A Few Suggestions to McGraw-Hill Authors. Details of manuscript preparation, typograpy, proof-reading and other matters in the production of manuscripts and books. by McGraw-Hill Publishing Company

A FEW SUGGESTIONS TO

McGRAW-HILL AUTHORS

A FEW SUGGESTIONS TO

McGRAW-HILL AUTHORS

DETAILS OF MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION, TYPOGRAPHY, PROOF-READING AND OTHER MATTERS INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF MANUSCRIPTS AND BOOKS

MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 4 1922

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY THE MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

INTRODUCTION

The McGraw-Hill Book Company was formed on July 1, 1909, by a consolidation of the book departments of the McGraw Publishing Company and the Hill Publishing Company, then separate publishers of engineering journals and books. For over twenty years, prior to the formation of the McGraw-Hill Book Company, the several journals controlled by Mr. McGraw and Mr. Hill (now published by the McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., a separate organization) had been producing books in their special fields; but the publication of technical books had not been brought to the high standard of technical journals.

From the beginning we adopted the slogan, _Better Books in Text and Manufacture_. It was evident to the men who had brought the leading technical journals of the country from comparative insignificance to positions of influence that there was need of a new technical literature--a literature for classroom and reference which should adequately supplement their periodicals.

Our first efforts were largely in the field of engineering, but presently we set new goals for ourselves. By processes which seemed natural to us, we have extended our publishing not only into the fields of chemistry, physics, mathematics and English, with a view always of supplying better fundamental textbooks for students, but also into the fields of agriculture, business administration and economics. Similarly our range of publishing has broadened from the somewhat restricted field of _applied science_, to include numerous works of high standard dealing with _pure science_.

In all these fields the aim has been, not only to produce a better grade of text and reference book, but to put behind each book a selling organization so competent that the maximum market, both in this country and abroad, would be reached. Without this the possibility of persuading important men, in all branches of science, to produce textbooks seemed futile, for the author's return must always be in proportion to the distribution.

The association with the journals of the McGraw-Hill Company, which we represent in all matters pertaining to the production of books, brings us into close contact with the widest range of engineering and industrial activities. The circulations of these journals include the leading engineers and executives of the world. The list follows:

_American Machinist_ _Electric Railway Journal_ _Electrical World_ _Engineering and Mining Journal-Press_ _Coal Age_ _Engineering News-Record_ _Power_ _Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering_ _Electrical Merchandising_ _Industrial Engineer_ _Bus Transportation_ _Journal of Electricity_ _Ingenieria Internacional_

From these journals we draw both editorial guidance and marketing power. They are the "natural resources" which simplified the problems of our early years and made possible our rapid development and growth, until today, by the application of the same editorial standards and marketing methods, in broader fields, we are able to offer to the author of technical books a highly developed machinery of publication and distribution.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

I. UNIFORMITY AND STANDARDS 1

II. PREPARING THE MANUSCRIPT 3

Typing--Numbering the Pages--Copy for Footnotes--Copy for Illustrations--Subdividing the Text--Some Details of Typography--Bibliographies--Tables of Contents-- Indexes--Some Details of Style--Copyright Infringements --Shipping the Manuscript.

III. ILLUSTRATIONS 10

Line Drawings--Halftone Illustrations--Wax Cuts--In General--The Number of Illustrations.

IV. MANUFACTURING THE BOOK 14

Sample Galleys--Galley Proofs--Page Proofs--Answering Queries--Proof-reading--Author's Corrections.

V. WHEN THE BOOK IS PUBLISHED 19

Marketing a Book--Corrections and Revisions--Translations --Prompt Publication.

A FEW SUGGESTIONS TO McGRAW-HILL AUTHORS

I

UNIFORMITY AND STANDARDS

The purpose of these suggestions is fourfold:

(1) To assist our authors in preparing their manuscripts and in understanding the general process of publication.

(2) To lighten the burden of the editors, typesetters, and proof-readers in securing uniformity and adherence to high standards.

