The Etymology of Local Names With a short introduction to the relationship of languages. Teutonic names. by Morris, Richard

THE ETYMOLOGY OF LOCAL NAMES.

WITH A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGES.

TEUTONIC NAMES.

BY R. MORRIS, FORMERLY STUDENT OF BATTERSEA TRAINING COLLEGE.

Names have all some meaning when first imposed; and when a place is named for the first time, by any people, they apply to it some term—in early times generally descriptive of its natural peculiarities, or something else, on account of which it is remarkable, from their own language. When we find therefore, that the old names of natural objects and localities in a country belong, for the most part, to a particular language, we may conclude with certainty that a people speaking that language formerly occupied the country. Of this the names they have so impressed are as sure a proof as if they had left a distinct record of their existence in words engraven on the rocks. Such old names of places often long outlive both the people that bestowed them, and nearly all the material monuments of their occupancy. The language, as a vehicle of oral communication, may gradually be forgotten and be heard no more where it was once in universal use, and the old topographical nomenclature may still remain unchanged.—_Pictorial History of England._

LONDON: JUDD & GLASS, NEW BRIDGE STREET, BLACKFRIARS, E.C.

LONDON: PRINTED BY JUDD & GLASS, NEW BRIDGE STREET, BLACKFRIARS, E.C.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION 5

WORKS CONSULTED 10

THE VALUE OF LOCAL NAMES 11

THE COMPOSITION OF LOCAL NAMES 13

DIVISION I.—DESCRIPTIVE ELEMENT.

(_A_) NAMES OF TRIBES, INDIVIDUALS, FAMILIES, AND GODS 14 (_a_) TRIBES 14 (_b_) FAMILIES 15 (_c_) INDIVIDUALS 17 (_d_) GODS 18

(_B_) NAMES OF ANIMALS 19

(_C_) NAMES OF TREES, PLANTS, &C. 27

(_D_) NAMES OF MINERALS 32

(_E_) NAMES OF QUALITIES 33

DIVISION II.—GENERAL ELEMENT.

(_A_) NAMES OF RIVERS, LAKES, &C. 35

(_B_) NAMES OF MOUNTAINS, HILLS, &C. 47

(_C_) NAMES OF VALLEYS, PLAINS, WOODS, &C. 53

(_D_) NAMES OF HABITATIONS 59

INTRODUCTION.

THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGES.

“Languages,” says the author of “The Cosmos,” “compared with each other, and considered as objects of the natural history of the human mind, being divided into families according to the analogy of their internal structure, have become a rich source of historical knowledge. Products of the mental powers, they lead us back, by the fundamental characters of their organisation, to an obscure and otherwise unknown distance. The comparative study of languages shows how races, or nations, now separated by wide regions, are related to each other, and have proceeded from a common seat; it discloses the directions and paths of ancient migrations; in tracing out epochs of development, it recognises in the more or less altered characters of the language, in the permanency of certain forms, or the already advanced departure from them, which portion of the race has preserved a language nearest to that of their former common dwelling-place.”

The coincidences between the languages of the globe have been made the subject of careful study by eminent scholars, who have established _Comparative Philology_ upon the footing of a new science.

It has been found that mere verbal comparisons are utterly worthless in determining either the formation of groups of languages or their relations to one another. The dictionary of a nation may be borrowed, for words are soon lost and easily replaced; but the grammar of a language—that is to say, its syntax, conjugations, and declensions, the formation of new words from certain primitive forms, and those relational words which perform a similar function, as pronouns, numerals, and particles—is as constant and invariable as the nation itself. Grammatical analysis and comparison is therefore the only true method for the classification of languages according to their radical affinity; mere superficial resemblances of words prove nothing, nor have they any value unless tested and confirmed by arguments drawn from grammatical structure.

On the evidence afforded by a searching grammatical analysis, the languages of the greater part of Europe and Asia have been divided into three great families, whose grammatical forms are perfectly clear and distinct. They have been named INDO-EUROPEAN or ARIAN, SEMITIC, and TURANIAN.

(A) THE INDO-EUROPEAN or ARIAN family of languages extends from the mouth of the Ganges to the British Isles and the Northern extremity of Scandinavia. The term Arian is derived from ARYA, the original name of this family. It signifies _honourable_, or _of a good family_. In Asia we find two great branches of this family:

I. _The Indian._ This branch includes the Sanskrit (the language of the Vedas, the first literary monument of the Arian world), with its living representatives, the Hindustani, Mahratti, Bengali, Guzerati, Singhalese, &c.; the Prakrit and Pali idioms; the Siah-Posh (Kafir dialect), and the language of the Gipsies.

II. _The Iranian_ or _Persian_. To this branch belong the Zend or Old Persian (the language of the Zendavesta), with its representatives; the language of the Achaemenians, written in the Cuneiform character; the speech of Huzvaresh or Pehlevi; the Pazend or Parsi; and the modern Persian. The following dialects, though not very important in a philological view, belong to this class:—the Afghan, Bokhara, Kurdian, Armenian, and Ossetian.

In Europe there are no less than six branches of the Arian family:

I. _The Celtic._ Though the Celts seem to have been the first inhabitants of Europe, very few of their dialects are now spoken, having been superseded by the Teutonic idioms.

Modern Celtic dialects are divided into two classes; (_a_) the Gallic or Ancient British, including the Welsh (Cymric), Cornish, and Armorican of Brittany; (_b_) the Galic, Gadhelic, or Erse, including the Irish (Fenic), the Highland Scottish (Gaelic), and Manx, the dialect of the Isle of Man.

II. _The Teutonic._ This branch is divided into three dialects; (_a_) the High German, including the Old High German, the Middle High German, and the Modern High German; (_b_) the Low German, including the Gothic, the Anglo-Saxon and English, the Old Saxon and Platt-Deutsch, the Frisic, the Dutch and Flemish; (_c_) the Scandinavian, including the Old Norsk, the Icelandic, the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish.

III. _The Italic._ To this class belong the Oscan, Umbrian, and Latin dialects; the Old Provençal, and the Romance languages (Provençal and French, Italian and Wallachian, Spanish and Portuguese) formed during the decay of the Latin.

IV. _The Hellenic._ This branch includes the Greek and its dialects, the Aeolic, Ionic, Doric, and Attic.

V. _The Albanian_; including the Geghian and the Toskian dialects spoken in Illyria and Epirus.

VI. _The Slavonic_ or _Windic_ branch is divided into two dialects; (_a_) the Lettic, including the Lithuanian, Old Prussian, and Lettish; (_b_) the Slavonic Proper, which is again divided into two branches, termed the Eastern and Western.

The Eastern dialect includes the Russian (Great, Little, and White Russian), the Servian, Kroatian, and Slovenian; and the Bulgarian, or in its oldest form, the Ecclesiastical Slavonic.

The Western dialect includes the Polish, the Bohemian, the Polabian, and the Lusatian.

(B) THE SEMITIC Family (so called from Shem, one of the sons of Noah) is not so widely extended as the Arian family, but the nations composing it were the first to appear upon the theatre of history. It comprises the following branches:—

I. _The Arabic_, which includes the Ethiopian or Abissinian and the Maltese.

II. _The Chaldean_, which includes the Old Babylonian, the Chaldee of Babylon and Mesopotamia, the Chaldee of Daniel and of the Targums, and the Syrian (Aramaic).

III. _The Hebrew_, the language of Canaan, which includes the Phœnician and Carthaginian.

IV. _The Berber dialects_, which are spoken in Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and Fez. The Haussa and Galla dialects are now considered as Semitic idioms.

(C) THE TURANIAN family of languages is distinguished from the Arian and Semitic in the total absence of inflection.

To express the variations for case, mood, &c., Turanian words undergo no inflection; but an additional word is _glued_, as it were to the noun, verb, &c., as the case may be, in order to express the relations of case, mood, &c. Hence these have been termed _agglutinizing_ languages.

To connect the idea of plurality with the English word _boy_, we merely inflect it, and obtain the word _boys_; but upon the principle of agglutination, a syllable indicative of plurality must be affixed, _e.g._, singular, _boy_; plural, _boy-crowd_. Thus the roots are never obscured, while they admit of a _vocal harmony_ which is altogether peculiar to this family of languages; _e.g._, (Turkish) _aghâ_, a lord, becomes in the plural, _agha-lar_; _er_, a man becomes in the plural, _er-ler_, and not _er-lar_, as in the former case.

The vowels of the agglutinized syllables, it is easily seen, must harmonize with those of the roots; _e.g._, (Magyar) _kert_, a garden, makes _kert-esz-nek_ to the gardener, and not _kert-asz-nak_.

There are two great divisions of this family:—

I. _The Northern or Ural-Altaic division_ includes (_a_) the Tungusian dialects, spoken in Upper and Lower Tunguska, on the coast of Okhotsk, and by the Mantchoos or Mandshus (in China); (_b_) the Mongolian dialects, spoken in the North and South of Gobi, in Tibet and Tangut, in the plains on each side of the Volga (by the Olöts or Kalmuks) and by the Buriäts of Lake Baikal; (_c_) the Turkish dialects, spoken in Derbend, Krimea, Antolia, and Rumelia; (the Yakuts, the Tatars or Turks of Siberia, the Kirghis, the Bashkirs, the Kumians, the Nogais, and the Karatschais, the Usbegs, Uigurs, and Turkomans, speak Turkish dialects); (_d_) the Finnish dialects, spoken by the Hungarians, Lapps, Finns, Esths, Voguls, Permians, &c.; (_e_) the dialects of the Samoiedes and Ostiakes.

II. _The Southern division_ comprises the Tamul, the Bhotiya, and the Malay.

The Caucasian dialects are degenerated branches of the Turanian family; they include the idioms of the Georgians or Grusians, the Suans, the Lazes, the Lesghi, the Mitsgeghi, and the Kerkessians and Abasians.

WORKS CONSULTED.

“Local Nomenclature of the Anglo-Saxons,” by H. Leo.

“Codex Diplomaticus Ævi Saxonici,” edited by Professor Kemble.

“The Germania of Tacitus,” edited by Dr. Latham.

Bosworth’s “Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.”

Meidinger’s “Comparative Dictionary of the Gothic Tongues.”

Jamieson’s “Scottish Dictionary.”

“The Saxons in England,” by Professor Kemble.

Worsaae’s “Danes and Norwegians in England.”

“The Northmen in Cumberland and Westmoreland,” by R. Ferguson.

Wright’s “Provincial Dictionary.”

THE ETYMOLOGY OF LOCAL NAMES.

_Names of places_ in a great measure belong to the oldest and most primitive evidences of language, and they are of the highest importance in the history of nations and dialects.—_H. Leo._

It cannot be doubted that _local names_, and those devoted to distinguish the natural features of a country, possess an inherent vitality which even the urgency of conquest is unable to remove.—_Kemble._

The geography and history of a nation must be sought in the language of the _name-givers_ of that country, or in a translation of the language of the name-givers of that country.—_Pococke._

Geographical nomenclature is a branch of geography generally left to chance or caprice; and it will not be easy to find any department so left, which has been more abused. Wherever names exist, and where these names may have existed for a number of ages, it appears something like sacrilege to disturb or change them; such names, besides the sacredness of antiquity, are often significant, and contain in themselves information as to the migrations of the human race, and the former connexion which existed between tribes now far separated. Names are seldom vulgar or ridiculous, and they furnish a copious fund of distributive terms, to obviate the confusion which arises to geographical nomenclature in the repetition for the hundredth time of rivers—Thames, Trent, and Tyne, &c.; and it fortunately happens that in no country, however barbarous or thinly peopled, are the great features of nature, as rivers and mountains, without names; and the name of a river or mountain may be appropriately applied also to the district in which it occurs.—_Capt. Vetch._

“He who calls departed ages again into being,” says Niebuhr, “enjoys a bliss like that of creating.” The study of words does this; it recalls the past with all its associations, so that for a time it becomes a part of the present. It cannot be otherwise, for every word rests upon some _fact_; so that when we attempt to account for the meaning of a word, we only go back to the fact upon which it rests. There is one class of words which is very suggestive—we mean those _names_ which have been attached for ages to places familiar to us from the days of our childhood, from our pleasure excursions, or from our course of reading. The thoughtful mind cannot remain long contented with names that convey no meaning with them; there is always the desire to retain them in the memory by some principle of association, and this leads to an inquiry concerning their origin and history, or when and why they were imposed. The study of place-names is one, then, of great interest to the historian and to the teacher. The signification of a single name throws much light upon the history of nations and their migrations. In point of fact, there is often more dependence to be placed upon words than upon history; for, says Halberstma, it pleases not the muse of history to speak but late, and then in a very confused manner: yet she often deceives; and before she comes to maturity she seldom distinctly tells us the truth. Language never deceives, but speaks more distinctly, though removed to a higher antiquity.

The object of the following pages is to supply teachers with the chief _root_ or _key_-words which are necessary for the explanation of local names in England, and such kindred forms as are to be met with in those countries occupied by nations belonging to the same family, and usually termed Teutonic. It is a well-known fact that many of the names of places in England are also common to Germany. Verstegan, in his scarce work, printed in 1605, very plainly alludes to it. “Thus the Saxons,” he says, “who at first came unto the aid of the Britons, became about two hundred years after, to be the possessors and sharers of the best part of the Isle of Britain among themselves. And, as their language was altogether different from that of the Britons, so left they very few cities, towns, villages, passages, rivers, woods, fields, hills, or dales that they gave not new names unto, such as in their own language were intelligible, and either given by reason of the situation or nature of the place, or after some place in some sort like unto it in Germany, from whence they came—as the name of Oxford or Oxenford, on the river Thames, after the town of the same name in Germany, situated on the Oder; our Hereford, near unto Wales, after Hervford, in Westphalia. And so, in like manner, may be said of Stafford, Swinford, Bradford, Norden, Newark, Bentham, Oxenbridge, Buchurst, Scorethorpe, Holt, Mansfield, Swinefield, Daventry, Hampstead, Radcliff, Rosendale, and a great number of places in our country, that yet retain the names of places in Germany and the Netherlands (albeit the ancient orthography may in some of them be a little varied), as here to be reckoned up would be tedious.”

We have chosen English names as the basis of comparison because they are more familiar, and, indeed, of more importance than any others. Emerson, speaking of them, says—“The names are excellent; an atmosphere of legendary melody spreads over the land. Older than all epics and histories, which clothe a nation, this under-shirt sits close to the body. What history, too, and what stores of primitive and savage observation, it unfolds!”

The names of places in England, and among the Teutonic tribes generally, are composed of two parts. The first member is a _descriptive_ word referring to some particular historical circumstance, to personages, to animals, vegetables, or minerals; or it may be merely an adjective. The second member designates, by some _general_ and appropriate term, either the natural features of the country, settlement, or neighbourhood to be described—as hill, mountain, river, &c.—or some artificial constructions, as town, borough, field, &c. The first member is generally prefixed to distinguish places having similar positions—_e.g._, Staple-ford, Notting-ham, New-ark, &c. Sometimes the names of places are represented by a single word—_e.g._, Slough, Ford, Holt, Down, Berg, Furt, &c.

All places do not admit of explanation. Those ending with _Ing_ or having after it Ham or Ton, are derived from the names of tribes, families, or individuals. The subject is naturally divided into—

I.—_The Descriptive Element._

(_a_) Names of Personages (Historical or Mythical). (_b_) Animals. (_c_) Vegetables. (_d_) Minerals. (_e_) Adjectives.

II.—_The General Element._

(_a_) Water, River, Brook, &c. (_b_) Mountain, Hill, &c. (_c_) Valley, Plain, &c. (_d_) Habitations.

DIVISION I.

DESCRIPTIVE ELEMENT.

(_A_) NAMES OF TRIBES, FAMILIES, INDIVIDUALS, AND GODS.

(_a_) _Tribes._

(1) GERMAN.—This name was not applied to the people of Germany by themselves, but they received it from the Celts on account of their terrible _war cry_. The root of the word is the Celtic verb _Gairmean_, “to cry out.”

(2) DUTCH (_Deutsch_).—This term, which is now applied to the people of Holland, is literally an adjective signifying “popular” (Diut-isc). It was originally applied to the _language_ of the Teutonic people in order to distinguish it from the Latin. The word TEUTONES, the Latin form of the native word Theotisci, _Teutisci_, &c., is derived from the Gothic root _Diut_, a “people or nation.” It occurs in the modern name TEUT-o-berger.

The following tribes have left their names as an element of local nomenclature:—

(3) ANGRIVARI, in ANGERN, ENGERN, ANGER-munde.

(4) ANGLES, in ANGLES-ey, ENG-land, ANGELN, HUNGER-ford (ANGLES-ford).

(5) ARAVISCI in the river RAAB, anciently ARABO.

(6) BURGUNDIANS, in BURGUNDY.

