Lyman's History of old Walla Walla County, Vol. 2 Embracing Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and Asotin counties by Lyman, William Denison

generously made available by The Internet Archive/American Libraries.)

LYMAN'S HISTORY _of_ Old Walla Walla County

_Embracing_

Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and Asotin Counties

ILLUSTRATED

VOLUME II

CHICAGO THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY 1918

[Illustration: NELSON G. BLALOCK]

BIOGRAPHICAL

N. G. BLALOCK, M. D.

No history of Walla Walla and of this section of the northwest would be complete without extended reference to Dr. N. G. Blalock, who not only figured as a most successful and progressive physician but, also recognizing the possibilities for the material development of the northwest through its natural resources, contributed in marked measure to the upbuilding of this section of the country and the promotion of its business activities. His labors were of a character that contributed to public progress as well as to individual success and in fact they were of the most farreaching extent and importance.

Dr. Blalock was a native of North Carolina, his birth having occurred in Mitchell county, that state, in 1836. He spent his youth amid rural surroundings in his native state, his time largely being devoted to agricultural pursuits, while later he took up the profession of teaching but regarded this merely as an initial step to other professional labor. It became his earnest desire to enter the medical profession and with that end in view he matriculated in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, from which he was graduated in 1861. He first located for practice in Mount Zion, Illinois, and when the Civil war was in progress he put aside all business, professional and personal considerations and joined the army as surgeon of an Illinois regiment, doing active duty at the front in this connection. When hostilities had ceased he resumed the practice of medicine in Illinois, where he remained until 1872. He then heard and heeded the call of the west. He first came in 1872 to spy out the land. Crossing the continent part of the way with a team, actuated by the purpose of selecting a new home in the Pacific northwest, he decided upon Walla Walla and then returned to Illinois for his family. In May, 1873, they left their home in Macon county, that state, and on the 11th of October reached Walla Walla, having spent about six months upon the road, as they traveled by team. There were twenty-seven members in the little immigrant party and their total financial resources on reaching their destination did not exceed twenty dollars. Dr. Blalock at once sought employment in order to replenish his depleted exchequer. He began hauling wheat from Walla Walla to Wallula and upon the return trip brought groceries and other merchandise, which had to be laid in before navigation on the Columbia river closed for the winter. He was thus engaged for a little over a month, after which he opened his office and began practicing medicine. His career in that professional field was a most notable one. His ability was pronounced. He most carefully diagnosed his cases and his judgment was seldom, if ever, at fault. He did most important work in the frontier community, his professional career covering a period of fifty-three years, during which he kept a complete record of his obstetrical cases, including the names, ages and birthplaces of parents and the names and sexes of children. He officiated at almost six thousand obstetrical cases. He was the loved family physician in many a household. He was most sympathetic by nature, kindly in spirit and these qualities, added to his professional skill and ability, made him most efficient in medical practice.

Dr. Blalock also deserves special mention for his contribution to the development of Walla Walla and the northwest. He organized the firm of Blalock, Son & Company for the purpose of building a mill and flume to engage in the manufacture and shipment of lumber, wood, etc., from what is known as the Blalock Mountain. This undertaking did not prove profitable, however, and the company failed for two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, with assets of only fifty thousand dollars. The nature of Dr. Blalock at once was manifest, for he immediately assumed the liabilities of the company and in less than eight years paid off every cent, with interest at from fifteen to twenty-four per cent per annum, acting in this matter contrary to the advice of his attorneys. No other course was possible to a man of his straightforward and honorable nature, however. He felt that every cent of his indebtedness should be met and he resolutely set to work to achieve this end, which in an incredibly short space of time he accomplished.

It was Dr. Blalock who installed the first telephone used in the state. He rented six instruments at twelve dollars per month each and built and kept up his own line from the mill to the end of the flume. He was the promoter of what is known as the Blalock Orchards, two miles west of Walla Walla. In 1876 he purchased for two dollars and a half per acre four hundred acres of desert land, which he leveled, irrigated and then planted with fruit trees, including apples, pears and cherries, and also set out many small fruits. He shipped the first two car loads of pears from the state of Washington east of the Rocky Mountains and made large exhibit of his fruit at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Since that time the Blalock Orchards have been enlarged to sixteen hundred acres and have constituted a most important feature of the horticultural development of the northwest. Upon the land are now eight artesian wells, all strong and affording a supply of water ample to irrigate the entire area with a system of pipe lines over twenty miles in length, touching every acre of this vast tract. The lands are being sold in five-acre tracts at from one thousand to fifteen hundred dollars per acre. Dr. Blalock also made arrangements for the purchase of three thousand six hundred acres of dry land six miles south of Walla Walla, for which he was to pay ten bushels of wheat per acre, an amount equal to five dollars per acre. The first crop paid for the land and all expenses of raising and harvesting and left him about three thousand dollars. This was followed by the purchase of seven thousand acres of wheat land in Gilliam county, Oregon, and he planted and promoted an orchard at the town of Blalock. He was the promoter of the Blalock Islands enterprise, covering four thousand acres in the Columbia river in Benton county, Washington. He was associated with others in the development of three thousand acres of desert land under the Carey act in Morrow county, Oregon. No one labored more untiringly for the opening of the Columbia river for navigation than Dr. Blalock, who for years devoted many hours to the work. In appreciation of his efforts in that behalf the Columbia and Snake River Waterways Association, meeting in Lewiston in its third annual convention, passed the following resolution: "In these days of the passing of the pioneer the people of the great northwest are called upon from time to time to recognize the lifelong service of noble men and women and to honor their names. Occasionally we take unto ourselves the rare privilege of brightening the closing years of one of these servants of mankind by a slight expression of our affection and appreciation of their efforts in things worth while. Such an occasion greets us today as we meet to honor one of God's emblems. In recognition of the large part Dr. N. G. Blalock has had in effecting an organized movement to secure an open river; in grateful acknowledgment that through his indefatigable and successful labor, associated with Joseph N. Teal, W. J. Mariner and J. F. Smith, almost insuperable obstacles were overcome and the Oregon Portage Railroad was built at The Dalles; and with hearty thanks to him for the lavish expenditure of time and money in representing his state at meetings of the Natural Rivers and Harbor Congress and attending innumerable other gatherings in the interest of our rivers, where he has materially helped in securing definite results. Therefore, be it resolved, that we, the delegates to the Columbia and Snake River Waterways Association here assembled, express to Dr. N. G. Blalock our deep affection and our grateful appreciation for his long life of loving service."

A splendid characterization of Dr. Blalock is found in the memorial address which was delivered by the Hon. Ben F. Hill before a joint session of the state senate and the house of representatives, on which occasion Mr. Hill said:

"Mr. President, Gentlemen of the senate and house:

"It is with a sense of profound sorrow that we pay a tribute to the memory of Dr. Nelson G. Blalock, the distinguished member from Walla Walla, of the constitutional convention. Dr. Blalock was born in Mitchell county, North Carolina, in 1836. He was a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, served as a surgeon in the One Hundred and Fifteenth Illinois Regiment in the Civil war and came in 1873 to Walla Walla, the then metropolis of the northwest. The brilliant young surgeon was in demand throughout the whole of the Inland Empire. He became acquainted in his travels with the religious and geographical work of the great Marcus Whitman and his chief ambition appeared to be to develop the economic resources of that part of Washington territory. For this reason the names of Marcus Whitman and Nelson G. Blalock will be indelibly linked together in the building and construction of our great state. One of Nelson G. Blalock's earliest exploits was, when roads were impossible, the building of a large flume from the Blue mountains to Walla Walla, for the purpose of transporting logs, fuel and lumber to that growing community. He made a success of and was the pioneer of arid land wheat farming. As early as 1881 he produced the unprecedented yield of fifty thousand bushels of wheat on one thousand acres of arid land. After proving that wheat could be successfully produced he turned to irrigation projects, some of which now are honored in retaining the Blalock name. He drilled for and found artesian water, utilized the water of the various streams, and every one of the districts he founded is now a prosperous and conservative community. I could go on and tell you of his work to complete the Celilo locks and canal and of his intense desire to see an open Columbia river, but those and local problems are developing as he anticipated they would. In fact before Dr. Blalock passed away he had the final pleasure of knowing that all these great economic benefits to the Inland Empire would be finished. In the 1913 session we were honored by having Dr. Nelson G. Blalock, during one of our sessions, invited to take his place with our speaker and then a few days later during the session we were shocked to hear of his death. You do not wonder then that Dr. Blalock was elected to represent the Walla Walla district at the constitutional convention and we revere and honor that man, soldier, physician, statesman who in the economic development of the Inland Empire was the greatest man the northwest has yet produced, Dr. Nelson G. Blalock."

On the 13th of March, 1914, Dr. Blalock was stricken with apoplexy while at work in his office and was taken to a hospital, where he died the following day.

DORSEY S. BAKER, M. D.

No history of Walla Walla and the Inland Empire would be complete without extended reference to Dr. Dorsey S. Baker, now deceased, who for many years figured most prominently in the professional, commercial and financial circles of the northwest. He stood in the front rank of the columns that have advanced the civilization of Washington, leading to its substantial development, progress and upbuilding. He was particularly active in the growth of Walla Walla, where he continued to make his home for many years. He recognized and utilized the resources of the country and by establishing many business enterprises contributed in marked measure to its development and progress. Widely known, his life history cannot fail to prove of interest to the many friends that he left behind and who still honor and cherish his memory.

Dr. Baker was born in Wabash county, Illinois, October 18, 1823, and while still a boy in his teens became the active assistant of his father, who was engaged in milling and merchandising. Thus he received a thorough training that constituted the broad foundation upon which much of the success of his later years was built. After a time, however, he determined to enter upon a professional career and with that end in view matriculated in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, from which he was graduated in 1845 on the completion of the full course. He located for the practice of medicine in Des Moines, Iowa, but after remaining there for a brief period determined to follow the advice of Horace Greeley, who said: "Go west, young man, go west." Accordingly in 1848 he started for Oregon, where he arrived in the fall of the same year, having no money and no acquaintances in this section of the country. He immediately opened an office and began the practice of his chosen profession in Portland, which was then a small town containing but one or two streets along the river front. Gold was discovered in California the following year and Dr. Baker joined the rush for the famous Eldorado. He remained in that state until the spring of 1850 and then returned to Portland, where he entered into partnership with L. B. Hastings in the conduct of a mercantile enterprise. The following spring he again went to the mines, this time his objective point being Yreka, which was then a newly developed mining camp. In May of the same year, however, he once more returned to Oregon and established his home in the Umpqua valley, where for several years he devoted his attention to stock raising, to milling and to general merchandising. He erected the first flour mill in southern Oregon at the old town of Oakland in Douglas county, and in 1858 he was conducting business in Portland as a hardware merchant.

[Illustration: D. S. BAKER]

Dr. Baker's connection with Walla Walla dated from October, 1859, when he established a store in this city, placing William Stephens in charge. The following year, however, he personally assumed the management of the business and in 1862 he entered into partnership with his brother-in-law, John F. Boyer, in establishing the firm of Baker & Boyer, which was so long widely and favorably known in eastern Washington. It was in that year that he also became associated with Captain Ankeny, H. W. Corbett and Captain Baughman in the organization of a steamboat company to operate a line of boats on the Columbia and Snake rivers. This company built the steamer Spray for the upper river and the E. D. Baker for the lower Columbia trade, thus instituting what constituted a most important element in the development and upbuilding of the northwest. These steamship lines were sold the following year to the Oregon Steam Navigation Company. Dr. Baker's recognition of the possibilities and opportunities of the northwest constituted a most important factor in the development of the Inland Empire. After nine years he took up the construction of a railroad from Walla Walla to the Columbia River, building the line entirely from his own resources. This not only enhanced the fortune of the promoter but brought prosperity and wealth to the entire Walla Walla valley and adjacent country. It was a matter of pride to Dr. Baker that during his ownership and management of the railroad it was never encumbered with a mortgage and never had a floating debt. He finally sold the road in 1878 to the Henry Villard syndicate and it became a part of the Oregon Railway and Navigation System.

Throughout the remainder of his life Dr. Baker devoted his energies to banking and to the inauguration of various business enterprises in and about Walla Walla that continued as factors in the progress and improvement of the city and of the state. The Baker-Boyer Bank, which was organized in 1869, is the oldest institution of the kind in Washington and remains one of the strongest moneyed concerns of the state. Later it was reorganized as the Baker-Boyer National Bank.

Dr. Baker was married in Portland, Oregon, in June, 1850, to Miss Caroline Tibbetts, a native of Indiana, by whom he had seven children, three of whom died in infancy. The others were Edwin Franklin, now living in California; Mary E., the deceased wife of Ex-Governor Miles C. Moore, now president of the Baker-Boyer National Bank; Henry C.; and W. W., who is the vice president of the Baker-Boyer National Bank. For his second wife Dr. Baker chose Miss Mary Legier, of Tuscola, Illinois, who passed away soon afterward, and in August, 1867, he wedded Elizabeth H. McCullough, by whom he had eight daughters, four of whom died while young. Mrs. Baker passed away May 7, 1917, having for many years survived her husband, whose death occurred in Walla Walla, July 5, 1888.

Dr. Baker not only lived to witness a remarkable transformation in this section of the country but was an active participant in all the changes that brought about modern-day civilization. His greatest effort in pioneer days was the building of the Walla Walla & Columbia River Railroad, which was the foundation of the early settlement and building up of the great Inland Empire, of which Walla Walla became the distributing point for eastern Washington, Montana and Idaho. He gave the original site for Whitman Seminary, donating land which became the nucleus of the present property of what is now Whitman College. Almost seventy years have passed since Dr. Baker came to the northwest to cast in his lot with its pioneers. People of the present period can scarcely realize the struggles and dangers which attended the early settlers, the heroism and self-sacrifice of lives passed upon the borders of civilization, the hardships endured, the difficulties overcome. These tales of the early days read almost like a romance to those who have known only the modern prosperity and conveniences. To the pioneer of the early days, far removed from the privileges and conveniences of city and town, the struggle for existence was a stern and hard one, and these men and women must have possessed indomitable energy and sterling worth of character as well as marked physical courage when they thus voluntarily selected such a life and successfully fought its battles under such circumstances as prevailed in the northwest. The efforts of Dr. Baker were indeed an important feature in the development of this section of the country. He saw and utilized opportunities which have brought about modern-day progress and improvement and not only kept pace with the trend of the times but was a leader in the onward march of progress in Walla Walla and this section of the state.

C. R. ROGG.

C. R. Rogg, who is engaged in the furniture and undertaking business in Dayton, has in his business career ever followed the admonition of the old Greek philosopher, Epicharmus, who said: "Earn thy reward; the gods give nought to sloth." In other words he has ever been diligent and determined and his close application and his energy have brought him the measure of success which he now enjoys. He was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, May 17, 1876, and is a son of Raymond and Katie (Toy) Rogg. The father was a native of Germany but came to America when a young lad and settled in Connecticut, where he was reared and married. In 1877 he removed with his family to Kansas, where he established his home upon a farm and in that state both he and his wife passed away. In their family were seven children, six of whom are now living.

Although born in New England, C. R. Rogg was only about a year old when the family home was established in the Sunflower state and there he was reared and educated, pursuing his studies in the public schools. He was a young man of about twenty-seven years when he determined to leave the middle west and try his fortune upon the Pacific coast. He arrived in Walla Walla county, Washington, in 1903 and there remained for a year, after which he removed to Dayton, where he established a furniture and undertaking business, in which he has now been engaged for thirteen years, building up a trade of large and gratifying proportions. He has a well appointed furniture store, carrying a large and carefully selected stock, and his reasonable prices, progressive business methods and earnest desire to please his customers have brought to him a very gratifying patronage.

In May, 1906, Mr. Rogg was united in marriage to Miss Ollie Landon, who was born in Kansas, a daughter of R. E. Landon, who is still living in that state. To Mr. and Mrs. Rogg have been born three children: John Vern, whose birth occurred October 23, 1907; Erma B., who was born January 29, 1910; and Caroline Bernice. Mrs. Rogg is a member of the Christian church. Mr. Rogg has membership with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and has filled all of the chairs in the local lodge. He is also connected with Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P. His political support is given to the democratic party and he has been elected a member of the city council by the vote of his fellow townsmen, who recognized his worth and ability and felt that public interests would be safe in his hands. The years of his residence in Dayton have brought him a wide acquaintance and his sterling worth has gained for him the high regard of those with whom he has been associated.

FRANK C. ROBINSON, M. D., F. A. C. S.

Prepared by comprehensive study at home and abroad, Dr. Frank C. Robinson has won for himself a distinguished position in the ranks of the medical profession in Walla Walla and the northwest. He has wisely utilized his native talents and as the years have gone on his reading and research have kept him in touch with the trend of scientific attainment. He was born in Blandinsville, Illinois, May 24, 1874, a son of Campbell and Elizabeth (Hungate) Robinson, both of whom were natives of McDonough county, Illinois, where they were reared and married. There they resided until 1875, when they removed to Taylor county, Iowa, and in 1892 they became residents of Walla Walla county, Washington. The father purchased land at Bolles Junction, where he engaged in farming for ten years, and in 1902 he retired from active life, taking up his abode in the city of Walla Walla, where his remaining days were passed, his death occurring in 1913, while his widow survived until 1916. He was for a long period one of the most extensive and successful agriculturists of his locality, owning and cultivating two thousand acres of land at Bolles Junction. In his family were six children, namely: Frank C., of this review; Charles D., connected with the Lincoln Trust Company, of Spokane, Washington; Samuel E., a farmer of Imperial, California; Lillian M., who is teaching in the high school of Hilliard, near Spokane, Washington; Harry H., a physician now on duty as a captain in the Medical Reserve Corps at Waco, Texas; and Myrtle V., the wife of William R. Howard, a teacher in the high school of Spokane.

Dr. Frank C. Robinson was very young when the family went to Iowa and was a youth of about eighteen years when the removal was made to the northwest. He has since taken a most active interest in the development of the Inland Empire and has contributed in substantial measure to the work of progress and improvement along various lines. He was educated in the public schools and in the Waitsburg Academy, being graduated from the latter institution with the class of 1897. The following year he began preparation for the practice of medicine and surgery, entering Rush Medical College of Chicago in the fall of 1898. He was graduated from that institution on the completion of the four years' course as valedictorian of the class of 1902 and immediately afterward served an interneship of a year and a half in the Presbyterian Hospital of Chicago, thus gaining broad and valuable practical experience along professional lines. He was afterward appointed superintendent of the Monroe Street Hospital in Chicago, in which capacity he served for a year. Desirous of further advancing in his profession, he went abroad in August, 1905, for post-graduate work in Europe, pursuing his studies and his research work in Vienna, Austria, where he remained until May, 1906, coming under the instruction of some of the most eminent physicians and surgeons of the old world. He then returned to his native land and opened an office in Walla Walla, where in the intervening period of eleven years he has won a place in the front ranks of medical practitioners. His ability is pronounced and he has gained a most creditable name and place in a profession where advancement depends entirely upon individual merit.

In 1905 Dr. Robinson was married to Miss Jessie Addle Morgan, a daughter of J. W. Morgan, a pioneer druggist and the foremost citizen of Waitsburg, Washington. Mrs. Robinson is a graduate of the Washington State Normal School at Ellensburg and later was graduated from the University of Washington with the class of 1903. She is a lady of culture and refinement.

Dr. Robinson is well known in fraternal circles, belonging to Walla Walla Lodge, No. 7, F. & A. M.; also to Oriental Consistory, No. 2, A. & A. S. R., of Spokane. He has likewise crossed the sands of the desert with the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, having membership in El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane. He belongs to Columbia Lodge, No. 8, K. P. Dr. Robinson belongs to the Walla Walla County Medical Society, the Washington State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. At the annual convocation of the American College of Surgeons in Chicago in October, 1917, fellowship was conferred upon Dr. Robinson. He makes his practice his chief interest, allowing nothing to interfere with the faithful and conscientious performance of his professional duties, and his comprehensive knowledge of the science of medicine, accurately applied, has gained him place with the eminent representatives of the profession in this state. In July, 1917, he entered the United States service and was commissioned captain in the Medical Officers Reserve Corps and is now awaiting summons to the front.

CHARLES A. KAUSCHE.

Charles A. Kausche, a well known farmer of Garfield county with residence on section 21, township 12 north, range 41 east, was born in this county, May 27, 1881, a son of Henry and Paulina (Lowenberg) Kausche, the former a native of Germany and the latter of Ohio. When only sixteen years of age the father came to the United States and in 1876 removed to Oregon. Four years later he came with his family to Garfield county, Washington, and took up a claim. As soon as possible he erected a rude home of the type known as a box house and in order to fence his land he hauled poles from the mountains twenty-five miles distant. In time he brought his place to a high state of development and erected excellent buildings thereon, being actively engaged in farming until 1902, when he retired and removed to Pomeroy. In 1903 he passed away there but his wife survives.

Charles A. Kausche, who is one of the five living children of a family of eight, was reared at home and at the usual age became a pupil in the public schools, which he attended in the acquirement of an education. In 1904 he rented the old homestead and subsequently he bought the place, which comprises eight hundred and seventy acres. He has erected excellent modern buildings upon the place and has otherwise added to its value and it now ranks among the best developed farms of the locality. He uses up-to-date methods and implements in carrying on his work and also gives careful thought to the problem of marketing to advantage.

Mr. Kausche was married in 1904 to Miss Odessa Trosper, who was born in Old Walla Walla county, a daughter of Joseph G. and Ena (Bonney) Trosper, the former a native of Missouri. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Kausche, Floyd B. and Merle K.

Mr. Kausche belongs to the Knights of Pythias and in politics supports the republican party. For some time he was clerk of the school board and he is strongly in favor of the best possible public schools. His extensive farming interests do not leave him much time for outside activities but it is generally known that he supports all movements seeking the material, civic or moral advancement of his community.

CHRISTIAN MILLER.

Christian Miller, who is devoting his time and energies to the operation of a good farm on section 26, Russell Creek township, Walla Walla county, was born in Denmark, January 27, 1854, a son of Soren S. and Sarah M. Miller, who in 1862 came with their family to the United States. After residing for six years in Utah, where the father engaged in farming, they came to Walla Walla county, Washington, in 1868 with a colony composed of Mormons who had seceded from the church and also others who were never associated with that organization. The father belonged to the former class and he remained with the colony until it broke up in 1880 or 1881. He then acquired title to a small farm on Mill creek, where he continued to make his home until his death, which occurred March 26, 1897.

Christian Miller had very little opportunity to attend school, as his boyhood was passed in a frontier community, but he has learned many valuable lessons in the school of experience. He accompanied his parents on their removal to Walla Walla county and remained with the colony until it was disbanded, after which he worked as a farm hand for a time. In 1889 he purchased his first farm, comprising one hundred and sixty acres on section 26, Russell Creek township, and has since added to his holdings from time to time until he now owns about four hundred acres of excellent land. He is engaged in diversified farming and has been very successful in his work.

On the 8th of November, 1882, Mr. Miller was united in marriage to Miss Grace E. Davies, who was born in Kansas, June 18, 1855. Her father, W. W. Davies, was a native of Wales, born August 8, 1833, and was at the head of the colony of settlers who came to this county. Before leaving Wales he was married August 24, 1854, to Miss Ann Jones, and they became the parents of twelve children. It was in 1855 that they came to America and for a time made their home in Utah and later in Montana, but in 1867 came to Walla Walla county, Washington. Mrs. Davies, who was born in Wales, March 29, 1836, died May 19, 1879, and Mr. Davies passed away November 25, 1906. Three children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Miller, of whom two survive, namely: Sarah M., the wife of Elmer Meiner, a farmer of Russell Creek township; and Esther M., at home.

Mr. Miller is a republican in politics and has served for a number of years on the school board, in which connection he has done valuable work for the schools. He belongs to the Modern Woodmen of America and has many friends within and without that organization. Through his own efforts he has gained financial independence, his success being based upon enterprise, hard work and good management.

HON. LEVI ANKENY.

With the history of development in the northwest Hon. Levi Ankeny, of Walla Walla, is largely familiar. He has been a witness of the various phases of life during the progress from pioneer times to the days of present prosperity and he has ever borne his part in the work of general upbuilding and improvement, while at the same time he has so conducted his private business interests that substantial results have accrued. He has been active in connection with mining and with the copper industry and for many years he has occupied a most prominent position in banking circles. His business interests alone would entitle him to representation in this volume and yet there are other phases of his life which also render him a most prominent and representative citizen of the northwest, for he has been United States senator and has done much to further the interests of this section of the country in the halls of national legislation.

Mr. Ankeny was born near St. Joseph, Missouri, on the 1st of August, 1844, a son of John and Charity (Geer) Ankeny, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of the state of New York. Both were members of old families whose ancestry can be traced back to Revolutionary war times and who were represented by valiant soldiers in the struggle for independence. The father was a newspaper man in Milford, Pennsylvania, for a number of years and died while on a trip across the plains to Oregon in 1850. His widow continued the trip and spent her last years in Portland, Oregon.

Levi Ankeny of this review was a little lad of but six summers when his parents started with the family on the long trip over the hot stretches of sand and through the mountain passes to the northwest, yet he remembers many incidents of that journey, which was made after the primitive manner of the times. He was reared on the Pacific coast and largely acquired his education in Kingsley Academy in Portland. After reaching adult age he was for several years engaged in merchandising in Orofino and in Florence, Idaho, selling goods from pack trains all through the mining regions and also through the Fraser river country of British Columbia. He was also for several years with the Wells Fargo Express Company. During these years he became identified with the cattle industry and his herds roamed the plains of both Idaho and Washington. He was in Walla Walla in his cattle operations, grazing his herds throughout this section of the country in the early days before settlement had laid claim to the land.

[Illustration: HON. LEVI ANKENY]

Mr. Ankeny's identification with financial interests in the northwest began on the 1st of January, 1878, when he organized the First National Bank of Walla Walla. He thus entered actively into a field of business in which he has made substantial progress and in which his efforts have contributed much to the upbuilding and development of this section as well. In 1882 he organized the First National Bank of Pendleton, Oregon, and a year later organized the First National Bank of Baker City, Oregon. The same year he founded the First National Bank of Waitsburg, Washington, and subsequently became the founder of the Columbia National Bank of Dayton, Washington. He settled the affairs of the Vancouver National Bank of Vancouver, British Columbia. He has since disposed of the bank at Baker City, Oregon, and also of the one in Vancouver hut is still president of the other four banking institutions, the combined deposits of which at the present time amount to over seven million dollars. There is no phase of the banking business with which he is not familiar and he is thoroughly acquainted with all of the grave problems of finance which confront the country. He has served as president of the State Bankers' Association. He is actuated in all that he does by a most progressive spirit and, readily discriminating between the essential and the non-essential in all business affairs, he has so directed his efforts that success in notable measure has attended his endeavors and reputation names him as the wealthiest resident of his county. Moreover, the policy that he has pursued is one which will bear the closest investigation and scrutiny and may well constitute an example that others may profitably follow.

In 1867 Mr. Ankeny was united in marriage to Miss Jennie Nesmith, a daughter of James Nesmith, who was United States senator from Oregon. By this marriage have been born five children, four of whom are living: Nesmith, who is assistant cashier of the First National Bank at Pendleton, Oregon; John who is vice president of the First National Bank at Walla Walla; Robert, who operated a farm in the Willamette valley of Oregon but has volunteered and is now serving as a machinist in the Navy; and Harriett, who is the wife of Colonel Francis Pope, of the United States army, formerly stationed at San Antonio, Texas, but now in France.

Mr. Ankeny has not only done much to develop the material interests and resources of this section of the country but has also contributed in large measure to shaping its political history. He has always been a stalwart champion of the republican party and upon its ticket was elected in 1903 to represent Washington in the United States senate, serving in that august body for six years, during which period he most carefully considered the vital questions which came up for settlement and threw the weight of his aid and influence on the side of progress, reform and improvement. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, being identified with all the Masonic bodies of both the York and Scottish Rites. He has served as grand master. He belongs to Walla Walla Commandery, No. 2, K. T., and is a member of El Kader Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. He also has membership with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. His religious faith is evidenced in his membership in the Episcopal church and that he is appreciative of the social amenities of life is indicated in his identification with the Country Club. Mr. Ankeny is recognized as one of the strong men of the northwest, strong in his honor and his good name, strong in his ability to plan and perform. What he has undertaken he has accomplished and, moreover, he has not only promoted his individual interests but his activities have ever been of a character which have advanced the public prosperity as well.

CARY MELVIN RADER.

Cary Melvin Rader, a leading member of the bar of Walla Walla, engaged in general practice, was born in Carroll county, Indiana, July 27, 1868. His father, Solomon Rader, was also a native of the Hoosier state, born October 8, 1827. He devoted his life to farming in early manhood and afterward took up merchandising. He was a veteran of the Indian wars of the northwest and crossed the plains in 1852. He participated in the Modoc and Rogue River wars of 1853 and 1857. Later he returned to Indiana and became actively identified with its agricultural and commercial interests. But longing for the west he came to Walla Walla, Washington, in 1901, there remaining until his death, which occurred December 2, 1912. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Martha Ann Stewart, was born in Indiana, May 30, 1827, and is still living at the notable old age of ninety years, her home being in Walla Walla.

Cary M. Rader was the only child of that marriage. He obtained a common school education in his native state and afterward attended the Central Normal College at Danville, Indiana, where he pursued a law course. He was there graduated on the 28th of July, 1891, and was admitted to the bar, but in May, 1892, came to Walla Walla and has since been an active representative of the legal profession of this city. He entered into partnership with Senator Poindexter, with whom he was associated for about four years, after which he practiced alone for a few years, and then became a partner of Frank B. Sharpstein. Their connection continued for four years and Mr. Rader was then alone in practice for a brief period. He afterward entered into partnership with W. R. King, who later became a supreme judge of Oregon, and upon the dissolution of that partnership he became connected with E. F. Barker, forming the present firm of Rader & Barker. This association has since been maintained and the firm occupies a very prominent position at the Walla Walla bar. Along with those qualities indispensable to the lawyer Mr. Rader brought to the starting point of his legal career certain rare gifts, including forcefulness of expression and a strong personality. He possesses a keen, rapid, logical mind, plus the business sense, and a ready capacity for hard work. He has, too, an excellent presence, an earnest, dignified manner and marked strength of character, which, combined with a thorough grasp of the law and the ability to accurately apply its principles, has made him a most effective advocate and a wise counselor. While continuing in general law practice, he has specialized in corporation law and is thoroughly well informed concerning that department of jurisprudence. He served for one term as city attorney in 1896. In addition to his professional interests he is a director of the Peoples State Bank, to which office he was elected on the organization of the bank, and he has considerable farming interests.

On the 13th of September, 1893, Mr. Rader was united in marriage to Miss Hattie Miller, a native of Eaton, Ohio, and a daughter of Charles Miller, a resident of that city. Her mother has passed away. Mr. and Mrs. Rader have become the parents of three children, Ralph Waldo, Martha Bernice and Melvin Miller.

In his political views Mr. Rader is an earnest democrat, believing firmly in the principles of the party, yet never seeking office. He attends the Congregational church and is a faithful follower of the Masonic fraternity, being now a past master of Walla Walla Lodge, No. 7, A. F. & A. M. There have been no spectacular phases in his career, but in a profession where advancement depends entirely upon individual merit and ability he has worked his way steadily upward. His practice is now extensive and of an important character. At no time has his reading ever been confined to the limitations of the question at issue and he is recognized not only in professional circles but otherwise as a man of well rounded character, of finely balanced mind and splendid intellectual attainments.

JUDGE JOHN W. HOLMAN.

Judge John W. Holman, of Dayton, has an unusual record of public service, having for twenty-two years been police judge and justice of the peace, and for seven years he was court commissioner. He was born in Monroe county, Indiana, May 22, 1844, a son of Thomas and Laura (Parker) Holman, pioneers of the Hoosier state. He was reared under the parental roof and at the usual age entered the district schools. When eighteen years old he volunteered for service in the Union army and from the time of his enlistment, on the 6th of August, 1862, until after the close of the war he was with the armed forces of the government. His record includes service in the battles of Ball Bluff, Port Gibson, the siege of Vicksburg and the engagements at Jackson, Mansfield, Pleasant Hill, Grandicor, Fort Gaines, Fort Morgan, Big Black, Champion Hills and Raymond.

On returning to civil life Judge Holman removed to Illinois, where he engaged in farming until 1868. In that year he became a resident of Nebraska and there made his home until 1876, when he cast in his lot with the Pacific northwest. During the intervening forty-one years he has lived at Dayton and has become one of the foremost citizens of that town and, in fact, of Columbia county. In 1888 he was appointed deputy sheriff under W. R. Marcus, and two years later was elected justice of the peace. Subsequently he became police judge and for twenty-two years he filled both offices. In the discharge of his duties he manifested a fine sense of justice and an unusual ability to read human nature. For seven years he was also court commissioner under Judge R. F. Sturdevant, and in that connection also he was thoroughly competent.

Judge Holman was married in Nebraska in 1869, to Miss Louisa E. Linn, a native of Ohio. They became the parents of the following children: Laura A.; Ernest A.; Jessie P.; Olive F.; Lola C.; Nellie L.; John W., Jr., deceased; Dorothy C.; Charles D.; and Donald L.

Judge Holman has been a republican almost since the organization of the party and his advice has often been sought by the local party leaders. At one time he was the republican councilman from Brooklyn. He has always been justly proud of the fact that at the time of the country's need he offered himself in defense of the Union, and he finds great pleasure in the association with other veterans of the Civil war in the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic. Fraternally he is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. His strength of character and his unswerving adherence to high standards of morality have gained him the respect of his community, and, moreover, he has won an unusually large number of personal friends, owing to his kindly nature and his evident goodwill toward all. One evidence of his popularity is the fact that while serving as justice of the peace he performed more marriages than any other official or clergyman in the county and in many instances married two generations of the same family. He has the satisfaction of knowing that he has discharged in full every duty devolving upon him, and that during a long life he has at all times proven a man of genuine worth, an official devoted to the public welfare.

JUDGE BENJAMIN L. SHARPSTEIN.

No history such as this work defines in its essential limitations will serve to offer fitting memorial to Judge Benjamin L. Sharpstein, who left the impress of his individuality for good upon the commonwealth in many ways and whose career ever reflected honor upon the state that honored him. A Mexican war veteran, a pioneer, lawyer, legislator and member of the state constitutional convention, he indeed played an important part in shaping the annals of Washington. For forty-two years he was a resident of Walla Walla and through that period was not only closely connected with its interests and development but was also associated with many of the movements which have shaped the policy and directed the upbuilding of the state.

Judge Sharpstein was a native of the state of New York, his birth having occurred in Bath, Steuben county, October 22, 1827. He was a lad of seven years when his parents removed westward to Michigan, settling first in Macomb county, where they resided until their removal to Sheboygan county, Wisconsin. In the family were two sons, John and Benjamin L. The former became an attorney of Kenosha, Wisconsin, and later went to San Francisco, California, where he served as a judge of the supreme court. After the Civil war his brother Benjamin read law with him for some time. Reared upon the home farm, Judge Sharpstein divided his time between the work of the schoolroom, the pleasures of the playground and such tasks as were assigned him in connection with the development of the fields. He did not care, however, to make farming his life work and turned from agriculture to a professional career, it being his desire to prepare for the bar. He therefore entered upon his studies, which, however, were interrupted when he was nineteen years of age, for in 1846 his patriotic spirit was aroused and he joined the American army as a soldier in the Mexican war. Upon the close of hostilities with that country he returned to his home and resumed the study of law, being admitted to the bar in 1852.

[Illustration: JUDGE BENJAMIN SHARPSTEIN]

[Illustration: MRS. BENJAMIN SHARPSTEIN]

Judge Sharpstein was married in 1854 to Miss Sarah J. Park, who was indeed a faithful companion and helpmate to him on life's journey. She has long figured prominently in the social circles of Walla Walla and her life has been fraught with many good deeds and characterized by the highest principles. Following their marriage Judge and Mrs. Sharpstein continued to reside in the middle west until 1865, when they determined to try their fortune on the Pacific coast and with their three eldest children, John L., Ada A. and Arthur P., they left the Mississippi valley and with a large train of immigrants started across the plains for Oregon. The city of Salem, Oregon, was their objective point but on reaching Walla Walla, Judge Sharpstein was so favorably impressed with the opportunities of this section that he determined to make his home here. Thereafter he was identified with the city and was a most important and influential factor in advancing the best interests of the community, in promoting its progress and upbuilding and in upholding its standards of citizenship. He not only held high rank as a lawyer but was also prominent in shaping the political history of his state. At the bar he was forceful and resourceful. He had comprehensive knowledge of the principles of jurisprudence and was most accurate in applying those principles to the points in litigation. His arguments were most logical, his reasoning sound and clear and his deductions accurate.

In political faith Judge Sharpstein was a democrat and held loyally to the principles of his party, although he knew that such a course would deprive him of many political honors, for the district and state in which he lived were overwhelmingly republican. However, his fellow townsmen recognized his genuine worth and patriotic spirit to such an extent that in 1866, again in 1879 and once more in 1886 he was elected to represent his district in the state legislature by overwhelming majorities. In 1889 he was chosen as a member of the state constitutional convention and aided in framing the organic law of Washington. He left the permanent stamp of his wisdom and farsightedness upon that valuable document. His marked ability as a lawyer, combined with his patriotic citizenship and his keen insight into the present needs and the future possibilities of the state, made his service of the greatest worth to the commonwealth and he bore a most important part in shaping the constitution. He was again called to public office in 1890, when he was appointed a member of the tide land commission.

Judge Sharpstein was also a leader in local affairs and for twenty-seven years in all, with some periods of intermission, he served as a member of the school board and during much of that time was its president. He did most effective work in advancing the standards of the schools and improving the methods of instruction, and one of the fine school buildings of Walla Walla fittingly bears his name.

While many public interests thus claimed his time and attention, Judge Sharpstein regarded the practice of law as his real life work and, admitting his three sons to a partnership, thus organized one of the strongest legal firms of Washington. One of his sons, Arthur P., died in 1896. Two sons, John L. and Frank B., are still engaged in the practice of law in Walla Walla, while the youngest son, Charles M., has made for himself a national reputation as farmer, art critic and writer. He, too, is a resident of Walla Walla. The only daughter, Ada A., is now the widow of C. B. Upton and lives in Tacoma. Mrs. Sharpstein is still living and although now almost eighty years of age is wonderfully well preserved, being able to do her own marketing and attend to her business affairs. The family of Judge Sharpstein has worthily maintained the high position established by the father, who departed this life May 2, 1907, honored and respected by all who knew him. His memory is enshrined in the hearts of those with whom he came in contact and his name is written large on the pages of Washington's history.

GEORGE J. RUARK.

George J. Ruark, one of the prominent citizens of Garfield county, is actively identified with farming interests and now makes his home in Pomeroy. He was born in Jefferson county, Kansas, August 17, 1858, a son of Thomas and Mary A. (Messenger) Ruark, who were natives of Illinois and of Ohio respectively. In early life they removed with their respective parents to Wayne county, Iowa, and were there married. They began their domestic life in that county, where they continued to reside until 1857 or 1858, when they became residents of Kansas but after two years returned to Wayne county, Iowa, whence in 1862 they started across the plains with ox teams and wagons for the Pacific coast. The journey was a long and arduous one, but day after day they pushed forward and eventually reached Clarke county, Washington, where they located, establishing their home ten miles north of Vancouver, where they lived until the spring of 1871. In that year they became residents of Walla Walla county and Mr. Ruark engaged in the live stock business until the spring of 1879. In the fall of 1878 he and his family removed to what is now Garfield county, establishing their home near Deadman's Hollow, eighteen miles east of Pomeroy. There the father engaged in farming until 1890 and, adding to his possessions from time to time, he acquired ten hundred and forty acres of valuable wheat land. In the spring of 1890 he removed to Whitman county, his son, George J. Ruark, taking charge of the old home farm in Garfield county. The father then continued in active connection with farming and live stock interests in Whitman county until 1900, when he retired from business life and removed to Asotin, Washington. He owned four hundred and twenty acres of land in Whitman county, which he leased on his removal to Asotin, where he still maintained his residence at date of death, January 8, 1908. His widow still survives and is now a resident of Pomeroy. In politics the father was a democrat and took active interest in the work and success of the party. For a number of years he served as postmaster of Deadman but otherwise refused public office. He belonged to the United Brethren church and was one of the sterling citizens of Garfield county.

George J. Ruark was educated in the district schools and was reared to farm life, early becoming familiar with all of the duties and labors that fall to the lot of the agriculturist. In the fall of 1883 he began farming on his own account, renting land in conjunction with his brother Charles and with his father. The Bowman ranch of one thousand acres, which they operated in partnership for three years, returned to them a gratifying annual income and on the expiration of that period George J. Ruark began farming independently, renting two hundred and seventeen acres of the same ranch. This he cultivated for a year and in 1888, having carefully saved his earnings, he bought a small place on which he located. He also continued to cultivate rented land in connection with his home farm and in the fall of 1889 he rented his father's farm of ten hundred and forty acres, which he continued to cultivate for five years. He then returned to his own place, which he farmed in connection with other land until the fall of 1902, when he sold that property and bought his present farm of fourteen hundred and twenty acres, situated at the head of Deadman's Hollow. This is now being cultivated by a tenant, and Mr. Ruark established his home in Pomeroy in the fall of 1903. From this point he directs and supervises his business interests and at the same time he has the enjoyment of city life.

In 1889 Mr. Ruark was united in marriage to Miss Olive Vannausdle, of Garfield county, a daughter of Harris Vannausdle, who came from Nebraska in 1884. He is still living and makes his home among his children. Mr. and Mrs. Ruark have an adopted daughter, Elma Maurene.

Politically Mr. Ruark is a democrat and on the party ticket was elected a member of the board of county commissioners in 1894, filling the position for four years in a most acceptable and creditable manner. Fraternally he is connected with the Woodmen of the World. He ranks with the leading and representative men of Garfield county, for by his enterprising efforts he has contributed much to the upbuilding and development of this section. He stands for progress and improvement along all lines and his cooperation can ever be counted upon to further any well devised plan for the general good.

DAVID B. FERREL.

David B. Ferrel, a well known farmer of Russell Creek township, Walla Walla county, was born August 8, 1870, a son of Brewster and Caroline (Bott) Ferrel, both natives of Ohio, an extended sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. David B. Ferrell was reared at home and after attending the district schools for a number of years became a student in the Walla Walla schools. In the meantime he had received thorough training in farm work under his father and when twenty-one years of age he became his father's partner in the operation of the home farm of two thousand acres. The greater part of the active supervision of the work devolves upon Mr. Ferrel of this review and he is one of the largest grain growers of his township, having under cultivation in 1917 more than a thousand acres. He has reduced the operation of his farm to a scientific basis, uses the most modern machinery and is highly efficient in the management of the business aspect of his work. He believes that the farmer should give to his work the same careful study that the business man does to the conduct of his affairs and he is always among the first to adopt improved methods and equipment.

On the 2nd of November, 1904, Mr. Ferrel was united in marriage to Miss Laura Wolfe, of Oakland, Maryland, and they have two children, Carlton D. and Dorothy B. Mr. Ferrel has never allied himself with any political party, preferring to cast an independent ballot. He is a member of the school board and takes a lively interest in educational matters. Both he and his wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal church and can be depended upon to support all movements for the upbuilding of the community along moral as well as along material lines. They have a wide acquaintance and are uniformly held in high regard.

HARVEY McDONALD.

Harvey McDonald, who has lived retired in Walla Walla for the past fifteen years, was long actively identified with agricultural interests as one of the extensive operators of the wheat belt and is still the owner of five hundred and twenty-five acres in Walla Walla county, eight hundred and thirty-one acres in Whitman county, this state, and four hundred and forty acres in Umatilla county, Oregon. His birth occurred in Ontario, Canada, on the 10th of March, 1857, his parents being John and Margaret (Kinnear) McDonald, who were also natives of that province. There the father spent his entire life, passing away in 1863, when his son Harvey was but six years of age. The mother afterward reared her family and in later years made her home among her children, her death occurring in Weston, Oregon.

Harvey McDonald acquired his education in the common schools of Ontario, Canada, and there spent the first twenty-three years of his life. In 1880 he crossed the border into the United States, locating in Umatilla county, Oregon, where he engaged in farming. Success attended his efforts as a wheat grower and he became one of the extensive operators of the wheat belt, acquiring large holdings which he still retains. About 1897 he took up his abode in the city of Walla Walla in order that his children might have the advantages of its schools. For five years thereafter he devoted his attention to the real estate business but since 1902 has lived retired in the enjoyment of well earned rest, leaving the cultivation of his farms to tenants. He was one of the organizers of the People's State Bank and has served as a director of the institution continuously to the present time.

In 1885 Mr. McDonald was united in marriage to Miss Nora Richardson, a daughter of John Richardson, one of the prominent ranchmen and pioneer settlers of Umatilla county, Oregon. The children of Mr. and Mrs. McDonald are three in number, as follows: Clara, who is the wife of C. B. Weathermon, an agriculturist residing in Umatilla county, Oregon; Areta, who gave her hand in marriage to S. Henderson Boyles, of Spokane, Washington; and Esther, the wife of Lindon Barnett, of Walla Walla.

[Illustration: HARVEY McDONALD]

Politically Mr. McDonald is a republican, loyally supporting the men and measures of that party at the polls. Prior to the inauguration of the commission form of government he served for fourteen months as a member of the city council and in that connection made a most excellent record. Fraternally he is identified with the Woodmen of the World, while his religious faith is indicated in his membership in the Methodist church, to which his wife also belongs. His course has at all times commended him to the confidence and respect of his fellowmen and he is widely recognized as one of the representative, substantial and esteemed citizens of Walla Walla.

ANTHONY FEIDER.

Anthony Feider, an energetic and up-to-date farmer residing on section 1, township 11 north, range 42 east, Garfield county, was born in Germany, January 12, 1884, and is a son of S. A. and Rosa (Pohl) Feider, who in 1890 removed with their family to the United States. For some time they resided in Walla Walla county, Washington, and then came to Garfield county, purchasing the farm on which they still live. All of their six children also survive.

Anthony Feider received the greater part of his education in Garfield county and remained at home until he attained his majority, during which time he became thoroughly familiar with the various phases of farm work. On beginning his independent career he decided to devote his life to the occupation to which he had been reared and is now successfully operating five hundred acres belonging to his father. He harvests a large amount of grain annually and also raises high grade stock, from the sale of which he derives a good profit.

In 1907 Mr. Feider was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Pierre, who was born in Minnesota. Their children as follows: Paul A., Vincent A., John F., Joseph S., Edward P. and Albert W. Mr. and Mrs. Feider are communicants of the Catholic church and are always willing to further its work in every way possible. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus, and his personality is such that he has made many friends within and without that organization. In politics he is a stanch republican but he has never had time to give to public affairs, his farming operations requiring his undivided attention.

FRANK KIBLER.

Frank Kibler, who resides on section 5, Spring Creek township, Walla Walla county, is devoting his time exclusively to the operation of the large farm properties owned by the Kibler estate, and his well directed efforts are rewarded by gratifying profits. He was born May 18, 1882, in the township in which he still lives, and is a son of Jacob and Louisa (Buroker) Kibler. The father was a native of Shenandoah county, Virginia, and in 1853 came to the Pacific coast, locating in California, where he spent five years in the gold fields. In 1858 he removed to Walla Walla county, Washington, and for several years, or until the coming of the railroad, he was engaged in freighting. After rail transportation was established he turned his attention to farming, becoming the owner of land on Mill creek, about six miles east of Walla Walla. He prospered in his farming operations and became the owner of fifteen hundred acres of as fine farm land as can be found in the state. He continued to give his attention to the management of his affairs until his death, which occurred in September, 1908. His wife, who was born in the middle west, accompanied her parents on the long overland journey to Walla Walla county in 1864. She survives and still resides on the homestead.

Frank Kibler was reared under the parental roof and his experiences were those common to boys raised in a western pioneer community. He attended the district schools and also aided in such of the farm work as was within his strength, and by the time he had reached maturity he was an experienced agriculturist. He and his three brothers have always farmed in partnership and since the death of the father they have added extensively to their land holdings, which are all in the name of the Kibler estate. They are progressive and up-to-date, and no invention that will facilitate the work of the farm is lacking upon their properties. Moreover, their residence rivals in attractiveness and in modern equipment the best city homes, and the barns and other buildings are likewise of the latest type. Their farms are modern in equipment and illustrate the possibilities of farm life when the agriculturist brings to his work the same careful study and the same willingness to adopt new methods that characterize the successful business man along other lines.

Frank Kibler married Miss Leora McLeran, of Moscow, Idaho. She is a member of the Christian church and takes a praiseworthy interest in its work. Mr. Kibler supports the democratic party at the polls but has never been an active party worker, for his entire time has been taken up with the management of his farming interests. He has a wide acquaintance in the county in which his entire life has been spent, and his sterling worth is indicated in the fact that his stanchest friends are those who have known him intimately since boyhood.

F. M. SANDERS.

F. M. Sanders, a successful farmer residing in Walla Walla township, was born in Walla Walla county, December 31, 1873, a son of John and Rebecca (Meredith) Sanders, the former a native of Indiana and the latter of Ohio. In 1865 they crossed the continent with ox teams and located upon a farm east of Dixie, in Walla Walla county, where both resided until called by death. To them were born seven children, of whom six survive.

F. M. Sanders was reared and received his education in this county and gained valuable training in farm work under his father's direction. When he attained his majority he began farming on his own account and for thirty years he has made his home upon his present place, which comprises one hundred and sixty acres of excellent land in Walla Walla township. The improvements thereon are substantial and up-to-date, and his labors are rewarded by good crops. He is also a director of the Self-Oiling Wheel & Bearing Company of Walla Walla.

Mr. Sanders was married in May, 1907, to Miss Minnie Bliven, a native of Minnesota, and they became the parents of three children, Lester F., Irene L. and Ralph H. On the 12th of May, 1917, the wife and mother passed away and she was laid to rest in the College Place cemetery. She was a consistent member of the Seventh Day Adventist church and her upright Christian life gained her the respect of all with whom she came in contact.

Mr. Sanders is a democrat in politics and has served acceptably as a member of the school board. He belongs to the Farmers Union and is interested in every movement that tends to advance the interests of agriculturists.

JAMES J. EDWARDS.

James J. Edwards, the highly efficient president of the Edwards-Hindle Company, conducting one of the leading department stores in southeastern Washington, is recognized as a foremost factor in the commercial development of Dayton. His rapid advancement to his present position is indicative of what can be accomplished in the inland empire when a man is energetic, sound of judgment and determined to succeed, for he began his business career as cash boy and has at all times depended solely upon his own resources.

His birth occurred in Tennessee, October 22, 1873, and his educational opportunities were in no way better than those afforded the average boy. In fact many a man who consoles himself with the thought that if he had had a chance he might have accomplished something had, in his youth, more favorable opportunities than did James J. Edwards. He was early compelled to make his own living and his first position was that of cash boy, with a salary of two dollars per week. He was faithful in the discharge of his duties in that connection, and being keen of observation even in that position, gained much information concerning the conduct of a store. His ability and fidelity were rewarded by advancement, and as the years passed he became increasingly familiar with merchandising. In 1899 he came to Dayton and took charge of the clothing department of the store owned by T. M. Hanger & Company. Subsequently he was promoted to the head of the dry goods department of that business and he retained that position until the company retired from business in Dayton and removed to Walla Walla. Mr. Edwards then organized the Edwards-Hindle Company, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars and took over the store formerly conducted by T. M. Hanger & Company, the new management taking charge of the place October 29, 1906. In the intervening eleven years the trade has shown a steady and rapid growth, the floor space has been increased, the store now occupying all the original Weinhard block at the corner of Main and Second streets. The location is one of the best in the city and in itself is an indication of the success that has attended the activities of Mr. Edwards and his associates. The store is well organized and carries a full line of dry goods, clothing and all kinds of groceries. Its policy has always been to carry, as far as possible, trade marked goods of national reputation, and its large patronage is further increased by the fact that the stock is so complete as to offer a large range for selection in every department. It is known as "The House of Quality," which slogan expresses the policy rigorously carried out in the management of the business.

Mr. Edwards was married in Oakesdale, Washington, to Miss Laura Graham in 1893 and they have one child living, Lloyd G. Edwards. Mrs. Edwards died in 1899. Mr. Edwards was married to Miss Celeste Price in 1908. He is devoted to the interests of his family and takes a great deal of pleasure in his beautiful home on South First street, which is one of the finest residences in Dayton. A great deal of thought and care has been given to its interior decoration, and all of the modern conveniences have been installed. Although at no time indifferent to political questions Mr. Edwards has not taken a very active part in civic affairs, preferring to give his entire attention to the management of his extensive business interests. He has found in the development of the Edwards-Hindle department store full scope for his executive ability and energy, and has derived great satisfaction from his effective work in building up its trade. His ability as a merchant is universally recognized, and during the years of his residence in Dayton he has also gained a place in the warm regard of many because of his admirable qualities as a man.

LEWIS McMORRIS.

Among the honored early settlers of Washington was Lewis McMorris, who in 1852 came to the Pacific coast and throughout the remainder of his life was identified with the interests of this section of the country. He was here before the city of Walla Walla was founded and he saw its development and assisted in its making. With his brother Joseph and his sisters, Mrs. Sarah Funk and Mrs. Emma Craig, he lived for years in the evening of his days on First street in Walla Walla. He was born in Coshocton, Ohio, August 12, 1831, and came of Scotch ancestry, the family having been founded in America in 1774 by a representative of the name who served in the Revolutionary war and who settled near Winchester, Virginia. After the establishment of American independence the family was founded in Ohio and in later generations representatives of the name went to Shelby county, Illinois, and there engaged in farming.

[Illustration: LEWIS McMORRIS]

Lewis McMorris was one of the family who went to Illinois and on attaining his majority he was fitted out by his father to accompany a bachelor neighbor and a party to California. It was in the month of March, 1852, that they started west with ox teams, crossing the plains and meeting with many of the hardships and privations which fell to the lot of the pioneers. It was in that year that the cholera proved so terrible a scourge and all the way from the Missouri river graves dotted the trail. With only a sheet for a shroud and without a casket the bodies were lowered into their graves and the traveler, starting out full of hope, was laid to his last sleep. Often five newly made graves were to be seen in a day. The party with which Mr. McMorris traveled consisted of a train of three wagons at the start but they were afterward joined by six wagons en route at St. Joseph, Missouri, and on the 15th of September, 1852, they reached Fosters, near Oregon City. There the oxen and wagons were sold and horses were purchased by those who desired to go on to the mines. They made pack saddles, loaded the horses and pressed on to southern Oregon, where a year and a half was spent at Sutter Creek, at Crescent City and at other mines. They were not successful there, however, and pressed on to Yreka, California, where Mr. McMorris again engaged in mining. The Rogue River Indian war, however, broke out in southern Oregon, causing him to change his location and he made his way to the northern part of the state. He became a packer, rushing goods from Portland to the mines at Colville. After one of these trips he hired the team of mules to the quartermaster of the Oregon Volunteers to haul supplies to their headquarters at The Dalles. On the second trip the Indians stole both mules and supplies. On the 7th of December, 1855, the battle of the Walla Walla with the Indians was begun on Walla Walla river west of the present site of the city, a battle that lasted for four days and in which several thousand Indians were lined up against a few hundred white volunteers. The white men, however, were victorious and it was a memorable battle because it was a victory of a few over many and also because it marked the beginning of a lasting peace between the Indians and the white settlers in that vicinity. Mr. McMorris was one of the active participants in that battle. In 1856, when the troops camped at what became old Fort Walla Walla they moved about four miles up Mill creek but decided that the first stopping place was best and returned. It was this that decided the location of Walla Walla. Mr. McMorris assisted in building the canton, as the old fort was called, which was made from the various trees which grew along the banks of Mill creek. Years later when this land was sold for building purposes in order to extend the present city, it was desired to save intact some of the old fort buildings, to place them in the city park as historic relics, but it was found that the timber had rotted so that they crumbled away. In 1857 Mr. McMorris made the trip to the Willamette valley to buy teams for the government. On his return he began freighting for McClinchey & Freedman, who were proprietors of the first mercantile house in this city, located at the corner of Third and Main streets. In 1859 he began buying cattle and to secure a watering place for his herd he purchased land which included the present site of Wallula. The winter of 1861-2 was an exceedingly hard one and by spring his herd of two hundred and seventy head had decreased to forty. He next turned his attention to the mercantile business, in which he engaged with his brother, but this enterprise did not prove profitable and he sold his interest in the business. When land was thrown open to settlement he secured a preemption claim at a dollar and a quarter per acre, his place being located two miles south of the town now known as the Hammond Farm. It was there that he conducted his stock-raising venture for several years and at the same time operated a pack train to Boise, Idaho. After closing out his mercantile interests with his brother he was for four years the owner of a stage line operating between Dayton, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho. He laid out the town of Wallula and donated to the railroad company the land which they used for depot purposes there.

His long and useful life was ended in 1915. He passed away at his home in Walla Walla at the ripe old age of eighty-four years. He had never married but he left a brother and two sisters. The brother, however, died in the spring of 1917. There are also four nephews and one niece: the Funk brothers, who are engaged in merchandising in Walla Walla; the Craig brothers, of Illinois; and Agnes Lillian Purdy, of Portland, Oregon. Mr. McMorris was a member of the Oregon Pioneer Society, the Inland Empire Pioneers Association and the Indian War Veterans. Throughout the long years of his residence in this locality he became very widely and favorably known and he left many friends as well as relatives to mourn his loss. He performed an important part in promoting the early development and upbuilding of this section of the country and with many events which have left their impress upon the history of the northwest his name is inseparably associated.

JOSEPH F. TACHI.

Joseph F. Tachi, who passed away August 8, 1912, was a well known citizen of Walla Walla county. He was a native of Italy and came to America thirty-seven years ago. He did not tarry on the Atlantic seaboard but crossed the country and settled in Walla Walla county, Washington, where he took up the occupation of gardening, which he followed with success, developing a good business in that connection. He continued active in gardening up to the time of his demise, which occurred in 1912.

Almost a quarter of a century before, on June 9, 1889, at Walla Walla Mr. Tachi was united in marriage to Miss Antonia Coboch, who was likewise born in the sunny land of Italy and came to the new world when twenty-seven years of age. She owns ten acres of valuable land on section 36, township 7 north, range 35 east, at College Place and she is also the owner of the Star Laundry and a brick building which contains five storerooms and which returns to her a most gratifying annual income from its rental. In addition to these investments she owns thirty-one acres of land which is splendidly improved. She belongs to St. Francis Catholic church, of which Mr. Tachi was also a member, and he was a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Knights of America, and the Red Men. During their residence in Walla Walla county Mr. and Mrs. Tachi gained many warm friends, he being well known as a representative business man. Mrs. Tachi has also proved most capable in the management and control of her interests, and her property is now bringing to her a substantial annual income.

MICHAEL MARTIN.