(3) To avoid complications and delays and--worst of all--the item of author's corrections.

(4) To obtain a standard of editorial details as uniformly high as that of the subject-matter of our books.

Let it be understood, first of all, that these are suggestions, not rules. Although we endeavor to maintain high standards, we do not insist upon uniformity of style or consistency throughout the books in our widely diversified list. The editor of a periodical or the proceedings of a society properly insists upon uniformity, generally issues a style sheet to guide his contributors, and edits all manuscript to fixed standards. But since our books cover nearly all branches of science, we feel that absolute uniformity would accomplish no good purpose.

Throughout a single manuscript, however, in details of punctuation, spelling, abbreviation, compounding of words, side- and center-headings, notation, bibliographic references, etc., we do ask for the adoption of a conservative, well-recognized standard. Even uniformity throughout a manuscript seems, curiously enough, most difficult to secure, although the lack of it leads to misunderstandings, delays and author's corrections, with their attendant avoidable expenses.

We have used the phrase "conservative, well-recognized standard" advisedly. Departure from such standards, either in spelling, punctuation, systems of notation or otherwise, is not advisable, for whatever convictions the author and the publisher may have it is quite certain that the majority of the readers of any given book will be conservative and more often annoyed than otherwise by any radical departures from common practice.

Without reference to our own views on simplified spelling, for example, we are confident that the radical simplified speller is neither surprised nor disturbed to find in a book what he would term old-fashioned spelling. The conservative speller, on the other hand, is shocked even at _tho_ and _thru_, and the book suffers accordingly. Nevertheless, we have no quarrel with _sulfur_ in our manuscripts on chemical subjects, or with any other spelling which has been approved officially by the leading technical society in the particular field of the manuscript.

To secure consistency in details throughout his manuscript it is best for an author to adopt as his guides, at the very beginning of his work, some standard unabridged dictionary and an authoritative writer's manual, and to stick to these alone until his book is on the market. By this method he will give his book not only a high standard but uniformity in details.

II

PREPARING THE MANUSCRIPT

The first requisite of good manuscript is obviously legibility. To this end we suggest the following:

=Typing.=--Manuscript should be typewritten in black on one side of white paper, uniform in size and preferably 8-1/2×11 inches. A paper of reasonable thickness and toughness is desirable. Thin, "manifold" paper should not be used for the publisher's copy.

The same spacing should be used as far as practicable on each sheet to facilitate estimates as to the number of words in the complete manuscript. A margin of at least an inch should be left at top, bottom, and left-hand side. Single spacing should be avoided.

A carbon copy should invariably be made and retained by the author, both for his reference and to protect him against possible loss of the original. The original or ribbon copy should be sent to the publisher.

=Numbering the Pages.=--Sheets should be numbered consecutively in the upper right-hand corner from beginning to end and arranged in order of their numbers. Interpolated pages may be marked 36a, 36b, and so forth, in accordance with the number of the preceding page. If any pages are removed from the manuscript for any reason, the preceding page should be double numbered, as, for example: 36 & 7 or 36-40.

=Copy for Footnotes.=--Footnotes, if used, should be put into the body of the manuscript immediately following the reference and separated from the text by parallel lines above and below. The number referring to the footnote should be placed in the text and before the footnote. Generally speaking, we prefer the use of arabic numerals for footnotes,[1] which should be carried out consecutively through each chapter, when the footnotes are numerous, with a new series for each chapter. In cases where footnotes are relatively few, the numerals may be repeated without risk of confusion from page to page as the footnotes occur.

[Footnote 1: This footnote is to show the size of type (8 point) which we generally use for footnotes. Incidentally this booklet is set up in 10 point, and in the general typographical style of our reference and textbooks, as distinguished from handbooks. The dimensions of the type page and the trimmed size of the page are those we usually adopt for the standard 6×9-inch book.]

