Line or handsom Cord fastned about him, so soon as a Turtel, or any other of his Prey, comes above Water, they give him Line; whereupon the _Guaican_, like an Arrow out of a Bowe, shoots towards the other Fish, and then gathering the Mouth of the Bag on his Head like a Purse-net holds them so fast, that he lets not loose till hal’d up out of the Water.

Here the _Spaniards_ having Din’d on delicate Fish, went on still Westward, and came to an uninhabited Isle, but well stor’d with Geese, Pelicans, and ugly Dogs that could not bark. Here they came amongst so many Shoals, that the Keels of their Ships raked upon the Ground almost forty Leagues together, the Water thick and white like Milk. Lastly, they came again into deep Water, and Landed at the Foot of a high Mountain, on the Island _Cuba_; where they found two Springs of very sweet Water. A Musqueteer going into the Woods whilst the rest fill’d their Vessels with Water and cut Wood, he spied a tall Man in a Coat like a white Fryer’s Frock; behind whom came two more, and soon after thirty more follow’d, all alike Habited: the Musqueteer running away, they beckned him to stay, but he march’d off; and informing _Columbus_ of his Adventure, he sent a Party well Arm’d to see farther into the Countrey; but they neither saw nor heard any Men, onely found on the other side of the Wood a great Plain, but so overgrown with deep Grass, that it was impossible to get through: The next day he sent out twenty five more, which found nothing else than the Prints of the Steps of great Beasts and Lyons, and also abundance of large Grapes, which hung on the Branches of Vines, clasping about the Bodies of the great Trees.

Hence _Columbus_ again putting to Sea, and Sailing Westerly, found a Shore overflow’d with Water, and abounding with Pearl-Mussles, and after that the whole Countrey full of Mountains, whose tops smoaked. By this time the Fleet was much damnified by the Shole-water; where, as we mention’d before, they often struck, and their Keels rak’d upon the Ground; so that having sprung several Leaks, and their Provisions growing mouldy with the Damp, they were forc’d to return; and Tacking about they ran against Turtles, which lay as thick in the Sea as if they had been sow’n.

_Columbus_ now on his return home, and Landing once more on _Cuba_, found an antient Man stark naked, who speaking to him (_Didacus_ interpreted, the Language in some part agreeing with that of _Hispaniola_) to this effect:

_You have to all admiration come to see this Countrey from another World, my advice to you is, That you hurt none; for the Souls of evil-doers go to dark places: But on the contrary, they shall enjoy the heighth of all Pleasures that are Friends to Peace._

_Columbus_ reply’d, _That he came a Scourge for the cruel Cannibals, but a Shield to protect the quiet and well-meaning Indians_.

[Sidenote: Great disturbance in _Hispaniola_.]

After this, returning to _Hispaniola_, much contrary to his expectation, he found all things which he had setled there turn’d topsie-turvy: for first the Governors at _Isabella_ jangled, and were at private contentions amongst themselves, and the _Benedictine_ Monk _Boilus_ and _Peter Margarites_ were return’d to _Spain_; there to make their complaints at Court: and besides, the _Spaniards_ had dealt very inhumanely with the Natives, by their frequent Rapes, Thefts, and Murders; wherefore the _Indians_, not unjustly incens’d, destroy’d all the _Spaniards_ they found stragling in any part without the Lines of their Fortification. _Caunaboa_ also lay about the Fort _St. Thomas_, and closely besieged _Hoieda_; but receiving intelligence of _Columbus_’s arrival, he broke up his Siege, and march’d from thence, but soon after was taken Prisoner by the _Spaniards_. Mean while upon Design (a Plot none of the wisest) the Natives of _Hispaniola_ had neither Till’d or Sow’d the Ground, or us’d Agriculture the year before, contriving by want of Provisions (not considering themselves) to starve out the _Spaniards_; but the mischief fell upon the Contrivers: for so great a Famine hapned, that spreading over the whole Countrey, in a few Moneths fifty thousand were starv’d to death; but the _Spaniards_ made a saving, though hard shift with their own store, then, though too late, the Islanders repented of their folly, for they saw the _Spaniards_ making an advantage of their misery, not onely built more Houses in their City _Isabella_, but prepar’d their Weather-beaten Vessels, with which Sailing to the Gold Mountains of _Cipangi_ on the Hill, whence sprung several Fountains, they rais’d the Castle of the _Conception_. Great benefit they reap’d by this Fort, to which they carry’d daily abundance of Amber, Brimstone, mix’d Ore of Silver and Gold, and _Brazile_-wood, besides great store of Gold: and they might have gotten ten times more, had they not been so much inclin’d to slothfulness, and minding other vain pleasures: yet notwithstanding all, the Fleet carry’d that year above one thousand two hundred pound weight of Gold to _Spain_.

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ tyrannise there.]

In the mean while the Natives complain’d to _Columbus_ of the _Spanish_ Soldiers, which under pretence to seek for Gold, committed many insufferable Outrages; therefore they desir’d that they might be retain’d in their Forts, and not straggle so much abroad, and they would willingly bring them every three Moneths a certain weight of Cotton, Amber, _Brazile_-wood, and Gold, more than equivalent to what they snatch’d; but _Columbus_ (whose Soldiers, notwithstanding his severity, and using Martial Law upon some of them for their Crimes, and proud with their success) yet prevail’d at last, that they consented thereto; but the Inhabitants never perform’d their promise, who being almost famish’d, had much to do to preserve themselves alive, spending their time in picking Sallads.

[Sidenote: Their Conquest.]

Whilst the Business remain’d in this ill posture, or rather confusion, _Cibanus_, Brother to the imprison’d _Caunaboa_, rais’d an Army of five thousand Men: the _Spaniards_, divided into five Companies, march’d to meet him; and their Enemies being naked, and having no other Arms than Bowes, Arrows, and Clubs, after some little resistance, were soon dissipated and put to flight, but overtaken by the _Spanish_ Horse, many of them were taken Prisoners, and others forc’d to skulk and hide themselves on the tops of Mountains.

[Sidenote: Horible Tempest.]

[Sidenote: A remarkable passage concerning _Bartholomew Columbus_.]

[Sidenote: Brave reception of a King in _Hispaniola_.]

Shortly after this Battel hapned a Huricane, mix’d with Thunder-claps, renting great pieces from the Rocks, and the Wind blowing out of the East, threw down Houses and Trees, some of which were carry’d a vast heighth into the Air; three Ships that rode in the Harbor, broke their new Cables, and split against the Rocks. The _Spaniards_ expected nought else, but that with this excessive Tempest the Day of Judgment was at hand. And on the other side, the Islanders ascribed this raging of Heavens to the _Spaniards_ wickedness. This Storm past, and the Air setled, _Columbus_ gave order for the building of two new Ships there, with which in _March_, _Anno 1495._ he return’d to _Spain_; where in _Medina del Campo_ he gave an account at the Court about the discover’d Countreys; where also Sentence was pass’d on several _Spaniards_, and chiefly concerning the _Benedictine_ Monk _Boilus_, who out of meer malice pass’d by him at Mass with the Host, while he gave it to others, without any distinction. Then he gave a further account, that his Brother _Bartholomew_ had found, sixty Leagues beyond _Isabella_, several deep Pits, the uppermost Ground of which Sifted, produced abundance of Gold. Moreover, that he had built the Castle _Aurea_ there in three Moneths time with little trouble: but because Provisions grew scarce there, he found himself necessitated to remove, but left ten Men in the Garrison, and had sent three hundred of the Islanders with their Governors to _Spain_. He also built the Castle _Dominico_, on the South-side of _Hispaniola_; from whence he had travell’d into the Countrey to the River _Naiba_: where, upon this Shore the King _Beuchio Anacauchoa_ Encamp’d himself against the _Naibans_, to bring them, besides several other People, under his subjection. That _Bartholomew_ demanded Tribute of _Anacauchoa_, which he immediately promis’d to pay, and disbanded his Forces, conducting _Bartholomew_ above thirty Leagues on his Way, along a Path on both sides sown with Hemp, and planted with Cotton-Trees, to his Palace _Xaraqua_, in the West of _Hispaniola_, where he was received in great state: Thirty of the Kings Wives walk’d before, carrying in their Hands Boughs of Palm-trees, and both Sung and Danc’d very strangely; behind these came a considerable number of naked Virgins, very handsom; at last _Bartholomew_ entring the Palace with the King, found a Table furnish’d with all manner of Dainties, and a very courteous Entertainment. The next day walking forth to a large Plain, and looking about he saw two Parties that deeply engag’d in Fight behind a Hill, with great slaughter on both sides, and had not he desir’d that they might be parted, there had been much more Blood shed. After he had been several days friendly entertain’d, he return’d to the Forts _Isabella_, _Sperancia_, _Catharina_, _St. Jago_, _Turrita_, _Conception_, and _Dominico_; where he found above three hundred _Spaniards_ starv’d of hunger, besides many that were sick.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: ANGRA op TERCERA.]

At that time _Guarionexius_ having been oppress’d by the _Spaniards_, and a long time watching for an opportunity, now thinking he had found it, rais’d an Army of fifteen thousand Men, with which he was resolv’d to try his fortune against _Columbus_; who privately receiving intelligence thereof, fell upon him so on a sudden and unexpectedly, that he spoil’d his Design, and took all his Commanders Prisoners: But to oblige the Inhabitants, who begg’d for their King, _Columbus_ set him at liberty, advising him to be careful of raising a War against him any more. But he not being able to endure the oppressions of _Roldanus Ximenez_, a _Spanish_ Commander, fled to the wild _Ciquano_’s, descended from the Canibals, and living on steep Mountains: Of these he desir’d aid against the _Spaniards_, and obtain’d not onely their Promise, but some Men; with which he robb’d and pillag’d the Countrey round about, and what _Spaniards_ he met with he kill’d, and with his Men did eat, as if a Venison Feast. Mean while _Ximenez_ made himself Leader of seventy Rebels, which like raging blood-hounds fell upon the Natives after a terrible manner.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ Sails the third time to _Hispaniola_.]

[Sidenote: Description of the City _Angra_.]

Whilst all things were thus in disorder at _Hispaniola_, the Admiral _Christopher Columbus_ set Sail a third time with eight Ships from the Haven _Barrameda_, in the Year 1498. To shun the _French_ Pyrates, which watched for the _Indian_ Treasures, he directed his Course to _Madera_, a fruitful Island of Corn, Wine, Sugar, Wax, and Cattel, desolate till _Anno 1420._ Here coming to an Anchor, he sent six Ships away to _Hispaniola_, which himself afterwards followed with the remaining two, steering by the _Flemish_ Islands, or _Acores_, first so call’d from the _Flemings_, the first Planters: Here he dropt Anchor before the City _Angra_ on the Isle _Tercera_, which is sixteen Leagues in circumference, and very Mountainous; the tops whereof are like Spires, and abound with Grapes: the Plain Countrey produces great store of Corn, but it will not keep above twelve Moneths. The Ground is oftentimes terribly shaken by Earthquakes, and between several sulphurous Places, both Flames and Smoak ascend up to the Sky. Near the City _Angra_ is a Fountain which turns Wood into Stone. The Winds in this Place blow so fierce and strong, that they not onely beat down Houses, but wear out Iron, and all manner of Stone-work. In _Angra_ the chief Commander of all the _Flemish_ Isles hath his Residence. The City, surrounded by steep Rocks, lies towards the Sea like a Crescent, or Half-Moon; for at both ends thereof the Mountains extend with deep Points into the Ocean. The uppermost part towards the West stands likewise fortifi’d by a high Rock, as also by another on the East: on both are continual Watches kept; whereof those on the first can discover Ships fifteen Leagues off at Sea, coming either from the _East_ or _West-Indies_; and on the other, all those that come from _Europe_: When they see above fifteen Sail, they put out the Kings great Flag upon the top of all the Rock.

This City of _Angra_ is divided into several Streets: the Governor and Archbishop live each in a stately Palace; five handsom Churches are no small ornament to it; the Sea before it abounds with Fish, but are not to be taken in _December_, by reason of the turbulent Waves.

_Christopher Columbus_ having refresh’d at _Angra_, Sail’d along the _African_ Coast between the _Hesperides_: under the Equinoctial he was so miserably tormented by the Heat, that his Vessels seem’d to burn, the Hoops sprung from the Casks, so that the Water run about the Hold; and they could expect nothing but death from the insufferable Heat, and want of Water: eight days they had endur’d this hardship, when they met with a fresh Gale out of the South-East, so that they made great Way towards the West. On the last of _July_ he discover’d three high Mountains; and approaching near the Shore, he smelt as in a Posie, all the sweet breathings of fragrant Flowers commix’d, and at last saw a convenient Haven; where going ashore he found cultivated Grounds, and steps of Beasts, but not a Man appear’d: the next day they spy’d a Boat with twenty young Men come rowing from the Shore into the Ocean. The Admiral hal’d them in vain to come aboard, for they made the greater hast ashore, still looking about continually with great admiration on the Ships: whereupon he commanded them to beat their Drums, and sound their Trumpets, that they might by that means entice them aboard; but they rather taking it as a sign of War, made themselves ready for resistance: mean while the _Spaniards_ overtook the _Indian_ Boat, into which they threw a Hat, and other trifles; the Islanders amaz’d thereat, made signs to them to row ashore; but soon after they fled.

[Sidenote: Abundance of Pearl.]

_Columbus_ proceeding on his Journey came to _Paria_, where he found a Fishers Pink loaden with Oysters; which opening and taking out the Meat, were found full of Pearls, which because of their abundance were not regarded there; for a broken Dish and a rusty Knife, the _Spaniards_ had four long Strings of Pearl.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ is in great danger.]

From thence anchoring in the River of _Cumana_, several naked Men came aboard, adorn’d with Golden Armlets, and Strings of Pearl, These inform’d him, that they gather’d their Gold from the Mountains and Rivers, and caught their Pearl-oysters in the adjacent Seas. Some of the _Spaniards_ were nobly entertain’d by the King and his Son, who leading them into their Palace, placed them on Benches of Ebony-wood, curiously wrought, and on a sudden several Servants came in with variety of Dainties, and well-tasted Wine. But because Provisions grew scarce amongst the Sea-men, and their Meat tainted, _Columbus_ thought it convenient to leave the Pearl-trade till some better opportunity. Then setting forward, the farther he went, the shallower he found the Sea, insomuch that his Ship scarce had Water enough to swim. This inconvenience was followed by a second; for the Sea being full of Weeds and Grass, scarce suffer’d any Passage. A River thirty Yards deep, and twenty Leagues broad, came rushing out betwixt two Shores into this Sea with such force, that the Waves went high like Mountains, which made _Columbus_ judge himself in the greatest danger imaginable, and withall Tack about; so that he came on the eight and twentieth of _August Anno 1498._ to an Anchor before _Hispaniola_, where all things were still in a sad confusion, as we before related.

[Sidenote: _Roldanus Ximenes_ opposes _Columbus_.]

[Sidenote: Strange _Indians_.]

_Roldanus Ximenes_ refus’d to follow _Christopher Columbus_’s, order and writ Letters to the King of _Spain_, in which he exceedingly aspersed both the Admiral _Columbus_ and his Brother; who were not backward in giving an account quite contrary by their Letters, of the horrid Villanies perpetrated by this _Ximenes_, and desir’d aid, that so great an Offender might receive condign punishment. Mean while the _Ciquano_’s came marching down with six thousand Men, which _Bartholomew_ went to meet with eighty Foot and some few Horse: The _Indians_ which he was to encounter with, rather seeming like Furies than Men, for all of them were daub’d over with black smuts on their bare Skins from Head to Foot, and their hard Hair pleited in terrible, not in Lovelocks, hung playing, or dangling over their Shoulders. When the _Spaniards_ in their March drawing up to a River where it was best fordable, had no sooner left the Bank, and taken the Water, endeavoring to wade over, but the Salvages rush’d forth out of the Woods, and let flye a showre of Arrows, that had they not been provided with Shields and Targets, to keep off such a deadly Storm, so thick they flew, and so well aim’d, most of them had perish’d there: but having recover’d the opposite Bank, the Enemy play’d all hid, and in a thought shelter’d themselves under the protection of the Woods; where the Conqueror pursuing, found the Service very difficult and dangerous, for their Armes, especially their Shields, stopping and intangling them as in a Net, among the shrubby and twining Branches; which they passing, rigled themselves, and made their way, like questing Spaniels following their Game, and still gawling them with their Arrows: whereupon they left their vain pursuit, marching another way to intercept _Mayobanexius_, who with eight thousand _Ciquano_’s were then coming down against them; which prov’d a harder task than was expected: for e’re he could reduce him and his stubborn Party, he spent three Moneths in the Service.

SECT. III.

[Sidenote: Hath very bad success in his fourth Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Fights with _Poresius_.]

[Sidenote: Dies.]

But the great and worthy Service of these two excellent Brothers deserving rather Statues and Trophies of everlasting Honor, Monuments never to be demolish’d, in their due praise, who had found out after so many baffled Ages, a new World, richer, and not much less than the old, by the aspersing calumniations of one malicious Person, lost his whole Interest and Credit in the _Spanish_ Court, quite out of favour with his Prince, who by his insinuations had hinted so much the matter of Gain among the Courtiers, that every one studied no less than to get a Commission, and so going a Commander to the _Indies_, make up his Mouth, and become suddenly rich. First _Francisco Bombadilla_ prevailing, was sent with full Commission to succeed _Columbus_ in _Hispaniola_; where no sooner Landing, but he exercis’d the extremity of his Authority, and seizing the Admiral and his Brother, fetter’d their Hands and Feet, and put them aboard on two several Ships for _Spain_: where no sooner arriv’d, but the King, not altogether forgetting former Services, commanded them to be unmanacled, and waited on, not as Prisoners, with a civil Retinue to his Court; where they were well entertain’d three years. But they being active Persons, weary of so long repose, got a second Grant to make farther discoveries, and set forth the ninth of _May, Anno 1504._ with four Sail well appointed from _Cadiz_, and had a fair Passage from thence to _Hispaniola_, where begun the Storm, for _Bombadilla_, who had by the Kings Commission so evil treated _Columbus_ and his Brother, as aforemention’d, would not suffer him, though reconciled to the King, so much as to Land, and there refresh themselves and their Men; so he was forc’d to steer on to the Islands _Guamixa_ and _Veragua_, where a Huricane, or sudden stress of Weather sunk two of his Vessels; the other two standing off to Sea escap’d bilging, but so shatter’d and leaky, having also shipp’d abundance of Water, they were resolv’d to put in at _Jamaica_; where weary with the long Voyage, and hatter’d with the Tempest, many of his Sea-men, spent with sickness, after their Landing, died. To these his sufferings from Wind and Weather, and his Enemies abroad, a greater and intestine mischief hapned: _Francisco Poresio_, one of his chief Commanders, absolutely rebell’d, and deserting him, with another Party of his Sea-men went into _Hispaniola_: which the Islanders observing, resolv’d to famish him, keeping from him both Water and all other Provisions; which had not _Columbus_ stav’d off by a handsom Invention, they had compleated their Design, which was this: He told them that he was the offspring of the Moon, and if they refus’d to supply his want, the Moon, in vindication of her Son, would famish them, by spoiling what e’re they had planted or sow’d; and that this would prove true they should know by a sign, that on such a Night, she rising in her full glory, should first look red, and afterwards by degrees lose a great part of her light; which indeed so hapned, being Ecclips’d, as he could well prognosticate; and after that, they being ignorant of the cause, suppli’d him with all Necessaries. But _Poresio_, not able to endure the Sea with his small Boats, resolv’d to surprize one of the Ships that lay before _Jamaica_; but _Columbus_ so much prevented him, that meeting him in his return, after a hot dispute made him his Prisoner. But thus ended not his misfortunes; for the Vessels which he fought in soon after sunk, and no ship to be found in _Jamaica_ to transport him thence. Lastly, he agreed with some _Indian_ Fishermen, to carry _Didaco Mendoza_ to _St. Dominica_, that there he might hire two Vessels to carry him back to _Spain_: which Design taking effect, he arrived there in safety: where after he had refresh’d himself at the _Spanish_ Court, after his so long and unfortunate a Voyage he fell sick, and died on the eighth of _May_ 1506.

Mean while, the Affairs of _Hispaniola_ grew more out of order: for _Bombadilla_ joyning with _Ximenes_, resolv’d to hoard up a huge Treasure of Gold, though with the infinite oppression of the Natives: of which King _Ferdinand_ having intelligence, sent _Nicholas Olanda_ thither with thirty Sail; who being nominated Vice-Roy, anchor’d in forty days before _Hispaniola_. No sooner arriv’d, but _Bombadilla_ and _Ximenes_ fled, leaving their vast Treasure, amounting to ten hundred thousand Ducats; which guarded with four hundred _Spaniards_ in twenty four Ships was sent to _Spain_: but so it hapned, that they were all swallowed up in the main Ocean, none knowing to this day in what Latitude they were lost.

SECT. IV. Pietro Alponso Nigno _his Voyage_.

[Sidenote: Description of _Curiana_.]

_Pietro Nigno_, encourag’d by some of those that had been with _Columbus_ at the Isles of Pearl, Rigg’d out a Ship at his own charge, with special order in his Commission, that he should not touch on any Coast within fifty Leagues of any Place _Columbus_ had formerly discover’d. But he little observ’d his Orders, and what he was commanded; for Sailing into the Haven _Curiana_, he barter’d Shells, Needles, Glass, and such like Trifles, for abundance of Pearls, which the Islanders brought aboard, for he himself having but thirty Men, durst not venture ashore. Twenty days this bartering Trade continued, Orient Pearls for Toys; but finding at last, that they were a civil and hospitable People, he Landed, where they entertain’d him in Hovels built of Wood, and cover’d with Palm-Leaves; before their Doors lay great Hills of Oyster-shells, the Fish being eaten, and the Pearls us’d for an ornament; Conies, Hares, Pheasants, Pigeons, Geese, Ducks, Deer, and wild Swine, are their usual Food; and their Bread is made of the Roots of Trees. Moreover, _Curiana_ abounds with thick and shady Woods, which resound in the night with the cries and roarings of wild Beasts: but though they are terrible fierce and voracious, yet the Natives stoutly venture in amongst the thickest of them, arm’d onely with Bowes and Arrows. The Inhabitants are of Complexion tawny, their Hair long and curl’d; their Teeth they keep white with an Herb, which they continually hold betwixt their Lips. The Women perform their business of Husbandry, Ploughing and Sowing. The Men are Soldiers, following the business of War: but in Peace their Exercises are Hunting and Dancing. They keep annual Fairs, where from all Parts of the Countrey they bring their Commodities to buy and barter. They have their Gold from _Cauchieta_, six days Sail Westward from _Curiana_.

Thither _Nigno_ next directed his course, and came to an Anchor there on the first of _October, Anno 1500._ The Inhabitants entred aboard without the least shiness, or fear of danger, and brought with them to barter, Gold, Civet-Cats, Parrots, and Cotton.

These People, though so civil, are extreamly jealous of their Wives: for when a _Spaniard_ made address to one of them, and coming something close, her Husband stept in suddenly between, and seem’d to forbid the Banns. But coasting onward along the Shore from thence to another Isle, he found Natives far more wild and salvage: for two thousand in a Body well Arm’d, stood ready to intercept their Landing; wherefore he thought it his safest course to Tack about, and return to _Curiana_ whence he came.

[Sidenote: _Nigno_ Fights with the Cannibals.]

In his Way not far from thence, he fell amongst eighteen of the Cannibals Boats, which according to their custom had been a Man-stealing, and now were so hardy, that setting upon the _Spanish_ Ship, they suddenly clapt him aboard with their _Canoos_ on all sides; but being beaten back by the terror of their Guns, they soon retir’d: yet the _Spaniards_ took one of the Boats with two Men, all the rest saving themselves by swimming. One of the two Men lay bound Hand and Foot, who told them, that he was to have been kill’d the next day and eaten, as he saw his Companions, with whose Flesh they banquetting kept a jovial Feast. _Nigno_ unbinding the Prisoner, gave him leave to do what he pleas’d with the taken Cannibal, who falling upon him, cudgel’d and whipp’d him to death.

[Sidenote: Strange Salt.]

Then _Nigno_ in his Way to _Curiana_ touch’d upon the Coast of _Paria_, where he found a strange kind of Salt, which the Sea in tempestuous Weather casts on the Shore, which afterwards hardens by the Sun. This Salt must be taken up before any Rain fall, else it melts and soaks away into the Ground; yet sometimes grows so hard as a Stone, insomuch that they make Pots and other Vessels of it; which the _Parians_ barter for foreign Commodities.

[Sidenote: Strange Corps.]

_Nigno_ not making here any stay, return’d a second time to _Curiana_, where he spent twenty days in pleasant Pastimes, being Lodg’d in a Noble-mans House, at whose Door was fix’d a Cannibals Head, as a Trophy of his Victory. He saw there also the dead Bodies of divers eminent Persons set drying at a Fire, so hardned to be set amongst their Idols.

[Sidenote: _Nigno_ put in Prison.]

[Sidenote: Cruel dealings in _Curiana_.]

At length _Nigno_ set Sail homewards, and carried with him an invaluable Treasure in Pearls to _Spain_: but by the way fell out with his Sea-men, because he kept most of the Purchase to himself, and would not give them their shares, nay more than that, kept back the fifth part from the King; whereupon being complain’d of by _Ferdinando de Vega_, Governor of _Gallicia_, he was put in Prison, and at last sent to the Court, where the Pearls were declared free Prize, because _Nigno_ had barter’d for them at _Curiana_, contrary to the Kings Orders, not to touch at any Coast, within fifty Leagues of what _Columbus_ had discover’d. But since he had no way regarded those Commands to preserve that Pearl-Trade, King _Ferdinand_ sent Governors to _Curiana_, who in his Name should look after, and employ Men for the catching the Pearl-Oysters. These, accompanied with a considerable number of Soldiers, besides six Monks, forc’d the Inhabitants to furnish them with abundance of Pearl: which oppression grew to such a heighth, that one Morning a great Party of them conspiring together, fell suddenly upon them, most of them being massacred: after they had a while insultingly triumphed over the dead Bodies, and finish’d, as they thought, their good work (feasting on their Flesh at a joyful Banquet) those few that escap’d Sail’d to the Island _Dominic_, the Governor of which _Didacus Columbus_, Son to the famous _Christopher_, being incens’d, immediately sent Captain _Ocampo_ with three hundred Men to _Curiana_; where in his first fury, without distinction of Sex or Age, he slew all he met with. But because they themselves could not follow the rich Oyster-catching, he spar’d some for that purpose, whom he commanded to build twenty five little Houses, or Hovels, on the Shore, which he call’d _New Toledo_. After this they went on afresh in their Pearl-fishing.

[Illustration]

SECT. V. _The Voyage of_ Vincent Agnes Pinzon.

The first of _December, Anno 1499._ _Vincent Pinzon_ set Sail with four Vessels out of the Haven _Palos_: he had been Commander of a Ship under _Columbus_ in his first Expedition, by which means he got great experience in Navigation. When he came a little beyond the _Hesperides_, he was surpris’d by a great Storm, which in three days drove him before a plain Coast; where Landing, he found nothing but the Footsteps of Men; and in the night he saw great Fires, such as are generally made in Camps; about day-break twenty _Spaniards_ march’d thither, whom thirty two Men, arm’d with Bowes and Arrows, made ready to encounter; but as they approached, the _Spaniards_ proffer’d them Peace, but they refused all Composition; yet having faced one another a while, they retreated without fighting.

[Sidenote: _Pinzon_’s strange Fight.]

[Sidenote: A remarkable Beast.]

After this _Pinzon_ discover’d a wide, but shallow River; where Landing, on a Hill he met a great company of _Americans_: He, to invite them to Trade, threw them a Shell; in return for which they cast him a lump of Gold; which when the _Spaniard_ went to take up they all fell upon him; and indeed he could not have defended himself long, had not some of his Company quickly come in to his speedy rescue, which occasion’d a bloody Conflict, wherein several _Spaniards_ were wounded, eight kill’d, and one of their small Boats sunk; for the _Americans_ fought so valiantly, that they pursu’d the _Spanish_ Ships into the Sea. _Pinzon_ being at last freed of these Assailants, got into a fresh-water Sea, caus’d by the confluence of many Rivers falling in there: from hence he got sight of the _Parian_ Coast, and with admiration beheld a Tree which sixteen Men could not compass: Between these Trees he saw as strange a Monster, the foremost part resembling a Fox, the hinder a Monkey, the Feet were like a Mans, with Ears like an Owl; under whose Belly hung a great Bag, in which it carry’d the Young, which they drop not, nor forsake till they can feed themselves. _Pinzon_ caught one of them with three Young, which died in the Voyage, but the Dam he presented alive in _Granada_ to the King.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Great Storm.]

This Captain having Sail’d six hundred Leagues along the _Parian_ Coast, in a great Tempest two of his Carvils in his view were overset, their Keels turn’d upward; the third driven from her Anchor, and the fourth so shaken, and full of Leaks, that ready to sink they ran her ashore to save their lives; and though he escaped himself the danger of drowning, then being ashore, yet he was no ways freed from far greater inconveniences; for he saw nothing but death either for want of Provisions, or barbarousness of the Inhabitants: whereupon they resolv’d to free themselves of their miseries by self-slaughter, killing one another; but some better advised to spend their Lives like _Christians_ upon the unbelieving Salvages: Whilst they were in this desperate condition, the Storm ceased, and Providence presented their safety, the Ship driving in before the Wind; at which every one taking fresh courage, they mended the two shatter’d Ships as well as they could; wherein venturing to Sea, and setting Sail, they came on the last of _September, Anno 1500._ into the _Spanish_ Haven _Palos_.

SECT. VI. _The Expedition of_ Americus Vesputius.

_Americus Vesputius_ a _Florentine_, Commanded four Ships, fitted out at King _Ferdinand_’s Charge, set Sail the twentieth of _May, Anno 1497._ and refreshing at the _Canaries_, from thence he steer’d to _Paria_; where he so much gain’d upon the Inhabitants, that for Pins, Bells, Looking-glasses, and other Trifles, they daily brought aboard in Barter great store of Gold, the best of Merchandise.

[Sidenote: The manner of the Inhabitants in _Paria_.]

[Sidenote: Their strange Customs.]

These People, both Men and Women go stark naked, not so much as covering their _Pudenda_; their Complexion swarthy; they shave off all their Hair, onely some Women leave a Tuft on their Heads. From their Faces, being broad and flat, one may judge them to be deriv’d from _Tartary_; they much exceed the _Europeans_ in Running and Swimming, insomuch that the Women oftentimes without any Boats, or floating pieces of Timber, venture two or three Leagues into the Sea; they have so great skill in Shooting, that they exceed almost all other Nations, having Arrows headed with sharp Fish-bones; they also use Lances and Clubs. The Women follow the Men in the Wars, and serve in stead of Horses to carry Ammunition and other Necessaries; to which Labor they are so us’d, that they will bear on their Shoulders forty, nay fifty Leagues together, such Luggage, as three _Spaniards_ are scarce able to lift from the Ground. They acknowledge no Commander or Superior either in Wars or Government; they keep up old Feuds, fighting with an inveterate hatred against their Neighbors, upon antient scores and revenges, still kept in memory of their Relations slain in former Battels, and also still creating fresh animosities upon their Losses in later Engagements. Their Language is smooth and pleasing, being spoken with a kind of lisping, and absolutely different from the neighboring Nations. When they eat they sit upon the Ground, and sleeping lie in Hammocks, each end whereof being fastned to a Post; underneath they kindle a Fire; over them they hang Fish-nets and Hooks, Fish-baskets and _Calabashes_. When they have occasion to ease Nature by evacuation, they retire into some private Place; but the Women think it no immodesty to make Water, even in the presence of strange Men. They observe not single Matrimony; for every Man takes as many Women as he pleases, under bonds of Wedlock such and so sleight, that he turns them off at his pleasure: and Women take the same liberty in casheering their Husbands when not pleasing them. They bring forth Children with little or no pain, and wash them in a River so soon as born; which done they return to their usual work and business. When they are incens’d against their Husbands, they revenge themselves by poysoning their Children. Their Houses are built in the fashion of a House-clock, with a Roof rais’d from the Wall upon four Pillars like the Bell, and cover’d with Palm-Leaves; some of which are so big, that they afford room for six hundred Men: every seventh or eighth year they remove, because (as they say) the Air is oftentimes infected by Mens Breaths, by their long continuance in one place. Their Riches consist in Feathers of divers colours, Strings of Fish-bones intermingled with green and white Beads, with which they adorn their Heads, Arms, Legs, Ears, and Cheeks: Gold and Pearls they make little account of; and as to Trade and Commerce with other People, they know not what belongs to it. Their greatest Friendship consists in prostituting their Daughters or Wives to one another. Their Dead they bury in moist Grounds, and put with them both Meat and Drink into the Graves: When any Person grows very weak by lingring Sickness, they carry the Diseased into a neighboring Wood, where they lay him in a Silk Hammock, tied between two Trees; then dancing the whole day about him, at night they set Bread and Water enough by him to last four days, and then departing look no more after him, who thus neglected seldom escape: but if so it happen that one recover, all his Relations for the future honour him as a god. When any one falls into a Fever, his Friends immediately bathe him in cold Water, and afterwards set him before a great Fire, then drive him before them till he falls down almost breathless, and at last put him to Bed. They neither Let blood in the Arms nor Feet, but in their Sides and Calves of their Legs. Sometime they fast four days together, which they suppose a great means to preserve their Health. Their Bread consists of a sort of Fruit call’d _Jucha_, _Chambi_, or _Igname_. Lastly, no Lyon devours his Prey with more voracious eagerness, than they their taken Enemies.

[Sidenote: A very strange Village built on Poles.]

[Sidenote: Strange Fight.]

_Vesputius_ being fully inform’d concerning the Situation of _Paria_, weighed Anchor, and on the sixth day after entred a convenient Harbor, where going ashore, he found twenty Houses built in the middle of a Lake on great Posts: every House had a Draw-bridge, over which they pass’d from one to the other. So soon as the Inhabitants set eye on the _Spaniards_, they immediately drew up their Bridges: yet some of them in twelve little _Canoos_ came towards the _Spanish_ Ships, but amaz’d to see their Looms so big, durst not, though hal’d with signs, to come aboard, but hasted away to a high Mountain; yet seem’d to signifie that they would return, as indeed they did, bringing sixteen Maids along with them, of which they put four into a _Spanish_ Boat, themselves in the interim rowing between the Ships from one to another, shewing all tokens of friendship, when on a sudden a Company of old Women came running to the Shore, and tearing the Hair from their Heads, made a terrible noise and exclamation, expressing the greatest sorrow they could possible: whereupon the four _Indian_ Maids suddenly leap’d over-board, and the Men shot abundance of Arrows out of their Boats at the Ships; nay, some of them swimming under Water, endeavor’d to sink the Cock-boats which were made fast behind their Ships. Upon this sudden Onset the _Spaniards_ making use of their Guns, quickly lessen’d the number of the Assailants, insomuch that they fled to the Shore; yet five of them being overtaken, were carry’d Prisoners aboard.

_Vesputius_ observing these their misdemeaning Carriages, judg’d it no way convenient to stay any longer among such barbarous and deceitful Salvages: but having weighed Anchor, and Sail’d eighty Leagues along the Coast, he ran into another convenient Haven, whose Shore swarm’d with People, which on a sudden running away, hid themselves in a neighboring Wood.

[Sidenote: Serpents strangely prepar’d for Food.]

Here the _Spaniards_ Landing were amazed, when in their Huts they saw Snakes and Serpents roasting before a Fire, whereof one had Wings, and another whose Mouth was tied together with a Rope, stared with open eyes in a frightful manner.

Here they left several Trifles to entice the fled Natives to correspond with them. And this their Design prov’d successful; for the next day the _Americans_ came aboard without the least fear, and offer’d to shew their hospitable kindness to the _Spaniards_, if they pleas’d to travel three days Journey with them up into the Countrey, telling them, they had onely rais’d those few Huts by the Sea-side for a small time whilst they Fish’d in those Parts.

[Sidenote: The remarkable reception of twenty three _Spaniards_.]

About twenty of the _Spaniards_ well Arm’d resolv’d to undertake the Journey; and travelling over Hills, Dales, and Rivers, they came at last into a Village consisting of nine of the foremention’d Houses, but mightily peopled, where they were in a wonderful manner received by their glad welcomes, by Dancing, Singing, Hunting, and other joyful Acclamations, presenting their Wives and Daughters, as the chiefest part of their hospitality, to caress the Strangers at their pleasure. The news was no sooner spread, but the adjacent Villages came in throngs to gaze upon, and salute the Strangers, inviting them also to their Towns. The _Spaniards_ taking it in good part, spent nine days among them, highly treated with all manner of jollities, but especially at their choice with the varieties of _Venus_: from thence then returning to their Fleet, accompanied with thousands of the Natives, every one carrying Presents to the Admiral _Vesputius_; of whom as many as they could at once receive, they entertaining aboard, then dismiss’d them, and admitted others; but the Guns going off, they suddenly leap’d from the Decks, and div’d like Ducks under Water: But afterwards being inform’d, that such thunder-claps were sent them from Heaven to destroy their Enemies, they were somewhat better satisfi’d, and call’d the _Spaniards_, _Charabi_, that is, _Wise Men_.

[Sidenote: A cruel Fight with the Cannibals.]

This Island lying in the _Mexican_ Bay, in twenty Degrees of Northern Latitude, _Vesputius_ left on his Starboard, and Sail’d along a Meandring Coast (which he always kept in sight) eight hundred and sixty Leagues, and at last entred a Haven, the like whereof he had not seen before. Here he spent a Moneth in repairing his Ships, to which the Inhabitants freely gave their assistance; and among other things complain’d, that a salvage People came yearly thither from an Island about a hundred Leagues distant, who fell upon them with horrible rage, and whomsoever they took they eat, but first inflicted all manner of tortures upon them, sparing none, but together murthering aged People and sucking Infants; wherefore they crav’d assistance to be reveng’d, which if the _Spaniards_ would grant, they would follow the Fleet with their Boats. _Vesputius_ promis’d his aid to destroy such a blood-thirsty People; and to assure them that he would perform his Word, he order’d seven of them to go in _Canoos_ before and shew them the Way. On the seventh day they came to an Anchor before the Island _Hy_, where the Shore was guarded with naked Men, whose Bodies being strong and brawny, were painted, and their Arms, Legs, and Head, adorn’d with divers colour’d Plumes, having not onely offensive Weapons, as Bowes, Arrows, and Launces, but also defensive, huge Targets, and square Shields. So soon as they judg’d the approaching _Spaniards_ to be within reach, they shot a great flight of Arrows at them; but _Vesputius_ lying close along the Shore with his Ships, fir’d upon them with Chain-shot, which did great execution: yet notwithstanding about forty _Spaniards_ leaping ashore out of their Boats, found themselves in no small danger; for the Cannibals upon the sound of Horns flocking together, so press’d upon them that they were forc’d to lay aside their Guns, and fall to Blows, and had not timely assistance come to them, they had undoubtedly been all slain: two hours the Victory was doubtful on whose side it would fall; yet at last the Cannibals quitting the Field, left the _Spaniards_ Victors; who the next day pursu’d their gotten Victory with such success, that they drove their Enemies before them, burnt their Villages and Boats, and carry’d two hundred and two and twenty of them Prisoners to _Spain_, where they safely arriv’d the 15. of _November, Anno 1498._

[Sidenote: _Vesputius_ Second Expedition.]

This good success so encourag’d _Vesputius_, that having stay’d scarce seven Moneths ashore, he obtaining the Command over six Ships, with which he set Sail from _Cadiz_, and touching upon the _Canaries_, Steer’d from thence Southerly; and having Sail’d five hundred Leagues, he discover’d a Countrey overflow’d and made Marishy by great Rivers, and abounding with Trees, but saw no sign of any Inhabitants; yet not long after, coming before an Island, he took a Boat with two Prisoners, newly guelt, and sent as a Present to feast the _Cannibals_, which refus’d to Treat on any other account whatsoever; wherefore he Sail’d eighty Leagues forward along the Shore of an unknown Island, where he Barter’d for some Gold, and got five hundred Pearls for one single Shell; these Pearls the Inhabitants said were not found there, but taken from their Neighboring Enemies, which liv’d Westward, and had abundance of them.

[Sidenote: Strange constitution of a salvage people.]

Nothing worthy of remark happen’d in this Voyage, onely the strange constitutions of a wild People, living on a barren Isle, deserve to be mention’d.

About their Necks hung two hollow Vessels, the one full of white stamp’d Worts, and Herbs; and the other, full of Grass, which they greedily cram’d into their Mouths, feeding like Cattel; then a Stick wetted with Spittle, they put into the bruis’d Herbs, taking upon the end of it, as upon the point of a Knife, some of the bruis’d to their Mouths, which (as if chawing the Cud) turning therein, then taking out again, and strowing more of the same Herbs out of the Vessel upon it, swallow’d it down. No fresh Water was to be had amongst them, but what they gather’d from the Dew in great Leaves: Neither had they any Houses, but dwelt under great Trees, and fed on dry’d Fish.

[Sidenote: Strange adventure of nine _Spaniards_, meeting with great Giants.]

The next remark in this Voyage, was the discovery of an Island not far from the former, where he found the Footsteps of a Gigantick People, upon which nine _Spaniards_ went a League to search the Countrey, where they saw five great Huts, standing in a spacious Valley, and in them two old, and three young Women, each of them being twice as tall as an ordinary Man: The old ones invited the _Spaniards_ to eat, who when they were sat down, consulting how they might take and carry one of these Giantesses to _Spain_, there to shew her for Money, thirty six Giants came in to them, (never did the Sun shine on a more terrible People) which so amaz’d the _Spaniards_, that their Hair seem’d to stand an end at the fear thereof: Every Giant was arm’d with a Bow and Arrows, and a Club: They wondering at the nine strangers, stood talking very earnestly one to another, which gave the _Spaniards_ time to think of making their escape; some judg’d it convenient to discharge their Guns upon them, and in the Smoke to run away; others thought, that it would be better to take a milder course, which they all agreed on; and taking their leave, went out of the Hut, but were follow’d by the Giants, who kept a Stones cast behind them, and went faster or slower, as the _Spaniards_ slacken’d or mended their pace; who at last getting to the Shore, and from thence into their Boats, they suddenly put off; but the Giants then pursu’d them with eager speed, all of them leaping into the Water, and Swimming, shot abundance of Arrows after them; but frighted by the Thunder of two great Guns that were discharged from the Ships, return’d ashore, and fled into the neighboring Hills.

[Sidenote: Description of the Pearl-Oysters.]

[Sidenote: _Vesputius_ third Expedition.]

_Vesputius_ at last began to consider of returning home, his Provisions beginning to grow scarce, and his Sea-men faint, having continu’d in the Equinoctial heats a whole year; wherefore he directed his course towards _Spain_, in his Voyage, driving along the Coast an advantagious Trade, by bartering Shells and Glass for Pearls. The Inhabitants presented him with Oysters, of which some inclos’d one hundred and thirty Pearls; when they attain to their full growth, they fall out of the Shells themselves, but those that stick, decay. So upon the tenth of _November_, the Fleet came safe to an Anchor before _Cadiz_. After which, _Vesputius_ retired to _Sevil_, with intent to settle himself there, but he had not long repos’d, when _Emanuel_ King of _Portugal_ sent for him to _Lisbon_, and gave him the Command of three Ships, to discover new Countreys; between the _Canaries_ and _Africa_, they pass’d thorow so many Fishes (not unlike a Bream) that in an hours time they loaded their Boats with them; this Fish hath a round thin Scale, sharp Teeth, Stones in their Brains or Foreheads, a sharp pointed Heart, a Bladder full of Wind, red Tail and Fins, feeds on Sea Weeds, Gurnets and Oysters, and is of a delicious Taste.

[Sidenote: Cruel deed of some _Indian_ Women.]

From thence, five degrees Southward of the Equinox, he found a naked People on the top of a high Rock, that beckon’d the _Spaniards_ to come towards them; upon which, two of them resolv’d to venture thither, having order not to stay at the most above five days: The first incounter they had was of some Women, who offer’d their bodies to prostitution; but a Youth, as if affrighted with some sudden danger, came running amongst them, whom, whilst they stood gazing upon, and wondering at, an old Woman with a great Club, running down the Hill overtook, and knock’d him down dead upon the ground; which done, the Women that were making Court to the _Spaniards_, took him by the Heels, and dragg’d up the Hill, where soon after they saw him chop’d in pieces, Broyl’d, and eaten: They also made signs to the _Spaniards_, that they would devour them also in the same manner. The Shore was crouded with Men, which showr’d upon them several flights of Arrows; wherefore they thought it best to Weigh Anchor, so taking Aboard their two Men, and having Sail’d 150. Leagues, they got sight of the Coast of _Brasile_, along which he Sail’d Southerly to fifty two Degrees, where three _Brasilians_ came Aboard of their own accord, and were easily perswaded to go with him to _Portugal_; but the Weather growing very bad, and the Cold intollerable, the Storms swelling the Waves into the bigness of Mountains, _Vesputius_ left the Coast _des Patagones_, and the _Streights_, afterwards call’d _Magellan_, behind him, burnt one of his Ships before _Cape Sierra Leona_, and brought two safe to _Lisbon_.

[Sidenote: _Vesputius_ fourth Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Sea-Spiders, and Dragons.]

His fourth Expedition happen’d, _May 10. Anno 1503._ at which time he Steer’d directly with six Sail to _Sierra Leona_, and approaching the Coast, could not come to an Anchor, because of the strong eddying Currents: Three Degrees beyond the Equinox appear’d a rising Island, two Leagues long, and one broad, destitute of Inhabitants; his best Ship being six hundred Tun, split here against a Rock, and nothing of her was saved, but the Sea-men: But _Vesputius_ Rowing ashore with a Boat, found a convenient Haven, with abundance of sweet Water, high Trees, Sea-Spiders, and horrible Dragons, which have a sharp Head, round fiery Eyes, and wide Mouths, Wings not unlike a Bats, a speckled Breast, curl’d Tail, blew Back, and two Bags like a drawn Satchel Triangular, were under their Bellies: No less strange are the Sea-Spiders, by their hard Feet, long upper Teeth, two long Sheers or Pinchers, and double Belly; between the Head and the Belly lies a black Skin, with which they darken the Water; when any one goes to take them in the night, they make a great shadow; they feed on Fish, the Female lays little white Eggs, not unlike ordinary Hail-stones.

[Illustration]

_Vesputius_ having left this desolate Isle, three hundred Leagues a Stern, enter’d a Haven, to which he gave the name of St. _Abdy_, where he stay’d two Months, expecting the return of those which he had sent into the Countrey; but seeing it in vain to wait any longer, he proceeded on his Journey, and Sailing in between the _Abrelhos_, in the River _Curubabo_, he built a strong Fort, Garrison’d it with twenty four Men, twelve pieces of Ordnance, and Provisions for six Moneths: Five Moneths _Vesputius_ had spent in the building this Castle; when he return’d home with one Ship, laden with _Brasill_ Wood, where approaching _Lisbon_, beyond all expectation, the Inhabitants of the City ran to Congratulate his happy return. And from this _Americus Vesputius_, the _New World_ is to this day call’d _America_.

SECT. VII. _The Expedition of_ Alphonso, Fogeda, Diego Nicuesa, Ancisus, _and_ Roderick Colmenares.

[Sidenote: Wonderful Tree on _Codego_.]

_Americus Vesputius_ was scarce fitted out in _Lisbon_, when _Fogeda_ set Sail with three hundred Men from _Beata_, the chiefest Haven of _Hispaniola_, to the Island _Codego_, inhabited by Naked People, but of comely Personage, and withal expert and most excellent Archers: Here he found a very strange Tree, which bears a Fruit not unpleasing to the Palate, yet deadly Poyson, and besides, whoever chances to sleep under their shadow, loose both their understanding and Eye-sight, and never attain to their former Sences, except they take some _Opiates_, as dangerous, and so by long sleep, recover.

[Sidenote: _Fogedo_’s cruelty and destruction.]

[Sidenote: Famine.]

[Sidenote: Strange accident.]

[Sidenote: _Ancisus_ escapes great danger.]

[Sidenote: _Colmenares_ Expedition.]

[Sidenote: His strange reception.]

Here _Fogeda_ set upon a poor Village near the Sea-side, where without mercy he put them all to the Sword, except a few Youths which were onely saved, that they might inform _Fogeda_, what was become of the slain and taken _Spaniards_; Who told him, that according to their Custom, they had Roasted the dead, and also their living Prisoners, and feasted on their Flesh. Here having burnt the Houses, and sifting the Ashes, _Nicuesa_ found some Gold. But now they began to be distress’d for Provisions; for prevention of which, _Nicuesa_ had given order to _Ancisus_, Marshal in _Hispaniola_, that he should follow with a Ship of Victual, for the Army to _Codega_. But he being kept back by inconveniencies, most of the _Spaniards_ were famish’d, so that the three hundred Men which _Codega_ brought from _Hispaniola_, were reduced to sixty. And he was already under-Sail to _Hispaniola_, when _Ancisus_ Anchor’d in the Haven of _Codegoos_, and sent some Men ashore to mend his Boat, and fetch fresh Water, which whilst they were doing, the Natives came flocking about them: Three days they fac’d one another, using no Hostility, when at last a _Spaniard_ that understood the _Codegan_ Tongue, adventuring to fetch Water, he was immediately encompassed; when speaking to them, and informing them in their own Language, That he was none of _Fogedas_ or _Nicuesas_ People, which not long since had committed so great slaughter, they left him, and the rather, because he told them, that _Ancisus_ would take revenge on them, if they did any wrong to him. Thus quieted, they brought all sorts of Provisions Aboard. Mean while, _Ancisus_ Sail’d to the Main Continent _Uraba_, where in the Mouth of a Haven he ran his Vessel aground, which was bilg’d; the Sea-men taking some Arms along with them, sav’d their lives by swimming ashore; where, their first sustenance they found was store of Peaches and Cherries, which was a great refreshment in those hot Countreys, but yet had undoubtedly been starv’d, but that in searching the Wood for Fruits, they found Wild-Swine, which preserv’d their lives; yet they were not free from apparent danger, having to deal with a Salvage People, into whose hands they were so unfortunately cast by Shipwrack; however _Ancisus_ set a good face on the business, marching with a hundred Men up into the Countrey, where some of the _Urabanners_ from an ambuscade unawares, with their Arrows wounded several of his Men, hereupon they retreated to the Shore of the River _Daria_, whither also they had brought the small Boats, sav’d from the Wreck; where whilst they were in consultation how to return to _Hispaniola_, the Inhabitants having muster’d themselves, and making a Body of five hundred Men, set upon them, who after a sharp Conflict, made them retreat, and at last to flie, whom _Ancisus_ pursuing, found in a Thicket of Canes or Reeds a great Treasure of Gold. Mean while, _Nicuesa_ Sail’d to the plentiful Golden Countrey _Veragua_ with three Ships, of which he lost two, the one Commanded by _Lupus de Olana_, and the other by _Peter Umbria Olana_, which was stranded in the River _Veragua_, which gives name to the whole Island, but he built a new _Carvil_, whereas that of _Lupus Olana_ was bilg’d among the Rocks. Little better success had _Nicuesa_, whose Ship over-turning with a Tempest, he with a few of his Men made land upon _Veragua_, where he rang’d up and down in a miserable condition, on a barren, and in a manner desolate Shore seventy days: All that time, finding no other Food than Wild Roots, who wandring up and down, at last met with _Olana_, a little before cast away on the same Isle, whom he secur’d, because he presum’d to usurp the Title, and be prime Commander of that Countrey. Upon which, the _Spaniards_ being divided, some for _Ancisus_, some for _Olana_, the difference more and more encreasing, would not be reconcil’d, till the Famine over-powering, master’d both, so that not being able to handle their Arms, the Salvages flew them at their pleasure, by this means in a short time, of seven hundred eighty five, remain’d scarce ninety; yet did not all this misery work any thing upon the ambitious humor of _Vasques Nunnez_, who rebelling against _Ancisus_, split that small remainder of Men, and with the help of those he had drawn over to his Party, made himself Governor of _Uraba_, not possible to be long enjoy’d without speedy supply, which soon after they receiv’d; for _Colmenares_ Sailing from _Hispaniola_ with Provisions, arriv’d there the 15. of _October, Anno 1510_. having been toss’d twenty three days at Sea; then making into the River _Gaira_, to furnish himself with fresh Water, he lost forty seven Men; for whilst they were filling their Casks, seven hundred of the Salvages came down upon them, and with their Poyson’d Arrows wounded and kill’d most of them. _Colmenares_ came in a good time to the remainder under _Ancisus_ Command, being in danger of death for want of Provisions, and finding the factions that were among them about Superiority, he thought it fit, consulting with some of the chiefest of them, to find out _Nicuesa_, who was indeed the Governor that had the Grant from the King: This agreed, _Colmenares_ went to search, and at last lighted upon him, building a Fortress against the assaults of the Enemies on the Promontory. _Mormor_, he was glad to find him, but griev’d to see the misery and hardship they endur’d, most of his Men being kill’d, partly by the excessive Heats, partly by Famine, and partly by the cruelty of the Natives, so that he had onely sixty remaining, and those many of them also sick and weak.

_Colmenares_ having deliver’d his Message, _Nicuesa_ broke up his Quarters, and sleighting the Fort, went with him, but both himself and his Men were oppos’d from Landing by _Nunnez_; wherefore _Nicuesa_ was necessitated to Steer for _Hispaniola_; whom, or what became of him was never known.

_Nunnez_ having thus quitted himself of _Nicuesa_, and now, more than ever, wanting Provision, he resolv’d to take out his own Commission at large, and setting up for himself, make no discrimination of Persons, _Spaniards_, or Natives, but to make out his Fortune.

And first, he fell upon _Careta_ King of _Coita_, whom he took Prisoner, Plundering him of all his Treasure and Provisions; yet this sufficed not long, for soon after, King _Poncha_ invading _Careta_, _Nunnez_ took hold of that opportunity, and pretending to assist _Careta_, being well recruited with his Forces, set upon _Poncha_, who immediately fled, and left all to the spoil of his Enemies.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Pallace of King _Comogrus_.]

This News so amaz’d _Comogrus_, another King, that he proffer’d Peace; whereupon _Nunnez_ going thither, was nobly entertain’d in his Palace, being one hundred and fifty Paces long, and eighty broad, the Floors Pav’d with Stone, and the Roofs Vaulted, his Cellars were stor’d with Wine, made of the Root _Jucca_, _Ages_, and _Mais_; the Privy-Chamber was hung round with dead bodies, Mummy’d artificially with Lent Fires, and were the Corpses of _Comogrus_ Ancestors, and others of the Royal Blood, and nearest Relations, of whom some dy’d at least four hundred years before; each of these fasten’d by Cordage made of Reeds, were Habited in Cotton, richly adorn’d with Pearls and Gold. Mean while, a Hurricane happening, terrible with Thunder and Lightning, and hideous Gusts, swell’d and so enrag’d the Sea, that breaking its bounds, over-running, drown’d the whole Champain; thus the hopes of a fruitful Harvest being utterly lost, they suffer’d under a great Famine.

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ Exploits.]

The _Spaniards_ which Encamp’d near the River _Daria_, on _Uraba_, perceiving this, and knowing they had no manner of supply from _Hispaniola_, and having already Pillag’d the Neighboring Kings, that they had nothing left. _Nunnez_ marching thirty Leagues up the River, Plunder’d the Village, of which _Daibaiba_ was King, where he found an unvaluable quantity of Gold, but little or no Provision. Here were many Flitter Mice, or Bats, bigger than Turtle Doves, whose biting was mortal, unless immediately wash’d with Salt Water, according to the information of the Prisoners.

Now as _Nunnez Uraba_ Pillag’d towards the South, so did _Colmenares_, setting up also for himself, make prize of all, to the East with sixty Men, Rowing against the Stream up the River _Daria_, above twelve Leagues, where he found in several Villages and Hamlets, and at King _Turvi_’s Palace, abundance, both of Provision and Gold; from thence he March’d to the mighty Province _Abenamchei_, which though making some resistance, at last they subdu’d.

[Sidenote: A strange Pallace built on Trees.]

[Sidenote: Turning the low Land into a Sea.]

[Sidenote: A Plot on the _Spaniards_, strangely discover’d.]

And the neighboring King _Abibeiba_ narrowly escap’d the like fortune, whose Pallace was built on the tops of Trees, Plash’d, and Pleited together, Timber Beams lying athwart; necessity forcing them to choose such high Habitations, partly to avoid the Inundations of Rivers, swoln above their bounds by sudden and almost assiduous Showres from the Mountains; and partly, to be free from the excursions of sculking Robbers; also being better able to defend themselves in these Castles in the Air, and also secur’d by their heighth from their Shot, being above the reach of their _Indian_ Arrows: The bodies of the Trees downwards, upon which the Houses are built, are generally twenty four Fathom thick, so that they cannot easily be cut down, nor fired; but _Colmenares_ against these, as they suppos’d, impregnable Forts, having made a Gallery with several great Hurdles, set his Men to work under that safeguard, with Axes on the Tree whereon _Abibeiba_’s House stood, who seeing his imminent danger, wondring at this new manner of Storming, came down, promising to furnish him with Gold out of the neighboring Mountains, notwithstanding it would be with the danger of his Life; because the _Cannibals_ generally kill those that adventur’d to dig in the Mines: To this promise, _Colmenares_ hearken’d, and having set him at liberty, for the performance, he in stead thereof, on the contrary, stirr’d up, and joyn’d with all the Conquer’d Kings, to destroy him and his Men: Nor were they slack to have executed their design, five thousand of them being already drawn together at the Village _Tirichi_, the appointed place of Rendezvous, and so privately carry’d, that undoubtedly it had been effected, if not happily discover’d by this accident.

_Nunnez_, amongst his other Slavesses, had one exceeding beautiful, on which he was much Enamour’d, and she likewise seem’d to bear as great an affection towards him, which she manifested, by declaring the secret to _Nunnez_ which her Brother had imparted to her, being an intended general Massacre the night following, that so she might the better make her escape the day before; yet so much she prefer’d the safety of her Lover, before the liberty of her Native Countrey, that she discover’d the Plot. _Nunnez_ not sleeping on this advice, on a sudden set so fiercely upon the Conspirators, that he utterly broke their design; yet the Feuds and Contests for Superiority still continu’d amongst them, which look’d with so bad a Face to the ruine of all, that news thereof arriving in _Spain_, it was judg’d fit to send for _Colmenares_, and _John Quicedo_ to the Court, there to render an account of all their Transactions, Both going Aboard a small Vessel, were by Storm driven on the Coast of _Cuba_, where they were inform’d from a Prisoner, that _Valdivia_ and _Zamudio_, driven ashore by Shipwrack, and not able to defend themselves, were surpriz’d by the Natives, kill’d and eaten; that _Fogeda_ driven up and down along the Coast, had lost most of his People by hunger, and other hardship, and himself with much ado getting to _Hispaniola_, dy’d as soon as Landed of the Wound which he receiv’d by a Poysonous Arrow, near the River _Daria_.

[Sidenote: _Ancisus_ Voyage.]

[Sidenote: A Temple dedicated to the Virgin _Mary_ on the Island _Cuba_.]

But much happier was _Ancisus_, who soon after _Fogeda_ coming to _Cuba_, found a King, who suffer’d himself to be Christen’d, and call’d _Commendator_; and building a Church, Consecrated it to the Virgin _Mary_; in it he erected an Image of Clay, resembling a Woman, which he clothed in a Cotton Garment; round about were plac’d Pots with Meat and Water, according to their old Idolatrous fashion, otherwise, they believ’d their Idols would devour the Souls of the Dead, and this, though Christians, they did not forget.

Nay further, when he went to War, he carry’d the Image of the Virgin _Mary_ with him in the Front of his Army, often saying, _Ave Maria_; and this was the end of that Voyage: But afterwards _Ancisus_ complain’d against _Vascus Nunnez_ in the _Spanish_ Court, where he receiv’d a Sentence very prejudicial to him. _Colmenares_ and _Quicedo_ had also Audience there, whereupon matters being settled, a firm Government was establish’d in _Uraba_.

SECT. VIII. Peter Arias _his Expedition, and remarkable Passages of_ Vascus Nunnez.

[Sidenote: _Nicuesa_ suffers hunger.]

_Peter Arias_ Knight, accompany’d with his Wife, _Elizabeth Boadilla_, set Sail _Anno 1514._ but surpriz’d by a violent Storm, lost two Ships, and return’d to _Spain_, yet not long after began his Voyage afresh, notwithstanding he had lately had such bad success, and heard of the great hardship which _Nicuesa_ suffer’d, having not onely kept himself alive a considerable time by feeding on flesh of Dogs, and other such like Creatures; a great Frog being sold in _Veragua_ for a lump of Gold.

[Sidenote: Dogs us’d in the Wars.]

[Sidenote: Sodomy horribly punish’d.]

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ first discovers the South Sea.]

[Sidenote: Is in great danger on the South-Sea.]

But _Vaschus Nunnez_ inform’d of _Arias_ arrival, the chief Governor of _Uraba_, afterwards call’d _New Andaluzia_, minding to inrich himself before he should depose him, and hearing that several Gold Mines lay Southward from _Uraba_, march’d thither with a hundred and ninety Men, thorow great Rivers, Thickets, and Woods full of Wild Beasts, deep Vallies, and broad Rivers, not without many hazards and difficulties. In the Mountainous Territory _Quarequan_, the Inhabitants ingag’d him valiantly, with Bows, Arrows, Clubs, Woodden Swords, Pikes and Launces, but frighted with the meer report of their Musquets, like flocks of wild Fowl, dissipated and fled, but not so fast, but that six hundred of them fell by the hands of the _Spaniards_, or were worry’d by their Dogs, train’d up on purpose for the _American_ Wars. Soon after, coming into the Palace, there sate his Brother dress’d up in Womens Apparel, whom the King kept to abuse, as if a Concubine, whereof _Nunnez_ being inform’d, in detestation of Sodomy, set the Dogs upon him, who suddenly tore him in pieces. Amongst the slain were found several _Negroes_, which suffering Shipwrack had been cast on the _American_ Shore, and maintain’d a continual War with the _Quaraquanen_, so that it seem’d the _Blacks_ which were found dead amongst them were their Slaves: Yet _Nunnez_ was forc’d to leave a considerable number of his Men here, who being half starv’d, and quite tired out, were not able to follow him; but with the remaining party he march’d on, and at last came to the high Mountains, from whence he saw the great South-Sea, and going thither, was met by King _Chiapes_, leading an Army of thirty thousand Men, which great Body stood not long to make resistance, being terrifi’d with the Vollyes of Shot, whose Report the ecchoing Valleys presented to their Ears, double and trebble: And that which most amaz’d and disanimated them in the rout, were the Dogs, who fiercely pursu’d and seiz’d the flyers, tearing away great morsels of Flesh. After the Battel, the Conqueror proffer’d Peace, which was agreed on, upon the delivery of several great Presents of Gold. After that, _Chiapes_ the King, accompany’d with _Nunnez_ the _Spanish_ Commander, and March’d with him over a broad River to _Coquera_, where at first some Forces made resistance, but were routed; whereupon, they also suddenly struck up a Peace, upon conditions, that the Prince, nam’d also _Coquera_, should return him a great quantity of Gold. Here he found a handsome Bay running up in crooked Reaches, above sixty Leagues, which _Nunnez_ call’d St. _Michael_, being sprinkled with Islands, and treacherous with hidden Rocks. There _Nunnez_, (though disswaded by _Chiapes_, because he knew the South-Sea at that time being the three last Moneths of the Year, was exceeding turbulent, that no Vessel could hardly live in it, yet) ventur’d with nine _Indian_ Boats, and eighty Men from the Shore into the _Offin_; where, notwithstanding the high rolling of the Waves, he got to an uninhabited Island, on which, being necessitated to stay a night, the Tide flow’d so much, according to the property of the South-Sea, that the highest Ground thereon, lay almost cover’d with Water, every one of the _Spaniards_ having enough to do to save themselves from being wash’d away. Day approaching, discover’d a second inconveniency, for the _Indian_ _Canoos_ either were extremely Leaky, or else so shatter’d, that they were unfit for service; yet notwithstanding all this, they ventur’d to return, rather choosing to be devour’d in the Waves, than die of that hunger, whose misery they had sufficiently tasted, during the small time they had been out. Not long after, _Nunnez_ Conquer’d the King _Tamaccus_ in a Field Battel, who thereupon purchas’d his Peace with great Presents of Gold and Pearl. He also shew’d the _Spaniards_ an Island, whose spiring tops were seen from the Main Land, which so abounded in Pearls, that in no place were either more or fairer to be found: But the King who liv’d on it was exceeding powerful.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Manner of Fishing for Pearls.]

_Nunnez_ immediately resolv’d to Sail thither, notwithstanding it was the middle of _October_, when the South-East Winds make such a turbulent and hollow Sea, as many times wash’d away Trees and pieces of Rocks: Besides, the Weather was more terrible, by continual Lightning and great Thunder-Claps; the Nights very cold, the Days exceeding hot; yet all these difficulties could not prevail, for _Nunnez_ would not stay to expect fairer Weather, but went on, and coming thither, he saw how the _Indians_ Fish for Pearls, which was Diving for Oysters; but the Weather being rough and foul, they durst not venture for the best which lay far from the Shore.

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ returns.]

But _Nunnez_ leaving his sick and weary’d Men with _Chiapes_, March’d quite another way back than he came; and crossing a great River, was receiv’d by Prince _Teaocha_, who furnish’d him with Gold, Pearls, Provisions, and Guides, which carry’d his Luggage and Goods.

[Sidenote: _Pacra_ a tyrannous King, his horrible death.]

_Pacra_, a great Oppressor of all his Neighbors, hearing of the approach of _Nunnez_, fled, but terrifi’d with threats, return’d with three other Princes, which were all so Deform’d, that more horrible Monsters were never seen, scarce any part about them resembling those of a Man: The Guides which _Teaocha_ had provided for the _Spaniard_ desir’d that he might be put to Death, for the Cruelties which he had long committed; whose Request being granted, he with the other three Princes, were given as a Breakfast to the _Spanish_ Doggs. Mean while, the _Spaniards_ were in danger to have perish’d for want of Water; yet at last, in a Thicket of Brambles, they found a small Brook, but none of the _Indians_ durst venture to go to it, for fear of Tygers, and other Wild Beasts; relating, That the Tygers took many people in the nights out of their Huts, if they were not careful in making fast their Doors.

[Sidenote: Strange relations of a Tyger.]

_John Ledesma_ had himself eaten part of a Tyger, which for six Moneths together, had every night feasted on Mans flesh, or Beasts, which they caught in this manner: In the Path along which he pass’d, coming out of his Den to seek for Prey, a deep Pit was digg’d, and cover’d very sleightly on the top, into which the Tyger fell; yet though taken, so fiercely withstood the Pikes, Darts, and Stones thrown at him, that every one was amaz’d to see the fury of the Beast. After that they sought for the Female, but found onely two young ones without a Dam, which taking along with them, they put Iron Collars about their Necks, intending to carry them to _Spain_; but seeing no likelyhood of breeding them up, they brought them back again, purposing to fetch them away when grown somewhat older, and accordingly coming afterwards to look for them, they found the Den empty, so that it was supposed they had been devour’d by their Dam.

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ further Journey into the Countrey, very remarkable.]

In the Province of _Bononiama_, the _Spaniards_ inrich’d themselves with Chains, and Breast-Plates of Gold, which in great plenty hung on the Walls in every House: At the River _Comogrus_, they discharg’d _Teaocha_’s Guides, and made use of _Cotog_ and _Ciuriza_, two Governors of a barren Tract of Land, full of Hills and Mountains, which they left on their right Hand, and wandred three days over a _Morasse_, in which they often sunk to their Knees.

In all these Travels, Victual was so scarce that they were much weaken’d by their wants; and though they took fresh courage when they got footing on King _Buchebua_’s Jurisdiction, yet they found nothing but empty Huts; and the like in the Countrey of _Chiorisus_, both having a little before been pillag’d by their more powerful neighboring Enemies. But although they could not furnish _Nunnez_ with Provisions, they presented him with weighty Ingots of Gold: but this rich Metal not able to purchase the least morsel of Bread, drove them into a great strait; and indeed they had without doubt been all famished, had not _Pocchorosa_, another King, fed them forty days together with stamp’d Roots. Thus refresh’d, and instigated by _Pocchorosa_, they broke by night in _Tubunama_’s Palace, and took him Prisoner with eighty Concubines, who fearing to be put to death, gave an incredible Treasure of Gold to purchase his Ransom.

_Nunnez_ thus enriched came at last to his People which he had left on the River _Daria_, where two Ships sent from _Hispaniola_ rode at an Anchor.

[Sidenote: _Peter Arias_ his Voyage, and Fight in the Haven _St. Martha_.]

Whilst things were thus carry’d in _America_, _Peter Arias_ Sail’d with fifteen Ships, Mann’d with fifteen hundred Men, to _New Andalusia_, by the Islands _Martinina_, _Guadalupe_, and _Galanta_, all in _America_: a considerable time he Sail’d through the Sea overgrown with Weeds. Afterwards anchoring in the Haven _St. Martha_, he receiv’d a great repulse from the Natives, who no ways daunted at the bigness of the Ships, waded up to their Breasts in the Sea, and shot many great flights of poisonous Arrows at the _Spaniards_, or whom two being wounded immediately died. _Arias_ sending some of his Men ashore, they found many Boats lying full of Nets, made of tough Weeds, and Ropes pleited of Rushes.

In the Haven _St. Martha_, being three Leagues wide, are abundance of Fish, which may be seen under Water twenty Fathom deep.

But now the _Spaniards_ that were ashore breaking into the Houses, and taking Women and Children Prisoners, the _Americans_ prepar’d for another Fight, which at the beginning was very fierce; but at last they were forc’d to quit the Field.

[Sidenote: Strange Houses and Houshold-stuff.]

Their Houses and Furniture in them are worthy of observation: their Cielings being cover’d with Shells strung on small Thred, which make a pleasing noise, when mov’d by the least breath of Wind. The Walls are hung with fine Stuffs, woven full of Imagery, as Cranes, Lyons, Tygers, and some Figures of Men; the Floors are cover’d with parti-colour’d Mats, made of Sea-Reeds, and several tough Roots; and their Carpets beset with Pearl add also a great beauty to their Rooms.

In the Valleys the _Spaniards_ found several precious Jems, as Saphires, Jasper, Emeralds, and great pieces of Amber, and in some Huts, Baskets, and Chests full of dry’d Locusts, and Crabs.

Here also grows the Root _Yuca_, as also on several other _West-Indian_ Coasts, of which they make their best Bread, and is call’d in _Hispaniola_ and _Angola_, _Yuca_; by the _Brasilians_, _Mandiba_ and _Mandihoka_; by the _Mexicans_, _Quauhcamotli_: it grows with a thick or midling Body, according to the fruitfulness or barrenness of the Soil; the Leaves are like those of a Tulip, and have small Flowers and Seed, but no ways useful; the Root, not unlike Horse-Raddish, hath a milky Juice, which swells it exceedingly; the Sprigs, which in the eighth and tenth Moneth shoot out of the Root, serve for new Plants; and if at any time it happen, that either by a moist Season, or by Worms, or Pismires, the Plant is spoil’d, then it occasions such an inconvenience amongst the Inhabitants, that half of them in that year die of Famine.

[Sidenote: What use the _Americans_ make of the Root _Mandihoka_.]

The Leaves of the _Mandihoka_ serve them for Sallads. Out of the Root, which they lay soaking five days in Water, they make Meal, which the _Portuguese_ call _Farina fresca_, but the _Americans_, _Vipeba_. Moreover, _Mandihoka_ serves them to make Bread, which they bake over the Fire; and mix’d with Water, Pepper, and the Flour _Nhambi_, makes an excellent Pudding, by them call’d _Mingaude Carima_, no less pleasing to the taste than wholsom Food: and with Orange-Flour, Water, and Sugar, it makes that excellent Julep _Tipioca_. The Powder of _Mandihoka_ put into a Wound, cures very speedily. It is very pleasant to see the _Americans_ eat this Bread; for they toss it by handfuls at a pretty distance from their Mouthes without letting fall the least Crum. Lastly, it requires great art and trouble to make the _Mandihoka_ fit for Bread: first they must peel off the Shell, then put into a Mill turn’d by two _Indians_ it falls, being Ground, into a square Trough. The Juice proceeding from it is mortal, if eaten when raw, but wholsom if boil’d: the Meal they put in a Press, and when all the moisture is drawn from it, they strow it in an Oven to dry. But the wild _Mandihoka_, by those that live on the Sea-shore call’d _Cuacu Mandiiba_, and up in the Countrey, _Cuquacucuremia_, differs both in shape and goodness from the first.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Arias_’s Exploits in _New Andalusia_.]

But to return to our matter: _Arias_ coming to an Anchor in the River _Daria_, was cheerfully receiv’d by _Nunnez_; his first Business which he undertook was the building of three Forts, to secure the Passages to the _South Sea_; to which purpose _Joannes Aiora_ received the Command over four hundred Workmen. Moreover, _Arias_ took great dislike in the Place call’d _Maria Antiqua_, which the _Spaniards_ were forc’d by necessity first to Plant in: it lay in a deep Valley between high Mountains, so that it not onely wanted the benefit of the rising and setting of the Sun, but when in or near the Meridian, it shin’d down upon them, and scorch’d all their Plants, and the tepifi’d Morassy Grounds about the same infected the Air, and the Water which they took up to wash their Houses, immediately bred Frogs, the River _Daria_ overflow’d the Grounds with his muddy Water three Leagues distance from the Sea; the Passage thither also was very troublesom, because of the uneven Ways; and besides, the Tygers and Lyons devour’d many People and Cattel.

[Sidenote: A strange Accident.]

The first Night that _Arias_ lay in _Maria Antiqua_, the House wherein his Chirurgion Lodg’d was fir’d with Lightning, who running out with his Wife, being both scorched by the Flames, saw a very great Crocodile, which snatching up his Dog ran away with him towards the River.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Trees.]

The neighboring Territory _Coiba_ produced Trees, whose Timber us’d for Shipping never breeds Worms, because of its acerbity; whereas on the contrary, all other Vessels in that Countrey are very subject to that inconvenience. Here also grow those famous Plague-Trees, whose very Leaves, if but falling upon one, are like Gods Arrows, mortal, and immediately kill, unless the Place whereon they light be straightway anointed with fasting Spittle: and the _Coibensers_ say, that they know another poysonous Wood, which they use to destroy their Enemies withall.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Journey of _Moralis_ to the _South Sea_.]

Whilst _Arias_ was consulting about the beforemention’d Affairs, he sent several Comanders to divers Places, to take a survey, and give him an account of their Return of all their Discoveries. Amongst others _Gasper Moralis_ was order’d to march towards the _South Sea_, to confirm the Peace which _Nunnez_ had begun with the Kings _Chiapes_ and _Tumaccus_; and chiefly to go to the Pearl-Island with sixty Men, which _Nunnez_ was forc’d to leave, being stress’d by tempestuous Weather. _Chiapes_ and _Tumaccus_ were according to their promise, to prepare an Army ready for his assistance against his coming; which indeed they perform’d, so that they wanted nothing but Vessels, for the biggest of theirs could not carry above three or four Men; yet they undertaking their Enterprise, Landed seventy Men on the Island; upon which the Inhabitants under their Kings Conduct ran to meet the new Landed Forces, and crying out aloud _Guazzavara_, _Guazzavara_, they ran in amongst the Musqueteers with their woodden Swords; but the report of the Guns, mix’d with Fire, Smoak, and Bullets, soon amaz’d them: the King flying, thought by alarm to raise all the Islanders; but they being inform’d, that no People whatsoever could withstand the fire-spitting People, made Articles of agreement with _Moralis_, and Condition’d to deliver a hundred pound weight of the choicest Pearls to the use of the King of _Castile_; and as a testimony of his Friendship he was Christen’d _Peter Arias_, from the Governors Name of _New Andalusia_.

[Sidenote: Strange Pearl.]

How great the Treasure was which _Moralis_ brought from the Pearl Island may appear by one of the Pearls, for which Pope _Leo_ the tenth gave forty four thousand _Ducats_ to a _Venetian_ Merchant.

[Sidenote: _Solisius_ his miserable end.]

Amongst the Commanders which were sent out by _Arias_, was also _Johannes Solisius_, who Sailing six hundred Leagues Southerly, along the Coast of the _Caribbies_, beyond _Cape St. Augustine_, he found the Inhabitants of _Pernambuck_ to be no less cruel than subtile; for being invited ashore, he with some of his Men Row’d thither, where no sooner Landing, but were all kill’d and eaten in the sight of the other Sea-men aboard; at which being amaz’d they weighed Anchor, and Sail’d away, Freighted onely with _Brasile_ Wood, to _Cadiz_.

Also in an unhappy hour did _Johannes Pontæus_ put some of his Laundresses ashore on the Island _Guadalupa_, to wash some Linnen for him; for the Islanders coming on a sudden out of the Woods surpriz’d them, and forthwith killing without mercy, cut them in pieces, and carbonadoing, eat their broil’d Flesh hot from the Coals, while _Gonsalus Badajocius_ Sail’d with eighty Men Westerly, and having gone sixty Leagues he went ashore, and spent some days in vain, to Court the _Americans_ to a friendly correspondency; which whilst he was doing, he was recruited with fifty Men from _Daria_, Commanded by _Lodowick Mercado_: so both agreed together to travel over the Mountains to the _South Sea_.

[Sidenote: Strange Slaves.]

[Sidenote: Great Booty.]

The Governor _Juana_, whose Jurisdictions abound in Gold, flying with most part of his Treasure, was never heard of, onely they took some of his Slaves, whose Faces were strangely Carv’d with sharp Fish-bones, the Wounds fill’d with red and black Powder, which so discolour’d the Flesh that it could never be got out. After that they travell’d through the Wilderness five days together, being onely met by some _Indians_ carrying _Maiz_, who signifi’d to them, that King _Periguete_ liv’d along the Sea-shore, and up into the Countrey the blind _Totonoga_; of both which they got an unvaluable Treasure of Gold. Amongst other Pieces of that rich Metal was one which weighed two pound.

_Taracura_ rais’d in this Expedition eighteen thousand weight of Gold: and little less did they take out of the Territories belonging to the Princes _Pananome_, _Tabor_, _Cheru_, and _Scoria_: The Prisoners serv’d them in stead of Horses, they not being able to carry all the Gold themselves, the meanest Soldier having above three thousand Pounds _Sterling_ for his share.

[Sidenote: Destruction of the _Spaniards_.]

They were now got to _Panza_’s Kingdom, not without leaving sad remarks, of their avarice and cruelties. When _Pariza_ surrounding this Party thus loaden with Gold, Charged so fiercely, that at the first Assault seventy of them were slain; those few that escap’d brought the tidings of their sad misfortune to _Peter Arias_. Amongst those that escaping return’d, was _Franciscus Delapuente_, whose observations concerning catching Parrots and wild Fowl, we will briefly relate, the digression being but short.

[Sidenote: A strange way to catch Parrots.]

The _Indian_ where the Parrots are most frequent climbs into a Tree, and chattering like them, with his Voice imitating their Notes, allures his fellow-prater to draw near, and suffer him to take them in his Hands. But more belongs to the taking of wild Fowl, as Geese, Ducks, Swans, and the like: From the bottom of their standing Pools and Lakes in that Countrey grow Weeds, which spreading upon the Water ripen, and rotting breed Water-Flies, Spiders, and Frogs, upon which the Fowls feed. Near these Pools in the Gardens grow Cabbages as high as Trees, which often dropping into the Water serve the Birds both for Nests and Food: but the skilful Fowler finds it his best way to take one of these Cabbages, and making it hollow in the middle, claps it on his Head like a Helmet, then going into the Water up to his Chin, and passing softly along in such manner, that nothing is seen but the floating Cabbage, and coming near the Birds, he takes them one after another by the Legs, and puts them into a Bag ty’d about his middle for that purpose.

[Sidenote: Strange Bird _Toucan_.]

But what is more worthy observation is the _American_ Bird _Toucan Xochitenachate_, having a fleshy Bill, like a Mouth full of Teeth, which continually opens and shuts to draw Breath, having no Nostrils; the Back, Neck, and Wings, are black, the Breast yellow like Gold, the Belly and end of the Tail of a Vermillion colour.

[Sidenote: Evacuated Pepper.]

This Bird _Toucan_ feeds for the most part on Pepper, which tarries not long with them, but muted almost as soon as swallowed: which Pepper thus evacuated the Natives value above their common, because the unpleasing sharp acidity, or biting quality is thereby much mitigated.

But to return: Whilst the Expeditions under the Command of _Peter Arias_ had such bad success, _Arias_ himself and _Vaschus Nunnez_ hapned to clash: _Nun__nez_, who since his discovery of the _South Sea_ was held in some repute at the _Spanish_ Court, had built four Ships on the Shore of the same Ocean, to make farther inspections along the Coasts thereof: but being commanded to come to _Arias_ the Governor, he was committed to Prison, and accused of high Treason, as if he had intentions to settle himself in _Peru_, and absolutely to have left _Daria_: all which though he disown’d, and utterly deni’d with great protestations when brought to a Trial, and no witness to affirm the contrary, yet was by _Arias_’s special Order Beheaded.

Not long after which _Lupus Sosa_, Governor of the _Canary_ Islands, was sent to succeed _Arias_ in _New Andalusia_.

SECT. IX. _The Expeditions of_ Francisco Fernandez, Lupus Caizedus, Christophero Morantes, Bernardo Igniguez, _and_ Juan Grisalva.

[Sidenote: Original of the Name _Jucatan_.]

_Fernandez_, _Caizedus_, and _Morantes_, antient Planters in _Cuba_, obtain’d a Licence from the Governor _Diego Velasques_, to Rig out three Ships with a hundred and ten Men to discover new Lands. _Velasques_ thought fit to add one more to their number upon the Kings account; which Trust he committed to _Igniguez_: all of them consulted with the experienc’d Navigator _Antonio Alamines_. Six days the Fleet had been at Sea, when they discover’d Land, which by a mistake was call’d _Jucatan_, because the Inhabitants being ask’d what was the Name of the Coast, answer’d _Jucatan_; which, as the _Spaniards_ were afterwards inform’d, signifi’d, _We understand you not_.

[Sidenote: Stately City.]

Upon the Shore they found a City, whose Stone Buildings, with stately Fronts and high Turrets, shew’d most magnificently. _Fernandez_ call’d this City for its wonderful bigness, _Cairo_, from the _Egyptian_ Metropolis, famous through the World.

[Sidenote: _Campechium_ a City.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Images, and strange Stage.]

The _Spaniards_ coming to Land were courteously receiv’d, and conducted into the City; the neatness of whose Market-places, and exactness of their Streets, they beheld with admiration; as also the costly Stuff Garments both of Men and Women: but their wonder increas’d when they beheld very artificial Crosses, concerning which upon inquiry they related, That a Man more glorious than the Sun, being busie in erecting the Crosses, died. But these People, though so courteous and civil at first, seem’d in few days to be weary of their company; which the _Spaniards_ observing sounded a Retreat, and Sailing Westerly, proceeded on their intended Design, and soon after anchor’d before _Campechium_; the King of which conducted _Fernandez_ and _Morantes_, with some others, into the City, consisting of three thousand Houses. In his Palace they were entertain’d with all manner of Fowl roasted: After which refreshment they survey’d the City; in which, amongst other curious Buildings, was a high, but square Theatre of Marble, on which stood the Image of a Man, on all corners assaulted by four wild Beasts, which were of a no less strange than horrible shape. Not far from this Image they saw a Serpent fashion’d up of Chalk and little Stones, whose coyl’d up Tail was forty seven Foot long, and of a proportionable thickness. This Serpent, sprinkled with Mens Blood yet warm, seem’d to prey upon a Marble Lyon: both these were inclos’d with a Stone Rail, within which Malefactors were daily executed. Bloody Bows and Arrows broke in small pieces lay between the Bones and dead Bodies. _Igniguez_ call’d the King _Lazarus_, because he discover’d his Countrey on _St. Lazarus_’s Day.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Moscobo_ a City.]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ slain.]

[Sidenote: Mighty Island _Cosumella_.]

Making no long stay here, they return’d to their Ship, and weighing Anchor Sail’d fifty Leagues more Westerly, the Fleet got sight of _Moscobo_, in the Territory _Aguanil_, whose King assaulted the _Spaniards_ with so much fury, that two and twenty of them were slain, and scarce one escap’d which was not wounded: wherefore they return’d with bad success to _Cuba_. Yet _Velasques_ no ways discourag’d thereat, not long after fitted out four Vessels, Manning them with three hundred Men under the Command of _Juan Grisalva_ and _Alamines_; who having Sail’d seventy Leagues, discover’d the fruitful Island _Cosumella_; along whose Shore stood fair Stone Edifices, intermix’d with Temples, whose Steeples appear’d above the Houses. _Grisalva_ being led up into one of these Steeples by a Priest, saw at a distance off at Sea the Territory _Jucatan_: and in the Place where they were, there were spacious Halls, full of Marble and Stone Images of deformed Men and Beasts, which with a murmuring noise, and burning of incense they religiously worship. The _Spaniards_ call’d this Island _Sancta Cruz_.

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ fight with the _Campechiums_.]

Sailing from hence they directed their Course to _Campechium_, where the year before they had been so civilly treated; where arriving, and without any fear coming ashore, they found the _Campechiums_ quite of another humor than they were the former year, telling them, They would not suffer any Strangers to be amongst them; and placing a burning Torch between theirs and the _Spanish_ Forces, threatned, That if they did not depart in quiet, they would force them: which accordingly they endeavor’d, making a fierce Onset upon the _Spaniards_; who being now come under their Battlements, when they saw their advantage, pour’d what they had kept as a reserve, whole Volleys of small Shot amongst them; which struck so much terror, that they all ran away, shifting for themselves, and crowding into the City.

The _Spaniards_ found afterwards _Jucatan_ to be but a _Peninsula_, and came before a River which fell with so strong a Current into the _Mexican Sea_, that it retain’d its sweetness for the space of two Leagues.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Strange passages on _Tabasco_.]

This River, flowing out of the Province _Tabasco_, was call’d _Grisalva_: upon whose Banks stood above six thousand _Americans_; and in the Water appear’d a hundred Boats with Armed Men, which Row’d aboard the _Spanish_ Ships. The Interpreters of _Cuba_, whose Language agrees for the most part with the _Tabascers_, prevail’d so much, that the King himself came to the chief Commander _Grisalva_, and bartering with him, gave him as much Gold as his Iron Helmet, Breastplate, and other Armor weighed.

[Sidenote: _Sacrifice Island._]

Soon after they Landed on the _Island of Sacrifice_, so call’d from the horrid Sacrifices which the Inhabitants made daily.

[Sidenote: Exceeding horrible Sacrifices.]

Amongst other strange Images, there flood a great Lyon of Marble, seeming almost decollated with a great gash; into which Wound they pour’d humane Blood warm, which was receiv’d into a Stone Trough set for that purpose underneath; then the Figure of a Man Carv’d in Alabaster, bowing forward, as if looking into the Trough upon the Blood. Those which were sacrificed were Prisoners taken on the neighboring Coasts, whom bringing before their Idols, they ripping open make no farther inspection, but onely to whip out the Heart; with which having smear’d the Lips of their Idols, they throw it into the Fire: the Heads and Corps they let lie unburi’d; whose fleshy parts, especially their Cheeks, they feast upon.

[Sidenote: _Maiden-Island._]

The next Island is inhabited by Women; to which Annually their Neighbors go, pretending merry kindness, but upon amorous inclinations: and Plough and Till their Ground, and Weed their Gardens.

[Sidenote: _Pontenchianum_ a City.]

The chief City of _Tabasco_ is _Pontenchianum_, and contains above fifteen hundred Houses, all built of Stone hardned with baking after their manner; which in some Places, besides their Turrets and Temples, yield a pleasant Prospect at a great distance. Fourteen eminent Towns more did the _Spaniards_ also see in _Tabasco_.

[Sidenote: Strange making of Obligations.]

When in conversing with them they observ’d their strange manner of Sealing their Bargains and Contracts one with another, they were amaz’d, for not using Wax, they usually Seal’d their Compacts with their own Blood, commonly drawn with a Stone Knife, either from their Tongue, Hand, or Arms.

Their Priests live single, and if found to be Unchast, are punisht with Death. An Adulteress is sold for a Slave: Unmarry’d People may not frequently converse with Marry’d: Thirty five days in the year makes their _Lent_, in which they abstain not onely from Flesh, but Fish also, feeding onely upon Roots and Herbs. In this place the _Spaniards_ were receiv’d in great state, Canopy’d with green Palm-Tree-Branches, and in like manner conducted aboard again, not without many Presents, _viz._ the Effigies of a Man curiously wrought in Gold, wherewith they return’d to _Cuba_.

SECT. IXA. _The Expedition of_ Ferdinand Magaglian, _commonly call’d_ Magellane.

[Sidenote: Bishop _Casis_ sad effect concerning the Pearl catching.]

The Bishop _Bartholomew de Casis_, living a considerable time in _Hispaniola_, in the City _Dominico_, being inform’d of the abundance of Pearls which were caught before _Cubagua_, and the unsupportable cruelty of the _Spaniards_ there under _Ocampus_, us’d against the Inhabitants, went to _Spain_, with a design to obtain of the Emperor _Charles the Fifth_, the Government over _Cumana_ and _Cubagua_, under pretence, to draw the ignorant Natives from their Idolatry, to _Christianity_; which his request was especially promoted by _William_ of _Nassaw_, the Emperors prime Favorite; so that having his Letters Patents granted to that purpose, he took Ship, and arriv’d with three hundred _Spanish_ Gentlemen of Quality in _Cumana_: And that they might have the greater respect shown to them there, they had each a Red Cross given them, such as the Knights of _Calatrava_ generally wear. Yet little did _Ocampus_, the old Governor of _Cumana_, regard either them or their Authority; for in stead of receiving and submitting, he kept the Bishop _de Casis_ out by force of Arms; who then made complaint to the _Vice-Roy_ of the _West-Indies_ in _Hispaniola_, and in the mean time, put his _Cargo_ into a new Store-house.

But whilst he made his Addresses, _Ocampus_ having sufficiently inrich’d himself departed, which incourag’d the _Cumaners_, who already were incens’d, and weary of their former sufferings, to venture on a design, whereby they might revenge themselves of the _Spaniards_, which their undertaking prov’d so successful, that very few escap’d the Massacre: Of which, _de Casis_ being inform’d, and much discontented thereat, betook himself to a _Dominican_ Cloyster in _Hispaniola_.

[Sidenote: Cruelty of _Castellio_ in _Cumana_.]

Yet not long after, the _Cumaners_ paid dear for that slaughter, for one _Castellio_, though not without several Engagements, with various success, lasting forty days together, having at last utterly vanquish’d them, put to an ignominious Death, Hanging up seventy of their Princes, and to them of meaner quality, shewing as little mercy.

[Sidenote: _Lampagnano_ discontented.]

As little success had _Lodowick Lampagnano_, sent out by some _Spanish_ Merchants, with Letters Patents from the Emperor to Fish for Pearl, before the same _Cubagua_; to which purpose he carry’d peculiar Nets and other necessaries with him. But the _Cubaguan Spaniards_ unanimously withstood him; so that not being able to effect his design, overpower’d with a Melancholly Distemper that broke his Heart, he dy’d.

[Sidenote: _Magellanus_ Expedition, how it happen’d.]