Michael Martin, a well known farmer residing on section 2, township 6 north, range 35 east, Walla Walla county, is entitled to the honor that is accorded the self-made man, for he has gained the competence that is now his solely through his own labors. He was born in County Galway, Ireland, September 5, 1835, and is a son of John and Ann (Larkin) Martin, both of whom spent their entire lives in County Galway. Michael Martin was reared and educated in his native land and remained there until 1863, when he decided to try his fortune in the United States and crossed the Atlantic to New York city, where he remained for a time. He then went to South Glastonbury, Connecticut, but three years after his emigration to this country he came to the Pacific coast by way of the Panama route, and spent two years in California. Subsequently he was a prospector in the placer gold mines at Emmitsburg and Helena, Montana, where he and his brother Patrick spent three years. It was in 1870 that they came to Walla Walla county, Washington, and purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land and also took up a section of railroad land later on, their home being on Dry creek. Our subject finally sold his share of the property to his brother John, who still owns the place, and then purchased his present farm on section 2, township 6 north, range 35 east, where he has resided continuously since. He gave his personal attention to the operation of his place until advancing years led him to retire from active labor, since which time the farm has been operated by his son Emmet. He has been a hard worker and has manifested good judgment in the direction of his affairs, and as the years have passed his financial resources have steadily increased.

In 1890 Mr. Martin was married in Ireland, to Miss Julia Kellher, and they have become the parents of five children, of whom three have passed away. Those living are: Emmet M., who is now in charge of the home farm; and Estella, a nurse at St. Mary's Hospital in Walla Walla. The wife and mother passed away in 1900 and was laid to rest in the Catholic cemetery. The family are communicants of the Catholic church of Walla Walla, and Mr. Martin supports the republican party at the polls but has never been ambitious to hold office. For more than half a century he has made his home in Walla Walla county, and in that period has seen a marvelous change in conditions as the country has been transformed from a pioneer district into a highly developed agricultural section.

J. W. SWEAZY.

J. W. Sweazy, a farmer of Columbia county, living on section 34, township 10 north, range 37 east, was born in Wallula, Washington, on the 8th of May, 1884, a son of Frank and Allie J. (Barnes) Sweazy. The father was a native of Portugal, while the mother was born in Missouri. When a youth of fourteen the father came to the United States, having relatives living in Petaluma, California. To that point he made his way. His wife crossed the plains with her mother in 1880, her father having previously been killed while serving as a soldier in the Civil war. She and her mother located on a ranch near Waitsburg, Washington. About the same time Frank Sweazy made his way to Walla Walla county and soon afterward they were married. He then purchased the farm which is now the home of his son, the subject of this review, and thereon he resided for a number of years. Ultimately, however, he removed to Waitsburg, where he continued his residence for twenty years, or until the time of his death in 1914. His widow survives and yet makes her home in Waitsburg.

J. W. Sweazy was educated in the public schools and also attended the Waitsburg Academy. In 1902, at the age of eighteen years, he became a wage earner, entering the employ of Corbett Brothers in the capacity of bookkeeper at their mill at Huntsville. A year later he resigned to accept a position with John Smith, a hardware merchant of Waitsburg, where he filled the position of bookkeeper for four years. On the expiration of that period he went to Walla Walla, where he held the office of deputy county auditor under J. N. McCaw, in which capacity he served for four years. In November, 1910, he was elected county auditor and so continued for two terms of two years each, making a most creditable record in that position by the promptness and systematic manner and general capability with which he discharged his duties. On the expiration of his second term he returned to the home farm, which he has since occupied and operated. It is a tract of three hundred and twenty acres of rich and productive land, much of which he has brought to a high state of cultivation, and the fields are now bringing forth rich crops. They are divided into tracts of convenient size by well kept fences and there are valuable improvements upon the place, and the spirit of neatness and thrift which there prevails indicates the progressive methods of the owner.

In 1909 Mr. Sweazy was united in marriage to Miss Mattie Ramseur, of Waitsburg, and they have many friends in the community where they live. Mrs. Sweazy is a member of the Methodist church. Mr. Sweazy holds membership with Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, F. & A. M., and is a loyal exemplar of the teachings of the craft. His political allegiance is given to the republican party and he keeps well informed on the questions and issues of the day but does not seek nor desire office as reward for party fealty, preferring to concentrate his thought, attention and purpose upon his farming interests, which are bringing to him substantial success.

JUDGE MACK F. GOSE.

Judge Mack F. Gose is one of the distinguished representatives of the bench and bar in Washington. Few lawyers have made a more lasting impression upon the judicial history of the state, both for legal ability of a high order and for the individuality of a personal character which impresses itself upon a community, and he proved himself the peer of the ablest members of the court of last resort while serving as one of the supreme judges of the state. He was born in Missouri, July 8, 1859, and is a son of John M. and Hannah Gose, natives of Virginia. In 1864 the family came west and after spending a year at Boise, Idaho, proceeded to Walla Walla county, Washington, where the father turned his attention to horticulture, becoming a prominent fruit grower of this region.

[Illustration: JUDGE MACK F. GOSE]

Judge Gose was only five years of age when the family arrived in Walla Walla county and he is indebted to the public schools of Walla Walla for the early educational advantages he enjoyed. After leaving school he entered the office of ex-Senator John B. Allen, one of the distinguished attorneys of the northwest at that time. After reading law for some time, Judge Gose was admitted to the bar in 1883 and at once began the practice of his chosen profession in Pomeroy, where he has since remained, becoming in the meantime one of the leading lawyers of this section of the state. He won for himself very favorable criticism for the careful and systematic methods which he followed. He has ever displayed remarkable powers of concentration and application and his retentive mind has often excited the surprise of his professional colleagues. As an orator he stands high, especially in the discussion of legal matters before the court, where his comprehensive knowledge of the law is manifest and his application of legal principles demonstrates the wide range of his professional acquirements. The utmost care and precision characterize his preparation of a case and have made him one of the most successful attorneys of the state. It was the qualities which he had displayed in private practice that commended him for judicial service and he was elected a judge of the supreme court, serving on the bench of the court of final appeals in Washington for six years. His opinions are fine specimens of judicial thought, always clear, logical and as brief as the character of the case will permit. He never enlarged beyond the necessities of the legal thought in order to indulge in the drapery of literature. His mind during the entire period of his course at the bar and on the bench has been directed in the line of his profession and his duty.

In 1886 Judge Gose was united in marriage to Miss Lelah Seeley, a daughter of Charles H. Seeley, and to them was born a daughter, L. Vyvien, who is now the wife of Charles A. McCleary, of Olympia. Judge Gose makes his home in Pomeroy, where he occupies an attractive residence, and in addition he owns and supervises a large ranch, taking considerable interest and pride in his agricultural labors. His political endorsement has, since 1896, been given to the republican party and upon that ticket he was elected to the office of mayor of Pomeroy, the reins of city government being in most capable hands during his administration of civic affairs. He is today one of the honored and representative men of the state.

CHARLES F. FLATHERS.

Charles F. Flathers is a representative agriculturist of Walla Walla county, owning and cultivating six hundred and fifty-two acres of valuable land situated on section 32, township 10 north, range 36 east. It was upon this farm that he was born March 17, 1875, a son of Benjamin F. and Melinda (McQuown) Flathers, who are mentioned elsewhere in this work. He was reared upon the old homestead and became a pupil in the Prescott schools, dividing his time between the duties of the schoolroom, the pleasures of the playground and the work of the fields. He continued to assist his father until 1905, when he joined his brothers, John and Emery Flathers, and for five years the three brothers conducted farming interests in a partnership relation. Emery then withdrew but Charles F. and John continued their interests together until 1914. Since that time Charles F. Flathers has carried on farming interests independently and is now the owner of six hundred and fifty-two acres of valuable wheat land, which he carefully and successfully cultivates. He has become one of the most substantial agriculturists of Walla Walla county. He studies closely everything bearing upon wheat culture and the production of other crops suited to soil and climatic conditions here and his progressive methods produce splendid results. His farm with its broad fields, its substantial buildings and its modern improvements presents a most pleasing appearance and is a very attractive feature of the landscape.

On the 20th of October, 1911, Mr. Flathers was married to Miss Elizabeth Fowler, of Walla Walla, a daughter of Colonel Alexander Fowler, of Fort Scott, Kansas, who won his title by service in the Civil war and has now passed away. In politics Mr. Flathers is a democrat but not desirous to hold office. He is a member of Prescott Lodge, No. 46, I. O. O. F. At the time of her marriage Mrs. Flathers was engaged in nursing in Walla Walla. She is a lady of liberal education and culture and both Mr. and Mrs. Flathers are widely and favorably known in their section of the county, enjoying the high regard of an extensive circle of friends.

S. F. ATWOOD.

S. F. Atwood, who is doing excellent work as principal of the Dayton high school, was born in Johnson county, Missouri, January 29, 1885, a son of Wiley C. and Indiana (Freeman) Atwood, natives respectively of Virginia and Iowa. Both, however, were taken as children to Johnson county, Missouri, and there they were reared and married. The father engaged in farming there until 1893, when he went to Bates county, that state, whence in 1896 he removed to Ellensburg, Washington. In his new home he resumed the work of tilling the fields and he is now engaged in agricultural pursuits in Benton county, where he has lived since 1913. In that year he was called upon to mourn the loss of his wife.

S. F. Atwood attended the district schools of Missouri in early boyhood and continued his education in the Ellensburg schools, graduating from the high school in 1902. He prepared for teaching in the Ellensburg State Normal School, from which he was graduated in 1905, and the thorough professional training which he there received well fitted him for the performance of his duties as principal of the North Street school of Ballard, Washington, which position he held for three years. At the end of that time he matriculated in the University of Washington at Seattle, but withdrew from that school in his senior year on account of his mother's illness. In December, 1909, he was called to Dayton as principal of the high school and has ever since served in that capacity, his continuance in the position indicating his efficiency. He regards teaching as being as truly a profession as the law or medicine and believes that one intending to devote his life to educational work should prepare as thoroughly as the physician or lawyer. He has remained a constant student of educational methods and is always willing to adapt to the needs of his school any new plan which has proved of value.

Mr. Atwood was married in 1910 to Miss Anna Laura McMillan, of Seattle, and they have four children, Dorothy Jean, Violet Claire, Florence May and Stanley Freeman, Jr.

Mr. Atwood endorses the principles of the democratic party and supports its measures at the polls and in 1916 was its candidate for county superintendent. He belongs to Occidental Lodge, No. 72, F. & A. M., of Seattle, and is also a member of the Inquiry Club of Dayton. Both he and his wife attend the Congregational church and can be counted upon to further movements having as their object the moral advancement of the community. He has not at any time kept himself aloof from the everyday interests of life but has been a factor in the development of Dayton along various lines.

WILLIAM MARTIN.

Among Walla Walla county's venerable and highly respected citizens is numbered William Martin, a retired farmer who is now living in Hill township. Moreover, he has lived on the Pacific coast for sixty-five years and is familiar with every phase of its growth and development from Indian fighting to the latest methods of crop production. He was born in Indiana, September 30, 1833, and is a son of Jesse and Catherine (Harris) Martin, the former a native of Ohio, while the latter was born in Kentucky. At an early date they became residents of Indiana and afterward established their home in McLean county, Illinois. In 1844 they removed to Missouri, where they resided until 1857, when they started across the plains for California, whither their son William had preceded them. They located in Thurston county, Washington, and there continued to reside until called to their final rest. They had a family of ten children but only three are now living.

William Martin was reared and educated in Missouri, where he resided until 1852, when at the age of nineteen years he came to the Pacific coast country. He outfitted with an ox team and wagon and started upon the long journey to California, attracted by the discovery of gold on the Pacific coast and the business opportunities which it opened up. He was six months in crossing the plains and then concluded to locate in Oregon, but after spending three months in Oregon City went to Thurston county, Washington, where he was employed in a sawmill for three years and a half. On the expiration of that time he took up a claim. Upon that land, which was entirely wild and undeveloped, he built a little log cabin with a clapboard roof and began life there in true pioneer style, experiencing the hardships and privations incident to the settlement of the frontier. Upon that place he lived for several years and his labors wrought a marked change in its appearance, for he broke the sod, tilled the fields and in course of time gathered good harvests. He afterward purchased more land in that locality. The years were fraught not only with much hard labor but with other experiences of pioneer life. In 1855 and 1856 Mr. Martin was engaged in fighting the Indians and became familiar with all of the treacherous methods of Indian warfare. Later he concentrated his efforts upon farming and as the years passed his labors were crowned with a substantial measure of success.

On December 14, 1856, Mr. Martin was united in marriage to Miss Ann E. Yantis, who was born in Missouri in 1840 and by whom he had five children, as follows: John F.; J. A.; Catherine, who is the wife of L. H. Koontz, of Pasco, Washington; William E.; and one who died in infancy.

It was in 1872 that Mr. Martin brought his family to the Walla Walla valley, where he has since lived, covering a period of forty-five years. Here he was engaged in the stock business until 1880 and then removed to Walla Walla and turned his attention to mercantile pursuits. In 1886 he entered a railroad office at Wallula, where he remained for nine years, and at the end of that time located on a ranch on Snake river, living there for three years. The following year was spent in Walla Walla and he next owned and occupied a ranch on Hudson Bay in Oregon for three years. On selling that place he returned to Washington and has lived in Touchet since 1901. He purchased a store in Touchet which he carried on for some time but at length sold that property and retired from active business life, so that he is now enjoying a rest which he has truly earned and richly deserves. He owns seven acres of land in the village of Touchet, upon which he has a comfortable and attractive residence and is now pleasantly situated there.

His has been an active and useful life and one which, by its integrity and honor, has gained for him the respect and confidence of all with whom he has been brought in contact. His political allegiance has always been given to the democratic party and upon that ticket he was elected to represent his district in the general assembly of Washington in 1877. He has served on the school board, has filled the office of justice of the peace and at all times has been most loyal to the trust reposed in him. He and his wife are consistent members of the Christian church and have guided their lives by its teachings, being always careful to conform their actions to high standards. In a word they have ever endeavored to follow the golden rule doing unto others as they would have others do unto them.

RAYMOND RINGOLD REES.

A man who has contributed to the upbuilding of a city in one line of development is considered worthy of honor, but that man who has a part in the promotion of his city's interests in many fields of activity has a still greater claim upon the gratitude of his fellow citizens, and such was the record of Raymond Ringold Rees, pioneer newspaper man, prominent merchant and man of affairs.

He was born in Reily, Ohio, June 17, 1833, and was taken by his parents to Delaware, that state, where he remained until he was twenty-one years old. During his youth he served an apprenticeship to the printer's trade and in 1854 he came west with a brother by way of the Isthmus of Panama, their destination being Portland, Oregon, in the vicinity of which a third brother lived. After a short time Mr. Rees of this review secured work as a typesetter on the Christian Advocate and as he had the distinction of being the only man in Portland who could set book type, he did that work on McCormac's Almanac, the first book published on the Pacific coast. He was also employed as a typesetter on the first issue of the Daily Oregonian, Portland's famous newspaper. With the exception of eighteen months spent with a brother in the Colville mines, he was identified with newspaper publication in Portland until 1861, when he came to Walla Walla, reaching here on the 21st of November.

[Illustration: MAJOR RAYMOND R. REES]

[Illustration: MRS. RAYMOND R. REES]

Mr. Rees formed a partnership with Nemiah Northrop and established the first newspaper in this section--the Washington Statesman. The firm sent to Portland for a press, which arrived on schedule time, and the first issue of the new paper appeared on November 27th. The publishers therein made the following announcement to the public: "We send forth this morning with our congratulations the first number of the Washington Statesman, and respectfully solicit the attention of the people of Walla Walla and county to its pages.... That a weekly publication devoted to the various interests of the country, containing all the news which may be gathered from different quarters, is essentially needed in the Walla Walla valley we premise no permanent resident will deny. This admitted, we have no misgivings as to the disposition of the people to come forward and promptly sustain an enterprise so materially calculated to further their interests as a community." In the meantime the firm of Rees & Northrop learned that two brothers named Smith intended starting a democratic paper in Walla Walla and had sent to Portland for a press, which, however, reached The Dalles just as the Columbia river, at that time the only highway, froze over, with the result that it could not be delivered for three months. Mr. Smith desired to become a member of his competing firm and his wish was granted. The first subscriptions did not come in to the new paper as readily as had been expected. Accordingly Mr. Smith made a tour on horseback of Walla Walla county and Umatilla county and succeeded in obtaining two hundred subscriptions at five dollars per year, the circulation list containing the names of practically all the men of the two counties. The Statesman was the first newspaper established in eastern Washington, then known as the "upper country," and was a factor of great importance in the early development of this region. Mr. Rees was one of the owners of that journal until November, 1865, when he sold his interest therein to W. H. Newell, and the following five years were devoted to farming in connection with his father-in-law. In 1870 he returned to Walla Walla and formed a partnership with H. E. Johnson for the conduct of a mercantile business under the style of Johnson & Rees. Two years later W. P. Winans bought into the firm and the name was changed to Johnson, Rees & Winans. With Mr. Johnson's subsequent retirement from the business the firm name became Rees & Winans and so remained until 1887, when the business was sold. In the meantime a two-story building was erected where now stands the Farmers Savings Bank. Plans were subsequently made for the erection of the Rees-Winans building but before construction work was begun Mr. Rees was called by death. His widow, with Mr. Winans, however, carried out the plans already made and the building was erected in due time and was an important addition to the downtown section of Walla Walla. As a merchant Mr. Rees was enterprising, progressive and sound of judgment, managing his affairs carefully and giving much thought to anticipating the demands of his customers. He based his success upon the firm foundation of the best service possible and full return for all money received.

Mr. Rees was married March 12, 1865, to Miss Augusta Ward, the only child of Mr. and Mrs. Michael V. Ward. She was born near Chicago, in De Kalb county, Illinois, in 1843 and in 1853 accompanied her parents to Oregon, the journey being made by ox team. The family settled near Lebanon, in Linn county, but the long wet season proved unhealthful and Mr. Ward developed serious throat trouble. On the advice of a physician he removed to Walla Walla county, bringing with him three hundred head of cattle. That winter, however, there was an unusually heavy snowfall and owing to the unfavorable weather conditions he lost all of his cattle but forty-four. However, the increase in prices enabled him to realize so much from the remaining cattle that his net loss was inconsiderable. He bought the Lewis McMorris ranch a few miles south of Walla Walla and operated that place for some time but at length disposed of it. He then removed to Walla Walla and erected there the most pretentious home in the city at the corner of East and Poplar streets. At the time of the visit of President Hayes and party the president and his wife were entertained at the home of Mr. Ward, as there were no suitable hotel accommodations to be found in the city. Mrs. Hayes insisted in helping with the house work and at her request fried apples were served at breakfast. The democratic spirit manifested by the president and his wife made their visit a genuine pleasure as well as an honor. To Mr. and Mrs. Rees were born three children: Frank W., a well known dentist of Walla Walla; Elma R., the wife of H. H. Turner, cashier of the Baker-Boyer Bank of Walla Walla; and Lora R., the wife of Paul Compton, of Los Angeles, California. Mr. Compton is a son of General Compton, who for years had command of the garrison at Walla Walla.

Mr. Rees was a prominent democrat and for many years took an active part in politics. He represented his district at two different times in the state legislature; for several years served as county treasurer, and his record as an official was highly creditable alike to his ability and his public spirit. He was always called upon with a certainty of response for aid in carrying out projects for the development of Walla Walla city and county and his demise, which occurred July 12, 1889, was recognized as a great loss to his community.

His widow survives and resides in one of the handsomest residences of the city, in which she takes great pride, for it was built in accordance with plans drawn by herself. After the death of her husband she carried on the business of the estate. She is one of the honored pioneer settlers of Walla Walla and her reminiscences of the early days when the present rapidly growing city was a little frontier settlement are much appreciated by the younger generation, who find it hard to realize that conditions have changed so radically within a half century. When she came to this region there were not more than twenty white women in the valley and she is one of the very few of the number now living.

JOHN H. ROMAINE.

John H. Romaine, who has been engaged in farming in Columbia county, was born in Fond du Lac county, Wisconsin, April 15, 1857, a son of Garrit Romaine, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. Our subject grew to manhood in his native state and there received a good common school education. When twenty years old he accompanied his parents to Washington and not long after his arrival in this state took up a homestead on section 25, township 11 north, range 38 east. He brought his land to a high state of development, and gained recognition as a progressive and capable farmer. He raised both wheat and stock and his annual income reached gratifying proportions. He added to his holdings as the years passed until he owned fourteen hundred acres of fine land but sold out in the fall of 1917 and purchased a ranch of seven hundred and fifty-five acres in Umatilla county, Oregon, nine miles south of Walla Walla, Washington, on which he expects to locate.

In 1882 Mr. Romaine was united in marriage to Miss May McKellips and following her death married Miss Ella Davis, a daughter of Cyrus and Nancy (Holly) Davis, natives respectively of Vermont and Ohio. They removed to Old Walla Walla county and here her father passed away in 1910. Her mother survives and makes her home with Mr. and Mrs. Romaine. The latter have become the parents of four children: Jean M., deceased; one who died in infancy; Garrit; and Jean Henry.

Mr. Romaine gives his political allegiance to the republican party but has never sought office, his farming interests requiring his undivided time and attention. His wife belongs to the Congregational church and takes much interest in its work. During the forty years of his residence in Old Walla Walla county Mr. Romaine has witnessed a remarkable transformation and has kept pace with the development of the county, at all times giving his support to progressive measures.

ZIBA DIMMICK.

For a quarter of a century Ziba Dimmick has been a resident of Walla Walla county and is now numbered among its most prosperous farmers, being extensively and successfully engaged in the growing of wheat. His place is situated on section 27, township 8 north, range 34 east of W. M. He is a western man by birth, by training and by preference, and the spirit of western enterprise finds exemplification in his life. He was born at The Dalles, Oregon, on the 8th of March, 1868, and is a son of H. R. and Ann (Cooper) Dimmick, the former a native of Illinois, while the latter was born in Scotland. It was in the year of 1853 that the father crossed the plains with ox teams, meeting all the hardships and privations of that strenuous trip in the early days. He located first on the Umpqua river in southern Oregon, where he lived with his parents until the spring of 1862, when he and his wife moved to The Dalles. His remaining days were spent in that state, and his widow, who still survives is now a resident of Hood River county, Oregon. In her family were ten children, of whom Ziba is the eldest son and six of the number are now living.

Ziba Dimmick was reared and educated in Oregon, no event of special importance occurring to vary the routine of life for him in the days of his boyhood and youth. At the age of sixteen years he started to work for the Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company, where he learned the blacksmith's trade, at which he worked until 1892. When a young man of about twenty-four he came to Walla Walla, Washington, and commenced his career as a farmer, working for different men, until 1900, when he invested his savings in the farm upon which he now resides. He today owns seven hundred and twenty acres of rich and productive wheat land and has always made a specialty of raising that crop, for which the soil and climate are particularly adapted. Success has therefore attended his efforts, for in all of his methods he is practical and progressive and through the summer months the broad fields of waving grain give promises of abundant harvest in the autumn. In addition to this property Mr. Dimmick owns one hundred and ten acres of valuable land in Hood River county, Oregon, where he is engaged in raising alfalfa and clover.

In his fraternal relations Mr. Dimmick is a Woodman of the World and an Odd Fellow, politically a republican. His energy and determination have made him what he is today--one of the prosperous farmers of Walla Walla county, and his substantial traits of character have won for him the warm regard of all with whom he has been brought in contact. Walla Walla county gained a substantial citizen when he removed from Oregon to this state, for his labors have contributed much to its agricultural development.

FRANK S. DEMENT.

It was in the quaint and picturesque little city of Oregon City, Oregon, that Frank S. Dement, prominent miller and grain dealer of Walla Walla, was born November 3, 1853, a representative of one of the oldest and most prominent families upon the Pacific coast. His father, W. C. Dement, came to Oregon from Virginia in 1843 in the train with Marcus Whitman. He engaged in merchandising at Oregon City, the little town that was founded above the falls of the Willamette river, and he was one of the four who built the railway around the falls at Oregon City, which was one of the first, if not the first railway on the Pacific coast. With many events which shaped the pioneer development and later progress of that section of the country he was closely associated. He served as captain of volunteers in the Rogue River Indian war in 1856 and there was no phase of frontier development with which he was not thoroughly familiar. He became a resident of Oregon before the city of Portland was established and he lived to witness many remarkable changes as the work of settlement was carried forward. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Olive Johnson, came to Oregon in 1845 and was a daughter of the Rev. Hezekiah Johnson, a Baptist missionary of that state.

Frank S. Dement, spending his boyhood days under the parental roof, acquired his education in the Oregon City Seminary and in early life took up the printing business, learning the trade, after which he engaged in general printing and in publishing of the Oregon City Enterprise. He figured prominently in public affairs in that locality and served as county treasurer of Clackamas county, Oregon, which position he resigned in 1879 and removed to Walla Walla on account of his health. In the following year he organized the Dement Brothers Company and has continuously served as its president. He and his partners purchased the Eureka flour mills of the firm of Welch & Schwabacher Brothers in 1880. These mills had a capacity of one hundred and fifty barrels daily and something of the growth of the business is indicated in the fact that the present capacity is six hundred barrels daily. In a word they have developed one of the most important milling industries of this section of the state and they are also well known as extensive grain dealers. It was Frank S. Dement who in 1882 imported the first bluestem seed wheat from New Zealand to the Pacific northwest and it is today the leading wheat grown in this section of the country. Through this channel and his other business activities he has contributed in marked measure to the material development and consequent prosperity of his section of the state. In the conduct of his business affairs he has amassed a considerable fortune, much of which he has invested in Walla Walla real estate, thus indicating his faith in the future of this district.

[Illustration: FRANK S. DEMENT]

In Oregon City, Oregon, on the 1st of August, 1877, Mr. Dement was married to Miss Frances Miller, a daughter of Captain J. D. Miller, who was a pioneer steamboat operator on the Willamette and Columbia rivers. To Mr. and Mrs. Dement have been born two sons: Charles F., who is county auditor of Walla Walla county; and Frank Bingham, who is now in the National army at Camp Lewis. He was graduated from the Shattuck Military School of Minnesota in 1914 and was a student in Whitman College with the class of 1918.

Frank S. Dement has long been a recognized leader in republican circles in his county and was chairman of the county republican central committee. He has done much to further the interests of his party, believing firmly in its principles and recognizing the duties and obligations as well as the privileges of citizenship; yet he has never sought nor desired office as a reward for party fealty. Fraternally he is connected with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and is a prominent Mason, having taken the degrees of both the York and Scottish Rites. He is a member of Oriental Consistory, A. & A. S. R., of Spokane and of El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. For the past thirty years he has been a very active and prominent member of the Commercial Club of Walla Walla and is now one of its directors and the treasurer. He stands for progressiveness in all public affairs and his efforts in behalf of general progress and improvement have been practical, far reaching and effective. Men who know him--and he has a wide acquaintance--speak of him in terms of the highest regard both as to his relationship with business affairs and in matters of citizenship.

JOSEPH LEDGERWOOD.

Joseph Ledgerwood, deceased, spent the last years of his life in honorable retirement from business in Pomeroy, enjoying the fruits of his former labor. For many years he had been identified with farming in southeastern Washington and his well directed business affairs brought to him a very substantial competence, enabling him to enjoy all of the comforts and many of the luxuries of life and also to leave his family in very easy financial circumstances. He was born in Clay county, Missouri, July 17, 1836, and was a son of Joseph and Rachael Ledgerwood, who were natives of Tennessee and afterward became pioneer settlers of Clay county, Missouri.

Joseph Ledgerwood acquired his education in the common schools of Clay and Daviess counties of Missouri and on reaching manhood took up the occupation of farming. In 1864, with little money to outfit him for so hazardous and extended a journey, he started across the plains for the Pacific coast country, and while he endured many hardships and privations while en route, he ultimately in safety reached the Umpqua valley, where he made a home for his family and continued to reside until 1877. He then disposed of his property in that region and removed to Garfield county, Washington, settling about nine miles east of Pomeroy. There he prospered and from time to time, as his financial resources increased, he added to his land until at his death he was the owner of about one thousand acres of valuable farm property. In the later years of his life he retired from active farm work and removed to Pomeroy, where he spent his remaining days in the enjoyment of the fruits of his many years of successful labor. For a long period his life had been one of untiring industry and perseverance, during which he was watchful of every opportunity and indication pointing toward success. At all times he based his advancement upon the sure foundation of industry and persistency of purpose.

In 1859 Mr. Ledgerwood was united in marriage to Miss Louise O'Keef, a native of Illinois, who was a faithful helpmate to him and shared with him in all of the hardships and privations of pioneer life, when Oregon and Washington were still frontier states. She still survives her husband and cherishes his memory, for he was most devoted to the welfare and happiness of his family. To Mr. and Mrs. Ledgerwood were born nine children, seven of whom are yet living, as follows: William T.; J. Joseph; John T.; Lou Emma, who is the wife of W. A. DeBow, a grain dealer of Pomeroy; Martha R., who is the widow of James B. Carter and resides in Pomeroy; Rosa, who gave her hand in marriage to Lou Jurgens, of Asotin county, Washington; and Clara B., the wife of Edward Davis, of Okanogan county, Washington.

Mr. Ledgerwood was a very progressive man, public-spirited in all that he did, and his aid and cooperation could ever be counted upon to further public progress. He aided many movements for the general good, and while he was never a politician in the commonly accepted sense of the term and never would consent to hold office, he gave earnest support to the democratic party because of a firm belief in its principles. He belonged to the Masonic fraternity and to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and was a consistent Christian man, both he and his wife being lifelong members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mrs. Ledgerwood occupies a handsome home in Pomeroy, surrounded by all the comforts and conveniences which make life worth living.

REME DE RUWE.

Among the successful sheep raisers of Columbia county is numbered Reme De Ruwe, who was born in Belgium, September 15, 1882, a son of Peter and Julia De Ruwe, also natives of that country, where their entire lives were passed. To them were born fifteen children. The subject of this review is indebted for his education to the schools of his native land, and remained at home until he was about twenty years old. Then, in 1902, he decided to try his fortune in the United States and located in Walla Walla county, Washington, where he at once turned his attention to raising sheep. He has since continued in that occupation on an extensive scale. He pastures his sheep on a ranch comprising twelve hundred acres of land in Columbia county. The success which he has gained in fifteen years is quite unusual, demonstrating his ability to adapt himself to a new condition, his sound judgment and his enterprise. His ranch is well improved and is a very valuable property.

In 1914 Mr. De Ruwe was united in marriage to Miss Caroline Kregger, and they have a son, Marvin, and have also adopted three children. Mr. De Ruwe casts his ballot in support of the republican party, whose principles accord with his political beliefs. He was reared in the Catholic faith and consistently gives his influence on the side of moral advancement. He has gained many friends since coming to eastern Washington, his salient characteristics being such as never fail to command respect and win regard.

CHARLES L. WHITNEY.

Charles L. Whitney, who is living retired on section 6, township 6 north, range 36 east, Walla Walla county, is now enjoying a period of well merited leisure made possible by his former successful labors as a nurseryman and horticulturist. He was born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, January 26, 1857, of the marriage of William G. and Marcia M. (Pettis) Whitney, the former a native of Onondaga county, New York. They removed to California in 1879; two years before their son Charles L. had made his way to the Pacific coast, and after residing there for one or two years they came to Walla Walla county, Washington. Here the father, in partnership with his son Charles L., bought the farm where the latter still resides. This place was the site of the Sims mill, which was the first mill built in the state and possibly the first in the northwest. The date of its erection was 1858 and there was also a distillery operated within the limits of the farm. In the early days pack trains, numbering one hundred animals were sent to the outlying camps loaded with flour, bacon and whiskey, and the farm is indeed one of the historic places of the state. The father established the Home nursery and the son the North Western nurseries, and both proved successful in that business. The father remained active in the management of his affairs both as a nurseryman and as a farmer until his death in 1912. The mother passed away in 1910.

Charles L. Whitney was reared in Pennsylvania and after attending the common schools became a student in the Edinboro (Penn.) State Normal school and in Austinburg College at Austinburg, Ohio. Later he took up the study of medicine at the Eclectic Medical College at San Francisco, California, but left that institution a year before the completion of his course. It was in 1877 that he removed to California and he was one of the first settlers of the town of Whatcom. He devoted some time to timber cruising and for a number of years he traveled through California, Oregon and Washington, becoming familiar with practically every part of the Pacific coast. In 1880 he came with his parents to Walla Walla county and established the North Western nurseries, which he conducted for years. He was one of the first men to enter that line of business in this section and his success in the growing of fruit trees determined the possibilities of this region in the production of fruit. He also engaged in general farming to some extent and found that likewise profitable. For four years he was county fruit inspector and later was for a similar length of time state fruit inspector and was generally recognized as an authority on everything pertaining to fruit and its production. About 1907 he gave up the nursery business and has since rented his land for gardening, although he still resides upon his farm, which comprises one hundred and-fifty-two acres two miles south of Walla Walla, in the most fertile part of the valley. His home is a handsome country residence, provided with all modern conveniences.

In 1883 Mr. Whitney was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth McCaslin, who was born in Sharon, Pennsylvania, but was teaching in the schools of Omaha, Nebraska, at the time of her marriage. They have become the parents of five children, of whom four survive, namely: Elizabeth May, the wife of Ned McLean, of Walla Walla; Bertha, who married L. F. Turman, of Willows, California; Charles B., who is first sergeant with the Washington Field Artillery, under Major Weyrauch; and Marguerite, the wife of Fred Houghton, of Attalia, this county.

Mr. Whitney's political views accord with the principles of the republican party and he gives it his stanch support but has never taken a very active part in politics. However, he has always felt the keenest interest in the upbuilding of his county and his influence has been felt in its development along horticultural, agricultural and civic lines. He was a member of the board of commissioners that had charge of the Walla Walla exhibit at the Lewis and Clark Exposition held in Portland in 1905 and took a great deal of pride in the fine showing that the county made. He has a number of fraternal connections, belonging to Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; Walla Walla Commandery, No. 1 K. T.; El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane; to the Shrine Club at Walla Walla, of which he is president; to Alki Chapter, No. 25, O. E. S., of which he is past patron and of which his wife was the second matron, to Enterprise Lodge, No. 2, I. O. O. F., of which he is past grand; to the Ancient Order of United Workmen; and to Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E. His high standing in the Odd Fellows society is further indicated by the fact that he holds the lodge jewel.

EDWARD H. NIXON.

Edward H. Nixon, one of the earliest of Walla Walla's pioneers now living and for many years a dominant factor in civic affairs, was born in Guyandotte, West Virginia, on the 26th of May, 1842. When he was ten years of age his parents removed to Jackson county, Iowa, settling on a farm about eight miles west of Sabula. He was there educated in the district schools and at his mother's knee, she having been educated for a teacher in the Massachusetts schools in early life. Subsequently she went west to teach in the West Virginia schools and it was there that she was married. After mastering the early branches of learning Mr. Nixon continued his studies in the high school at Maquoketa, Iowa, and at the age of twenty years he was elected to the office of constable in his district, but the commissioners refused him a commission because he was not of legal age. He began reading law at Maquoketa, Iowa, and advanced sufficiently to try cases before a justice of the peace.

[Illustration: EDWARD H. NIXON]

In sentiment he was strongly anti-slavery at the beginning of the Civil war and as his sympathies were with the north, he determined he would not fight for any country that would uphold slavery, but after the Emancipation Proclamation he offered his services to the country and was accepted in December, 1863, being mustered into the service as a member of Company A, Ninth Regiment of the Iowa Veteran Volunteer Infantry, with which he served for one year, five months and eleven days. He then received an honorable discharge, the war having been brought to a close. He had participated in the battles of Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas and New Hope Church, Ackworth or Big Shanty, and the seven days' siege of Kenesaw Mountain and many skirmishes. He was also in the battle of Atlanta on the 22d of July, 1864, in the battle of Ezra Church and many others, taking part in every engagement in which his regiment participated until the fall of Atlanta. At close of the war he received an honorable discharge and returned to his home with a most creditable military record, having nobly done his part to preserve the Union. He afterward pursued a course in Eastman's Business College at Poughkeepsie, New York, and subsequently he engaged in farming until 1873, when he started for the far west with Walla Walla as his destination. He arrived here on the 16th of March of that year and took up the profession of teaching. He also engaged in farm work and in fact accepted any employment that would yield him an honest dollar.

On the 2d of April, 1876, Mr. Nixon was united in marriage to Miss Kate Stewart, a daughter of Daniel and Margaret Stewart, and to them have been born three children, two daughters and a son: Stella, now the wife of H. L. Wilson, who is state highway contractor and a resident of Walla Walla; Laura, the wife of H. H. Hadley, who is engaged in the automobile business in Dayton, Washington; and Edward S., who is associated with his father in the real estate and insurance business under the firm style of E. H. Nixon & Son.

In 1877, soon after his marriage, Mr. Nixon removed to Whitman county and took up a homestead and tree claim and preempted another one hundred and sixty acres of land. He also rented a section of school land and for eight years or more was extensively and successfully engaged in farming. He laid out the first road ever laid out in Whitman county and was well known as the pioneer settler of that county, instituting much of the progressive work which has brought about its present-day progress and prosperity. In 1885 he returned to Walla Walla, and while he has disposed of his landed interests in Whitman county, he still owns valuable farm property and since 1892 he has conducted a real estate and insurance business, the firm of E. H. Nixon & Son maintaining an office in the Jaycox building. For many years Mr. Nixon was one of the most conspicuous figures in the civic affairs of Walla Walla. He served as road overseer, was also United States deputy postmaster, was justice of the peace two years and was police judge one year. He was also city assessor one term and was a member of the city council and at all times exercised his official prerogatives in support of many well defined plans and measures for the general good. He looked beyond the exigencies of the moment to the opportunities and possibilities of the future and labored not only for the welfare of the passing hour but for future time as well. He was responsible for the establishment of the perpetual care system in the city cemetery and later the same system in the Odd Fellows cemetery, serving as president of the cemetery committee for a number of years. Mr. Nixon has long been a faithful and prominent member of the Grand Army of the Republic, in which he has filled all of the offices in the local post. He has also been honored with the position of assistant adjutant general and assistant quartermaster general of the Department of Washington and Alaska. He has membership in Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, A. F. & A. M., and is a member of Washington Lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., in which he has filled all of the chairs, including that of noble grand. In 1890 he joined with F. W. Paine and others in forming the Interstate Building Loan & Trust Association, and he is a member of its board of trustees and vice president of the association. In a word his activities are broad and varied. He is a liberal minded man, recognizing the duties and obligations of the individual to his fellowmen and to his country. At all times he has been actuated by a progressive spirit and in business affairs has been stimulated by a laudable ambition. His purposes have been well defined and promptly executed and the course which he has pursued has at all times measured up to the highest standards of manhood. His work has been of great benefit to the community at large as well as a source of individual success, and Walla Walla county honors him as one of her best known pioneers. His religious faith is that of the Unitarian church.

S. S. MORITZ.

S. S. Moritz, who since 1914 has held the office of postmaster of Dayton, was formerly prominently identified with its business interests, first as a merchant and later as a real estate operator. He was born in Victoria, British Columbia, August 28, 1863, a son of Moses and Adeline (Greenenburg) Moritz, natives respectively of Alsace, France, and of Groesenadar, Germany. The mother came to the Pacific coast by way of the Panama route in young womanhood and joined relatives living in San Francisco. The father emigrated to this country in early manhood and after spending some time in the middle west made his way to the California gold fields in 1849. He acquired some valuable mining properties but later lost them through reverses in fortune. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in San Francisco in 1855 and subsequently went to Portland, Oregon, where he was married, the lady who became his wife having in the meantime removed to that city, where she made her home with relatives. Mr. Moritz engaged in merchandising there until the discovery of gold on the Fraser river in the British possessions. He then removed with his family to Victoria, where they resided for two years, after which they returned to Portland. Later they became residents of Centerville, Idaho, where the father was well known as a general merchant. At length he removed to Boise City with the view of giving his children better educational advantages and remained there until 1873, when he went to Salt Lake City, where he was active in business until 1890. He then retired and spent his last days in the home of his son, S. S. Moritz. He passed away September 23, 1913, when in his eighty-eighth year. He was a man of vigorous constitution and retained the full use of his faculties up to the time of his death. His widow survives.

S. S. Moritz received his education in the schools of Boise City and of Salt Lake City and during vacations received business training which stood him in good stead in his later years. For several years before leaving school the summers were devoted to clerking in various stores in Salt Lake City, chiefly the clothing business, and in the spring of 1885, when a young man of twenty-one years, he came to Dayton, Washington, to accept a position with Duzenbury & Stencil, general merchants. For a year he had charge of their clothing and furnishing department and then engaged in business for himself, establishing a clothing and furnishing store. For eighteen years he conducted that store and became a dominant factor in the commercial life of Dayton, his resourcefulness, energy and keen insight into business conditions causing him to be generally recognized as a leader. In 1904 he sold his store, as he desired to give his undivided attention to his other interests. For a number of years he had been investing heavily in real estate and he it was who laid out the Syndicate Hill subdivision of Dayton, which is now recognized as the finest residence district of the city, and for a decade his entire time was given up to looking after his real estate interests, but in 1914 he became postmaster of Dayton by appointment of President Wilson. During the intervening three years he has held that position and has performed his duties in the same capable manner that he managed his private affairs.

Mr. Moritz was a stanch republican in his political views until 1896, but in that year he became convinced of the wisdom of the policies advocated by William Jennings Bryan and gave his support to the democratic party, with which he has since been identified. He has taken an active part in public affairs and many improvements in Dayton have been brought about largely through his indefatigable work in their behalf. Notable among these is his achievement in securing the paving of the business district in spite of much indifference and determined opposition. His interest in good roads has found further expression in the arterial highway law, a very significant piece of legislation, which is based upon a plan conceived by Mr. Moritz. When it became necessary to change the city charter in conformity with the state regulations he led the movement for a charter that would meet all the needs of Dayton and was largely instrumental in securing such an instrument. He has been one of the most active members in the Dayton Commercial Club since its organization and has had a large part in its effective and farreaching work for the city. Fraternally he belongs to Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P. His position as one of the foremost residents of Dayton is secure and his personal friends are many.

T. F. DICE.

T. F. Dice, residing on section 2, township 9 north, range 36 east, Walla Walla county, holds title to a large amount of land but is renting the greater part of it and is thus enjoying comparative leisure. His birth occurred in Pennsylvania, February 15, 1859, a son of William and Susan (Redrick) Dice, who passed their entire lives in the Keystone state. Five of their seven children are still living.

T. F. Dice grew to manhood in Pennsylvania and supplemented the education acquired in the public schools by attendance at Mercersburg college in Mercersburg. On leaving his native state he went to Savannah, Georgia, where he spent three years, and then in 1889 he came to Walla Walla county, Washington, for the benefit of his health and here he purchased a farm on which he resided for three years. He next bought his present home place on section 2, township 9 north, range 36 east, and for many years personally operated the five hundred acres comprised in the farm. At the present time, however, he rents all the land but an eighty acre tract, which is in alfalfa and which he looks after himself.

In 1884 occurred the marriage of Mr. Dice and Miss E. A. Spangenberg. The latter was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and is a daughter of Frederick A. and Fanny Anna Spangenberg, both also born in Pennsylvania. The father, who successfully engaged in the practice of law for many years, is now deceased, but the mother survives. Mrs. Dice had exceptional musical training and her talents along that line have been a source of great pleasure to her family and friends. Mr. and Mrs. Dice have four children: William T., who lives in California; Lee R., who is teaching in the University of Montana; Frances E., the wife of the Rev. Robert M. Hood, now a resident of Idaho; and Carl E., a student of Mount Tamalpais Military Academy, San Rafael, California. During the years of his residence in Walla Walla county Mr. Dice has become widely and favorably known, his many excellent qualities gaining for him many warm friends.

W. H. BARNHART.

The field of opportunity finds its boundaries only in the limitations of the individual. When energy and ambition lie dormant the path of advancement seems closed, but to the man who believes that there is a chance for every individual and who is willing to take his chance with others, there always comes a time when he can take the initial step that will lead on to fortune. That Mr. Barnhart recognized the opportune moment is shown in the fact that he is now one of the leading business men of Starbuck, where he is widely known as the vice president and manager of the Sprout & Barnhart Mercantile Company and also as a member of the board of directors of the Bank of Starbuck. Iowa claims him as a native son, his birth having occurred in Wapello county on the 11th of October, 1871, his parents being Henry and Elizabeth (Johnson) Barnhart. The father was a native of Tennessee, while the mother's birth occurred in Ohio, and in Iowa their marriage was solemnized. They had accompanied their respective parents to the last mentioned state in childhood and were there reared. Mr. Barnhart turned his attention to farming and railroading, which he followed in Iowa until 1889, when he removed westward to Oregon and for a number of years was employed by the Oregon & Washington Railroad & Navigation Company in the capacity of engineer. He thus took part in the early development of railway operations in the west. He died in December, 1915, and is survived by his widow, who resides on a ranch near Spokane.

[Illustration: W. H. BARNHART]

W. H. Barnhart, spending his youthful days under the parental roof, completed his education in the high school at Albia, Iowa, from which he was graduated with the class of 1889. The following year he came to Oregon and for a number of years successfully engaged in teaching school, imparting readily and clearly to others the knowledge that he had acquired. He also worked in a store at La Grande, Oregon, and subsequently he became a student in Armstrong's Business College at Portland. Later he took up railroading as an employe of the Oregon & Washington Railroad & Navigation Company and was employed by that corporation for thirteen years. During the last seven years of that period he ran an engine and in 1907 he resigned his position with the company and purchased an interest in the mercantile establishment of W. E. Sprout of Starbuck. The following year the company was reorganized and incorporated, with Mr. Barnhart as the vice president and manager of the business, and Mr. Sprout as the president. They have a spacious and well appointed store, carrying an extensive line of goods, and they always maintain the highest standards in the personnel of the house, in the stock carried and in the treatment accorded patrons. Their business has therefore gradually increased as the years have gone on and has become one of the profitable commercial interests of southeastern Washington.

In September, 1901, Mr. Barnhart was united in marriage to Miss Bessie A. Wright, of Starbuck, and they have become parents of two daughters, Grace M. and Blanche L. Mr. Barnhart is a loyal representative of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to Tucanon Lodge, No. 106, F. & A. M., of which he is now worshipful master. He is also identified with the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and has served as chief engineer in the order. In politics he is a stalwart republican and is now mayor of Starbuck. He had previously served for several years as a member of the town council and his fitness for further and more responsible public duties led to his election as chief executive. His wife and two daughters are members of the Episcopal church and Mr. Barnhart is serving on its board of trustees. His aid and influence are always given on the side of progress and improvement as related to the material upbuilding and also the social, intellectual and moral advancement of the community. Those who know him, and he has a wide acquaintance, esteem him as a man of genuine worth who well merits the success that has crowned his efforts since he started out in business life empty-handed.

IRA D. BRUNTON.

Among the native sons of Walla Walla county who have elected to continue residents thereof is Ira D. Brunton, who is engaged in farming on section 30, township 8 north, range 36 east. He was born in that township, May 11, 1876, and is a son of W. H. H. and Sarah A. (Lewis) Brunton, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. He was reared upon the home farm, and his boyhood and youth were spent in the acquirement of a district school education and in helping his father. He further pursued his studies in Whitman College and at the old Empire Business College at Walla Walla, thus fitting himself for his later life.

After his marriage Mr. Brunton began farming for himself, operating a part of the homestead in partnership with his father, this relation being continued until his father's death, after which Mr. Brunton of this review and his brother Frank managed the entire estate of seven hundred acres for five years. At the end of that time Ira D. Brunton took over the operation of four hundred acres and his brother Garfield became responsible for the cultivation of the remaining three hundred acres. In 1903 our subject purchased one hundred and sixty acres adjoining the home farm and he now operates both places and also four hundred acres of rented land, or nine hundred and sixty acres in all. It is thus evident that his interests are extensive and make heavy demands upon his time and energies, but he is industrious, progressive and systematic in his work and his affairs are kept well in hand.

Mr. Brunton was married October 10, 1897, to Miss Bessie L. Ramseur, a daughter of David W. Ramseur, who removed to Walla Walla county from North Carolina in 1892. To Mr. and Mrs. Brunton have been born five children: Elsie M., the wife of Clyde Garland, of Walla Walla; and Reese R., Lucille B., and Miles and Melvin, twins, all of whom are at home.

Mr. Brunton's political views are in accord with the principles of the democratic party and he supports its candidates at the polls. In 1908 he was his party's nominee for sheriff and polled a large vote. Fraternally he is connected with Mountain Gem Lodge, No. 136, K. P., and his wife is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. He is held in high esteem as a citizen and as a man, and his success as a farmer entitles him to rank among the leaders in the agricultural development of the county.

JOSEPH CLARK FAIR.

Joseph Clark Fair, an independent grain buyer and one of Dayton's foremost business men and representative citizens, was born in Benton county, Arkansas, February 26, 1874, a son of Joseph A. and Martha Ann (Russell) Fair, the former born in Sullivan county, Tennessee, and the latter in Barry county, Missouri. The parents were taken by their respective parents to Benton county, Arkansas, and there grew to manhood and womanhood. They continued to reside there following their marriage, with the exception of four years spent in Texas, up to the time of the mother's death, which occurred in June, 1899. The father devoted his active life to farming but is now a resident of Centerton, Benton county, Arkansas, where he is living retired. He is a local Methodist minister and was often importuned to join the conference but refused, saying he knew he could make a living farming but did not know whether he could as a minister or not. His parents, Ellis and Nancy Hamilton (Easly) Fair, were representatives of old families of Tennessee. Mr. Fair was killed by Indians at the time of the Civil war. The parents of Mrs. Martha Ann (Russell) Fair were Elijah and Louisa (Bell) Russell, natives respectively of Missouri and Tennessee. Mr. Russell went to the California gold mines in 1849, crossing the plains with ox team, and returned to the east in 1852 by sailing vessel. At the time of the Civil war he was killed by bushwackers.

Joseph Clark Fair was reared at home, and in the acquirement of his education attended the common schools of Arkansas and the Elm Springs Academy, in Washington county, that state. For two terms he engaged in teaching in Benton county, Arkansas, but because of the low salary paid teachers gave up the profession. In 1898 he decided to try his fortune in the far west and located at Condon, Gilliam county, Oregon, where he was connected with lumber interests. He remained there for five years and during the last year helped to build the courthouse. During that time he acquired title to seven hundred and twenty acres of land, which he has since sold at a profit. In 1903 he became a resident of Dayton, Washington, where he has ever since remained, and he is well known throughout Columbia county as a grain-buyer. He is expert in judging wheat and keeps in the closest touch with the grain markets and has been very successful in his business affairs.

Mr. Fair was married in 1908 to Miss Nellie Virginia Gregg, who was born in Washington county, Arkansas, but at the time of her marriage was county superintendent of schools of Columbia county. To them was born one child, who, however, is deceased. Mr. Fair is a stanch democrat in politics and has served with ability as a member of the town council. He is well known in fraternal circles, belonging to Alki Lodge, No. 136, I. O. O. F., of which he is past grand; Franklin Encampment, No. 13, I. O. O. F., of which he is past chief patriarch; Dayton Lodge, No. 26, F. & A. M., of which he is now worshipful master; and Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P., of which he is past chancellor. His religious faith is indicated by his membership in the Congregational church, and in his business dealings, as well as in the private relations of life, his conduct measures up to high moral standards. He feels that his decision to come to the west was one of the wisest that he has ever made and he is confident that a greater future is in store for this section.

CHARLES CLAGUE.

Charles Clague, a prosperous farmer residing on section 2, township 9 north, range 36 east, Walla Walla county, was born on the Isle of Man in March, 1860, a son of Richard and Isabella (Quirk) Clague, also natives of that island, where their entire lives were passed. Our subject's education was received in the public schools and he remained in his native country until he attained his majority but in 1881 came to the United States. For six months he worked in a grocery store in Olean, New York, after which he decided to see the west. There for a month he worked in Colorado and then continued his journey, arriving in San Francisco on Christmas day, 1881. He only remained in that city for two days, however, and then came to Walla Walla county, Washington. He took up a homestead two miles south of Prescott and for twenty years lived upon that place, which he operated successfully. He also purchased other land, becoming the owner of seven hundred and eighty acres. In 1902, in partnership with T. F. Dice, he bought five hundred acres of land and later they purchased the old Samuel Erwin home farm, where both have since resided. Mr. Clague has sold his homestead and the land adjoining and has also disposed of the equity of the five hundred acre tract but retains his interest in the farm of eighty acres, where he and Mr. Dice reside. He also is the owner of fifty-two acres of irrigated land near Patterson, Stanislaus county, California. He has gained financial independence and, having disposed of the greater part of his holdings, is now enjoying a period of comparative leisure.

Mr. Clague is a progressive republican in politics and has always been most loyal to the interests of his adopted country. He belongs to the Presbyterian church and in its teachings are found the principles which guide his life. For thirty-six years he has resided in Walla Walla county and has done his part in bringing about the wonderful development that has taken place during that time. He has a wide acquaintance and a large number of warm personal friends.

FRANK W. PAINE.

Frank W. Paine is a capitalist of Walla Walla whose name is inseparably interwoven with the history of city and state. Coming to the west in pioneer times, he is familiar with every phase of frontier life and with the processes of development which have brought the state from pioneer conditions to its present stage of progress and prosperity. His individual labors have contributed much to the results achieved, and no account of Walla Walla's development would be complete without extended reference to him.

Mr. Paine was born August 31, 1839, in Mercer, Somerset county, Maine, and has therefore passed the seventy-eighth milestone on life's journey. His father, William Paine, was born in Hingham, Massachusetts, September 5, 1801, and died December 4, 1883, while the mother, who bore the maiden name of Elizabeth Wentworth Pike, was born in Somersworth, New Hampshire, December 29, 1804, and passed away February 14, 1872. Both parents were of English Puritan stock. Among the early representatives of the Paine family were men of title who belonged to the nobility of England, and in New England representatives of the name loyally served their country in the struggle for independence and as statesmen aided in formulating the policy of the commonwealth with which they were connected. In religious faith the parents of Frank W. Paine were Congregationalists. In political faith William Paine was first a whig and afterwards a republican, and by occupation he was a farmer. To him and his wife were born six children, who were reared more in the fear than in the love of God, but for their day they were on the firing line, both in good works and exemplary lives.

Frank W. Paine began his education in a little unpainted schoolhouse of one room, which stood at the forks of the road on Beech Hill, in the town of Mercer, Somerset county, Maine. He at first had the opportunity of attending school for about eight weeks in the summer and ten weeks in the winter season until he was ten or eleven years of age, when he no longer found it possible to continue his studies through the summer but was enabled to attend school through the winter until his eighteenth year. He then began teaching in the country districts through the winter months, while the summer was devoted to farm work. On leaving the schoolroom, however, he did not consider his education complete, for his strong desire for learning has led him to read and study systematically and he always has near him good books on history, literature, science and poetry. Such books have also constituted a part of his continuous reading and thus he has obviated his lack of early training and become a most well informed man. Moreover, in the various positions of public trust which he has filled he has always found it to be of the greatest assistance to resort to the most reliable authorities treating on the matters in hand and in these ways he has been able to accomplish something of what a liberal education might have done for him. He has many times so keenly felt his deficiency in the lack of school and college training that upon an analysis of his educational shortcomings he determined that his most serious lack was a fuller understanding of history, literature and Latin, and he has wherever possible urged young men to prepare along those lines.

[Illustration: FRANK W. PAINE]

[Illustration: RESIDENCE OF F. W. PAINE]

As school teaching and farming seemed to offer small opportunities in Maine, Mr. Paine resolved to go west and chose California as his objective point, arriving in that state in October, 1861, with a letter from the late Judge E. D. Sawyer of San Francisco to an old friend of his at Mokelumne Hill. He was soon on the ground of the "Jumping Frog of Calaveras county" and found the addressee of his letter to be the proprietor of a provision store and his affairs much run down at the heel. Early in the spring of 1862, therefore, Mr. Paine went to Dogtown, in Shasta county, to join two friends who were preparing to go to the newly discovered mines on Salmon river in Idaho. He became the third member of the party, whose route, as contemplated, lay over the Siskiyou mountains to southern Oregon, then to Portland and on by way of Walla Walla, but at Jacksonville they were advised to cross the Cascade mountains down the east side to Klamath lake and on to Walla Walla. After many days of weary walking they arrived in Walla Walla late in June 1862, and there met the returning tide of miners from Salmon river and Florence, which discouraged the three young men from going further in that direction.

Under the stress of necessity Mr. Paine made haste to find employment and after two or three months by precarious work of different kinds he secured a situation in the Baker-Boyer store but was soon detailed to take charge of the Spray warehouse at Wallula under Dr. Baker's direction. In the spring of 1863 a mad rush for the Boise mines carried Mr. Paine along. As a measure of economy he engaged with a mule pack train owned by the firm of Johnson & Stratton, serving as off side packer and learning to "throw the diamond hitch." The wealth which Mr. Paine accumulated in that mining venture consisted mainly in experience. In the fall of 1864 he returned to Walla Walla and at once was reinstated in his former position with the Baker-Boyer firm, there remaining until the spring of 1866, when another attack of mining fever took him to Montana with a stock of clothing made for the California miners' trade, which stock of goods was readily sold at a good profit. After enjoying a few weeks of summer on the summit of the Rockies he returned to the land of his adoption, and to be safeguarded against another "call of the wild," on his return he accepted the proffer of a partnership made by William Stephens, a merchant conducting business at the corner of Main and First streets. The business prospered and at the end of a year Mr. Paine purchased the interest of his partner and admitted his brother John to a partnership, removing the stock to the corner of Second and Main streets, where they conducted a very substantial business. After about two year opportunity enabled Mr. Paine to succeed by purchase to the Baker-Boyer business, then located on the present site of the Baker-Boyer Bank. Miles C. Moore joined him as a partner under the style of Paine Brothers & Moore, which firm soon became widely known for its business enterprise and also for its local political influence. During the existence of the firm they established branches at Waitsburg and at Dayton and built a fine steamboat, The Northwest, to ply in wheat carrying on the Columbia and Snake rivers. The war department, however, leased the steamboat to transport troops and munitions during the war with the hostile Willowas, under the notable Chief Joseph, in 1878. Soon after the boat was taken over by the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company. After nearly ten years of pleasant and profitable partnership Mr. Moore withdrew from the firm. In the meantime they had concentrated their attention upon farm implements and machinery and this business was conducted under the style of Paine Brothers. In 1879 they built the three-story brick building, which was then the finest business block in the northwest outside of Portland. Upon its completion and upon the organization of the First National Bank it took up its home in this building, where it has since continued.