(7) CHERUSCI (_Crherstini_) in the HARTZ mountains, HARTZ-burg, and HERZ-burg. The root seems to be the Gothic _Har_, _Haruc_, “a temple.” In the poem of Beo-Wulf it occurs as the name of the great palatial hall of Hrothgar.

(8) CAUCI, in CUX-haven.

(9) CATTI, in HESSE.

(10) EUDOSES, in EYD-er, EUD-ing, and DOSSE.

(11) FRISIANS, in FRIES-land, FRIS-by, and FRIS-thorpe.

(12) GOTHS, in GOTH-land, GOTHEN-burg, GOTH-a.

(13) LANGOBARDI, in LOMBARDY, BARDEN-gan, BARD-wick.

(14) MONAVI (_Menapi_), in MAN, MONA, and MENAI straits.

(15) SAXONS, in Es-SEX (East Saxons), Sus-SEX (South Saxons), Middle-SEX (Middle Saxons), HOLSTEIN—_i.e._, Holt SASSEN, or Olt SASSEN, “Old Settlers.”

The inhabitants of Holstein were called HOLSATI or Holzati, from the Platt-Deutsch _Sitten_, _Satten_ “to sit.”

(16) SUIONES, SUEVI, in SWEDEN, SUABIA, ODER, at one time called SUEVUS, and the VIADRUS, whose mouth is still called SWINE-mund.

(17) SUARDONES, in SCHWART-au.

(18) THURINGI, in THURINGIAN-wald.

(19) RUGII, in the island of RUGEN.

(20) LEMOVII, in the river LEBA.

(21) DULGIBINI, in the river DULMEN.

(22) SITONES, in SIGTUN, SITUN.

(_b_) _Families._

The names of families and individuals enter largely into the composition of local names. They may be easily discovered by the particle ING before HAM, TON, HALL, &c. Thus BIRMING-ham was originally the home of the BEORMINGAS, the descendants of Beorm; BALDING-ham of the BAEDLINGAS; BUCKING-ham of the BUCINGAS; LITTLING-ton was originally the enclosed residence of the LYTHINGAS; ELVING-ton of the ELFINGAS, and KILLING-hall the fortified residence of the CYLINGAS.

Professors Leo and Kemble have thrown much light on this subject; the latter writer has furnished us with a valuable list of these family names in his _Saxons in England_.

The following extract from the pen of Mr. Wright will be of some service to the students of names:—

The family or clan did not always take its name from the chief who obtained the allotment of land; it was often but a branch of a much older family in the land from which the settlement came. Hence we find patronymics in distant parts of England, which would seem to indicate that different members of the same original family had joined in various separate expeditions to Britain; and it is still more curious that this identity of name is found in districts peopled severally by the different races, Angles, Saxons, or Jutes. This admits of two explanations; it shows the close relationship between the three races themselves, and it proves, probably, that when a great chieftain of one race, an Angle, for instance, planned an expedition to Britain, subordinate leaders from the other Saxons, Jutes, or others, were ready to enlist among his followers. Thus we find the BILLINGAS at BILLING-ham in Durham, at BILLING-ley in Yorkshire, at BILLING-hay in Lincolnshire, at BILLING-ton in the counties of Bedford, Stafford, and Lancaster, as well as at other places, all within the district occupied by the Angles. We find a settlement of the same family at BILLING-hurst, in Sussex, and some of them appear to have established themselves in the outskirts of London, and to have given name to BILLINGS-gate. (There was a family of BILLUNG on the Continent; and Hermann Billung was invested with the Duchy of Saxony by Otto I. In 1106 the male line of this house became extinct on the death of the last Billung, Duke Magnus, who left two daughters, Eilike and Wulfhild; Wulfhild was married to Henry of Bavaria, surnamed the Black, a descendant of the Guelph family.) The BOSINGAS are found at BOSING-ham in Kent, and again at the two BOSSINGTONS in Hampshire and Somerset.

The SCEARINGAS are found at SHARRING-ton, SHERING-ford, and SHARRING-ton in Norfolk, SHEERING in Essex, at SCARRING-ton in Nottinghamshire, and at SHEERING-ton in Buckingham and Wiltshire. We have the HANINGAS at three places named HANNING-ton in Northamptonshire, Herefordshire, and Wiltshire, and also probably at HANNING-field in Essex. When we examine further we find in these patronymics, names which belong to the great families whose history is mixed up in the earliest Teutonic mythology. The WAELSINGS, who are found at WALSING-ham in Norfolk, at WOLSING-ham in Durham, and at WOOLSING-ton in Northumberland, appear to have been offsets of the great family of the VOLSUNGAR of the Edda, and the VOLSUNGEN of the old German romances. The HARLINGS (Herelingas), who are found at three places named HARLING-ton in Middlesex, Bedfordshire, and Yorkshire, as well as at HARLING in Norfolk, are also connected with the ancient Teutonic mythology, and their name is found at HARLINGEN in Friesland. The SWAEFAS, a tribe who was known to have dwelt on the borders of the Angles on the Continent, appear to have given their name to SWAFF-ham in Norfolk. Mr. Kemble, quoting other well known names from the mythic and half mythic history of the continental Teutons, points out as further instances, that the BRENTINGS of the northern romance are found in England at BRENTING-ley in Leicestershire, and at BRANTING-ham in Yorkshire. The SCYLDINGS and SCYLFINGS, celebrated northern races, give their name to SKELDING, and to two places named SKILLING-ton in Northumberland and Dorsetshire. The ARDINGS, who are found at ARDING-ton in Berkshire, and at ARDING-ley in Sussex, are, he says, the AZDINGI, the royal race of the Visigoths and Vandals; and the BANINGS of the Continent, over whom, when the curious Anglo-Saxon fragment called the _Traveller’s Song_ was written, a Prince named Becca ruled, are recognised in BANNING-ham in Norfolk. The HELSINGS gave name to HELSING-ton in Westmoreland, and to HELSING-land in Sweden; and we find the name of the BLECINGAS as well in BLECKINGEN in Sweden as in BLETCHING-ton in Oxfordshire and BLETCHING-ley in Surrey. In the GYTINGAS found at GUYTING in Gloucestershire, we perhaps trace the JUTUNGI of Germany; and another Alamannic tribe, the SCUDINGI, are supposed to be traced in the SCYTINGS, who gave their name to SHUTTING-ton in Warwickshire.—(_The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon._)

(_c_) _Individuals._

The names of persons, especially those of princes and great landowners, constitute a very large element in local nomenclature. The name of ELLA is found in ELLES-mere (ELLA’S-lake); and in ELLES-croft (the field of ELLA); and that of his son CISSA is found in CHI-chester (CISSAN-ceaster, the fortified residence of CISSA), and in CIS-bury, the city of CISSA. CERDIC is remembered in CHAR-ford (CERDIC’S-ford), and in CHEARS-ley (CERDIC’S-meadow). BEBBA, the Queen of Ida, has left her name in BAM-borough (BEBBA’S city—Bebban-burg). The Christian prince OSWALD, who was slain in battle, and fell at a particular place near Maserfield, has left his name in OSWES-try, or OSWALD’S-tree. The name of the Danish King CANUTE is found in KNUTS-ford (CANUTE’S-ford), CNUTS-delf (CANUTE’S-ditch), and in CANEW-don (CANUTE’S-hill). Danish names are a very important element of the local names in the North of England—_e.g._, ORMS-kirk, WORMS-head, ORMES-by and UNST (Ormst), derive their names from some Scandinavian leader Orm or Urm. The name of RAFN or RAVEN is found in RAVEN-side (the seat or residence of RAVEN), and in RAVEN-stone (the stone of RAVEN). ULLER has given his name to ULLERS-thorpe, HUBBA to HUBBER-sty, and ULFR to ULLES-water and ULVER-stone. Numerous other examples might be given of names of Danish origin, but many of them will be noticed as we proceed.

The following places are derived from the names of the original possessor—_e.g._,

AYMES-try, _Elmod’s_-tree. EL-ton, _Elnod’s_-town. PAD-stow, _Adel’s_-dwelling-place. LEVER-ton, _Leofric’s_-town. EPS-om (EBBIS-ham), _Epha’s_-home. WOOFFER-ton, _Widferd’s_-town. MALMS-bury, St. _Maidulph’s_-city. WIL-ley, _Willaf’s_-meadow. OFF-ham, _Offa’s_-home.

(_d_) _Names of Gods._

It is well known that the ancient Teutonic tribes were heathens, and that in their original settlements they worshipped Odin, Thor, Tiw, &c., whose names are still preserved, not only in the days of the week, but in the names of numerous places.

WUOTAN, WODEN, or Odin, the presiding deity of the Northern nations, has his name preserved in O-dean, WOODEN-dean, (ODIN’S-hollow), WOODS-dale (ODIN’S-vale); WEDNES-bury and WAN-borough (ODIN’S-city); WEDNES-field (ODIN’S-field); WAM-pool (ODIN’S-pool); WAM-brook (ODIN’S-brook); WON-stone (ODIN’S-stone); WANS-ford (ODIN’S-ford); WANS-beck (ODIN’S-rivulet); WAN-stead (ODIN’S-residence); WENS-ley-fold (ODIN’S-meadow-enclosure); WANS-dike (ODIN’S-ditch); ODIN’S-wald (ODIN’S-forest); ODEN-se (ODIN’S-lake.) The name of his wife, FRIGGA, FREA, or FREYJA, occurs in FREYS-torp, in FRIDAY-thorpe, and FRAIS-thorpe (FRIGGA’S-city.) We are reminded of THOR by such places as THOR-up and THORS-torp (THOR’S-city); THORs-dal and TURS-dale (THOR’S-vale); TOR-ness (THOR’S-promontory); THURS-by, and THURSO-by (THOR’S-town); THURDYS-toft (THOR’S-field); TOR-boll (THOR’S-dwelling); Kirby-Thore (Church of THOR); THURS-ley, and THUR-ley (THOR’S-meadow); THORS-aa (THOR’S-stream).

Thor was also known by the names of DONAR (THUNOR) and HAMAR, which occurs in THUNDERS-field (THOR’S-field); and in THUNDERS-ley (THOR’S-meadow); in HAMER-ton and HOMER-ton (THOR’S-town); HAMER-ton-kirk (THOR’S-town-Church); HAMER-wick (THOR’S-marsh); and in HAMER-stein (THOR’S-stone). The name of BALDER, the son of Odin, and god of light, is still preserved in BALDERS-ley (the meadow of BALDER); BALDERS-dale (BALDER’S-vale); BOLDRE-wood (BALDER’S-wood); and in BALDERS-haye (BALDER’S-enclosure); that of BRAGE, the god of orators, in BRAG-naes (BRAGE-naes, the promontory of BRAGE).

The god of war and of champions, TEU, TIW, or TYR, has his name conferred upon TEWES-ley, and TEW-ing (the meadow of TEW), and upon TYE-hall and TYE-farm.

LOK appears in LOX-wood, LOX-field, and in LOCK-ing.

SEATOR appears in SATTER-leigh, SATTER-thwaite, and in SATTER-land.

Perhaps local names are indebted to the fairy mythology. MAB, the elf queen, occurs in MAB’S-hill, and the merry PUCK in PUCK-pool Bay, POOCK-burne (PUCKE-ridge), POOCK-hill, and PUCKE-tye. GRIM-a, a ghost, hag, or witch, is found in GRIMS-by, GRIMS-bury, GRIMMS-hoo, GRIMS-how, and in GRIMS-ditch. It is the safest plan, however, in tracing local names to their origin, to resort to such a mode for their explanation only when we find ourselves unable to offer a more rational etymology—that is to say, one in harmony with their natural or historical associations.

(_B_) NAMES OF ANIMALS.

The names of animals which enter largely into geographical nomenclature need little explanation; most of them, being familiar, may be easily identified.

NATE, NET (Scandinavian) horned cattle; NEAT (English), occurs in NATE-ly, NAT-land, and NATE-ly Scures.

The WILD BOAR, in Anglo-Saxon EVER (éofer, ebur, efer), is found in

EVER-shaw, the _wild boar’s_ field; EVER-shot, EVERS-holt, the _wild boar’s_ wood; EVERS-don, the _wild boar’s_ hill; EVER-ton, the _wild boar’s_ town or enclosure. EVER-leigh, EVER-ley, the _wild boar’s_ meadow.

EBER, the German form of this root, occurs in

EBER-stein, the _wild boar’s_ stone; EBER-bach, the _wild boar’s_ stream; EBERS-berg, the _wild boar’s_ hill; EBER-ach, the _wild boar’s_ dwelling by the stream.

The BEAR (BAR, BARIN in German) no doubt was an inhabitant of the following places:—

BAR-walde, the _bear’s_ forest; BAR-uth, the _bear’s_ region; BAREN-spring, the _bear’s_ spring; BAREN-wald-a, the _bear’s_ forest by the stream; BAREN-horst, the _bear’s_ thicket.

In the following places we find the name of the BADGER (BROC, BAW, BAUD, BAG, BADGE, in Anglo-Saxon, and DACHS in German):—

BAG-shot, BAG-borough, BADGEN-don, BADGE-worth, BAGIN-thorpe, BAUGH-hurst, BAWS-ley, BAW-burgh, BAUD-rip, BAUDS-ly, BROCK-ley, the _badger’s_ meadow; BROX-bourne, the _badger’s_ stream; BROX-ton, BROC-ton, the _badger’s_ town; BROCK-thorp, the _badger’s_ village; BROCK-holes, the _badger’s_ caves; BROCK-les-by, the _badger’s_ abode of the spring; BROCK-dish, the _badger’s_ ditch; BROC-den, the _badger’s_ hollow; DACH-stein, the _badger’s_ stone; DACHS-berg, the _badger’s_ hill.

The BEAVER (in German, BIBER), occurs in

BEVER-ley, the _beaver’s_ meadow; BEVER-born, the _beaver’s_ stream; BIBER-ach, BIBR-a, the _beaver’s_ abode on the stream.

The Dutch form of the root BEVER occurs in BEVER-en (in the province of East Flanders), and in BEVER-n (in the duchy of Brunswick), both signifying the _beaver’s_ river isle.

The BUCK (BUCCA, in Anglo-Saxon) may be traced in

BUCKEN-ham, the _buck’s_ home; BUCK-den, the _buck’s_ hollow; BICK-leigh, the _buck’s_ meadow; BOCK-field, the _buck’s_ field; BU-cup, the _buck’s_ hollow; BUCK-low, the _buck’s_ hill; BOK-hurst, the _buck’s_ forest; BUCK-land, the _buck’s_ district; BICKN-or, the _buck’s_ border; BUC-kle, the _buck’s_ spring.

The low German form is BUCK, the High German, BOCK—_e.g._,

BOCEN-em, BOCCEN-heim, BOCK-um, the _buck’s_ home; BOC-holt, the _buck’s_ wood.

The COW (Cu, Cy) may be found in

COWS-ley, COW-ley, COW-leaze, CUERD-ley, the _cow’s_ meadow; KAY-land, _cow_ district; CO-dale, the _cow’s_ vale; COS-grove, the _cow’s_ grove; CO-ton, COW-ton, the _cow’s_ town; CO-stock, COW-fold, the _cow’s_ fence or enclosure.

The OX may be traced in

OXN-ead; OX-ton, the town of the _ox_; OX-ley, the meadow of the _ox_; OX-ford, the ford of the _ox_; OX-fold, the enclosure of the _ox_; OCHSEN-werder, the island of the _ox_; OXN-ey, the island of the _ox_; OX-stones, the heights of the _ox_; OXEN-hope, the shelter of the _ox_; OCHSEN-furt, the ford of the _ox_; OCHSEN-kopf, the summit of the _ox_.

The CALF (CIELF) occurs in

KELVE-don, the _calf’s_ hill; CALVER-ley, the _calf’s_ meadow.

The HART (HEORT), in German HIRSCH, is found in

HART-fold, the _hart’s_ enclosure; HERT-ford, HART-ford, the _hart’s_ ford; HART-ing, the _hart’s_ meadow; HARTS-bath, the _hart’s_ bathing place; HART-burn, the _hart’s_ stream; HARTEN-stein, the _hart’s_ stone; HIRSCH-au, the _hart’s_ meadow; HIRSCH-berg, the _hart’s_ hill; HIRSCH-horn, the _hart’s_ angle; HIRSCH-feld, the _hart’s_ field.

The KID (in Anglo-Saxon TIC, TYCH, and in German ZIEGE), appears in

KID-land, KID-sty, KIDDER-minster, TICE-hurst, the _kid’s_ forest; TITCHEN-worth, the _kid’s_ farm; TITCH-borne, the _kid’s_ stream; TICK-ton, the _kid’s_ town; TITCH-marsh, the _kid’s_ marsh; TICKEN-ham, the _kid’s_ home; ZIEGEN-hayn, the _kid’s_ wood; ZIEGEN-hals, the _kid’s_ castle; ZIEGEN-ruck, the _kid’s_ ridge.