In the interim, while these scarce considerable Voyages turn’d to so small account, _Ferdinand Magaglianus_ (for so _Peter Martyr_ calls him, and not _Magellanus_, which herein deserves to be credited, because they were intimately acquainted, and great friendship between them,) undertook to Sail round about the World; the occasion of which we will here relate at large:

This _Magaglianus_, or _Magellanus_, a Gentleman of _Portugal_, having perform’d things of great importance for his King, in _Africa_, although with no less trouble than Charge, desir’d an addition of half a Ducket a Moneth added to his Annual Pension; an inconsiderable Sum to make a Request for, yet though so little, was as niggardly deny’d: Whereupon, highly incensed, he study’d no little revenge; to which effect, soon after an opportunity was presented, by means of _Franciscus Serranus_, who writ from _Ternata_ to him, that he should speedily come thither, which he soon after did upon this account:

[Sidenote: Strange Giant.]

Pope _Alexander_ the Sixth, having fixt Terminaries between the Kings of _Castile_ and _Portugal_, both busie at that time in discovering new Countreys, Order’d, That _Castile_ should possess all the Coasts lying to the West of the chief _Meridian_, and _Portugal_ to the East: By vertue of this partition, the rich Spicy _Molucca_ Islands fell absolutely to the _Portuguese_: Now _Magellanus_ perswaded _Charles the Fifth_, that they might be Sail’d to with a Westerly Course, and therefore belong’d to _Castile_; Which advice, _Charles the Fifth_ considering, and approving, Rigg’d out five Ships, with which _Magellanus_ set Sail from _Sevil_, the tenth of _August, Anno 1519._ five Moneths he ply’d up and down the Coast inhabited by the _Patagones_, where he found none but one single Person, or rather a Monster, a Giant ten Foot high, who coming Aboard his Ship, devour’d a great Hamper full of Biskets, and at one Draught drunk up nine Pottels of Water. He also saw several Trees which had been Hew’n with Axes, and Crosses made on the tops of them. Whilst he lay in that Harbor, which was call’d _St. Julian_, he Cashier’d his Vice-Admiral, _John Carthagena_, with his Father Confessor, and sparing their lives, set them ashore, and there left them to seek their Fortunes, though they had Conspir’d to Murther him.

[Sidenote: _Straights_ of _Magellan_, how found.]

_Magellanus_ from thence Sailing afterwards Southerly along _America_, to forty two Degrees Southern Latitude, was engag’d with the eddyings of a very strong Current, which driving one of the Ships into a Bay, split against a blind Rock, but the Men being sav’d in their Boat, were driven farther and farther into a Channel, between high and Snowy Mountains; whereupon he immediately judg’d (as the famous Negromancer _Roderick Talerus_ had often told him) that there was the Passage, through which the Northern Ocean flow’d into the Southern; wherefore he resolutely adventur’d to Sail into those _Sraights_, which in some places narrow, and in others broad, is an hundred and twenty Leagues long, and full of small Isles and dangerous Rocks. Whilst he still Sail’d on, the Ship call’d _Antonio_, Tacking about, return’d to _Cadiz_.

But _Magellanus_ enter’d the great South-Sea with three Sail, on the 25. of _October_, where the Sea-men suffer’d extremely by excessive Heat, Drought, and Famine, three Moneths and twenty Days, without sight of Land: And now, their Shooes, and the Leather which cover’d their Shields, began also to grow scarce (which before had been counted a Dainty) when they discover’d two Islands lying two hundred Leagues distance one from another, yet both Desolate and Barren, wherefore they were call’d the _Unfortunate Isles_: After that, they came amongst a great number of Islands, whose Inhabitants were much inclin’d to Thievery; for which cause they Denominated them _Ladrones_, the chiefest Island call’d _Borneo_, hath two hundred fifty four Leagues in Circumference, whereon a Tree grows, whose Leaves when faln off, seem to be alive and creep like Worms. The King of this Island entertain’d the _Spaniards_ very courteously, two Elephants bringing his Presents to them on the Shore, out of a City consisting of twenty thousand Houses.

[Sidenote: _Magellanus_ slain.]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ murdered.]

[Sidenote: An end of the Voyage about the world.]

Near _Borneo_ are two lesser Islands, call’d, _Zubo_ and _Matan_; The King of _Zubo_ freely submitted himself to the _Spaniards_, and _Magellanus_ leaving his Fleet at Anchor in the Haven, went with his own and other _Indian_ Boats, and attended with some of the _Zubensers_ to _Matan_, where setting a Village on Fire, he carry’d great Riches from thence: This not satisfying, he resolv’d within eight days to set upon the Royal Head-City; but the King in his own Defence, Encountering with _Magellanus_, slew him, and seven _Spaniards_ more, besides twenty two dangerously wounded; those which escap’d by flight, got to _Zubo_, where being invited to Dinner by the King, they were all of them (in stead of a second Course) Murther’d at Table. The occasion of this was out of Revenge, because the _Spaniards_ had fall’n too foul upon their Women and Maids, Devirginating, and forcing them to their Pleasure, than which rudeness nothing was among them more Detestable. The Sea-men weakned by these Misfortunes, were necessitated to burn their third Ship, call’d, _St. Jago_; but Sailing to the _Molucco_ Islands with the other two, they Freighted them both with Cloves; with which the Ship _Trinitas_ Sail’d to _New-Spain_ through the South-Sea, and the _Victoria_, Commanded by _John Sebastian de Lano_ went the same way which the _Portuguese_ us’d, and so to St. _Lucar de Barrameda_, near _Sivile_, where he came to Anchor with his Ship and eighteen Men.

SECT. X. Ferdinando Cortez _his Voyage_.

[Sidenote: _Sottus_ cruelty.]

Although several Expeditions of the _Spaniards_ to _America_ prov’d very unsuccessful at the first, yet they still undertook them afresh, and with renewing Courage: _Ferdinando Sottus_, though he Landed five hundred Men in _Florida_, yet brought no Treasure from thence, onely he cut off the Hands of fifteen Princes, because they would not discover their Mines of Gold.

[Sidenote: Miserable end of _Narvaez_.]

Yet far worse success had _Pamphilus Narvaez_, who lost both his Fleet and Men, saving onely ten out of six hundred, in the River _Palma_, and they also afterwards dy’d there, or eat one another to satisfie their raging Hunger.

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ his Voyage.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable delivery.]

But much better was the fortune of _Ferdinando Cortez_, Sailing from _Spain_ to _America_, in the Year 1519. who having the Command given him over ten stout Ships, and three Frigats with five hundred Foot, and an additional Force of sixteen Horse, rais’d by the new _Spanish_ Inhabitants on Cuba; with which Forces Landing on the Island _Cozumella_, he prohibited Humane Sacrifice to their Idols, and Erected a Cross with the Image of the Virgin _Mary_, in one of their Temples, and releas’d _Hieronimus Aquilaris_, after a seven years Slavery, having suffer’d Shipwrack with _Valdivia_; at which time some that sav’d themselves in the Boat, were by the Current in thirty days driven to _Jucatan_, in which time seven dy’d of Hunger; the rest going ashore, were no sooner Landed, but Sacrific’d by the Natives to their Gods or _Zemes_. Among the six that remain’d, yet left alive, and to be offer’d after the same manner the next day, was this _Aquilaris_, who with his Companions, breaking Prison, in the following night fled to a Neighboring Prince their Enemy, and one that maintain’d a continual War against these _Cannibals_.

[Sidenote: Strange Battel.]

[Sidenote: _Potanchanum_, a City.]

[Sidenote: _Colvacan_ Books, of what fashion, as also their Temples.]

Here _Cortez_ sent Articles of Peace to _Taxmarus_ the King of the Countrey, but he sleighting his proffer, came down upon him into the Field with forty thousand Men, drawn from the City _Potanchanum_, which contain’d above twenty thousand Houses, all built of Stone: And indeed the _Spaniards_ had here seen their last day, had not _Cortez_ drawn by a seeming advantage the Enemies under his Canon, and sent his small Party of Horse to attend the motion of the Rear; when so soon as they had fir’d their Canon, making great Execution, the Front routed, and the Rear terrifi’d with the noise and smoke of the Guns, they also broke, being at the same instant Charg’d with the Horse, which were so terrible to them that never saw Horses, nor such Service on Horseback before, that in a short time the whole Body of so great an Army was utterly dissipated, and the triumphing Conquerors took possession of the empty City _Potanchanum_, where Solacing, they staid a whole Moneth. Then from hence they Sail’d to _Colvaca_, where, upon the request of the Natives, they settled a Colony. Amongst the Presents which were there given to the _Spaniards_, were some of their own Volumes, Books, whose Leaves were made of the innermost Rind of a Tree, and a kind of Paste, made of their Meal, glew’d together; the Characters stood at some distance one after another, rang’d like our _Christ-Cross Row_, or _A_, _B_, _C_.

Here _Cortez_ was amaz’d to behold their stately Temples, the Floors whereof were cover’d with Embroyder’d Tapestry, beset with Precious Stones, to which great multitudes flock’d, being very zealous to perform their Devotions.

When their Seed is put into the Ground, or come to its full growth, they offer young Children to their _Zemez_, richly Cloth’d, having been fatten’d some Weeks before: When they want Children they kill their Slaves, and in default of them, they pacifie them with Dogs.

[Sidenote: Strange Sacrifices.]

The _Victims_ that go to be Sacrific’d, they Worship with all Adoration, Bowing and Congying before them.

[Sidenote: Strange Idol-Worship.]

Their Zeal in this their Idol-Worship may appear from a strange Custom, observ’d by them when they enter their Temple, _viz._ they either draw Blood out of their Tongues, Lips, Ears, Breast, Knees, or Palm of their Hands, which they throw into the Air, supposing thereby to be pardon’d by their indulgent Gods.

[Sidenote: _Zempoal_, a City.]

In the City _Zempoal_, _Cortez_ found five Slaves, who being kept close Prisoners, were to be Sacrific’d the next day; but he releasing them, did upon the importunate request of the _Quines_, or Priests, and promises of great ransoms, and their telling of him that the _Zemez_ would spoil all their Seed and Plants that year, if they did not go on with these Offerings, restor’d the Prisoners again; who, though the enjoyments of all happinesses in the other World were promis’d them by their Priest, and great assurance given thereof; yet they were not forward, but return’d, unwilling to suffer, though by so gainful a Sacrifice.

[Sidenote: _Zemez_ wonderful Idols.]

At the _Zemez_ Feet hung abundance of Mens Bones bundled up together, and under them were Written the Names of their Enemies, whose Flesh had been either Sacrific’d or eaten.

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ his Exploits.]

Twelve Leagues beyond _Zempoal_, _Cortez_ built a new City near the River _Grisalva_, and call’d it _Vera Crux_, which _Diego Velasques_ resented so ill, it being done without his knowledge, that he petition’d the Council of _Cuba_ to give Sentence of Death against the Founder: But whilst _Cortez_ expected an answer from the Embassadors (which were sent to the _Spanish_ Court to give account of the necessity of building a City there) he travell’d eighty Leagues Westerly. The _Zempoalensers_ accompanied him in great Troops, hoping by that means to shake off the yoke of the mighty King _Montezuma_, against whom they were then design’d. _Cortez_ coming into the Territory of _Sincuchimalar_, was in the Name of _Montezuma_, by one of his Princes, courteously entertain’d in a great Village, scituate on a steep Mountain, without any Path or Way leading to it, but by two high Ladders. _Sincuchimalar_ lies surrounded with Hills, whose tops seem to touch the Clouds. Coming down from the Village, they travell’d through a barren and cold Valley, where they suffer’d such great Inconveniences by want of Provisions and Water, and exceeding coldness of the Weather, that many of them perish’d. After that, they ascended a pleasant Hill, on whose summit stood a Chappel, with a handsom Steeple, and hedg’d about with great heaps of Wood, brought thither by the Inhabitants for the use of their Sacrifices. At the foot of this Mountain was a fruitful Valley water’d by a pleasant River, on whose Banks a certain Prince nam’d _Cacataminus_ had a Palace, built of Stone, and containing many Rooms, and convenient Lodgings. Somewhat higher to the Land, appear’d more of the like Structures, which were all under _Montezuma_’s Jurisdiction; but the neighboring Countrey _Tlaxcalla_, whose Inhabitants were famous for their Valor, would never receive any Laws from _Montezuma_.

[Sidenote: Remarkable War in _Tlaxcalla_.]

_Cortez_ no sooner set footing in this Countrey, but he was set upon by a thousand of the Inhabitants, who at the first Assault kill’d two of the _Spanish_ Horse, yet after this bold Charge, the Assailants fled, and on the next day desir’d Peace; whereupon the _Spaniards_ march’d quietly into the Countrey, when a confus’d Company, or Forlorn-Hope, making a horrible Noise, set upon them; but after a slight Skirmish, they fled to their Main Body, which immediately drawing up, being at least a hundred thousand, hemm’d in the handful of _Spaniards_, and so were ready to swallow them, leaving them no Angle to escape at. Thus invironed, they were assailed on every side, fighting till Sun-set, and had undoubtedly been utterly destroy’d, had not _Cortez_ ply’d his six Pieces of Cannon, discharging continually Volley after Volley upon them; and though the Execution was very much, yet the Sound and report of their Ordinance was more terrible to them that were out of the reach of the Bullet, and made more to the gaining so great a Victory, Fear conquering more than Slaughter; so that by the Evening, despairing either of their Safety or better Fortune, the whole Army disbanding fled: But the pursuing Conquerors firing five of their Villages, remain’d Masters of the Field; yet they, though thus totally routed, taking fresh Courage (a wonderful thing!) reinforc’d them, and set upon the _Spanish_ Camp, with no less than 150000 Fighting Men: Yet notwithstanding so vast an Army, _Cortez_ so well order’d his small parcel of Men, and so valiantly led on upon all Advantages, that he in like manner defeated this, as they thought, Invincible Preparation. Thus flesh’d with so much Blood of the Natives, he raged every where, giving no Quarter where-ever he went.

Mean while _Quesitangal_, a neighboring Prince, having also raised an Army with which he design’d, being assisted by darkness, craftily to fall into the _Spanish_ Quarters by Night, subtilly dissembling, sent Embassadors the day before, with several Presents, and Overtures of Peace, which indeed were onely Spies, to take notice where they might best break in upon them; which _Cortez_ mistrusting, and soon being inform’d of the whole Design, he cut off the Spies Hands, so sending them back to _Quesitangal_ with Defiance: Hereupon the _Indians_ immediately setting forward, took advantage of the ensuing Night, and with great fury fell upon the _Spaniards_, who preacquainted with the Design, were in so good a posture to receive them, that not able to endure such hot Service, they quickly retreated, and utterly gave over the Enterprize: But _Cortez_ as much encourag’d by these Victories, pursu’d them, and the same Night Storm’d _Tlaxcalla_, a City containing above twenty thousand Houses, which in few Hours he carried. This City was curiously built, of bak’d Stones, and a place of great Trade; insomuch that the Market-places swarm’d with Buyers and Sellers, bartering one with another all manner of Provisions, as Fish, Flesh, and Bread, also Plumes of Feathers, Pearls, imbroyder’d Tapestry, Chalk, Stones, Timber, and Herbs.

Twenty days _Cortez_ staid here to refresh his Army, and then march’d to the neighboring City _Chiurutical_, with the Auxiliary Forces of the _Tlaxcallans_, to the number of above a hundred thousand; they told him, That the People of _Chiurutical_ had barricado’d up their Streets, laid upon the tops of their Houses great heaps of Stones, that their upper Rooms were cramm’d with Archers, and all things made ready both for Offence and Defence; which Advertisement he not much hearkned to, because he was conducted into the City with all their State-Formalities of Singing and Tabering upon their _Tamboes_, and every where courteously entertain’d.

[Sidenote: A Plot strangely discover’d.]

[Sidenote: Strange Martial Affairs.]

Mean while _Montezuma_ had rais’d a great Army, which were in their advance, not onely to the defence of his Border, but to surprize them while they staid in that City, the Townsmen having invited him thither to their rescue and his own defence, had not the Plot been accidentally discover’d by a _Chirutecan_ Woman, who giving advice to one of her Friends that follow’d _Cortez_, that he should immediately make his escape, because that all the Strangers would be destroy’d within few Hours, who came and inform’d _Cortez_ thereof; whereupon he desir’d all the Magistrates of the City to come and speak with him, who no sooner entred the Hall where he was, but his Men by Command immediately shot them to death, which terrible Rumor spreading, and alarm’d with the report of the Executing Musquets, the City was suddenly in an Uproar, gathering thither Arm’d from all Places, and began a sharp Conflict, which lasted five Hours; but then wearied out, and despairing of Success, loosing their Courage, they desir’d a Cessation, and at last concluded Peace with the _Spaniards_.

[Sidenote: Now _Mexico_.]

This News of his discover’d Intention, so startled _Montezuma_, that he suppos’d it better to desist, and procure the Favor of _Cortez_ by Presents; wherefore he sent him 15000 Cotton Habits, trim’d up very richly, ten great Chargers of Gold, and some Vessels of Wine, desiring him for a while to forbear his Intentions of marching to _Tenustitan_ his Chief City, and that he would in the mean while treat with him for an Accommodation. But _Cortez_, though he accepted of the Presents, yet nevertheless held his Resolution of marching on.

[Sidenote: Wonderful Mountain _Popocatepeque_.]

[Sidenote: Resolution of two _Spaniards_.]

Eight Leagues from _Tenustitan_ he saw the double-spired Mountain _Popocatepeque_, so call’d from the Smoke which continually ascends from its top; for _Popoca_ signifies _A Smoke_, and _Tepeque, A Mountain_. The Smoke rises upright, and with so much strength, that by the greatest Wind it deviates not one jot from mounting upwards in a direct Line, to whose forked Head ten _Spaniards_ resolv’d to climb; but having got scarce half way up, they were forc’d to return, the Ashes lying knee-deep; yet at last two more resolute conquer’d all those Difficulties, and got to the top, where the mouth of the Cave, as they guessed, measur’d four Miles in Circumference: The shaking of the Mountain, and roaring of the Flames, frequently bursting forth, so much terrified them, that they staid not long there; for, as we said, the Ground not onely trembled under them, but the Fiery Gulph ejected great Stones, which falling down on all sides of the Mountain, rolled to the bottom; and without doubt they had there perish’d, had they not speedily run to a hollow neighboring Hill, from whence they came at length to the rest of their Company, where they were admir’d by the _Indians_ for their undaunted Resolution, and presented with several rich Gifts. These _Indians_ had a Tradition, That for wicked Princes, and such as had not govern’d the People well, this was the _Tophet_ appointed for their Torments.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Strange Cities in _America_.]

[Sidenote: A very strange Cawse-way.]

_Cortez_ being got through the poor Territory of the _Guazazingers_, and having suffer’d great Cold upon the Mountains, discover’d _Amaquameca_, the chief City of the Province _Chialco_, seated in a great Lake, to which he row’d in a kind of Boats, by the Inhabitants call’d _Acales_. Passing from thence, he was courteously receiv’d in _Iztapalapa_, another City, which boasts above eight thousand Stone Buildings, besides admirable Palaces, with spacious Rooms, delightful Gardens, and Ponds full of Fish, and almost cover’d with Fowl; from whence a Wall or Cawse-way of a great breadth, that cross’d over both Land and Water, led from _Iztapalapa_ to _Tenustitan_. This Cawse-way hath many Bridges, which are drawn up in time of War, under which the Water runs out of a Salt Lake into a Fresh, that ebbs and flows, although lying between high Mountains, and seventy Leagues from the Sea.

On both sides this Wall, being ten Leagues in length, appears three great Towns, _viz._ _Mesiqualisingo_, _Colvacana_, and _Vuichilabusco_, all Populous, and well-built.

[Sidenote: How they make Salt.]

_Colvacana_ is supplied by the Salt Lake, to its no small benefit and inriching; for the Water being by Pipes convey’d into the City, in all the Places and Cisterns for its reception makes a Scum, which being coagulated by the Sun, and after boyl’d, becomes Salt, with which they drive a great Trade; for no Salt being to be had in any place but here, all Foreign Merchants come thither for Supply.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Passage of King _Montezuma_.]

_Cortez_ being in his March within a League and a half of _Tenustitan_, _Montezuma_, preceded with a thousand of his Nobless, came to meet and salute him, all of them rather like Pilgrims, bare-footed, and congying, kissing their right Hands, with which they first kiss’d the Ground: After them appear’d _Montezuma_ himself, who put a Chain of Gold, imboss’d with Pearls, about _Cortez_ his Neck, and immediately conducted him to the City, where having entred, and being come into the Palace, _Montezuma_ plac’d _Cortez_ on a Golden Throne, and surrendred up his Right to his Catholick Majesty of _Spain_, in the presence of all his Peers, to their no small amazement.

But whilst all things had a good face, and went on thus fairly beyond their expectations, _Cortez_ was inform’d, That King _Coalcopoca_ had a Design on the new City _Vera Crux_, and had treacherously murder’d two of the Garrison, and wounded two more: Whereupon _Cortez_ having such fair beginnings, who had swallow’d already in his Hopes the whole Empire and Wealth belonging to _Montezuma_, laid hold of this Occasion, pretending Treason, and breach of Contract; wherefore he put _Montezuma_ under Custody, notwithstanding he had clear’d himself of the Conspiracy, by bringing _Coalcopoca_, with his Sons, and fifteen of his Peers, Prisoners to _Tenustitan_, who by the command of _Cortez_ suffer’d a lingering death, being all burnt with Green Wood. But in vain did _Montezuma_ think to reconcile himself with _Cortez_, since all he did could render no manner of satisfaction; however he continu’d to oblige him by fresh Favors, whose Relation we will be more particular in, as meriting the same.

[Illustration: Vetus MEXICO]

[Sidenote: Description of the Royal City _Tenustitan_.]

[Sidenote: _Cacaos_, what manner of Fruit.]

[Sidenote: Stately Temple.]

[Sidenote: Horrible Images.]

_Montezuma_’s Grandees seem’d to be much discontented, because he had without the least resistance or consideration setled a handful of Strangers to domineer over his whole Dominions, by which his weakness and pusillanimity, he was now a Prisoner, like a common Malefactor, who had formerly govern’d so mighty Territories. Amongst several Princes which seem’d thus to be concern’d, was _Catumazin_ Governor of the Province _Hacolvacan_ who had he not been surpriz’d and attaqu’d the Night before by the information and discovery of _Montezuma_ himself, he would have hazarded the ruine of all _Cortez_ his Successes: But now Fortune still daily more smil’d, giving wonderful Advantages to the _Spaniards_; Silver and Gold continually flowing like Rivers from all Quarters, that their onely trouble and puzzle was where and how to dispose it: but yet for all this, they were not free from jealousie, that _Montezuma_’s Forces might swallow theirs, though he was secur’d; of which you may judge by the vastness of his Imperial City _Tenustitan_, seated in the Province of _Mexico_, where a Salt Lake mixes its Waters with a fresh River, both which in circumference contain, as we said, seventy Leagues, and distant from the Main Land five or six Miles; the Water about it continually cover’d with small Boats rowing up and down. It hath four Stone, besides DrawBridges in several Places, and strengthned with Gates no less artificial than costly, which lead from the City to the Main Land. The Fresh Water is convey’d through the Salt in a Wall’d Channel, out of which none may take up Water, except they pay Excise to the Kings Farmers. This City boasts above sixty thousand Houses, all divided into Islands, but joyn’d with great Wooden Bridges: The Market-place surrounded with Galleries, drives a quick and constant Trade, being always full of Buyers and Sellers. In every Street they have a publick Inn, in each of which they keep Ordinaries, wherein the Tables are stor’d with well-dress’d Flesh and Fish, not wanting plenty of Wine. Their Trades are divided into several Companies, and they have their peculiar Places to dwell in. They deal very much in _Cacaos_, a Fruit not unlike an Almond, which beaten to Powder, and prepar’d with several other Ingredients, gives name to that excellent Drink now in use with us, call’d _Chocolate_: They grow onely on moist and warm Grounds, and are us’d so currently in Trade, that they go in stead of Money. Amongst many beautiful Edifices, their Guild is very magnificent, wherein twelve Judges, attended by a considerable number of Officers and Servants, sit daily, hearing and determining all manner of Causes. The next is their Chief Temple or Minster, built quadrangular, all of Free-Stone, having four Portals, opening into the four principal Streets or Triumphs, that end at the four Stone Bridges. On the Walls, being of an exceeding height, stand several Turrets, so high, that they seem to hide their Spires in the Clouds; and have Apartments, wherein the Priests Diet, Lodge, and Study, which are ascended by Marble Steps. These Religious Persons are generally of Noble Extract, which at seven years old are carried thither, where leading a very strict Life, they never come forth to see the World, till they enter the State of Matrimony. The famous _Colossus_, that stood over the _Rhodian_ Haven, between whose Legs all Ships did Sail, that came in or went out of the Harbor, cannot stand in competition with the stupendious Idol _Vuichilabuchichi_, whose Head touches the Arch’d Ceiling of the high Temple. Near his stand several lesser Images, made of Meal and all sorts of Herbs bak’d together, and kneaded with Mens Blood. Along the Walls are exceeding dark Vaults, in which the Priests onely walk; over them are large Halls, full of Presentations of their Gods, which serve for the Burying-places of their Kings.

Whilst _Cortez_ and _Montezuma_ were viewing the Temple, two _Spaniards_ rush’d suddenly into one of the Cells, where they found abundance of Lamps and Torches burning, and the Walls bedaub’d two Inches thick with Humane Gore: Over-head hung vast numbers of their Sacrificing Knives; and the stench of the place was intollerable.

[Sidenote: Grandeur of the Kings in _Tenustitan_.]

[Sidenote: Strange Garden-houses.]

But _Cortez_ going on, _Montezuma_ and his Attendants resented it very hainously, that he pull’d down some of their Idols, and durst presume to look in the Kings Face; for those People bear so great Reverence to their Kings, that none dares so much as once look up in their presence: His Council stand bare-footed, stooping with their Faces bow’d almost to the Ground before him: Four times a day they change their Apparel; and a Suit which they have once worn, is put to no other use, but presented to such Soldiers as have done some eminent Service. Whatever manner of Chargers, Dishes, Pots, Cups, and other Vessels the Emperor is serv’d in at his Table, are every Meal new. The King hath in _Tenustitan_ three great Structures, whose Magnificence, for Cost and rare Architecture, can hardly be parallell’d. The first is the Residence for all deform’d People: The second, an _Aviary_ for all manner of Birds and Fowl, being a spacious open place, Roof’d with Nets, and surrounded with Marble Galleries. The third, being a Den for Wild Beasts, was divided into several Rooms, wherein were kept Lions, Tygers, Wolves, Foxes, and all manner of Four-footed Animals.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ beaten afresh.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Exploits of _Cortez_.]

[Sidenote: _Tenustitan_, or _Mexico_, taken.]

But whilst _Cortez_ having staid waiting eight Months in _Tenustitan_, for the return of the Messengers sent to the _Spanish_ Court, receiv’d Tidings, That _Pamphilo Narvaecy_, by order of _Velasques_, was come with eighteen Sail, Mann’d with eight hundred Foot, and eighty Horse, from _Cuba_, and now riding before the _Mexican_ Coast; from whence soon after he receiv’d unexpected Command, to come presently aboard unarm’d, and resign up his Authority: But he in stead of submission, compell’d _Narvaecy_ in a short time to relinquish his Title, and own him for Superior. Mean while the _Spaniards_ which remain’d in possession of _Tenustitan_, ran the hazard of a general Massacre; for the Citizens much stomacking the Oppressions of the _Spaniards_, who grew very insolent, inslaving their King, bringing their inveterate Enemies the _Tlaxcallans_ and _Guazuzingans_ into their City, exacting them to pay Tributes, pulling down their Gods, and demolishing their ancient Idols, they brake out from all Parts in a tumultuous manner, ran to Arms, and besieg’d them Day and Night in their Fort, although _Montezuma_ endeavor’d to perswade the contrary. _Cortez_, hearing of it, came to their relief with the New Forces Landed from _Cuba_; but he fighting his way ere he could get in, was so roughly entertain’d by the _Mexicans_, that they kill’d him forty Men, wounding as many more; and notwithstanding fifteen Field-pieces with continual Shot made foul Breaches, lessening the number of the Assailants, yet they suddenly fill’d up their Vacancies again with fresh Men, which clamber’d over the Heaps of those that lay slain. Three Days the Battel had continu’d very fierce, when _Montezuma_ being with the _Spaniards_ in the Castle, went to a low Window, to see if he could command his Subjects to retreat; but a continual Cry so deafned their Ears, and showres of Arrows and Stones so took away their sight, that he did nothing: Then _Montezuma_, thinking to be more easily either heard or seen, went to a higher Window, where looking out, he was unfortunately hit with a Stone, of which he died three days after. Besides their Enemies, the _Spaniards_ suffer’d extremely by Famine; and though they had beaten down a Tower, which had done the Castle great mischief, and set five hundred Houses on fire, yet they could discern no likely issue thereof, but judg’d it best to make their escape by Night over the nearest Bridge: _Cortez_ therefore dividing his gotten Treasures, which amounted to above seven hundred thousand Duckets, amongst his Soldiers, carried _Montezuma_’s Son, and two Daughters, Prisoners with him, though not without infinite danger and loss; for the _Tenustitans_ assail’d him on both sides, and falling in also upon his Rear, spar’d not to kill _Montezuma_’s own Children. In this last Fight the Service was so hot, that _Cortez_ lost forty two Horse, a hundred and fifty _Spaniards_, and two thousand Auxiliaries; and although gotten over the Lake, they were still pursu’d by the _Mexicans_, who would then undoubtedly have made a general Slaughter, had not _Cortez_ amused the Enemies, by leaving in the Night great Fires in several Places, his suppos’d Camps, whilst he silently stole away: Yet the _Tenustitans_ would have pursu’d the _Spaniards_, had they not wanted Provisions: But _Cortez_ sending his Treasure before him, through the Countrey _Colva_, to _Vera Crux_, with a Convoy of five Horse, and forty four Foot, were all cut off by the _Colvaans_, and feasted upon in a Thanksgiving Sacrifice. The same misfortune befel twelve _Spaniards_ in _Tepeacu_, which great City surrendred it self up to _Cortez_, being assisted by a mighty Army of _Tlaxcallans_ and others. But after all these Losses, he took _Guaccachiulla_, and _Izzuca_, both fortified with strong Walls and Gates; in which last he burnt above a hundred Temples, built for Humane Sacrifices. All the Countrey through which he thus ransack’d, he call’d _New-Spain_. From the City _Tazuco_, which he had newly taken, intending to besiege _Tenustitan_, he digg’d through the Lakes a broad Trench, of above three Leagues in length, to bring up thirteen new Ships to _Tenustitan_; and the neighboring People envying, that that City should not be conquer’d, as well as theirs, rais’d an Army of above a hundred and fifty thousand Men, making _Cortez_ their General: Himself incamped on one corner of the City, appointing the other two sides to be invested by _Gonsales Sandovalo_, and _Pedro Avarado_; but the Besieg’d resolutely broke out, and made a fierce Sally with five thousand Boats, setting upon the thirteen Ships; but the great Guns made such execution and havock amongst them, that they retreated with great damage. Whoever were taken Prisoners in this Fight by the _Spaniards_, the _Tlaxcallans_, being Commission’d by _Cortez_, feasted upon. On the seventh day the City was taken, but not without great Slaughter, and the new King imprison’d.

[Sidenote: Sad accident occasion’d by a _Tyger_.]

After this mighty Conquest, _Cortez_ resolv’d to discover those Territories that lay Southward; and whilst he was making all things ready for the Voyage, he sent two Ships with an invaluable Treasure to _Spain_, who fearing to be taken by the _French_ Pyrats, ran in at _Tercera_, where a miserable Accident hapned to the Seamen of the biggest Ship, wherein were carried two Tygers, which though taken young, and bred up amongst men, yet had not so quite forgotten their natural ferocity, but that one breaking loose in the Night, tore seven of them in pieces, hurting a far greater number, of which some had the Brawns of their Arms, the Calves of their Legs, and fleshy parts of their Thighs bit out.

[Sidenote: Strange Battel with Baboons.]

Several Places in _America_ breed Tygers, that far exceed Lyons in fierceness; so that where any considerable number of them frequents, though the Soil be never so fruitful, yet it is left desolate and forsaken. But the Baboons that frequent the Woods are more pleasant, and less dangerous. _Peter Arias_ relates, That his whole Army incountred with these Beasts, which climb’d from one Tree to the other, shrieking, and making very strange Gesticulations to those that were gone before, and gathering their Mouths and Hands full of Stones, which they threw as exact and strongly as a Man. When one of these Baboons, shot by a Musquet, fell to the Ground, the rest gave such a horrible shriek, that the Woods resounding with the noise, strook a terror into the _Spaniards_. Amongst several things that hapned in this Counter-scuffle, take this one: A _Spaniard_ taking aim with his Musquet at an old Baboon, which sate pearch’d up in a Tree, and being now just ready to give Fire, the Baboon Soldier, at the very instant, to break the Shot, taking a Stone out of his Mouth, threw it exactly into the Mans Mouth, with such force as beat out some of his Teeth; with which sudden blow surpris’d, he lost his Mark; and the proud Foe, shewing signs of Triumph, went his way.

[Sidenote: Great destruction.]

[Sidenote: The unfortunate Expedition of _Garajus_.]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ rosted.]

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ his Ambition.]

But whilst _Cortez_ staid in the Countrey of _Tenustitan_ (now call’d _Mexico_) _Franciscus Garajus_ sail’d out of the Haven of _Jamaica_, with eleven Ships, to the River _Panucus_, there, according to the Command of the Emperor _Charles_, to plant a Colony: Whereupon he went ashore, ordering his Fleet to sail along in sight of Land: So wading through the River _Montaltus_, which glides between high Mountains, he came to a Morassy Ground, in which he and they often sunk almost up to the Middle, and lost his way in a Thicket of young Trees; yet at last being come to the River _Panucus_, he found several high Walls, being the Ruines of Fortresses, Temples, and Towers, destroy’d by _Cortez_; so that the City lay quite desolate. Twenty Leagues further, upon the Banks of the same River, _Cortez_ had in like manner sack’d and destroy’d _Chiglia_, a Town which before its burning reckon’d above twenty thousand Houses, besides many fair Palaces, Walls, Towers, and Temples: Which Cruelties and Spoil had bred so great an _Odium_ in the Inhabitants against the _Spaniards_, that they immediately sent an Army against _Garajus_, who had only a few half-starv’d Men with him; yet he receiv’d the Enemy twice in his Retreat to the new Colony _St. Steven_, rais’d out of _Chiglia_’s Ruines; but finding no Provisions where-ever he came, he judg’d it fittest to send his Horse into the Countrey to Forage; which _Cortez_ meeting, took Prisoners, under pretence that _Garajus_ came to take Possession, where he had neither Authority nor Right. _Cortez_ also made himself Master of _Garajus_ Ship and Fleet, commanding him withal to appear in _Tenustitan_, which not knowing how to avoid, he obey’d: His People mean time ranging up and down without a Head or Commander, either died by Famine, or were murther’d and eaten by the Natives; for at one time the _Americans_ made a general Feast with two hundred and fifty rosted _Spaniards_: But their days of Triumph lasted not long; for _Sandovalus_, one of _Cortez_ his Prime Officers, set with so much fury upon those _Cannibals_, that he kill’d several thousands of them, and burnt sixty Persons of Prime Quality, all Commanders, in the sight of their Friends and Relations. But _Garajus_, whose Son was married to _Cortez_ his Daughter, liv’d not long after the Wedding, which occasion’d a murmur as if _Cortez_ had poyson’d him, to rid himself of a Partner in his Government; for it had been generally observ’d, that his Ambition suffer’d no Equal. The _Americans_ fell all down before him; all were Servants alike: The Court which he kept swarm’d with Attendance, on which he spent vast Sums of Money; yet his Incomes were able to bear such excessive Disbursements. He kept in constant Pay five thousand Soldiers, and several Ships ready rigg’d and prepar’d on all occasions, to hold in awe the enslav’d People, or else for the Discovery of New Countreys: Yet after all these extraordinary Charges defray’d, to shew his Wealth and Greatness, he caus’d a Piece of Cannon to be cast all of massie Gold: for the Kings which formerly acknowledg’d _Montezuma_ for their Sovereign, gave him a yearly Revenue, most of which were valu’d to be worth twenty three Tun of Gold; for so much the King of _Tescuscus_, a stately City, paid, whose Houses Plaister’d with White-Lime, seem’d afar off to be rather a Chalky Hill or Mountain, cover’d with Snow: Full as much did the King pay which reigned in _Otumba_, notwithstanding he had receiv’d with his _Christianity_ the Name of _Ferdinand Cortez_; yet others gave less: The King _Guacinalgo_, with his Mother, and some Slaves, bringing Gold, came to present it to _Cortez_; and entring the Palace, through a Guard of five hundred Horse and four Hundred Foot, which were always ready Arm’d for fear of Insurrections, he fell down prostrate on the Ground. Thus all things even out-went whatever he could desire, hope for, or imagine. And _Alvaredo_, one of his Commanders, being sent Eastwardly, brought great Treasures back with him, which the conquer’d Kings were forc’d to raise.

[Sidenote: His Misfortunes.]

But Fortune, who seldom continues her Favors long, at last began to frown; for _Cortez_ having sent an unvaluable Treasure of Gold and Pearls to the Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, _Floryn_ the _French_ Pyrate met with and took it, which went so much to his Heart, that for a considerable time he sent no Advice to the _Spanish_ Court, which made them grow jealous of him, doubting that he intended to make himself King over _New-Spain_; and this Suspicion was not a little augmented by his Enemies.

[Sidenote: A Plot of two _Spanish_ Officers.]

In the Neck of these, follow’d another Misfortune; for _Christopher Olitus_, sent out by _Cortez_ to discover new Countreys, rebelling, took up Arms against him, being then in the Haven _Figueras_, five hundred Leagues beyond. Notwithstanding the _Spaniards_, although amongst a new-conquer’d People, which without doubt long’d for Revenge, were not to take notice of their danger, but to go on with undaunted Resolution; whereupon _Cortez_ drawing out a strong Party, march’d a long and troublesom way to meet _Olitus_, making great Slaughters where-ever he came. _Francisco de las Casas_ was commanded to go upon the same Account by Sea, and arriving first, found him setling his new Colony, which he nam’d _Triumph de Sancta Crux_; and notwithstanding the Water with a Northerly Wind was very rough and boysterous in the Haven _Figueras_ (which the _Spaniards_ call’d so, because they found Trees there, which growing at the Foot of the Mountains, bore a Fruit not unlike a Fig) yet they came to a present Engagement, wherein _Casas_ worsting _Olitus_, having sunk one of his Ships, stood out again to Sea; but surpriz’d by a violent Storm, and driven on the Shore, fell into _Olitus_’s Hands, who had a little before also taken _Egidíus_ or _Giles Gonsales_. These two Prisoners consulted together how they might poyson or murder _Olitus_, which fell out according to their desires, because the Servants of the House where they lodg’d sided with them; so taking hold of the first opportunity, as they were at Supper together, they stabb’d him with their Knives in several places; yet the Wounds were not so great or mortal, but that he retain’d strength to escape in the dark to a neighboring Hut; but the Assassinates immediately sent out Messengers, publishing, That he who did not, knowing where _Olitus_ was immediately bring him to them, should receive condign punishment; which terrifying _Olitus_, he discover’d himself, and was immediately beheaded.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Mexicans_ Apparel.]

During the time that the _Spanish_ Officers had these Civil Broyls one against another, _Lodowick Pontæus_, a Man well experienc’d in the Law, came from _Spain_ to _America_, there in the Emperors Name to settle all things in good order; having also particular Instructions, to shew great kindness to _Cortez_, and to make him a Knight of the Order of _St. James_, that by that means the Emperor might be the more esteem’d for his Noble Subjects and Servants, amongst the _Mexicans_, who are themselves of a proud and ambitious spirit, and chiefly the Nobility, which doth manifestly appear by their Apparel, more gorgeous than the meaner sort of _Americans_; and though the Slaves go stark naked (having onely a Cloth tied about their Privities) and with a Bowe and Arrows walk before their Lords, yet the Better Sort go very costly Habited; for about their Necks they wear Strings of Pearl; on their Heads, a Cap, from whence hang down two Scarfs, one longer than the other; then a party-colour’d Cotton Coat covers their whole Bodies to their Knees, under which they wear a Vest girt about their Middle.

But at last, after all these Services, _Cortez_ disagreeing with the Vice-Roy _Don Antonio Mendoza_, being about that time sent over, went male-contented into _Spain_.

SECT. XI. Diego Gottierez _his Expedition_.

[Sidenote: _Gottierez_ contests with _Contreras_.]

[Sidenote: Is forsaken of all.]

[Sidenote: Great Tempest.]

[Sidenote: Village _Francisco_.]

[Sidenote: Strange manner of eating.]

[Sidenote: Unsatisfied Covetousness of _Gottierez_.]

_Anno 1540._ _Gottierez_ being chosen Governor of _New Carthage_, weigh’d Anchor from _Cadiz_, and sailing to _Nombre de Dios_, upon his Landing clash’d with _Roderick Contreras_, in whose Place he was sent to succeed. Two Years he spent without effecting any thing; but at last coming to Agreement with _Contreras_, he took the Governorship upon him, having first forewarn’d him not to depend too much upon his Authority; for the Countrey being full of Woods and Mountains, might hide many of his Enemies: But he not regarding the Advice, went a Journey from _New Granada_, and having march’d fifty Leagues Easterly, he cross’d into the River _Suere_, with sixty _Spaniards_, and was presented by the Princes of the Countrey with as much Gold as amounted to seven thousand Duckets. Here he spent some Weeks, effecting little; but now all things growing scarce, though he was very earnest with the Natives for Provisions, yet he could get little; which kind of Life the Soldiers disliking, and growing weary of, went away in the Night to _Nicaragua_. _Gottierez_ thus left alone, got into a Boat, with intent to follow them; and being just put off from the Shore, was met by Captain _Barjanto_, who brought new Forces and fresh Provisions with him: This wrought upon him to stay there. Not long after _Alphonso de Pisa_ went with twenty seven Men from _Nombre de Dios_ to the same River _Suere_; but it being then very rough at the Entrance, he was necessitated to pass on to a small uninhabited Isle, where whilst he lay at an Anchor, the Weather began to grow worse and worse; the Gusts of Wind, mix’d with Showres of Rain, Thunder, and Lightning, seem’d to threaten a general Destruction; for in the Ship two _Spaniards_ and one _Moor_ were kill’d by the Lightning: In seventy two Days, the Sun did not shine four Hours: At last weighing Anchor, he sail’d over to the Main Land, where he saw nothing but vast Mountains and Wildernesses. Here for a time they liv’d upon Cockles found on the Shore, and wild Fruits in the Woods: At length coming to _Gottierez_, he sent him with his People in five Boats to fetch new Forces from _Nombre de Dios_. In his way thither he saw a House built of Canes, cover’d with Palm-leaves, forty five Paces long, and built after an Oval fashion: Round about it stood several lesser Hovels, all which making up a Village, the _Spaniards_ nam’d _Francisco_, because they came thither on _St. Francis_ Day. About half way they met with the Lords of _Suere_ and _Chiuppa_, going to attend _Gottierez_, to whom being admitted, and sitting with him at Table, he gave them, as a Dainty, rosted Chickens and fresh Pork; but they gave it to their Servants, not delighting in the taste of such Victuals. _Gottierez_, by means of an Interpreter, told them concerning the _Christian Religion_, at which they bow’d their Heads, without making any Answer: But how little mind they had to embrace it, quickly appear’d; for not long after, they set their Villages on fire, and all the Provisions which they could not carry with them, they spoil’d, and so retiring, hid themselves upon inaccessible Mountains. Another Incentive leading them to this Fight, was, because the Governor _Camachiren_, and his Deputy (notwithstanding he had given _Gottierez_ as much Gold, when he came first into the Countrey, as amounted to seven thousand Duckets, as we mention’d before) yet was put in Prison by his Order, contrary to all Promises: Nay, _Gottierez_ threatned to burn him not regarding, that he had besides receiv’d of him several Pieces of Gold, resembling all manner of Beasts, as Tygers, and others; and also Fishes and Fowls curiously wrought, which were valu’d at two Tun of Gold; yet this Present seemed too little for him, whereupon bringing the Prisoner to a Chest, he swore that he would rost him by degrees, if in four days time he did not furnish him with four times as much more Gold as that Chest would hold: Whereupon _Chamachiren_’s Servants went away to get the requir’d Gold; but he, through carelesness of the Watch, made his escape in the Night, so that _Gottierez_ lost his Booty. But the other Prisoners, though threatned to be torn asunder with Dogs, remain’d firm, disowning that they had any Gold; and among the rest, one speaking boldly to the _Spanish_ Officer said, _That he stood amaz’d at his treacherous dealings, why did he keep him Chain’d against Law and Promise, and often threaten’d him with death, but yet would not kill him, for he, said he, had rather choose to die, than live so miserable a life_.

_Gottierez_’s Conscience troubling him, he would willingly have releas’d the _Indian_, and the rather, because he promis’d to procure a great ransome of Gold; but the inferior Commanders would not consent to it. After this they march’d six days through great Wildernesses, and over high Mountains, finding no Footsteps of any People. Lastly, They came down a very dangerous and steep Mountain, where had not the Shrubs and jutting Stones serv’d them to hold by, they had all broken their Necks.

[Sidenote: Dangerous Mountains.]

[Sidenote: Strange Huts.]

Fifteen Leagues, the hanging of this Mountain spread it self along a sweet River, on whose opposite Shore stood strange Huts full of dead Tygers, Deers Heads, and Legs; here they staid two days to rest themselves, where the Trees _Mamei_ and the _Cazabi_ Plants yielded them good Food.

[Sidenote: Valiant fight.]

Travelling forward, _Gottierez_ ask’d an _Indian_ which was the nearest way to a Village, but he pretending not to know any near hand, had his Head immediately cut off. In like manner, and for the same reason the _Indian_ Prince should also have been Executed, had not _Gottierez_ given order to the contrary; seeing his resolution, that with no less Patience than undaunted Courage, stretch’d forth his Neck to the Executioners. Mean while, their Provisions decreasing, they suffer’d extreme hunger; insomuch, that some fainted quite away. The Souldiers also rebelling against _Gottierez_ for Food, he commanded them to kill their Dogs, and stamp the Barks of Trees; two days they travelled much discontented in this manner, and at last came to the entrance of a Wood, where they espy’d an _Indian_ standing behind a Tree, which on a sudden ran away with incredible swiftness: early the next morning, above four thousand _Indians_ came Marching against the faint _Spaniards_, making a terrible noise with Horns and Drums; they were all except their Princes Painted black and red; some wore Plumes of Feathers on their Heads, and Collars of the same about their Necks; the fight began very fiercely, by casting abundance of Stones, and shooting of Arrows, wherein, though _Gottierez_ was at first Wounded, yet after half an hour the Assailants fled, but recruited with fresh Forces renew’d the fight, breaking into their Ranks, and making so great slaughter amongst them with Woodden Swords, and Palm-Tree Clubs, knocking down, and dealing such deadly Wounds, that of the _Spaniards_, three onely escap’d, saving themselves by flight, who two hours after, much amaz’d and terrify’d, came to their reserve, consisting onely of twenty four Men, which _Alphonso de Risa_ Commanded; the insulting Enemy at their Heels, waving over their Heads the Swords, Shields, and Cross-Bows which they had gotten from the slain _Spaniards_; and some withal crying in the _Spanish_ Tongue, _Come Christians, come, and take Gold_. But _de Risa_, for all their pride, set them going with some Volleys of Shot; after this, escaping innumerable other dangers, he came to _Nombre de Dios_, without having effected any thing of Note.

SECT. XIA. _The Expeditions of_ Peter Alvarado, Francisco _and_ Gonzalvo Pizarro, _and_ Diego de Almagro.

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_’s and _Almagro_’s remarkable exploits.]

In the City of _Panama_, in _New Spain_, liv’d three eminent _Spaniards_, call’d _Francisco Pizarro_, _Diego de Almagro_, and _Ferdinand de Luque_ a Priest, which joyntly design’d to discover farther Southerly along the rich Gold and Pearl Coast, and inspect the Southern Ocean. _De Luque_ was to look to home-affairs, and _Pizarro_ set Sail first with a Ship Man’d with one hundred and fourteen Men, which _Almagro_ follow’d with seventy more, yet both were valiantly repuls’d by the _Peruvians_; but although they return’d the first time with bad success, yet they undertook their business once more, but with no better fortune; whereupon discouraged, the undertaking seem’d to be totally laid aside, and the _American_ Vice-Roy, _Peter de Rios_ forbad any to attempt a farther Discovery concerning _Peru_.

The former difficulties with this Edict easily wrought upon _Pizarro_’s men, all but twelve, to leave him, for the rest went over with the Ship fitted out by _Rios_ with succors to the Island _Gallo_, where _Pizarro_ resided, having also fail’d in his second Expedition. But although he had made two bad Voyages, yet having an inclination to a third attempt, he went to _Spain_, desiring of the Emperor to be Governor of _Peru_, which he had discover’d; for besides his Plea of Merits he had taken possession of the Country twice by Landing there, intended for the use of his Imperial Majesty; one of his Sea-men to that purpose flourishing his two-handed Sword over his Head, the glittering of which Sword so frighted the Natives, that none of them durst come near him.

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_’s fight on _Puna_.]

His request being consulted upon, was at last granted, the Government of _Peru_ being conferred upon him; but _Almagro_ took it very ill, that _Pizarro_ went to the Emperor on such a design for himself; yet by the mediation of his Friends the difference was reconciled, then _Pizarro_ setting Sail with one hundred and fifty Foot besides Horse, and Landing at the Island _Puna_, at first was courteously entertain’d; but the _Spaniards_ by extravagant hunting and searching every where their Houses for Gold, and committing several other outrages, incensing, chang’d the humor of the Inhabitants so much, that they fell upon them. In stead of Ensigns, Standards, and Warlike Trophies, they used long Canes, at the end whereof were ty’d the Bones of their antient Hero’s, honor’d by them after their death: But these Reliques sav’d not the _Indians_ from slaughter, so well as the coverts of a neighboring Wood.

[Sidenote: Comes to _Peru_.]

[Sidenote: _Peruvian_ Temple.]

From this Isle, lying three degrees Southward of the _Equinoctial_, _Pizarro_ passed over to the _Main Continent_, where they were all in a great confusion, upon the report of the _Spaniards_ cruelties committed in _Puna_; yet all the preparations of the _Indians_ to withstand, stop’d not _Pizarro_ from his intended course; for first, having the success to master _Tampez_, thence he made nothing to march his Forces over the River _Ambato_, there burning a Temple Dedicated to the Sun. The _Portico_ stood towards the East, the rising of their God, before which hung a Curtain of their fine Cotton Stuff, within stood the presentations of two Golden Rams, shaded with Black, and as many Dragons, before which the Fire never went out, continually supply’d with Offerings of burnt Incense; on the Pillars hung several Men flead, their Flesh kept firm, and free from all Putrifaction, with the infusion of a sharp Juyce.

Here _Almagro_ coming to _Pizarro_ with fresh Forces, they made no little penetration into _Peru_, satisfying every where their thirst of Gold, and slaughtering the Toothless _Tombezes_, a people who having offended their King, had by his order the upper Teeth of the whole Nation beaten out.

[Sidenote: _Alvarado_’s Exploits.]

[Sidenote: Notable Stratagem of the _Peruvians_.]

[Sidenote: Wickedness of a Woman.]

[Sidenote: _Guatimala_ destroy’d by a flood.]

[Sidenote: _Velasques’_ Journey.]

_Peter Alvarado_ inform’d concerning the Riches of _Peru_, and well knowing how to insinuate with the Emperor in his fawning Letters, at last by his Friends so prevail’d, that he also got leave to go thither; in pursuance of which, _Anno 1534._ he Weigh’d Anchor with seven Ships from _Guatimala_, a City built by him between two Mountains. But Landing at _Puerto Viejo_, and Marching Easterly over Snowy Mountains, he was met by _Almagro_, between whom a bloody incounter was like to have happen’d, but after some time, a Treaty being set a Foot, they came to a Composition on these Articles: That _Alvarado_ upon the receipt of a hundred thousand Duckets, should leave his Men with _Almagro_, and depart from _Peru_; with which sum, being inrich’d, he soon after fitted out fourteen Sail to discover new Countreys to the West; but being busie in his preparations, was sent for to _Mexico_ by _Don Antonio Mendoza_ the Vice-Roy, to undertake a Voyage with him to the new-discover’d Countrey of _Sibolla_, abounding in Gold and Saffron, according to the report of four _Dominican_ Monks; and having already rais’d seven hundred Men, news came to _Mexico_, that _Peter Zunica_ had receiv’d an overthrow by the _Indians_ of _Salisco_; to whose assistance _Alvarado_ March’d with all speed, and found the _Indians_ incamp’d on a high Mountain, fortifi’d with conjoyn’d Trees, and great Stones ty’d together with Rushes, behind which they were secure from Shot. The _Spaniards_ climbing up the Mountain, approach’d their Works, when on a sudden the Defendants giving a great Shout, cut the Cords which held their Fortification together, whereupon the Stones and Trees tumbled down with such force, that they kill’d both Men and Horse, few escaping alive: In this conflict _Alvarado_ himself was lost. His Wife _Beatrix Cuova_ made a stately Funeral for her Husband, and caus’d her House to be Painted black, refusing either to Eat or Drink for a set time, yet notwithstanding, all her pretence of sorrow, she so minded her business, that she took the Government of _Guatimala_ into her own hands; but her Dominion lasted not long, for on the eighteenth of _September, Anno 1541._ happen’d a hideous Tempest of Wind and Rain, mixt with continual Lightning, and horrible claps of Thunder, and what was more terrible, was answer’d with roars and horrid bellowings from the caverns of the Mountain, at whose foot _Guatimala_ stood. About midnight the Mountain was deliver’d, whose Birth was the irruption of an Inundating River, a precipitate torrent tumbling down full of Rocks and Stones, which carry’d all before it, so that in few minutes _Guatimala_ was utterly swept away, not the least mark remaining, nor any left alive except _Alvarado_’s Bastard Daughter by an _Indian_; and in the adjacent Fields, some few, and they maim’d, with broken Arms or Legs; after this utter destruction, they re-built another _Guatimala_, three Leagues more Easterly. But though _Alvarado_ was lost in this Enterprize, yet the Voyage to _Sibolla_ was not laid aside, for _Francisco Velasques_ March’d thither with eight hundred Men, of which most were Horse, but found nought else but Snowy Mountains and barren Plains, insomuch, that his Men and Horses were starv’d for want of Provision; wherefore he return’d without success to _Mexico_, having onely burnt some Villages, and had several Rencounters with the Natives.

[Sidenote: _Attabaliba_’s message to _Pizarro_.]

But _Attabaliba_ a _Peruan_ Prince, inform’d of _Pizarro_ and _Almagro_’s coming, commanded them both to depart out of his Kingdom; but they not regarding it, march’d directly to _Caxamalca_, where _Attabaliba_ kept his Court, who again sent other Messengers to them with command to leave his Dominions. _Pizarro_ made answer, that he could not obey any Commands but those of his Master the Emperor, who had order’d him to speak with the King himself at his own Palace.

_Attabaliba_ hearing that _Pizarro_ resolv’d to come forward, sent him a pair of Painted Shooes and Armlets, that he might put them on when he appear’d before his Throne: Captain _Ferdinand Sotto_ march’d before with twenty Horse, passing close on the Flank of _Attabaliba_’s Army: The _Indians_ amaz’d at the prauncing of their Horses, retreated into their Fortifications, but were for their cowardize immediately slain by the King’s Order.

[Sidenote: His discourse with a _Spanish_ Bishop, and his apparel.]

_Sotto_ sent a Message to _Attabaliba_, That the _Spaniards_ desir’d peaceably to Treat with him, to which he receiv’d answer, That no Peace could be made, unless they restor’d the Gold and Silver to the Owners, which they had Plunder’d from them, and forsook his Territories; which so doing, they should have Audience the next day: Hereupon the Bishop _Vincent de Villa Viridi_ was conducted into the Royal Palace, in the City of _Caxamalca_, and brought before _Attabaliba_, who came thither in great State, with a Guard of twenty five thousand Men; he was carry’d on the Shoulders of his prime Nobles in a Sedan, about which hung Garlands of Gold, and divers colour’d Feathers; himself was cloth’d in a white loose Vest, without Sleeves; his Temples were bound with a red Ribbon, with a long Tassel on his left Cheek; on his Fore-head stuck three curious Feathers; before him March’d three hundred of his Life-Guard, all in one Livery, who clear’d the way through which the King was to pass. The before-mention’d Bishop carry’d in one Hand a Cross, in the other a Book, discoursing with the King to this effect; _That God is the Trinity_, Adam _the first Man_; _Christ Born of a Virgin, dy’d on the Cross_; _the_ Pope _God’s Vice-Gerent, who according to the Power he had from Heaven, had given_ Peru _to the Emperor_ Charles, _as also all other Countreys in_ America; _and if he should prove obstinate, and resist, he must expect nothing less than utter ruine_. _Attabaliba_ reply’d, _That he serv’d_ Pachamaca, _being the Creator of all things; and next to him the Sun and Moon: How glorious do they appear_ (said he) _in comparison of a Crucifi’d God? To make Peace and Alliance with mighty Princes, was the true Foundation of wise Government: But the_ Pope _must needs be senseless, devoy’d of all reason, and withal highly unjust, to give away what was none of his own_, viz. _other mens Kingdoms, in which he never had the least or smallest concern. Moreover, he would not desert that Religion which he and his Ancestors had maintain’d so many Ages, and the rather, because there are no apparent or sufficient Testimony of the truth of Christianity._ The latter clause was thus answer’d, saying, _This Book, O King, which I hold in my hand, proves and declares all that you question_. _Attabaliba_ looking upon it, turn’d it over Leaf by Leaf, then look’d more intentively upon the Print, which done he clap’d it to either Ear, and at last as altogether unsatisfi’d, in disdainful manner threw it away.

But _Pizarro_ gaining time while the King and Bishop thus discours’d, had drawn his Men in Battel-Array, his sixty Horse he divided into three Wings, Commanded by his three Brothers, _Ferdinand_, _John_, and _Gonzalvo Pizarro_, left the Captains _Sotto_ and _Bavalcazar_ in an Ambuscade; _Peter de Canada_ march’d in the Van, and he himself in the main Body, leaving _Sotto_ in the Rear.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_ fights with _Attabaliba_.]

[Sidenote: _Attabaliba_ taken prisoner.]

[Sidenote: Bids for his ransom an unvaluable treasure.]

So soon as the Bishop could acquaint them in what scornful manner _Attabaliba_ had thrown his Holy Book, _The Word of God_, upon the ground; both Armies were Engaged, whilst their Trumpets sounded, their Drums beat, their Canons roar’d, the Horses neigh’d, and the Dogs bark’d, they made a speedy march up against the Walls of _Taxamalca_, which dreadful mixture of terrible noises struck such a Pannick fear into the hearts of the _Indians_, that they all presently broke, in their flight crowding one another to death at the Gates of the City, which being too narrow to receive them, they themselves made breaches in their own Walls to enter; which opportunity the _Spaniards_ no ways neglected, but entering with them, shot and kill’d all they could reach; their Dogs also having no little share in the slaughter; whole companies of Indians were trode under the Horses feet, yet near _Attabaliba_’s Chair was the greatest resistance, for no sooner fell one of the Bearers, but immediately another supply’d the place; so that the King was surrounded with heaps of his own slain Subjects, to whom _Pizarro_ himself Charg’d up so close, that having seiz’d him by his long Hair, he pull’d him out of his Throne, and having gotten him under him, secur’d immediately in Fetters; whereupon all his Life-Guard forsook him, and fled: But the loss of the Battel, which was _Attabaliba_’s utter ruine, was laid upon _Runninagui_, a Captain appointed to lie in Ambush, so to fall in the Rear of the _Spaniards_ with five thousand men; but was so far from performing his Orders, that terrifi’d at the uncouth noise of the Guns, and the rest, that he fled one hundred and fifty Leagues Southerly, before he stopt, or scarce ever look’d behind him in so long a flight. Mean while, _Attabaliba_ compounded with _Pizarro_ for his Ransom, _viz._ to pay him as much Gold as that Hall in his Court (where they made the Agreement) could hold to the top; they first measur’d the heighth, then the length, which was found to be fifty four Foot, and the breadth nine: In pursuance of this composition, Gold was brought thither from all places, according to _Attabaliba_’s order; yet he could not raise so much as would perform his bargain, which made the _Spaniards_ to grumble: But _Attabaliba_ desiring some longer time to perform it, telling _Pizarro_, that most of the Gold was brought on Slaves Shoulders, a long and troublesome way, of two hundred Leagues long, from the City _Cusco_, and if this would not satisfie, _Pizarro_ might send some of his own people thither, to inform him, that he need not fear the least danger, as long as he was Prisoner with his Wife and Children.

The two Captains, _Sotto_, and _Peter del Baro_ being sent away to that purpose, met after some days Journey with one of _Attabaliba_’s Leaders, who was bringing the King’s Brother _Guascar_ with a Party, Prisoner to _Caxamalca_.

[Sidenote: Burns his Brother _Guascar_ alive.]

_Guascar_ had now a fair opportunity to crave assistance of the _Spaniards_, telling them, that he and _Attabaliba_ were the Sons of _Guaynacava_, so that the Kingdom was to be divided betwixt both. But _Attabaliba_ had by force made himself Master of all, whereas he being the youngest, ought to be satisfi’d with that share which _Guascar_, being the eldest, would assign him; for the right of Inheritance belong’d justly to him, and yet he was carry’d away bound to slaughter: But if _Pizarro_ would do justice in delivering him out of his Brothers bloody Hands, he would raise him thrice as much Gold as _Attabaliba_ had promis’d: To which purpose he desir’d _Sotto_ and _Baro_ to put off their Journey to _Cusco_; which they not daring to do, went on their way, and _Guascar_ descending the Valley _Sucsuhuana_, was burnt alive by _Attabaliba_’s Soldiers.

Mean while, _Almagro_ came with fresh Forces to _Taxamalca_, which occasion’d no small trouble in _Pizarro_, who was onely thirsty after Gold: On the other side, _Almagro_ as greedy, grew jealous that _Pizarro_ should keep the promis’d Hall full of Gold for himself, and he should have no share, because _Attabaliba_ was his Prisoner; therefore he earnestly desir’d that _Attabaliba_ might privately be made away, and that the Booty might be divided to one as well as the other.

[Sidenote: An incredible sum of Money given to the Soldiers.]

[Sidenote: _Attabaliba_ strangled.]

_Pizarro_ to prevent all inconveniencies that might happen from his dissenting, gave in the presence of the King to every private Soldier a thousand Duckets in Gold, and six thousand five hundred twenty five Silver Crowns; the inferior Officers receiv’d four and thirty thousand Crowns, and the others sixty thousand; the fifth part of the Booty he reserv’d for the Emperor: And notwithstanding _Attabaliba_ perform’d his promise in filling the Hall full of Gold, yet he had the sentence of Death pronounc’d against him; neither would his excuse of Innocency serve, or his Requests to be sent to _Spain_, there to clear himself before the Emperor; but sighing, and lamenting his misfortunes, was ty’d to a Post, and Strangled in the presence of _Pizarro_. For whose Death, though a _Heathen_, Divine Vengeance pursu’d these cruel and unjust Arbitrators that thus made their Will a Law, none of them dying a natural Death.

Moreover it was observ’d, that a few days before this Execution a blazing Star appear’d, which _Attabaliba_ seeing, presaging sadly of himself said, _That a great Prince would die in a short time_; but _Pizarro_’s chief pretences for the Kings just suffering was, that he had cruelly murder’d his Brother _Guascar_: But this was a meer blind, for that that incens’d them against _Attabaliba_, was, that he knowing where the unvaluable treasure lay, which _Guascar_ had bury’d, would not discover it to them.

[Sidenote: Cruelty of _Ruminagui_.]

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_ puts _Quizquiz_ to flight.]

[Sidenote: And takes _Cusco_.]

[Sidenote: Unvaluable Treasures taken.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable passage of a Dog.]

_Attabaliba_, before his death, desir’d that he might be bury’d in the Territory _Quito_, by his Father _Guaynacava_, whom the _Peruvians_ for his great Justice and Prudence in Government, believed that he would arise, and settle the World so troubled and full of disorder in peace and quiet: The Corps was accordingly carry’d thither in great State after their manner, attended by his Brother, whom _Illescas Ruminagui_ which ran from _Attabaliba_ in the Battel, where he lay in ambush when he might have done them good service; in the way to his entertainment, receiv’d with all shews of sorrow; but when they were feasted to excess, bury’d in sleep and Wine, he Massacred and flea’d _Illescas_ the Kings Brother alive, and made a Taber of his Skin. Whilst _Attabaliba_’s Funeral was thus bloodily solemniz’d, his General _Quizquiz_ rais’d a great Army, which _Pizarro_ encountring after a valiant resistance, totally routed; then marching victoriously to _Cusco_, he saw great Fires in the City, and the Citizens fighting with the _Spaniards_, sent before; but the Horse breaking in upon them, most of them fled the next morning to the Mountains: Thus the _Spaniards_ became Masters of the City, where they inflicted the most cruel tortures on all Sexes, by that means to force them to discover, if they knew of any hidden Treasures, being not satisfi’d with what they found there, although they had gotten a greater Treasure in _Cusco_ than that that they had extorted from _Attabaliba_ before: Nay, they gave those that were murther’d for Food to their Dogs: Among the rest, _Didacus Salazar_ having a very fierce Dog call’d _Bezerril_, had also an old _Indian_ Woman his Prisoner, to whom he gave a Letter to deliver to the General _Pizarro_; the Woman had not gone many Paces before she was set upon by _Bezerril_, whom _Salazar_ let loose, that he might delight himself in seeing the Dog tear the poor old Woman; but she observing him come running at her with so great fierceness, fell down upon her Knees, and holding forth the Letter, cry’d, _Good my Lord, good my Lord Dog, I must carry this Letter to General_ Pizarro, whereupon the furious Curr having more compassion than the _Spaniard_, stood still a little, and at last lifted up his Leg in a scornful manner, Urin’d upon her, and return’d satisfi’d; at which sportive behavior of the Cur and the Chrone, _Salazar_ laughing, was so well pleas’d, that he gave the Woman her life.

[Sidenote: _Almagro_’s unhappy Journey.]

[Sidenote: King’s Town.]

After _Cusco_ had been sufficiently Plunder’d, _Pizarro_ made _Almagro_ Governor thereof, with the Territories belonging to it, and built near the River _Lima_ a Town, which they call’d _Los Reyes_. Mean while, _Almagro_ receiv’d Letters Patent from the Emperor, in which he was nominated _Marshal_ of _Peru_; encourag’d by that honor, he took a great design in hand, for the _Peruvians_ had reported, that the Golden _Chili_ lay to the South; and _Almagro_ being encourag’d, and assisted by _Pizarro_, March’d inquest thereof with two Troops of Horse, and five hundred Foot: But mean while there happen’d so great Rains, and such foul Weather, that the Ways were almost unpassable, so that the Expedition grew very troublesome; yet however he went on, in which hard March he lost both Horse and Men.

[Sidenote: _Mango Inga_ takes _Cusco_.]

[Sidenote: Contest between _Almagro_ and _Pizarro_.]

[Sidenote: _Almagro_ strangled.]

Whilst _Almagro_ was upon this undertaking, _Francisco Pizarro_ receiv’d Letters Patent from the Emperor, in which he was Intitul’d _Duke of Peru_, but with a _Salvo_ for the honor before given to _Almagro_; yet these balanc’d honors bred great dissention between the Duke and Marshal, which _Mango Inga_ another of _Attabaliba_’s Brothers observing, laid hold of the opportunity, and setting upon the _Spanish_ Garrison in _Cusco_, took the City. Whereupon _Pizarro_ immediately sent his Horse thither, under the Command of _Alphonso Alvarado_, and _Gomes de Todoya_, against whom the _Indians_ fought very valiantly, insomuch, that the Battel was a long time doubtful; yet at last the _Spaniards_ got a bloody Victory, and regain’d _Cusco_; hither after some time, _Almagro_ returning with ill success, having effected nothing, was kept out by _Ferdinand Pizarro_, under pretence that he could not open the Gate without Order from his Brother the Duke. _Almagro_ much offended thereat, yet saying little, was so privately let into the City, that he surpriz’d the Governor _Ferdinand Pizarro_, and his Brother _Gonsalvo_, with _Alphonso Alvarado_ Prisoners; swearing that he would not rest before he had rooted all the _Pizarro_’s out of Peru. But whilst he was passing the intended Sentence of Death upon them, _Gonsalvo_ and _Alvarado_ broke Prison; and got away to the Duke, who troubled for his Brother _Ferdinand_ there in custody, and in danger of his life, came to Composition; whereupon _Ferdinand_ was also releas’d: But this was no sooner done, and he had got his Brother safe there, but the Duke regarding nothing less than the keeping of the new-made Peace, sent to _Almagro_, that the Emperor having given him the prime Command over _Peru_, he requir’d him to leave _Cusco_, or else he would force him. _Almagro_ sent answer, That if he could see the Emperor’s Hand, he would immediately obey, otherwise not; whereupon both Parties prepar’d for War, wherein they had many sharp bickerings in a short time: But _Almagro_ being too weak fell into the Dukes hands, who order’d him to be strangled in the Gaol, and his body afterwards to be drawn to the Market-place, and there publickly Beheaded.

_Ferdinand Pizarro_ being not long after sent to _Spain_, with the fifths of the gotten Treasure for the Emperor, was Imprison’d in the Castle _Motto_, for _Almagro_’s Death: But what further happen’d to him there, or became of him, hath never been Recorded by any Pen.

[Sidenote: _Ferdinand Pizarro_ never obtains his liberty.]

[Sidenote: Young _Almagro_ stabs the Duke.]

But young _Almagro_, instigated by his Guardian _John Rada_, resolving, to be reveng’d for his Fathers Death; to that purpose he went to _Los Reyes_, where by the help of some hir’d Male-contents, he design’d to Murder the Duke upon St. _John_’s day, in the Church at high Service: But this business was not so closely carry’d, but the Duke had some inkling thereof, who therefore stay’d at home, and went not to Mass that day. The Conspirators doubting the event, hearing that their Plot was discover’d, though defeated in their purpose, yet not fail’d in their Courage, ran at noon day to the Palace, crying, _Kill the Tyrant, kill the Traytor_. But _Pizarro_ being so much forewarn’d, had lock’d up the Gates, and arm’d himself, which when they could not enter, yet they went back through the City, and waving a bloody Sword, cry’d, _Pizarro is slain_; this being believ’d, above two hundred private Friends to _Almagro_ appear’d, who all ran to the Palace, crouding about the Gates: And _Francisco de Chares_ coming out at a private Door, hoping to pacifie the Mutineers, was immediately Stab’d; but they rushing in the way he came, found some stout opposition, for seven Halberdiers of his Guard fought till they were all kill’d in the Dukes presence; but _Pizarro_ was taken alive, and being brought before _Almagro_, he Savagely Butcher’d him with his own hands; which done, they ran crying along the Streets, _Long live the Emperor, and_ Didacus Almagro.

[Sidenote: Great slaughter in _Los Reye_.]

But after all this, _Pizarro_’s Party joyning together, valiantly withstood the Conspirators, so that a considerable number were slain on both sides, yet _Almagro_ at last getting the better, confiscated the Goods of all those that were against him; and now every one shew’d him the respect of Chief Governor, till the Emperor should either settle him, or send another.

From hence Marching to _Cusco_, he had like to have paid for all, but prevented by private intelligence thereof; which happen’d thus,

[Sidenote: Strange Transactions between _Alvarado_, _Sotello_, and _Almagro_.]

[Sidenote: Fight between _Castro_ and _Almagro_.]

[Sidenote: _Castro_’s Cruelty.]

_Garcias Alvarado_ and _Christopher Sotello_ were Joynt-Governors of _Cusco_; but quarrelling, and coming to Blows in like manner, _Sotello_ was slain: This _Almagro_ took very hainously, as being his intimate Friend, giving forth threatning Speeches of Revenge; which _Alvarado_ inform’d of, and intending some way or other to prevent all Dangers, and save himself, he invited _Almagro_ to a Feast, but privately resolving to make it a Bloody Banquet, by his Death at the Table. Of this he being inform’d, as we mention’d before, staid at home, and privately sent for some Soldiers that had belong’d to _Sotello_, sending word that he was indispos’d: _Alvarado_, under a shew of Kindness, goes to _Almagro_, hoping to perswade him to come to his prepar’d Treat; but so soon as he was enter’d the Hall, they clapp’d to the Gate, and the Soldiers falling upon _Alvarado_, slew him: But soon after _Almagro_ was call’d in question, and not long enjoy’d this his usurp’d Authority; for the Emperor _Charles_ sending the Learned _Vacca de Castro_ with full Authority to _Peru_, to settle that disturb’d Kingdom, _Almagro_ now us’d to Govern, had no Ears to become a Subject; therefore he march’d with an Army to meet _Castro_, by whom, after a bloody Fight, being beaten and put to flight, having four thousand Men, he fell into the Victors Hands near _Cusco_, where he was treated very severely; for shortly after he was condemn’d to be Beheaded; others were strangled, and some torn in pieces with Horses.

[Sidenote: _Vela_ Vice-Roy of _Peru_.]

[Sidenote: Murders _Xuarez_.]

[Sidenote: Is taken and put in Prison.]

Not long after this great Execution, _Blasco Nunnez Vela_ came to _Peru_, and being appointed Vice-Roy, had four Councellors assign’d him, with whom he was to consult in all Affairs; and especially to set the _Indians_ at liberty, which till then had suffer’d much misery under the _Spanish_ Tyranny: To perform which, the Emperor had given an Order under his Great Seal, which was to be publish’d and proclaim’d in all Places. _Vela_ at his arrival faithfully perform’d all his Commands, seiz’d upon _Vacca de Castro_, because he had Executed _Almagro_ without any Examination or Tryal; yet by this means he got the hatred of all, so that most of the _Spaniards_ chose _Gonsalvo Pizarro_ for their Chief, whereby Affairs grew daily more and more out of Order. _Nunnez Vela_ laid all the blame thereof upon _William Xuarez_, Governor of _Lima_, whom he sent for in the Night, and correcting over-severely, gave him also two mortal Wounds, of which he presently died: The Body was in the Morning drawn along the Streets, which caus’d so great a murmuring amongst the Inhabitants, that soon after they seem’d to make a general Insurrection: Wherefore _Nunnez Vela_ fearing the worst, resolv’d to convey himself from thence _incognito_, and pass to _Truxillo_: But his four Councellors advis’d him to the contrary; yet he took his own way, causing all his Treasure to be sent aboard; and having made ready his Horses to depart, the Common People in a tumultuous manner set upon the Palace, catching, snatching up, and carrying away all the Silver they could find, and meeting the Vice-Roy, seiz’d, and thrust him into a Dungeon; which done, they fell at variance amongst themselves; for some would have him executed, but others insisted to have him sent Prisoner to _Spain_; which last being the more moderate, getting the upper Hand, _Vela_ was put aboard, and committed to the custody of _Didacus Alvarez_, who Anchoring in the Mouth of the River _Tombez_ (kindness growing betwixt them) releas’d the Vice-Roy his Prisoner, and set him ashore, who not long after got some Forces together.

[Sidenote: Is Beheaded.]

Mean while _Pizarro_ was every where acknowledg’d for Supreme Governor, who having Intelligence of the Vice-Roys Design, sent _Francisco Carvayales_ thither, between whom and _Vela_ was a sharp Encounter; but at last being worsted, and retaken by _Carvayales_, he was soon after executed, and his Head plac’d on a Pole near the Gallows.

The Emperor _Charles_ turmoil’d with Wars at home, saw no likelyhood to settle the confus’d Affairs of _Peru_; yet at last he thought it convenient to send one _Peter Gasca_ thither, an Ecclesiastick, of a subtile and ingenious Wit, who landing _Anno 1546._ in _Lima_, with no other Title than _Chief Councellor to the Emperor_, took quite another course than _Vela_, perswading them all, that Affairs should be setled in order, according to their own desires, and former Miscarriages never be remembred, being utterly deleted by an Act of Oblivion.

[Sidenote: _Gasca_’s murderous Exploits.]

[Sidenote: _Gonsalves Pizarro_ strangled.]

[Sidenote: Cruelty us’d on _Carvayales_.]

The News of this General Pardon spreading it self far and near, wrought a great change; for _Pizarro_’s Intimates, and those nearest of Concern, shrunk daily from him; which _Gasca_ observing, march’d against him; and that they might make the more haste, they loaded several _Peruvians_, chain’d, with their Arms, whom when they lagg’d, they switch’d and whipp’d before them. And now both Armies being met, and discharging their Cannons at one another, with considerable loss to each side, whole Regiments came running over to _Gasca_; so that _Pizarro_ being quite forsaken, yielded himself to the mercy of the Conqueror, who accus’d him of High Treason, and caus’d him to be strangled in a Dungeon, and fix’d his Head on a Marble Pillar in _Lima_, environ’d with Iron Rails, and inscrib’d with a brief Account of all his Offences. But _Gasca_ not thus satisfied, hang’d up several Commanders, and whipping and stigmatizing others, condemn’d them after to the Gallies: But his greatest spight was against the Field-Marshal _Carvayales_, a Person of the Age of fourscore years, whom tying to a Horses Tail, he caus’d a whole Hour to be drawn up and down the Market-place, scorn’d and derided of all People; which done, he was quarter’d alive.

Not long after _Gasca_ surrendred the Command of _Peru_ to the Learned _Cianca_, and carried an unvaluable Treasure to _Germany_, for the Emperor _Charles_, who gave him in requital for his faithful Service, the Bishoprick of _Valentia_.

SECT. XII. _The Expeditions of_ John Stade, _and_ Nicholas Durando Villegagnon.

[Sidenote: _Stade_ taken by the _Cannibals_.]

[Sidenote: His strange Entertainment amongst them.]

About the same time that _Gasca_ arriv’d in _Spain_, _John Stade_ had the Command over a small Fort rais’d of Stone and Earth, on the Island _Maro_, adjacent to _Brasile_, because the Salvage People of _Tupin Imba_ sail’d twice a year from the Countrey of Brikioka, to _Maro_, at the time when the Plant Abbati was ripe, of which they made the Liquor that they generally drink at their Humane Banquets: They also landed on Maro about the _Bratti_-Fishing. This _Bratti_ is a Fish of a very delicious taste, either caught in Nets, or shot by the _Tupin Imba_, and carried to their several Habitations. Against these People _Stade_ kept a continual Guard, when _Heliodorus Hesse_, Son to _Eobanus Hesse_, the famous _Latin_ Poet in _Germany_, came to visit him. _Stade_ to entertain his Guest the better, went into the Woods to hunt for Venison, where he was taken by the _Tupin Imba_, of which the King march’d in the Rear with a great Palm-Tree Club, and carried him towards the Sea side, that he, with others that waited on the Shore, might make up a _Kawewipepicke_ (that is, _A Feast of Rosted Men_) But because _Stade_ being a _German_ of a large Body, well-skinn’d, young, plump and fat, they all concluded to spare this Dainty, and carry him alive to _Brikioka_, that with such a Banquet they might highly caress their Wives: But the Journey being long, and a just melancholy possessing him with fear, and the terror of certain death, and to be Food for such ravenous _Cannibals_, so macerated and consum’d him, that he was almost dwindled away to Skin and Bone; whereupon thinking him thus lean to make but few savory Morsels, they chang’d their resolutions, and growing better acquainted, he having learn’d their Tongue, and being able to discourse with them, they lik’d his company so well, that they let him live amongst them. Nine years _Stade_ had been a Slave amongst these Man-eaters, when the _French_ coming thither, bought him for a few Trifles, and carried him to _Normandy_, where landing _Anno 1555._ he went from thence to _Hamburgh_, being his Native Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Durande_’s Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Dissention in the new Colony.]

[Sidenote: Wickedness of _Cointak_ against the Ministers.]

[Sidenote: _Durande_ drowns three Religious Men.]

_Nicholas Durande_ a _Frenchman_ set Sail from _Havre de Grace_, at the same time when _Stade_ came thither. This _Durande_ having lost a Castle in _Brittain_, to the great prejudice of the _French_, out of a pretence of advancing their Affairs, and to fill up their almost exhausted Treasury, reported, That the _Spanish_ and _Portuguese_ Forces were driven out of _India_, where they had gather’d so much Wealth; and it would certainly redound to the Honor and Profit of _France_, if they could become Masters of the Gold and Silver Mines. King _Henry_ the Second approving of the Proposal, and the more because the Admiral _Gasper Coligni_ was also very earnest, looking upon it as a safe Retreat for the Protestants, at that time cruelly persecuted: and _Durande_, sensible of the Admirals thoughts, privately inform’d him, That in his _American_ Design he chiefly aim’d to plant a True Church of God in _America_, where the Professors might enjoy themselves peaceably. This Report being spread amongst those that call’d themselves _Protestants_, (fled from _Switzerland_ in great numbers to _France_) made many of them venture upon the Design; who having fitted themselves, and setting sail with three Ships, after some time arriv’d on the Coast of _Brasile_, and landed on the _Rock-Island_, in the Haven _Januario_: Here _Durande_ built several Watch-houses, and the Fort _Coligni_, which he fortified with a considerable number of Guns: Not long after he writ to _John Calvin_, That he would please to furnish this new Plantation in _Brasile_ with good and able Teachers of the Gospel; which Request being immediately taken into serious consideration by the Classes, one _Philip Corguileray_, a Gentleman near _Geneva_, set Sail out of the Haven _Honfleurs_, with three Ships, freighted with some Provisions, several Persons of divers Trades, and two Ministers, _Peter Richer_, and _William Chartier_: But he had scarce made _Africa_, when they began to have a scarcity of Victuals; wherefore they turn’d their Design of setling the Gospel in _America_, to Pyracy, where they made small scruple or difference, whether Friends or Foes, but made Prize of all they could light upon, though indeed their Ministers both preach’d and perswaded the contrary, amongst whom a Controversie happening, put other Business into their Heads; for one _John Cointak_, formerly a _Parisian Sorbonist_, was also amongst those that remov’d from _Geneva_, who pretended that _Coligni_ had promis’d him a Ministers place, so soon as he landed at _Brasile_; but _Richer_ and _Chartier_, not satisfied that there was any such Promise, and consequently thinking themselves not obliged by his bare Assertion, told him, That themselves being able, under God, to perform the Work, they needed no such Coadjutor: This bred so great a Rancor between them, that _Cointak_ accus’d them for teaching false Doctrine, and chiefly that they did not mix the Wine at their Sacraments with Water, which Father _Clemens_ had strictly commanded. _Durande_, being prevail’d on by the Cardinal of _Lorein_, joyn’d with _Cointak_, and thereupon so sharply persecuted the _Protestants_, that he starv’d several of them, which others to escape fled to the _Brasilians_: Nay, he took _John Du Bordell_, _Matthias Vermeil_, and _Peter Bourdon_, out of their Sick-Beds, and tying their Hands and Feet, threw them headlong from a Rock into the Sea: Soon after which, the bloody Persecutor return’d with ill success to _France_, where he wrote a Book against the Reform’d Religion; but all the Honor which he gain’d was, that all Parties on both sides accounted him a distracted Person.

SECT. XIII. _The Expeditions of_ John Ribald, Renatus Laudonier, _and_ Gurgie.

[Sidenote: _Florida_ unhappily discover’d.]

[Sidenote: _Ribald_’s Voyage.]

[Sidenote: The Garrison in _Florida_ in great want.]

[Sidenote: Unheard-of Hunger.]

_Florida_ being upon the Continent of _America_, and so call’d by _John Pontæus_, who landed there upon _Palm-Sunday_, though _Sebastian Gaboto_ a _Venetian_, imploy’d by _Henry_ the Seventh King of _England_, landed there before, may well be term’d _the_ Europeans _Bloody Stage_, _Pontæus_ being slain here: But _Ferdinand Sotto_ exercis’d against the Inhabitants inhumane Cruelty five years together; yet at last died of a deep discontent, because he could not reach his Aims, having condemn’d so many _Floridans_ fruitlesly to dig for Gold in the Mines. However, since that, _Julian Sumanus_ and _Peter Ahumada_ undertook the Work anew, but with the like bad Success. _Anno 1545._ one _Lodowick Cancello_, a _Dominican_, thought to effect great things with four of his Associates; but landing on _Florida_, was destroy’d by the Natives. But _Gasper Coligni_ the Marshal, neither discourag’d by these miserable Proceedings, nor the former Treachery of _Durande_, prepar’d for a new Expedition thither; and accordingly _John Ribald_ was fitted with two Ships from _Diep_, at the Charge of _Charles_ the Ninth King of _France_, wherewith having sail’d thirty Degrees Northern Latitude, he came before the Promontory of _Francisco_, where he ran up into the Mouth of a wide River, to which he gave the denomination of _Dolphin_, upon whose Banks were whole Mulberry-Woods, which nourish’d Silk-Worms in strange abundance. From hence he sail’d by the _Wolves Head_ (a Point so call’d, because great numbers of Wolves breed there) and leaving the _Cedar-Island_, landed on _Florida_, where he built a Triangular Fort, and having furnish’d it with Men, Guns, and Provisions, sail’d back for more Supplies to _France_; but coming thither, found all things in disorder, occasion’d by a War amongst themselves; so that the _French_ which guarded and dwelt in the Fort, waited in vain for Relief, and their Provisions growing scant, thought it fittest and their best way to build a Vessel, and sail from thence; which having effected, and being gone about the third part of their Voyage there hapned such a Calm for twenty Days, that they made not the least way, which drove them to so great extremity, their Provisions being spent, that they drank their own Urine, and fed upon their old Shoes, which also in a short time failing, they agreed amongst themselves to kill and eat one of their Sea-men, call’d _Henry Lacher_, on whose Flesh they liv’d some days; but being again driven to the greatest want imaginable, in this extremity of Desparation, their Condition being altogether hopeless, an _English_ Frigat discovering them, and observing by their manner of Sailing that they were in some great want, drawing near, sent their Long-boat aboard, and found them so weak, that they were not able to handle their Tack; whereupon generously taking pity of them, they reliev’d them, and conducted them to the Coast of England, and then brought them to Queen _Elizabeth_, who had formerly design’d to rig a Fleet for _Florida_.

[Sidenote: _Laudonier_’s Voyage.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable difference in the _French_ Fleet.]

Mean while, no News having been heard of the foremention’d _French_ Plantation in _Brasile_, and _Coligni_’s Difference with the King being decided, he prevail’d so much, that _Renatus Laudonier_ should with three Ships sail to relieve the Garrison in the late deserted Fort. _Laudonier_ landing in _Nova Francia_, found a Stone with a _French_ Inscription, plac’d on the Shore by _Ribald_, and hung full of Laurel Garlands: Then he visited the King _Saturiona_, whose Son _Atorcus_ had several Children by his own Mother, according to a Salvage Custom observ’d in that Countrey. Whilst they stay’d here, a Fiery Meteor appear’d in the Sky, with such fervor, that some Rivers boyl’d with the heat of it, and the Fish parboyl’d, died; nay more, it scorch’d all the Plants far and near: The Natives ascrib’d this Plague to the _French_ Cannons, by which means they stood in great fear of the _French_, who might have done great things had not they differ’d amongst themselves; For a Sea-man nam’d _Rubel Patracon_, pretending to have skill in _Necromancy_, would undertake to shew the Places where the Gold and Silver Mines were, which the rest of the Sea-men believing, rebell’d against _Laudonier_, and though sick, imprison’d him, forcing him to sign a Writing to this effect, That the two Ships, of which the Rebels made _Vassar_ and _Trincant_ Commanders, should with his leave and permittance sail to _New Spain_ for Provisions. Whilst they were preparing for their Voyage, _Rupiferrir_ having been sent to the King _Utina_, came back with many rich Presents, and withal brought Information of the Gold and Silver Mynes _Apalatica_; but _Vassar_ and _Trincant_ taking no notice thereof, set forth, and took a _Spanish_ Carvel, richly laden before _Havana_, whose Commander they agreed to release on the payment of a great Ransom; but the Masters Son being sent ashore to fetch the Money which they had agreed for, in stead thereof, made his Fathers Mischance known; whereupon two great Frigats and a Galley were the next Morning very early sent to attaque the _French_, between whom was a sharp Encounter; but in a short time the two Pyrats were sunk, and the Prisoners sold for Slaves, excepting a few that escap’d in their Long-boat.

[Sidenote: Great cruelty of the _Spaniards_ against the _French_.]

[Sidenote: _Gurgie_’s valiant Exploits against the _Spaniards_.]

In this interim _Laudonier_ receiving no Supply from _France_, was brought to great extremity; for the Rebels had carried great part of his Store with them. In these straights he was forc’d by those that staid with him, contrary to the Articles of Peace lately made with King _Utina_, to take him Prisoner, in hopes that for his Liberty he would procure them some Provisions; but the Inhabitants incens’d at the baseness of so unexpected an Action, could not be wrought upon by any means to give them Relief; but grown more perverse than before, appointed a general Meeting to elect another King; so that out of all hopes, they utterly gave themselves over for lost. In this desperate condition, _John Haukins_, a great Sea-Captain, came thither with four _English_ Ships, who pitying their misery, furnish’d them with Necessaries, and having onely four Vessels, lent them one, because _Laudonier_ was at that time too weak to endure the Sea; but not long after recovering strength, and all things ready to set Sail, _Ribald_ came to an Anchor before _Charles-Fort_, with seven Ships from _Diep_: Within few days after, the _Spanish_ Admiral _Peter Melandez_ arriv’d with eight Frigats, whereof the French having Intelligence, cut their Cables, and stood out to Sea, whom the _Spaniards_ chac’d, but could not reach; whereupon leaving them, they landed in the Mouth of the River _Dolphin_, where by help of the _Moorish_ Slaves they began to intrench themselves; of which _Ribald_ having notice, immediately sail’d thither, at least to disturb, if not absolutely drive them from their Work; but surpriz’d in the way by a great Storm, lost most of his Fleet, ingag’d among the Rocks; yet the Men were most of them sav’d. In this Storm the _Spaniards_ also suffer’d great damage, yet made an Advantage of the _Frenchmens_ Misfortune, marching with all speed to _Charles-Fort_, in which were onely two hundred weak Men, _Ribald_ having taken the primest Soldiers along with him. In the Morning before Sun-rise the _Spaniards_ made a fierce Assault, and in a short time became Masters of the Place, which _Laudonier_ seeing, fled in a Boat; others leaping from the Walls into the Moat, sav’d themselves by swimming: Whoever fell into the Victors Hands, was without mercy slain; nay, such was the _Spaniards_ inveterate malice to the _French_, that wanting living Bodies, they exercis’d their Cruelty upon the dead, pulling out their Eyes, and cutting off their Members, carrying them in Triumph on the Points of their Swords. In the interim, the Storm ceasing, _Ribald_ approach’d _Charles-Fort_, with his shatter’d Fleet, but was so amaz’d when he saw the _Spanish_ Flag set upon the Walls, and _Vallemond_ marching towards him with a Squadron of _Spaniards_, that although a River lay between them, yet he presently came to a Treaty, and deliver’d up all his Men, being above four hundred, upon promise of good Quarter; but the _Spaniards_ in stead of keeping their Agreement, bound them, leading them all to the Castle, where, both against their Articles, and the Law of Arms, they massacred them, and burnt their Bodies; but _Ribald_ being quarter’d, they fix’d his Limbs upon Poles about the Walls, sending his Head to _Sevil_. When _Charles_ the Ninth, King of _France_, receiv’d notice hereof, he was not in the least concern’d at the _Spanish_ Cruelty us’d to his Subjects, out of a particular hatred to _Coligni_, the first Promoter of the Voyage. But though the _French_ Crown so little regarded the inhumane Usage committed by the _Spaniards_ in _Charles-Fort_, yet _Dominicus Gurgie_ shew’d himself so highly concern’d thereat, that turning all his Goods into Money, he levied two hundred Soldiers, and fourscore Sea-men, which he put aboard three small Ships, pretending that he would onely touch at _Brasile_; but sailing beyond _Cuba_, he stood directly for _Florida_, where after his Landing he was kindly receiv’d by _Saturiona_ the King, who complaining much against the _Spaniards_ Oppressions, sent to joyn with him his Kinsman _Olotocara_, having the Command of a great Army.