While for many years Mr. Paine figured most prominently in commercial circles, he also became a leader in the public life of the community as well. His first public office was that of councilman, which he filled in 1878 and 1879. He afterward served as city treasurer in 1883 and 1884 and was mayor of Walla Walla through the two succeeding years. All of these offices came to him unsought. During his mayoralty term he signed the ordinance prohibiting stock from running at large in the streets and this executive act lost him his reelection. He recognized, however, the value of such a course to the city and followed the dictates of his judgment and his conscience notwithstanding the contrary advice of his friends who desired his reelection. In 1880 Mr. Paine was elected school director in District No. 34, the western part of the city. In 1882, by act of the legislature, Districts No. 34 and No. 1, the latter the eastern part of the city, were united in one and the two boards of directors acted as one until the next election, when Mr. Paine was elected one of the three directors for the combined district. He was reelected at each succeeding election until 1906 and during his incumbency, covering more than twenty-five years, he was chairman of the board, which from time to time had to meet increasing requirements by the erection of two frame and three brick schoolhouses. To do this the legal maximum levy of five per cent was not exceeded. The educational work done and the standing of the schools was equal to the best in the state.

In 1887 Governor Watson C. Squire, at the request of many of Mr. Paine's friends, appointed him superintendent of the new state penitentiary which had been recently erected at Walla Walla, with orders to establish rules and regulations and to conduct the institution on a similar plan to that of the Oregon state penitentiary. After some hesitation he accepted the appointment, and as the legislature, after providing an appropriation to erect the buildings, had neglected to make any appropriation for its maintenance, it became necessary to secure a citizens' pledge of five thousand dollars on which to draw for incidentals for the ensuing year or until the next legislature should meet. This done, he took six good men as guards with him to Seatco, where the old contract prison built of logs was located and where the convicts divided their time between working in a sash and door factory, working their way out of prison and being worked back by a reward or a bloodhound. Governor Squire met Mr. Paine at that place and after getting a record of the convicts, as a measure of economy for the state, he pardoned sixteen whose terms were nearly completed, leaving ninety-seven to be transferred to Walla Walla, which was accomplished without loss of any member. The next problem was to produce work for the prisoners and Mr. Paine soon succeeded in establishing and operating successfully a brickyard, which proved greatly beneficial to the prisoners. At the close of his term and on the convening of the legislature he reported to the governor, then Governor Semple, giving account of the amount required to cover all indebtedness incurred. The legislature readily made the appropriation, supplemented by a complimentary resolution. Two years later, under a new legislative enactment, Mr. Paine was made chairman of a commission of three members appointed by Governor Elisha P. Ferry, consisting of P. A. Preston, F. M. Lowden and Mr. Paine. With the ready compliance of his colleagues, Mr. Paine proceeded at once to establish a jute mill, having at his personal expense visited and investigated the San Quentin and Oakland jute mills, where he learned of their methods and was advised of their profits, thus becoming convinced of the economy of the measure and of what was of much greater moment, the providing of employment for the inmates of the institution. The establishment of the mill was strenuously opposed by the labor element, as had been the brickyard, but the objection to convict labor has been largely overcome in view of the importance to the health and morals of the inmates of all such institutions. With the advanced views of the day Mr. Paine gladly sees the passing of another most degrading abuse from which this particular institution suffered at times in its earliest history--that of making it a base for political operations of a most scandalous character and its offices a reward for political jobbery.

Another field of activity into which Mr. Paine entered was that of the Building Loan & Trust Association, which he was largely instrumental in organizing in February, 1890. It was called the International Building Loan & Trust Association of Walla Walla and soon built up a prosperous business. It has continuously paid its patrons a good rate of interest, has built many comfortable homes in and around the city and is today one of the leading institutions of the kind in the state. It is strictly mutual, makes money only for the stockholders and the only salary paid is that to its secretary, together with a small fee to its board members for each regular monthly meeting. The business methods are highly commended by the state examiner. Of this association Mr. Paine has been the president since its inception, covering a period of more than twenty-seven years. One of the most greatly appreciated honors that has come to Mr. Paine has been his appointment on the board of overseers of Whitman College and he is further honored in the position of chairman on the college loaning board.

In the late '70s Mr. Paine assisted in organizing the first Board of Trade at Walla Walla. At that early date it was thought to be of questionable value to the business community, so that it was with difficulty that funds could be secured to pay a secretary. In fact the body's activities and even its existence was at times of an intermittent order. In time the Board of Trade became the Chamber of Commerce and eventually the Commercial Club, and it fell to the lot of Captain P. B. Johnson of the Walla Walla Union and to Mr. Paine to keep alive the last named organization, the former acting as secretary and the latter as president. They answered correspondence, mailed descriptive circulars and other literature and in this way induced at least some settlers to come to the valley. All this occurred long before the inception of the present very much alive commercial body.

Mr. Paine not only figured in the business and public activities of the city but also in its social organizations. He became a member of the Inquiry Club on its organization twenty-six years ago, a club which is still in vigorous existence. Its membership has included many of the brightest minds in Walla Walla--men from various professions and callings in life. Whitman College has been largely represented on its roster. The workings of the club certainly have a great charm for its members, for its discussions cover the widest possible range of subjects and any member called upon expresses his views upon the subject under discussion with entire absence of restraint and accepts with good grace whatever he may get in return. Mr. Paine was also connected with an association of gentlemen of literary attainments which was organized in 1877. Among its members were Dr. George M. Sternberg, later surgeon general of the United States army, Judge J. K. Kennedy, Dr. J. E. Bingham, Colonel H. E. Holmes, Ex-Governor M. C. Moore, Colonel W. H. Miller, J. F. Boyer, Major R. R. Rees, F. W. Paine and a number of other prominent citizens. The objects of this association, as expressed in its articles of organization, were to maintain a scientific and useful library, to promote science and to cultivate and improve its members. Mr. Paine is also a member of the Archaeological Association of Walla Walla, which under Professor Anderson maintains a good degree of activity, bringing to the city many able lecturers on arts and sciences. On the list of the members of the Symphony Orchestra is also found the name of Frank W. Paine, who has been its honored president for many years, an association which has done much to cultivate and promote musical taste in Walla Walla.

Most pleasantly situated in his home life, notwithstanding the extent and importance of his business and public and social activities, the interest of Frank W. Paine, yet has ever centered in his home. He married Ida B. Illsley, a daughter of Jonathan H. Illsley, a merchant of Harrison, Maine, the wedding being celebrated in the Presbyterian church on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., April 3, 1876. After a brief visit to their old homes in Maine they turned toward Walla Walla, visiting the Centennial at Philadelphia while en route and thence proceeding to San Francisco, to Portland and on to their destination, where they arrived on the 6th of July, being soon domiciled in the home which they yet occupy. Mrs. Paine comes of a family of superior musical and literary talent, finding its highest exponent perhaps in her eldest sister, the late Mrs. Caroline A. Tolman, who possessed unusual literary ability and devoted much time and talent to advocating the emancipation of women, contemporaneous with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and Abigail Scott Dunniway. They labored to make a place for woman side by side with man. Theirs was scant praise in their day but already the harvest of their labors is being garnered.

To Mr. and Mrs. Paine were born four daughters. Elizabeth, the eldest, passed away at the age of twenty-four years. Josephine became the wife of Timothy A. Paul, a graduate of the University of Virginia and now a resident of Walla Walla, by whom she has three children, two sons and a daughter. Mary became the wife of Ben G. Stone, a real estate and insurance man and farmer of Walla Walla, and they have two sons. Frances is the wife of R. Douglas Ball, who is engaged in the wholesale paper business in Seattle, and they have three children, a daughter and two sons. Mr. and Mrs. Paine are happy in the possession of their three daughters, their generous, manly husbands and their promising children. They stand to them a full measure of reward for any and all sacrifices it may have been their duty and pleasure to make for them and an ample assurance of continued happiness in them, for all of which they duly return thanks to the "giver of every good and perfect gift."

JOHN N. FALL.

John N. Fall was one of the pioneers of Walla Walla county who reaped the reward of his labors, being at the time of his death the owner of large tracts of fine wheat land, the operation of which he supervised, although a resident of Walla Walla. He was born in Indiana, September 13, 1836, a son of Asa and Agnes (Davis) Fall, the former a native of North Carolina. Both parents passed their last years in Walla Walla county.

John N. Fall received the education usually afforded boys in pioneer communities and remained with his parents until he reached mature years. In 1861 he decided to take advantage of the opportunities offered the ambitious young man in the Pacific northwest and crossed the plains with ox teams. He at once settled in Walla Walla county, buying a farm on Mill creek, on which he resided until 1867. He then removed to Walla Walla but continued to operate his farm and, although as the years passed his holdings increased rapidly, he never ceased to exercise direct personal supervision over his agricultural interests. He was at once practical and progressive, being ready to adopt any new method or implement whose value had been reasonably well proven. He gave careful study to the problems of increased production, the conservation of soil fertility and advantageous marketing, and it was recognized that he was an authority on everything pertaining to wheat raising.

Mr. Fall was married in Missouri in 1858 to Miss Sarah E. Williams, a daughter of Benjamin and Mary Williams, both of whom were born in Kentucky, but for a number of years resided in Missouri, whence they finally removed to Iowa, where the father passed away. The mother then came to Walla Walla county, where she spent her last years. To Mr. and Mrs. Fall was born a son, Dr. E. E. Fall, who died in February, 1917, leaving a son, Edmond E.

Mr. Fall supported the democratic party at the polls and manifested the interest of a good citizen in public affairs. Fraternally he belonged to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Ancient Order of United Workmen, and the spirit which characterized his life was that of fraternity and consideration for others. He passed away in 1900 and was laid to rest in Mountain View cemetery. He was a consistent member of the Presbyterian church, to the support of which he contributed generously, and his sterling worth gained him a warm place in the regard of those who were closely associated with him. Mrs. Fall was also a member of that denomination and was likewise keenly interested in its various activities. After the death of her husband she owned and personally managed the operation of two thousand and forty acres of wheat land and two hundred and forty acres on the mountain, a part of which was wheat land and a part pasture. In looking after her extensive interests she manifested an executive ability and keen insight into business that was far above the average and she was recognized as a factor in the development of the county along agricultural lines.

ELMER L. WOODS.

Elmer L. Woods, who resides on section 7, township 9 north, range 27 east, is one of the leading horticulturists of Walla Walla county, his apple orchard comprising almost four thousand trees of the finest varieties. He was born in that township, November 4, 1888, and is a son of Joel and Viola M. (Hull) Woods, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. He was reared at home and during his boyhood and youth attended the Waitsburg public schools, thus receiving a good education. On reaching man's estate he became associated with his father in the operation of the home farm, and this relation was continued until the father's death. In 1911 forty acres were planted to apple trees, ninety-six to an acre, by Walter & Morris, the administrators of the estate. This orchard of three thousand eight hundred and forty trees is now bearing, and is one of the finest fruit orchards in the county. At the time the estate was settled Mr. Woods of this review acquired title to the orchard, and it yielded about two thousand boxes of apples in 1917. He has given the orchard the most thorough and systematic care and is ever businesslike in solving problems of packing and marketing.

Mr. Woods belongs to Delta Lodge, No. 70, K. P., of Waitsburg and is in hearty sympathy with the ideals of the fraternity upon which that organization is based. He possesses in marked measure the enterprise and self-reliance characteristic of the western man, and he has the utmost confidence in the future of his county and state.

FRANK SINGLETON.

There are few residents of Walla Walla who can claim connection with the city from 1857. The memory of Frank Singleton, however, harks back to the period when this was a frontier fort and the work of progress and civilization had scarcely been begun in all this section of the country. The Indians were more numerous than the white settlers and only here and there had some venturesome spirit penetrated into the western wilderness to plant the seeds of civilization. Frank Singleton, who is now extensively interested in mining and is engaged in the real estate business in Walla Walla, was but six years of age at the time of his arrival in Washington. He was born in San Antonio, Texas, November 7, 1850, and after the removal of the family to the northwest pursued his education in the public and parochial schools of Walla Walla. On reaching manhood he engaged in the live stock business, with which he was prominently identified for many years. At one time he was a heavy holder of farm lands, but in 1916 he sold his farm north of Prescott, comprising six hundred acres, which was the last of his farm possessions. For the past twelve years he has been prominently identified with mining and has large holdings in mining property. For six years he has been engaged in the real estate business in Walla Walla and has negotiated many important realty transfers. In a word, he is a progressive business man, alert and energetic, his activities guided by sound judgment, while his laudable ambition has brought to him gratifying success.

In July, 1907, Mr. Singleton was united in marriage to Mrs. Martha White, who in her maidenhood was Miss Kidwell, a daughter of James Kidwell, who in 1863 cast in his lot with the pioneer settlers of Walla Walla. By her former marriage Mrs. Singleton had two sons; Walter, who is engaged in farming in Walla Walla county; and Vivian, who is a farmer of Franklin county. Mr. and Mrs. Singleton are widely and favorably known in the city and surrounding country, having an extensive circle of friends, while the hospitality of the best homes is freely accorded them. With every phase of pioneer life and of the later development and progress of the county they are familiar, having been interested witnesses of the growth and upbuilding of this section of the state from early pioneer times.

WILLIAM D. PAUL.

William D. Paul was successful as a farmer and his personal qualities were such that he made and retained friends readily. He was recognized as a man of worth and there was much sincere regret when he passed away at his home in Walla Walla. His birth occurred in Walla Walla county, October 21, 1864, and his parents were Thomas and Susan F. (Ellis) Paul, both of whom were born in Iowa. In 1861 they crossed the plains with ox team to Washington, and the father took up a claim in Walla Walla county, on which they resided until called by death.

William D. Paul was reared under the parental roof and in the acquirement of his education attended the pioneer schools. His entire life was devoted to farming and he became in time the owner of three hundred and twenty acres of fertile land, from which he received a gratifying income. He made many improvements upon his place and was careful and systematic in the conduct of the farm work. He also held title to valuable city property and for a number of years resided in Walla Walla.

In 1895 Mr. Paul was married to Miss Kate Loney, a native of Canada and a daughter of Charles and Charlotte (Cole) Loney, who were born in Ireland but emigrated to Canada in young manhood and womanhood. In 1880 they came to Walla Walla, Washington, and here they passed their remaining days. To Mr. and Mrs. Paul were born four children: Thomas N., who is farming in Walla Walla county; Winifred and Ruth, both high school students; and Geneva.

Mr. Paul endorsed the principles of the republican party, and gave his loyal support to its candidates at the polls. His religious faith was the determining principle in his life and he gave freely of his time and means in furthering work of the Baptist church, in which he held the office of deacon and also that of treasurer. He passed away August 24, 1916, and was laid to rest in the Mountain View cemetery. His unswerving integrity and his consistent regard for the rights and feelings of others gave him a place in the warm regard of many, and those who were privileged to know him intimately still cherish his memory. Mrs. Paul owns the family residence in Walla Walla and there makes her home. She rents the farm and personally attends to the management of her affairs and displays in that connection unusual business qualities. She, too, is a faithful and active member of the Baptist church and is a woman of many admirable qualities.

WILLIAM S. CLARK.

William S. Clark, who is living retired in Walla Walla save for the management of his extensive farming interests, has passed his entire life in the northwest and is a son of pioneers who came to "Old Oregon" in 1843, when this region was wild and uninhabited save by Indians and fur traders and when it was still a mooted question whether it was British or American territory. The birth of William S. Clark occurred in Portland, Oregon, April 9, 1857, and his parents were Ransom and Lettice Jane (Millican) Clark. The father was born near St. Johnsbury, Vermont, July 22, 1810, and was descended from a long line of Puritan ancestors. The first one of the family to emigrate to America was Lieutenant William Clark, who became one of the first settlers of Dorchester and Northampton, Massachusetts. Smith College at Northampton is situated upon land that was a part of his homestead.

[Illustration: RANSOM CLARK]

Ransom Clark received his education in Vermont and remained there for a considerable period after reaching mature years. At length, however, he manifested the pioneer spirit that had characterized his ancestors and removed to the west, where he believed there were better opportunities. He first located in Wisconsin and then went to St. Louis and later to New Orleans. He was in St. Louis in 1843 at the time Lieutenant Fremont was fitting out his company for his trip to the Pacific coast and although the greater part of his men were French and Canadian frontiersmen, Mr. Clark and about a half dozen other Americans enlisted for the expedition. Mr. Clark remained with the Fremont party until The Dalles were reached and then, with two other Americans, left the command and joined the American emigrants just coming into the country. In the spring of 1844 he took up his residence upon a farm near Lafayette and was successful in adapting himself to the conditions of that frontier locality, growing good crops and also engaging in stock raising. The Oregon Spectator of July 4, 1846, contained the following advertisement: "Ransom Clark, at his home on Yamhill river, offers for sale wheat, oats, corn, white beans, peas and potatoes, also bacon, salt pork, hogs and breeding sows." At the time of the discovery of gold he went to the mines in California, where he spent two years, after which he conducted a hotel in Linn, Oregon, and still later became one of the proprietors of the Columbian Hotel in Portland. In 1855 he went to the Colville country, in which gold had been discovered, and returning by way of Walla Walla, took up a donation claim of six hundred and forty acres just south of the present site of Walla Walla. However, the country had not yet been formally opened for settlement and he was compelled to leave by Nathan Olney, Indian agent. In 1888, however, he learned that the country would soon be opened up and in that spring went to his claim with a full outfit of farming implements, fruit trees, nursery stock, etc. He took with him John Haley to fence and care for his place and, leaving him there, soon returned to Oregon. The following spring he again came to this region, and this time was accompanied by his son, Charles W., whom he left on the place. In May he returned to Portland to make final arrangements for removing to his land, but while there became ill and died on the 24th of May, 1859, at the early age of forty-nine years. He was a member of the famous Lyceum and Debating Society of Oregon City and, as he wrote to a friend, "always advocated those principles which are best calculated to promote the cause of education, to promote the greatest good to the greatest number." He was quite prominent in civic affairs, served as a member of one of the early legislatures and in 1844 was one of three commissioners to view out and survey a road from the Willamette falls to the falls of the Yamhill river. He realized that a great future was in store for this section and was among the men who laid broad and deep the foundation for its future development.

Ransom Clark was married in 1845 to Miss Lettice Jane, the eldest daughter of Elijah and Lucinda (Crisp) Millican. She was born in Canehill, Arkansas, October 3, 1830. In 1843 the family joined the Whitman train and after a journey of weary months reached Oregon. The following year the Millican family settled near the town of Lafayette, Yamhill county, and there in 1845 Lattice J. Millican became the wife of Ransom Clark. Following the death of her husband in 1859, she made the journey to Walla Walla in order to make arrangements for subsequently locating upon the farm which Mr. Clark had taken up and which was known for many years as the Ransom Clark donation claim. She was given a place in the government ambulance from Wallula to Walla Walla and her first night in the latter place was spent in the fort. The following morning she was driven out to her claim and remained there for two weeks. She then returned to Portland, where the birth of her daughter occurred the following summer. In October, 1859, she again came to Walla Walla in company with her family. They were passengers on the first stage from The Dalles to Walla Walla, with John F. Abbott as driver. Later she received a letter from Judge E. D. Shattuck of Portland advising her to sell her claim for two hundred and seventy-five dollars and abandon the idea of developing it. However, she disregarded this advice and continued to reside upon the farm with her children. On the 23d of May, 1861, she married Almos H. Reynolds, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. She was one of the earliest pioneer women at the head of a ranch in Walla Walla county and the fact that she had been privileged to witness more of the growth of the northwest than others seemed to give her an added interest in everything pertaining to public welfare. She contributed much to the upbuilding of the various institutions of the city and by reason of her force of character and her many liberal and well advised benefactions she was recognized as a most prominent citizen of Walla Walla. The erection of the Young Men's Christian Association building was made possible by a twenty thousand dollar donation from her and after its completion she was one of the chief contributors toward its upkeep. At the rally and jubilee held when the association had raised the forty-five thousand dollars necessary to pay off its debt the speech that she made expressing her great joy in the knowledge that the association was free of all debt will long be remembered by all who heard her. She was also a loyal friend and patron of Whitman College, contributing generously at various times to the support of the institution and paying off a debt of six thousand dollars on the girls' dormitory, which is named in her honor Reynolds Hall. She was a woman of the highest ideals and also had the keenness of intellect and strength of character to realize her ideals and the memory of Lettice J. Reynolds will long be held in honor in Walla Walla.

William S. Clark received his education in the public schools and Whitman Academy, his parents realizing the value of liberal training and giving their children the best advantages possible. After leaving school he went to work in the drug store of Dr. J. H. Day of Walla Walla, and there studied pharmacy. Later he was for two years clerk in a drug store in Portland and then returned to Walla Walla and continued to engage in the drug business here until 1877. He was then employed for some time on the railroad from Walla Walla to Wallula, owned by Dr. Baker. The latter recognized that with the settling up of the country land would rapidly increase in value and advised Mr. Clark to invest his savings in land. Accordingly he began buying farm lands, to the operation of which he gave close personal supervision for many years. He now, however, leaves all the actual work of cultivation to others, confining his attention to the business management of his properties.

On the 6th of June, 1900, Mr. Clark was united in marriage to Miss Ella H. Seelye, a teacher for seventeen years in the Walla Walla public schools. She was born in Minnesota and is a daughter of Stuart Seelye, who had the distinction of building the first lumber, shingle and flour mills in Little Falls, Minnesota. The Seelye family have been prominent in educational circles in the east, Julius Seelye being president of Amherst College and Clark Seelye president of Smith College. To Mr. and Mrs. Clark has been born a daughter, Evelyn.

Mr. and Mrs. Clark are members of the Congregational church and its work profits greatly by their material and moral support. Mr. Clark is a republican in politics and has taken quite a prominent part in public affairs. He was assistant secretary of the constitutional convention of Washington territory which met in 1878 and has never ceased to be an earnest student of the questions and issues of the day. For two years he was president of the Farmers Union of Walla Walla and in 1873 he was a member of the party under the leadership of Major Truax which surveyed the land around Colfax. He also saw military service, serving in the Nez Percé Indian war in 1877 and in the Bannock war in 1878. His record proves that he is in all respects worthy of his ancestors. among whom were numbered soldiers of the Revolutionary war, and he has taken advantage of the privilege which his descent affords of joining the Sons of the American Revolution. The first member of the family in America, Lieutenant William Clark, who came to this country in 1630, also participated in Indian fighting, taking part in a war which occurred in the year of his arrival. Mr. Clark is a member of the different Masonic orders. He feels the greatest loyalty toward his city and state and nothing gives him more pleasure than to cooperate with movements for the public benefit.

JOHN SINGLETON.

John Singleton was one of the earliest of Walla Walla's pioneers, arriving here in 1857, and to the time of his death he was prominently, actively and helpfully associated with the work of development and progress in this section of the state. He was born in County Cork, Ireland, in 1824, and was educated under private tutors. On the 22d of April, 1847, he was married in Queens county, Ireland, to Miss Frances Jane Gowan and two years later they crossed the Atlantic to the United States, settling in New York, where he at once enlisted for service in the army. He was sent to Texas as quartermaster's clerk under Major Bilger and the command was stationed in the Alamo at San Antonio, Texas, his office being in the very room where Colonel Davy Crockett was killed. He remained in Texas in the service of the government for six years and was then honorably discharged, after which he returned to Washington, D. C. Subsequently he occupied a clerical position for six months in the old arsenal. He then went to Baltimore, Maryland. In 1856 Mr. Singleton again enlisted in the army for service on the Pacific coast, believing that the change of climate would benefit his failing health. He made his way westward by way of the Isthmus of Panama and thence northward to Vancouver, Washington, where he was stationed for ten months. His company afterward took part in the war with the Yakima Indians, having several sharp engagements with them in the Cascade mountains. His command was led by Captain Winder and the Indians by Chief Camiachan. After subduing the red men Captain Winder's command built a fort and remained in the Cascades for about a year, but later was transferred to The Dalles, Oregon, and in the spring of 1857 arrived at Fort Walla Walla, where Mr. Singleton remained in the service until 1861, when he was honorably discharged, his term having expired. While he was still engaged in military duty here the Indians from several tribes joined in hostilities to prevent Captain Mullen opening a military road across the Rocky and Coeur d'Alene mountains to the Columbia river. Mr. Singleton was in Colonel Steptoe's command, which met the allied tribes in the memorable engagement of Steptoe Butte, which was of several days' duration. The whites, being greatly outnumbered, suffered a disastrous defeat and were driven back to the Snake river in great disorder. In this engagement Mr. Singleton had a very narrow escape from death. He became separated from his comrades in the retreat and after wandering around nearly all night came upon a band of friendly Nez Percé Indians, who conducted him to the Clearwater river, ferried him across and directed him to the camp of his company, who had reported to his wife that he had died. Colonel Wright soon came up from The Dalles with a thousand men, and being thus reenforced, the troops began an active campaign against the Indians. In a short time the American army had scattered, captured or killed the entire tribe. Some were hanged in the mountains but the most noted leaders were brought to Walla Walla, where seven of them were hanged in the public square in the rear of the garrison. During his service in Fort Walla Walla, Mr. Singleton did most of the work of keeping the records of the post, in the performance of which duty he was compelled to use an old-fashioned quill pen.

Mrs. Singleton had purchased a squatter's right from Captain Pierce, and on Mr. Singleton's discharge he retired to the homestead, which has been the place of residence of the family continuously since. It is said that the money which Captain Pierce obtained for his squatter's right enabled him to open the Orofino mining district, of which he was the first prospector.

Mr. Singleton died at the old home on December 28, 1893, and there his widow and two daughters still reside. Mrs. Singleton is now in her ninetieth year but for some time past has been an invalid. To Mr. and Mrs. Singleton were born six children: Catherine, who is the widow of Thomas Tierney and resides in San Francisco; Frank E.; William H., who is deceased; Elizabeth and Eudora M., who are at home; and Esther Belle, who gave her hand in marriage to J. W. Brooks, a prominent attorney of Walla Walla.

Not only as one of the Indian fighters of the northwest but also as one of the progressive farmers of Walla Walla county did John Singleton leave the impress of his individuality upon the history of southeastern Washington. His worth as a man and as a citizen was widely acknowledged by all who knew him. There was no phase of pioneer life in this section of the country with which he was not familiar and he rejoiced in all that was accomplished in the way of introducing the evidences of modern civilization. His labors wrought good results and his name should be inscribed high upon the roll of those who have reclaimed this great region, making it a habitable and safe place in which civilization may be still further advanced.

GARRIT ROMAINE.

Garrit Romaine was for many years engaged in farming on a tract of three hundred and twenty acres of excellent land six miles north of Dayton, in Columbia county, and it was recognized that the county had lost a valued citizen when he was called to the home beyond. He was born in New York city, March 7, 1829, a son of Benjamin and Charity (Hopper) Romaine, also natives of the eastern metropolis. Subsequently the family removed to New Jersey, and thence to Fond du Lac county, Wisconsin, where both parents passed away. All their eight children are also now deceased.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. GARRIT ROMAINE]

Garrit Romaine was reared at home and obtained his education in the public schools of New York city. When twenty years old he went west to Wisconsin, where he remained for many years, or until 1877, when he removed to California. After remaining there for a short time he took up his residence in Harrisburg, Oregon, but in 1881 removed to Old Walla Walla county, Washington, locating in what is now Columbia county, on a farm six miles from Dayton. He at once began the improvement and development of his place, which he continued to operate until called by death. It comprises three hundred and twenty acres of good wheat land, and his industry and good management were rewarded by large crops, from the sale of which he derived a good income.

Mr. Romaine was married in Wisconsin in 1852, to Miss Martha L. Harbaugh, by whom he had seven children: William B., deceased; John H., a farmer; Jerome W., now a resident of Bellingham, Washington; Franz Sigel, a farmer; Charity, who is the wife of Newton James, and has three children, Louis Homer, on the old farm, Lois, now Mrs. H. L. Gritman of Columbia county, and Frida Ellen, now the wife of A. W. Munford of Ironwood, Michigan; Freeman C., deceased; and Rachel, the wife of Henry James, of Dayton.

Mr. Romaine gave his political allegiance to the republican party, and while not an office seeker was always keenly interested in everything affecting the general welfare. No project looking toward the advancement of his community failed to receive his heartiest support and cooperation, and he was particularly interested in the upbuilding of the local schools. Fraternally he was connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and took an active part in the work of the lodge. He passed away October 23, 1900, and was laid to rest in the Dayton cemetery, leaving to mourn his loss, besides his family, many warm friends. Mrs. Romaine resides with her daughter, Mrs. Newton James, and holds title to the homestead. She belongs to the Christian church and has exemplified its teachings in her daily life.

CHARLES F. KIBLER.

Charles F. Kibler, one of the prominent farmers and stockmen of Walla Walla township, is with his brothers operating forty-four hundred acres of fine land. He is a native son of Walla Walla county and has resided here throughout his entire life. He was born September 24, 1874, of the marriage of Jacob and Louise (Buroker) Kibler, natives respectively of Virginia and Iowa. The father removed to Missouri when a young man and in the early '50s made the long journey overland to California, where he resided for five years. In 1858 he came to Walla Walla, Washington, and for some time worked as a farm hand. He then took up land on Mill creek but for several years gave the greater part of his time and attention to freighting by ox team. Subsequently, when the country became more thickly settled and there was not so much need for freighting supplies from a distant market town, he began the cultivation of his land. His farming operations yielded him a good profit and he acquired additional land, being at the time of his death the owner of fifteen hundred acres. He made excellent improvements upon his place and was one of the substantial men of the county. He passed away in 1908 and is survived by his wife, who has reached the age of sixty-six years. Five of the six children born to their union survive.

Charles F. Kibler passed the days of his boyhood and youth in his native county and attended the district schools in the acquirement of his education. Through working for his father he received thorough training in the best methods of farming and stock raising and on attaining his majority he began farming on his own account. He and his brothers have added to their holdings from time to time and now own forty-four hundred acres of good land finely improved. They have systematized their work and conduct their ranch in the same careful manner that a business man manages his interests. Their progressiveness and good judgment are manifested in the excellent return which they receive from their land and they have never had occasion to regret their choice of an occupation.

Charles F. Kibler was married in 1898 to Miss Marie Clodius, a native of Illinois and a daughter of H. F. and Catherine Clodius, who removed to Walla Walla county in 1881 and are now residents of Waitsburg. Mr. and Mrs. Kibler have a son, Albert F., who was born October 21, 1900, and is still at home.

Mr. Kibler casts his ballot in support of the men and measures of the democratic party but has never sought office as a reward for his loyalty. He is thoroughly imbued with the characteristic western spirit of enterprise and optimism, and any project for the benefit of his county or state receives his heartiest approval and most energetic support.

ALLEN H. REYNOLDS.

Allen H. Reynolds occupies an enviable position in professional and financial circles as a leading lawyer of Walla Walla and as the president of the Farmers Savings Bank. He was born January 24, 1869, in the city where he still makes his home, his parents being Almos H. and Lettice J. (Clark) Reynolds, who are mentioned at length on another page of this work. He has spent his entire life in Walla Walla, acquiring his early education in a private school conducted by the Rev. P. B. Chamberlain. He afterward matriculated in Whitman College and thus laid broad and deep the foundation upon which to build the superstructure of professional learning. When his collegiate course was completed he decided upon the practice of law as a life work and then entered the law department of the Boston University, from which he was graduated with the class of 1893. Soon afterward he returned to his native city, where he opened an office and entered upon the practice of law, becoming associated with W. H. Kirkman. Some time later that partnership was dissolved and he joined his brother under the firm style of Reynolds Brothers, but in the spring of 1900 he entered into partnership with Andrew J. Gillis in a relationship that continued for some time. He is now a partner of Grant S. Bond, with offices at No. 6½ Main street. His success in a professional way affords the best evidence of his capabilities in this line. He is a strong advocate with the jury and concise in his appeals before the court. Much of the success which has attended him in his professional career is undoubtedly due to the fact that he prepares his cases with great thoroughness and must be convinced of the absolute justice of his client's cause. Aside from his activities in the profession of law, Mr. Reynolds is well known in banking circles, having served as vice president of the First National Bank of Walla Walla until November, 1913. At the present time he is president of the Farmers Savings Bank, having succeeded the late W. P. Winans, who had been president for twenty-eight years.

On the 7th of November, 1894, Mr. Reynolds was married to Miss Fanny Kirkman, a daughter of William H. and Isabella Kirkman, well known residents of this city, where Mrs. Reynolds was born. They have become parents of three children: William Allen, born November 19, 1895; Almos, born May 19, 1898; and Ruth Sarah, born February 3, 1901.

Mr. Reynolds is treasurer and one of the trustees of Whitman College and has been the president of the Young Men's Christian Association since its organization. There is no plan or movement for the benefit and upbuilding of the city in which he is not helpfully concerned, standing at all times for progress and improvement in municipal as well as in private affairs.

HENRY OSTERMAN.

Henry Osterman, a member of the firm of Osterman & Siebert, leading architects of Walla Walla, and one whose efforts along professional lines have found expression in the erection of some of the finest buildings not only in this city but elsewhere in the state, was born in Germany, about three miles from Essen, on the 20th of January, 1862, a son of William and Mary (Wusthoff) Osterman, both of whom spent their entire lives in Germany, where the father followed the occupations of farming and milling.

Their son, Henry Osterman, was reared under the parental roof and acquired a college education in Essen, Germany. He served three years in the German army and after reaching his majority took up the study of architecture in Dusseldorf, Germany. In May, 1889, he decided to try his fortune in the new world, hoping here to find excellent professional opportunities. He accordingly came to the United States and on the 15th of June of that year he arrived in Walla Walla, Washington, where he has since made his home and practiced his profession. Having little knowledge of the English language and of building conditions in this country, which he found somewhat different from those in his native land, he did not immediately apply himself to architectural work but became associated with building operations and for a time worked as a carpenter. Shortly afterward, however, he took up contracting and building on his own account and was prominently identified with building operations for eight years. In 1899 he began the practice of his profession, opening an architect's office in the old Baker-Boyer building. He associated with him in this undertaking Victor E. Siebert, who was a former employe of Mr. Osterman and had later gone to the east, where he was graduated from the Boston School of Technology in 1912. The following year he was admitted to a partnership, forming the present firm of Osterman & Siebert. Among the many buildings for which Mr. Osterman has drawn the plans and also superintended the erection are the courthouse, the city hall, the Young Men's Christian Association building, the high school building, the Jefferson, the Green Park and the Sharpstein schools, the city library and practically all the important business and office buildings in the city, together with many of the finer residences. All these stand as monuments to the enterprise, the skill and the professional ability of Mr. Osterman, whose thorough preparatory training and subsequent study and experience have placed him in the front ranks among the architects of the northwest.

In 1902 Mr. Osterman was united in marriage to Miss Geneva Cooney, of Coon Rapids, Iowa, and to this marriage have been born five children, Bernardina, Henrietta, Hugo, Ruth and Betty.

Mr. Osterman gives his political endorsement to the republican party. Fraternally he is connected with Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; Washington Commandery, No. 1, K. T.; the Consistory of Spokane; and El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., also of Spokane, while both he and his wife are connected with the Order of the Eastern Star. He is also identified with Trinity Lodge, I. O. O. F., and both he and his wife are consistent members of the Congregational church, guiding their lives according to its teachings. Mr. Osterman has never had occasion to regret his determination to come to the new world, for here he has found the business opportunities which he sought and in their utilization has made steady progress. Not only does he rank with the leading architects of Washington, but is also a prominent figure in financial and commercial circles. He was one of the organizers of the Third National Bank, of which he is now a director, and he is also one of the organizers and a member of the board of directors of the Gardner Company, which owns and controls Walla Walla's largest mercantile establishment. His identification with these interests is the expression of his well directed energy and thrift, his close application and his persistency of purpose, ever guided by a laudable ambition. Step by step he has worked his way upward and his course should serve to inspire others who must start out in life empty-handed. The wise use which he has made of his time, his talents and his opportunities has placed him in the creditable position which he fills today in business and professional circles of Walla Walla.

ALMOS H. REYNOLDS.

LETTICE J. REYNOLDS.

Almos H. Reynolds was for many years one of the prominent financiers of the northwest, becoming a factor in the establishment of the first banking business in Walla Walla and figuring for many years as one of the principal stockholders of the First National Bank. He was born in Madrid, St. Lawrence county, New York, October 21, 1808, and in early life learned the millwright's trade. In 1838, when a man of thirty years, he removed westward to Illinois and subsequently became a resident of Iowa, where he remained until 1850. He then crossed the plains to California, attracted by the gold discoveries on the Pacific coast, and in May, 1859, he came to Walla Walla, where he resided until his demise, which occurred thirty years later, or on the 21st of April, 1889. He was prominently identified with milling interests in this section, erecting many mills throughout the territory of Washington, two of them being in the immediate vicinity of Walla Walla. He also built and for several years owned a woolen mill at Dayton. He was associated with Dr. J. H. Day in establishing the first banking business in Walla Walla, opening a private banking institution, which they carried on under the firm style of Reynolds & Day. He was alert and energetic, constantly watchful of opportunities pointing to success. Eventually he became one of the principal stockholders in the First National Bank and was largely instrumental in its organization. Mr. Reynolds was a man of keen insight which enabled him to readily recognize a favorable business situation and his laudable ambition prompted its immediate use. Whatever he undertook he carried forward to successful completion and the integrity of his business methods was above question.

[Illustration: ALMOS H. REYNOLDS]

[Illustration: MRS. LETTICE J. REYNOLDS]

On the 23d of May, 1861, Mr. Reynolds was united in marriage to Mrs. Lettice J. (Millican) Clark, the widow of Ransom Clark, who first crossed the plains to Oregon with Dr. Whitman in 1843. She was born in Canehill, Arkansas, October 3, 1830, and received her education in her native town. In 1843 the family joined the Whitman train and after a journey of weary months reached Oregon. The following year the Millican family settled near the town of Lafayette, Yamhill county, and there in 1845 Lettice J. Millican became the wife of Ransom Clark. Following the death of her husband in 1859, she made the journey to Walla Walla in order to make arrangements for subsequently taking up her home upon the farm which Mr. Clark had taken up and which was known for many years as the Ransom Clark donation claim. She was given a place in the government wagon from Wallula to Walla Walla and her first night in the latter place was spent in the fort. The following morning she was driven out to her claim and remained there for two weeks. She then returned to Portland and, after the birth of her daughter the following summer, she took up her permanent home on the claim in Walla Walla county. Soon after doing so she received a letter from her Portland lawyer advising her to sell her claim for two hundred and seventy-five dollars and abandon the idea of developing it. However, she disregarded this advice and continued to reside upon the farm with her children. On the 23d of May, 1861, she married Almos H. Reynolds. She was the earliest pioneer woman residing in Walla Walla county and the fact that she had been privileged to witness more of the growth of the northwest than others seemed to give her an added interest in everything pertaining to the public welfare. She contributed much to the upbuilding of the various institutions of the city and by reason of her force of character and her many liberal and well advised benefactions she was recognized as a most prominent citizen of Walla Walla. The erection of the Young Men's Christian Association building was made possible by a twenty thousand dollar donation from her and after its completion she was one of the chief contributors toward its upkeep. At the rally and jubilee held when the association had raised the forty-five thousand dollars necessary to pay off its debt, the speech that she made expressing her great joy in the knowledge that the association was free of all debt will long be remembered by all who heard her. She was also a loyal friend and patron of Whitman College, contributing generously at various times to the support of the institution and paying off a debt of six thousand dollars on the girls' dormitory, which is named in her honor Reynolds Hall. She was a woman of the highest ideals and also had the keenness of intellect and strength of character to realize her ideals, and the memory of Lettice J. Reynolds will long be held in honor in Walla Walla.

To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Almos H. Reynolds were born two sons: Harry A., who was born October 14, 1863; and Allen H., who was born January 24, 1869.

JOHN R. GOSE, M. D.

It is believed that few men possess the ability to attain success along both professional and agricultural lines, but Dr. John R. Gose, living on section 33, township 8 north, range 37 east, in Walla Walla county, has made a creditable name in both connections. He was born in Missouri, November 16, 1861, and is a son of John M. and Hannah J. (McQuown) Gose, the former a native of Kentucky, while the latter was born in Virginia. In 1864 they removed westward, settling at Boise, Idaho, where they spent the winter, and in the following spring they arrived in Walla Walla county, Washington, taking up their abode upon a ranch, where they are still living. They are one of the most venerable couples of the county, the father having attained the age of ninety-one years, while his wife is eighty-five years of age. In their family were seven children, of whom three are living.

Dr. Gose was not yet four years of age when his parents crossed the plains, so that he was reared upon the western frontier. He pursued his education in the schools of Walla Walla county and after having completed his preliminary course he determined to enter upon the practice of medicine and with that end in view returned to the east, matriculating in Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, from which in due course of time he was graduated. He then returned to Washington to engage in the practice of his profession, which he followed in Pomeroy, Garfield county, for fourteen years and also in the city of Walla Walla for three years. He then withdrew from the active practice of his profession, in which he had won substantial success and made for himself a most creditable name. Removing to a ranch near Dixie, he has since devoted his time and energies to general agricultural pursuits and has proved most capable in the management and conduct of his farming interests.

In 1889 Dr. Gose was united in marriage to Miss Minnie S. Aldrich, a representative of one of the old pioneer families of this section of the state. She was born upon the farm where she now resides and is a daughter of Newton and Anna M. (Shoemaker) Aldrich. Her father was a native of the state of New York, while her mother was born in Iowa. Mr. Aldrich came to Washington in 1861 and was here married to Miss Shoemaker, who had crossed the plains in 1864. They took up their abode upon the farm which is now occupied by Dr. and Mrs. Gose and upon that place they spent their remaining days. At the time of his death Mr. Aldrich owned seven hundred and twenty acres of land, of which Mrs. Gose inherited three hundred and sixty acres. He had gained a most substantial place among the agriculturists of this section of the state and his genuine personal worth had endeared him to all with whom he came in contact. To him and his wife were born three children: Mrs. Gose; Ida, who has departed this life; and Clara E., who is the wife of G. L. Bailey.

To Dr. and Mrs. Case have been born five children: Roberta L., who is a college graduate; Kenneth A., who is living upon the home ranch; Carl, who has passed away; Anna M., who is a high school graduate; and John Newton, who is now attending high school. Dr. Gose belongs to the Modern Woodmen camp in Dixie. His political allegiance is given to the republican party and while he was a resident of Pomeroy he served for two terms as mayor of that city. Mrs. Gose belongs to the Congregational church, in the work of which she takes an active and helpful part. They are very prominent people in this section of the state and the hospitality of the best homes is freely accorded them. They have a circle of friends almost coextensive with the circle of their acquaintance and they are both representatives of worthy pioneer families of the northwest, having resided in this section of the country for more than half a century. They have therefore witnessed the greater part of the growth and development of Walla Walla county, have seen tiny hamlets grow into prosperous cities, wild land converted into productive farms and all the natural resources of the country utilized for the benefit of man. Their aid and influence are always given on the side of progress and improvement and they advocate as well all those high standards which work for civic betterment.

CHARLES E. NYE.

Charles E. Nye, who is engaged in the harness and saddlery business in Walla Walla, winning for himself a creditable position in commercial circles, was born in Germany on the 3d of June, 1848, his parents being John N. and Elizabeth (Baker) Nye. They came to the United States in 1853, when he was a little lad of but five years, the family home being established in Marietta, Ohio, where the parents resided until they were called to their final rest, the father following the occupation of farming as a life work.

Charles E. Nye was reared to manhood on the old homestead farm and early became familiar with the work of the fields, to which he directed his attention during the summer months, while in the winter seasons he attended the common schools of the neighborhood. When his textbooks were put aside he found employment in a harness and saddlery shop at Marietta, Ohio, where he served a regular apprenticeship, and at the age of twenty-one years he started for the west, following the advice of Horace Greeley. He worked as a journeyman at his trade in Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, California and Oregon, thus working his way westward by successive stages until he reached the Pacific coast. In Oregon he was for a time engaged in business on his own account, conducting a harness and saddlery establishment at The Dalles. In 1878 he was in Walla Walla but did not locate permanently until 1883, at which time he engaged in business independently here and for the past thirty-five years he has been a dominant factor in the trade circles of the city. In all of his commercial relations he has been actuated by a progressive spirit and the excellence of the goods which he handles and the work he turns out has insured him a liberal patronage.

In 1890 Mr. Nye was married to Miss Tennie Brown, of Walla Walla. Mr. Nye is well known and popular in fraternal circles, holding membership in Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E.; and Columbia Lodge, No. 90, K. P. He is also a member of the Walla Walla Commercial Club and cooperates in all of its plans and measures for the upbuilding of the city and the extension of its trade relations. His political allegiance is given the republican party, which he has supported since reaching adult age. His long residence in Walla Walla has made him largely familiar with its history and with its commercial development he has been closely and prominently associated. Those who know him, and he has a wide acquaintance, speak of him in terms of high regard, for he has been found thoroughly reliable in business; loyal and patriotic in citizenship and faithful in friendship. His life work has been intelligently directed and he has always continued in the line in which he embarked as a young tradesman, never dissipating his energies over a broad field but so concentrating his efforts and attention that substantial results have accrued.

W. D. LYMAN.

W. D. Lyman, author of this history, is a "native son of the Golden West," having been born at Portland, Oregon, on December 1, 1812. His father and mother, Horace Lyman and Mary Denison Lyman, came to California around Cape Horn, in a sailing ship from New York, in 1848-9. After a few months in California in the midst of the excitements of the gold discoveries they removed to Portland, then a straggling village on the edge of the dense forest which bordered the Willamette river. It is recalled by the children of the family that their mother told them about how in those early days she had heard the cries of the wolves and cougars in about the location of the present Portland Hotel and other stately structures of the present city.

As a boy Professor Lyman went with his parents to Dallas in Polk county, Oregon, and then to Forest Grove, Oregon, where his father was for a number of years a professor of mathematics, and later of history and rhetoric, in Pacific University, a pioneer college of those early days. Brought up in those pioneer surroundings, in the midst of the unconventional life and the sublime scenery of his native state, he received a permanent impress which has led him throughout his life to find his greatest interest in travel, mountain-climbing, investigation of the native and pioneer life of Old Oregon, and in writing and lecturing upon themes drawn from those early experiences. The old Oregon of Professor Lyman's boyhood was typically American--free, unconventional and sincere, and the wilderness about and the stimulus to adventure and enterprise implanted in the minds and spirits of the boys and girls of that pioneer region, as it has throughout the great west, is a certain union of the romantic and imaginative with the practical which has resulted in placing the Pacific states in the forefront of American communities.

[Illustration: W. D. LYMAN]

Having completed a short college course at Pacific University in 1873, the young man, after a few months spent in teaching, went east and in 1877 graduated at Williams College, Massachusetts. While there he was known for his interest in debating, oratory and literature, as well as for his informal and independent western way of considering political, social and religious topics. Upon returning to Oregon in the fall of 1877, he entered upon what proved to be his life work, that of a college teacher, writer and public speaker. He became professor of history, oratory, and English literature at Pacific University, where he continued until 1886. During that period he laid the foundations of his subsequent literary career by spending his summer vacations in mountain journeys and explorations of the rivers and wildernesses of the northwest and in embodying the results of his adventures in articles which appeared in various newspapers and magazines, east and west. During this time he became a skillful amateur photographer and has acquired a large collection of views, many of which were the first to be taken of some of the wild scenes which he might be considered the first to make known to the world.

During that period of his life the very important event of marriage occurred. In 1882 Professor Lyman was united in marriage to Miss Mattie Clark of Vancouver, Washington. Mrs. Lyman has become known in Walla Walla and throughout the region about as one of the leaders in social, intellectual and philanthropic life. Four children have been born to Professor and Mrs. Lyman, two sons and two daughters. The oldest, Hubert, born in 1883, is now engaged in business in the Philippine islands. The second, Marjorie, born in 1885, is the wife of Ridgway Gillis, a state highway engineer in charge of an important section of the Pacific highway, with present residence at Kalama, Washington. The third, Willena, born in 1889, is living with her parents.

The fourth, Harold, is now engaged with the Walla Walla Bulletin.

Professor Lyman severed his connection with Pacific University in 1886, and for nearly three years was engaged mainly in literary work. During that period he spent some time at Fresno, California, endeavoring to start a raisin ranch. He was for a time at Santa Fe, New Mexico. In 1889 he became head of the department of history at Whitman College, Walla Walla. He has been thus engaged continuously to the present, with the exception of the year 1891, when he was in Spokane. During these twenty-nine years he has seen Whitman College grow from a struggling frontier institution, largely of a preparatory grade, to a well equipped college supported by a good endowment and by a loyal body of enthusiastic alumni, among whom may be reckoned some of the foremost men and women of the northwest.

During his long residence in Walla Walla, Professor Lyman has been in frequent demand as a speaker and lecturer on many pulpits and platforms throughout the three northwest states, and has thus come to have a very extensive acquaintance. He has been active in political life and has been a candidate, though an unsuccessful one, as a democrat, for the national congress. Brought up as a republican during the Civil war and reconstruction periods, he became a liberal in political views and finally a democrat. As an ardent supporter of Woodrow Wilson for both of his terms, he labored with voice and pen for the election of that statesman whom he regards as in the same class with Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln.

During all his active life a member of the Congregational church, Professor Lyman has become known among his students and friends as very liberal in religious views and has associates among all faiths. He has been active in all forms of municipal betterment, in the prohibition and woman suffrage causes, and since the opening of the great war has made many addresses and written articles of a patriotic character. He firmly believes that it is the God-given mission of the United States to "make the world safe for democracy."

While living in Walla Walla, Professor Lyman has continued his practice of mountaineering. He has been a member of both the Mazama and Mountaineers' Clubs, and in the course of his life has made nine ascensions of the great snow-capped volcanoes of the Cascade range and four of the Olympics, besides many lesser peaks. He has traveled almost the entire length of the Columbia river and many miles of the Snake and other tributaries. The results of these journeys he embodied in what he regards as the most highly literary and artistic of his various books, The Columbia River, published in 1909 by G. P. Putnam's Sons and now entering upon its third edition.

Professor Lyman has become something of a specialist in local history. He was one of the principal writers of The History of the Pacific Northwest in 1889. In 1901 his history of Walla Walla county appeared. In 1906 he wrote the narrative part of a history of Skagit and Snohomish counties. Having witnessed with his own eyes most of the remarkable development of this section and having partaken of the social, industrial and political life of the section in which he lives, he has been able to write sympathetically of the struggles and the triumphs of the pioneers. As a side issue in his life, Professor Lyman has been much interested in waterway transportation. He has been for many years director of the Rivers and Harbors Congress for the state of Washington and has seen many improvements in waterways as a result of the labors of that organization. Opposed on principle to monopoly and special privilege, he has deemed waterways and water power as among the great agencies for preserving the freedom of the people.

HOWARD E. BARR.

That Howard E. Barr enjoys in unusual measure the confidence and respect of his fellow townsmen is indicated in the fact that he is now serving as mayor of Dayton, a position to which he was called by popular vote and in which he is discharging his duties with marked capability and fidelity. He was born in Tennessee, March 18, 1876, a son of Hugh and Emeline (Parker) Barr, who were also natives of Tennessee, in which state the death of the mother occurred. The father afterward removed to Texas, where he is still living. In their family were four children, all of whom survive.

Howard E. Barr was but seven years of age at the time of the removal of the family to the Lone Star state and there he was reared and educated, supplementing his public school training by a course in a college. He was a man of thirty-one years when in 1907 he arrived in Dayton, Washington, where he has since made his home, covering a period of a decade. He here established a barber shop and is still engaged in the business. In community affairs he has taken a helpful interest and on the citizens' ticket he was elected in 1916 to the office of mayor of Dayton, in which capacity he is now serving. He has closely studied the needs of the city, its opportunities and the possibilities for improvement and is giving to the city a businesslike and progressive administration.

In 1909 Mr. Barr was united in marriage to Miss Maud Babb, a native of Texas, and to them has been born a daughter, Geneva R., whose birth occurred July 4, 1912. The family occupies an attractive home in Dayton, where Mr. Barr owns two residences. Mrs. Barr is a member of the Christian church and in his fraternal relations Mr. Barr is an Odd Fellow and a Knight of Pythias, in both of which lodges he has filled all the chairs, showing his high standing among his brethren of the two fraternities. He is a man of genuine worth, alert, energetic and progressive not only in his business connections but also as a public official. He stands for whatever he believes to be best for the community and Dayton has benefited by his administration of her affairs.

ARTHUR H. HALLE.

Arthur H. Halle is prominently connected with hotel ownership and management in the northwest. He is well known as a progressive business man of Walla Walla and before coming to this city was closely associated with hotel interests in various sections of the country. He is, however, a native of Germany, his birth having occurred in Leipzig on the 19th of April, 1877. His father, Paul Halle, lived and died in that country, where he was engaged during his active business career as a traveling salesman. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Laura Muenzner, still resides in Germany.

Arthur H. Halle is one of a family of four children and is the only one residing in America. He pursued his education in the schools of Germany and came to the United States in 1897, when a young man of twenty years. He first made his way to New York and afterward to Chicago, where he was employed in the Grand Pacific Hotel for ten years. Later he removed to Lewiston, Montana, and was afterward located at different periods in Miles City, Billings and Missoula, Montana. He then came to the "garden spot of the northwest," arriving in Walla Walla in 1911. Here he established the Grand Hotel, after which he returned to Missoula to look after his hotel interests in that city. Three years later he again came to Walla Walla to take up his permanent abode. He is associated with Charles Mullemer and J. S. Rick in the ownership of the hotel at Missoula and of the Grand in Walla Walla, the latter being one of the finest hostelries of this city. The Palace at Missoula is of equal rank and both are liberally patronized because of the excellent service rendered to the public. Mr. Halle and his associates maintain the highest standards in hotel management and conduct and displayed something of the spirit of the pioneer in that they have initiated new methods which add to the success of their business and to the comfort of their guests.

In Chicago, in 1901, Mr. Halle was united in marriage to Miss Alice Rick, who was born in that city, a daughter of J. S. Rick, who is yet living, while her mother has passed away. Mr. and Mrs. Halle have become the parents of two children, Laura and Dorothy. In the social circles of Walla Walla Mr. and Mrs. Halle are widely and favorably known, the hospitality of the best homes being freely accorded them.

Mr. Halle has made steady progress since coming to the United States, advancing step by step in the business world, and his enterprise and perseverance have made him one of the successful hotel men of the northwest. His membership relations include connection with the Lutheran church, the Elks and the Commercial Club.

WILLIAM CHARLES PAINTER.

The days of chivalry and knighthood in Europe cannot furnish more interesting or romantic tales than our own western history. Into the wild mountain fastnesses of the unexplored west went brave men whose courage was often called forth in encounters with hostile savages. The land was rich in all natural resources, in metals, in agricultural and commercial possibilities, and awaited the demands of man to yield up its treasures. But its mountain heights were hard to climb, its forests difficult to penetrate and the magnificent trees, the dense bushes or jagged rocks often sheltered the skulking foe, who resented the encroachment of the pale faces upon these "hunting grounds." The establishment of homes in this beautiful region therefore meant sacrifices, hardships and ofttimes death, but there were some men, however, brave enough to meet the red man in his own familiar haunts and undertake the task of reclaiming the district for purposes of civilization. The rich mineral stores of the northwest were thus added to the wealth of the nation, its magnificent forests contributed to the lumber industry and its fertile valleys added to the opportunities of the farmer and stock raiser; and today the northwest is one of the most productive sections of the entire country. That this is so is due to such men as William Charles Painter, whose name is inseparably interwoven with the history of the region. No story of fiction contains more exciting chapters than may be found in his life record. He was one of the most prominent of those who engaged in Indian warfare and for many years he was also a leading figure in the agricultural development of this section of the state. Walla Walla numbered him among her most honored and valued citizens and his death was the occasion of deep and widespread regret.

William C. Painter was born in St. Genevieve, Missouri, April 18, 1830, and there the earliest years of his life were passed. His paternal ancestors came from Mercer county, Pennsylvania. His mother, who bore the maiden name of Jean Moore, was a daughter of Major Robert Moore, a veteran of the War of 1812 and well known in connection with the early history of Oregon. In 1850 the father with his family started for Oregon, but when the Little Blue river was reached the father and two of the sons died of cholera. The mother and the surviving children continued the journey westward with sore hearts but with undaunted courage and finally reached Washington county, Oregon, where donation land claims were secured.

[Illustration: WILLIAM C. PAINTER]

There William C. Painter resided until 1863 and was prominently identified with the early development of that section. At the time of the Indian war of 1855 he was one of the first to enlist, becoming a member of Company D, First Oregon Mounted Volunteers, which command fought the Indians for four days near Walla Walla, finally routing the red men, who retreated to the Palouse country. In this and many other engagements of the Indian war Mr. Painter distinguished himself for bravery. He remained with his company until the close of hostilities. In 1855 certain young ladies of the Forest Grove Academy, now the Tualitin Academy and the Pacific University, presented the company with a flag. Mr. Painter's comrades in arms voted that he should become its bearer and the starry banner finally came into his exclusive possession and is still carefully preserved in the Painter household as a priceless relic. Upon its field there are but twenty-one stars and on the flag, inscribed in large letters, are the words, "Co. D, First Oregon Vol., 1855-6." In the war against the Bannock and Piute Indians in 1878, Mr. Painter again engaged in fighting the red men. He was appointed by Governor Ferry captain of a company of forty-two men and was assigned to duty on the gunboat Spokane under command of Major Cress of the regular army. The first engagement in which he participated was at Long Island in the Columbia river below Umatilla, in which the whites were successful. Major Cress, in a letter to Mr. Painter written from Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, under date of April 15, 1897, speaks very highly of the assistance which the latter rendered. After this engagement, in recognition of his valuable service, he was made aid-de-camp on the staff of Governor Ferry, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, and was placed in command of forty-two men. He was then sent to eastern Oregon to assist in defending the people against the Indians who had recently been defeated by General O. O. Howard. He passed south of the retreating bands to Camas Prairie with a view of intercepting the retreat. The hostile savages, learning of his position, by a circuitous route passed around him and escaped, but he captured enough horses to pay the entire expenses of his command. Although no battle was fought in that campaign, it was considered so hazardous that an offer of ten dollars per day for guides was not sufficient to cause anyone to accept and run the risk. In his official report, General O. O. Howard, quoting Captain John A. Cress, said "Captain William C. Painter and the forty-two volunteers from Walla Walla deserve praise for good conduct and bravery, not excepting my Vancouver regiment and Captain Gray, with officers and crew of the steamer Spokane, who stood firmly at their posts under fire."

When the country no longer needed his military aid Captain Painter became a clerk for Flanders & Felton of Wallula, and when the senior member was elected to congress in 1867, Captain Painter took charge of the business. He also became postmaster of Wallula and the agent for the Wells Fargo Express Company. Returning to Walla Walla, he was appointed deputy collector of internal revenue for eastern Washington and in November, 1870, he resigned that position, although his resignation was not accepted until the following May. After retiring from office he made some unfortunate mill investments, in which he lost everything that he had saved. With courageous spirit, however, he again became a wage earner and was thus employed until 1876, when he was appointed receiver of the United States land office and occupied that position in most satisfactory manner until 1878, when he was elected county auditor. He served for four consecutive terms in that position and the Waitsburg Times of March 11, 1887, in speaking of him at his retirement from office, designated him as "the best auditor Walla Walla county ever had." He ever regarded a public office as a public trust and it is well known that no trust reposed in Captain Painter was ever betrayed in the slightest degree. Upon his retirement from the position of county auditor he concentrated his attention on farming, having fifteen hundred acres in the Eureka flats. While thus engaged he still occupied the old home on South Third street in Walla Walla, where the family still reside. He was thus extensively engaged in general agricultural pursuits and continued his farming operations until about two years prior to his death.