In STAGS-den and STAGS-bath we see the name of the STAG; in DUR-ness, DEER-hurst, DEAR-ham, DYR-have, DAR-field, DERE-ham, we find some form of the modern word DEER, with a more general signification. Like its Gothic and German cognates, it denoted any wild animal.

The GOAT (GAET) occurs as an element in the formation of the following names:—

GOAD-land, GAT-acre, the _goat’s_ field; GAT-ford, the _goat’s_ ford; GAT-combe, the _goat’s_ valley; GEIS-mar; GEISEN-hein; GEIS-ingen; YAT-ton, the _goat’s_ town.

The HARE (HARA) is found in

HARE-stane, the _hare’s_ stone; HAR-pole, the _hare’s_ pool; HAR-bottle, the _hare’s_ dwelling; HAR-combe, the _hare’s_ valley.

The German form, HASE, is found in

HAS-lach, the _hare’s_ lake; HAS-selt, the _hare’s_ seat; HASS-furt, the _hare’s_ ford; HASSE-field, the _hare’s_ field and plain.

The HORSE occurs under the forms HORS, HEST (Scandinavian) and ROSS—_e.g._—

HORS-ley and ROS-ley, the _horse’s_ meadow; HORSEN-don, the _horse’s_ hill; ROSS-thwaite, the _horse’s_ path; HORS-ham, the _horse’s_ home; HEST Fell, the _horse’s_ rock or hill; HES-ket, the _horse’s_ hut; HEST-holme, the _horse’s_ island; HORSE-lease, the _horse’s_ meadow; HORSE-ford, the _horse’s_ ford; ROSS-heim, the _horse’s_ home; ROSS-bach, the _horse’s_ stream; ROSS-lau, the _horse’s_ meadow; HESTEN Field, the _horse’s_ ridge.

The SHEEP (SCEP) occurs in

SHIP-ley, the _sheep’s_ meadow; SHIP-ton, the _sheep’s_ town; SHIP-ham, the _sheep’s_ home; SHIP-wash, the _sheep’s_ ford; SHIP-lake, the _sheep’s_ stream.

The same root is found in SHAP-wick and SHAP-moor, SHEPPER-ton and SHEPP-ey; SKIP-ton, SKIP-sea, and SCOP-wick.

The German form is SCHAF, which is found in

SCHAF-berg, the _sheep’s_ hill; SCHAF-hausen, the _sheep’s_ house or dwelling; SCHAF-en, the _sheep’s_ isle; SCHAF-stadt, the _sheep’s_ place.

The English WETHER (WEDER) is found in

WETHER-den, WETHER-ley, WEDER-ley, WETHER-al, WETHERS-field, &c.

The LAMB in

LAMB-hurst, LAMBER-hurst, LAMB-ton, LAM-brook, &c.

We find the Scandinavian forms for SHEEP (SAUDR and FAAR), in

SOUTER-fell, SOUDEN-hill, the _sheep’s_ hill; FAR-leigh, FARS-ley, the _sheep’s_ meadow; FAIR-field, the _sheep’s_ field; SOUTER-gate, the _sheep’s_ street; FAIR-ford, the _sheep’s_ ford; FAIR-leigh, the _sheep’s_ meadow; FAR-a, FAR-oe, the _sheep’s_ island.

SOW (SUGU) may be traced in

SUG-ley, the _sow’s_ meadow; SO-ham, SUERS-ham, the _sow’s_ home; SUG-gate, the _sow’s_ street; SOWER-by, the _sow’s_ town.

SWINE in

SWIN-burn, SWYN-bourne, the _swine’s_ stream; SWIN-hope, the _swine’s_ shelter; SWINES-co, SWINES-cot, the _swine’s_ hut; SCHWEIN-a, the _swine’s_ abode by the stream; SCHWEIN-furt, the _swine’s_ ford; SCHWEINS-berg, the _swine’s_ hill.

GRIS (Scandinavian) wild swine, gives name to

GRIS-dale, the _wild swine’s_ vale; Mun-GRIS-dale, the monks’ _wild swine’s_ vale.

We may trace the WOLF in

WOOLVER-hampton, the _wolf’s_ home-town; WOOLVIS-ton, the _wolf’s_ town; WOOL-hope, WOLF’S-hope, the _wolf’s_ shelter; WOLN-ey, the _wolf’s_ island; WOOLVER-den, the _wolf’s_ hollow; WOOL-mer, the _wolf’s_ lake; WOLF-ham-cote, the _wolf’s_ home hut; WOOL-pit the _wolf’s_ pit; WOOLS-ton, the _wolf’s_ town; WOOL-wich, the _wolf’s_ bay; WOL-an, the _wolf’s_ meadow; WOLF-ach, the _wolf’s_ abode by the stream; WOLF-hagen, the _wolf’s_ enclosure; WOLF-stein, the _wolf’s_ stone; WOLFEN-buttel, the _wolf’s_ dwelling.

The FOX gives name to FOX-hole, FOX-hunt, Car-FOX, &c.; but TOD, another name for this animal, occurs in

TOD-bere, the forest of the _fox_; TOD-hurst; TOD-burn, the stream of the _fox_; TOD-mor-den, the marshy hollow of the _fox_; TOD-wick, &c.

The dog, HOUND or HUND, is found in

HOUNDS-borough, the _hound’s_ city; HOUNS-low, the _hound’s_ hill; HUND-holm, the _hound’s_ island; HUN-wyl, the _hound’s_ well; HUN-ley, HUNS-ley, the _hound’s_ town; HUN-feld, the _hound’s_ field; HUNS-rucken, HUNDS-ruck, the _hound’s_ ridge; HUND-loch, the _hound’s_ hole.

The SQUIRREL (DRAY) is the root of

DRA-cot, DRAY-cot, the _squirrel’s_ hut; DRAY-ton, the _squirrel’s_ town.

WANT-ley, WANTIS-den, and WANT-age, derive their name from WANT, WANAT, the _mole_.

The names of _Birds_ are sometimes to be met with in local nomenclature; among the most important are the following:—

The EAGLE, ARL (German) in

ARLS-heim, ARL-berg, EAGLES-cliffe, the _eagle’s_ rock; EAGLE’S-hay, the _eagle’s_ field; AYLES-bury, the _eagle’s_ city; AYLE-stone, the _eagle’s_ stone; EAGL-ey, the _eagle’s_ river isle.

We find some trace of the Scandinavian name for the eagle (ARI, ARIN, ERN, ORN) in

ARNES-by, the _eagle’s_ town; EARN-ley, AR-ley, the _eagle’s_ meadow; EARS-dale, the _eagle’s_ vale; ARN-old, the _eagle’s_ wood; ARN-heim, the _eagle’s_ home; ARNS-berg, the _eagle’s_ hill; ARNS-walde, ARENS-walde, the _eagle’s_ wood or forest; ARN-stadt, the _eagle’s_ town; ARENS-burg, the _eagle’s_ city; AREN-berg-thal, the _eagle’s_ mountain valley; ARR-öe, the _eagle’s_ isle; AR-schot, the _eagle’s_ wood or field; AREND-see, the _eagle’s_ lake.

The DAW, in

DAW-ley, DEW-bury, DEW-sall.

The OWL, in

UL-combe, ULLEN-hall, OWLS-bury, the _owl’s_ city; OWL-ton, the _owl’s_ town; EULEN-gebirge, the _owl’s_ mountains; UL-ey, UGL-ey, the _owl’s_ river island.

The CROW (CRAWE, Anglo-Saxon; KRAKA, Scandinavian) in

CRACKEN-dale, CROUGH-ton, CREAKE, CROW-hurst, the _crow’s_ forest; CROW-land, the _crow’s_ district; CROW-borough, the _crow’s_ city; CRAW-ley, the _crow’s_ meadow; CRAYKE, the _crow’s_ region; CRAKE-hall, CRAKE-hill, the _crow’s_ hill; CRACKEN-thorp, the _crow’s_ village; KRA-winkel, the _crow’s_ angle; KRE-feld, the _crow’s_ field.

The CRANE, in

CRAN-brook, the _crane’s_ brook; CRAN-field, the _crane’s_ field; CRAN-ham, the _crane’s_ home; CRAN-bourne, the _crane’s_ stream; CRAN-ach, the _crane’s_ dwelling by the stream; CRANEN-burg, the _crane’s_ city.

The Scandinavian TRANA, a _crane_, is perhaps found in

TRAN-well, the _crane’s_ spring; TRAN-mere, the _crane’s_ lake.

The SWAN, in

SWAN-cot, the _swan’s_ hut; SWAN-more, the _swan’s_ moor; SCHWAN-den, the _swan’s_ ravine; SCHWANE-beck, the _swan’s_ rivulet.

The DOVE (CULVER), in

CULVER-hayes, the _dove’s_ field.

The WREN, in

WREN-hurst, the _wren’s_ thicket; WREN-thorpe, the _wren’s_ village.

The HEN (HAEN), in

HEN-stead, HEN-baun, HEN-don, the _hen’s_ hill; HEN-ley, the _hen’s_ meadow; HINTON, the _hen’s_ town.

The GOOSE, in

GAS-garth, the enclosure of the _geese_; GOS-forth, the ford of the _geese_; GAS-dale, the vale of the _geese_.

The word FOWL, which occurs in numerous places, had originally a much wider meaning than at present. Any _flying_ creature, was a bird; and in this sense we find it in

FOULS-ham, FUL-ham, the _bird’s_ home; FULL-wood, the _bird’s_ wood; FOULN-ey, FUGL-oe, the _bird’s_ island; VOGELS-berg, the _bird’s_ hill.

The names of _Fish_ seem rather scarce; we find

FISH-bourn, the stream, abounding in _fish_; FISHER-gate, _fish_ street; FISHER-ton, _fish_ town; FISH-guard, _fish_ enclosure; FISH-toft, _fish_ field; FISH-field, _fish_ field; FISCH-back, _fish_ rivulet; FISK-um-foss, the waterfall of the _fish_ dwelling.

The SALMON (LAX) occurs in

LAX-ey, LAX-field, LAX-ay, _salmon_ river; LAX-voe, _salmon_ bay; LAKE-fiord, _salmon_ firth.

The TROUT (TRUHT) is found in

TROUTS-dale, TROUT-beck, the _trout_ rivulet.

The EEL may be traced in

AAL-borg, _eel_ city; AAL-en, _eel_ island; AAL-st, _eel_ district; AAL-rust, _eel_ torrent.

The FROG and TOAD are perhaps the only _reptiles_ we find in place-names. They evidently give names to

FROG-hill, FROG-more, the _frog’s_ moor; FROX-feld, the _frog’s_ field; FROX-ton, the _frog’s_ town; FRISKN-ey, the _frog’s_ island; TAD-ley, TAD-low.

The Scandinavian term for the reptile is PADDA, which occurs in

PAD-gate, _frog_ street; PADDON-Beck, _frog_ stream; PADDY-gill, _frog_ rivulet; &c.

The _insect_ WIGGA, WIEGA, a _beetle_, is perhaps found in

WIG-more, the _beetle’s_ moor; WIGGEN-holt, the _beetle’s_ wood; WIG-sell, the _beetle’s_ seat; WIG-ton, WIGS-ton, WIGGIN-ton, the _beetle’s_ town; WIG-toft, the _beetle’s_ field.

In German, the name of the beetle is KAFER, cognate with the En-CHAFER, which occurs in

KAFER-loh, the _beetle’s_ meadow; KAFERN-burg, the _beetle’s_ city.

(_C_) THE NAMES OF TREES, PLANTS, &c.

_Trees_ performed no unimportant part in the division of land among the Teutonic nations; they were used as land marks and boundaries, and county courts were held under them.

The word TREE occurs very often in the names of places, and is no doubt connected with some historical circumstance: _e.g._—

Oswes-TRY, Coven-TRY, Dodin-TREE, Web-TREE, Grey-TREE, Els-TREE, &c.

The OAK (AC) is found in

AC-ton, the _oak_ town; ACK-worth, the _oak_ farm; AUCK-land, the _oak_ district; AIKE-Beck-Mouth, the mouth of the _oak_ rivulet; OAK-leigh, OCK-ley, OAK-ley, WOK-ing, the _oak_ meadow; AS-kew (AKE-skeugh), the _oak_ knoll; AX-holme, the _oak_ island; EX-fold, the _oak_ enclosure; EX-twistle, the _oak_ borders; OKE-hanger-mere, the _oak_ meadow-lake; OAK-ham, the _oak_ dwelling; OCK-brook, the _oak_ brook; UCK-field, the _oak_ plain; Bald-OCK, the bare _oak_; Mart-OCK, the market _oak_; EICH-horn, the _oak_ height; EICHS-feld, the _oak_ field; EICH-stadt, the _oak_ town.

The ASH (AESC) occurs in

ASH-stead, _ash_ dwelling; AS-cot, _ash_ hut; ASH-don, ASHEN-don, ASH-down, _ash_ hill; ASH-combe, ES-combe, _ash_ valley; ESH-gill, _ash_ rivulet; ASH-ling, _ash_ heath; ASH-by, ASH-ton, ASTON, _ash_ town; ASH-well, _ash_ spring; ASH-borne, _ash_ stream; AS-hurst, _ash_ thicket; ASH-fold, _ash_ enclosure.

The Scandinavian form occurs in

ASK-rigg, _ash_ ridge; ASK-ern, _ash_ dwelling; ASKER-sund, _ash_ sound; ASK-han, ASK-heim, _ash_ home.

The German form is found in

ESCHERS-leben, ASCHERS-leben, _ash_ field or level; AS-perg, _ash_ hill; ESCHEN-bach, _ash_ stream; ESCH-wege, _ash_ way; ESCH-weiler, _ash_ dwelling; AS-sens, AS-sen, _ash_ dwelling; ASSEN-heim, _ash_ home.

The ALDER is found in

ALDER-bury, _alder_ city; ALDER-ley, _alder_ meadow; ALDER-minster, _alder_ church; ALLER-dale, _alder_ vale; ALLER-by, _alder_ town; ALDERS-haugh, _alder_ hill; ALDER-mas-ton, _alder_ marsh town; ALDEN-ham, _alder_ home; ALDER-shot, _alder_ wood; ALLI-thwaite, _alder_ path; ALLER-ton, OWLER-ton, ELLER-ton, _alder_ town; ELLE-ray, _alder_ corner; ELL-feld, _alder_ field; ELL-bogen, _alder_ bending; ELL-rich, _alder_ district; ELL-wangen, _alder_ meadow; ERL-ach, _alder_ dwelling on the stream; ERL-angen, ERL-au, _alder_ meadow.

The BROOM gives name to

BROM-ton, _broom_ town; BROM-borough, _broom_ city; BROM-ley, _broom_ meadow; BROM-yard, _broom_ enclosure; BROM-hurst, _broom_ forest; BROMS-wold, _broom_ wood; BROM-berg, _broom_ hill; BRAM-field, _broom_ field; BRAM-with, _broom_ wood; BRAM-shot, _broom_ wood; BRAM-ber, _broom_ pasture; BRAM-cote, _broom_ hut.

The BEECH may be traced in

BOCK-am, _beech_ home; BUCH-au, _beech_ meadow; BUCH-holz, _beech_ wood; BUCH-horn, _beech_ corner; BUCHS-weiler, _beech_ dwelling.

The BIRCH gives name to

BARK-by; BARK-ham; BARK-brough; BARK-ey; BIRK-stall; BERKE-ley, _birch_ meadow; BIRKEN-shaw, _birch_ field; BERK-hamp-stead, _birch_ homestead; BARK-by, _birch_ town; BIRKEN-field, _birch_ field; BJORK-ö, _birch_ island; BIRK-thwaite, _birch_ path.

The APPLE is found in

APPLE-ton, APPLE-by, _apple_ town; APPULDUR-combe, APPULDRE-combe, _apple_ valley; APPLE-shaw, _apple_ field or wood; APPLE-dore, APPLE-thwaite, _apple_ path.

The HAZEL occurs in

HAZEL-ton; HAZE-leigh; HAZEL-badge; HASLE-mere; HAZLE-wood, _hazel_ wood; HASEL-bury, _hazel_ city; HASLE-don, _hazel_ hill; HASLE-wall, _hazel_ bank; HAYSEL-dean, _hazel_ hollow; HAZLE-shaw, _hazel_ wood; HASSEL-feld, _hazel_ field.

The LIME-tree (LINDE) occurs in

LIND-field, _lime_ field; LIND-ridge, _lime_ ridge; LIND-hurst, _lime_ forest; LIND-au, the _lime_ meadow; LINDEN-fels, _lime_ hills; LINDES-berg, _lime_ hill; Hohen-LINDEN, the high _lime_ tree.

The MAPLE-tree is found in

MAPPER-ley; MAPLE-stead; MAPPER-ton, _maple_ town; MAPPOW-der, _maple_ dwelling; MAPLE-hurst, _maple_ forest; MAPUL-beck, _maple_ rivulet.