[Sidenote: Is ungratefully rewarded.]

The _Spaniards_ by this time had not onely strengthned _Charles-Fort_, but also rais’d two others on each side of the River _Mayo_, in which three Holds lay Garrison’d above four hundred choice Soldiers. Those in the new Forts made little resistance; but quitting the same, and flying into a neighboring Wood, fell into an Ambuscade of _Indians_, who slew thirty of them, and preserv’d ninety for a Publick Execution. Thus they march’d on victoriously to _Charles-Fort_, where by the way sixty _Spaniards_ sallying out, were every one cut off, which much facilitated the _Frenchmens_ Work. The Governor _Melandez_, seeing a certain ruine attend him, fled into the Woods; but met there by the _Floridans_, return’d to the _French_, of whom he begg’d Life for himself, and some of his People: Yet _Gurgie_ deaf to all intreaties, would hear nothing, but pressing on, took them all Prisoners, and as a just Reward of their Cruelty to his Countrey-men, hang’d them on the next Trees: After which Execution, it can scarce be express’d how kindly the Natives entertain’d the _French_, because they had freed the Countrey from the _Spanish_ Oppressions. Thus having accomplish’d his Design, and returning home, he was nobly receiv’d at _Rochel_, but had not the least Countenance for all his trouble from the King; the Cardinal of _Lorein_ telling him, _That for his good Service he ought to suffer death, because he had fitted out three Ships upon his own Account, without Authority_.

SECT. XIV. _Four_ English _Expeditions, under the Conduct of our Famous Sea-Captains_ Martin Forbisher, _Sir_ Francis Drake, Thomas Candish, _and_ John Smith.

[Sidenote: _Forbisher_’s Expedition.]

Captain _Forbisher_ sailing to the Northern Parts of _America_, _Anno 1576._ chusing a bad time, the Year being too much spent, and the Ocean so full of Ice, that it forc’d him to return to _England_: Not many Months after, he renew’d his Voyage, Queen _Elizabeth_ having rigg’d out, and sent under his Command one Frigat and two Ketches, Mann’d with a hundred and forty Men: The twenty sixth of _May_ he weigh’d Anchor, and sail’d to the _Orkenies_, lying to the North of _Scotland_, where landing, he found the poor Islanders fled out of their Huts, into Caves and Dens among the Rocks. From thence he steer’d North-North-West, through abundance of floating Pieces of Timber, which oftentimes gave him great stops. The fourth of _July_ he made _Friezland_, where he met with a great Storm of Hail, mix’d with Snow: Before the Shore lay a great Ridge of Ice, which hindred for a while their Landing: Here he saw several Wild People, but could not come to speak with them; for upon the least approach they fled; yet when they saw any advantage, made resistance: At last, three of them came unarm’d to the Shore, beckoning _Forbisher_ to come to them; which he had done, had not great numbers of the Natives appear’d too soon from an Ambuscade in a Wood, and behind a Hill, who seeing themselves discover’d, march’d up into the Countrey, three onely staying on the Shore, of whom the middlemost feigning to be lame, at last fell down, whom his Companions took up, and carried a little way, but then forsook, by which the _English_ observing their Design, shot that the Sand flew all about him; whereupon forgetting his Lameness, he ran as swift as a Deer up a Hill.

_Forbisher_’s Men had by this time fill’d two Barrels with a Mineral not unlike Gold, but was afterwards found to be of little value. Nothing else of Remark did he find here, except great long-hair’d Men, who being exceeding salvage, subtilly plot nothing else but to murder, lurking for Men, like Wild Beasts for their Prey, whom, when caught, they tear in pieces. Close fitted to their Bodies, they wore the Skins of several Wild Beasts, priding in the Tails which hung down betwixt their Legs. Their Tents are of conjoyn’d Whalebones, cover’d over with the like Skins, the Entrance always facing the South. They use Bowes, Arrows, Slings, and two sorts of Boats: In the biggest they can carry seventeen Men, which are made of several Wooden Planks clinch’d together, and cased on both sides with Leather: The smallest ones are cover’d just in the same manner, much resembling a Weavers Shuttle, having in the middle a Hole, wherein a Man sits, who drawing the Cover of the Boat about his Waste by Strings, with one Oar makes swift Passage.

The Countrey it self is barren, yet feeds abundance of Deer, Hares, Wolves, Bears, and Dogs like Wolves, whose Flesh serves the Inhabitants for Food.

This Countrey seems to be exceedingly troubled with great Earthquakes, because several pieces of Rocks, and whole Mountains rent asunder, may be seen in divers places.

The fourth of _August_, _Forbisher_ having elevated the Pole to sixty eight Degrees, beyond what _Sebastian Cabot_, the first Discoverer of those Parts, and set out by _Henry_ the Seventh, had done (for _America_ Northward never before had been so far penetrated) and laden with a sort of shining Sand, which he believ’d might contain much of a Golden Oar, having with him three of the Natives, _viz._ a Man, a Woman, and a Child, set Sail for _England_, and the seventh of _September_ came to _Milford_-Haven, and not long after arriv’d in _London_, where in short time the Salvages died.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Sir _Francis Drake_’s Expedition.]

At the same time when _Forbisher_ sail’d Northerly, Sir _Francis Drake_ also, fitted out by Queen _Elizabeth_, steer’d another Course, sailing by _Cape Blanko_ and _Cape Verde_, along the _African_ Coast, to _Brasile_, where he caught several Sea-Wolves, and Anchoring in the River _La Plata_, furnish’d himself with Fresh Water: Then proceeding on his Voyage through the crooked _Straights of Magellan_, he came to an Anchor before _Moucha_, wash’d by the _South Sea_. The Islanders receiv’d him very courteously, because they were inform’d that the _English_ were at great Wars with the _Spaniards_, to avoid whose Cruelties, they had deserted the main Continent, and setled on _Moucha_. One of these _Mouchaners_ going aboard, serv’d them for a Pilot to the Haven _Valparizo_, where _Drake_ burnt the _St. Jago_, a small Village, and plundring all the Countrey about it, got together a great Treasure of Gold and Silver. Before _Arica_ he took three _Spanish_ Ships, richly laden; and before _Lima_, four more, having an unvaluable Treasure of Pearls and Gold aboard them. Thus inrich’d, he steer’d his Course Northerly to forty two Degrees; but the Cold forcing him to fall four Degrees to the Southward, he discover’d a very pleasant and inhabited Coast, the People whereof shew’d him great kindness: The King himself coming aboard with a great Train, set a Crown of Gold upon _Drakes_ Head, and gave him a Golden Scepter, and an Ivory Chain. After this he inspected the Islands _Tidor_, _Ternata_, _Java_, _Zeilon_, and _Cape de Bona Esperanza_, from whence, after a three Years Voyage, having encompass’d the World, he came safe to _London_, where he rested not long; for sailing _Anno 1585._ to _America_, he took great Prizes from the Cities _St. Jago_, _St. Domingo_, _St. Augustin_, and _Carthagena_, setting them all on Fire. Thus again returning home victoriously, and after the famous defeat of the _Spanish Armado_, he rigg’d out a new Fleet, having for his Vice-Admiral Captain _Hawkins_: Their Design was to have sail’d to _Panama_; but both dying, and so the Commission ceasing, the expected great and golden Project also died with them.

[Sidenote: _Candish_ his Expedition.]

A Year after the death of these famous Navigators, Captain _Thomas Candish_ Mann’d with a hundred and twenty Men, and Provisions for two Years, setting sail in a lucky Hour, a second time encompass’d the World, passing the _Straights of Magellan_; in which Voyage having got above ten times the value of his Charge, by taking the _Spanish_ Carrack _St. Anna_, valued at twenty Tun of Gold; and at last freighted with a Mass of Treasure, he came safe into the River of _Thames_.

[Sidenote: _Smith_’s Voyage.]

But much worse success had Captain _John Smith_, who weigh’d Anchor _Anno 1614._ with two Ships, fitted out by several Merchants in _London_, for _New-England_, and on the Island _Monachigga_ to load Copper, Gold, and other Minerals that were to be had there, and also to fish for Whales: But there were no such Minerals to be found there, nor any Whales to be taken on the Coast, because the time of the Year was past; so that he return’d home without Success. However, not long after, they undertook the same Expedition a second time, but with worse Fortune; for being gotten in sight of _Virginia_, he was treacherously set upon, and taken by the _French_, who accus’d him, that he had destroy’d the Plantations in _Nova Francia_, and unless he would make satisfaction for the Damage, they threatned him with death. He was carried Prisoner to _Rochel_, in a _French_ Ship; but not far from thence surpris’d by a mighty Storm, _Smith_ finding an opportunity, leap’d into the Boat, and driving betwixt the Waves, at last, half dead, was thrown upon the Island of _Oleron_, whom afterwards, having lost all, an _English_ Ship took in, and brought to his Native Countrey.

SECT. XV. Netherland _Expedition by_ Jaques Mahu, _and_ Simon de Cordes.

[Sidenote: _Mahu_’s Voyage.]

Five Ships being fitted out at _Rotterdam_, the Command of them was given to _Jaques Mahu_ and _Simon de Cordes_, who on the twenty seventh of _June, Anno 1598._ weigh’d Anchor from the _Goree_, and sail’d on an immense Voyage; at last landing at the Island _St. Jago_, they won a strong Castle there, and took two Barques; but at last Articled with the _Portuguese_, that they might undisturb’d supply themselves with Fresh Water, yet they, as if they minded no Agreements, whilst the _Dutch_ were filling their Casks, came down upon them with two hundred Horse, each having a Foot-Soldier behind him; but the _Hollanders_ made so stout resistance, that they put them all to flight.

The City of _St. Jago_, which gives Denomination to the whole Island, is built long-wise, having a convenient Haven, like a Crescent: Through the City glides a River, on both sides of which, beyond the Town, arise several high Mountains: That part which faces the Sea, hath Fortifications, defended with strong Bulwarks. The _Portuguese_ had brought all their Guns to bear towards the Sea, to sink the _Holland Ships_, which they invited thither under pretence of kindness; but a great Storm hindred the Fleet, that they could not Anchor at the appointed place; onely two of the Ships sail’d pretty near, but not within Shot.

[Illustration: St. IAGO]

From hence steering to the Desolate Island _Brava_, they saw nothing but five ruin’d Houses, the Door of one stopp’d up with great Stones, which being taken away, was found full of _Turkish_ Wheat, which prov’d a great kindness to the Sea-men.

[Sidenote: _Mahu_ dies.]

[Sidenote: _Cordes_ his Voyage.]

Mean while the Admiral _Mahu_ died, and his Body put into a Chest fill’d up with Stones, was thrown over-board; so that _Simon des Cordes_ carrying the Flag, steer’d his Course to _Guinee_, there to refresh himself; for most of his Men were so weakned by the Scurvey, that they were scarce able to hand the Sails.

[Sidenote: Strange King in _Guinee_.]

Arriving at their intended Port, the Sick were carried ashore; and the Vice-Admiral _Beuningen_, being conducted by a _French_ Guide, went to the Vice-Roy of that Countrey, who sat on a low Bench, with a Sheeps-skin under his Feet, in a Violet-colour’d Cloth Suit, without any Linnen, Shirt, Shoes, or Stockins; on his Head a Cap made of yellow, red, and blue Eastern Cloth; his Face whitened with Ashes, shew’d in several places its natural blackness, appearing through the Colours; about his Neck a Collar or Chain of Glass Beads: Behind him sat his Nobles, with Cocks Feathers on their Heads, and their Skins painted Red.

_Beuningen_ plac’d by the King on a Mat, complain’d to him, That the _Guineans_ fled from him where-ever he came, though in Friendship, to barter _European_ Commodities with them, against Fruits, Poultrey, Sheep, and other Provisions: Whereupon the King promis’d to furnish him therewith, and invited _Beuningen_ to Dinner. After some stay, the Kings Wives entred the Palace, a very mean and ill-favour’d Building, more like a great Barn than a Kings House, and plac’d a kind of nasty Trough on the Ground, in which lay nothing but some wild Herbs, and a piece of a smoak’d Sea-Calf; and though he was a Person of the largest size, and corpulent, yet he eat sparingly. _Beuningen_, though exceeding hungry, found little rellish in such kind of Meats; wherefore spreading a Napkin, his Attendants brought him some Bisket and _Spanish_ Wine, whereof after the King had tasted, he lik’d so well the rellish, that it rock’d him asleep, whilst _Beuningen_ walk’d to the Sea-side to refresh himself; but the _Guineans_ coming about him, he was forc’d to return to the King, who waking at the noise, appear’d highly incens’d at his People, and took _Beuningen_ into his House: However the Subjects, notwithstanding the Kings Commands, when _Beuningen_ was sent into a neighboring Hut, kept Watch about it all Night: The next Morning early an old Woman entred, muttering to her self, and went out and in to _Beuningen_ three times one after another, knocking on a Box not unlike a Pair of Bellows, out of which flew abundance of Dust about _Beuningen_, which caus’d a great Laughter amongst the _Guineans_. The King also coming to him, presented him with two Goats, and four Hens, and so conducted him back to the Ships.

[Sidenote: Bloody Sea, very strange.]

[Sidenote: Salvages in the _Straights of Magellan_.]

_Beuningen_ seeing that there was no good to be done, set sail from thence, and coming before the River _La Plata_ in _America_, it appear’d Blood-red. Out of the Water which was taken up in Buckets, started a sort of Insects like Fleas, which caus’d a strange and sad Distemper amongst the Sea-men, that when any Meat was offer’d to them, so soon as ever they put it to their Mouths, they would fall down backwards in a swoon, foaming and frothing at the Mouth, and turning up the White of their Eyes, die distracted. Suffering under this Disaster, they hasted from thence with all speed, and sailing into the _Straights of Magellan_ they kill’d above fourteen hundred _Penguyins_, which is a Bird that preys on Fish, and lives in Holes under Ground; they somewhat resemble a Goose, onely they stand more upright, and are double-crested, with two plumy Combs. Coming to an Anchor in the _Green-Bay_, there arose a great Storm, which continued several days, so that they were forc’d to moor their Vessels with four Anchors, extremely afflicted both with Hunger and Cold, preserving themselves alive by eating young Grout, at that time not above a span high from the Ground; but this course Food bred an incurable Dropsie, that posted them on to a sudden death. Afterwards, when the Weather grew more pleasant, the Inhabitants being Gyants, most of them eleven Foot high, grew more troublesom, oftentimes assailing them, and throwing Darts pointed like Harping-Irons, at which they were very expert. Their Salvage Natures may appear by their Dealings with the dead _Hollanders_, cutting off their Heads, and bruising them to pieces, sticking Darts through their Hearts, and cutting off their Privities.

[Sidenote: A wild Woman.]

At last the Fleet getting into the _South Sea_, were by stress of Weather separated one from another: Two Ships, being the _Faith_, and the _Good Tydings_, were driven back into the _Straights of Magellan_, where they suffer’d the uttermost extremity of Hunger: Here they took a wild Woman, and two Children, who being of a sallow Complexion, had a great hanging Belly, a wide Mouth, crooked Legs, long Heels, and Breasts like Cows Udders; about her Neck a String of Snail-shells, and upon her Back a Beasts Skin, fastned about her Neck with the Sinews of it; her Food nought else but live Fowls: The same Diet the Children fed upon: The youngest being but six Months old, had his Mouth full of Teeth, and ran without any help: The eldest they carried to _Amsterdam_; but having kept the Woman aboard two Nights, they gave her several Trifles, and set her ashore. Here they found old Ice in the middle of Summer, four Foot thick.

_Beuningen_ lingred in the _Straights of Magellan_, and being tired out with Hunger, Cold, and Storms, return’d home; and had they not by accident taken abundance of Coneys, they had all perish’d. Above two Years had this unhappy Voyage lasted, when they arriv’d at their Native Countrey, with six and thirty Men, being all that remain’d alive of a hundred and five.

SECT. XVI. _The Expedition of_ Oliver van Noord.

[Sidenote: _Porto Desire._]

[Sidenote: Sea-Dogs.]

Two Months after _Mahu_, _Oliver Van Noord_ set sail with four Ships, and two hundred forty eight Men, from the _Maes_. Having reach’d the _Princes Island_, he lost seven of his Men by the Treachery of the _Portuguese_; and Anchoring before the City _Javeiro_, he was no better entertain’d by the same Nation: Here having a Rencounter, and both Sides receiving considerable Loss, he steer’d for St. _Sebastian_, a fruitful Island, producing an Herb very wholesom against the _Scurvey_: Here the Sea-men found great store of Sea-Mews, and Parrots, besides several sorts of delicious Fish. The approaching Winter advis’d them from entring the _Straights of Magellan_ so late; wherefore they judg’d it best to seek a convenient Harbor, to put their Sick ashore to refresh themselves. The Island _St. Hellen_, for its fruitfulness, seem’d to be the most convenient for this purpose; but a great Storm preventing them, they came to _St. Clara_, where taking in Fresh Water, they cast Anchor in _Porto Desire_. In this Haven they saw a kind of Sea-Dogs, whose fore-parts being overgrown with long Hair, seem’d like a Lyon, and the Feet like Mens Hands; over their Eyes and Upper-lips grew black and white Hair, which in Stormy Weather stands staring upright, but in Calm, lies flat and smooth; they Urine backwards, sleep very soundly, and cast their Young every Month: Their Flesh well-boyl’d prov’d a savory Dish.

[Sidenote: Strange Tombs.]

_Van Noord_ going ashore here, saw not a Man; but only Burying-places on high Rocks, built of red Stones, and adorn’d both within and without with Bowes, Arrows, and other strange things: Under the Heads of the Dead lay four-square Shells, and other things artificially carv’d. Curiosity made them desirous to make a further search into the Countrey; wherefore he rowed during a whole Tide up a River; and when their Boat ran aground at the time of Ebb, he walk’d several Leagues up into the Countrey, where he saw nothing but Deer, Buffles, and Ostriches: and because he saw no People, he judg’d the Coast to be uninhabited; but returning again, he found it otherwise; for the Sea-men, though commanded to stay in the Boat, which lay in the middle of the River, went ashore, where they were so fiercely set upon by thirty of the Natives, that three of them were kill’d, and another wounded in the Leg. These People are very strong and Salvage, with painted Faces, and long Hair; but after this Encounter, they saw no more of them.

But _Van Noord_ having spent fourteen Months in search, and lost a hundred Men, set sail again with three Ships; for one of them, being the _Unity_, he burnt at the Island _Clara_, where he Winter’d, because of a great Leak which could not be stopp’d. Here they brought five thousand Fowls aboard, which much increased their Stock of Provisions.

From hence parting the Wide Ocean, into the _Straights of Magellan_, four times the Fleet attempted to go into the _South-Sea_, and was as often driven back by cross Weather into the _Straights_; but the fifth time prov’d more successful; for having got through, and left the _Straights_ a handsom way astern, they discover’d two Islands, from one of which the Sea-men going aland, brought four Boys and two Girls; who afterward instructed in their Tongue, inform’d them concerning the scituation of the Countreys thereabout.

[Sidenote: _Philip-Stadt_ forsaken through famine.]

After that, the Fleet Sail’d into _Hungers Haven_, where they found the ruines of the deserted _Philip-Stadt_, which Captain _Thomas Candish_ had seen fourteen years before, fortifi’d with four Bulwarks; but now onely some Houses, a Church, and a Gibbet were standing: Four hundred _Spaniards_ built that City, as a Key to the _Straights_ of _Magellan_. But all their Provisions being spent in three years time, and no relief coming from _Spain_, and what they Sow’d expecting the hopes of a Harvest, the Salvages coming down by night destroy’d; which caus’d so great a Famine to rage amongst them, that many dy’d, not so much as putting off their Clothes, who lying in the Houses unbury’d, occasion’d such a stench in the City, that the remainder fled into the Field; where they liv’d a whole year by the Fruits of the Trees, Herbs, and Roots: At last, three and twenty of them, amongst which were two Women remaining yet alive, resolv’d to travel to the River _La Plata_ and accordingly set forward, but what became of them could never yet be heard, only one _Ferdinando_ that was of that company, accidentally wandring from the rest, happen’d to light upon _Candish_’s Fleet.

[Sidenote: _Mocha_, what kind of Island.]

Here _Van Noord_ set on Shore the Vice-Admiral _Jacob Claeszoon Ilpendam_, for some crimes which he had committed; and leaving him behind, Sail’d from thence thorow the South-Sea along the Coast of _Chili_ and _Mocha_; which Island, of a considerable bigness, rises in the middle with a forked Mountain, from which a convenient River comes flowing down into the Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Cica_, a strange Drink.]

The Inhabitants conducted the _Hollanders_ to their Village, consisting of about fifty Houses built of Straw, but were forbid to go into their Huts: Upon the Mens call the Women appear’d, which being divided into three parties, humbly kneel’d down before them; and soon after an old Woman brought an Earthen Can full of _Cica_, a Liquor made of _Mays_, whose extracted Juyce, boyl’d and put into Tubs, ferments like our Beer or Ale, with a cap of Barm, with which they treated the _Hollanders_, who drinking moderately, were well refresh’d; but the Natives will ply this Liquor, till they make themselves Distracted, and are mad Drunk.

[Sidenote: _Van Noord_ takes a _Spanish_ Ship.]

From hence _Van Noord_ steer’d his course to _Sancta Maria_, where in his way he took a _Spanish_ Ship, call’d _Buon Jesus_, that is, _Good Jesus_, and receiv’d intelligence from the Prisoners, that the Admiral _Simon de Cordes_, with twenty three Men was kill’d by the _Americans_ on the Promontory _Lavapia_, being the head Land or Point opposite to _St. Maries_; that a year since, tydings were brought to _Lima_ of his Fleet; so that they had made all things ready to withstand him. But _Van Noord_ hinder’d by strong contrary Winds, not able to reach _Sancta Maria_, stood directly for _St. Jago_, in whose Haven lay a great _Spanish_ Ship full of _Indians_, and two other going in, which two he set on Fire, and the third he Tow’d towards his Fleet; repenting extremely that he had given liberty, and set _Francisco de Ivarro_ Commander of the _Buon Jesus_ ashore; because he afterwards understood from the _Spanish_ Pilot, that _Ivarra_ threw ten thousand two hundred pound weight of Gold, pack’d in fifty two Cases, over-board, when he observ’d that he was like to loose his Ship.

The Fleet Sailing forward came to an Anchor before the _Thieves-Island_, whose Inhabitants are very light Finger’d, go stark naked, and are of great strength; they found the Women much Disfigur’d, their Noses, Lips, and Cheek-bones eaten by the _French_ Pox.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Performs great things.]

In the Bay _La Baya_, the _Dutch_ Admiral, with a _Spanish_ Flag on his top-Mast, sent one of his Sea-men in a Fryers garb ashore, if possible under that disguise, to get Provisions; which falling out according to their Design, they were supply’d with all manner of Victuals: After that, the _Hollanders_ burnt five Villages on the Island _Capull_; took a _Chinesy_ Vessel, one _Spanish_ Barque, and a _Carvel_ Laden with Brandy from _Cocos_; and after a great and bloody Fight sunk the Admiral of the _Manilla_’s, and so at last with various fortunes arriv’d at _Rotterdam_, having in three years encompass’d the World.

SECT. XVIA. _The Expedition_ of George Van Spilbergen.

_Anno 1614._ the eighth of _August_, the _East-India_ Company of the _United Netherlands_ set out seven Ships under the Command of _George Spilbergen_, who coming to _Cape St. Vincent_, and engaging with the _Portuguese_, took one of their Ships, and so proceeded on his Voyage to the _Straights_ of _Magellan_, but by a huge Storm, the Fleet was separated. Amongst those that were scatter’d was the good Ship call’d _Meruw_, in which some of the crew had conspir’d to have kill’d the Master, and seiz’d the Vessel; but he having some inkling thereof, set so stoutly upon two of the chief Contrivers with his drawn Hanger, that he forc’d them to leap over-board, and as stoutly ordering the rest, set all to rights.

[Sidenote: Strange Corps.]

But _Spilbergen_ Landing on one of the _Penguyn_ Islands, found two Dead Bodies just cover’d with Earth, about their Necks was a Chain of glistering Snail Shells neatly strung; the Grave stuck full of Bowes and Arrows, was pleasant to look upon, between several high Mountains, whose tops lay bury’d in Snow: The Fleet came out of the _Straights_ of _Magellan_, but not without great danger, for the South-Sea much disturb’d by tempestuous Weather, seem’d to raise its Waves up to the Sky, so that they had enough to do, from being ingag’d among the Rocks: But at last with great difficulty, wonderfully escaping all danger, they Anchor’d before _La Mocha_, an Island which on the North side lies low, and on the South defended by Rocks.

[Sidenote: _Spilbergen_ in great danger.]

[Sidenote: Strange sheep.]

_Spilbergen_ seeing abundance of Men standing on the Shore, Row’d thither to Barter for Merchandize, amongst them was a Sheep with a long Neck, bunch-Back’d like a Camel, a little Mouth, and long Legs; which Beast serves them in stead of Horses, to carry their burthens, and perform their Tillage. The _Americans_ breed up these Sheep every where, by reason of the extraordinary benefit they receive from them, some of them keeping no less than eighteen hundred. Their Shepherds ride upon a Beast almost like an Ox, and carry in their hands Copper-plates, hung round about with Bells, which they shake, making a different noise when their Sheep shall go in or out; and on their Heads wear Feathers like Coronets, standing upright.

[Sidenote: St. _Maries_ burnt.]

[Sidenote: And also _Val Parysa_.]

From thence, _Spilbergen_ departing, Landed at last on the Island of _St. Mary_, where he burnt all the _Spanish_ Villages; as he did also in _Val Parysa_.

After going ashore, in the Haven _Quintero_, he saw abundance of Wild Horses drinking out of a Rivulet, supply’d with fresh Water from an adjoyning steep Mountain; so soon as they espy’d Men, they instantly running away, were seen no more.

[Sidenote: Bloody fight between the _Hollanders_ and _Spanish_ Fleet.]

Having left _Quintero_, and spent a Moneth in Sailing farther, they discry’d eight great Ships; whereupon the Prisoners inform’d them, that it was the _Spanish_ Fleet, of which _Roderigo de Mendoza_ was Admiral, fitted out on purpose to fight _Spilbergen_, whose coming (as we said) was known a year before. At midnight _Mendoza_ Boarded _Spilbergen_, but was so roughly receiv’d, that he was forc’d to Retreat with the loss of the Ship _St. Francisco_. At Day-break, the _Holland_ Admiral fir’d at _Mendoza_, who answering with equal courage, occasion’d a smart Engagement, wherein the _Spaniards_ were so hard beset, that they put forth a White Flag; but it was immediately taken in again by the Commanders aboard, choosing rather to die, than surrender, because they had mock’d at _Mendoza_, when he hinted the difficulty of the Enterprize in the Grand _Peruvian_ Councel, saying, _They went out, onely to take a few disabled_ Hollanders, _and tying them hand and feet, carry them to Execution_. Yet their high and proud Stomachs prov’d very fatal to them, for afterwards totally routed and put to flight, most of them sunk by the way.

[Sidenote: _Calyow de Lima._]

This done, the _Hollanders_ victoriously Sail’d to _Calyow de Lima_, having a convenient Haven: The City adorn’d with curious Houses and Temples, is strengthen’d by a Platform, Planted with great Guns towards the Sea, and the Shore was guarded by eight Troops of Horse, and four thousand Foot; whereupon _Spilbergen_, who was yet to go so great a Voyage, judg’d it no way convenient to adventure the loss of all on the good or bad event of a Battel, especially being so much over-power’d by the number of the Enemy: Wherefore seeing no hopes of Victory, setting forward to _Guarma_, he got some fresh Provisions.

[Sidenote: _Peyta_ burnt.]

Against the City _Peyta_, he play’d his Cannon with such fury, that the Townsmen deserted the place, which he observing, set it on fire, and Sail’d to _Aquapulque_, where from the Fort at first the _Spaniards_ fired some Guns at them; but soon after changing humor, they came to an Accommodation, furnishing the _Hollanders_ with convenient Provisions. Passing on, and coming to _Selaques_, both Natives and _Spaniards_ having suffer’d some of the _Hollanders_ to Land; after set upon them treacherously in a Thicket, but to their little advantage, for they made so good a Defence, that the Assailants not able to bear the brunt, fled with great loss.

_Spilbergen_ Sailing from hence to the _Manilla_’s, waited there for the _Spanish_ Admiral _Juan de Silva_, who had made (as was reported) great preparations for him long since; but seeing it was in vain, at last he return’d to _Zealand_ where he came to an Anchor, loaden with Riches, in the middle of Summer, _Anno 1617._

SECT. XVII. _The Expedition of_ William Corneliszon Schouten, _and_ Jacob Le Maire.

[Sidenote: _Mabrabomma_, what manner of Isle.]

[Sidenote: _Schouten_ in great danger.]

[Sidenote: Incredible many Eggs.]

[Sidenote: Great Corps.]

[Sidenote: _Ketch_ burnt.]

[Sidenote: Strange Horn.]

Some Merchants that were call’d the _Austrian_ Company, fitted out one Ship with sixty five, and a Ketch with two and twenty Sea-men, giving the Command thereof to the Captains _Schouten_ and _Le Maire_: _Anno 1615._ they Weigh’d Anchor from the _Texel_; the first took a view of one of the three Islands, call’d _Mabrabomma_, lying before _Cape Sierra Leona_. This Island appearing a great height out of the Sea, was not inhabited, they seeing onely three Wild Buffles, many Wild Cats, Birds which bark’d like Dogs, Wild Palm-Trees, Lemon-Trees, Turtles, Crocodiles, Partridges, and Storks: From hence, passing by the dangerous Shelf _Abrolhos_, they ran into _Porto Desire_, where on the Rocks they found abundance of Eggs, and Spierings, or Smelts, and Spiregrass sixteen Inches long, wherefore they call’d that Inlet _Spierings-Bay_. Their Sloop also brought two Sea-Lions, and one hundred and fifty _Penguins_ from the _Penguin_ Isles, having Sail’d two Leagues up the River; in the interim, the ground being meer Stone, and their Anchors coming home, the great Ship drove against a Rock, and at Ebbing Water, broke off the outermost Planks and Iron-Work, and the Ketch also striking on a high Shelf, was at low Ebb two Fathom with her Keel above the Water, and had without peradventure been overset, and bilg’d, but a fresh North-West Wind kept her upright, yet at last, the Weather growing calm, she lean’d, but the Tide coming in very fast, set her afloat, so that she was miraculously sav’d; then setting Sail again to _King’s-Island_, they found so many Eggs of black _Mews_, that one without stirring from his place, might reach above fifty Nests, and in each of them at least three Eggs, which they carry’d aboard by thousands. Their Boat Rowing Southerly down the River, found some Ostriches, and Beasts not unlike Stags, but with exceeding long Necks. On the Hills lay Stones heap’d one upon another, which removing, they found Dead Bodies of eleven Foot long; here they spent their time in cleansing their Ships, and new Sheathing the Ketch, but as they were Tallowing, the Flame accidentally got between the Crevisses which immediately taking Fire, in a short time consum’d it to Ashes: The great Ship had gotten a Horn in her Bow, seven Foot under Water; this Horn being firm without any hollowness, and not unlike a great Elephants Tooth, struck thorow two Ashen and one Oaken Plank, sticking in a Rib of the like Wood, and yet above half a Foot remain’d out to be seen.

[Sidenote: Great Mews.]

At length _Schouten_ Weighing Anchor from _Porto Desire_, and Sailing to four and fifty Degrees Southern Latitude, met whole Shoals of Whales, insomuch, that he was fain to Tacque to and again to shun them. Sea-Pies, bigger than Swans, came flying in great numbers aboard, suffering themselves to be taken with the hand. On the North-side they spy’d a high and scraggy Coast spreading it self to the East South-East, which they call’d, The _States Countrey_, that which lay to the Westward of it, _Maurice_ of _Nassau_, the Islands in fifty seven Degrees _Barnevield_’s Isles, and the sharp Point in which lay the Snowy Mountains, Southward of the _Magellan Straights_ end, the _Cape_ of _Hoorn_.

[Sidenote: _Straights Le Maire._]

_Schouten_ had now gotten the height of fifty nine Degrees, when he enter’d the South-Sea, through the new passage between _Mauritius_ and the _States-Countrey_, which was call’d from his Partner, _The Straights of Le Maire_.

[Sidenote: Isles in the South-Sea.]

Near the two Isles _Juan Fernando_, they found great store of Fish, after that they view’d these Islands, that lay scatter’d up and down the South-Sea, each of them they nam’d according to their several occasions, calling the first, _The Isle of Dogs_, because they have abundance of Dogs there that could not bark: Another, _The Bottomless Island_, because the Sea was so deep about it, that they could not come to an Anchor. The Inhabitants who go naked, with their Skins pounced full of strange shapes, of blue Snakes, Dragons, and such like Creatures, Salli’d out of the Woods upon the _Hollanders_ with great Clubs, to which was fasten’d the Sword or Snout of a Sword-Fish, and also with Slings.

Somewhat further they came to _Water-Land_, and _Flyes-Island_, the first so nam’d, because the Shore round about was planted with Trees, but in the middle all lay cover’d with Salt-Water; the other from the _Flyes_, which with incredible numbers troubled the Sea-men four days together.

[Sidenote: Strange entertainment at the Horn Islands.]

Moreover, the Reception or Entertainment which _Schouten_ was welcom’d withal, at the _Hoorn-Islands_, being very remarkable, we will in brief relate:

Anchoring in nine Fathom Water, Shelly ground, before a fresh Rivulet, three _Hollanders_ sent to the King were by him courteously entertain’d, who with strange humility, not bow’d, but kissing their Feet fell flat on the ground, and put the _Hollanders_ Feet upon his Neck; and after this manner of Salutation, waited upon them aboard: Yet although this King fawn’d so much, and seem’d so humble, yet he was very severe over his Subjects, for finding one that had filch’d a Sword, he not onely brought and restor’d it, but immediately Executed the Thief before their Faces.

_Le Maire_ and _Arias Claeszoon_ were much honor’d here, for the old and young King put their Crowns on their Heads, curiously Wrought of fine White Feathers, and the end adorn’d with small Red and Green Feathers; they gave also to each of them a Pigeon, White to their Wings, the hinder part Black, and under their Bellies Red.

In the interim, the King of _Water-Island_ visited the other, by whom _Le Maire_ was treated: When they met, they made strange shews of Honor to each other, but at last shew’d their Salvageness by eating raw Fish, and rudely Dancing before the _Hollanders_. _Le Maire_ going into the Countrey, and climbing up a high Mountain, saw nothing but Morass Wilds, and Vallies, lying under Water: The King and his Retinue here kept him company, during his stay there, when weary with walking, they sate down together under Coco-Nut-Trees; the young King tying a String about his Leg, climb’d with exceeding dexterity up a high Tree, bringing several Coco-Nuts down with him, which he open’d very expeditiously.

_Arias Claeszoon_, Rowing ashore one night, found the King sitting under a Roof, resting on four Pillars, where several Naked Women Danc’d before him according to their Musick, which was Taboring upon a hollow Piece of Wood, which yielded a murmuring sound without any distinct Tune.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Cava_ a strange Liquor.]

[Sidenote: Impudent Women.]

But the two Kings meeting again, the next day Complemented one another with more antick and ridiculous Postures, sitting side by side under the Roof, imploring their God, with their Hands folded, and their Heads bow’d to the ground: At this interview, four _Holland_ Trumpeters and Drummers stood playing before the King, to the great admiration and amazement of the Islanders, which were near ten thousand gather’d together upon the News of the strangers to attend the two Kings. Soon after a great company of Rusticks came running thither, which had a green Herb call’d _Cava_, ty’d about their middle; on a sudden they began all to chaw this _Cava_, throwing that which they had chaw’d into a large Woodden Trough, then putting Water to it, they Kneaded it together; which done, brought the Liquor on their Heads to the two Kings, before whom they kneel’d when they gave them any: Yet notwithstanding they receiv’d such honor from their Subjects, they shew’d servile respects to the _Hollanders_, for every King presented them with a Pig, which they first laid on their Heads, then kneeling, put it down at _Le Maire_’s Feet, and bowing their Heads to the ground, rose again. They wear their Hair long, which Brayded, hung on the left side of their Heads down to their Hips, ty’d at the end with two Knots; but the Nobility had two such Locks: All of them went naked, their Privities onely cover’d. The smallest of the Men exceeded the biggest of the _Hollanders_ in tallness. The Women had long Breasts hanging like Satchels down to their Bellies, and so unshamefac’d, that they prostituted themselves to any, in sight of all Men; and still at low Water, their business was to catch Fish, which they greedily eat raw.

[Sidenote: Strange wild men.]

[Sidenote: Deform’d people.]

After all this Entertainment, Weighing from hence, _Schouten_ Sail’d along the Coast of _New-Guiny_, where three Boats full of _Negro_’s came Rowing towards them, Slinging very fiercely Stones at them, and hovering about, attended their motion all night. Next morning, seven Boats more coming to their assistance, they set upon the _Hollanders_, but soon fled from their Bullets; yet two of the _Negro_’s were taken, that in each Nostril wore a Ring. Sailing further, several Boats came aboard of them, whereof those that Row’d, breaking their _Assagays_ or Launces over their Heads, enter’d the Ship; the Hair of their Heads and Beards bedawb’d with Lime, flew about, whilst they Danc’d on the Decks, after they had eaten a good Meal: But they endeavor’d to reward this their kind Entertainment with Treachery, for going ashore, they soon after return’d in greater numbers, and sat upon the Anchors which lay over the Bows of the Ship, and there being a great calm, endeavor’d to Towe the Ship towards the Shore, whilst others threw Stones and Arrows. But so soon as the _Hollanders_ firing their Guns Wounded several of them, they all fled, except some which they took Prisoners, whereof one whom they afterwards call’d _Moses_, did them great service.

But _Le Maire_ was amaz’d at nothing more, than when on the next Coast he saw several little Houses built about nine Foot high, out of which many People issu’d, which were all deform’d, either having Wry Noses, Bow Legs, Squint Eyes, or crooked Backs, and all in one part or another mis-shapen.

At last, Anchoring before _Jacatra_, the Ship was stopt there by order of the _East-India_ Company, and the Men divided and put aboard those Ships that Sail’d from _India_ to _Holland_, and arriv’d in safety at _Flushing_, after they had Sail’d about the World, in two years and eighteen days.

SECT. XVIII. _Voyage of the_ Nassavian _Fleet, under the Command of_ Jaques L’Heremite, _and_ Geen Huigo Schapenham.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Exploits of _L’Hermite_.]

The _United Netherlands_, to abate the _Spanish_ Greatness, set out a considerable Fleet, which they sent to try their fortune, in making Prize of what ever they could light upon in any of their Havens wash’d by the South-Sea.

_Jaques L’Hermite_ had ten Ships under his Command, Mann’d with sixteen hundred thirty seven Men, and two hundred ninety four Brass and Iron Guns, with which he set Sail from _Goree_, _Anno 1623._ and coming before _Cape Vincent_, he discover’d eleven _Turkish_ Pirates, whom fighting, he beat, and re-took the _Holland_ Ships they had made Prize of.

At _Roxents Head_, _L’Hermite_ gave chase to fifteen _Spanish_ Ships, and coming up with them, sunk eleven, and took four laden with Sugar. Afterwards Anchoring at _Safia_, he sent the Ship _Over-yssel_, and a Frigat call’d the _Gray-Hound_, to Convoy home the Prizes; afterward being inform’d, that thirty _Spanish_ Ships were making to them, Sailing into the Haven _St. Vincent_, the Spring Water that he supply’d his empty Cask with being brakkish, caus’d an excoriation of the Guts, which brought the Bloody-Flux, whereby he lost many of his Sea-men; being well entertain’d by the Salvages of _Antonio_, they went on to _Sierra Leona_, a Mountainous Point full of Lime-Trees, here they found the Names of _Sr. Francis Drake_, and other _English_ cut in a Rock.

After that he put in at the fruitful Island _Annabon_, where he caus’d his Chirurgeon to be Beheaded.

[Sidenote: _Vegar_ a wicked man.]

This wicked Man being brought to the Torture, would confess nothing concerning the Crimes objected against him, but being strip’d for Execution, they found a small Bag hanging on his Breast, in which lay a Serpents Skin and Tongue, with which he had Poyson’d several Men, but he confess’d nothing.

The first of _February_, the Fleet came to _Cape de Pemias_, which they know at a great distance, by its high Mountains cover’d with Snow.

In short time after, Sailing by the Mouth of the _Straights_ of _La Maire_, they met with very tempestuous Weather, and seventeen of their Men going ashore, were devour’d by the _Cannibals_ of _Terra del Fuogo_. These People being all _Whites_, and of a large Stature, Paint themselves Red, and go stark naked, except some of highest quality who tie a Deer Skin about their Necks; and the Women cover their Nakedness with a piece of Leather: They live in Bowers made of the Branches of Trees, Stak’d three Foot deep, in a round at bottom, and above like our Tents, Canopy’d, the top of which open, to carry out the Smoke like a Chimney; and have no other Houshold-stuff than some Baskets, in which they lay their few Fishing Implements. They go continually Arm’d with Clubs, Arrows, Slings, and Stone-Knives: Their Boats being only the Trunk of a Tree made hollow, rise up before and behind like a Half-Moon, and are fourteen, and some sixteen Foot long, and two broad, and Row swifter than a Pinnace with many Oars. Lastly, they are so Salvage, that they seem rather to be Beasts than Men, knowing no Religion, ill Natur’d, cruel and Treacherous.

From hence, passing on, _L’Hermite_ refresh’d at the desolate Isle _Fernando_, and so Steer’d his Course to _Calla de Lima_, on whose Coast, taking a _Spanish_ Vessel, the Prisoners told him, that their Plate-Fleet had Weigh’d Anchor, and were gone to _Panama_; only the Admiral which carry’d forty Brass Guns, with fifty Merchant-Men, lay close under the Shore, Guarded by three Stone Bulwarks, Fortifi’d with fifty Guns.

_L’Hermite_ having a design upon these, took three _Spanish_ Vessels that were going thither, and at midnight, sent Captain _Adrian Tol_, _Peter Slobbe_, and _Meindert Egbertszon_, with twelve well Mann’d Boats, furnish’d with Brass Drakes, and Hand-Granado’s, to Attaque the _Spanish_ Fleet that lay hard by; and whilst some gave a false Alarm on the North of _Callao_, the Boats Rowing from Ship to Ship, in short time fir’d forty of them; although the _Spaniards_ from the Shore endeavor’d by their Shot to drive back the Enemy, neither the Fort or Admiral sparing Powder nor Ball.

In this valiant Exploit the _Hollanders_ had onely seven Men kill’d, and fifteen Wounded: About break of day, seven of the _Spanish_ Ships floated, burning towards the _Dutch_ Fleet, which were as terrible as now Fire-ships, which forc’d them to Weigh Anchor to shun them.

After that, _L’Hermite_ took two Ships laden with Wine, a third full of Wood, and a fourth with Wheat: One of these Prizes he fitted and prepar’d for a Fire-ship, and sending her to Board the _Spanish_ Admiral, it ran aground within shot of him; whereupon being batter’d by the Admirals Guns, and those from the Bulwarks, and at last taking Fire gave but a small blow, because most part of the Powder had taken Wet.

In this interim, while thus their design went prosperously on, their Admiral _L’Heremite_ dy’d, whom they Bury’d on the Island _Lima_, and _Schapenham_, in defiance of the Vice-Roy in _Callao_, caus’d one and twenty _Spaniards_ to be hang’d at the Yard-Arm, because he had sent him a scornful Answer on the Proposals concerning the delivery of the Prisoners.

[Sidenote: _Vershoor_’s Exploit.]

[Sidenote: _Schapenham_’s remarkable Exploits.]

[Sidenote: _Schapenham_ dies.]

_Cornelius Jacobszoon_ Sailing to _Pisco_ with four Sail from the Fleet, could do no good there, for he not onely found the City to be surrounded with a Wall of fifteen Foot high, but having also many Earthen Redoubts, behind which lay above two thousand arm’d Men, wherefore he deserted the same after some Rancounters: But the Rear-Admiral, _John Williamszoon Vershoor_, who was sent to _Gainquil_, had much better luck; for he not onely took that Metropolis, but also burnt a new Royal _Gallion_, and two lesser Vessels; carry’d a conquer’d Vessel to _Lima_; slew above a hundred _Spaniards_, and threw seventeen overboard, because they had shot Poyson’d Bullets against the Law of Arms; of which Conquest Captain _Engelbert Shutte_ had the greatest honor: But the Sea-men grew weaker and weaker by the Scurvy, and all of them would have perish’d, had they not found a soveraign Herb on the highest Mountains of _Lima_. _Schapenham_ being chose Admiral in _L’Heremites_ place, Weigh’d Anchor from _Callao_, and ran into the Inlet _Piscadores_, where on the shore he rais’d a Sconce; yet not long after departed from thence without any effect, but lost twenty eight Men, through the bad Conduct of their Commanders; the like number he lost also at _Aquapulque_, on the side of which City stands a Castle with four strong Bulwarks; the _Holland_ Fire-ship lay just without the reach of the shot, the rest lay along the shore in a row, there to seize upon the Vessels expected thither from the _Manillaes_: But because the Scurvy raged amongst the Sea-men, and disabled them, they waited in vain, _Schapenham_ Sail’d through the South-Sea to the _Ladrones_, where he found store of Provisions. _Anno 1625._ in _March_, he drop’d Anchor before _Maleye_, and from thence went with _Herman Spiult_, the Governor for the _East-India_ Company in _Amboina_, to _Ceram_, where they Conquer’d the Fort _Lochoe_, and soon after _Cambella_; then the Fleet being divided, _Schapenham_ carry’d home two Ships from _Batavia_, and the remainder return’d at several times, they being hir’d to serve the _East-India_ Company to _Surratta_, _Malacca_, _Coromandel_, and the _Molucco Isles_: _Schapenham_ Deceasing near _Bantum_, and being Bury’d on _Pulo Boftok_, the Ships arriv’d at the _Texel_ in _July, Anno 1626._

Henry Brewer _his Voyage_.

_Anno 1643._ _Brewer_ set Sail with four Ships from _Reciffo_, and ran close along the _States-Isle_, so dangerous and Rocky, that he durst not put in to the Land; from which flew great abundance of Party-colour’d Ducks, with sharp Bills, about the Ships, and under the Keels swam also Whales.

[Sidenote: Sea Lions.]

[Sidenote: _Brewer_’s Haven.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Exploits.]

On the West side of the _Straights Le Maire_, _Brown_ ran into _Valentine_’s Inlet, where he was much troubled by the Winds which came whistling through the hollow Mountains with great and sudden gusts: The shore afforded red and black Strawberries, _Carville_ and Muscles, to the great refreshment of the Sea-men, who daily saw Sea-Lions, but could not come to shoot one of them, for no sooner they perceiv’d any body, but they Diving under Water, swam away; and though they saw Mens Foot-steps of eighteen Inches long, yet they never found any Men. Thence Sailing into the South-Sea, along the Coast of _Chili_, they enter’d a Bay which they nam’d _Brewer’s-Haven_; where Landing, they walk’d towards a great Smoke which they saw afar off, but coming near it, found only two Houses within a large Plain, full of Sheep, Oxen, and Horses; before the Houses stood Woodden Crosses.

[Sidenote: _Ter Bergen_’s Exploit.]

[Sidenote: _Castro_ a City.]

[Sidenote: Stream _Chili_.]

[Sidenote: _Brewer_ Dies.]

[Sidenote: Strange accident.]

[Sidenote: _Baldivia_, a brave City.]

The _Dolphin_ Pink and a great Boat being sent to the Inlet, lay the following Night at an Anchor near a high Mountain; from whence, in the Night, two great Guns were fir’d, whereupon, Lieutenant _William Ter Bergen_ Landed with sixteen Musqueteers, and climbing up the Mountain, found a Village behind the same, where all things were in Alarm, Drums beating, Trumpets sounding, Bells ringing; the Villagers suddenly firing their Guns on _Ter Bergen_, who being supply’d with thirty four Men, Encounter’d the Enemy so Valiantly, that he fled into the Woods, not without the loss of Men and Horses: The Guns with which they had shot in the Night lay onely on a Redoubt: _Ter Bergen_ persuing this Victory, March’d into the Woods, and shot the _Spanish_ Commander _Andreas Munes Iserrera_ from his Horse, got great store of Treasure which lay hid under the Tree, being brought out of _Carelmappa_, which Village he set afire, and kill’d all the Horses, and Weigh’d Anchor with the Admiral _Brewer_ to _Michael de Cabuco_ where not being able to Land, because of the many obscure Rocks and Shoals, they set Sail to _Castro_, which they conquer’d and burnt without the least resistance: This City situate on a Mountain is stately built among Flowry Meadows, delightful Orchards, and brave Fountains; the Sea before it flows daily fourteen Foot. _Brewer_ also burnt a _Spanish_ Ship, and set some Houses afire, took three _Spaniards_ Prisoners on _Las Bahias_, who inform’d him, that the Winter Season was almost over, but that it was never known by any to pass over so mildly, ill Weather generally using to blow down Houses, Trees, and rend Rocks asunder; that there was much Gold in _Osorno_ and _Baldivia_, which last they had some years since deserted for hunger, but it was since Garrison’d by three hundred _Castilians_, that none could get at the Fort _Conception_ (which lay a League Westerly from thence) but in a small Boat, that there were on the place near two thousand Inhabitants. Moreover, an ancient Matron call’d _Lovysa Pizarra_, from _Quintian_, one of the Isles in the _Chilean_ In-Land-Sea, being fetch’d from thence, gave information, that forty years since, before the _Indians_ took up Arms, the _Spaniards_ were quietly setled in _Osorno_, and in so good a condition, that an ordinary Planter had at least three hundred Slaves, of which, every one was to procure a certain quantity of Gold; that the Isles _Chiloves_ were divided into above a hundred Colonies or Plantations, the _Chileses_ serving the _Castilians_ as their true Governors; those that do good Service the King of the Colony makes them Commanders, and that the _Chileses_ had Rebell’d in several places. _Brewer_ on the _Chileses_ request took some of them, with their Wives and Children into his Ship, furnish’d with Arms, he digg’d a Chest of Silver and a Brass Gun out of the Earth, and soon after being sick, dy’d. His Successor _Elias Herkmans_ prosecuting those Publick Affairs, sent the Pilot of the _Unity_ out of _Brewer’s Haven_, and some Sea-men, with two _Chilean Casiques_ with a Boat to _Carelmappa_; but being surpriz’d by a violent Storm, stood in for _Horse-Island_, where he and the _Casiques_ Landing, he order’d seven Sea-men to carry the Boat to a safer Harbor; but being driven from the shore by strong Winds it took in so much Water as fill’d and sunk it, so that all of them were drown’d. _Horse-Island_ being destitute of Provisions and Lodgings, those that were Landed expected nothing but Death, till they found out a small Hut, and in the same six brave Sheep, and a good quantity of Potatoe Roots, which serv’d for Bread: But when this their new-found Store was almost spent, they happily were fetch’d off by the Boat belonging to the Ship _Amsterdam_, and with the whole Fleet came to an Anchor before _Baldivia_. This City built by the _Castilians_, consisted formerly of five hundred and fifty fair Houses, and was divided into Streets and cross Ways, with two large Markets, and as many costly Churches.

[Sidenote: Why the _Chileses_ grew strange to the _Hollanders_.]

The _Chileses_ unsufferably oppress’d, slew all the _Spanish_ Garrison, and into the Governor’s Mouth and Ears pour’d melted Gold; of his Skull they made a Drinking-cup, and of his Shin-bones, Trumpets; after this, the City fell almost to decay, onely a great part of the Wall remain’d yet standing: The _Chileans_ hereupon flock’d hither by thousands, some on Horses, others on Foot, all Arm’d with Lances of a Foot long: _Herkman_ hereupon informing them by an Interpreter, that they being mortal Enemies of the _Spaniards_, would joyn with the _Chileans_ against that common Foe; and desir’d, that they might build a Fort on the Market-place in _Baldivia_, for a defence against all Invasions, and that they might be supply’d with Provisions which the Fleet wanted; all which the _Chileans_ granted, and accordingly brought in store of Sheep, Hogs, and Cattel: But so soon as _Herkman_ began to make the least mention of Gold, they were all abash’d, and said, that they knew of no Gold Mines, nay, their Hair stood an end, when they heard the name of Gold; so horribly the _Spaniards_ had dealt with their Parents: After this, the _Chileans_ growing more and more strange, did not in the least countenance the building of the Fort, and the longer the Fleet staid, the less Provisions they brought aboard; upon which, the Ships were necessitated, without any remarkable Exploits, to set Sail and return to _Reciffo_.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The Second Book, CONTAINING A DESCRIPTION OF NORTHERN AMERICA

CHAP. I. _Of the Bounds of_ America, _and of the Division of the_ Mexican _or Northern part thereof_.

[Sidenote: The Bounds and Division of _Northern America_.]

Having in the first part of this Volume discours’d at large concerning the original of the _Americans_, and whether that part of the World call’d _India Occidentalis_, or _America_, were known to the Ancients, or own its Discovery wholly to the Moderns, as also of all the Discoveries that have been made of the several parts thereof, and by whom, we shall now pass on to the Topographical part, describing every particular Province or Region, by giving an account of their Situation, Temperature, Productions, Nature of the Soil, and Quality of the Inhabitants. _America_, lying Westward of the _Azores_, and the Worlds Meridian, is by some suppos’d to consist of one vast Island, and several lesser ones, scatter’d about it: Nor can this supposition be thought vain, if, as many think, it be inviron’d on the North-side, as toward the East, South, and West it is known to be; East and South, by the _Atlantick Ocean_; and West, by _Mar del Zur_: But because the North-West Passage, though attempted by many, as _Nelson_, _Davis_, _Forbisher_, _Button_, _Smith_, _Hudson_, and others, hath not yet by any been fully discover’d; so that it is not certainly known whether _America_ be joyn’d to _Greenland_, and the _Arctick_ Region, by a continu’d Tract of Land, or sever’d by the Ocean: We shall follow the method of those Geographers, who, reputed sufficiently Authentick, have divided this new World into Islands, and two grand _Peninsula_’s joyn’d together by an _Isthmus_, or Neck of Land, call’d _The Straight of Darien_, by some _The Straight of Panama_, lying almost under the Equinoctial Line, and extending in length from _Nombre de Dios_ Southward above a hundred Miles, and from East to West seventeen Miles over in the narrowest place. Of these two grand _Peninsula_’s the Northern is generally call’d _America Mexicana_, from _Mexico_ the chief City of the Province, properly call’d _Mexicana_; which was heretofore without doubt the most potent, rich, and flourishing of all the Kingdoms of the _Indians_, at least on the North-side of the _Isthmus_. In the division of the several Provinces of _America_, as well those of the Northern as of the Southern Continent, we find so various an account among the several Geographers that have written of them (not any two of them agreeing in one and the same order) that to reconcile the differing methods of so many disagreeing Authors would be an endless work: wherefore we shall pitch upon the surest course, and not omitting the mention of any of the Provinces taken notice of by the said Authors, hereby endeavor to take in whatsoever material hath been observ’d by all of them, and by the way take occasion to shew how one differs from another in the distribution of them. Those therefore of the Northern _America_ (that as near as can be we may bring the design of many into one) seem most fitly describ’d in this following order: 1. _Estotiland_; 2. _Terra Laboratoris_, or _Nova Britannia_; 3. _Canada_, or _Nova Francia_; 4. _Nova Scotia_; 5. _New England_; 6. _New Netherlands_, now call’d _New York_, as being in the possession of the _English_; 7. _New Holland_; 8. _New Swedeland_; 9. _Apalchen_, now call’d _Virginia_; 10. _Florida_; 11. _Jucatan_; 12. _Honduras_; 13. _Nicaragua_; 14. _Veragua_; 15. _Costarica_; 16. _Anien_; 17. _Nova Hispania_; 18. _Guacatimala_; 19. _Nova Gallicia_; 20. _Nova Biscaia_; 21. _Nova Mexico_; 22. _Cibola_; 23. _Nova Granata_; 24. _Tontonteac_; 25. _Quivira_; 26. _Nova Albion_; to which by most Authors is added _California_; which being an Island we thought fit to reserve to be spoken of amongst the Islands, as also _Terra Nova_, or _New-found Land_; which last lies utmost West, as the other East of Northern _America_. Some there are also (and particularly _Monsieur de Martini_) who among the above-mention’d Provinces have inserted _Greenland_, though doubtless with little reason, since though it be granted that it is not divided by any Sea, yet it is evident, if any credit may be given to all modern Maps and Globes, that the greatest part of _Greenland_ lies in the Hemisphere of the known World; and therefore we have judg’d it most convenient to refer the particular mention thereof to the Description of the _Arctick_ Region.

The Islands of _Northern America_ are 1. _Terra Nova_, or _New-found Land_; 2. The _Island of Assumption_; 3. The _Bermudas_, or _Summer-Island_; 4. _Hispaniola_; 5. _St. John Porto Rico_; 6. _Cuba_; 7. _Jamaica_; 8. The _Lucayes_; 9. The _Caribes_, or _Antillæ_; 10. _Margarita_; 11. _Cubagua_; 12. _La Trinidad_; 13. _Tabago_; 14. _California_, the biggest of all the _American_ Islands.

The length of the _West-Indies_ is generally computed to be from the utmost South of _Terra Magellanica_, to the farthest North of _Estotiland_, about six thousand _English_ Miles, reaching from six Degrees of Northern, to fifty three of Southern Latitude; the breadth from _St. Michael_ or _Piura_ Westward, to _Parabaya_, a Town on the Coast of _Brasil_ Eastward, three thousand nine hundred Miles, and the whole compass thirty thousand.

SECT. II. Estotiland.

That the _English_ have been very great Undertakers of Voyages and Discoveries toward the North-West, appears by the denomination of divers places, both from the Persons which have Sail’d thitherward, and also from such of our own Countrey Names as were thought fit to be there fix’d, as beyond the _Arctick Circle_ are Sir _James Lancaster’s Sound_, Sir _Dudley Diggs’s Cape_, Queens _Annes Foreland, Cumberland Isles, Davis’s Straight, &c._ on this side toward the _Arctick Circle_, _Button_’s and _Brigg_’s _Bay_, _Hudson_’s _Sea_, otherwise term’d _Mare Christianum_, out of which more Westerly runs a narrow Sea call’d _Hudson_’s _Straight_: beyond _Hudson_’s _Sea_ towards the _Arctick Circle_ is a place call’d _New North-Wales_; and on this side answerable to it, between _Button_’s _Bay_ and the _Christian Sea_, lies _New South-Wales_; all which places we find generally set down in the _American_ Hemisphere, but in the Geographical Discourses thereof little is said of them, if so much as nam’d. The farthest part of Land Northward, between _Hudson_’s _Gulph_ and _Hudson_’s _Straight_, betwixt fifty seven and sixty Degrees of Northern Latitude, goes generally by the Name of _Estotiland_, I mean that properly so call’d (for _Estotiland_ is by some as largely taken as _Canada_, by _Cluverius_, _Golnitzius_, _Peter du Val_, and others, namely for all that Tract of Land extending from that supposed _Straight of Anian_, which divides _America_ from _Asiatick Tartary_, as far as the utmost point of Land that shoots toward the _Atlantick Ocean_) which Southerly towards _Terra Laboratoris_ is bounded with a River vulgarly call’d _Rio Nevado_, or _The Snowy River_. _Estotiland_ seems to have deriv’d its Name from its lying more Easterly than the rest of the Provinces, and, according as _Nova Britannia_ is plac’d in some Charts, might very well be taken for the same, though it hath not been so term’d by any Author, but rather _Terra Laboratoris_, _Cortereatis_, and _Nova Britannia_ are generally receiv’d to be all one.

[Sidenote: First discovery of _Estotiland_.]

[Sidenote: The Nature of the People.]

This Province is affirm’d by _Matthias Quadus_, and _J. Antonius Maginus_, to have been the first discover’d Countrey of the new World, and that by _Antonius Zeno_, a Patrician of _Venice_, in the Year of our Lord 1390. which was long before the Expedition of _Columbus_, through the encouragement of _Zichmus_, King of the Isle of _Friezland_; but by whomsoever found out, or at whatsoever time, it is commonly affirm’d to be not ill furnish’d with Provisions of all sorts, as Beasts, Birds, Fish, Fowl, and Fruits, having a Soil indifferent fertile, in respect of the coldness of the Climate. The People in general (for some there are that live wild and salvage up and down the Woods, and go naked, whereas the Clothing of the Countrey is the Skins of Beasts and of Sea-Calves, call’d _Morses_) are reported not onely tolerably civil, but also ingenious and expert both in mechanick Arts, and other necessary Faculties, insomuch that the first Voyagers to this place are said to have observ’d of them upon this first Discovery, That they sow’d Corn, brew’d Beer and Ale, and Traded by Sea to _Greenland_, _Friezland_, and other places, to the distance of fifteen hundred Miles; and that they were not altogether void of the use of Letters, but that their Character was onely proper to themselves and not intelligible by any other Nation: Moreover, there is a certain Tradition, that there was here and there some little knowledge of the _Latine_ Tongue amongst them, and that there were found divers _Latine_ Books in a Library of one of their Kings; the reason of which, if true, is conjectur’d to be from certain _Europeans_ who understood that Language, having in Ages past suffer’d shipwrack upon those Coasts, where chancing to abide either through constraint or choice, they might haply at their Decease leave behind them some Books and other Monuments of the _Latine_ Tongue. They were observ’d to use such a kind of Javelin or short Dart, as was known to be us’d by the People of _Java_, and some other Islands of the _East-Indies_; whereupon it seems not wholly improbable, that they might for a long time have entertain’d Traffick and Correspondence with them.

[Sidenote: Description of the _Morses_.]

The _Morses_, or Sea-Calves before mention’d, are about the bigness of a young Heifer, the Hunting of which by the Natives, who take them in great numbers, is to them in the stead of Whale-fishing, which is not there so good, for they draw a great quantity of Train-Oyl out of them. On each side of the Jaw of this amphibious Creature (for it is said to live very much on the Land, as well as in the Water) there sticks out a crooked Tusk, winding downward like an Elephants _Proboscis_, above a Cubit in length, and as white and hard as Ivory: It is esteem’d of great vertue, at least it passes for such among those who take it for other than what it is, for it is frequently vended for Unicorns-horn; of which imposture Dr. _Brown_ takes notice, and gives a Caution against in his _Vulgar Errors_.

This Countrey is suppos’d, and that probably enough, to have store of Brass and Iron Mines; but for the Mines of Gold and Silver, which some have imagin’d there, the Northerly Situation of the Countrey, and by consequence the coldness of the Climate, give sufficient cause to question the truth of any such assertion. What chief Towns, Cities, Rivers and Mountains there are in this Province, is not yet deliver’d by any, onely _Maginus_ and _Quadus_ make mention of four principal Rivers, which disperse themselves through the Countrey, and take their source out of a great Mountain in the midst thereof.

SECT. III. Terra Laboratoris.

[Sidenote: Situation.]

_Terra Laboratoris_, by some call’d _Nova Britannia_, by others _Corterealis_, (though there are some who make _Laboratoris_ and _Corterealis_ two distinct Countreys, comprehended, according to _Peter du Val_, under _Nova Britannia_, as the more general Province; or, according to _Cluverius_, under _Canada_) lies from about fifty four to fifty seven Degrees of Northern Latitude, between _Estotiland_ and the River _Canada_, which _Maginus_ and some others, though for what reason is not express’d, name _Fretum trium Fratrum_, _The Bay of the three Brethren_; others, _The River of St. Laurence_, and is, according to the said Author, of so vast a bigness, that the Mouth of it extends it self thirty five _Italian_ Miles wide; likewise of such a length, as to have been navigated a continu’d Voyage of eight hundred Miles. The denomination of _Terra de Laborador_, or _Laboratoris_, seems probably enough conjectur’d to be from the cultivability (if one may so term it) of the Soil, or its aptness for Cultivation or Tillage; that is, because by the painful Hand of the Labourer or Husband-man it may be rendred so fertile, as to yield all sorts of Grain and Fruits; haply in allusion to that fruitful Countrey of _Campania_ in _Italy_, vulgarly known by the Name of _Terra di Lavoro_. As for the Appellation of _Terra Corterealis_, it need not be question’d, but that it derives it self from _Gaspar Corterealis_, a _Portuguese_ Gentleman, who about the Year of our Lord 1500. is thought by some to have made the first discovery of these Parts; though Sir _Sebastian Cabot_ a _Venetian_, is more generally believ’d to have been the Man that (under the favour and countenance of _Henry_ the Seventh, King of _England_) first discover’d them, at least the adjoyning Island _Terra Nova_, or _New-found Land_; but just onely discover’d, being hinder’d the farther prosecution of that Design, by the important Affairs in which the said King was about that time involv’d; neither did _Corterealis_, whether he was the first, or came after, do any more, for returning within a year after his first setting out, he was never heard of; nor, as _Osorius_ a _Portuguese_ Historian writes, any of his Company, being all suppos’d to have been drown’d by Shipwrack; and in like manner _Michael Corterealis_, who the year following set forth with two Ships in quest of his Brother _Gaspar_. Upon which series of Misfortunes the _Portuguese_ being wholly discourag’d, and giving over this Design, the _French_ of _Armorica_ or _Bretany_ succeed them in it with somewhat better success about the Year 1504. whereupon it came to be term’d _Nova Britannia_, or _New Britain_. The ancient Inhabitants of this place were formerly of a Nature, like the generality of the _American_ People, somewhat bruitish and salvage, but by long conversation with the _French_, are said to have cast off their original wildness, and become more civilly manner’d: they are very jealous of their Wives, by report much addicted to Soothsaying, though otherwise having little of Religion, or of any other kind of Learning; they dwell for the most part in Caves under Ground, feed chiefly upon Fish, and are accounted most expert Archers. Whatever places the _French_ have built here besides, those of chiefest note are _St. Maries_, _Cabo Marzo_, and _Brest_.

SECT. IV. Canada, or New France.

[Sidenote: Situation.]

_Canada_, as it is taken for one and the same Province with _New France_, contains _New France_, properly so call’d, _Nova Scotia_, _Norumbega_, and some adjoyning Islands, as the _Canada_ of _Cluverius_, lying more North-Westerly, comprehends (as we have already intimated) _Estotiland_, _Laboratoris_, and _Corterealis_, and, according to the most modern Division (for that of _Cluverius_ neither consents with the latest Authors, nor agrees with exact Survey, it being nam’d _Canada_, in respect the River _Canada_ runs through it) hath on the North _Terra Corterealis_, on the South _New England_, and on the East the Ocean, and hath between forty five and fifty two or fifty three Degrees of Northern Latitude. The River _Canada_ is judg’d to be the largest of all the Rivers of _America_, as those Rivers generally the largest of all in the World besides; it rises in the Western parts of this Province which remain yet undiscover’d, and in some places spreads it self into huge Lakes, some of them a hundred Miles in compass, with many little Islands dispersed up and down in them, and so running from the West about a hundred Leagues, falls at last into the North part of _St. Lawrence Bay_, being that wide _Emboucheure_ of thirty five Miles breadth already mention’d. This River is extraordinary full of Fish, among which there is one sort more remarkable than the rest, call’d by the Inhabitants _Cadhothuis_, having Heads resembling the Heads of Hares, and Bodies as white as Snow; they are taken for the most part before the Isle _de Lievres_. The Countrey on both sides of the River is pleasant and indifferently fertile, especially towards the South-West, where upwards from the River the Ground rises into many little Hills, invested most of them with Vines, with which and several other sorts of Trees this Countrey abounds, being well water’d with a great many lesser Streams, all of them falling into the River _Canada_.

[Sidenote: First discovery.]

That this Countrey is term’d _New France_, from having been discover’d by the _French_, at least more fully than before, there needs no question to be made; but whether _Joannes Verrazanus_, under _Francis_ the First of _France_, or _Sebastian Cabot_ before spoken of, were the first in this Discovery, may admit of something of dispute: the _Cabots_ indeed, (for _John_ the Father is by some mention’d to have accompanied his Son) who by all are own’d the first Discoverers of _New-found-Land_ and _Terra de Baccalaos_, are also commonly reputed to have first found out the Province of _New France_, together with some parts adjacent, though perhaps it might be upon this Ground that _Terra de Nova_, or _New-found-Land_, not being known at first to be an Island, _New France_ and that might be taken for one continu’d Province; and it appears so much the more probable, because _Canada_, or _Nova Francia_, is by some call’d _Terra Nova_; however it be, or whoever were the first Adventurers, _Quarteri_ and _Champlain_ are the two _French_-men that have gain’d so much fame by making a more ample and particular search into these parts, that this Province may seem from thence to have sufficient claim to the Title of _New France_, whereof that part more especially so call’d, lies on the North-side of the River _Canada_, and Southward to _Terra Corterealis_. The Winter is here very long, and so much the more severe by reason of a cold North-West Wind which blows most part of the Winter Season, and brings with it so thick a Snow, that it continues upon the Ground most commonly till after _May_. The Countrey is for the most part wooddy, but in the Champain parts thereof very fruitful of Corn, and all sorts of Grain, especially Pulse: It hath also Fish, Fowl, wild Deer, Bears, Marterns, and Foxes in abundance, and of Hares such plenty, that one of the little Islands belonging to this Province, is by the _French_ nam’d _L’Isle des Lievres_, or _The Island of Hares_: But the most peculiar Commodity belonging to this Countrey is the _Esurgnuy_, a kind of Shell-Fish, extraordinary white, and approv’d of singular vertue for the stanching of Blood; to which purpose they make Bracelets of them, not onely for their own use, but also to vend them to others; but _John de Laet_ and others have observ’d no other than a superstitious use of them amongst the Salvages, in their Funeral Rites for the Dead: the manner of their taking it is very remarkable; for when any one is condemn’d to die, or taken Prisoner, they cut off all his fleshy parts in long slices, and then throw him into the River, where they let him lie twelve hours, and at last pulling him out again find his Wounds full of _Esurgnui_. _Quadus_ and _Maginus_ make mention of three ancient Towns, namely _Canada_ (denominated as the Province, from the River) _Hochelai_ and _Hochchelaga_, giving Name to a Territory about it, which Geographers either take no notice of, or make some question of the being of such Towns; however, a late Describer of the _West-Indies_, not mentioning the other two, gives this description of the last, _viz._ _Hochchelaga_:

“This City (saith he) said to be the Seat and Residence of a King of this Country whom the Natives, at least some of them, acknowledge and reverence, carrying him sometimes in great pomp upon their Shoulders sitting upon a Carpet of Beasts Skins, is situate far within Land, at a distance of six or seven Leagues from the River _Canada_, and is a kind of fortifi’d place, encompass’d about with a threefold Range of Timber Ramparts one within another, of about two Rods high from the Ground, with cross Planks, or pieces of Timber jutting out, on purpose to hinder an Enemy’s Scaling or getting up; towards the top there is as it were a Scaffold or Gallery fram’d, from whence they may throw down Stones of which there is always good store ready, or what else to annoy the Assailants: It hath one onely Gate for Entrance, and that likewise well fortifi’d after their manner: There are guess’d to be in it fifty or sixty great Houses, built (as the maner of the _Americans_ that live in Houses usually is) in a square Figure, each side being about fifty Foot long, or more, and sixteen or twenty broad, but not many Stories high; and in the midst of the Court or void space, a place to make their Fire, and do other necessary work about it. Moreover the Territory round about this Town is both rich in Soil, and pleasant in Prospect.”

Besides these three above-mention’d Towns there are several others, which are not untaken notice of in the most modern Descriptions and Maps, _viz._ 1. _Stadac_, or _Stadacone_, somewhat Westward of a small Isle call’d _The Isle d’Orleance_; 2. _Quebeque_, which being made a Colony of the _French_, and the Natives expell’d, came to be Entituled _St. Croix_; 3. _Tadoussac_, which lies in that part of the Countrey denominated from the River _Saguenay_, and by some call’d at this day _Nouvelle Biscaye_, a delightful place, and full of stately Trees, and hath likewise a good and safe Haven, capable of receiving twenty Ships; 4. _Trois Rivieris_, or three Rivers; 5. _Monreal_; 6. _Sillery_; 7. _Richelieu_; besides two strong Castles or Forts, _Franceroy_ and St. _Lewis_; the First built by _Monsieur Robeval_ at his Landing here, about the Year 1540. the other design’d for a Colony, in the Year 1611. by _Monsieur Champlany_, but hinder’d by the Invasion of the _Iroquois_. The smaller Rivers that run out of the Gulph of St. _Lawrence_, and the grand River _Canada_ towards the North, on which side chiefly lies this Province, are, 1. _Chichesedec_, 2. St. _Margarite_, 3. _Lesquemin_, 4. _Saquenay_, before-mention’d, 5. _Montonne_; and on the South side, the River _Mary_. The principal Tribes of the ancient Natives of this Countrey were; on the North side of _Canada_ the _Canadans_, the _Betisiamites_, the _Hurons_, the _Algoniquins_, the _Quenongebins_, the _Algoingequins_, the _Attagopantans_, the _Atticameques_, the _Nipisiriniens_; and on the South side, the _Etechemins_, and the chief Heads or Princes of these Tribes were call’d _Sagamores_.

[Sidenote: Strange Fish nam’d _Chaousarou_.]

_Jaques Quartier_ Complementing their King _Agouthanna_, took up his Quarters a whole Winter at St. _Croix_, a Sandy Promontory, overflow’d by the River _Canada_, into which falls the Lake _de Champlain_, grown round about with Chestnut Trees; in it breeds the strange Fish call’d _Chaousarou_, generally ten Foot long, with Heads like Sharks, and two rows of Teeth in their Mouths, their Skins full of strong Scales, which are sufficient Shields against Swords and Lances, are great devourers of other Fish and Fowls, which they take after this manner, _viz._ they swim amongst Reeds or Canes, and lie still with their Mouths open; whereat the Birds sitting down upon them, are immediately swallow’d.

The Natives of _Nova Francia_ anoint their bodies with Oil; in the Summer they go naked, and in the Winter mantle themselves in Furs. Their Warlike Accoutrements are Darts and Clubs, but chiefly great Shields. They are revengeful, cruel, and fraudulent; their Women common to all Men, from fifteen to twenty, after which, Marrying, they become very Chaste. Their Diet is _Indian_ Corn, fresh and salt Fish, Venison, _Buffalo_’s and Beavers flesh; wiping their Fingers (when greasie) on their Heads, or their Dogs backs, which wait for the Scraps.

[Sidenote: Strange proof of Valor.]

[Sidenote: Wonderful opinion of God.]

[Sidenote: Flood.]

[Sidenote: Sorcerers.]

[Sidenote: They boast their Extract from Heaven.]

[Sidenote: Their strange Relation concerning it.]

[Sidenote: As also of the Creation, and Souls of the Deceased.]

[Sidenote: Strange Rock.]

[Sidenote: Thunder.]

[Sidenote: _Thakabech_ an Idol.]

[Sidenote: Funeral-Feast.]

At that season when the Corn covers the ground, to any heighth, they eat Cockles, Dogs, dead Caryon, and the Skins wherewith they Clothe themselves. When they have eaten their fill, they tabering on their Bellies, cry, _Tapoue Mikispoun_, that is, _Verily I am satisfi’d_. They give their Sick a speedy Cure, either immediately killing them, or inhumanely exposing them to the Woods, to be devour’d by ravenous Beasts, but if they die suddenly, they in howling tone pronounce _Ove, Ove_, thereby to chase the Souls of the Deceas’d out of their Huts; they stick the bodies on Woodden Prongs, cover them with Bark, and lay their Clothes and Arms by them; all what remains of the Funeral Feasts is burnt, whereas at other times, what e’re is brought on their Table they eat, though ready to burst. They make the first Proofs of their Valour by undergoing a most prodigious Torment, in this manner; Two by consent tie their naked Arms together, on which they suffer burning Sulphur to be pour’d, till the flesh starts from the bone; if either of them shrink, or pull back his Arm, he is accounted by them ever after as an ignominious and base Coward. They call God _Atahocan_, and believe that one _Messou_ first drowning the world by a general Deluge, restor’d it again after a wonderful manner, _viz._ _Messou_ hunting with Wolves, they scented a Deer which being closely pursu’d, leap’d into a neighboring Pool, the Wolves following it, were drown’d; _Messou_ coming thither, stood amaz’d at a Bird, which inform’d him, that the Wolves were pluck’d down, and held fast in the bottom by horrible Monsters, whereupon he diving, the Pool immediately began to swell, and at last the whole surface of the Earth to be overflow’d. _Messou_ afterwards let a Raven flie to fetch a Clod of Earth, but in vain, for all the Land lay drown’d in Water; at last a Rat diving to the bottom, brought a lump of Earth, out of which _Messou_ restor’d the World; shot Arrows into Trees, which became fruitful Branches. Here also reside an innumerable many _Sorcerers_, call’d _Pillotoa_’s, which sometimes being possess’d with a Frenzy, scourge themselves in a terrible manner, insomuch that the Blood runs down by their sides: These People are held in great esteem, for they boast themselves to have their Original from Heaven upon this occasion, _viz._ _Ataensic_, a certain great Queen or Goddess, residing above the Stars, had a sick Husband, who Dreamt that he should be restor’d to his former health so soon as he could but taste of the Fruits which grew on a Tree, whereby the Family of Heaven were kept alive, but that the Tree must needs be cut down, which _Ataensic_ obeying, gave onely two blows, when the Tree, to her great amazement, fell out of Heaven down to the Earth; there being by this means nothing more left to eat in Heaven: _Ataensic_ follow’d the fallen Tree, and being big with Child, bare a Daughter, which growing up to years, was Deliver’d of two Daughters, _viz._ _Taoviscaron_ and _Jouskeha_, the eldest of which slew the youngest: By these Fables we may discern their obscure knowledge of _Noah_’s Flood, _Eve_’s Fall, and _Cain_’s Murder. No less ridiculous is that which they believe concerning the Creation, _viz._ That the Waters were inclos’d within a Frog, which _Jouskeha_ causing to be cut open, all Streams and Rivers issuing out, had their Original from thence: This done, _Jouskeha_ open’d a Pit, out of which came all sorts of Beasts; they ascribe a Bodily shape to the Soul, as also Immortality, but that they live together in a great Village towards the West; from which removing sometimes, they knock at the Doors of their former Friends in the Night, and sow deserted Grounds: That the Journey towards the Village in which the Souls reside is very strange; the Highway thither beginning at a Rock nam’d _Ecaregniendi_, where they first Paint their Faces, which done, they go to a Hut inhabited by an old Man, nam’d _Osotrach_, who takes the Brains out of the Souls Head; after which they walk to a broad River, which they cross on a narrow Plank or Bridge, on which a Dog encountring, forces them to leap into the Water, which carries them down to the foremention’d Village. They acknowledge one _Oki_ for the Governor of the Sea, and seasons of the Year: They also Religiously Worship the Rock _Tsankchi Arasta_, which they believe some ages ago was once a Man, but afterward Transform’d into a Rock, in which a _Dæmon_ resides, who can make their Journies either successful or dangerous, wherefore they offer him Tobacco. Their opinion of Thunder is likewise very ridiculous, for they say that the Devil endeavoring to vomit a horrible Serpent, by straining to evacuate the same, rents the Clouds, and occasions Thunder. Lastly, They relate of a Dwarf call’d _Thakabech_, who climb’d on the top of a Tree, which by his blowing thereon grew so high, that it touch’d the Clouds, and _Thakabech_ easily stept into them, where he found all sorts of delight and pleasure; but having a Sister on Earth, descended again along the Tree, and fetching his Sister, conducted her above the Stars; mean while, _Thakabech_ going in the Night to see if he had taken any thing in his Net which he had pitch’d, found it full of Fire, and observing the same very narrowly, saw that he had taken the Sun, but durst not approach the same, by reason of its great heat; but making a Mouse, sent her to gnaw the Net in pieces, and set the Sun at liberty. Every twelfth year they keep an extraordinary great Funeral-Feast; for on the Set-time they flock from all parts to the appointed place, every one carrying thither the Bodies or Bones of their Deceas’d Friends, wrapt up in Clothes, and hang them over their Meat, which they eat singing; such fond and Superstitious Conceits make up the Religion of these poor deluded People.

SECT. V. Accadia, or Nova Scotia.

_Nova Scotia_, or _New Scotland_, formerly call’d _Accadia_, is commonly accounted a part of _New France_, (_viz._ that part which lying on the South side of the River _Canada_, and shooting South-Easterly into a bosom of the Sea, forms it self into a _Peninsula_, between the Gulph of St. _Lawrence_, and the Bay _Francoise_) nevertheless, because of the different concernments of this part of the Countrey, in regard the right of claim to several places in this district, most especially of all _Nova Francia_ besides, hath been long in dispute between _Us_ and the _French_, it will be most convenient to Treat of it apart; and because the Series of Affairs, from its first discovery, till of late years, appears faithfully represented on the _English_ part, in a Remonstrance Address’d to the King and Council by Sir _Lewis Kirk_, and his Brother _John Kirk_ Esquire; it will not be amiss (onely adding some few things upon occasion) to follow exactly the Narration of Affairs, deliver’d in the said Remonstrance to this effect.

“1. The whole Tract or Space of Land in _America_, lying on either side of the River _Canada_, which a long time since were known by the Names of _Nova Francia_, and _Nova Scotia_, were at first discover’d and found out by the _English_, in the time of _Henry_ the Seventh, King of _England_; which Expedition was first undertaken at the Command and Charges of that King; afterwards further’d and carry’d on by the favorable Aspect of Queen _Elizabeth_; so that in process of time, for many years together, the said Tract of Ground, with absolute Priviledge of free Commerce, fell under the Jurisdiction and Power of the Crown of _England_: Neither was it unto any other _Christian_ Princes, or their Subjects more clearly known or discover’d, untill about the year 1600. some of the _French_ understanding the benefit arising by Traffique in the River of St. _Lawrence_, having formerly seiz’d upon that Tract of Land, situate on the North side of the said Floud or River _Canada_, did afterwards, in _Anno 1604._ (_under the Conduct of_ Peter de Gua, _Lord_ of Monts, _who in the year 1606. was follow’d by_ Monsieur de Pourtrincourt) Possess themselves of _L’Accadie_, lying on the South side of the said River, naming the whole _Nova Francia_, challenging to themselves for many years, at least _de facto_, the Possession thereof, with sole liberty of Commerce there.

“2. In _Anno 1621._ King _James_ of _England_ looking upon the Possession gotten there by the _French_, as upon an Invasion, did by his Letters Patents Grant unto Sir _William Alexander_ a _Scotchman_ (_Created afterwards Earl of_ Sterling, _by King_ Charles _the First_) _L’Accadie_, by the Name of _Nova Scotia_; who in the year 1622, and 1623. _after Sir_ Samuel Argal _had driven out_ Biard _and_ Masse, _and demolishing their Fort, carry’d them Prisoners_ to Virginia; having obtain’d the Possession thereof, they Planted a Colony therein, and kept Possession for about two years after, until such time, as upon the Marriage of his Majesty King _Charles_ the First, with the Lady _Henrietta Maria_, the said _L’Accadie_, or _Nova Scotia_, was by Order of the King of _England_ return’d into the Possession of the _French_.

“3. Afterwards a War arising between his Majesty King _Charles_ the First, and _Lewis_ the XIII. _Anno 1627._ and _1628_. Sir _David Kirk_ and his Brethren and Relations of _England_, did by vertue of his Majestie’s Commission, send to Sea (at their great charge) first three, afterwards nine Ships, with Warlike Preparations for recovering of the Possession of the said Lands, lying on either side of the said River _Canada_, and to expel and eject all the _French_ Trading in those Parts, wherein they had good Success; and in _Anno 1627._ did there seize upon about eighteen of the _French_ Ships, wherein were found a hundred thirty five Pieces of Ordnance, design’d for relief of the _Royal Fort_ in _L’Accadie_, and _Quebeck_ in _Nova Francia_, under the Command of _Monsieur de Rocmand_, and _Monsieur de la Tour_, Father of _de la Tour_, Governor of the said _Royal Fort_, whom, together with the said Ships and Guns, they brought into _England_; and in the year 1628. they Possess’d themselves of the whole Region of _Canada_ or _Nova Francia_, situate on the North side of the River, together with the Fort or Castle of _Quebeck_, Sir _Lewis Kirk_ being then constituted Governor of the place, the _French_ being then either expell’d or convey’d into _England_, and the Arms of the King of _England_ being publickly there erected, and every where plac’d; and before the year 1628. it was brought to pass by the said Sir _William Alexander_, (assisted both by the advice and charge of the said _Kirk_) that in the parts of _L’Accadie_, or _Nova Scotia_, on the South side of the River _Canada_, the whole place, with the Forts thereon built, being by him subdu’d, presently came under the Power of the King of _England_; that Region on the South side falling into the Possession of the said Sir _William Alexander_, and that on the North side, into the Possession of the _Kirks_.

“4. On _March 29. 1632._ a Peace being concluded between King _Charles_ the First, and _Lewis_ the XIII. it was amongst other things on the part of the King of _England_ agreed, That all the Forts, as well in _L’Accadie_ as in _Nova Francia_, should be restor’d into the Possession of the Subjects of the _French_ King, which was exactly perform’d on the part of the _English_, though to the great damage of the _Kirks_; but on the part of the _French_, although it was agreed, as in the fourth and fifth Articles of Peace is set down, (to which reference is had) yet nothing was ever perform’d of their parts; so that the _Kirks_ did thereupon suffer loss, to the value of five thousand Pounds _Sterl._ which were to be paid them by _Monsieur de Cane a French-man_, but remain unpaid to this day.

“5. _Anno 1633._ the King of _England_ taking notice, that although the Forts and Castles, according to the League, were deliver’d up into the Possession of the _French_, (especially such as had been erected during their Possession thereof) yet that his _English_ Subjects were not to be excluded from Trade or free Commerce, in those Regions that were first Discover’d and Possess’d by his Subjects, did, with the advice of his Council, by his Letters Patents, Dated _May 11. 1633._ upon consideration had of the Expences, which the said _Kirks_ had laid out upon the reducing of that Countrey with the Fort of _Quebeck_, to the value of 50000^{lb.}; and also of their ready obeisance in resigning up the same on his Royal Command, Grant unto Sir _Lewis Kirk_, and his Brother _John Kirk_ and his Associates, for the term of thirty one years (not yet expir’d) full Priviledge, not only of Trade and Commerce in the River _Canada_, and places on either side adjacent, but also to Plant Colonies, and build Forts and Bulwarks where they should think fit.

“6. By vertue of which Commission, Sir _Lewis Kirk_ and his Brother _John Kirk_, and his Associates, in the Moneth of _February_ next following, _viz._ in 1633. set forth a Ship call’d _The Merry Fortune_, Laden with Goods of a considerable value, consign’d to those parts, where during her Trading there, without any just offence given; and in time of Peace, she was by the _French_ forceably seiz’d on, and carry’d into _France_ and her Lading, as if she had been lawful Prize, Confiscated; whereupon the _Kirks_ suffer’d loss, to the value of twelve thousand Pounds. And although the Lord _Scudamore_, Ambassador in _France_, by the King of _Englands_ special Command, and the said _John Kirk_ being there in Person, by the King’s Command, did often earnestly urge, that the Moneys due to the said _Kirks_, and the said Ship, with her Lading, might be restor’d, which for no other cause had been seiz’d upon and sold, but only for that by the King’s Commission she was found Trading at _Canada_; yet he could obtain nothing, but after some years fruitless endeavors return’d into _England_ without accomplishing his desires.

“7. In the year 1654. _Cromwel_, although an unjust Usurper of the Government, yet upon consideration of the Premises, taking a just occasion for requiring the Possession of _L’Accadie_, sends forth several Ships under the Command of one _Sedgwick_, who by vertue of the Authority granted him by _Cromwel_, assaulted and subdu’d the aforesaid Forts in _Nova Scotia_, and restor’d them into the Possession of the _English_: And although in the year 1655. a League of firm Peace and Amity being concluded between _Cromwel_ and the _French_ King, the _French_ Ambassador did often urge the Restitution to the Possession of the _French_; yet for the same causes aforesaid, which had mov’d _Cromwel_ to seize upon them, it was thought fit still to retain the Possession of them; and although according to the purport of the twenty fifth Article of the Peace, Commissioners on both sides were to be appointed for the deciding and determining that Controversie; yet nothing was done therein, neither did the Commissioners ever meet within three Moneths, as in the twenty fourth Article of the Treaty was provided and agreed: So that now the case is very clear, that the Possession to the _English_ remains firm and just, and that the Forts and Bulwarks before specifi’d, are without all peradventure under the Power and Jurisdiction of the King of _England_.”

Since the Restauration of his present Majesty, the _French_ Ambassador representing unto the King the Pretensions of the _French_ unto the several Forts and other places in _Accadie_, and urging the non-performance of the Articles of Agreement between _Oliver Cromwel_ and the _French_ King, mov’d the King of _England_, _As a profess’d Enemy to all Violence_, for a Restitution of all the Forts and other places which were then in the possession of the _English_: Not long after which, whether upon the Ambassadors request, or upon other important Affairs intervening, or upon what other ground soever it were, the _French_ were suffer’d to re-enter on the foresaid places, and do yet keep Possession of them, till such time as the _English_ claim under the just Title of the _Kirks_, shall meet with some fit occasion of being reviv’d.

That which we suppose gives the _French_ so much the more confidence in their claim of this Country, is their presumption upon the Expedition of _James Quartier_, whom they will have to be the first Discoverer, if not Possessor, not onely of the Isle of _Assumption_, but also of this Coast of _Nova Francia_, not taking notice it seems of _Sebastian Cabot_, under _Henry_ the Seventh.

The chief places of Note in this Countrey, are, 1. _Port Royal_, a Colony of _French_, said to have been Planted there by _Monsieur de Montz_ in 1604. by report, capable of receiving a thousand Ships; and in 1613. (the _French_ being driven out by Sir _Samuel Argal_, Governor of _Virginia_, who took Prisoners _Biard_ and _Masse_, and demolish’d the Fort at _Port Royal_) given by Patent, as aforemention’d, to Sir _William Alexander_; afterwards by him sold again to the _French_; then in the time of _Oliver Cromwel_ re-taken by Major _Sedgwick_; lastly, re-possess’d by the _French_. 2. St. _Luke’s Bay_, or _Portua Mouton_. 3. _Gaspe_, or _Gachepe_. 4. _The Haven of Passepay._ 5. The _Bay de Toutes Isles._ 6. _The Fort de la Heve._ 7. _The Cape of Sable._ Within the Southern Point _Forchu_, lies the Isle _Longu_, which boasts of a Silver Mine.

The most noted People of the ancient Inhabitants of _Accadie_ were the _Iroquois_, lying most South-Westerly upon the Sea Coast, who us’d to drive a great Trade in Beavers and other Commodities.

Westerly before the River _Chovacoet_ lies _Bacchus Isle_, full of Vineyards.

[Sidenote: Remarkable manner of living.]

The Inhabitants thereof differ very much from other Salvages, for they shave all the Hair from the Crown of their Head, wear long Locks behind, pleited together, and stuck full of Feathers, Paint their Faces black and red, and go arm’d with Clubs, Bows, Pikes, and Arrows pointed with Fish-bones: They Till their Ground very handsomly, and divide their Fields with Hedges; they Plant Tobacco, Vines, Cabbages, _Maiz_, and divers Colour’d Beans; the stalks of the _Maiz_ serve in stead of Poles for their Beans to run up upon.