On the 7th of January, 1864, Captain Painter was married to Miss Caroline Mitchell, the only daughter of Judge I. Mitchell, of Multnomah county, Oregon, and their children are: Philip M., a resident of Walla Walla county; Charles S., of Montana; Maude M., the wife of Garrett D'Ablaing of Ellensburg; Harry M., a Congregational minister of Seattle; Bonnie Jean, the wife of R. F. MacLane of Walla Walla; Marguerite M., the wife of Herbert Gall of Sascatoon, Canada; Roy R., deceased; Rex M., of Walla Walla county; Caroline M., the wife of H. J. Wolff of Seattle; and Bruce I., of San Francisco. The family circle was broken by the hand of death when on the 4th of December, 1900, Captain Painter died of paralysis. For some time he was a vestryman of the Episcopal church which the family attend. His political allegiance had always been given to the republican party from the time of its organization and he was a most faithful follower of its principles. It is said that at every demonstration of a patriotic nature Captain Painter was called upon to take his place among the leaders, with his battle-scarred Indian war flag. His patriotic sentiments led him to take a prominent part in the Pioneer Association of Oregon and he always made a special effort to be present at its meetings. He was also active among the Indian War Veterans and was the first grand commander of the organization. For years he belonged to the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He gave devoted loyalty to every cause which he espoused and his is a most notable and honorable record of a pioneer, a valiant soldier and one of nature's noblemen.

WILLIS E. L. FORD.

No history of the pioneer development of Walla Walla county and of the vast west would be complete without extended reference to the Ford family, for Willis E. L. Ford and his father have been particularly active in advancing development along those lines which have meant much to the upbuilding and progress of this section. He was born near Oregon City, Oregon, November 29, 1855, a son of Nineveh and Martha Jane (Simpson) Ford. The father was a native of North Carolina, while the mother's birth occurred in Missouri. He crossed the plains in 1843 with Marcus Whitman, making the journey with ox teams, and he built the first tannery in Oregon City and in fact in that entire section of the country. He continued its operation for several years and also conducted a shoe store there. In 1848 he was one of the volunteers who enlisted for service against the Indians and traveled all over this section of the country in pursuit of the red men. It was at this time that the massacre of the white people at Walla Walla occurred. All that the soldiers had to eat for thirty days was the meat of a cayuse pony without salt. His travels over this section of the country brought to Nineveh Ford a good knowledge of the land and its possibilities and in 1859 he removed with his family to the Walla Walla valley, settling upon a farm upon which he resided to the time of his death. It was a wild tract of land when it came into his possession but with characteristic energy he began to break the sod and till the fields. His wife was the first white woman in the valley outside of the garrison. Mr. Ford built a log cabin with puncheon floor and doors and stick chimney and in true pioneer style began his life in Oregon territory. The latchstring of his cabin always hung out, assuring the traveler of a hearty welcome, and the stranger was always free to partake of whatever the table afforded. He worked diligently and persistently in the cultivation of his land and in the course of time his fields brought forth abundant harvests and his once wild tract was converted into a valuable farm. Moreover, he was one of the recognized leaders of the democratic party in this section of the state. He gave to that party his stalwart support, never faltering in his allegiance thereto, and twice he was called upon to represent his district in the state legislature while a resident of Oregon. Fraternally he was connected with the Masons and in his life exemplified the beneficent spirit of the craft, for he was continually extending a helping hand where aid was needed.

Willis E. L. Ford was one of a family of eleven children, seven of whom are now living. He shared with the family in all of the hardships and privations incident to frontier life. Such a life develops a self-reliance and force of character which count for much in the later struggle for existence and business supremacy. He supplemented his early education by study in the seminary in Walla Walla and afterward settled upon a farm in Whitman county, taking up his abode there in 1877. For thirty-five years he lived upon that place, ranking with the leading and representative agriculturists of that section of the state. When more than a third of a century had been passed there he sold his property and in a considerable measure retired from active business life. He purchased a farm of twenty-four acres in College Place and has since lived there, giving his attention to the raising of fruit and also to the conduct of a dairy business. His interests are carefully managed and are bringing to him a substantial measure of success.

In 1886 Mr. Ford was united in marriage to Miss Rhoda A. Andross, who was born in Minnesota, a daughter of William H. and Sophronia (Winigar) Andross, the former a native of England, while the latter was born in the state of New York. They removed westward on leaving Minnesota and became residents of the Walla Walla valley, where both the father and mother passed away. Mr. and Mrs. Ford have become the parents of six children: Grace, who is now a nurse in Los Angeles, California; Frank, also living in California; Edna, who was a college graduate and taught school for one week, after which she was killed by an electric car in Spokane, Washington; Orley, who is a missionary in South America; and John and Orpha, both of whom are at home.

Mr. and Mrs. Ford hold membership with the Seventh Day Adventist church and take an active part in its work, doing all in their power to advance its growth and extend its influence. In politics Mr. Ford maintains a liberal course, not caring to bind himself by party lines. He served on the school board for several years and has ever been a champion of the cause of public education. There are few residents of Walla Walla county more familiar with the story of pioneer life and conditions in this section of the state than he. He was only four years of age when brought to Walla Walla county. In 1877 he served as a volunteer in the Indian war and had his horse killed by his side. He thoroughly understands the red man, his nature and his problems. He has lived to see this section of the country no longer under the dominion of the savage and has witnessed its transformation as the work of modern day progress and improvement has been carried forward, whereby the natural resources of the country have been utilized and its wealth and progress thus greatly enhanced. The name of Ford figures prominently in connection with the history of the Inland Empire and Willis E. L. Ford indeed deserves mention among the honored pioneers.

CHARLES PLUCKER.

Charles Plucker was one of the honored citizens of the Walla Walla valley. He attained the age of eighty-two years but at the time of his death was still giving personal direction to his extensive and important farming interests. His life experiences were varied and prominently connected him with the upbuilding and development of this section of the country. He was born in Germany, November 9, 1835, and was a son of Carl and Mary Plucker, who were also natives of that country, where they spent their entire lives. They had a family of eight children, four of whom are now living.

Charles Plucker, whose name introduces this review, was reared and educated in Germany, spending the first seventeen years of his life in that country. He then determined to try his fortune in the new world and become a resident of America. In 1854, therefore, he made the voyage across the Atlantic and for two years remained a resident of New York. In 1856 he enlisted at the age of nineteen years in the army of his adopted land and was located on Governors island. In 1857 he went to Fort Simcoe as a soldier and was on active military duty there for five years. He was later sent to Fort Colwell and in 1861 he received an honorable discharge, having for five years rendered active aid to the United States government in its efforts to protect American interests and the lives and property of the people upon the northwestern frontier.

Mr. Plucker was then honorably discharged and came to Walla Walla, where he opened a paint shop. He continued in active business in that city for fourteen years and in 1875 he turned his attention to general agricultural interests, purchasing a farm on the Touchet river on section 14, township 8 north, range 33 east. He continued to reside upon that property until his death, being the owner of ten hundred and eighty acres of rich and valuable land which he greatly improved, adding thereto many commodious and substantial modern buildings and all the accessories and conveniences of the highly improved farm of the present day. Few men of his years remain in such active connection with business affairs as did Mr. Plucker. He was, however, a well preserved man physically and mentally and seemed much younger than the record indicated.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. CHARLES PLUCKER]

On the 7th of October, 1868, Mr. Plucker was united in marriage to Miss Katherine A. Hauer, also a native of Germany, who came to the United States in 1868. She is a daughter of Christian and Augusta (Lüder) Hauer, who were born, reared and married in Schleswig-Holstein, The father, who was a hatter by trade, died there August 6, 1866. In 1880 the mother came to America with a nephew and her daughter, Mrs. Frederika Roehl Behl, who located in San Francisco. After spending a few months in that city Mrs. Hauer came to Washington to make her home with another daughter, Mrs. Charles Plucker, and here she passed away April 29, 1881, at the age of eighty years. She was the mother of six children, all of whom are now deceased with the exception of Mrs. Plucker. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Plucker, namely: Frederick and Charles, now deceased; W. H., who died at the age of forty-five years; Magdalena, the wife of Peter Conrad; and F. C., at home with his mother.

After a useful and well spent life Mr. Plucker passed away on the 30th of October, 1917. In his political views he was a democrat, supporting the party from the time he became a naturalized American citizen. He served on the school board but did not seek office, preferring to concentrate his efforts and attention upon his business affairs. He especially deserves mention among the self-made men of the state, for he started out in life empty-handed and all that he possessed was acquired through his persistent, earnest and honorable effort. The family is one of prominence here and has been widely and favorably known in the valley since early days.

A. F. ANDERSON.

A. F. Anderson is a retired farmer living in Prescott. He has been closely identified with agricultural interests and is still the owner of valuable farming property, from which he derives a gratifying income, but at the present time he is largely leaving the management and operation of his land to others, for he is enjoying a rest which he has truly earned and richly deserves. He was born in Sweden, September 23, 1844, and was there reared and educated, spending the period of his boyhood and youth in that country. He was also married in his native land and in 1869, when a young man of twenty-five years, he crossed the Atlantic to the new world, making his way first to Kansas, where he resided for about twelve years, or until 1881. He then came to the northwest with Washington as his destination and was section foreman in this state for fifteen years. He also took up a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres and later he purchased one hundred and sixty acres more. His half section is all wheat land and has been brought under a high state of cultivation, large crops being annually gathered. Excellent improvements have been placed upon his farm and there is no accessory or convenience of the model farm property that is not found there. He owns a fine residence in Prescott and his surroundings are indicative of his life of well directed energy and thrift.

In 1869 Mr. Anderson was united in marriage to Miss Mary Carlson, a native of Sweden, and they have become parents of eight children: Hilma; Augusta; Charles, who is now deputy sheriff at Wallula; Wilhelmina; Ada; Edith; Harry; and Genevieve.

Mr. and Mrs. Anderson are well known residents of Prescott. His political allegiance is given to the republican party and he has served as justice of the peace and as school director, while at the present time he is one of the aldermen of the city. His political activity has always been characterized by the utmost devotion to the general good and he has been most true and faithful in his official positions, discharging his duties with marked capability and promptness. Moreover, he is a self-made man and one who deserves great credit for what he has accomplished in a business way. He came to the new world empty-handed when a young man of twenty-five, but he possessed the substantial qualities of courage, determination and industry and has utilized these qualities as the basis of his growing success. Undeterred by the obstacles and difficulties in his path, he has steadily worked his way upward and is now one of the prosperous residents of Prescott.

JOHN A. ROSS.

In the death of John A. Ross, Walla Walla county lost a representative agriculturist, a loyal citizen and a man whose worth in every relation was widely acknowledged. He was born in Pennsylvania, July 16, 1860, and was reared and educated in that state. He there remained until 1879, when, at the age of nineteen years, he bade adieu to friends in the east and started for the Pacific coast. On reaching Walla Walla county he here took up his abode and remained a resident of this section until life's labors were ended in death.

It was in the year 1882 that Mr. Ross secured a faithful companion and helpmate for life's journey in his marriage to Miss Florence Cauvel who was also born in Pennsylvania and was a daughter of John and Matilda (Ketner) Cauvel, who always remained residents of the Keystone state. In their family were fifteen children, of whom eleven are yet living.

Following his marriage Mr. Ross purchased a farm near Pendleton, Oregon, and the family resided upon that place for some time. Eventually, however, he sold that property and removed to Camas prairie, where he again purchased land and followed farming for two years. On the expiration of that period he sold the property and invested in a farm at Sunnyside, where he made his home for five years. Once more he disposed of his property and this time bought a farm near Walla Walla comprising fifty acres, to the further development of which he at once bent his energies, his labors being attended with excellent results. He added many improvements to the place, erected fine buildings thereon and his labors wrought a marked transformation in the property. He was progressive in all that he did, was an energetic farmer and his labors were at all times intelligently directed and characterized by sound business judgment.

The family of Mr. and Mrs. Ross numbered five children: Winifred, who is the wife of George Calhoun; Mabel, the wife of Dale Babcock; Carl, who is now in Idaho; Royal, who is with his mother; and Pauline, the youngest of the family.

The family circle was broken by the hand of death when in July, 1912, Mr. Ross passed away, his remains being interred in the cemetery in Walla Walla. His death was the occasion of sincere and widespread regret of the many who knew him and of deep sorrow to his immediate family, for he possessed attractive social qualities, a genial disposition and a kindly manner that endeared him to those with whom he was brought in contact. He belonged to the Modern Woodmen of America and he gave his political allegiance to the democratic party. He was also a consistent member of the Congregational church, with which his wife is connected, and in the work of the church they ever took a most active and helpful part. Mr. Ross was a man whom to know was to esteem and honor for his life was ever upright and straightforward in its purposes and in its dealings and he was a worthy representative of high standards of manhood and citizenship.

P. B. HAWLEY.

P. B. Hawley is engaged in farming on section 27, township 7 north, range 33 east, and is regarded as one of the representative agriculturists of Walla Walla county. He has been in former years a leading factor in political circles and has been called upon to fill various offices, the duties of which he has discharged with promptness and fidelity. Throughout his entire life he has been a resident of the northwest.

Mr. Hawley was born in Umatilla county, Oregon, on the 30th of June, 1862, a son of Philip L. and Sarah J. (Roberts) Hawley, both of whom were natives of Illinois. They were married, however, in Ohio and in 1861 they crossed the plains to Walla Walla, Washington, attracted by the opportunities of the growing northwest. Subsequently the father removed with his family to Umatilla county, Oregon, where he took up a homestead near Pilot Rock, and thereon resided for two or three years. He then turned his attention to the lumber business, in which he engaged in connection with George H. Reed, forming the Reed & Hawley Lumber Company. They operated mills in Umatilla county and had lumberyards in Walla Walla. The father was identified with this business throughout the remainder of his active life but his labors were terminated in death in 1878. His widow survived him for only a brief period, passing away in 1879.

P. B. Hawley after attending the public schools continued his education in the Whitman College and thus became well qualified for life's practical and responsible duties. In partnership with his brothers, L. R. and W. B. Hawley, he purchased extensive farm lands in Walla Walla county, built irrigation ditches and for seven years the three brothers were most closely associated in the conduct of their farming enterprises. In recent years, however, their holdings have been divided and P. B. Hawley now owns in his home place two hundred and fifty acres of rich and valuable land which he has carefully and persistently cultivated, bringing his fields under a very high state of development, so that he annually gathers good crops. He displays keen sagacity and business discernment in the management of his interests and success in large measure has attended his labors.

In 1905 Mr. Hawley was united in marriage to Miss Lillie Hunziker, of Walla Walla, and to them has been born a daughter, Alida F. He belongs to Trinity Lodge, No. 121, I. O. O. F., of which he became a charter member, and he also has connection with the Modern Woodmen of America. He and his wife are members of the Community church of Touchet and their aid and influence are always given on the side of progress and improvement. He is a well known and representative citizen of Walla Walla county and there are various chapters in his life history well worthy of emulation. He is genial in manner, social in disposition and is cordial but never to the point of familiarity. These qualities have won him personal popularity, while his enterprise and diligence have gained him prominence in business circles.

WILLIAM KIRKMAN.

William Kirkman, deceased, one of the honored pioneers of Walla Walla county, was prominently identified with stock raising interests for a considerable period and previous to that time was engaged in prospecting for a time. His activities were of a character that contributed to the progress and prosperity of the district in which he resided and Walla Walla numbered him among her most honored and valued residents. He was born near Manchester, in Lancashire, England, December 7, 1832, and received his education and grew to manhood in his native country. When about twenty years of age he came to the United States. He had been identified with the firm of Grant Brothers, proprietors of woolen mills in Lancashire, England. It is supposed that these brothers were the originals of Dickens' characters of the Cherable brothers. They had designed a fancy Marseilles vesting and Mr. Kirkman came to America to introduce the goods. For two years he resided in Boston, Massachusetts, after which he made his way westward by the Isthmus of Panama route. He spent some time in the gold mines of California and then proceeded by sailing vessel to Australia and to the Sandwich Islands, but returned to the American continent when the news was received of the discovery of gold in paying quantities on the Fraser river in British Columbia. He proceeded to the gold fields there and for a number of years divided his time between the mines in that region and in California. After making and losing what in those days amounted to several small fortunes he determined to engage in a more stable business and, accordingly, in 1862, he returned to San Francisco and the next year purchased cattle in Oregon, which he drove to the market at Boise, Idaho. He there established himself in the stock business. In 1866 he took an eighty-mule team pack from Walla Walla to Montana, where he disposed of all of his goods. He then became interested in a milk ranch and dairy business, but in 1870 he disposed of his ranch and stock and returned to San Francisco with the intention of making that city his permanent home. However, he afterward came to Walla Walla and entered into partnership with John Dooley for the conduct of a cattle business. Their cattle range extended from Pasco to Spokane and from Sprague to the Snake river and was known as the Figure 3 Ranch. This firm was the first to ship cattle out of the territory to Montana and elsewhere. At a subsequent period Mr. Kirkman became heavily interested in the sheep industry and for many years he was an extensive raiser of both cattle and sheep. During all this time he maintained his partnership relation with Mr. Dooley, their connection continuing for about twenty years. He also invested in farm lands, becoming in time the owner of twelve hundred acres. In 1891 he retired from active life and the year 1892 was spent by him in travel in Europe. He had hoped that freedom from business cares and the pleasure of travel would enable him to regain his health, which had become quite seriously impaired, but this expectation proved futile, as he died at Stevens Point, Wisconsin, April 25, 1893, when on his way home. Mr. Kirkman was a man alive to all public interests and opportunities. He was one of the early contributors to Whitman College and paid the tuition of various students there in order to help them and the institution. When the receipts of the college were too small Mr. Kirkman joined with John F. Boyer to make up the deficit. He was a man of many substantial qualities and thereby gained many friends. He contributed much to the development of the northwest along material, social, intellectual and moral lines, his influence always being on the side of progress and improvement for the individual and for the community.

[Illustration: WILLIAM KIRKMAN]

[Illustration: MRS. WILLIAM KIRKMAN]

On the 4th of February, 1867, in San Francisco, Mr. Kirkman was united in marriage to Miss Isabella Potts, a native of Ireland and a daughter of Robert and Agnes (Evans) Potts, who passed their entire lives on the Emerald isle. Mrs. Kirkman came to the United States in her girlhood, going to San Francisco to join her two sisters who were already residing there. The four surviving children of Mr. and Mrs. Kirkman are William H., Fannie A., Myrtle B. and Leslie G. The eldest son was horn in Idaho in May, 1868, and pursued his education in Whitman College and in the Boston University, from which he was graduated on the completion of a law course in the class of 1893 and then located for practice in Walla Walla, where he followed his profession for two years. He wedded Maud Ashley, who passed away in 1905, leaving one son, William Leslie, who was born in 1901. William H. Kirkman resided in Walla Walla and filled the office of clerk of the federal court for a year. He was also a member of the city council and a member of the school board. Fraternally he was connected with the Masons as a member of the York Rite and of the Mystic Shrine, and he also held membership with the Elks, in which he filled all of the chairs of the local lodge. Fannie A. is the wife of A. H. Reynolds, a prominent attorney and president of the Farmers Savings Bank of Walla Walla. The youngest son, Leslie G., was born in Walla Walla in June, 1881, and pursued his education in the schools of his native city. He married Mabelle E. Hawman and they have one child, Leslie Gilmore, who was born in 1916. Leslie G. Kirkman is an Elk and a Mason. He resides in Walla Walla and he and his brother are engaged in farming, the latter having retired from law practice, and they are now devoting their attention to the cultivation, development and further improvement of the old homestead property which was left by their father. Myrtle B. Kirkman resides with her mother in Walla Walla.

William Kirkman was very prominent in civic affairs and exerted great influence on many interests that had to do with the upbuilding and progress of Walla Walla. His political allegiance was given to the republican party and he was a delegate to the national republican convention which was held in Minneapolis in 1892 and nominated Benjamin Harrison. He was appointed on the committee with William McKinley to notify Mr. Harrison of his nomination. Mr. Kirkman served on the first board of directors of the penitentiary upon its establishment and was a member of the board of education in Walla Walla, contributing much to the development of its school system. As previously stated, he was closely associated with the welfare and progress of Whitman College and was still a member of its board of directors at the time of his demise. He was a man of sterling qualities, possessing a kindly, genial disposition that endeared him to those who came in contact with him, and was charitable to a fault. Although not a member of any church, he was a liberal contributor to the support of various religious bodies of the city and no worthy cause appealed to him in vain. His interests were broad and embraced all that was worth while in life, yet his greatest care and his fullest devotion were always given to his home and family.

CLEMENT O. BERGEVIN.

Clement O. Bergevin, who is actively engaged in farming on section 35, township 7 north, range 34 east, was born on the old Bergevin homestead in this part of Walla Walla county, his natal day being March 16, 1891. He is a son of Damase and Mary P. (Allard) Bergevin, the former a native of Canada and of French extraction. He is mentioned elsewhere in this work.

Clement O. Bergevin spent his youthful days in his father's home and acquired his education in the old French town school. In 1912 he began farming on his own account. He had been reared to that occupation and early became familiar with the best methods of tilling the soil and cultivating the crops. He thus brought broad experience to his work when he started out independently. He is now cultivating three hundred and twenty acres of land, upon which he now resides and which is a part of his father's estate. He also owns a third equity in a farm of three hundred and twenty acres elsewhere in the same township and a third equity in a five hundred acre tract. His farming interests are thus extensive and important and in all of his business affairs he displays marked energy and determination. His industry has enabled him to overcome obstacles and difficulties in his path and capable management has brought him substantial reward.

On the 12th of May, 1915, Mr. Bergevin was united in marriage to Miss Hazel Johnson, of Walla Walla, a daughter of Edward Johnson, one of the prominent coal dealers of that city. Mr. Bergevin is a member of the Catholic church and is identified with the Knights of Columbus. He has comparatively few outside interests, however, preferring to concentrate his efforts and attention upon his business affairs. He is yet a young man who has only passed the twenty-sixth milestone on life's journey, but already he has made for himself a place in business circles that many a man of twice his years might well envy. He displays good judgment in all that he does and his careful management of his property and his progressive methods of farming are bringing to him merited success.

NELSON McSHERRY.

Nelson McSherry made for himself a creditable position in the business and political circles of Prescott, so that his death was the occasion of deep and widespread regret when on the 27th of July, 1916, he passed away. He was then but sixty-one years of age, his birth having occurred on the 31st of July, 1855. He was a native of Pennsylvania and a son of J. J. and Margaret (Mitchner) McSherry, both of whom were natives of the Keystone state. At an early day they removed with their family to Missouri, settling near Warrensburg, where they spent their remaining days, and there Nelson McSherry was reared and educated. He was a young man of twenty-five years when in 1880 he was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Harvey, of Warrensburg, and to them were born five children: Lulu, who is the wife of J. D. Walter; Robert, who is living in Nevada; Joseph C., whose home is in Prescott; Urie D.; and Hester.

Mr. and Mrs. McSherry began their domestic life in Missouri and there resided until 1888, when they came with their family to the northwest, establishing their home in Prescott, where Mr. McSherry embarked in business as proprietor of a small mercantile establishment. He adapted himself and his affairs to this part of the country and the conditions here existing and in the course of years he built up a growing and gratifying business. He closely studied the needs of the people in relation to the line of goods which he carried and by reason of his carefully selected stock, his reasonable prices and his straightforward dealing he won a very liberal and well deserved patronage, so that his business became one of the profitable enterprises of the town.

In public affairs Mr. McSherry also took a deep and helpful interest. His fellow townsmen, recognizing his worth and ability, elected him the first mayor of Prescott. He was always ready to advance the interests of the town in every possible way and stood at all times for progress and improvement. Fraternally he was connected with the Woodmen of the World and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He was reared a Methodist, but Mrs. McSherry is a member of the Presbyterian church. In 1913, because of failing health, he retired from active business and turned the management of his store over to his sons. Death called him in 1916 and at his passing deep regret was felt for he was a progressive business man, a loyal and patriotic citizen, a faithful friend and a devoted husband and father. He counted it his greatest happiness to provide for the welfare and comfort of his wife and children and in every relation of life he manifested those sterling qualities which command respect, confidence and honor in every land and clime.

GEORGE E. LAMBDIN.

George E. Lambdin has been actively and prominently identified with farming and stock raising interests in the northwest and is now carrying on general agricultural pursuits on section 22, township 7 north, range 32 east, in Walla Walla county. He was born on the 27th of September, 1870, in Montana, his parents being Samuel and Mary E. (Spade) Lambdin. The father was a native of Delaware, while the mother's birth occurred in Ohio. They were married in Iowa and at the time of the opening up of the gold fields in Montana, in 1865, they crossed the plains with ox teams to that state. The father worked in the mines in Deer Lodge valley and also in the Butte mines for six years and the family went through the usual experiences of the mining camp in the west. In 1872 they removed to Walla Walla county, Washington, where Mr. Lambdin preempted a quarter section of land just across the line in Oregon, on the present site of Freewater. Ten years later he crossed the border into Washington and took up a homestead on section 30, township 7 north, range 32 east, in Walla Walla county. He then lived in this immediate vicinity until the time of his death and during the later years of his life made his home with his son, George E., whose name introduces this review. He passed away April 20, 1908.

George E. Lambdin spent his youthful days upon the home farm and acquired a district school education. As early as his seventeenth year he began his career as a sheepman, starting with twenty-five head. While working for H. C. Adams as a sheep herder he accumulated a small number of sheep and his herd multiplied rapidly, so that about 1900 he was in a position to operate for himself on a larger scale and began independent activities. In the intervening years he has acquired from three to four thousand acres of grazing land and while he has recently sold off his own flock, he is associated with C. W. Stevelan in operating sheep interests under lease. In this connection he is among the most prominent sheepmen of the county. His business affairs are wisely and carefully directed. His long experience in connection with the sheep industry has taught him exactly how to care for his flock so that the best results will be achieved. There is no feature of sheep raising with which he is not familiar and his intelligently directed interests have brought very substantial results.

In 1903 Mr. Lambdin was married to Miss Catherine A. Bradley, of Walla Walla county, and they have become the parents of three children: Samuel Allen, Mary Isabelle and Margaret Elizabeth. In politics Mr. Lambdin maintains an independent course, although he is inclined to give his support to the republican party. He belongs to Attalia Lodge, No. 294, I. O. O. F., of Attalia, Washington, and he also has membership with the Modern Woodmen of America and with the Royal Neighbors. He is true and loyal to the teachings of these organizations and exemplifies in his life the beneficent spirit which underlies the different societies. As a business man his position is one of prominence and his capability is widely recognized. He deserves much credit for what he has accomplished, for from an early age he has been dependent upon his own resources. As the years have gone by his labors have brought substantial results and he is today accounted one of the foremost sheepmen of the northwest.

HON. ELGIN V. KUYKENDALL.

Hon. Elgin V. Kuykendall is a member of the state senate of Washington and is one of Pomeroy's foremost attorneys. His record reflects credit and honor upon the district which has honored him. He has done splendid work both as lawyer and lawmaker and has become prominently connected with a profession which has ever been regarded as having much to do with the stability, prosperity and upbuilding of every district, standing as the stern conservator of the rights, privileges and liberties of the individual. His entire life has been spent in the west with its boundless opportunities and limitless resources, and with him opportunity has ever been the clarion call to action. He was born in Oakland, Oregon, October 8, 1870, a son of Dr. G. B. Kuykendall, a foremost citizen and leading pioneer physician of Pomeroy, who is mentioned at length on another page of this work.

[Illustration: HON. ELGIN V. KUYKENDALL]

Elgin V. Kuykendall was educated in the public schools of Garfield county and has learned many valuable lessons in the school of experience, for he has ever been a close and attentive observer of men and of measures. Determining upon a professional career, he took up the study of law in 1892, pursuing his reading under the preceptorship of Samuel G. Cosgrove of Pomeroy, who was afterward governor of Washington. In 1894 Mr. Kuykendall was admitted to the bar but did not immediately take up the active practice of the profession but continued to give his attention to educational work, in which for some time he had been engaged. He had proven a capable teacher, imparting readily and clearly to others the knowledge that he had acquired, and in 1894 he was elected county superintendent of schools, in which office he served for one term. During the last year of his incumbency in that position he was appointed to fill out an unexpired term of six months as principal of the Pomeroy high school. In 1897, however, he concentrated his efforts and attention upon the practice of law and in 1898 was elected prosecuting attorney of Garfield county, in which position he served for one term. In 1900 he was elected mayor of Pomeroy and occupied that position for one term, giving to the city a businesslike and progressive administration characterized by needed reforms and measures of public improvement. At the same time he continued in the practice of law independently until February, 1898, when he entered into partnership with Judge Mack F. Gose under the firm name of Gose & Kuykendall, a relationship that existed until the appointment of the senior partner to the supreme bench in 1900. Mr. Kuykendall then practiced alone for two years and in 1911 the present law firm of Kuykendall & McCabe was formed, C. Alexander McCabe being admitted to a partnership that still maintains, the firm occupying now a very prominent position in the legal circles of the state. Their practice is extensive and of an important character and in the conduct thereof Mr. Kuykendall has displayed talent, learning, tact, patience and industry. His legal learning, his analytical mind, the readiness with which he grasps the points in an argument all combine to make him a strong advocate and a wise counselor. In connection with his brothers he has fourteen hundred acres of land held in equity.

In 1896 Mr. Kuykendall was joined in wedlock to Miss Marguerite Scully, a daughter of Matthew Scully, who was one of the pioneer farmers of Asotin county, Washington, and now resides near Twin Falls, Idaho. Mr. and Mrs. Kuykendall have become the parents of four children, as follows: Matthew Lorraine, a student in the Washington State College; Ruth Lenore, who attended the State Normal School at Cheney, Washington, and is now engaged in teaching in Garfield county; Berdina Claire, a high school student at Pomeroy; and Jerome Kenneth, who is attending the graded schools.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Kuykendall are members of the Methodist church and she is president of the Ladies' Aid Society of that church and also president of the Civic Improvement Club of Pomeroy. She is likewise a member of the Red Cross Society.

In his political connection Mr. Kuykendall has always been a stalwart republican and in November, 1916, he was chosen to represent his district in the state senate, where he was made a member of a sub-committee for framing a new probate code. He has been a conspicuous figure in the legislative halls and has served repeatedly as chairman of the state central committee of the republican party, thus taking active part in guiding the destinies of his party in the northwest. While serving as mayor of Pomeroy he was instrumental in establishing the present city park, which the city purchased from Governor Cosgrove. Fraternally he is connected with Garfield Lodge, No. 25, K. P., and has been quite active in the affairs of that organization. He has been a member of the grand judiciary committee of the state for sixteen years, a longer period than that of any other incumbent in the position. He is also identified with the Woodmen of the World. His interests are broad and varied and in relation to the great sociological, economic and political problems of the country he keeps abreast with the best thinking men of the age. He is forceful and his ability and initiative have made him a dynamic power in the public life of southeastern Washington.

J. U. STRAHM.

At a period when the government owned most of the land in Washington and the work of progress and development seemed scarcely begun, J. U. Strahm and his wife came to Walla Walla county and cast in their lot with its pioneer settlers. They here underwent many of the hardships and privations incident to establishing a home on the frontier, but with resolute spirit they met all these and in the course of years came to enjoy the comforts of modern day civilization. Mr. Strahm was born in Switzerland, July 30, 1827, and was but six years of age when brought to America by his parents, the family home being established in Ohio. They afterward removed to Iowa and in 1849 J. U. Strahm removed to California, attracted by the discovery of gold on the Pacific coast. There he remained for three years, after which he returned to Missouri, where in 1864 he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Jane Farley, a daughter of Harvey and Elizabeth (Bruett) Farley, the former a native of Ohio, while the latter was born in Indiana. The father was killed while serving as a soldier in the Civil war and the mother afterward passed away in Tennessee.

Following their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Strahm resolved to try their fortune in the far west and made their way across the country to Walla Walla county, where he took up a homestead near Dixie. There was little to indicate the wonderful changes which were still to occur as the white settlers penetrated into this region and reclaimed its rich resources for the purposes of civilization. The greater part of the land was still unclaimed and uncultivated and the most farsighted could scarcely have dreamed of what the future held in store for this rich district. Mr. Strahm became actively identified with its farming interests and bent his energies to the development of his place, bringing his fields under a high state of cultivation and therefore annually gathering rich harvests.

To Mr. and Mrs. Strahm were born fourteen children, eleven of whom are now living: Ann J., the widow of John Byrd; William H., who is deceased; Elizabeth, the wife of John Glynn; Rosa D., the wife of Tom Hastings; Mary E., the wife of Eldon Buroker; Nora J., the wife of Joel Chitwood; John E.; Nannie V., who is the wife of Alfred Brown; Lucretia R., the wife of Alvin McElvain; Viola, the wife of Fred Wells; Edna, at home; Alma B., the wife of Jene Green; and two who are deceased.

The death of Mr. Strahm occurred February 11, 1895, at which time his remains were interred in the Dixie cemetery. He had been a devoted husband and father and had put forth every possible effort to aid in promoting the welfare and happiness of his family. His widow still occupies the old homestead, having eighty acres in her farm near Dixie, and the careful development and improvement of the property insures to her a substantial annual income.

CHARLES C. LONEY.

Prominent among the real estate men of Walla Walla is Charles C. Loney of the firm of Loney, Ginn & Kerrick. He was born in Toronto, Canada, on the 7th of June, 1876, a son of Charles and Charlotte (Cole) Loney, both of whom were natives of Belfast, Ireland. They came to Canada in childhood with their respective parents and were there reared to manhood and womanhood. In 1883 they came to the United States, arriving in Walla Walla on the 19th of August of that year. Here the father engaged in farming and became one of the leading agriculturists of Walla Walla county, having extensive interests. He acquired some two thousand acres of valuable land near the city and for a long period gave personal supervision to the further development and improvement of his farm. For several years prior to his death, however, he lived retired from active work, turning his farms over to his sons. He then took up his abode in the city and throughout his remaining days enjoyed a well earned rest. He died in 1907, having for a considerable period survived his wife, who passed away in 1902. Both were consistent members of the Baptist church and were earnest Christian people whose well spent lives are worthy of emulation.

Charles C. Loney was educated in the Walla Walla high school, from which he was graduated with the class of 1896. Following the completion of his studies he cooperated with his father in the management and operation of his extensive farming interests until the father's retirement in 1901, at which time Charles C. Loney took charge of the farm, continuing its further cultivation and improvement until 1911. In the meantime he had purchased the property of his father and in the year designated he sold the home place and became a resident of Walla Walla, where he opened a real estate and loan office. He has since been prominently identified with that business and places many loans, while at the same time he negotiates many important realty transfers. Since 1911 he has purchased one hundred acres of land in Umatilla county, Oregon, and eight hundred acres in Columbia county, Washington. This property he still owns and rents. He also has three hundred and thirty acres on Dry creek, near Walla Walla, on which he is engaged in breeding and raising thoroughbred Percheron horses. He thus ranks with the leading agriculturists and stock raisers of this section of the state, while at the same time he has won for himself a most creditable position as a real estate dealer.

On the 12th of January, 1917, Mr. Loney was united in marriage to Miss Hazel Velma Wright, of Walla Walla, a daughter of Robert Wright, who is a native of Umatilla county, Oregon, and for many years has been a prominent farmer of Walla Walla county.

Mr. Loney holds membership in Enterprise Lodge, No. 2, I. O. O. F., and also in Walla Walla Encampment, No. 3. He votes with the republican party and is interested in all matters of progressive citizenship, cooperating in every plan and measure which he deems of value and benefit to the community. The greater part of his life has been spent in this section of the state and he has become imbued with the spirit of western enterprise that has led to the rapid and substantial upbuilding of this section of the state. This spirit has been the dominant factor in the attainment of his own success, a success that now places him with the men of affluence in his adopted county.

HON. OLIVER T. CORNWELL.

Hon. Oliver T. Cornwell is a dominant factor in the agricultural, commercial and financial circles of Walla Walla and the Inland Empire and has also exerted a marked influence over public thought and action as a member of the state senate, in which he is now representing the eleventh senatorial district. It was Mr. Cornwell who in large measure introduced the commission form of government here and in all his public work he has been actuated by a spirit of progress, improvement and of marked devotion to the general good. He is indeed prominent as a man whose constantly expanding powers have taken him from humble surroundings to the field of large enterprises and continually broadening opportunities. Bringing to bear a clear understanding that readily solves complex problems, he has been able to unite diverse interests into a harmonious whole with results that indicate his keen sagacity and unfaltering enterprise.

Mr. Cornwell is a native son of Walla Walla county, his birth having occurred upon a farm six miles north of the city of Walla Walla on the 22nd of March, 1863. His father, James Madison Cornwell, became one of the Walla Walla pioneers of 1861 and is mentioned elsewhere in this work. The son was reared on the old homestead with the usual experiences of the farm bred boy and acquired his early education in the district schools, after which he became a student in Whitman College. When nineteen years of age he assumed the operation of the home place and continued to cultivate its fields for three years as a renter. After reaching his majority he went up into the Palouse country, in Whitman county, and there engaged in the raising of cattle and horses. He remained in Whitman county for eight years, after which he returned to Walla Walla and in company with H. S. Stott founded the drug house of Stott & Cornwell, with which he was identified for three years. He then resumed active connection with farming and stock raising interests and also began buying and shipping cattle, with which business he has since been closely associated, being one of the most prominent representatives of agricultural interests in this section of the state. He now owns fourteen hundred acres of wheat land in Walla Walla county and he also has heavy holdings in Alberta, Canada. Mr. Cornwell is a man of forcefulness and resourcefulness and has by no means limited his activities and energies to a single line. In fact, as extensive as are his agricultural activities, he has also made for himself a notable place in commercial and financial circles. About 1903 he was one of the dominant factors in the organization of the Walla Walla County Lumber Company, of which he became president, and in that capacity he has since continued, his intelligent direction of the affairs of the company being one of the most potent elements in his growing and continued success. He was also one of the organizers of the Peoples State Bank of Walla Walla and was made a member of its board of directors, which position he has since filled. He has also been identified with interests of a public and semi-public character that have had much to do with promoting general progress. He served for a number of years as president of the Farmers Union and while acting in that capacity the Walla Walla Farmers' Agency was organized, of which Mr. Cornwell was elected president, and reelection has continued him in that position to the present time.

[Illustration: OLIVER T. CORNWELL]

[Illustration: MRS. OLIVER T. CORNWELL]

On the 19th of August, 1888, occurred the marriage of Mr. Cornwell and Miss Ella Crowell, of Walla Walla, a daughter of Henry A. and Mary A. (Thurman) Crowell, who came to Walla Walla from Iowa in 1874. The mother was a niece of Allen G. Thurman, the great democratic leader, who was long known as "the Old Roman." To Mr. and Mrs. Cornwell have been born three children, Lessie L., Ethel L. and Olive E.

Mr. Cornwell holds membership with the Masonic fraternity, belonging to Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 7, F. & A. M.; to Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; to Walla Walla Commandery, No. 2, K. T.; to Oriental Consistory, No. 1, A. & A. S. R, of Spokane; and to El Katif Temple; A. A. O. N. M. S., also of Spokane. He likewise has membership with Washington Lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., and with the Walla Walla Encampment of that order.

His chief activity aside from business has been as a supporter of the republican party and a recognized leader in its ranks. The first position to which he was called was that of city councilman of Walla Walla in 1897. In 1900 he was chosen to represent his district in the Washington state senate, where he served for four years with honor and ability. In the November election of 1915 he was again chosen a member of the state senate and during his present term has been called upon for much important committee service. He is now a member of the committees on municipal corporations, on education, on industrial insurance, on irrigation and arid lands, public utilities, roads and bridges, rules and joint rules, banks and banking. He has done much to shape the policy of his party and for eight years was chairman of the republican county central committee and has been a member of the state central committee. It was Mr. Cornwell who organized and successfully carried through the campaign establishing the commission form of government in Walla Walla. His career has at all times reflected credit and honor upon the people that have honored him. The universality of his friendships interprets for us his intellectual hospitality and the breadth of his sympathy, for nothing is foreign to him that concerns his fellows. Anyone meeting Mr. Cornwell face to face would know at once that he is an individual embodying all the elements of what in this country we term a "square" man--one in whom to have confidence, a dependable man in any relation and any emergency. His quietude of deportment, his easy dignity, his frankness and cordiality of address, with the total absence of anything sinister or anything to conceal, foretoken a man who is ready to meet any obligation of life with the confidence and courage that come of conscious personal ability, the right conception of things and an habitual regard for what is best in the exercise of human activities.

SAMUEL LOVE GILBREATH.

Samuel Love Gilbreath, an honored pioneer of Columbia county, Washington, became a resident of Old Walla Walla county when there were few white settlers within its limits, and took up a homestead three miles from the city of Dayton, although it was a number of years later that the town was laid out. He was a successful farmer, loyal friend and a public-spirited citizen, and his demise was the occasion of sincere regret. He was born in McMinn county, Tennessee, March 25, 1825, and was of Scotch descent. He was a representative of one of the old families of the south, being a grandson of Archibald Rowan, the third governor of Tennessee. His education was that afforded by the common schools and he remained in his native state until he became of age. He then determined to try his fortune in the far west and, crossing the plains, settled in Yamhill county, Oregon. For a number of years he farmed there and then went into the cattle business, which occupied his attention until 1855, when the Cayuse Indian war broke out. He enlisted for six months' service in the First Oregon Mounted Cavalry Regiment, which did good work in putting down the uprising both in Oregon and Washington. He was later for six months assistant wagon master and one of his duties was the gruesome task of hauling the bodies of the dead back to The Dalles, from which point they were shipped to relatives in the Willamette valley.

Following his marriage in 1859 Mr. Gilbreath drove a herd of cattle to Old Walla Walla county, Washington. At that time the city of Walla Walla comprised but a very few buildings and the settlers in the county were few and far between. He took up a homestead three miles southwest of the present city of Dayton and built a log cabin with puncheon floors, which remained the family home for a number of years. There were many hardships to be endured in those early days but the lot of the pioneer was lightened by the spirit of hospitality and cooperation which prevailed. Travelers were welcomed at every log cabin and the service of each settler was at the disposal of the others. Mr. Gilbreath worked hard and gave careful attention to his business affairs and as time passed his resources increased. The first crude buildings upon his farm were at length replaced by substantial and commodious structures and the place was brought to a high state of development. At the time of his death he owned two hundred acres of fine orchard and alfalfa land, of which his widow has since sold one hundred and twenty acres, still owning eighty acres, which is valued at a high price per acre.

Mr. Gilbreath was married in 1859, in Oregon, to Miss Margaret H. Fanning, of Albany, and they became the parents of thirteen children, ten of whom survive, namely: Nancy E., a teacher; Mary, the wife of J. O. Mattoon; Lee, a resident of Columbia county; Joseph, a resident of Seattle; Susie, the wife of E. E. Martin; Rose, who is teaching in Seattle; Charles, a resident of Walla Walla; Grace, the wife of T. O. Morrison; James, an instructor in the University of Washington; and Fred, a graduate of West Point and a captain in the United States army, now with the American embassy in London.

Mr. Gilbreath was a prominent factor in public affairs in the early days and was chosen the first county commissioner of Old Walla Walla county and the first sheriff of Columbia county. He was a firm believer in the value of higher education and sent several of his children to college. In many ways his influence was felt in the advancement of his community, and personally he was held in the highest esteem because of his unswerving integrity and his great capacity for friendship. His wife had the distinction of being the first white woman to take up her residence in the four counties comprised within Old Walla Walla county, and she, too, proved her courage and perseverance in performing cheerfully and efficiently the many and arduous duties that fell to the lot of the pioneer wife and mother.

CHRIS H. ROMMEL.

Chris H. Rommel is residing on section 35, township 14 north, range 41 east, Garfield county, and is operating one thousand acres of land, being therefore entitled to rank among the extensive farmers of Garfield county. He grew to manhood in Manchester, Michigan, and is indebted for his education to its public schools. When nineteen years of age he started out in life for himself and in 1893 came to Garfield county, Washington. For some years he rented a farm, during which time he carefully saved his money with the purpose of buying land as soon as possible. At length he purchased his present home farm and has extended its boundaries until he now owns one thousand acres.

Mr. Rommel was married in 1893 to Miss Anna Smith, a native of California, and they have three children: Fred C., a high school graduate; Mary P., who is also a high school graduate and is now teaching; and Ena M.

THOMAS A. RUSSEL.

Thomas A. Russel, deceased, was for a number of years actively engaged in farming on section 3, township 6 north, range 35 east, Walla Walla county, and met with gratifying success. He was born in Ohio, September 26, 1831, and there grew to manhood and received his education. In 1849 he accompanied his father John Russel, to California, crossing the great unsettled plains of the west by team, a long, tedious and dangerous journey, and again in 1852 he came to the coast by the overland route, but each time he returned to Ohio, where he maintained his residence until 1864. In that year he went with his bride by horse team to the Sacramento valley of California, where he lived for three years, during which time he taught school. They then removed to Bowling Green, Missouri, and for twenty-one years he was a resident of that state. During that time he engaged in the practice of law, successfully appearing in most of the more important trials of his district. In 1888, however, he removed with his family to Walla Walla county, Washington and the remainder of his life was devoted to agricultural pursuits.

Mr. Russel was married in 1864 in Ohio to Miss Mary C. Willman, also a native of that state. To their union were born ten children: John B. and William, both of whom are deceased; Frank; Thomas and Anna, who have passed away; Phoebe L.; Lincoln and Grant, twins, and Leslie, the two latter being deceased; and Joseph, who resides in Canada.

Many interesting experiences came to Mr. Russel in his long life, and from the time he accompanied his father to the west in 1849 until his death he was much interested in this section of the country, even while still residing in the east or middle west. He found great pleasure in watching the process of development that has made the west a rival of the east in all that pertains to the highest civilization, and his influence was invariably cast on the side of progress. He passed away in January, 1901, and was laid to rest in the Mountain View cemetery.

HON. F. M. WEATHERFORD.

Hon. F. M. Weatherford is now living practically retired in Dayton but for many years was actively and extensively connected with farming interests and is still the owner of much valuable wheat land in this section of the state. Moreover, he has been prominently connected with public affairs and has been called upon to represent his district in the general assembly. He was born in Missouri, November 12, 1855, and is a son of Alfred H. and Sophia (Smith) Weatherford, both of whom were natives of Virginia and at an early day removed westward to Missouri, where their remaining days were passed. They had a family of nine children but only three are now living.

While born in the middle west, Hon. F. M. Weatherford has spent the greater part of his life in the Pacific coast country. He crossed the plains in 1864, when a lad of but nine years, and became a resident of Linn county, Oregon. The trip was made with ox teams and wagon and he was six months en route, experiencing many hardships and privations as the party traveled over the barren plains, the hot sandy desert and across the mountain ranges. He took up his abode with a brother in Oregon and there remained until 1872, when he made his way northward to Walla Walla county, Washington. The following year, when a youth of eighteen, he rented a farm nine miles southwest of Dayton in the section known as Bundy Hollow. Later he bought land east of Dayton and occupied that farm for twenty years, his labors bringing about a marked transformation in the appearance of the place, for when the land came into his possession it was wild and undeveloped. With characteristic energy he began to cultivate it, breaking the furrows, planting the seed and in due time gathering rich harvests. Year by year the work of operating the farm was carried on and as his financial resources increased he made other investments in property, adding to his holdings from time to time until he is now the owner of sixteen hundred acres of fine wheat land in Columbia county. He was also at one time vice president of the Farmers Exchange at Waitsburg, which he aided in organizing. He has now put aside the more active work of the fields, leaving that to others, while he is enjoying a well earned rest, having taken up his abode in Dayton. His farm property yields to him a most gratifying annual income and his energy and sound business judgment have brought him success.

[Illustration: HON. F. M. WEATHERFORD]

In 1878 Mr. Weatherford was united in marriage to Miss Harriet A. Turner and they have become parents of five children: William M.; J. C., who is living upon the home farm; Mary S., who is the wife of Elmer Dunlap; Clara L., the wife of W. E. Bruce; and Arthur M., who is also upon the home farm.

In his political affiliation Mr. Weatherford is a democrat and has taken an active part in advancing the interests of the organization. His fellow townsmen, appreciative of his worth and his devotion to the party, elected him to represent them for one term in the state legislature. The cause of education finds in him a stalwart champion and he has done effective work in behalf of the schools as a member of the school board. Fraternally he is connected with Dayton Lodge, No. 136, I. O. O. F., and both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, South, and in its work take an active and helpful interest, doing all in their power to extend its growth and promote its purpose. Mr. Weatherford deserves much credit for what he has accomplished. He started out in the business world empty-handed, yet he has passed many another traveler on life's journey whose start was perhaps more advantageous. His success is the direct result of indefatigable industry intelligently directed, and, advancing year by year, he has become one of the prominent and prosperous men of Columbia county.

HON. DAVID H. COX.

Hon. David H. Cox has back of him an ancestry honorable and distinguished. Upon the family records appear the names of several who have been active in connection with framing state or national legislation. His own career has been cast in harmony with the family record and he is now a member of the state senate of Washington. For many years he has figured conspicuously and honorably in agricultural and commercial circles and is still actively identified with farming, his attention now being given to the management of his farm property. A native of eastern Tennessee, he was born December 28, 1865, a son of Elbert S. and Mary Louise (Beyers) Cox, both of whom were natives of Tennessee, where they spent their entire lives. The mother was a niece of John Severe, who was the first governor of Tennessee and a brother of her mother. Elbert S. Cox was for many years one of the leading merchants of Jonesboro, Tennessee, and was also extensively engaged in farming, having near the town a large tract of land which he successfully and wisely cultivated. He was also prominent in public affairs of the community and served for one term as member of congress from his district. He took a most active and helpful part in public thought and action and all that he did was characterized by a spirit of progressiveness that made him one of the most valued residents of Jonesboro. He passed away July 3, 1881, the day on which President Garfield was shot, in the Pennsylvania Railroad station at Washington, D. C.

David H. Cox supplemented his public school education by study in Milliken College of eastern Tennessee and when nineteen years of age he started out in the business world on his own account, going to Texas, where he remained for a year. In 1885 he came to the northwest with Walla Walla as his destination. Here he arrived on the 6th of October of that year, possessed of courage and determination but of no funds. His financial condition rendered it imperative that he obtain immediate employment and he soon secured a position on a farm. He willingly accepted any employment that would yield him an honest living. He proved so capable in his farm work that his employer, recognizing his ability, offered to loan him the amount necessary to enable him to engage in business for himself. He took up the occupation of farming and for a considerable period rented land. Since that date he has never been without farm land of his own and for many years has been a most prominent figure in agricultural circles in this section of the state. In 1889, while still continuing in his farming operations, he became identified with the Pacific Coast Elevator Company and managed the business from 1889 until 1901. He then became associated with Walter S. Barnett and established the mercantile house of Cox, Barnett & Company, under which firm name they transacted an extensive grocery and hardware business, their sales amounting in later years to between twenty-five and thirty thousand dollars per month. They continued the business in a very successful manner until 1910, when Mr. Cox, in company with Hugh A. Martin, organized the Independent Grain Company, under which title they carried on business successfully for four years. Since then Mr. Cox has given his undivided attention to the management of his farming properties, which represent judicious investments and are the expression of well directed business ability.

In 1890 Mr. Cox was united in marriage to Miss Decima E. Yeend, of Walla Walla county, a daughter of William Yeend, one of the pioneer farmers of this section of the state, who came to Washington from England in 1869. Mr. and Mrs. Cox have become the parents of two children: Arthur E., who is farming his father's land; and Dessie, at home.

The family occupies a very enviable position in social circles and the hospitality of the best homes of Walla Walla is freely accorded them. Mr. Cox is a stalwart republican in his political views and has done much to further the interests and promote the success of the party. He served for several years as member of the Walla Walla city council and in 1908 was elected to the state senate, serving as a member of the upper house of the general assembly for four years. In 1912 he was a candidate for state treasurer, and while he carried thirty-four out of the thirty-eight counties, he was defeated by the Pierce county vote. In 1916 he was again elected to the state senate, in which capacity he is now serving. He is an earnest working member of the upper house, carefully considering the vital questions which come up for settlement, and his position in support or opposition of any measure is never an equivocal one. He stands loyally for what he believes to be the best interests of the commonwealth and in his political record he has ever been willing to subordinate personal interests to the general good. Mr. and Mrs. Cox are consistent and faithful members of the Methodist church and he has had the honor of representing his church at the general conference for three successive terms. He is chairman of the board of trustees of the church and does everything in his power to advance its cause and extend its influence. While he has won notable success he has never made the attainment of wealth the sole ambition of his life. He has recognized his duties and obligations in other connections and has stood at all times for that which is most worth while in citizenship and in the moral development of the people at large. His life record is characterized by many honorable phases and should well serve as a source of encouragement to others and constitute an example which others may profitably follow. Coming to the west empty-handed, he has here intelligently directed his efforts with a result that has been most notable and gratifying, but winning prosperity has been but one feature of his activities, for his course has been so directed that he has gained not only material success but an honored name as well.

DAMASE BERGEVIN.

Damase Bergevin, whose success from the time that he made his initial purchase of land in Walla Walla county was rapid and substantial, so that he became one of the prosperous farmers of this section of the state and at his death left his family in comfortable financial circumstances, was born near Quebec, Canada, on the 31st of March, 1840. He came of French ancestry. He was there reared with no educational advantages except those found in the school of experience. In 1865 he came to Walla Walla county, Washington, after spending a year in St. Joseph, Missouri. On reaching the northwest he located in what was then known as French Town, about nine miles west of Walla Walla, on the Walla Walla river. Two brothers had preceded him here and Mr. Bergevin worked for a time for one of them. Between the years 1875 and 1878 he was in the employ of Dr. Baker and built the narrow gauge railroad from Wallula to Walla Walla, this being the first railroad in the state of Washington. Mr. Bergevin cut the ties for this road and drove them down the Yakima river.

It was not until 1880 that Mr. Bergevin made his first purchase of land. At that time he and his brother Clement bought an eighty acre farm and a year later the brothers divided their interest and from that time forward Mr. Bergevin operated independently. His success from that time forward was rapid and he proved not only a very enterprising and progressive farmer but a man of excellent ability in managing his financial interests. As his resources increased he kept adding to his holdings until he had acquired sixteen hundred and twenty-one acres of land in the home farm and also owned six hundred and forty acres five miles north of Walla Walla and a tract of one hundred and sixty acres at Rulo Station on the Northern Pacific Railroad. His investments were most judiciously made and his business affairs carefully managed. He seemed to readily recognize the essential in all business transactions and his sound judgment and indefatigable enterprise brought to him a very gratifying measure of success. In 1892 he was stricken with total blindness, but though thus incapacitated in a large measure for the management of his property interests he was surrounded by the loving care of his wife, while his four sons assumed business duties and responsibilities and as the years have passed on more has been added to the family holdings until the Bergevin interests in Walla Walla county are most extensive.

It was at St. Rose's Catholic Mission church at Frenchtown, July 3, 1881, that Mr. Bergevin was united in marriage to Miss Mary P. Allard, a native of St. Paul, Minnesota, who came to Walla Walla county with her parents, Oliver and Leo Cadie (Forest) Allard, in 1862. They crossed the plains with ox teams, meeting the usual experiences of such a trip, and at length located in the little hamlet of Walla Walla. The father was a carpenter by trade and assisted in large measure in the upbuilding of the town in the early days, erecting many of the first buildings in the city. Mrs. Bergevin is now residing in Walla Walla.

To Mr. and Mrs. Bergevin were born six children: Leona P., now the wife of Philip Remillard, a farmer of Walla Walla county; Joseph Damase, who resides on the homestead farm; Arthur A., also engaged in farming; Clement A., who, lives on the old Bergevin home farm; Clarence C., who was married September 26, 1917, to Miss Lois Reavis, and is farming in Walla Walla county; and Augustine A., the wife of Elmer Markham, a farmer of Walla Walla county. There are also twelve grandchildren. At one time Arthur and Clarence Bergevin were engaged in the cultivation of thirteen hundred and fifty acres of land, owning five hundred and twenty acres of that amount, but have since divided their interests. The former was married September 27, 1916, to Miss Margaret Gohres. He is a member of the Loyal Order of Moose and, like the others of the family, is an adherent of the Catholic church. He has one of the best improved farms in the county on which is a large, substantial and beautiful residence with extensive farm buildings, all new, modern and thoroughly equipped. In a word, the name Bergevin has come to stand for progress and improvement in Walla Walla county.

In his political views Mr. Bergevin of this review was a democrat and while he never took an active part in politics he was interested in the welfare and progress of his community and gave his support to all measures which he deemed of public benefit. He died on the 31st of July, 1911, honored and respected by all who knew him. His had been a most active and useful life and one which was crowned with a very substantial measure of prosperity. In fact his record should serve as a source of encouragement and inspiration to others, showing what may be accomplished through determined purpose, unfaltering industry and sound judgment.

CHARLES MOORE.

Charles Moore was an early settler of Walla Walla county and for a number of years was prominently identified with agricultural, commercial and transportation interests here, but in 1882 removed to Moscow, Idaho, where he spent much of the remainder of his life, but passed away in Walla Walla. His widow in 1907 resumed her residence in Walla Walla and is now well known in the city. The birth of Mr. Moore occurred in Ohio, October 1, 1841, his parents being Amos L. and Mary (Monroe) Moore, the latter's father being a cousin of President James Monroe. The father was born in Delaware and the mother in Pennsylvania, but they removed to Ohio at an early day and later to Wisconsin, whence in 1869 they came to Walla Walla county, Washington, where they resided until called to the home beyond. To them were born five children, of whom only one now survives, ex-Governor Miles C. Moore, of Walla Walla.