The PINE occurs in

PINE-low; PIN-hoe, _pine_ hill; PINE-hurst, _pine_ thicket; &c.

The THORN gives name to

THORN-waste, _thorn_ level; THORN-bury, _thorn_ city; THORN-ey, _thorn_ island; THORN-ham, _thorn_ home; THORN-ton, _thorn_ city; Pightles-THORNE, the enclosure by the _thorn_; Moster-TON (Mortes-TORNE), slaughter _thorn_.

The German form, DORN, occurs in

DORN-burg, the _thorn_ city; DORN-holz-hausen, _thorn_ wood-dwelling; DORN-han, _thorn_ field; DORN-stetten, _thorn_ town.

The WILLOW (WELIG) may be traced in

WILLOUGH-by, WILLOUGH-ton, _willow_ town; WITHE-ridge, _willow_ ridge; WITH-ern, _willow_ dwelling; WITHY-sike, _willow_ brook; WITHY-ham, _willow_ home; WEID-a, _willow_ water dwelling; WEID-en, _willow_ district; WEIDEN-au, _willow_ meadow.

SAUCH, SOUGH, SAY, a _willow_, is the root of Nick-SOUGH, SAW-ley, SAIGH-ton, and SAUG-hall.

The YEW appears in

U-ford, UF-ton, U-ton, IW-erne, IW-ade, EW-hurst, _yew_ forest; EW-den, _yew_ hollow; EWAN-rigg, _yew_ ridge; IW-ern, _yew_ dwelling; The VIEWS, the _yews_; EIBEN-stock, _yew_ enclosure.

The BRIER occurs in

BRIER-den, BRIAR-cliff, BRIER-ley, _briar_ meadow; BRE-wood, _briar_ wood.

The FERN gives name to

FURN-ham, FARN-ham, _fern_ home; FERN-ton, _fern_ town; FARNS-ley, _fern_ meadow; FARN-borough, _fern_ city.

The FURZE (FYRS), WHIN, Scandinavian, occurs in

WHIN-berg, WHIN-fell, WHIN-brig-dale; WHINN-ey-nab, FURZ-leigh, the _furzy_ meadow; FURZ-brook, the _furzy_ brook; FURZ-moor-gate, the _furzy_ moor-street.

FLAX (LIN) appears in

LIN-gards, _flax_ enclosure; LIN-thwaite, _flax_ path; LIN-ton, _flax_ town; LIN-dale, _flax_ vale.

GRASS (GAERS, and SPROT) is found in

YEARS-ley, GRAT-ton, GRETN-a, SPROT-ton, SPRAT-ton, SPROUGH-ton, SPROS-ton, GRAS-mere, _grass_ lake; GAR-grave, _grass_ grove; GRAS-garth, _grass_ enclosure; GARS-ton, _grass_ field; GAR-stang, _grass_ pool; GARS-dale, _grass_ vale; GRAS-croft, _grass_ field; GRASS-by, _grass_ town; GRAS-brook, _grass_ brook; GARS-by, the enclosed _grass_ town.

CRESS (NASTURTIUM) occurs in

CRESS-well, _nasturtium_ spring; CREAS-y, _nasturtium_ dwelling by the stream; CRESS-ham, _nasturtium_ home; CRESS-low, _nasturtium_ hill.

MOSS gives name to

MOSE-ley, MOSS-ley, _moss_ meadow; MOS-ton, _moss_ town; MUS-borough, _moss_ city; Gil-MOSS, the rivulet of the _moss_; MOSS-soe, _moss_ lake; MOSEN-berg, _moss_ hill; MOS-bach, _moss_ stream.

SEDGE appears in

SEDGE-moor;, SEDGE-ly, _sedge_ meadow; SEDG-barrow, _sedge_ wood.

The RUSH is an element in

RUSH-ley, _rush_ meadow; RUSH-hulme, _rush_ island; RUSH-mere, _rush_ marsh; RIS-borough, _rush_ city; RUS-combe, _rush_ valley; RUS-warp, _rush_ mound; RUSH-worth, _rush_ farm; RUS-land, RUSH-land, _rush_ district.

The NETTLE in NETTLE-combe, NETTLE-den, NETTLE-stead, and NETTLE-ton.

The REED gives name to

REED-ham, _reed_ home; RID-ley, _reed_ meadow; ROR-bach, _reed_ stream; &c.

BARLEY (BIGG) may be traced in

BIG-by, _barley_ town; BYG-land, _barley_ district.

BEANS appear in

BIN-stead, _bean_ dwelling; BEEN-ham, _bean_ home; BINE-gar, _bean_ enclosure; BIN-don, _bean_ hill; BIN-field, _bean_ field.

The OAT occurs in OAD-by, OT-ley, and OAT-land.

The Scandinavian HAVER (_oats_) gives names to HAVER-ham, HAVER-ford, and HAVER-thwaite.

The SLOW is easily seen in SLOW-burn and SLOW-combe.

HAW-ley and HAW-don derive their name from the _haw_; APSE, ASP-ley, and ASP-don from the _asp_ (aps).

WHEAT appears in WHIT-field, WHEAT-ley, WHEAT-hamp-stead, WHEAT-on, WHATE-ly, and WHIT-barrow.

SHROP-ham, SHROP-shire, SCROP-ton, SCROP-ley-hill, SCRAP-loft, and SCROBB are derived from SCRYBE, a _shrub_; as well as SCREVE-by, SCROO-by, and SCRAF-ton.

WORT-ley, WORT-well, WOR-stead, WORS-borough, WORS-ley, WROOT, WURZ-burg, WURZ-ach, WURZ-em, &c., contain the root WYRT, WORT, an _herb_.

(_D_) NAMES OF MINERALS.

ERZ (German), _Ore_, occurs in

ERZ-gebirge, _ore_ mountains; ERZ-en, _ore_ district.

CLAY in

CLAY-pole, CLAY-worth, CLAY-gate, _clay_ street; CLAY-don, _clay_ hill; CLAI-borne, _clay_ stream.

CISEL (_gravel_)

CHISEL-hampton, CHISEL-don, CHESIL-borne, CHISEL-hurst, _gravel_ forest; CHISEL-bury, _gravel_ city; CHESIL-bank, _gravel_ bank.

CHALK gives name to CHALK-grove, CHAL-ford, CHILT-ern, KALK-stein, and CALKE.

GRIES (German), _gravel_, is found in

GRIES-bach, _gravel_ stream; GRIES-heim, _gravel_ home; GRIES-kirch, _gravel_ church; &c.

MARL occurs in MAR-low, MARL-borough, and MARLS-ton.

SALT appears in SALTER-ton, SALT-ash, SALTN-ey, SAL-combe, SALT-coats; SALZ-brunn, SALZ-burg, SALZ-dahl-um, SALZ-wedel, &c.

EISEN (German), _iron_, is found in EISEN-ach, EISEN-berg, EIS-eld, EIS-leben, EIS-grub, EISEN-burg, &c.

SAND gives name to SAND-wich, SAND-hurst, SANDER-croft, &c.

STONE (STAN) appears in STONE-leigh, STAN-ley, STAN-ton, STAINES, STAN-bury, STAIN-land, STAIN-drop, STAN-hope; STEEN-bergen, STEEN-wyk, STEIN, STEIN-ach, STEIN-au, STEIN-bach, STEIN-borth, STEIN-holm, STEIN-horst, STEIN-weiss, &c.

(_E_) ADJECTIVES.

AL, ALT, ALD, AU (_old_)—ALD-borough, AL-thorpe, AL-bourne, AL-ton, AL-ford, AL-cester; ALTEN-burg, ALTEN-markt, ALTEN-dorn, ALTEN-feld, AL-torf, OLDE-bach, OLDE-boorn, OLDEN-dorf, OLDEN-burg, AU-burn, and AU-thorpe.

BRAD (_broad_)—BRAD-well, BRAD-stock, BRAD-ford; BREIT-horn, BREITEN-bach, &c.

CHEIL, COL, CALD (_cold_)—COL-burn, COAL-brook, COLD-stream, COLD-side, CHELS-field, COWD-ham, CHILD-hay, CHILT-thorn, CHIL-worthy, CALD-well; CALDE-cote, CAL-bourne, CAUDE-bec (CALDE-bec), COLDEN-weide, COLDEN-hoff, KALT-brun, KALTEN-nord-heim, and KALTEN-sund-heim.

DEOP (_deep_)—DEPT-ford, DEEP-dale, DIEPEN-beck, DIEPEN-heim, DIEPEN-au, &c.

KINE, KING (_royal_, _king_)—KINE-ton, KINNER-ton, KINGS-bury, KINGER-by.

OST, OOST, OSTEN (_east_)—EAST-bourne, EAS-ton; OST-ende, OSTER-ach, OSTER-end, OSTER-holz, OSTE-rode, OSTER-sunde, OST-hem, OST-heim, OST-wolde, OOST-burg, OOSTER-einde, OOSTER-wyk, OOSTER-wolde, OOST-kerke, &c.

HOL (_hollow_)—HOL-beach, HOL-land, HOL-born, HOL-bek, HOLLEN-beek, &c.

LANG (_long_)—LANG-baurgh, LANG-don, LANGEN-hoe.

LILLE (_little_)—LILLES-don, LILLES-hall.

MICKLE, MUCH (_large_)—MICKLE-fell, MICKLE-field, MUCH-wen-lock.

NOR, NORD (_north_)—NOR-folk, NOR-ham, NOR-mandy, NOR-mark, NOR-den, NORD-heim, NORR-telge, NORR-land, NORR-koping, NORD-horn, NOORD-welle, NOORDER-wyk, NORDEN-ey, &c.

NEU, NIEU (_new_)—NEU-berg, NEU-haus, NEU-land, NEU-stadt, NIEU-wold, NIEUW-kerk, NIEU-berg, NY-stad, NY-kerk, &c.; NEW-lands, NEW-ark, NEW-bury, NEW-ton, &c.

NIEDER, NETHER (_downward or further_)—NETHER-bury, NETHER-compton, NETHER-lands, NIEDER-bronn, NIEDER-rad, NIEDERN-hall, NIEDER-wald, NIDER-dorf, &c.

SUD, SUT (_south_)—SUR-rey, SUF-folk, SUT-ton, SUS-sex, SOUTH-leigh, SOUT-ham, SOUTH-end, SUT-torp, SUD-bury, SUDER-oe, SUNDER-land, Kalten-SUND-heim, SUND-gau, SODER-fors, SODER-hamn, SODER-telge, SORER-Koping, &c.

SELL (_happy_, _fortunate_)—SEL-by, SEL-kirk, SELL-hurst, &c.; SELIGEN-stadt, SELIGEN-thal, &c.

UP, UPPER (_higher_)—UP-ton, UP-hay, UP-lyme, UP-sala, &c.

UNDER (_lower_) UNDER-barrow, UNDER-cliffe.

WEST, WESTER, VESTER (_west_)—WEST-bury, WESTER-borg, WESTER-by, WESTER-holt, WESTER-land, WESTER-loo, WEST-heim, WEST-land, WEST-rup, WESTR-um, VEST-irg, VESTER-hoe, &c.

DIVISION II.

GENERAL ELEMENT.

(_A_) WORDS SIGNIFYING WATER, RIVER, &c.

EA.—This Anglo-Saxon word signifies (1) _water in general_, and (2) _any running body of water_, _river_, &c.—It occurs in the names of rivers, in the names of places near rivers, and in the names of marshes formed by rivers.

The rivers Medway and Stour were anciently written Meduw-EA, and Stur-EA. In the East Anglian counties the term is still preserved, for we meet with Popham’s EA, St. John’s EA, Hammond EAU, &c.

EYE, YEO, and AYE, are slightly altered forms of the same root, and EA is another name for the river Leven.

E-hen, fowl _river_; EA-mont (EA-mot), _water_-meeting.

The following places near rivers contain some form of the Anglo-Saxon root, EA:—

Chels-EA, the cold _river-marsh_; Batters-EA, St. Peter’s _river-marsh_;

It formerly belonged, together with _Peter’s_-ham, to _St. Peter’s_ Abbey, Cherts-EY.

EA-ton, E-ton, the town of the _river_; E-dale, the _river_ vale; E-rith, _water_ channel; EA-land, YEA-land, _river_ district; EG-ham, the dwelling on the _stream_.

The plural form, EAS, _water-course_, occurs in EAS-dale, EAS-writh, and EAS-tyn.

In the Gothic we meet with the following cognate forms:—AHA, AUE, AWE, OWE, AHVA, and ACH, _e.g._,

Fuld-a, Fuld-AHA; Goth-a, Goth-AHA; Lahn, Lon-AHA; Sieg, Seg-AHA.

We find A, a contraction of AHA, in Schwein-A, Asch-A, Born-A, Buch-A, Baren-wald-A, Konigs-werth-A, Hoyers-werd-A, Berk-A, Vach-A, Goth-A, &c.

In Burgundy, we find the terminations AY, OY, and Y, used to designate _habitations established along running water_, _e.g._—Cambr-AY, Tourn-AY, Dou-AY, Quesn-OY, Chaum-Y, &c.

The ending OW, in Beesk-OW, Godan-OWA, and Buch-OW, is another form of the same root.

The form ACH occurs in

Stadt-stein-ACH, Dorn-ACH, AACH-en, Baden-ACH, Gold-ACH, Nieder-ACH, Stein-ACH, the stony-dwelling on the _stream_; Wurz-ACH, the herb dwelling on the _stream_; Wolf-ACH, the wolf’s dwelling on the _stream_; Rod-ACH, the cleared spot or path on the _stream_.

The plural form, AR, ER, signifying _the confluence of waters_, occurs in OHRE, ER-furt, OHR-druf, and Neck-AR.

The Scandinavian forms for water, are, A, AA, and AAE.

In England we find Cald-A, Routh-A, Rath-A, AY-am, AY-cliffe, &c.

AA occurs as the name of several rivers in Hanover, France, Brabant, Groningen, and Switzerland.

AA is found in

Nips-AAE, Schol-AAE, Sus-AAE, Skar-A, Grenn-A, Wad-sten-A, Sal-A, Nor-A, Hag-A, Foss-AA, AA-kirke, A-bo, the dwelling by the _water_; A-land, _water_ district; A-hus, the house by the _water_; A-dorf, AY-throp, the village by the _water_.

AIN, _the river_, forms part of the following names:—Glomm-EN, Alt-EN, Ul-EN, Sus-EN, &c.

BECK (Scandinavian), _a rivulet_.—In England, the following places contain this root:—

Elder-BECK, BECK-cote, Raven-BECK, Pinch-BECK, Wel-BECK, Pur-BECK, Crumm-OCK-water, Crum-BECK-water, Hol-BECK, hollow _rivulet_; Hil-BECK, hill _rivulet_; Swarth-BECK, black _rivulet_; BECK-with, the wood of the _rivulet_; BECKEN-ham, the home of the _rivulet_; Wans-BECK, Odin’s _rivulet_; Coupland BECK (Coupman BECK), merchant’s _rivulet_; BEX-ley, the meadow of the _rivulet_; BECK-ford, the ford of the _rivulet_, called the Yare or Yarty.

In Denmark we meet with Aale-BEKS, Aal-BEK, Egje-BEK, Vinde-BEK, and Hol-BEK.

In Oldenburg we find Vis-BECK, _sacred rivulet_; in the south of Luxemburg we meet with BECKE-rich, the _district of the rivulet_.

In West Flanders the form BEKE occurs in Roos-BEKE, Wam-BEKE, Haerle-BEKE, Meule-BEKE, &c.; in south Brabant the form BEEKE is prevalent, _e.g._—Buns-BEEKE, Clab-BEEKE, &c. We also meet with a BECKE-voort, having the same signification as BECK-ford in England. The root BECK occurs very frequently in the names of places in the neighbourhood of the rivers Rhine and Elbe, _e.g._—Wandes-BECK, Schwarzen-BECK, Flot-BECK, Stein-BECK, Barn-BECK, Suder-BECK, Hals-BECK, Schip-BECK, &c.

In France we find the exact spots where many of the old Norse leaders settled down, by the presence of this root—_e.g._,

Bol-BEC, the habitation by the _rivulet_; Foul-BEC, the _rivulet_ of birds; Ro-BEC, the _rivulet_ of the cleared ground; Caude-BEC, the cool _rivulet_.

In Germany and Austria we find the cognate form, BACH, _a rivulet_—_e.g._,

Hunds-BACH, the hound’s _rivulet_; Ror-BACH, the reed _rivulet_; Gries-BACH, the gravelly _rivulet_; Finster-BACH, the dark _rivulet_; Eschen-BACH, the ash _rivulet_; Ross-BACH, the horses’ _rivulet_; Erl-BACH, the alder _rivulet_; Alde-BACH, the ancient _rivulet_; Fisch-BACH, the fish _rivulet_; Bem-BACH, the tree _rivulet_; Wam-PACH, the deep _rivulet_.