=Copy for Illustrations.=--Drawings and photographs, which are discussed more fully later, should not be inserted in the manuscript, because illustrations are sent to the engraver at the same time that the manuscript is sent to the printer. Small drawings should be pasted on separate sheets of paper, one drawing to the sheet, but large drawings and photographs should not be treated in this manner. Mounted photographs are entirely satisfactory, but unmounted photographs should not be pasted on sheets or mounted, except by an expert. All illustrations should be referred to by figure numbers in the text and numbered correspondingly for identification on the copy. We prefer to have illustrations numbered consecutively from the beginning to the end of the manuscript.

=Subdividing the Text.=--In modern textbooks and scientific works the tendency is toward clearly marked subdivisions of the text. To this end center-headings, side-headings, and subheadings are constantly used. It is in general advisable that all manuscripts be prepared in this way. As far as is possible the divisions should be of reasonable length in order that the text may be broken up sharply into its subdivisions. In the case of textbooks intended for classroom use, we find that teachers generally prefer divisions of approximately equal size and not over a page in length. Where the division is longer than a page, subdivisions with side-headings in italics may be used.

Bold-face headings may be indicated in the manuscript either by the letters =b. f.= or by underlining with a wavy line. Italics may be indicated by underlining with a straight line. If bold-face capitals are required, mark =b. f. caps=.

In the designation of headings and subheadings particular care should be taken to follow a consistent and easily understood plan.

Some of our editors strongly recommend that every chapter should begin with an uncaptioned introductory paragraph to avoid the bald-headed appearance that results if a chapter begins immediately with a bold-face caption.

If a text is designed for one of the numerous series which we publish, the author should consult the editor of the series for his preference in this and similar matters.

=Some Details of Typography.=--For classroom use the majority of teachers seem to prefer to have the side-headings numbered consecutively throughout the book.

Tables and illustrations should be numbered consecutively throughout the book but in separate series. Tables should have an appropriate caption above, and, generally speaking, illustrations should have a descriptive legend below. Tables should be arranged, if possible, so that they can be printed across the page.

When equations and formulas are numerous, and especially in books designed for classroom use, it is often advantageous to number them consecutively throughout the text.

For chapters and tables roman numerals should be used; for all other series, arabic.

Excerpts from the works of other authors (when they are more than a phrase or sentence), problems, examples and test questions are generally set in smaller type than the body of the text itself. Accordingly they should be clearly marked.

=Bibliographies.=--Bibliographic references by footnotes serve in most books. Bibliographies of greater extent should be arranged alphabetically at the end of each chapter of the book, or numbered serially and referred to by numbers in the text. The custom is to print the titles of books in roman and the titles of periodicals in italics. Abbreviations should conform to the well-established style sheets of technical societies. We recommend particularly the abbreviations of:

{ Issued by the American Society of ENGINEERING INDEX { Mechanical Engineers, 29 West 39th { Street, New York.

{ Issued by the American Chemical CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS { Society, 1709 G Street, N. W., { Washington, D. C.

{ Issued by the Board of Control of { Botanical Abstracts, Dr. Donald BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS { Reddick, Business Manager, Cornell { University, Ithaca, N. Y.

{ Issued by the Zoological Society of THE ZOOLOGICAL RECORD { London, Regent's Park, London.

THE INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE { Issued by the Royal Society of OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE { London.

The extent of the bibliography will vary, of course, with the nature of the subject and the treatment. The tendency to-day appears to be toward rather excessive bibliographies, which do not seem to us generally to be justified. For a simple rule, we recommend "bibliographies of easily accessible sources."

=Tables of Contents.=--Detailed tables of contents to run in the front of the book serve a useful purpose. They should, however, be kept down to reasonable limits.

There are three forms of contents used in our books:

(1) A simple list of chapter headings. In many cases this is sufficient.

(2) Chapter headings with all articles or sub-headings given underneath. These may either be listed or "run in." With a good index, such a full table of contents seems hardly to serve a useful purpose.

(3) The chapter headings with the outstanding sub-headings listed or "run in" underneath. When these headings are selected carefully they give a quick but comprehensive picture of the contents.