[Illustration: CHARLES MOORE]

[Illustration: MRS. JULIA A. MOORE]

Charles Moore was reared in Wisconsin and his early education was that afforded by the district schools, while later he attended an academy or seminary, and subsequently became a college student. In 1861, when twenty years of age, he enlisted in the Union army and went to the front in defense of the stars and stripes. In 1862 he was wounded at the battle of Shiloh, or Pittsburg Landing, and because of his injuries was honorably discharged. He then returned to the north and entered the Wesleyan College of Delaware, Ohio, thus resuming his interrupted education. Later he was drafted for service but because of the wound he had previously sustained was discharged and went to Wisconsin. He was married there in 1864 and in 1865 he and his wife crossed the plains to the Pacific northwest by mule team and after reaching Walla Walla county both engaged in teaching school. Several years were devoted to that profession, but in 1870 Mr. Moore was appointed postmaster of Walla Walla under President Grant and held the office for four years. In the meantime, in 1872, he purchased the old Dr. Whitman Mission Farm and engaged in its operation until 1878, when he established a farm implement business in connection with his brother, Miles C. Moore, at Almota, in Whitman county, to the conduct of which he devoted the greater part of his time and attention. He was also agent for the Oregon Steam Navigation Company of Portland, Oregon. Mrs. Moore was the active assistant and helper of her husband, doing clerical work in connection with the conduct of the postoffice, and the business identified with freight navigation. Soon he became interested in the building of a telegraph line from Colfax to Ulmota, on Snake river, and went up the river and assisted in rafting the poles down to be used in the construction of the line. Subsequently he with others owned the telegraph line from Dayton to Walla Walla, which was connected with government telegraph lines. In 1882 he removed to Moscow, Idaho, where with his brother, Miles C., later governor of Washington territory, he erected a grist mill. Mr. Moore of this review maintained his residence in Moscow for a number of years. He became a heavy landowner, his holdings including a large tract on the Snake river in Garfield county, Washington, five hundred acres of which is still in possession of his widow, and two hundred acres near Moscow, Idaho. He was a man of unusual soundness of judgment in business affairs and his advice was often sought by others.

On the 13th of October, 1864, Mr. Moore was united in marriage in Wisconsin to Miss Julia A. Kneen, a native of the state of New York and a daughter of John and Margaret (Teare) Kneen, both of whom were natives of the Isle of Man. In young manhood and womanhood they emigrated to America and settled in the state of New York, whence in 1846 they removed to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, while subsequently they became residents of Kilbourn City, Wisconsin. The mother's death occurred in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, but the father survived until 1878. To them were born four children, of whom Mrs. Moore is the only one now living. By her marriage she became the mother of four children: Harry K., a resident of Walla Walla; Flora P., at home; F. Cushing, who is a mining engineer now in British Columbia; and Edna L., the wife of D. F. Baker, of Walla Walla.

Mr. Moore gave his political support to the republican party and carefully studied the questions and issues of the day, but was not a narrow partisan. Whatever he undertook he carried forward to successful completion and won not only financial independence but also a high place in the esteem of his fellowmen. In early manhood he was a member of the Masonic fraternity and exemplified in his life its beneficent purpose.

Since her husband's death Mrs. Moore has successfully managed the estate and general business interests connected therewith and in 1909 she erected her present modern and attractive home on Alvarado terrace in Walla Walla. In the meantime, however, following her husband's demise she removed to California with her children in order that they might have the benefit of educational instruction there and later she established her home in Evanston, Illinois, that they might continue their studies in the Northwestern University. In 1896 she returned to the old home in Moscow, Idaho, and in 1907 removed to Walla Walla, where she has since resided, two years later building her present home. She is a member of the Reading Club, one of the oldest clubs of Walla Walla, and is active in connection with those interests which work for intellectual progress and cultural value.

G. B. DAGUE.

G. B. Dague, one of the leading agriculturists of Walla Walla county, where his holdings embrace fourteen hundred and seventy acres of valuable land, resides on section 25, township 8 north, range 35 east. His birth occurred in Kansas on the 31st of December, 1871, his parents being Henry H. and Mary Elizabeth (Poorman) Dague, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of Ohio. Soon after their marriage, which was celebrated in the Buckeye state, they removed to Jefferson county, Kansas, there residing until the spring of 1872, when they took up their abode in western Kansas. There the mother passed away in 1881, and the father's last years were spent with his children.

G. B. Dague was reared under the parental roof and attended the common schools in the acquirement of an education. In 1889, when a youth of eighteen years, he made his way westward to the state of Washington and for a number of years thereafter he worked for others. In 1898 he located permanently in Walla Walla county and began farming on his own account, renting a farm near Prescott. Five years later he bought his first land, coming into possession of two hundred and forty acres near Hadley Station, while two or three years afterward he purchased an adjoining tract of one hundred and sixty acres. In May, 1908, he purchased what was known as the old Sergeant Smith place of six hundred and fifty-three acres and in 1911 he became the owner of what was known as the Geaney place of four hundred and seventeen acres, which is his present home farm. His holdings in Walla Walla county embrace altogether about fourteen hundred and seventy acres, all located in township 8 north, range 35 east, much of this being of the very best and most valuable land in the county. Mr. Dague also has heavy land holdings in Morrow county, Oregon, and in Benton county, Washington. His record is indeed commendable and one that should serve to inspire and encourage others, showing what may be accomplished by industry, perseverance and determination. Twenty-two years ago he was driving a header wagon over the land which he now owns and was earning, but a dollar and a quarter per day. His present financial condition clearly indicates the progress he has made, for, actuated by laudable ambition, he has worked his way steadily upward to a position among the most substantial agriculturists of the county.

On Christmas day of 1901 Mr. Dague was united in marriage to Mrs. Bertha L. (Prather) Washburn, by whom he has two children, Georgia E. and George Byron.

He is independent in politics and for thirteen years has ably served as clerk of the school district. Fraternally he is identified with Washington Lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., of Walla Walla, and he also belongs to the M. W. of P. His life has been an active, useful and honorable one, winning for him the high regard and esteem of all with whom he has been brought in contact, so that the circle of his friends is almost coextensive with the circle of his acquaintance.

FRANK MILLER.

Frank Miller, starting out in the business world as a farm hand when a young lad in his teens, is now one of the prosperous citizens of Starbuck, where he has extensive realty holdings. He is also the owner of much valuable property and is otherwise connected with the business interests of southeastern Washington in a most active and extensive way. He was born in Germany, June 24, 1858, and is a son of John and Louisa Miller, who were also natives of that country, whence they came to America in 1867. They established their home upon a farm in Wisconsin, where they spent their remaining days, being long identified with the agricultural interests of that locality. They had a family of nine children, but Frank Miller and his sister Josephine are the only ones now living.

Reared and educated in Wisconsin, he is indebted to the public school system of that State for the opportunities which he had to prepare for life's practical and responsible duties through the work of the schoolroom. He went to Illinois when a lad of fourteen years and there secured employment as a farm hand, in which work he engaged until he reached the age of twenty-two. He then left the Mississippi valley and made his way to the northwest, arriving in Walla Walla county, after which he secured a situation in a brewery in Walla Walla, where he remained for four years. He then took up the work of gardening at Walla Walla, which he followed for a year, after which he rented a farm and for six years was engaged in its cultivation. He took up a homestead two miles and a half or three miles south of his present home. This he proved up on and lived there eight years, after which he sold the place. He then bought five hundred acres, mostly wheat land, much of which is irrigated, and he also has thirty-five acres planted to alfalfa and to fruit, having one of the fine orchards of his part of the state. He is likewise a stockholder in the bank at Starbuck and he has made extensive and judicious investments in real estate, owning very large property interests in the village. His business affairs have brought him very substantial success, for his investments have been judiciously made and his untiring industry has also brought splendid returns.

In 1882 Mr. Miller was united in marriage to Miss Nettie Sack, a native of Illinois, and they became the parents of nine children, namely: Louisa, the wife of Charles Krause; Simon; Eva, the wife of H. H. Foster; George, who married Hazel Schultz; Fred, now in Camp Lewis with the American army; and Jesse, Ida, Frank and Grace, all yet at home. The wife and mother died September 30, 1917, and was laid to rest in Starbuck cemetery. She was loved and respected by all who knew her.

In his political views Mr. Miller is a democrat and gives stanch support to the party and its principles, although he does not seek or desire public office. He is a self-made man, for he started out to provide for his own support with no capital whatever and all that he has achieved and enjoyed is attributable to his persistent purpose and well-directed energy. He has been both the architect and builder of his own fortunes and has builded wisely and well.

WILLIAM S. MALLOY.

William S. Malloy, a retired agriculturist residing in Walla Walla, where he has the finest home on Washington street, is still the owner of twenty-four hundred acres of wheat land which is now being cultivated by a renter. His birth occurred in New Brunswick, Canada, on the 17th of June, 1844, his parents being John and Catherine (Sutton) Malloy, the former a native of County Wexford, Ireland, and the latter of New Brunswick. John Malloy was a young man of eighteen years when he left the Emerald isle and took up his abode in New Brunswick, where he was married. In 1853 he and his wife crossed the border into the United States, establishing their home in Stillwater, Minnesota, where Mr. Malloy and two sons, Robert and James, were prominently identified with the lumber industry for many years. It was there that his demise occurred in 1871, and the mother passed away in 1884. In their family were the following children: George, John, Robert, James and William S., of this review.

William S. Malloy, who was a lad of nine years when he accompanied his parents on their removal to Minnesota, acquired his education in the common schools of Stillwater, that state. In 1864, when a young man of twenty years, he left the parental roof and made his way westward to Montana, and for about six years he was employed in the mining fields of Virginia City and in Deerlodge county. The year 1870 witnessed his arrival in Walla Walla county, Washington, and here he embarked in the cattle business, in which he became extensively interested, his large herds roaming the plains on the Columbia, Palouse and Snake rivers. At the end of six years, cattle having gone so low in price that the business was not promising, he disposed of his cattle and for a period of twenty months gave his attention to mining in southern Utah. He then returned to Washington, locating in Columbia county, where he became engaged in farming and in the stock business, his undertakings in that connection being attended with prosperity that enabled him to add to his holdings from time to time until they now embrace twenty-four hundred acres of valuable wheat land. In the cultivation and development of this extensive tract he was actively engaged until 1917, when he put aside further business cares and is now living retired in the enjoyment of well earned rest. In the fall of 1894 he had established the family home in the city of Walla Walla and there it has been maintained to the present time. Realizing that the public domain will soon be gone Mr. Malloy went to Toole county, Montana, in 1917 and purchased in the northwest part of that state, east of the Rocky Mountains, twenty-seven hundred acres of land in one body, which he is now breaking and seeding and making other improvements with the intention of converting it into a farm.

[Illustration: WILLIAM S. MALLOY]

In 1874 Mr. Malloy was joined in wedlock to Miss Mary P. Lyons, a daughter of Dan Lyons, of Lyons Ferry. The seven children of this marriage were as follows: William Lee, Robert Ralph and Ernest Lyons, all of whom are deceased; Elizabeth, who is the wife of Oscar Drumheller, of Walla Walla; Minnie F., at home; Thomas D., an agriculturist residing in Columbia county; and Angeline M., at home. The wife and mother passed away in May, 1916, and her demise was the occasion of deep and widespread regret.

Mr. Malloy is a democrat in his political views but has never sought nor desired office as a reward for his party fealty and in fact has always refused official preferment. Fraternally he is identified with the Masons and with the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He has now passed the seventy-third milestone on life's journey and his career has ever been such that he can look back over the past without regret and forward to the future without fear. His memory compasses the period of pioneer development and later progress here, and he has ever borne his share in the work of upbuilding and improvement.

O. Z. SKINNER.

With the development of a district, town or city, real estate activity has much to do and one of the most important factors in substantial growth and progress is the real estate dealer who wisely directs purchases and sales and thus adds much to the beauty and development of the city in which he operates. A notable record of success is that of O. Z. Skinner, senior partner of the firm of O. Z. Skinner & Company, real estate and insurance agents in Walla Walla. He was born in Havana, Mason county, Illinois, December 12, 1853, a son of Orlando and Martha (Roeder) Skinner, who were natives of the state of New York and of Illinois respectively. They were married in the latter state, to which the father had removed in early manhood. He was a well known minister of the Universalist church and devoted his life to that cause. In 1910 he came to Walla Walla, where he lived retired, making his home with his son, O. Z. Skinner, up to the time of his demise, which occurred on the 8th of June, 1914. For a considerable period he had survived his wife, who died in February, 1897.

O. Z. Skinner was educated in the district schools of his native state and in the Jefferson Liberal Institute at Jefferson, Wisconsin. After completing his education he was for some years engaged in merchandising in Durand, Wisconsin, and still later turned his attention to the drug business, which he conducted in Fairmont, Minnesota, for a number of years. He was afterward for thirteen years identified with the lumber industry in northern Wisconsin, acquiring extensive farming lands there also, which during these years he operated in connection with the conduct of his lumber interests. The year 1898 witnessed the arrival of Mr. Skinner in the northwest. In that year he became a resident of Walla Walla and entered the manufacturing field, concentrating his efforts upon the manufacture of mattresses and furniture. He continued active along that line for five years and then turned his attention to the real estate and insurance business, with which he has since been prominently identified. He owns extensive timber land in Union county, Oregon, and in the summer of 1917 began cutting timber therefrom. He realizes what this state has to offer and has improved its natural resources, thereby advancing his individual interests while promoting general progress and prosperity.

On the 18th of September, 1881, Mr. Skinner was married to Miss Ella M. Young, of Dunn county, Wisconsin, who was a teacher in the public schools of that county for a number of years. To this marriage have been born three children, Arthur, Leslie C. and Ethel V.

Mr. Skinner gives his political endorsement to the republican party and is well informed on the questions and issues of the day. He stands for progress along political lines and does everything in his power to advance the success of the party, yet does not seek or desire office. He belongs to Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M., and is a faithful follower of its teachings. Those who know him in a business way speak of him as a dominant factor in the upbuilding of Walla Walla and as one who has made for himself a notable place especially in real estate circles.

ALFRED L. WICKERSHAM.

Alfred L. Wickersham, a leading farmer and stock raiser of Walla Walla township, Walla Walla county, holds title to two valuable ranches and is meeting with signal success in the management of his affairs. He was born in Walla Walla county, February 7, 1871, a son of John and Christina (Albertson) Wickersham, natives of Ohio, who removed to this county in 1862. For a number of years the father devoted his time and attention to freighting, as there were then no railroads in this entire section, hauling freight from Wallula to the mines at Umatilla Landing, Boise and many other points, also the fort at Boise, to Fort Lapwai and Fort Colville. At length he purchased eighty acres of land, including the site of the present race track at Walla Walla and followed farming during the remainder of his active life. He passed away September 19, 1906. The mother, however, is still living and makes her home with a son. Ten children were born to their union but only five survive.

[Illustration: JOHN WICKERSHAM AND FAMILY]

Alfred L. Wickersham grew to manhood in his native county and his education was that afforded by the public schools. By the time that he reached man's estate he was a good practical farmer, having received training in the cultivation of the soil and the care of stock from his father. He purchased the farm on Mill creek in Walla Walla township, where he still makes his home and which comprises three hundred and fifty-five acres. He also owns three hundred and twenty acres of fine pasture land and in addition to growing wheat and other crops suited to this section he raises stock on an extensive scale and has found that business likewise profitable.

Mr. Wickersham is a stanch democrat, his political belief coinciding in large measure with the principles of that party. Although he has never failed to do his part in furthering the progress of his community, he has not taken a prominent part in politics, having no desire to hold office. He is a man of unassuming disposition and of genuine worth and his energy, his sound judgment and his unquestioned integrity have gained for him the respect of his fellowmen.

JONATHAN PETTIJOHN.

Jonathan Pettijohn, who was an honored pioneer settler and valued citizen of Walla Walla county, was born in Ohio, January 13, 1827, but when still a boy emigrated with his parents to Edgar county, Illinois, where he remained until he was twenty-three years of age. He assisted his widowed mother in rearing the family of children, of whom he was the eldest. In the year 1850 the lure of gold attracted him to the west. He and three companions started for California on horseback, and as some of their horses died en route they walked much of the way. On reaching the Golden state, Mr. Pettijohn at once went to work in the mines, where he met with fair success, there remaining for two years. He then removed to Oregon, settling in Harrisburg, Linn county, where he was married to Miss Hannah Warner in the year 1853. They took up their abode on a claim and Mr. Pettijohn followed farming. In 1859 he came with his family to Walla Walla county, Washington, and settled on a claim in the beautiful Touchet valley. He spent the winter of 1859 and 1860 here and early in the spring went to the Willamette, after which he removed his family to this valley. Their home was situated a few miles below the present town site of Prescott. He erected a log cabin which still stands as a monument to the early days. He brought with him to this county a band of fine horses and some cattle and, like most of the early settlers, engaged in stock raising. Starting with one hundred and sixty acres of land, during the course of years he kept gradually acquiring more land until finally he owned about thirty-four hundred acres of valuable farming and pasture land, on which he had large herds of fine horses and cattle. Later in life, when the stock business began to wane on account of the disappearance of the free range, he plowed up his holdings and became a wheat farmer in earnest.

Mr. and Mrs. Pettijohn reared a large family of seven sons and two daughters, namely: Thomas, Amas, Eli and John H., all of whom were born in Oregon; and Huldah, A. L., Sherman, Calvin and Mary, who were natives of Washington. All are now living but two, Eli and Mrs. Huldah Richmond. Of those surviving all are married except the youngest son, and are fairly prosperous, enjoying the possessions bequeathed them by their frugal parents. All are still residents of Walla Walla county.

Mr. Pettijohn assisted three territories over the threshold into statehood by voting for the state constitutions of California, Oregon and Washington, and he was a delegate to the constitutional convention of Washington. In the way of public education he was indeed a benefactor. Public money for school purposes was often inadequate to meet the teacher's salary. He felt that the school must be maintained at any cost so he often paid most of the amount of the salary out of his own pocket. He believed in the employment of thoroughly efficient and competent teachers and some of the best teachers that the country afforded taught in that little country school near his home and received a salary equal to any. Another work in which Mr. Pettijohn deserves creditable mention was in connection with a scheme that was put forth to bond Walla Walla county for three hundred thousand dollars to subsidize a railroad company. Mr. Pettijohn with a number of others enjoined the county from making the appropriation, although many were in favor of the issue. There was a very wordy war between the two factions and every inducement was brought to bear upon Mr. Pettijohn, the leader, to change his course, but with characteristic determination he stood for what he conceived to be right and and won out. In after years many thanked him for the stand he had taken, as time has justified the wisdom and value of his position.

Mr. Pettijohn was of a very sturdy type of manhood and a splendid representative of the class of hardy pioneers, who helped to make this county what it is--a land of fine schools and beautiful homes. Along in the early '60s mines were discovered in Idaho, Montana and Oregon and supplies were necessary for the miners in the various camps. So the settlers fitted out pack trains or freight wagons and packed or hauled freight to all points where needed, the pay being sufficient to make it very profitable. Mr. Pettijohn chose the ox team and freight wagon for his and for a number of years spent much time on the road freighting. His wife remained at home caring for her family amid the dangers and hardships incident to pioneer life. She was a woman of rare courage, going calmly about her duties with hordes of half-savage Indians camped at her very door. On occasions they would creep up and peer in at the window as she sat at her work. She pretended not to notice them, knowing that if she showed fear or concern they would become insolent. Not one of these noble women but met with experiences that would make the bravest heart quail, yet they never complained, for it seemed a part of life's duties to endure without a murmur.

Mr. Pettijohn passed away in June, 1913, at a ripe old age, joining that large number who have left very thin the ranks of the real pioneers remaining. His memory, however, is enshrined in the hearts of many who knew him and long years will pass before his work in the community will be forgotten.

ELLERY J. NELSON.

Ellery J. Nelson is engaged in general farming on section 30, township 8 north, range 36 east, Walla Walla county, and it was upon this farm that he was born on the 22d of August, 1871, a son of Hiram and Sarah (McInroe) Nelson. He was educated in the Valley Grove district school and also in the Walla Walla Business College, thus becoming well equipped for life's practical and responsible duties. His youth was also largely devoted to farm work and he early became familiar with the best methods of tilling the soil and caring for the crops. After reaching young manhood he continued to assist his father in his extensive farming operations and was thus engaged until 1900, when he began farming on his own account. He is now operating a portion of his father's landed holdings and is ranked among the successful and progressive agriculturists of the county. He pursues the most thoroughly up-to-date methods in caring for his fields, and in the cultivation of his crops is meeting with excellent success, annually gathering substantial harvests.

On the 1st of July, 1915, Mr. Nelson was united in marriage to Miss Julia Kane, of St. Louis, Missouri, and to them were born two sons, Ellery J., Jr., deceased, and Joseph Vincent. In his political views Mr. Nelson has always been a republican since attaining his majority, and while he does not seek nor desire office he is always loyal to the best interests of the community and gives active aid and cooperation to many measures for the benefit of town and county. He concentrates his efforts and attention upon his farming interests, which are wisely and carefully directed, and as the years pass by he is meeting with a gratifying measure of success.

WILLIAM E. GROSS.

William E. Gross, a resident farmer of Walla Walla township who is engaged in dairying and stock raising, was born in Davis county, Iowa, on the 15th of February, 1858, his parents being B. H. and Julia A. (Rice) Gross, the former a native of Illinois, while the latter was born in Ohio. They resided for some time in Iowa and then determined to cross the plains, making the journey with ox teams. This was in the year 1862. They first settled in Nevada, where they resided for eight years, and then removed to northern California, where they remained for a decade. On the expiration of that period, or in the fall of 1880, they came to Walla Walla county, Washington, where they took up their abode upon a farm which continued to be their home until a few years before they were called to their final rest. They moved to Walla Walla, where they passed the last years of their lives. They had a family of nine children, of whom six are now living.

William E. Gross was largely reared and educated in Nevada and in California, his opportunities being those offered by the common schools. He studied through the winter months and in the summer seasons aided in the farm work. When his textbooks were put aside he concentrated his entire attention upon farming and became identified with the agricultural interests of Walla Walla county, where he owned nine hundred and sixty acres of valuable land. He afterward disposed of the more extensive tract and bought the farm upon which he now resides, comprising one hundred and sixty-seven acres. This he has since improved with fine buildings. He now makes a specialty of dairying and has an excellent herd of Holstein cattle. His dairy is well equipped in every particular and he has the most sanitary arrangements for the care of the milk and the handling of his products. He also engaged in raising Duroc Jersey hogs and his live stock interests as well as his dairying constitute important features of his business.

On the 11th of December, 1881, Mr. Gross was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Cusker, who was born in Walla Walla county and is a daughter of James and Clementine (Hayworth) Cusker, the former a native of Washington, D. C., while the latter was born in Indiana. The father made his way westward to Oregon when a youth of but thirteen years and later he became a resident of Walla Walla county. Over forty years ago he settled upon the farm now occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Gross and both he and his wife died upon this place. To Mr. and Mrs. Gross have been born six children: Elsie R., at home; Mabel A., the wife of E. Fluke, who has now departed this life; James B., at home; Orien W.; Myron W.; and Myrtle Irene.

Mr. Gross holds membership with the Ancient Order of United Workmen and is a member of the Christian church, guiding his life by its teachings and conforming his actions to its principles. He has been progressive in all that he has undertaken and in his business affairs has shown sound judgment and keen discrimination. He has never been afraid of hard work nor of close application and is numbered among those who, taking advantage of the great natural resources of the northwest, have won success, gaining a place among the most substantial citizens of this part of the state.

HON. CHESTER F. MILLER.

Hon. Chester F. Miller is judge of the superior court of the district which embraces Columbia, Garfield and Asotin counties of Washington. He resides in Dayton and is one of the honored and distinguished residents of the southeastern part of the state. He has lived in the same voting precinct for fifty-seven years and has thus been closely associated with the development and progress of his section of the state from pioneer times to the present. Nature endowed him with keen intellect and he has constantly developed his powers until he is recognized as the peer of the ablest jurists who have sat upon the bench of the superior court in the northwest. He was born in Linn county, Oregon, January 6, 1860, a son of George W. and Sarah E. (Ping) Miller, both of whom were natives of Indiana. The father was born in Crawfordsville, that state, on the 6th of April, 1830, and was a son of John Miller, a native of Tennessee, who in turn was a son of John Miller, a Revolutionary war soldier. George W. Miller crossed the plains with his parents to Oregon in 1851, the journey being made with ox teams and wagon. The family home was established on a donation claim in Linn county and George W. Miller also took up a claim near Albany, where the parents settled. He served in the Indian wars of 1855 and in 1860 he came to Washington, taking up a homestead where the city of Dayton now stands. Later he sold that property and removed to Garfield county. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Sarah E. Ping, crossed the plains with her parents in 1852, the Ping family settling in Linn county, Oregon.

[Illustration: CHESTER F. MILLER]

Judge Chester Franklin Miller was an infant of but six months when his parents arrived at what is now Dayton. He acquired his early education in the district school, being a pupil in the little old schoolhouse on the hill, and he attributes much of his later success in life to the thoroughness of his instruction at that period, his teacher being the Hon. Oliver C. White, who was then a country school teacher. Subsequently Judge Miller attended a private school in Dayton for two years and there prepared for college under the preceptorship of the Hon. J. E. Edmiston, who was at that time one of the instructors in the Dayton College. Mr. Edmiston and Judge Miller were afterward law partners, their association being maintained for nine years. In 1878 Judge Miller entered the Willamette University at Salem, Oregon, where he continued his studies for a year and still later became a student in the Oregon State University, from which he was graduated with honors in the class of 1882. Three years later his alma mater conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. Following his graduation he returned to Dayton and while acting as deputy clerk of the district court he read law under the direction of Colonel Wyatt A. George, the nestor of the Columbia county bar, who was known as "Old Equity" by his fellow practitioners.

In 1886 Judge Miller was admitted to the bar by Judge Langford on the recommendation of T. J. Anders, D. J. Crowley and R. F. Sturdevant, his examining committee, and soon afterward entered the office of M. A. Baker and commenced the practice of law. In 1889 he formed a law partnership with the Hon. J. E. Edmiston, which continued until the close of the year 1890, when Mr. Edmiston was elected prosecuting attorney. Judge Miller and his brother-in-law, Charles R. Dorr, then became partners and in 1892, upon the death of Mr. Dorr, Judge Miller again entered into partnership relations with Mr. Edmiston, with whom he continued to practice until the latter's death in 1900. No dreary novitiate awaited Judge Miller. Almost from the onset he was accorded a liberal practice which constantly grew in volume and importance as the years went on. He won for himself very favorable criticism for the careful and systematic methods which he followed. He has remarkable powers of concentration and application and his retentive mind has often excited the surprise of his professional colleagues. As an orator he ranks high, especially in the discussion of legal matters before the court, where his comprehensive knowledge of the law is manifest and his application of legal principles demonstrates the wide range of his professional acquirements. It was but natural that the ability which he displayed in his profession should win for him the recognition that demanded his service in public office. In 1893 he was elected mayor of Dayton and he served at different periods as city attorney and clerk of the city of Dayton. In 1900 he was elected to the office of superior judge and was reelected to that position in 1904 by a greatly increased majority. Reelection has since continued him upon the bench of the superior court, where he has displayed a masterful grasp of every problem presented for solution. Moreover, his decisions indicate strong mentality, careful analysis, a thorough knowledge of the law and an unbiased judgment.

On the 24th of May, 1888, Judge Miller was united in marriage to Miss Nettie Dorr, a daughter of Dr. J. C. and Ellen R. Dorr, who were among the earliest settlers of California, and in 1879 came to Columbia county, Washington. The father was a member of the California Legislature of 1864 and later became recognized as one of the prominent and distinguished citizens of this state. Judge and Mrs. Miller are the parents of six daughters, namely: Haidee, Sarah, Hilda, Conchita, Luneta and Alice.

There is an interesting military chapter in the life record of Judge Miller, who was captain of Company F of the First Washington Volunteer Infantry during the Spanish-American war, being mustered into the United States service with his company on the 11th of May, 1898. He sailed with his regiment for the Philippines in October of that year and there acquitted himself with credit until incapacitated by illness, when he was sent home and on the 12th of May, 1899, was honorably discharged from the service. Judge Miller is a past commander of Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P.; a past master of Dayton Lodge, No. 53, F. & A. M.; a past high priest of Dayton Chapter, No. 5, R. A. M.; a past grand of Patit Lodge, No. 10, I. O. O. F.; a past chief patriarch of Franklin Encampment, No. 13, I. O. O. F.; and past grand master of the grand lodge of Odd Fellows of the state of Washington. He also has membership with the Woodmen, the Workmen, the Eastern Star, the Rebekahs and the Rathbone Sisters. Such in brief is the record of Judge Miller, one of the oldest of the pioneer settlers of Columbia county who can claim to be a native son, one of the most progressive citizens and one of the most eminent jurists of southeastern Washington. His name is written high on the roll of honor in Columbia county and his seventeen years' service on the bench indicates that he possesses the broad-mindedness which not only comprehends the details of a situation quickly but also which insures a complete self-control under even the most exasperating conditions. He has made a splendid record in the discharge of his multitudinous, often delicate, duties and is spoken of by his colleagues and contemporaries as a man of well rounded character, finely balanced mind and of splendid intellectual attainments.

CLARK WALTER.

In this day of international warfare one is apt to think back over the history of the country to see what is the American record in times of strife. History presents many tales of heroism, showing that the American character is one that measures up to full standards of loyalty, of duty and of courage. Among those who fought for the preservation of the Union during the dark days of the Civil war was Clark Walter, who is now a retired farmer residing in Walla Walla.

Mr. Walter was born near South Bend, Indiana, on the 7th of April, 1841, a son of Lucius and Adaline (Fellows) Walter, the former a native of the state of New York, while the latter was probably born in Connecticut. They were married in the Empire state and became parents of two children there before they removed to Michigan about 1839 or 1840. The mother's people had preceded them to that state but after a brief period passed in Michigan, Mr. and Mrs. Walter went to Indiana, establishing their home near Notre Dame. At a later period, however, they returned to Michigan, where the death of the mother occurred in 1853. The father afterward married Miss Anna Dopp and continued to reside in Michigan until called to the home beyond.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. CLARK WALTER]

Clark Walter was reared in that state and pursued a common school education there. He was twenty years of age when in April, 1861, he responded to the country's call for troops, enlisting for three months as a member of the Second Michigan Infantry. It was soon seen, however, that the war was to be no mere holiday affair and he offered his services for three years, joining the army on the 30th of July, 1861, in response to the call for three years' men. He was mustered in as a member of Company A, Sixth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and at Baltimore, Maryland, was assigned to General Dixie's command. The army remained in Baltimore until February, 1862, when they were sent to Fort Monroe and afterward to Ship Island in the Gulf of Mexico for the attack on New Orleans. After General Farragut's capture of New Orleans they went on transports up the river to Vicksburg and later returned to Baton Rouge, Louisiana. On the 14th of October, 1862, Mr. Walter was honorably discharged from the service on account of disability. He had participated in a number of important engagements and at all times had proven his marked loyalty to the cause which he espoused.

After receiving an honorable discharge Mr. Walter returned to Michigan and in 1864 he crossed the plains to California, making the trip for the benefit of his health, which was still impaired because of the rigors of his military service. In the fall of 1865 he returned eastward as far as Minnesota, taking up his abode in Dakota county. He afterward removed to Sibley county, that state. He had married in Michigan in 1864, prior to crossing the plains, and with his family he continued his residence in Minnesota until 1877, when he once more crossed the plains, this time accompanied by his wife and three children. Arriving in Oregon, he settled near Athena in Umatilla county, where he purchased a quarter section of railroad land and began farming. He had used his homestead right in Minnesota, but the grasshopper scourge which continued for four years in that state caused him to lose all that he had, so that he came to Oregon with but very little money. He acquired two hundred and forty acres in his home place, on which he resided until 1898, when he removed to Walla Walla in order to give his children the advantages offered by the city schools. He has here since made his home and is one of the valued and respected residents.

On the 7th of March, 1864, Mr. Walter was united in marriage to Miss Hannah B. Kinsey, and they became the parents of eight children, six of whom still survive, namely: Mabel L., who is the wife of Dr. J. A. Moffitt, of Sacramento, California; Charles A., who follows farming in Walla Walla county; Edith, who is a Sister of St. Francis in the convent at Pendleton and is a painter and musician of ability, teaching both arts at the convent; John C., who operates a farm of his own and also his father's place in Umatilla county, Oregon; Francis H., who is a resident of Pierce county, Washington; and Gertrude, who is the wife of Elmer T. Matheny, of Walla Walla.

Mrs. Walter is descended from Revolutionary stock, her maternal great-grandfather having served for seven years in the war for independence. His sister, Deborah Sampson, also served as a common soldier in that war, being disguised as a man and known by the name of Robert Shurtliff. She carried a gun and participated in numerous battles, being twice wounded, once through the arm and later through the breast. She recovered and subsequently married. She was received by General Washington, who conferred honors upon her, and she was one of the few women given a life pension by our government. Mrs. Walter's grandfather Sampson was a soldier of the War of 1812.

In his political views Mr. Walter is a stalwart democrat, and while never an aspirant for public office, he has repeatedly been honored in local affairs. He was elected to the board of county commissioners of Sibley county, Minnesota. He served as justice of the peace, as town clerk and as assessor in Sibley county and after his removal to the west was appointed to fill a vacancy on the board of county commissioners of Umatilla county, Oregon, and was twice thereafter regularly elected thereto, serving for six years. He was a member of the board and one of the leading factors in the building of the new one hundred thousand dollar courthouse of Umatilla county. He served continuously as a member of the school board almost from the time of his arrival in Umatilla county until his removal to Walla Walla. Fraternally Mr. Walter is connected with Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M., with A. Lincoln Post, No. 4, G. A. R., and is most loyal to the teachings and purposes of these organizations. Through his connection with the latter he maintains pleasant associations with his old army comrades and proudly wears the little bronze button that proclaims him as one of the "boys in blue." There is in his life record nothing spectacular but his career is one that places him with the substantial citizens of the northwest--men who have consistently done their duty year by year and in the legitimate advancement of their own fortunes have contributed to the upbuilding and prosperity of the district in which they live.

CHARLES COYLE.

Charles Coyle is a partner in the firm of Coyle Brothers, well known dairy farmers of Walla Walla county. His home is on section 27, township 7 north, range 35 east. He was born in Oregon, September 14, 1865, and is a son of James Coyle, who is mentioned elsewhere in this work in connection with the sketch of Byrd Coyle. He came to Walla Walla county when but a year old, the parents removing with their family to this state. He has since lived upon the farm which he now occupies and which is therefore endeared to him through the associations of boyhood as well as those of later years. He acquired a common school education and when not busy with his textbooks his attention was given to the work of the fields, for he was early trained to the tasks of plowing, planting and harvesting. He remained at home until he attained his majority, since which time he and his brothers have carried on farming together and have long made a specialty of dairying. In this business they are very successful and for that purpose they keep a large herd of fine cattle. Everything about their dairy is in excellent condition. Their arrangements are of the most sanitary and the products of their dairy find a ready sale on the market.

In 1911 Mr. Coyle was married to Miss Lela Truitt, a native of Missouri, who in 1909 became a resident of Walla Walla, where her parents are still living. To Mr. and Mrs. Coyle have been born three children, Inez M., C. Bruce and Maxine. The parents are members of the Christian church and in politics Mr. Coyle is a democrat. He has served as school director and as school clerk in his district and is interested in all that tends to promote educational progress. In fact he stands for advancement and improvement along all lines and is acknowledged a man of worth, highly esteemed wherever known and most of all where he is best known.

CLYDE H. BROWN.

Farming interests of Walla Walla county find a worthy representative in Clyde H. Brown, who is living on section 4, township 9 north, range 36 east. He was born in Waitsburg, this county, on the 18th of June, 1877, a son of Albert N. and Justina (Kent) Brown. The father was a native of Iowa and the mother of Illinois, but they were married in Kansas, where they had lived for some years, each removing to that state with their parents. In 1876 they came to the Pacific coast, making their way westward by train to San Francisco and thence by boat to Portland. The following fall and winter were spent in the Willamette valley and in the spring of 1877 they came by wagon and team to Walla Walla county, Washington, taking up their abode upon a homestead claim two miles north of Waitsburg. The father proved up on this property and there resided for five years. He afterward removed to a small place one mile west of Waitsburg, upon which he also spent five years. At the expiration of that period he sold the property and purchased the Bolles Junction ranch of four hundred and twenty acres half way between Waitsburg and Prescott. Upon that place he lived for thirteen years and then disposed of the property and purchased the farm upon which his son Clyde H. now resides, adjoining the city limits of Prescott. Here he owned nine hundred acres of land which he continued to cultivate and improve up to the time of his death in January, 1911. His widow is still living and makes her home with her son Clyde.

A western man by birth, training and preference, Clyde H. Brown displays in his life the spirit of enterprise and progress which have ever been a dominant factor in the upbuilding of this section of the country. He was educated in the Bolles Junction school and in the Waitsburg public schools and was early trained to the work of the farm, assisting in the tasks of plowing, planting and harvesting from early boyhood. On account of his father's ill health the management of the farm devolved upon him when he was yet a young man and he has since continued in control, carefully and wisely directing the development and further improvement of the place. He has brought the fields under a high state of cultivation and upon the farm there are substantial buildings which indicate the care and supervision of the owner. He seems to lose sight of nothing that should be accomplished in the work of further developing his place and his labors have brought substantial results.

On the 15th of September, 1899, Mr. Brown was united in marriage to Miss Ethel Miller, of Bolles Junction, and to them have been born two sons and a daughter, Myrle, Duane and Iris.

In his political views Mr. Brown is a stalwart republican. He belongs to Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; Washington Commandery, K. T., of Walla Walla; and El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane. He also has membership with Prescott Lodge, No. 46, I. O. O. F., and he and his wife are members of Waitsburg Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star. Mrs. Brown is also connected with the Methodist Episcopal church. They are widely and favorably known in their part of Walla Walla county and have an extensive circle of warm friends who esteem them highly. Their social qualities, their loyalty in citizenship and their devotion to the best interests of the community insure for them an enviable position in the public regard.

ANDY TAYLOR.

Andy Taylor, one of the extensive wheat growers of Walla Walla county, within the borders of which he has resided for the past three decades, makes his home in the city of Walla Walla. For some years he engaged in the cultivation of seven hundred and ninety-seven acres of land nine miles north of Prescott and also operates a tract of two thousand acres under lease. His birth occurred in Greene county, Tennessee, on the 15th of July, 1857, his parents being William and Susan (Carey) Taylor, who were also natives of that state. In 1889, one year after the arrival of their son Andy, they made their way to the Pacific coast country and for a time resided in Oregon. Subsequently, however, they took up their abode in Walla Walla and here spent the remainder of their lives.

Andy Taylor spent the first nineteen years of his life in the state of his nativity and about 1876 removed to Petersburg, Illinois, where he was actively engaged in general agricultural pursuits for more than a decade. It was in 1887 that he came to Walla Walla county, Washington, and here he was employed as a ranch hand for a period of five years. At the end of that time, in 1893, he took up a homestead ten miles north of Walla Walla, residing thereon for five years or until he established the family home in the city of Walla Walla, where it has since been maintained. In the fall of 1917 he disposed of his tract north of Prescott. The prosperity which he now enjoys is indeed well merited, for he has ever manifested industry, enterprise and keen discrimination and in the management of his extensive interests has been notably practical, persistent and progressive.

[Illustration: ANDY TAYLOR]

[Illustration: MRS. ANDY TAYLOR]

In 1884 Mr. Taylor was united in marriage to Miss Mollie C. Ragsdill, of Menard county, Illinois, by whom he has two sons: Lowell Oakley, a successful agriculturist of Walla Walla county; and Brooks Andy, who engages in wheat growing with his father. Although a grandmother Mrs. Taylor is now a student at St. Paul's School, where she expects to complete the school work begun in her girlhood, having a great desire for a higher education than she could obtain at that time. This is very unusual for a woman past fifty years of age but shows her strength of character and perseverance. Mr. Taylor gives his political allegiance to the republican party, which he has supported since age conferred upon him the right of franchise. Fraternally he is identified with the following organizations: Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; Enterprise Lodge, No. 2, I. O. O. F.; Walla Walla Encampment, No. 3, I. O. O. F.; and Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E. Mr. Taylor and his two sons are all thirty-second degree Masons as well as members of the Odd Fellows lodge and encampment, while his wife and sons are identified with the Order of the Eastern Star, and Mrs. Taylor is a member of the Daughters of Rebekahs. Mr. Taylor is also a member of the Farmers Union and is widely and favorably known in Walla Walla county, where he has won friends and fortune.

ALBERT R. MATTOON.

Albert R. Mattoon is a representative farmer of Walla Walla county who deserves mention among the self-made men. He had no assistance when he started out in the business world but early realized that energy and effort will bring substantial results and by reason of his unfaltering diligence he has gained a place among the leading farmers of his section of the county. He was born in Oregon, July 12, 1853, and is the only child of Aruna and Eliza A. (Trullinger) Mattoon. The father was a native of the state of New York, while the mother was born in Indiana. It was in 1847 that they crossed the plains, making the journey with ox teams and taking up their abode near Oregon City, Oregon. Mr. Mattoon secured a donation claim, upon which not a furrow had been turned nor an improvement made, and there he built a log cabin. The family lived in true pioneer style, for the work of progress and development had scarcely been begun in that region. The Indians far outnumbered the white settlers; the forests stood in their primeval strength; the streams were unbridged and the land uncultivated. Only here and there had some venturesome spirit penetrated into the wildernesses of the west in order to found a home and engage in business. Mr. Mattoon began the development of his farm and continued his residence in Oregon until his demise, but his widow afterward removed to Washington and spent her last days in Walla Walla county.

Albert R. Mattoon was reared and educated in Oregon and remained a resident of that state until 1878, when, at the age of twenty-five years he came to Washington and has since made his home in Walla Walla county save for a brief period. After taking up his abode in the city of Walla Walla he was there engaged in the implement business for fifteen years, ranking with its leading and representative merchants. He then sold his store and returned to Oregon, going first to Riddle, where he engaged in merchandising for seven years. He then disposed of his store at that place and removed to Portland, where he engaged in the real estate business until 1913, when he returned to Walla Walla. He then took up his abode upon the farm on which he now resides, having sixty acres of land on which is raised corn, hay, wheat and garden produce. At the present time, however, he rents most of his land and is now practically living retired.

On the 7th of November, 1880, Mr. Mattoon was married to Mrs. Nancy Jane Knight, a native of Missouri, and to them have been born two sons: Arthur R., who is now living in Portland, Oregon; and Fred V., who is successfully engaged in the hotel business at Wenatchee, Washington. By her first marriage Mrs. Mattoon has one son, P. B. Knight, who resides in Walla Walla. She is a daughter of William Bartlett and Mary (Weaver) Braden, natives of Kentucky and North Carolina respectively. They were married, however, in Tennessee, and from that state removed to Illinois about 1838. Ten years later they went to Missouri, where Mr. Braden died in 1866. In 1870 Mrs. Braden came with her daughter to Walla Walla county, Washington; and here she passed away at the home of Mrs. Mattoon in 1887. She was the mother of twelve children, but only three now survive. In 1873 her daughter, Nancy Jane, became the wife of William C. Knight, who died about a year later.

In his political views Mr. Mattoon has always been a stalwart republican since age conferred upon him the right of franchise and he represented Douglas county, Oregon, for two years in the state legislature, during which period he was instrumental by his vote in electing John H. Mitchell to the office of United States senator. For some years he served on the school board and the cause of education has ever found in him a stalwart supporter. He also belongs to the Odd Fellows lodge at Roseburg, Oregon, and his life is an exemplification of its teachings concerning the brotherhood of man and the obligations thereby imposed. In all of his business career he has shown ready adaptability and resourcefulness, combined with energy and enterprise, and whatever he has undertaken he has carried forward to successful completion. The record which he has made is a very creditable one and his life history shows that success and an honored name may be won simultaneously.

HORACE G. HART.

Horace G. Hart is spoken of by friends and neighbors as a man of high purpose that has found expression in his daily conduct. He is now engaged in general farming on section 3, township 9 north, range 36 east, in Walla Walla county. He was born in Macon county, Missouri, on the 7th of September, 1858, a son of Horace and Margaret E. (Mercer) Hart. The father was a native of Connecticut and the mother of Kentucky. The former first crossed the plains in 1846, making his way to Spalding's mission at Lapwai, Idaho, Mr. Spalding's first wife having been his sister. In the fall of 1848, when gold was first discovered in California, he went to that state and subsequently he crossed the continent four times, twice by way of the Isthmus route and once around the Horn. He was married on the 22d of November, 1855, and in 1864 he brought his family across the plains, making his way to the Touchet valley, where he established his home about twenty miles north of Walla Walla. There he became actively identified with farming and stock raising and acquired two hundred and forty acres of land, upon which he spent his remaining days, passing away September 1, 1892, when in his eightieth year. His experiences were broad and varied, acquainting him with all phases of mining life and with all phases of pioneer life in the far west. On the 29th of May, 1893, his wife passed away when sixty-nine years of age.

Horace G. Hart was reared under the parental roof upon the western frontier, having been but six years of age when the family came to Washington. His education was acquired in the district schools and as early as his eighteenth year he began farming on his own account, operating his father's farm, which he continued to manage until after his father's death. In the meantime, on attaining his majority, he filed on a homestead adjoining his father's place and continued its cultivation in connection with the further development of the old homestead. Following his father's demise he came into possession of the farm on which he still resides, but has sold much of the land, retaining one hundred acres as a home. His career has been that of a very busy man. He has closely applied himself to the care and management of his property interests and he has long ranked with the leading and representative agriculturists of his section of the state.

On the 28th of March, 1881, Mr. Hart was united in marriage to Miss Ollie L. McKinzie, of Walla Walla, a daughter of Isaac McKinzie, one of the early settlers of the county. To this union have been born ten children: Myrtle A., the wife of Daniel Callahan, a farmer of this county; Carl E., of Waitsburg, Washington; Ralph H., a farmer of Walla Walla county; Lulu P., the wife of Arthur Coe, a farmer residing at Milton, Oregon; Mabel, the wife of Herbert E. Carr, of Prescott; Dorsey, a resident of Detroit, Michigan; and Mary, Lester, Loverne and Horace, Jr., all at home.

Since attaining his majority Mr. Hart has given stalwart allegiance to the republican party but has never been an aspirant for public office. He, however, allowed his name to be used on the prohibition ticket for the office of county commissioner. He has always been a staunch advocate of temperance and does everything in his power to advance the cause. He belongs to Prescott Lodge, No. 46, I. O. O. F., and to the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He and his wife are members of the Federated church at Prescott and his aid can always be counted upon to further any movement that tends to uplift the individual or advance the best interests of the community. His standards of life are high and those who know him have come to recognize the fact that his word is as good as his bond.

ALEXANDER PRICE.

Alexander Price was a most prominent and progressive farmer of Columbia county for many years and in his death the community lost one of its valued citizens. He was born in Missouri, November 3, 1847, a son of Joseph S. and Sarah (Williams) Price, the former a native of Kentucky, while the latter was born in Indiana.

Alexander Price was reared and educated in Missouri and was a youth of seventeen years when he crossed the plains, traveling with ox team and wagon after the primitive methods of the period. There were no railroads across the country at that time and with the slow-plodding oxen only a few miles could be covered every day. Thus the trip lengthened out over weeks and months but eventually they reached their destination and Mr. Price became a resident of Yamhill county, Oregon. There he secured employment as a farm hand, remaining in that state until the fall of 1870, when he came to Walla Walla county and took up a homestead nine miles southwest of Dayton. Upon that farm he lived for seven years and his labors wrought a marked transformation in the appearance of the place. His widow still owns that property, which has now become very valuable.

In 1873 Mr. Price was united in marriage to Miss Clarinda J. Anderson, a native of Missouri and a daughter of Thomas and Mary (Power) Anderson, who were natives of Indiana. They removed from that state to Missouri, where the father died in the year 1850. The mother afterward crossed the plains with her family in 1865, spending her last days in Washington. To Mr. and Mrs. Price were born seven children: George F.; Martha, at home; Celestia, the wife of James J. Edwards; Susan M.; Alice L., who has passed away; Homer E.; and Joseph W.

The death of the husband and father occurred in 1906 and he was laid to rest in Dayton cemetery, leaving a widow and six children to mourn his loss. He had been devoted to their welfare and by reason of his capable business management and wise investments, combined with indefatigable energy and industry, he was able to leave his family in very comfortable financial circumstances. Mrs. Price and her children now own more than five thousand acres of valuable wheat land in Columbia county, all of which is improved, and she also has an attractive residence in the city of Dayton, where she is able to enjoy all the comforts and many of the luxuries of life. She belongs to the Congregational church and takes an active interest in its work. In fact, she is ever ready to endorse those plans and measures which tend to uplift the individual or uphold the betterment of the community at large. For many years the Price family has lived in this section of the state, coming here long before Washington was admitted to the Union, and they are prominent not only as pioneers but in those social circles where true worth and intelligence are accepted as the passports into good society.

HON. WILLIAM FARRISH.

In the front ranks of the columns which have advanced the civilization of Washington, Hon. William Farrish has led the way to the substantial development, progress and upbuilding of Asotin county, being particularly active in the growth and progress of the district in which he still makes his home. His memory goes back to the time when the entire Pacific coast was but sparsely settled, when much of the land had not been reclaimed for purposes of civilization but remained in the primitive condition in which it came from the hand of nature. He has lived in the same house in three different counties owing to the division of the old county necessitating change of name and installation of new county governments. He has seen the forests cut, the streams bridged and the work of development carried forward and at all times has borne his part in the general advancement and improvement which has brought Asotin county to its present condition. He was born in Richibucto, province of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, August 9, 1835, a son of William and Catherine (Smith) Farrish, who were natives of Scotland. The father was a lumberman and thus provided for his family.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. WILLIAM FARRISH]

Hon. William Farrish was the second in order of birth in a family of three sons and three daughters, of whom only three are now living. He acquired his early education in the paid schools of New Brunswick, which he attended for about three years. He left home in 1853, when eighteen years of age, and made his way to Wisconsin, settling in Grand Rapids, that state, after which he worked in the lumber camps, cutting logs and sawing lumber, which was then rafted down the Mississippi and sold. Part of the time he worked for others and during a part of the time engaged in business there on his own account. He continued a resident of Wisconsin until 1878, when he removed to the west, traveling by rail to San Francisco and thence by boat up the coast and up the Columbia river until he took up his abode in Columbia county, Washington, establishing his home in that section which is now Asotin county. He made his way by stage from Walla Walla to Dayton and on to Pomeroy and to Columbia Center, where his wife's people lived. From that point he came to Asotin, where he embarked in the lumber business in connection with his father-in-law, T. G. Bean. They were thus associated in business for twenty years, on the expiration of which period Mr. Farrish purchased his partner's interest and conducted the business alone. He came to Washington territory in the spring of 1878, when there were a number of Indian uprisings occurring in various sections. There were only about twenty families living in the Anatone country at that time and there was great fear among them because of the possibility of an outbreak of Indian hostility at any time. Some of the men began to build a stockade in the hills and Mr. Farrish sent two of his men to help them cut logs and build the stockade, into which all of the families were taken. The Indians, however, did not attack them although the people were expecting an attack daily. The association which existed between Mr. Bean and Mr. Farrish was ever most harmonious and their business affairs were carefully, wisely and successfully conducted. They would haul the lumber from the mountains by team and then raft the lumber down the Snake river. They furnished the lumber for the famous Truax interests, used for the building of the big warehouses, and also the lumber for the Columbia county plank road. They had a lumberyard at Ilia, in Columbia county, now Garfield, as well as at Asotin, and sold lumber throughout old Walla Walla county. They sold the lumber for the old grist mill at Almota, the frame of which is still standing although it was erected in 1878. After coming to Washington, Mr. Farrish lived in the timber for about five years. Later he removed his home on the ranch, where he remained for about fifteen years, when his residence was destroyed by fire. He then took up his abode in the town, where he had another home that had been erected several years before. He has always been actively identified with the lumber interests during the period of his residence in Washington and has done much to develop the lumber resources of this section of the country and has thus added materially to the wealth, development and progress of the state. He owns a ranch of eight hundred acres, half of which is under cultivation and is now being managed by his son, Harry H.

Mr. Farrish was united in marriage to Miss Content V. Bean, who was born April 14, 1847, in Union county, Wisconsin, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. T. G. Bean, who were pioneers of Washington. On removing westward from Wisconsin they settled for a time on the Walla Walla river, where the father conducted a shingle mill. The marriage of Mr, and Mrs. Farrish was celebrated in Plover, Wisconsin, on the 31st of March, 1869, and to them were born seven children: William Thomas, born in Port Edwards, Wisconsin, February 14, 1870, and now a resident of Walla Walla, married Georgia Bradley and to them were born four children. Frank A., born in Port Edwards, Wisconsin, December 16, 1873, is now a resident of Anatone and operates the sawmill there. He married Nellie Smelcer and to them were born three children who are living and one who died in infancy. Harry H., born in Port Edwards, Wisconsin, April 16, 1876, and now ably conducting the home ranch, married Carrie Evans and they have two children: Gervais, who died in infancy; and Colin. The younger children of this family were all born in the same house although in different counties, owing to the various divisions which were made in the counties at that period. Arthur, who was born in Columbia county July 7, 1878, is now conducting his father's interests in the lumber business and lives at home. Grace was born in Columbia county June 25, 1880, and is the wife of George N. Ausman, a prominent rancher of Asotin county and a son of one of the early and honored pioneer settlers mentioned elsewhere in this work. They have six children. Robert Bruce was born July 14, 1883, and now occupies a homestead ten miles from the town of Asotin, in Asotin county. He married Maud Trent and they have become the parents of two daughters. Edith, born August 8, 1886, in Asotin county, is the wife of E. R. Downen, who served two terms as county treasurer and is now county assessor, and they have two sons. The wife and mother passed away in Asotin, November 14, 1906, and her death was the occasion of deep and widespread regret, for she had endeared herself to many with whom she had been brought into contact. She was a consistent member of the Methodist church, to which Mr. Farrish also belongs.

In politics he is a staunch republican and represented his district in the state legislature in the first, second and third sessions after Washington was admitted to the Union. He was made a Mason in Grand Rapids, Wisconsin, in 1852 and holds membership in the Royal Arch Chapter in Lewiston. He is the only living charter member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Anatone.

FREDERICK J. FLEISCHER.

Frederick J. Fleischer occupies a central place on the stage of business and political activity in Prescott. Important public and private interests have been controlled by him to the benefit of the public and he well deserves the position of leadership which is accorded him. He is vice president and the cashier of the First State Bank of Prescott and is now serving as mayor of the city. He was born in Madison, Wisconsin, on the 16th of May, 1871, and is a son of John A. and Elizabeth (Miller) Fleischer. His paternal grandfather, Knute J. Fleischer, was of German descent on his father's side, although of Norwegian birth, and he came to the United States as Norwegian consul.

John A. Fleischer, father of Frederick J. Fleischer, was born in 1846 and was but five years of age when brought by his parents to the new world, so that he was reared in Madison, Wisconsin, where the family home was established. He was a youth of seventeen when, in response to the call of the country for troops to service in the Civil war, he enlisted in a Wisconsin regiment and through the following two years rose to the rank of second lieutenant. The war having ended, he was then honorably discharged and returned to Madison, Wisconsin, where he was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Miller, a native of that city, the wedding being there celebrated in 1868. They began their domestic life in Madison, where they continued to reside until 1872, and then removed to Pelican Rapids, in Otter Tail county, Minnesota, where the father secured a homestead and engaged in farming for thirty-four years, being thus ranked for more than a third of a century with the representative and honored residents of that part of that state. In 1906 he came west and settled first in Lewiston, Idaho, where he remained for five years, and after a year or more spent in Seattle and in Portland he came to Prescott, Washington, where he has since resided. He is now living retired, enjoying the fruits of his former toil, for his years of indefatigable industry and perseverance have brought to him a substantial competence that enables him to rest from further labor.

Frederick J. Fleischer, whose name introduces this review, was reared upon the home farm in Ottertail county, Minnesota, with the usual experiences of the farmbred boy. He supplemented his public school training by a business course received in Dixon, Illinois, and until his twenty-seventh year remained upon the home farm, assisting his father in its cultivation through the summer months, while in the winter seasons he engaged in teaching. In 1898 he accepted a position as bookkeeper in the J. P. Wallace State Bank of Pelican Rapids and three years later he became one of the stockholders in the bank and was made a member of its board of directors. He was also elected cashier of the bank, in which position he continued to serve until 1906, when he sold his interest in that institution and came to the west with his father, making his way to Lewiston, Idaho. On the 1st of January, 1907, he went to Moscow, Idaho, to accept the cashiership of the Moscow State Bank. During the following year the bank changed hands and in January, 1908, Mr. Fleischer went to Spokane, Washington, where he resided until the 1st of August of that year, when he came to Prescott. On the 1st of January following he purchased stock in the First State Bank and assumed the cashiership. This bank had passed through some severe financial reverses and the task of rebuilding it devolved upon Mr. Fleischer. How well this task has been performed is told in the present condition of the bank's affairs. When he took charge the deposits amounted to about thirty thousand dollars. Today and for several years past the deposits have averaged about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars and the affairs of the bank are in splendid condition in every way. Mr. Fleischer brought to his work long experience, keen sagacity and notably sound discrimination and his close application and careful management have brought most satisfactory results.

On the 26th of June, 1901, Mr. Fleischer was united in marriage to Miss Charlotte G. Hicks, of Milnor, North Dakota, and to them have been four children, of whom three are living, Ernestine Lois, Frederick J. and Hugh Warren.

Mr. Fleischer is a republican but not a narrow partisan. On the contrary he is a man of broad and liberal views, but is unfaltering in his allegiance to a principle in which he firmly believes. He has served as a delegate to the republican state conventions of Minnesota on two different occasions and he was city treasurer of Pelican Rapids for a number of years. Since coming to Prescott he has also been called upon to fill positions of public honor and trust by his fellow citizens, who recognized his splendid ability as a business man and desired that the city might benefit by that ability. He was made a member of the city council, in which he served for a number of years, and for two years he has been mayor of Prescott. His administration is businesslike and progressive. It has resulted in bringing about various improvements and while he avoids all useless expenditure he also equally avoids that retrenchment which blocks public progress. In a word his sound judgment discriminates between the essential and the non-essential in regard to municipal affairs just as surely as it does in relation to the interests of the bank, which has grown so steadily under his direction.

Mr. Fleischer is well known in Masonic circles, holding membership in Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; and Washington Commandery, No. 1, K. T. He is also identified with El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane, and he belongs to Whetstone Lodge, No. 157, K. P., of Prescott, in which latter he has held all the chairs. He and his wife are members of the Order of the Eastern Star at Waitsburg and both are actively identified with the Federated church of Prescott, taking an active and helpful interest in all that pertains to the improvement and upbuilding of their city along material, intellectual, social and moral lines. Without invidious distinction Mr. Fleischer may well be termed one of the foremost men of Prescott, loyal to every interest of general benefit, while his course in private affairs marks him as a man of high honor.

JOSEPHUS M. MOORE.

Josephus M. Moore came to Walla Walla county in 1870 and during the many years of his residence here became widely and favorably known. He was born in Rock Island, Illinois, September 17, 1838, a son of Amos L. and Mary Moore, both of whom were natives of Ohio, whence they removed to Illinois when the Prairie state was still but thinly settled. Still later they removed to a new frontier, coming to Walla Walla county, Washington in 1868, and here both passed away. To them were born five children.

Josephus M. Moore received his education in the public schools of Illinois and remained with his parents during his boyhood and youth. He continued to reside in the middle west until 1870, when he decided to try his fortune in the Pacific coast country, concerning which he had heard excellent reports. He arrived in Old Walla Walla county, Washington, in July, 1870, and turned his attention to farming in what is now Garfield county. This occupation claimed his time and energies throughout his remaining days. He was energetic and resolute and overcame all obstacles that lay between him and success, gaining a substantial competence.