Beyond _Cape de Rocher_ lies the brave Harbor _Beauport_, which is secur’d from all Winds by an Isle which lies in the midst of it. The Countrey Manur’d in most places, and Fruitful, feeds store of Men and Cattel.

The Haven of _Malabar_ is surrounded in a manner with little Huts, cover’d with Mats, which in the Middle of the Room have a hole for the Smoke to go out at. The Southern shore is Sandy, and very dangerous.

For the more full exemplification of what concerns this part of _Nova Francia_, we shall conclude with an account of all Material Passages relating to the _French_, from their own Narrations as followeth.

[Sidenote: _Quartier_’s Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Scurvy, when known.]

[Sidenote: Exploit of _de la Roque_.]

The first discoverer of this Coast was _Jaques Quartier_, sent out _Anno 1534._ by the _French_ King, _Francis_ the First, in which Expedition he spent five Months; and going from thence to St. _Male_, discover’d the Inlet _Lawrence_, _Terreneuf_, and _Natiscotec_. The following year prosecuting his Voyage, he Sail’d into the great River _Canada_, and Winter’d near St. _Croix_, where he lost divers of his Men by the Scurvy, a Distemper till that time altogether unknown; and such was his condition, that none of his Men had escap’d with life, had not the Inhabitants taught him to cure the same with the Bark and Leaves of the Tree _Annedda_; with which many recovering, _Quartier_ Weigh’d Anchor, and treacherously carry’d the King _Donnacona_ with many of his Nobles, Prisoners to _France_; but most of them dying, _Quartier_ brought only a few of them back with him in his third Voyage, six years after the first, when arriving in the Haven St. _Croix_, he cast up a strong Fort, which he nam’d _Charlesbourg Royal_, where he staid a whole Winter. _Joan de la Roque_, whom the _French_ King had made Governor of _Quartier_’s new-discover’d Countries, Sailing thither with three Ships, met with _Quartier_’s Fleet near _Terreneuf_; from whence he was then going home, because he saw no hopes of subduing the Salvages with so small a Force as he had brought with him from _France_. But _de la Roque_ endeavoring to make a further discovery of _Canada_, Sail’d up the River _Saguenay_, where spending both time and Money, he was Commanded home by the _French_ King, and the fruitless Expeditions lay dead till about 1604.

[Sidenote: Of _de Monts_.]

[Sidenote: Of _Poutrincourt_.]

When _Peter de Monts_ obtaining Letters Patents to Trade for Furs in the foremention’d Countries, Sail’d with two Ships beyond _Accadie_, up St. _Lawrence Bay_, where he Landed on the Isle St. _Croix_, where of ninety seven Men, with which he staid there a whole Winter, he lost thirty five; but having fresh Supplies sent him from _France_, he remov’d to _Port Royal_, where leaving forty Men, he return’d home; these forty being reduc’d to twenty three, and in great want, walking along the Sea-shore in a despairing condition, espy’d a Ship coming up with full Sail, which upon nearer approach, prov’d a _French_ Vessel, of which _Poutrincourt_ was Commander, who receiving his wretched Countrey-men with great joy, took them with him to _Port Royal_, being sent thither on purpose to settle a Plantation in _Accadie_: Meanwhile the Letters Patent granted to _Monts_, being call’d in, the first Planters in _Port Royal_ were forc’d to desert the same, and return home; and also _Poutrincourt_ returning, came back again three years after to _Port Royal_, where finding the Houses standing as he had left them, he Manur’d the Countrey all about, and endeavoring to Plant _Christianity_ among the Natives, Christen’d among others an _Accadian_ Lord, who was above a hundred years old; all which _Poutrincourt_ Sailing back to France, related at the Court.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Transactions of some _Jesuits_.]

The _Jesuits_ being also inform’d thereof, obtain’d leave of the Queen to send _Peter Biard_ and _Euemond Masse_ thither, on pretence, that _Henry_ the Fourth had himself promis’d them the same Priviledge in his Life time. But the Merchants at _Diep_, which were concern’d in the new Plantations with _Poutrincourt_, opposing the going over of the foremention’d _Jesuits_, express’d themselves very violent against them, and laid to their charge the Blood of the late King, which they said was yet reaking in _Paris_: _What assurance_ (alleadg’d they) _had their Goods which were in the Custody of Men inclin’d to the_ Spaniards? _Must the_ Christian Religion _be promulgated? There are so many Orders of_ Monks _which may easily produce two Men; but if the Queen was resolv’d to send_ Jesuits _thither, they desir’d restauration of the Monies which they had disburs’d_: To which _Biard_ and _Masse_ harkening, gather’d up the demanded Monies, under pretence of being requir’d towards the Preaching of the _Christian Religion_ amongst these remote _Heathens_; by this means getting great Sums, they bought out the foremention’d Merchants, so that the new Plantations fell half to the _Jesuits_, who setting Sail, and arriving at _Port Royal_, turn’d all things topsiturvy, and so thwarted _Poutrincourt_ in his designs, that he was forc’d to complain to the _French_ Court of the _Jesuits_ oppression, whose aim it was to get all things into their own Possession; whereupon they Excommunicated _Poutrincourt_’s Son (who serv’d in his Father’s place at Court), and gain’d the Duke _Guereheville_ in _France_ to be of their Party, by promising him, that he should share in the new Plantations for a contracted Sum of Money: After this they receiv’d all sorts of Arms and Ammunition, with several Brass Guns, of the then King _Lewis_ the XIII. and other gifts Collected and gather’d out of their several Societies, for two new _Accadian_ Apostles. _Gilbert du Thet_, a subtile man of the same Order, transported their Necessaries.

At this time all things going favorably with the _Jesuits_, they made themselves Masters of _Port Royal_, and began to raise a Fort on the River _Pemtagovet_; but there their happy Proceedings were stop’d, for Captain _Argal_ before-mention’d, Sailing thither in vindication of the _English_, was encounter’d by _du Thet_, (who firing the first Gun on _Argal_, was by him taken off with Chain-shot) and taking _Biard_ and _Masse_, carry’d them Prisoners to _Virginia_, and dismantled the Fort built at _Port Royal_, after which it was by King _James_ given by Patent to Sir _William Alexander_, as hath been already related, together with what of most remarkable hath happen’d since.

SECT. VI. Norumbegua.

[Sidenote: Whence denominated.]

_Norumbegua_, lying between _Nova Scotia_ Northward, and _New England_ Southward, is so utterly not taken notice of by many as a distinct Province, that it might seem to be swallow’d up and lost in the two Countreys between which it lies, or at least to be thought a part of _Virginia_ or _New England_ (for _Virginia_ largely taken is said to contain _New England_, _Novum Belgium_, and _Virginia_, especially so call’d) and that so much the rather, because the _Bessabees_, accounted by _Sanson d’Abbeville_ an ancient People of _New England_, are written to have liv’d near the River _Penobscot_, which is reckon’d to be the same with _Pemtegovet_, or (as some will have it) _Norumbegua_, from which, or from a certain great City of that Name, the Country for fancy’s sake must needs be denominated; but since most commonly we find it nam’d and treated of apart, it will not be improper to follow that method, carrying the Bounds of _New England_ no farther Northward than the River _Quinnebequi_ or _Sagadahoc_, and so determining the main part of this Countrey to that space between the aforesaid River and _Pemtegovet_, excepting a small Southerly portion upon the Banks of the River _Chovacovet_; so that it appears chiefly situate under the forty third Degree of Northern Latitude.

[Sidenote: Towns and Cities not certainly known.]

As for the Towns or Cities of this Province, there is but a very uncertain account to be given, forasmuch as the pretended great City _Norumbegua_, from whence the Province should take its Appellation, is not acknowledg’d by any of the most authentick modern Writers, nor in any late Voyage or Discovery any mention made either of that or any other considerable Town or City. Dr. _Heylin_ supposeth it to be no other than _Agguncia_, a poor little Village, that seems compos’d of a company of Hutts or Sheaves, cover’d with the Skins of Beasts, or the Barks of Trees. But the most favourable conjecture is, that it might haply be the Ruines of an ancient Town, which the Natives call’d _Arambeck_, and had probably deserted it long before the arrival of the _Europeans_ in those parts; however, it is not very probable that the Name of the Countrey should be deriv’d from this City, if ever there were any such, or from the River, which appears to have been term’d _Norumbegua_ on purpose to make way for this derivation, whereas _Pemtegovet_ is the ancient Appellation that properly belongs to it; nor hath any modern one been apply’d to it but that of _Rio Grande_, by _Buno_ in his _Comment_ upon _Philip Cluverius_, upon what ground is hard to tell, since it is observ’d by _Heylin_ and others, to be neither large, nor otherwise much to be commended, being Navigable not above twenty or thirty Miles, in respect of its many great Cataracts and Falls of Water, an Inconvenience with which many other Rivers of _America_ are prejudic’d, and rendred impassable.

Before and about the Mouth of this River, which is judg’d to be about eight or nine Miles broad, lie many small Islands, or rather Hills, inviron’d with Water, the chiefest of which is by the _French_ call’d _La Haute Isle_, from the high and Mountainous appearance of it to those that see it from afar off at Sea.

The aforemention’d _Buno_, though he names, as belonging to _Norumbega_, these several places, _viz._ _Porto del Refugio_, _Porto Reale_, _Paradiso_, _Flora_, and _Angolema_, from some obscure _French_ testimonies, without particularising any Author, yet he afterwards confesses, that the Names given by the _French_, and those apply’d by the _Spaniards_, are so various and disagreeing, and breed such a confusion, that no Charts or Descriptions had concluded upon either.

As for those who will have _Norumbega_ deriv’d from _Norwegia_, in respect of a Colony brought thither from _Norwey_, if the Etymologie be not a little too much forc’d, the Invention may pass well enough till a better be found out.

[Sidenote: The temperature and nature of its Soil.]

In this Countrey the temperature of the Air is not bad, nor the Soil unfruitful, if it were well cultivated, chiefly towards the Rivers, and where it is not either overgrown with Woods, or craggy with Hills and mountainous Rocks: neither are the Woods unprofitable, for they afford good Timber, and all kind of necessary and useful Wood, especially Beeches, Fir-trees, Wallnut-trees, and other Nuts: The Plains are very pleasant, and yield good Pasturage, onely the Maritime Coasts are so shallow and full of Sands, that the Sailing near them is accounted somewhat dangerous; and this may be imagin’d to be the reason that no Authors have yet met with any Ports or Havens belonging to this Countrey, which they have thought worthy their notice.

[Illustration]

CHAP. II. New England.

As _Canada_ is by some accounted a general Province, containing _New France_, _L’Accadie_, _Norumbega_, and other places, so under _Virginia_ largely taken, are comprehended _New England_, _New Netherlands_, and _Virginia_ properly so call’d; however, since that part which vulgarly goes under the Name of _Virginia_ and _New England_ were possess’d, if not discover’d, at several times, and their Plantations promoted and propagated upon several occasions, and by distinct Interests, and since _New England_ hath been look’d upon as a place considerable enough for Persons of very eminent quality to concern themselves in it, we rather are induc’d to consider this Countrey as a principal part, than as any way depending on, or being any Branch or Portion of _Virginia_.

[Sidenote: Situation of _New England_.]

It lies between _Norumbega_, which it hath Northward, and _New Netherlands_ Southward, from forty one to forty five Degrees of Northern Latitude, in the midst of the temperate Zone, and paralell to _France_ and some part of _Italy_ in the Western Hemisphere, so that one would think it should enjoy the same temperature of Air; but the contrary is found, for that part which borders upon the Sea is colder, partly by reason that the Sea-waves break the reflexion of the Sun-beams, partly by reason of the abundance of Vapors, which mounting upward, abate the ardor of them; but the more Inland parts of the Countrey are indifferently warm: Moreover it hath been found by certain experience, that those Countreys which look towards the East, or Sun-rising, are colder than those which lie towards the West, or Sun-setting, and those that have the Evening Winds on them, warmer than those which have the Morning Winds; which being so, it should follow, that the temperature of the Air in those Regions is peculiar to the Bodies of those of our Nation, who being accustom’d to a Climate somewhat temperate, are neither able to endure extremity of Cold, nor immoderate Heat: Yet there are who affirm, that _New England_, though situate in the midst of the temperate Zone, nevertheless feels both extremities of the two opposite Zones, in the Summer the heat of the Torrid, and in the Winter the cold of the Frigid.

[Sidenote: First discovery.]

As for the first discovery of this Countrey, it is not to be expected otherwise than that of the discovery of those other Countreys hitherto discours’d of, that is to say very uncertain; but because the _French_ boast of _Joannes Verrazanus_ (who though an _Italian_, was employ’d by the French King _Francis_ the First) as the first Discoverer, not onely of _Nova Francia_, as hath been already intimated, but also of this Countrey and the adjoyning Coast and Regions, we shall not think it impertinent to give from their own Relations, a brief view of his Voyage, and afterwards a particular Description of the _English_ Plantations there, and of their Transactions, both one with another, and between them and the Nations. The Narration of _Verrazanus_’s Voyage is as followeth:

[Sidenote: Remarkable Voyage of _Verrazanus_.]

“On command of the _French_ King _Francis_ the First, _John Verrazanus_, _Anno 1524._ setting Sail Westward from the _Canary_ Isles, discover’d a low _American_ Coast, in thirty four Degrees North Latitude, inhabited by naked People, which behind the sandy Hills facing the Sea, Manur’d many fruitful Plains. Then Sailing a hundred Leagues along the Shore Northerly, he view’d a Countrey full of Vines, which grew up amongst the Boughs of high Trees; and Sailing up a pleasant River, Landed on the Island _Clandia_, full of woody Mountains: thence he stood for the main Continent; where after having visited a King, Clad in wrought Deer-skin, he Sail’d by a Bay, at whose Mouth appear’d a Rock in an Inlet, twenty Leagues; where appear’d five small Isles, all of them exceeding fruitful. After this (being got a hundred and fifty Leagues to the Northward) he found very salvage People, whose Heads appear’d through Bear-skins and Sea-Calves. By this time having _Terreneuf_ on his Starboard, he return’d back to _Diepe_.”

Thus far _Verrazanus_ made some discovery of the Coast, which hath since not onely been farther inspected by the _English_, but also by them Planted and call’d _New England_.

[Sidenote: The setling of Plantations.]

This Countrey, whether first discover’d by the said _Verrazanus_, or together with the rest of largely-taken _Virginia_, by Sir _Walter Raleigh_, or, as some say, by Captain _Gosnald_, in the Year 1602. was so well known to the _English_ in the beginning of King _James_’s Reign here, that the setling and carrying on of Plantations in this part of _America_, was vigorously promoted by many of the most eminent Persons in _England_: whereupon it was about the Year 1606. being the fourth Year of the said King, granted by Patent to several Lords, Knights, Gentlemen and Merchants, under the denomination of _The Plymouth Company_, both in favour of those generous Spirits, who studied and endeavor’d the good of the Publick by foreign Plantations, and indulgence to those, who not well satisfi’d with the Government of Church and State, and willingly transporting themselves and Families thither, as to their _Asylum_, could more conveniently be spar’d than the better affected part of the People: And although the Colonies at first sent over succeeded not according to expectation, yet in a short time there Plantations were brought to very great perfection. Captain _Weimouth_, who had been employ’d there by the Lord _Arundel_ of _Warder_, for the discovery of the North-West Passage, falling short of his Course, hapned into a River on the Coast of _America_, call’d _Pemmaquid_; from whence he brought five of the Natives for _England_, three of whose Names were _Mannida_, _Skettwarroes_ and _Tasquantum_, and Landing at _Plymouth_, presented them to Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_, whom he made use of as Instruments for the farther advancement of these Plantations: they were all of one Nation, but of several parts, and several Families; he kept them with him three years, and observing in them an inclination to vertuous Designs, and Spirits above the Vulgar, he gain’d information from them what great Rivers ran up into the Land, what Men of note were seated on them, what Power they were of, how Ally’d, what Enemies they had, and the like; and taking some light from thence, sent away a Ship, furnish’d with Men, and all kind of Necessaries convenient for the Service intended, under the Command of Captain _Henry Chaloung_, a Gentleman of a good Family, and very capable for Undertakings of this nature; and giving him sufficient Instructions what to do, sent along with him two of the said Natives for his better Conduct and Direction, ordering him by all means to keep the Northerly Gage as high as _Cape Briton_, till they had discover’d the Main, and then to beat it up to the Southward as the Coast tended, till they found by the Natives they were near the place to which they were assign’d. By that time they were about a hundred Leagues off the Island of _Canara_, the Captain fell sick of a Feaver, and the Winds being Westerly, his Company shap’d their Course for the _Indies_, and coming to _St. John de Porto Rico_, the Captain went ashore for the recovery of his Health, whilst the Company took in Water, and such other Provisions as they had present need of, and spent some time in Hunting, and other Recreations; after which steering their intended Course, they were met with by the _Spanish_ Fleet that came from the _Havana_, taken Prisoners and carried into _Spain_, the Ship and Goods being confiscated, the Voyage overthrown, and the Natives lost.

Not long after the setting out of _Chaloung_, _Thomas Haman_ was sent by Sir _John Popham_, Lord Chief Justice of _England_, towards the River of _Sagadehoc_, to the succour of _Chaloung_, if need were; but not finding him, after he had scowr’d the Coast all about, he return’d back into _England_.

Captain _Prinne_ was likewise sent from _Bristol_, who arriving happily in those Parts, brought back with him at his return the most exact Discovery of that Coast that ever had been gain’d till then.

A while after, at the Charge of the said Sir _John Popham_, a hundred Men were sent to settle a Colony at _Sagadehoc_, under the Command of _George Popham_, _Raleigh Gilbert_, Master of the Ship, who seated themselves in a _Peninsula_, at the Mouth of this River; which attempting to discover, they met with a Wood near to an Island, distant from the Line about forty five Degrees, and some odd Seconds, where they easily went on Shore. In the Year 1608. the Commander of the Colony deceasing, and not long after him the Lord Chief Justice, who had been the chief that had furnish’d them with fresh Supplies, they return’d for _England_ in those Ships that had been sent them with Succours: At which unexpected return, the Patrons of the Design were so offended, that for a certain time they desisted from their Enterprizes. In the mean while the _French_ making use of this occasion, Planted Colonies in divers places, when Sir _Samuel Argal_ from _Virginia_ disturb’d their Designs, and brought away Prisoners all he could lay hold on.

Suddenly after Captain _Hobson_ and divers others were set out with very great Preparations, and with them two of the Natives which had been detain’d for some time in _England_, whom they thought to have made use of, the better to draw the rest of the Natives to their Commerce; but because a little before twenty four of them had been treacherously dealt with by one _Hunt_, they contracted from thence so great an animosity towards the _English_, that Captain _Hobson_ was constrain’d to return without effecting any thing.

In the Year 1614. Captain _John Smith_ being sent to Fish for Whales, and seek after Mines of Gold and Silver, Landed upon the Island of _Monahiggan_, where he found some store of Whales, but not such as those by whose Oyl they use to make so much profit.

About the same time (two of the Natives being recover’d, _Erpenow_ of _Capawick_, that had escap’d from Captain _Hobson_, and _Assacumet_ of _Pemmaquid_, one of those that had been taken Prisoners with _Chaloung_) Captain _Harly_, with Necessaries convenient for such a Voyage, was dispatch’d away by Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_, the Earl of _Southampton_ favouring the Design, and furnishing him with some Land-Soldiers under the Command of Captain _Hobson_, who not discourag’d with his former ill Success, resolv’d upon a second Adventure.

In the Year 1615. Sir _Richard Hakings_ undertook a Voyage into those Parts by authority of the Council of the second Colony, but by reason of the great Wars among the Natives, his Observations could not be such as might give any farther light than what had been already receiv’d.

Soon after which Captain _Dormer_ coming for _England_ from _New-found-Land_, and Landing at _Plymouth_, apply’d himself to the Governor, by whom he was dispatch’d away, with Direction to meet Captain _Rocroft_, sent away a little before; but _Rocroft_ being dead by that time _Dormer_ could come after him to _Virginia_, where he heard he was, he returning to _Capawick_, was there set upon by _Erpenow_, the foremention’d Salvage, and other _Indians_ that were Conspirators with him; and within a short while after at _Virginia_, whither he went to be cur’d of the Wounds he receiv’d in that Assassination, he fell sick and died.

About the Year 1623. Captain _Robert Gorges_, newly come out of the _Venetian_ War, was employ’d by the Council of _New Englands_ Affairs as the Lieutenant-General, to regulate the Abuses of divers Fisher-men and other Interlopers, who without License frequented those Coasts: for which Service he had assign’d to him all that part of the main Land situate upon the North-East side of the Bay of the _Messachasets_.

By these several Colonies sent so thick one after another, both a full Discovery of the Countrey came to be made, and a large gap open’d to the free possession thereof; yet in regard of the many disappointments and misfortunes the several Companies sent over met with, and counting the vast Charges their setting forth cost the Undertakers, which would have been still increas’d by the need of continu’d Supplies, in all probability _New England_ would have been but thinly peopled to this day, had not a great Tide of People, possess’d with an aversion to the Church-Government of _England_, and fled into _Holland_ for _Liberty of Conscience_, eagerly taken hold of this opportunity to make themselves Masters of their own Opinions, and of a Place where they might erect a Government suitable thereunto: and though at first there were some Exceptions taken, as if this Countrey was to be made a Receptacle of Sectaries, and such as condemn’d the Ecclesiastical Government of the Nation, insomuch that Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_, to whom they apply’d themselves, desiring him to mediate for them to the Council of _New Englands_ Affairs, when they perceiv’d the Authority they had from the _Virginia_ Company, could not warrant their abode there, had enough to do (notwithstanding his Apology, _That these things hapned contrary to his expectation_) to wipe away the jealousie which was entertain’d of him, it being Order’d, that no more should be suffer’d to pass into _New England_, but such as should take the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy: yet at last there was little notice taken who went, perhaps upon consideration, that the vast resort of People thither would be of greater advantage to the Plantations, than their different Opinions, at so remote a distance, could be prejudicial, so long as they acknowledg’d Obedience to the King and Civil Power: However, Sir _Ferdinando_, to clear himself the better, mov’d those Lords that were the chief Actors in the Business, to resign their Grand Patent to the King, and pass particular Patents to themselves of such part of the Countrey along the Sea-Coast, as might be sufficient for them: To this Motion there being a general Assent given by the Lords, and a Day appointed for the conclusion thereof, an Act was made for the Resignation of the Patent, alloting to each Man their several Bounds. From the uttermost parts began the Limits of the Lord _Mougrave_, and ended at _Hudson_’s _River_. To the Eastward of which River, for the space of sixty Miles in length, was placed the Duke of _Richmond_’s Assignment: Next to him was setled the Earl of _Carlile_: Next him the Lord _Edward Gorges_: Next the Marquess of _Hamilton_: Then Captain _John Mason_: And lastly his own, which extended to the great River _Sagadehoc_, being sixty Miles, and so up into the Main Land a hundred and twenty Miles, which he was pleas’d to call by the Name of _The Province of Main_.

The Landing of the _English_ in _Plymouth_ Plantation was very much facilitated by the great Mortality that hapned amongst the _Indians_ about that time, amongst the _Pecods_, _Narragansets_, _Nianticks_, _Tarantines_, _Wippanaps_, and those of _Abargini_, _Agissawang_, and _Pockanekie_, their _Powwows_, or Doctors, seeing with amazement their _Wigwams_, or Streets, lie full of dead Bodies, and in vain expecting help from _Squantam_ their good, or _Abbamoch_ their bad God. Not long before, that blazing Comet, so much talk’d of in _Europe_, apppear’d after Sun-setting in their Horizon South-West for the space of thirty Sleeps, (for so they reckon their Days). They Landed at first with little or no resistance, a handful of Men onely being sent before to keep possession for their Companions, who arriv’d eight days after; when the Natives appearing with their Bowes and Arrows, let flie their long Shafts amongst them; whereupon one Captain _Miles Standish_ with his Fowling-piece shot the stoutest _Sachem_ amongst the _Indians_, as he was reaching an Arrow from his Quiver; which the rest seeing, fled into the Woods and Thickets.

The same Year the _Merchant-Adventurers_ in _England_ sent forth store of Servants to provide against the Wants of that place; amongst whom came over a mix’d Multitude, who setled themselves in the Bosom of the Cape now call’d _Gloucester_.

About the Year 1631. there fled to the _English_ at _Water-town_ the _Indians_ that dwelt thereabouts, for protection against the _Tarratines_, a sort of cruel and salvage Cannibals, by whom near the Town of _Saugust_, in the very dead time of the Night, one Lieutenant _Walker_ being on a sudden alarm’d, was shot through his Coat and Buff Jacket with two Indian Arrows. That Night the _English_ stood upon their Guard, and the next Morning sent word to other parts; who gather’d together, and taking counsel how to quit themselves of these _Indians_, agreed to discharge their great Guns; whose redoubled noise, ratling in the Rocks, struck terror into the _Indians_, and caus’d them to betake themselves to flight. The Autumn following, others of the _Indians_, who till then had held a good correspondence with the Planters, began to quarrel about the Bounds of their Land; but a great Mortality, by the raging of the Small-Pox, breaking out amongst them, put an end to that Controversie: There died amongst the rest one of the chief of the _Sagamores_ of the _Mattachusets_, call’d _Sagamore John_, who before his Death had been instructed in the _Christian_ Faith, and took care that his two Sons should be nurtured therein.

In the Year 1635. there arrived several Ships with great plenty of Provisions, and many Persons of good Quality, and amongst the rest Sir _Henry Vane_.

The same Year the People of _Cambridge_, otherwise call’d _New-town_, hearing of a fertile place upon the River _Canectico_, remov’d thither, and erected a new Corporation by the Name of _Banectico_, being encourag’d thereunto by the Lord _Say_ and the Lord _Brooks_, and planting a Forrest at the mouth of the River, call’d it _Saybrook Forrest_.

About the Year 1638. the _Pequods_, a stout and Warlike Nation, lying to the South-West of the _Mattachusets_, were discover’d upon their March within some few Miles of _Hartford_: Their coming very much terrifi’d all that inhabited thereabouts; but they took onely three Women and return’d; one of whom making a violent resistance, had her Brains beaten out; the other two they carried away with them, without abusing their Persons, as it was suppos’d they would, for they esteem’d their own _Shaws_, being black, beyond our Women. Their chief Design was to learn to make Gunpowder; which seeing they could not effect, they look’d upon their Prize as nothing so precious as they imagin’d.

A little after another _Indian_ War threatning the _English_, they resolv’d together to send an Ambassador to _Cannonicus_, chief _Sachem_ of the _Naragansits_, endeavoring to prevent him from confederating with the _Pequods_, who (as they had Intelligence) were about sending to him to joyn with them: _Cannonicus_ being grown old, had resign’d the Government to his Nephew _Mantinemo_, a stern Man, and of a cruel Nature. The Ambassadors arriving at his Court, which was about eighty Miles from _Boston_, the _Indian_ Prince assembled his chief Councellors, and having Entertain’d the Ambassadors Magnificently, and Feasted them Royally, gave them Audience in his State-house; where the _Sachem_, to manifest his greater State, lay along upon the Ground, with all his Nobility sitting about him, with their Legs doubled up, and their Knees touching their Chin: The _English_ Interpreter having made his Speech in the Name of the rest, both _Cannonicus_ and the young King gave discreet Answers, signifying their Resolutions to keep a fair Correspondence with the _English_, and yet not to fall out with the _Pequods_: Who a little after making also their Addresses to the same King, he disswaded them by many Reasons from making War with the _English_, and to deliver into their hands those Persons that had murther’d any of them. The _Pequods_ nevertheless, though they seem’d inclinable to his Counsel, yet they acted as Enemies; for when the _English_ sent a Company of Soldiers into their Countrey to treat with them about delivering up the Murtherers, they made shew of willingness, but spying their advantage, betook themselves to their Heels; and whomsoever they took stragling by surprise, they revil’d and insulted over in a most cruel manner, vilifying the _Christian_ Religion, and uttering all the Blasphemies they could invent. Whereupon they rais’d fresh Souldiers for the War, to the number of fourscore, out of the several Towns in the _Mattachusets_, and with some _Indian_ Guides came to their Fort, within which they had pitch’d their _Wigwams_, the Entrance being on two sides, with intricate Meanders to enter; at which were plac’d _Indian_ Bowe-men, who shot the foremost of the _English_; yet they had little to boast of in the end, for the _English_ rushing in through the winding Ways, and placing themselves round the _Wigwams_, made a very prosperous Shot, by directing the Muzzles of their Musquets against the _Indians_ which lay sleeping on the Ground: In the midst of which rouzing terror and confusion they were defeated with little ado, most of them being either wounded, kill’d, or taken. The _English_ thus animated with the first Victory, send their Prisoners to the Pinnaces, and prosecute the War in Hand, marching against the next Body of the _Indians_, which lay Encamp’d on a Hill about two Miles distant, where they gave them a second Overthrow, slaying many more than in the first Engagement; the rest flying to a very thick inaccessible Swamp or Bog, were there besieg’d by the _English_; and skulking up and down, as they saw their opportunity they would Shoot at them with their Arrows, and then suddenly fall flat along in the Water; at last the _English_ finding out a Passage into the Swamp, utterly defeated them, and put an end to the War with the loss of few Mens Lives, and not many wounded.

In the Year 1640. there came over a fresh Supply of People into _New England_, and finding no place to settle in within any of the former erected Colonies, they repair’d to a place call’d _Long Island_, sever’d from the Continent of _New-Haven_, about sixty Miles off the Sea.

The Year following the four Colonies, namely the _Massachusets_, _Plymouth_, _Canectico_, and _New-Haven_, taking into consideration the many Nations that were on all sides of them, as the _French_, _Dutch_, _Jews_, and native _Indians_; as also how the three first went to lay claim to Lands they never had any right to, and the last to be continually quarrelling and contending, where they saw any hopes of prevailing, by Commissioners chosen from the respective Colonies, concluded a firm Confederation to assist each other in all just and lawful Wars; upon which there came in certain _Indian Sachems_, as _Pomham_, _Miantonemo_, _Soccanocoh_, and _Uncas_, who not onely submitted to the _English_ Government, but also, if occasion were, in matters of Controversie submitted to their Arbitration: But the Contest between _Miantonemo_ and _Uncas_ was too hot to be appeas’d, (though the _English_ were not wanting to interpose) unless by the Blood of one of them, as will appear by the Consequence: _Uncas_ was a Prince of _For_, whose Life _Miantonemo_, though a much more potent Prince, sought to take away by treachery, hiring a young Man of the _Pequod_ Nation to murther him, as the following Story renders suspected; for one dark Evening this _Sachem_ passing from one _Wigwam_ to another, was Shot through the Arm with an Arrow; but recovering the Palace, had the Arrow pull’d out, and his Arm cur’d: the young Man that was suspected being examin’d, how he came by that great store of _Wampompeage_ which was found about him, and being able to give no good account, it increas’d the suspicion, and induc’d _Uncas_ to complain to the _English_ at a General Court held at _Boston_: Whereupon the young Man was Examin’d in the presence of _Miantonemo_, who came thither with his Attendants; but the young Man tutor’d, as suppos’d, by _Miantonemo_, pretended that _Uncas_ had enjoyn’d him to feign that he was hir’d by _Miantonemo_ to kill him: To which Tale of his little belief being given, it was concluded upon farther Examination of him in private that he had done the Fact: nevertheless they let him depart with _Miantonemo_, advising him to send him home to _Uncas_; but he in stead of returning him cut off his Head, and forthwith gather’d an Army of a thousand Men to fight with _Uncas_; who met him with half the Men: the Battel being joyn’d, the _Narragansets_, though the far greater multitude, were beaten by the _Wawhiggins_, through the Valour of _Uncas_ their Prince; who perfected his Victory by possessing himself of the Person of _Miantonemo_, whom, having put his Life-guard to flight, he carried away with him in triumph to the Town of _Hartford_, desiring to have the advice of the United Colonies what to do with his Prisoner: Whereupon the Commissioners having had sufficient proof of _Miantonemo_’s treachery towards this Prince, advis’d _Uncas_ to put him to death, but not to exercise that barbarous kind of cruelty which is usual amongst them in these Cases. The _Sachem_, upon this advice, not long after pretended to remove him to a safer place, but by the Way caus’d him to be Executed: His Subjects and Kindred were troubled at his Death, but the little Princes his Neighbors, over whom he had tyranniz’d, rather rejoyc’d.

In the Year 1645, the Sons of old _Canonnicus_, their Father being dead, began to fall into hot Contentions with their Neighbors, and being forbidden by the United Colonies, they did not stick to threaten Wars to the _English_ also. Whereupon the Commissioners rais’d an Army of Horse and Foot, and made Major General _Edward Gibbons_ Commander in Chief over them. But the _Indians_ hearing of this Preparation, sent some of their chief Nobility to the Commissioners of the United Colonies, who were assembled at _Boston_, to Treat about Peace; to which the Commissioners agreed, upon condition they should pay a part of the Charges of the War; and that they should send four of their Sons for Hostages till the Sum was paid; and the Hostages being sent back before the _Wapom_ was all paid, the two Princes, _Pesicus_ and _Mexanimo_, upon the sending a Company of Armed Men to demand it, sent the remainder of the Money.

In the Year 1647. divers Persons of Quality ventur’d their Estates upon an Iron Mill, which they began at _Braintree_, but it profited the Owners little, rather wasting their Stock, the price of Labor in matters of that nature, being double or treble to what it is in _England_.

These are the most material Transactions we find deliver’d by any one which hapned from the first discovery till the Year before mention’d: what hath hapned from that time to this, chiefly relates to the several Revolutions that have been in _England_, and shall be therefore taken notice of when we come to speak of the Government of these Plantations.

[Sidenote: The Commodities of this Countrey, together with the Trees and other sorts of Plants.]

Though there are, who having remain’d some time, and been concern’d in those Parts, affirm the Soil of _New England_ to be nothing so fruitful as it is believ’d and commonly deliver’d to be, yet we think it not improper to give a brief account of the Trees and other Plants; also the Beasts, Birds, Fishes, and other Commodities which most Writers will have to be the production of this Countrey, especially since we find them compactly summ’d up by an unknown Writer in the Language of the _Muses_. The recital of the Plants and Trees, which (excepting the Cedar, _Sassafras_, and Dyers _Sumach_) are all of the same kind with those that grow in _Europe_, onely differing in nature, according as the Epithets of many of them declare, is as follows:

_Trees both in Hills and Plains in plenty be; The long-liv’d Oak, and mournful Cypress Tree; Skie-towring Pines, and Chesnuts coated rough; The lasting Cedar, with the Walnut tough; The Rozen-dropping Fir, for Mast in use; The Boat-men seek for Oars light, neat grown Sprewse; The brittle Ash, the ever-trembling Asps; The broad-spread Elm, whose Concave harbors Wasps; The Water-spungy Alder, good for nought; Small Eldern by the_ Indian _Fletchers sought; The knotty Maple, pallid Birch, Hawthorns; The Horn-bound Tree, that to be cloven scorns; Which from the tender Vine oft takes his Spouse, Who twines embracing Arms about his Boughs. Within this_ Indian _Orchard Fruits be some; The ruddy Cherry, and the jetty Plumb; Snake-murthering Hazle, with sweet Saxafrage, Whose Leaves in Beer allay hot Feavers rage; The Dyers Shumach, with more Trees there be, That are both good to use, and rare to see_.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

The Beasts peculiar to this Countrey are the _Moose_, the _Rackoon_, and the _Musquash_; the two first Land-Animals, the last Amphibious, which with others common to them with us, are thus versifi’d by the abovesaid Author:

_The Kingly Lyon, and the strong-arm’d Bear; The large limb’d Mooses, with the tripping Deer; Quill-darting Porcupines, that Rackoons be Castled ith’ hollow of an aged Tree; The skipping Squirrel, Rabbet, purblind Hare, Immured in the self-same Castle are, Lest red-ey’d Ferrets, wily Foxes should, Them undermine, if Ramper’d but with Mold; The grim-fac’d Ounce, and rav’nous howling Wolf, Whose meagre Paunch sucks like a swallowing Gulph; Black glittering Otters, and rich Coated Beaver; The Civet-scented Musquash smelling ever._

Of such of these as are altogether unknown to us, take these brief Descriptions.

[Sidenote: The _Moose_.]

The Beast call’d a _Moose_, is not much unlike red Deer, and is as big as an Ox, slow of Foot, Headed like a Buck, with a broad Beam, some being two Yards wide in the Head, their flesh is as good as Beef, their Hides good for Clothing; if these were kept tame, and accustom’d to the Yoke, they would be a great Commodity: First, because they are so fruitful, bringing forth three at a time being likewise very uberous: Secondly, because they will live in Winter without any Fodder. There are not many of these in the _Massachusets_ Bay, but forty Miles to the North-East there are great store of them.

[Sidenote: The _Rackoon_.]

The _Rackoon_ is a deep Furr’d Beast, not much unlike a Badger, having a Tail like a Fox, as good Meat as a Lamb: These Beasts in the day time sleep in hollow Trees, in a Moon-shine night they go to feed on Clams at a low Tide, by the Sea side, where the _English_ hunt them with their Dogs.

[Sidenote: The _Musquash_.]

The _Musquash_ is much like a Beaver for shape, but nothing near so big; the Male hath two Stones, which smell as sweet as Musk, and being kill’d in Winter, never lose their sweet smell: These Skins are no bigger than a Coney-skin, yet are sold for five Shillings apiece, being sent for Tokens into _England_; one good Skin will perfume a whole house full of Clothes, if it be right and good.

[Sidenote: Birds.]

The Birds both common and peculiar are thus recited.

_The Princely Eagle, and the soaring Hawk, Whom in their unknown ways there’s none can chawk: The Humbird for some Queens rich Cage more fit, Than in the vacant Wilderness to sit. The swift-wing’d Swallow sweeping to and fro, As swift as Arrow from_ Tartarian _Bowe. When as_ Aurora’s _Infant day new springs, There th’morning mounting Lark her sweet lays sings. The harmonious Thrush, swift Pigeon, Turtle-dove, Who to her Mate doth ever constant prove: The_ Turky-_Pheasant, Heath-cock, Partridge rare, The Carrion-tearing Crow, and hurtful Stare, The long-liv’d Raven, th’ominous Screech-Owl, Who tells, as old Wives say, disasters foul. The drowsie Madge that leaves her day-lov’d Nest, And loves to rove, when Day-birds be at rest: Th’Eel-murthering Hearn, and greedy Cormorant, That near the Creeks in morish Marshes haunt. The bellowing Bittern, with the long-leg’d Crane, Presaging Winters hard, and dearth of Grain. The Silver Swan that tunes her mournful breath, To sing the Dirge of her approaching death. The tattering Oldwives, and the cackling Geese, The fearful Gull that shuns the murthering Peece. The strong-wing’d Mallard, with the nimble Teal, And ill-shape’t Loon, who his harsh Notes doth squeal. There Widgins, Sheldrakes and Humilitees, Snites, Doppers, Sea-Larks, in whole million flees._

Of these the _Humbird_, _Loon_, and _Humility_ are not to be pass’d by without particular observation.

[Sidenote: The _Humbird_.]

The _Humbird_ is one of the wonders of the Countrey, being no bigger than a Hornet, yet hath all the Dimensions of a Bird, as Bill, and Wings with Quills, Spider-like Legs, small Claws: for Colour, she is as glorious as the Rain-bow; as she flies, she makes a little humming noise like a Humble-bee, wherefore she is call’d the _Humbird_.

[Sidenote: The _Loon_.]

[Sidenote: The _Humility_, or _Simplicity_.]

The _Loon_ is an ill-shap’d thing like a Cormorant, but that he can neither go nor flie; he maketh a noise sometimes like Sowgelders Horn. The _Humilities_ or _Simplicities_ (as we may rather call them) are of two sorts, the biggest being as large as a green Plover; the other as big as Birds we call _Knots_ in _England_. Such is the simplicity of the smaller sorts of these Birds, that one may drive them on a heap like so many Sheep, and seeing a fit time shoot them; the living seeing the dead, settle themselves on the same place again, amongst which the Fowler discharges again: These Birds are to be had upon Sandy Brakes, at the latter end of Summer before the Geese come in.

[Sidenote: Fishes.]

No less Poetical a Bill of Fare is brought of the Fish on the Sea-Coasts, and in the Rivers of _New England_ in these subsequent Verses.

_The King of Waters, the Sea shouldering Whale, The snuffing Grampus, with the Oily Seale, The storm presaging Porpus, Herring-Hog, Line-shearing Shark, the Catfish and Sea Dog, The Scale-fenc’d Sturgeon, wry-mouth’d Hollibut, The flounsing Salmon, Codfish, Greedigut: Cole, Haddock, Hage, the Thornback, and the Scate, Whose slimy outside makes him seld in date, The stately Bass, old_ Neptune’s _fleeting Post, That Tides it out and in from Sea to Coast. Consorting Herrings, and the bonny Shad, Big-belly’d Alewives, Mackrills richly clad With Rainbow colours, Frostfish and the Smelt, As good as ever Lady_ Gustus _felt. The spotted Lamprons, Eels, the Lamperies, That seek fresh Water-Brooks with_ Argus _Eyes, These watery Villagers, with thousands more, Do pass and repass near the Verdant Shore_.

Kinds of Shell-fish.

_The luscious Lobster, with the Crabfish raw, The brinish Oyster, Muscle, Periwigge, And Tortoise sought for by the_ Indian _Sqaw, Which to the Flats dance many a Winters Jigge, To dive for Cocles, and to dig for Clams, Whereby her lazie Husbands guts she crams_.

[Sidenote: The _Seal_.]

To speak of the most unusual of these sorts of Fish; First the _Seal_, which is call’d the _Sea-Calf_, his Skin is good for divers uses, his Body being between Flesh and Fish, it is not very delectable to the Palate, or congruent with the Stomack; his Oil is very good to burn in Lamps, of which he affords a great deal.

[Sidenote: The _Shark_.]

The _Shark_ is a kind of Fish as big as a Man, some as big as a Horse, with three rows of Teeth within his Mouth, with which he snaps asunder the Fishermans Lines, if he be not very circumspect: This Fish will leap at a Mans hand if it be over board, and with his Teeth snap off a Mans Leg or Hand if he be Swimming; these are often taken, being good for nothing but Manuring of Land.

[Sidenote: The _Hollibut_.]

The _Hollibut_ is not much unlike a Pleace or Turbut, some being two yards long, and one wide, a Foot thick; the plenty of better Fish makes these of little esteem, except the Head and Finns, which Stew’d or Bak’d is very good; these _Hollibuts_ be little set by while _Basse_ is in season.

[Sidenote: The _Basse_.]

The _Basse_ is one of the best Fishes in the Countrey, and though Men are soon weary’d with other Fish, yet are they never with _Basse_; it is a delicate, fine, fat, fast Fish, having a Bone in his Head which contains a Sawcerful of Marrow, sweet and good, pleasant to the Palate, and wholsom to the Stomack: When there be great store of them, we only eat the Heads, and Salt up the Bodies for Winter, which exceeds Ling or Haberdine: Of these Fishes some are three, and some four Foot long, some bigger, some lesser; at some Tides a Man may catch a dozen or twenty of these in three hours; the way to catch them is with Hook and Line: The Fisherman taking a great Cod-line, to which he fasteneth a piece of Lobster, throws it into the Sea, the Fish biting at it, he pulls her to him, and knocks her on the head with a Stick.

[Sidenote: _Alewives._]

_Alewives_ are a kind of Fish which is much like a Herring, which in the later end of _April_ come up to the fresh Rivers to Spawn, in such multitudes as is almost incredible, pressing up in such shallow Waters as will scarce permit them to Swim, having likewise such longing desire after the fresh Water Ponds, that no beatings with Poles, or forcive agitations by other devices, will cause them to return to the Sea, till they have cast their Spawn.

[Sidenote: _Clamms_ or _Clamps_.]

_Clamms_ or _Clamps_, are a Shell-fish not much unlike a Cockle, they lie under the Sand and have every one of them a round hole to take Air, and receive Water at. When the Tide ebbs and flows, a Man running over these _Clamm_ banks will presently be made all wet, by their spouting of Water out of those small holes: These Fishes are in great plenty in most places of the Countrey, which is a great Commodity for the feeding of Swine, both in Winter and Summer; for being once us’d to those places, they will repair to them as duly every Ebb, as if they were driven to them by Keepers: In some places of the Countrey there be _Clamms_ as big as a Peny white Loaf, which are great Dainties amongst the Natives, and would be in great esteem amongst the _English_, were it not for better Fish.

Other Commodities which this Countrey is said to yield, are, in down-right Prose, Furrs, Flax, Linnen, Iron, Pitch, Masts, Cables, and some quantity of Amber; so that if what many Authors have consented to assert concerning _New England_ be not a meer Fiction, what e’re hath been affirm’d of the unfruitfulness of the Country will demonstrably be found invalid.

[Sidenote: Noxious Creatures.]

There are also to be found here some hurtful Creatures, of which, that which is most injurious to the Person and Life of a Man is the _Rattle-Snake_, which is generally a yard and a half long, as thick in the middle as the small of a Mans Leg; she hath a yellow Belly, her Back being spotted with black, russet, yellow, and green colours, plac’d like Scales; at her Tail is a Rattle, with which she makes a noise when she is molested, or when she seeth any approach near her; her Neck seems to be no thicker than a Mans Thumb, yet she can swallow a Squirril, having a great wide Mouth, with Teeth as sharp as Needles, wherewith she biteth such as tread upon her, her Poyson lyeth in her Teeth, for she hath no Sting. When any Man is bitten by any of these Creatures, the Poyson spreads so suddenly through the Veins, and so runs to the Heart, that in one hour it causeth Death, unless he hath the Antidote to expel the Poyson, which is a Root call’d _Snake-weed_, which must be champ’d, the Spittle swallow’d, and the Root apply’d to the Sore; this is present Cure against that which would be present death without it: This Weed is rank Poyson, if it be taken by any man that is not bitten; whosoever is bitten by these Snakes, his flesh becomes as spotted as a Leopard, until he be perfectly cur’d. It is reported, that if the Party live that is bitten, the Snake will die, and if the Party die, the Snake will live. This is a most Poysonous and dangerous Animal, yet nothing so bad as the report goes of it in _England_; for whereas it is said to kill a Man with its breath, and that it can flie, there is no such matter, for it is naturally the most sleepy and unnimble Creature that lives, never offering to leap or bite any Man, if it be not trodden on first; and it is their desire in hot weather to lie in Paths, where the Sun may shine on them, where they will sleep so soundly, that I have known four Men stride over one of them, and never awake it; five or six Men have been bitten by them, which by using of _Snake-weed_ were all cur’d, never any yet losing his life by them. Cows have been bitten, but being cut in divers places, and this Weed thrust into their flesh, were cur’d; A small Switch will easily kill one of these Snakes. In many places of the Country there be none of them, as at _Plymouth, New-town, Igowamme, Nahant, &c._ In some places they will live on one side of the River, and swimming but over the Water, as soon as they are come into the Woods, they turn up their yellow Bellies and die. Up into the Countrey, Westward from the Plantations, is a high Hill, which is call’d _Rattle-Snake-Hill_, where there are great store of these Poysonous Creatures.

There are likewise troublesome Flies.

First there is a wild Bee or Wasp, which commonly guards the Grape, building by Cobweb habitation amongst the Leaves: Secondly a great green Flie, not much unlike our Horse-Flies in _England_; they will nipp so sore, that they will fetch Blood either of Man or Beast, and are most troublesome where most Cattel are, which brings them from out of the Woods to the Houses; this Flie continues but for the Moneth of _June_. The third is _Gurnipper_, which is a small black Flie, no bigger than a Flea; her biting causeth an itching upon the Hands or Face, which provoketh scratching, which is troublesome to some; this Flie is busie but in close Mornings or Evenings, and continues not above three Weeks; the least Wind or heat expels them. The fourth is a _Musketor_, which is not unlike to our Gnats in _England_; in places where there is no thick Woods or _Swamps_, there are none or very few. In the new Plantations they are troublesome for the first year, but the Wood decaying they vanish: These Flies cannot endure Wind, heat or cold, so that these are only troublesome in close thick Weather, and against Rain, many that are bitten will fall a scratching, whereupon their Faces and Hands swell.

[Sidenote: The nature of the ancient Inhabitants.]

As touching the Nature of the ancient Inhabitants, they are to be consider’d according to their several Shires or Divisions; those that inhabit to the East and North-East bore the name of _Churchers_ and _Tarrenteens_; those in the Southern parts were call’d _Pequods_, and _Narragansets_; those Westward, _Connectacuts_ and _Mowhacks_; to the North-West, of whom were the _Aberginians_.

[Sidenote: The nature of the _Mowhacks_.]

The _Mowhacks_ were ever accounted a cruel bloudy People, which were wont to come down upon their poor Neighbors, with more than bruitish Savageness, spoiling their Corn, burning their Houses, slaying Men, ravishing Women, yea very _Canibals_ they were, sometimes eating on a Man one part after another before his Face, and while yet living; insomuch, that the very Name of a _Mowhack_ would strike the Heart of a poor _Aberginian_ dead, till they had the _English_ on their sides to succor them; for these inhumane Homicides confess that they dare not meddle with a white Fac’d Man, accompany’d with his hot-mouth’d Weapon.

These _Indians_ are a People of tall Stature, long grim Visages, slender Wasted, and having exceeding great Arms and Thighs, wherein they say their strength lieth; which is such, that one of them hath been known to kill a Dog with a fillip of his Finger, and afterwards to have flead and sod him, and eat him to his Dinner. They are so hardy, that they can eat such things as would make other _Indians_ sick to look upon; being destitute of Fish and Flesh, they suffice Hunger and maintain Nature with the use of Vegetatives; but that which they most hunt after, is the flesh of Man: Their custom is, if they get a stranger near their Habitations, not to Butcher him immediately, but keep him in as good plight as they can, feeding him with the best Victuals they have.

These _Indians_ are more desperate in Wars than the other _Indians_, which proceeds not only from the fierceness of their Natures, but also in that they know themselves to be better Arm’d and Weapon’d; all of them wearing Sea Horse Skins and Barks of Trees, made by their Art as impenetrable, it is thought, as Steel, wearing Head-Pieces of the same, under which they March securely and undantedly, running, and fiercely crying out, _Hadree Hadree succomee succomee_, _We come to suck your Blood_, not fearing the feather’d shafts of the strong-arm’d Bow-men, but like unruly headstrong Stallions, beat them down with their right-hand _Tamahawks_, and left-hand Javelins, being all the Weapons which they use, counting Bowes a cowardly fight. _Tamahawks_ are Staves of two Foot and a half long, with knobs at one end as round and big as a Foot ball; a Javelin is a short Spear, headed with sharp Sea-Horse Teeth; one blow or thrust with these sharp Weapons, will not need a second to hasten death from a _Mowhacks_ arm.

[Sidenote: The nature of the _Indians_ inhabiting Eastward.]

The _Tarrenteens_ saving that they eat not Mans flesh, are little less Salvage and cruel than these _Cannibals_; our _Indians_ do fear them as their deadly Enemies, for so many of them as they meet, they kill. Take these _Indians_ in their own proper and natural disposition, and they are reported to be wise, lofty-spirited, constant in friendship to one another, true in their promise, and more industrious than many others.

[Sidenote: The nature of the _Pequods_ and _Narragansets_.]

The _Pequants_ are a stately Warlike People, just and equal in their dealings; not treacherous either to their Country-men, or _English_, to whom (except in time of War) they were not any ways uncivil. Their next Neighbors the _Narragansets_, are the most numerous People in those Parts, the most rich also, and the most industrious; being the Store-house of all such kind of wild Merchandize as is amongst them. These Men are the most curious Minters of their _Wampompeage_ and _Mowhakes_, which they form out of the inmost Wreaths of Periwinkle-shells. The Northern, Eastern, and Western _Indians_ fetch all their Coyn from these Southern Mint-Masters. From hence they have most of their curious Pendants and Bracelets, from hence they have their great Stone Pipes, which will hold a quarter of an Ounce of Tobacco, which they make with Steel Drills and other Instruments; such is their Ingenuity and dexterity, that they can imitate the _English_ Mold so accurately, that were it not for matter and colour, it were hard to distinguish them; they make them of green, and sometimes of black Stone; they are much desir’d of our _English_ Tobacconists, for their rarity, strength, handsomness, and coolness. Hence likewise our _Indians_ had their Pots, wherein they us’d to seeth their Victuals before they knew the use of Brass. Since the _English_ came, they have employ’d most of their time in catching of Beavers, Otters, and _Musquashes_, which they bring down into the Bay, returning back loaden with _English_ Commodities, of which they make double profit, by selling them to more remote _Indians_, who are ignorant at what cheap rates they obtain them, in comparison of what they make them pay, so making their Neighbors ignorance their enrichment: They were never known to be desirous to take in hand any Martial Enterprize, or expose themselves to the uncertain events of War; wherefore the _Pequants_ call them _Women-like Men_, resting secure under the conceit of their popularity, and seeking rather to grow rich by industry, than famous by deeds of Chivalry.

[Sidenote: The nature and complexion of the _Aberginians_.]

Most of these Northward _Indians_ are between five and six Foot high, straight Body’d, strongly compos’d, smooth Skin’d, merry Countenanc’d, of Complexion more swarthy than the _Spaniards_, black Hair’d, high Foreheaded, black Ey’d, out-Nos’d, broad Shoulder’d, brawny Arm’d, long and slender Handed, out Breasted, small Wasted, lank Belly’d, well Thigh’d, flat Kneed, with handsome grown Legs, and small Feet: In a word, take them when the Blood skips in their Veins, when the Flesh is on their Backs, and Marrow in their Bones, when they frolick in their antique Deportments and _Indian_ Postures, they are more amiable to behold (though onely in _Adam_’s Livery) than many a trim Gallant in the newest Mode; and though their Houses are but mean, their Lodging as homely, Commons scant, their Drink Water, and Nature their best Clothing, yet they still are healthful and lusty. Their smooth Skins proceed from the often anointing of their Bodies with the Oyl of Fishes, and the fat of Eagles, with the grease of _Rackoons_, which they hold in Summer the best Antidote to keep their Skin from blistering with the scorching Sun; it is their best Armor against the _Musketoes_, and the surest abrasour of the hairy Excrement, and stops the Pores of their Bodies against the nipping Winters cold. Their black Hair is natural, yet is brought to a more Jetty colour by Oyling, Dying, and daily dressing; sometimes they wear it very long, hanging down in a loose dishevel’d Womanish manner, otherwise ty’d up hard and short like a Horse Tail, bound close with a Fillet, which they say makes it grow the faster; they are not a little Phantastical in this particular; their Boys being not permitted to wear their Hair long till sixteen years of Age, and then they must come to it by degrees; some being cut with a long foretop, a long lock on the Crown, one of each side of his Head, the rest of his Hair being cut even with the Scalp; the young Men and Soldiers wear their Hair long on the one side, the other being cut short like a Screw; other cuts they have as their Fancy leads them, which would torture the Wits of the most exact Barber to imitate. But though they are thus proud of the Hair of their Head, you cannot wooe them to wear it on their Chins, where it no sooner grows, but it is stubb’d up by the roots, for they count it as an unuseful, cumbersome, and opprobrious excrement, insomuch as they call him an _English_ Mans Bastard that hath but the appearance of a Beard.

[Sidenote: The Apparel, Ornaments, Paintings, and other artificial Deckings of the _Indians_.]

The Cloathing of the _Indians_ is only a pair of _Indian_ Breeches to cover their secret Parts, which is but a piece of Cloth a yard and a half long, but between their Groins, ty’d with a Snakes Skin about their middles, one end hanging down with a flap before, the other like a tail behind. In the Winter time, the more Aged of them wear Leather Drawers, in form like _Irish_ Trouses, fasten’d under their Girdle with Buttons: They wear Shooes likewise of their own making, cut out of a _Mooses_ Hide; many of them wear Skins about them, in form of an _Irish_ Mantle, and of these some are Bears Skins, _Mooses_ Skins, and Beaver Skins sew’d together, others Otter Skins, and _Rackoon_ Skins; most of them in the Winter having his deep Furr’d Cat Skin, like a large Muff, which he shifts to that Arm which lieth most expos’d to the Wind. Although they are poor, yet is there in them the sparks of natural Pride, which appears in their longing desire after many kind of Ornaments, wearing Pendants in their Ears, in form of Birds, Beasts, and Fishes, Carv’d out of Bone, Shells, and Stone, with long Bracelets of their curious wrought _Wampompeage_ and _Mowhackees_, which they put about their Necks and Loins; these they count a rare kind of Decking; many of the better sort bearing upon their Cheeks certain Pourtraitures of Beasts, as Bears, Deers, _Mooses_, Wolves, _&c._ some of Fowls, as of Eagles, Hawks, _&c._ which is not a superficial Painting, but a certain Incision, or else a raising of their Skin by a small sharp Instrument, under which they convey a certain kind of black unchangeable Ink, which makes the desir’d form apparent and permanent. Others have certain round Impressions down the outside of their Arms and Breasts, in form of Mullets or Spur-rowels, which they imprint by searing Irons: Whether these be Foils to illustrate their unparallel’d Beauty (as they deem it) or Arms to blazon their antique Gentility, cannot easily be determin’d: But a _Segamore_ with a _Humbird_ in his Ear for a Pendant, a black Hawk on his Head for his Plume, _Mowhackees_ for his Gold Chain, good store of _Wampompeage_ begirting his Loins, his Bowe in his Hand, his Quiver at his Back, with six naked _Indian_ Lacquies at his Heels for his Guard, thinks himself little Inferior to the great _Cham_.

[Sidenote: Their Diet, Cookery, Meal-times, and Hospitality at their Kettles.]

In Winter time they have all manner of Fowls and Beasts of the Land and Water, Pond-fish, with _Cathaires_ and other Roots, _Indian_ Beans and _Clamms_; in the Summer they have all manner of Sea-fish, with all sorts of Berries. For the ordering of their Victuals, they Boil or Roast them, having large Kettles which they Traded for with the _French_ long since, and do still buy of the _English_ as their need requires, before they had substantial Earthen Pots of their own making. Their Spits are no other than cloven Sticks, sharpen’d at one end to thrust into the ground; into these cloven Sticks they thrust the Flesh or Fish they would have Roasted, behemming a round fire with a dozen of Spits at a time, turning them as they see occasion. They seldom or never make Bread of their _Indian_ Corn, but seethe it whole like Beans, eating three or four Corns with a mouthful of Fish or Flesh, sometimes eating Meat first, and Corns after, filling the Chinks with their Broth. In Summer, when their Corn is spent, _Sqoutersquashes_ is their best Bread, a Fruit like a young Pumpion: But as all are fellows at Foot-ball, so they all meet Friends at the Kettle, saving their Wives, that Dance a Spaniel-like attendance at their Backs for their Fragments. If their occasions cause them to Travel, the best of their Victuals for their Journey is _Nocake_, (as they call it) which is nothing but _Indian_ Corn parch’d in the hot Ashes; the Ashes being sifted from it, it is afterwards beaten to Powder, and put into a long Leathern Bag, truss’d at their Back like a Knapsack, out of which they take thrice three Spoonfuls a day, dividing it into three Meals. If it be Winter, and Snow be on the ground, they can eat when they please, making use of Snow for their Drink; in Summer, they must stay till they meet with a Spring or Brook; with this strange _viaticum_ they will travel four or five days together. They keep no Set-Meals, their Store being spent, they champ on the Bit, till they meet with fresh Supplies, either from their own endeavors, or their Wives industry, who trudge to the _Clam-banks_ when all other means fail. Though they are sometimes scanted, yet are they as free as Emperors, both to their Countrey-men and _English_, be he stranger, or near acquaintance; counting it a great discourtesie, not to eat of their high-conceited Delicates.

[Sidenote: Of their hardiness.]

Their hardiness is much to be admir’d, no ordinary pains making them so much as alter their countenance; beat them, whip them, punch them, if they put on a resolution, they will not winch for it; whether it be their benumm’d insensibleness of smart, or their hardy resolutions, is hard to resolve; It might be a _Perillus_ his Bull, or the Rack might force an out-cry from them, but a _Turkish_ drubbing would not move them, the unexpected approach of a mortal Wound by a Bullet, Arrow, or Sword, striking no more terror, nor causing no more exclamation in them, than if it had been a shot into the body of a Tree; such Wounds as would be sudden death to an _English_ Man, would be nothing to them; whether it be, that by their rare skill in the use of Vegetatives, or by Diabolical Charms, they cure them; nevertheless, the very name and thoughts of death is so hideous to them, or any thing that presents it so terrible, that a hundred of them will run from two or three arm’d with Guns. In the Night they need not to be feared, for they will not budge from their own Dwellings, for fear of their _Abamacho_ (the Devil) whom they much fear, specially in evil enterprizes, they will rather lie by an _English_ fire than go a quarter of a Mile in the dark to their own Dwellings; but they are well freed from this Scare-crow since the coming of the _English_, and less care for his delusions.

[Sidenote: Of their Kings, Government, and Subjects obedience.]

Now for the matter of Government amongst them; it is the custom of their Kings to inherit, the Son always taking the Kingdom after his Fathers death. If there be no Son, then the Queen rules; if no Queen, the next to the Blood-Royal; who comes in otherwise, is but counted an usurping Intruder, if his fair carriage bear him not out the better, they will soon Unscepter him. Some say the chief _Powahe_ is next in Dignity and Authority to the King, and when he dies, Marries the _Squasachem_, or Queen.

The Kings have no Laws to Command by, nor have they any annual Revenues; yet commonly are they so either fear’d or beloved, that half their Subjects estate is at their Service, and their Persons at his Command, by which Command he is better known than by any thing else; for though he hath no Kingly Robes to make him glorious in the view of his Subjects, nor daily Guards to succor his Person, nor Court-like attendance, nor sumptuous Palaces; yet do they yield all submissive subjection to him, accounting him their Soveraign; going at his Command, and coming at his Beck, not so much as expostulating the cause, though it be in matters thwarting their wills; he being accounted a disloyal Subject that will not effect what his Prince Commands. Whosoever is known to Plot Treason, or to lay violent hands on his lawful King, is presently Executed. Once a Year he takes his Progress, accompanied with a dozen of his best Subjects, to view his Countrey, to recreate himself, and establish good Orders. When he enters into any of their Houses, without any more Complement, he is desir’d to sit down on the Ground, (for they use neither Stools nor Cushions) and after a little respite all that are present come in, and sit down by him, one of his Seniors pronouncing an Oration gratulatory to his Majesty for love, and the many good things they enjoy under his peaceful Government. A King of large Dominions hath his Vice-Roys, or inferior Kings under him, to agitate his State Affairs, and keep his Subjects in good Decorum. Other Officers there are, but how to distinguish them by Name is something difficult. For their Laws, as their Vices come short of many other Nations, so they have not so many Laws, though they are not without some, which they inflict upon notorious Malefactors, as Traitors to their Prince, inhumane Murtherers, and, some say, Adulterers: for Theft, as they have nothing to steal worth the Life of a Man, therefore they have no Law to Execute for Trivials, a Subject being more precious in the Eye of his Prince, than, where Men are so scarce, to be cast away upon so sleight a matter. A Malefactor having deserv’d Death, and being apprehended, is brought before the King, and some other of the wisest Men, where they enquire out the original of the thing, after proceeding by aggravation of Circumstances he is found Guilty, and Cast by the Jury of their strict Inquisition, he is Condemn’d and Executed in the following manner: The Executioner comes in, who blind-folds the Party, sets him in the publick view, and Brains him with a _Tamahauke_, or Club; which done, his Friends bury him.

[Sidenote: Of their Marriages.]

Now to speak something of their Marriages, the Kings and the _Powwows_, or great Doctors, may have two or three Wives, but seldom use it, Men of ordinary Rank having but one; which disproves the report, that they had eight or ten Wives apiece. When a Man hath a desire to Marry, he first gets the good will of the Maid or Widow, after, the consent of her Friends for her part; and for himself, if he be at his own disposing, and if the King will, the Match is made, her Dowry of _Wampompeage_ paid, the _Sagamore_ or King (who for every Marriage hath a Fathom of _Wampompeage_, which is about the value of seven or eight shillings) joyns their Hands, never to part till Death, unless she prove a Whore, for which they may put away their Wives.

[Sidenote: Of their Worship, Invocations, and Conjurations.]

As it is natural to all Mortals to worship something, so do these People, but exactly to describe to whom their Worship is chiefly bent, is very difficult: They acknowledge especially two, _Ketan_, some say _Tantum_, their good God, and _Hobamocco_, some say _Squantum_, their evil God; to _Ketan_ they Sacrifice (as the ancient _Heathens_ did to _Ceres_) after their Garners be full with a good Crop. They likewise Invocate this God for fair Weather, for Rain in time of Drought, and for the recovery of their Sick; but if they do not hear them, then they verrifie the old Verse, _Flectere si nequeo Superos Acheronta movebo_, their _Powwows_ betaking themselves to their Exorcismes and Necromantick Charms, by which they bring to pass strange things, if we may believe the _Indians_, who report of one _Pissacannaw_, that he could make the Water burn, the Rocks move, the Trees dance, and metamorphose himself into a flaming Man. In Winter, when there is no green Leaves to be got, he would out of the Ashes of an old Leaf, calcin’d and put into the Water, produce a new green Leaf: And of a dead Snakes Skin, a living Snake, both to be seen, felt and heard. The manner of their action in their Conjuration is thus: The Parties that are sick or lame being brought before them, the _Powwow_ sitting down, the rest of the Indians giving attentive audience to his Imprecations and Invocations, and after the violent expression of many a hideous bellowing and groaning he makes a stop, and then all the Auditors with one voice utter a short _Canto_; which done, the _Powwow_ still proceeds in his Invocations, sometimes roaring like a Bear, other times groaning like a dying Horse, foaming at the Mouth like a chased Boar, smiting on his naked Brest and Thighs with such violence, as if he were mad: Thus will he continue sometimes half a day, spending his Lungs, sweating out his Fat, and tormenting his Body in this diabolical Worship. Sometimes the Devil, for requital of their Worship, recovers the Party, to nuzzle them up in their devillish Religion. But since the _English_ (upon whom, and in whose presence it is said the _Powwows_ could never work their Witchcrafts) frequented those Parts, they daily fall from his Colours, relinquishing their former Fopperies, and acknowledge the Power of the _English_-man’s God, as they call him. And it is reported of them, that at the very first they were so tractable to the _Christian_ Religion, that they would say King _James_ was good, and his God good, but their _Tanto_ nought, though of their two Gods he was accounted the good one.

[Sidenote: Of their Wars.]

They use no other Weapons in War than Bowes and Arrows, saving that their Captains have long Spears, on which, if they return Conquerors, they carry the Heads of their chief Enemies that they slay in the Wars, it being the Custom to cut off their Heads, Hands and Feet, to bear home to their Wives and Children, as true tokens of their renowned Victory. When they go to their Wars, it is their Custom to paint their Faces with diversity of Colours, some being all black as Jet, some red, some half red and half black, some black and white, others spotted with divers kinds of Colours, being all disguis’d to their Enemies, to make them more terrible to their Foes, putting on likewise their rich Jewels, Pendents, and _Wampompeage_, to put them in mind that they Fight not onely for their Children, Wives and Lives, but likewise for their Goods, Lands and Liberties. Being thus Arm’d with this Warlike Paint, the antique Warriors make towards their Enemies in a disorder’d manner, without any Soldier-like Marching, or Warlike Postures, being deaf to any word of Command, ignorant of falling off or on, of doubling Ranks or Files, but let flie their winged Shaftsmen without either fear or wit: Their Artillery being spent, he that hath no Arms to Fight, finds Legs to run away.

[Sidenote: Their Games and Sports of Activity.]

They have two sorts of Games, one call’d _Puim_, the other _Hubbub_, not much unlike Cards and Dice, being no other than Lottery. _Puim_ is fifty or sixty small Bents of a Foot long, which they divide to the number of their Gamesters, shuffling them first between the Palms of their Hands; he that hath more than his Fellow, is so much the forwarder in his Game: Many other Whimsies be in this Game, which would be too long to commit to Paper. He that is a noted Gamester hath a Hole in his Ear, wherein he carries his _Puims_ in defiance of his Antagonists. _Hubbub_ is five small Bones in a small smooth Tray; the Bones be like a Die, but something flatter, black on the one side and white on the other, which they place on the Ground, against which violently thumping the Platter, the Bones mount, changing colours with the windy whisking of their Hands to and fro; which action in that sport they much use, smiting themselves on the Breast and Thighs, crying out _Hub, Hub, Hub_; they may be heard play at this Game a quarter of a Mile off: The Bones being all black or white make a double Game; if three of one colour, and two of another, then they afford but a single Game; four of a colour, and one differing, is nothing; so long as the Man wins he keeps the Tray, but if he loose the next Man takes it. They are so bewitch’d with these two Games, that they will lose sometimes all they have; Beaver, _Moose_-skins, Kettles, _Wampompeage_, _Mowhacks_, Hatchets, Knives, all is confiscate by these two Games. For their Sports of action they have commonly but three or four, as Football, Shooting, Running, and Swimming; when they play Countrey against Countrey, there are rich Goals, all behung with _Wampompeage_, _Mowhacks_, Beaver Skins, and black Otter Skins: Their Goals are a Mile long plac’d on the Sands, which are as even as a Board; their Ball is no bigger than a Hand-ball, which sometimes they mount in the Air with their naked Feet, sometimes it is sway’d by the multitude, sometime also it is two days before they get a Goal, then they mark the Ground they win, and begin there the next day. Before they come to this Sport they paint themselves, even as when they go to War, in policy to prevent future mischief, because no man should know him that mov’d his patience, or accidentally hurt his Person, taking away the occasion of studying revenge. Before they begin, their Arms are put off, and hung upon some neighboring Tree, after which they make a long scrowl on the Sand, over which they shake Hands, and with loving Hearts scuffle for Victory. While the Men Play, the Boys Pipe, and the Women Dance and Sing Trophies of their Husbands Conquests; all being done, a Feast summons their departure.

Such is their dexterity in Shooting, that they can hit a running Hind, or flying Pigeon, without a standing pause or left-ey’d blinking; they draw their Arrows between their Fingers and the Thumb, their Bowes are quick, but not very strong, not killing at above six or seven score distance: Shooting at one another, they have a trick with swift conveyance to shun the Arrow; this they do to make them expert against time of War. They are train’d up to their Bowes even from their Childhood; for little Boys with Bowes made of little Sticks, and Arrows made of great Bents; will hit down a piece of Tobacco-pipe every time a good way off. As these _Indians_ are good Marks-men, so are they well experienc’d where the very Life of every Creature lieth, and know where to smite him to make him die presently. Their Swimming is not after our _English_ fashion, of spread Arms and Legs, which they hold too tiresom, but like Dogs, their Arms before them, cutting through the Liquids with their right Shoulder: In this manner they will Swim very swift and far, either in rough or smooth Waters, sometimes for their ease lying as still as a Log; sometimes they will play the Dive-doppers, and come up in unexpected places.

[Sidenote: Of their Huntings.]

For their Hunting, it is to be noted, that they have no swift-footed Greyhounds to let slip at the sight of the Deer, no deep-mouth’d Hounds, or scenting Beagles, to find out their desired Prey; themselves are all this, who in that time of the year when the Deer comes down, having certain Hunting-houses in such places where they know the Deer doth usually frequent, in which they keep their Rendezvouz, their Snares, and all their Accoutrements for that Employment: when they get sight of a Deer, _Moose_, or Bear, they study how to get the Wind of him, and approaching within shot, stab their Mark quite through, if the Bones hinder not. The chief thing they Hunt after is Deer, _Mooses_ and Bears: It grieves them more to see an _English_-man take one Deer, than a thousand Acres of Land. They Hunt likewise after Wolves, wild Cats, _Rackoons_, Otters, Beavers, and _Musquashes_, Trading both their Skins and Flesh to the _English_. Beside this Artillery they have other devices to kill their Game, as sometimes Hedges, a Mile or two Miles long, being a Mile wide at one end, and made narrower and narrower by degrees, leaving onely a Gap of six Foot long; over against which in the day-time they lie lurking, to shoot the Deer which come through that narrow passage; so many as come within the circumference of that Hedge, seldom return back to leap over, unless they be forc’d by the chasing of some ravenous Wolf, or sight of some accidental Passenger: In the Night, at the Gap of this Hedge, they set Deer-traps, which are Springes made of young Trees, and smooth wrought Cords, so strong, that it will toss a Horse if he be caught in it.

[Sidenote: Of their Fishings.]

In the Trade of Fishing they are very expert, being experienc’d in the knowledge of all Baits for several Fishes, and divers Seasons; being not ignorant likewise of the removal of Fishes, knowing when to Fish in Rivers, and when at Rocks, when in Bays, and when at Seas: Since the _English_ came they are furnish’d with _English_ Hooks and Lines, for before they made them of Hemp, being more curiously wrought, of stronger Materials than ours, and hook’d with Bone-Hooks; but laziness drives them to buy, more than profit or commendations wins them to make of their own. They make likewise very strong Sturgeon-nets, with which they catch Sturgeons of twelve, fourteen, and sixteen, and some eighteen Foot long in the day-time, and in the night-time they betake themselves to their Birchen _Canoos_, in which they carry a forty-fathom Line, with a sharp-bearded Dart fastned at the end thereof; then lighting a Torch made of Birchen Rinds, they wave it to and again by their _Canoo_ side, which the Sturgeon much delighted with, comes to them tumbling and playing, turning up his white Belly, into which they thrust their Lance, his Back being impenetrable; which done, they hale to the Shore their strugling Prize. They have often recourse into the Rocks whereupon the Sea beats, in warm Weather, to look out for sleepy Seals, whose Oyl they much esteem, using it for divers things. In Summer they Fish any where, but in Winter in the fresh Water onely, and Ponds; in frosty Weather they cut round Holes in the Ice, about which they will sit like so many Apes with their naked Breeches upon the cold Ice, catching of Pikes, Pearches, Breams, and other sorts of fresh-Water Fish.

[Sidenote: Of their Arts and Manufactures.]

Their Arts and Manufactures are divers, as first their dressing of all manner of Skins, which they do by scraping and rubbing, afterwards painting them with antique Embroiderings in unchangeable Colours; sometimes they take off the Hair, especially if it be not kill’d in season. Their Bowes they make of a handsom shape, strung commonly with the Sinews of _Mooses_; their Arrows of young Elder, feather’d with Feathers of Eagles Wings and Tails, headed with Brass in shape of a Heart or Triangle, fastned in a slender piece of Wood six or eight Inches long, which is fram’d to put loose in the pithy Elder, afterwards bound fast for riving: Their Arrows are made in this manner, because it might shake from his Head, and be left behind for their finding, and the Pile onely remain to gaul the wounded Beast. Their Cordage is so even, soft, and smooth, that it looks more like Silk than Hemp. Their Sturgeon Nets are not deep, nor above thirty or forty Foot long, which in ebbing low Waters they stake fast to the Ground where they are sure the Sturgeon will come, never looking more at it till the next low Water. Their _Canoos_ are made either of Pine-trees, which before they were acquainted with _English_ Tools, they burn’d hollow, scraping them smooth with Clam-shells and Oyster-shells, cutting their out-sides with Stone Hatchets. These Boats are not above a Foot and a half, or two Foot wide, and twenty Foot long. Their other _Canoos_ be made of thin Birch Rinds, close Ribb’d, and on the in-side with broad thin Hoops, like the Hoops of a Tub; these are made very light, a Man may carry one of them a Mile, being made purposely to carry from River to River, and from Bay to Bay, to shorten Land-passages. In these cockling Fly-boats, wherein an _English_-man can scarce sit without a fearful tottering, they will venture to Sea, when an _English_ Shallop dare not bear a Knot of Sail, scudding over the over-grown Waves as fast as a wind-driven Ship, being driven by their Paddles, being much like Battle-doors; if a cross Wave (which is seldom) turn her Keel up-side down, they by swimming free her, and scramble into her again.

[Sidenote: Of their Language.]

Their Language, is onely peculiar to themselves, not inclining to any of the more refined Tongues. Some have thought they might be of the dispersed _Jews_, because some of their words are near unto the _Hebrew_; but by the same rule they may conclude them to be some of the gleanings of all Nations, because they have words which sound after the _Greek_, _Latine_, _French_, and other Tongues. Their Language is hard to learn, few of the _English_ being able to speak any of it, or capable of the right pronunciation, which is the chief grace of their Tongue: They pronounce much after the Diphthongs, excluding _L_ and _R_ which in our _English_ Tongue they pronounce with as much difficulty, as most of the _Dutch_ do _T_ and _H_, calling a Lobster a _Nobstann_. Every Countrey doth something differ in their Speech, even as our Northern People do from the Southern, and Western from them; especially the _Tarrentine_, whose Tongue runs so much upon _R_ that they wharle much in pronunciation. When any Ships come near the Shore, they demand whether they are King _Charles’s Torries_, with such a rumbling sound, as if one were beating on an unbrac’d Drum. In serious Discourse our Southern _Indians_ use seldom any short Colloquies, but speak their minds at large, without any interjected Discourses from any, the rest giving diligent audience to his utterance; which done, some or other returns him as long an Answer: They love not to speak _multa, sed multum_; seldom are their words and their deeds strangers. According to the matter of their discourse, so are their acting Gestures in their Expressions.

[Sidenote: Of their Deaths, Burials and Mourning.]

The _Indians_ are of lusty and healthful Bodies, not experimentally knowing those Diseases which are incident to other Countreys, as Feavers, Pleurisies, Calentures, Agues, Consumptions, Convulsions, Apoplexies, Dropsies, Gouts, Pox, Measles, or the like, but spin out the thred of their Days to a fair length, numbering sixty, eighty, some a hundred years: But when any one lies a dying, the doleful cries, and throbbing sighs of the Friends and Relations, express unspeakable sorrow; and when the Party is dead and laid in the Ground, they not onely weep and howl for a good space over the Grave, but also keep Annual Solemnities of Mourning, rubbing their Faces with black Lead all about the Eye-brows, and part of their Cheeks; yet do they hold the Immortality of the Soul, in which their _Indian_ Faith jumps much with the _Turkish Alchoran_, dreaming of a certain Paradise, or South-West _Elysium_, wherein they shall everlastingly abide, solacing themselves in odoriferous Gardens, fruitful Corn-fields, green Meadows, bathing their tawny Hides in the cool Streams of pleasant Rivers, and sheltering themselves from Heat and Cold in the sumptuous Palaces fram’d by Nature, concluding, that neither care nor pain shall molest them, but that Natures bounty will administer all things with a voluntary contribution from the Store-house of their _Elysium_; at the Portal whereof, they say, lies a great Dog, whose churlish snarlings deny admission to unworthy Intruders: wherefore it is their custom to bury with them their Bowes and Arrows, and good store of their _Wampompeage_ and _Mowhacks_, the one to affright that affronting _Cerberus_, the other to purchase more immense Prerogatives in their Paradise. For their Enemies and loose Livers, whom they account unworthy of this imaginary Happiness, they say that they pass to the infernal Dwellings of _Abamocho_, to be tortur’d according to the Fictions of the ancient _Heathen_.

[Sidenote: Dispositions, Employments, Usage by their Husbands, Apparel, and Modesty of the Women.]

The drudgery of all laborious sorts of Work, and the management of all domestick Affairs, lies wholly upon the _Indian_ Women, who are made meer Slaves by their Husbands; they build the Houses, sowe and reap the Corn, provide Lobsters for their Husbands to bait their Hooks when they go a Fishing for _Basse_ or Cod; and for these Lobsters they are many times forc’d to dive in the extreamest Weather, then lug home a great weight of them upon their Backs, as also all the Fish which their Husbands catch for pleasure, from the places where they were caught: They dress all the Meat, serve it up to their Husbands, and waiting till they have fill’d their Bellies, are glad of their leavings. In Summer they gather Flags, of which they make Mats for Houses, and Hemp and Rushes, with Dying Stuff, of which they make curious Baskets, with intermixed Colours and Pourtraictures of antique Imagery. These Baskets are of all sizes from a Quart to a Quarter, in which they carry their Luggage. In Winter they are their Husbands Caterers, trudging to the Clam-banks for their Belly-timber, and their Porters to lug it home. They likewise sew their Husbands Shoes, and weave Coats of _Turky_ Feathers, besides all their ordinary Houshold drudgery which daily lies upon them, insomuch that a great Belly hinders no business, nor doth a Child-birth take much time, but the young Infant being greas’d and footed, wrapp’d in a Beavers Skin, bound with his Feet up to his Bum, upon a Board two Foot long and one Foot broad, and his Face expos’d to all nipping Weather, this little _Pappouse_ travels about with his bare-footed Mother to paddle in the Icy Clam-banks, after three or four days of Age have confirm’d her recovery. For their Carriage, it is very civil, Smiles being the greatest grace of their Mirth. Their Musick is Lullabies in Rocking their Children, who generally are as quiet as if they had neither Spleen or Lungs. Their Voices are generally both sweet and well order’d, so far as pure Nature teacheth them. Their Modesty drives them to wear more Clothes than the Men, having always a Coat of Cloth or Skins, wrapp’d like a Blanket about their Loyns, reaching down to their Hams, which they never put off in Company.

[Sidenote: Towns built by the _English_ in _New England_.]

There are to be reckon’d up forty five chief Towns, besides what others there may be of less note, built or made habitable by the _English_ since their first arrival in _New England_, till about the Year 1650.

[Sidenote: _St. Georges Fort._]

First, _St. Georges Fort_, where the first Plantation was setled, at the Mouth of the River _Sagadebock_, in a kind of _Peninsula_, or half Island.

[Sidenote: _New Plymouth._]

The second, _New Plymouth_, seated no less commodiously upon a large Bay, call’d by the Natives _Pautuxed_; where they first setled that went over out of dissatisfaction to the Church-Government of _England_.

[Sidenote: _Salem._]

The third, _Salem_, call’d by the _Indians_, _Mahumbeak_; which stands on the middle of a Neck of Land very pleasantly, having a South River on the one side, and a North River on the other side. This Town seems to have been built in the Year 1628. by a part of that Company, who, being sent over by the _Merchant-Adventurers_, setled themselves in this Cape.

[Sidenote: _Charles-town._]

The fourth _Mashawmut_, or _Charles-town_, situate on a Neck of Land on the Northside of the River _Charles_. The form of this Town, in the Frontispiece of it, resembleth the Head, Neck, and Shoulders of a Man; through the right Shoulder whereof runs the Navigable River _Mistick_, which by its near approach to _Charles_ River in one place, makes the chief part of the Town a _Peninsula_: It consists of a hundred and fifty Dwelling-houses, many of them beautifi’d with pleasant Gardens and Orchards: Near the Water-side is a large Market-place, forth of which issue two fair Streets; and in it stands a large and well built Church.

[Sidenote: _Dorchester._]

The fifth, _Matapan_, or _Dorchester_, a Fronteer Town, standing over against the Island near the Sea-side: It is water’d with two small Rivers, and is built in the form of a Serpent turning its Head Northward; it hath Orchards and Gardens full of Fruit-trees.

[Sidenote: _Boston._]

The sixth is _Boston_, anciently _Accomonticus_, the Center and Metropolis of the rest, built in the form of a Heart, and fortifi’d with two Hills on the Front-part thereof, the one having great store of Artillery mounted thereon, the other having a strong Battery, built of whole Timber, and fill’d with Earth: At the Descent of the Hill lies a large Cave or Bay, on which the chief part of this Town is built, over-topp’d with a third Hill, all three like over-topping Towers, keeping a constant Watch to foresee the approach of foreign Dangers. The chiefest part of this City-like Town is crowded upon the Sea Banks, and wharf’d out with great Industry and Cost, the Edifices large and beautiful, whose continual enlargement presageth some sumptuous City.

[Sidenote: _Roxbury._]

The seventh, _Roxbury_, situated between _Boston_ and _Dorchester_, water’d with cool and pleasant Springs issuing from the Rocky Hills, and with small Freshets watering the Valleys of this fertile Town: The form of it resembleth a Wedge double pointed, entring between the two above-mention’d Towns; and in the room of those Swamps, or tearing Bushes which were there before, they have now goodly Fruit-trees, fruitful Fields and Gardens.

[Sidenote: _Lynne._]

The eighth is _Lynne_, or (according to the _Indian_ Name, _Saugus_) situated between _Salem_ and _Charles-town_, near a River, whose strong Freshet at the end of Winter fills all her Banks, and with a violent Torrent vents it self into the Sea. This Town is almost square, consisting many years ago of above a hundred Dwelling-houses, having also an Iron Mill in constant use. The Church being on a level Land, undefended from the North-West Wind, is made with Steps descending into the Earth.

[Sidenote: _Water-town._]

The ninth is call’d _Water-town_, anciently _Pigsgusset_, situated upon one of the Branches of _Charles_-River, water’d with many pleasant Springs and small Rivulets, running like Veins throughout her Body. This Town began by occasion of Sir _Richard Saltingstall_, who arriving with store of Cattel and Servants, Winter’d in these Parts.

[Sidenote: _New-town._]

[Sidenote: _Harverd Colledge._]

In the Year 1633. there was erected between _Charles-town_ and _Water-town_, a Place call’d _New-town_, and by the _Indians_, _Amongcangen_, since nam’d _Cambridge_, being the tenth in order: It is in form like a List of Broad-cloth, reaching to the most Southerly part of _Merrimeck_ River; it hath comely and well order’d Streets, and two fair Colledges; the first call’d _Harverd Colledge_, from Mr. _John Harverd_, who at his Death gave a thousand Pounds to it; to the other Mr. _John Harnes_ was the chief Benefactor. This Town was appointed to be the Seat of the Government, but it continu’d not long.

[Sidenote: _Ipswich._]

The eleventh call’d _Ipswich_, or _Sawacatuc_ by the _Indians_, is situated on a fair and delightful River, issuing forth from a very pleasant Pond, and afterwards breaking its Course through a hideous Swamp of large extent; it lies in the _Sagamoreship_, or Earldom of _Aggawan_, now by the _English_ call’d _Essex_.

[Sidenote: _Newbury._]

Twelve Miles from _Ipswich_, near upon the Streams of _Merrimeck_ River, is situated the twelfth, call’d _Newbury_.

[Sidenote: _Hartford._]

The People of _New-town_, or _Cambridge_, upon their removal of the Plantation of _Canectico_, passing up the River, built a Town, which they call’d _Hartford_, the thirteenth in number, divers others coming in the room of those that departed from _Cambridge_.

[Sidenote: _Concord._]

The fourteenth, seated upon a fair fresh River (whose Rivulets are fill’d with fresh Marsh, and her Streams with Fish, it being a Branch of that large River of _Merrimeck Allwives_) is built in the Inland Countrey, and call’d _Concord_: It consisted at first of above fifty Families: Their Buildings are for the most part conveniently plac’d on one streight Stream under a Sunny Bank, in a low Level. The People that first set forth to build this Town, sustain’d great hardship and misery, by reason of the uncouth Ways, and extremity of the Weather, it being the first Inland Town that was built.

[Sidenote: _Hingham._]

South-East of _Charles_-River, upon the Sea-Coast, is situated the fifteenth Town _Hingham_; the form whereof is somewhat intricate to describe, by reason of the Seawasting Crooks, where it beats upon a moultring Shore; yet in some places the Streets are compleat: It consisted at first of about sixty Families.

[Sidenote: _Dukesbury_, or _Sandwich_.]

The sixteenth is in _Plymouth_ Government, situate upon the Sea-Coast, first nam’d _Dukes-bury_, afterwards _Sandwich_.

[Sidenote: _Newhaven._]

About the year 1617. a new Supply coming over into these Parts, and not finding in the _Mattachusets_ Government any commodious place to settle in, they after much search took up a place somewhat more Southerly, near the _Shalles_ of _Capecod_, where they found a commodious Harbor for Shipping, and a fit place to erect a Town in, which they built in a short time, with very fair Houses and compleat Streets; and shortly after several others: Amongst which they erected a new Government, which from their first Fronteer Town, being the seventeenth, was call’d _Newhaven_.

[Sidenote: _Dedham._]

The eighteenth is in the Government of the _Mattachusets_, and call’d _Dedham_, being an Inland Town, situate about ten Miles from _Boston_ in the County of _Suffolk_, well water’d with many pleasant Streams, and abounding with Gardens and Fruit-Trees: It consisted at first of about a hundred Families, being generally given to Husbandry.

[Sidenote: _Weymouth._]

The nineteenth being also in this Government is call’d _Weymouth_, batter’d on the East with the Sea Waves; on the South-West Rocks and Swamps make it delightful to the Deer, as the ploughable Meadow-Lands to the Inhabitants.

About the Year 1638. _Printing_ was brought over into _New England_.

[Sidenote: _Rowly._]

About six Miles from _Ipswich_, North-Eastward, was erected another Town call’d _Rowly_, being the twentieth.

[Sidenote: _Hampton._]

About the Year 1639. began the one and twentieth Town _Hampton_, in the County of _Norfolk_, to be built: It is situate near the Sea-Coast, not far from the River of _Merrimeck_: The great store of salt Marsh did entice the People to set down their Habitations there.

[Sidenote: _Salisbury._]

Not far from this Town of _Hampton_, was erected the two and twentieth, call’d _Salisbury_, seated upon the broad swift Torrent of _Merrimeck_-River: It lieth on the Northern side, over against the Town of _Newbury_, the River between them being about half a Mile broad, but hath an Island in the midst thereof, which makes it the more easily passable. The situation of this Town is very pleasant, the Skirts thereof abounding in fair and goodly Meadows, with good store of stately Timber in many places upon the Uplands.

[Sidenote: _Long-Island, Southampton._]

About the Year 1640. by a fresh Supply of People that setled in _Long-Island_, was there erected the twenty third Town, call’d _Southampton_; by the Indians, _Agawom_.

[Sidenote: _Sudbury._]

The same Year also the Town of _Sudbury_, being the twenty fourth, began to be built in the Inland Countrey: It is furnish’d with great store of fresh Marsh, but lying very low, it is much endammag’d with Land-floods.

[Sidenote: _Braintree._]

About this time there was built at Mount _Wollestone_, by some old Planters and certain Farmers of the great Town of _Boston_, a Town nam’d _Braintree_, being the twenty fifth, within the _Mattachusets_ Government: It is well peopled, and hath great store of Land in Tillage.

[Sidenote: _Gloucester._]

In the Year 1641. Mr. _Richard Blindman_ coming from _Green Harbour_, a Place in _Plymouth_ Patent, with some few People of his acquaintance, setled in _Cape Anne_, where they built the twenty sixth Town, and nam’d it _Gloucester_.

[Sidenote: _Dover._]

There is also situate upon _Puscataque_ River, to the North-East of _Boston_, a Town call’d _Dover_, being the twenty seventh, the People by voluntary resignation being under the _Mattachusets_ Government.

[Sidenote: _Wooburn._]

In the Year 1642. was erected the eight and twentieth Town, call’d _Wooburn_.

[Sidenote: _Reading._]

In the Year 1644. _Reading_ the nine and twentieth Town was built, being in the Government of the _Mattachusets_; it is well water’d and situated about a great Pond, having two Mills, a Saw-Mill, and a Corn-Mill, which stand upon two several Streams.

[Sidenote: _Wenham._]

A little after was built the thirtieth Town in this Colony, call’d _Wenham_, situate between _Salem_ and _Ipswich_; it is very well water’d, as most Inland Towns are, and the People live altogether on Husbandry.