Lists of illustrations are nowadays generally regarded as unnecessary in a technical book, and should be prepared only for the guidance of the author and the publisher.

=Indexes.=--A good subject index is necessary in all technical works. A widely-read periodical in New York at one time published regularly the following notice of subject books which were submitted to it for review and found to be without indexes:

The publisher and the author did not think well enough of this book to supply it with a suitable index. We feel, therefore, that it is hardly worthy of a review in our columns.

A good index is one which enables the reader or student to locate readily the subject or item which he seeks. It is usually best for an author to make his own index. A professional indexer is inclined to overload an index; the author, with his knowledge of the subject and a little study, will generally produce a better working index.

Our usual style of index is two columns to the page, set in 8-point type, with not more than two indentions. The following example shows the use of the single and double indentions:

INDEX

A

Acetylene starters, 263

Air cooling, 125 valve, 425 auxiliary, 72 dashpot, 74

Alcohol, heating value, 70 use in radiator, 128

Alignment of wheels, 421

Alternating current generator, simple, 280

Ammeter, method of connecting, 133 operation of, 337

Ampere, definition of, 132

Anti-friction bearings, 364

Armature type magneto, 191

Arm, torque, 400

Atwater-Kent ignition systems, 163, 167

B

Battery, effect of overcharging, 245 overfilling, 257 undercharging, 245 freezing temperature of, 250 ignition systems, 159 care of, 186 timing, 185 jars and covers, 242 markings, 244 necessity of pure water in, 247 operation of, 245 rundown, causes, 260 sediment, 260 specific gravity, change in, 247 sulphation, 256 testing with hydrometer, 247, 248 with voltmeter, 255 voltage, 244

Serious objection is properly made to numerous page references under a single heading. For example, in a book on Petroleum, references to every page on which the word _petroleum_ appears would obviously be valueless. The solution lies in concise qualifications of the main titles to reduce to the minimum the actual number of page references opposite each heading.

In the preparation of an index the use of 3×5-inch cards, or paper of sufficient weight to be handled easily and of similar dimensions, is advisable. This enables the author to arrange his subject matter alphabetically and assemble his duplicate references easily. The single and double indentions should be marked on these cards, and the guide words stricken out when indentions are indicated. For single indentions use this mark [sq]. For double indentions use [sq][sq]. If, after the cards are so arranged and marked, it is possible for the author to have the index typewritten in manuscript form, the risk of mixing and loss of cards is minimized and the work of the printer is facilitated.

=Some Details of Style.=--Because we do not seek uniformity throughout our entire list of books but ask only for uniformity within a manuscript itself, with adherence to any conservative and well-recognized standard, we do not issue a style sheet.

The periodicals with which we are associated (the publications of the McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., Tenth Avenue and 36th Street, New York) have a sheet which is excellent, and which may well serve as a guide to the author who is undertaking the preparation of a manuscript. Or the author may use as his guide any good writer's manual. At the risk of monotonous repetition, however, we urge once more the importance of uniformity throughout the manuscript itself. To this end, we suggest the following:

_Spelling._--Follow any one of the standard and well-recognized dictionaries, but follow it consistently. We encounter difficulties especially in the matter of hyphenated words; in using hyphens follow the dictionary.

_Abbreviations._--Again, any well-recognized standard will satisfy us. Dictionaries do not, in general, cover the abbreviations of scientific words to a satisfactory extent. We would suggest, therefore, that the author secure the style sheet of one of the leading technical societies in the field in which he works.

For Chemistry American Chemical Society

For Civil Engineering American Society of Civil Engineers

For Electrical Engineering American Institute of Electrical Engineers

For Mechanical Engineering American Society of Mechanical Engineers

For Mining and Metallurgy American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers

For Economics and Business American Economic Association

All of these technical societies have not only worked out their style sheets with care, but they have, in general, accustomed their numerous members to the details of these style sheets.