BATH (BAED, BAETH, BAD, Anglo-Saxon), _water_.—BATH, BATH-ford, BATH-easton, BAD-by, BAD-bury, BADON-hill, BUX-ton, BA-ke-well, &c.

The German form, BAD, PAD, occurs in BADEN, Wies-BADEN, Carls-BAD.

BORNE, BOURNE, BURN, BURNE (Anglo-Saxon), _a stream_, from BIRNAN, to _burn_.—It “denotes the bubbling of a welling running stream with the singing of the boiling water and the flaming of fire.”

Winter-BORNE, the _stream_ flowing in the winter season; Sher-BORNE, the clear _stream_; Ty-BORN, the district _stream_; Hol-BORN, the hollow _stream_; Col-BURN, the cool _stream_; Hart-BURN, the hart’s _stream_; BURN-side, the habitation of the _stream_; BURN-ham, the _stream_ dwelling; Au-BURN, the ancient _stream_; He-BURN, the high _stream_.

We find BORN on the continent, in Sal-BORN, Pader-BORN, Sonne-BORN, Eschen-BORN, &c.

The German form, BRUN, occurs in

Wolf’s-BRUNNEN, the wolf’s _stream_; Kiesel-BRUNN, the gravelly _stream_; Schön-BRUNN, the bright _stream_; BRUNS-wick, the city on the _stream_; BRUNS-buttel, BRUNS-torp, the village on the _stream_.

BOTTEN, BOTN (Scandinavian), _the sea_.—Gulf of BOTHNIA, Norr-BOTTEN, BODEN-see, BOTT-sand, Holt-PADE, Lacus BODAM-icus (Lake Constance), BOTTEN Viken, BOTTEN Hafvet, &c.

BRIGG, BRIDGE, _a passage of wood or stone over a river_.—It is often applied to fording and landing places.

BRIGG, Glandford BRIGGS; BRIG-stock; BRIX-ham, the home of the _bridge_; BRIX-ton, the town of the _bridge_; BRIS-tol, the dwelling-place of the _bridge_.

The Scandinavian form, BRO, occurs in

BRO-ra, _bridge_-rivulet; BRO-gar, _bridge_-enclosure; Vester-BRO, west-_bridge_; &c.

As cognate forms, we find BRUGES, Esten-BRUG, Coppen-BRUGGE, BRUGG, BRIG, Inns-BRUCK, Del-BRUCK, Konigs-BRUCK, Hers-BRUCK, BRUCK, BRUCKEN-au.

BRED, BREAD (Anglo-Saxon), _border_, _shore-bank_.—BREAD-sale, BRET-by clump, BRED-hurst, BRED-field, BRED-sted.

BRAD (Anglo-Saxon), _broad_, _expansive_, _the expansion of a river in a flat country_, _a lake so formed_.—Outton-BROAD, Braydon-BROAD, BREYDON-water, Mut-ford-BROAD.

BROC (Anglo-Saxon), _a brook_, _a rushing stream_.—BROX-ash, BROX-bourne, Ock-BROOKE, Cole-BROOKE, Ful-BROOK, Wam-BROOK, Mill-BROOK, BRUCK-land.

We find the same root in Rad-BROCK, Alten-BROCK, Ooster-BROCK, Wester-BROCK, Strad-BROKE.

BRUOCH (old High German), and BRUCH (German), evidently cognate forms, signify a _bog_ or _marsh_, _e.g._—Alten-BRUCH, BRUCH-sal, BRUCH-berg and BRUSSELS (BRUSCHELS).

CEOL, CIOL (Anglo-Saxon), KEOL (Danish), _a ship_.—KIEL, KIELER-fiord, CULEN-burg, and KUYLEN-burg.

CRUNDEL (Anglo-Saxon), _a water-course_, “a spring or well with its cistern, trough, or reservoir to receive water.”—GRINDLE, GRINDLA-ton, GRINDLES-mere, CRON-DALL, Crow’s CRUNDEL, Cradwan CRUNDEL (Crowden FARM).

COMBER (Scandinavian), KUMPR (Old Norse), _a running sheet of water_; and hence it enters into combination with the names of places bordering on ponds and water-troughs.—COMBER-ton, COMBER-mere, COMBER-bach.

DAM, from DAMMEN (German), _to bank, dam_.—Amster-DAM, (Armstel-DAM), Rotter-DAM, Saar-DAM, Schie-DAM, &c.

DELVE (English), _to dig_.—DELVE is a local word, signifying a _quarry_ or _ditch_.—DELVEN-au and DELFT.

DIC (Anglo-Saxon), _a ditch, dike, or river_.—Wans-DIKE, Wran-DYKE, DISH, Flen-DISH (Flamin-DIC), Cars-DYKE, Hague-DIKE, DYCK-buttel, Wolvers-DYKE, &c.

DIUPR, DIUP (Scandinavian), _deep_.—It is often applied to parts of the sea, and to rivers.—DIEPPE, DIUPA, DEPE-dale, Hollands-DIEP, Mars-DIEP. We also find Linn DEEPS.

DUB (Scandinavian), _a pool or piece of water_ (from DYB, (Danish), _deep_).—Ash-DUB, the ash-pool.

EFES, EVES (Anglo Saxon), _the bank of a river, a border, edge of a mountain_.—EAVES-ham, Habergham-EAVES, EVES-batch, EVES-knoll.

ELF (Scandinavian), _a river_.—ELFS-burg, ELFS-nabben, Kong-ELF, ELF-karle-by, ELBE, ALB, &c.

FIORD (Danish), FIORTH (Old Norsk), FIRTH (Scotch), _an inlet of the sea, a bay, a station for ships_.—FIRTH of Forth, FIRTH of Tay. (Frith is a mis-spelling for Firth.)

The FORD in Mil-FORD, Haver-FORD, Water-FORD, is not to be confounded with FORD, a _passage_, but is another form of the Scandinavian FIORD, in Kieler-FIORD, Ecken-FIORD, Laxe-FIORD, &c.

FORD, FORT, FYRD (Anglo-Saxon), FORTH (Scandinavian), _a passage through a stream_.

Holm-FORTH, island _ford_; Spot-FORTH, the place at the _ford_; Sand-FORD, Mud-FORD, Brad-FORD, _ford_; Cuck-FORD, the rapid _ford_; Whit-FORD, the wide _ford_; Ox-FORD, the _ford_ of the ox; Rom-FORD, the broad _ford_; Stam-FORD, the stony _ford_; Here-FORD, the _ford_ of the army; Wad-FORD, the waded _ford_; Sto-FORD, the dwelling-place at the _ford_; Ash-FORD, the _ford_ of the ash; FRODS-ham, the home of the _ford_; TIVER-ton (Twy-FORD-tun), the two _ford_ town.

The German FURT, a _ford_, occurs in Hirsch-FURT (Hart-FORD), Her-FURT (Here-FORD), Schwein-FURT (Swine-FORD), Ochsen-FURT (Ox-FORD).

The Dutch VOORT, a _ford_, is found in Wester-VOORT, Becke-VOORT, Amers-FOORT, Brede-VOORT, &c.

FEN, FAEN (Anglo-Saxon), _wet-land_.—FEN-ham Flats, FEN Ditton, Walling FEN, FEN-stan-ton, FENI-ton, FINS-bury, FEN-brig, &c.

The Dutch form, VEEN, occurs in Amster-VEEN, and in VEN-lo, &c.

FLJOT, FLOI, FLOD (Scandinavian), FLEOT, FLETH (Anglo-Saxon), FLEET (English), _a flow or flush of water, channel or arm of the sea between the coast, and an island, a river, a tide creek_.—The presence of the root marks habitations on the sea, rivers, or canals.—The FLEET, Long-FLEET, Ben-FLEET, Shal-FLEET, Salt-FLEET, Fax-FLEET. The FLOW (a piece of water in Scotland), FLOW Moss, Solway FLOW, FLOUT-ern, Scar-LET, and FLOW-ton.

In France the root FLOI occurs under the form, FLEUR, in Bar-FLEUR, Har-FLEUR, Vite-FLEUR (White-FLEET), FLOT-beck, Pos-FLETHE, Beyden-FLETH, and Aver-FLETH.

FORS, FORSE, FORCE, FOSS (Scandinavian), _a water fall_.—River FOSS, FORSS-water, FORSE, FORSIN-ard, Low-FORCE, Scale-FORCE, Billing-FORS, FOS-kilde, and FOS-land.

GAT (Scandinavian), _a sound_.—Catte-GAT, the GATT, Helle-GAT, Rams-GATE, Mar-GATE.

GAU (German), _a district watered by a river_.—Aar-GAU, Tor-GAU, Breis-GAU, Bur-GAU, Wolve-GA, and Finke-GA.—GAW, in England, as a local word, signifies _a hollow with water springing in it_, _a furrow_.—GAW-thorpe, GOY-don, &c.

GEO (Scandinavian), _a hollow_, _a chasm in the shore_, _a small inlet_.—Wolfs-GEO, GUI-odin, GUE-odin (Odin’s-inlet), Varren-GE-fiord, Varen-GE-ville, Varren-GUE-bec.

GOE (Old Norsk), _a cleft_, _a small opening in the land_, _a bay_.—Red-GOE, Raven-GOE, Tod’s-GOE, Whale-GOE.

GILL (Scandinavian), _a small gravelly stream_, _also a glen or valley_; GOOL, _a ditch_.—Row-GILL, Woo-GILL-tarn, Kesh-GILL-burn, Esh-GILL, Ive-GILL, GILS-land, &c.; GOOLE, GILLE-by, GILLE-skaal, &c.

GOUT, GOTE, _a drain or ditch_, from Geotan (Anglo-Saxon), _to pour_.—River GOYT, Win-thorpe-GOUT, Trus-thorpe-GOUT, Tyd-GOTE, GOT-ham, &c.

From the German GIESSEN, gösse, gegossen, _to pour_, _to water_, are derived—GIES-en, GIESS-bach, GOSS-au, &c.

HAF (Scandinavian), _the sea_, HAVN (Danish), _a haven_.—Stone-HAVEN, White-HAVEN.

The old HAAF, HAVRE, HAVER-ford, HAFS-lund, Frische-HAF, Aland HAF, HAFF of Stettin, HAFS-loe, Westman’s HAVN, HAVN-sur-Dive, HAVN-sur-Mederet, &c.

HAMN (Scandinavian), _a port_, _bay_, _gulf_.—HAMNA-voe, Soder-HAMN, Carls-HAMN, Torn-HAMN-sudde, Quister-HAM, Go-HAM, Cane-HAM, Estre-HAM, HAM-bye, &c.

HATCH (Provincial), _a flood-gate_, _dam_.—Mers-ham-HATCH, Kelve-don-HATCH.

HYD, HITHE, HYTHE (Anglo-Saxon), originally _a receptacle_; (2), _haven_; (3), _coast_.—HYTHE, HYDE, Seche-HYTHE, Rother-HITHE, Green-HITHE, Lamb-ETH.

HOLM (Scandinavian), _a river island_, _a green plot of ground surrounded by water_, _low land lying along the river or ocean_.—HOLM, HOLMES, HOLM-moss, HOLM-head, HOLM-forth, Kirk-yet-HOLM, Hipper-HOLME, Den-HOLM, Steep-HOLM, and Flat-HOLM, HOULMES (near Rouen), Engo-HOMME, Tur-HULM (Tor-HOLM), Stock-HOLM, Hoy-HOLM, Borg-HOLM, Born-HOLM.

HEAFOD (Anglo-Saxon), _the source of a stream_.—Wood-HEAD, Holm-HEAD, Leather-HEAD, &c.

IG (Anglo Saxon), _an island_.—It assumes the various forms of EAGE, AEGE, EIG, &c.—AIG-burth, EIGH-ton, EG-ham, IGHT-field, IGHT-ham, &c.

KELL, KELD (Scandinavian), _a spring_, “the gathering of water within a hill side, which then bursts out with a considerable gush, and forms a strong stream.”—KIL-ham, KIL-bourn, KEL-sal, KIL-hope, KEL-stedge, KEL-sale, KEL-sey, Lath-KILL, Gunner-KILD-bottom, Oer-KELL, Halli-KELD, Sal-KELD, KIELDER Moors, KELDER-vik.

LAD, LODE, LADE (Anglo-Saxon), _water running into the sea_, _a pan for water_, _a drain_, _a pool_, _a gentle lake_, _an artificial water-course_.—River LYDE or LYTHE, Even-LODE, West-LODE, Whap-LODE, Salter’s LODE-sluice, So-ham-LODE, Burwell-LODE, Reach-LODE, Swaff-ham-LODE, Lech-LADE.

LAYS (Provincial), _lakes_; LAY, _a large pond_.—LOWES-toft, the field of lakes; the provincial form is LAYS-toft; forest of LOWES, LOWES-by, &c.

LAUG (Scandinavian), _water_.—Bal-LAUGH, Lamp-LUGH, LAUGH-ton, Skir-LAUGH, Winters-LAG, &c.

LOCK, _meeting of waters_, _junction of rivers_.—Mat-LOCK, Whee-LOCK, Wen-LOCK.

LECHA, LETCH, _a small river_.—LECK-hamp-stead, LATCH-ford, LECKON-field, LETCH-worth.

LAGU, LAGE, LACHE (Anglo-Saxon), _water_, _a lake_.—River LAC, Mort-LAKE, Shock-LACH, LAKEN-heath, Ship-LAKE, Burg-has-LACH, Dur-LACH, and LACE-by.

MERE (Anglo-Saxon), _a lake_.—Comber-MERE, Winder-MERE, Col-MERE, MER-ton-Say, Hornsea-MERE, Youns-MERE, Ring-MER, Aves-MERE; Haar-lem-MERE, Alk-MAAR, MOR-ton, MAR-tin.

MIRE, the Scandinavian form, MYRI (Old Norsk), signifies _a marsh or bog_.—Gris-MIRE, Ling-MIRE, Wrag-MIRE, Sour-MIRE.

In Norway we find Rosse-MYRE, and in Iceland, Skala-MYRE.

We find the Frisian form, MAR, in MAR-strand, Hiel-MAR, MAR-stall, Wis-MAR, Wol-MAR.

MERSC, MARS, MAS (Anglo-Saxon), _a marsh or bog_.—MARS-ton-moor, MERS-ham, Raw-MARSH, Alder-MAS-ton, MERST-ham, MEAS-ham, MARSK, Os-MAS-ton, MAS-ham, Tor-MAS-ton, MARS-den, the MASH.

Perhaps the river MEASE or MEUSE is derived from the same root.

MUND (German), _the mouth of a river_; MUYDEN (Dutch); MOUTH (English).—Rore-MUND, Wel-MEND, Witt-MUND, Warne-MUNDE, MUNDEN, MUIDEN.

OE (Scandinavian), _an island_.—Angles-EY, Guerns-EY, Aldern-EY, Shepp-EY, Nordern-EY, Wolv-EY, Holm-OE, Wragg-OE, Wag-OE, Rom-OE, Hoal-OE, Far-OE, Langer-OOG, Wanger-OOG, Cantal-EU, Jur-A, Isl-A, Straths-AY.

ORD, ORT (Dutch), _a point_, _the junction of two rivers_.—Havel-ORT, Calv-ORDE, Frederiks-ORT.

ORA (Anglo-Saxon), _the shore_, _coast_, _border_, _those parts of the sea or river affording safe landing-places_.—OR-ton, HOR-ton, ORE-by, Toln-ORE, HOR-dle.

The Scandinavian, EYR, EYRI, AUR, OI, ORE, occurs in ERI-boll, ERI-sta, ORE-sund, Sand-AREA, Net-AREA, Rabbit-AREA.

OFER, OFRA, OVER (Anglo-Saxon), _the shore_, _bank_.—Little OVER, Mickle OVER, OVER-leigh, Wend-OVER, And-OVER; OVER-yssel, Hann-OVER, OVER, near Cologne, OFER, in the neighbourhood of the Elbe.

POT (Scandinavian), _the hole formed by a river in the rocks which compose its bed_.—Lade-POT, Bull-POT, Spear-POTS.

PIDDLE, PUDDLE (Anglo-Saxon), _a thin stream_.—PIDDLE-town, PIDDLE-trent-hide, River BIDDEL, Tol-PUDDLE, Aff-PUDDLE.

POL, POLE, PELL (Anglo-Saxon), _deep standing water_, _a detached or enclosed piece of water_, _a haven or harbour_.—POOL-croft-hea, PUL-ham, PEL-ham, Yar-POLE, PUL-borough, POOL-ey, POLES-worth, POOLE, &c.

PINE (Provincial), _a pit_.—Wash-ford-PYNE.

PYT (Anglo-Saxon), _a body of standing water_, _a puddle_, _cistern_; from PYTTAN, _to excavate_.—PUTN-ey, PUTTEN-ham, PITS-ford, PUD-sey, PITN-ey, Wool-PIT, PIT-stone, &c.

RA (Scandinavian), _a river_.—Oxe-RA, Bro-RA (bridged-river), Nordu-RA.