[Sidenote: _Spring-field._]

About the Year 1645. one Mr. _Pinchin_, having out of desire to improve his Estate by Trading with the _Indians_, setled himself in a place very remote from any of the Towns of the _Mattachusets_ Colony, yet under their Government, and great store of People still resorting to him, they at last erected a Town upon the River _Canectico_, calling it _Spring-field_, being the one and thirtieth Town; it is very fitly seated for a Beaver Trade with the _Indians_, in regard it is situate upon this large Navigable River, and upon some Rivulets of the same.

[Sidenote: _Haverhill._]

In the Year 1648. was founded the Town of _Haverhill_, being the two and thirtieth, about a Mile or two from the place where the River of _Merrimeck_ receives into it self the River _Shawshin_, which is one of her three chief Heads.

[Sidenote: _Malden._]

Not long after, the Town of _Malden_, being the three and thirtieth Town, was built by certain People that came out of _Charles-Town_; these two Towns being sever’d the one from the other by the large River of _Mistick_.

The rest we shall onely name, as 34. _Berwick_, alias _Chawun_. 35 _Oxford_, alias _Sagoquas_. _Falmouth_, alias _Totam_. 36. _Bristol._ 37. _Hull_, alias _Passataquack_. 38. _Dartmouth_, alias _Bohanna_. 39. _Norwich_, alias _Segocket_. 40. _Taunton_, alias _Cohannet_. 41. _Greens-Harbour._ 42. _Yarmouth._ 43. _Northam_, alias _Pascataqua_. 44. _Exeter._ 45. _Weymouth._

The chief Rivers of _New England_ are, _Pascataway_, _Sagadahoc_, _Pemmaquid_, _Agamentico_, _Merrimeck_, _Tachobacco_, _Mistick_, _Narraganset_, _Mishuwin_, _Connectacut_, _Newichwavoch_, _Kynebequy_.

[Sidenote: The present state of the Natives.]

The _Indian_ Natives are now become so weak in number, and in some measure reduc’d to a dread of the growth of the _English_, that of late years they have not practis’d any thing against them, or at least, not justifi’d them by numbers in open Hostility, willing rather to purchase their Peace and buy off Injuries committed by them at the Price of their Lands and Possessions.

And although care and expence hath been many years apply’d to the Conversion of _Indians_ to the Faith, however inclinable they seem’d at first to the imbracing thereof, not then so well discerning the insincerity of its Professors; yet there are so few of late who do imbrace it or persevere in it (wanting a good Foundation for instruction in Moral Honesty, and perhaps the example of it in those that undertake to instruct them in Religion;) that _Christianity_ to them seems a _Chimera_, Religion a design to draw them from the libidinous Pleasures of a lazy Life; however, some there are who make Profession of _Christianity_, and some who are educated in the Schools of _New Cambridge_, to entitle them to Preach the Gospel in their own Language.

One great hindrance to the Propagation of the Faith amongst those _Heathens_, is the diversity of their Languages; for it is commonly known, that the Natives themselves do not understand one another, if their Habitations are but at forty Miles distance.

[Sidenote: Church-Government among the _English_.]

Their Church-Government and Discipline is Congregational and Independent, yet in some places more rigid than others, for in many Towns there yet remains some leaven of _Presbytery_, from which Sects our _Independency_ had its Original; insomuch, that one of the most remarkable Opposers of _Episcopal Government_, Doctor _Bastwick_ (who, spoil’d so much Paper in railing at the Church Government of _England_, and crying up _Liberty of Conscience_) finding the Apostacy of his own Brethren of _Boston_ from their first Principles, and his, generally prevail over them, even to the denying that liberty to others, which they seem’d only to aim at, did write a large and vehement _Dehortatory Epistle_ to them from their _New Lights_ or _Paths_, saying, _That according to their present Tenents, they could not pretend to be, or other than a Christian Synagogue_.

[Sidenote: Their Civil Government and Laws.]

Their Laws and Methods of Government are wholly of their own framing, each Colony for themselves, makes an Annual choice of Governor, Deputy Governor, and a certain number of Assistants, by the plurality of Suffrages collected from their several Towns, the Electors are only Free-men and Church-Members; for he that is not a Member of their Church, can neither chuse, nor be chosen a Magistrate, nor have his Children Baptiz’d; besides the loss of many other Priviledges, and liable moreover to frequent, if not constant Mulcts for absenting themselves from _Divine Worship_ (so call’d) in their Meeting-houses.

Since the transmitting of the Patent in _New England_, the Election is not by Voices, nor erection of Hands as formerly, but by Papers, thus:

The general Court-electory sitting, where are present in the Church, or Meeting-house at _Boston_, the old Governor, Deputy, and all the Magistrates, and two Deputies or Burgesses for every Town, or at least one; all the Freemen are bid to come in at one Door, and bring their Votes in Paper for the new Governor, and deliver them down upon the Table, before the Court, and so pass forth at another Door; those that are absent, send their Votes by Proxies. All being deliver’d in, the Votes are counted, and according to the major part, the old Governor pronounceth, _That such an one is chosen Governor for the year ensuing_. Then the Freemen, in like manner, bring their Votes for the Deputy Governor, who being also chosen, the Governor propoundeth the Assistants one after another. New Assistants are, of late, put in nomination, by an Order of general Court, beforehand to be consider’d of: If a Freeman give in a Blank, that rejects the Man nam’d; if the Freeman makes any mark with a Pen upon the Paper which he brings, that elects the Man nam’d: Then the Blanks and mark’d Papers are number’d, and according to the major part of either, the Man in Nomination stands elected or rejected; and so for all the Assistants. And after every new Election, which is, by their Patent, to be upon the last Wednesday in _Easter_ Term, the new Governor and Officers are all new Sworn. The Governor and Assistants chuse the Secretary. And all the Court consisting of Governor, Deputy, Assistants, and Deputies of Towns, give their Votes as well as the rest; and the Ministers and Elders, and all Church-Officers, have their Votes also in all these Elections of chief Magistrates: Constables, and all other inferior Officers, are sworn in the general, quarter, or other Courts, or before any Assistant.

Every Free-man when he is admitted, takes a strict Oath, to be true to the Society or Jurisdiction.

There are two general Courts, one every half year, wherein they make Laws or Ordinances: The Ministers advise in making of Laws, especially Ecclesiastical, and are present in Courts, and advise in some special Causes Criminal, and in framing of Fundamental Laws.

There are besides four Quarter-Courts for the whole Jurisdiction, besides other petty Courts, one every quarter at _Boston_, _Salem_, and _Ipswich_, with their several Jurisdictions; besides every Town, almost, hath a petty Court for small Debts and Trespasses, under twenty Shillings.

[Sidenote: Actions and Causes.]

In the general Court, or great quarter Courts, before the Civil Magistrates, are try’d all Actions and Causes Civil and Criminal, and also Ecclesiastical, especially touching Non-members: And they themselves say, that in the general and quarter Courts, they have the Power of Parliament, Kings-Bench, Common-Pleas, Chancery, High-Commission, and Star-Chamber, and all other Courts of _England_, and in divers Cases have exercis’d that Power upon the Kings Subjects there, as is not difficult to prove. They have put to death, banish’d, fin’d Men, cut off Mens Ears, whip’d, imprison’d Men, and all these for Ecclesiastical and Civil Offences, and without sufficient Record. In the lesser quarter Courts are try’d, in some, Actions under ten Pounds, in _Boston_, under twenty, and all Criminal Causes not touching Life or Member. From the petty quarter Courts, or other Courts, the parties may appeal to the great quarter Courts, from thence to the general Court, from which there is no Repeal.

[Sidenote: Grand-Juries.]

Twice a year, in the said quarter Courts held before the general Courts, are two Grand-Juries sworn for the Jurisdiction, one for one Court, and the other for the other; and they are charg’d to enquire and Present Offences reduc’d by the Governor who gives the Charge.

[Sidenote: Trials.]

Matters of Debt, Trespass, and upon the Case, and Equity, yea and of Heresie also, are try’d by a Jury.

The Parties are warn’d to challenge any Jury-man before he be sworn; but because there is but one Jury in a Court for trial of Causes; and all Parties not present at their Swearing, the liberty of challenge is much hinder’d, and some inconveniences do happen thereby. Jurors are return’d by the Marshal, he was at first call’d _The Beadle of the Society_.

The Parties in all Causes, speak themselves for the most part, and some of the Magistrates where they think cause requireth, do the part of Advocates without Fee or Reward.

Though among the several Colonies which were founded here by the confluence of dissenting Zealots, this Government is exercis’d, differing from that of the Church and State of _England_: yet in those Provinces which are granted by particular Persons, the Government is much more conformable to that of _England_; but as the _Mattachusets_ or _Bostoners_ were from the beginning the most Potent and Predominant of all the rest of the Colonies, (insomuch, that _Boston_ may well be accounted the Metropolis of all _New England_,) so of late years they have still usurp’d more and more Power and Authority over the rest; and especially have not stuck to give Laws to the foresaid Provinces allotted to particular Persons, and have gone about wholly to subjugate those places to themselves, intrenching upon the rights of the true Proprietors; and that, even contrary to the Kings express Commands by his Officers, there, and as it were in open defiance of his Majesty and Government, as is evident from this following Narration, of their behavior upon a business of this nature.

[Sidenote: Proceedings of the _Mattachusets_ against his Majesties Commissioners.]

In the Year of our Lord 1665. his Majesties Commissioners for the Affairs of _New England_, being in the Province of _Mayne_, the People being much unsetled in Point or Government, by reason the _Mattachusets_ Colony, or _Boston_ Government, did usurp compulsively a Power over them contrary to their wills; and the right of Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ Heir, who had his Commission then in the place, did unanimously Petition to his Majesties Commissioners to settle the Government; upon which the said Commissioners examin’d the Bounds and Right of Mr. _Gorges_ Patent, with all the Allegations and Pretensions on both sides, and so according to their Instruction from his Majesty, did settle a temporary Government under his Majesty’s immediate Authority, until such time as his Majesty should give his final determination thereof; and for that end did Institute Justices of the Peace to Govern the Province according to the true Laws of _England_. Also his Majesty was pleas’d by his _Mandamus_ in _April 1666_, to the Governors of _Boston_, to signifie that it was his will and pleasure, That the Province of _Main_ should stand good as his Commissioners had setled it, until he had more leisure to determine it; yet notwithstanding, after three years quiet possession, and exercising of Government by the Kings Justices, according to their Commission granted by his Majesty’s Commissioners, the _Bostoners_, without any Conference with the said Justices, did in a hostile manner oppose the King’s Power, _July 1668._ which was as followeth:

The General Court of _Boston_ sent their Warrants to keep Court at _York_ under their Authority, and for that purpose Commissionated Magistrates by their own Authority, namely Major General _John Leveret_, Mr. _Edward Ting_, Captain _Richard Walden_, and Captain _Robert Pike_: Whereupon the King’s Justices did oppose their Warrants, and sent Post to _New York_, with an Address to General _Nicholas_, for Advice what to do therein; who forthwith dispatch’d away to the Governors of _Boston_, informing them of the danger of their Proceeding, it being an open breach of Duty, to subvert the Government establish’d by his Majesty’s Power; also sent the King’s _Mandamus_, _April 1666._ that will’d to the contrary. Notwithstanding the _Boston_ Magistrates in _July 1668._ in order to their _Boston_ Commission, came to _York_ Town in the said Province, with several Armed Men, Horse and Foot, to keep Court under their Authority; Opposition was made by the King’s Justices, and his Majesty’s Power was urg’d, but little regard thereunto shewn; his Majesties _Mandamus_ was likewise much insisted upon, and produced by the Justices, who ask’d the _Bostoners_ what they thought of it? and how they durst act so contrary to the King’s Will and Pleasure? Major General _Leveret_ told them, That he believ’d it might be the King’s Hand, but he had a Commission from the general Court at _Boston_, which he would follow and observe by the help of God. The same day in the Afternoon the said Major General _Leveret_, with the rest of the _Boston_ Magistrates, seiz’d and imprison’d the Province Marshal in doing his Office, and then forthwith went in warlike posture to the Court-house, where the King’s Justices sat in Judicature, and putting them from their Seats, sat down themselves in their Places, and Executed their _Boston_ Commission. The King’s Justices drew a _Protest_ against their Proceedings, and so left the Decision to God’s Providence, and his Majesty’s good Pleasure. Then they turn’d out all Officers, both Military and Civil, and Swore others in their Places under their Authority; they forc’d the whole Record of the Province out of the Recorders House contrary to his Will, by vertue of a Special Warrant from that Court. They imprison’d the Mayor of the said Province about three weeks, forcing him to give in five hundred Pound Bonds, not to act according to his Commission; which with some Reservations he was forc’d to deny for the security of his Estate.

These riotous Proceedings thus acted with such a precipitate fury, so incens’d his Majesty, that speedy care had been taken to reduce them to reason, had they not upon mature consideration bethought themselves afterwards to yield Obedience to his Majesties Orders.

Having treated at large of all that concerns _New England_ in general, both in reference to the Natives and the _English_ Planters, we shall conclude with a brief view of the Provinces of _Laconia_ and _Main_, as they are truly Describ’d (among other ingenuous Collections and Observations of the Affairs of _America_, and especially these Parts) by _Ferdinando Gorges_ Esq; Heir to the above-mention’d Sir _Ferdinando_, and thereby sole Lord of the said Provinces, onely contracting what hath been by him deliver’d more at large.

[Sidenote: A brief Description of _Laconia_, a Province in _New England_.]

Among divers Plantations of the _English_ happily Founded in _New England_, is a Province to the Landward, nam’d _Laconia_, so call’d by reason of the great Lakes therein, but by the ancient Inhabitants thereof it is call’d _The Countrey of the Troquois_: It lies between the Latitude of forty four and forty five Degrees, having the Rivers of _Sagadehock_ and _Merrimeck_ on the Sea-Coast of _New England_, Southerly from it; into each of which Rivers there is a short Passage, frequented by the Salvages inhabiting near the Lakes. Also it hath the great Lakes which tend towards _California_ in the South Sea on the West thereof: On the North thereof is the great River of _Canada_, into which the said River disgorgeth it self by a fair large River, well replenish’d with many fruitful Islands: The Air thereof is pure and wholesom, the Countrey pleasant, having some high Hills, full of goodly Forrests, and fair Valleys and Plains, fruitful in Corn, Vines, Chesnuts, Wallnuts, and infinite sorts of other Fruits, large Rivers well stor’d with Fish, and inviron’d with goodly Meadows full of Timber-trees.

One of the great Lakes is call’d _The Lake of Troquois_, which together with a River of the same Name, running into the River of _Canada_, is sixty or seventy Leagues in length.

In the Lake are four fair Islands, which are low and full of goodly Woods and Meadows, having store of Game for Hunting, as Stags, Fallow-Deer, Elks, Roe-Bucks, Beavers, and other sorts of Beasts which come from the Main Land to the said Islands.

The Rivers which fall into the Lakes have in them good store of Beavers; of which Beasts, as also of the Elks, the Salvages make their chiefest Traffick.

The said Islands have been inhabited heretofore by the Salvages, but are now abandon’d by reason of their late Wars one with another: They contain twelve or fifteen Leagues in length, and are seated commodiously for Habitation in the midst of the Lake, which abounds with divers kinds of wholesom Fish.

From this Lake run two Rivers Southward, which fall into the Eastern and Southern Sea-Coast of _New England_.

Into this Lake there went many years since certain _French_ of _Quebeck_, who sided with the _Algovinquins_, with the help of their _Canoos_, which they carried the space of five Miles over the _Impossible Falls_, to Fight a Battel in revenge of some former Injuries done by the _Troquois_ to the _Algovinquins_, who had the Victory; for which cause the _French_ have been so hated ever since by the Nation of the _Troquois_, that none of them durst ever appear in any part of that Lake. But their Trade, said to be sixteen thousand Beavers yearly, is partly sold to the _Dutch_, who Trade with the Westend of the said Lake over Land by Horses, from their Plantation upon _Hudson_’s _River_: and another part is conceiv’d to be purchas’d by the _Hiroons_, who being Newters, are Friends both to the one and the other; and these _Hiroons_ bring down the greatest part of all by the River of _Canada_.

The Way over Land to this great Lake, from the Plantation of _Pascataway_, hath been attempted by Captain _Walter Neale_, once Governor, at the Charges of Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_, Captain _Mason_, and some Merchants of _London_, and the Discovery wanted but one days Journey of finishing, because their Victuals was spent, which, for want of Horses, they were enforc’d to carry with their Arms, and their Clothes, upon their Backs: They intended to have made a settlement for Trade by Pinnaces upon the said Lake, which they reckon to be about ninety or a hundred Miles from the Plantation over Land.

The People of the Countrey are given to Hunting of wild Beasts, which is their chiefest Food.

Their Arms are Bowes and Arrows. Their Armor is made partly of Wood, and partly of a kind of twisted Stuff like Cotton-Wool.

Their Meat is Flour of _Indian_ Corn, of that Countreys growth, sodden to Pap, which they preserve for times of Necessity when they cannot Hunt.

This Province of _Laconia_, however known by a distinct Name, is included within the Province of _Main_, which offers it self next to our consideration.

[Sidenote: Of the Province of _Main_.]

All that part of the Continent of _New England_, which was allotted by Patent to Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ and to his Heirs, he thought fit to call by the Name of _The Province of Main_. It takes it beginning at the entrance of _Pascatoway_ Harbor, and so passeth up the same into the River of _Newichwavoch_; and through the same unto the farthest Head thereof; and from thence North-Westwards for the space of a hundred and twenty Miles; and from the Mouth of _Pascatoway_ Harbor aforesaid, North-Eastward along the Sea-Coast, to _Sagadehock_; and up the River thereof to _Kinibequy_ River, even as far as the Head thereof; and into the Land North-Westwards, for the space of a hundred and twenty Miles.

To these Territories are also adjoyn’d the North half of the Isles of _Sholes_, together with the Isles of _Capawick_ and _Nautican_, as also all the little Islands lying within five Leagues of the _Main_, all along the Sea-Coast, between the aforesaid Rivers of _Pascatoway_ and _Sagadehock_.

He no sooner had this Province setled upon him, but he gave publick notice, That if anyone would undertake by himself and his Associates, to Transport a competent number of Inhabitants, to Plant in any part of his Limits, he would assign unto him or them such a proportion of Land, as should in reason satisfie them, reserving onely to himself some small High-Rent, as 2 _s._ or 2 _s._ 6 _d._ for a hundred Acres _per Annum_: and if they went about to build any Town or City, he would Endow them with such Liberties and Immunities, as should make them capable to Govern themselves within their own Limits, according to the Liberties granted to any Town or Corporation within this Realm of _England_. And as for others of the meaner sort who went as Tenants, that they should have such quantities of Land assign’d them as they were able to manage, at the Rate of 4 _d._ or 6 _d._ an Acre, according to the nature or situation of the Place they settle in.

And for the Division of the Province, and the Form of Government which he intended to Establish, he first divided the Province into several Parts; and those again he subdivided into distinct Regiments, as East, West, North, and South; those again into several Hundreds, Parishes and Tythings, and these to have their several Officers to Govern, according to such Laws as should be agreed upon by publick Assent of the Free-holders, with the approbation of himself or Deputy, and the principal Officers of the publick State.

The setled Government for the general State, to whom all Appeals were to be made, and from whom all Instructions for the welfare of the Publick were to issue, were to consist of himself or his Deputy, who was to be chosen every three year by himself, with the advice of his Council: Next a Chancellor for the determination of all Causes; A Treasurer, to whom the care of the publick Revenue was to be committed; A Marshal, whose Office was to oversee the Regiments, and to provide Men for publick Service; An Admiral, to take care of all Maritime Affairs, to whom a Judge of the Admiralty was to be joyn’d to determine all Maritime Causes; A Master of the Ordnance, to look to the publick Arms and Ammunition; A Secretary, to receive Intelligence, and to acquaint himself or Deputy therewith. To these belong all their several Officers and Ministers for the Execution of all Matters proper to their several Places.

The chief Town of this Province is call’d _Gorgiana_, which is Govern’d by a Mayor, the rest are onely inconsiderable Villages or scatter’d Houses; but through Encouragement given to Adventurers and Planters, it may prove in time a very flourishing Place, and be replenish’d with many fair Towns and Cities, it being a Province both fruitful and pleasant.

SECT. II. New Netherland, now call’d New York.

That Tract of Land formerly call’d _The New Netherland_, doth contain all that Land which lieth in the North parts of _America_, betwixt _New England_ and _Mary-Land_; the length of which Northward into the Countrey, as it hath not been fully discover’d, so it is not certainly known: The breadth of it is about two hundred Miles. The principal Rivers within this Tract, are _Hudson_’s-River, _Raritan_-River, _Delaware-Bay_-River. The chief Islands are the _Manhatans_-Island, _Long_-Island, and _Staten_-Island.

The first which discover’d this Countrey was _Henry Hudson_, who being hir’d by the _East-India_ Company to seek a Passage in the _Northern America_ to _China_, set Sail _Anno 1609._ in the _Half-Moon_ Frigat; coming before _Terre-neuff_, he stood about towards the South-West, where Sailing up a great River, he found two Men Clad in _Ruffelo_’s Skins; and from thence arriv’d safe at _Amsterdam_.

_New Netherland_ thus discover’d, invited many Merchants to settle a firm Plantation there; to which purpose they obtain’d Letters Patents in 1614. granted them by the _States_ in the _Hague_, That they might onely Traffick to _New Netherland_; whereupon they earnestly prosecuting the Design, sent out _Adrian Block_ and _Godyn_, who discover’d several Coasts, Isles, Havens, and Rivers.

The Countrey, as they said, being then void, was therefore free for any body that would take possession of it: Notwithstanding which pretence, they were scarce warm in their Quarters, when Sir _Samuel Argal_, Governor of _Virginia_, having first spoil’d the _French_ in _Accadie_, as we said, disputed the Possession with these also. And although they pleaded _Hudson_’s Right (who by Commission from King _James_, and upon an _English_ Account, had lately discover’d those Parts) and pretended they had not onely bought all his Cards and Maps of the Countrey, but all his Interest and Right also, and had fully contented him for all his Pains and Charges in the Discovery; yet the said _Hudson_ being an _English_-man, and acting all that he did by Commission from the King of _England_, upon Debate it was concluded, That the Land could not be alienated after Discovery without the King of _England_’s consent, especially it being but a part of the Province of _Virginia_, already possess’d by the Subjects of _England_: So that they were forc’d to wave that Title, and the _Dutch_ Governor submitted his Plantation to His Majesty of _England_, and to the Governor of _Virginia_, for and under him: Upon which Terms for a good while they held it. Afterwards, upon confidence, it seems, of a new Governor sent from _Amsterdam_, they not onely fail’d to pay the promis’d Contribution and Tribute, but fell to fortifie themselves, and to entitle the Merchants of _Amsterdam_ to an absolute Propriety and Dominion of the Country, independent of any other; building Towns, as _New Amsterdam_; raising Forts, as _Orange Fort_, near the Branch of the _Nordt River_, which they call _Hell-Gate_. Complaint whereof being made to King _Charles_, and by his Ambassador represented to the _States_, they disown the business, and declare by Publick Instrument, that it was onely a private Undertaking, _viz._ of the _West-India_ Company of _Amsterdam_. Whereupon a Commission was granted to Sir _George Calvert_, made Lord _Baltimore_ in _Ireland_, to Possess and Plant the Southern parts thereof, lying towards _Virginia_, by the name of _Mary-land_; and to Sir _Edmund Loyden_, to Plant the Northern parts towards _New England_, by the name of _Nova Albion_: Which makes the _Dutch_ the second time seem willing to compound; and for the Sum of two thousand and five hundred Pounds, they offer to be gone, and leave all they had there. But taking advantage of the troubles in _England_, which then began to appear, and soon after follow’d, they not only go back from their first Propositions, and make higher Demands, but also most mischievously (as some report) furnish the Natives with Arms, and teach them the use of them, as it may be thought, expecting to use their help upon occasion, against the _English_.

[Illustration: NOVI BELGII]

After His Majesties Restauration, His Majesty being truly inform’d of his just Pretences to all that Usurp’d Territory call’d _New Netherland_, (the same having been formerly part of _New England_) and of how great prejudice to the Act of Navigation, and how dangerous Intruders the _Dutchmen_ are generally upon other Princes Dominions, what mischief might ensue to all our _English_ Plantations in time of War, if the _Dutch_ were permitted to strengthen themselves in the very heart of His Majesties Dominions, being Masters of one of the most commodious Ports and Rivers in _America_: His Majesty resolv’d to seize upon the same, as his undoubted Right, and in _May 1664._ having design’d four Commissioners to the perfecting of Affairs in _New England_, Collonel _Richard Nichols_, Sir _Robert Carr_, _George Cartwright_, and _Samuel Mawrick_ Esquires, with three Ships of War to convey them to _Boston_: The matter was so order’d, that the same Ships serv’d for the reducing of the Town and Fort of _New Amsterdam_, upon conditions, advantageous to His Majesty, and easie to the _Dutch_.

Now begins _New Netherland_ to lose the Name, for His Majesty having conferr’d by Patent upon his Royal Highness the Duke of _York_ and _Albany_, all the Acquisitions made upon Foraigners, together with _Long-Island_, the West end whereof was wholly setled and Peopled by _Dutch-men_; his Royal Highness impower’d, by Commission as his Deputy-Governor, Colonel _Nichols_, Groom of his Bed-chamber, to take the Charge and Direction of Reducing and Governing all those Territories; it was by him thought fit, to change some principal denominations of Places, _viz._ _New Netherland_ into _York-shire_; _New Amsterdam_ into _New York_; _Fort-Amscel_ into _Fort-James_; _Fort-Orange_ into _Fort-Albany_; and withal, to change _Burgomasters_, _Schepen_, and _Schout_, into Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriff, with Justices of the Peace; so that all the Civil Policy is conformable to the Methods and Practise of _England_, whereas _New England_ retains only the name of _Constable_ in their whole Rolls of Civil Officers.

It is plac’d upon the neck of the Island _Manhatans_, looking towards the Sea; encompass’d with _Hudson_’s River, which is six Miles broad; the Town is compact and oval, with very fair Streets and several good Houses; the rest are built much after the manner of _Holland_, to the number of about four hundred Houses, which in those parts are held considerable: Upon one side of the Town is _James-Fort_, capable to lodge three hundred Souldiers and Officers; it hath four Bastions, forty Pieces of Cannon mounted; the Walls of Stone, lin’d with a thick Rampart of Earth; well accommodated with a Spring of fresh Water, always furnish’d with Arms and Ammunition, against Accidents: Distant from the Sea seven Leagues, it affords a safe Entrance, even to unskilful Pilots; under the Town side, Ships of any Burthen may Ride secure against any Storms, the Current of the River being broken by the interposition of a small Island, which lies a Mile distant from the Town.

About ten Miles from _New York_ is a Place call’d _Hell-Gate_, which being a narrow Passage, there runneth a violent Stream both upon Flood and Ebb; and in the middle lie some Rocky Islands, which the Current sets so violently upon, that it threatens present Shipwrack; and upon the Flood is a large Whirlwind, which continually sends forth a hideous roaring, enough to affright any Stranger from passing farther, and to wait for some _Charon_ to conduct him through; yet to those that are well acquainted, little or no danger: It is a place of great Defence against any Enemy coming in that way, which a small Fortification would absolutely prevent, and necessitate them to come in at the West end of _Long-Island_ by _Sandy Hook_, where _Nutten Island_ forces them within the Command of the Fort at _New York_, which is one of the best Pieces of Defence in the North parts of _America_. It is built most of Brick and Stone, and cover’d with red and black Tyle, and the Land being high, it gives at a distance a pleasing prospect to the Spectators. The Inhabitants consist most of _English_ and _Dutch_, and have a considerable Trade with _Indians_ for Beaver, Otter, and _Rackoon_-Skins, with other Furrs; as also for Bear, Deer and _Elke_-Skins; and are supply’d with Venison and Fowl in the Winter, and Fish in the Summer by the _Indians_, which they buy at an easie Rate; and having the Countrey round about them, they are continually furnish’d with all such Provisions as is needful for the Life of Man, not onely by the _English_ and _Dutch_ within their own, but likewise by the adjacent Colonies.

[Sidenote: _Manhattans_ River.]

The _Manhattans_, or _Great River_, being the chiefest, having with two wide Mouths wash’d the mighty Island _Watouwaks_, falls into the Ocean. The Southern Mouth is call’d _Port May_, or _Godyns Bay_. In the middle thereof lies an Island call’d _The States Island_; and a little higher the _Manhattans_, so call’d from the Natives, which on the East side of the River dwell on the Main Continent. They are a cruel People, and Enemies to the _Hollanders_, as also of the _Sanhikans_, which reside on the Western Shore. Farther up are the _Makwaes_ and _Mahikans_, which continually War one against another. In like manner all the Inhabitants on the West side of the River _Manhattan_ are commonly at Enmity with those that possess the Eastern Shore; who also us’d to be at variance with the _Hollanders_, when as the other People Westward kept good Correspondency with them.

On a small Island near the Shore of the _Makwaes_, lay formerly a Fort, provided with two Drakes and eleven Stone Guns, yet was at last deserted.

[Sidenote: Wholesom Waters.]

This Countrey hath many removable Water-falls, descending from steep Rocks, large Creeks and Harbors, fresh Lakes and Rivulets, pleasant Fountains and Springs, some of which boyl in the Winter, and are cold and delightful to drink in Summer. The Inhabitants never receive any damage by Deluges; neither from the Sea, because the Water rises not above a Foot; nor by the swelling Rivers, which sometimes, for a few days covering the Plains, at their deserting them, leave them fat and fruitful. The Sea-Coast is Hilly, and of a sandy and clayie Soil, which produces abundance of Herbs and Trees.

[Sidenote: Trees.]

The Oak grows there generally sixty or seventy Foot high, and for the most part free from Knots, which makes it the better fit for Shipping.

The Nut-trees afford good Fuel, and a strange Prospect when the Wood is set on fire, either to hunt out a Deer, or to clear the Ground fit to be Till’d.

Some Plants brought hither, grow better than in _Holland_ it self, as Apples, Pears, Cherries, Peaches, Apricocks, Strawberries, and the like.

[Illustration: NOVUM AMSTERODAMUM]

[Sidenote: Vines.]

Their Vines grow wild in most places, and bear abundance of blue, white, and Muskadine Grapes: Sometime since the Inhabitants made a considerable advantage by the Wine of them, which is not inferior to either _Rhenish_ or _French_.

[Sidenote: Water Lemmons.]

All manner of Plants known in _Europe_ grow in their Gardens: The Water-Lemmons, no less pleasing to the Palate than healthful when grown ripe; they are about the bigness of an indifferent Cabbage: the _English_ press a Juice out of them, which if it did not turn sowre in a short time, might well be compar’d with _Spanish_ Wine.

The _Calabashes_ which grow there, made hollow, serve for Water-cups.

Pumpions are also there in great abundance.

[Sidenote: Wheat.]

Their Wheat though Set six Foot deep, grows very speedily: Kidney-Beans being planted amongst it, they will wind about the Stalks thereof.

[Sidenote: Pease.]

Gray Pease grow here so fast, that they gather them twice a year.

In one Field Physical Herbs and _Indigo_ grow wild in great abundance; and Barley springs above a Mans heighth.

Moreover, there are divers sorts of sweet-smelling Flowers.

[Sidenote: Soyl of the Mountains.]

The Hills are most of a fat and clayie Soil, fit to make Pots, Tobacco-pipes, or any other sort of Earthen Ware.

[Sidenote: Gold and Silver-Mines.]

In some places also is store of Mountain Crystal, and that sort of Mineral which we call _Muscovia Glass_: Others afford Marble, Serpentine Stone, and other sorts of hard Stone. And though the Natives did not think it worth their while, or were not in a capacity to dig for Minerals themselves, yet it remains without contradiction, that the Mountains inclose both Gold and Silver.

When Captain _William Clieff_, _Anno 1645._ us’d the _Indian_ Interpreter _Agheroense_ (to decide the Differences which arose between the _West-India Company_ and the wild People call’d _Makwaes_,) he observ’d him to paint his Face with a yellow glittering colour, which he judg’d to be of some rich Mineral: whereupon buying some of the said _Agheroense_, he put it into a Crusible, and gain’d two small pieces of Gold out of the same, valu’d at six Shillings; but keeping it private, and purchasing a great quantity of the said Mineral from _Agheroense_ (who had show’d him the Mountain which produced the same) extracted good store of Gold out of it; which possessing _Clieff_ with a belief of having found out a business of great consequence, he sent _Arent Corsen_ of _New-haven_ with the fore-mention’d Mineral to _Holland_; but the Ship being never heard of afterwards, and the Princess Pink, in which Captain _Clieff_ was himself, with store of the new-found Mineral, being cast away, the Business came to nothing.

[Sidenote: Paint after a strange manner.]

The Inhabitants, though divided into several Nations, yet agree in many things, as in painting their Bodies, Shields, Clubs, and other Utensils in their Houses. The Colours wherewith they paint themselves they press out of Plants, or make them of certain Stones grownd into very fine Powder. The chiefest Plant is not unlike the Myrtle, onely it hath more Boughs, and bears red Berries; the Juice of which being dry’d in the Sun, is afterwards preserv’d in little Bags. The Natives temper their Colours with Water, and paint their Bodies with the same: It is as good a Purple as can be found. They also draw Ships, Trees, and Beasts after a very rough manner: In stead of Feathers they wear pleited Hair, which being colour’d red, hath an excellent gloss, which never fades though it Rain on the same.

[Sidenote: Horses.]

The Horses bred in this Countrey, being either brought thither from _England_ or _Utrecht_, far exceed those of _English_ breed; but are both of them subject to a strange Disease, of which many die in few hours. The same Distemper also seizes on Cattel if they go into Forrest Pasture: But the onely thing to cure the same, is Hay from salt Marshy Grounds.

[Sidenote: Hogs.]

The Oaken Woods have store of Hogs, which if taken and fatned with _Turkish_ Wheat, are most delicious Meat.

[Sidenote: Sheep.]

The Sheep, though they breed well there, yet are very scarce, because the Planters not being able to spare Men to watch them, they are often devour’d by Wolves.

There are also abundance of Deer, all sorts of Fowls, Turkies, Geese, Ducks, Pigeons, and the like.

[Sidenote: Lyons.]

The Lyons, whose Skins the _Indians_ bring to Market, are taken on a high Mountain fifteen days Journey South-West from thence.

[Sidenote: Black Bears.]

There are likewise many black Bears, fearful of humane kind, but if Hunted, they run direct on those that pursue them: they sleep all the Winter, lying six Weeks on one side, and six on the other, and sucking their Feet all the time: They generally lurk among Brambles, or in the Concavities of some hollow Mountain.

[Sidenote: Strange Beasts.]

On the Borders of _Canada_ there is seen sometimes a kind of Beast which hath some resemblance with a Horse, having cloven Feet, shaggy Mayn, one Horn just on their Forehead, a Tail like that of a wild Hog, black Eyes, and a Deers Neck: it feeds in the nearest Wildernesses: the Males never come amongst the Females except at the time when they Couple, after which they grow so ravenous, that they not onely devour other Beasts, but also one another.

Towards the South of _New York_ are many Buffles, Beasts which (according to _Erasmus Stella_) are betwixt a Horse and a Stag: though they are of a strong Constitution, yet they die of the smallest Wound, and are subject to the Falling-sickness: they have broad branchy Horns like a Stag, short Tail, rough Neck, Hair colour’d according to the several Seasons of the Year, broad and long Ears, hanging Lips, little Teeth, and Skin so thick, as not easie to be pierced: The Females differ from the Males, for they have no Horns; both may easily be made tame: when Hunted, they vomit out a sort of scalding Liquor on the Dogs: they have great force in their Claws, for they can kill a Wolf with the same at one blow: their Flesh, either fresh or salted, is a good Diet: their Claws also cure the Falling-sickness.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Harts.]

But no Beasts are more plentiful here than Harts and Stags, which feed up and down in great Herds: when they are Hunted by Wolves or Men, they immediately take the next River, where they are caught several together, by being cross’d in their Swimming, and affrighted by the Eccho which comes from the Mountains, made by the Hunters hollowing on the other Shore, which makes them fearful of Landing: whilst the Huntsmen joyning several pieces of Wood together get upon them, and Rowing towards these Deer, intercept them, being tir’d and out of breath.

[Sidenote: Musk-Cats.]

Moreover, this Countrey breeds many Musk Cats, especially in Marshy Grounds. These Beasts are beautiful to the Eye, having black speckled Skins, their Mouths, full of sharp Teeth, and their Tails being long trail after them.

Many of the Learned maintain a Dispute concerning Civet, Whether it be the Seed of the Civet-Cat? the Affirmative, which _Cardanus_ maintain’d, is contradicted by _Julius Scaliger_. _Matthiolus_, an Author of no little credit, supposes that Civet is the Sweat of the Cat, because it is most chiefly taken when these Beasts are exceedingly vex’d and wearied: But since the Sweat runs from all parts of the Body, which nevertheless do not all produce Civet, it is impossible that Sweat should be Civet. Others account Civet to be the Dung of the Cats; which last seems to come nearest to truth: for certainly it is nothing else but an Excrement in the fleshy parts about their Pizzle, or near the Fundament. The Cats being in pain to be discharg’d of this Civet, free themselves from it by rubbing a Tree; and also fawn on those which take it from them with a Spoon.

[Sidenote: _Plin._ lib. 32. cap. 3.]

Besides all other wild Creatures, the Countrey according to _Adrian Vander Donk_, produces yearly eighty thousand Beavers. _Pliny_ relates, that these Beasts bite off their Pizzles and throw them to the Hunter, which are an exceeding good Medicine to help Abortion, stop the Monethly Flowers, Giddiness in the Head, Gout, Lameness, Belly and Tooth-ach, Rhumes, Poyson, and the Evil. But _Pliny_ makes a great mistake herein, for the Beavers have a small Pissel fasten’d to their Back-bone, in such a manner, that they cannot loose them but with hazard of their lives: They live in the Water, and on the Shore, in great companies together, in Nests built of Wood, which deserve no small admiration, being made after this manner: The Beavers first gather all the loose Wood, which they find along the Banks of the Rivers, of which, if there be not enough, they bite the Bark off from the Trees in the neighboring Woods, then with their Tusks, of which two grow above, and two below in their Mouths, they gnaw the main body of the Tree so long, till it drops asunder: Their Nests very artificial, are six Stories high, cover’d on the top with Clay to keep out Rain; in the middle is a passage which goes to the River, into which they run so soon as they perceive a Man; to which purpose one of them stands Sentinel, and in the Winter keeps open the Water from freezing, by continual moving of his Tail, which is flat without Hair, and the most delicious Meat that can be had. The Beavers go big sixteen Weeks, and once a year bring forth four young, which suck and cry like young Children, for the Dam of them rises on her hinder Feet, and gives her Teats, which grow between the fore-legs to two of her young, each of them one; the foremost legs of a Beaver resemble those of a Dog, the hindermost those of a Goose; on each side of the vent are two swellings within two thin Skins; out of their vent runs generally an Oily moysture, with which they anoint all the parts of their body which they can reach, to keep them from being wet; within they are like a cut-up Hog; they live on the Leaves and Barks of Trees; they love their young ones exceedingly; the long Hairs, which shining, stick out on the back, fall off in Summer, and grow again against Harvest; they have short Necks, strong Sinews and Legs, and move very swiftly in the Water, and on the Land; if incompass’d by Men or Dogs, they bite most severely; the right _Castoreum_, so highly esteem’d by Physicians, is a long _Vesica_, not unlike a Pear, within the body of the female Beaver, the _Indians_ mince the Cods of the Male Beavers amongst their Tobacco, because they produce no _Castoreum_.

[Sidenote: Fowls in _New York_.]

This Country abounds also with Fowls; for besides Hawks, Kites, and other Birds of Prey, there are abundance of Cranes, of several sorts, some grey, some brown, others quite white; all of them have firm Bodies, and Bones without Marrow, Claws of a finger long, strong and crooked Bills, their Brains dry, their Eyes little and hollow, hard Features, the left Foot lesser than the right, both deform’d, their Blood thick, and the Excrements of a horrid smell; they breed most in old Woods, whose ground is without Brambles, and also near the Water, for they feed on Fish, and devour all sorts of Fowls, nay, snatch up Hares, Rabbets, Tortels, and several other sorts of Animals, which they carry away with them in the Air; nay, when hungry, they seize on one another; some of them fly abroad for their prey about noon, others at Sun-rising; they fall like Lightning on what e’re they pursue; they drink little, except the Blood of those Creatures which they devour; they are very libidinous, coupling above thirty times a day, not only with their like, but also with the Hens of Hawks, and other Birds; they lay their biggest Eggs in thirty days, and the lesser in twenty days; they generally bring forth three young; those of them that cannot endure to look full against the Sun, are thrown out of their Nests; the young ones when they begin to be fledg’d, are by the old carry’d into the Air, and let flie, but supported by them; their sight is wonderful quick; for though they flie as high as ever they are able to be discern’d, yet they can see the least Fish that is in the Water, and a Hare lying in the Bushes: their Breath stinks horribly, wherefore their Carcases suddenly rot; though they are libidinous, yet they live long; most of them die of hunger, because their Bills when they grow old, grow so crooked, that they cannot open the same, wherefore they flie up into the Air against the Sun, and falling into the coldest Rivers, loose their Feathers and die.

[Sidenote: Pigeons.]

Besides the foremention’d Birds of prey, there are abundance of Storks, Ravens, Crows, Owls, Swallows, Gold-finches, Ice-birds, Kites, Quails, Pheasants, and Winter _Kings_, and which are most remarkable for their rich Feathers, the _Spechtes_, they pick great holes in Trees, and make a noise as if a Man were cutting down a Tree. The Pigeons flie in such flocks, that the _Indians_ remove with them to the place where they make their Nests, where the young ones being taken by hundreds, serve them for a Moneths Provision.

[Sidenote: Pretty Birds.]

Moreover, _New York_ breeds a strange Bird about a Thumb long, full of glistering Feathers; it lives by sucking of Flowers like a Bee, and is so tender, that it immediately dies if water be spirted upon it; the Carcase being dry’d, is kept for a Rarity.

[Sidenote: Turkies.]

But this Countrey abounds chiefly in Turkies, whose plenty deserves no less admiration than their bulk, and the delicious taste of their Flesh, for they go feeding forty or fifty in a flock, and weigh sometime forty or fifty pound apiece; the Natives either shoot them, or take them with a Bait stuck on an Angle: In _March_ and Harvest the Waters swarm with Geese, Teal, Snites, Ducks, and Pelicans, besides many strange sorts of Fowls not known in _Europe_.

[Sidenote: Fish.]

The Rivers and Lakes produce Sturgeon, Salmon, Carps, Pearch, Barbils, all sorts of Eels, and many other Fish which are taken near Water-falls: The Sea affords Crabs with and without Shells, Sea-cocks, and Horses, Cod, Whiting, Ling, Herrings, Mackrel, Flounders, Tar-buts, Tortels, and Oysters, of which some are a Foot long, and have Pearl, but are a little brownish.

[Sidenote: _Rattle-Snake._]

Amongst the Poysonous Creatures which infest _New York_, the chiefest and most dangerous is the _Rattle-Snake_, whose description we have already had at large in _New England_.

[Sidenote: Constitution of the Inhabitants.]

[Sidenote: Their Diet.]

The Inhabitants have their Hair black as Jet, harsh like Horse-hair; they are broad Shoulder’d, small Wasted, brown Ey’d, their Teeth exceeding white; with Water they chiefly quench their Thirst: Their general Food is Flesh, Fish, and _Indian_ Wheat, which stamp’d, is boyl’d to a Pap, by them call’d _Sappaen_: They observe no set time to Eat, but when they have an Appetite their Meals begin. Beavers Tails are amongst them accounted a great Dainty: When they go to Hunt, they live several days on parch’d Corn, which they carry in little Bags ty’d about their middle; a little of that said Corn thrown into Water swells exceedingly.

[Sidenote: _Hudson_’s adventures remarkable.]

_Henry Hudson_ relates, That Sailing in the River _Montains_, in forty Degrees, he saw the _Indians_ make strange Gestures in their Dancing and Singing; he observ’d farther, that they carry’d Darts pointed with sharp Stones, Sodder’d to the Wood; that they slept under the Sky on Mats or Leaves; took much Tobacco, and very strong; and that though courteous and friendly, they were very Thieves. He Sailing thirty Leagues further, went in his Boat to an old _Indian_ Commander of forty Men and seventeen Women, who conducted him to the Shore, where they all dwelt in one House, artificially built of the Barks of Oak-trees; round about it lay above three Ships load of Corn, and _Indian_ Beans to dry, besides the Plants which grew in the Fields. No sooner had _Hudson_ enter’d the House, but he was receiv’d on two Mats spread on the ground; and two Men immediately were sent out to shoot Venison or Fowls; and instantly returning, brought two Pigeons; a fat Dog, whom they nimbly flea’d with shells, was also laid down to the fire: They also made other Preparations for _Hudsons_ Entertainment, but not willing to venture himself amongst them, that Night, tasted not of it, notwithstanding the _Indians_ breaking their Darts, threw them into the fire, that thereby they might drive away all fears and jealousies from him.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _New Netherlanders_ Apparel.]

The Habits of the Natives, especially of the Men, are few; the Women go more neat than the Men; and though the Winter pinches them with excessive cold, yet they go naked till their thirteenth year: Both Men and Women wear a Girdle of Whale-fins and _Sea-shells_; the Men put a piece of Cloth, half an Ell long, and three quarters broad, between their Legs, so that a square piece hangs behind below his Back, and another before over his Belly. The Women wear a Coat which comes half way down their Legs, so curiously wrought with _Sea-shells_, that one Coat sometimes costs thirty Pounds. Moreover, their Bodies are cover’d with Deer-skins, the lappets or ends of which hang full of Points; a large Skin button’d on the right Shoulder, and ty’d about the middle, serves for an upper Garment, and in the Night for a Blanket: Both Men and Women go for the most part bare-headed; the Women tie their Hair behind in a tuft, over which they wear a square Cap wrought with _Sea-shells_, with which they adorn their Foreheads, and also wear the same about their Neck and Hands, and some also about their middle. Before the _Hollanders_ were Planted here, they wore Shoes and Stockings of _Buffelo_’s-skins; some likewise made Shoes of Wheaten-straw, but of late they come nearer to our Fashions: The Men Paint their Faces with several Colours; the Women only put here and there a black Spot; both of them are very reserv’d.

[Sidenote: Their houses.]

[Sidenote: Remove.]

Their Houses are most of them built of one fashion, onely differing in length; all of them agree in breadth of twenty Foot: They build after this manner, they set Peel’d Boughs of Nut-Trees in the ground, according to the bigness of the place which they intend to build, then joyning the tops of the Boughs together, they cover the Walls and top with the Bark of Cypress, Ashen, and Chest-nut-Trees, which are laid one upon another, the smallest side being turn’d inwards: according to the bigness of the Houses, several Families, to the number of fifteen dwell together, every one having his Apartment. Their Fortifications are most of them built on steep Hills, near Rivers; the access to them is onely at one place, they are built after this manner: They set great Poles in the Ground, with Oaken _Pallisadoes_ on each side, cross-ways one amongst another; between the crosses they set other Trees, to strengthen the Work: Within this inclos’d they generally build twenty or thirty Houses, of which some are a hundred and eighty Foot long, and some less, all of them full of People: In the Summer they pitch Tents along by the River side to Fish; against Winter they remove into the Woods, to be near their Game of Hunting, and also Fuel.

[Sidenote: Many Wives.]

[Sidenote: Marriages.]

[Sidenote: Whoring permitted.]

[Sidenote: Strange Marrying.]

[Sidenote: Child-bearing Womens strange actions.]

[Sidenote: Funerals.]

[Sidenote: Mourning over the dead remarkable.]

To take many Women is not customary here, only amongst Military Officers, who Marry three or four Wives, which so well agree, that there is never any difference betwixt them; those that are not of Age, never Marry but with the consent and advice of their Parents: Widows and unmarry’d Men follow their own opinion and choice; only they take Cognizance of their Estates and Extraction: The Bridegroom always presents the Bride; for the least offence, the Man after having soundly beaten his Wife, turns her out of Doors, and Marries another, insomuch, that some of them have every year a new Wife: On breach of Marriage, the Children follow the Mother, from whom they account their Generation: They account Adultery, if committed under the bare Canopy of Heaven, a great Sin: Whoring is Licenc’d to single Women, if they receive Money for it, and no Man scruples to Marry them; nay, those that are Marry’d, boast how many they have enjoy’d before their Marriage: She that is inclin’d to Marry, covers her whole body, and sets her self wrapt up in the middle of the way, where a Batchelor passing by sees her, and makes up the Match blindfold: When impregnated, they take great care that their Fruit receives no hindrance nor prejudice: When the time of their Delivery approaches, (which they know exactly) they go to a Melancholly place in the Woods, though in the coldest Weather, where they raise up a Hut of Mats, and bring the Child into the World without any help or Company, wash the Child in cold Water, and wrap it up in Mats; then a few days after going home, they bring up the Infant with great care, none putting them out to Nurse: So long as a Woman gives suck, or is quick with Child, she will not admit of Copulation; one who hath the Flowers, never comes abroad: In time of sickness they faithfully assist one another: When any die, the nearest Relations shut their Eyes; and after having watch’d them some days, they are Interr’d after this manner: The Corps is plac’d sitting with a Stone under its Head, near it they set a Pot, Kettle, Dish, Spoons, Money, and Provisions to use in the other World; then they pile Wood round about it, and cover it over with Planks, on which throwing Earth and Stones, they set _Pallisadoes_, and make the Grave like a House, to which they shew Veneration, wherefore they account it a great piece of villany to deface any thing of it: The Men make no shew of sorrow over the Dead, but the Women mourn exceedingly, and carry themselves very strangely, beating their Breasts, scratching their Faces, and calling night and day on the name of the Deceas’d: The Mothers make great Lamentation at the Death of their Children, especially Sons, for they shave off the Hair of their Heads, which at the Funeral is burnt in the presence of all their Relations; which is also perform’d by the Women when their Husbands die; besides, they black all their Faces, and putting on a Hart-skin Shirt, mourn a whole year, notwithstanding they liv’d very contentiously together.

[Sidenote: Conjurers.]

On some occasions they go a Worshipping of the Devil, to a certain place where the Sorcerers shew strange Feats of Activity, tumbling over and over, beating themselves, and not without great noise leaping in and about a great Fire: at last they make a great Cry all together; upon which (as they say) the Devil appears to them in the shape either of a tame or wild Beast: the first signifies bad, and the other good fortune; both inform them of future Events, though darkly; and if the business fall out contrary, they affirm that they have not rightly understood the Devil’s meaning. Moreover they bewitch some in such a manner, that they foam at the Mouth, throw themselves into the Fire, and beat themselves severely; and so soon as they whisper in the Ear of those whom they have bewitch’d, they immediately recover their former health.

[Sidenote: Language of the _New Netherlanders_.]

The Language of this Countrey is very various, yet it is divided into onely four principal Tongues, as the _Manhattans_, _Wappanoo_, _Siavanoo_, and _Minqua_’s, which are very difficult for Strangers to learn, because they are spoken without any Grounds or Rules.

[Sidenote: Money.]

Their Money is made of the innermost Shells of a certain Shell-fish, cast up twice a year by the Sea: These Shells they grind smooth, and make a Hole in the middle, cutting them of an exact bigness, and so put them on Strings, which then serve in stead of Gold, Silver, and Copper Coin.

[Sidenote: Vices and Vertues.]

[Sidenote: Strange Stoves.]

Now to say something of the Vices and Vertues of the Inhabitants. They are in the first place very slovenly and nasty, stubborn, covetous, revengeful, and much addicted to filching and stealing. Some appear reserv’d, using few words, which they utter after serious consideration, and remember a long time. Their Understandings being improv’d by the _Hollanders_, they are quick of apprehension, to distinguish good from bad: they will not endure any Oppression, but are very patient of Heat, Cold, Hunger and Thirst. They have a strange way of using Stoves, which are set in the Ground and cover’d with Earth, into which they go through a little Door. A sick Person coming into the same, sets himself down, and places hot Stones round about him; which done, and having sweat a considerable time, he leaps into cold Water, by which he finds ease of all his Distempers.

[Sidenote: Arms.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable actions of some Prisoners.]

[Sidenote: Laws.]

[Sidenote: Council-Assembly.]

Though these People know no great distinction between Man and Man, as other Nations, yet they have noble and ignoble Families amongst them; superior and inferior Offices, which they enjoy by Inheritance; but sometimes the Martial Offices are bestowed according to the Valour of the Persons: Their Generals seldom give their Enemies a Field-Battel, by drawing or dividing their Men into Regiments or Companies, but make it their whole Design to defeat their Enemies by sudden Sallies from Ambuscado’s; for they never stand out a close Fight, unless compell’d to it, but if encompass’d round, they fight to the last Man. When any danger threatens, the Women and Children are convey’d to a secure place. Their Arms formerly were Bowes and Arrows, and Battel-axes, but now they use Musquets, which they have learn’d to handle with great dexterity. Their square Shields cover all their Bodies and Shoulders. About their Heads they tie a Snakes Skin, in the middle of which sticks either a Fox’s or Bear’s Tail. They cannot be known by their Faces, they are all over so besmear’d with Paint of divers colours. They seldom give Quarter to their Enemies, except Women and Children, which the Conquerors use as their own, that by that means they may increase and strengthen themselves: and if any Prisoner is not kill’d presently after the Battel, but falls into the Hands of one whose Relations have formerly been slain by his Party, he is Roasted three days by degrees before he gives up the Ghost. It deserves no small admiration, that the Sufferer during the whole time of his Torture, Sings till he breathes his last. They have few or no Punishments for any Offence, committing few Crimes which are by them accounted Capital. If any one steal, and the Goods be found in his custody, the Governor of the place where he resides commands him onely to restore the same to the Owner. If any one murther or kill the other, the Relations of the slain, if they can take the Malefactor in twenty four hours, may without Examination or delay put him to death also; but that time being once expir’d, the Revenger is liable to be kill’d in the same time by his Relations whom he slew. All Obligations have their power and vertue from certain Presents deliver’d upon the making of a Contract, which is done thus: They dry as many Sticks as they have Articles, which if they agree upon, every Man on the concluding of the Discourse lays a Present before the others Feet. Sometimes they hang up the Presents, because they are often three days in Consultation before they resolve; after which if the Presents be taken down, it is a certain sign of their Agreement; but if not, they proceed no farther, unless the Articles and Presents are alter’d. On Businesses of consequence the Commonalty repair to their Governor’s House, there to hear and enquire what the Nobility there assembled have concluded or resolv’d on; at which the best Orator standing up, tells them their Intentions. It happens sometimes that a turbulent Person making a Mutiny, and refusing to hearken to reason, is immediately beheaded by one of the Nobility; in contradiction of which none dare presume to speak the least word.

[Sidenote: Religion.]

[Sidenote: Diabolical Worship.]

[Sidenote: Their ridiculous Opinion of God.]

[Sidenote: As also of the Creation.]

There are scarce any steps of Religion found amongst these People, onely they suppose the Moon to have great influence on Plants. The Sun, which over-looks all things, is call’d to witness whene’re they Swear. They bear great respect, and stand much in fear of _Satan_, because they are often plagued by him when they go a Hunting or Fishing: wherefore the first of what they take is burnt in honor of him, that he to whom they ascribe all wickedness might not hurt them. When they feel pain in any part of their Body, they say that the Devil sits in the same. They acknowledge that there resides a God above the Stars, but troubles not himself with what the Devil doth on Earth, because he continually recreates himself with a most beautiful Goddess, whose original is unknown: She on a certain time (say they) descended from Heaven into the Water, (for before the Creation all things were Water) into which she had instantly sunk, had not the Earth arose under her Feet, which grew immediately to such a bigness, that there appear’d a World of Earth, which produc’d all sorts of Herbs and Trees; whilst the Goddess taking to her self a Hart, Bear, and Wolf, and Conceiving by them, she was not long after deliver’d of several Beasts at one time: and from thence proceeded not onely the diversity of Beasts, but also Men, of which some are black, white, or sallow; in nature fearful like a Hart, or cruel and valiant like a Bear, or deceitful like Wolves: after this the Mother of all things ascended up to Heaven again, and sported there with the Supream Lord, whom they say they know not, because they never saw him: wherefore they shall have less to answer for than _Christians_, which pretend to know him to be the Punisher of things both good and bad, which are daily committed by them: and for this ridiculous Opinion they can hardly be brought to embrace the _Christian_ Faith.

[Sidenote: Of the Immortality of the Soul.]

Concerning the Souls of the Deceased, they believe, that those which have been good in their life-time, live Southward in a temperate Countrey, where they enjoy all manner of pleasure and delight; when as the Wicked wander up and down in a miserable Condition. The Eccho which resounds from the Cries of wild Beasts in the Night, they suppose to be the Spirits of Souls transmigrated into wicked Bodies.

[Sidenote: Their _Canticas_, or Dancing.]

At their _Canticas_, or Dancing-Matches, where all Persons that come are freely Entertain’d, it being a Festival time. Their Custom is when they Dance, for the Spectators to have short Sticks in their Hands, and to knock the Ground and Sing altogether, whilst they that Dance sometimes act Warlike postures, and then they come in painted for War with their Faces black and red, or some all black, some all red, with some streaks of white under their Eyes, and so jump and leap up and down without any order, uttering many Expressions of their intended Valour. For other Dances they onely shew what antick Tricks their ignorance will lead them to, wringing of their Bodies and Faces after a strange manner, sometimes jumping into the Fire, sometimes catching up a Firebrand, and biting off a live Coal, with many such tricks, that will affright rather than please an _English_-man to look upon them, resembling rather a company of infernal Furies than Men.

[Sidenote: Their sitting in Council.]

When their King or _Sachem_ sits in Council, he hath a Company of Arm’d Men to guard his Person, great respect being shewn him by the People, which is principally manifested by their silence. After he hath declared the cause of their Convention, he demands their Opinion, ordering who shall begin: The Person order’d to speak, after he hath declar’d his mind, tells them he hath done: no Man ever interrupting any Person in his Speech, nor offering to speak, though he make never so many long stops, till he says he hath no more to say. The Council having all declar’d their Opinions, the King after some pause gives the definitive Sentence, which is commonly seconded with a shout from the People, every one seeming to applaud and manifest their Assent to what is determin’d.

If any Person be condemn’d to die, which is seldom, unless for Murther or Incest, the King himself goes out in Person (for you must understand they have no Prisons, and the guilty Person flies into the Woods) where they go in quest of him, and having found him, the King shoots first, though at never such a distance, and then happy is the Man that can shoot him down; for he that hath the fortune to be Executioner, is for his pains made some Captain, or other Military Officer.

They grease their Bodies and Hair very often, and paint their Faces with several Colours, as black, white, red, yellow, blue, _&c._ which they take great pride in, every one being painted in a several manner.

Within two Leagues of _New York_ lieth _Staten-Island_, it bears from _New York_ West something Southerly: It is about twenty Miles long, and four or five broad, most of it very good Land, full of Timber, and producing all such Commodities as _Long-Island_ doth, besides Tin and store of Iron Oar; and the _Calamine_ Stone is said likewise to be found there: There is but one Town upon it, consisting of _English_ and _French_, but it is capable of entertaining more Inhabitants.

Betwixt this and _Long-Island_ is a large Bay, which is the coming in for all Ships and Vessels out of the Sea.

On the North-side of this Island _After-skull_ River puts into the Main Land, on the West-side whereof there are two or three Towns, but on the East-side but one. There are very great Marshes or Meadows on both sides of it, excellent good Land, and good convenience for the setling of several Towns. There grows black Walnut and Locust, as there doth in _Virginia_, with mighty, tall, streight Timber, as good as any in the North of _America_: It produceth any Commodity which _Long-Island_ doth.

_Hudson_’s River runs by _New York_ Northward into the Countrey, towards the Head of which is seated _New Albany_, a Place of great Trade with the _Indians_, betwixt which and _New York_, being above a hundred Miles, is as good Corn-Land as the World affords, enough to entertain hundreds of Families, which in the time of the _Dutch_ Government of these Parts could not be setled by reason of the _Indians_, excepting one Place, call’d _The Sopers_, which was kept by a Garrison, but since the Reducement of these Parts under His Majesties Obedience, and a Patent granted to his Royal Highness the Duke of _York_, which is about six years, by the care and diligence of the Honorable Collonel _Nichols_, sent thither as Deputy to his Highness, such a League of Peace was made, and Friendship concluded betwixt that Colony and the _Indians_, that they have not resisted or disturb’d any _Christians_ there, in the setling or peaceable possessing of any Lands within that Government, but every Man hath sat under his own Vine, and hath peaceably reap’d and enjoy’d the Fruits of their own Labors, which God continue.

[Sidenote: _Raritan-River._]

Westward of _After-skull_ River before mention’d, about eighteen or twenty Miles, runs in _Raritan_ River Northward into the Countrey some scores of Miles; both sides of which River are adorn’d with spacious Meadows, enough to feed thousands of Cattel: The Wood-Land is very good for Corn, and stor’d with wild Beasts, as Deer, Elks, and an innumerable multitude of Fowl, as in other parts of the Countrey. This River is thought very capable for the erecting of several Towns and Villages on each side of it, no place in the North of _America_ having better convenience for the maintaining of all sorts of Cattel for Winter and Summer Food.

Upon this River is no Town setled, onely one at the Mouth of it; but next to it, Westward, is a Place call’d _Newasons_; where are two or three Towns and Villages setled upon the Sea-side, but none betwixt that and _Delaware-Bay_, which is about sixty Miles, all which is a rich Champain Countrey, free from Stones, and indifferent level, having store of excellent good Timber, and very well water’d, having Brooks or Rivers ordinarily, one or more in every Miles travel. This Countrey is peopled onely with wild Beasts, as Deer, Elks, Bears, and other Creatures, so that in a whole days Journey you shall meet with no Inhabitants except a few _Indians_. It is also full of stately Oaks, whose broad-branch’d tops serve for no other use, but to keep off the Suns heat from the wild Beasts of the Wilderness, where is Grass as high as a Man’s Middle, which serves for no other end, except to maintain the Elks and Deer, who never devour a hundredth part of it, than to be burnt every Spring to make way for new. How many poor People in the World would think themselves happy, had they an Acre or two of Land, whilst here is hundreds, nay thousands of Acres that would invite Inhabitants.

[Sidenote: _Delaware-Bay._]

_Delaware-Bay_, the Mouth of the River, lieth about the mid way betwixt _New York_ and the _Capes_ of _Virginia_.

The best Commodities for any to carry with them to this Countrey is Clothing, the Countrey being full of all sorts of Cattel, which they may furnish themselves withal at an easie Rate, for any sort of _English_ Goods, as likewise Instruments for Husbandry and Building, with Nails, Hinges, Glass, and the like. They get a Livelihood principally by Corn and Cattel, which will there fetch them any Commodities: Likewise they Sowe store of Flax, which they make every one Cloth of for their own wearing; as also Woollen Cloth, and Linsey-woolsey; and had they more Tradesmen amongst them, they would in a little time live without the help of any other Countrey for their Clothing; for Tradesmen there are none but live happily there, as Carpenters, Blacksmiths, Masons, Taylors, Weavers, Shoemakers, Tanners, Brickmakers, and so any other Trade: Them that have no Trade betake themselves to Husbandry, get Land of their own, and live exceeding well.

We shall conclude our Discourse of this Countrey with a notable Character given thereof by a late Writer, as to the great advantage of happy living in all respects, for whosoever shall be pleas’d to betake himself thither to live.

[Sidenote: The Character of a happy Countrey.]

“If there be any terrestrial happiness (saith he) to be had by any People, especially of an inferior rank, it must certainly be here. Here any one may furnish himself with Land, and live Rent-free, yea, with such a quantity of Land, that he may weary himself with walking over his Fields of Corn, and all sorts of Grain, and let his Stock amount to some hundreds; he needs not fear there want of Pasture in the Summer, or Fodder in the Winter, the Woods affording sufficient supply, where you have Grass as high as a Man’s Knees, nay, as high as his Waste, interlac’d with Pea-Vines, and other Weeds that Cattel much delight in, as much as a Man can pass through: And these Woods also every Mile or half-Mile are furnish’d with fresh Ponds, Brooks, or Rivers, where all sorts of Cattel, during the heat of the day, do quench their thirst, and cool themselves. These Brooks and Rivers being inviron’d of each side with several sorts of Trees and Grape-Vines, Arbor-like interchanging places, and crossing these Rivers, do shade and shelter them from the scorching beams of the Sun. Such as by their utmost Labors can scarcely get a Living, may here procure Inheritances of Lands and Possessions, stock themselves with all sorts of Cattel, enjoy the benefit of them whilst they live, and leave them to their Children when they die. Here you need not trouble the Shambles for Meat, nor Bakers and Brewers for Beer and Bread, nor run to a Linnen-Draper for a supply, every one making their own Linnen, and a great part of their woollen Cloth for their ordinary wearing. And how prodigal (if I may so say) hath Nature been to furnish this Countrey with all sorts of wild Beasts and Fowl, which every one hath an interest in, and may Hunt at his pleasure; where, besides the pleasure in Hunting, he may furnish his House with excellent fat Venison, Turkies, Geese, Heath-hens, Cranes, Swans, Ducks, Pigeons, and the like; and wearied with that, he may go a Fishing, where the Rivers are so furnish’d, that he may supply himself with Fish before he can leave off the Recreation. Here one may travel by Land upon the same Continent hundreds of Miles, and pass through Towns and Villages, and never hear the least complaint for want, nor hear any ask him for a Farthing. Here one may lodge in the Fields and Woods, travel from one end of the Countrey to another, with as much security as if he were lock’d within his own Chamber: And if one chance to meet with an _Indian_ Town, they shall give him the best Entertainment they have, and upon his desire direct him on his Way. But that which adds happiness to all the rest, is the healthfulness of the Place, where many People in twenty years time never know what Sickness is; where they look upon it as a great Mortality, if two or three die out of a Town in a years time. Besides the sweetness of the Air, the Countrey it self sends forth such a fragrant smell, that it may be perceiv’d at Sea before they can make the Land: No evil Fog or Vapor doth any sooner appear, but a North-West or Westerly Wind immediately dissolves it, and drives it away. Moreover, you shall scarce see a House, but the South-side is begirt with Hives of Bees, which increase after an incredible manner: So that if there be any terrestrial _Canaan_, ’tis surely here, where the Land floweth with Milk and Honey.”

[Illustration: Noua TERRÆ-MARIÆ, tabula]

[Illustration]

A NEW DESCRIPTION OF MARY-LAND.

SECT. III.

Before We proceed to the Description of this Countrey, it will be first requisite to relate the true occasion and means, whereby this part of _America_ came to be erected into a Province, and call’d _Mary-land_.

[Sidenote: The situation.]

In the Year of our Lord 1631. _George_ Lord _Baltemore_ obtain’d of King _Charles_ the First, of _Great Brittain, &c._ a Grant of that part of _America_, (first discover’d by the _English_) which lies between the Degrees of thirty seven and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, and forty of Northerly Latitude; which is bounded on the South by _Virginia_; on the North, by _New England_, and _New Jersey_, part of _New York_, lying on the East side of _Delaware Bay_; on the East, by the Ocean; and on the West, by that part of the Continent which lies in the Longitude of the first Fountains of the River call’d _Patomeck_.

In pursuance of this Grant to his said Lordship, a Bill was prepar’d, and brought to His Majesty to Sign, who first ask’d his Lordship, what he should call it, there being a Blank in the Bill designedly left for the Name, which his Lordship intended should have been _Crescentia_; but his Lordship leaving it to His Majesty to give it a Name, the King propos’d to have it call’d _Terra-Mariæ_, in _English_, _Mary-land_, in honor of his Queen, whose Name was _Mary_; which was concluded on, and inserted into the Bill, which the King then Sign’d; and thereby the said Tract of Land was erected into a Province by that Name.

His Lordship somewhat delaying the speedy passing of it under the Great Seal of _England_, dy’d in the _interim_, before the said Patent was perfected; whereupon a Patent of the said Province was shortly afterwards pass’d to his Son and Heir, (who was Christen’d by the Name of _Cœcil_, but afterwards confirm’d by the Name of _Cœcilius_,) the now Lord _Baltemore_, under the Great Seal of _England_, bearing Date _June 20. 1632._ in the eighth Year of His said Majesties Reign, with all Royal Jurisdictions and Prerogatives, both Military and Civil in the said Province, as Power to Enact Laws, Power of pardoning all manner of Offences, Power to confer Honors, _&c._ to be held of His said Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, Kings of _England_ in common Soccage, as of His Majesties Honor of _Windsor_ in the County of _Berks_ in _England_; yielding and paying yearly for the same to His Majesty and to His Heirs and Successors for ever, two _Indian_ Arrows of those parts, at the Castle of _Windsor_ aforesaid, on Tuesday in _Easter_ Week, and the fifth part of all Gold and Silver Oar, which shall happen to be found in the said Province.

[Sidenote: The Bounds.]

“By the said Patent is Granted to his Lordship, his Heirs and Assigns, all that part of a _Peninsula_, lying in the parts of _America_, between the Ocean on the East, and the Bay of _Chesapeack_ on the West; and divided from the other part thereof by a right Line drawn from the Promontory, or _Cape_ of Land call’d _Watkin’s-Point_, situate in the aforesaid Bay, near the River of _Wigcho_ on the West, unto the main Ocean on the East, and between that bound on the South, unto that part of _Delaware Bay_ on the North, which lies under the fortieth Degree of Northerly Latitude from the Equinoctial, where _New England_ ends; and all that Tract of Land between the bounds aforesaid, that is to say, passing from the aforesaid Bay call’d _Delaware Bay_, in a right Line by the Degree aforesaid, unto the true _Meridian_ of the first Fountains of the River of _Patomeck_; and from thence stretching towards the South, unto the furthest Bank of the said River, and following the West and South side thereof, unto a certain place call’d _Cinquack_, near the Mouth of the said River, where it falls into the Bay of _Chesapeack_, and from thence by a streight Line unto the aforesaid Promontory, or place call’d _Watkin’s-Point_, which lies in thirty seven Degrees and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, of Northern Latitude.”

[Sidenote: Title.]

By this Patent his Lordship and his Heirs and Assigns are Created the true and absolute Lords and Proprietaries of the said Province, saving the Allegiance and Soveraign Dominion due to His Majesty, His Heirs, and Successors; so that he hath thereby a Soveraignty Granted to him and his Heirs, dependant upon the Soveraignty of the Crown of _England_.

[Sidenote: The first Seating.]

His Lordship, in the Year 1633. sent his second Brother Mr. _Leonard Calvert_, and his third Brother Mr. _George Calvert_, with divers other Gentlemen of Quality, and Servants to the number of two hundred Persons at least, to settle a Plantation there; who set Sail from the _Cowes_ in the _Isle of Wight_ in _England_, on _Novemb. 22._ in the same Year; having made some stay by the way, at the _Barbadoes_ and _St. Christophers_ in _America_, they arriv’d at _Point Comfort_ in _Virginia_, on _February 24._ following; from whence shortly after they Sail’d up the Bay of _Chesapeack_, and _Patomeck_ River. And having review’d the Country, and given Names to several places, they pitch’d upon a Town of the _Indians_ for their first Seat, call’d _Yoacomaco_, (now Saint _Maries_) which the then Governor Mr. _Leonard Calvert_, freely Purchas’d of the Natives there, for the Lord Proprietaries use, with Commodities brought from _England_.

That which facilitated the Treaty and Purchase of the said place from the _Indians_, was a resolution which those _Indians_ had then before taken, to remove higher into the Countrey where it was more Populous, for fear of the _Sansquehanocks_, (another, and more Warlike People of the _Indians_, who were their too near Neighbors, and inhabit between the Bays of _Chesapeack_ and _Delaware_) there being then actual Wars between them, insomuch, that many of them were gone thither before the _English_ arriv’d: And it hath been the general practice of his Lordship, and those who were employ’d by him in the Planting of the said Province, rather to purchase the Natives Interest, (who will agree for the same at easie rates) than to take from them by force, that which they seem to call their Right and Inheritance, to the end all Disputes might be remov’d touching the forcible Incroachment upon others, against the Laws of Nature or Nations.

[Sidenote: The number of Inhabitants.]

Thus this Province at the vast Charges, and by the unweary’d Industry and endeavor of the present Lord _Baltemore_, the now absolute Lord and Proprietary of the same was at first Planted, and hath since been supply’d with People and other Necessaries, so effectually, that in this present Year 1671. the number of _English_ there amounts to fifteen or twenty thousand Inhabitants, for whose Encouragement there is a Fundamental Law establish’d there by his Lordship, whereby _Liberty of Conscience_ is allow’d to all that Profess to believe in _Jesus Christ_; so that no Man who is a _Christian_ is in danger of being disturb’d for his Religion; and all Persons being satisfi’d touching his Lordships Right, as Granted by his Superior Soveraign, the King of _Great Brittain_, and possess’d by the consent and agreement of the first _Indian_ Owners, every Person who repaireth thither, intending to become an Inhabitant, finds himself secure, as well in the quiet enjoyment of his Property, as of his Conscience.

Mr. _Charles Calvert_, his Lordships onely Son and Heir, was in the Year 1661. sent thither by his Lordship to Govern this Province and People, who hath hitherto continu’d that Charge of his Lordships Lieutenant there, to the general satisfaction and encouragement of all Persons under his Government, or otherwise concern’d in the Province.

The precedent Discourse having given you a short Description of this Province from its Infancy to this day, together with an account of his Lordships Patent and Right, by which he holds the same; we will here speak something of the Nature of the Countrey in general, and of the Commodities that are either naturally afforded there, or may be procur’d by Industry.

The Climate is very healthful, and agreeable with _English_ Constitutions; but New-comers have most of them heretofore had the first year of their Planting there in _July_ and _August_, a Sickness, which is call’d there _A Seasoning_, but is indeed no other than an Ague, with cold and hot Fits, whereof many heretofore us’d to die for want of good Medicines, and accommodations of Diet and Lodging, and by drinking too much Wine and Strong-waters; though many, even in those times, who were more temperate, and that were better accommodated, never had any _Seasonings_ at all; but of late years, since the Countrey hath been more open’d by the cutting down of the Woods, and that there is more plenty of _English_ Diet, there are very few die of those Agues, and many have no _Seasonings_ at all, especially those that live in the higher parts of the Country, and not near to the Marshes and Salt-water.

In Summer, the heats are equal to those of _Spain_, but qualifi’d daily about Noon, at that time of the Year, either with some gentle Breezes, or small Showres of Rain: In Winter there is Frost and Snow, and sometimes it is extremely cold, insomuch, that the Rivers and the Northerly part of the Bay of _Chesapeack_ are Frozen, but it seldom lasts long; and some Winters are so warm, that People have gone in half Shirts and Drawers only at _Christmas_: But in the Spring and Autumn, (_viz._) in _March_, _April_, and _May_, _September_, _October_, and _November_, there is generally most pleasant temperate Weather: The Winds there are variable, from the South comes Heat, Gusts, and Thunder; from the North or North-West, cold Weather; and in Winter, Frost and Snow; from the East and South-East, Rain.

The Soyl is very fertile, and furnish’d with many pleasant and commodious Rivers, Creeks, and Harbors.

The Country is generally plain and even, and yet distinguish’d with some pretty small Hills and Risings, with variety of Springs and Rivulets: The Woods are for the most part free from Underwood, so that a Man may Travel or Hunt for his Recreation.

The ordinary entrance by Sea into this Country is between two _Capes_, distant each from the other about seven or eight Leagues; the South _Cape_ is call’d _Cape Henry_; the North, _Cape Charles_; within the _Capes_ you enter into a fair _Bay_, Navigable for at least two hundred Miles, and is call’d _Chesapeack Bay_, stretching it self Northerly through the heart of the Countrey, which adds much to its Fame and Value: Into this Bay fall many stately Rivers, the chief whereof is _Patomeck_, which is Navigable for at least a hundred and forty Miles: The next Northward, is _Patuxent_, at its entrance distant from the other about twenty Miles, a River yielding great Profit as well as Pleasure to the Inhabitants; and by reason of the Islands and other places of advantage that may Command it, both fit for Habitation and Defence: Passing hence to the Head of the Bay, you meet with several pleasant and commodious Rivers, which for brevity we here omit to give any particular account of: On the Eastern Shore are several commodious Rivers, Harbors, Creeks, and Islands; to the Northward whereof you enter into another fair Bay, call’d _Delaware Bay_; wide at its entrance about eight Leagues, and into which falls a very fair Navigable River.

[Sidenote: The natural Commodities of the Countrey.]

This Countrey yields the Inhabitants many excellent things for Physick and Chyrurgery; they have several Herbs and Roots which are great Preservatives against Poyson, as _Snake-Root_, which presently cures the bitings of the _Rattle-Snake_, which are very Venomous, and are bred in the Countrey; others that cure all manner of Wounds; they have _Saxafras_, _Sarsaparilla_, Gums and Balsoms, which Experience (the Mother of Art) hath taught them the perfect use of.

An _Indian_ seeing one of the _English_ much troubled with the Tooth-ach, fetch’d a Root out of a Tree, which apply’d to the Tooth, gave ease immediately to the Party; other Roots they have fit for Dyers, wherewith the _Indians_ Paint themselves as _Pacoone_ (a deep red,) _&c._

The Timber of these parts is good and useful for Building of Houses and Ships, the white Oak for Pipe-staves, the red for Wainscot; there is likewise black Wall-Nut, Cedar, Pine, and Cypress, Chest-nut, Elme, Ash, and Popelar, all which are for Building and Husbandry: Fruit-trees, as Mulberries, _Persimons_, with several kind of Plumbs, and Vines in great abundance.

Of Strawberries there is plenty, which are ripe in _April_, Mulberries in _May_, Rasberries in _June_, and the _Maracok_, which is something like a Lemon, is ripe in _August_. In Spring time there are several sorts of Herbs, as Corn-sallet, Violets, Sorrel, Purslane, and others which are of great use to the _English_ there.

In the upper parts of the Countrey are _Buffeloes_, _Elks_, _Tygers_, _Bears_, _Wolves_, and great store of Deer; as also Beavers, Foxes, Otters, Flying-Squirils, _Racoons_, and many other sorts of Beasts.

Of Birds, there is the Eagle, Goshawk, Falcon, _Lanner_, Sparrow-hawk, and _Marlin_; also wild Turkies in great abundance, whereof many weigh fifty Pounds in weight and upwards, and of Partridge great plenty: There are likewise sundry sorts of singing Birds, whereof one is call’d a _Mock-Bird_, because it imitates all other Birds; some are red, which sing like Nightingales, but much louder; others black and yellow, which last sort excels more in Beauty than tune, and is by the _English_ there call’d the _Baltemore-Bird_, because the Colours of his Lordships Coat of Arms are black and yellow: Others there are that resemble most of the Birds in _England_, but not of the same kind, for which we have no names: In Winter there are great plenty of Swans, Cranes, Geese, Herons, Duck, Teal, Widgeons, Brants, and Pidgeons, with other sorts, whereof there are none in _England_.

The Sea, the Bays of _Chesapeack_ and _Delaware_, and generally all the Rivers, do abound with Fish of several sorts; as Whales, Sturgeon, Thorn-back, Grampuses, Porpuses, Mullets, Trouts, Soules, Plaice, Mackrel, Perch, Eels, Roach, Shadd, Herrings, Crabs, Oysters, Cockles, Mussels, _&c._ but above all these, the Fish whereof there are none in _England_, as _Drums_, _Sheeps-head_, _Cat-fish_, _&c._ are best, except Sturgeon, which are there found in great abundance, not inferior to any in _Europe_ for largeness and goodness.

The Minerals may in time prove of very great consequence, though no rich Mines are yet discover’d there; but there is Oar of several sorts, _viz._ of Tin, Iron, and Copper, whereof several trials have been made by curious Persons there with good success.

The Soyl is generally very rich, the Mould in many places black and rank, insomuch, that it is necessary to Plant it first with _Indian_ Corn, Tobacco, or Hemp, before it is fit for _English_ Grain; under that is found good _Loam_, whereof has been made as good Brick as any in _Europe_: There are store of Marsh-grounds for Meadows; great plenty of Marle, both blue and white; excellent Clay for Pots and Tiles: To conclude, there is nothing that can be reasonably expected, in a place lying in the same Latitude with this, but what is either there found naturally, or may be procur’d by Industry, as Oranges, Lemons, and Olives, _&c._

[Sidenote: Commodities which are, or may be procur’d by industry.]

We need not here mention _Indian_ Corn, (call’d _Mayz_) Pease and Beans of several sorts, being the peculiar products Planted by the _Indians_ of that part of _America_.

All sorts of _English_ Grain are now common there, and yield a great encrease; as Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Pease, Beans, _&c._ good Beer of Wheat or Barley Malt, after the _English_ Mode, is made, even in the meanest Families there; Some drink Beer of _Indian_ Corn, others of the Stalks thereof, or of the Chipps of the _Pockykerry_-Tree, all which make a sort of fresh and pleasant Drink; but the general Diet of the Country is now _English_, as most agreeable to their Constitutions.

There are few able Planters there at present, but what are plentifully supply’d with all sorts of Summer and Winter Fruits; as also of Roots and Herbs, of all sorts out of their Gardens and Orchards, which they have Planted for their Profit as well as Pleasure: They have Pears, Apples, Plumbs, Peaches, _&c._ in great abundance, and as good as those of _Italy_; so are their Mellons, Pumpions, Apricocks, Cherries, Figgs, Pomegranates, _&c._ In fine, there is scarce any Fruit or Root that grows in _England_, _France_, _Spain_, or _Italy_, but hath been try’d there, and prospers well.

You may have there also Hemp, Flax, Pitch, and Tar, with little labor; the Soyl is apt for Hops, Rape-seed, Annice-seed, Woad, Madder, Saffron, _&c._ there may be had Silk-worms, the Country being stor’d with Mulberry-trees, and the superfluity of the Wood will produce Pot-ashes.

There is a great quantity of Syder made there at present, and as good as in any other Countrey; good Perry and Quince-drink is there likewise made in great plenty: The Ground doth naturally bring forth Vines in great quantities, the quality whereof being something corrected by Industry, (as there have been several trials thereof already made there) may no doubt produce good Wine, to the great encouragement and advantage of the Undertakers.

Brave Ships may be built there with little charge, Clab-board, Wainscot, Pipe-staves, and Masts for Ships, the Woods will afford plentifully; some small Vessels have been already built there: In fine, Beef, Furrs, Hides, Butter, Cheese, Pork, and Bacon, to Transport to other Countreys, are no small Commodities, which by Industry, are, and may be had there in great plenty, the _English_ being already plentifully stock’d with all sorts of Cattel and Horses; and were there no other Staple-Commodities to be hop’d for, but Silk and Linnen (the materials of which apparently will grow there) it were sufficient to enrich the Inhabitants.

But the general Trade of _Mary-land_ at present depends chiefly upon Tobacco, it being the Planters greatest concern and study to store himself betimes with that Commodity, wherewith he buys and sells, and after which Standard all other Commodities receive their Price there; they have of late vented such quantities of that and other Commodities, that a hundred Sail of Ships from _England_, _Barbadoes_, and other _English_ Plantations, have been usually known to Trade thither in one Year; insomuch, that by Custom and Excize paid in _England_ for Tobacco and other Commodities Imported from thence, _Mary-land_ alone at this present, hath by his Lordships vast Expence, Industry, and Hazard for many years, without any charge to the Crown, improv’d His Majesties, the King of _Englands_ Revenues, to the value of Forty thousand Pounds _Sterl. per annum_ at least.

The general way of Traffick and Commerce there is chiefly by Barter, or Exchange of one Commodity for another; yet there wants not, besides _English_ and other foraign Coyns, some of his Lordships own Coyn, as Groats, Sixpences, and Shillings, which his Lordship at his own Charge caus’d to be Coyn’d and dispers’d throughout that Province; ’tis equal in fineness of Silver to _English Sterling_, being of the same Standard, but of somewhat less weight, and hath on the one side his Lordships Coat of Arms stamp’d, with this Motto circumscrib’d, _Crescite & Multiplicamini_, and on the other side his Lordships Effigies, circumscrib’d thus, _Cæcilius Dominus Terræ-Mariæ_, &c.

[Sidenote: The Government.]

The Order of Government and settled Laws of this Province, is by the Prudence and endeavor of the present Lord Proprietary, brought to great Perfection; and as his Dominion there is absolute (as may appear by the Charter aforemention’d) so all Patents, Warrants, Writs, Licenses, Actions Criminal, _&c._ Issue forth there in his Name: Wars, Peace, Courts, Offices, _&c._ all in his Name made, held, and appointed.

Laws are there Enacted by him, with the advice and consent of the General Assembly, which consists of two Estates, namely, the first is made up by the Chancellor, Secretary, and others of his Lordships Privy-Council, and such Lords of Mannors, and others as shall be call’d by particular Writs for that purpose, to be Issu’d by his Lordship: The second Estate consists of the Deputies and Delegates of the respective Counties of the said Province, elected and chosen by the free voice and approbation of the Free-men of the laid respective Counties.

The Names of the Governor and Council in this present Year 1671. are as followeth, Mr. _Charles Calvert_, his Lordships Son and Heir, Governor; Mr. _Philip Calvert_, his Lordships Brother, Chancellor; Sir _William Talbot_ Baronet, his Lordships Nephew, Secretary; Mr. _William Calvert_, his Lordships Nephew, Muster-Master-General; Mr. _Jerome White_, Surveyor-General; Mr. _Baker Brooke_, his Lordships Nephew; Mr. _Edward Lloyd_, Mr. _Henry Coursey_, Mr. _Thomas Trueman_, Major _Edward Fits-Herbert_, _Samuel Chew Esq._

His Lordship, or his Lieutenant there for the time being, upon due occasion, Convenes, Prorogues, and Dissolves this Assembly; but whatsoever is by his Lordships Lieutenant there, with the consent of both the said Estates Enacted, is there of the same Force and Nature as an Act of Parliament is in _England_, until his Lordship declares his dis-assent; but such Laws as his Lordship doth assent unto, are not afterwards to be Alter’d or Repeal’d but by his Lordship, with the consent of both the said Estates.

Their chief Court of Judicature is held at St. _Maries_ Quarterly every Year, to which all Persons concern’d resort for Justice, and is call’d _The Provincial Court_, whereof the Governor and Council are Judges: To the Court there doth belong several sworn Attorneys, who constantly are present there, and act both as Barristers and Attorneys; there are likewise chief Clerks, Bayliffs, and other Officers, which duly attend the Court in their respective places.

The Province is divided at present, so far as it is inhabited by _English_, into Counties, whereof there be ten, _viz._ St. _Maries_, _Charles_, _Calvert_, _Anne Arandel_, and _Baltemore_ Counties, which first five lie on the West side of the Bay of _Chesapeack_; on the Eastern side whereof, commonly call’d _The Eastern-Shore_, lies _Sommerset_, _Dorchester_, _Talbot_, _Cæcil_, and _Kent Counties_, which last is an Island lying near the Eastern-shore of the said Bay.

Besides the Provincial Court aforenam’d, there are other inferior Courts, appointed to be held in every one of the Counties six times in the year, for the dispatch of all Causes, not relating to Life or Member, and not exceeding the value of three thousand weight of Tobacco; the decision of all other Causes being reserv’d to the Provincial or higher Court before-mention’d, and there lies Appeals from the County-Courts, to the Provincial Court.

There are Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, and other Officers appointed by the Lord and Proprietary, or his Lordships Lieutenant for the time being, in the said respective Counties; and without four Justices, of which one to be of the _Quorum_, none of the said respective County-Courts can be held; any of his Lordships Privy Council may sit as Judge, in any of the said County-Courts, by vertue of his place.

These Courts are appointed to be held at convenient Houses in the said Counties, which commonly are not far distant from some Inn, or other House of Entertainment, for accommodation of Strangers; one of the said six County Courts in each County is held for settling of Widows and Orphans Estates.

There are Foundations laid of Towns, more or less in each County, according to his Lordships Proclamation, to that effect Issu’d forth in the year 1668. In _Calvert County_, about the River of _Patuxent_, and the adjacent Cliffs, are the Bounds of three Towns laid out, one over against _Point Patience_, call’d _Harvy Town_, another in _Battel-Creek_, call’d _Calverton_, and a third upon the Cliffs, call’d _Herrington_, and Houses already built in them, all uniform, and pleasant with Streets, and Keys on the Water side. In the County of St. _Maries_, on the East side of St. _Georges_ River, is the principal and original Seat of this Province, where the general Assembly, and Provincial Courts are held, and is call’d St. _Maries_, being erected into a City by that Name, where divers Houses are already built: The Governor hath a House there call’d St. _John_’s; the Chancellor Mr. _Philip Calvert_, his Lordships Brother, hath another, and in this place is built and kept the Secretaries Office, where all the Records are kept, all Process, Grants, for Lands, Probates of Wills, Letters of Administration are issu’d out: the Plat of a Fort and Prison is lately laid there, upon a point of Land, term’d _Windmil-Point_, from a Windmil which formerly stood there, the situation is proper, for that it commands the breadth of the said River of Saint _Georges_; so that when it is finish’d, all Shipping may safely Ride before the Town, without the least fear of any sudden Assault, or Attempt of Pirats or other Enemy whatsoever. This City has formerly been the usual place of abode for his Lordships Lieutenants, and their Retinue; but of late years the present Governor, Mr. _Charles Calvert_, hath built himself a fair House of Brick and Timber, with all Out-houses, and other Offices thereto belonging, at a place call’d _Mattapany_, near the River of _Patuxent_ before-mention’d, where he and his Family reside, being a pleasant, healthful, and commodious Seat, about eight Miles by Land distant from St. _Maries_.

[Sidenote: Of the _Indians_ in _Mary-land_.]

The _Indians_ in _Mary-land_ are a People generally of streight, able, and well proportion’d Bodies, something exceeding the ordinary pitch of the _English_, their Complexion Swarthy, their Hair naturally long and black, without Curle, which generally they cut after some strange Fantastical Mode; nay, sometimes they Dye it with red and other preposterous Colours: They Liquor their Skins with Bears Grease, and other Oyls, which renders them more tawny, and less apt to receive injury from the Weather: They are subtile from their Infancy, and prone to learn any thing their Fancy inclines them to, in other things slothful.

There are as many distinct Nations among them as there are _Indian_ Towns, (which are like Countrey-Villages in _England_, but not so good Houses) dispers’d throughout the Province: Each Town hath its King (by them term’d _Werowance_) and every forty or fifty Miles distance differs much from its Neighbors in Speech and Disposition: The _Sasquahanocks_, though but few in number, yet much exceed the rest in Valor, and Fidelity to the _English_; the rest being generally of a more Treacherous Spirit, and not so stout, and the number of the _English_ do already exceed all the _Indians_ in the Province.

The _Werowance_ is assisted by Councellors, call’d _Wisoes_, who are commonly of the same Family, and are chosen at the pleasure of the _Werowance_: They have Captains in time of War which they term _Cockorooses_.

Most of their Governments are Monarchical, (except the _Sasquahanocks_, which is a Re-publick) but for succession they have a peculiar Custom, that the Issue of the Males never succeed, but the Issue-Male of the Female succeed in Government, as the surer side: They all submit to, and are protected by the Lord Proprietaries Government; and in case of any Assault or Murder, committed on any _English_, the Party offending is try’d by the Laws of the Province; and in case of any new Election of King or Emperor among them, they present the Person so Elected to the Governor for the time being, who as he sees cause, either alters or confirms their Choice.

In the Year 1663. at the _Indians_ Request, the present Governor Mr. _Charles Calvert_, and some others of his Lordships Privy-Council there, went to _Pascatoway_, in this Province, to be present at the Election of a new Emperor for that Nation: They presented a Youth nam’d _Nattawasso_, and humbly Requested to have him confirm’d Emperor of _Pascatoway_, by the Name of _Wahocasso_; which after some charge given them in general, to be good and faithful Subjects to him, the Governor accordingly did, and receiv’d him into his Protection.