=Copyright Infringements.=--All publishers have noted in recent years a great increase in the number of copyright infringement cases. Many of these appear to spring from the habit of first preparing lecture notes, which are compiled or dictated from various sources without thought of publication. By the time the plan to produce a book matures, the source of the original material is often entirely forgotten.

No question is more common in the technical publishing field than "How far can I make excerpts, with credit but without permission, from the writings of other authors?"

To this question no definite and entirely satisfactory answer can be given. Certainly, where illustrations, tables, or important abstracts are to be made, the author should ask permission of the publisher or author from whose work he wishes to quote. In addition he should take special pains to see that full credit is given in the form required by the author or publisher from whom he has secured permission.

The copyright law and the penalties for infringement of copyright are drastic, but the decisions which have been rendered in cases that have gone to trial do not furnish any particularly safe guide.

In our experience the safest guide is a simple rule of courtesy. Neither the author nor the publisher of a work will refuse any reasonable request, though he may greatly resent borrowing without the courtesy of a request. It is safer, therefore, to obtain permission from author or publisher before borrowing from another work.

=Shipping the Manuscript.=--Manuscript should invariably be shipped flat, not folded or rolled.

Manuscript and drawings should be sent together and not in instalments. Except in rare instances, we do not undertake piecemeal manufacture of a book. In our experience such publication methods save little or no time and more often result in confusion and expense.

Manuscript, before it has been set up in type, should be shipped by express with a suitable valuation placed thereon. After the manuscript has been set up in type, the manuscript and proof may best be sent by parcel post, special delivery.

III

ILLUSTRATIONS

In technical work such as ours the illustrations are of two classes: (1) line drawings; (2) photographic or halftone illustrations.

=Line Drawings.=--Copy for line drawings should be made two to three times the dimensions of the completed illustration. The weight of line, and especially the lettering, should be carefully worked out to give desired results. The following illustrations, taken from "Engineering Drawing," by Thomas E. French, will serve as a guide to the draftsman preparing these illustrations. We suggest, however, that when the completed copy for a few characteristic illustrations is ready, the author send the samples to us in order that we may determine their suitability or even, if desirable, reproduce the samples in order that the author may examine the results with us. When difficulty is encountered in securing suitable lettering, which will give a finished appearance to the illustrations, we are willing to accept the drawings with the lettering penciled in. We, in turn, engage draftsmen, who are experienced in lettering for reproduction, to finish the work. As this often leads to errors, however, we prefer the completed drawings ready for reproduction.

Line drawings from periodicals, catalogues and other publications can be reproduced direct without material reduction in size, when the copy is suitable for the book, and, of course, when permission to reproduce has been secured by the author.

=Halftone Illustrations.=--Halftone illustrations can be made satisfactorily only from photographs or wash drawings. Photographs on a high-finish or glossy paper produce the best results. We cannot produce good results by making a halftone from a halftone print. A halftone engraving is photographed through a screen, and when we undertake to reproduce a halftone from a halftone print we throw one screen upon the other. In rare cases passable results can be obtained in this way, but such copy should be used most sparingly.

[Illustration: Drawing for one-half reduction.]

[Illustration: One-half reduction.]

If photographs are unmounted, they should not be mounted or pasted on sheets of paper. Smoothly mounted photographs present no difficulties to the engraver.

Numbers, letters or marks should not be placed on the face of photographic prints or wash drawings. If numbers or letters are called for, they should be indicated in pencil at the proper point on the back of unmounted prints. This can be done easily by holding the print against a window facing a strong light. In the case of mounted photographs, a fly leaf of thin paper pasted on the back of the photograph at the top and folded over the face of the photograph, can be used for the numbers or letters. In both cases the engraver adds the numbers or letters on the print in the manner best suited to reproduction.

[Illustration: Drawing for two-thirds reduction.]

[Illustration: Two-thirds reduction.]