REA (Anglo-Saxon), RY-ton, RYE-gate.

RUN (Anglo-Saxon), _a stream_, _water-course_.—RUN-ton, RUN-ham.

RACK (Scandinavian), _a trace_, _strait_, _channel_.—Dam-RACK, Sky-RACK, &c.; the RACE, Skage-RACK.

SOLA (Old High German), _water_, _river_.—Bagos-SOLA (BUG), SALZA, SAALE.

SLOH, SLAEW (Anglo-Saxon), _a slough_.—SLOUGH, the name of several places in England.

SLAED, SLADE (Anglo-Saxon), _wet ground_, _low marshy ground_.—Lin-SLADE, SLAI-thwaite, SLED-dale, SLOTEN.

SPOUT (Scandinavian), _a waterfall_.—Cautley SPOUT, Gale-forth-SPOUT, SPYTEN-vand (in Norway), SPOUT.

STRIND, STRUND (Scandinavian), _the beach_, _sea coast_.—The STRAND, Whitby-STRAND, Flad-STRUND, Nord-STRAND, Es-STRAND, &c.

SIKE (Scandinavian), _a water course_, _drain_.—Ful-SICK, Meer-SYKE.

STANG (Scandinavian), _a pool_.—Meller-STANG, Gar-STANG, &c.

STROM (Scandinavian), _a stream_.—STROMS-a, STROMS-oe, STROM-ness, STRAUMS-ey, STROMS-holm, and Mael-STROM.

STROMMER, _a channel_ which separates the Isle of Siaeland from the Isle of Amak.

SAEF, SIV (Anglo-Saxon), _a rush_, _torrent_.—The river SHEAF, SWAVES-ey, &c.

SEA (Anglo-Saxon), SEE (German), _the sea_, _a lake_.—SEA-ham, SEA-ton, SEA-forth, Horn-SEA, Whittle-SEA, &c.; Lang-SEE, Esrum-SEE, Gruner-SEE, and Moss-SEE.

The Scandinavian SOE (_sea_), occurs in Mor-SOE, Mos-SOE, Sonder-SOE, &c.

SKELL (Scandinavian), _a well_, _spring_.—SKEL-man-thorpe, SKELL-eftea, SKELDER-vik, SKEL-ton, &c.

SUND (Scandinavian), _separated_, _a channel_, _a strait_.—SUNDER-land, the SOUND, Helle-SUND, Stral-SUND, &c.

TJORN, TERN, TARN (Scandinavian), _a small lake_.—Lough-rigg-TARN, Flat-TARN, Flou-TERN-TARN (from FLOI, Scandinavian, _a bog_, _marsh_, &c.), Angle TARN, Beacon TARN, TJORN (an island off the coast of Sweden), Holms-JON, Mars-JON, Flas-JON.

VATN, VAT, VAND (Scandinavian), _water_, _a lake_.—Apa-VATN, My-VATN, Sands-VATN, Bjork-VATN-et, Rys-VAND; Olle-VAT (a lake in the Hebrides), VATN-dale, WATEND-lath (in Cumberland), Steapa-VAT, &c.

Sometimes VAND is changed into WATER, as in Helga-WATER (a lake in Shetland), Ulls-WATER, Gates-WATER, Broad-WATER, Oude-WATER, WATER-vliet (netherlands), Vara-BOT (France).

VAAG, VOE (Scandinavian), _a bay_, _harbour_, in

VOE (Sum-brough), Burra-VOE, Usk-VAGH, Flad-VAGH, VAAG-oen, VAAG-en, Sol-WAY, Groes-VAGH, Hamna-VOE, harbour _bay_; Selia-VOE, herring _bay_; &c.

VIG, VIK, WICK (Scandinavian), _a small bay_, _harbour_, _landing-place, town on the sea coast_, _mouth of a river_.—Bruns-WICK, Schles-WIG, Laur-VIG, Steen-VIG, Lem-VIG, Weston-VIK, Bra-VIKEN, Wool-WICH, Green-WICH, Har-WICH, Ips-WICH, Dib-IC, Cu-IC, and Green-OC.

WATH, WADE (Scandinavian), _a ford_.—WATH-upon-Dearne, Winder-WATH, WADES-mills, WADS-ley; WAYTHE, Biggles-WADE, Sands-VATH, WAITHE.

WASH (Scandinavian), _an arm of the sea_, _a river_, _ford_.—The WASH, Ship-WASH, VIS-by, WASH-field, and WAS-dale.

WELL (Anglo-Saxon), _a spring_.—Both-WELL, WYL-am, WEL-ton, WIL-land; Waedensch-WYL, Walch-WYL, WYL-au, Hof-WYL, &c.

WASSER (German), WAES (Anglo-Saxon), _water_.—WASSER-burg, WASSER-trudingen, WAES-ten, WAES-land, WATER-loo (water meadow), WEASEN-ham, WASSEN-bury, &c.

WAC (Anglo-Saxon), _soft marshy ground_; WAX (Scandinavian).—WAC-ton, WAX-holme, WAX-holm, WAX-ham, WHAX-grove, &c.

WAEL, WHEEL (Provincial), _a whirlpool_.—WHEEL-don, WEEL, WEEL-ey, WHEEL-ton, &c.

WORTH (Anglo-Saxon), _an island formed by a river_, _a canal between the two branches of a river_, _a farm_.—Teb-WORTH, Hems-WORTH, Tets-WORTH, Nails-WORTH, Rush-WORTH, Til-WORTH, Clos-WORTH, Wid-WORTHY, Tat-WORTH, Chil-WORTHY, Dodge-WAART, Bols-WAARD, Holt-WIERDE, and Schoenen-WERTH.

WYCHEN (Anglo-Saxon), _springs_; WYCH (Provincial), _a salt spring_.—WHIX-ley, WICK-en, Middle-WICH, Nant-WICH, and Ford-WICH.

(_B_) NAMES OF MOUNTAINS, HILLS, &c.

BAC, BEAC (Anglo-Saxon), _a ridge or back_; BAC (Gothic), _a woody mountain_, _an ascent or descent_.

BUHEL, PUHEL, BUHL (German), _a hill_, _rising ground_.

BAICH (Old English), _a “languet of land_.”—Saddle-BACK, BAC-ton, BACON’S-field, Hog’s-BACK, Bainton-BEACON, Inkpen-BEACON, &c.

Cæsar makes mention of a Sylva BACEN-is, which separated the Cherusci from the Suevi; and Ptolemy speaks of a Meli-BOC-os, in the north of Germany. There is still a Meli-BOC-us in the south of Germany.

The German form (BUHL, PUHEL, &c.), occurs in

Eichen-BUHL, the oak _ridge_; Dun-kels-BUHL, the _ridge_ of the mountain springs; Ross-BUHL, the horse’s _ridge_; Lust-BUHL, the _hill_ of pleasure.

BREG, BEORG, BEROH (Anglo-Saxon), _a mountain_, _a hill_, _a heap of stones or earth_; BERG PEREG (High German), BAIRGS (Gothic), BIERG, BJORG, BORG (Scandinavian).—Ha-BERG-ham-caves, Wa-BER-thwaite, Wi-BERG-thwaite (holy _mountain_ path), Leg-BER-thwaite (low _mountain_ path), Brown-BERG-hill, Lang-BAURGH.

BARROW and BARF occur frequently in the north of England. They are probably only slightly altered forms of BERG.—Under-BARROW-scar, High-BARROW-ridge, &c.; Clee-BARF, BARF near (Bassen-thwaite), &c.

The German BERG is found in

BERG, BERG-en, the _mountain_ region; BERGE-dorf, the _hilly_ city; BERG-heim, the _hilly_ home; Adels-BERG, the noble’s _hill_; Arns-BERG, the eagles’ _hill_; Alten-BERG, the ancient _hill_; As-PERG, the ash _hill_; Heidel-BERG, the heath _hill_; Konigs-BERG, the King’s _hill_; Mittel-GEBIRGE, middle _range_.

The Scandinavian form BORG, appears in

BORG-loh, the _hilly_ dwelling by the water; BORG-holm, the _hilly_ island; BORG-holz-hausen, the _hilly_-wooded dwelling; &c.

BREAK (Scandinavian), _the slope of a mountain_, _the hollow in a hill_.—Mel-BREAK, Cal-BREAK, Lov-BREKKE, Skards-BREKKE, Sand-BREKKE, &c.

CALF (Scandinavian), _a smaller mountain near a larger one_. It is also applied to islands.—CALVA, CALF, KALVA-berg (the “CALF of Man”), CALVER-peak, &c.

CAR (Anglo-Saxon), _a rock_.—Uugin-CAR, Rugh CAR, Gol-CAR, the CARRS.

CAM (Scandinavian), _a summit_, _top_.—CAM-fell, Cachede-CAM, &c.

CLIFE, CLIF, CLIFFE, CLEE, CLOU, CLOUGH (Anglo-Saxon), _a rock_.—CLEVE, Old CLEEVE-hill, CLEVE-land, CLAVER-don, CLEVE-don, CLAVER-ley, CLIPPES-by, CLIP-stone, CLOP-hill, KLOP-stock, CLOP-ton, CLOP-ham, CLIFFE, CLIFF-ton, Top-CLIFFE, Shorne-CLIFFE, Swil-low-CLIFT, CLIFFE-end; CLEE-thorpes, CLE-hanger, CLEE-hills, CLEE-barf, CLEEVER, CLAW-ton, CLEO-bury, CLOUGH-ton, Buc-CLEUGH, CLEVES, KLOPPEN-burg.

CLUMP (Provincial), _a heap_.—Chariot-CLUMP, Heaver-CLUMP.

CLUD, CLENT (Anglo-Saxon), _a piece of rock_.—Pen-ket-CLOUD, Temple-CLOUD, CLOUD-end, CLENT-hill, CLIN-ton.

CNOL (Anglo-Saxon), _rising ground_, _a small round hill_.—Falkland KNOLL, Brent-KNOLL, Mays-KNOLL, KNOWL-bury, Windy-KNOWL.

COP (Anglo-Saxon), _a top_, _summit_.—Mold-COP, Wyle-COP, Mow-COP, War-COP, Schnee-KOPPE (snow top).

DODD (Scandinavian), _a mountain with a rounded summit_.—Harts-op-DODD, Skiddaw-DODD.

DUN, DON, DOWN (Anglo-Saxon), _a hill_, sometimes applied to _dwelling-places on hills_.—The DOWNS, DOWNE, DOWN-ton, Leigh-DOWN, Hunting-DON, Ham-DON, Snow-DON, DUN-fell, DUN-mallet, DOWN-holm, DOWN-head, DUNS-by, DUN-score, DUNS-fold, DUN-stan.

EDGE (Anglo-Saxon, ECG), _high moor-lands_, _the sharp ridge of a mountain_.—EDGE-hill, Swirrell-EDGE, Strathon-EDGE, Land-EGGE.

FELL, FJELD (Scandinavian), _a rock-hill_, _mountain chain_.—Dovre-FJELD, Hardanger-FJELD (the mountains of hunger and poverty), Rute FIELLE, FAL-aise, Oxen-FELL, Hart-FELL, Shap-FELL, Bow-FELL, Campsie-FELLS, Snae-FELL, Mickle-FELL.

GARE, GORE, GOR (Anglo-Saxon), _a triangular piece of ground_, _a narrow slip of ground_, generally dirty or marshy.—Water-GORE, the GORE, Haven-GORE-marsh.

HA (Scandinavian), _high_.—HA-wick, HA-warden, HA-worth, HEA-ley, HEA-laugh, HEA-ton, HEY-don, HEY-thorpe, HEY-shot, Pool-croft-HEA, Hirne-HA.

HAMMER (Scandinavian), _a rock_.—HAMMER-scar, HAMMER-end, HAMMER-fest, HAMMER-stein, Stor-HAMMER, Lille-HAMMER.

HART, HARD (Gothic), _high_.—HARDER-wyk, HARDEN-burg, the HARDT mountains.

HAWES, HAW (Scandinavian), _a rock_, _an oblong mountain_, _a prospect_.—Esk HAWS, Buttermere HAWS, HAWS-water.

We find AAS (pronounced AWS), the Norwegian form, in AAS-fjeld, AAS-vand, &c.

HAUGH, HOUG, HOW, HO, HOO, HOV, HOE, HOY, &c. (Scandinavian), _a hill_, _sepulchral mound_, _promontory_.—Bothwell-HAUGH, HAUGH-am, HAUGH-ton, HAUGH-ley, HAUGH-mond-hill; Alders-HAUGH, HOGH-ton, Bar-HAUGH, HOUGH-ton-le-spring, Green-OUGH, Bere-HOUGH, HEW-by, Kew (Kay-HOUGH, Kay-HOWE); the HAUGH, HAIGH-ton, Scale-HOW, Hund-HOW, Red-HOW, Grimes-HOO, the HOO, HAUX-ley, HAX-ley, HOX-ay (the isle of the _promontory_), HAUGS-eid (the isthmus of the _hillock_), HAUX-ton, &c.; Loose-HOO, Iving-HOE, Stapl-OE, HOY-land, Al-sta-HAUG, La HOGUE, Jord-HEUE, Le-HOU, Ne-HOU, Cape HOC, HEVE, HOGUES d’Isigny, HOGUES de Baucy, HOY-a, HOY-holm.

HAUS (Old Norsk), _top_, _summit_.—Herd-HOUSE, Lad-HOUSE, HUSA-fell, &c.

HANG (Anglo-Saxon), _a heel_.—East and West HANG, HANGLE-ton, HANKE-low.

HOOK, HAWK, HACK, and HOCH have a similar signification.—HACE-by, HACKER-sall, HACK-ford, HACK-thorne, HACK-ness, HACK-don, HOC-kliffe, &c.; HAWK-moor, HOOK, HOOKER-ton, HOOK-nor-ton, HACK-sted, HACK-low.

HOHE, HOCH (German), _height_, _high_.—HOHE-geiss, HOHEN-stein, HOHEN-linden, HOHEN-as-perg, &c.; HOCH-heim, HOCH-kirch, HOCH-wald, &c.; HOOG-veen, HOOG-meide.

HEIGH, HIGH (Anglo-Saxon), _elevated_.—HEIGH-am, HEIGH-ley, HEIGH-ton, HIGH-bray, HIGH-ley, HIGH-week, &c.

HEAFORD (Anglo-Saxon), _head-top_, _upper_.—HEAD-lam, HEAD-ley, HEAD-worth, HED-don, HED-hope, HEED-ley.

HEAN (Anglo-Saxon), _high_.—HEAN-or, HEAN-wood, HAINTON, HENT-land, HAUN-ton.

HOPE, OP, OPE (Scandinavian), _the side of a hill_, _a sheltered spot on the side of a hill_.—HOP-town, Harts-OP, Harr-OP, Wool-HOPE, Oxen-HOPE.

HOB (Scandinavian), _a rising eminence_; HEAP (English).—HOB-linch, HOB-knap; HEAP, HEAP-ey, HEAP-ham, &c.

HUL, HYL (Anglo-Saxon), _a mountain_, _elevation in general_.—Tintin-HULL, Soli-HULL, Mag-HULL, HIL-ton, HIL-bury, HIL-gay, HILL-am, HILLERS-don, HIL-per-ton, and HILL-side.

HOFVED, HOVED (Scandinavian), _a head_, _promontory_.—

Skov-HOVED, wood _head_; Vorms-HOFVED, worm’s _head_.

HEAD, when it occurs in the names of capes, promontories, &c., in England, is of Scandinavian origin.

HORN, HURNE, HYRNE, HERNE (Anglo-Saxon), _an angle or corner-land projecting into the sea or river_, _a peak_.—HIRNE-ha, Cold-IRNE, Guy-HIRNE, HORN-castle, HORN-sea, HORN-um, Stor-HORN, Breit-HORN, Tenfels-HORN, Wild-HORN, and Rinder-HORN.

KNOT (Scandinavian), _a round heap_.—Hard-KNOT, Scald-KNOT, School-KNOT, Whim-bury-KNOTS, KNOTS-low.

KNAEP (Anglo-Saxon), _rising ground_.—Mister-ton KNAP, Hob-KNAP, &c.

KNAB, the Scandinavian form, occurs in KNAB-scar, the KNAB, &c.; KNIPE-scar, KNIPEN-berg.

LOW, LEWE, LOE, LAW (Anglo-Saxon), _a small round hill_.—Broad-LOW, Had-LOW, Tax-LOW, Mar-LOW, Wins-LOW, Hal-LOW, Doller-LAW, Bug-LAW-ton, Hag-LOE, LEV (Scandinavian), Orms-LEV, and Ors-LOV.

LOPPE, HLYPE (Anglo-Saxon), _an uneven place_, _a leap_.—Hind-LIP, LOP-ham, Lax-LEIP, Hous-LIP-burn, Deer-LEEP-hill, &c.