They pay great Respect and Obedience to their Kings and Superiors, whose Commands they immediately Execute, though with an apparent hazard of their Lives.

The Mens chief employment is Hunting, and the Wars, in both which they commonly use Bowes and Arrows; some of late have Guns and other Weapons, by a private Trade with some _English_ Neighboring Plantations: They are excellent Marks-men, it being the onely thing they breed their Youth to: The Women Plant and look after the Corn, make their Bread, and dress what Provisions their Husbands bring home. Their way of Marriage is by agreement with the Womens Parents or Friends, who for a certain Sum of their Money, or other Goods, deliver her to the Man at a day appointed, which is commonly spent in jollity.

[Sidenote: Their Money.]

There are two sorts of _Indian_ Money, _Wampompeage_ and _Roanoack_, these serve among them as Gold and Silver do in _Europe_, both are made of Fish-shells, which they string like Beads; _Wampompeage_ is the largest Bead, sixty whereof countervails an Arms length of _Roanoack_, which is valued at six Pence _Sterling_; with this they purchase Commodities of the _English_, as Trading-Cloth, _&c._ of which they make themselves Mantles, which is something shaggy, and is call’d _Dutch Duffels_; this is their Winter Habit; in Summer they onely wear a narrow slip of the same to cover those parts, which natural modesty teaches them to conceal; the better sort have Stockings made thereof, and pieces of Deer-Skin, stitch’d together about their Feet in stead of Shooes: The Womens Apparel is the same, but those of the best Quality among them bedeck themselves with _Wampompeage_ or _Roanoack_, or some other toy.

[Sidenote: Manner of habitation.]

Their Houses are rais’d about the height of a large Arbor, and cover’d with Barks of Trees very tite, in the middle whereof is the Fire-place, they lie generally upon Mats of their own making, plac’d round the Fire, a Woodden-bowl or two, an Earthen Pot, and a Mortar and Pestle, is their chiefest Houshold-stuff; he that hath his Bowe and Arrows, or Gun, a Hatchet, and a _Canoo_, (a term they use for Boats) is in their minds rarely well provided for; each House contains a distinct Family, each Family hath its peculiar Field about the Town, where they Plant their Corn, and other sorts of Grain afore-mention’d.

[Sidenote: Civility to the _English_.]

They are courteous to the _English_, if they chance to see any of them coming towards their Houses, they immediately meet him half-way, conduct him in, and bid him welcome with the best Cates they have: The _English_ giving them in like manner civil Entertainment, according to their Quality.

The _Werowance_ of _Patuxent_ having been Treated for some days at St. _Maries_, by the then Governor, Mr. _Leonard Calvert_, his Lordships Brother, at his first coming thither to settle that Colony, took his leave of him with this Expression, _I love the_ English _so well, that if they should go about to kill me, if I had so much breath as to speak, I would Command my People not to revenge my death; for I know they would not do such a thing, except it were through my own default._

In Affairs of concern, they are very considerate, and use few words in declaring their intentions; for at Mr. _Leonard Calverts_ first arrival there, the _Werowance_ of _Pascatoway_ being ask’d by him, _Whether he would be content, that the_ English _should sit down in his Countrey?_ return’d this answer, _That he would not bid him go, neither would he bid him stay, but that he might use his own discretion._ These were their expressions to the Governor at his first entrance into _Mary-land_, whom then they were jealous of, whether he might prove a Friend or a Neighbor, but by his discreet Demeanor towards them at first, and friendly usage of them afterwards, they are now become, not only civil, but serviceable to the _English_ there upon all occasions.

The _Indians_ of the Eastern shore are most numerous, and were formerly very refractory, whom Mr. _Leonard Calvert_ some few years after his first settling the Colony, was forc’d to reduce, and of late the Emperor of _Nanticoke_, and his Men were deservedly defeated by the present Governor, Mr. _Charles Calvert_, who reduc’d him about the year 1668. which has since tam’d the ruder sort of the neighboring _Indians_, who now by experience, find it better to submit and be protected by the Lord Proprietaries Government, than to make any vain attempt against his Power.

These People live under no Law, but that of Nature and Reason, which notwithstanding leads them to the acknowledgement of a Deity, whom they own to be the Giver of all good things, wherewith their Life is maintain’d, and to him they Sacrifice the first Fruits of the Earth, and of that which they acquire by Hunting and Fishing: The Sacrifice is perform’d by their Priests, who are commonly ancient Men, and profess themselves Conjurers; they first make a Speech to their God, then burn part, and eat and distribute the rest among them that are present; until this Ceremony be ended, they will not touch one bit thereof; they hold the Immortality of the Soul, and that there is a place of Joy, and another of Torment after Death, prepar’d for every one according to their Merits.

They bury their Dead with strange expressions of Sorrow (the better sort upon a Scaffold, erected for that end) whom they leave cover’d with Mats, and return when his flesh is consum’d to Interr his Bones; the common sort are committed to the Earth without that Ceremony; but they never omit to bury some part of their Wealth, Arms, and Houshold-stuff with the Corps.

SECT. IV. Virginia.

[Sidenote: Situation of _Virginia_.]

[Sidenote: First Discovery.]

The most Southerly part of _Virginia_ (for all that Tract of Land, reaching from _Norumbega_ to _Florida_, and containing _New-England_, _New-York_, _Mary-land_, and this part we are now about to Treat of, was by Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ term’d _Virginia_, in Honor of our Virgin-Queen _Elizabeth_) lies between _Mary-land_, which it hath on the North, and _Carolina_, which it hath on the South, from thirty six, to near thirty eight Degrees of Northern Latitude; and with the rest of those Countries which were comprehended under the same Denomination, was by the Encouragement, and at the Expence of the said Sir _Walter Rawleigh_, first Discover’d (as some say) by Captain _Francis Drake_, for his many notable and bold Exploits, afterwards Knighted by the Queen: But upon examination we find little reason to ascribe the first Discovery thereof to Sir _Francis Drake_, whose chief performances, from the time he first made himself Eminent at Sea, were against the _Spaniards_, and for the most part in the _Spanish-Indies_; as his taking of _Nombre de Dios_, and _Vinta Cruz_, with an infinite mass of Treasure; his taking of _Santo Domingo_ in _Hispaniola_, and of _Carthagena_ in _Castella Anna_; and that which seems to have given occasion of attributing to him the first Discovery of these parts, was his touching upon the North part of the Isle of _California_, where being nobly Entertain’d by _Hioh_, a King of that Countrey, and having a Surrendry thereof made to him, in behalf of the Queen of _England_, he upon a Pillar erected, Inscrib’d the Arms of _England_, with the Queens Name and his own, and call’d the place _Nova Albion_: Certain indeed it is, that Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ was the first Promoter of this Discovery; for, after Mr. _Martin Forbisher_ had been sent by Queen _Elizabeth_ to search for the North-West Passage, which was in the year 1576. and for which he also was by the Queen advanc’d to Knight-hood, and nobly rewarded; and Sir _Humphrey Gilbert_ obtaining the Queens Letters Patents, for attempting a Plantation, had reach’d _New-found-land_ (though perishing in his return) he upon these Relations and Inducements undertook by others (for his employments would not permit him to go in Person) to gain Discoveries to the Southward; and accordingly in the year of our Lord 1584. obtain’d a Commission from the Queen, to discover and Plant new Lands in _America_, not actually possess’d by any _Christians_, who, with the assistance of Sir _Richard Greenvil_, and others, provided two small Barques, under the Command of Captain _Philip Amidas_, and Captain _Arthur Barlow_, who setting Sail the 27. of _April_, fell the 2^d of _July_ following with the Coast of _Florida_, and made Discovery of the Isle of _Wokokon_, _Roanoack_, and the Continent of _Wingandacoa_, which they left; and arriving in _England_ about the midst of _September_ following, Her Majesty upon the relation of their Discoveries, was pleas’d to call this Countrey _Virginia_.

[Illustration: NOVA VIRGINIÆ TABULA]

_April 9. 1585._ Sir _Richard Greenvil_, with seven Sail, and several Gentlemen, left _Plymouth_; and on _May 26._ Anchor’d at _Wokokon_, but made their first Seat at _Roanoack_ on _August 17._ following, which lies in thirty six Degrees of Northerly Latitude, or thereabouts, where they continu’d till _June 1586._ during which time they made several Discoveries in the Continent and adjacent Islands; and being endanger’d by the treachery of the Salvages, return’d for _England_, and Landed at _Portsmouth_ on _July 27._ following.

Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ and his Associates, in the year 1586. sent a Ship to relieve that Colony, which had deserted the Countrey some while before, and were all return’d for _England_ as is before-mention’d.

Some few days after they were gone, Sir _Richard Greenvil_, with three Ships, arriv’d at the Plantation at _Roanoack_, which he found deserted, and leaving fifty Men thereto keep Possession of that Countrey, return’d for _England_.

The year following, Mr. _John White_, with three Ships, came to search for the fifty _English_ at _Roanoack_, but found them not, they having been set upon by the Natives, and dispers’d so, as no News could be heard of them, and in their room left a hundred and fifty more to continue that Plantation.

In _August 1589._ Mr. _John White_ went thither again, to search for the last Colony which he had left there; but not finding them, return’d for _England_ in _Septemb. 6. 1590._

This ill Success made all further Discoveries to be laid aside, till Captain _Gosnol_ on _March 26. 1602._ set Sail from _Dartmouth_, and on _May 11._ following, made Land at a place, where some _Biscaners_, as he guess’d by the Natives information, had formerly fish’d, being about the Latitude of forty eight Degrees Northerly Latitude; from hence putting to Sea, he made Discovery of an Island which he call’d _Marthas Vineyard_, and shortly after of _Elizabeth_’s Isle, and so return’d for _England_, _June 18._ following.

In the Year 1603. the City of _Bristol_ rais’d a Stock, and furnish’d out two Barques for Discovery, under the Command of Captain _Martin Pring_, who about _June 7._ fell with the North of _Virginia_ in the three and fortieth Degree, found plenty of good Fish, nam’d a place _Whitson-Bay_, and so return’d.

In the Year 1605. the Right Honorable _Thomas Arundel_ the first, Baron of _Warder_, and Count of the _Roman_ Empire, set out Captain _George Waymouth_, with twenty nine Sea-men, and necessary Provisions, to make what Discoveries he could; who by contrary Winds, fell Northward about one and forty Degrees and twenty Minutes of Northerly Latitude, where they found plenty of good Fish; and Sailing further, discover’d an Island, where they nam’d a Harbor, _Pentecost-Harbor_; and on _July 18._ following, came back for _England_.

In the Year 1606. by the sollicitation of Captain _Gosnol_, and several Gentlemen, a Commission was granted by King _James_ of _Great Brittain_, _&c._ for establishing a Council, to direct those new Discoveries; Captain _Newport_ (a well practic’d Marriner) was intrusted with the Transportation of the Adventurers in two Ships, and a Pinace, who on _Decemb. 19. 1606._ set Sail from _Black-wall_, and were by Storm, contrary to expectation, cast upon the first Land, which they call’d _Cape Henry_, at the Mouth of the Bay of _Chesapeack_, lying in thirty seven Degrees, or thereabouts, of Northerly Latitude: Here their Orders were open’d and read, and eight declar’d of the Council, and impower’d to chose a President for a year, who with the Council should Govern that Colony: Till _May 13._ they sought a place to Plant in, Mr. _Winkfield_ was chose the first President, who caus’d a Fort to be rais’d at _Powhatan_, now call’d _James-Town_: In _June_ following, Captain _Newport_ return’d for _England_, leaving a hundred Men behind him; since which time they have been sufficiently supply’d from _England_, and by the indefatigable Industry and Courage of Captain _John Smith_, (one of the Council at that time, and afterward President of the Colony) they made several Discoveries on the Eastern shore, and up to the Head of the Bay of _Chesapeack_, and of the principal Rivers which fall into the said Bay.

_Virginia_ being thus Discover’d and Planted, King _James_ by his Letters Patent bearing Date _April 10._ in the fourth year of his Reign, 1607. Granted Licence to Sir _Thomas Gates_, Sir _George Summers_, and others, to divide themselves into two several Colonies, for the more speedy Planting of that Countrey, then call’d _Virginia_, between the Degrees of thirty four and forty five of North Latitude, that is to say, taken in that large extent, mention’d in the beginning: The first Colony to be undertaken by certain Knights, Gentlemen, and Merchants, in, and about the City of _London_: The second to be undertaken, and advanc’d by certain Knights, Gentlemen, and Merchants, and their Associates, in, or about the City of _Bristol_, _Exon_, _Plymouth_, and other parts.

At the first Colonies Request, in the seventh year of the same King, a second Patent was Granted to several Noblemen and Gentlemen, (including Sir _Thomas Gates_, and some of his former Fellow-Patentees) bearing Date _May 23. 1610._ whereby they were made a Corporation, and Body Politique, and stil’d, _The Treasurer, and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the City of_ London, _for the first Colony of_ Virginia: And by this Patent, there was Granted to them, their Successors and Assigns, two hundred Miles to the Southward, from a _Cape_ of Land in _Virginia_, call’d _Point Comfort_; and two hundred Miles to the Northward of the said _Cape_, along the Sea-shore, and into the Land from Sea to Sea.

And on _March 12. 1612._ the said King, in the ninth year of his Reign, Grants them a third Patent, of all Islands lying in the Sea, within two hundred Miles of the Shore of that Tract of Land on the Continent, granted to them by the said former Patent, _Jac. 7._

In the Year 1615. Captain _Smith_ procur’d by his Interest at Court, and the King’s Favor, a Recommendation from His Majesty, and divers of the Nobility, to all Cities and Corporations, to Adventure in a standing Lottery, which was erected for the benefit of this Plantation, which was contriv’d in such a manner, that of 100000. Pounds which was to be put in, 50000. onely, or one half was to return to the Adventurers, according as the Prizes fell out; and the other half to be dispos’d of for the Promotion of the Affairs of _Virginia_, in which, though it were three years before it was fully accomplish’d, he had in the end no bad Success.

In the eighteenth Year of the said King’s Reign, at the Request of the second Colony, a Patent was Granted to several Noblemen and Gentlemen, of all that Tract of Land lying in the parts of _America_, between the Degrees of forty and forty eight of Northerly Latitude, and into the Land from Sea to Sea, which was call’d by the Patent _New England in America_: For the better Government whereof, one Body-Politick and Corporate was thereby appointed and ordain’d in _Plymouth_, consisting of the said Noblemen, Gentlemen, and others, to the number of forty Persons, by the Name of _The Council establish’d at_ Plymouth _in the County of_ Devon, _for the Planting, Ruling, Ordering, and Governing of_ New England _in_ America.

[Sidenote: The Patent of _Virginia_ made void.]

The Miscarriages and Misdemeanors of the aforesaid Corporation for the first Colony of _Virginia_, were so many and so great, that His said Majesty was forc’d, in or about _October 1623._ to direct a _Quo Warranto_, for the calling in of that former Patent, which in _Trinity_ Term following was legally Evinc’d, Condemn’d, and made Void, by Judgment in the Court of the then _Kings-Bench_; as also all other Patents, by which the said Corporation claim’d any Interest in _Virginia_. Thus this Corporation of the first Colony of _Virginia_ was dissolv’d, and that Plantation hath been since Govern’d and Dispos’d of by Persons Constituted and Impower’d for that purpose from time to time, by immediate Commissions from the Kings of _England_.

[Sidenote: The Patent of _Mary-land_ granted to the Lord _Baltemore_.]

In the Year of our Lord 1631. the Right Honorable _George_ Lord _Baltemore_ obtain’d a Grant of King _Charles_ the First of _Great Britain_, _&c._ of part of that Land to the Northward, which is now call’d _Mary-land_; but this Patent of _Mary-land_ was not perfected till 1632. as you may understand more fully by the precedent Discourse of _Mary-land_, which by express words in the said Patent is separated from, and thereby declar’d not to be reputed for the future, any part of _Virginia_.

[Sidenote: The Patent _Carolina_ granted to several Noble Persons.]

And in the fifteenth Year of the Reign of King _Charles_ the Second of _Great Britain_, _&c._ on _March 24. 1663._ _Edward_ Earl of _Clarendon_, then High-Chancellor of _England_, _George_ Duke of _Albemarle_, _William_, now Earl of _Craven_, _John_ Lord _Berkley_, _Anthony_ Lord _Ashley_, Sir _George Carterett_ Knight and Baronet, Sir _William Berkley_ Knight, and Sir _John Colleton_ Knight and Baronet, obtain’d a Patent from His Majesty, of the Province of _Carolina_, which lies to the Southward of _Virginia_, in which is included some part of that Land which formerly belong’d to the said dissolv’d Company of _Virginia_. So that _Virginia_ at present extendeth it self onely, and is situated between thirty six and thirty seven Degrees and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, of Northern Latitude, and is bounded on the North, by _Mary-land_; on the South, by _Carolina_; on the East, by the Ocean; and on the West, by the South-Seas.

[Sidenote: Rivers of _Virginia_.]

The Entrance by Sea into this Countrey is the same with that of _Mary-land_, between _Cape Henry_ and _Cape Charles_, plac’d on each side of the Mouth of the Bay of _Chesapeak_; on the West side whereof you first meet with a pleasant and commodious River call’d _James-River_, about three Miles wide at its Entrance, and Navigable a hundred and fifty.

Fourteen Miles from this River Northward lies _York-River_, which is Navigable sixty or seventy Miles, but with Ketches and small Barques thirty or forty Miles farther.

Passing hence to the North you discover a third stately River, call’d _Rappahanock_, which is Navigable about a hundred and thirty Miles—from whence following the Shore to the North you enter into _Patomeck-River_, which is already describ’d in the precedent Discourse of _Mary-land_, to which Province this River belongs, whose Southerly Bank gives Bounds to that part of _Virginia_ and _Mary-land_.

To these Rivers many other Inland Branches and Rivulets are reduc’d, the chief of which are hereafter specifi’d.

[Sidenote: Nature of the Countrey.]

The Countrey is generally even, the Soil fruitful, the Climate healthful, and agreeable with _English_ Constitutions, especially since the increase of Inhabitants, and accommodation of good Diet and Lodging, which the first Planters found great want of heretofore. For many years, till of late, most New-comers had the first Year in _July_ and _August_, a Disease which is call’d _A Seasoning_, whereof many died, like to what is mention’d before in the Description of _Mary-land_, though more mortal and common than in _Mary-land_, because _Virginia_ is a lower Countrey, and somewhat hotter, insomuch that formerly divers ill of that Distemper have come purposely from _Virginia_ to _Mary-land_, to recover their Health; but now, since the Countrey is more open and clear from Wood, few die of it, and many have no _Seasonings_ at all.

This Countrey affordeth generally all such Roots, Herbs, Gums, and Balsoms, as are express’d before in the Relation of _Mary-land_.

[Sidenote: Trees]

All sorts of Trees for Building and Husbandry, Fruit-Trees, Vines, _&c._ are found in both Countreys, equal in goodness and quantity, onely in such things as require more Sun, and that may be produc’d by Industry, there may be some little difference, because _Virginia_ is somewhat more to the Southward of _Mary-land_, as in Vines, Oranges, Lemmons, Olives, Silk, _&c._

[Sidenote: Silk-Grass.]

There is a Plant grows naturally in this Countrey, and in _Mary-land_, call’d _Silk-Grass_, which will make a fine Stuff with a silky Gloss, and better Cordage than Hemp or Flax, both for strength and durance.

[Sidenote: Fruits peculiar to _Virginia_.]

The wild Beasts, Birds, and Fish, are much the same also in this Countrey as are before describ’d in the precedent Description of _Mary-land_: Nevertheless we shall think it proper not to omit some Fruits, Plants, Beasts, _&c._ mention’d by the most authentick Describers of _New England_, as peculiar to that Countrey. The Fruits are, their _Putchamines_, which are a kind of Damsons; _Messamines_, a kind of Grapes; _Chechinquamins_, a sort of Fruit resembling a Chesnut; _Rawcomens_, a Fruit resembling a Goose-berry; _Macoquer_, a kind of Apple; _Mettaquesunnauks_, a sort of Fruit resembling _Indian_ Figs; _Morococks_, resembling a Straw-berry, besides a Berry which they call _Ocoughtanamnis_, somewhat like to Capers.

[Sidenote: Roots.]

Their peculiar Roots are _Tockawaugh_, good to eat; _Wichsacan_, of great vertue in healing of Wounds; _Pocones_, good to asswage Swellings and Aches; _Musquaspen_, wherewith they Paint their Targets and Mats. Also they have in great request a Pulse call’d _Assentamen_, and the Plant _Mattouna_, of which they make Bread.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

Their peculiar Beasts are, the _Aroughena_, resembling a Badger; the _Assapanick_ or _Flying-Squerril_; _Opassum_, a certain Beast having a Bag under her Belly, wherein she carrieth and suckleth her Young; _Mussascus_, which smelling strong of Musk, resembleth a Water-Rat; _Utchunquois_, a kind of wild Cat.

Their peculiar Fish are _Stingrais_.

[Sidenote: Rivulets.]

On the West side of the Bay of _Chesapeak_, between _Cape Henry_ and the Southerly Bank of the River of _Patomeck_, are three fair Navigable Rivers, as is before mention’d, into which the other small Rivulets fall, which here we will give some account of, as also of the _Indian_, or antient Names by which these three principal Rivers were formerly known. The first whereof is _Powhatan_ (now call’d _James-River_) according to the Name of a large and considerable Territory that lieth upon it. The Rivers that fall into this Southward, are _Apamatuck_; Eastward, _Quiyonycohanuc_, _Nansamund_, and _Chesapeak_; and Northward, _Chickamahania_.

The second Navigable River is _Pamaunkee_, by the _English_ now term’d _York-River_. The Rivulet that falls into this is _Poyankatanck_.

The third (which is before describ’d, and usually known by the Name of _Rappahanoc_) was formerly term’d _Toppahanoc_.

This we thought fit here to insert, to the end no colour of mistake might remain to after Ages concerning the derivation or original change of such proper Names, especially being Places of great advantage to the Colony.

[Sidenote: Several People of the ancient natives of _Virginia_.]

The chiefest of those Tribes or Divisions of People among the _Indians_, that were by Name known to the _English_ at their first arrival, were upon the River _Pouhatan_ the _Kecoughtans_, the _Paspaheges_, (on whose Land is seated _James-Town_) the _Weanocks_, the _Arrohatocks_, the _Appametocks_, the _Nansamunds_, the _Chesapeacks_, &c. On the River _Pamaunkee_, are the _Youngtanunds_, the _Mattapaments_, &c. On the River _Toppahanoc_, the _Manahoacks_, the _Moraghtacunds_, and the _Cuttatawomens_. On the River _Patawomek_, the _Wighcocomocans_, the _Onawmanients_, and the _Moyanances_. On the River _Pawtuxunt_, the _Acquintacsuacs_, the _Pawtuxunts_, and the _Matapunients_. On the River _Bolus_, the _Sasquesahanoes_: Southward from the Bay, the _Chawonocks_, the _Mangoacks_, the _Monacans_, the _Mannahocks_, the _Masawomeks_, the _Atquanahucks_, and the _Kuscarawaocks_, besides a number not material to be nam’d, as having had little of Transaction that we hear of with the Planters.

[Sidenote: Number of Inhabitants.]

The number of _English_ Inhabitants in this Country are in this present Year 1671. about thirty or forty thousand, who are plentifully stock’d with all sorts of tame Cattel, as Cows, Sheep, Horses, Swine, _&c._ and all sorts of _English_ Grain; great store of brave Orchards for Fruit, whereof they make great quantities of Cyder and Perry.

They have been much oblig’d by that worthy Gentleman Mr. _Edward Digges_, Son of Sir _Dudley Digges_, who was Master of the Rolls, and a Privy Councellor to King _Charles_ the First, of _Great Britain_, _&c._ For the said Mr. _Digges_ at his great Charge and Industry, hath very much advanc’d the making of Silk in this Countrey, for which purpose he hath sent for several Persons out of _Armenia_ to teach them that Art, and how to wind it off the Cods of the Silk-worms; and hath made at his own Plantation in this Colony for some years last past, considerable quantities of Silk, which is found to be as good Silk as any is in the World, which hath encourag’d divers others to prosecute that Work.

[Sidenote: The Commodities of _Virginia_.]

Though this Countrey be capable of producing many other good Commodities, yet the Planters have hitherto imploy’d themselves for the most part in Planting of Tobacco, as they do in _Mary-Land_; whereof there are two sorts, one which is call’d _Sweet-scented_, and the other call’d _Oranoack_, or _Bright and Large_, which is much more in quantity, but of lesser price than the former; and the Plantations upon _York River_ are esteem’d to produce the best of that sort of _Sweet-scented_: There is so much of this Commodity Planted in _Virginia_, and Imported from thence into _England_, that the Custom and Excise paid in _England_ for it, yields the King about fifty or threescore thousand Pounds _Sterling_, _per annum_: With this Commodity the Planters buy of the Ships that come thither for it (which are above a hundred Sail yearly from _England_, and other _English_ Plantations) all Necessaries of Clothing, and other Utensils of Houshold-stuff, _&c._ which they want, though they make some Shoes, and Linnen and Woollen Cloth in some Parts of _Virginia_, of the growth and Manufacture of the Countrey; and if they would Plant less Tobacco (as it is probable they will e’re long find it convenient for them to do, it being now grown a Drug of very low value, by reason of the vast quantities planted of it) they might in time provide themselves all Necessaries of Livelyhood, and produce richer and more Staple-Commodities for their Advantage.

Their usual way of Trafique in buying and selling is by exchange of one Commodity for another; and Tobacco is the general Standard, by which all other Commodities receive their value; but they have some _English_ and foreign Coyns, which serve them upon many occasions.

The Government is by a Governor and Council, Appointed and Authoriz’d from time to time by immediate Commission from the King of _Great Brittain_: And Laws are made by the Governor, with the consent of a General Assembly, which consists of two Houses, an Upper and a Lower; the first consists of the Council, and the latter of the Burgesses chosen by the Freemen of the Countrey; and Laws so made are in Force till His Majesty thinks fit to alter them.

The chief Court of Judicature is call’d _The Quarter-Court_, because it is held every quarter of a Year, where all Causes Criminal and Civil are heard and determin’d, and the Judges of this Court are the Governor and Council: The present Governor in this Year 1671. is Sir _William Berkley_, who was made Governor by King _Charles_ the First, of _Great Brittain, &c._ in the Year 1640. And those of the Council are Sir _Henry Chichesly_, who is one of the greatest and most considerable Planters there, and Mr. _Edward Diggs_ before-mention’d, Mr. _Thomas Ludwel_ Secretary, Major-General _Robert Smith_, and divers other worthy Gentlemen.

That Part of the Country where the _English_ are Planted, is divided into nineteen Counties, _viz._ _Northampton-County_ in _Acomack_, on the Eastern shore; and on the Western shore, _Corotuck_, _Lower-Norfolk_, _Nansemund_, _Isle of Wight_, _Surry_, _Warwick_, _Henerico_, _James_, _Charles_, _York_, _New-Kent_, _Glocester_, _Middlesex_, _Lancaster_, _Northumberland_, _Westmoreland_, _Rappahanock_, and _Harford-Counties_.

In every one of these Counties there are inferior County-Courts kept every Month; these take no Cognizance of Causes relating to Life or Member, or exceeding a certain limited Value, such being refer’d to the Quarter-Courts only, to which likewise there lie Appeals from their Inferior Courts.

There are Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, and other Officers in every respective County, appointed by the Governor, for the Administration of Justice, who sit there according to his Order, and whereof these County-Courts are chiefly compos’d.

There are few Towns as yet erected in this Colony; the Principal Seat of the _English_ there, is at a Place call’d _James-City_, in Honor of King _James_ of _Great Brittain, &c._ This is situated in a _Peninsula_, on the North-side of _James River_, and has in it many fair Brick and other good Houses: In this place are held the Quarter-Courts, General Assemblies, the Secretaries Office, and all other Affairs and greatest Concerns of the Colony are here dispatch’d. On the same side, nearer the Mouth of this River, stands _Elizabeth-City_, containing also several good Houses of Brick and Timber.

Sir _William Berkley_, the present Governor resides at a place somewhat distant from _James-City_, call’d _Green-spring_, a fair Brick House, which he himself caus’d to be Built.

The other Towns of Note belonging to the _English_, are only _Henricopolis_, or _Henry’s-Town_ (so nam’d from Prince _Henry_ then living, built in a very convenient place, more within Land, about eighty Miles distant from _James-City_) and _Dale’s-Gift_, so nam’d from Sir _Thomas Dale_ Deputy-Governor of the Countrey, about the Year 1610.

The _Indians_ of _Virginia_ far exceed those of _Mary-land_, in Treachery and Cruelty to the _English_ there, as will appear by this following Relation of their Proceedings towards them, since the first Seating of that Colony, wherein nevertheless, the Civility of some particular Persons at their first Landing is not to be omitted.

[Sidenote: Transactions between the _English_ and the Natives.]

Upon the first arrival of Captain _Amidas_ and Captain _Barlow_ in _Wingandacoa_, now _Virginia_, they were accosted by _Granganimeo_ (the King’s Brother of that Countrey) who, attended with a Train of forty or fifty Men, came in a very civil manner to Treat about a Commerce of Trade and Traffique, which immediately began between them, and several Barters were made: _Granganimeo_, who was very just of his word, and always kept his promis’d Day of meeting, fancying most a Pewter Dish, gave twenty Deer-skins for it, and boring a Hole therein, hung it about his Neck for a Breast-plate; afterwards he, with his whole Company, and his Wife and Children, frequently and familiarly did eat and drink aboard the _English_ Ships, the King himself call’d _Wingina_, lying sick at his chief Town, six days Journy off, of a dangerous Wound which he had receiv’d from a neighboring King his mortal Enemy. Some of the _English_ going to Land upon the Isle of _Roanoack_, were met by _Granganimeo_’s Wife, who, her Husband being absent, commanded her Servants some to draw their Boat ashore, some to carry them on their Backs to Land, others to carry their Oars into the House for fear of stealing; and having caus’d a great Fire to be made to warm them, and to dry those that had been wet in their Voiage, she afterwards entertain’d them with a plentiful Feast or Banquet after that Country fashion; and when they took alarm at the coming of two or three of her Men with Bows and Arrows, she caus’d the Bows to be broken, and the Men to be beaten out of the House, besides several other demonstrations of extraordinary civility; and when not withstanding all this they could not be perswaded to Lodg any where but in their Boat, she us’d all means imaginable to make them quit their Jealousy, and accept of a Lodging in the House.

In the Year 1585. a Company that went over with Sir _Richard Greenvil_, burnt the Town of _Aquascogoc_, for a Silver Cup that was stoln by some of the _Indians_, took Prisoner _Menatonon_, King of _Chawonoc_, who gave Relation of a King about three days Journy off, who possess’d an Island rich in Pearl, which was taken in a deep Water that inviron’d it. Going towards the Countrey of the _Mangoacks_ (among whom in the Province of _Chaunis Temaotan_, they heard of a Mine of strange Copper call’d _Wassador_, with _Skiko_, the King of _Chawonock_’s Son, and _Manteo_, a faithful Salvage, for their Guide) they were treacherously dealt with by _Wingina_, alias _Pemissapan_ (for so, his Brother _Granganimeo_ being lately dead, he had alter’d his Name) who endeavor’d to stir up a Confederacy of the _Chawonocks_, _Moratocks_, and _Mangoacks_ against them; yet by the urgent perswasions of _Ensenore_ his Father, the truest Friend the _English_ had, after the death of _Granganimeo_, and seeing them safe return’d from their Journey, wherein he thought they had all perish’d, and especially upon _Menatonon_’s sending Messengers to them with Pearl, and _Okisco_ King of _Weopomeock_, to yield himself Vassal to the Queen of _England_, his Hatred was somewhat cool’d; but _Ensenore_ deceasing soon after, he return’d to his old treacherous Practices again, and in the end, while he was contriving Mischief against the Planters, he himself was shot, taken Prisoner, and beheaded.

After the Company left upon _Virginia_ by Sir _Richard Greenvil_, (for he himself was return’d) tir’d out with hunger, hardship, and the many extremities they were at last reduc’d to, had deserted the Place, and obtain’d passage for _England_, through the civility of Sir _Francis Drake_, pitying their distress, fifty Men more were Landed upon _Roanoack-Isle_, by the same Person, who how they were surpris’d and destroy’d by the Natives, was discover’d at large to the Supply that was sent over in the Year 1587. by Mr. _White_.

A small Party under Captain _Smith_ going down the River to _Keconghean_, were very fiercely assaulted by sixty or seventy _Indians_, but their Musquet-shot did such Execution amongst them, that they fled into the Woods and left behind them the Image of their God, which had been carry’d before them as their Standard, and not long after sent one of their _Queiongcasocks_ to offer Peace, and to redeem their _Okee_; which _Smith_ granting, on condition six onely of them would come unarm’d and load his Boat with Provisions; and promising more over to become their Friend, and furnish them with Beads, Copper, and Hatchets: They accepted the Condition, and brought him Venison, Turkies, wild Fowl, Bread, and what else they had, Singing and Dancing in sign of Friendship till they departed.

In his next Voyage for the discovery of the Head of _Chickamahania_ River, he was, through the neglect of his Sea-men who were sent to watch the Booty, taken Prisoner; in which condition he was kept a whole Month: then being releas’d, he got Provisions for the People in _James-Town_; which had they not timely receiv’d, they had all abandon’d the Place, and return’d to _England_.

[Sidenote: King _Powhatan_.]

[Sidenote: _James-Town_ burnt.]

While Affairs stood thus in a mean condition, Captain _Newport_ arriving there with a Ship and sixty Men to strengthen the Plantations, he went to _Weromocomoco_, where King _Powhatan_ kept his Court, and found him sitting on a Bed of Mats, and an Embroider’d Leather Cushion, Cloth’d in Deer-skins; at his Feet sat a young Maiden, and on each side of the House twenty Concubines; his Head and Shoulders painted red, and a Chain of white Beads about his Neck. _Newport_ to oblige him, gave him an _English_ Youth; for which he receiv’d _Powhatans_ Friend _Mamontak_; with whom returning, he found a sad accident, for the Fire had not onely burnt the Houses of the new Planters, but also the Pallisado’s about _James-Town_, made for a Defence against the Enemies Assaults, and most of their Store; which was so much the worse, because it hapned in the Winter, and indeed had prov’d very fatal, had not a Ship, which was suppos’d to be lost, happily arriv’d there with a considerable quantity of Provisions.

[Sidenote: _Smith_’s Voyage.]

[Sidenote: His remarkable Exploits.]

Whilst the Town was rebuilding, _Smith_ set Sail in an open Barque with fourteen Men, and discover’d two Isles before _Point Charles_, to which he gave his Name; then ran into the Inlet _Chesapeack_, in the midst of which lay several Islands, by the Sea-men call’d _Russels_. Before the River _Wighcomoco_ they found a disturbed Sea, and more Northerly a Bay with fresh and hot Water, and at last he met with two _Virginians_, which conducted the _English_ along a Creek to _Onawmoment_, where some hundreds of them lay in Ambuscade, according to _Powhatan_’s appointment, to cut off _Smith_; who leaping forth on a sudden appear’d like Devils, all painted; but the Bullets flying about made them all run away. _Smith_, whose Design was onely to discover the Countrey, and the Silver Mine of _Patawomeck_, ten Leagues up into the Countrey, found the Metal to be of little value, so that he return’d with little Success, being newly cur’d of a poysonous Wound in the Arm, which was given him by a Fish not unlike a Shark, whilst he lay aground near _Toppahanock_.

A while after being inform’d of _Powhatan_’s Design to destroy the _English_, (though he had been lately Presented by _Newport_ with a Silver Basin, a rich Chair, Bed, and Furniture belonging to it, with other things of value) he, to prevent him, chose forty eight out of two hundred Men which were Garrison’d in _James-Town_, then going to _Werowocomoco_, Landed with much trouble, the River being frozen above half a Mile from the Shore.

A _German_ Soldier amongst _Smith_’s Company giving private notice to _Powhatan_ of the Design of the _English_, made his Escape by flight: But _Smith_ going on to _Pamaunke_, found King _Opechancangough_ with seven hundred Men in Arms, threatning a fierce Battel; but _Smith_ making directly up to him, set his Pistol on his Breast, and forc’d him to lay down his Arms. _Powhatan_ by this time provided with Swords and Musquets by two _Dutch_-men, also began to bestir himself afresh; but his Intentions being too soon known, he was again quieted, and forc’d a second time to send _Smith_ a String of Pearl; after which a Peace was concluded between all the Natives and the _English_.

Many other Quarrels and Encounters there were in the Infancy of the Plantation between the _Indians_ and the _English_, wherein it would be endless to recount all the Treacheries and Ambuscades of the Salvages, some of which had prov’d very pernicious to the Planters, had they not been betray’d to Captain _Smith_ by _Pocahonta_, King _Powhatan_’s Daughter, who upon all occasions shew’d her self a great Friend to the _English_, having sav’d the Captain’s Life, when, being her Father’s Prisoner, he was just brought to Execution.

This Lady was afterwards brought into _England_, Christned by the Name of _Rebekah_, and Married to one Mr. _Rolf_, and died at _Gravesend_ in an intended Voyage back to her own Countrey.

Nor did their Cruelties and Treacheries end when the Plantation came to be more setled, for on the two and twentieth of _March_ about the Year 1621. in the time of Sir _Francis Wyat_’s Government, they generally combin’d to destroy all the _English_ there; and carried on this devilish Design with such dissimulation and dexterity, that in one day they cut off seven hundred Men, Women, and Children, there being at that time not above fifteen hundred in the Countrey.

Since which time, in the Year of our Lord 1643. there hapned another bloody Massacre, wherein near five hundred _English_ were in one Night miserably butcher’d by those barbarous and perfidious Salvages: whose Blood the present Governor, Sir _William Berkley_, nobly and justly reveng’d the Year following, utterly destroying most of them, and taking Prisoner their chief Emperor, _Opichancono_, who died not long after in Prison.

Having given but a small hint, in its proper place, of the Story of Captain _Smith_’s Imprisonment by _Powhatan_, and his deliverance from Death by _Pocahonta_; we have thought not improper to reserve the Story of it, being very remarkable for a particular Relation, before we conclude our Description of _Virginia_, since otherwise we should have interrupted the Series of our former Discourse.

_The Relation of Captain_ Smith_’s being taken Prisoner by_ Powhatan, _and of his being deliver’d from Death by his Daughter_ Pocahonta.

The Salvages having drawn from one _George Cassen_, whither Captain _Smith_ was gone, prosecuting that opportunity, they follow’d him with three hundred Bowe-Men, conducted by the King of _Pamaunkee_, who in divisions, searching the turnings of the River, found two of his Men by the fire side, whom they shot full of Arrows, and flew. Then finding the Captain, who, as is said, us’d the Salvage that was his Guide as his Shield, (three of them being slain, and others sore gall’d) the rest would not come near him: Thinking thus to have return’d to his Boat, regarding them as he march’d, more than his way, he slipp’d up to the middle in an Osier-Creek, and his Salvage with him, yet durst they not come to him, till being near dead with cold, he threw away his Arms: Then according to their composition, they drew him forth, and led him to the Fire, where his Men were slain; diligently they chaf’d his benumm’d Limbs, he demanding for their Captain, they shew’d him _Opechankanough_, King of _Pamaunkee_, to whom he gave a round Ivory double compass Dyal. Much they marvel’d at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which they could see so plainly, and yet not touch it, because of the Glass that cover’d them; but when he demonstrated by that Globe-like Jewel, the roundness of the Earth, and Skies; the Sphere of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, and how the Sun did chase the Night round about the World continually; the greatness of the Land and Sea; the diversity of Nations, variety of Complexions, and how we were to them _Antipodes_, and many other such like matters, they all stood as amaz’d with admiration: Notwithstanding, within an hour after they ty’d him to a Tree, and as many as could stand about him prepar’d to shoot him; but the King holding up the Compass in his Hand, they all laid down their Bowes and Arrows, and in a triumphant manner led him to _Orapaks_, where he was after their manner kindly Feasted, and well us’d.

Their order in conducting him was thus; Drawing themselves all in Fyle, the King in the midst had all their Bowes and Swords borne before him. Captain _Smith_ was led after him by three great Salvages, holding him fast by each Arm; and on each side six went in Fyle with their Arrows nocked. But arriving at the Town (which was but onely thirty or forty Hunting Houses made of Mats, which they remove as they please, as we our Tents) all the Women and Children staring and gazing at him, the Souldiers first all in Fyle wheel’d off to the Rear in good Order; on each Flank were Officers, like Serjeants to see them keep their Postures: A good time they continu’d this Exercise, and then cast themselves in a Ring, Dancing in such several Postures, and singing and yelling out such hellish Notes and Screeches; being strangely Painted, every one his Quiver of Arrows, and at his Back a Club; on his Arm a Fox or an Otters-skin, or some such matter for his vambrace; their Heads and Shoulders Painted red, with Oyl and _Pocones_ mingled together, which Scarlet-like colour, made an exceeding handsome show; his Bowe in his Hand, and the Skin of a Bird with her Wings abroad dry’d, ty’d on his Head, a piece of Copper, a white Shell, a long Feather, with a small Rattle growing at the Tails of their Snaks ty’d to it, or some such like Toy. All this while _Smith_ and the King stood in the midst, guarded, as before is said, and after three Dances they all departed. _Smith_ they conducted to a long House, where thirty or forty tall Fellows did guard him, and e’re long, more Bread and Venison was brought him than would have serv’d twenty Men, I think his Stomack at that time was not very good; what he left, they put in Baskets and ty’d over his Head. About midnight they set the Meat again before him; all this time none of them would eat a bit with him, till the next Morning they brought him as much more, and then did they eat all the old, and reserv’d the new as they had done the other, which made him think they would feed him for slaughter: Yet in this desperate estate to fend him from the cold, one _Maocassater_ brought him his Gown, in requital of some Beads and Toys _Smith_ had given him at his first arrival in _Virginia_.

Two days after a man would have slain him (but that the Guard prevented it) for the death of his Son, to whom they conducted him to recover the poor man then breathing his last. _Smith_ told them, that at _James-Town_ he had a Water would do it, if they would let him fetch it, but they would not permit that; but made all the preparations they could to assault _James-Town_, craving his advice, and for recompence he should have Life, Liberty, Land, and Women. In part of a Tablebook he writ his mind to them at the Fort, what was intended, how they should follow that direction to affright the messengers, and without fail send him such things as he writ for, and an Inventory with them. The difficulty and danger, he told the Salvages, of the Mines, great Guns, and other Engines, exceedingly affrighted them, yet according to his Request they went to _James-Town_, in as bitter weather as could be of Frost and Snow, and within three days return’d with an Answer.

But when they came to _James-Town_, seeing Men sally out as he had told them they would, they fled; yet in the night they came again to the same place where he had told them they should receive answer, and such things as he had promis’d them, which they found accordingly, and with which they return’d with no small expedition, to the wonder of them all, supposing that he could either Divine, or the Paper could speak: then they led him to the _Youthtanunds_, the _Mattapanients_, the _Payankatanks_, the _Nantaughtacunds_, and _Onawmanients_ upon the Rivers of _Rapahanock_, and _Patawomek_, through intricate ways, and back again by divers other several Nations, to the Kings Habitation at _Pamaunkee_, where they entertain’d him with most strange and fearful Conjurations. Not long after, early in the Morning, a great fire was made in a long House, and a Mat spread on each side thereof; on the one they caus’d him to sit, and all the Guard went out of the House, and presently there came skipping in a great grim Fellow, all Painted over with Coal, mingled with Oyl; and many Snakes and Wesels-skins stuff’d with Moss, and all their Tails ty’d together, so as they met on the Crown of his Head in a Tassel; and round about the Tassel was a Coronet of Feathers, the Skins hanging round about his Head, Back, and Shoulders, and in a manner cover’d his Face; with a hellish voice, and a Rattle in his Hand. With most strange gestures and passions he began his Invocation, and environ’d the fire with a Circle of Meal; which done, three more such like Devils came rushing in with the like antique Tricks, Painted half black, half red; but all their Eyes were Painted white, and some red strokes like _Mutchato_’s, along their Cheeks: round about him those Fiends Danc’d a pretty while, and then came in three more as ugly as the rest, with red Eyes, and white strokes over their black Faces; at last they all sate down right against him, three of them on the one hand of the chief Priest, and three on the other; then all with their Rattles began a Song, which ended, the chief Priest laid down five Wheat Corns, then stretching his Arms and Hands with such violence, that he sweat, and his Veins swell’d, he began a short Oration: at the conclusion, they all gave a short groan, and then laid down three Grains more; after that, began their Song again, and then another Oration, ever laying down so many Corns as before, till they had twice incircled the Fire; that done, they took a bunch of little Sticks, prepared for that purpose, continuing still their Devotion, and at the end of every Song and Oration, they laid down a Stick between the Divisions of Corn: till night, neither he nor they did either eat or drink, and then they feasted merrily, with the best Provisions they could make: Three days they us’d this Ceremony, the meaning whereof they told him, was to know if he intended them well, or no. The Circle of Meal signifi’d their Countrey, the Circles of Corn the bounds of the Sea, and the Sticks his Countrey. They imagin’d the World to be flat and round, like a Trencher, and they in the midst. After this they brought him a Bag of Gun-powder, which they carefully preferv’d till the next Spring, to Plant as they did their Corn, because they would be acquainted with the nature of that Seed. _Opitchapam_, the King’s Brother, invited him to his House, where, with as many Platters of Bread, Fowl, and wild Beasts, as did environ him, he bid him wellcome, but not any of them would eat a bit with him, but put up all the remainder in Baskets. At his return to _Opechancanoughs_, all the Kings Women, and their Children, flock’d about him for their Parts, as a due by Custom, to be merry with such Fragments.

At last, they brought him to _Meronocomoco_, where was _Powhatan_ their Emperor. Here more than two hundred of those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had been a Monster; till _Powhatan_ and his Train had put themselves in their greatest Braveries. Before a Fire, upon a seat like a Bedsted, he sat cover’d with a great Robe, made of _Rarowcun_-Skins, and all the Tails hanging by. On either hand did sit a young Maid, of sixteen or eighteen years of Age, and along on each side the House, two rows of Men, and behind them as many Women, with all their Heads and Shoulders Painted red; many of their Heads bedeck’d with the white Doun of Birds, but every one with something, and a great Chain of white Beads about their Necks. At his entrance before the Emperor, all the People gave a great shout. The Queen of _Appamatuck_ was appointed to bring him Water to wash his Hands, and another brought him a bunch of Feathers, in stead of a Towel to dry them: Having Feasted him after their barbarous manner as well as they could, a long consultation was held, but in conclusion, two great Stones being brought before _Powhatan_, as many as could, laid Hands on him, dragg’d him to them, and thereon laid his Head, when being ready with their Clubs, to beat out his Brains, _Pocahontas_, the Emperors dearest Daughter, seeing no intreaty could prevail, got his Head in her Arms, and laid her own upon his to save him from death; whereat, the Emperor was contented he should live to make him Hatchets, and her Bells, Beads, and Copper; for they thought him a Man of all Occupations like themselves; for the King himself will make his own Robes, Shoes, Bowes, Arrows, Pots, Plant, Hunt, or do any thing as well as the rest.

[Illustration: A New _DISCRIPTION OF_ CAROLINA _By Order of the_ Lords Proprietors]

Two days after, _Powhatan_ having disguis’d himself in the most fearful manner he could, caus’d Captain _Smith_ to be brought forth to a great House in the Woods, and there upon a Mat by the Fire to be left alone. Not long after, from behind a Mat that divided the House, was made the most doleful noise he ever heard; then _Powhatan_, more like a Devil than a Man, with about two hundred more as black as himself, came unto him, and told him, That now they were Friends, and presently he should go to _James-Town_, to send him two great Guns and a Grindstone, for which he would give him the Countrey of _Capahowosick_, and for ever esteem him as his Son _Nantaquoud_. So to _James-Town_ with twelve Guides _Powhatan_ sent him. That Night they Quarter’d in the Woods, he still expecting (as he had done all this long time of his Imprisonment) every hour to be put to one Death or other, for all their Feasting: but Almighty God (by his Divine Providence) had mollifi’d the Hearts of those stern _Barbarians_ with compassion. The next Morning betimes they came to the Fort, where _Smith_ having us’d the Salvages with what kindness he could, he shew’d _Rawhunt_, _Powhatan_’s trusty Servant, two Demi-Culverins and a Milstone, to carry to _Powhatan_: they found them somewhat too heavy; but when they saw him Discharge them, they being loaded with Stones, amongst the Boughs of a great Tree loaded with Isickles, the Ice and Branches came so tumbling down, that the poor Salvages ran away half dead with Fear. But at last we regain’d some Conference with them, and gave them some Toys, and sent to _Powhatan_’s Women and Children such Presents, as gave them in general, full content.

SECT. V. Carolina.

[Sidenote: Situation and Description of _Carolina_.]

_Carolina_ is that part of _Florida_ which lies between twenty nine and thirty six Degrees and thirty Minutes of Northern Latitude: It is wash’d on the East and South, with the _Atlantick_ Ocean; on the West with _Mare Pacificum_, or the South Sea; and on the North, bounds on _Virginia_. A Countrey wherein Nature shews how bountiful she can be without the assistance of Art, the Inhabitants (excepting a little _Maiz_ which their old Men and Women Plant) depending meerly on the natural and spontaneous Growth of the Soil for their Provisions, the Woods furnishing them with store of Fruit and Venison, and the Rivers with plenty of several sorts of wholsom and savory Fish.

This Maintenance, which without forecast or toil they receive from the natural fruitfulness of the Countrey, will, if we consider either the largeness of their Growth, or the duration of their Lives, be thought neither scanty nor unhealthy, their Stature being of a larger size than that of _English_-men, their Make strong and well proportion’d, a crooked or mis-shapen Person being not to be found in the whole Countrey; and (where the chance of War, which they are almost continually engag’d in one against another in their little Governments, spares any of them) they live to an incredible old age; so that when the _English_ came there, they found some of their Kings, who saw descend from them the sixth Generation.

[Sidenote: Productions of the Soil.]

The Soil is very rich and fertile, producing naturally Walnuts, Grapes (of which the _English_ who are there Planted have made very good Wine) Apricocks, Bullys, with a multitude of others; besides the Woods also are full of very good Peaches, and all the Season of the Year strew’d all over with Strawberries. Mulberry-Trees are the common growth of the Woods; and to assure you they are the natural Offspring of the Place, and grow to an incredible bigness, one whereof the _English_ (who are new Planted at _Albemarle Point_ on _Ashley_ River) made use to fasten the Gate of their Pallisado to, was so large, that all who came from thence say, they never saw any Oak in _England_ bigger, which is but the ordinary size of the Mulberry-Trees of this Countrey, which is so sure an Argument of the richness of the Soil, that the Inhabitants of _Virginia_ enquiring of the Seamen who came from thence, concerning the Quality and Product of the Countrey, when they were inform’d of the large Mulberry-Trees it produc’d, were so well satisfi’d with it, that they made no farther Enquiry. There are also other Trees, as Ash, Poplar, and Bay, with several sorts unknown to us of _Europe_; but those which make it almost all one general Forrest of large Timber-Trees, are Oak, both red and white, and Cedar. There are also here and there large Groves of Pine-Trees, some a hundred Foot high, which afford a better sort of Mast than are to be had either in _Mary-Land_ or _Norway_. These larger Trees weaving their luxuriant Branches into a close Shade, suffer no Under-wood to grow between them, either by their Droppings, or else the Heads of Deer which loosening all the tender Shoots, quite destroy it; so that a great part of the Countrey is as it were a vast Forrest of fine Walks, free from the heat of the Sun, or the incumbrance of Shrubs and Bushes, and so clear and open, that a Man may easily ride a Hunting amongst the Trees, yielding a Prospect very pleasant and surpassing. On the Skirts of these Woods grow lesser Trees and Shrubs of several sorts; amongst them are sundry Dying Materials, which how well the Inhabitants know how to make use of, appears in the Deer-Skins that the chief of them wear, which are Painted, or rather Dy’d, with several lively Colours. But amongst their Shrubs, one of most note and use is that whose Leaves make their _Casini_, a Drink they frequently use, and affirm to be very advantageous for the preservation of Health; which, by the description our _English_ give of the size, colour, and shape of the Leaf, the sort of Tree it grows on, and the taste, colour, and effects of the Drink, which is nothing but the Decoction of the Leaf, seems to be the very same with the _East-India TEE_, and by those who have seen and tasted both, affirm’d to be no other, and may very probably be a spontaneous and native Plant of this Place, since those who give us an account of it, tell us, that this so much valu’d Leaf grows most plentifully in _Nanking_, a Province in _China_ under the very same Latitude, and very much agreeing in Soil and Situation with this of _Carolina_.

What Herbs else the Countrey produces, the _English_ Enquirers (who by minding their Plantations and Settlement there, have been taken off from such unprofitable Actions) give us but little account, onely they say, that those Plats of Ground which have been formerly clear’d off by the _Indians_ for the Planting their Corn, they found thick cover’d with three-leav’d Grass and Dazies, which the fertility of the Soil thrusts forth, whenever the Natives remove their Tillage to some other place, and leave the Earth to its own production; and in other parts they found plenty of Garden Herbs growing wild. The low and Moorish Grounds are for the most part overgrown with Sedge and Reeds, and such other Trash, which usually incumbers rich and uncultivated Lands; those they call _Swamsas_, which with a little Husbandry would prove very good Meadows. There are also some large and pleasant _Savanas_, or grassy Plains.

These are a part of the Trees and Plants best known to us, that Nature of her self produces, in a Soil which contrives and nourishes any thing. The _English_ who are now Planted in the most Northern parts of it, at _Albemarle_, bordering on _Virginia_, have Apples, Pears, Cherries, Apricocks, Plumbs, and Water-Melons, equalling, and if you will believe the Inhabitants, both in largeness of size and goodness of taste, exceeding any in _Europe_. And they who are Setled farther South on _Ashley_ River, have found that the Oranges, Lemmons, Pomegranates, Limes, Pomecitrons, _&c._ which they Planted there, have thriven beyond expectation; and there is nothing which they have put into the Earth, that through any defect in the Soil, hath fail’d to prosper.

[Sidenote: Commodities of the Countrey.]

Besides those things which do serve to satisfie Hunger, or provoke it, the Land doth with great return produce Indigo, Ginger, Tobacco, Cotton, and other Commodities fit to send abroad and furnish foreign Markets; and when a little time shall have brought those kind of Plants to maturity, and given the Inhabitants leisure to furnish themselves with Conveniences for ordering those things aright, the Trials that they have already made of the Soil and its fitness for such Plantations, assure you, that besides Silk, enough to store _Europe_, and a great many other considerable Commodities, they shall have as great plenty of good Wine and Oyl, as any part of the World.

The Mould is generally black, mellow, and upon handling feels soft, and (to use their Expression who have been there) soapy, and is generally all over the Countrey just like the fine Mould of our well order’d Gardens. Under this black Earth, which is of a good thickness in most places that they have try’d, there lies a Bed of Marle, and in some parts Clay.

[Sidenote: Fish and Water-Fowl.]

The Rivers are stor’d with plenty of excellent Fish of several sorts, which are taken with great ease in abundance, and are one great part of the Natives Provision, who are never like to want this Recruit, in a Countrey so abounding in large Rivers, there being in that one small Tract between _Port Rasal_ and _Cape Carteret_, which are not one Degree distant, five or six great Navigable Rivers, that empty themselves into the Sea. These Rivers are also cover’d with Flocks of Ducks and Mallard, whereof millions are seen together, besides Cranes, Herons, Geese, Curlews, and other Water-Fowl, who are so easie to be kill’d, that onely rising at the discharge and noise of a Gun, they instantly light again in the same place, and presently offer a fresh Mark to the Fowler. At the Mouths of the Rivers, and along the Sea-Coast, are Beds of Oysters, which are of a longer Make than those in _Europe_, but very well tasted, wherein are often found good large Pearls, which though the unskilful _Indians_ by washing the Oysters do commonly discolour, and spoil their lustre, yet ’tis not to be doubted, but if rightly order’d, there will be found many of value, and the Fishing for them turn to some account.

Besides the easie Provisions which the Rivers and Sea afford, their Woods are well stock’d with Deer, Rabbets, Hares, Turtle-Doves, Phesants, Partridges, and an infinite number of Wood-Pigeons and wild Turkies, which are the ordinary Dishes of the _Indians_, whose House-keeping depends on their Fishing and Hunting, and who have found it no ill way of Living in so fertile a Countrey, to trust themselves without any labor or forecast, to the Supplies which are there provided to their hands, without the continual trouble of Tillage and Husbandry. Besides, these Woods are fill’d with innumerable variety of smaller Birds, as different in their Notes as Kinds.

[Sidenote: Temperature of the Climate.]

The Temperature of this Province is agreeable to a Countrey, whose Position is on the warmer side of the temperate _Zone_, but yet the Heat is not so sultry nor offensive, as in Places under the same Latitude in the _Old World_; to which moderation of Heat, as well as the healthiness of it, the vast _Atlantick_ Ocean, lying to the East and South of it, may perhaps not a little contribute, an instance whereof some think _China_ to be; to which deservedly admir’d Countrey _Carolina_ exactly answers in its Position and Latitude, the trending from North-East to South-West of its Coast, and the lowness of its Shore, and wants nothing but Inhabitants, to make it equal, if not excell, in all conveniences of Life, as it doth in richness of Soil, that flourishing Empire. The healthiness of the Air is such, that it is not onely benign and favorable to the home-bred _Indians_, and Constitutions accustom’d to it, but the _English_-men who first Planted on _Ashley_ River, though for some other Conveniences they Planted on the side, or almost middle of a Morass, and were encompass’d with a salt Marsh, where the Air, pent up with Woods that surrounded them, had not that freedom it hath in open and cultivated Countreys, yet lost not in a whole years time, of a considerable number, any one Person, of any Disease to be imputed to the Countrey, those few that dy’d in that time sinking under lingring Distempers which they brought with them, and had almost worn them out before they came thither. The _Bermudians_ (who being accustom’d to the pure Air of their own Island, cannot without hazard of their Lives put themselves into any other Place) assur’d of the healthiness of this Place, which is the next Land to them, and under the same Latitude, venture hither. And generally all the _English_ Planting in the _West-Indies_, are so taken with the Conveniences of this Countrey, which, as some of the most considerable of the _English_ in those Parts say of it, promises all that the Heart of Man can wish, that they send the overplus of their People hither; to which the Inhabitants of _Barbados_, a skilful and wary sort of Planters, well knowing in all the parts of the _West-Indies_, have been found to remove the Hands they could spare. As the Summer is not intolerably nor offensively hot, so the Winter is not troublesom nor pinching, but enough to correct the Humors of Mens Bodies, the better to strengthen them, and preserve their Healths, and so far to check the growth of Plants, that by this stop they may put out more regularly, and the Corn and other Fruits the better ripen together, and be ready seasonably at the Harvest, the want whereof in some Countreys hinders the beneficial Growth of several valuable Commodities, the continual Spring all the year long making that their Crops are never ready, their Trees being laden with green and ripe Fruit at the same time, which is to be seen in the Vines growing between the _Tropicks_, where, though they bear excellent Grapes, yet they cannot make any Wine, whilest the mixture of ripe and sowre Grapes upon the same Branch, renders them unfit for the Press, which from Grapes so blended, though of a good kind, would squeeze out a very crude and useless Liquor. This also is the reason why many Parts where our Wheat will grow very well, do yet lose the benefit of it, whilest the several Ears ripening unequally, never make the Crop fit for the Sickle. But this Countrey hath Winter enough to remove that Inconvenience, and to put such a stop to the Rise of the Sap, and the Budding of Plants, as to make the several kinds of Fruits Bud and Blossom in their distinct Seasons, and keep even pace till they are fit to be gather’d.

[Sidenote: Nature, Constitutions, and Manners of the Inhabitants.]

To this happy Climate the native Inhabitants are very well suited, a strong, lusty, and well shap’d People, who to their well knit and active Bodies, want not stout and vigorous Minds; they are a People of a good Understanding, well Humor’d, and generally so just and Honest, that they may seem to have no notice of, as their Language hath no word for, Dishonesty and Cheating; and the worst Name they have for ill Men is, that they are not good. They are a stout and valiant People, which appears in the constant Wars they are engag’d in, not out of covetousness, and a desire of usurping others Possessions, or to enrich themselves by the Spoils of their Neighbors, but upon a pitch of Honor, and for the glory of Victory, which is their greatest joy, there being no parts of their Lives wherein they enjoy so much satisfaction, and give themselves so wholly to Jollity, as in their Triumphs after Victory. Valor therefore is the Vertue they most esteem and reward, and he which hath behav’d himself well in the Wars, is suffer’d to wear the Badges of Honor, and is advanc’d beyond others with some Marks of his Courage; which amongst some is blacking the Skin below his Eyes with black Lead, in fashion something of an Half-Moon; which Mark of Courage is not suffer’d to be worn by any, but those who by some brave Action, as killing the Enemy’s Leader, _&c._ hath signaliz’d himself in their Encounters. They are faithful to their Promises, fair and candid in their Dealings, and so far from Dishonesty, that they want even the Seeds of it, _viz._ Forecast and Covetousness; and he will be very little apt to deceive you to Day, who troubles not himself much about to Morrow, and trusts for the Provisions of the Day to the Day it self; which proceeds not in them for want of Wit, but desire of Content and Quiet, or by the help of their natural Reason they enjoy that Happiness which the Philosophers could not by their Study and Reading attain to, whilest these Men cut off those Desires which Learning could never help the other to Govern; and which if once permitted to run out beyond the present, are capable of no Rest nor Bounds. In their Conversation they are courteous and civil, and in their Visits make Presents to one another; when they meet, their way of Salutation is stroaking on the Shoulders, and sucking in their Breath; and if he be a great Man whom they Salute, they stroak his Thighs too; as civil an Address, as those Patterns of good Breeding, the Hero’s, us’d to their Princes, who in their greatest Courtships, we are told, embrac’d their Knees: After their Salutation they sit down; and it is usual with them to sit still almost a quarter of an hour before they speak, which is not an effect of stupidity or sullenness, but the accustom’d Gravity of their Countrey; for they are in their Tempers a merry, frollick, gay People, and so given to Jollity, that they will Dance whole Nights together, the Women sitting by and Singing, whilest the Men Dance to their Ayrs, which though not like ours, are not harsh or unpleasing, but are something like the Tunes of the _Irish_: So that if we will not let our selves too fondly admire onely the Customs we have been bred up in, nor think Men are to be valu’d for making Legs after our Mode, or the Clothes they wear, which, the finer and gayer they are, always the more to be suspected of Luxury and Effeminateness; if we will allow but these Men to follow the Garbs of their own Countrey, and think them fine enough in a shape onely to hide their Nakedness before, or a Deer-skin hanging loosely on their Shoulders, and their Women not ill Dress’d in Garments of Moss, and Necklaces of Beads, whilest the Fashion of their Courts require no other Ornaments; if, I say, a long and pleasant Life, without Distemper or Care, be to be valu’d, without the incumbrance of unnecessary Trinkets; if Men are to be esteem’d for Valor, Honesty, Friendship, Humanity and good Nature, though Strangers to the ceremonious Troubles we are accustom’d to, the Natives of _Carolina_ will as little, or perhaps less, deserve the Name of _Miserable_, or _Salvage_, as those that give it them. ’Tis true, the _French_ and _Spaniards_ who have Planted amongst them, or with little Armies travell’d their Countrey, have been ill handled by them; but yet the _Indians_ never did them any harm, or treated them otherwise than Friends, till those _Europeans_ by their breach of Faith and several Outrages, had provok’d their just Revenge; and they did nothing but what most virtuous and generous sort of Men are apt to do, to revenge those Affronts, which did not agree with their Tempers tamely to endure. That this did not proceed from treachery and inconstancy in their Natures, is apparent in the contrary Correspondence they have had with the _English_ Setled amongst them, to whom they have been all along very kind, as they were at first very covetous of their Company; for after that some of their King’s Relation had been at _Barbados_, and had seen and admir’d the Temper, Fashions and Strength of the _English_ there, and had been very civilly Treated in that Island, they were so well satisfi’d with them, that at the coming of the _English_ to Settle there, the several little Kingdoms strove with all the Arts and Arguments they could use, each of them to draw the _English_ to Plant in their Dominions, by commending the richness of their Soil, conveniency of their Rivers, the healthiness of their Countrey, the disparagement of their Neighbors, and whatever else they judg’d might allure the _English_ to their Neighborhood. Nor was this onely the first heat of Men fond of Novelties, and as soon weary of them again, but ever since the _English_ first Planted at _Albemarle Point_, on _Ashley_ River, they have continu’d to do them all manner of friendly Offices, ready on all occasions to supply them with any thing they have observ’d them to want, not making use of our Mens Necessities, as an opportunity to enhance the Price of their Commodities, a sort of fair Dealing we could scarce have promis’d them amongst civiliz’d, well bred, and religious Inhabitants of any part of _Europe_; and though they are much frighted with our Guns, both small and great, yet like innocent and well-meaning People, they do not at all distrust our Power, but freely, without suspicion, trust themselves, both Men and Women, even their Kings themselves, in our Town, Lodging and Dancing there frequently whole Nights together, upon no other Pledges but the bare confidence of our mutual Friendship; nor do our Men use any greater caution in Conversing with them, stragling up and down, and travelling singly and unarm’d through their Woods for many Miles about, and are so far from receiving any injury or ill treatment from them, that on the contrary they are kindly us’d and Entertain’d, and guided by them in their Way whenever they desire it; and when any of our Men meet them in their Walks, the _Indians_ all stand still till they are gone by, civilly Saluting them as they pass. Nor doth this Assurance of theirs bound it self within their own Homes, they of their own accords venturing themselves aboard our Ships, have gone voluntarily with our Men to _Virginia_ and _Barbados_. Nor have the _English_ been wanting on their parts in any thing that may preserve this Amity, being very cautious of doing them any injury, bartering with them for those things they receive of them, and buying of them even the waste Land they make no use of.

Besides the simplicity of the _Indians_ Diet, it is very remarkable, that they have a general aversion to those two things which are most acceptable to our Palates, and without which few of us either eat or drink with any delight; for in their Meats they cannot endure the least mixture or rellish of Salt; and for their Drink, they utterly abominate all manner of strong Liquor; to the latter whereof, their large Growth and constant Health, is perhaps not a little owing.

[Sidenote: Their manner of Government.]

Every little Town is a distinct Principality, Govern’d by an Hereditary King, who in some places is not Son, but Sisters Son to the precedent King, the Succession of the Blood-Royal being continu’d by the safer side. The great Business of those Princes is to lead their Men out against their Enemies in War, or against the Beasts in Hunting; for unless it be to appoint them where to Hunt, or else to Consult about making some Attempt upon their Enemy, he hath but small trouble in the Government of his Subjects, who either through their own Honesty, or the few occasions they have for Controversies in their _extempore_ way of Living, need few Laws, and little Severity to keep them in order; but yet they Govern their People without Contract, and fail not of a ready Obedience to their Commands; so that when some of them have bought things of such of the _English_, who by the Orders made amongst our selves were not to Traffick with the _Indians_, they have, upon Complaint made to their _Casiques_, been restor’d again, though in strict Rules of Law they were neither bound by, nor oblig’d to take notice of the Rules which were made onely to Govern our own People, and had at just Prices bought what they carry’d away; such is the Honesty of Men, whose Principles not being corrupted with Learning and Distinction, are contented to follow the Dictates of right Reason, which Nature has sufficiently taught all Men for the well ordering of their Actions, and enjoyment and preservation of humane Society, who do not give themselves up to be amus’d and deceiv’d by insignificant Terms, and minding what is just and right, seek not Evasions in the Niceties and Fallacies of Words.

[Sidenote: _Carolina_ granted by Patent to several Noble Persons by His Majesty.]

The same is to be said of the first Discovery of this Countrey, as hath been formerly said of _Virginia_ and _Florida_, of both which it partakes; but as to the present Interest and Propriety, the _English_, besides all _Virginia_ intirely, have also so much of _Florida_ as makes up this considerable Province of _Carolina_, which soon after the happy Restauration of His present Majesty King _Charles_ II. from whom it receives Denomination, was granted by Patent to _Edward_ Earl of _Clarendon_, L. Chancellor of _England_, _George_ Duke of _Albemarle_, _William_ Earl of _Craven_, _John_ Lord _Berkley_, _Anthony_ Lord _Ashley_, Sir _George Carteret_, Vice-Chamberlain of His Majesty’s Houshold, Sir _William Berkley_, Knight and Baronet, and Sir _John Colleton_, Knight and Baronet.

[Sidenote: Their care for Setling and Improving of this Plantation.]

The Lords-Proprietors of this Countrey, for the better Settlement of it according to their Patent granted unto them by His Majesty, and for the enlargement of the King’s Dominions in those parts of _America_, have been at great Charge to secure this so rich and advantageous a Countrey to the Crown of _England_, to whom of ancient Right, by the Discovery of Sir _Sebastian Cabott_ in the time of _Henry_ the Seventh, it doth belong, and for its Situation, Fertility, Neighborhood to our other Plantations and several other Conveniences, of too valuable consideration to be negligently lost: By the Care therefore and Endeavors of those Great Men, it hath now two considerable Colonies Planted in it, the one of _Albemarle_, on the North side, bordering on _Virginia_, where are some hundreds of _English_ Families remov’d thither from _New England_, and some of our other Plantations in the _West-Indies_; and another towards the middle of the Countrey, at _Charles-Town_, or _Ashley-River_, a Settlement so hopeful, for the healthiness of the Land, and convenience of access by a large deep Navigable River, and so promising in its very Infancy, that many of the rich Inhabitants of _Barbados_ and _Bermudas_, who are now crowded up in those flourishing Islands, and many in our other _American_ Plantations, are turning their Eyes and Thoughts this way, and have already remov’d part of their Stock and Servants thither. Nor is it to be doubted, but that many, following the Example of those who went to _Albemarle_, will be drawn to this better Plantation at _Ashley-River_, from _New-England_, where the heat of their Zeal, and the coldness of the Air, doth not agree with every Man’s Constitution; and therefore it is to be thought, that many well temper’d Men, who are not much at ease under such Extreams, will be forward to remove hither.

[Sidenote: Fair Terms propos’d to whomsoever shall remove thither.]

The Lords-Proprietors, for the comfortable subsistence, and future enrichment of all those who shall this Year 1671. Transport themselves and Servants thither, allow every Man a hundred Acres _per_ Head, for himself, his Wife, Children and Servants, he carries thither, to him and his Heirs for ever, paying onely one Peny an Acre, as a Chief-Rent; which Peny an Acre is not to be paid these nineteen years; and those Servants who go along thither with their Masters, shall each also have a hundred Acres upon the same Terms, when he is out of his Time. But though these Conditions are very advantageous, and the Countrey promises to the Planter Health, Plenty and Riches at a cheap Rate, yet there is one thing that makes this Plantation more valuable than all these, and that is the secure possession of all these things with as great certainty as the state of humane Affairs, and the transient things of this Life are capable of, in a well continu’d Form of Government, wherein it is made every Man’s Interest to preserve the Rights of his Neighbor with his own; and those who have the greatest Power, have it limited to the Service of the Countrey, the Good and Welfare whereof whilest they preserve and promote, they cannot miss of their own, the Lords Proprietors having no other aim, than to be the greatest Men in a Countrey where every one may be happy if it be not his own fault, it being almost as uncomfortable, and much more unsafe, to be Lord over, than Companion of a miserable, unhappy, and discontented Society of Men.

With this Design the Lords-Proprietors, who are at great Charge for carrying on this Plantation, have put the framing of a Government into the Hands of one, whose Parts and Experience in Affairs of State are universally agreed on, and who is by all Men allow’d to know what is convenient for the right ordering Men in Society, and setling a Government upon such Foundations, as may be equal, safe, and lasting; and to this hath a Soul large enough to wish well to Mankind, and to desire, that all the People where he hath to do might be happy. My Lord _Ashley_ therefore, by the consent of his Brethren, the rest of the Lords Proprietors, hath drawn up, to their general satisfaction, some fundamental Constitutions, which are since, by their joynt approbation, confirm’d to be the Model and Form of Government in the Province of _Carolina_; the main Design and Ballance thereof (according to the best of my memory, having had a Copy thereof) in short is as followeth:

[Sidenote: The Model drawn up by the Lord _Ashley_ for the Government of _Carolina_.]

1. Every County is to consist of forty square Plots, each containing twelve thousand Acres. Of these square Plots each of the Proprietors is to have one, which is to be call’d a _Signiory_. Eight of these square Plots are to be divided amongst the three Noble-men of that County, _viz._ a _Landgrave_, who is to have four of them; and two _Casiques_, who are to have each of them two apiece; and these square Plots belonging to the Nobility, are to be call’d _Baronies_. The other twenty four square Plots, call’d _Colonies_, are to be the Possession of the People: And this Method is to be observ’d in the Planting and Setting out of the whole Countrey; so that one Fifth of the Land is to be in the Proprietors, one Fifth in the Nobility, and three Fifths in the People.

2. The _Signories_ and _Baronies_, that is, the hereditary Lands belonging to the Proprietors and Nobility, are all entirely to descend to their Heirs, with the Dignity, without power of alienation, more than for three Lives, or one and twenty years, or two Thirds of their _Signiories_ and _Baronies_, and the rest to be _Demesne_.

3. There will be also some Mannors in the Colonies, but none less than three thousand Acres in a Piece, which, like the rest of the Colony Lands, will be alienable, onely with this difference, that it cannot be parcell’d out, but if sold, it must be altogether.

4. There is to be a Biennial Parliament, consisting of the eight Proprietors, the _Landgraves_ and _Casiques_, and one out of every Precinct, that is the six neighboring Colonies, for the People, chosen by the Freeholders; these are to sit and Vote altogether for the making of Laws, which shall be in force no longer than sixty years after their Enacting, the great mischief of most Governments, by which not onely the People are mightily entangled by multiplicity of Rules and Penalties, and thereby laid open to the Malice and Designs of troublesom Men and cunning Projectors; but, which is far worse, the whole frame of the Government in tract of time comes to be remov’d from its original Foundation, and thereby becomes more weak and tottering.

5. There are eight supream Courts for the dispatch of all publick Affairs; the first consists of the _Palatine_, who is the eldest of the Proprietors, and hath power to call Parliaments, and dispose of publick Offices. The other seven supream Courts are, 1. The chief Justices for the determining of Controversies of _Meum_ and _Tuum_, and judging of Criminals. 2. The Chancellors, for passing of Charters, and managing the State Matters of the Province. 3. The High-Constables, for Military Affairs. 4. The Admirals, for Maritime Affairs. 5. The High-Stewards, for Trade. 6. The Treasurers, for the publick Stock; and 7. The Chamberlains, for Ceremonies, Fashions, Marriages, Burials, _&c._ These are the seven supream Courts, to whom lies the ultimate Appeal in all Causes belonging to them. Each of these Courts consists of one Proprietor, and six other Councellors, whereof two are chosen by the Nobility, and two by the People. All the number of these eight Courts joyn’d together make the Grand Council, which are in the nature of a Council of State, and are entrusted with the management of Affairs of greatest concernment. There is also in every County a Court, and in every Precinct another; from the Precinct Court there lies an Appeal to the County Court, and from the County Court to the Proprietors Court, to which the Matter in question belongs, and there is the last decision and determination thereof, without any farther Appeal. And to keep the People from the Charges and vexation of long Suits, to the enriching of Men cunning in Words, care is taken, that no Cause shall be Try’d more than once in any one Court, and that profess’d Pleaders for Money shall not be allow’d.

_Liberty of Conscience_ is here also allow’d in the greatest latitude, but yet so, that neither Atheists, or Men of no Religion, are permitted; Atheism, Irreligion, and vicious Lives being condemn’d, as disagreeable to humane Nature, inconsistent with Government and Societies, and destructive to all that is useful to, or becoming of Mankind; as on the other hand, rigorous Imposing of, and hot Contentions about the Ceremonies and Circumstances of Religion, is an occasion of perpetual Strife, Faction and Division, keeps Men from sedate and temperate Enquiries after Truth, eats out the great Cement of humane Conversation, _Charity_, and cannot be found in any one, who hath but modesty enough to think himself less than a _Pope_, and short of _Infallibility_.

There is also to be a Register of all Grants and Conveyances of Land, to prevent even the occasions of Controversies and Law-Suits.

There are several other less considerable Particulars in this Government, all contriv’d and design’d for the good and welfare of the People; all which are so well put together, and in such equal proportion ballance each other, that some judicious Men who have seen it, say, it is the best and fairest Frame, for the well-being of those who shall live under it, of any they have seen or read of.

[Illustration]

CHAP. III. Florida.

[Sidenote: Situation and Bounds.]

South-West of _Virginia_ lieth the spacious Countrey of _Florida_, remarkable hitherto rather by the great pains which the _Spaniards_ have taken, and the ill Successes they have met with in the discovery and search of this Province, than by any thing else they have discover’d in it answerable to their desires. On the East it hath the _Atlantick Ocean_, or _Mare del Nordt_; on the South, and South-West, the Gulph of _Mexico_ and _Mare Virginium_; and full West, part of _New Gallicia_, and some other Countreys, not yet perfectly known.

[Sidenote: _Ponce_’s Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Water to make old People look young.]

This Countrey is also one of those, said to have been first of all discover’d by Sir _Sebastian Cabot_, at the Charges of the King of _England_, about the Year 1497. but afterwards more throughly search’d into by _John Ponce de Leon_, a _Spaniard_, who in the Year 1512. set Sail with three Ships out of the Haven _St. German_ in _Porto Rico_, North-West to the Isles _Del Veio_, _Caycos_, _Yaguna_, _Amaguyao_, _Manegua_, and _Guanahani_, first discover’d by _Christopher Colonus_, and call’d _St. Salvador_: After that Steer’d North-West by a Coast, which (because of its pleasant prospect) was call’d _Florida_ or (according to the more common Opinion) because it was on _Palm-Sunday_, which the _Spaniards_ call _Pascha de Flores_, (or _Pascha Florida_) that he Landed here: And to find out a Haven he kept sight of the Shore, which appear’d South-West from him. Here the Ships met with so strong a Tide, that notwithstanding they had a fresh Gale of Wind, yet could they not stem it; one of the Ships was driven to Sea out of sight; the other two casting Anchor, which raking, drove toward the Shore; whither, being beckned by the _Indians_, they immediately went; when no sooner he Landed, but they ran in great Companies to make themselves Masters of the Vessels, kill’d one _Spaniard_, and wounded two more: the Night approaching put an end to the Fight. From hence Sailing to the River _La Cruix_ for Wood and Water, they were resisted by sixty Natives, which they put to flight with their Guns, and took one Prisoner; after which they erected a Stone Cross. The Promontory, by which glides the strong Current, lies in twenty Degrees North-Latitude, and call’d _Cabo de Corrientes_, as the Row of Isles, before the Main Land _Los Martyres_, because the Cliffs at a distance appear like Men standing on Poles. Lastly, after some small Encounters with the _Floridans_, _Ponce_ return’d home, being onely inform’d falsly by the _Indians_, that in _Florida_ was a River, and on the Isle _Bimini_ a Fountain, whose Waters made old People young.

[Sidenote: _Vasquez_’s Expedition to _Florida_.]

[Sidenote: Habit of a _Floridan_ King.]

But after this _Florida_ remained not unvisited; for eight years after the foremention’d Voyage, _Lucas Vasquez de Aylom_ weighed Anchor with two Ships from _Hispaniola_, to fetch Slaves from the adjacent Isles for the Gold-Mines, which Labor the Natives were not able to perform: therefore steering his Course Northwardly, he Sail’d along the Coast of _Chicoa_ and _Gualdape_, by them call’d _Cabo de St. Helena_, and _Rio Jordan_, where the Natives look’d upon the Ships as Sea-Monsters, and seeing Bearded Men in them, fled: the _Spaniards_ pursuing them, overtook one Man and a Woman; who being well Entertain’d, and Clad in _Spanish_ Habits, made the Strangers so acceptable to their Countrey-men, that their King sent fifty Men Aboard of them with Provisions, and to invite the Sea-men to his Dominions. The King sat with a great Cloth about him, made fast on his Shoulders, covering his Belly, Breast and Back with the Lappet thereof, and being long, was held up by one of his Servants; over one of his Shoulders hung a String of Pearl that came three times about, and reach’d down to his Thighs; on his Head he wore a Cap full of Ribbonds; his Arms and Legs were also surrounded with a double Chain of Pearl; in his right Hand he held a very rich Staff: But the Queen went almost naked, onely a piece of a wild Beasts Skin hung down before her from her left Shoulder to her mid-Leg, and a double String of Pearl about her Neck hung down between her Breasts, and her Hair Comb’d behind reach’d down to the Calves of her Legs; about her Wrists and Ancles hung also Strings of Pearl.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Treachery of _Vasquez_.]

[Sidenote: _Indians_ misused.]

On the King’s Command, the _Spaniards_ were permitted to make inspection into the Countrey, in which they were every where courteously Entertain’d, and not without Gold and Silver Presents. Returning Aboard, _Vasquez_ invited the _Indians_ to go with him, under pretence of returning them thanks for the Favours which they had bestowed upon him; but no sooner had he gotten a considerable number in his Ships, but he set Sail, and losing one Ship, arriv’d with the other safe at _Hispaniola_ with a few _Indians_, for most of them with grief and hunger died at Sea, and those that remain’d alive, liv’d on dead Carrion.

[Sidenote: _Vasquez_ defeated by the _Floridans_.]

Some few years after, _Vasquez_ receiving Letters Patent from the Court of _Spain_ for the Government of _Florida_, fitted out a Ship thither in 1620. which brought a good Return of Gold, Silver, and Pearls; whereupon he himself went not long after, and coming into the River _Jordan_, lost one of his Ships, which proved not the worst Accident; for Landing two hundred Men, they were all of them either slain or wounded by the Inhabitants; so that _Vasquez_ was forc’d to sound a Retreat: And after that the _Spaniards_ were less willingly drawn to that Coast, and the rather, because the Inhabitants seem’d poor, and had little Gold but what they procur’d from the _Otapales_ and _Olugatono_’s, sixty Leagues Northward up in the Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Narvaez_ his Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Strange Booty.]

[Sidenote: He is in great extremity.]

[Sidenote: _Cabeca_ is Stranded.]

[Sidenote: His strange Entertainment at _Malhado_.]

Notwithstanding these unsuccessful Expeditions, _Pamphilus Narvaez_ retain’d so much Courage, that obtaining Letters Patents from the Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, he fitted out four Sail and a Brigantine, weigh’d Anchor from _Cuba_ with six hundred Men and eighty Horse, in the Year 1528. On _Florida_ he Landed three hundred Foot and forty two Horse; they found many empty Huts, but in a great House a golden Bell hid amongst the Nets, Chests full of Merchandise, and in each a dead Body cover’d with Beast Skins, and painted; Pieces of Linnen Cloth, and Wedges of Gold, which they had from the remote Countrey _Apalache_. _Narvaez_, though against the Opinion of _Nunnez Cabeca_, march’d up into the Countrey, whilst the Fleet was to stand along the Shore, and travelling fifteen days saw neither House nor Man, onely here and there some _Palmito_-Trees: Crossing a River on Floats, they were Encountred by two hundred of the Natives; of which the _Spaniards_, having routed them, took six Prisoners, who furnish’d them plentifully with _Indian_ Wheat. After this they march’d fifteen days farther, without discerning the least foot-step of a Man; but at last they met an _Indian_ Lord with a considerable Train, before whom march’d several Pipers: being told by _Narvaez_ that his Journey was for _Apalache_, he conducted the _Spaniards_ with a _Canoo_ over a River, and Landing again, walk’d with them to his Village, where he Entertain’d them with great civility. _Narvaez_, after a long and troublesom Journey, came at last in sight of _Apalache_, a Village which contained two hundred and forty Straw Houses, built between the Mountains on a Moorish Soyl, full of Nut, Pine, and Savine-Trees, Oaks, Laurel, and short _Palmito_’s, besides the Trees, which blown down in several places by a strong Wind from between the Hills, and lying cross, cumber the High-ways: There are many deep Pools, and also Bears, Lyons, and other ravenous Creatures, which make the Ways very dangerous. _Narvaez_ falling suddenly on the Village, took the _Casique_ Prisoner, as also store of Wheat, Mortars to pound it, Hides, and Thred-spun Cloaks. Here he rested twenty five days, during which time some of his Men Journey’d farther into the Countrey, yet found none but poor People, troublesom Ways, and an unfruitful Soyl: twice they were set upon by the Natives, who kill’d some of the Horses and Men: They being a very strong People run stark naked, and as swift as a Deer, Diving under Water from the _Spaniards_ Bullets; which not a little amazing _Narvaez_, he thought it convenient to set upon the Village _Aute_, lying on the Shore: Nine days he was in a miserable condition before he got any Wheat, Pease, or other Provisions from this Village; the getting whereof cost him very dear, for the Villagers behav’d themselves so valiantly, that they kill’d many _Spaniards_, and some of their Horses, which since they left the Haven of _St. Cruce_ had travell’d two hundred and eighty Leagues; so that being tir’d and out of heart, they could not carry the Sick and Wounded, who not able to go, fell down dead in the Way: whereupon it was judg’d convenient to make five Barques, in which they made their Shirts serve for Sails, the Horses Tails and Mayns for Ropes, their Skins to hold fresh Water; with which putting out to Sea, they saw no Land in seven days; and running through the Straights of _St. Miguell_, Steer’d along the Coast of _Rio del Palmes_; where they suffer’d great Drought, insomuch that some drinking salt Water, died thereof: at last Landing, they were in the Night set upon by a _Casique_, who having given _Narvaez_ a great Wound in the Face, fled, leaving behind him a Sable Cloak, scented with Amber; three days they rang’d again along the Sea-shore, when the Barque of _Nunnez Cabeca_ being behind, was by Storm driven on the Shore, where a hundred _Indians_ waited to cut them off, but were pacifi’d with some Trifles: Thus being bereav’d of Arms, Provision, and all manner of Necessaries, they found themselves on an Isle, by the Inhabitants call’d _Malhado_, where they were lodg’d and maintain’d so long as they had any thing left; but Famine grew at last to such a heighth, that they devour’d one another, and in a short time of eighty Men there remain’d onely four alive, _viz._ _Nunnez Cabeca_, _Castillo_, _Orantes_, and _Estevanico_, who at last by Land reach’d to _New Gallicia_, and soon after to _Mexico_, having escap’d a thousand Dangers. Of _Pamphilus Narvaez_ never any tydings being heard, it is suppos’d he was drown’d.

[Sidenote: _Sottus_’s Expedition very remarkable.]

[Sidenote: Strange dealing of the _Cofachiquians_.]

[Sidenote: A Maid Governs the Countrey.]

[Sidenote: Great Treasure of Pearls.]

[Sidenote: Great Tempest.]

[Sidenote: _Sottus_’s farther Journey very remarkable.]

[Sidenote: The City _Mavilla_.]

[Sidenote: Cruel Fight.]

[Sidenote: _Sottus_ dies.]

[Sidenote: Strange Fight.]

After this miserable Adventure, the Business of _Florida_ lay dead for eleven years, till _Ferdinandus Sottus_, chosen Governor of _Cuba_, obtain’d so much of the Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, that he ventur’d one Expedition more for _Florida_: Besides Seamen he carried five hundred Foot, and three hundred and fifty Horse; with which Landing in the Bay _Del Espirito Santo_, he march’d against the Casique _Vitacucho_, whom he took Prisoner, with a thousand of the Natives, whom he either put to the Sword, or caus’d them to be torn in pieces by Dogs; and staying all the Winter in _Apalache_, fortifi’d that place, and furnish’d himself with Provisions; he was inform’d, that thirteen days Journey from thence lay the Kingdom of _Cofachiqui_, abounding with Gold, Silver, and Pearls, which made every one of the _Spaniards_ very desirous to go thither, notwithstanding the Way was very dangerous; for the valiant _Floridans_ lying in Ambuscade in the Corn-Fields, wounded and kill’d many of them by Shooting from thence. _Sottus_, so soon as _March_ approached, set forward on his Way. In the poor Province of _Achalaqui_ he found a few young People, and the old most of them blind. From _Cofachiqui_ he was follow’d by four thousand Natives, who carried the _Spaniards_ Luggage, and serv’d them as Guides through Woods and Wildernesses. The seventh day they stopp’d at a great River, whither _Sottus_ sent four Companies to seek out a Passage over, whereof three return’d without any effect, but the fourth, Commanded by Captain _Annasio_, and a Colonel of a thousand _Cofachiquians_, came to a Village built along the River; in which they made a miserable Rout, killing all they lighted on, and hanging the Sculls of the Dead by their sides: this done, they march’d back. _Sottus_ at last espying a Village on the other side of the River, beckned to the Natives to come over to him; whereupon six came immediately; who understanding that he desir’d their friendly Assistance and Trade, promis’d to acquaint their Governess, being a young Maiden: who soon after came over to _Sottus_, and presented him with a String of Pearl: he complain’d to her for Provisions, which she promis’d in part to store him with. Crossing the River he found a brave Countrey, where were Pearls as big as gray Pease, Copper of a golden colour, but no Gold. Out of the Tombs of their Princes the _Spanish_ Officers, with the leave of the fore-mention’d Maid their Governess, got an incredible Treasure in Pearls. In the Village _Tolomeco_ they did the like. But here their Provisions growing scarce, the Army was divided into two Bodies, _Balthasar de Gallegos_ leading one, and _Sottus_ the other; yet the Design of them both was on the Province of _Chalaque_; whither marching, they were surpris’d by such a violent Storm, that few would have been left to relate their Adventures, had not the Trees bore it off from them; for it not onely Thundred and Lightned as if Heaven and Earth would have met, but also Hail-stones fell down as big as Eggs, which beat down the Boughs of Trees. In the pleasant Valley _Xualu_, belonging to the Kingdom of _Cofachiqui_, they rested fifteen days, and then march’d through Countreys of _Guaxale_, _Acostes_, and _Coza_, where above a thousand _Indians_, adorn’d with Plumes of Feathers and rich Furr Cloaks, came to meet and welcom them, and to desire them from the _Casique_ to stay there all the Winter; but _Sottus_ resolving to go to the Haven _Achusi_, refus’d the same. After this he view’d _Talisse_, fortifi’d with woodden and earthen Bulwarks; where the Casique _Tascalusa_, a Man as big again as an ordinary _Spaniard_, receiv’d _Sottus_ with great civility, and conducted him to _Mavilla_, lying in a pleasant place. The City, surrounded with double Pallisado’s, fill’d up with Earth between, (where also at eighty Paces distant from one another, stands a Tower to contain eighty Soldiers) hath two Gates, eighty Houses, in every one of which dwell a thousand Men, and a large Market-place in the middle; where whilst the _Spaniards_ were in the midst of their Mirth, they on a sudden heard a great cry of Arms; the first Assault was made by seven thousand, which still increased by fresh Supplies; but the _Spaniards_ at last setting the City on fire, broke through them, and left above eleven thousand slain, either by the Smoak and Flame, or by their Bullets, Swords, Horses Heels and Dogs; the _Spaniards_ also lost eighty three Men and forty three Horses. Thence going to _Chicora_ they were stopt by the Natives before a deep River with high Banks, which at last crossing, not without great trouble and blood-shedding, they Winter’d in the Village _Chicora_, where the Inhabitants let them rest very quietly for two Moneths; at the end of which, joyning together in the Night, they shot fire into the Straw Roofs, and maintain’d a Fight of two hours long, in which the _Spaniards_ lost forty Men, fifty Horses, and all their Hogs, which were burnt in the Houses. From thence going to _Chicacolla_ they were resisted in most places, and in the Fort _Alibamo_ Engag’d by four thousand _Floridans_, who waited for their coming; but those were so shrewdly handled, that half of them were slain, and _Sottus_ became Master of the Fort, as also of _Chisca_, which he Storm’d and took unawares. With no less trouble and danger did he get over the River _El Grande_, where he discover’d a Village that contain’d above four hundred Houses, and many delightful Fruit-Trees. The Casique _Casquin_, maintain’d the _Spanish_ Army six days in this place, and taking five thousand of his Subjects, march’d with them to _Capaha_, which hath a deep and broad Moat on three sides thereof: the fourth was fortifi’d with strong Pallisado’s, through which the _Spaniards_ breaking, made way for _Casquin_, who put all to the Sword, the Governor onely escaping in a _Canoo_ to a neighboring Isle. The Entrance being thus taken by the _Spaniards_, _Casquin_ return’d home. After which _Sottus_ concluded a Peace with _Capahaes_ the Governor, and took up his Quarters in the Village _Vitangue_, where he receiv’d continual Sallies; but taking fifteen _Casiques_ Prisoners, threatned to burn them alive, unless they would procure them some Gold; yet not being able to get any, they had only their Hands cut off and were sent away. Moreover, _Sottus_ help’d the _Guachacoya_’s, to ruine those of _Anilco_; which Design prov’d successful, yet not according to _Sottus_’s desire, for he found not the Gold-Mines which he expected, but spent in this five years Progress the great Treasure which he took out of _Atibaliba_’s Palace; and the Pearls which he got in _Florida_, for the Oysters being open’d against the Fire, and the Pearls drill’d through with a hot Iron, lost much of their lustre, neither would his People consent to build a City in the Haven _Achusi_. In the midst of these Transitions _Sottus_ died of the Bloody-flux, and his Body was Interr’d in the River _El Grande_. After which his Successor _Ludovicus de Alvarado_ had worse success, for half of the Army being wasted by the excessive heat, the rest resolv’d to desert _Florida_, utterly despairing to be ever able to resist the valiant Natives. In the Province of _Auche_ they procur’d a Guide, whom, because he mis-led them in their Way, they caus’d to be torn in pieces by their Dogs: after which they march’d without a Guide through such bad Ways, that they lost a hundred of their Men and eighty Horses, besides many _Floridans_ that carried their Luggage: At last coming to the River _El Grande_ they conquer’d two Villages; which fortifying, they took up their Winter Quarters in them. But this being the fourteenth year, in which the River us’d generally to overflow and drown all the adjacent Countreys, on a sudden, to their great amazement, the Wood which they had gather’d for the building of Barques to carry them home, was wash’d away, their Provisions spoil’d, and their Habitations drown’d: and to this Inconvenience was added another yet greater; for the Governors round about rais’d all the Forces they could possibly, to revenge themselves on the _Spaniards_ for their great oppression. But _Alvarado_ being inform’d of this Design by the Casique _Anilco_, caus’d thirty of the Abettors of the Plot to have their Hands cut off. Not long after this the _Spaniards_ set Sail, when a thousand _Canoos_ that came to Engage them lay sixteen days amongst them, killing and wounding several of the Seamen, and sunk a Barque with forty eight Men, and also kill’d many Horses which were yet on the Shore; the Prisoners they took were strappado’d to death, and the Horses shot: yet some of them got safe from _Panuco_ to _Mexico_.