Manufacturers' cuts can sometimes be used when the nature of the text calls for them. If possible the manufacturer should be asked to supply the original photograph or drawing. If this is not available, then the original cut--not an electrotype--should be secured. Electrotypes can often be used, but the results are not of the standard which we like to maintain.

=Wax Cuts.=--Formerly many textbooks were illustrated by engravings made by the wax process. This is the process ordinarily used for the production of maps. The cost of these engravings has risen, however, to a point which makes them now practically out of the question for the average book. They may be used in special cases. Their chief advantage is that they can be made from rough pen or pencil sketches and do not call either for finished lines or careful lettering.

=In General.=--Wherever possible illustrations to occupy a full page should stand vertically on the page. This is, we think, obviously more satisfactory to the user of the book.

Folded plates and charts should be avoided as far as possible, not only because they involve an unreasonable expense, but because American readers, at least, do not like them. Furthermore any considerable number of inserted charts weakens the binding of the book.

Color plates and maps in color are prohibitively expensive for most technical books, but systems of shading and cross-hatching can be employed as a substitute for colors in many forms of illustration.

=The Number of Illustrations.=--The cost of engravings of all types has risen out of all proportion to the costs of other details of book manufacture, and there is no present prospect of a reduction in the scale of prices. This proves to be especially burdensome to the publishers of technical and scientific books where the texts generally contain a large number of illustrations. Accordingly we ask authors to consider carefully the possibilities of reducing the number of illustrations. In books of the character of ours illustrations are essential, and wherever they aid the reader in grasping the subject or are essential to the understanding of the subject, they cannot be eliminated. But we do not believe in illustrations that are merely "pictures" and are not essential to the understanding of the text. Wherever they can be dispensed with, without injury to the text, they should be eliminated in order that the retail price of the book may be kept within reasonable limits.

IV

MANUFACTURING THE BOOK

=Sample Galleys.=--When the manuscript has been prepared in our offices for the printer, and the time has come to undertake the manufacture of the book, we ask the printer, first, to set a few pages of the manuscript and submit them to us in galley proofs. These are in turn submitted to the author in order that he may study the typography and inform us if we have in any way misunderstood his manuscript and the marks on it. This step is, of course, dispensed with if a definite agreement has been reached in advance as to the typographical details of the book.

When the author has looked over these first galleys, not with the idea of proof-reading but of determining upon the style, we instruct the printer to proceed with the typesetting.

=Galley Proofs.=--These proofs in duplicate (one set is for the author's files) are first submitted to the author, and accompanying these is a cut dummy which shows the illustrations reproduced as they will appear in the book.

Galley proofs should be read with extreme care, and wherever possible the author should call in some associate or assistant to read them as well, for it is our experience that the author who has spent a great deal of time in the preparation of a manuscript often reads with his memory rather than his eyes and passes the most obvious errors.

When the author returns the galleys with his corrections marked thereon, he should at the same time return the original manuscript. At this time also figure numbers and captions should be added to the illustrations, and an indication should be made by number in the margin of the galleys of the approximate location of the illustrations.

Illustrations are inserted in the pages by the printer as near the point of reference as the limitations of make-up will permit. If, as happens in rare cases, an illustration must be inserted in a given paragraph, this should be clearly indicated on the galley proof.

=Page Proofs.=--The printer then proceeds to make the book up into pages, and duplicate page proofs are forwarded to the author. These again should be read carefully to make sure that all corrections which were indicated in the galleys have been properly made, and returned to us for final casting into plates. Changes, and additions other than typographical corrections, which involve the overrunning and rearranging of lines or pages, often mean the remake-up of many pages of type and an expense that is usually out of all proportion to the good accomplished. Corrections and changes should, therefore, always be made in the galley proofs, to avoid the difficult question of author's corrections, which is discussed on page 18.

The duplicate set of page proofs should be retained by the author for use in preparing his index, in order that the copy for the index may be forwarded as soon after the final shipment of page proofs as possible.

=Answering Queries.=--Frequently the proof-readers query certain points in the manuscript on the galley or page proofs. It is important that the author note these queries in all cases and indicate his decision regarding the questions so raised.