Mr. Moore was married in Ohio to Miss Louisa Prescott, by whom he had one daughter, Mary, now the wife of Walter Preston, of Portland, Oregon. On coming to Washington Mr. Moore was accompanied by his wife and daughter, and Mrs. Moore died here some years later. In 1894 Mr. Moore was again married, his second union being with Miss Eva Abbott, a native of Ohio. Her parents, S. J. and Chloe (Russell) Abbott, were born respectively in Vermont and Ohio, but in 1862 made the long journey across the great plains to California, where they remained until 1880. In that year they came to Walla Walla county, Washington, and both are still living here, the father at the age of eighty-three years and the mother at the age of eighty. Both are still keen of mind and active of body and they are one of the most highly esteemed couples in the county. Four of the seven children born to them survive. To Mr. and Mrs. Moore was born a son, Amos A., who was graduated from the military academy at Staunton, Virginia; later was a student in the State University of Washington, at Seattle, and is now a student at Walla Walla Business College.

[Illustration: JOSEPHUS M. MOORE]

[Illustration: MRS. JOSEPHUS M. MOORE]

Mr. Moore was a stanch advocate of republican principles and served with much satisfaction to his constituents in a number of local offices. The principles of conduct which guided his life were found in the teachings of the Masonic order, to which he belonged. His death occurred September 24, 1901, and he was buried in Mountain View cemetery. He was a man of many admirable traits and those who knew him well still cherish his memory. Mrs. Moore makes her home in the city of Walla Walla, where she owns a fine residence situated on five acres of ground.

ROBERT O. SANDERS.

Robert O. Sanders is living retired in Waitsburg, although for a long period he was actively identified with farming interests in Walla Walla County, and his capable management of his business affairs brought to him the measure of success which he is now enjoying. He was born in Jefferson county, Illinois, October 8, 1852, and is a son of Jacob and Mary (Breeze) Sanders. The father was a native of Indiana, while the mother's birth occurred in Illinois, where for many years they resided and where both passed away. In their family were seven children, four of whom are yet living.

Robert O. Sanders spent the period of his boyhood and youth upon the home farm in Illinois with the usual experiences that fall to the lot of the lad who divides his time between the duties of the schoolroom, the pleasures of the playground and the work of the fields. When he was sixteen years of age his father died and he continued to assist his mother until he attained his majority, when he began farming on his own account. In 1888 he removed to Walla Walla, since which time he has resided in the northwest, his connection with this section of the country now covering a period of almost thirty years. He began farming here and first rented land and while thus engaged he carefully saved his earnings until his industry and economy had brought him sufficient capital to enable him to purchase a farm. That he has prospered as the years have gone by is indicated in the fact that he now owns three hundred and twenty acres which he has greatly improved. It is wheat land and is cultivated according to the most progressive and scientific methods of crop production. His work has always been carefully performed and his industry and diligence have brought substantial results. He continued personally to cultivate his place until 1902, when he retired from active farm life and removed to Waitsburg, where he is now living.

On January 29, 1874, Mr. Sanders was married to Miss Eva Harned, a native of Indiana, and they became the parents of seven children: Addie, the wife of O. W. Abbey; Maud, who married J. W. Cram; Samuel C., living in Oregon; Alva H., who occupies his father's farm; and three who died in infancy.

Fraternally Mr. Sanders is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to Touchet Lodge, No. 5, while both he and his wife are connected with the Rebekahs. In politics he is a republican, having always been a firm believer in the principles of the party. He has served as school director for ten years and it is his earnest desire that excellent educational advantages shall be given to the youth of this section of the state. He and his wife are consistent members of the Christian church and have guided their lives according to its teachings. They are influenced by high principles of conduct and their genuine worth has commended them to the friendship and regard of all with whom they have been associated. The record of Mr. Sanders should serve to inspire and encourage others, showing what may be accomplished when one has the will to dare and to do, for he started out in life empty-handed and whatever success he has achieved or enjoyed has been won through his persistency of purpose, his unremitting diligence and his business integrity.

EMERY FLATHERS.

Emery Flathers, who followed farming on section 31, township 10 north, range 36 east, is a representative of one of the old pioneer families of Walla Walla county. From an early period in the development in this section of the state the family has taken an active part in the work of general progress and improvement and is particularly well and favorably known in connection with the agricultural development of this section. Emery Flathers was born on the old homestead farm adjoining the town of Prescott, March 27, 1872, a son of Benjamin F. and Melinda S. (McQuown) Flathers. The father was a native of Louisville, Kentucky, while the mother was a native of Virginia.

Upon the old homestead Emery Flathers was reared and in the schools of Prescott he pursued his education. In 1905 he entered into partnership with his brothers, John and Charles, and for five years they were associated in farming operations. In 1910, however, Emery Flathers withdrew from the firm and since that time has rented his land and lived retired. He owns two hundred acres, constituting a valuable property, and his rental returns to him a very gratifying income.

On December 23, 1908, Mr. Flathers was married to Miss Rae E. Dunlap, a daughter of John K. Dunlap, who has passed away. Mr. and Mrs. Flathers became the parents of two children, a son and a daughter, Howard and Frances. Mrs. Flathers departed this life July 17, 1915, and her death was deeply regretted not only by her immediate family but by many friends.

Mr. Flathers is independent in politics, voting for the men and measures he considers of the best interest of all the people. He keeps well informed on the questions and issues of the day but neither seeks nor desires office. He is a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16. A. F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M., of Walla Walla and Washington Commandery, K. T., also of Walla Walla. He has likewise crossed the sands of the desert with the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, being a member of El Katif Temple of Spokane. He is a substantial citizen, widely and favorably known by reason of his business ability, his loyalty in citizenship and his personal worth. For forty-five years he has been a resident of Walla Walla county, witnessing its growth and development. He has lived to see its pioneer cabins replaced by commodious and substantial residences, its wild lands converted into productive fields, its hamlets developed into thriving cities, and as the years have gone by he has ever willingly cooperated in any plan or movement for the general good.

ALFRED J. BOLTER.

Alfred J. Bolter is a retired farmer living in Dixie. For a long period he was actively and prominently connected with agricultural interests and acquired several hundred acres of valuable land, from which he derived a very gratifying annual income as a result of the care and labor which he bestowed upon the fields. Moreover, his life record shows what may be accomplished by determined effort and perseverance, for he started out empty-handed and is now the possessor of a very substantial competence which enables him to rest from further labor. He was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, in September, 1853, a son of Ziba and Christina Bolter, the former a native of Massachusetts, while the latter was born in the state of New York. They spent their entire lives in the east and there they reared their family of ten children, nine of whom are yet living.

Alfred J. Bolter passed the days of his boyhood and youth in Massachusetts and is indebted to the public school system of that state for the educational opportunities which he enjoyed. In 1875, when a young man of twenty-two years, he came to the west and first settled in Dallas, Oregon, where he remained for three years. In 1878 he removed to Walla Walla county and took up a homestead sixteen miles north of the city of Walla Walla. With characteristic energy he began its development and improvement and occupied that place for ten years, during which time his labors wrought a marked transformation in its appearance. He then disposed of that property and invested in two hundred and eighty acres near Dixie. From time to time he extended the boundaries of his farm until it now comprises seven hundred acres, all of which is improved land and returns to him a most substantial annual income. He continued actively to develop his fields until 1902, when he retired, and since that time he has rented his land, while he is enjoying a well earned rest.

Mr. Bolter was married in 1876 to Miss Elsie A. Crystal, a native of Iowa, and they have become the parents of three children: Madie, the wife of S. M. Jones, now a resident of Spokane; Maud, who is the widow of Burt Roff; and Homer, who is engaged in merchandising in California.

Mr. Bolter belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and has filled all of the chairs in Welcome Lodge, No. 117, in which he has membership. He has also been called to all of the different offices in the Knights of Pythias lodge and is true and loyal to the teaching of these societies. He and his wife are members of the Christian church and endeavor to follow closely the Golden Rule. Their lives have been well spent, fraught with good deeds and actuated by kindly purposes. Many good things are spoken of them by friends and neighbors, who have enjoyed their companionship and who recognize their sterling worth in all the relations of life.

HON. JAMES EWEN EDMISTON.

High on the roll of Washington's distinguished citizens appears the name of Hon. James Ewen Edmiston, deceased, who was for many years a resident of Dayton. His ideals of life were very high and in early manhood he displayed conspicuously the traits of character that made his career brilliantly successful. He performed all the duties that devolved upon him, however humble and however small the recompense might be, conscientiously and industriously. He gave proof of his ability to cope with intricate problems of the law and his natural industry prompted him to prepare his cases with great thoroughness and care, so that he ever entered the courts well equipped to combat any attack or position of the opposing counsel. He lives in the memory of his friends enshrined in the halo of a gracious presence and of pronounced power in the legal profession.

Mr. Edmiston was born in Washington county, Arkansas, March 29, 1849, a son of Alexander E. Edmiston, who was a native of Virginia and removed to Arkansas early in the nineteenth century. He was a veteran of the Mexican war, serving as a lieutenant in his company under Colonel Yall. A forceful man of unquestioned integrity, he won a substantial financial success and left a valuable estate to his widow and four children, of whom James E. Edmiston was the eldest. A few years prior to his death, becoming convinced that the principle of slavery was wrong, he liberated all of his bondsmen. During the Civil war the vicinity of his home was the scene of great atrocities by both northern and southern renegades. He died in the year 1858.

James E. Edmiston, when a lad of fourteen years, enlisted in 1863 in the Confederate army, in which he had five uncles fighting for the cause. After the close of hostilities he returned to his home in Arkansas and remained long enough to assist in putting the plantation again into shape. He then went to Bentonville, Arkansas, where he attended the Bentonville College for two years, and while a student there he also taught school. In 1870 he went to Omaha, Nebraska, whence he made his way to the Pacific coast. He taught school for a time in Oregon and also pursued a course in the Corvallis College, from which he received his degree in 1873.

[Illustration: JAMES E. EDMISTON]

On the 13th of March of the same year Mr. Edmiston was united in marriage to Miss Helen E. Lacey, a native of Clackamas county, Oregon, and a daughter of Lewis A. Lacey, who was of French-Huguenot stock, his ancestors having fled to the new world because of religious persecution early in the seventeenth century. The paternal grandfather of Mrs. Edmiston was an officer under Washington and Lafayette in the Revolutionary war and he lost two of his fingers in the battle of Bunker Hill. His son, Lewis A. Lacey, came to the northwest in 1852, making his way to Oregon accompanied by his wife, Leonora (Herring) Lacey, who was a native of Swansea, Wales, their marriage ceremony having been performed at Mount Morris, New York. The services were completed about fifteen minutes before they started on their westward journey to Indiana and from there they traveled with ox team and wagon to Oregon. Mr. Lacey's brother, his brother's wife and child died of mountain fever while en route and many other members of the party were buried by the side of the trail. They suffered on account of hostile Indians and the journey was a most hazardous and difficult one. On reaching the Willamette valley Mr. Lacey took up a donation claim and gave his attention to farming and stock raising, spending his remaining days upon the old homestead at Springwater in Clackamas county, where he passed away in 1899, at the notable old age of ninety-four years. His widow died on the 1st of March, 1900, at the age of seventy-one years.

Soon after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Edmiston removed to Colfax, Washington, where for three years he was engaged in teaching school. In 1876 he took up his abode in Dayton, where for some years following he devoted his attention to teaching and then engaged in selling farm machinery. He also operated a large sawmill and was identified with various other business interests which have contributed to the material development and progress of this section of the state. Mr. Edmiston had been educated with a view to entering the ministry but subsequently turned his attention to law and pursued his reading under the preceptorship of John Y. Ostrander. In 1885 he was admitted to the bar and entered upon the practice of his profession, becoming one of the prominent lawyers of Columbia county. He then continued in active practice until a short time prior to his death, which occurred on the 8th of May, 1900. In his law practice he was long associated with Judge C. F. Miller and their friendship relations were very close. Their practice was extensive and of an important character. Mr. Edmiston was remarkable among lawyers for the wide research and provident care with which he prepared his cases. At no time was his reading ever confined to the limitations of the questions at issue. It went beyond and compassed every contingency and provided not alone for the expected but also for the unexpected, which happens in the courts quite as frequently as out of them. His legal learning, his analytical mind, the readiness with which he grasped the points in an argument all combined to make him one of the capable attorneys at the bar of Columbia county and the public and the profession acknowledged him the peer of the ablest regarding him as a jurist of exceptionally rare ability.

Aside from his professional connections Mr. Edmiston figured very prominently in the public life of the community. At one time he served as superintendent of schools of Columbia county. He first came prominently into public notice when elected a member of the upper house of the Washington territorial legislature and for many years he was a member of the state central committee of the democratic party. In 1894 he was offered the nomination for governor but refused to become a candidate. While undoubtedly not without that laudable ambition which is so valuable as an incentive to public service, he nevertheless regarded the pursuits of private life as in themselves abundantly worthy of his best efforts and with remarkable fidelity he labored for the interests of his clients. It is said that he never lost a case which he appealed to the supreme court. In 1886 he was prosecuting attorney of Columbia county.

Mr. Edmiston was considered the highest authority on Masonic jurisprudence in the state and was chairman of that committee in the grand lodge for ten years. He was past grand master of the state of Washington and past grand patron of the Eastern Star. There was a close relationship between him and Dr. Van Patten, who was his family physician from 1884 until his death and has continued as such to Mrs. Edmiston. They were the best of friends and while not associated together in business often consulted one another on business matters. Mr. Edmiston was leader of the choir in the Presbyterian church for many years and in this work was also associated with the Doctor and together they often took vacation trips. It was the earnest desire of Mr. Edmiston that Dr. Van Patten allow himself to be put in line for higher Masonic honors, which eventually resulted in the latter becoming grand junior warden in 1901 and grand master in 1904.

For a long period Mr. Edmiston was collecting data for a history of southeastern Washington but died before the completion of the work. He was president of the board of regents of the Washington State College at Pullman and on the day of his burial the college was closed in respect to his memory. Every business house and the schools of Dayton were also closed and the day was given over to sincere mourning by the entire community. He was buried with Masonic honors and the Grand Lodge of Washington took charge of the funeral services, the Hon. Levi Ankeny, past grand master of the state, officiating. The bar of Dayton passed appropriate resolutions and every mark of respect that could be shown, both in a public and a private way, was evidenced. He was a lifelong member of the Presbyterian church and was a teacher in its Sunday school for many years. Much more might be said in eulogy of this man, who was loved by all who knew him and whose influence was always for the betterment and uplift of mankind. His memory is enshrined in the hearts of those who knew him and remains as a blessed benediction to those who were his associates while he was still an active factor in the world's work. Mrs. Edmiston still lives in the old home in Dayton. She is a past grand matron of the Order of the Eastern Star and is now in charge of the Dayton Branch of the Red Cross, in which work she is very active, giving freely of her time and energies as well as her means and efforts to improve the conditions under which the young men of the country must serve in a military capacity. She was formerly president of the Monday Reading Club and has long been foremost in social circles and in welfare work in the northwest. Both Mr. and Mrs. Edmiston belong to that class who shed around them much of the sunshine of life.

JULES DE RUWE.

Jules De Ruwe is the owner of one of the best improved farms of his section of the country, having an extensive acreage near Turner, Washington. He was born in Belgium, July 17, 1885, and is a son of Peter and Julia De Ruwe, who were natives of that land. Educated in Belgium, Jules De Ruwe acquired a good education there and in 1905, when a young man of twenty years, crossed the Atlantic to the new world, making his way direct to Washington, where he became identified with the sheep industry, conducting business on a large scale in connection with his brothers, prominently known as leading sheep men of this section of the state. They finally dissolved partnership, however, and each is now conducting his business interests individually. In the fall of 1917 Jules De Ruwe purchased his present ranch, comprising eleven hundred acres of land twelve miles north of Dayton on the Tucanon river. This is one of the best improved ranches in his part of the county and Mr. De Ruwe is now equipping it with a thoroughly modern set of buildings, in which he is installing electric light and running water. In fact, he is adding every modern equipment and comfort and his farm work is being conducted along progressive and scientific lines. His sheep are of the Rambouillet breed and are among the best to be found in the state of Washington.

On the 17th of October, 1917, Mr. De Ruwe was united in marriage to Miss Mabel Davidson, a daughter of Daniel and Ethel Davidson, of Starbuck, Washington, who were also ranch people. Mr. De Ruwe is a member of the Catholic church, while his wife holds membership in the Christian church. While he has been on this side the Atlantic for only a few years he is thoroughly American in spirit and interests, having a strong attachment for the government and the institutions of the new world. It often seems that native born citizens come by the privileges of American life too easily to appreciate them in the fullest degree. At least some of those who have sacrificed and suffered to obtain them value their blessings more highly than those to whom they come as a matter of course. Mr. De Ruwe is among the loyal residents of the northwest and in the utilization of the opportunities which have come to him he has made for himself a very creditable position among the successful business men of Washington.

F. E. MOJONNIER.

F. E. Mojonnier, a prominent and representative business man of Walla Walla county, is conducting his interests under the name of the Walla Walla Hothouse Vegetable Company. He is engaged in growing and wholesale shipping of hothouse and garden vegetables. He established this business in 1909, with no previous experience along this line to aid him, but he bent every energy toward acquainting himself with every phase of the business, studying the methods of the most successful houses of similar character in the east, and through this method and through study he has developed an enterprise of extensive and profitable proportions. He was born at Highland, Madison county, Illinois, on the 4th of October, 1874, and is a son of Samuel and Clara (Robert) Mojonnier, both of whom were natives of Switzerland and were of French descent. They came to the United States in childhood with their respective parents, the families establishing their homes in Madison county, Illinois. The father was a carpenter by trade but gave his attention largely to agricultural pursuits in Illinois. In 1886 he removed with his family to Los Angeles, California, where he engaged in carpentering up to the time of his death, which occurred about 1892. His widow is still living in that city.

F. E. Mojonnier was reared at home, acquiring his education in the public and high schools of Los Angeles. He was a youth of but twelve years when the family removed to California. After his textbooks were put aside he worked for some time in a grocery store in Los Angeles and in April, 1895, came to Walla Walla, Washington, where he entered the employ of the Walla Walla Produce Company. In 1900 he became a stockholder of the company and was identified with the conduct of the business until 1914, when he sold his interest in order to give his sole attention to his present business, which he had established in 1909. At that time he had no practical experience to assist him in its conduct, but he closely applied himself to the work and visited the largest plants of similar nature throughout the east, and since then he has built up one of the most modern establishments of the kind in the country. He has three acres under glass and he is producing high grade vegetables and, in fact, he is known as one of the leading hothouse vegetable growers in the northwest. His business has been thoroughly systematized, carefully managed and wisely conducted and his patronage has grown to extensive and gratifying proportions.

On the 1st of January, 1900, Mr. Mojonnier was united in marriage to Miss Mathilde Delepine, of Walla Walla, who was a student in the State College at Pullman at the time of her marriage. To them have been born three children, Claire, Harold and Elaine.

Mr. Mojonnier gives his political allegiance to the democratic party and keeps well informed on the questions and issues of the day, but has never been an aspirant for office. He is regarded as one of the representative citizens of Walla Walla county, actuated by a spirit of enterprise and progress in all that he does. Well defined plans and purposes have carried him forward and each step in his career has brought him a broader outlook and wider opportunities. He has ever been actuated by a laudable ambition that has caused him to reach out along still broader lines and his position in business circles is now a most creditable and enviable one.

HON. FREDERICK STINE.

Hon. Frederick Stine, who passed away in Walla Walla in 1909, had been a resident of the city for more than four decades and was most widely and favorably known. He was one of the early settlers of his section of the state and was largely instrumental in promoting the development and upbuilding of his city. He thus gained a wide acquaintance and was esteemed by all who knew him. He was a recognized leader in many lines and his strength of character and excellent judgment were features that brought beneficial results. A man of action rather than of theory, whenever opportunity called he made ready response.

[Illustration: MRS. FREDERICK STINE]

[Illustration: FREDERICK STINE]

Mr. Stine was born in Union county, Pennsylvania, November 24, 1825. His father was a blacksmith by trade and in 1839 removed with his family from the Keystone state to Greene county, Ohio, settling in Fairfield, where he engaged in farming and also followed blacksmithing. With those pursuits Frederick Stine became thoroughly familiar, as he assisted his father in the work of the fields or of the smithy. In the spring of 1852, in company with his brothers, John and William, he started for the Pacific coast. Their departure was a great event to the family, which numbered eight sons and six daughters. Travel at that time to the western coast was by means of wagon or by way of water route and many months elapsed ere the journey was completed. It was indeed a serious undertaking, much more difficult than a trip around the world at the present time. The three brothers left St. Louis, Missouri, on the 1st of May, 1852, and on the 2d of July arrived in Sacramento, California. This was a record trip at the time. The train with which they traveled numbered twenty-six men, of whom Frederick Stine was chosen captain. The three brothers went to Marysville, California, where they began work, but after a few days Frederick Stine was prostrated with typhoid fever and for sixty days had a great struggle for his life. Eventually, however, the disease reached its crisis and it was said that he would live. When he recovered he began business for himself, but in 1854 met with losses through fire and the following year he removed to Yreka, California, where he concentrated his efforts and attention upon farming and blacksmithing, thus returning to the occupations to which he had been reared.

Selling his Yreka property on the 6th of February, 1862, Mr. Stine then started for the north and on the 12th of May arrived in Walla Walla, where he afterward made his home until called to his final rest. Within four days of his arrival he had opened a place of business on Main street and as the years passed he prospered. On the 3d of November, 1863, he went by way of Portland to San Francisco, traveling by stage to the latter city and thence by boat and the Panama route to Ohio on a visit to his family and his old home. On the 18th of April, 1864, he started again for the Pacific coast and this time made the trip by stage to Walla Walla, where he resumed blacksmithing and wagon making, maintaining a first class shop of that kind until September 1, 1873, at which date he retired from business. He had spent about a third of a century at his trade and was always industrious and conscientious in his work. In 1872 he erected the Stine House, which was the first brick hotel in Walla Walla, and in 1880 he purchased a farm of five hundred and sixty acres in Umatilla county, Oregon, about six miles south of Walla Walla. This he extensively improved and cultivated and to his holdings he added from time to time as his financial resources increased until he held in that vicinity over nineteen hundred acres of choice land. In 1905 his wheat crop was thirty-seven thousand bushels, raised upon one-half of his land, the other half being summer fallowed. His business affairs were wisely and carefully controlled, his investments most judiciously made and his enterprise brought to him a very substantial measure of success. The most envious could not grudge him his prosperity, so honorably was it gained, so worthily used.

In 1870, in Walla Walla, Mr. Stine was united in marriage to Mrs. Mary (Megrew) Silverthorn, a widow, and to them was born a daughter, Elizabeth, who became the wife of John Casper, of Walla Walla. Mrs. Stine was born near Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in 1836, a daughter of Archibald Megrew. In 1836, when Mrs. Stine was three months old, the father removed with his family to Ohio and when she was a little maiden of thirteen she lost her mother. In 1852 the father removed with the children to Iowa and there his last days were passed. It was in Iowa that Mary Megrew became the wife of John Silverthorn and they, with others, crossed the plains in 1864, making the trip with mules and horses and spending three months en route. They settled in Walla Walla, where the death of Mr. Silverthorn later occurred. Mrs. Stine now resides in a fine home on Catherine street, where for more than ten years she has lived.

Throughout the period of his residence in Walla Walla, Mr. Stine was an active worker for the upbuilding and development of the city. In politics he was an active democrat and in 1869 was chosen to represent his district in the lower house of the territorial legislature, while in 1873 he was elected a member of the senate. He made his presence felt there by his earnest support of all well devised plans and measures for the improvement of the commonwealth. His keen judgment was of great benefit in many instances. In 1865 he was chosen one of the members of the city council of Walla Walla and during the following year was made chairman of the council and thereafter was reelected many times. He exercised his official prerogatives in support of various plans and measures for the general good and his work was of great worth to the city. Many important measures for the benefit of Walla Walla originated with him and were carried forward to successful completion because of his endorsement and labor. In 1868 he succeeded in having established a Masonic lodge at Walla Walla and for ten years thereafter acted as its master. He was also a member of the chapter and was always an earnest worker and he labored untiringly for the advancement of Masonic interests in this locality. When death called him in 1909 he had been a resident of Walla Walla for more than forty-five years. His personal qualities were such as won for him the warm regard of many and there was sincere grief felt throughout the city at his passing.

WILLIAM THOMAS PETTIJOHN.

William Thomas Pettijohn has since 1905 resided upon his present farm on section 2, township 9 north, range 35 east, in Walla Walla county, and here has six hundred and fifty acres of valuable land, constituting one of the fine farms of this section of the state. Long before, however, he had become a resident of the county and in fact was one of the earliest settlers. He arrived here in 1859, when but five years of age, having been brought to Washington by his parents.

Mr. Pettijohn was born in Linn county, Oregon, July 26, 1854, a son of Jonathan and Hannah (Warner) Pettijohn. The father was a native of Ohio, while the mother's birth occurred in Indiana. In 1850 Jonathan Pettijohn crossed the plains to California and after spending a year or more in the gold fields of that state he went to Oregon, settling in Linn county, where he was employed for some time in the sawmills and also worked at barn building. He became familiar with all of the hardships and privations incident to life on the frontier. He had encountered also many difficulties while crossing the plains. The cattle with which the party started on leaving the east died en route and much of the distance during the latter part of the trip, their provisions having run short, they lived for days upon flour and water. Mr. Pettijohn traveled much of the distance on foot. After living for a number of years in Oregon he sold his interests there in 1859 and came to Walla Walla county. He first visited the county in the summer of that year, bringing with him some cattle, after which he returned for his family. He entered a homestead in townships 9 and 10, range 35 east, Walla Walla county, and thereon built a log cabin. His remaining years were spent in that immediate neighborhood and he was very successful. While he experienced many of the difficulties incident to the settlement of the frontier prosperity attended him as the years went by and he acquired three thousand acres of valuable land. From 1860 until 1866 or 1867 he was engaged in freighting with ox teams to the Idaho mines and later he gave his attention most successfully to the raising of cattle and horses. His business affairs were most wisely and successfully managed and he became the possessor of a very handsome competence, passing away June 13, 1913. His wife had crossed the plains with her parents in 1852, at which time the family home was established in Linn county, Oregon, where her marriage to Mr. Pettijohn afterward occurred. She passed away in January, 1893, and in the death of these two worthy people Walla Walla county lost an honored pioneer couple. They were respected and esteemed by all who knew them and most of all by those who knew them best, a fact indicative of their well spent lives.

William T. Pettijohn spent his youthful days upon the old homestead and acquired a district school education. In 1877 he went to Idaho, where he used both his preemption and homestead rights in the Potlach country, filing the first homestead right in that section. There he remained actively identified with farming and stock raising until 1905, when he left Idaho and returned to Walla Walla county, taking up his abode on his present home farm, which now comprises six hundred and fifty acres of rich and productive land. In addition he owns five hundred and sixty acres in another township. His landed possessions are thus extensive and he is actively and prominently identified with the farming interests of Walla Walla county. His business affairs are carefully directed and wisely managed. He utilizes the most modern methods carrying on the farm work and upon his place he has put many improvements which rank his farm with one of the model farm properties of the twentieth century in this section of the state.

On the 12th of December, 1883, Mr. Pettijohn was united in marriage to Miss Ella Humphrey, of Idaho, and to them have been born five children, four of whom are still living, namely: Ada, the wife of Frank Davis, who is operating one of the farms belonging to his father-in-law; Jonathan N., who is now operating the home farm; Ollie, the wife of Robert L. Temple, of Prescott, Washington; and Harry Elbert, who is in the United States army. For some, time the two sons operated the home farm together and proved progressive young business men by their capable direction of the interests which have come under their charge.

In politics Mr. Pettijohn has always followed an independent course but has never taken an active part in public affairs. He has always preferred to concentrate his time, efforts and attention upon his private business interests and by reason of his diligence and determination, his perseverance and his honesty he has won a very substantial measure of success. He is justly numbered among the honored pioneers of the northwest, having for fifty-seven years lived in this section of the country. Born in Oregon, reared in Washington and a resident for a time of Idaho, there is no feature of the development of the northwest with which he is not familiar and he has lived to witness a remarkable transformation, for the country has grown so rapidly that the story of its development seems almost magical. The result, however, is due to the earnest labors, the persistency of purpose and the indefatigable energy of such men as Mr. Pettijohn, who, unafraid of the hardships and privations of pioneer life, has utilized the natural resources of the country and has thus placed the wealth upon a par with the older east.

COLONEL WILLIAM HAVENS MILLER.

Colonel William Havens Miller, whose life was spent in the military service of his country, was under all circumstances an officer and a gentleman. He was born at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, January 31, 1849, and on the 14th of June, 1872, was graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point and was assigned to duty with the First Cavalry. While with that regiment he participated in all the Indian wars in the Rocky mountains and on the Pacific coast and won frequent promotion in recognition of his efficiency and gallantry. Among the important campaigns in which he took part were: the Modoc war, which lasted from November, 1872, until June, 1873; the Nez Percé war, from June to October, 1877; the Bannock campaign, from June to September, 1878; and a minor engagement at Meacham's, in the Blue mountains of Oregon, in August, 1878. He was promoted to first lieutenant in the First Cavalry, March 4, 1879. From May, 1877, to March, 1887, he served as quartermaster in the field and in garrison and during the greater part of that time, or from August 15, 1878, to March 31, 1887, he was regimental quartermaster. On the 28th of February, 1890, he was brevetted first lieutenant for "gallant services in action against Indians at the Lava Beds, California, April 17, 1873, and gallant and meritorious conduct during the Modoc war." In 1896-7 he was employed in the designing and building of Fort George Wright, a military post at Spokane, Washington, being in charge of the work until December, 1898, at which time the post was ready for one battalion of infantry. During the greater part of 1899 and 1900 he was in Cuba and built the four company military post at Paso Caballos at the mouth of the harbor of Cienfuegos, Cuba, and finished the cavalry post, Hamilton barracks, at Matanzas, Cuba. Colonel Miller was in campaigns and garrisons in the northwest until September, 1890, being stationed a part of the time in northern California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada and Montana, and was then appointed captain and assistant quartermaster in the United States Army and was on duty as follows: Quartermaster at United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, from October, 1890, to November, 1894; quartermaster at Fort Riley, Kansas, from November, 1894, until July, 1896; constructing quartermaster at Spokane, Washington, from July, 1896, to December, 1898; appointed major and chief quartermaster in United States Volunteers, August 15, 1898; division chief quartermaster at Southern Camp; Anniston, Alabama, from December, 1898, to March, 1899; chief quartermaster, Departments of Santa Clara and Matanzas at Cienfuegos and Matanzas, Cuba, from March, 1899, to July, 1900; depot quartermaster, Boston, Massachusetts, from October, 1900, to August, 1901; depot and chief quartermaster, Department of the Lakes, Chicago, Illinois, front August, 1901, to August, 1905; in charge of the general depot of the quartermaster's department, New York city, from November 20, 1905, to May, 1907; chief quartermaster, Philippine Division, Manila, from September 2, 1907, to June 14, 1909; quartermaster at Seattle, Washington, and in charge of the United States transport service on Puget Sound from July, 1909, until retired at the age of sixty-four years, January 31, 1913. He was promoted to major and quartermaster, United States Army, August 12, 1900; to lieutenant colonel and deputy quartermaster general, August 15, 1903; and colonel and assistant quartermaster general, October 31, 1909. The title was changed to colonel, Quartermaster Corps, United States Army, by act of congress approved August 24, 1912. On the 5th of July, 1906, he was especially commended to the secretary of war by the inspector general of the army for efficiency. All work that was given to him to do was well done, for, holding himself to the strictest standards, he refused to accept anything less than the best work from those under him, but at the same time he was scrupulously just and held the respect of his men. He upheld the high traditions of the American army, was a constant student of military science and kept in close touch with the change in methods necessitated by new conditions of warfare. To him the army was a profession that demands all a man has to give but that makes abundant recompense in the knowledge of worthy service rendered the nation. He had the capacity for deep friendship characteristic of men of unusual strength of character and the place which he held in the esteem and affection of those who knew him intimately is indicated in the following tribute to his memory by his friend, G. P. Monell.

[Illustration: COLONEL WILLIAM H. MILLER]

"'He was my friend, faithful and just, to me." This Shakepearean saying of Marcus Antonius over the body of dead Caesar, best describes the dominant characteristic of Colonel Miller's life. Faithful and just, tender and true, might well be inscribed upon the stone that marks the spot where he sleeps till the final reveille. These qualities, covering all that is knightly, all that is noble, went to make up the daily routine of the life he lived for the glory and honor of his country. No promise that he ever made, however lightly, was too small to be faithfully remembered and religiously fulfilled. No fault that he observed was too great or too trivial to meet with less or more than exact justice. Officially he had no friends; those who gave best service were best rewarded, regardless of his personal predilections. Looking back over the past four years of close and intimate friendship, they seem to reflect back his past and sound out his whole life as embodied living truth; even in his lightest moods he scorned exaggeration as beneath the dignity of his manhood. Deeply learned in all the intricate business of army life and regulations, quick to see the right and wrong of any question, recognizing no middle course, his decisions were instant and final and his reasons unassailable. Officially he was a dignified, gallant and knightly soldier. In private life he represented the highest type of American gentleman. Hospitable, kindly, witty, he made those who visited his home feel that they belonged 'right there' and his friends were part of himself. His character, always straightforward and intensely honest, presented so many sides and all so simple and unassuming that those who knew him best loved him most.

Colonel Miller was married in Walla Walla, November 20, 1879, to Miss Anna Abbott, a daughter of John F. Abbott, who was a well known resident of Walla Walla, and a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. Colonel Miller passed away at the General Memorial Hospital in New York, April 13, 1913. To him and his wife were born three children, of whom the eldest died in infancy. Harlan Abbott, born at Fort Walla Walla, is now a rancher in Umatilla county, Oregon. Margaret Isabelle is the wife of Julian Foster Humphrey, chief officer of the Transport Crook, U. S. N.

HON. DENNIS COOLEY GUERNSEY.

Hon. Dennis Cooley Guernsey, whose history is closely interwoven with the records of Columbia county, is now extensively engaged in the real estate, insurance and loan business in Starbuck. He has at different periods figured prominently as a bank official, as the incumbent in public office in the county and as representative of his district in the territorial legislature of 1879, and with many business interests he has been closely associated, so that his labors have contributed in marked measure to the material development and to the upbuilding of the state. He was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, on the 13th of April, 1845, a son of Orrin and Sarah (Cooley) Guernsey, who were natives of Connecticut. They removed to New Hampshire in childhood days with their respective parents and were there reared and married. In 1843 they migrated westward, establishing their home in Janesville, Wisconsin, where they spent their remaining days. In early life the father was engaged in merchandising and in later years became identified with the insurance business.

Dennis C. Guernsey, whose name introduces this review, was educated in the Janesville schools, completing a high school course. He was a youth of but sixteen years when the Civil war broke out and in the fall of 1863, when but eighteen years of age, he enlisted for service and was assigned to duty with Company E of the Twenty-second Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, which became a part of the Second Brigade, Third Division, of the Twentieth Army Corps, commanded by Colonel Joe Hooker. He was with Sherman on the celebrated march to the sea and after returning to Washington, following the close of hostilities, the members of Sherman's command were recruited and formed the temporary division of the Fourteenth Army Corps, which was sent under Jeff C. Davis to Louisville, Kentucky, Van Dorn of the Southwestern Department having not yet surrendered. They were mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, on the 18th of July, 1865, and later Mr. Guernsey returned to Janesville, Wisconsin, where he engaged in the insurance business. Three years afterward, or in 1868, he went to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he became a dealer in wood and coal, continuing in that business until 1870. In January, 1871, he was appointed an officer of the reform school at Waukesha, Wisconsin. In the meantime, however, following his return to Janesville, he had done other military service. Major General Starkweather, who had gone out with the First Wisconsin as colonel and who rose to the rank of major general of volunteers, took command of the Milwaukee Light Guards, of which he had been captain at the outbreak of the war. Mr. Guernsey joined the Light Guards and was with that command at the inauguration of Governor Fairchilds at Madison in January, 1869. After spending a few months as an officer in the reform school in Waukesha, Wisconsin, he again went to Janesville, where he accepted a position with a hardware firm as bookkeeper. The lure of the west, however, was upon him and on the 14th of October, 1871, he turned his face toward the setting sun and on the 9th of November reached Walla Walla, having traveled by rail as far as Keton, Utah, and thence through Boise, Baker, LaGrande to Walla Walla by stage. After spending ten days in that city he proceeded to Dayton, the town having been platted only a few days before, and on Mr. Guernsey's arrival there were but two buildings in the town, one being the residence of J. N. Day, while the other was known as the "red store," the property of Kimball & Day. On the 1st of December Mr. Guernsey succeeded Ralph Kimball in the store and was employed by the firm until the fall of 1874, when he became a partner in the business under the firm style of Day, Guernsey & Company. In the fall of 1875 he withdrew from that organization and formed a new company, entering into partnership with F. G. Frary, superintendent of the Dayton Woolen Mills, and A. H. Reynolds, of Walla Walla, who was the only banker this side of The Dalles. The new firm was organized under the style of D. C. Guernsey & Company. In 1876 Mr. Frary and Mr. Reynolds withdrew and Mr. Guernsey was joined by H. H. Wolfe under the firm name of Guernsey & Wolfe. He thus continued active in merchandising in Dayton until 1880, when he sold out. From the beginning of his residence there he took active part in the upbuilding and progress of the new town.

[Illustration: D. C. GUERNSEY]

In 1876 Mr. Guernsey was instructed by the commissioners of the new county of Columbia--F. G. Frary, G. T. Pollard of Huntsville and E. Oliver of Pomeroy--to call a special election for the purpose of choosing county officers. Mr. Guernsey was elected county treasurer for one year and at the first biennial election was chosen for a full term at a salary of three hundred dollars per year, the officers being required to serve at a "moderate salary" inasmuch as this was an infant county. In 1878 he was chosen to represent his district in the territorial legislature and on the 31st of July, 1880, he succeeded L. F. A. Shaw in the office of deputy collector of internal revenue under Major James R. Hayden. He occupied that position for three years and then surrendered the office to H. W. Fairweather. On the 4th of May, 1884, Mr. Guernsey entered the Columbia National Bank of Dayton as cashier and had complete charge of the bank's affairs through the following sixteen years, at which time his brother, F. W. Guernsey, became cashier, while D. C. Guernsey was made vice president and manager of the institution. He successfully carried the bank through the panic of 1893, although he closed one Saturday night with but five hundred and fifty dollars in the bank. However, he most carefully safeguarded the interests of the institution and managed to weather the financial storm which swept over the entire country in that year. He remained in his official capacity with the bank until 1900, when he retired, the institution at that time having deposits of three hundred and seventy-four thousand dollars. He then turned his attention to the real estate, insurance and loan business in Dayton and in 1904 he took charge of a mining camp on the Omnaha in Willowa county, Oregon, for the Eureka Mining Company, his position being that of managing director. While there he built the wagon road down Deer creek from Dobbins Cabin to Snake river. He occupied the position of director of the mining camp for two years, after which he returned to Dayton and through the succeeding two years gave his attention to the real estate and insurance business. In 1908 he removed to Starbuck to assist in straightening out the affairs of the Bank of Starbuck, of which institution he was made cashier, occupying that position for a period of two and a half years. He then resigned and established his present business, with which he has since been prominently identified, being today one of the foremost real estate, loan and insurance agents in this part of the state. One of the local papers said: "D. C. Guernsey has been a most important factor in the development of Columbia county and the moulding of civilized life in the great state of Washington. During the early history of Columbia county, hardly a business transaction was carried through or a public enterprise launched that was not inspired by the brain or fostered by the public-spiritedness of Mr. Guernsey." He helped to organize and was the first president of the Dayton Electric Light Company and built many of the buildings in that city in the block in which the Columbia National Bank is located. He organized the Dayton Hotel Company, which built the hotel, and was its president for several years.

Mr. Guernsey has also left the impress of his individuality in marked manner upon the political history of the state. In politics he has always been a stanch republican and was a leader in the party from the time when there were but twelve republicans who went from Walla Walla to Lewiston. In 1879, when he became a member of the territorial legislature, he became a member of what was known as the bunch grass delegation, which became the controlling factor in the general assembly. He was made chairman of the ways and means committee and did important work in that connection. In 1890 he was appointed a member of the state harbor line commission by Governor Ferry, the first state governor, and was active in the work of the commission, which located all the harbor lines in the state and submitted the plans to the United States war department. Mr. Guernsey also became identified with the military interests of the northwest. He assisted in organizing the Dayton Grays, which merged into Company F of the First Washington Regiment for service in the Philippines. He was also paymaster and battalion adjutant of the Second Washington Regiment under Colonel Pike.

On the 23d of September, 1873, Mr. Guernsey was married to Miss Harriet E. Day, a daughter of Dr. W. W. Day, who was the first physician in Dayton, where his son and grandson are now practicing, so that the name of Dr. Day has always been associated with that city. To Mr. and Mrs. Guernsey have been born five children, four of whom are yet living: William Day, a journalist connected with a newspaper of Schenectady, New York; Frank Day, a mining man of Jerome, Arizona; Minerva G., the wife of George F. Price, of Dayton; and Helen G., the wife of Frank E. Girton, of Covello, Washington.

In fraternal relations Mr. Guernsey has occupied a very prominent position. He was made a Mason in Independence Lodge, No. 80, F. & A. M., of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in November, 1869, and was made a Royal Arch Mason in Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, in 1880. He became a charter member and is a past master of Columbia Lodge, No. 26, F. & A. M., of Dayton, and on the formation of Dayton Chapter, No. 5, R. A. M., he also became a charter member of that organization and is a past high priest. He is likewise a member and past eminent commander of Washington Commandery, No. 1, K. T., is a member of the Lodge of Perfection and the Chapter of Rose Croix in Walla Walla and of the Knights of Kodosh and of Spokane Consistory, A. A. S. R. He likewise has membership with the Knights Commander Court of Honor. He was the first chancellor commander in Organization Lodge, No. 3, K. P., and is the oldest chancellor commander in the state. He also has connection with various other fraternal organizations and has been very prominent in that connection for many years. His has been a guiding hand in shaping the history of southeastern Washington in its material, social and political progress and at all times he has been actuated by high ideals, looking ever to the benefit and upbuilding of his section of the state. Great indeed have been the changes which have occurred since his arrival in Columbia county. The seeds of civilization had scarcely been planted when he reached Dayton and from that time forward he has cooperated in all movements which have been instituted for public benefit, and without invidious distinction he may be termed the foremost resident of Starbuck.

DICK HARPER.

Dick Harper, who is filling the position of county auditor in Columbia county, Washington, and makes his home in Dayton, was born August 12, 1863, in Washburn, Woodford county, Illinois. His father, James D. Harper, was a native of Sullivan county, Indiana, born in 1838, and when quite young removed to central Illinois, where his boyhood and youth were passed. He was a graduate of Eureka College, Eureka, Illinois, and devoted his entire life to educational work. He married Marion A. Jenkins when twenty-five years of age and passed away in Dayton, Washington, in February, 1901. His wife is a representative of a pioneer family of New York and is now living in Dayton at the age of eighty years and is splendidly preserved. She lived for a few months in the same house with Abraham Lincoln during the famous Lincoln-Douglas campaign. She has a brother living at the age of ninety years, who was an officer in the Civil war, holding the rank of first lieutenant.

Dick Harper acquired a common school education in Missouri and also attended the State Normal School at Warrensburg, Missouri. In 1885, when a young man of twenty-two years, he took charge of a drug store for his brother-in-law at Rich Hill, Missouri, and successfully managed the business for a period of seven years, after which he came to the Pacific coast, arriving in Portland, Oregon, in the spring of 1892. In the fall of that year he came to Dayton, where he was identified with farming and with the grain trade until the spring of 1903, when he established a furniture store in Dayton and soon won for himself a place among the active and representative merchants of the city. In 1906 he purchased the Day drug store at Dayton, which he conducted successfully for seven years.

On the 27th of October, 1886, in Butler, Bates county, Missouri, Mr. Harper was united in marriage to Miss Laura A. Floyd, a daughter of John H. and Sarah A. Floyd. They have a daughter, Florence Marion, who is the wife of Lloyd R. Terwilliger, who is living in Walla Walla and is employed in the First National Bank of that city.

Mr. Harper has long been an active and helpful member of the Christian church and he has membership with the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Masons. For a number of years he served as secretary of Dayton Chapter, R. A. M., and in his life has always exemplified the beneficent spirit of the craft. He belongs to the Dayton Commercial Club and is a member of its governing board. In politics he is a democrat. In 1898 he was made county auditor of Columbia county by popular vote and in 1910 and 1911 served as councilman at large. He was chairman of the street and public property committee and also of the light and water committee. In 1912 he was elected mayor of the city and in 1916 was appointed police judge. He has thus long continued in public office and those who read between the lines will recognize the important part which he has played in public affairs in Dayton, winning for himself a most creditable position in commercial and political circles. In a word, he has exercised much influence over public thought and opinion and has done much to advance public progress in his adopted city.

CALDER H. WHITEMAN.

No class of Walla Walla's citizens is more highly esteemed than the many retired farmers who here make their home and among them is numbered Calder H. Whiteman, who was born in Keokuk county, Iowa, April 29, 1851. His parents, John B. and Eliza G. (Colville) Whiteman, were natives of West Virginia and Kentucky respectively but were married in Indiana. In 1850 they became settlers of Iowa but later returned to Indiana, where the mother died. The father was subsequently married twice. In 1874 he made the long journey to Oregon and four years later took up his residence in Umatilla county, that state. He died in Milton October 5, 1910.

Calder H. Whiteman, who is an only child by the first marriage, remained with his father until he attained his majority and received his education in the common schools. On beginning his independent career he rented a farm near Salem, Oregon, having decided to devote his life to the occupation to which he had been reared. After farming that place for three years he removed to Umatilla county and took up a homestead, the operation of which occupied his time and attention until his removal to Walla Walla in 1901. In the intervening years he brought the place to a high state of cultivation and made many improvements thereon, making it one of the most up-to-date and valuable farms in that locality. In 1911 he sold the Umatilla county property and bought a farm in Whitman county, Washington, near Lacrosse, which he still retains. He and his son now own fourteen hundred and forty acres, all fine wheat land, well improved, and their holdings place them among the large landowners of eastern Washington. Mr. Whiteman of this review makes his home in Walla Walla and his residence here is commodious, pleasing in design and thoroughly modern in its appointments.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. CALDER H. WHITEMAN]

Mr. Whiteman was married in 1874 to Miss Ella M. Dorman and they became the parents of four children, of whom three survive: Jessie L., the wife of F. E. Allison of Lind, Washington; Clarence C., a resident of Pendleton, Oregon; and Calder Otis, who is his father's partner in his farming interests. The wife and mother passed away in 1896 and in 1897 Mr. Whiteman was married to Mrs. Mary M. (Jackson) Morton, a native of Canada. By her first marriage she had two children, both of whom have passed away.

Mr. Whiteman endorses the principles of the republican party and gives his loyal support to its candidates at the polls. For four years he was a member of the city council of Walla Walla and his record in that office is one of unusually capable work in behalf of the welfare of the municipality. For twenty-two years he has been a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and he also belongs to the Woodmen of the World and the women's branch of that organization, known as the Women of Woodcraft. Both he and his wife are active members of the Christian church, of which he is an elder, and he is also president of the board of directors of the Northwest Christian Home of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington at Walla Walla. It is under the supervision of the Benevolent Association of the Christian church, which organization is designed to erect homes and hospitals for the young, old and needy of that church, and Mr. Whiteman gives much of his time to looking after the affairs of that institution. The prominence which he has gained establishes beyond question his ability, for his advancement has at all times come as the direct result of his own efforts and he is indeed a self-made man.

P. B. DOWLING.

The average farmer is apt to think of Washington as a great forest country, and while there are wonderful tracts of timber land, making this one of the leading centers of the lumber industry on the continent, there are also great stretches which are most splendidly adapted to farming and particularly to wheat raising, so that Washington has come to be known as one of the great wheat producing states of the Union. Among those who in following farming have devoted their attention to wheat culture in Walla Walla county is P. B. Dowling, who in 1887 arrived in this section of the state and who is now the owner of one hundred and forty acres of land, constituting one of the best farms in the Walla Walla valley. He was born in Springfield, Illinois, March 14, 1860, and is a son of William and Margaret Dowling, who were natives of Ireland. They came to America in early life and established their home in Illinois, but afterward both returned to Ireland and their last days were spent in that country.

P. B. Dowling was accordingly reared and educated in Ireland, where he had good opportunities for developing his intellectual powers, being given a college education. He was graduated from the London Veterinary College and engaged in the practice of his chosen profession with success for a number of years. In 1886, however, he determined to return to his native land and crossed the Atlantic to America, first establishing his home in De Kalb county, Illinois. He came to the northwest with W. L. Elwood, a well known importer of horses, and in 1887 brought the first carload of Percheron horses that was shipped into the valley. He afterward purchased the farm whereon he now resides, comprising one hundred and forty acres of very rich and productive farm land, upon which he has placed many modern improvements. Here he has lived continuously since and has long been numbered among the representative and successful agriculturists of this part of the state.

In 1890 Mr. Dowling was united in marriage to Miss Katherine Rourke, who was born and reared upon the farm where Mr. Dowling now resides. The wife passed away, however, in 1903, and was laid to rest in Mountain View cemetery. She left a husband, two brothers and three sisters to mourn her loss and there were many friends who deeply regretted her passing.

Mr. Dowling gives his political allegiance to the republican party and is thoroughly informed concerning the questions and issues of the day. He is a self-made man who owes his business advancement entirely to his own efforts. He is recognized as one of the prominent men of the valley, being forceful and resourceful in his business connections, while in matters of citizenship he stands with patriotic loyalty for all that tends to advance the welfare and progress of this section of the state.

HENRY A. KAUSCHE.

Henry A. Kausche devoted his active life to farming in Garfield county but at the time of his death was living retired in Pomeroy. His birth occurred in Germany, February 16, 1839, and he was a son of Christopherson and Hannah Kausche, who were born in Germany and there remained for a number of years after their marriage. In 1851, however, they came to America and for a short time lived in New York. They then removed to Michigan, which remained their home for more than twenty years. At length they came to Washington to make their home with their son, Henry A., and both passed away in Garfield county. All of their three children are likewise deceased.

Henry A. Kausche received the greater part of his education in Germany, as he was twelve years of age when brought by his parents to the United States. He grew to manhood in Michigan and lived there for five years after his marriage. At the end of that time he went to Johnson county, Missouri, but after residing there for six years cast in his lot with the Pacific northwest, settling in Linn county, Oregon. Some time later, in 1878, he came to Garfield county, Washington, and took up a claim. He resided upon that place continuously until 1902 and as the years passed he brought his farm to a high state of development. He extended its boundaries by purchase, becoming the owner of eight hundred acres, from which he derived a gratifying income. In 1902, feeling that he had earned a period of leisure, he retired and removed to Pomeroy, where he passed away July 4, 1903.

[Illustration: HENRY A. KAUSCHE]

Mr. Kausche was married June 8, 1865, to Miss Paulina Lohrbert, who was born in Ohio and is a daughter of Frederick and Katherine (Rock) Lohrbert. The father was born in Germany but in young manhood came to the United States and took up his residence in Ohio, of which state his wife was a native, and there their marriage occurred. In 1860 they removed to Michigan, where they lived until called by death. All of their five children still survive. To Mr. and Mrs. Kausche were born eleven children, of whom five are living, namely: Laura, the wife of Andrew J. Brown, of Spokane, Washington; Evelyn, who married Leo McMullen and now resides in Canada; Ida A., the wife of George McCarty; Alvina, the wife of Henry Freeborn; and Charles A., who is operating the homestead.

Mr. Kausche was a democrat in politics and felt the concern of a good citizen for the public welfare but was never an aspirant for office. His life was a busy and useful one and his labors were felt as a factor in the agricultural development of Garfield county. He had made many friends and his demise was the occasion of deep regret.

ROBERT KENNEDY.

In the great wheat growing belt of eastern Washington lies the farm of Robert Kennedy, his place being situated on section 15, township 7 north, range 36 east, Walla Walla county. It is a valuable tract of land of nine hundred and twenty acres, all of which has been brought under a high state of cultivation and annually the great wheat yield returns to him a most gratifying income. Mr. Kennedy still gives supervision to the work, of the place although he has now passed the eighty-seventh milestone on life's journey. He was born in Rush county, Indiana, June 20, 1830, a son of John and Margaret Kennedy, both of whom were natives of Tennessee. Removing northward to Indiana, they resided in that state for a time and later became residents of Shelby county, Illinois, where both passed away.

Robert Kennedy started out in life on his own account when a youth of but fourteen years and in 1851, when twenty-one years of age, he crossed the plains to the Pacific coast, attracted by the opportunities of the great and growing west. He made his way to Oregon, where he settled on a farm and continued a resident of that place for eight years. In 1859 he arrived in Walla Walla county and settled on Dry creek, where he has since made his home. As the years have passed he has added to his possessions, his industry and determination bringing to him larger resources. His investments in farm property have made him the owner of nine hundred and twenty acres of valuable wheat land and upon his place are many substantial improvements. His farm presents a very neat and thrifty appearance and is supplied with all modern conveniences.

Mr. Kennedy has been married twice. He first wedded Miss Anna Smith and they became the parents of three children of whom only one is now living, L. L. Kennedy, a resident farmer of Oregon. The wife and mother passed away in 1876 and in 1879 Mr. Kennedy was again married, his second union being with Mrs. Margaret (Jackson) Dennison. Mrs. Kennedy is a cousin of William Dennison, who was governor of Ohio. To Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy have been born seven children: Rebecca, the deceased wife of Professor R. E. Stafford; Martha, the wife of John Connell; Robert P.; Edna; William B.; B. H.; and Edith May, who has passed away.

In his political views Mr. Kennedy is a republican, having supported the party since its organization. He has served on the school board and the cause of public education finds in him an earnest advocate. Fraternally he is connected with the Masons, although of late years he has not been active in lodge work. He and his wife are active and consistent members of the Christian church and Mrs. Kennedy is now the oldest member of the church at Walla Walla. Their lives have been guided by its teachings and their many excellent traits of character have won for them the warm regard and high esteem of all who know them. Mr. Kennedy is one of the venerable citizens of Walla Walla county and can look back upon the past without regret and forward to the future without fear, for his has ever been an honorable life. Fifty-six years have come and gone since he arrived in the west and therefore he has been a witness of the greater part of its growth and progress.

E. H. LEONARD.

E. H. Leonard, who has long been known as a prominent representative of milling interests in the northwest, is now the vice president of the Preston-Shaffer Milling Company and active manager of its mill at Waitsburg. He was born in Walla Walla, May 16, 1873, and is a son of Thomas S. and Sarilda R. (Herren) Leonard. The father was a native of the state of New York, and the mother of Oregon having been one of the first white children born in that state. The date of the father's birth was April 25, 1840. He acquired a good education in the schools of that early period and in 1860 removed westward to Illinois, where for three years he engaged in teaching school, spending a part of the time also in Iowa. In 1863 he enlisted in the government service, being made a member of an organization for the purpose of rendering assistance and guidance to emigrant trains crossing the plains. On reaching the Boise river his train, feeling in comparative safety, disbanded and Mr. Leonard continued his journey to the coast, arriving in Portland, Oregon, late in November, 1863, when that now populous and progressive city was a town of but three thousand inhabitants. He afterward drifted to various points in the northwest and subsequently again took up educational work, teaching in the vicinity of Salem, Oregon, where he remained until about 1871. In the fall of that year he came to Walla Walla and in the spring of 1872 he removed to Dayton, where he has since resided. In the fall of that year he and his wife took charge of the Dayton school and in the spring of 1873 removed to a government land claim. In 1876 Mr. Leonard assisted in the organization of Columbia county and was elected the first county superintendent of schools. On the expiration of his term in that office he returned to the homestead and has since been engaged in farming. He has taken an active and important part in promoting the development of county and state along material and intellectual lines and has left the impress of his individuality for good upon the history of the community. In 1868 Mr. Leonard was united in marriage to Miss Sarilda R. Herren, a daughter of John and Docia (Robbins) Herren, who crossed the plains from Kentucky to Oregon in 1845. They settled near Salem, among the very early pioneers of that section. On her mother's side Mrs. Leonard comes of a family represented in the Revolutionary war, her great-grandfather, William Robbins, having been a participant in that struggle which led to the attainment of American independence. T. S. Leonard is one of the prominent citizens of Dayton and has for many years taken a prominent and helpful part in the development of Columbia county.

E. H. Leonard was reared to farm life and his education has been practically self acquired. He worked in his father's fields until his twenty-fifth year and in 1898 he became connected with milling operations as an employe of the North Pacific Flour Mills Company at Prescott. In March, 1900, he was made foreman of the mills and in July of the same year, when the mills were acquired by the Portland Flouring Mills Company, Mr. Leonard was made manager, which position he continued to fill until 1904. In that year he was advanced to the position of district manager with the Portland Flouring Mills Company and in that connection had supervision over the mills of Dayton and Prescott and later also of Walla Walla. He continued in that capacity until January 1, 1916, at which time, having acquired an interest in the Preston-Shaffer Milling Company at Waitsburg, he was made assistant manager and removed to Waitsburg. This company also owns mills at Athena, Oregon. At the first meeting of the directors after his removal to Waitsburg, Mr. Leonard was elected to the vice presidency of the company in recognition of his marked ability and his long experience in the milling business. There is no phase of flour manufacture with which he is not familiar and in the operation of the plants of the Preston-Shaffer Company he utilizes the latest improved machinery and the most modern processes, displaying marked enterprise in the control of the business. While thus extensively engaged in milling for nineteen years he has also continued his farming operations and now owns and operates two farms in Walla Walla county, comprising twenty-five hundred acres. He has thus become one of the prominent wheat growers of the Inland Empire. Either one of his business connections are sufficiently extensive and important to rank him with the representative business men of this section of the country. He is both forceful and resourceful and readily recognizes and utilizes opportunities which others pass heedlessly by. He is fortunate in that he possesses character and ability that awaken confidence in others and the simple weight of his character and his ability have carried him into important relations.

In November, 1900, occurred the marriage of Mr. Leonard and Miss Minnie Belle Lieuallen, of Portland, Oregon, and they have become the parents of three children: Mineta Belle, who is attending high school; Edgar Hugh, a student in the graded schools; and Joanna Jeanne.