[Sidenote: Expedition of _Ahumada_ and _Samano_.]

These above-mention’d Expeditions to _Florida_, notwithstanding they fell out unfortunately, nevertheless by the permission of _Philip_ the Second, King of _Spain_, _Peter Ahumada_ and _Julius Samano_, with five _Dominican_ Monks, made another Attempt, and Landed with several great Crosses, that thereby they might reduce the _Floridans_, whose Language they understood not, to their Faith: But they fearing treachery, resisted them, and kill’d the Monks with Clubs, flay’d them, and hung their Skins in their Temples.

[Sidenote: The Expedition of _Menendez_.]

Notwithstanding these and many worse Accidents that hapned, yet the _Spanish_ King ventur’d once more, and sent _Peter Menendez_ to _Florida_; whither he was follow’d by three _Jesuits_ from _Rome_, _viz._ _Peter Martinius_, _Joan Roger_, and _Francis Villaregius_: The Master of the Ship in which they went being ignorant where he was, judg’d it convenient to Land; whereupon nine _Netherlanders_ and four _Spaniards_, amongst which was _Martinius_, went ashore on _Florida_, whilst a Storm arising drove the Ship to _Cuba_; by which means those that were Landed were left in a miserable condition, having no Food but wild Herbs, on which they fed twelve days: so that this Expedition also came to nothing.

[Sidenote: Voyage of _Ribald_ and _Laudoniere_.]

At last the _French_ following the foot-steps of the _Spaniards_, _John Ribald_ and _Rene Laudoniere_ having Sail’d several times to _Florida_, discover’d several Coasts; but their Men were often set upon by the _Spaniards_, and cut off.

[Sidenote: The Expedition of _Dominicus Gurgius_.]

[Sidenote: Valiant Exploit of _Gurgius_.]

_Anno 1567._ _Dominicus Gurgius_ set Sail thither with three Ships, which carried two hundred Soldiers and eighty Sea-men; with which entring the River _Tacatucouru_ he Landed, and found a Youth call’d _Peter du Bre_, who escap’d when the _Spaniards_ cruelly massacred the _French_ in the Garrison _Carolina_; after which _du Bre_ ranging up and down, at last serv’d _Saturiona_, Governor of _Florida_; whom deserting, and now meeting with the _French_ his Countrey-men, he brought several _Casiques_ to joyn with them against the _Spaniards_, whom they drove out of three Forts, which were all by the Command of _Gurgius_ dismanteled.

[Sidenote: City _Augustine_.]

_Florida_ is call’d by the Natives, _Irquasa_. The _Spaniards_ have built two Forts on the same, the one erected on the Promontory _Helena_, is Consecrated to the Apostle _Matthew_. The City and the Fort _Augustine_ lies near the River _May_. Both City and Fort stand on a Hill, which is pleasant and well set with Trees. Between the _Foreland_ is a deep and wide Channel, which washes the City and Fort; it is eight-square, at each corner there stands a round Tower, in which the Soldiers keep Guard; the Countrey is water’d by two Rivers, which gliding between the _Main_ and the _Foreland_, are great Safeguards to the Fort. The City is almost square, onely against the Fort it is much closer built than in any other place, and divided into four Streets. The Church stands without of the City, and before it the _Augustine_ Cloyster.

[Illustration: PAGUS HISPANORUM in Florida]

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Constitution of the _Floridans_.]

[Sidenote: Their strange Consultation.]

[Sidenote: Their Food in time of War.]

[Sidenote: Their Priests are Sorcerers.]

[Sidenote: Strange actions.]

[Sidenote: Cruelty on the conquer’d.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Mourning for the Dead.]

The Inhabitants of _Florida_ are an Olive colour, tall, and without any deformity; their Skins generally painted, and their Bodies naked, onely a Deer’s Skin about their middle, their Hair long and black, hanging down to their Hams, but most of them tie it in a Knot on the top of their Heads; two small Boards cover their Breasts, and six lesser hang on their Arms, two Bells at each Ear, and a Cap on their Head, with a Feather: Their Quivers, which are always full of Arrows, sharpned with Fish Bones, hang by their Sides; In their left-Hand they hold a great Bowe, with which they go to War, the King walking before with a Club. They Consult daily about warlike Affairs in the King’s Palace, where he himself sits on a high Seat; the Grandees salute him first with their Hands lifted over their Head, crying _Ha, He, Ya_, at which the rest cry _Ha, Ha_; then every one sits down on a Stool round about the Room. If they have any Business of Consequence to debate, then the King sends for the ancientest Persons and Priests, call’d _Jawas_; this done, they give a Cup of _Cassine_ (which is a hot Drink made of Herbs) to the King; after which every one drinks in order out of the same Cup. This Liquor occasions Sweat, quenches Thirst, and satisfies the Appetite for twenty four hours. When they March against their Enemies they live on _Indian_ Wheat, Honey, smoak’d Fish, and divers sorts of wild Roots, amongst which they mix Sand and Cinders, to preserve them the longer. No sooner are the two Armies come within sight one of another, but the Kings of both Parties roll their Eyes about in their Heads, mutter something to themselves, and make strange Gestures and Exclamations; which is answer’d by a general Cry of the whole Army: then each King turning himself with great Reverence to the Sun, takes a woodden Platter with Water, which he throws over his Army so far as he is able, and begs of the Sun to grant him, that he may spill his Enemies Blood in like manner; then throws another Dish-full into the Fire, wishing that his Soldiers may thus Offer the Bodies of their Foes to the Flames; then step forth the Priests, who are always skill’d in the Art of Necromancy, and seating themselves on a Shield in the midst of the Army, draw a Circle, in which they make many strange Gestures, not without muttering to themselves, and seemingly say a Prayer of a quarter of an hour long; during which they deport themselves so strangely, that they rather seem to be Devils themselves, than Charmers of the Devil: They turn their Eyes quite round, and their Bodies as if without Joynts; at length being wearied they leap out of the Circle, and inform the King of the number and condition of the Enemies Army. Those whom they take Prisoners they flay alive, and drying their Skins at the Fire, tie them to long Poles, and carry them home as Trophies of their Victory, and afterwards set them up in some Field or spacious place, putting both Men and Women to watch them; then comes the Priest with a woodden Image, and utters Execrations against the slain Enemies; at a corner of the Fields kneel three Men, one of which striking with great force on a Stone, gives as many Blows as the Priest pronounces Curses, whilst the other two shake their _Calabashes_ fill’d with Stones, and Sing many strange Songs: No sooner is this ended, but the Women whose Husbands are slain in the Battel, walking to the King, cover their Faces with their Hands, make many strange Gestures, and desire liberty to take what revenge they can, and licence also to Marry at the limited time; all which the King permitting, they return thus comforted home crying. Not long after they go to the place where their Husbands lie buried, where they crop their Hair up to their Ears, and throw it on the Grave, as also the Arms and Drinking-Cups which the Deceased us’d in their life-time; after which they may not Marry before their Hair be grown again to their Shoulders. The same Custom is also observ’d when their King is buried but then also all his Subjects Fast and Howl three days together, stick his Grave full of Arrows, and burn his House and all his Goods.

[Sidenote: _Floridans_ differ amongst themselves.]

The _Floridans_ differ amongst themselves very much, for those that inhabit the Province _Panuca_, which borders upon _New Spain_, are valiant and cruel People, Offering their Prisoners to their Idols, and eating them. The Men pluck up the Hair of their Beards by the Root, make holes through their Nose and Ears, and Marry not till their fortieth Year.

Next to these follow the Realms of _Aranaris_ and _Albardaosia_, inhabited by a People, which exceed all others in subtilty.

The Natives of _Jaquazia_ run faster than a Deer, and tire not though they travel a whole day.

[Sidenote: Hermophrodites.]

The best Swimmers are found in _Alpachia_, _Authia_, and _Someria_, where the Women Swim through deep and great Rivers with their Children in their Arms. Here also are many Hermophrodites, which carry all the Luggage when an Army is upon a March.

[Sidenote: Their manner of taking Crocodiles.]

[Sidenote: As also their Deer.]

We find mention’d also two other Provinces of note, _viz._ _Colas_ (which lies near the Point call’d _Cape Florida_) and _Tegista_, or _Florida_ properly so call’d, being that long _Peninsula_, which pointing upon the Isle _Cuba_, by the Cape _Los Martyres_, stretcheth it self North and South about a hundred Leagues in length, but not above thirty in breadth where it is largest. In this Province is the _Rio de lo Spirito Santo_. The Soyl, though it produces _Indian_ Wheat twice a year, yet it is never Dung’d, but when the Corn (which is planted in _March_ and _June_) is in, they burn the Weeds; the Ashes of which serves them in stead of Soil. The King divides the Corn according to every Mans Family. In the Winter they dwell four Moneths in the Woods, where they build small Huts of Palm-boughs, feed on Venison, smoak’d Fish, and Crocodiles, which have pure white Flesh, and are caught after this manner: On the Shore of the Rivers they build little Houses full of round Holes, in which they place a Watch, who is to give notice to ten or twelve Associates, cover’d all over with Boughs full of little sharp Prickles, which they thrust into the Crocodiles Throat, who with open Mouth comes running at them, and so throwing him on his Back, stick his Belly full of Arrows, and kill him with Clubs. But with more subtilty and art they take their Deer, _viz._ They hide themselves under a Stags Skin, so cunningly, that it seems as if living, which they place near the Rivers where the Deer generally come to drink, when on a sudden they shoot them.

[Sidenote: _Floridans_, though libidinous, yet live long.]

Their Priests serve in stead of Chirurgeons, wherefore they always carry a Bag full of Herbs about with them, which are chiefly good against venereal Distempers; for these People are exceeding libidinous; nay, Sodomy and defiling of young Children is accounted no sin: Yet though they are much inclin’d to Women, they attain to a great Age.

_Rene Laudoniere_ Landing not far from the City _Augustine_, situate on the Banks of the River _May_, met with the _Floridan_ Governor _Saturiona_, who conducted him to the _French_ King’s Court of Arms, erected two years before, which _Saturiona_, as a testimony of his zeal to the _French_, had Crown’d with Laurel and Flowers. _Saturiona_ had with him also his Son _Atoreus_, who had begotten divers Children on his Mother; whom his Father after that time no more acknowledging, resign’d her up wholly to him: At which time also his great Grandfather being then living, was above a hundred and fifty years old, and saw his Childrens Children to the fifth Generation.

[Sidenote: Their horrid Religion.]

The Religion in _Florida_ is abominable, wicked, and cruel: When they return Conquerors from a Battel, the old Women rake off the dry’d Hair from the fore-mention’d Poles, hold it aloft, and thank the Sun for their Victory. But the Offerings of their first-born Sons are terrible, for they knock out their Brains with a Club in the presence of the King. Their annual worshipping of the Sun is also very ridiculous; for filling the Skin of a Stag full of sweet-smelling Herbs, they hang the Horns and Neck with Garlands, and carry it with the noise of their kind of Vocal and Instrumental Musick, to a high Trunk or hollow Body of a Tree, on which they place the stuff’d Stag, with his Head towards the Sun; which done, they falling down, desire that he would please to afford them plenty of all such Fruit as they Offer to him; after which taking their leave, they let the fore-mention’d Skin remain there till the following Year.

The _Spaniards_ since their Defeat in the Fort _Carolina_, and their Engagement with Sir _Francis Drake_, _Anno 1585._ have had little disturbance on _Florida_.

[Sidenote: _Drake_’s Exploit on _Florida_.]

_Drake_ having burnt and plunder’d _Domingo_ and _Carthagena_, steer’d along the Coast of _Florida_, and discover’d a Beacon on the same; whereupon he sent out Spies, who sail’d a League up a River, on whose Banks they saw a Fort, and somewhat higher the Town _Augustine_, built full of woodden Houses; all which being related to him, he steer’d thither, fir’d his Guns twice against the Fort _St. John_; which the _Spaniards_ answering onely with one Volley, fled, with their Commander _Peter Menendez_; when the _English_ prepar’d to Storm, a Prisoner, being a _French_-man, came in a Boat from them to _Drake_, and inform’d him that the _Spaniards_ had left the City _Augustine_ and Fort _St. John_; to which _Drake_ going, found there Pallisado’s of pleited Boughs, cover’d with Earth, and a Chest with two thousand Pound, for the payment of the Soldiers, and fourteen Brass Guns, with which he set Sail from thence.

The Mountains of this Countrey are onely the _Apalatei_, suppos’d by the Natives to have rich Mines of Gold in them, and which the _Spaniards_ saw, but had not time, nor other accommodation to stay and search them, by reason they were so much wearied and wasted with a long March before they gat thither, and found the People so stout and obstinate thereabouts, that in stead of entertaining them with their Hens and Fowl, as other places had done, they were welcom’d with Blows, and made to return, leaving not a few of their best Soldiers behind.

Rivers there are many, and those very large and commodious, as 1. _Rio Secco_, or _The Dry River_, so call’d by the _Spaniards_ (as some think) because they could find no Gold in it. 2. _Rio Grande_, or _The Great River_. 3. _Ligeris._ 4. _Garunna._ 5. _Sequana_, _&c._ These last, so nam’d by the _French_, who, after the _Spaniards_, for some time had, but never held any long possession of the Countrey. There are also _Rio de Flores_, _Rio de Nieves_, and _Rio de Spirito Santo_, lesser Streams, yet all of them, with the rest, falling at several places into the great Lake of _Mexico_; and some of them not a little haunted by the _Caymans_ or _West-Indian_ Crocodiles, a Creature, as hath been said before, dangerous both at Sea and Land.

The Natives, who as yet hold Possession and Command of it for the most part, are themselves generally sorted into certain Tribes or great Families; all which are Govern’d severally by Chiefs of their own, whom they call _Paracoussi_, and by reason thereof are almost continually in Feud and War one with another.

The Towns and Places most known in this Province, are 1. _St. Helens_, seated on or near unto a Promontory of the same Name, where this Countrey bordereth on _Virginia_. 2. _Fort Charles_, or _Arx Carolina_, built and so nam’d by the _French_ King, but afterwards ruin’d by the _Spaniards_. 3. _Port Royal_, a well frequented Haven, at the Mouth of a River which beareth the same Name. More within Land there is, 1. _Apalache_, an old Town of the Natives, formerly a Place of great resort, but now a poor thing of about forty or fifty Cottages; and yet as poor as it is, _Pamphilius Narvaez_, as before related, when he search’d the Countrey, found the Natives not willing to part with it: for though he took it from them, it was not without some resistance, and they quickly recover’d it again: and at the 2. nam’d _Aute_, another old Town of theirs, nine days March from the other, they overtook him, and fell so resolutely upon him, that he left not a few of his best Soldiers dead upon the place, and was content himself to march quietly away with the rest. 3. _Ochalis_, a Town consisting of about five or six hundred Sheds and Cottages likewise of the Natives. 4. _Vittacuche_, a Burrough of two hundred Houses.

There is also on the Eastern Shore of this _Peninsula_, _St. Matthews_, a Place possess’d and well fortifi’d by the _Spaniards_; and _St. Augustines_ on the same Shore, but lying somewhat more Southerly than the other, at the Mouth of a River of the same Name, taken and sack’d by Sir _Francis Drake_ in the Year 1585.

[Illustration: YUCATAN _Conventus Iuridici Hispaniæ Novæ Occidentalis, et_ GUATIMALA CONVENTUS IURIDICI]

[Illustration: St. FRANCISCO DE CAMPECHE]

SECT. II. Jucatan.

_Jucatan_ is a _Peninsula_, or half-Island, being encompass’d with the Sea on all sides, save onely to the South-West, where it is joyn’d to _Guaxata_, its farther and more Easterly Point looking towards _Cuba_. The knowledge of, when, and by whom this Province was discover’d, is included in that of _New Spain_, of which some will have it to be a part. The whole Province contains in compass nine hundred Miles or more, and lies between eighteen and twenty two Degrees of Northern Latitude, or thereabouts, the Air somewhat hot, and the Soil not altogether so fertile as some other parts of _New Spain_ are; but in recompence thereof the People are so much the more industrious, living for the most part by Handicraft Trades. Neither is it altogether unstor’d with Corn and divers sorts of Fruits, besides what it hath of Fowl and Beasts, as Geese, Hens, Deer, _&c._ particularly it yieldeth plenty of Wax and Honey, by reason of its frequent Swarms of Bees. They report some special things of this Province, as namely, that the People of the Countrey us’d generally, and long before the _Spaniards_ came thither, a certain Ceremony of Religion, not much unlike to our Baptism, and which they call’d by a Name that in their Language signifi’d _Regeneration_, or _A Second-Birth_; that they observ’d it so diligently, that few or none amongst them omitted to initiate themselves by it, believing, that thereby the Seeds and Ground-work of all Goodness was laid in them, and that they were fortifi’d by it against the assaults and temptations of evil Spirits; that after they were three or four years old, till they came to twelve, they usually thus Wash’d and Baptiz’d themselves; and that none were permitted amongst them to Marry, that were not first initiated after this manner; that they chose likewise a solemn Day upon which to do this; and that the Friends and Relations (especially the Father and Mother) of the Parties to be initiated, as well as the Parties themselves, always Fasted three days before the said Initiation; and that a great many of the Natives had a Tradition, or general Report amongst them, that of ancient time this Province of _Jucatan_ was possess’d and cultivated by a certain People which came thither from the East, after a tedious long wanderring, and many hardships endur’d at Sea, having escap’d the Hands of their Enemies onely through the power of the Deity they worshipp’d; who help’d them, and made them to pass securely, even through the Waves of the Sea. All which, if true, seems not a little to confirm the Report which goeth for currant in the _Welsh_ Chronicles, of one _Madoc ap Owen_, the Son of _Guineth_, a Prince of that Countrey, who is said to have fall’n upon a far Countrey this way in his Travels; which he lik’d so well, that having secur’d to his Companions their safe abode there during his absence, he return’d himself into _Wales_ for more Men; and that he transported thither as many as he could carry in ten Barques full fraught. This he is said to have done about the Year of our Lord 1170. but neither he nor any of his Men were ever heard of since; and the success of the Expedition, it seems, little enquir’d after by the _Welsh_. However, the Relation seems not altogether incredible.

The chief Towns of the Province are, 1. _Merida_, in the Navel of the Countrey, and the Seat of the Governor, twelve Leagues distant from the Sea on either side. 2. _Valladolidt_, thirty Leagues distant from _Merida_. 3. _Campeche_, a great Town, consisting of about three thousand Houses or more, when first conquer’d by the _Spaniards_; who found such Monuments of Art and Industry in it, as did clearly argue, that the Place had been once possess’d by some People that were not barbarous. It is now call’d _St. Francisco_, and was surpriz’d in the Year 1596. by Captain _Parker_, an _English_-man, who took the Governor himself and some other Persons of Quality with him, together with a Ship richly laden with Gold and Silver, besides other Commodities of good value. 4. _Tabasco_, by the _Spaniard_ now call’d _Villa de Nuestra Sennora de Victoria_, and commonly _Victoria_ onely, in memory, as ’tis thought, of the first great Victory which _Cortez_ obtain’d over these People at the Battel of _Potonchan_, as hath been said. 5. _Cintla._ 6. _Potonchan._ 7. _Salamanca._

All along the Coast of this Countrey there lie certain Islands, some within the Bay or Gulph call’d _Honduras_, pertaining to the next Province, as 1. _La Zarza._ 2. _La Desconescida._ 3. _Vermeia._ 4. _Los Negrillos_; and some without it, as 1. _Zaratan._ 2. _Pantoia._ 3. _De Mugeres_, or _The Island of Women_; so nam’d by the _Spaniards_, who at their first Discovery of these Parts, for a long time together could meet with none but Women. The chief of them is call’d _Acusamil_, commonly _Cozamul_, and is fifteen Leagues in length, and about five in breadth, and was as it were the Thorow-fare, or Common Road of the _Spaniards_, when they first discover’d the Countreys of _New Spain_: For first here Landed _Ferdinando de Corduba_; after him _John de Grialva_, and others; and last of all the fortunate _Cortez_. It is now call’d _St. Crux_.

[Illustration]

CHAP. IV. Guatimala.

[Sidenote: Its Situation and Bounds.]

_Guatimala_ stretcheth to the _Isthmus_, or Neck of Land, which, as we said, joineth the Northern and Southern parts of the _New World_ together.

This Countrey is bounded Northward with the _Peninsula_ of _Jucatan_ abovesaid, and part of the Gulph or Bay of _Honduras_; on the South, with _Mare del Zur_; on the East and South-East, it hath _Castella Aurea_; and on the West, _New Spain_. The length of it lieth upon the Coast of _Mare del Zur_, and is said to be little less than three hundred Leagues; but the breadth not half so much, and in some places very narrow. It is generally a fertile and good Countrey in all respects, but especially abounding in Cattel and good Pastures; it is subdivided into seven inferior Provinces or Countreys, which are 1. _Chiapa._ 2. _Verapaz._ 3. _Honduras._ 4. _Nicaragua._ 5. _Veragua._ 6. _Costa Rica_; and 7. _Guatimala_, specially so call’d: all differing in Language and Customs one from another.

The Bishoprick (as it is now call’d) of _Chiapa_ is border’d on the West with _New Spain_; on the East with _Vera Paz_; and on the South with _Mare del Zur_. It is a Countrey much shaded with Woods, and those replenish’d with many fair and goodly Trees, of divers sorts, and of the largest size, as Oaks, Pines, Cedar, Myrtle, and Cypress-Trees, besides others which yield them a good kind of Rozen, precious Gums, _&c._ also several sorts of Balsom, as white, red, green, and black, not onely pleasant to the Scent, but an excellent Remedy for all manner of green Wounds: the best of it drops out of the cut Bodies of the Trees; and the worst is press’d out of the Wood and Leaves.

[Sidenote: Trees and Plants.]

There are also proper to this Countrey several other kinds of Trees and Plants, as that whose Fruit tastes like Pepper and Cloves, being of a great heighth; a Tree whose Leaves cure all ulcerated Sores, or the bitings of any poysonous Beast.

There is a sort of Cabbage call’d _Ilantas_, which grows to the heighth of a Tree, so that Birds make their Nests in them; they are eaten likewise like other common Cabbages.

There is also an Herb with narrow Leaves, which is no sooner touch’d, but it shrinks up to nothing; but at the going away of those which touch it, it obtains its former vigour.

[Sidenote: Birds.]

Here are likewise Quails, Ducks, Geese, Pheasants, Parrots, Turtle-Doves, Pigeons, and the like, in great abundance.

Amongst the several sorts of Falcons which breed in this Countrey, there is one sort which hath one Foot proper to its kind, the other like that of a Goose; it feeds on Fish along the Rivers.

The Bird _Toto-Queztall_, which is somewhat smaller than a Pigeon, with green Feathers and a long Tail, is taken onely for its Tail, which when the _Indians_ have pull’d out, they let the Bird fly again, there being a Law amongst them, that whosoever kills one of them, is to suffer death.

The Cranes here are of a dark Gray; the biggest of them have a tuft of Feathers like a Crown upon their Heads.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Birds.]

The Birds _Guacamayes_, which are red and blue, are like a _Peruan_ Goose.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

Moreover, the Countrey yields brave Horses, Goats, Sheep, Rabbets, and Foxes; also wild Dogs, Leopards, Lyons, and Tygers.

The wild Hogs which breed here have their Navels on their Backs, and have no Tails, they smell exceeding strong, and feed together in great Companies.

The _Taquatrin_, a certain Beast proper to those Parts, hath a Bag under its Belly, in which it generally carries seven or more young ones, and hath also a bald Tail; it creeps into Houses in the Night to steal Hens.

Here is also a certain Beast (whose Name we find not) about the bigness of a Rabbet, and like a Rat, and carries its young ones on its back whensoe’re it comes abroad.

The Serpents, which are very numerous here, trouble the Inhabitants exceedingly, especially near the Village _Ecatepeque_, where there are such an abundance on two little Hills, that none dares approach them; some of them are very poysonous, for if touch’d with a Stick, the Poyson runs up the same: and whoever are anointed with the Blood of a dead Serpent, die a lingring Death. _John de Laet_ relates, that the _Indians_ took one which carried thirty young ones, which being a Finger long, crep up and down immediately; and the old one, being above twenty Foot long, serv’d the Natives for Venison.

Amongst other Beasts is also the _Teuthlacokauhqui_, or _Fortress of the Serpents_; it hath a Head like an Adder, thick Belly, glittering Scales, a black Back, sprinkled with white Crosses; at its Tail there grows yearly a Bone, with which it makes a noise when it stirs; its poysonous Teeth destroy those which are bit therewith in twenty four Hours, unless the part which is wounded be held in the Earth so long till the pain be over. Notwithstanding the noise, terrible aspect, and gestures of this Animal, the _Indian_ Hunters make nothing to take the same by the Tail, and wrap it up in Linnen, and carrying it home make it tame. It is able to live a whole Year without either Meat or Drink; its Head when cut off grows to the bigness of a Man’s Thigh in ten days time.

No less resolute are the Indians in taking the _Ibitobaca_, which is an Ell long, of a crimson Colour, full of black and white Specks, the Bones whereof they wear about their Necks in stead of Chains.

[Sidenote: The Serpent _Iquanna_.]

The _Iquanna_ is a Serpent which doth no manner of hurt, though terrible to look upon to those which know it not, having a Bag under its Chin, a glittering Comb on its Head, and on its Back sharp Bones, which stand like a Saw, and a long Tail: It lays fifty Eggs at a time as big as Acorns, of a very good taste, and fit to eat when boyl’d: It also lives both in the Water and on the Land.

[Sidenote: Baboons.]

Here are also many Baboons, which are big and heavy, with ugly Heads, short Legs like a Man, and Tails standing upwards; they eat all sorts of Fruit, but chiefly covet after Wine and Bread; and are so lascivious, that they often set upon Women: The Females generally bring forth two, one Male, and the other Female. There is also another sort, whose Skins, being red, are full of little Spots.

The ancient Inhabitants of _Chiapa_ (divided into the _Chiapaneca_’s, the _Zeques_, the _Zeltates_, and the _Quelenes_) are very Civil and Witty, also skilful in Painting, Singing, Breaking of Horses, and many other Trades.

[Sidenote: Towns and Villages of Note.]

The Places of more principal note in this Countrey, inhabited by the _Spaniards_, are 1. _Ciudad Real_, pleasantly seated in the midst of a round Vale or Plain, and almost encompass’d with Hills representing the form of an Amphitheatre; also at the Foot of one which stands in the midst of the rest, the City is built. It is a City specially Priviledg’d by the King of _Spain_, having a Court of Justice, Cathedral, and _Dominican_ Cloyster; of a pure and temperate Air, and the Countrey round about plentifully abounding both in Corn and Fruit, onely somewhat too cold to produce Lemmons and Oranges; but for Pears, Apples, Peaches, Quinces, Cherries, and the like, they grow here in great abundance.

2. _Chiapa_, which giveth Name to the Valley aforesaid; It is a Bishop’s See, and famous, if but for one of its Prelates, _viz._ _Bartholomeo de las Casas_, of the Order of _Predicants_, who was Bishop of this City, and his Memory justly precious amongst the poor _Americans_ at this day, for his Charity towards them, and for the stout and zealous opposition which he made against the _Spaniards_ cruel and inhumane dealings with the Natives at the beginning of their Conquests: by which at last, notwithstanding much difficulty and resistance made by interested Persons of the other Side, he procur’d them liberty, and an Edict from the Emperor in favor of them; whereby they were declar’d to be a Free People, and not Slaves, and the _Spaniards_ forbidden to use them any longer as such, or to force them to any kind of Labour against their wills, or otherwise than by agreement with them, which Liberty they enjoy to this day; and though the _Spaniards_ are said to give them very small Wages in some places, and for their Work in their Sugar-Mills (which is no small Labor) not above five _Reyals_, or Two shillings six pence a Week, for the Maintenance of themselves, their Wives and Children, yet by reason it is with Consent, and in a Countrey where all things are plentiful and cheap, their Condition is much better than it was, and the favor which that good Bishop did them, never to be forgotten. It is at present a great and populous City, and lieth almost in the mid-way betwixt the Cities of _Mexico_ and _Guatimala_.

3. _St. Bartholomews_, in the Countrey of the _Quelenes_.

4. _Tecpatlan_, the chief of twenty five Villages, said to belong to the _Zoques_. Here the _Dominicans_ have another Cloyster.

The _Zeltates_ possess a fruitful Countrey, have thirteen Villages planted with Trees that yield _Cochenile_, being under a Common-wealth Government.

The chief Place of the _Quelenes_ is _Copanavatzla_, where there is good Cheese, and store of brave Cattel: The River _Chiepa_ gliding through the midst thereof, loseth it self in the Northern Ocean. In this part of the Country are Beasts not unlike Apes, with long Tails, which they wind about the Legs of those whom they find swimming and so pull them under Water; wherefore they that go to Swim take Axes along with them, to cut off their Tails.

The Water of the River _Blanco_ is clear and wholsom, running for the most part through Rocky Grounds, which nevertheless are overspread with Trees.

In the highest Ground of _Chiapa_, a League and a half from the City _Reall_, spring clear Fountains, whose Water ebbs and flows every six hours.

Near the Village call’d _Afixa_ is one which runs three years together, though in the driest Season, and is dry three years, though it Rain never so much.

Not far from the Village _Cinacatan_ is another Spring, whose Water cures several Sicknesses, but kills all Birds and Beasts which drink of the same.

Here are likewise divers Baths.

The Rivers which run out of the Valley _Chiapa_, fall into two great Pits.

Near the Village _Bartholomew_, in the Province _Quelenes_, is a strange Cavern, out of which by the throwing of a stone into the same, are heard mighty noises like claps of Thunder.

Not far from the Village _Chicomucolo_, appears a Cavern, in which is a great Plain on one side, and a standing Lake, whose Water is like Sand, on the other.

The _Spaniards_, if they wanted not Slaves, might dig good store of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Tin, and Quicksilver, out of the Mynes on the Mountain _Ecatepeck_, which is in nine Leagues compass: The Wind blows so strong after Sun-rising, that no Man is able to travel for it, but in the Night.

SECT. II. Vera Paz.

[Sidenote: Situation and Bounds.]

_Vera Paz_, or _The Countrey of True Peace_, was so nam’d by the _Spaniards_, as they say, because it was never conquer’d by the Sword, but reduc’d to Obedience onely by the Preaching of the _Dominican_ Fryers. It is bounded on the West and South-West with _Chiapa_; on the East with some part of _Guatimala_ and _Honduras_; and on the North with _Jucatan_. It contains about thirty Leagues in length, and almost as much in breadth, being a woody and mountainous Countrey for the most part, yet well distinguish’d with Valleys and lower Ground. It is much subject to Rain, which ’tis said to have for nine Moneths of the Year almost continually; by reason whereof the Countrey, being otherwise hot, is much annoy’d with a kind of _Mosquit_, or great sort of Gnats, which spoil the Fruit very much, and are otherwise not a little trouble to the People. Moreover, there happen oftentimes terrible Earthquakes and Storms, with Thunder and Lightning.

[Sidenote: Commodities of the Countrey.]

The chief Commodities of this Countrey, are a kind of Amber, which some call _Liquid Amber_, which drops from divers of their Trees, and is said to be a Commodity very precious, and of much use; _Mastick_, _Sanguis Draconis_, _Gum Anime_, _Sarsaparilla_, _China-Wood_, and divers other Medicinal Drugs, which it affordeth in great plenty. The Woods afford a sweet smell, and the Trees in the same grow a wonderful heighth.

The Canes which grow here, being a hundred Foot long, and proportionably thick, serve for Timber.

There is also a hard Wood call’d _Iron-Wood_, either from its hardness or colour, or both, which never rots.

The abundance of Flowers which grow here afford nutriment to innumerable swarms of Bees, which are about the bigness of small Flies. Their Honey, which is somewhat tart, they hide in the Roots of Trees, or in the Earth. Another sort, which is made by the Wasps, bereaves those that taste of their Senses.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

The noted’st Beast in this Countrey is the _Danta_, which resembles a Mule, hath no Horns, but Ash-colour’d long Hair, short Neck, hanging Ears, thin Legs, with three Claws before and two behind, long Head, narrow Forehead, little Eyes, a Nose hanging over its Mouth, little Tail, sharp Teeth, and a Skin which is six Fingers thick, and scarce penetrable by any Weapon. This Beast is taken in Traps, Holes, or else with Dogs, which he often kills when hunted towards the Water. They say that this Beast taught Men first to Let-blood; for if it be too full of Blood, it pricks it self against a sharp Cane, and stops up the Orifice again very carefully. The Flesh thereof is good Meat, as also that of the _Ross_-Lyons, which in the day-time sleep on a high Tree, where they are shot by the _Indians_.

The Tygers are much more dangerous to be taken; yet the _Indians_ Hunting them, eat them in stead of Beef; and also through all _New Spain_.

The Bears, which make the Ways very dangerous to travel, have black frizled Hair, broad Tails, Feet like Mens Hands: but since the _Indians_ have made use of Guns, which they learn’d from the _Spaniards_, they have much lessen’d the number both of Bears and Tygers.

There are likewise many Leopards, Apes, and wild Goats (whose Skins serve the Natives for Drums) Hogs, and _Armadillo_’s.

Amongst their Fowls, are Eagles and Parrots.

The Countrey is so well stor’d with Water, that in three Leagues space are above thirty Rivulets, and as many Fountains.

[Sidenote: Medicinal Plants.]

On the Mountains grow great quantities of _Sarsaparilla_, _Mechoacan_, and the _China-Root_, which being yellowish hath several Saffron-colour’d Knobs on the top. The _Sarsaparilla_ grows with many Stalks, creeping along over the Ground; the Body thereof is tough and full of Prickles, the Leaves broad and sharp at the ends, and are of a bluish colour on one side, and green on the other, and bear Clusters of Flowers, which close like Buds, and are first green, next vermilion-red, and lastly blackish: within are two hard Stones, which inclose a white Kernel, by the _Indians_ call’d _Juapecanga_.

The Bay _Golfo Dulce_, which pours its muddy Water into the Sea, feeds the great Fish _Monati_, and a great number of Crocodiles.

Several Rivers abounding with Fish fall also into the same, having their Banks set all along with Trees, in whose Boughs, joyn’d together on the top, those sort of Birds make their Nests which prey on Fish.

The Women in this place are much shorter Liv’d than the Men, so that there are often thirty Widowers to one Widow. Women with Child are Deliver’d by themselves in the High-way; and from thence they go to the next River to wash themselves and the Child.

[Sidenote: Places of note.]

As for any Towns or Places of much Traffick or Note, inhabited by the _Spaniards_, we find not any nam’d, save onely _St. Augustines_; near unto which there is said to be a Cave and Fountain within Ground, which converts the Water that falleth into it out of several lesser Springs, into a kind of Alabaster or Stone, perfectly white, and fashions it likewise into Pillars, Statues, and other artificial Forms of very curious Workmanship, as _Laet_ reporteth.

SECT. III. Honduras.

[Sidenote: Situation and Bounds.]

_Honduras_ hath on the South, _Guatimala_ abovesaid; on the West, a certain Bay, or Arm of the Sea, which they call _Golfo Dulce_, from the abundance of fresh Waters which run into it from all Parts; on the North and North-East, the _Atlantick Ocean_; and somewhat to the South-East, _Nicaragua_. It contains in length, _viz._ from East to West, Coasting along upon the Sea, about a hundred and fifty Leagues, and in breadth eighty. The Countrey is rich both in Corn and Pasturage, being said to be very much advantag’d that way by the constant overflowings of the Rivers, which are very many, about _Michaelmass_-time, and which the People order so well, that they water their Gardens, and exceedingly fertilize the whole Champain, or lower part of the Grounds by them.

The fruitful Valleys of this Countrey were anciently very well inhabited, till vast multitudes of the Natives were destroy’d by the _Spaniards_ Cruelties, of which the Bishop _Bartholomeo de las Casas_, in his Letter to the Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, gives this Relation:

[Sidenote: Cruelties of the _Spaniards_.]

“The young Children (saith he) they murder’d, beating out their Brains against the Stones; the Kings and Princes of the Countrey they either scorch’d to death, or threw them to the Dogs to be torn in pieces; the poor People they drove into their Houses, and then set them on fire; those that remain’d were condemn’d to the greatest slavery imaginable, being us’d in stead of Mules and Horses, and having greater Burdens laid upon them than they were able to carry, insomuch that thousands of them fell down dead under them; some out of despair running into the Woods were famish’d, after they had kill’d and eat their Wives and Children for Hunger. In this one Province onely they massacred above twenty hundred thousand Men, and amongst others, Persons of Quality, which had civilly Entertain’d them: nay, they tortur’d the poor innocent Natives all the ways they could possibly invent, onely to know of them where their Gold lay; particularly _Diego de Valasco_ spar’d none that ever fell into his hands; insomuch that in a Moneths time above ten thousand were slain by him: He hang’d thirteen Noble-men, to twelve of whom he gave the Denomination of _The twelve Apostles_; and the chiefest of them he call’d in a derision, _Jesus Christ_. Some they suffer’d to starve to death, with their Heads compress’d between the cloven Barks of wild Vines; some also they buried alive, and leaving onely their Heads to appear above Ground, bowl’d Iron Bullets at them, and forc’d them to eat one another; besides infinite other hellish Cruelties, too horrid and dreadful to be recounted.”

[Sidenote: Commodities of the Countrey.]

This Countrey produces much _Maiz_, Wheat, Honey, and great _Calabashes_, from whence the first Discoverers call’d that Sea _Golfo de las Ybueras_, because they met with abundance of _Calabashes_, floating on the Water, which at _Santo Domingo_ bear the Name of _Ybueras_.

This Countrey is water’d by three Rivers, the first _Chamalucom_, which glides by the City _San Pedro_; the second _Ulva_, inhabited on both Shores; the third _Haguaro_, the Grounds adjacent to which would prove very fruitful, were the Inhabitants not too lazy. In stead of a Plough they use a long Pole, with two crooked Staves at the end, one bent downwards and the other upwards, with which they cut and turn the Earth. The Natives feed on several Roots, Flesh, and Vermine.

At their Feast they make themselves Drunk with a Drink made of Honey, Noble-men heretofore onely drinking the Liquor of _Cacao_; of late it is common, and made by all People, though never so mean. They speak several Languages, the chiefest whereof is that of the _Chontales_, a salvage People. They divide their Year, call’d _Joalar_, that is, _Passing_, into eighteen Moneths, and each Moneth into twenty Days. They formerly measur’d the Year by the Nights, and began the Year forty days sooner than the _Europeans_.

[Sidenote: _New Valladolid._]

The Towns in this Province are 1. _New Vallodolid_, by the _Indians_ nam’d _Comayagua_, lying in a pleasant Valley under a temperate Climate. The Cattel brought hither from _Spain_ increase exceedingly. The Silver-Mynes are also so well stor’d, that they keep the Melting-house in the Town always employ’d.

The Governor of this Place hath his Residence next to the Treasury-Chamber.

_Anno 1588._ the Bishop’s See was translated hither from _Truxillo_: Nineteen years before which _Francisco de Monteio_ sent his Lieutenant _Alphonso de Cacenes_ thither, to build a Village half way between the Southern and Northern Ocean; who accordingly erected the Town _Santa Maria de Camoyagua_, near a River Navigable for _Canoos_, which disembogues in _Puerto de Cavallos_. The remaining part of the Way to the Haven _Fonseca_ being passable for Carrs (which was a means to prevent many Inconveniences which us’d to happen to Travellers on the Way between _Panama_ and _Nombre de Dios_) the _Spanish_ King was so much concern’d at the first proposal hereof, that he sent the famous Surveyor _Baptista Antonello_ thither, and he rather, because he received information, that the new Way, along which they carried the Merchandise from _Peru_, _Mexico_, and other Countreys along the South Sea, lay very pleasantly, by reason of the brave Vineyards, Corn-Fields, Fruit-Trees, Pastures, Streams abounding with Fish, Herds of Deer, and Cony-Warrens; yet _Antonello_ meeting with many troubles, would not undertake the Business.

_New Valladolid_ is adorn’d with a great Church, a Cloyster, belonging to the Monks _De la Merced_, and handsom Streets.

[Sidenote: _Gratias a Dios._]

2. Thirty Leagues Westward from this City lies another call’d _Gratias a Dios_, begun by Captain _Gabriel de Royas_, _Anno 1530._ that so he might be near the Gold-Mines: But because the Natives kept the new Inhabitants in continual alarm, and daily Storm’d the unfinished Fortifications, _Royas_ was necessitated to leave off building any farther, the rather, because none came to his assistance from the neighboring Garrison.

Six years after _Gonzales de Alvarado_ undertook this Work, and built the City on a Rocky Mountain; which, though otherwise barren, produc’d lusty Horses and strong Mules.

[Sidenote: _St. Pedro._]

3. _San Pedro_, though lying under a hot and unwholsom Climate, us’d formerly to be a brave City of Trade; but it is gone much to decay since _Golfo Dolce_ hath been discover’d, because from that Bay the Commodities are carried in Barques up into the Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Juan de Puerto de Cavallos._]

4. The Village _Juan de Puerto de Cavallos_, inhabited by Factors and Moors: It receiv’d that Denomination, because not far from it several Horses were forc’d to be thrown over-board in a Storm. Though it be but ill fortifi’d, yet it hath an exceeding large Haven. Captain _Christopher Newport_ arriving here _Anno 1591._ found two hundred Houses, and in them a considerable Booty left, notwithstanding four Ships richly laden had lately set Sail from thence.

Six years after _Newport_, Capt. _Ant. Sherly_ re-took the Place, and leaving the Haven open for Pyrats, _Alphonsus Coriado_ judg’d it convenient to remove the Trading Place to _Amatique_; he built the Village _Thomas de Castilla_, and fortifi’d the same against all manner of Assaults.

[Illustration: TRUXILLO.]

Behind _Cavallos_ lies the Valley _Naco_, which is exceeding fruitful, being situate between high Mountains, where formerly was found plenty of Silver.

[Sidenote: _Truxillo._]

5. Eastward from _Cavallos_ appears the famous City _Truxillo_, near a large Bay; secur’d from all Storms by two Cliffs, full of Trees; the Mouth of the Haven call’d _Joan Gil_, is above two Leagues broad, and receives two Rivers, one from each side of the City: The Stream _Quaimarotte_ flows Eastward, and the River _Antonio_ Westward, both abounding in Fish. The Countrey round about produces abundance of all sorts of Provisions, and chiefly abounds in Grapes, which are gather’d twice a year: Eight days after _August_ they cut their Vines, which afford them ripe Grapes again in _October_; they have two Harvests of Corn; also Lemons and Oranges are very plentiful: The Cattel brought hither from _Spain_ are exceedingly increas’d to an incredible number.

_Truxillo_ it self lying on a steep Mountain, is defended on that side which respects the Sea, with a thick Wall of six Foot high; between which and the Haven are many brambly Bushes, which prevent the access to the Wall, onely a narrow and steep way leading up to the City, which hath a strong Gate, guarded with two Brass Guns, and sufficiently Fortifi’d to oppose an Enemy. The Eastern Cliff, which bends before the Haven is call’d _Punta la Rye_, on which stands a House with a high Beacon: Beyond the Wall Eastward, near the Haven, is a Ship-yard, before which stands a large Woodden Cross: The Castle in which the City Store is kept, joyns to the Wall, near unto which, within the Town appears St. _Francis_ Church; but the Cathedral call’d _Eglesia Major_, is seen above all other Buildings: The Houses cover’d with _Palmito_-Leaves, have Walls of Pleited Bushes, Plaister’d over within and without: Behind the City, where it lies open, are exceeding high Mountains.

[Sidenote: Attempts upon this place by the _English_ and _Dutch_.]

_Anno 1576._ the _English_ falling on this strong Place, carry’d a rich Booty from thence; after which, Capt. _Anth. Sherly_ and Capt. _Will. Parker_ ventur’d once more on the same, but being discover’d by the Centinel, were forc’d to Retreat, not without a considerable loss: When not long after, Captain _John Van Hoorn_ a _Hollander_, attempting the same, had much better success; for he Weighing Anchor for _Pernambuc_, with four Frigats, three Ketches, and a Sloop, set Sail to _Truxillo_, where arriving, lay close before the City with his four Frigats, which fired very fiercely on the Town; the Inhabitants of which not being idle, kill’d three Men in one Ship, forc’d her to fall farther off from the Castle: Whilst the Ketches and Sloop went about a Gun shot Westward beyond the City, towards the River _Antonio_, where they Landed two hundred and fifty Soldiers, which march’d with all speed up the Hill, where the Castle lay which they Scal’d at Noon-day; the Besieged being provided with seven Guns, shot, and threw Stones continually amongst them, yet were forc’d to Retreat from the _Dutch_ Hand-granado’s: During the storm, the Admiral himself Landed, but before he came out of the Boat, the foremention’d Soldiers had made themselves Masters of the Fort, with the loss of onely eight Men, and were busie Pillaging all places they came at, and carrying their gotten Booty to a Watch-house near the Castle on the Shore; when on a sudden a Fire happen’d in the East part of _Truxillo_, which increas’d in such a manner, that in few hours two third parts of the City lay in Ashes; every one then had enough to do to save themselves, yet for all the haste they made, several _Hollanders_ were kill’d at the blowing up of the Magazine, and most of the Booty lost by the Fire; insomuch that they carry’d but two hundred thirty nine Skins, six Bales of _Indigo_, eight hundred and twenty Pounds of _Sarsaparilla_, seven Brass, and three Iron Guns, four Clocks, and some few trifles with them; having before made an agreement for twenty Pound of Silver, with the Governor _Joan de Miranda_, who inform’d them, that they had not the least knowledge of the _Hollanders_ Fleet, till the Evening, when the Beacon on _Punta La Rye_ was fir’d: Moreover, that the City was inhabited by two hundred _Spaniards_, and as many more _Mulatoes_ and _Moors_; and that the Trade thereof was much gone to decay, because there had been no Gallies there in two years before.

Twenty seven Leagues from this City lies the Village _Jorgo de Olancho_, where four thousand _Spaniards_ force Tribute from sixteen thousand _Indians_, who possess much Gold.

SECT. IV. Nicaragua.

[Sidenote: Situation and bounds.]

_Nicaragua_ is a County of this Province, border’d Northward with _Honduras_; on the East, with the _Atlantick Ocean_, and part of _Veragua_; on the South, with _Mare del Zur_; and on the West, with _Guatimala_, being call’d by _Diego Lopez de Salzado_, _The New Kingdom of_ Leon, and comprizing several little Territories, as _Nicoya_, _Nequecheri_, _Mabyth_, _Deria_, _Masaya_, _Mandigua_, _Cacoloaque_, _Cepeoco_, _Los Micos_, _Madira_, and the _Contales_. It hath few Rivers in it, the want whereof is supply’d by the benefit of a great Lake, in the midst of the Countrey, call’d by the _Spaniards_, _Laguna de Nicaragua_, containing, as is suppos’d, above one hundred Leagues in compass. It empties it self by the Port of _St. Juan_ into the _Atlantick_ or North-Sea, but reacheth as far as the South or _Mare del Zur_, at least within a very few Leagues; and from whence some _Spanish_ Captains are said to have made a passage, though with much difficulty, into the Lake, and from thence to the North-Sea. It is abundantly well stor’d with good Fish, but withal much haunted with Crocodiles; and the Countrey about it so plentiful in all things, especially Cattel, Cotten-Wool, Sugars, and all kind of Fruits: Amongst which, the chiefest is the _Zeiba_, which is of so great a thickness, that fifteen Men holding Hand in Hand, can scarce encompass the same. The _Callabashes_ ripen here in fourteen days time: The Sea along the Coast, breeds Whales and other Sea-Monsters, which are often seen above Water.

[Sidenote: Nature of the Inhabitants.]

The Inhabitants of this Countrey, (except the _Chontales_, which live on the Mountains, and maintain their old Salvage Customs) have for the most part learnt the _Spanish_ Tongue and Manners, and exercise themselves in all sorts of Arts and Siences, especially in Working of Silver, making of Clothes, Wax-Work, and the like: From the Mountains they gather Balsom, Liquid-Amber, Turpentine: They also drive a great Trade in Cotton, Skins, and several sorts of Provisions, to _Panama_, and _Nombre de Dios_.

The Lake _Laguna de Nicaragua_, which hath a hundred and seventeen Leagues in Circumference, and round about inhabited, is by three Leagues of Land separated from the South-Sea; and discharges its Waters into the River _Desaguadero_, which falls into the Northern Ocean. _Alphonsus Calera_, and _Diego Machuca de Zuaso_, were the first that Sail’d out of the foremention’d Lake into the Sea, not without many dangers, by reason of the great Water-falls, call’d _Rondales_, which fall into the River _Desaguadero_, and forc’d them often times to draw their Barques over the Land.

[Sidenote: Cities.]

The chief City is, 1. _Leon_, which is surrounded with Woods, and lies close by the Lake; hath a great Church, five Cloysters belonging to the _Monks, de la Mercede_, several Houses for the King’s Officers, and a hundred and twenty thousand Families of _Indians_ which pay Tribute. Three Leagues beyond _Leon_ appears a high spiry Mountain, from whose top, both Morning and Evening, rises a mighty smoke, and sometimes casts out great sulphurous Stones over the neighboring Fields, and on a sudden mighty Flames. A _Dominican_ Monk, in hopes to get some melted Gold out of its burning Mouth, went up the same with four of his Fraternity, and carry’d an Iron Chain and a Kettle, which were no sooner let down into the hole, but they were immediately melted; yet not so discourag’d, they resolv’d to venture a second time with stronger Materials, which nevertheless had the same, or rather worse event; for the Fire flew out in such a manner, that the _Dominicans_ sadly scorch’d, had enough to do to escape with Life, since which none durst presume to approach the same.

But besides the Episcopal City _Leon_, Erected by _Franciscus Fernandez_, 2. _Granada_ acknowledges the same Builder, and lying also on the shore of _Laguna de Nicaragua_, is adorn’d with a Castle, Church, and several Sugar-Mills: Not far from it lie the small Lakes _Masaya_ and _Lindiri_; the first which is inclos’d between exceeding high Mountains, covers the Foot of the burning Mountain _Masaya_; the other falls into _Laguna de Nicaragua_, near which is the smoky Mountain _Munbacho_, surrounded with Fruit-Trees.

3. _&_ 4. The Towns _Jean_, and _Neuva Segovia_, which are not far from thence, are of little consequence.

5. _Realeio_, this is, as it were, the _Chattam_ of _America_, being a place on the South-Sea, where the King of _Spain_ hath all his Ships built that are made of _American_ Timber, and inhabited by few or none but Shipwrights, Mariners, and Men of that kind of Profession.

6. _&_ 7. _Nicoya_, _Avarines_.

8. _Cartago_, forty Leagues distant from _Nicoya_, and lying almost in the midst of the _Isthmus_, or _Streight_ of _Darien_, equally distant both from the North and South Sea; on both which it is said likewise to have a convenient Port or Haven for Shipping.

[Sidenote: Strange manner of Dancing.]

The _Spaniards_, when first they Landed here, call’d this Countrey _Mahomets Paradise_, because of its exceeding Fruitfulness. The _Cacao_ which they use here in stead of Money, is not unlike the Stone of an Almond. The Inhabitants, in stead of using a Steel and Flint to strike Fire withal, rub two pieces of Wood together so long, till one of them is kindled; and burn the Boughs of Pine-Trees in stead of Candles. Amongst the several Languages which they speak, the _Mexican_ is the chiefest: Amongst their Recreations, Dancing is principal, which is perform’d after a very strange manner, for they meet sometimes two or three thousand together, according to the bigness of the Province, in a spacious Field, which is made clean before for that purpose: He that leads the Dance goes backward, and with many strange Gestures, turns himself about, which the rest, following four and four together in a row, imitate, whilst their _Tambores_ beat on hollow Instruments, and sing Songs, which are first answer’d by the Ring-leader of the Dance, and then seconded by the whole Company, each of them waving a Fan or a _Callabash_, and being all adorn’d with Plumes of Feathers on their Heads, and Strings with Shells about their Arms and Legs; they also act several antick Tricks, the one, the blind Man, the other, the Cripple, one feigns himself to be deaf, the other makes a wry Mouth, one cries, and another laughs, whilest others drink healths in _Chocolate_, which continues till Midnight.

[Sidenote: The Fish _Manati_.]

A King of this Countrey in former times us’d to feed the Fish _Manati_ with Bread, in the Lake _Guainabo_, where it would appear at its being call’d _Matto_, _Matto_, which signifies _Noble-minded_, and oftentimes carry eight or ten Boys on its Back from one side of the Lake to the other; but being shot by a _Spaniard_ with an Arrow, never appear’d again.

There is likewise a black Beast in this Countrey call’d _Cascu_, resembling in some things a Hog; it hath a hard Skin, little Eyes, open Ears, cloven Feet, short Nose, and makes such a terrible noise, that it affrights those which hear it.

No less strange and wonderful is the Fox-Ape, which hath two Bellies one under another; in the lowermost of which it carries its Young, which are never brought into the World till they are able to shift for their own Food. It hath the Body of a Fox, Feet like a Man’s Hands, and Ears like a Batt.

It will not be amiss before we conclude with this Province, to give you a Relation of the Discourse which hapned _Anno 1527._ between the _Spanish_ Commander _Francisco de Monteio_ and the _Nicaraguan_ Casique _Alquinotex_, who being a hundred and ten years old, told him, “That before the _Spaniards_ arrival there, great numbers of his Soldiers perish’d after a strange manner; for after having vomited abundance of Worms, they fell down dead on a sudden: those that escap’d the Contagion differing amongst themselves, made two Parties, which twice Engaging with one another, each of them lost above a hundred and fifty thousand Men. Yet both these Plagues were no ways to be compar’d to the Slaughter which the _Spaniards_ had made amongst them.”

About the same time an _Italian_, call’d _Hieronymo Bonzo_, Lodging with a _Nicaraguan_ Noble-man that understood the _Spanish_ Tongue, was thus set upon by him: _What do not_ (_Oh_ Christ) _the_ Christians _do! they no sooner get their Foot into an_ Indian_’s Hut, but they commandingly call for Maiz, Honey, Winter-Clothes, Gold, Silver, and a Woman to cool their lustful desires: Certainly there is nothing more vicious on Earth_. To which _Bonzo_ gave him this Answer: _The wicked_ Spaniards _commit oftentimes unseemly things_. The _Indian_ again suddenly retorted, saying, _Where are any such Men to be found as good_ Spaniards? _I have never known any but wicked Villains._ To which _Bonzo_ said, _Why have you made place for them on_ Nicaragua? Which was thus reply’d to by the Noble-man: “All People round about took Oath on the first News of the _Christians_ arrival, to hazard all, and fight to the last Man, before they would be under the insupportable Yoke, with which they had heard other Countreys were oppress’d with by them. To which purpose they made ready Bowes, Arrows, Lances, Stones, Clubs, and other Weapons of War: But when it came to the trial, the _Spanish_ Horse, of which they had never seen the like, struck such a terror into the _Indians_, that they fled, and sent two Agents to _Monteio_ to desire Peace; but their Design was onely to gain time, that they might gather new Forces, to venture a second Encounter; which prov’d as fatal to them as the first. Then desiring Peace once more, they gather’d all that were able to bear Arms, and swore one to another not to stir a Foot; and withal made a Law, That whosoever did shrink should be kill’d immediately: But the Women being inform’d hereof, begg’d that they might rather suffer under the _Spanish_ Yoke, than be torn in pieces by their Dogs, or kill’d by their Bullets and Swords, alledging, that they were not able to resist the _Spaniards_; and entreated them, that if they were resolv’d to go on with their first Design, they would first send their Wives and Children to the other World, that so they might not fall into the hands of the merciless and bloody _Christians_: Whereupon most Voices judg’d it convenient to make use of the Opportunity, and to submit to _Monteio_. But his cruel dealings made some to contradict that Determination, for which they paid dearly; for not onely they, but their little Infants, were put to the most cruel Deaths imaginable; which made many of them also to lay violent hands on themselves.”

SECT. V. Costarica.

[Sidenote: Bounds and Nature of the Countrey.]

_Costarica_ borders on the East with _Veragua_; on the South and East, with the Sea; and on the North, with _Nicaragua_. The Countrey it self is barren and mountainous; whose Inhabitants were valiant enough to Encounter with the _Spanish_ Forces, being unwilling to lose their former Priviledges.

This Coast was discover’d full by _Christopher Columbus_, who _Anno 1502._ Sailing up the Rivers _Belen_ and _Veragua_ with Barques, took much Gold out of the Mynes _Urira_, but chiefly from between the Roots of Trees which were grown together.

SECT. VI. Veragua.

[Sidenote: Bounds and Nature of the Country.]

_Veragua_ is bounded on the West with _Costarica_; on the East it hath the District, or Countrey of _Panama_, being otherwise wash’d on all sides by the Sea. It hath its Name from a River of great note in this Tract, by which it was first discover’d. The Countrey is for the most part mountainous, and the Soil outwardly barren, but recompencing all defects with the abundance of its more inward Wealth, that is to say, in the richness of its Mynes, of which it is said to afford many, and so inexhaustibly rich and good, that the _Spaniards_ here know no end of their Wealth; although by the stoutness and untameableness of the Natives, it was a long time, and they met with many difficulties, before they could make themselves Masters of the Treasure.

[Sidenote: Its chief Towns.]

The chief Towns they have here are 1. _La Conception_, lying at the Mouth of a River so nam’d, and the Seat of the Governor.

2. _La Trinidad_, upon the Banks of the same River likewise, but down towards _Port Beleno_, and about six Leagues Eastward of _Conception_.

3. _St. Foy_, twelve Leagues more to the South, where the _Spaniards_ melt their Gold, and cast it into Bars or Ingots.

4. _Carlos_, a Town they have upon the Coast of _Mare del Zur_.

5. _Philippina_, another on the West of _Carlos_; both of these seated upon a large capacious Bay; before which there lie certain little Islands, to the number of thirty or more, which the _Spaniards_ are said to have wholly dispeopled long since, by forcing the Natives over into the Continent to work in the Mynes, as usually they did before the Emperor’s Prohibition: but now they use Slaves or _Negro_’s, which they buy for that purpose from _Guinee_ and other Parts.

SECT. VII. Guatimala, properly so call’d.

[Sidenote: Bounds of the Country.]

_Guatimala_, specially so call’d, hath on the West the River _Xicalapa_, which divides it from _Vera Paz_; on the East it is bounded with the Countrey of _Nicaragua_; on the North, with _Honduras_; and on the South, with _Mare del Zur_.

This Countrey was conquer’d by _Peter de Alvarado_, _Anno 1525._ It is, by reason of its neighborhood with _Vera Paz_, not altogether clear of Mountains, but otherwise well water’d with Rivers, and enrich’d with fair and fruitful Valleys, which afford not onely good Pasturage, and many great Herds of Cattel, but likewise good store of Wheat, _Maiz_, and other Fruits of the Earth. Great plenty of Cotton-Wool is generally both here and in the other Provinces, _viz._ _Vera Paz_, _Chiapa_, &c. some Medicinal Woods likewise, and Liquors, and absolutely the best Sulphur in _America_. The People are generally tractable and well dispos’d, both in point of Religion and civil Government.

[Sidenote: Towns of note.]

The Towns of chief note are 1. _Guatimala_, now call’d _St. Jago de Guatimala_ since the re-building thereof; for about the Year 1586. it was almost buried in Ashes, which one of the neighboring Mountains, for the space of six Moneths together, continually belch’d out in such fearful quantities, that many People were slain, the old City deserted, and a new one built in another place. The day before this sad Accident hapned, the neighboring Mountains were observ’d to shiver, and a great noise was heard from under Ground; which amazing the _Indians_, the news thereof was carried to the Bishop, _Franciscus Moroquin_, who narrowly enquiring into the Causes of these Accidents, and what they might portend, found that a sad Event would suddenly follow, as accordingly it did; for about midnight on the eighth of _August, Anno 1541._ such a mighty store of Rain fell, as if the Clouds had been all dissolv’d into Water, which came rowling from the Rocky Mountains with such violence, that it wash’d down great Stones, which carried on by the strength of the Water against the Houses, beat them down; and none could have seen how they were ruin’d, had not the mighty flashes of Lightning, follow’d by terrible claps of Thunder, lighted the Night. Some instantly deserting this miserable place, fled up into the Countrey, and there built a new _Guatimala_ (as above-mention’d) sur-nam’d _St. Jago_, three Leagues farther towards the East, in a Valley through which flow two Rivers, between two _Vulcans_, or smoaking Mountains, which sometimes vomit forth terrible Flames, mix’d with dreadful Thunder-claps, Ashes, and great Stones, insomuch that the Ground all about it, which is exceeding fruitful, seems to move. There are many of these _Vulcans_ in several parts of _America_, as namely at _Arequipa_ in the Kingdom of _Peru_, at _Puebla de los Angelos_, in the Province of _Tlascalla_ abovesaid, a Mountain of so great heighth, that they are fain to go little less than thirty Leagues turning and winding before they can reach the top of it, and others in several other places. They are generally Mountains of great heighth, and running sharp upwards, but at the top containing some quantity of plain and level Ground; in the midst whereof is a Pit or Hole, out of which abundance of Smoak and fiery Sparkles are vomited almost continually, and so deep, that they are suppos’d for the most part to reach to the very bottom of the Mountain. Some of these _Vulcans_ cast forth neither Fire nor Smoak, yet are clearly seen to burn at the bottom with a quick Fire, and which is so extreamly hot, that it instantly melteth Iron, or any other Metal that is cast into it, as by experience hath been found: for some conceiving that the Matter which maintains these Fires within the Bowels of the Earth so long together, can be nothing else but melted Gold, have endeavor’d several times to extract and draw it forth in certain Vessels of Iron and Brass, which they have caus’d to be let down into the bottom of the _Vulcan_ or Pit, by long Iron Chains made on purpose: but, as we said, the extream heat and force of the Fire below always melted them before they could be drawn up again, and by that means hath rendred all such Attempts frustrate. In this Town, now call’d _St. Jago_, reside above six hundred _Spanish_ Commanders, and more than twenty five thousand _Indians_ which pay Tribute. They have also a brave Church and two Cloysters, one belonging to the _Dominicans_, and another to the Order _La Merced_, and likewise a noble Hospital. Not far from thence is a place call’d _Yzaleos_, where there are Orchards of _Cacoa_ two Leagues in square, each of them producing yearly as much as fifty thousand Men are able to carry. They reckon the _Cacao_ by _Contels_, which is the number of four hundred; by _Xequipiles_, of eight thousand; and by _Carga_’s, of twenty four thousand. In this County is a Mountain, whose top smoaking continually consumes by degrees, and oftentimes covers the neighboring Countrey with Ashes. The Water which flows from the same differs very much, for some of it is wholsom and fit to drink; some foul and stinking, and some turns Wood, if laid in the same, to Stone. Here is also the Beast whose Head is highly esteem’d for the _Bezoar_-Stone, which it carries in the same. Here is likewise a little Bear, which in stead of a Mouth, hath a long Nose with a round Hole in it, and a hollow Tongue, with which it sucks Honey, and disturbs the Nests of Pismires. The Women in this Place make curious Earthen Ware, colour’d either red or black with the Mud of two several Brooks. The _Indians_ call’d the boyling Fountains in this County _Hell_, because they bubble up a Bowes-shot high, and make the River _Caliente_, which, notwithstanding it hath pass’d half a League through a wide Channel, retains its exceeding heat. Not far from it lies a Stone, which having a Crack in the middle, sends forth a thick Damp, and against bad Weather a thundering noise. On the Mountains grow exceeding large Trees, especially Oak. Here Pismires which are of an extraordinary bigness, are brought to Market amongst other Provisions.

2. _St. Salvador_, forty Leagues distant from _Guatimala_ Eastward, and seated upon the River _Guacapa_, and having about it a small Territory, which by some is accounted a distinct Countrey or Province.

3. _Acaputla_, a Town of the Natives, situated at the Mouth of the River, and being as it were, the Port-Town to _St. Salvador_.

4. _Trinidad_, a Town of great resort, being the greatest Empory and Place of Traffick for all sorts of Commodities, betwixt the People of _New Spain_ and those of _Peru_.

5. _St. Michaels_, two or three Leagues distant from the Bay _Fonseca_, upon the South Sea.

6. _Xeres de la Frontera_, on the Confines of this Province, towards the Borders of _Nicaragua_, besides several Villages which we shall have occasion to mention.

In the middle of a Lake within this Territory is an Island, on which the _Indians_ had a Tradition, That a Man no sooner set his Foot but he died immediately: Which Opinion of theirs was chang’d when the _Spaniards_ went thither in Boat-fulls and return’d safe again, with Relation that they had seen a large Stone Image, resembling a Woman; before which lay the Ashes and Bones of slain People.

Round about the Village _Guaymoco_ grow great Balsom-Trees, which afford Timber of fifty five Foot long. From this Village leads a Way to the City _Salvador_, near which the fore-mention’d River _Guachapa_ runs with so many windings, that the Traveller is forc’d to cross the same several times before he can come to the Foot of a Mountain which formerly cast out terrible Flames; but now the combustible Matter being consum’d, there appears onely a great Hole on the top, with Ashes in a large compass round about it. At the Foot of the same are two Pits, one of which smoaks continually in such a manner, that it stifles all those that approach it; yet the Mountain is well overspread with Cedars and Pine-Trees.

Three Leagues farther lies the Village _Nixapa_; and not far from thence the Hill _Elmal Pais_, which consists of great Stones and Ashes, wonderfully mixt together: No less wonderful is a Brook which flows in the Night till Morning, and then sinks into the Ground: And in the Countrey _Choluteca_ is another, which hides it self at Noon, and appears again towards Night. The Cavern which formerly produc’d Fire and Smoke, now affords good Water to the Village _Curcatan_, and City _Salvador_: Near the Village _Yztepegve_ are five Springs, which cast up Allom and Sulphur. The Natives _Chontales_ which speak several Languages, flock to the Village _Mimilla_, to make Offerings; not far from hence are two Pits, one of which is full of boyling Water, and the other as cold as Ice: Moreover, _Cocori_ lies near a high Mountain, on the top of which is a very turbulent Lake.

[Sidenote: Havens.]

The chiefest Haven of this Countrey, which lies along the South-Sea, is _Bahia de Fonseca_, Discover’d by _Gonsalves Davila_, _Anno 1522._ and so nam’d from _Joan Rodrigas de Fonseca_, Bishop of _Burgos_; In the middle thereof appears the Island _Petronella_, with nine others, of which four are inhabited by _Indians_.

The good conveniency of the Haven _Fonseca_, induc’d some of the _Spaniards_ to make a new Passage from the side of the Southern Ocean, to the Northern, _viz._ from _Panama_ to _Nombre de Dios_, designing it to reach from the said Haven _Fonseca_, unto _Puerto de Carellos_, which are distant one from the other forty five Leagues; most of it good way, except some over-grown Mountains, which might be made passable with little trouble; to which purpose they built the Town _Buena Esperanca_, yet nevertheless the Work remain’d unprosecuted.

There are moreover reckon’d as appertaining to _Guatimala_, the small Provinces _Soconusco_, _Suchitepec_, and _Chilulteca_, the chief of them being _Soconusco_, to which belongs the Town of _Gevetlan_, where the _Spanish_ Governor hath his Residence; the rest seem to be onely small Territories about Towns of the same Name, in like manner as St. _Salvador_, and St. _Miguel_ before-mention’d.

[Illustration]

CHAP. V. The Kingdom of Mexico, or New-Spain.

[Sidenote: Bounds of _New-Spain_.]

_New Spain_, the chiefest part of the Northern _America_, reckons in length from the East-Point of _Yucatan_, to the place where _Mechoacon_ juts against _Guadalajara_ three hundred and sixty Leagues; and in breadth from the Northern parts of _Panucos_, to the Southern Ocean, a hundred and eighty Leagues; besides a great part which lies to the Northward, behind inaccessable Mountains and Wildernesses; inhabited by the _Tepecuaenes_, _Guachucules_, _Cacatequas_, _Tecaxquines_, and others; and was, before the _Spaniards_ Conquer’d and Dismember’d it, much larger than now it is; for as much as it comprehended the whole Province of _New-Gallicia_, and reach’d from the furthest Point of the _Peninsula_ of _Jucatan_ Southward as far as _New-Biscay_, and the Confines of _California_ Northward; containing in length seven hundred Leagues and more, and about half as much in breadth: But since the Conquest by _Hernando Cortez_ and his Followers, the whole Countrey of _New-Gallicia_ is taken from it, and made a distinct Government or _Audiencia_, as the _Spaniards_ call it, of it self.

[Illustration: NOVA HISPANIA NOVA GALACIA GVATIMALA]

[Sidenote: The Original.]

The Natives of the Countrey are of the Race of the _Chichimecæ_, a Salvage and Wilde sort of People, of the Province of _New-Gallicia_, especially in the Parts of _New-Biscay_, living in Forests and in deep Caves under Ground; whose Posterity do still at this day much trouble and annoy the Countrey thereabouts; notwithstanding all the endeavors of the _Spaniards_, and the Garrisons which they keep in those parts on purpose to destroy them. About five hundred years ago, or more, according to the account of the _Mexican Annals_, divers Hoards, as they are call’d, of these _Chichimecæ_, weary, it seems, of their Woods and subterraneous dwellings, issu’d out into the more open Air, and fell down in huge multitudes into these Southerly parts of _America_, which are now call’d _Mexico_ and _New-Spain_; not all at once, but at several times, and under several names, _viz._ of the _Suchimilci_, _Chalcæ_, _Tepanecæ_, _Tlascaltecæ_, and others, who subduing or driving out the People they found in those parts, Seated themselves in their room: And though at first every Nation or Company of them, as they came, seiz’d upon some Province apart by themselves, and held it, as it were, in Soveraignty to themselves, without acknowledgement of any dependance or subjection to their Neighbors, or those that were there before them; yet in Tract of time, and by fortune of the Wars, which they made one upon another, they fell under the Government of one King, _viz._ the King of _Mexico_, which was the chief City of the Province.

[Sidenote: The state of the _Mexican_ Kingdom before the _Spaniards_ arrival.]

This Kingdom, at the time that the _Spaniards_ first Discover’d the Countrey, was Govern’d by a Prince, nam’d _Motezuma_; one, who by his Valor and good success in the Wars, had in a few years of his Reign, before the _Spaniards_ came thither, subdu’d the better part of a hundred Cities and great Towns to his Dominion; and held in actual submission to his Government, and Tributary to him, no less than thirty several _Casiques_ or petty Princes; every one of which paid him Tribute, and were able upon occasion to bring into the Field an hundred thousand Men: He is said to have been, for his Person, a wise and good Prince, just, affable, and tender of his Subjects good: but by reason of some heavy exactions, which his own power, and the Practise of his Ancestors before him, gave him the confidence to Impose upon the Conquer’d People, a great part of his Subjects liv’d but unwillingly under his Obedience, and rather by constraint than otherwise: being also further exasperated against him by one barbarous Custom, which the _Mexicans_ frequently us’d, _viz._ the Sacrificing of Men. Their manner was, whensoever they had any solemn occasion of doing Honor to their Devil-god _Vitzilopuchtli_, as they call him, to send out an Army of Men from _Mexico_, into some of the subdu’d Provinces, (in case they had no Enemies nearer Hand) and to fetch in as many Men as they thought good, to be Sacrific’d; whose flesh likewise afterwards they did eat in a solemn Banquet. This being a business of their Satanical Religion, and _Motezuma_ a Prince extremely Superstitious and Devoted to the Service of his gods, it is said, that he Sacrific’d commonly, one year with another, twenty thousand Men, and some years, upon extraordinary occasions, not less than fifty thousand: So great and grievous a Tyranny, by the just Judgement and Permission of Almighty God, for their great and unnatural sins, did the Enemy of Mankind exercise upon them. He was likewise much given to Women, but it was onely to such as were counted his Wives; of which he is said to have had no less than a hundred and fifty with Child by him at one time.

[Sidenote: The bounds of the _Mexican_ Kingdom.]

[Sidenote: Riches of _Mexico_.]

The Bounds of this Kingdom at present are thus; on the East it hath a large Arm of the Sea, which they call _The Bay of New-Spain_, or _The Gulf of Mexico_; On the West, it hath some parts of _New-Gallicia_, and _Mare del Zur_; on the North, the rest of _New-Gallicia_, and part of _Florida_; and on the South, _Mare del Zur_ again, and part of _Guatimala_. It extendeth it self in length from _Jucatan_ South-East, to the Borders of _New Gallicia_ Northward, above eight hundred _Italian_ Miles, and in breadth, from _Panuco_ to the South Sea, about half so much. It lieth wholly under the _Torrid Zone_: nor is it a Countrey generally so mountainous or high seated, as some others of _America_ are but for the most part level or low; yet is it so fann’d, (for three parts at least of four, by the cooling Blasts of the Sea, and the Heats otherwise so moderated with frequent Rains, which it hath constantly three Moneths in the Year, _viz._ _June_, _July_, and _August_) that the Air is rendred thereby exceeding temperate, and the Climate not unhealthful, especially to temperate Bodies, and such as are never so little us’d to it. A goodly Countrey it is, of inexhaustible Wealth and Riches, whether we regard the Mynes of Gold, Silver, Brass, Iron, _&c._ of all which it hath many, and very good; or the Fruits of the Earth, abundance of Cattel, plenty of Corn and Grain, of which they have two Harvests; or any other Commodities and Endowments of Nature, which serve for the enriching of the World. Amongst other things, it affords _Cassia_, the Fruit whereof is a thing well known, and much commended by the Apothecaries for its use in Physick, especially in Purgations, and removing of all Obstructions of Phlegm, Choler, _&c._ Such store of Balm, Amber, all sorts of Gums and precious Liquors, as no Countrey in the World is better furnish’d with excellent Perfumes and Physick, than the Kingdom of _New Spain_.

[Sidenote: _Tunas_-Tree.]

Among the many other sorts of Trees which this Countrey produces, the most remarkable is their _Tunas_, of which, there being five kinds, one is call’d _Cumbeba_, from whence proceeds that admirable Tincture, commonly known by the Name of _Cochinele_, which is thus made: On the top of this Tree is found a Worm, which hath the bigness and shape of a great Louse, which so increases, that in one years time a hundred Trees shall be stock’d from the seed of one of these Animals. The Worm it self being white, after the Skin is carefully pull’d off, put in cold Water or Ashes, and so dry’d, becomes _Cochinele_. The best sort of it is to be had in _Tlascala_, and that in so great a quantity, that no less than five or six hundred _Arrobes_ of _Spanish_ Measure (each _Arrobe_ is as much as five _English_ Bushels) is yearly Transported thence. The other sort, which grows on the Mountains, and that which is not so carefully gather’d, call’d _Chichimecas_, Dyes not so well as the right _Cochinele_. The _Tunas_ also bears a Fruit long and whitish, with a smooth Shell, and full of little Seeds like Figs: The red, which are inferior in taste to the white, colours the Urine red.

[Sidenote: Pine-Apples.]

The Pine-Apples which grow here differ from the _Spanish_, for the Pulp is not inclos’d in a Shell: They have a pleasant smell, and a Pulp, which if eaten much of, causes an Appetite, it being of a tartish taste; they keep good a long time when Salted.

[Sidenote: Fruit _Cacao_.]

But much more beneficial is the _Cacao_, with which Fruit _New Spain_ drives a great Trade; nay, serves for Coin’d Money. When they deliver a Parcel of _Cacao_, they tell them by five, thirty, and a hundred. Their Charity to the Poor never exceeds above one _Cacao_-Nut. The chief reason for which this Fruit is so highly esteem’d, is for the _Chocolate_, which is made of the same, without which the Inhabitants (being so us’d to it) are not able to live, notwithstanding it causes Phlegm and Vomiting to those that are strangers thereto. When the _English_ Commander _Thomas Candish_ coming into the Haven _Guatulco_, burnt two hundred thousand Tun of _Cacao_, it prov’d no small loss to all _New Spain_, the Provinces _Guatimala_ and _Nicaragua_ not producing so much in a whole year. The Trees on which this Fruit grows are divided into four sorts, differing in bigness and shape: all of them are very tender, for they will not onely grow in no place but on their usual Ground, but cannot endure the cold Nights Storms, or excesses of Heat; wherefore the _Cacao_-Trees which grow out of the Fruit that falls off, come to no perfection, except in shady and warm Valleys; which is also the reason why the Planters of _New Spain_ plant the great Leafy Tree _Cacaoquanthly_ (that is, _The Mother of the Cacao_’s) near the _Cacao_-Tree, that it may the better grow under the Shadow thereof; in which manner whole Woods are planted: In the second year it bears Fruit, which is first ripe in _January_, and again in the midst of Summer. Amongst the four sorts the chiefest is _Quathuitl_, of an indifferent heighth, and full of sharp-pointed Leaves, which are fast to the Boughs without Stalks, and bears a great Flower of a yellowish colour, which falling off, leaves long, tough, and hairy Threds behind them, out of which grows the _Cacavently_, a Fruit which is oval, heavy like a Melon, of a Saffron-colour, of a fat and thick Juice, a bitterish, yet pleasant taste, and very cooling; being dry’d in the Sun it is thereby made fit to keep; it is likewise highly esteem’d, because the _Chocolate_ is made of the same. Before the _Spaniards_ made themselves Masters of _Mexico_, no other Drink was esteem’d but that of the _Cacao_; none caring for Wine, notwithstanding the Soil produces Vines every where in great abundance of it self. But besides the _Quathuil_, _New Spain_ hath three other sorts of _Cacao_-Trees, _viz._ _Mecanal_, pleasant to behold for its heighth, large Leaves and Fruit; the next is the _Xochucaual_, which is less than the former; and lastly the least sort, which is call’d _Halcacahual_. The Fruit of these four sorts of Trees, though differing in shape, yet is all one in power and operation.

[Illustration]

The _Spaniards_ to make _Chocolate_ mix _Maiz_ (by the _Mexicans_ call’d _Tlaolli_) either whole or Ground, or boyl’d before with Chalk. Moreover, they put the red Kernels also in the Drink, which grow in the Fruit of the _Achiote_-Tree. Of the Kernels, which are dry and cooling, boyl’d in Water, and stirr’d till it comes to a Pap, they make Cakes, which mix’d with the _Chocolate_, gives it a cleansing power, and takes away all tastes that cause vomiting.

The Pepper _Mecaxochite_, which grows creeping along the Earth, with long and fragrant Leaves, round Stalks, hairy Roots, and three long Cods which shoot upwards. This Pepper tempers the over-cooling property of the _Chocolate_. Lastly, it consists also of _Xochinacatlis_, _Tlilxochitle_, and the Rozenish Gum, _Holli_. The _Xocinacatli_ is a Tree with small Leaves, and great Flowers hanging on long Stalks that bend downwards, within of a purple, and without of a dark-green colour, of a sweet smell, and resembling an Ear; and this Flower also gives a pleasant taste and wholsom operation to the _Chocolate_. The _Tlilxochitle_ runs up to the tops of Trees like Ivy; the Flowers, of a darkish brown colour, cleanse the Nerves, strengthen the Brain, and take away the rawness of the Stomach. The _Holli_ drops out of the _Holquabuytle_, a smooth barky Tree full of Moisture, which at first appearance is white, then yellowish, and lastly black, which kneaded into round Balls and Roasted, is a remedy against a Loosness and soreness of the Bowels.

[Sidenote: Nature of the People.]

The Natives of the Countrey are very ingenious in divers mechanical Arts, especially in making of Feather-Pictures, a piece of Curiosity wherein they are held to be incomparably, or rather inimitably excellent; and so industrious at it, that although the _Americans_ generally are not a People over-much addicted to any kind of Labor or Study, yet at this they will sit a whole day together, without either Meat or Drink, onely out of a natural affection they have to the Work, and a desire to be excellent in it; The Countrey indeed affords them great variety of Birds and other Fowl, of most rare and exquisite Colours, which is a great advantage to their Skill, and helps much to the accomplishment of their Work. They Paint likewise very curiously upon their Cottons; and are held to be generally the best Goldsmiths in the World; of most perfect skill in the purging and refining of all sorts of Metals, but especially of Gold and Silver: And yet in other things so strangely stupid and ignorant, that when the _Spaniards_ first appeared amongst them, not a few of them (as ’tis reported) took the Horse and Man both for one Creature; and when the Horse Neighed, they would enquire very seriously what he said.

[Sidenote: Lakes of _New-Spain_.]

There are likewise many fair Lakes in this Province, but the principal are those of _Chapala_ and _Mexico_: the former of which is in the more Northern parts of the Kingdom, towards the Borders of _New Gallicia_, and is chiefly famous for the abundance of good Salt that is yearly made and Transported thence. The other of _Mexico_ is one of the largest and goodliest in the World, of circular form (as some say) little less than nine hundred Miles in compass, environ’d with the main Land, the _Peninsula_, or Cape of _Florida_, _Jucatan_, and the Island _Cuba_, having two onely Passages in and out, and both of them well fortifi’d: the one betwixt the Point of _Jucatan_ and the Isle _Cuba_, where the Tyde violently enters; and the other betwixt the said Island and the Cape of _Florida_, where it goeth as violently out: upon which Gulf the King of _Spain_ hath always some good Ships in readiness for all occasions; and by them, ’tis suppos’d, he doth more assure his Estates in those parts of _America_, than by all the Garrisons besides.

The whole Kingdom of _Mexico_, or _New Spain_, is subdivided into these Inferior Provinces:

[Sidenote: The several Provinces.]

1. The Arch-bishoprick of _Mexico_. 2. The Bishoprick, _Mechoacon_. 3. _Los Angelos_, or _Tlascale_. 4. _Guaxaca._ 5. The Lordship _Panuco_: And 6. the Province _Tabasco_.

_Mexico_, the chief Province of _New-Spain_, so denominated from _Mexico_ the chief City, not only of the Province, but of all _America_; lying between _Tlascale_ and _Mechoacan_, extends in length from North to South, a hundred and seventeen Leagues; and in breadth along the Southern Ocean, seventeen, but up in the Countrey, fifty four Leagues: In which circumference lie to the North-East, _Lateotlalpa_, _Mextitlan_, _Xilotepeque_, and _Panuco_; Westward, _Matalzingo_, and _Cultepeque_; Eastward, _Tuzcoco_; South-East, _Chalco_; Southward, _Suchimilco_, _Tlaluc_, _Coyxca_, and _Acapulco_.

[Illustration: NOVA MEXICO]

[Sidenote: Bounds of _Mexicana_.]

It is bounded on the East, with the Gulf of _Mexico_; on the West, with _Mechoacan_; on the North, with _Panuco_, and some parts of _New-Gallicia_; and on the South, with _Tlascalla_.

[Sidenote: Nature of the Countrey.]

This Countrey is both large and rich, containing not much less than one hundred and thirty Leagues, both in length and breadth; and if it yields any thing to _Peru_ in the plenty of Gold and Silver, ’tis certain it much excels it in many other Commodities; as namely, in all sorts of Fruits, abundance of Cattel, plenty of Corn and Grain; in all which, the advantage this Countrey hath, not only of _Peru_, but of all the other Provinces of _America_ beside, is well known: Not to speak any thing of the great plenty and variety of good Fish, which both the Rivers and Lakes of this Countrey afford, which is very great; insomuch, that the very Tribute of the one Lake of _Mexico_ is said to yield an Income of above twenty thousand Crowns yearly, one with another.

The People of the Countrey are generally Industrious and Active, especially since the _Spaniards_ came among them; rich Merchants, if they apply themselves to it; and they say likewise good Soldiers, when they are train’d and imploy’d that way.

[Sidenote: Chief Towns of _Mexicana_.]

The chief Towns and places of the Province are, 1. _Mexico_, both anciently and at present, the Metropolis and Capital City; being the Seat of an Archbishop, and the ordinary Residence of the Vice-Roy, and chief Governors of _New-Spain_.

[Sidenote: Description of the City _Mexico_.]

This City, by the _Indians_ was formerly call’d _Tenustatan_, lies in nineteen Degrees and a half to the Northward of the _Equinoctial-Line_, rais’d out of a brackish Lake, full of muddy Water; whose circumference along the Mountains is seventy Leagues: This Lake swarms continually with Boats, which carry the People to and again from one inhabited Island to another; four Stone-bridges, no less costly than artificial, with Arches and Gates in several places, lead from the City to the Main Continent.

The fresh Water which they have in the City _Mexico_, is led into the same through Pipes that lie in the bottom of the Lake; but none are to enjoy the benefit thereof, before they have paid a certain Sum of Money to the King’s Collectors.

Moreover, the City divided into Islands, contains above sixty thousand Houses, which being built on several Isles, have large Bridges, which reach from one to another; some that lie in the middle of the Lake, they approach in little Boats; round about the Lake, especially where the way leads from the Continent into the City, lie several Suburbs, all inclos’d with Walls; between which stand strong Towers, cover’d on the top: To keep off the force of the Water, the _Tenustatans_ have with great labor and charge, made a Bank through the Lake, half way along the City: But the Lake _Laguna_, from whose bottom _Mexico_ is rais’d, is divided in two parts, the _Sweet Lake_, which is higher than the _Salt_, falls in to the same through Sluces, with Bridges built on the Bank that leads from the City to the main Land: The _Salt-Lake_, which hath brackish and bitter Water, ebbs and flows according as the Wind blows; no Fish is able to live in the same, because the Water which in the sight of _Mexico_ falls into the same out of the Mountains, hath a sulphury Ground: All along the shore, much Salt is made, with which the Citizens drive a great Trade: There are continually above a hundred thousand Boats (by the _Indians_ call’d _Acales_, and by the _Spaniards_, _Canoos_) going off and on from one shore to another: The fresh Water Lake, which is bigger than the salt, and feeds small Fishes, hath above fifty Suburbs about the same, of which, some boast five thousand, and others ten thousand Houses: Nay, the Suburb _Tescuco_, in former times was no way inferior to _Mexico_ in bigness; since the _Spaniards_ have been Masters of this City, they stopt up many Moats, to inlarge their narrow Streets.

Besides three publick Markets, every open place affords all sorts of Provisions daily; the _Indians_ call the Markets _Tianguystly_, and the _Spaniards_, _Tianguez_; the first and chiefest stands in _Tatelulco_, adorn’d with Galleries on three sides; in the middle of this Square, which is accounted the biggest in the World, stands next to the place of Execution, a stately Fountain; the Tents which are every Week pitch’d up here for Trade, amount to above thirty thousand. The second Market call’d St. _John_’s, is in _Mexico_, and swarms continually with People. The third is call’d _Hipolito_, from the _Guardian-Saint_ of the City, whither every Wednesday and Thursday comes such a multitude of People, that this spacious Market is too little for them; for the sale of every Commodity, a peculiar corner is allotted; but great Packs are left to be dispos’d of in Boats, which lie near the shore.

At the four corners of the City, at present call’d _St. John_, _St. Maria la Rotonda_, _St. Pablo_, and _St. Sebastian_, are above four thousand _Spanish_ Families, and thirty thousand _Indians_, besides what inhabit _Tatelulco_, now _St. Jago_.

[Sidenote: The Temperature of the Air.]

The Air in this place is very strange; in the day time, the Sky is generally Serene; the North Wind against the Evening brings Rain, of which the Mountain _Tepeaquilla_ lying a little League beyond the City, gives certain Testimonies; for when a black Cloud appears on the top thereof, it is certain to be blown from thence over _Mexico_ with Rain: After a moist Evening follows a Star-light Night, and a pleasant Morning: From _September_ till _May_, it is generally dry Weather here, but if it chances to Rain, the Rain is attended with a Storm, which occasions a sulphurous Fogg, very unwholsom, and so dark, that one Man cannot discern another, and causes a pain through all the Limbs, nay sometimes Death it self; wherefore, whensoe’re it approaches, every one keeps close in his House, or goes into the Countrey.

Moreover, it is worthy of observation, how strangely this City is alter’d since its being Conquer’d by the _Spaniards_, and especially when _Anno 1629._ it was overflow’d by a mighty Deluge; which alteration by _Barnabe Cabo_, in a Letter to the _Jesuite Hernande Leon_, is thus set forth:

[Sidenote: _Barnabe Cabo_, his Description of Mexico.]

[Sidenote: _Mexico_ overflow’d.]