=Proof-reading.=--In technical books especially, good proof-reading is essential. We use every effort to submit proofs which follow closely the original copy, but the experienced author knows that he himself cannot exercise too much care in proof-reading. The amount of damage which has been done to the reputation and sales of many otherwise excellent technical books, by carelessness in proof-reading, would astound the inexperienced author.

One set of galley and one set of page proofs which the author receives are marked with the printer's corrections, generally in green or red ink. The set containing the printer's marks should be returned with the author's corrections added. The duplicate set the author should keep for his own files.

For the guidance of those who are inexperienced in proof-reading, we give herewith a reproduction of a sheet showing the ordinary proof-reading marks. It is helpful if the author follows this general system in marking his proofs. It is essential that the corrections be clearly marked.

PROOFREADER'S MARKS

[symbol] Insert the letter, word or punctuation mark indicated. [symbol] Insert or substitute a period at the place indicated. [symbol] Insert an apostrophe. [symbol] Insert quotation marks. [symbol] Insert a hyphen. [symbol] Make a space at the point indicated. [symbol] Close up or join separated letters or words. [symbol] Delete or take out. [l.c.] Change from capital to small letter. [Cap.] Change to capital letter. [s.c.] Change to small caps. [ital.] Change to italics. [rom.] Change to roman type. [w.f.] Wrong font letter. [tr] Transpose. [symbol] Words or letters inclosed by line should change places. [¶] Paragraph here. [No ¶] No paragraph here. [Stet or ... ] Restore word or sentence mistakenly marked out. [? or Qy.] Is this right? [X] Broken letter. [symbol] Move to left. [symbol] Move to right. [symbol] Push down space.

In preparing copy for the printer the writer should underline:

_One line_, words to be put in italics. _Two lines_, words to be put in small caps. _Three lines_, words to be put in large caps. _Wave line_ (~~~~~~), words to be put in heavy face type.

[Illustration: A CORRECTED PROOF-SHEET]

=Author's Corrections.=--No problem in the publishing of technical books gives the publisher and the author more trouble than the question of author's corrections. The term "author's corrections" covers, technically, changes made in content, arrangement or typographical style, or additions to the manuscript, after the type has been set.

The publisher, to protect himself against the author who practically rewrites his manuscript after it has been set up in type, usually provides in his contract that corrections in excess of a certain percentage of the cost of composition shall be charged to and paid for by the author. The printer makes a careful distinction between printer's corrections and author's corrections. Corrections marked in galley and page proofs of a book where the printer has not followed copy are printer's corrections. Author's corrections are changes and additions made in the proof. Obviously, where these changes make a distinct improvement in the text--that is, a better book--the publisher takes a sympathetic attitude; but when the item of author's corrections runs to a total of twenty-five or fifty per cent or more of the cost of setting up the book, there is clear indication that the author did not complete his book in the manuscript but in the proof.

For a general rule it should be kept in mind that corrections in the galley proofs cost much less than corrections in the page proofs where remake-up of pages involving a large expense may result from the addition of a single line, or even a few words. But it is most important of all for the author to realize that every correction made after the manuscript has been set up in type is time-consuming and expensive, and that such delay and expense are reduced to a minimum when the author submits a clean, carefully prepared manuscript which embodies his final judgment of content and style.

V

WHEN THE BOOK IS PUBLISHED

Within a short period after the author returns the proofs of the index, the book is ready for publication. The author's work is then practically done.

Immediately upon the arrival of the bound books from the bindery, the publisher places the work upon the market, copyrights it in this country and abroad, and undertakes campaigns for its distribution.

This section of the _Suggestions_ is intended to show the author how he can help in this work and to answer certain questions which are asked constantly.

=Marketing a Book.=--We take pride in the thoroughness with which we seek the market for all books bearing our imprint. The spirit of the agreement which we make with the author is that each book is a separate business venture into which we have entered as a partner of the author.