Mr. Leonard is a republican in his political views and fraternally is connected with Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, A. F. & A. M.; Dayton Chapter, No. 5, R. A. M.; and Walla Walla Commandery, No. 1, K. T. He also has membership with El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane, and belongs to Whetstone Lodge, No. 157, K. of P., of Prescott. His record is an inspiring one, for out of a struggle with small opportunities he has come into a field of broad and active influence and usefulness. Quick discernment and the faculty of separating the important features of any subject from its incidental or accidental circumstances have been strong phases in his career. His business has ever balanced up with the principles of truth and honor. He has ever been possessed of sufficient courage to venture where favoring opportunity is presented and his judgment and even-paced energy have carried him forward to the goal of success. His quietude of deportment, his frankness and cordiality of address, with the total absence of anything sinister or anything to conceal, foretoken a man who is ready to meet any obligation of life with the confidence and courage that come of conscious personal ability, right conception of things and an habitual regard for what is best in the exercise of human activity.

JOHN F. BREWER.

Twelve years have passed since John F. Brewer was called to his final rest, but his memory is cherished by many who knew him, as he stood as a high type of manhood and citizenship and was devoted to the welfare and progress not only of his family but of the community in which he lived. He was born in Scotland county, Missouri, November 9, 1842, a son of David and Susan (Small) Brewer, who crossed the plains with an ox team in 1853, reaching Salem, Oregon, where they established their home. Their son, John F., was then a little lad of ten years and he completed his public school training in Salem, while later he pursued a course of study in Sublimity College, some fourteen miles from Salem. He then took up the profession of teaching, which he followed in the public schools for many years, imparting readily and clearly to others the knowledge that he had acquired. In 1872 he removed to the Walla Walla valley, where he engaged in farming. His agricultural interests were carefully and successfully conducted and for many years he concentrated his efforts and attention upon the development of the fields. At length, however, he left the farm and removed to Walla Walla, building a handsome home on Boyer avenue. In 1876 he purchased a large tract of land east of the city and became one of the leading and extensive farmers of Walla Walla county. In 1890 he removed to Seattle, where he platted a tract of land which he called the Walla Walla addition but in this enterprise he was not successful and returned to Walla Walla, where his investments were judiciously made, his business affairs capably managed and his enterprise brought to him a very gratifying and substantial measure of success.

In March, 1872, Mr. Brewer was united in marriage to Miss Adora D. Stanton, a native of Oregon and a daughter of Benjamin and Matilda (Baldwin) Stanton. Her parents were natives of Kentucky and crossed the plains by wagon in 1852, settling near Salem, Oregon. They had a family of eleven children, of whom seven are still living. Mr. and Mrs. Brewer became the parents of nine children, namely: John, who is manager of the Commercial Club at The Dalles, Oregon, but is now in the government service at Portland Oregon; Merton, a practicing attorney at Auburn, Washington; Ada, who has passed away; Frank, living in Walla Walla county; Maud, the wife of Charles Ulm, of Ritzville; Bertha, who is the widow of Eugene Dunbar and now lives in Anchorage, Alaska; Dora, who is the wife of Fred Snedecor, of Corona, California; Roy, who is a sergeant in the United States army with the First Illinois Infantry; and Luella, the wife of Frank Harlow, of Los Angeles, California.

[Illustration: JOHN F. BREWER]

[Illustration: MRS. JOHN F. BREWER]

Mrs. Brewer owns a fine residence on Boyer avenue in Walla Walla, where she resides, and in addition she has five hundred and twenty acres of valuable wheat land near the city and another tract of eight hundred acres in Franklin county. She is an active and prominent member of the Sunshine Club and is also connected with the Eastern Star and church organizations. Mr. Brewer left his family in very comfortable financial circumstances when death called him on the 21st of February, 1905. He was one of the valued and respected citizens of this section of the country. He took an active part in the development of Walla Walla county and never withheld his support from any enterprise that he believed would prove beneficial in any way. He was intensely patriotic and he stood for all that was progressive in relation to public affairs. He served for several terms as alderman of his city and at the time of his death was filling the position of councilman for his ward. To him belongs the honor of being the father of the paid fire department of Walla Walla, which has proven successful and satisfactory even beyond his confident predictions. Fraternally he was connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias. the ancient Order of United Workmen and the Royal Arcanum, while his religious faith was indicated by his membership in the First Presbyterian church.

His home paper, in writing of his death, said: "In the death of John Brewer, Walla Walla loses one of her best and most progressive citizens. No citizen of the town had more warm personal friends, and his demise has brought sadness to many a home. As private citizen and public official he always strove to do his full duty. He endeavored to be just to all men and he spoke ill of no one. He was broad-minded and conservative, generous and public spirited. It would be hard to find a man in the community with fewer faults and more virtues. His home life was ideal and it is no wonder that those nearest and dearest to him find it so hard to reconcile themselves to the loss of a kind and loving husband and father."

"I cannot say and will not say That he is dead, he is just away; He has wandered into an unknown land With a cheery smile and a wave of the hand; And left us dreaming how very fair It needs must be, since he lingers there."

VICTOR E. SIEBERT.

Victor E. Siebert is a member of the firm of Osterman & Siebert, known as Walla Walla's foremost architects, in which connection he has developed skill of the highest degree, and his patronage is indicative of the high order of his work. He is a native son of Walla Walla, born October 3, 1884, his parents being Chris and Minnie (Nahen) Siebert, the former a native of Berlin, Germany, while the latter was born in Red Bluff, California. The father was reared to manhood and pursued his education in his native country and served throughout the Franco-Prussian war. Following that conflict, in 1875, he came to the United States, making his way to Oconto, Wisconsin, but after a brief period there passed he removed westward to Washington, establishing his home in Asotin county, where he took up a homestead claim and lived for a few years. He later removed to Walla Walla county and purchased a farm six or eight miles east of the city of Walla Walla, on which he resided for some time. He next removed to the city, where he now makes his home. He is still active in farming in a small way but in a measure has put aside the arduous duties of life.

Victor E. Siebert, whose name introduces this review, was educated in the Baker school of Walla Walla and when eighteen years of age he began the study of architecture in the office of Henry Osterman, with whom he thus remained for three years. He then went east to complete his education and entered the Boston Technical School in the fall of 1906. There he pursued a special course in architecture, attending the institution for four years. After completing his studies he entered into partnership with Peter F. McLaughlin and established business in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, under the firm style of McLaughlin & Siebert. This relationship existed for two and a half years, at the end of which time the partnership was dissolved and in the fall of 1912 Mr. Siebert returned to Walla Walla and entered into partnership relations with Mr. Osterman, his former preceptor. They are well known architects of this city, the firm of Osterman & Siebert occupying a very creditable and enviable position in professional circles. Many of the most important buildings of the northwest have been designed and erected by them and stand as monuments of their skill, their enterprise and business ability.

In 1910 Mr. Siebert was united in marriage to Miss Mary Hoelzel, of Adams, Massachusetts, and they have become the parents of two children, Henry and Gretchen. Mr. Siebert is a consistent member of Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M., and also belongs to Columbus Council of the Knights of Kadosh, No. 6, of Walla Walla, and to Oriental Consistory, No. 2, A. & A. S. R. He is also connected with El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane. His political allegiance is given to the republican party. He belongs to the Walla Walla Commercial Club and is one of the city's representative men, his aid and influence being always given on the side of progress and advancement, reform and improvement. He and his wife are members of the Christian Science church and their genuine personal worth has gained for them a circle of friends almost coextensive with the circle of their acquaintance. Thorough preliminary training has constituted the basis of Mr. Siebert's success in a professional way and fidelity to the highest standards of business has actuated him at every point in his career. The northwest is fortunate in having his services in connection with its important growth and development and Walla Walla is proud to number him among her citizens.

WILLIAM T. LANE.

William T. Lane is a Civil war veteran and a retired farmer who is now living in Starbuck. He was born in Tennessee, December 27, 1841, and is a son of Tidence and Rebecca (Huhn) Lane, who were natives of Tennessee. The father was killed in that state by a falling tree. The mother afterward removed to Missouri, where her last days were passed. They had a family of three children but William T. is the only one now living.

Through the period of his boyhood and youth William T. Lane remained a resident of Tennessee but in 1865, when twenty-four years of age, went to Missouri and established his home in Johnson county. In 1880 he came to Columbia county, where he rented a farm for two years and later he invested his savings in land, becoming owner of a place four miles south of Starbuck, comprising four hundred acres. He occupied that farm for twenty years, devoting his time and energies to its further development and improvement with the result that he converted it into a most valuable and productive agricultural property. At length he sold the place and settled in Starbuck, where he now resides, and through the intervening period he has lived retired, enjoying a well earned rest.

In 1870 Mr. Lane was united in marriage to Miss Nettie Oliphant, a native of Missouri, and they became the parents of seven children: Nancy E., who is the wife of C. A. Gregory; Hattie E., who is the wife of W. E. Phillips; and five who have passed away. The wife and mother died in December, 1908, and was laid to rest in the Starbuck cemetery. She left a husband and two daughters to mourn her Loss. She was devoted to the welfare of her family and had many excellent traits of character which endeared her to all with whom she was brought in contact.

Mr. Lane is a member of the Christian church. He is a veteran of the Civil war, having enlisted in 1861 as a member of Company C, Sixty-first Tennessee Regiment. He was paroled at Vicksburg and came out without a scratch although he had taken part in several hotly contested battles. His life has been a busy and useful one, largely devoted to farming interests, and by unfaltering industry and determination he has advanced steadily on the highroad to success. He is one of the leading men of the valley in which he resides and is enjoying a prosperity which is the merited reward of his labors.

J. W. CLODIUS.

J. W. Clodius is a well known representative of farming interests in Walla Walla county, where he is now engaged in the cultivation of thirteen hundred acres of land. He makes his home on section 34, township 9 north, range 37 east, and his well directed energy and careful management are bringing to him substantial success. He was born April 28, 1889, in the county where he yet resides, his parents being Hans F. and Catherine (Rhode) Clodius, who came to Walla Walla county in 1881. They were both natives of Germany, where they were reared and married, and about 1870 they crossed the Atlantic to the United States, settling in Illinois, where they remained until they came to Washington. On removing to the northwest they established their home in Walla Walla county and the father acquired land from time to time until he owned thirteen hundred acres. He settled on Mill creek and about 1897 removed to the home farm, upon which his son, J. W. Clodius, now resides. There he continued to live until 1913, when he put aside the active work of the fields and removed to Waitsburg, where he is now located. He is numbered among the honored and valued pioneer settlers of his section of the state and made for himself a creditable record in business circles, for through his individual effort, persistency of purpose and honorable dealing he gained a most substantial competence.

J. W. Clodius acquired a public school education and through the period of his boyhood and youth remained at home, assisting his father in the operation of the farm. Upon the latter's removal to Waitsburg he then took charge of the home property and is now engaged in cultivating thirteen hundred acres of rich land. He is thus numbered among the leading agriculturists of the community. The methods which he pursues are most practical and progressive. He is systematic and methodical in all that he does, he employs the latest improved machinery to facilitate the work of the fields and by energy and persistency of purpose is winning success.

On the 8th of November, 1911, Mr. Clodius was united in marriage to Miss Ina Mary Harkins, of Waitsburg, a daughter of James Harkins, who is now deceased. Her mother, who bore the maiden name of Anna Elizabeth Harris, is now living on a farm in Bolles Junction. She was born, reared and married in Illinois, though her husband was a native of Davenport, Iowa. Shortly after their marriage they came west and located in Lane county, Oregon, where they remained until 1898 and then removed to Waitsburg, Washington, where the death of Mr. Harkins occurred. In their family were eight children, seven of whom are still living. Both Mr. and Mrs. Harkins held membership in the Christian church. Mr. and Mrs. Clodius have become the parents of two children, Emory W. and Brenda M.

Fraternally Mr. Clodius is connected with Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E. In politics he maintains an independent course, voting according to the dictates of his judgment. He is yet a comparatively young man but has made for himself a most creditable position in agricultural circles and the extent and importance of his farming interests are indicative of his business ability.

THEODORE GROTE.

Theodore Grote, one of the foremost farmers of Columbia county, Washington, owning ten thousand acres of fine wheat and pasture land, was born in Germany, July 5, 1881, a son of John and Anna (Dryer) Grote, also natives of that country. In 1882 they emigrated to America with their family and took up their residence in Ohio, whence three years later they removed to Kansas. They resided in that state for three years and then came to Washington, first locating in Whitman county. In 1893, however, they removed to Walla Walla county, and there the father passed away in 1915, while the mother survives.

[Illustration: THEODORE GROTE]

Theodore Grote, who is one of a family of five children, was brought to Washington when a child and in the acquirement of his education attended the common schools. In 1897 he began farming in partnership with his father and brothers, operating eighteen hundred acres of leased land. He devoted six years to that work and then removed to Canada, where for a year he was in the sheep business. He then returned to Walla Walla and purchased fifty-five hundred acres of land and leased six thousand acres. Four years later he sold his property to his brother Ben, but after a period of two years he again purchased land, becoming the owner of a valuable tract in Columbia County on section 10, township 11 north, range 38 east. He has since added to his holdings and is now the owner of ten thousand acres, of which forty-three hundred acres is wheat land and the remainder pasture land. He has a herd of six hundred head of cattle and his stock raising interests are very profitable. As a wheat grower he met with unusual success, and he is always among the first to adopt a new method or implement of value. He is systematic and businesslike in the management of his affairs, realizing that the day of haphazard, unthinking farming has passed.

Mr. Grote was married in February, 1911, to Miss Matie C. Baumann, who was born in Washington. He is an advocate of the principles of the republican party but confines his participation in public affairs to the exercise of his right of franchise. He belongs to the Elks at Walla Walla and is a member of the Masonic Lodge, No. 106 F. & A. M., at Starbuck and of the Royal Arch Chapter at Dayton. His ability stands out as an unquestioned fact and it is generally recognized that he is an important factor in the development of Columbia county along agricultural and stock raising lines.

A. G. LLOYD.

Fifty-eight years ago A. G. Lloyd became a resident of Walla Walla county and in a little log cabin began life in true pioneer style. He had, however, been a resident of the west for a much longer period, the family home having been established in Oregon in 1845. He was born in Missouri, July 25, 1836, his parents being John and Nancy (Walker) Lloyd, both of whom were natives of North Carolina. At a very early period they removed westward to Missouri and in 1845 crossed the plains with ox teams, making the long wearisome journey across the hot stretches of sand and over the mountains, three years before gold had been discovered in California, at which later time the trails to the west were more definitely marked and more easily followed. They located in Benton county, Oregon, where the father took up a donation claim of six hundred acres. There he built a log cabin covered with a clapboard roof and the chimney was built on the outside of the primitive dwelling. Hardships and privations fell to their lot but with stout hearts and undiminished courage they put forth every effort to establish a home on the western frontier and were active with those who were planting the seeds of civilization in Washington. The mother died while the family resided upon the homestead farm and the father afterward removed to Colfax, Washington, where he passed away in 1875. In their family were nine children, but one of whom is now living.

A. G. Lloyd was reared and educated in Oregon, having been but a little lad of nine summers at the time of the removal to the west. There was no phase of pioneer life with which he was not familiar. He served in the Indian war on the Walla Walla river and was in the Seven-Day fight. He became familiar with all of the methods of treacherous warfare practiced by the savages and he aided in reclaiming the region for the purposes of civilization. He was mustered out in July, 1856, and returned to the work of the farm.

In 1858 he was united in marriage to Miss Lois Jasper, a native of Kentucky and a daughter of John and Mary (Heath) Jasper, who were also natives of the Blue Grass state, whence in 1842 they removed to St. Joseph, Missouri. The father died in that state and the mother with her family of six children afterward, in 1854, crossed the plains and became a resident of Benton county, Oregon. In the family were eight children, of whom three are now living.

Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd began their domestic life in Oregon, but in July, 1859, removed to Walla Walla county, Washington, where he secured a homestead claim of one hundred and sixty acres two and a half miles from Waitsburg on the Touchet river. Upon his land he built a log cabin with puncheon floor and door. The home was most primitive but it sheltered stout hearts and willing hands. They bravely faced the conditions of pioneer life in order to secure a home for themselves and for eight years they lived upon that place without change. At the end of that time Mr. Lloyd was able to purchase more land and his widow now owns two hundred acres, for some of which she has been offered three hundred dollars per acre. The rapid settlement of this section of the country, together with the improvements made upon the farm, have greatly enhanced the value of the property, which returns to Mrs. Lloyd a very gratifying annual income. In his business career Mr. Lloyd displayed marked diligence and determination and his farming interests were wisely and carefully managed, so that he became recognized as one of the foremost agriculturists of this section of the state. As the years went on eleven children were added to the family, of whom six are now living, namely: J. C., who is in California; G. M., a resident of Waitsburg; Wesley A., who is occupying the old homestead; Gilla Ann, the wife of C. C. Milinger, of Spokane, Washington; Ralph G., also living in this state; and Angeline, the wife of F. G. Aldridge.

The death of the husband and father occurred January 5, 1915, since which time Mrs. Lloyd has personally managed the farm. Mr. Lloyd not only figured as one of the leading representatives of agricultural life in Walla Walla county but was a most prominent and influential factor in other connections. He attained the thirty-second degree of the Scottish Rite in Masonry and held all of the chairs in the different Masonic branches with which he was affiliated. His political allegiance was given the democratic party and he was one of its recognized leaders. His opinions carried weight in its councils and his efforts were an element in advancing its success. Five times he was elected to represent his district in the general assembly of Washington and he left the impress of his individuality upon many important legislative measures which were enacted during that period. He closely studied the questions and issues of the day and gave his aid and support to any measure or movement which he believed would promote the interests of the commonwealth and stood with equal firmness in opposition to any cause which he believed would be detrimental to the welfare of the community at large. His position was never an equivocal one and he loyally supported every measure in which he believed. None questioned the integrity of his opinions or of his actions. He served as a delegate to both county and state conventions and did much to mold public thought and opinion. Mrs. Lloyd is a member of the Eastern Star and also of the Rebekah lodge and in these organizations has filled all of the chairs. She is a consistent member of the Presbyterian church, while Mr. Lloyd was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. He was prominent as a man whose constantly expanding powers took him from humble surroundings to the field of large enterprises and continually broadening opportunities. He was reared upon the western frontier and the effort required to live in those ungenerous surroundings, the necessity to make every blow tell and to exercise every inventive faculty developed powers of mind and habits which made him a forceful and resourceful business man and citizen. The early rising, the daily tasks, the economical habits of the country boy prepared him for the struggle that most precede ascendency and step by step Mr. Lloyd gained success in business and prominence in public life.

W. M. TAYLOR.

W. M. Taylor resides in Waitsburg but is identified with farming on section 31, township 9 north, range 38 east, in Columbia county. He has resided in this state since reaching the age of eighteen years. He was born in Johnson county, Missouri, January 31, 1861, and is a son of Simon and Harriet (Burgess) Taylor, who are mentioned in connection with the sketch of his brother, Charles M. Taylor, on another page of this work. The public school system of his native county afforded him his educational privileges. He made good use of his time and opportunities in that direction and when not busy with his textbooks he was assisting in the work of the home farm and thus learning valuable lessons in the school of experience. He had reached the age of eighteen years when he came to Washington, after which he remained at home, cooperating with his father in the development and improvement of a new farm up to the time of his marriage. In the meantime, however, he and his brothers, G. B., J. W. and J. F. Taylor, bought eight hundred acres of land, which they cultivated in partnership, and they also operated one thousand acres belonging to Whitman College. This they leased and the four brothers continued their farming interests together until about 1907, when a division of their holdings was made, and W. M. Taylor acquired three hundred and sixty acres of the land that had been held conjointly before. He has since purchased two hundred and forty acres adjoining his other tract, so that his home farm now comprises six hundred acres and constitutes one of the valuable wheat ranches of Columbia county. The soil is particularly adapted to wheat raising and the crops produced are most extensive and gratifying, for the methods which Mr. Taylor follows in the development of his fields are practical. All of the work on the farm is systematically done and is guided by his sound judgment. He uses the latest improved machinery to facilitate the work of the fields and there is no equipment of the model farm property of the twentieth century that is not found upon his place.

On September 18, 1889, occurred the marriage of Mr. Taylor and Miss Flora Kinyoun, of Johnson county, Missouri, who came to Washington to teach music in 1887. By her marriage she became the mother of two children: Harriet E., the wife of R. B. McElroy, of Spokane, Washington; and Laura E., the wife of Theodore Holsey, of Spokane, this state. The wife and mother passed away in 1897 and on November 29, 1899, Mr. Taylor was again married, his second union being with Mrs. Lillian Devall, née Pinkley, who was a teacher in the public schools of Walla Walla and Columbia counties. To this marriage has been born a daughter, Florence G.

Fraternally Mr. Taylor is connected with Touchet Lodge, No. 5, I. O. O. F., and he also belongs to the Ancient Order of United Workmen. His political views are in accord with the principles of the democratic party. He and his wife are members of the Methodist church and their lives are guided by its teachings and its principles. Aside from his farming interests Mr. Taylor became one of the incorporators of the Exchange Bank of Waitsburg, of which he is still a stockholder. He has made for himself a very creditable position as a substantial farmer and representative citizen of Columbia county. After the harvests are gathered he takes up his abode in Waitsburg, where he has an attractive city home and there spends the winters. The extent and importance of his business interests have made him widely and favorably known and his life record should serve as a source of inspiration and encouragement to others, indicating what may be accomplished through persistent and honorable effort. He has aided in demonstrating the possibilities for grain farming in this section of the state and the worth of his work, both as a source of individual success and of general prosperity, is widely acknowledged.

CHRISTIAN STURM, SR.

Christian Sturm, who one of the best known and most highly esteemed pioneers of the Walla Walla valley, was born in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, Germany, April 14, 1834. At the age of seventeen, accompanied by a brother, he came to the United States, the ocean voyage taking forty-two days.

He enjoyed telling a good joke on himself which occurred when he landed in New York with little of this world's goods. He met with a traveling Jew who said to him: "Carry these bags and suit cases for me several blocks and I'll pay you twenty-five cents." He accepted the offer and carried the luggage blocks and blocks until, finally in the heart of the city, they entered a building and climbed several flights of stairs. On one of the top floors the Jew took the luggage and asked him to wait a few minutes and he would return and pay him. He waited and waited patiently but the generous Jewish gentleman never returned. It was some little time before it dawned on him that he was "stung." It was a lesson, for the errand caused him to miss his boat and, also, his brother whom he never saw again. That night he spent sight seeing about New York, and while standing about admiring what was a most wonderful building to him he was thrown into jail where he was compelled to remain until morning and he often remarked, "his first and only time in jail was his first night in America."

[Illustration: CHRISTIAN STURM, SR.]

[Illustration: MRS. CHRISTIAN STURM, SR.]

After finishing his education in New York, he moved to Delaware and after spending two years in that state he went to Philadelphia where he enlisted in the service of the U. S. army in 1857. Shortly afterwards his company was moved to Newport, Kentucky, and then to New York; then, by the isthmus of Panama route to San Francisco and from the last named place to Astoria. Astoria at that time had but few buildings. Soon after he was stationed at Vancouver and a little later at the Cascades. With his company he walked to the upper Cascades and took the boat to The Dalles and from there he marched with his troop to Fort Walla Walla. He was five years in the army and during his enlistment he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. In the army he saw much real fighting. In 1858 he was in the expedition to Colville, which was in command of Colonel Wright. They encountered the Indians, nearly twelve thousand strong, who opened fire on the troops, and the famous battle of Steptoe was fought. During this battle Captain Taylor was killed. Captain Taylor was wearing a silk sash which he took off and presented to Lieutenant Sturm of whom he was very fond. The sash he always kept in memory of momentous hours of danger and as a sacred memento of a true friendship, and it now hangs in its familiar place in his widow's home. The Indians that fought at Steptoe consisted of the Yakimas, Colvilles, Palouses, Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes. In this famous battle the troops fortified themselves on Steptoe Butte and how bravely they fought history tells. During the battle many Indians were dispatched and as many as one thousand Indian ponies were killed.

After retiring from the army as lieutenant, acting as assistant quartermaster, First Cavalry United States of America, 1862, at Fort Walla Walla (the same fort that President Wilson ordered used in 1917 for a training camp for the Washington State Field Artillery, under command of Major Paul Weyrauch) the wonderful opportunities of the Inland Empire country made a strong appeal to Mr. Sturm. After spending a year mining at Orofino, Idaho, he returned to Walla Walla and went into the livery business with Fred Kraft. After a short time he disposed of his interest in the livery and engaged in the general merchandise business with O. B. Brechtel for a partner. Their store was one of the first in Walla Walla; it was a headquarters for miners returning from the Orofino placer mines; the miners would deposit their gold dust with Messrs. Sturm and Brechtel for safe keeping, there being no banks at that time in Walla Walla. After remaining in the mercantile business for five years Mr. Sturm bought one hundred and sixty acres of land from H. M. Chase two and one-half miles from Walla Walla and engaged in farming. He acquired another adjoining one hundred and sixty acres; also homesteaded one hundred and sixty and preempted one hundred and sixty; then, in later years, he bought five hundred acres more. He was one of the most successful wheat and stock raisers in the valley.

Mr. Sturm was married in 1865 to Miss Marietta Roff. Four sons and two daughters were born to this union, and two sons and two daughters survive. Mrs. Sturm was born September 12, 1844, a daughter of Frederick Roff. Her girlhood was spent in Illinois, but in 1864 she with her parents left Quincy, that state, and they crossed the plains and mountains, using ox and horse teams, the crossing requiring six months. Many were the hardships they endured. Among others, their oxen got on a "poisoned meadow" and died. During the last part of their journey they traveled with a government train and arrived in Walla Walla, October 16, 1864. Mrs. Sturm's father, Frederick Roff, was perhaps the first man to take up a homestead in the valley, filing on one hundred and sixty acres about two and a half miles east of Walla Walla. He there resided until his death, August 2, 1890. Mrs. Sturm survives her husband and resides at the old Sturm home in Walla Walla. More extended mention in regard to the family of Frederick Roff is made in connection with the sketch of Oliver DeWitt, whose wife is a sister of Mrs. Sturm.

Mr. Sturm, who died on January 11, 1909, was one of the foremost pioneers of the western country. Taking up his abode in the northwest when Walla Walla boasted but a few log buildings and the tributary country was but a wilderness, he was one of those sturdy, upright characters who did his full share to help develop the country and make it the success it is today. At all times public spirited and keenly alive and devoted to the interests of the community he was one of the country's true builders. As one of the distinguished pioneers of the country--as a man who performed many good deeds in his day--his name will always be remembered and ever held in the highest respect.

WILLIAM M. SCOTT.

William M. Scott belonged to that class of honored pioneers who have laid broad and deep the foundation upon which has been built the present prosperity and greatness of the state of Washington. He was a resident of Walla Walla from 1905 until his death and for many years was prominently identified with the wheat industry in Umatilla county, Oregon. He was born in McLean county, Illinois, December 29, 1837, and was a son of John B. and Rena (Halsey) Scott. During his infancy he was taken by his maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Halsey, with whom he remained until his ninth year, when his uncle, Dr. A. K. Scott, became his foster father, and with him William H. Scott remained until 1855, when at the age of eighteen years he started out in life independently. He went to Coffey county, Kansas, where he remained for one year and then started to return to Illinois but stopped off in Daviess county, Missouri, and decided to remain. He there continued until 1859, when he again went to Kansas and in 1860 he started across the plains for the western country, his objective point being the Walla Walla valley, of which he had heard much. The lure of the California gold fields, however, drew him as a magnet and his course was diverted. He was one of the party to which J. L. Stubblefield belonged. The company subsequently divided but Mr. Scott and others proceeded to California. After spending several months in that state he came, in 1861, northward and located at McMinnville, Oregon, where he attended college for a time. In 1862 he engaged in freighting with ox teams from Wallula to Lewiston and subsequently from The Dalles to the Idaho mines. In the fall of 1863 he went to Salem, Oregon, where he resided for seven years. He then crossed the mountains, locating near Prineville, where he was engaged in the live stock business for eight years. In 1878 he removed to Umatilla county, Oregon, where he took up a homestead and a timber culture near Helix. One of these claims subsequently sold for two hundred dollars, but later he bought it back for forty-two hundred dollars. He acquired a full section of six hundred and forty acres of the best land in the wheat belt and engaged in farming eight hundred acres, leasing a quarter section adjoining his place. One year he harvested sixty-six bushels of wheat to the acre upon his farm and he averaged from year to year from forty to forty-five bushels. He experienced all the hardships and privations of early pioneer life and twice in the year 1878 was forced to leave Helix on account of the hostility of the Indians and seek refuge in Fort Walla Walla. However, he persevered and his determination and energy overcame the obstacles in the path of material advancement, while changing conditions, brought about by the settlement of the country, soon obviated the necessity of protecting against Indian attack. In 1905, after many years successfully devoted to farming, he retired from active agricultural life and removed to Walla Walla, where he remained until called to his final home, on January 18, 1915.

Mr. Scott was united in marriage to Miss Anna D. Caplinger, a daughter of Jacob and Jane (Woodside) Caplinger, of Salem, Oregon. They crossed the plains from Fulton county, Illinois, to Oregon in 1845 and settled in Oregon City but after two years removed to Marion county, that state, taking up their abode on the prairie four miles east of Salem, where they remained until called to their final rest. The father died on the 20th of June, 1904, and the mother survived only until the 26th of July of the same year. In 1845, on their journey across the plains, which was made by way of the Mount Hood route, they were there snowbound for more than three weeks with no food but coffee for several days.

Mr. and Mrs. Scott became the parents of nine children, namely: Mary L., who is the wife of J. M. Richardson, of Rosalia; Emma J., who gave her hand in marriage to Dr. E. A. Mann, of Portland, Oregon; John A., who resides in Lacrosse, Washington; Ira C., who operates the home farm for his mother, now residing in Walla Walla; Ray W., who passed away in 1902, when sixteen years of age; and Alexander, Charles, Walter and Bertha, who are also deceased.

In his political views Mr. Scott was a stalwart democrat and in 1890 he was a candidate for county judge of Umatilla county. His life was that of a consistent Christian and for more than twenty years he was an elder in the Church of Christ at Helix. He was also a public-spirited citizen and a factor in the advancement of the county's welfare and interests along many lines. Death called him January 18, 1915. A modern philosopher has said: "Not the good that comes to us, but the good that comes to the world through us, is the measure of our success"; and judged by that standard Mr. Scott was a most successful man, for he went about doing good, extending a helping hand to the poor and needy, assisting in the work of general improvement and shedding around him much of life's sunshine. His widow now occupies a beautiful home on South Division street in Walla Walla. She, too, is a member of the Church of Christ and gives liberally to its support and in charitable work, her benevolences being many.

CHESTER J. WOODS.

Chester J. Woods, a representative agriculturist of Walla Walla county, was born April 23, 1883, on a farm adjoining the one on which he now resides, on section 7, township 9 north, range 37 east. He is a son of Joel Woods, mentioned elsewhere in this work. He pursued his education in the public schools, supplemented by study in the academy at Waitsburg, and through the period of his boyhood and youth he aided largely in the work of the home farm, so that he was well qualified by actual experience to take up farming on his own account when he attained his majority. At that time he purchased land on section 8, becoming the owner of seven hundred acres, all of which is now improved. The fields are carefully cultivated and the buildings upon the place indicate the progressive spirit of the owner. He has always engaged in wheat raising and also in raising stock and both branches of his business are proving profitable. He is also a stockholder in the Self-Oiling Wheel & Bearing Company of Walla Walla.

On the 30th of March, 1910, Mr. Woods was married to Miss Jennie Caplinger, who was born in Umatilla county, Oregon, a daughter of T. W. and Marie Caplinger, who are also natives of that place. They are now residents of Walla Walla. Both Mr. and Mrs. Woods hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he is one of the trustees, and they take an active part in its work. Mrs. Woods is a graduate of the Waitsburg high school and Ellensburg Normal School and for seven years successfully engaged in teaching prior to her marriage.

In politics Mr. Woods is a democrat and has served as school director and as clerk but has not been an active worker along political lines. He stands for progress and improvement in public affairs, however, and is willing to support any measure that tends to uphold civic interest. Both he and his wife are held in the highest esteem because of their genuine worth and the hospitality of the best homes in the county is freely accorded them.

PETER McCLUNG.

Peter McClung, of Pomeroy, editor and publisher of the East Washingtonian, was born in Clarke county, Washington, a son of Mathew and Catherine (Wigle) McClung. He was one of four children, the others being: Mrs. Susan Shoemaker, now living in Gresham, Oregon; Mrs. Jennie Buchanan, of Portland; and Edward A., living in Bakersfield, California.

Peter McClung was the third in order of birth and was educated in Clarke and Columbia counties of Washington, attending the schools of Dayton. He learned the printer's trade and as a compositor became connected with the Washingtonian in 1885, his brother-in-law, E. T. Wilson, having founded the paper in 1881. Eight years later, or in 1889, Mr. McClung purchased an interest in the paper and became associated in the business with E. M. Pomeroy, then publisher. Three years afterward he bought out Mr. Pomeroy and has since been owner and publisher thereof. In later years he has been assisted by his son, who pursued a special course in journalism in the State University and who now practically manages the paper.

In 1886 Mr. McClung was united in marriage to Miss Alva E. Pomeroy, a daughter of Joseph M. Pomeroy, who was the founder of the town which bears his name. Mr. and Mrs. McClung have become the parents of two sons: Ray, who has charge at Washington, D. C., of the weekly newspaper publications under the direction of the committee on public information; and Hugh, who is with his father in business.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. PETER McCLUNG]

Fraternally Mr. McClung is an Odd Fellow, and he and his family are connected with the Christian church. In politics he has always maintained an independent course and has the distinction of having published for more than a quarter of a century an absolutely independent paper. His entire life has been passed in the west and with the development and progress of his section of the state he has been helpfully associated.

GEORGE E. KELLOUGH.

Characterized by a spirit of undaunted enterprise, George E. Kellough has won a place among the most substantial and progressive business men of Walla Walla, where he now figures in financial circles as the president of the Third National Bank. He was born in Ontario, Canada, on the 9th of May, 1872, a son of William H. and Ann Grace Kellough, both of whom were natives of Canada. The former was of Irish extraction, while the latter was of French lineage. They spent their entire lives in Canada, residing for many years in Winnipeg, Manitoba, where they were among the pioneer settlers.

George E. Kellough, reared in Winnipeg, there pursued his education in the public schools and at the age of nineteen years, attracted by the broader business opportunities which he felt he might find across the border, he came to the United States and made his way to the western part of the country, reaching Walla Walla county, Washington, in July, 1891. He started in business life here as a ranch hand, but ambition actuated him at every point in his career and continually lured him on to better things. Subsequently he took up a homestead and in time acquired other land, for as his financial resources increased he made judicious investment in property and for some six years was actively and successfully engaged in farming. He then turned his attention to business interests of the city and in 1899 took up his abode in Walla Walla, where he established a clothing and furnishing goods store. He was prominently identified with that business for a decade and built up an extensive trade, ever endeavoring to please his patrons, while his honorable business methods constituted one of the strong features of his growing success. Then a still broader field seemed to open before him and in February, 1910, he made his initial step in financial circles, becoming connected with the Third National Bank as president of the institution, over whose financial policy he has since presided. His plans are well formulated. The business under his direction has been carefully systematized and he has ever recognized the fact that the bank is most worthy of support which most carefully safeguards the interests of depositors. While extending every possible courtesy of the bank to patrons, he has never erred on the side of ultra progressiveness, his actions at all times being tempered by a safe conservatism. His name, therefore, has become a synonym for sound judgment and thorough reliability and he today occupies a central place on the stage of banking activity in Walla Walla county.

In 1893 Mr. Kellough was united in marriage to Miss Viola Purdy, a daughter of Orlando Purdy, who was a Michigan farmer. Mr. and Mrs. Kellough have become the parents of two children, Lance E. and Erma G. Since age conferred upon him the right of franchise Mr. Kellough has given consistent and loyal support to the republican party and has been an earnest and active worker in its ranks. His fellow townsmen, appreciative of his worth and ability, have called him to public office and for two terms, in 1906 and 1907, he served as mayor of Walla Walla, giving to the city a businesslike and progressive administration. He is a member of the Commercial Club, in the work of which he has taken a most active and helpful interest and for one term he served as its president. In this connection he promoted many activities looking to the further development of Walla Walla, the extension of its trade relations and the promotion of its civic standards. He has been very prominent as an Odd Fellow, holding membership in Trinity Lodge, No. 121, I. O. O. F. He has passed through all of the chairs in both the local lodge and in the state organization, and few in Washington have equalled him in active and effective service for the upbuilding of the organization. In fact he is one of the best known Odd Fellows in all the northwestern country. He is likewise connected with the Woodmen of the World, the Fraternal Order of Eagles and the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He is actuated by a spirit of progressiveness in all that he does. There are in his life few leisure hours. He is constantly busied with some interest either for the benefit of his own fortunes or for the upbuilding of the district with which he is connected, and his labors have been effective, beneficial and resultant.

MARCUS ZÜGER, JR.

Prominent among the most alert and progressive farmers of Walla Walla county is numbered Marcus Züger, Jr., who is the owner of extensive and valuable holdings in Walla Walla and in Garfield counties. He was born January 1, 1878, in the county where he still resides, being a son of Marcus Züger, Sr., of whom mention is made elsewhere in this work. His youthful days were spent in the usual manner of farm bred boys and the habits of industry and close application which he early developed have constituted the foundation of his present success. He remained under the parental roof until he had attained his majority and at the age of twenty-five years, at which time he was married, he began farming for himself on the old homestead, comprising fourteen hundred and sixty-eight acres of land. He has since been prominently and extensively identified with agricultural interests in Walla Walla county and in addition to the old homestead tract he is now the owner of eleven hundred and seventy acres in Garfield county, which is highly improved and which brings to him a gratifying annual rental. He follows the most progressive methods in all of his farm work, utilizes the latest improved machinery and upon his place is found every convenience and accessory of the model farm of the twentieth century. He has closely studied scientific methods of wheat raising, whereby he has greatly enhanced the productiveness of his fields. Aside from his farming interests he is connected with the Exchange Bank at Waitsburg as one of its directors.

In 1904 Mr. Züger was united in marriage to Miss Jennie L. Woodworth, a native of New York, and they have become parents of four children, Margaret D., Arthur Frederick, Kenneth and Erma. Mrs. Züger is a member of the Christian church, while Mr. Züger fraternally is connected with the Masons and with the Knights of Pythias and in his life exemplifies the beneficent spirit on which these organizations are based. His political allegiance is given to the republican party and he has served as county commissioner for two years. He has also proved his friendship to the cause of public education by active service as a member of the school board. He stands for progress and improvement in all things relating to the public welfare and has never allowed personal ambitions or interests to dwarf his public spirit or activities. His views have ever found expression in prompt action rather than in theory and he is a man of stable purpose, accomplishing what he undertakes.

ALFRED LARSON.

Alfred Larson, head miller of the mill of the Portland Flouring Mills Company at Dayton and thus prominently identified with the industrial activity and development of southeastern Washington, was born in Sweden, May 13, 1856, a son of Edward and Margaret Larson, both of whom spent their entire lives in Sweden, the father following the occupation of farming there.

Alfred Larson was reared in his native country and its public schools afforded him his educational opportunities. In 1878, when a young man of twenty-two years, he crossed the Atlantic and made his way to Minneapolis, Minnesota. He had previously learned the miller's trade in Sweden, having entered upon an apprenticeship to that work when a youth of but fifteen years. After coming to the new world he secured employment in the flouring mills of Minneapolis and during two different periods devoted seventeen years to that business in that city, spending the entire time with two companies. In 1891 he first came to the far northwest, making his way to Salem, Oregon, where he was employed as head miller by the Portland Flouring Mills Company. He remained in that position in Salem for four years and then returned to Minneapolis, where he spent the succeeding seven years as second miller in one of the city's most important milling plants. In 1902 he again came to the west, this time accepting the position of head miller in the Creston Mills at Creston, Washington, where he resided for three and a half years. He then went to Condon, Oregon, where he took charge of the plant of the Portland Flouring Mills Company, which he managed for five years. He was transferred to the Albino Mills, owned by the same company at Portland, Oregon, and a year later he resigned his position there to engage in the real estate business in Portland. That, however, proved an unsuccessful venture and he returned to the milling business, accepting the position of head miller of the plant of the Portland Flouring Mills Company at Dayton. In this important position he has since continued and the success of the business at this point is attributable to his skill, enterprise and close application. He has won a substantial position among the foremost millers of the northwest.

In 1882 Mr. Larson was united in marriage to Miss Bertha Corlstrom, who was born in Sweden and emigrated to the United States with a sister when a maiden of fourteen years. Mr. and Mrs. Larson have become the parents of three children, two of whom are living, namely: Mabel, the wife of C. N. Lockridge, who is serving as county clerk of Gilliam county, Oregon; and Wallace, a mechanical engineer and miller who is assisting his father in the mill.

Mr. Larson gives his political allegiance to the republican party and fraternally is identified with the Masons, belonging to Creston Lodge, No. 123, F. & A. M.; Davenport Chapter, No. 25, R. A. M.; Zion Commandery, No. 2, K. T.; and Al Kader Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Portland, Oregon. Mr. Larson's record is that of one who through orderly progression has reached a creditable position in the business world. Coming to America when a young man of twenty-two years without capital save energy, ambition and a knowledge of his trade, he has steadily worked his way upward and among his marked characteristics should be mentioned his fidelity and loyalty to the interests which he serves. This is indicated by the fact that he continued for seventeen years in the employ of but two companies in Minneapolis and that he has been gladly received back into the ranks of the representatives of the Portland Flouring Mills Company, with which company he has been associated for twenty-five years and with which he now occupies a position of responsibility and importance. There is no phase of the milling business with which he is not thoroughly familiar and he is thus well qualified to discharge the onerous duties that devolve upon him in his present connection. Dayton numbers him among her foremost citizens and accords him a high measure of respect and goodwill.

CANTREL R. FRAZIER.

Cantrel R. Frazier is a retired farmer residing at No. 305 Newell street in Walla Walla. He has passed the eighty-sixth milestone on life's journey and well deserves the rest which has come to him, for it is the reward of persistent, earnest and intelligently directed effort in former years. He was born in Barren county, Kentucky, February 15, 1832, a son of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Marshall) Frazier. The mother died in Kentucky, after which the father removed to Missouri in 1846. There his remaining days were passed, his death occurring in that state in the early '70s.

Cantrel R. Frazier in young manhood, or in 1853, when twenty-one years of age, crossed the plains with a drove of cattle belonging to the firm of Packwood & Lewis of San Jose, California. He was accompanied on the trip by his brother William and five months were spent upon the road ere they reached their destination. After the cattle were delivered to their employers they took up a homestead in Tulare county, California, after which they paid ten cents per pound for seed wheat. They planted fifteen acres and harvested six hundred bushels, for which they received six cents per pound. For two years they remained in the Golden state and then returned to Missouri.

[Illustration: CANTREL R. FRAZIER]

[Illustration: MRS. CANTREL R. FRAZIER]

In 1857 Cantrel R. Frazier was united in marriage to Miss Salitha Shubert and in 1864 he again crossed the plains with Walla Walla as his destination. He made the trip with one yoke of oxen and a small wagon and brought with him his wife and two children, one of the children being born in Colorado while they were en route to the Pacific coast.

After reaching Washington, Mr. Frazier homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land on Dry creek, about nine miles east of the city of Walla Walla, and upon that farm he resided until his removal to Walla Walla in 1907. He had there lived for forty-three years and his labors had wrought a marked transformation in the appearance of the place. He had planted a variety of fruit and nut trees upon his farm as well as various kinds of grain. Chestnut trees planted in 1884 are now seven feet seven inches in circumference. His fields were most carefully cultivated and the results attained were very gratifying. On the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad into this section of the state, Mr. Frazier and his wife went back to the old Missouri home on a visit. When he again came to the northwest he brought with him some shell bark and some bull hickory nuts, also some butternut trees and black walnut trees. He likewise has persimmon trees upon his place and one of his apple trees is perhaps the largest apple tree in the state. It measures more than seven feet and seven inches in circumference around the base and has a spread of fifty-seven feet, while in height it has reached forty-two feet. In 1907 it yielded a crop of one hundred and twenty-six and a half boxes of fruit of Frazier's prolific variety. From this old tree a number of gavels have been made by the Commercial Club and one was presented to Mr. Frazier. He owns one hundred and seventy acres of land and his place has been brought under a very high state of development and improvement, so that it yields to him a most gratifying annual return.

Mr. and Mrs. Frazier reared a family of six children; namely Florence, who is the wife of Samuel Philips, formerly of Weston, Oregon, but now of Walla Walla; Benjamin, a cattle man living in northern Washington; Jane, who is the wife of Joseph Gwin, of Walla Walla county; Armeda, who gave her hand in marriage to Samuel McHenry, of St. Francois county, Missouri; John, who follows farming in Walla Walla township; and Dora, the wife of Daniel Neiswanger, of Bend, Oregon. The wife and mother died in 1907 after a happy married life of half a century.

Mr. Frazier was again married in 1907 to Mrs. Missouri Ann Wightman, a native of Wayne county, Missouri, and a daughter of Thomas J. and Lucinda Swezea, the former born in Tennessee and the latter in Missouri. In 1859 the parents, accompanied by their six children, started across the plains with two hundred head of cattle, which dwindled down to about one hundred head before reaching Walla Walla. Mr. Swezea purchased a claim about eight miles from the city on Cottonwood creek. On the 8th of July, 1860, a son, Charles L., was added to the family, he being the first white child born in Walla Walla. Mr. Swezea died at the age of seventy-seven years and his wife at the age of seventy-five. Of their nine children only four are now living, namely: Mrs. Nancy J. Harer, of Walla Walla; Missouri Ann, now Mrs. Frazier; Smith W., a resident of Harrison, Idaho; and Charles L., of Walla Walla county. Mrs. Frazier was a girl of fifteen years when she came to this state and on reaching womanhood married William Wightman, by whom she had one child, Elizabeth, the wife of William Wiseman, of Tacoma.

In his political views Mr. Frazier is a democrat, which party he has supported since reaching adult age. He belongs to the Christian church, while his wife is a member of the Presbyterian church. They are people of genuine personal worth, enjoying in large measure the friendship and kindly regard of those with whom thy have been brought in contact. Their own home is noted for its warm-hearted hospitality and is the scene of many delightful social gatherings. For fifty-three years Mr. Frazier has resided in this county and has been a witness of much of its development and improvement. His own labors have demonstrated in large measure what can be accomplished in the way of raising fruits and nuts in this section. He has ever been progressive in his work and the practical methods which he has followed have brought substantial results. He has never had occasion to regret his determination to try his fortune in the northwest. He here found conditions favorable to the man who is willing to work, for the land is rich in its natural resources and Mr. Frazier accordingly brought his diligence to play with the result that he is today the possessor of a handsome competence which surrounds him with all of the necessities and comforts of life and some of its luxuries.

HENRY S. COPELAND.

Henry S. Copeland, deceased, was one of the early pioneer settlers of Walla Walla county, arriving here in 1862. He found a largely unsettled and undeveloped region in which the work of improvement had scarcely been begun. The Indians in the state far outnumbered the white settlers and only here and there had been founded a little town, showing that the seeds of civilization had been planted on the western frontier which were later to bear fruit in the development of one of the most progressive commonwealths of the Union.

Henry S. Copeland was born in Vermont in 1824 and was a son of Thomas Copeland, who came from Ireland to Canada in young manhood. Later he crossed the border into the United States, establishing his home in Vermont, where he resided up to the time of his death. Both he and his wife died when their son Henry was a small boy. He was born upon a farm and continued to work at farm labor through the period of his youth, dividing his time between the tasks of the fields and attendance at the district schools through the winter months. At an early age he began farming on his own account and 1857 found him in Sacramento, California, while in 1859 he was in the Willamette valley. In 1862 he crossed to Walla Walla, believing that the growing community there would offer him the best opportunities. It was not long thereafter until he had purchased a home and subsequently he took up a homestead claim, southeast of Walla Walla. For many years he was prominently identified with the agricultural interests of this county and from time to time purchased other land until his holdings were very extensive. He utilized every chance for judicious investment and never lost faith in the future of this district, for he readily appreciated the fact that nature was kind to this region and had placed before man many opportunities for successful business in this section.

Mr. Copeland was united in marriage, in the Willamette valley, to Miss Mary Ann Morton, a daughter of William and Catherine Morton, of Illinois, and they became the parents of nine children, four of whom survive. The wife and mother passed away in April, 1957, while the death of Mr. Copeland occurred twelve years earlier in February, 1905. He was very prominent in Masonic circles as well as in his business connections and in his life exemplified the beneficent spirit of the craft. He was ever ready to extend a helping hand to a brother of the fraternity or to aid any fellow traveler on life's journey. He was broad-minded and liberal in his views and had many qualities which made him worthy of the high regard in which he was uniformly held.

JOHN W. BROOKS.

For almost a quarter of a century John W. Brooks has been actively engaged in the practice of law in Walla Walla and throughout that period has steadily forged to the front until he has long since occupied an enviable position in the foremost rank of the attorneys of Washington. He was born in Asheville, North Carolina, September 9, 1870, a son of Charles and Elizabeth (Cagle) Brooks, both of whom were natives of that state, where they spent their entire lives. The father died in the same building in which he was born, passing away in his ninetieth year, after having devoted his entire life to general agricultural pursuits.

John W. Brooks was reared upon the home farm and the public schools afforded him his early educational privileges. Being desirous of preparing for the bar, he afterward entered the University of North Carolina, which conferred upon him his degree as a lawyer upon his graduation with the class of 1892. He was admitted to the bar on the 24th of September of that year and following his admission he opened an office in Asheville, North Carolina, where he remained in practice until the 15th of February, 1893. Thinking that the west offered still better business opportunities, he then left the Atlantic coast to make his way to the Pacific seaboard and eventually arrived in Walla Walla, where he has since practiced independently. He is an able lawyer, possessing comprehensive knowledge of the principles of jurisprudence and is seldom if ever at fault in the application of such principles to the point in litigation. His reasoning is sound, his deductions clear and his arguments convincing. For twenty-four years he has now practiced in Walla Walla and has long been accorded a position of leadership among the attorneys of this section of the state.

On the 18th of July, 1898, Mr. Brooks was united in marriage to Miss Esther Belle Singleton, a daughter of John Singleton, a pioneer of 1857, who for many years was closely identified with the development and progress of Walla Walla county, where he passed away in 1893. His widow still survives at the notable old age of ninety-one years. To Mr. and Mrs. Brooks has been born one child, Virginia, now deceased.

Fraternally Mr. Brooks is identified with Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E., with Washington Lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., and with the Modern Woodmen of America. He has always been deeply interested in the welfare and progress of the section of the state in which he lives and he has proven his faith in Walla Walla county and its future by making extensive investments in farm lands. The sterling traits of his character have gained him wide acquaintance and he has an extensive circle of friends, who entertain for him the warmest regard by reason of his personal qualities as well as for his professional achievements.

GEORGE TOMPKINS POLLARD.

George Tompkins Pollard is a resident farmer of Columbia county, living on section 6, township 9 north, range 38 east. He is the oldest settler in that district and has been identified with the Inland Empire, its pioneer development and its later progress, since 1855. He was born in Linn county, Missouri, June 15, 1835, a son of Roger B. and Sarah C. (Smith) Pollard. The father was a native of Richmond, Virginia, while the mother's birth occurred in Rockingham county, Virginia. They were married in Shelby county, Kentucky, to which district they had removed in young manhood and womanhood. They began their domestic life in Shelby county, where they remained for a number of years, and about 1820 they established their home in Linn county, Missouri, where they lived for two decades. They afterward moved to the Platte Purchase, settling near St. Joseph, Missouri, where both passed away.

George T. Pollard acquired a district school education in his native state and at sixteen years of age left the parental roof to start out in life on his own account. In the spring of 1852 he crossed the plains with an ox team to California and for three years was engaged in mining on the Cosmos river in what is now Amador county. In July, 1855, he made his way northward into Oregon to visit a brother and while on that visit enlisted in the service to fight the Indians. He took part in the Yakima Indian war and later for three years was engaged in packing supplies for Colonel Rice and Colonel Steptoe and was in the latter's employ when he was defeated by the Indians. Mr. Pollard was in Wallula on the 20th of December, 1855, and on the 22d or 23d participated in the fight with the Indians near Whitman Station. He is the oldest settler now living in this part of the state and there is no one more familiar with every phase of pioneer life and experience than he. His military service made him acquainted with every phase of Indian warfare and later he met all of the hardships and privations incident to the task of developing a new farm. On the 6th of August, 1859, he filed on the homestead where he now lives and upon that place has resided continuously since, covering a period of fifty-eight years. As his financial resources increased he purchased more land from time to time and now owns four hundred and ninety-five acres.

In 1860 Mr. Pollard was united in marriage to Miss Harriet L. Wiseman, of Walla Walla county, who crossed the plains with her father, John Wiseman, in 1852, settling in Linn county, Oregon. Mr. and Mrs. Pollard became the parents of the following children, namely: Melissa; Ann; John B., who is deceased; Mary; Oliver; Etta; Bettie; Ella and Cordelia, who have passed away; Frank; Robert; and Roy.

[Illustration: G. T. POLLARD]

In politics Mr. Pollard is independent, never caring to bind himself by party ties. He was appointed a member of the first board of county commissioners after the organization of Columbia county and was a member of the school board for more than thirty years. At different times he has been urged by his friends to accept nomination for various important political offices but has always refused, preferring to do his public duty as private citizen. He and his wife are members of the Methodist church and their well spent lives have been guided by its teachings. When the state of Washington was yet cut off from the advantages and comforts of the east by the long stretches of sand and the high mountains, he made his way across the plains, braving all the trials and hardships of pioneer life in order to make a home in the Inland Empire, rich in its resources yet unclaimed from the dominion of the red man. As the years have come and gone he has borne his part in the work of general progress and improvement and has been a prominent factor in promoting agricultural development. The days of chivalry and knighthood in Europe cannot furnish more interesting or romantic tales than our own western history.

CHARLES ALEXANDER McCABE.

Charles Alexander McCabe, a well known attorney at law of southeastern Washington, practicing in Pomeroy as a member of the firm of Kuykendall & McCabe, was born June 18, 1889, in the city where he still resides, his parents being Charles A. and Mary (Bohan) McCabe. The father was a native of Ireland and the mother of Pennsylvania. The former came to the United States in 1848, as a boy of eleven years, in company with his parents, who settled in Pennsylvania, where the son attained his majority. About 1864 he determined to try his fortune on the Pacific coast and made his way westward to Walla Walla, after which he operated a pack train and also engaged in prospecting and mining, thus becoming familiar with pioneer experiences and lines of business such as are common in frontier districts. In 1865 he removed to Garfield county, where he turned his attention to the sheep industry and through the following twenty years, except for a few years in Montana, was prominently identified with sheep raising in this section of the state. He subsequently became postmaster of Pomeroy, which position he occupied for several years, discharging his duties with promptness, fidelity and capability. He was also engaged in the jewelry business and for many years ranked with the prominent business men and progressive citizens of Pomeroy, contributing much to its upbuilding and progress along material and other lines. He was married in Pennsylvania in 1888 and passed away in 1913, Mrs. McCabe having preceded him in 1901.

Charles Alexander McCabe, whose name introduces this review, was educated in the public schools of Pomeroy and in Gonzaga College at Spokane. In the fall of 1909 he took up the study of law, reading in the office of Gose & Kuykendall, and in the spring of 1911 he was admitted to practice. Immediately following his admission he entered into his present partnership relations with Mr. Kuykendall, whose former partner, Mack F. Gose, had been elected to the bench. The firm of Kuykendall & McCabe has since been engaged in practice and their clientage is extensive and of a very important character. Mr. McCabe carefully qualified for the practice of law and in the conduct of his cases has shown notable resourcefulness combined with marked ability to accurately apply the principles of jurisprudence to the points in litigation.

In June, 1911, Mr. McCabe was united in marriage to Miss Anna Mock, of Columbia county, Washington, and to them have been born two sons and a daughter: Charles Patrick, Kathleen and Robert Alexander. The parents are communicants of the Catholic church and Mr. McCabe is identified with the Knights of Columbus and also with the Woodmen of the World. Both Mr. and Mrs. McCabe are well known socially in Pomeroy, occupying an enviable position in those circles where true worth and intelligence are accepted as passports into good society.

THOMAS COPELAND.

Thomas Copeland, whose extensive landed possessions aggregate more than three thousand acres, makes his home on section 12, township 6 north, range 36 east, Walla Walla county, where he is extensively engaged in farming and stock raising. He is one of the most progressive agriculturists of this part of the state and his intelligently directed activities have brought him a gratifying measure of success. He is a native son of the west and possesses the spirit of western enterprise. His birth occurred in McMinnville, Oregon, November 26, 1861, his parents being Henry S. and Mary Ann (Morton) Copeland, the former a native of Vermont, while the latter was born in Pennsylvania.

It was in 1849 that Henry S. Copeland crossed the plains to California, attracted by the discovery of gold on the Pacific coast. He remained in that state for a brief period and then made his way northward to Oregon, where he afterward met and married Miss Mary Ann Morton. They took up their abode upon a farm in that state and for a considerable period resided at McMinnville, but in 1863 they came north to Washington and settled in Walla Walla county, where the father secured a homestead, upon which he built a log cabin covered with a clapboard roof. They occupied that primitive dwelling for several years and experienced all the hardships and privations of pioneer life, but as time passed their labors brought substantial reward and they were able to secure more of the comforts of modern day civilization. The little log cabin was replaced by a commodious and substantial residence and other good farm buildings were added to the place, while the fields were brought under a high state of cultivation. In his later years Mr. Copeland retired from active farm work, having become possessed of a comfortable competence that was sufficient to supply him with all of the necessities and some of the luxuries of life through his remaining days. He and his wife removed to Walla Walla and there continued to make their home until called to their final rest. They had a family of ten children, four of whom are yet living.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. THOMAS COPELAND]

Their son Thomas Copeland was but two years of age when the family came from Oregon to Washington, so that he was reared and educated in Walla Walla county. He pursued his studies in one of the old-time log schoolhouses of that early period. The methods of instruction, too, were somewhat primitive and thus his opportunities in that direction were restricted but his training in farm work was of an extensive character. He remained at home until he attained his majority, after which he purchased the farm upon which he now resides, and adding to his possessions at intervals as his financial resources have increased, he has become the owner of over three thousand acres of rich, arable and valuable land. He has made a specialty of raising wheat and also of raising stock. He keeps full bred Hereford cattle and also Clydesdale and Percheron horses upon his place. His stock raising interests have become an important feature of his business and add materially to his annual income. Moreover, his farm is situated in the rich wheat belt of the Inland Empire and his yearly grain crop is a most satisfactory one. In addition to his other interests Mr. Copeland is a stockholder in the Third National Bank of Walla Walla, of which he was one of the organizers.

In March, 1887, Mr. Copeland wedded Miss Minnie Harman, who was born in the state of New York, a daughter of William Harman, who came to Walla Walla at a very early day and continued his residence here until called to the home beyond. To Mr. and Mrs. Copeland have been born four children: Ralph and Clara, at home; Martha, who died at the age of nineteen years; and Glenn, who completes the family.