_Mexico_, says he, lying in a Valley between high Mountains, hath seventy Leagues in circumference: The Valley being Oval, is for the most part interspers’d with Lakes, which the _Indians_, and after them the _Spaniards_ have digg’d, only the Lake which washes _Mexico_ is natural; and to stop the Water-falls, there are Banks and Sluces every where: The Flood before _Mexicalcingo_ flows a Fathom and a half higher than before _Mexico_. The four other Lakes to the Northward have much more Water than the _Mexicalcingo_, of which, some have scarce four, others but three Leagues in circumference; when as _Mexicalcingo_’s Lake reckons fifteen, and _Mexico_’s sixteen. On the breaking of the Banks, _Mexico_ hath often suffer’d great damage, wherefore the Vice-Roy _de Valesco_ took special care to make a vent for the Water through the lowest Mountains; whereupon the Countrey being Survey’d, the Northern Coast near the Village _Gueguenoca_, was found to be the most convenient. But about the manner of letting the Water out, the Surveyors could no ways agree; most of them were of opinion to dig Channels, into which the Lakes might discharge their Waters; others, thought best to make a Gutter under Ground, which last _Valesco_ put in hand with unhappy success, because the Laborers who under-min’d the Ground, were choak’d with the falling in of the Sand, or stifled with the sulphurous Vapors rising out of the Earth: Nevertheless, they gave not over the Work, though they began it quite another way, for a _French_-Man, call’d _Henry Martin_, advis’d to deepen the River _Quaiotitlan_, which falls into the _Laguna_, and by that means make it a Bay, into which the _Laguna_ might pour her over-charg’d Waters: Which design, though contradicted by the Jesuit _John Sanchez_, was put in practice; by which means the Water fell in a short time so much, that they could walk dry to the Cliff _El Ponnel_, lying a League from the City; wherefore they continually labour’d on this Work, till such time _Conde de Getues_ came over for Vice-Roy, who judg’d the Charge to be unnecessary, nay Commanded the Ditches to be broken down, which stopt the Water along the Silver Mines of _Pachuca_, that he might see exactly how much it would over-flow _Mexico_: After which the Flood rose yearly higher and higher; till at last, _Anno 1629._ a mighty Rain falling, swole the _Laguna_ in such a manner, that it over-whelm’d all _Mexico_, wash’d down the Houses, all Merchandizes which could not endure the Water, were spoil’d, and had not they had innumerable Boats to help them, thousands of People might have perish’d in this Deluge: But at last, _Henry Martin_ restor’d again the fore-mention’d Channel to its former Perfection, and brought the Flood which fell down out of the Mountains within the Banks of the River.

[Sidenote: Stately Palaces.]

_Quantitlan_ digg’d also a Channel of eight thousand Fathom long, and made an Arch’d Sewer under Ground of the same length, which Sewer hath at every two hundred Fathoms distance, Vent-holes, and a hole of sixty Fathom deep, and by this means, diverting abundance of Water, they dry’d _Mexico_ in a short time: When the Banks and Streets began no sooner to appear, but they fell to work to raise the Ground, and to lay Bridges, and also to build more Boats. The Citizens likewise found it convenient to make another deep Sewer for the carrying away of more Water, notwithstanding it requir’d twenty years labor. The River, which in a manner runs through the middle of the City, is curb’d by a Wall; a crooked Bridge, with many Arches, and of a long extent, leads to the City, in which stand many brave Palaces, with pleasant Walks of Trees about them; the Cloysters of several Orders of Fryers, appear with high Spires and Turrets, above all other Buildings.

[Sidenote: And Monasteries.]

The _Franciscans_ have here four very sumptuous Buildings: The first, Consecrated to St. _Francis_, stands in the uppermost part of _Mexico_, within a large square Court, and on each a pleasant Walk of Trees: The Cloyster it self is very high, and trebble Wall’d, with Towers and Galleries about it: In the middle of the City stands another Tower’d-Cloyster, call’d St. _Jago_. The third lies a little distance from it, which being built long, hath a stately Turret, and is call’d _Maria de Rodonda_. The fourth, not far from the first, but much smaller, is nam’d _San Diego_; these belong to the _Franciscans_. The _Augustin_ Monks are also no way inferior to the _Franciscans_, for magnificent Structures, with spacious Halls, high Towers, and rich Balconies: The first is denominated from St. _Augustine_, just behind which appears _San Pabla_, less stately than the rest. St. _Sebastian_, near the _Laguna_, is built in manner like a Church, whose Tower ends like a Pyramid. The Cloyster _San Cruz_, belonging also to the _Augustines_, built square, stands near the Market, in the middle of which stands a stately Fountain: The Court within inviron’d with thick Walls, amazes the beholders by the pleasantness of its situation.

Moreover, the _Dominicans_ inhabit two brave Cloysters; the chiefest Dedicated to St. _Dominic_, is eight square; to which is adjoyning a pretty large Church, with a Steeple: The second, which stands on one side of _St. Jago_, and consists of three several Structures, is call’d _Collegio de Porta Cœli_. Opposite to _St. Jago_, near the great Market the _Jesuits_ have a stately Colledge, or High-School, where many are brought up in the Latin and Greek Tongues, whence it is call’d, _Casa Professa Les Estudios_.

There is also another Habitation of Religious Men, call’d _Illefonse Sanna Noviciad_, which for State, may vie with any Royal Palace.

[Sidenote: Cloysters belonging to the _Monks_ of _La Merced_.]

The _Monks_ of _La Merced_ dwell in two Cloysters, both Consecrated to the Virgin _Mary_, yet Sirnam’d _Montseratte_, and _Carmel_: The first lying not far from the River, is a mean Structure, in comparison to the last; the uppermost Tower of whose Temple appears above all other Buildings, in the upper part of _Mexico_ near the Cloyster of St. _Francis_.

[Sidenote: Womens Cloysters.]

The Women have also fourteen Cloysters here, the chiefest whereof is Dedicated to _Catharine_ of _Siena_; but much more splendid is that of _Santa Teresa_, built like an Imperial Palace; famous for its stately Gardens, and round Fountain, which continually spouts Water. The rest, which we shall onely name, are _La Encarnacio_, _Santa Ines_, _Jesus-Maria_, _Laurenso_, _Las Des-calcas_, _Santa Clara_, _Juan de la Penitentia_, _Regina Cœli_, _Santa Monica_, _las Rocogidas_, _Jeronymo_, and _Conceptione_; besides the Almshouses, _Real de los Indios_, and _Nostra Senora del Amor_: There are likewise eight Hospitals, _viz._ _de Dios_, _del Spiritu Santo_, _Juan de Doys_, _de la Misericordia_, _de san Hippolito_, and _de san Lazaro_. The three chief Churches bear the Name of _Catharine_, _Martin_, and _Vera Cruz_; and the Clergy-men thereto belonging, enjoy many stately Palaces, amongst which are _Juan de Lateran_, _de Christo_, and _las Nivas_.

[Sidenote: The Vice-Roy’s Palace and Arch-bishop’s Seat.]

The Residence of the Vice-Roy which lies near the _Dominican_ Cloyster, _Porto Cœli_, is so sumptuous a Structure, that it may stand in competition with any of those Edifices which were so much cry’d up by the Ancients; nevertheless, it is not to be compar’d to the Arch-bishop’s Seat, built round like a Theatre, whose Luster expresses the Quality of him that inhabits the same, he being Governor of the Bishopricks of _Fascala_, _Guaxaca_, _Mechaocan_, _New Galicia_, _Chiapa_, _Yucatan_, _Guatimala_, _Verapaz_, and the _Philippinas_. This marvellous Structure was begun by _Ferdinand Cortesius_, but was finish’d by _Sebastian Ramires de Fuenleal_; and not much inferior thereunto is the _Casa de Cabildo Alameda_.

[Sidenote: The gallantry of _Mexico_ at this day.]

At present, _Mexico_ is thought to be one of the richest Cities of the World, abounding (if reports be true) in all kind of voluptuous gallantry and bravery, even to excess: It is suppos’d to contain about six or seven Miles in compass, and to consist of above an hundred thousand Houses or Families, whereof not the tenth part _Spaniards_, but those that are, all Gentlemen, at least as to their garb and manner of living; for they live most splendidly in all respects, both for Diet and Apparel.

For the first, we have spoken so much already of the general plenty of all things in the Kingdom of _New-Spain_, that pertain to this part of pleasure, that it is not to be doubted: And for the second this may be some instance, _viz._ that it is no extraordinary matter to see an Hat-band or Role all of Diamonds, in some ordinary Gentlemans Hat; and of Pearl among the common Citizens and Tradesmen. The Coaches (which most Gentlemen keep) almost cover’d with Gold and Silver, richly beset with Precious Stones, and within ordinarily lin’d with Cloth of Gold, or the best _China_ Silk that can be gotten; of which Coaches, in time of year, at the _Alameda_, as they call it, which is, as it were, _The Hide-Park of Mexico_, and a place made of purpose for recreation and delight, a Man shall observe not seldom, above a thousand or two thousand Coaches, full of Ladies and Gallants coming thither onely to take the Air, and their Pleasure, both the one and the other attended with a numerous Train of Servants and _Mulattoes_ of both Sexes. In _la Plateria_, which is but onely one Street in _Mexico_, nigh to the Vice-Roy’s Palace, in less than half an hours space: with the turn of an Eye, you may see Millions of Wealth in Gold, Silver, and Precious Stones, in the Goldsmiths and Jewellers Shops thereabouts. In a word, there is nothing hinders _Mexico_ from being the most absolute City in the World for delight and bravery, but onely two Inconveniences to which it is subject: The one is the danger of the Lake, with the Infalls whereof it may seem to be almost continually threatned, and in the Year 1629. did actually suffer a very great calamity, the Waters breaking through the Banks, and drowning a great part of the City, with the destruction of much People, and the loss of all their Goods intirely, through the avarice (as is suppos’d) of the Vice-Roy that then was, and some other of the King’s Officers, who diverted the Money that should have been employ’d for the fortifying and repairing of the Banks, to their own proper uses: The other is from the nature of the Soil and Ground it self on which it standeth; which is found to have a tincture of _Sal_ Nitre in it, somewhat strong; and the Winds partly from the Lake it self, and partly from the Hills about it, raising the Dust of this Earth constantly every Evening, for many Moneths of the Year together, so violently, that the Air is even darkned therewith for some time: The Inhabitants are much annoy’d by it, and made subject to divers Hypocondriacal Pains and Infirmities, and sometimes kill’d with it, especially such as either cannot, or care not much to avoid it.

The City lieth about sixty Leagues, or a hundred and fifty Miles distant from the _Atlantick_ or North Sea, from whence by the Port of _St. John d’Ullua_, or _Vera Crux_, (which are the usual Landing-places) there is a fair and easie March to _Mexico_, by the Cities of _Xalabar_, _Perotta_, _Puebla de los Angelos_, and _Tlascalla_, all of them open and unfortifi’d Places, (as likewise _Mexico_ it self) and the Countrey round about very rich and well accommodated with all things.

[Sidenote: City _Chulula_.]

The next City of note in ancient times was _Chulula_, which being built in a fruitful Plain, had above twenty thousand Dwelling-houses, and as many more Banquetting-houses. The number of the Temples and Turrets were equal with that of the days in the Year: The Government thereof belong’d to a Mayor and six Aldermen, and one chief Priest; for they never went upon the least Design before they had been at their Devotion; in which the Priest’s Office was onely to perfume the Idols four times in twenty four hours, _viz._ in the Morning, at Noon, after Sun-set, and at Midnight; at which times none durst be absent, but they us’d also a cruel Exercise on themselves, and one much more cruel on others, for on usual Feast-days they abstain’d from Meat, Drink, and Sleep, scourg’d their Bodies with knotted Cords after a miserable manner, evacuated their Seed, that so they might curb all fleshly Desires, and met every Night in a spacious place, where sitting down they wounded themselves with Lances in their Legs and Arms, so long till the Blood gush’d out of the same; which gathering in a Cup, they anointed their Temples therewith, and dipt the Lances in the same, and then hung them up before the Temple in Bundles of Straw. Of these were a great number, and the more, because they never us’d their Lances but once. But on these Days, which were Consecrated to the Idol _Tezcatlipuca_, every one besides the Priests wore a new Rope made of the Hemp _Mangey_, of a Fathom long, and a thick Knot at the end, with which they beat themselves so miserably on their Backs, as if they intended to have broken them: After which the Priests stay’d five days in the Temple, in which they us’d the like cruelty, eating scarce once in twenty four hours.

Their Prisoners they us’d after a most horrid manner, _viz._ in their Temples stood a round Stage of Stone; to the top of which they ascended by a Square Scaffold, supported by twenty eight Pillars; behind which appear’d thousands of Mens Heads, and amongst them the Prisoners that were to be Offer’d sat stark naked, and guarded by several Armed Men; three Foot from the Steps which led up to the top of the Scaffold, stood a pyramidical Stone, (by the _Indians_ call’d _Quauxicalli_) and behind it two round Chappels, cover’d on the top like Mitres, each had four Holes in a large Gate, in which sat a horrid Representation, worshipp’d by six Priests call’d _Chackalmua_, whereof one call’d _Papas_, or _Topilzin_, whose Office was to pluck out the Hearts of the Prisoners, being in greatest esteem, wore a red Mantle about his Body, not unlike a long Coat, with broad Fringe, which trail’d after him upon the Ground, and also a Crown of green and yellow Plumes on his Head; his Ears and under Lip were likewise adorn’d with Precious Stones: The other five appear’d in like manner with their Hands and Faces painted red, but having Leathern _Fascia_’s about their Heads, and white Coats stitch’d with Black on their Bodies, they might easily be distinguish’d from the _Topilzin_; who on a sudden ran down the Stairs to the Prisoners, and shew’d each of them an Image, (saying, _This is your God_) made of _Bledo_ Paste, _Maiz_ and Honey, green Beads for Eyes, and Grains of _Maiz_ for Teeth: whereupon the Prisoners were led up, and laid with their Backs on the sharp Stone _Quauxicalli_; then the five Priests took hold of their Leggs, Arms and Head, put woodden Collars about the Sufferer’s Necks, whilst the _Topilzin_ shew’d Reverence to the Idol; which done, with a sharp Stone he cut open the Breasts of the Prisoners, who in a deplorable condition lay on the pyramidical Stone, and pulling their Hearts out of their Bodies, shew’d the same reeking to the Sun, and at last threw them toward the Idol, and the dead Bodies down the Stairs, where some appointed for that purpose carried the same away; but every one taking his own Prisoner, and roasting and boyling him, serv’d him up to his Friends as a great Dainty.

This kind of Murdering was not onely us’d amongst the _Mexicans_, but also by all the other neighboring _Indians_, and especially in the City _Chulula_, which (as we have said before) signifies _The Sanctity of all the Gods_: for in this Town six thousand Children were yearly Offer’d.

The Citizens hereof us’d to drive a great Trade, especially in _Cochinele_.

Their Habits were several; for Persons of Note wore Cotton Coats, about the Edges of which hung Feathers and pieces of Cony-skins: the meaner sort went in _Nequons_, or a sort of Linnen Coats made of the hairy Leaves of the Tree _Maguey_.

3. The City _Tezuco_, full of handsom Streets and fair Houses, is built near the salt _Mexican_ Lake, yet hath no want of fresh Water, with which it is supply’d by Gutters from the Mountains under Ground, according to _Anthony Herrera_, it twice exceedeth in bigness the famous City _Sivill_ in _Spain_.

4. _Quitlavaca_, by the _Spaniards_ call’d _Venezuela_, (because it is, like _Venice_, surrounded with Water, and divided into several Isles,) boasted formerly above two thousand Families: From the Town a Cawsey of twenty Foot broad, and half a League long, leads through the Lake to the Main Continent.

5. _Yztacpalapa_, a very populous Place, and lying part of it in the salt Lake, and partly on the Main Land; where several fresh-water Pools afford store of Fish, two Leagues distant from _Mexico_, to which leads a broad Way; in the middle of which stands a Fountain, surrounded with high Trees, which produces excellent Water.

6. _Mexicaltzingo_, situate upon the Lake _Laguna_, a Town consisting of four thousand stately Houses.

7. _Cayocan_, in a fruitful Plain, containing six thousand, being but a League and a half from _Yztacpalapa_: to which the neighboring Village _Houcilopucho_ was not much inferior.

These three Places, before they were subdu’d by the _Spaniards_, boasted many brave Temples and high Towers, whose lustre appear’d at a great distance, but now being turn’d into Cloysters, they are inhabited by Monks and Nuns.

The Salt made here of Earth, though not white, and onely fit to make Pickle of, is Transported to many Places.

[Sidenote: Towns and pleasant Villages about _Mexico_.]

About _Mexico_ there are also several Villages, the chiefest of which are 1. _Mastitlan_, a Town pleasantly seated upon the top of an huge Mountain, in the midst of most delicate Groves and shady Woods, and reckon’d to contain no less than thirty thousand Inhabitants in all, dwelling either in the City, or upon the sides of the Mountain.

2. _Antepecque_; this is a Town belonging to the Marquess _de Valle_, who is of the Posterity of _Cortez_, and said to be seated in the most delicious place of all _New Spain_.

3. _Acapulco_, a Town seated upon the South-Sea, or _Mare del Zur_, yet belonging to this Province. It is a haven-Town, and one of the most frequented upon the South-Sea, situate upon a large and capacious Bay of about a League broad at the Entrance, and affording many convenient Stations and Docks for Shipping. At the bottom of the Bay Westward lieth the Town, with a strong Castle very opportunely built, both for the command and security of the Port, well wall’d and fortifi’d with Bulwarks, and having a constant Garrison of four hundred Soldiers in it, or thereabouts. The reason whereof, I suppose, may be chiefly this, _viz._ that from this Port there is the greatest Traffick and Entercourse held betwixt the _East_ and _West-Indies_, together with the _Philippine_ Islands.

[Sidenote: Silver Mynes.]

The Countrey hath many rich Mynes of Silver in it, and some of Gold; the chief of which are by _Herera_ reported to be these, _viz._ 1. Those of _Puchuca_, fourteen Leagues distant from _Mexico_. 2. Of _Tasco_. 3. _Talpuiana._ 4. _Cultepeque._ 5. _Zacualpa._ 6. _Zupanguo_, and divers others.

The rest of the Villages are _Guatitlan_, _Tenyauca_, _Escapusalco_, _Tacuba_, and _Suchimilco_.

[Sidenote: Strange Fountain.]

The neighboring Province _Xilotepeck_, which is exceeding fruitful, is also famous for two Fountains, whereof one near the Village _Queretaro_ produces boyling Water, which when cool’d, is a wholsom Drink for Cattel: The other for four years is full of Water, and for four years after it is empty; in great rainy Seasons it is quite dry, and in droughty Weather it overflows.

Between the Villages _Queretaro_ and _San Juan_, is a Plain which extends it self seven Leagues in breadth, and seven in length, besides two Leagues farther beyond _Quartero_, where a hundred thousand Head of Cattel, and ten thousand Horses, find plentiful Pasture.

[Sidenote: The wonderful Mountain _Nevada_.]

The Mountain _Nevada_, near the City _De los Angelos_, deserves no small admiration; for it begins at thirty Leagues end to rise exceeding high, and being flat on the top, hath a wide gaping Mouth, whose bottom is fathomless; from which at Sun-rising and setting rises a Smoak up directly towards the Skie, but immediately after spreading like a Plume of Feathers, it is dispers’d by the Wind, and no more seen till it appears in a dusky Cloud. With the Smoak are also Ashes vomited up; yet the Mountain is very pleasantly planted with lofty Cypress, Cedar, Oak, and Pine-Trees. The neighboring Fields abound likewise with Wheat, Cotton, and _Maiz_. There seldom appears any Rain here.

At the Foot of this Mountain lies the Village _Tepecco_, famous for the Crystal and Allom gotten there. The Village _Ocotlan_ is also maintain’d by the same: But _Tuculala_ by Gold-Mines, and fruitful Lands, which are twice a year shaken by Earthquakes; wherefore the Inhabitants live not in Stone Houses, but in little Straw Huts.

South-Eastward from _Nerada_ is excellent Sugar to be had, and on the Mountain it self the famous Gum _Anime_, which drops out of a Tree call’d _Jetaiba_, which is always green, with hard white Wood, a pale yellow speckled Bark, three long soft Leaves hanging one over another on one Stalk, and the Fruit on the middle of the Body. After the rainy Season is past in _October_, then they cut a Hole in the Body of the Tree, out of which the Gum drops: it hath a pleasant smell, and is exceeding good against the Head-ache occasion’d by Colds.

Not far from hence appears the Valleys _Matalzingo_ and _Atzompam_, which have excellent Pastures, in which _Diego Nunnez de Camargo_ bred forty thousand Sheep out of two in ten years time.

And these are the chiefest Towns, Villages, and Countreys, which surround the famous City _Mexico_.

[Sidenote: The first Foundation of the City of _Mexico_.]

Concerning the erecting of this City, the _Indians_ relate thus: That the seventh Family of the _Navatlaca_’s, Extracted out of the Countrey _Aztlan_, rang’d up and down not without thousands of Inconveniences, from one Countrey to another, according to the Information which their Sages had given their Spirit _Viztliputli_, till at last some of the Priests straying from the Army, or rather Multitude, got into a Wilderness, full of Brambles and Thorns, and came at length to a Place where was a Spring of clear Water, in which the Fishes glitter’d like Silver; where taking up their repose that Night, their Spirit inform’d the oldest of them in a Dream, that they should find thereabouts a _Tunal_ Tree (whose Leaves grow out of one another) under which, on a Stone, lay the Heart of the famous Sorcerer _Copil_: This _Tunal_ Tree should be discover’d by a Crane on the top of it, which in one Foot should hold a Bird, and in the other a Bough of the Tree, near which they were to build a City: The old Priest waking, and relating his Dream, every one endeavor’d to find out the fore-mention’d Tree; at last they found it, by discovering on the top a Crane, with spread-out Wings looking up towards the Sun, and holding in his Claws a small Bird, invested with curious Feathers: Whereupon they with all speed built a Chappel of Turf and Clods of Earth, and cover’d the same with Canes, to keep their Idol from the Weather, resolving, so soon as they could, to build him a better Temple.

The Lake on whose Isles they setled, abounded with Fish and Fowls, which they exchang’d with the neighboring People for Stone and Mortar for the building of a Temple for _Viztliputzli_, and a new City; to which they made a Cawsey in the Lake _Laguna_, and divided it into four great Wards or Divisions, and subdivided them again into lesser; over which they plac’d peculiar Idols, and order’d a Crane like that which they had seen on the _Tunal_ Tree to be their City Arms. The dividing of the Wards occasion’d great dislike amongst the Grandees, judging those to whose lot they fell, not to be worthy of them; wherefore deserting the same, and travelling along the Lake _Laguna_, they setled themselves at last in a sandy Soil, which they call’d _Tlattellulco_, and entertain’d a bitter hatred against their Countrey-men who kept the four Wards of the new _Tenustitan_, doing them all the mischief they could; wherefore the Assaulted were necessitated to chuse a King, that they might be the better able to oppose their Enemies: But that they might not raise a Discontent amongst themselves about electing a Governor, they judg’d it fittest to take a Foreigner; amongst whom they found none so capable of so great an Office as _Acamapixtli_, Grand-son to the King of _Culhuacan_, whereupon sending Ambassadors thither, they obtain’d their desires.

The new King was no sooner Crown’d, but he settled all things in order with great Prudence, insomuch, that _Mexico_ grew daily to be more famous and fear’d: But this sudden growth rais’d a jealousie amongst the Neighbors, who dreaded their growing Power and Valor.

[Sidenote: Proceedings between the _Tapuneca_’s and _Mexicans_.]

The _Tapunecans_ who were also a valiant People, being the nearest to them, and having _Azcapuzalco_ for their chief City, made it their main design, utterly to root out the _Mexicans_, before they grew to be more Populous and Potent; notwithstanding they had hitherto receiv’d Tribute from them, for delivering the Lake _Laguna_ to them, which was a quantity of Timber and Plants; yet they demanded not only more Tribute than formerly, but also in such a manner, as was thought impossible to have been perform’d, which was, that those Plants which were formerly brought to them, as growing on the Land, should be set in the Water, so as to come floating to them, as they grew, to _Ascapuzalco_, which if they did not pay, they should expect to be all put to the Sword. The _Mexicans_ much amaz’d hereat, and not knowing how to produce the demanded Plants, _Viztliputzli_ inform’d the oldest Priest, that the demands might be satisfi’d; and commanded him to throw Earth on the Water, and to Sow Seed on the same, which at the usual time produc’d _Maiz_, _Azi_, _Chias_, _Tomates_, and the like, with which the _Tapunecans_ being satisfi’d, demand next a Goose, and a Hen which laid Eggs, out of which the young ones should appear, when on the floating Clods of Earth, the Nests came opposite to _Azcapuzalco_, which by the advice of _Viztliputzli_, they perform’d fifty years one after another. Mean while, _Acamapixtli_ (who had inlarg’d _Mexico_ with Streets, Palaces, Temples, and Markets) dying, would not name any one to succeed him, but left the choice of the Election to the Commonalty, who Crown’d his Son _Vitzilovitli_, and Marry’d him to the King of _Tapunecans_ Daughter, that by that means they might gain his friendship, and be eas’d of their strange Annual Tribute: Whereupon _Ayauchigual_, the King of _Tapunecans_ Daughter being Marry’d to _Vitzilovitli_, was within twelve Moneths deliver’d of a Son, which the Grand-father call’d _Chimalpopoca_, which signifies _A Gun which gives Smoke_, and afterwards was satisfi’d with two Geese, and some Fish yearly from the _Mexicans_, onely as an Acknowledgment that they inhabited his Countrey. _Chimalpopoca_ loosing his Parents, in his tenth year was Crown’d King, with a Bowe and Arrows in his left Hand, and a Woodden Sword in the right: Soon after he oblig’d his Mothers Father to be kind to the _Mexicans_, for they being in great want for fresh Water, he had leave by Channels to bring the same out of the Mountain _Chapultepec_, a League distant from _Mexico_; to which purpose they made a Pipe of Planks, and hollow Trees joyn’d together with Clay, quite through the Lake; but this Pipe not being teight and durable, and the fresh Water by that means mixing with the Salt, they sent Agents to _Azcapuzalco_, to request Stones, Mortar, and Work-men to make a substantial Sewer: This message was ill resented by the Council of _Azcapuzalco_; _What_, (said they) _do the_ Mexicans _think, shall a rambling company of people, which on Charity live in anothers Countrey, Command those that Govern them to be their Servants?_ This grudge went so far, that at last they took a Resolution without the King’s knowledge, (for he was suspected, because of his Grand-chil’d _Chimalpopoca_) to forbid all manner of Trade with the _Mexicans_; nay, to endeavor utterly to root them out; yet some judg’d, that they ought to spare _Chimalpopoca_, while others on the contrary said, _That he ought to be destroy’d, because his Father being a_ Mexican, _he would to the utmost of his Power defend his People_; which last being approv’d of, so troubled the King of the _Tapunecans_, that he dy’d of grief; for the Design being soon after put into execution, and the _Tapuneca_’s breaking in the Night into _Chimalpopoca_’s Palace, Murder’d him; which Murder made the _Mexicans_ thirst for revenge; whereupon, setting themselves wholly against the _Tapunecans_, they enter’d into a League with _Vezcuco_, and _Culhuacan_, and chose _Izcoalt_, for his great Valor, for their King; notwithstanding _Acamapixtli_ had begotten him on a Slave.

[Sidenote: _Izcoalts_ success against the _Tapanecas_.]

_Izcoalt_ was no sooner Crown’d, but he made great preparation for a War, though against every ones Opinion, because of the Populousness of the _Tapunecans_; yet it was concluded on, that they should request Peace, and a place to inhabit on the main Continent, that so they might remove from the Isles: This Request they thought could not be deny’d them in _Azcapuzalco_, provided the _Mexicans_ brought their Gods thither, and wholly conform’d themselves to the manners of the _Tapunecans_, for otherwise they could expect nothing but utter Ruine: Yet though every one else imbrac’d the Proposal, _Tlacaellel_, the King’s Nephew, stiffly oppos’d it, alleging, that it did not agree with the _Mexicans_ quality, to make so mean and slavish a Proffer; and that they had best consider, first if there were no other means to be found: and that he would willingly venture his Life in going to _Azcapuzalco_, as a Spie, to pry into their whole Designs and Intentions, which was perform’d accordingly; and soon after returning, he brought information, that the _Tapunecans_ were making great preparations for War, and made no mention at all of Peace; which news struck a general fear into all Peoples Hearts; many desiring that they might save themselves by flight; but _Izcoalt_ putting fresh courage into them, made an agreement with the People, that if he was beaten by the _Tapunecans_, they should eat him up; but if he prov’d Conqueror, they should all be at his Command; to which all consenting, they boldly march’d with their King to the City _Azcapuzalco_. The Front of the Army consisting of the prime Nobility, was led by _Tlacaellel_, and the Rear _Izcoalt_ brought up, who was also to give the sign on a Drum, when they should fall upon the Enemies; who having ten Men to the _Mexicans_ one, suddenly Sally’d out of the Gates, where they were so briskly entertain’d by _Tlacaellel_, that in a confus’d manner they soon ran back into the City, whither the Conqueror pursuing them, got within the Gates, where he put all to the Sword which he could meet with; some fled to a steep neighboring Mountain, whither being also follow’d, they threw down their Arms, and begg’d Quarter, to serve the _Mexicans_ as Slaves, which was granted them, whilst _Izcoalt_ found an unvaluable Mass of Treasure in _Azcapuzalco_, and distributed the Conquer’d Countrey amongst those who had behav’d themselves best.

This Conquest made the neighboring People jealous of the _Mexicans_, whose Success and growing Power they dreaded.

[Sidenote: The _Cuyoacans_ utterly subdu’d by _Tlacaellel_.]

The Towns _Tacuba_ and _Cuyoacan_, though they had Governors of their own, yet were subject to the _Tapunecans_, whose General advising those of _Azcapuzalco_ to try another Encounter, they took up Arms again; but before it came to a Battel, the _Cuyoacans_ play’d a subtile trick with the _Mexicans_, for inviting them to an Idolatrous Feast, after they had Eat, Drunk, and Danc’d, they forc’d them to put on Womens Apparel, to their no small disgrace and ignomy; which remain’d not unreveng’d, for the _Mexicans_ made a Poysonous Fume in the Gates of _Cuyoacan_, which made Women with Child to Miscarry, and many to fall dangerously sick; yet lastly, both Parties march’d into the Fields, where whilst _Izcoalt_ was elsewhere ingag’d, _Tlacaellel_ marching about, came upon the backs of the _Cuyoacans_ with such eagerness, that they fled to a strong Temple, which soon after was set on fire by _Tlacaellel_, who pursu’d the Enemy ten Leagues.

This Conquest stir’d up the _Suchimilcos_, the first Family of the _Navatlaca_’s, to stop the proceedings of the _Mexicans_, that they might not, as they had already done to others, fall upon them; to which purpose they thought to surprize the Conquering Army; but _Tlacaellel_ who led the Van, march’d in good Order to meet the _Suchimilcos_, fell resolutely upon their whole Army, and after a short conflict, put them to flight, and took the City _Suchimilco_ for _Izcoalt_, who being Crown’d King there, Commanded the Conquer’d to make a direct Road betwixt _Suchimilco_ and _Mexico_, of four Leagues long, both, that a Trade might the easier be drove between these two Cities, and to keep them the better in awe: Notwithstanding these examples, _Cuytlavacan_, a City built at the Lake _Laguna_, trusting to the abundance of Boats, which the Citizens knew how to use with great dexterity, daily molested _Mexico_ with them by Water, whereupon _Izcoalt_ resolv’d to send his Victorious Army thither, but _Tlacaellel_ opposing the same, promis’d to subdue the Rebelling City with a considerable number of Boys, which had skill in the managing of a _Canoo_, which being permitted him, he accordingly made himself Master of _Cuytlavacan_, from whence the Boys brought a great Booty, and divers Prisoners, whom they sent as an Offering to _Vitzlipultzli_.

[Sidenote: _Tezcuco_ submits to the _Mexicans_.]

These unheard of Victories being spread far and near, mov’d _Tezcuco_ after several Skirmishes and Conflicts with _Tlacaellel_, to submit to the _Mexican_ King, who chose the Governor thereof for his Prime Councellor. _Izcoalt_ Deceasing, after having Reign’d twelve years, his Son _Muteczuma_ was chosen his Successor; the Election and Coronation being perform’d after the following manner.

[Sidenote: Coronation of _Muteczuma_.]

The new King mantled in Tygers Skins, was led into the chief Temple before a Hearth, on which burnt Fire both Night and Day; not far from which stood the Throne, where sitting down, he Offer’d Blood, which was taken from his Cheeks, Ears, and Legs; after which, an Orator Congratulated him, in the name of the Nobility; which done, they ended the Solemnity in a great Dinner, Fire-Works, and Dancing: At the same time it was establish’d, that all Future Coronations should be kept with an Offering of Provisions, fetch’d by the King out of the Enemies Countrey: wherefore _Muteczuma_ going to the Countrey _Chalco_, took several of the Natives, whose reaking Hearts he Offer’d to _Viztlipuztli_: Which done, the Coronation follow’d, to which an innumerable company of People came flocking from all the neighboring Provinces: Those which were Tributaries, brought Presents with them, before which the Heralds carry’d the Coats of Arms belonging to the Nobility of _Mexico_, in a good order.

[Sidenote: _Muteczuma_’s Brother taken Prisoner by those of _Chalco_.]

[Sidenote: An example of great Fidelity.]

Soon after the King’s Coronation, he march’d and fell upon _Chalco_, the Inhabitants of which defended themselves very Valiantly, took _Muteczuma_’s Brother, among several other Prisoners; to whom the Conquerors proffer’d the Government; which at first he refus’d, but at last accepted of on this condition, that a high Mast should be erected with a Scaffold on the top, which made every one suppose, that _Muteczuma_’s Brother did in that manner aim at a high Election, but he at the appointed time, getting on the top of the Mast, call’d with a loud voice, and spake to the taken _Mexicans_ which were there present to this effect: _Chalco seeks to set me on the Throne, the Heavens will not permit it; learn by me rather to die, than to live and be guilty of Treason to your Countrey_: which he had no sooner said, but with some Flowers which he held in his Hand, threw himself down from the Scaffold, which so inrag’d the _Chalcoans_, that they immediately slew all the other _Mexicans_ that were there present; which not long after was reveng’d by _Muteczuma_, who not onely subdu’d _Chalco_, but several other Provinces, leaving onely _Tlascala_ unattempted, that the _Mexicans_ might have a neighboring Enemy to fetch Prisoners from for their Offerings, and also by Skirmishing with them, train up their Youth in Martial Discipline.

[Illustration]

Thus his Predecessors and he, having Conquer’d divers Provinces, insomuch that he was now become absolute Emperor over a vast Tract of Land, he resolv’d to settle the same in good order; to which purpose he erected Courts of Judicature, with good Laws; built a stately Palace and Temple; ordain’d several Customs to be observ’d in Religion; which done, and having Reign’d twenty eight years, he Deceasing, left _Ticocic_ for his Successor.

[Sidenote: Description of the Temple _Cu_.]

The foremention’d Temple was call’d _Cu_, being built of Stone, in form like a Serpent, of an exceeding bigness, in the middle thereof there was a spacious open place, and round about it Habitations, two Stories high, the lowermost for the Inferior Priests, and the uppermost for the High Priests; in this place also above ten thousand People Danc’d in a Circle, on all high Feasts; four great Gates fac’d the like number of broad Streets, each two Leagues long: On the outmost Gate stood large Images, the Front of black Stones, Painted between each Lay with red and yellow Colours, no less Beautiful than Artificial: On each corner of the Temple were plac’d two Marble Statues of _Indians_, sitting with their Arms stretch’d out, and holding a Candle, and on their Heads Plumes of Feathers: Thirty high steps led up to a round place, set about with Deaths-Heads, which was a Stage appointed for the slaughter of those, whose Hearts were to be Offer’d to the Diabolical gods, and whose Heads, their Bodies being eaten, were brought back to the Priests, who hung them under the Stage, where every Head hanging till it dropp’d off, the vacant place was immediately supply’d with a fresh Head. At the end of the Stage stood two Chappels, cover’d like a _Cardinal_’s-Cap, in one of which sate the Image of _Tiztlputzli_, and in the other _Tlaloc_, to which led a hundred and twenty Stone steps.

But besides this stately Temple _Cu_, _Mexico_ boasted nine more, standing not far asunder in a large Plain, all adorn’d with curious Imagery, and set out with large Pillars, each being Dedicated to a peculiar Idol, and built with magnificent Apartments, for the Priests to lodge in; the chiefest of them Dedicated to an Idol call’d _Tezeatlipuca_, or _Lord of the Humble_. This Temple was ascended to by eighty steps, and had before it a spacious Court; within a low and broad Gate appear’d a high Vail, which open’d into a spacious square Hall, hung with Tapestry, at the end whereof stood large Images, and beyond which were several Rooms, in which Assemblies met, Scholars were taught, Judges sate, and Priests Resided.

[Sidenote: _Tlacaellel_ resigns the Kingdoms to _Ticocic_.]

[Sidenote: _Axayacan_ chosen King.]

But to return again to _Muteczuma_, his Funeral was no sooner finish’d, but the four Prime Councellors were attended by the Commissioners of _Tezcuco_ and _Tacuba_, in order to the Election of a new King: _Tlacaellel_ being the chief amongst the Dukes, was by a general Vote Saluted King, as being most worthy thereof, for his special Services shown in behalf of the Empire of _Mexico_: But he humbly refusing the same, was desir’d to Nominate another, whereupon he making choice of _Ticocic_, _Muteczuma_’s eldest Son; the Council immediately bor’d a hole through his Nose, and hung an Emrauld in the same. But before he receiv’d the Crown, he was forc’d, according to the Custom, to fetch in some of his Enemies for an Offering, which though he perform’d, yet he lost more _Mexicans_ than he took Prisoners, not without sufficient testimony of Cowardise; which being ill resented by the People, he was Poyson’d in the fourth year of his Reign, and succeeded by his Brother _Axayaca_, by the appointment of _Tlacaellel_; who having attain’d to a great Age, and left the Charge of his Children to the new King, departed this Life, to the great sorrow and grief of the whole Empire; by the States whereof he was Bury’d with great Solemnity.

[Sidenote: His Victory against the _Teguantepecks_.]

In the mean time, _Axayaca_ went with a considerable Army to the remote Province _Teguantepek_, to fetch Prisoners to be Offer’d at his Coronation; and marching before alone, Challeng’d his Antagonist, the King, to a single Combat, which he refus’d, and chose rather to fall upon _Axayaca_ with all his Forces; whereupon, the _Mexicans_ cunningly feign’d flight, ambuscaded themselves till the Enemies pursuing them, gave them their desir’d advantage, for rushing out of their Ambuscade, they set upon the _Teguantepecks_, so disorder’d, that they easily put them to flight, and had the pursuit of them as far as _Guatulco_, a noted Haven upon the South-Sea; from whence _Axayaca_ returning Victor, receiv’d a Crown for a Reward; yet notwithstanding these Proofs of his Valor, the Lord of _Tlatellulco_ Challeng’d him; whereupon he sent Agents thither, with proffers, that since the Citizens of _Tlatellulco_ were of one Blood with the _Mexicans_, whom they deserted upon the dividing of the Wards and Towns, just before the Election of the first King _Acamapixtli_, they should, if they pleas’d, be receiv’d anew into fellowship and alliance with the _Mexicans_, acknowledging one and the same King for their Supreme Head and Governor: But the Ambassadors being scorn’d and laugh’d at for their proffers, returning, related the same to _Axayaca_, who immediately marching thither to take revenge, sent part of his Army to fall on the Enemy by Water; whilst himself falling upon them by Land, put the Lord of _Tlatellulco_, with his whole Army, to flight, which was so closely pursu’d, that they forc’d their way into the City with them, put the Governor to Death, and laid the Town in Ashes; those which went by Water, having had no less success.

[Sidenote: _Autzol_ succeeds him.]

_Axayaca_, after eleven years Reign, Deceasing, bequeath’d his Crown to _Autzol_, who sought to promote his Election by ingaging with the mighty Province _Quaxutatlan_, whose Inhabitants, though but a little before, they had been so bold as to demand Tribute of the _Mexicans_, yet terrifi’d at the approach of _Autzol_’s Army, fled over an Arm of the Sea, where they had been secure, had not _Autzol_ invented a floating Isle of Planks, by which he got over his whole Army; upon which the amaz’d _Quaxututlans_ immediately submitted themselves to the _Mexicans_, who pursuing their Victory, extended their Dominions to _Guatimala_, over a Tract of three hundred Leagues.

[Sidenote: _Autzol_’s Generosity and Magnificence.]

The new King having now subdu’d all his Enemies, and made himself glorious by his Victories, was also ambitious to be as much extoll’d for his Generosity and Magnificence; to which purpose he distributed all the Wealth which was brought unto him from the neighboring Countreys, amongst the Poor and the Nobility; to the first he gave Clothes and Provisions; to the last, Plumes of Feathers and Arms. Moreover he caus’d all mean Houses to be pull’d down and new ones to be built in their places. Lastly, he consulted how to bring fresh Water into _Mexico_, which was plac’d in a brackish Soil: Upon this Design he was so bent, that when one of his Sages disswaded him from it, alledging, _That the Water would drown the City_, he, in stead of following his Advice, banish’d him his Presence, and upon his flying to _Cuyaocun_, caus’d him to be fetch’d from thence and Executed. Then prosecuting his Design, he cut the Ditch before _Cuyaocun_, by which means great store of fresh Water came flowing into the Lake _Laguna_, which the Priests welcom’d with strange Ceremonies; for some perfum’d the Water, others Offer’d Quails Blood, whilst others play’d on several Musical Instruments, with many other Ceremonies, which are at large describ’d in the ancient _Mexican_ Chronicles, kept in the _Vatican_ Library at _Rome_. But the Prophecy of the Executed Sorcerer was in a manner fulfill’d; for the Water overwhelm’d a great part of _Mexico_, and divided the City into Isles: But to prevent farther Mischief, _Autzoll_ caus’d Banks to be rais’d, and Channels digg’d; and not long after, in the eleventh Year of his Reign, he deceas’d: After which the _Mexican_ Kingdom tended towards its period, as the ensuing Story will declare.

Amongst the _Mexican_ Nobility, _Mutexuma_, a melancholy Man, yet very prudent, who resided in a stately Apartment near the great Temple _Cu_, that there he might the better converse with _Viztlipuztli_, was elected King; which he no sooner heard, but fled from hence: but being found out, he was against his will led to the Grand Assembly, and from thence to the holy Hearth, where for an Offering he drew Blood out of his Cheeks, Ears, and Legs; and, according to an ancient Custom, the _Council of State_ boring a Hole in his Nose, hung an Emerauld in the same; after which the Lord of _Tescuco_ saluted him with a Speech; which (since it is mention’d by _Joseph d’ Acosta_, together with several other Speeches of Congratulation to their Kings, which were taught to Schollars, to make them expert in their Language) it will not be amiss to be annexed here, that of many this one may serve for a pattern of the _Mexicans_ Eloquence, which is as followeth:

[Sidenote: The Lord of _Tescuco_ his Speech to _Muteczuma_.]

“The great happiness, most noble _Muteczuma_, which is befall’n this Realm by your Election, may easily be conjectur’d from the general joy, none besides your self being able to undergo an Office, in the management whereof so much Prudence is requir’d: It is a most certain testimony that God loves _Mexico_, that he hath given its Inhabitants understanding to make such a Choice. Who can doubt, but that you who have expatiated through the Heavens, and convers’d with _Viztlipuztli_, may easily Govern us Mortals on Earth? Who can despair, but that the Vertue inclos’d within your Breast, will extend to the Widows and Orphans? Therefore rejoyce, O _Mexico_; the Heavens have granted us a Prince without Vice; Merciful, and not a Violator of the Laws; Affable, not despising common Conversation. And you, O King, let not this great Preferment occasion any alteration in your so long known Vertues: The Crown breeds care for the publick good; the troubles thereof must extend over the whole Realm, and every one in the Realm.”

[Sidenote: Preparation for the Coronation of _Muteczuma_.]

[Sidenote: His Grandeur.]

[Sidenote: The ruine of the _Mexican_ Empire prognosticated.]

_Muteczuma_ having heard out the Speech, would willingly have answer’d the same, but could not utter a word for Tears, which gush’d from his Eyes. Before he went out to fetch Prisoners for Offerings at his Coronation, he first setled his Houshold Affairs. And whereas till this time the Kings had been serv’d in their Palaces by ordinary Citizens, he took Knights, and the chiefest of the Nobility, intending thereby to make a distinction between the Nobility and the common People, and add more Majesty to the Royal Dignity. This done, _Muteczuma_ marching against a certain rebellious Province, fetch’d a considerable number of People to be Offer’d to _Viztupuztli_. At his Return the Coronation-Day was appointed, against which thousands of People came to _Mexico_; even their very Enemies of _Tlascala_, _Mechoacan_, and _Tepeaca_, which were never conquer’d by the _Mexicans_, flock’d thither in great numbers. All those Countreys which were under Tribute bringing unvaluable Treasures, came in vast Multitudes, which so throng’d the City, that the very tops of the Houses were fill’d with Spectators, no King in _Mexico_ ever going to the Throne in such splendor; nor was ever any King so much fear’d by his Subjects, none of the common People daring to look in his Face; neither did he ever set Foot on the Ground, but was always carried in a Chair on the Shoulders of his prime Nobility; he never wore a Suit of Clothes but once, nor ever us’d a Cup or Dish after it was once foul’d; he strictly maintain’d the Laws which he had made, and often went himself in a Disguise, to make a strict enquiry after all Affairs whatsoever; by which means the _Mexican_ Power was now arriv’d to the highest top: but, as other Realms, grown top-heavy with good Fortune, turn at last topsie-turvy, just such a Misfortune befell _Mexico_; but not without several fore-running signs of its destruction: for in the City _Cholola_ their God _Quezalcoalt_ inform’d them, that a strange People were coming to take possession of the _Mexican_ Dominions; and their Soothsayers prognosticated the same, for which _Muteczuma_ committed them all to Prison, and doubtless had put them all to death, had not they escap’d with the help of the Master of their diabolical Art; and though they escap’d themselves, yet their Wives and Children were all put to death upon the King’s Command: Soon after which appear’d a mighty Comet, or blazing Star for a whole year together; the great Temple _Cu_ was set on Fire, and burnt to the Ground none knew how; the Water which was thrown on the same to quench it, burnt like Brimstone; in the Skie appear’d three fiery Heads at noon-day, and out of a long Tail shot Sparks on the Earth; the _Laguna_, between _Mexico_ and _Texcuco_, began to swell into a Tide, which turn’d some Houses topsie-turvy; a shrill Voice was heard in the Night crying on the Water, _Children, your ruine is at hand; whither shall I carry you that you may not be lost?_

[Sidenote: A miraculous story of a Bird.]

No less strange is what _d’ Acosta_ relates of a Bird presented to _Muteczuma_, not unlike a Crane, which the Fishermen had taken on the _Laguna_; on the shining Forehead of which there appear’d the resemblance of two Armies Engag’d, and one defeated by the other, and that whilst the Sages, call’d to interpret the meaning hereof, sat in Consultation, the Bird vanish’d.

[Sidenote: Another of a Country-man.]

Moreover, there goes a Tradition, That a Countrey-man being at his Labor, was taken up by an Eagle, and carried through the Air into a gloomy Cave, where a Man lay fast asleep snoaring, when on a sudden he heard a Voice afar off, saying, _Do you know that Man?_ whereupon the Countrey-man taking special notice of the dormant Man, knew him, by the Royal Apparel, to be _Mutexuma_; after which the Voice was heard again, saying, _How soundly doth he sleep: the time is coming which provides Punishments for many Crimes; burn the Snoarer with the Torch which he holds in his Hands, he will feel no pain_: Not long after he being inform’d hereof, and looking on his Thigh, found the same burnt, to his no small amazement.

[Sidenote: News of the arrival of the _Spanish_ Fleet.]

Having now possess’d the Throne fourteen years, he receiv’d news of a Fleet, and therewith a Draught of the Men and Vessels painted on Cloth. This startling him, he immediately advis’d with his Council, who judg’d it convenient to secure the Coast along the Southern Ocean with strong Watches; yet nevertheless _Ferdinand Cortesius_ Landed with five hundred Foot and sixty Horse, took the City _Potanchanum_, march’d through the Countrey _Sicuchimalar_ to _Tascalleca_, where they had a sharp Conflict, in which the _Spaniards_ were in great danger; and had not they had six Field-Pieces with them, which did as much affright as hurt the _Indians_, they had without doubt been cut off there. In _Chiurutecal_ they were in as much danger; for certainly the _Spanish_ Army had been set upon in the Night, had not a Woman inform’d them of it.

[Sidenote: _Muteczuma_ committed to Prison by _Cortesius_.]

Mean while _Muteczuma_ consulted with his Sorcerers to destroy _Cortesius_ by Charms, who then was marching through _Chalco_, whereupon a considerable number of Sorcerers went thither to the top of a high Mountain, where, as they were beginning their Incantations and Charms, their Idol _Tezcalipuca_ appear’d to them; and in an angry manner told them, That _Muteczuma_ should lose his Crown and Life; and to confirm his words, he shew’d them a dreadful spectacle; for looking about, they saw the City in a light flame. This being told to _Muteczuma_, he resolv’d to make himself as secure as he could, and went to meet _Cortesius_ with costly Presents, delivering him the Crown in the presence of all his Council; to which purpose he took one _Marina_, experienc’d in the _Castilian_ Tongue, with him for his Interpreter; all things then seeming to end in Friendship. But they continu’d not long in that state; for _Cortesius_, whose whole Design was to bring _Mexico_ under the _Spaniards_ Subjection, not long after accus’d _Muteczuma_, that _Coalcopoca_ had on his Commands storm’d the new _Spanish_ City _Vera Crux_, which he could no way excuse; and notwithstanding _Muteczuma_ deliver’d him _Coalcopoca_, with fifteen of his Nobles Prisoners, who were all burnt with green Wood; yet he was committed Prisoner, to the great discontent of the _Mexicans_, who said, “That they were now come to a fine pass, to be thus fool’d by a few Strangers, who had imprison’d their King, trampled upon their ancient Images, endeavor’d to murther them all, and in despite of them brought their mortal Enemies, the _Tascaltecans_ and _Guazuzingans_, into _Mexico_.”

[Sidenote: _Cortesius_ marches against _Velasquez_’s Party.]

About this time there were certain Ships come to _Vera Crux_, which was a new Port-Town of this Countrey, that the _Spaniards_ had built since their coming thither, and had Landed near upon a thousand Men; which was an Accident that had like to have spoil’d the Design of _Cortesius_ and all his Company at _Mexico_, these Men being sent by _James Velasquez_; Governor of _Cuba_, expressly against _Cortesius_ and his Men, upon pretence that they had acted not conformably to the Commission which they had receiv’d from him, and gave him no account of their proceedings; which in a great measure was true: for it must be confess’d, that _Cortesius_ and his Men finding themselves to have fall’n upon an Adventure that was certainly rich and good, and having got such footing and interest in the Countrey already, by their Success and Victories, and chiefly by their Confederacy with so many of the Natives and People of the Countrey, revolted to them, did almost at first, by a general consent, renounce their Commission, and dependency upon _Velasquez_, and profess’d to act immediately from and for the King of _Spain_. What pretences they had for such a Resolution, seemingly at least irregular, is not so well known. Whatever they were, they proceed in it, and the whole Company (excepting onely some few, who yet went along with the rest) chuse _Cortesius_ anew for their Commander in chief, and appoint likewise by common consent, all other Officers of Justice, both Civil and Military, among themselves: and to give the better colour at Court to their Proceedings, they send _Portocorrero_ and _Monteio_, two of their Principals, into _Spain_, with a rich and noble Present to the Emperor, both to make report of the State of the Countrey, and to procure immediate Commission from his Majesty, to proceed; after which they advance towards Mexico, as hath been said. _Velasquez_, being at _Cuba_, and understanding their Proceedings, labor’d to intercept both their Messengers and Present, but could not; and therefore sent _Pamphilius Narvaez_ with eleven Ships, and about nine hundred or a thousand Men to apprehend _Cortesius_, and oppose his Proceedings. This hapned about the time that the Differences were but newly calm’d betwixt the _Spaniards_ and the People of _Mexico_; and though it oblig’d _Cortesius_ to leave the City in a wavering and unsetled condition, yet he took such order, that _Muteczuma_ still remain’d under the Guard of the _Spaniards_ as before, assisted with thousands of their Friends of _Tlascalla_, and he himself taking the rest, and some few _Spaniards_ along with him, with undaunted courage and resolution marches against _Narvaez_: and such was his good fortune, that not onely _Narvaez_ became his Prisoner without much blood-shed, but likewise all his Men joyn’d with him in his Design, through the favour of the Chancery or supream Court of _St. Domingo_, and by the procurement of the Licentiat _Vasquez de Ayllon_, a Judge of it, who was sent with _Narvaez_ to accommodate the Differences. With this Recruit _Cortesius_ marches back again to _Mexico_; but at his coming finds things in a very bad condition; for the Citizens, gather’d together under the Command of one _Quicuxtemoc_, had recourse to Arms, and for three days and three Nights vex’d the _Spaniards_ with continual Stormings, notwithstanding what-ever Commands they had to the contrary from their imprison’d King, who at last, looking out of a Window, endeavoring to appease them, was hurt with a Stone, of which he soon after died, as they say, who would not have the _Spaniards_ thought to have murder’d him, as the _Mexicans_ say they did, with divers other Noble-men, and some of his Children, the very Night they fled. However it were, not long after his Death, out of extream necessity, and chiefly for want of Victuals, the _Spaniards_ were forc’d to leave the City in the night-time, and with the loss of four hundred and fifty of their Men, who were either slain or taken Prisoners at the passing of a Draw-bridge, the rest making a heavy Retreat to their Friends at _Tlascalla_. There is standing at this day in _Mexico_, upon the place where so many of them were kill’d, a certain Hermitage, which they call _Los Martyres_, or _The Hermitage of the Martyrs_, though but improperly, if upon that occasion, as one of their own Writers confesses, though he alledges no other reason.

[Sidenote: _Mexico_ taken by the _Spaniards_.]

This Retreat of the _Spaniards_ out of _Mexico_ hapned to be upon the tenth of _July_ after mid-night, in the Year 1520. which the _Spaniards_ at _Mexico_ call _The Doleful Night_. Nevertheless the undaunted _Cortesius_ being got, though with much difficulty and trouble, by reason of the pursuit of the _Mexicans_ for a good part of the Way, to his sure Friends of _Tlascalla_, neither lost his Courage, nor gave over his Resolution of yet gaining _Mexico_, especially the way being now laid open, and sufficient occasion given by the Death of _Muteczuma_, and the provocations of the _Mexicans_ themselves, to make himself absolute and sole Lord of the Place: wherefore having sent for, and procur’d a competent Supply of fresh Soldiers from _Santo Domingo_, or _Hispaniola_, _Almeria_, _Cuba_, and other places, being in all nine hundred Foot, eight hundred Horse, and seventeen Pieces of Ordnance; he joyns himself with the Auxiliary Forces of _Tlascalla_, which were no less than a hundred thousand Men, Arm’d with Bowes and Arrows: and with this Army marches again towards _Mexico_, and Besieges it both by Land and Water, _viz._ with the help of thirteen _Brigantines_ or _Galliots_, which he had built upon the Lake, and six thousand _Canoos_, or little Boats, which his Friends and Confederates had procur’d him. By which means, and by his Army on Land, in a short time he cut off all Provision from the City, and after a Siege of full three Months or more, and a most stout and obstinate resistance made by the People within, in which they are said to have lost above a hundred thousand Men, beside those which perish’d by Famine, Sickness, or otherwise, he took it by Storm upon _Tuesday_ the thirteenth of _August 1521._ Sackt it first, and then burnt it to the Ground; yet afterwards he caus’d it to be Re-built again, far more Beautiful than at first it was; as in due place we shall further see. They speak not of above fifty _Spaniards_ slain during the whole Siege, six Horses, and not many _Tlascaltecans_.

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ advanc’d to Honors.]

In this manner, and with so little Charges to the Conqueror, there fell to the Crown of _Spain_ the richest and goodliest Kingdom (one of them) of the whole World, _viz._ the Kingdom of _Mexico_, which the Conquerors presently nam’d _New Spain_; and in reference to which name, the _Catholick King_ hath ever since stil’d himself in the plural number _Hispaniarum Rex_, or _King of both Spains_; and all by the Valor, Prudence, admirable Resolution, and happy Conduct of _Cortez_; who was at first but a private Adventurer in the _American_ Plantations and Discoveries, though otherwise a Gentleman of a good Family in _Spain_, born at _Medellin_ in the Country of _Estramedura_. The Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, who was also then King of _Spain_, for his great Services, endow’d him deservedly with many great and rich Territories in the Provinces of _Tlascalla_, _Mechoacan_, and other parts thereabouts, made him Marquess of the Valley, _viz._ of _Guaxata_, (which is his chief Title) a rich and flourishing Province of that Countrey, Captain General, or Commander in Chief, of all the Military Forces of _New-Spain_, and General Discoverer of all the Maritime parts and Coasts of _America_ towards the South-Sea, assigning him in propriety the twelfth part of whatsoever should be discover’d, to him and his Heirs for ever; but deny’d him the Government of _Mexico_ out of reason of State, though ’tis said, he much desir’d it.

[Sidenote: The grand Haven _Acapulco_.]

Among the famous Havens which lie along the South Sea, and Northern Ocean the chiefest is _Acapulco_ before-mention’d, whither all Merchandize is sent to be transported to _China_, which is above two thousand Leagues distant from thence; in which Voyage they generally spend fourteen Months; four Sail, each of eight hundred Tun, appointed for this Trade; generally two of them set Sail to _China_ in _March_, and returning in Summer, have no sooner drop’d their Anchors, but the other two set out from _Acapulco_, from whence the way by Land to _Mexico_, is seventy two Leagues over steep Mountains, dangerous Rocks, and several Rivers; the chiefest whereof are, first, _Del Papagayo_, or _De las Balsas_, which runs exceeding strong, which the _Indians_ cross on bundles of Canes ty’d upon _Callabashes_: Next _San Francisco_, which though the biggest, yet hath many shallow places to wade over. The _Mustichoes_ are no small Plagues to those that travel this way, for their Poysonous Stings are the occasions of many Ulcerated Wounds, and oft-times Death it self.

In this way lies also the Countrey _del Valle_, from which _Ferdinand Cortesius_ receiv’d the Title of Earl.

[Illustration: PORTUS ACAPULCO]

The Mouth of the Haven _Acapulco_ gapes a full League North and South, and within exceeding large, hath a nook call’d _Boca Grande_, where the Ships Ride safe at an Anchor: More Easterly appears a Land Inlet, (by the _Spaniards_ call’d _Puerto del Marques_) secur’d against all Winds; near which is the City of _San Diego_, to which belongs a Fort, with six Bulwarks, lying on a Promontory; the main of the City is one large Street, consisting of fair and stately Houses, and leading directly to the Haven; the Church which is of an oblong square, hath a high Steeple in the middle.

[Sidenote: _Spilbergen_’s Expedition.]

A _Dutch_ Admiral, one _Joris Spilbergen_, after he had done the _Spaniards_ all the mischief he could along the South Sea, ran with five Sail under the Fort _Acapulco_, which fir’d ten Guns at him; whereupon, the _Dutch_ Admiral Manning a Boat, with a white Flag, they agreed upon a Cessation, and the _Spaniards_ went aboard of the Admiral, to whom _Pedro Alvares_, and _Francisco Menendus_, having been a considerable time in _Holland_, and speaking the Language of that Countrey very perfect, promis’d that all his Demands should be satisfi’d; yet _Spilbergen_ was suspicious that the _Spaniards_ had a design upon him, wherefore he came and lay close under the Castle with his five Sail, and made ready his Guns: But this suspicion was soon clear’d, when _Alvares_ and _Menendus_ proffer’d to stay as Hostages, till the Governor of the Town sent the Admiral thirty Oxen, fifty Sheep, some hundreds of Poultry, Coals, Oranges, Cittrons, and the like fresh Provisions; as also Wood and Water; during which time, the Prisoners being set at liberty, several Persons of Quality came to visit the Admiral, amongst whom was Captain _Castilio_, one that had serv’d twenty years in the _Low-Countrey_ Wars; and _Melchior Hernando_, Nephew to the Vice-Roy of _New-Spain_, who desirous to see the Ships that durst set twice upon _Rodrigo de Mendose_, Admiral of the King of _Spain_’s mighty Fleet, stood amaz’d that such little Frigats durst Ingage with so many great _Spanish_ Ships; and carry’d the Admiral’s Son to the Governor of the City, call’d _Georgius Perro_, who civilly entertain’d him: Eight days _Spilbergen_ spent here at _Acapulco_, admiring the courteous Entertainment of the _Spaniards_, and the more, because that having News but eight Moneths before of the _Dutch_ Fleet setting out, they had in that short time made all things ready for resistance, the Fort having seventeen Brass Guns, and four hundred Soldiers, besides many Noblemen and Reformades, whereas at other times there us’d not to be above forty Men, and four Guns in the same.

SECT. II. Mechoacan.

[Sidenote: Bounds and Description of _Mechoacan_.]

The next Province of _New Spain_ is the Bishoprick of _Mechoacan_, which hath on the North-East, _Panuco_; on the East, _Mexicana_, properly so call’d; on the South part, _Tlascalla_; on the West, the Main Ocean, or _Mare del Zur_; and last of all, more directly Northward, _Xalisco_, which is a Province of _New Gallicia_: The Name signifieth in the _American_ Language, as much as _A Fish Countrey_; and so it is, having many fair Lakes and Rivers in it, abundantly well stor’d with Fish. The Countrey so exceedingly pleasant and healthful, that ’tis usual for sick Persons of other Provinces to come hither to recover their health, only by the benefit of a good Air. The Soil so abundantly fertile of all sorts of Grain, that of four measures of Seed, it hath been often observ’d, they have reap’d the next Harvest, more than so many hundred measures of the same Grain. Very well Wooded; and by reason of its many Rivers and fresh Springs, equally rich in good Pasture: and besides great plenty of Medicinal Herbs and Plants, it affordeth good store of Amber nigh the Sea Coasts, Mulberry-trees, and consequently Silks; much Honey, Wax, and divers other Commodities, both for necessity and pleasure. The People of the Countrey are generally tall, of a strong active Body, and a good Wit, especially in comparison of other Natives; not unskilful in divers curious Manufactures, the most excellent Feather-Pictures, afore-mention’d, being said to be found in this Province. They seem more generally inclin’d to the Humors and Customs of the _Spaniards_, than any other _Americans_; and receiv’d the Preaching of _Christian Religion_, when time was, with much willingness; so that the Countrey is now entirely _Christian_, and divided into several Parishes.

[Sidenote: Languages belonging to the _Mechoacans_.]

The Languages which are spoken in _Mechoacan_ are several, as the _Otomian_, _Chihcimian_, and the _Mexicans_, which is common through all _New Spain_, and the _Tarascan_, a neat and brief Language, which properly belongs to this Countrey.

[Sidenote: Tygers.]

The Lions and Wilde Dogs of this Countrey devour great numbers of Cattel yearly, yet the greatest mischiefs happen from the Tygers, which often fetch People out of their Houses, notwithstanding the Doors are lock’d, for they break in thorow the Walls and Roofs, with much eagerness and strength: Of the greatness whereof, _Jacob Bontius_ tells us this story, That the Governor _Peter Carpentier_ set a Trap without the Walls of _Batavia_, of great Timber, Pleited with Iron, Baiting it with a Goat; which taking effect, the Tyger that was caught therein, impatient of such close Imprisonment, rent the Timber, and getting out, left the Goat untouch’d.

_Hugo Linschot_ relates, That the Tygers in the _West-Indies_ hurt no _Spaniards_, exercising their cruelty onely on _Indians_; and that finding a _Black_ and a _White_ Man sleeping together, they devour the _Black_ and not the _White_: How far these assertions deserve to be credited, may appear by an evident contradiction of the first, for it is well known, many _Spaniards_ in the _West-Indies_ have been eaten by the Tygers.

General _Fedreman_ marching in this Countrey at the Head of his Army, was assaulted by a Tyger, which in despight of them all killing a _Spaniard_, and three _Indians_, escap’d from them; no Trees serve for a refuge against their fury, for they climb up to the top thereof, and fetch down their Prey; their Claws are so exceeding Venomous, that whoever is scratch’d with the same, is never to be cur’d; there is no Beast but they will venture upon, wherefore they lie in the Bushes, from whence they rush out upon them; but this disadvantage they have, that most other Beasts are too nimble Footed for them, for they are a very heavy Creature, whatever hath been deliver’d by the Ancients concerning the Tygers swiftness.

As to the difference which they make in Humane Flesh, it is thus far true: That they find more sweetness in Womens Breasts than other parts, and chose a _Black_ Man before a _White_: Concerning the first, _France_ gives a sufficient testimony, when two Tygers, in the time of King _Lewis_ the Twelfth, breaking loose, left a great number of Women lying Breastless in the Road. The second is confirm’d by _John Johnston_’s Relation of a strange accident that happen’d in _Bengale_, _viz._ A _Moor_ dreaming that a Tyger fetch’d him out of the Ship, hid himself the next Night between Decks, of which the Master asking the reason, was inform’d concerning his Dream, which prov’d prophetick, for about Mid-night a Tyger leapt into the Ship, and devouring the _Moor_, went away without touching any one of the _Hollanders_, of which there were thirty: But a Sea-man walking on the shore escap’d more wonderfully, for a Tyger setting upon him behind, and a Crocodile before, he leaping from betwixt them, discover’d to the Tyger the Crocodile, to whom the Tyger directly running, and ingaging with the Crocodile, spar’d the Sea-mans life: Notwithstanding the cruelty and mischief of these Tygers, the _Indians_ are led by their sottish Superstition to worship them; because, as they say, the Devil often appears to them in that shape.

[Sidenote: Squerrils.]

Besides the Tygers, the Inhabitants of _Mechaocan_ are exceedingly molested with Squerrils, which not only carry much Fruit into their Holes, but also under-mine the Houses, so that they often sink or fall on one side, the mischief being the worse, because they increase daily. Most of them bear four young at a time, which on the third day run about for Prey, and can scarce be taken, because of their exceeding swiftness, leaping a great distance from one Tree to another; their Tails serve them on divers occasions; for leaping they use it like a Wing, and at their crossing over a River, for a Sail; in tempestuous Weather, they stop their holes therewith, to keep out the Wind.

[Sidenote: Several kinds of them.]

There are six several sorts of these Squerrils; the first call’d _Tlilic_, cover themselves with their Tails; the second _Quapatchli_, is as big again, and can never be made tame; the third _Techallotl_, with a bald Tail and great Eyes; the fourth _Talmototly_, hath a thick Head, and a Tail full of black and white streaks; the fifth _Quimitchpatlan_, hath a little Head and long Legs, and leaping from one Tree to another, seems to flie; the last sort call’d _Yztactechalotl_, is whitish.

[Sidenote: Foxes.]

The Foxes do also great mischief here, their Urine smells so horribly, that forty days after, none are able to abide near the place where they have urin’d, and on whatsoever Stuff or Cloth a drop thereof chanceth to light, the stink can never be wash’d away.

[Sidenote: The Bird _Auras_.]

Here breeds also a sort of Birds, call’d _Auras_, which are not unlike Moore-Hens; they flie exceeding high in the Air, feed on nought but stinking Carrion, which they scent at a great distance; they have a hairy Head and Neck, and ugly Face: Some of the Fowls of this Countrey stay here all the year long, others go away, and return at certain times.

[Sidenote: Ingenuity of the Natives.]

The Natives, since the _Spaniards_ coming thither, have gotten their Habits and Language, learn’d all sorts of Trades; their Tables, Chests, and Cupboards made of _Brasile_-Wood, are no way inferior to the best that are made in _Europe_. Painting is also in great esteem amongst them: They make handsom Clothes, Shooes, and strange Copper Locks. They have a peculiar Art in Tilling their Ground: They teach the _Spanish_ Dogs several tricks, but not feeding them well, they cause them to run from them, and turn wilde, whence they are call’d _Cimarrones_, because they do much hurt to the Cattel.

The Inhabitants, when a Feaver or Ague is upon them at the highest, leap into cold Water: against other Sicknesses they use Herbs, whose soveraign Power Experience hath long since taught them.

Since the _Spaniards_ made _Mechoacan_ a Bishoprick, they have built ninety four Schools, fifty Churches, several Hospitals and Cloysters, inhabited by _Franciscan_ and _Augustin_ Monks.

There are said to be in this Bishoprick a hundred and fifty Towns or Burroughs (besides many scatter’d Villages) most of which have Free-Schools erected in them, for the Training up of Youth in the _Christian_ Religion, good Literature and Arts; and few of them without an Hospital for the Sick: of which Towns the principal are as followeth:

[Sidenote: Principal Towns.]

1. _Zinzoutza_, the Seat of the ancient Kings of _Mechoacan_. 2. _Pascuar_, a City forty seven Leagues distant from _Mexico_, once a Bishop’s See. 3. _Valladolid_, the Metropolis or chief City of the Province, since the Episcopal Chair was remov’d from _Pascuar_ thither. It lieth upon a great Lake, equal almost for bigness to that of _Mexico_, and is about seven Leagues distant from _Pascuar_, towards the East. 4. _St. Michaels_, a good Town, forty Leagues Westward of _Mexico_, and in the Way to the _Zacatecas_, but lying in a Road that is somewhat dangerous, being not a little infested with Salvages on both sides of it. 5. _St. Philips._ 6. _La Conception de Salaya_, seventeen Leagues distant from _Valladolid_, and a convenient Stage for Travellers, being indeed, with the two last mention’d, built chiefly for the defence and securing of the Countrey against the Salvages. 7. _Guaxanata_, a Town on the Borders of _Panuco_, where there are very rich Mynes of Silver. 8. _Leon_, another Town likewise of very rich Mynes, twenty four Leagues distant from _Valladolid_, and threescore from _Mexico_. 9. _Zamorra._ 10. _Villa de los Lagos_, and others.

Towards the Sea there is 1. _Acatlan_, but two Miles distant from the Sea-Coast, and a small Town, yet by reason of a safe and very good Harbor which it hath for Shipping, a Place of no little Trading. 2. _Natividad_, another well known and convenient Haven upon _Mare del Zur_, pertaining to this Province, and from whence they usually set Sail for the _Philippine_ Islands. 3. _St. Jago de buena Speranza_, so call’d by the _Spaniards_, perhaps from the abundance of good Pearls they found upon this Coast. 4. _Colyma._ 5. _Zacatula_, and some others.

This Province, as we said, was at first a distinct Kingdom of it self, yet subordinate and Tributary to that of _Mexico_; the King whereof nam’d _Tamgaiva_, or _Bimbicha_, (as _Laet_ reporteth) at the first coming of the _Spaniards_ thither, after the Conquest of _Mexico_, voluntarily submitted himself to them, and was Baptiz’d. Nevertheless afterwards, upon a pretence of I know not what Treason intended by him against them, and which the _Spanish_ Writers themselves professedly think to have been feigned, by command of _Nunnez de Gusman_, President of the _Chancery_ of _Mexico_, he was most inhumanely burnt alive, and his Kingdom seiz’d upon by the _Spaniards_.

SECT. III. Tlascalla.

[Sidenote: Situation and Description of _Tlascalla_.]

The Bishoprick of _Tlascalla_, formerly call’d _Tlascalteca_, _Tlaxcala_, and _Tlascalan_, is a Province of _New Spain_, which extendeth it self entirely from one Sea to another, _viz._ from the _Atlantick_ to _Mare del Zur_, with which it is bounded on the East and West Parts, lying otherwise, and for the most part betwixt the Provinces of _Mexicana_, last spoken of, and that of _Guaxata_, which followeth, containing in length from one Sea to the other, not much less than an hundred Leagues, and in some places fourscore in breadth; but towards the South Sea growing much narrower. It is a Countrey exceedingly plentiful both in Corn and Cattel, full of rich Pasturage, and so plentifully stor’d with _Maiz_, Wheat, and other Grain, that it is accounted as it were the Granary of _America_; besides Deer, all manner of Venison, and great store of Fowl. There is likewise Copperess, Allom, Silver-Mynes, _Manna_, _Anime_, and Liquid Amber, with a sweet smelling Gum which drops out of a Tree. The Rivers feed no Fish, because they fall with exceeding force from the Mountains; onely near _Topoyanco_, is a deep Lake of fresh Water, inhabited round about by _Indians_, enjoying the pleasure and profit of the many _Cumbeba_-Trees, which yield _Cochinele_, producing yearly above two hundred thousand Duckets worth of that Commodity. In this Lake swim black Hedge-hogs, whose Flesh is good and wholsom to eat.

[Sidenote: The ancient State of the _Tlascallans_.]

The People of this Countrey, when the _Spaniards_ came first amongst them, liv’d in the form of a Common-wealth, or Free-State, refusing to be subject to the King of _Mexico_, with whom they had almost continual War; and upon that account, as hath been said, assisted _Cortesius_ in the Conquest of the Kingdom, without whose help ’tis most certain he had never been able to do any thing. They enjoy therefore many special Priviledges and Immunities more than other _Americans_ do. They pay no Tribute, but onely a handful of Wheat yearly for every Person, by way of acknowledgment, otherwise living, under the Protection of the _Spaniards_, wholly in the Form of their ancient Government. In former times they were great Man-eaters, and not onely eat the Flesh of their Enemies, but also of one another, insomuch that Man’s-flesh hung in publick to be sold.

[Sidenote: River _Zahuatl_.]

The River _Zahuatl_, which rushes out of the Mountain _Xicoleucalt_, oftentimes overflows all the Countrey near it, and washes away divers Houses. _Zahuatl_ signifies _Scabby Water_, because all those, especially Children, that wash in the same, are sure to be Scabby. On its Banks the _Spaniards_ have built many Houses, the fashion whereof is now also imitated by the _Indians_ of this Province, who formerly built quite after another manner; for they made low Houses of Earth, Wood and Stone, with large and strange Chambers; some a Stones-cast one from another, others close together, had narrow crooked Streets that ran betwixt them.

[Sidenote: _Tlascallans_ Language.]

In this Province are two sorts of Languages spoken, _viz._ the _Mexican_, and that of the _Ottomons_, who formerly deserting _Mexico_, chose the _Tlascallans_ for their Protectors: They are a toilsom and painful People.

To the Northward of _Tlascalla_ are Mountains, which all the year long, except three Moneths, are cover’d with Mist; and the Woods on the tops of them are a great shelter to Lyons, Tygers, Wolves, and wild Dogs, call’d _Adives_, and other wild Beasts, which do much hurt to the small Cattel. Here are also many Serpents and Adders.

The whole Province is said to contain two hundred good Towns and Burroughs, and more than one thousand Villages, all of them exceedingly populous, and suppos’d to contain in the whole above a Million and half of Natives, besides _Spaniards_, who have some few Colonies in the Countrey for securing of it.

[Sidenote: Towns and Villages.]

The chief Towns of the Province are 1. _Tlascalla_ it self, which denominates the whole Countrey as the Metropolis, and where the Bishop’s See was at first, till in the Year 1550. it was remov’d to _Puebla de los Angelos_. It is a fair Town, and commodiously seated in the midst of a large and fertile Champain of threescore Miles in compass. It consisteth of four large and beautiful Streets or Quarters, and in the midst of them where they all meet, hath a _Piazza_, or Market-place, equal to that of _Mexico_, and able to receive twenty or thirty thousand Persons conveniently, to Buy and Sell in it; and whose Shambles seldom shew less than fifteen thousand Sheep, four thousand Oxen, and two thousand Hogs.

2. _Puebla de los Angelos_, or _The City of Angels_, a Town built by _Sebastian Ramirez_, a Church-man, and he that was the first President, or chief Governor of _Mexico_, under the Crown of _Castile_. It was built in the Year 1531. almost in the Road-way from _Vera Crux_ to _Mexico_, and seated in a very delicate and fertile Countrey, and of a good Air. It is a Bishop’s See, and valu’d at twenty thousand _Ducats_ of yearly Rent, the City it self suppos’d to contain about fifteen hundred Families; where there is abundance of excellent Cloth made, and for fineness not yielding to the best of _Spain_. Its chief Edifices are, the Cathedral and four stately Cloysters, belonging to the _Dominicans_, _Franciscans_, _Augustines_, and _Capuchins_; as also a Free-School for five hundred _Indian_ Children, endow’d by _Ramirez_ with a yearly Revenue.

3. _Zempoallan_, seated upon a River of the same Name.

4. _Napalaca_, in the Valley _Ocumba_, ows its original to an _Indian_ call’d _Juan_, who at first had onely one House, and a Herd of Hogs there, till upon his invitation, all the neighboring People came from the tops of the Hills; insomuch, that in a short time, the place was Peopled by thousands of Families.

5. _Guaxacingo_, all hitherto great and ancient Towns of the Natives.

6. _Segura de la Frontera_, a _Spanish_ Town, built by _Cortez_ presently upon the Conquest of _Mexico_, for the securing of the Confines, as the Name importeth.

7. _Vera Crux_, a Town built by _Cortez_ and his Companions, at their first Landing, and where afterwards, by a Stratagem, and out of a resolution either to Conquer or Die in the Countrey, he caus’d all his Ships to be burnt, that his Soldiers might not so much as think of returning back from whence they came. The Town was at first built five or six Leagues up within Land; but the place being found not to be so healthful, the Inhabitants in a short time deserted it, and seated themselves upon a Bay of the Sea, right over against _St. John D’ Ullua_.

8. _Medellin_, another _Spanish_ Town, built likewise by _Cortez_, in memory of his own Birth-place, which was _Medellin_, a small Town of _Estramadura_, a Province of _Spain_, but was afterwards destroy’d by some _Spanish_ Commanders, out of malice to _Cortez_.

Lastly, _St. John D’ Ullua_, a noted, and the most usual Port to all this Province, and likewise to the City of _Mexico_ it self, from the North Sea: but of difficult entrance, especially to such as are not well acquainted with the Passage, or want Guides, by reason of certain Rocks and Quicksands, wherewith the Mouth of the Haven is said to be bar’d; but within, the station is more safe. It hath likewise two strong Bulwarks or Forts rais’d, on either side of the Entrance one, to defend the Passage; besides a strong Castle, built since Captain _John Hawkins_ surpris’d twelve Ships richly Laden within the Haven, and thirteen others that arriv’d with a new Vice-Roy from _Spain_, valu’d at near sixty Tun of Gold, of which he might easily have made Prize, had he not trusted to the Vice-Roys Promise, to give him all satisfaction he should require, by which being deceiv’d, he lost all his Fleet but two Ships.

[Sidenote: Great increase of Crocodiles.]

Between _Tlascala_ and _Los Angelos_ are the Fountains, out of which the River hath its Original, which gliding by _Machaocan_ and _Zacatula_, falls into the South Sea: This River is so exceeding full of Crocodiles, that they have made several places which formerly were Inhabited on its Banks, utterly desolate; for the Females laying generally Eggs as big as those of a Goose, increase prodigiously; and were it not that the _Indian_ Mice, call’d _Ichneumones_, destroy’d them, they would grow still to greater numbers: But this Animal creeping in at the Crocodiles Mouth, eats his way out of the Belly again; Water-Serpents, Hawks, _Buffeloes_, and especially Tygers, are also their mortal Enemies, for they throwing the Crocodiles on their Backs, rend open their Bellies: They are more desirous of Mans flesh here than in any other place, because the River of _Tlascala_ hath but small store of Fish; in the day time they lie cover’d in the Mud, from whence they rush forth, and set upon those that happen to pass by them; they pursue the _Canoos_ in the Water, and strike down the Rowers with their Tails.

[Sidenote: Burning Mountain _Popatepeck_.]

Eight Leagues beyond _Tlascala_, appears the Mountain _Popatepeck_, which for ten years ceas’d smoaking, till _Anno 1540._ it broke forth in such a manner, that the Countrey all about was terrifi’d therewith; for it vomited not onely a black Smoak, but also horrible Flames, which sometimes being blow’d downward, burnt the Corn in the Fields, and the Ashes thereof flying as far as _Guaxocingo_ and _Chulula_, burnt a great deal of the Town to the Ground; every one endeavor’d by flight to secure themselves, with intention never to return thither again; but the Flame and Smoak abating, Captain _Diego de Ordas_ went up to view the place, whence the Fire was cast forth; which curiosity and presumption of his, had like to have cost him his Life, for the sulphury Smoak breaking forth on a sudden, had almost stifled him.

[Sidenote: Rivers of _Mexicana_.]

Moreover, the Bishoprick of _Tlascala_, is on the North Coast wash’d by the River _Papoloava_, since call’d _Alvarado_, from a _Spanish_ Commander, who first Steer’d his Course thither: The next Stream nam’d _Banderas_, is so call’d, because the Natives held white Clothes on Poles, to invite the _Spaniards_ ashore. The third is _Almeria_, on which, _Cortesius_, a year after the taking of _Mexico_, built the Town _Medellin_, as aforemention’d.

Along the _Tlascallan_ shore, wash’d by the Northern Ocean, lie the Isles _Blanca_, _Verde_, and _Sacrificios_: The first receiv’d its denomination from _White Land_, the other from _Green Trees_; and the third, because _Joan de Greyalve_, who first Discover’d _New Spain_, Landing on this Island, found a Bloody Altar there, with Sacrific’d People with open’d Brests, chopt off Arms and Legs.

The River _Almeria_ falling into the Ocean opposite to the _Sacrificios_, the _Spanish_ Ships came often to an Anchor there; but in these latter times, they have forsaken the same, because the Northern Winds us’d to blow very hard against the shore, and spoil’d many Vessels: But _Henry Hawks_ gives this reason, That a dreadful apparition of Spirits frighted the _Spaniards_ from thence.

[Sidenote: The Province _Tepeaca_.]

In the Bishoprick _Tlascala_, is also compriz’d the Province _Tepeaca_, whose Metropolis was built by _Cortez_, when with great Loss he was sent from _Almeria_. The Soil thereabouts is barren and stony; the Water which they have in the City, is brought in Pipes from a River which flows out of the Mountains into the Market place. The plain Countrey hath many good Pastures. The Inhabitants thereof speak four sorts of Languages; of which, the commonest is the _Mexican_; others use the _Popolucan_ or _Otoman_ Tongues.

[Sidenote: _Alyoxuan_.]

The Village _Alyoxucan_ appears afar off on a high Mountain, on whose top is a Lake of a hundred and fifty Fathom in circumference; the Water whereof is very cold, and of a bluish Colour, and neither Ebbs nor Flows, to which the Villagers climb along a narrow Path.

Not far from thence, in the Plain, are two other very deep Lakes: The first call’d _Tlacae_, is a League in circumference, and breeds delicate white Fish, not above a Fingers length: The second nam’d _Alchichican_, about the same bigness, which in stormy Weather is very turbulent.

[Sidenote: Strange sort of Bird.]

Amongst the Fowls of this Countrey, the most noted is a little Summer Bird, with a long crooked Tail, speckled Feathers; feeds on nothing but Flowers and the Dew; about Harvest time, when the Rain ceases, it hangs fast with its Bill on a Tree, and as soon as the first Rain falls, it revives again.

In this Countrey _Tepeaca_ are five Villages, in each of which is a _Franciscan_ Cloyster and convenient Hospital.

In this Countrey they gather the Water in the time of the Rainy Moneths, in a digg’d Pool, which every Morning produces little Toads with long Tails, which in few days fall off; but these little ones growing to be great, make a most dreadful noise in the Night: From _October_ till _March_, not one drop of Rain falls in this Countrey; during which time, the Northern Winds make a dry and wholsome Air, yet oftentimes a tempestuous Sea, to the loss of many Ships.

Farther up into the Countrey, between _Vera Crux_ and _Los Angelos_, lies the Village _Rinconanda_; and also _Xalapa_ and _Perota_ built of Straw Houses in the middle of a Wood of Cedar and Pine-Trees, inhabited by the _Spaniards_, for the accommodating of Travellers: To which purpose there are likewise Inns built near the Spring _Fuente de Otzumba_, which gushes out of a high Rock.

Not far from hence is the Populous Village _Chetula_, where a small number of _Spaniards_ dwell amongst thousands of _Indians_, who chiefly make use of Mules to carry their Loads.

SECT. IV. Guaxata.

[Sidenote: Situation and Description of _Guaxata_.]

Between _Los Angelos_ and _Guatemala_, lies the Bishoprick of _Antiquera_ or _Guaxata_ largely taken; it hath on the North, the Bay of _Mexico_; on the South, _Mare del Zur_; on the East, _Jucatan_ and _Chiapa_ which is one of the Provinces of _Guatimala_; on the West, _Tlascalla_.

[Sidenote: Division.]

The Countrey extendeth it self upon the South Sea about an hundred Leagues in length, but from the Sea to the Borders of _Tlascalla_, one hundred and twenty; Eastward not above half so much; having a good Air, and a Soil no less fruitful, especially in Mulberry-Trees, and abundance of Silks, which the Countrey affordeth, more than any other Province of _America_ besides; nor is it less rich in Mines of Gold and Silver, there being scarce a River in the whole Countrey, but the Sands of it are said to be Tinctur’d more or less with that yellow Metal; also Crystal and Copperess. It yieldeth likewise great plenty of _Cassia_ and _Cochinele_, two rich Commodities; and the People generally, if they would take pains, might be the wealthiest, ’tis thought, of any other in _America_: But whether it be through any voluntary contempt of Riches, or through any natural sloathfulness, as yet they seem to Pine in the midst of plenty, living, for the most part of them, little better than from Hand to Mouth; nevertheless, exceeding liberal of what they have, especially to such as bear the Habit of Religion, and attend the service of their Souls; maintaining in a plentiful and good manner, as ’tis said, no less than one hundred and twenty Convents of Religious Men, of several Orders, in this onely Province; besides Hospitals, Schools for the training up of Youth, and other places of publick Charity; it is said also to have three hundred and fifty Villages, and near as many brave Countrey Houses. It is subdivided into many particular Provinces; which, because they are many and but small, in comparison of some other, we may call _Wapentakes_, or Hundreds, rather than Provinces: The principal whereof are these that follow, _viz._ 1. _Misteca._ 2. _Tutepecque._ 3. _Zapoteca._ 4. _Guazacoalco._ 5. _Gueztaxatla_: and 6. the _Valley of Guaxata_, from whence _Cortez_, after the Conquest of _Mexico_, had his Title given him by the Emperor, _Marquess of the Valley_. It is the richest and most pleasant part of the whole Province, extended in a continu’d Tract together, full sixteen Leagues or more, lying about fourscore Southward of _Mexico_, and wanting neither Mines of Gold and Silver, nor any other of the prime and best Commodities of the _New-World_.

[Sidenote: Languages.]

In this Countrey they speak thirteen sorts of Languages, of which the _Mexican_ is most us’d.

[Sidenote: Poisonous Herb.]

Amongst the Plants which grow here, is an exceeding Poysonous Herb, which kills those whosoe’re pluck it, though a long time after, that is to say, if it be of a Years growth, it kills not before the Years end; if a Moneth old, at the Moneths end; if a Day, on the same.

This Countrey formerly suffer’d also many inconveniencies by Earthquakes, but of late they are somewhat abated, which the _Spaniards_ ascribe to _Martialis_, Protector of the Cathedral at _Antequera_.

_Misteca_ is divided into _Alta_ and _Baxa_, both of which have Rivers and Brooks that afford Gold, whither the _Indian_ Women taking Provisions, go for several days, and gather Gold in Troughs, which they exchange at the _Spanish_ Markets for Provisions.

[Sidenote: Strange Cave.]

Not far from the Village _Cuertlavaca_, lies a high Mountain, remarkable for a strange Cave, whose Entrance is very narrow, at the end whereof appears a square Place of fifty Foot; upon one side whereof stand Pits with Steps; near which begins a crooked Way of a League long; at the end of which is a spacious Place with a Fountain of good Water; from the Foot of which flows a small Brook: But because none have made any farther discovery of this Cave, the other parts of it remain yet unknown.

On the top of _St. Antonio_, the _Indians_ live with their Families in Caves between the Rocks.

Not far from hence appear two Mountains, whose tops, though they lie at a great distance from one another, at the bottom they are so near, that a Man may step from one to the other.

The six Rocks _Pennoles_, formerly Garrison’d by the Kings of _Mexico_, have Gold, Lead-Mynes, and a Root which is us’d in stead of Soap.

In the Village _Totomachiapo_, is a Cave of half a Mile long, at the end whereof the Water prevents a farther discovery.

The Rocky Countrey _Zapotecas_ formerly bred very salvage Inhabitants, Mantled in Furrs, but now Civiliz’d, clad after the common manner.

[Sidenote: _Americans_, whether Extracted from the ten Tribes of _Israel_.]

The People spread over _Guaxacualco_, _Yluta_, and _Cueztxatla_, observe Circumcision, according to an ancient Custom; from whence some have in vain sought for a testimony, that these _Americans_ should be originally extracted from the scatter’d Tribes of _Israel_; but the _Tartars_ more immediately, who at last crossing the _Straits_ of _Anian_, furnish’d the desolate Countrey of _America_ with Inhabitants: But this Opinion is without any probability of truth; for it will never follow from their Circumcision, that the _Tartars_, the greatest People on Earth, must owe their original to a few _Israelites_, Prisoners, since that Ceremony was never thought on by them till they embrac’d the _Mahumetan_ Religion. And though they had been Circumcis’d before _Mahomet_’s time, this would be no testimony that they were extracted from the _Israelites_: for how many People embrac’d Circumcision, which were never extracted from _Abraham_’s Seed? It is affirm’d by _Diodorus Siculus_, that the _Cholchians_; by _Philo Judæus_, the _Egyptians_; by _Herodotus_, the _Moors_; by _Strabo_, the _Troglodytes_; by _Cyprian_, the _Phœnicians_ and _Arabians_ Circumcis’d themselves from all Antiquity, which is to this day observ’d by some of them. It also plainly appears by the Prophet _Jeremiah_, that the _Egyptians_, _Edomites_, _Ammonites_, _Moabites_, and _Ishmaelites_, had the same Custom anciently amongst them.

[Sidenote: Towns and chief Villages of _Guaxaca_.]

The Towns of principal note inhabited by the _Spaniards_ in this Province, are 1. _Antequera_, in the Valley aforesaid, a stately City, and beautifi’d with a fair Cathedral Church, built with Pillars of the finest Marble, of great heighth and bigness. The River which glides by the Walls, springing out of the Ground, runs to the Mountain _Coatlan_. Not far from thence lies the Village _Herrera_, which boasts four hundred _Spanish_ Families, though some say that the greatest part of them are _Indians_, who pay the _Spaniards_ Cotton Cloaks and Nuts for Tribute.

2. _Illephonso de los Zapotecas_, lies on a Mountain belonging to the _Mixes_, anciently a salvage, strong, and long-bearded People, who speak a gross Language, and in former times went naked, onely a white Deer-skin, Tann’d in Man’s Brains, about their Middle. They maintain’d continual War against the _Zapoteca_’s, and could never have been subdu’d by the _Spaniards_, had it not been for their Dogs, which kept them in such awe, that thirty _Spanish_ Soldiers ventur’d to live in _Illephonso_ amongst thirty thousand _Mixes_, who now drive a Trade in Cotton, _Maize_, and Gold.

3. _San Jago de Nexapa_ appears at a great distance on a high Mountain, where also twenty Soldiers with their Dogs were wont to awe the cruel Natives.

4. The last Place, built by _Gonzales de Sandovall_, _Anno 1522._ is _Villa del Espiritu Santo_, Commands fifty _Indian_ Villages, which with great difficulty were brought to submit to the _Spaniards_.

The River _Aquivicolco_ affords a convenient Harbor,