LYNCH, LINK (Anglo-Saxon), _ploughed ground on the side of a hill_, _high ground_.—Stock-LINCH, Moor-LYNCH, &c.

LOFT (Scandinavian), _a mound_.—Carl-LOFTS, LOF-sta, LOFTA-hammar, LOFT-house, LOFTS-ome, &c.

LAD (Scandinavian), _a pile or heap_.—Lost-LAD, LAD-cragg.

KLINT (Scandinavian), _sea rocks_.—Spoel-KLINT, Stevens-KLINTE, Steyns-KLINT.

MOR, MOOR (Anglo-Saxon), _a common_, _highlands covered with heath_; MOOR (English).—Nort-MOOR, Backe-MOOR, MOR-peth.

NAP (Anglo-Saxon), _a hill_, _peak_, _point_, _top of a hill_; NEB (Scandinavian).—NAP-ton-on-the-hill, NAP Farm, NEP-ton, NEP-cote, Whinney NEB, White NAB, Con-mer NAB, the NABS, NABS Buts.

NESS, NAZE, NOSE (Scandinavian), _damp, humid land stretching out into the sea_, _a promontory_, _a projecting portion of land_.—Lowestoft-NESS, Foul-NESS, Dunge-NESS, Sheer-NESS, Skeg-NESS, Strom-NESS, Bow-NESS, Scar-NESS, Fur-NESS, Skeg-NAS, Sand-NOES, the NAZE.

In France, NESS takes the form of NEZ.

PIKE, PEAK, PIG (Scandinavian), _a point_.—Kid-sty-PIKE, Dufton-PIKES, Mur-ton-PIKES, the PEAK, PIG-don, Knock-PIKES, PICK-mere, Jolly Waggon PIKE, PIKE-law, West-PIKE.

RIGG (Scandinavian), _a ridge_, _an oblong hill_; HRIGG (Anglo-Saxon), _a back_.

Lough-RIGG-fell; Ask-RIGG, ash-_ridge_; Lat-RIGG, the dwelling on the _ridge_; Long-RIGG, long-_ridge_; Ewan-RIGG, yew _ridge_.

The German form, RUCK, occurs in

Ziegen-RUCK, the kid’s _ridge_; Hunds-RUCK, the hound’s _ridge_.

RISE (Anglo-Saxon), RAISE (Scandinavian), _a mound_, _hill-top_, _a high wood_, &c.—Clap-ham RISE, RISE-ley, RAISE-gill, RISE-holm, RISE-brough.

SCAR, SCARTH, SCARF, SCOR, SCREE, SKRID (Scandinavian), _a rock, sharp, steep, or precipitous_.—SCAR-borough, SCAR-overton, Black Hope-SCARS, SCARS-dale, Ul-SKER, SKERRY, Ul-SCARTH, Gate-SCARTH, Balder-SCARTH, SCARF-gap, the SCREES, SCREE-scar, SCRAX, SKAR-a, Skiel-SKIOR, SKAA-up, SKIER-um, Sten-bids-SKAAR, SCAR-stad, SCAR-ild, SKA-tunge, Einer-SKER, Svart-SKER, CHER-bourg, Evar-SKARD, Haka-SCARD, SKARVEN-Fjeld, Maastjern-SKARV, SKARD, SKRID, Ref-SKRID, SKRIDS-hol, SCARTHIN-cliffs, SCOR-burgh, SCOR-ton.

SCUG (Scandinavian), _a declivity_.—SCUGGER, SKUGG, SKEG-ness.

STY (Scandinavian), _an ascending path_.—Kid-STY-pike, STY-head, An-STY, Hubber-STY, STEE.

The Anglo-Saxon forms are STEELE, STEIGLE, STEGE.—Ham-STEEL, High-STILE, Long-STILE, STILE, STEEL Fell.

The German STEIG, _a path_.—Occurs in Alten-STEIG, STEGE, STEIGER-wald.

STEAP (Anglo-Saxon), _steep_.—STEEP-holm, STOUPE-brow, STEEP.

SHELF, SKELF (Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian), _a crag_, _rock_, _steep places_.—SHELF-anger, SHEL-don, Tib-SHELF, SELF-stones, Ra-SKELFE, &c.

STACK, STAKE, STICKLE (Scandinavian), _a rock_, _peak_.—STAWKERS, STACK, Hay-STACKS, the STAKE, Harrison STICKLE, Pike o’STICKLE, STICKLE-stad, &c.

STERT (Anglo-Saxon), _a tail_.—START-point, STERT-island, &c.

STONES (Provincial), _hills_, _heights_.—Blake-low-STONES, Ox-STONES, Dane Head STONES, &c.

TOP (Anglo-Saxon), _head_, _summit_.—TOP-cliffe, TOPS-ham, Lewis-TOP, Pon-TOP Pike, TIP-ton, TOP-croft, &c.

TUNGA (Scandinavian), _a promontory_, _headland_, applied to _rocks and mountains_.—TONGE-with-Haulgh, Middle TONGUE, TONG-fell, TUNGE-fiord, Ska-TUNGE, TANG-fjeld, TUNGN-fell.

WEALD, WALD, WOLD, WEALT, WOULD, WILD, WELT (Anglo-Saxon), _a forest_, _a high woodland district_.—The WEALDS of Kent, the WOLDS of Yorkshire, Moncton-WEALD, Glen-WHELT, WALT-ham, Cots-WOLD, WOLD-brow, WALD-au, WALD-bach, WALD-burg, WALD-eck, WAIT-by, WALD-heim, WALD-kirch, WALD-see, Ost-WOLDE, WOLD, and WOUDE.

WINCH, WINK (Scandinavian), _a corner_.—WINCH-combe, WINK-field, WINK-leigh, WINCHEL-sea, FINKLE-bridge, WINKEL-seth, Rose-WINKEL, Ruh-WINKEL, &c.

WARN, WHARN (Anglo-Saxon), _steep_.—WHARN-side, WHARN-cliffe, WHARN-ham.

YOKE (Scandinavian), _a hill_, _chain_.—YOKE-thwaite, YOKE-cliffe.

(_C_) NAMES OF VALLEYS, PLAINS, WOODS, &c.

ACRE, AKER (Anglo-Saxon), _a field_.—West-ACRE, Kint-AKER.

BEARW, BEARO, BERN (Anglo-Saxon), _a fruitful productive wood_, from BERAN, _to yield_; BAR, BUR, _a bower_, _knoll_; BYRAS, _woods_, _plots of woody ground_.—Brown-BER-hill, Bram-BER, Tod-BERE, Green-BER-field, BUR-ton, and BAR-ton, Sheb-BEARE (sheep-_wood_), Kentis-BEARE, BEER (near Seaton), BIER-low, Baum-BER (tree-_wood_), BEAR-stead, BEARS-ton, BEAR-ley, BER-don, BUR-combe, BUR-land, BURS-lem, BUR-stall, BUR-marsh, BUR-wash, BAR-ham, BAR-ford, and BAR-well.

BEARNE (Provincial), _a wood_.—BARN-by, BARN-ey, BARN-well, BARN-ham, BARN-brough, &c.

BIT (Anglo-Saxon), _a pasture_.—Cow-BIT, Nes-BIT, &c.

BUS, BUSH (Anglo-Saxon), _a small wood_.—BUSCH (German), BOSC (Scandinavian).—BUSH-ey, BOS-ham, BUS-by, BUS-cot, BUSH-bury, BUSS of Newham, BUSS of Werdie; Col-BOSC, Mille-BOSC, Rom-BOSC, BOSCHEN-ried, and Dicke-BUSCH.

BENT (Provincial), _a plain_, _field_, _a common_.—BENT-ham, BENT-ley, Hayton’s BENT, BENT-hall, BENT-worth, Chow-BENT, &c.

BOTM (Anglo-Saxon), BOTTOM (English), _a dale_.—Gunner-kild-BOTTOM, Houn-dene-BOTTOM, Shuffle-BOTTOM (Shaw-field-BOTTOM), Owler-BOTTOM, and Brook-BOTTOM.

CAR (Anglo-Saxon), _a plain_.—CAR-ham, CAR-stairs.

CHIN, CHINE (Anglo-Saxon), _a cleft_, _hollow_.—CHIN-ley-churn, Crow-CHINE, &c.

CUP (Anglo-Saxon), _a hollow_.—Bu-CUP, CUB-ley, &c.

CROFT (Scandinavian), _a small field_.—CRAW-ton, Wey-CROFT, CROFT Farm, Sander-CROFT, Haver-CROFT, CROF-ton, Cox-CROFT, and Wivels-CROFT. In France the same root is found under the form CROTTES.

COMB (Anglo-Saxon), _a valley or low piece of ground_, _a space between two hills_.—COMBE, Brans-COMBE, Bor-COMBE, Clo-COMBE, Gat-COMBE, Sted-COMBE, COMP-ton.

DAL (Scandinavian), _a valley_ (from DALA, _to depress_); THAL (German).—Scar-DALE, Ken-DAL, Arun-DELL, DAL-wood, Dingley-DELL, Co-DALE, Gris-DALE, Ul-DALE, DUL-wich, DUL-ver-ton, Schön-THAL, Rein-THAL, Dussel-THAL, DAL-hem, DALS-land, DAL-bye, DAL-heim, DAL-river, &c.; Dane-TAL, Darne-TAL, DELLE du Bog, DELLE du Fosse.

DEONU, DIONU, DENU, DEN, DEAN (Anglo-Saxon), _a wood_, _pasture_, _valley_, _hollow_, _ravine_, &c.—Taunton DEAN, Forest of DEAN, Deb-DEN, Cob-DEN, Hammer-DEN, Bals-DEAN, O-DEAN, Dib-DEN, DEN-by, DEN-bigh, &c.

FIELD, FELD (Anglo-Saxon), _detached localities partly open_, _an open height_, _a plain_.—Heath-FIELD, Spring-FIELD, Neither-FIELD, Lang-FIELD, &c.

The German form, FELD, occurs in FELD-berg, FELD-kirch, Lingen-FELD, Hume-FELD, Alten-FELD, Lichter-VELDE, Basse-VELDE, &c.

FOLD, FOL, FALD (Scandinavian), _land district_, _enclosure for sheep_, &c.—Nettle-FORD, Ox-FOLD, Had-FOLD, Ex-FOLD, Ash-FOLD, Frith-FOLD, Duns-FOLD, &c.

GAP (Scandinavian), _an opening between hills_.—Raise GAP, Whin-latter-GAP, YAP-ton.

GRAFE (Anglo-Saxon), _a small wood_, _a grove_.—No-bottle-GROVE, Bo-GROVE, By-GRAVE, GRAF-ton, Cot-GRAVE, Red-GRAVE, and Chal-GROVE.

HAG, HAY, HEDGE, EDGE (Anglo-Saxon), _a limit boundary_, _fence_, _any enclosure_, _a single field_, _a plot of ground fenced in and surrounded by an hedge_; HAGA (Scandinavian), HAG (Gothic), _enclosed pasturage_, _a cultivated copse or woodland_.—HAG-borne, HAG-ley, HAG-loe, HEDGER-ley, HAY-don, HAY-dock, HAY, West-HAY, Cut-HAYES, Wil-HAY, Child-HAYES, HAY-ton, HAYES, Comb-HAY, HAG-a, HAGEN, the HAGUE, HAGEN-au, Dorls-HAGEN, Falken-HAGEN.

HANGER, HANGRA, ANGER (Anglo-Saxon), _a meadow near a wood, surrounded by a furrow_.—Fisher-ton-ANGER, Clay-HANGER, ANGER-ton, Cle-HANGER, Oke-HANGER-mere.

HAT, HAD, HEATH (Anglo-Saxon), _field_; HEIDE, (German).—HAT-field, HAT-cliffe, HATHER-leigh, HATH-ern, HATHER-op, HAT-ton, HEDEN-ham, HAD-ley, HETHER-set, HETHERS-gill, HET-ton, HIDE, HADDEN-ham, HAD-don, HAD-leigh, HAD-low, HAD-nall-ease, HAD-stock, Pook-HYDE, HOATH-ley, HEIDEL-berg, HEIDEN-heim, HEIDE.

HAYNE, _a cleared spot fenced in_, is perhaps connected with the German HAIN, _small grove_, _wood_, though it is generally considered another form of HAG, HAY, &c.—Wil-HAYNE, Hoober-HAYNE, Cown-HAYNE, Down-HAYNE, Blanken-HAYN, Balken-HAYN, Burg-HAUN, and HAIN-ault.

HESE, HYSE (Anglo-Saxon), _a grove_, _wilderness_.—HES-wall, HES-ton, HES-ley-Hurst, HESS-ay, HIS-ton, HIS-ket, HAS-combe, HAS-field, HASE-ley, HAS-guard, HAS-land, and HAYE.

HOLT, HOT, HOD (Anglo-Saxon), _a wood_, _copse_; HOLZ (German).—The HOLTS, Spars-HOLT, HODDES-don, HOTS-pur, Boc-HOLT, Borck-HOLT, HOLZ-minden, HOLT-land, HOLT-rup, Ter-HOULDE.

HUNT (Anglo-Saxon), _a chase_.—Fox-HUNT, Ches-HUNT.

HURST, HERST, HEST, EST (Anglo-Saxon), HORST (German), HRIOSTR (Old Norsk), _woods which produce fodder for cattle_, _thicket_, _a clump of forest trees which have not attained their full growth_, or _masses of standing corn_.—Ew-HURST, Pens-HURST, As-HURST, Wad-HURST, Sell-HURST, Ex-HURST, HURST-ley, WORST-ley, Fing-EST, Made-HURST, HURST, HORS-mar, Baren-HORST.

ING (Anglo-Saxon), _a meadow_.—ING-birch-worth, INGER-thorpe, INGLE-by, ING-ham, ING-oe, Read-ING. Bark-ING, Martins-ING, Earl’s-ING-Lee.

LEAGH, LAH, LEH, LAY, LEA, LEY, LEIGH (Anglo-Saxon), _a meadow_, _field_, _thicket_, _a woodland district_, _enclosure_, _place favourable to growth of grass_; LOH (German); LO, LOO (Dutch),—Had-LEIGH, Hor-LEIGH, Hoo-LEIGH, Pash-LEIGH, Mor-LEIGH, Bing-LEY, LEIGH-ton, Wark-LEIGH, LAY-sters, LEIGH-down; Ven-LO, Water-LOO, Kafer-LOH, and Sapel-LOH.

LEASE, LAES (Anglo-Saxon), _pasture land_.—LEWES, LEWES-ham, Oxen-LEASE, Cow-LEAZE.

LEBEN (German), _ground cleared of wood_.—Als-LEBEN, Aschers-LEBEN, Eis-LEBEN.

LING (Anglo-Saxon), _heath_.—Ash-LING, Bir-LING.

LUM (Provincial), _a wooded valley_.—LUM-ley, Burs-LEM.

LUND (Scandinavian), _a wood_, _forest_.—LUND, LAUND-booth, LUND-ditch, LAUN-ton, Hoff-LUND, Hanging-LUND.

MAED, MEAD (Anglo-Saxon), _a meadow_.—Hot-MEAD, MAD-ley, MADE-ley, METH-wold, Bass-MEAD.

MAESTENE (Anglo-Saxon), _a forest_, _grove of oak_.—Sel-MESTON, West-MESTON, MIS-ter-ton.

MEARC (Anglo-Saxon), _a woodland district_, _meadowland_; MORK (Scandinavian), _a wood_.—MERCIA, MARK (Lincoln and Somerset), MARK-ham, MARK-by, MARKS-hall.

PEECE, PACCE (Anglo-Saxon), _dirty, watery land_.—PASH-ley, PATCH-am, PATCH-way, PAX-ton, PAS-ton, PAX-ford.

PLAS, in PLAS-ket, PLASS-ey, PLAX-tol, has a similar signification.

PLUMBE (Anglo-Saxon), _a woody place_.—PLUM-ley, PLUMP-ton, PLUM-stead.

PAETH (Anglo-Saxon), _a way, path, entrance, road_.—Mor-PETH (moor-_path_), PAD-field, PAD-worth, PAD-bury, PATE-ly.

RAKE (Provincial), _a mine_.—Land-RAKE.

RAYNE (Provincial), _limit_, _bound_.—RAIN-hill, RAIN-ham.

RIOTHR, RAITH (Scandinavian), _a clear place_, _an open field_; RYDE, _to clear away_.—REITH-by, RAITH-by, RATH-mill.

RODE (German), RODE, ROD, ROYD (English), _land cleared or grubbed up_.—RUTHYN, RUT-land, Martin-ROYD, Hol-ROYD, Hunt-ROYD, Orme-ROD, Ack-ROYD, Werni-GERODE, Elbin-GERODE, ROD-ach, Mount RUTI, RUTHI, Oste-RODE.