In marketing his book the author can be of material assistance to us. He knows the subject better than we can ever know it, and he knows the type of man to which he intends his book to appeal. For these reasons we always welcome the assistance and suggestions of the author.

At the time when the author begins to receive page proofs of the book, we are outlining our campaign for its distribution. At that time we like to receive from the author, first, a brief but exact definition of the scope and purpose of the book. This we use, not for our advertising, but as the basis of our advertising. Second, we find distinctly helpful a list of points to emphasize in our circular and periodical advertising, and for such a list we look to the author. A cut-and-dried table of contents often fails to give as good a picture of a book as do a few well-selected points.

At the same time the author's suggestions of special periodicals to which copies should be sent for review, and of special lists which may well be circularized, will also be helpful. These we generally know about, but sometimes we overlook obvious points of attack in our campaigns.

=Corrections and Revisions.=--In practically every instance our books are printed from electrotype plates. Consequently the first printings are rarely large, because we are able to produce further copies, from our electrotype plates, as needed.

Before a book is reprinted the author is given an opportunity to send in corrections of typographical and other errors which have escaped notice in the earlier printing or printings. Such reprints, however, are not called new editions nor is the title page date of the book changed. We follow strictly the policy of designating as new editions only books which have been more or less thoroughly revised, and the title page date of one of our books is an indication of the date of the text--not of the reprint.

When, in the author's opinion or our own, the text requires revision, we discuss the details with the author and arrange for as complete a revision as the condition of the text calls for. Since the printings of our books are rarely large, we are able to arrange for the production of a new edition in normal cases as soon as the author feels that it is required and can complete his portion of the work.

=Translations.=--We arrange, where possible, for translations of books into foreign languages, dividing the proceeds with the author. The underlying theory of this division is that, with the publication of a translation, both the author and the publisher suffer from the loss of sales of the edition in English.

The foreign publisher generally has to pay to his translator about the royalties usually paid to an author, and accordingly the amount which can be charged to a foreign publisher for rights of translation is, except in rare cases, small. Translations must be regarded as a by-product.

Our attempts to market books in foreign languages from New York, or from one of our foreign agencies, have not been encouraging. Accordingly, the first question, when we are endeavoring to arrange for a translation, is for us to find a publisher in the country selected who will undertake the work of securing a translator and publishing the book. When a translator offers his services, we find it necessary to ask him first to interest a publisher in his own country in the venture.

=Prompt Publication.=--From the standpoint of both the author and the publisher it is desirable that a book should be put on the market as soon as possible after the manuscript is completed.

From the moment the publisher undertakes to manufacture a book he has an investment which grows rapidly and yields nothing until the sales of the book begin.

The production of technical books is delayed, generally, by one of the following causes:

(1) The author wishes to submit his material to his associates or to specialists in the field. Except for purposes of proof-reading such submission should be made in manuscript.

(2) The author fails to return his proofs and manuscript copy promptly. The prompt reading and return of proofs is of the greatest importance.

(3) The copy for the index does not follow closely upon the return of the final batch of page proofs.

The printer, the engraver, the paper manufacturer, the binder or the publisher may also interfere with prompt publication; but if the author's end of the work is handled systematically and promptly, we are generally able to control the manufacturing details.

* * * * *

Transcriber's Note

_ _ indicates italic script;

= = indicates bold script;

[sq] indicates a hollow square.

Sundry missing or damaged punctuation has been repaired.

Page 6, etc.: 'sub-headings', and 'subheadings' both appear in this book, as do 'Proof-reader' and 'Proofreader', and some other instances of hyphenated and non-hyphenated words.

As it is a book of suggestions on layout and style from a respected publishing house, it can be assumed they knew what they intended, so both hyphenated and non-hyphenated words have been retained.

Page 9: 'instalments'.

From Webster's Dictionary, 1913 Edition (http: //www. bibliomania.com/2/3/257/frameset.html):

Installment (In*stall"ment) n. [Written also instalment.]

'instalments' has therefore been retained.