SKOGR, SCOW, SCAW, SKOV, SHAW, SHOE (Scandinavian), _a wood_.—SCAW-ton, SCOF-ton, SCOW-garth, Fla-SCOW, We-SCOW, Bri-SCO, Ever-SAW, Auden-SHAW, SKOVS-hoved.

In France we find Bois d’ESCOVES.

SHOT (Anglo-Saxon), _a wood_.—SCOT-by, SCOT-ton, SHOT-ton, Alder-SHOT (alder-_wood_), Bag-SHOT (badger’s-_wood_).

SNADAS, SNAED, SNAD (Anglo-Saxon), _a piece of land with well-defined limits without enclosures, public woods, or pasture grounds_.—SNAITH, SNED, SNETTIS-ham, Whip-SNADE, SNOD-land.

STOCK (Anglo-Saxon), _a wood_, _enclosure_.—STOCK-land, STOCK-linch, Taw-STOCK, Hal-STOCK, Chard-STOCK, STOCK-holm.

SMETH, SMID, SMITH (Anglo-Saxon), _smooth, level ground_.—SMEA-ton, SMES-towe, SMITH-field, SMEETH, SMEETH-cote.

SPRING (Anglo-Saxon), _a grove_.—SPRING-thorpe.

STOB, STUB, STOBBE (Anglo-Saxon), _a stump_.—STOBS-wood, El-STUB, STEPN-ey (Steben-_heath_), STUB-croft, STUB-land, STUBBE-rup.

TOLL (Anglo-Saxon), _a small grove of lofty trees_.—TOLL-piddle, TOL-ton, TEL-ton, TOLLER-ton, TOL-land, TOLE-thorpe.

TOFT (Scandinavian), _a field_, _the border of the house and homestead_.—Lowes-TOFT, Knocking-TOFTS, TOFT.

In France we find Hau-TOT, Crique-TOT, Ec-TOT, Sasse-TOT, Anse-TOT, Ebel-TOFT, Enges-TOFTE.

TOT (Anglo-Saxon), _a small grove_.—TOTN-ore, TOT-ham, TOTTEN-ham, TUT-bury, TOT-land Bay, TET-bury, DOD-pits, TOT-lets, TOT-ern-hoe.

TELGR (Scandinavian), _a tract of land_.—Soder-TELGE, Soder-TELJE, Norr-TELGE.

TVED, THWAITE (Scandinavian), _a path_, _an isolated piece of ground_, _ground cleared of wood_.—Lock-THWAITE, Stanger-THWAITE, Hall-THWAITE, Line-THWAITE, TVEDE, Om-THVETT, Skis-VED.

WAN, WING, WANG (Anglo-Saxon), _a large indefinite tract of land_, _a meadow_.—WANG-ford, WING-field, WAN-stead, Tongs-WINGE, WANGER-oog, WANG, El-WANGEN.

WASTE (Provincial), _a level_.—WASTE-water, Thorn-WASTE.

WRIDE (Anglo-Saxon), _an intertwining, luxuriant thicket_.—WRAYS-bury, WRITTLE, Ease-WRITH, WRET-ham, WRET-ton, Ting-RITH (Tyn-GRAVE).

WITH (Scandinavian), _a wood_.—Ask-WITH, Bram-WITH, WITHER-by, &c.

WOOD (English), WEIDE (German), _pasture ground_.—WEID-au, WID-au, WED-more, WID-combe, WOOT-ton, WIDDE-combe, &c.

WIESE (German), _a meadow_.—WIES-baden, WIESEN-thied, &c.

(_D_) NAMES OF HABITATIONS.

BAND (Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian), _a division_, _boundary_.—How-BAND, Millstone-BAND, Taylor’s-gill-BAND, Southernly-BOUND, &c.

BY, BO (Scandinavian), _a town_, from BUA, _to dwell_; BYR, _the town of commerce_.—Kir-BY, Kirk-BY, Thores-BY, Der-BY, Den-BY, Wait-BY, Horns-BY, Ire-BY, &c.; Kirk-BOE, Frode-BOE, Qual-BOE, BY-grave, BY-field, BUER-dale, Wibel-BUHR, and Ochtel-BUHR. In France we find this root, under the form BEUF, in Lim-BEUF, Mar-BEUF, Quille-BEUF, and Marque-BEUF.

BOLD, BALT, BOOTH, BOTTLE (Anglo-Saxon), _a dwelling_.—Shil-BOTTLE, New-BOLD, New-BALD, BOLT-on, Par-BOLD, BOOTLE, Lor-BOTTLE, BOOTH-by, More-BATTLE, BOT-ley, New-BOTTLE, BOULDER-dale, BUITTLE, BOT-ham, and BOT-hall.

BORDE (Provincial), _a cottage_.—BORD-well, &c.

BUTTEL (German), _a dwelling_.—Wolfen-BUTTEL, Lust-BUTTEL, Bruns-BUTTEL, &c.

BIGGEN (Provincial), _a building_, from BIG, _to build_.—New-BIGGEN, Sun-BIGGEN (south-building), &c.

BOW, BOL (Scandinavian), _a dwelling_, _house of a proprietor_.—BOWS, BOW-ness, BOW-scale Tarn (Bowness was anciently called BOL-ness, or BUL-ness), BOLY, BOL-bec, Mum-BLE, Strum-BLE, Alden-BULL, Tetten-BULL, BOL-stadoren.

BURG, BURY, BOROUGH (Anglo-Saxon), _a city_, _place of retreat or defence_.—BURY, Nether-BURY, Hem-BURY, Stan-BURY, Sid-BURY, Salis-BURY (Scaro-BYRIG, _the dry-city_), Shaftes-BURY (_town of shafts_), BURG-walter (BRIDGE-water), BOROUGH-bridge, Sea-BOROUGH, Sad-BOROUGH, Water-PERRY, Wood-PERRY.

BURRA-voe, BROUGH, and BROUGH-under-Stanmore are examples of the Scandinavian form, BROUGH.

BUSTA, BUSTER, BUST (Scandinavian), _a dwelling-place_, a contraction of BOL-STATHR, _dwelling seat_. (See BOL).—Hob-BISTER, Swan-BISTER, Flad-BISTER, Swara-BISTER, Swara-STER, Mura-STER, Kirka-BISTER, and BUSTA-voe.

CHIP, CHEAP (Anglo-Saxon), _a market_.—

CHIPPING Norton, COPEN-hagen, COPPEN-brugge, KIOB-stae, Norr-KOPING, north-_market_; Ny-KOPING, new-_market_; CHEP-stow, _market_ place; CHEAP-side, _market_-seat; COUP-man Beck (COUP-land Beck), _merchant’s district brook_; Soder-KOPING, south-_market_.

COT, COAT, COTE, KET (Anglo-Saxon), _a hut_, _salt-pit_, _cottage_, _the dwelling of the poorer classes_.—

Swins-COE, swine’s _cottage_; Hes-KET, horse-_cottage_; Plas-KET, marshy-_cottage_; COTS-wold, the _cottages_ of the wolds; COT-leigh, the _cottage_ by the pasture; COTTES-more the _cottage_ by the moor; &c.

DERNE (Anglo-Saxon), _a solitary place_.—DEARNE, DARN-all, Wath-upon-DEARNE, Bode-DERN, DERN-yett, &c.

DACRE, DAKER (Scandinavian), _log-house_.—DACRE, DAKER-stead, &c.

ERN, ERNE (Anglo-Saxon), _a dwelling_, _hermitage_.—Crewk-ERNE, Ask-ERN, Kill-EARN, Cow-ARNE, &c.

GATA (Scandinavian), _a street_, _road_, _path_, _thoroughfare_.—Fresh-water-GATE, Fisher-GATE, Clappers-GATE, Hollow-GATE, Darn-YETT. Some of the leading thoroughfares in London end in GATE—_e.g._, Bishops-GATE-street, Moor-GATE-street, Kings-GATE-street.

The form GADE, found in Denmark and Norway, has the same signification.—GADE-busch, &c.

GALE, GEIL (Scandinavian), _a dwelling in a hollow_.—GALE-garth, GALE-hows, Grettis-GEIL, &c.

HUT, HUTTE (Anglo-Saxon), _a shelter_, _house_, _dwelling_, &c.—HUT-ton, HUT-toft, &c.

HAM (Anglo-Saxon), HEIM (German), UM (Frisian), HOME (English), _farm_, _enclosed land_, _a village or town_; the same root occurs in HAM-let.—High-HAM, Low-HAM, East-HAM, HAM-don, HAMP-ton, HAM-burgh, Dront-HEIM, Blen-HEIM, Hus-UM, Hol-UM, Fisk-UM, Skiv-UM, Ann-HAM, and Zel-HAM.

GARTH, GUARDS (Scandinavian), _an enclosed place_; YARD (Anglo-Saxon).—Mel-GUARDS, Stain-GARTH, Sky-GARTH, Gas-GARTH, Cal-GARTH, Bro-GAR, Land-GUARDS, Lan-GAR, Humble-YARD, and YARD-ley.

HALL, EALH (Anglo-Saxon), _a castle_, _mansion_, _house of a king_, _a temple_; ALHS (Gothic).—HAL-twistle, HAL-stock, Lilles-HALL, Coppen-HALL, Darn-ALL, ALA-darp, ALS-hein, and ALS-feld.

HOLD, HALD (Anglo-Saxon), _tenement_, _fortress_.—HOLD-shott, HOLD-fast, HOLD-gate, HOLDEN-by, HALDER-ness, and Neu-HALDENS-leben.

HELM (Provincial), _hovel_, _cottage_.—HELM-don, HELM-ley, &c.

HEM (Anglo Saxon), _limit_, _border_.—HEM-don, HEM-bury, HEM-ley, &c.

HERNE (Anglo-Saxon), _a dwelling_, _retired place_.—Lan-HERNE, Mat-HERNE, HERNE-Bay, HERNE-hill, &c. (See ERN).

HOUSE (English); HUS, HUUS (Scandinavian); HAUS, HAUSEN, HUSEN, SEN (German), _a residence_.—HUS-thwaite, Wood-HOUSE, Bo-HUS-land, Ar-OS, Aa-HUUS, HAUS-ruck, Schaff-HAUSEN, Borg-holz-HAUSEN, Ink-HUIZEN, Al-SEN, and As-SENS.

HOF, HOVEN (German), _a court_, _temple_; HOF (Scandinavian).—There is near Appleby a village called HOFF; HOFF-row, HOFF-common, and HOFF-lund are places containing the same root.

IN, INNE (Anglo-Saxon), _an enclosure, occupied by the proprietor_.—IN-gars-by, IN-gate-stone, IN-skip-with, IN-golds-by, EN-field, IN-ward-leigh.

KIRKE, KIRK (Scandinavian), _a church_.—KIR-by, KIRK-by, Aa-KIRKE, Dun-KIRK, &c.

LATH, LAITH (Scandinavian), _a barn_.—LATH-kill, LAITH-kirk, LATH-bury, &c.

LAND (Scandinavian), _a district_.—Nat-LAND, Mor-LAND, Ly-LAND, Rus-LAND, Gar-LAND, &c.

MEL (Gothic), _a boundary_.—MEL-guards, MEL-beck, Cart-MELL-fel, MEAL-rigg, MEL-ay.

PIGHTLE, PIGLE, PINGLE (Anglo-Saxon), _a small parcel of land enclosed with hedges_, _a field adjoining the farm-house_.—PIGHTELS-thorne, PIGLES-thorne, and PIT-stone.

RAY, REAY (Scandinavian), _a corner_.—REAY, Dock-RAY, Elle-RAY, &c.

RICK (Provincial), _a district_.—Rast-RICK, Land-RICK, Lind-RICK, Mar-RICK; REICH, RICH (German), REICHEN-hall, REICHEN-au, Au-RICH, and Ell-RICH.

ROW, ROWE (Anglo-Saxon), _a street_.—ROW-botham, Hoff-ROW, Hard-ROW, ROW-land, &c.

SAD (Anglo-Saxon), _a camp_.—SAD-borough, SED-bergh.

SCALE, SHIEL, SHIELD (Scandinavian) _a log-house_, _fisherman’s hut_.—SCALE-force, Thorny-SCALE, Bon-SCALE, Hud-SCALES, SCALE-hill, North SHIELDS, South SHIELDS, Lin-SHEELS, SHILL-hill.

SEL, SELE, SALE (Anglo-Saxon), _a hall_, _mansion_, _seat_.—Bo-SELL, Kel-SALE, SEL-side, SALE-fell, SEL-by, Buer-SILL, Bruch-SAL and Up-SALA (high _halls_.)

SET, SETA (Anglo-Saxon), SEAT, SIDE (Scandinavian), _a seat or dwelling_, _pasture upon a mountain side_.—Lang-SETT, Somer-SET, Dor-SET, SETTLE, SHOTTLE, As-kel-SIDE, Orm-SIDE, Raven-SIDE, SEAT-allan, SEAT-Robert, SEAT-oller, Out-SEATS, Thor-SET, and Ulv-SET.

SHIR, SHIRE (Anglo-Saxon), _a division_.—SHARES-hill, SHER-wood, SHARN-brook, Half-SHIRE, &c.

SHED, SHAD (Anglo-Saxon) _a division_.—SHAD-well, SHAD-forth, SHAD-ox-hurst, &c.

SKANS (Scandinavian), _a fort_.—SCAN-dale.

SKEW (Scandinavian), _a place in a corner_.—Scale-SCEUGH, Barn-SKEW, A-SKEW, North-SCEUGH.

SOK (Anglo-Saxon), _a ward_.—SOCK-burn, SOCK-hyre, &c.

STALL, STELL (Anglo-Saxon) _a residence_.—Bor-STALL, Hep-ton-STALL, Tun-STALL, Bo-STELL, HEIKEN, Borg-STELL (a _residence_ on the side of a hill).

STAPLE, STAPOL, STABLE (Anglo-Saxon), _a market place_, _an establishment_.—STAPLE, Barn-STAPLE, STAPLE-ton, STAPL-oe, STAPLE-ford.

STEAD (Anglo-Saxon), STADR, STER (Scandinavian), _the site of a building_, _a mansion_.—Kirk-STEADS, Hamp-STEAD, Ash-STEAD, STEAD-combe, the STAITHE, STAITHES, Brab-STER, Wolf-STER, Honi-STER, Ul-STER, Lein-STER, Mun-STER, Y-STAD, Neu-STADT, Strom-STRATT, and STADEN.

STITCHES (Anglo-Saxon), _deep narrow furrows for draining land_.—STITCH-bury, STITCHEL, STETCH-worth.

STOKE (Anglo-Saxon), _a place by the water_.—STOKE, STOKE-Pogis, &c.

STOW (Anglo Saxon) _a place_, _village_; STOE, STA (Scandinavian).—STOWE, Chep-STOW, Sme-STOW, Bri-STOL, STOW-market, STOW-on-the-Wold, Dock-STA (marshy-_place_), Bro-STA (bridge-_village_), Fog-STOEN, Haver-STOE (oat-_village_), and Mogle-STUE.

THING (Scandinavian), _a council_.—THING-oe, DING-wall.

THORPE, TORP, DRUP, RUP, UP (Scandinavian), _a village_; TORF, DORF (German).—Col-THORPE, Adles-TROP, Soul-DROP, Cracken-THORPE (crow-_village_), Hack-THORPE, Ebers-DORF, Al-TORF, Hump-DRUP, Brade-RUP.

TON, TUN (Anglo-Saxon), _an enclosure_, _town_.—Ac-TON, Wes-TON, New-TON, Clay-TON, TUN-bridge, TUN-stall, Eas-TYN, As-TEN.

TWISTLE, TWIZLE (Anglo-Saxon), _a border_, _boundary_.—Ex-TWISTLE, Hal-TWISTLE, Hau-TWYSEL, Tin-TWISEL, TWIZELL, TWISEL.

TYE (Anglo-Saxon), _a district_.—TEE-ton, the TYES, TEW, TEIGH, TEY.

WAR, WARK (Scandinavian), _a fortification_.—Ne-WARK, Grims-ARGH, South-WARK, WAR-cop, WARK-leigh, Lessoe-VARKS, WARK-um.

WARD (Anglo-Saxon), _a watch_, _guard_, &c.—WARD-le, WARD-en, WART-hill.

WALL, VOLD (Scandinavian), _a rampart_, _mound_, _fortification_.—Ting-WALL, Kirk-WALL, WALL-op, Ude-VALLA, Eids-VOLD.

WEILER (German), _a dwelling station_.—Esch-WEILER, Buchs-WEILER.

WON, WIN (Anglo-Saxon), _a dwelling_, _possession_.—WON-ersh, WON-ton, WON-ford.

LONDON: JUDD & GLASS, NEW BRIDGE STREET, BLACKFRIARS, E. C.

Transcriber’s Note

Typesetting errors (misplaced, wrong or missing punctuation; use of _italics_ and UPPER CASE LETTERS) have been corrected. For the most part, place names have not been checked for accuracy: the large number of them made this impractical. A few spelling mistakes that were apparent have, though, been corrected.