In politics Mr. Copeland is a stalwart republican and while not an office seeker he has served for twenty-seven years on the school board, the cause of education finding in him indeed a stalwart champion. He belongs to Washington Lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., and in his life exemplifies the spirit of the organization, which is based upon the recognition of man's obligations to his fellowmen. His life has been well spent and has gained for him the goodwill and honor of his fellowmen. In business affairs he has always displayed sound judgment and keen discrimination and has readily discerned the essential elements in the successful conduct of any business transaction. His plans have ever been well defined and carefully executed and he never stops short of the accomplishment of his purpose, for he recognizes the fact that when one avenue of opportunity seems closed he can carve out other paths which will lead to the desired goal. He has become connected with a number of important enterprises in this county aside from his farming interests and his business activity makes him a valued and substantial citizen of his district.

THE WALLA WALLA UNION.

One of the pioneers of Walla Walla, getting younger and more vigorous with the passing of years, is the Walla Walla Union, established in 1869 and published continuously ever since. A little four-page weekly, hand set, and with a small circulation at that time, the Union has developed into a metropolitan daily, carrying full, leased-wire Associated Press service and is equipped with modern linotypes and fast rotary presses. The Union has been a part of the community life of Walla Walla for nearly a half century and while in the struggles of early pioneer life it suffered many hardships in common with many of the citizens that it has served during a lifetime, it has grown in strength with the community until today it is a part of the solid worth of the Inland Empire. The Union is the only morning newspaper published within a radius of nearly one hundred miles of Walla Walla. The Union is published by a corporation of which E. G. Robb is president, D. W. Ifft business manager and B. E. La Due managing editor.

JOHN L. WALLACE.

For almost ten years John L. Wallace has been engaged in the abstract, real estate, loan and insurance business in Dayton, where he conducts his interests as a partner in the firm of the Weatherford-Wallace Company, ranking with the leading business men and representative residents of the city. He was born in Harvey county, Kansas, on the 16th of August, 1874, his parents being John T. and Hannah J. (Frederick) Wallace, who came west to Washington in 1886, settling in Whitman county. The father was engaged in educational work for twenty-three years, teaching in Kansas and Missouri, and after coming to Washington he identified himself with mercantile interests and for a number of years was engaged in business in Albion. Subsequently he resumed the profession of teaching and became connected with the schools of Lincoln county, where he was located at the time of his death, which occurred about 1906. For several years he had survived his wife, who died on Christmas day of 1900.

John L. Wallace had the usual advantages of the public schools and in 1892 entered the Portland (Oregon) Business College, where he pursued a commercial course. In the summer of 1893 he was offered and accepted the position of manager of a grain warehouse in Albion and in 1894 and 1895 he was a student in the Washington Agricultural College at Pullman, now the Washington State College. Subsequently he went to Hailey, Idaho, where he was employed for two and a half years in a grocery house. He then returned home but after a year he went to Portland, Oregon, in 1898 and became one of the teachers in the Portland Business College, there spending seven years. While thus engaged he took up the study of law, attending night school, and in 1901 he was admitted to the bar in the state of Oregon. He continued teaching, however, in the business college until 1904, when he returned to Whitman county, Washington, and through the succeeding two years devoted his attention to merchandising in Albion. In the fall of 1907 he was appointed deputy county prosecutor of Whitman county and on the 1st of July, 1908, he came to Dayton, where he bought a partnership in the Geo. B. Baker Company, an abstract, real estate, loan and insurance business. He has since been engaged in this line and has won for himself a prominent position, having a very large clientage. He has negotiated many important realty transfers, has placed many loans and has written a large amount of insurance, so that his business has reached a most gratifying figure.

On the 4th of June, 1902, Mr. Wallace was united in marriage to Miss Sophia A. Schmidt, of Portland, Oregon, by whom he has one child, Dean Leslie. Mr. Wallace was a stalwart supporter of republican principles for many years but in 1912 left the ranks of the party and followed Roosevelt in the organization of the progressive party. He has since been a stanch advocate of progressive republicanism and is recognized as one of the political leaders of this section of the state. Fraternally he is connected with Dayton Lodge, No. 26, F. & A. M.; Dayton Chapter, No. 5, R. A. M.; Alki Lodge, No. 136, I. O. O. F.; and the Dayton Lodge of the Knights of Pythias, while both he and his wife are members of Rainbow Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star.

For the past seven years Mr. Wallace has served as city clerk of Dayton and has made a most excellent record as a public official, being careful and systematic in the discharge of his duties and at all times prompt and faithful to the trust reposed in him. He has many admirable traits of character, is loyal to the public good, is thoroughly reliable in all business dealings, holds friendship inviolable and is devoted to the welfare of his family. His pronounced characteristics have gained for him a high position in public regard, while his enterprise and indefatigable energy have placed him among the leading business men of his adopted city.

LEON B. KENWORTHY.

Leon B. Kenworthy is actively engaged in the practice of law in Dayton and in a profession where advancement depends entirely upon individual merit and ability he has made for himself a creditable position. He was born in Salem, Oregon, February 16, 1874, a son of James and Lydia A. (Williams) Kenworthy, both of whom were natives of Indiana. In the year 1872 they removed westward to Oregon, settling upon a farm where they resided until 1879. In that year they went to what was then Walla Walla county and took up their abode in Huntsville, where the father secured a tract of land and again engaged in farming, spending his remaining days upon that place, his death occurring October 23, 1911. The mother died October 23, 1917. In their family were ten children, seven of whom are yet living.

Leon B. Kenworthy was reared and educated in Washington, having been but five years of age at the time of the removal of his parents from Oregon to this state. Liberal educational opportunities were accorded him. After completing his common school course he matriculated in Pacific College at Newberg, where he won the Bachelor of Arts degree upon his graduation with the class of 1900. He then pursued his law course, which he completed in 1902, graduating from the law department of the University of Washington. He was admitted to the bar and entered upon active practice in Dayton in 1904. Through the intervening period he has steadily advanced until he now occupies a foremost position in the front rank of leading attorneys in Dayton. He prepares his cases with great thoroughness, is skillful in the presentation of his arguments, is logical in his deductions and sound in his reasoning.

In 1909 Mr. Kenworthy was united in marriage to Miss Alice M. Spurgeon, a native of Illinois, and to them have been born two sons: Jack Garry, deceased; and Max Spurgeon. The parents are members of the Congregational church and in his fraternal relations Mr. Kenworthy is connected with the Knights of Pythias and is a member of the D. O. K. K. in that order. Politically he is a republican, giving stalwart support to the party, and for a number of years he has acceptably filled the office of city attorney, most carefully safe-guarding the legal interests of the city in that position. He stands for progress and improvement in all public affairs and has ever displayed marked devotion to the city's welfare and upbuilding. He owns a fine residence in Dayton and the family occupies an influential position in social circles.

JOSEPH J. ROSE.

Among those whom death has called and who were contributing factors to the agricultural development and improvement of Columbia county was Joseph J. Rose, who while still active in the world's work made his home on section 5, township 9 north, range 39 east, in Columbia county. He was born in Oregon, on the present site of the town of Milton, June 12, 1860, a son of Eli and Catherine (Boldman) Rose, who crossed the plains from Iowa with ox teams in 1859. One child was born to them on their journey. On their arrival in Oregon they camped on the present site of Milton and it was there that the birth of Joseph J. Rose occurred. Not long afterward the parents removed with their family to Washington, taking up their abode in what is now Walla Walla county, about three miles from Dixie. There they lived for many years, giving their attention to agricultural pursuits, but ultimately removed to Dayton, at which time Mr. Rose retired from active business life, having in the intervening years acquired a comfortable competence that was sufficient to supply him and his wife with all of the necessities and some of the luxuries of life.

Joseph J. Rose assisted his father until he reached his twenty-third year and for about two years thereafter operated his father's farm. His youthful experiences were those of the farmbred boy who divides his time between the duties of the schoolroom, the pleasures of the playground and the work of the fields. No event of special importance occurred to vary the routine of life for him in that period. After cultivating his father's land for two years he removed to Columbia county in 1885 and purchased a portion of what is now his old home place about a mile and a half south of Dayton. His first purchase made him owner of two hundred and twenty acres and subsequently he bought other land from time to time, thus adding to his holdings until he had fourteen hundred acres at the time of his demise. The farm which he left is one of the most productive and valuable farms of Columbia county. The soil is naturally rich and careful cultivation has added much to its value. Good buildings have been put upon the farm and the place has been divided into fields of convenient size by well kept fences.

Mr. Rose was married twice. In 1884 he wedded Miss Ida Williams, of Walla Walla county, by whom he had three children, namely: Lena, who is now the wife of T. O. Webster, of Walla Walla; Zelma, who gave her hand in marriage to Earl Harting, of Walla Walla county; and Zenobia, a resident of Walla Walla. In July, 1900, Mr. Rose was again married, his second union being with Miss Mary Brockman, a daughter of W. J. Brockman, who came to Columbia county, Washington, in 1887 and has since passed away. By his second wife Mr. Rose had two pairs of twins, the first of whom died in infancy, while the surviving are Joseph Eli and Emma Catherine.

[Illustration: JOSEPH J. ROSE]

Mr. Rose gave his political allegiance to the democratic party and he served for several years as a member of the school board but was too busy to give much attention to politics and never sought or desired political preferment. He belonged to Columbia Lodge, F. & A. M., and was a faithful follower of the teachings of the craft. He was also a consistent member of the Christian church and died in that faith December 7, 1916, leaving to his family not only the fruits of earnest toil but also the priceless heritage of an untarnished name, which the wise man of old said is more to be chosen than great riches. Mrs. Rose not only possesses those qualities which are essentially womanly and which everywhere command respect, but she is also a capable business woman. Upon the death of her husband she immediately took up the heavy responsibilities in connection with the operation of a farm of fourteen hundred acres and in her management of affairs has proven herself one woman in a thousand. She is now operating the farm on an extensive scale and is meeting with excellent success by reason of her careful management, her systematic methods, her keen sagacity and her enterprise. She occupies one of the prettiest country homes in the county and by reason of her business management is enabled to enjoy not only all of the comforts but also many of the luxuries of life. She belongs to Waitsburg Chapter, No. 9, of the Order of the Eastern Star, and is a devoted member of the Christian church, guiding her life according to its teachings.

J. A. DARBY, M. D.

The northwest with its pulsing industrial activity and its limitless resources is constantly drawing to it men of enterprise and ability who find here opportunity for the expression of their dominant qualities. Among the number who have come from the Mississippi valley is Dr. J. A. Darby, now successfully engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery in Pomeroy.

J. A. Darby was born in Hunnewell, Shelby county, Missouri, on the 16th of October, 1874, and is a son of James A. and Mattie B. (Cox) Darby. The father came to Washington with his family in 1885, settling in Pomeroy, where he established a hardware store, with which he was identified until about a year prior to his death. He passed away in 1905 and is survived by Mrs. Darby, who is yet living in Pomeroy.

Dr. Darby was a lad of eleven years when his parents came to Washington and his education, begun in the public schools of Missouri, was continued in the public schools of Pomeroy. After leaving the high school he became a student in the Spokane Business College and still later, having determined upon the practice of medicine as a life work, he matriculated in the University of Oregon as a medical student and was graduated from that institution with the M. D. degree as a member of the class of 1909. Following his graduation he opened an office in Pomeroy and in the intervening eight years has built up an extensive and lucrative practice.

On the 18th of February, 1916, Dr. Darby was united in marriage to Mrs. Bessie McWilliams, of Walla Walla, and to them has been born a son, James A. Dr. Darby holds membership in Garfield Lodge, No. 25, K. P.; also in Lewiston Lodge, No. 896, B. P. O. E., and with the Woodmen of the World and the United Artisans. In politics he maintains an independent course but believes in republican principles. He does not seek nor desire office, preferring to concentrate his time and efforts upon his practice, the duties of which he discharges in a most conscientious and able manner. He is interested in everything that tends to bring to man the key to the complex mystery which we call life and by further reading and study is continually broadening his knowledge and promoting his efficiency. Colleagues and contemporaries acknowledge his ability and rank him with the progressive physicians of this part of the state.

JOHN J. ASHBY.

John J. Ashby was a pioneer of Garfield county and a citizen of worth whose passing was deeply regretted by many friends. He was held in high regard by those who knew him as a representative business man, as a progressive citizen and one who was faithful to the ties of home and friendship. A native of Illinois, he was born March 12, 1847, and was a great-grandson of a distinguished officer of the British army whose wife was a French lady. The ancestral line of the Ashby family can be traced back for over two hundred years and upon the records the names of many prominent men appear.

John J. Ashby was a son of Solomon and Jane (Ripley) Ashby, the former a native of Montreal, Canada, while the latter was born in the state of New York. They became residents of Stephenson county, Illinois, in the '40s and there resided until 1865, when they crossed the plains with teams and wagons and settled in the Willamette valley of Oregon. There they resided until 1873, when they became residents of Old Walla Walla county, making their home near the present site of the city of Pomeroy. The district was then largely wild and undeveloped, but with characteristic energy Mr. Ashby began the cultivation of his land, converting his place into a well improved farm, upon which he and his wife spent their remaining days. They had a family of three children but only one is now living.

John J. Ashby was a youth of eighteen years when he crossed the plains with his parents. The trip was a long and arduous one, fraught with many difficulties and hardships, but day after day they slowly proceeded on their way until the western coast was reached. He remained with his parents in the Willamette valley for a time and was married there in 1872 to Miss Mary Denny, a daughter of John F. Denny, whose birth occurred in Indiana in 1819. He crossed the plains in 1852 and settled in Marion county, Oregon, upon a donation claim. There he built a typical log cabin with puncheon floor and door, through which a string was inserted that was fastened to the latch in order that the traveler might pull the string and open the door. Such was the hospitality of that period. The little pioneer cabin also had a mud and stick chimney and its furnishings were perhaps as primitive as the exterior. In that little home the Denny family lived for several years. The father was a lifelong republican and was chosen to represent his district in the territorial legislature. In 1860 he was ordained to the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church by Bishop C. W. Clark and thus he became actively identified with the moral development of the state as well as with its material and political progress. The grandfather of Mrs. Ashby was also a prominent figure in the northwest. He served in the War of 1812 under Colonel M. Johnston and was appointed by President Lincoln as governor of the territory of Washington in 1861, thus becoming prominently identified with the development of the northwest. He had two sons who were prominent citizens of the northwest. A. A. Denny was called "The father of Seattle," and D. T. Denny was the first to erect a white man's home where that city now stands.

[Illustration: JOHN D. ASHBY]

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. J. J. ASHBY]

[Illustration: JENNIE ASHBY]

To Mr. and Mrs. Ashby were born two children: Jennie, who died at the age of twelve years; and John Denny, whose biographical sketch follows this. It was in the year 1874 that Mr. and Mrs. Ashby took up their abode upon the farm in Garfield county and from that time until his death, which occurred November 10, 1914, he devoted his attention to general agricultural pursuits, becoming the owner of four hundred and eighty acres of fine wheat land. He also owned a very attractive residence in the city of Pomeroy, which is still the property of his widow. He was a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church, in the work of which he took an active and helpful part, and he was always ready to lend a helping hand to the poor and needy, his assistance being given in most generous manner. He was a great worker in behalf of the cause of temperance and assisted all church activities both by his moral and financial support.

JOHN DENNY ASHBY.

No death in Garfield county has been more deeply deplored than that of John Denny Ashby, who was born in this county, February 8, 1876. Spending his youthful days in the home of his parents, Mr. and Mrs. John J. Ashby, he attended the public schools until graduated from the high school at Pomeroy in 1895. He was afterward graduated from the Montana Wesleyan University with the class of 1899, winning the degree of Bachelor of Arts. During his student days there he was a member of the college debating club, was captain of the military company and president of the Young Men's Christian Association, thus showing his active connection with all the varied interests which constitute the commendable phases of college life. In 1900 he was honored by an offer of two positions, one as instructor of science and higher mathematics at his alma mater, the other a government position in China. At the persuasion of his parents he accepted the former. Speaking of his work in the schools, Professor Tenny, president of the Montana University, said: "I have had the very best men associated with me in the school work that I could hope for, but I have never found a man who was so unselfishly loyal to me, loyal to himself, loyal to God."

In 1901 Denny Ashby entered the New York Homeopathic College & Hospital as a member of the class of 1905. During his freshman year he served as senator for the class and he also won the freshman prize, while at the end of the junior year he won the Fiske prize for the highest standing in three years' work, the prize consisting of a valuable set of surgical instruments. On the 2d of August, 1904, while in bathing on the beach at Oak island, near Fire island, he was caught by a big wave and drowned while attempting to go to the rescue of a trained nurse. His death was deeply deplored by all who knew him for he was a young man of unusual promise and ability. At the age of fourteen years he united with the Methodist church and his life was dedicated to the work of a medical missionary, but death intervened and his remains were sent home from New York and laid to rest by the side of his sister in the Pomeroy cemetery, where his grandparents are resting and also his father. Of him it may well be said that he has joined "The choir invisible of those immortal dead who live again in lives made better by their presence."

From all parts of the country came letters and expressions of sympathy to Mr. and Mrs. Ashby, showing profound regret at the loss of one so richly endowed with God's best gifts to humanity. Clayton C. Ferguson, who had been his classmate in the medical college wrote: "The first hard grind of the year is over. As many grains growing luxuriously by the wayside owe their origin to seeds blown or dropped from some passing wagon laden with the harvest, so in reviewing this course I find that many of my present developed ideas have sprung from seeds sown by Denny's fruitful pen along the margins of books once loved by him, and which you kindly gave me. Some of these thoughtful seeds flowering have lined the pathway with fragrance; others have caused me at times to pause and admire their beauty; still others, bruised and broken by the rude blast, have given me moments of pain as in the contemplation of their destruction my thoughts reverted to a like condition of their creator. Among our family household seeds others than those sown on paper were sprinkled along life's pathway by the same loving hands during those happy days of association." In another letter the above writer says: "I have taken Denny's drugs and placed them in my desk, praying with God's help to use them as my dear loved one would have, always ready to help the suffering. Do accept my thanks for them and remember that I am at your service at all times to do for you anything in my power. Call upon me if you want medicine for yourself or anybody else. * * * You will never know the sorrow felt in our home, unless you had been in it when Denny was a part of it. No one can fill his place at the table, nor will anyone ever be allowed to sit there." One of his boy friends said: "If ever a soul reached heaven Denny Ashby is there," and another said: "If ever anybody could make a Christian of one by the good life he lived and the example he left, Denny Ashby was that one." At the opening of the college the dean, Dr. King, paid a glowing tribute to the memory of his former pupil, saying: "The class of 1905 has suffered a great loss through the death of John Denny Ashby," and made especial mention of his modest, retiring nature, which to a large degree obscured his "massive mental capacity." The class of 1905 passed the following resolution: "Realizing that by the death of your only son the class of 1905 of the New York Medical College has lost not only a man who has distinguished himself as a student, but also by his daily life proved himself to be a young man of most exemplary character. We, the class of 1905, do hereby extend to you in this hour of your great affliction our most heartfelt sympathy. We one and all feel that we have lost a true friend and brother physician." A beautiful and merited tribute was expressed by Dr. C. F. Sibly, who wrote: "His death bound east and west in mourning. There is a bright side, however, which we must not overlook. When his body was recovered at daybreak, August 3d, its appearance was like that of a hero and conqueror; his hands were folded defiantly across his breast, his characteristic peaceful smile was very manifest. It was evident to the observer that as he had lived a conqueror's life, so he had died a conqueror's death. For him death had no sting, the grave no victory. There was no moaning of the bar or midnight darkness when he put out to sea, but a glorious ushering in to the presence of that great company of just souls, robed white, washed clean by the blood of the Lamb--an introduction to the throng, arrayed with palms of victory and crowns of glory."

JAMES OTTO LONG.

James Otto Long, a well known grain dealer of Pomeroy, who was formerly extensively engaged in farming and stock raising, is a typical citizen of the golden west, alert, energetic, progressive and resourceful. He was born in Lane county, Oregon, August 15, 1864, and is a son of Ransom and Rosetta (Clark) Long, the former a native of Virginia, while the latter was born in Indiana. They were married in Fulton county, Illinois, having removed to that state with their respective parents in childhood days. After their marriage they became residents of Iowa and in 1852 crossed the plains with ox teams to the Willamette valley of Oregon, where they remained for about twenty years. In 1872 they came to Washington and spent the first year on the Patit creek near Dayton, after which they moved northward into what is now Garfield county and located on the Pataha prairie, seven miles south of the present site of Pomeroy. Here the father used his homestead and preemption rights and upon that place which he secured continued to make his home until the death of his wife. He later resided at the home of his children and passed away on the 5th of April, 1898, having for twelve years survived his wife, who died on the 27th of June, 1886. In politics he was a republican and was a progressive citizen, interested in all that pertained to the public welfare.

James O. Long was educated in the district schools and when about twenty-two years of age left the home farm, after which he devoted eight years to prospecting and mining but failed to find the proverbial pot of gold at the foot of the rainbow, as he desired. He then decided to return to agricultural life and on the 1st of October, 1895, he was united in marriage to Miss Mettie Williams, of Garfield county, a daughter of Nicholas Williams, who came to the county in 1873.

Following their marriage Mr. Long purchased a farm on the Pataha prairie and occupied the place for ten years. On the expiration of that period he took up his abode in Pomeroy in 1905 and for a decade gave his attention to the live stock business, owning a stock ranch halfway between Pomeroy and Lewiston, on the Alpowa, where he made a specialty of grazing sheep. His live stock interests were profitably conducted but about two years ago he disposed of his ranch and turned his attention to the grain business, establishing and operating a grain warehouse in Pomeroy. He is now prominently known in connection with the grain trade and has developed a business of extensive and gratifying proportions. He is a man of determined purpose and resolute will and whatever he undertakes he carries forward to successful completion.

Mr. and Mrs. Long have become the parents of eight children, seven of whom survive, as follows: Lois, the wife of Ray Gimlin, who follows farming in Garfield county, Washington; and Florence, Willena, Clark, Lewis, Marian and Burton, all at home.

Mrs. Long and her daughters are members of the Congregational church and the family is prominent socially in the community where they reside. In politics Mr. Long is a republican and keeps well informed on the questions and issues of the day but does not seek public office. His life has been one of diligence and his labors have been crowned with a substantial measure of success.

J. W. HARBERT.

J. W. Harbert, of Small township, whose residence in Walla Walla county dates from 1859, is one of the earliest pioneers of this section now living. He was born in Fountain county, Indiana, September 25, 1835, a son of Richard J. and Mary (Zumwalt) Harbert, natives respectively of Havre de Grace, Maryland, and Cynthiana, Kentucky. Their marriage, however, was celebrated in Indiana, where they resided until 1844, when they removed with their family to Dubuque, Iowa. Three years later they went to Mount Vernon, a college town in Linn county, Iowa, which remained their place of residence for many years. The father came to Walla Walla in 1878, but after spending over a year in this locality returned to Iowa, where his wife died in 1888. Immediately after her death he again came to Washington and made his home with his son, J. W. Harbert, until his death, which occurred about a year later, in 1889.

J. W. Harbert was reared at home and received his education in the common schools. In 1859 he decided that the west offered the most favorable opportunities for an ambitious young man and accordingly made the long overland trip to Walla Walla county, driving an ox team for another man in exchange for the privilege of having his provisions transported. Following his arrival here he worked for Charles Russell for two years and then devoted eight years to freighting from Wallula and Umatilla Landing to the Idaho mines and to other points in this part of the country. When the railroad was built through, the need for freighting by team ceased and he turned his attention to farming. He worked hard, gave careful attention to the management of his affairs and in time acquired fourteen hundred acres of the finest farm land in the county. He was quick to recognize and take advantage of any unusual opportunity and one of the chief factors in his success has been the close personal supervision which he has given to his work. In 1863, while hauling a load of freight from Wallula to Idaho City, he camped on the night of July 2d on the site of Fort Boise, the officers choosing that site the following morning for a fort. In 1864 he hauled one hundred and seventy-five thousand feet of lumber from the mountains to Boise city and watched the loading and unloading of every board. His natural vigor and strength have been conserved by wholesome outdoor life, and today, at the age of eighty-two years, he superintends all his farm work and is as active as most men twenty-five years his junior. When he arrived in Walla Walla county he had but three dollars and the financial independence which is now his is the direct result of his own labors.

[Illustration: J. W. HARBERT]

[Illustration: MRS. J. W. HARBERT]

On the 13th of July, 1866, Mr. Harbert was united in marriage to Miss Emma Evans, a daughter of G. W. Evans, who came to Walla Walla county in 1861. To this union were born six children, three of whom survive, namely: Ida H., the wife of Thomas Paine, of Richland, Washington; Floy, who married Frank Holman, of Freewater, Oregon; and Liberty, the wife of Julius Jensen, of this county. On the 8th of January, 1878, Mrs. Harbert passed away and on the 8th of April, 1884, Mr. Harbert married Miss Lizzie D. Groff, a native of Iowa. They have two living children, Clifford G. and Hazel, both at home.

Mr. Harbert supports the republican party at the polls and for twenty years has served as school director, his continuance in the office indicating his ability and trustworthiness. Although he does not hold membership in the church his religious belief is in the main that of the Methodist Episcopal church and he contributes liberally to its support and also to various charitable projects. His many admirable qualities are generally recognized and there is no resident of the county more highly esteemed than he.

FRED M. YOUNG.

Fred M. Young, who since starting out in life on his own account at the age of sixteen has been continuously connected with the florist business, is now senior partner of the firm of Young & Lester, prominent florists and nurserymen of Walla Walla, where they conduct an extensive business. He was born in Cass county, Iowa, April 26, 1879, a son of Salathiel and Martha M. (Caughey) Young, both of whom were natives of Ohio. They were married in Iowa, however, having removed to that state in childhood with their respective parents. At the time of the Civil war the father responded to the country's call to arms, enlisting as a member of Company C, Eighth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, with which he served for more than four years, participating in many of the hotly contested battles which finally resulted in the winning of victory for the Union. With a most creditable military record he returned to his home in Iowa after the war was closed and there he engaged in gardening and fruit growing at Grove City. In 1900 he removed to Denver, Colorado, and in the fall of 1916 he sold his Denver home and returned to Iowa, residing with a daughter in Council Bluffs up to the time of his death, which occurred in February, 1917. His widow survives and yet makes her home with the daughter in Council Bluffs.

Fred M. Young had the benefit of educational training in the public schools until sixteen years of age, when he left the parental roof and went to Council Bluffs, entering the employ of his brother-in-law, J. F. Wilcox, a florist of that city. It was under his instruction that he acquainted himself with the florist business, gaining comprehensive and accurate knowledge in every department and in every connection. After three years he went to Chicago, where he was identified with the firm of Bassett & Washburn, well known florists, with whom he continued for a year. He next went to Denver, Colorado, where he was in the employ of the Colfax Floral Company for three years and on the expiration of that period he went to Pueblo, Colorado, as manager of the George Fleischer Floral Company, in which capacity he served for eighteen months. He was afterward in Salt Lake City, where he occupied the position of manager of the Huddard Floral Company, with which he remained for three years. He then spent a short time in San Francisco and still later went to Seattle, where he became head gardener at the Bremerton navy yards, occupying that position for about six months. At that time his sister, who was living in Walla Walla, persuaded him to come to this city and he arrived here with the intention of going into business but was disappointed in raising the necessary capital. He went to work for James Wait, a florist with whom he continued for ten months, and later removed to Portland, Oregon, where he was in the employ of Martin & Forbes, with whom he remained for about a year and a half. In November, 1907, he resigned this position and returned to Walla Walla, opening a small flower store at No. 7 East Main street known as Bedell's Bazaar. On the 1st of May following Hampton Huff, who had a small greenhouse property on the present site of the Young & Lester greenhouses and who had become too old to work proposed to Mr. Young to go into business with him. Their capital was limited and Mr. Young gave Mr. Huff his note for seven thousand dollars for a half interest in the business. Thus he started out independently. They made enough money that spring to build another greenhouse and put in a new boiler. The following year they were able to build three more greenhouses and in the succeeding year Mr. Huff retired and Mr. Young secured a lease on the whole property with an option to buy. In 1913 he sold Clyde Lester an interest in the business and the present firm of Young & Lester was thus formed. The business has developed rapidly. Their plant is strictly modern and up-to-date. They have eight and three-fourths acres of land under cultivation, with about twenty-five thousand square feet under glass. Their city store is at 19 East Main street and is one of the most modern and attractive florist establishments in eastern Washington. There is no phase of the business with which Mr. Young is not thoroughly familiar. He has made a close study of plant development and propagation and everything in the line of growing plants and blooming flowers that can be raised in this section of the country is found in his establishment.

[Illustration: RESIDENCE OF J. W. HARBERT]

In 1914 Mr. Young was united in marriage to Miss Effie Morrison, of Walla Walla, and in the social circles of the city they are widely and prominently known. Mr. Young is a stalwart republican, giving unfaltering allegiance to the party and its principles. He belongs to Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E.; to Enterprise Lodge, No. 121, I. O. O. F.; and to Columbia Lodge, No. 8, K. P. He is also identified with Alki Temple of the Dramatic Order of the Knights of Khorassan at Walla Walla and the Knights of the Maccabees and the Knights and Ladies of Security. He belongs to the Commercial Club and is interested in all of its plans and purposes for the upbuilding and development of the city. His wife is a member of the Christian church and Mr. Young gives his aid and influence on the side of all those forces which work for the upbuilding and progress of Walla Walla along material, social, intellectual and moral lines. In an analyzation of his life record it will be seen that concentration of purpose along a single line of business has been one of the salient features in his success. He started out as a florist and has continued in that field of activity. He has never allowed difficulties nor obstacles to bar his path but has overcome these by determined effort and has ever recognized that satisfied patrons are the best advertisement. He has sought earnestly to please his customers and his establishment, presenting everything that is most attractive, unique and beautiful in the line of floral culture, has been most liberally patronized.

THOMAS P. GOSE.

Thomas P. Gose, attorney at law practicing in Walla Walla as senior partner in the firm of Gose & Crowe, was born in Sullivan county, Missouri, May 11, 1855, a son of John M. and Hannah J. (McQuown) Gose. The father is a native of Kentucky, while the mother's birth occurred in Virginia. They were married, in Missouri, to which state they had removed with their respective parents in childhood days. The father was among the argonauts who started in search of the golden fleece to California in the year 1849. He made the overland trip by way of the Santa Fe trail and spent five years in the Golden state. He then returned to Missouri in 1854, crossing the plains, after which he continued his residence in Missouri until 1862, when he went to Denver, Colorado, again making a trip in quest of gold. He spent about one year there, after which he once more took up his abode in Missouri. The lure of the west, however, was upon him and in 1864 he removed with his family to Boise City, Idaho, where he arrived in August. The city was at that time a frontier village, far removed from civilization to the eastward or to the westward. Prices were so high that during that winter he was obliged to pay about fifty dollars for a fifty-pound sack of flour. In July, 1865, he came to Walla Walla and began farming in the vicinity of the city. Both he and his wife are still living, Mr. Gose having reached the notable old age of ninety-two years, while his wife is enjoying good health at the age of eighty-six years. They now make their home with their son, Thomas P. Gose, who is looking after their comfort and welfare and thus with filial devotion is repaying the love and care which they bestowed upon him in his youth.

Thomas P. Gose was a lad of about ten years when the family arrived in Washington and much of his education was therefore acquired in the public schools of Walla Walla, supplemented by study in the Whitman Academy. In the spring of 1886, having determined to engage in a professional career, he took up the study of law and in 1889, after a thorough reading of the principles of jurisprudence, he was admitted to the bar. In the fall of 1890 he opened his law office in Walla Walla and in the intervening period, covering twenty-seven years, he has had several law partnerships, being now senior member of the firm of Gose & Crowe, which was formed in August, 1914. This firm ranks with the foremost at the Walla Walla bar. Mr. Bose is devotedly attached to his profession, is systematic and methodical in habit, sober and discreet in judgment, diligent in research and conscientious in the discharge of every duty. An earnest manner, marked strength of character and a thorough grasp of the law, with ability to accurately apply its principles, make him an effective and successful advocate and he is also a safe and wise counselor.

On the 20th of December, 1893, Mr. Gose was united in marriage to Miss Clara Crowe, of Freewater, Oregon, by whom he has five children, as follows: Cecile, who was graduated from Whitman College with the class of 1916 and is now a teacher in the high school at Kalama, Washington; Gladys and Marjorie, both of whom are attending Whitman College; Vera, a high school graduate; and Thomas P., who is a high school student.

Mr. and Mrs. Gose are members of the Congregational church and are interested in all that pertains to individual uplift and community betterment. Mr. Gose votes with the democratic party and has served as deputy prosecuting attorney, while for four years he was a member of the Walla Walla board of education. He is the present chairman of the democratic county central committee and for years past has been a dominant factor in the affairs of his party, doing much to mold public thought and opinion and putting forth earnest and effective effort to secure party success. The limitless possibilities of the west have ever stirred his ambition and his energy, intelligently directed, has carried him into important professional relations.

BREWSTER FERREL.

Brewster Ferrel now occupies an attractive home at 336 South Palouse street in Walla Walla, where he is surrounded with all of the comforts and many of the luxuries of life. For many years he was prominently and actively identified with farming, taking up that work in Walla Walla county in early pioneer times and meeting with all of the hardships and privations which were incident to the settlement of the frontier. He was born in Trumbull county, Ohio, August 22, 1838, a son of Edward and Rosella (Fish) Ferrel, the former a native of Pennsylvania, while the latter was born in Ohio. They were married in the Buckeye state and in 1854 removed to Iowa, where both resided up to the time of their death.

Brewster Ferrel was a lad of sixteen years when his father removed to Iowa and in the public schools of that state he supplemented the educational training which he had already received in Ohio. He was trained to farm work, early becoming familiar with the tasks of plowing, planting and harvesting, and he early developed habits of industry and perseverance which later constituted very important elements in the attainment of his present-day success.

In 1861, Brewster Ferrel was united in marriage in Iowa to Miss Caroline Bott, a native of Muskingum county, Ohio, whose parents had removed to Iowa when she was a little maiden of ten summers. The young couple began their domestic life in the middle west but in 1864 left their Iowa home and started across the plains with a team of mules and a prairie schooner. They joined a wagon train and, traveling after the slow and tedious method of that period, at length arrived in Walla Walla on the 3d of August, 1864. For some time after reaching the northwest Mr. Ferrel, like many other of the pioneers, engaged in freighting and continued in that business up to the advent of the railroad, when freighting by team was no longer profitable. He then concentrated his energies upon farming. It was in 1864 that he had homesteaded and secured the farm property which he still owns. The first year after his arrival there was little wheat raised and so great was the demand for it in the mining regions of the Rocky Mountains that he sold all he had for a dollar and a quarter per bushel, which was considered a very high price in that day. The following year, however, the eastern demand fell off and the farmers were obliged to market their product in Portland, where the wheat brought only sixty cents per bushel. Stock could be ranged easily in the mountains and for a time Mr. Ferrel engaged in raising stock, driving his cattle to the different mining camps, where he would sell them. Eventually, however, he disposed of his live stock interests entirely. To his original farm of two hundred acres he gradually added four hundred acres and finally more and more, paying for his last tract a hundred dollars per acre--a tract that could have been bought at the time of his arrival for a dollar and a quarter per acre. Mr. Ferrel has always been actuated by a spirit of enterprise and progressiveness in anything that he has undertaken. He was among the first to build a barbed wire fence in Walla Walla county. Up to this time he had hauled rails from the mountains and tied them to posts by means of rawhide, thus using the otherwise useless hides to help fence his crops from the ranging herds. For the first barbed wire he paid eighteen cents per pound and it was a very crude article compared to that manufactured at the present time at that. The most improved farm machine was the old McCormick reaper, bearing little resemblance to the binders and headers of the present time. Mr. Ferrel even cradled large portions of his wheat crop in those early years and all the farmers would unite to harvest and thresh. At that day many believed that the Walla Walla valley would be abandoned as soon as the mines to the eastward were exhausted and many refused to take up land and settle. At times Mr. Ferrel may have become discouraged but with stout heart he pressed on and his diligence and determination have at length secured a substantial reward. His crops today bring ten per cent on an investment rated at one hundred dollars per acre and he and his sons have built up a grain growing business that is as carefully, methodically and successfully managed as any mercantile establishment. The old homestead is located on Russell creek, about eight miles east of Walla Walla, and thereon Mr. Ferrel resided until 1902, when he took up his abode in the city, where he has one of the most handsome homes to be found in southeastern Washington. In the meantime he had added to his possessions until he became the owner of three thousand acres of farm land, which make him one of the county's most substantial and prosperous citizens. All that he has acquired in the course of an active and busy life has been won since he came to Washington and most of it has been made in the past twenty or twenty-five years.

Mr. and Mrs. Ferrel became the parents of eight children, seven of whom survive, as follows: Thomas J., who is engaged in farming in Walla Walla county; Rosella E., the wife of Walter Barnett, an agriculturist of Walla Walla county; Seth A., David B. and Joseph W., all of whom follow farming in Walla Walla county; Fidelia C., the wife of Charles Maxson, who is a farmer residing in Walla Walla; and Myrtle M., who gave her hand in marriage to Thomas Jones, an agriculturist of Walla Walla county.

Mr. Ferrel gives his political allegiance to the republican party, which he has continuously supported since age conferred upon him the right of franchise. He and his wife are consistent members of the Methodist church and have ever been loyal to its teachings, while to its work they have been generous contributors. They are among the most highly esteemed citizens of Walla Walla, where they have resided since early pioneer times, and there is no phase of the county's development and improvement in all the intervening years with which they are not familiar. In his business affairs Mr. Ferrel has ever displayed indefatigable energy, close application and persistency of purpose and his record indicates that success and an honored name may be won simultaneously.

FRANK FITZGERALD.

Frank Fitzgerald, who is devoting his time and energies to the operation of an excellent farm on section 34, township 13 north, range 42 east, Garfield county, was born in Tennessee, April 17, 1855, a son of Alford and Temperance (Bradshaw) Fitzgerald, natives respectively of Virginia and North Carolina, who were married, however, in Tennessee. In 1860 the family removed to Missouri and later in the same year the father passed away. The mother continued to reside in that state until her death in 1906. All of their four children survive.

Frank Fitzgerald passed the greater part of his boyhood and youth in the state of Missouri, as he was but five years of age at the time of the removal there, and his education was that afforded by the public schools. In 1887 he removed to Garfield county, Washington, and for thirteen years operated rented land but in 1900 bought his present farm of three hundred and twenty acres on section 34, township 13 north, range 42 east. His success has been based upon the sure foundation of hard work and the most rigorous attention to the task in hand.

Mr. Fitzgerald was married September 23, 1880, to Miss May Temple, who was born in Wisconsin, and they have eleven children, namely: Pearl, the wife of S. E. Fanning; Harold, Frank and Justin, all now in the United States army; Letta, the wife of Emery Dye; Alford; Otto; Opal; Louise; and two deceased.

Mr. Fitzgerald supports the republican party at the polls and for years has been a member of the school board, in which connection he has been instrumental in securing gratifying progress in the educational system of his locality. He is well known and highly esteemed and his personal friends are many.

LEE BARNES.

Lee Barnes, who is now filling the position of sheriff in Walla Walla county, was born in Boone county, Missouri, July 20, 1866. His father, John S. Barnes, is a native of Sangamon county, Illinois, born in February, 1828, and is still a resident of Oregon, having reached the ninetieth milestone on life's journey. His life has been devoted to the occupation of farming. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Lucinda J. Sims, was born in Kentucky and is deceased. In their family were seven children who are still living: M. C., who is a resident of Boone county, Missouri; J. T., living in Touchet, Washington; C. H., a resident of Yakima, Washington; Lucy J., the wife of John W. Parks, of Freewater, Oregon; W. W., also a resident of Freewater; Lee, of this review; and Joseph S., of Kansas City, Missouri.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. FRANK FITZGERALD]

Lee Barnes largely obtained his education in Saline county, Missouri, and afterward became a barber, following his trade at various places in his native state for seventeen years. On the expiration of that period he turned his attention to the confectionery business in Touchet, Washington, and has since made his home in Walla Walla county. He served for four years as deputy sheriff under Michael Toner and in 1914 was elected to the office of sheriff, in which position he is now serving for the second term, discharging his duties with promptness and fidelity and without fear or favor.

In 1859 Mr. Barnes was married to Miss Ollie N. Doty, a native of Iowa and a daughter of Lyman Doty. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes have become the parents of two children: Walter S., who married Vela Burns and has two children, Mildred and Audrey; and Lottie, the wife of Elvin Galloway, of Touchet, Washington, by whom she has one child, Elaine. On March 6, 1902, Mrs. Barnes passed away, sincerely mourned by her family and her many friends.

In politics Mr. Barnes has always been a stalwart advocate of democratic principles and has given earnest support to the party. He holds membership in the Baptist church and his life has been guided by its principles. Those who know him esteem him highly, for his marked characteristics of manhood and citizenship are those which commend him to the warm regard, the confidence and the goodwill of those with whom he has been brought in contact.

ROY ROBERT CAHILL.

Well qualified for his chosen calling, Roy Robert Cahill has made for himself a creditable position among the able attorneys of Dayton. Moreover, he deserves representation in this volume as one of the native sons of Columbia county, where his birth occurred June 19, 1884. He is a son of Alph P. and Irene M. (Starr) Cahill. The father is now cashier of the Broughton National Bank and a leading and influential business man of this section of the state.

Roy Robert Cahill was educated in the public schools of Dayton, after which he attended Whitman College at Walla Walla, there winning the degree of Bachelor of Arts upon the completion of a classical course in 1909. He thus laid broad and deep the foundation upon which to build the superstructure of professional learning. After his graduation from Whitman he entered the law department of Columbia University and there won his law degree as a member of the class of 1912. Following his graduation he returned to Dayton, where he opened an office and entered upon the practice of his chosen profession, which he has since followed independently.

In 1913 Mr. Cahill was united in marriage to Miss Jessie Criffield, a daughter of W. R. Criffield, of Walla Walla. He belongs to Dayton Lodge, No. 26, F. &. A. M. and he gives his political allegiance to the republican party. He is widely known as a representative young business man, possessing marked ability and enterprise, and that his has been a well spent life is indicated in the fact that many of his stanchest friends are those who have known him from his boyhood to the present time.

REV. ALEXANDER WALTER SWEENEY.

After a useful and well spent life Alexander W. Sweeney passed away on the 28th of November, 1903, honored and respected by all who knew him. He was born in Savannah, Hardin county, Tennessee, January 25, 1825, but before he was five years of age accompanied his parents on their removal to Arkansas, the family locating near Fayetteville, which was then a frontier settlement with no educational advantages. Being unable to attend school he was taught the elementary branches by his father until the latter's death, which occurred in 1833 when our subject was still quite young. The father had a contract with the government to carry the United States mail and during his illness the son often took the mail.

After his father's death Alexander W. Sweeney started out to make his own way in the world and was apprenticed to a tanner, whose cruelty soon forced him to leave and seek the protection of an older brother. During the autumn of 1839 while attending a camp meeting near Fayetteville, he joined the Cumberland Presbyterian church and desirous of becoming a minister, was received under the care of the Arkansas Presbytery as a probationer when about eighteen years of age. A school of academic grade had been established in the community and Mr. Sweeney became a student there, in the meantime working for his support and doing his studying at night.

When in his nineteenth year he was licensed to preach and according to the custom of his church was put on the circuit to preach a part of each year. During a period of six months of continuous service on the circuit he received only two dollars and forty cents in money, one pair of home knit socks and had his horse shod free. For four or five years he continued to attend school as opportunity afforded while preaching and in that time made sufficient progress in his studies to enable him to enter the sophomore year in college. Accordingly he went to Princeton, Kentucky, where he attended Cumberland College until 1850, and then returned to the Arkansas Presbytery, where he was at once ordained to the ministry at the age of twenty-five years, having spent eight years in preparation for his chosen work.

Soon after his ordination Rev. Sweeney joined a company of gold hunters who with ox teams crossed the plains and arrived at a gold camp on the American river in California, August 26, 1850. The following Sunday he preached to a company of miners that collected under the shade of a live oak tree, thus beginning a ministry on the Pacific coast which lasted until his physical health failed him. In 1851 he went to the Willamette valley in Oregon and was present as a visitor at the organization of the Oregon Presbytery, November 3, 1851. For seven years he preached throughout the Willamette valley, exerting a strong moral influence wherever he went.

[Illustration: MRS. ALEXANDER W. SWEENEY]

[Illustration: REV. ALEXANDER W. SWEENEY]

On the 15th of July, 1852, Rev. Sweeney was united in marriage to Miss Angeline Allen, of Marion county, Oregon, a daughter of Samuel and Sarah (Benson) Allen. Of the three children born to Rev. and Mrs. Sweeney, Adelia, the eldest, died at the age of fifteen years. Those still living are Samuel B. and Mrs. Adna Sharpstein.

On account of throat trouble Mr. Sweeney and his family went to California in 1858 and remained in that state for about four years, during which time he taught school for a year and a half at Sonoma, being principal of the female department of a Presbyterian college. In 1862 he again came north, going with the gold seekers to Clearwater, Idaho, where he devoted his time to the work of the ministry and to his duties as justice of the peace. In 1867 he removed to Umatilla Landing on the Columbia river in Oregon, where he not only engaged in preaching but also taught school. There was no organized church at that place but he was paid about six hundred dollars by popular subscription, which was the best salary he had ever received for his ministerial services up to that time. For one year he served as superintendent of schools for Umatilla county.

In 1869 Mr. Sweeney returned to California, traveling by way of the Columbia river and Pacific ocean, and during his sojourn in that state taught school under supervision of the church at Collegeville, about eight miles from Stockton, in San Joaquin county for a year and a half, and on his retirement from that work returned to Oregon, spending two years at Albany. From there he came to western Washington about 1872 and did considerable missionary work among the pioneers of this region, traveling over a large territory, more than one hundred miles in extent. He started the first Presbyterian church in Walla Walla with but two members. He preached in Waitsburg, Dayton, Pomeroy and Colfax and often held services in school houses and groves throughout the country. Failing health at length caused him to retire from the active work of the ministry after thirty-five years of most faithful service. He preached occasionally up to the year 1900. His wife was a most competent help and by her good management made the sunset of his life much easier financially. His unselfish life and devotion to the work of the Master gained him the unqualified regard of all with whom he came in contact. Although now eighty-one years of age, Mrs. Sweeney is still well preserved, being strong and active and able to do considerable work, including the care of her own garden. Her intellect seems unimpaired and she appears to be much younger than she really is. She was always a faithful wife, a capable financier and a hard worker, being able to support herself and children and secure the property which kept Mr. Sweeney in comfort during his declining years.

GUY S. DEMARIS.

An excellent farm of one hundred and thirty acres pays tribute to the care and labor bestowed upon it by Guy S. Demaris, whose place is situated on section 12, township 7 north, range 37 east, in Walla Walla county. He was born November 4, 1885, on the farm where he now resides, his parents being Orlando and Mary (Lewis) Demaris, who are mentioned elsewhere in this work. His youthful days were spent under the parental roof and he early became familiar with the best methods of tilling the soil and caring for the crops, dividing his time between the acquirement of an education in the district schools, the pleasures of the playground and the work of the fields. He also had the advantage of a business course in the Empire Business College at Walla Walla and after completing his studies he worked for his brothers, Fred and David, in connection with their farming operations. In 1912 he began farming on his own account and has since given his attention to general agricultural pursuits. He took charge of the old home place of one hundred and thirty acres, which he is now cultivating, and the neat and thrifty appearance of his place indicates his careful supervision and his practical and progressive methods. The farm is divided into fields of convenient size by well kept fences, there are substantial buildings upon the land and he utilizes the latest improved machinery in carrying on the work of the fields. He annually harvests good crops and is winning success as the years go by.

On the 25th of December, 1906, Mr. Demaris was united in marriage to Miss Gertrude Tash, a daughter of Andrew J. Tash, one of the pioneers of Walla Walla county, still living on Mill creek. To this marriage were born two children but both have passed away.

In his political views Mr. Demaris is a democrat but not an office seeker. He belongs to Welcome Lodge, No. 117, I. O. O. F., of Dixie, and to Walla Walla Encampment, No. 3, and is also a member of the Uniformed Rank, Canton No. 1, of Walla Walla. He and his wife hold membership in the Presbyterian church and in social circles they occupy an enviable position, many of the best homes of their section of the county extending to them warm-hearted hospitality and welcome. Their good qualities are many and in matters of friendship they are always loyal and true.

JAMES T. ALLEN, D. M. D.

Among the able practitioners of dentistry in Washington is Dr. James T. Allen, who follows his profession in Dayton, his native city. He was here born on the 26th of December, 1877, and is a representative of one of the old pioneer families established in this section of the state in 1874. His parents were Albert O. and Sarah B. (Allen) Allen, the former a native of Tennessee, while the latter was born in Oregon. The father was reared in the state of his nativity and in 1872, at the age of twenty-three years, he made his way westward, remaining for about a year in Texas and then continuing his journey toward the Pacific coast. He spent another year in San Francisco and in 1874 arrived in Dayton. Subsequently he took up his abode upon a farm six miles east of the city and in the years that followed he acquired four hundred and eighty acres of excellent land. He continued upon his farm for some time, bringing his fields under a high state of cultivation and annually gathering good crops, which brought to him a very gratifying income. At length he retired from farm work and took up his abode in Dayton, where his remaining days were passed, his death occurring in 1899. He was quite prominent in public affairs, serving as deputy sheriff under Al Weatherford and while in that capacity he assisted in the capture of a notorious band of cattle thieves that had been raiding the country around for some time. His death was occasioned by being thrown from a horse and dragged for a considerable distance while in the mountains after an outlaw. His widow is still living and makes her home with her son James.

To the public school system of Dayton, James T. Allen is indebted for his early educational training. He passed through consecutive grades to his graduation from the high school with the class of 1897 and later he became a student in Whitman College, where he spent two years. In the fall of 1899 he entered the North Pacific Dental College at Portland, Oregon, and there won his D. M. D. degree upon graduation with the class of 1902. After completing the course he opened dental offices in Waitsburg, where he practiced for two years but in 1904 returned to his native city, where he has since been in continuous and successful practice. He is recognized as one of the skilled dentists of southeastern Washington and has been accorded a very liberal patronage.

In 1906 Dr. Allen was united in marriage to Miss Zada Estelle Baldwin, of Dayton, a daughter of Daniel Baldwin, now deceased, who was one of the pioneers of Columbia county. Dr. and Mrs. Allen have one child, Grace Corinne.

Fraternally Dr. Allen is connected with Dayton Lodge, No. 26, F. & A. M.; and Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P. His political endorsement is given to the democratic party but he does not seek nor desire office. On November 7, 1917, Dr. Allen was honored by appointment of Governor Lister to the position of member of the State Board of Dental Examiners, a recognition which justly reflects his high professional standing. His life stands in contradistinction to the old adage that a prophet is not without honor save in his own country, for in the city of his birth Dr. Allen has made for himself a most creditable and enviable position in professional circles and enjoys a practice that many an older representative of the profession might well envy.

FRANK FAURE.

Frank Faure, proprietor of the McFeely Hotel in Walla Walla, has been a resident of this city since 1902 and has made for himself a creditable position in its business circles. He was born in France, August 13, 1884, a son of Jean and Marie (Grant) Faure. The father was a farmer by occupation and spent his entire life in his native country, where he and his wife reared a family of three children, Jean and Leon being now soldiers of the French army. Frank Faure acquired a common school education in France and afterward attended the Superior school of La Mure Isère. After putting aside his textbooks he sought the opportunities offered in the new world, crossing the Atlantic in 1902, when a young man of eighteen years. Making his way westward to Walla Walla, he here became engaged in the hotel business and now owns and conducts the McFeely Hotel, located at Fourth and Alder streets. He has made of this a popular hostelry, catering to high-class trade, and his business has steadily grown because of the comforts which he affords to his guests.

In 1911 Mr. Faure was united in marriage to Miss Mary Daffis and they have a daughter, Frances. In his political views Mr. Faure is a democrat. Fraternally he is connected with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and with the Knights of Columbus, his association with the latter organization indicating his membership in the Catholic church. For fifteen years he has resided in Walla Walla, where he has become widely and favorably known, and he has never had occasion to regret his determination to try his fortune in the new world, for he here found good business opportunities and in their utilization has worked his way steadily upward.

ALBERT E. CORBETT.

A well spent life was that of Albert E. Corbett, whose industry and integrity in business affairs won him success and the respect of his fellowmen. He possessed many sterling traits of character, so that his death was the occasion of deep and widespread regret among those with whom he was associated. He was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, December 7, 1855, and was a son of John and Jane (Lewis) Corbett.

Albert E. Corbett was reared at home and under the direction of his father learned the miller's trade. In 1889 he left his family in Ontario and came to the west, looking for an opening that would give him better opportunities to attain success and to establish a home for his wife and children. He first located in Columbia county, where he secured a position as night miller in the Touchet Flouring Mills, then owned by Henry Richardson. Two months later, however, the mill closed down for the winter and Mr. Corbett went to the coast, looking for work. Not finding suitable employment in Seattle or Tacoma, he went on to Victoria, British Columbia, where he secured a situation in a sawmill. In May of the following year he was there joined by his brother, Judson A. Corbett, who also found employment in the same mill. While working there Mr. Corbett was writing to friends in Columbia county, Washington, and learned of a chance to buy the Touchet Mills. In the fall of 1892 he made his way to Huntsville therefore, and in company with his brother, Judson A., bought the mill. They had saved about five hundred dollars each from their wages and this amount was used as the first payment on the purchase price of the mill. Within the following two years they paid off the entire indebtedness on the property, which was thus free from all encumbrance. In the spring of 1890 Mr. Corbett sent for his wife and family, who joined him in Victoria, coming to the west with his brother, Judson A.

It was in April, 1885, that Mr. Corbett was united in marriage to Miss Hannah Baker and to them were born four children, three of whom are still living, namely: Lewis, who is engaged in the automobile business in Dayton; Gertrude, who is a teacher in the schools of Dixie, Washington; and Florence, at home. The wife and mother passed away in May, 1895, and in May, 1899, Mr. Corbett was united in marriage to Miss Laura Baker, a sister of his former wife. She is a graduate of the Normal School of Ottawa, Canada, and is a woman of liberal education and of broad culture and refinement. By this marriage there were born two children, Helen and Emma, both at home.

[Illustration: ALBERT E. CORBETT]

For many years Mr. Corbett continued successfully in the milling business and as his financial resources increased he invested in property, becoming the owner of a farm in a section of land in Alberta, Canada and also acquired an interest in a farm in Ontario. Mrs. Corbett still holds both these places. His carefully managed business affairs and his judicious investments enabled him to leave his family in very comfortable circumstances. He was a member of the Woodmen of the World and also held membership in the Episcopal church, to the teachings of which he was most loyal. His wife and children also belong to the same church. In that faith Mr. Corbett passed away December 10, 1906, his death being the occasion of deep and widespread regret not only to his immediate family but also to the many friends whom he had won during the period of his residence in the northwest. Mrs. Corbett survives her husband and has proven herself a capable business woman, wisely managing the property left to her. She is widely and favorably known in this section of the state.

MRS. MARY C. NICHOLS.

Mrs. Mary C. Nichols, of Dayton, is widely and favorably known as one of the worthy pioneer women of Columbia county, where she owns valuable farm property from which she derives a gratifying annual income. She was born in Wisconsin in 1854 and is a daughter of A. C. and Oral A. (Pelton) Woodward, who were natives of Wisconsin, whence they crossed the plains to Washington in 1860, settling in Old Walla Walla county, near Dayton. They became identified with the farming interests of that locality and upon their ranch spent their remaining days. In their family were eight children, four of whom are yet living.

Their daughter, Mary C., was a little maiden of but six years when the trip was made to Washington, so that practically her entire life has been passed in the northwest. She was but sixteen years of age when in June, 1870, she gave her hand in marriage to Isaac Wallace Monnett, a native of Ohio, who came to Washington in 1869 and settled on a farm ten miles southeast of Dayton. Mr. and Mrs. Monnett became the parents of three children: Oral, who is the wife of Grant Lowe; Elizabeth, who has departed this life; and A. A. Monnett, who is a hardware and implement merchant of Dayton. The husband and father passed away in 1876 and for nine years Mrs. Monnett remained a widow. In 1885 she became the wife of F. J. Nichols and to them have been born four daughters: Minnie, who is the wife of C. C. Kifer, of California; Grace, who is a graduate of the Walla Walla high school and is at home; Mary L., who is the wife of J. B. Thompson; and Hazel E., the wife of C. E. McQuary.

Mrs. Nichols still owns what is known as the old Monnett homestead of five hundred and sixty acres, all of which is fine wheat land. It is a valuable property from which she derives a gratifying annual income. She also owns an attractive residence in the city of Dayton and she is numbered among the worthy pioneer women of this section of the state. For fifty-seven years she has lived in Washington and has therefore witnessed the greater part of the growth and development of the commonwealth. Events which to others are matters of history are to her matters of personal knowledge and she can relate many interesting incidents of the early days when the great stretches of land were unclaimed and uncultivated, when forests were uncut, when rivers were unbridged and when the work of progress seemed dim and distant in the future. The most farsighted at that time could not have dreamed of the wonderful changes which were to occur and transform southeastern Washington into a well settled and populous district in which are to be found all of the advantages and all and more of the opportunities of the older east. Mrs. Nichols is a member of the Congregational church and her many excellent traits of character have gained for her respect and popularity among her many friends.

L. L. HUNT.

L. L. Hunt is familiar with the methods of Indian warfare in the northwest, as he early became connected with the army in this section of the state. Since then he has been active in business along various lines and step by step has progressed until he is now in possession of a handsome competence that enables him to live retired. He makes his home in College Place, Walla Walla county, and has important farming interests on section 36, township 7 north, range 35 east. His career in many respects has been an eventful one. The width of the continent separates him from his birthplace, for he is a native of Maine. He was born on the 2d of August, 1855, his parents being George and Mary Ann (Prescott) Hunt, both of whom were representatives of old families that sent forth soldiers to the Revolutionary war. Both the father and mother spent their entire lives in the Pine Tree state.

L. L. Hunt was reared under the parental roof until he reached the age of sixteen years, when he left home and went to Boston, Massachusetts, where for four years he was engaged in railroading. The opportunities of the west, however, attracted him and he left New England, making his way to Nevada. Locating in Carson City, for more than a year he there worked in the timber region, and in 1876 he went to San Joaquin county, California, where he engaged in driving a team during the following winter. In 1877 he came to Walla Walla, where he worked for the government during the Joseph Indian war, driving a team used for transportation of supplies. A year later he became identified with Joe Woodworth in the operation of the old Cayuse stables in Walla Walla. He was connected with the conduct of this business for about three years and then turned his attention to farming on the Eureka Flats, becoming one of the large operators on the flats. He homesteaded, preempted and also took up a timber claim and he likewise purchased railroad land, owning at one time seven quarter sections. He farmed altogether seventeen hundred acres of rented land and he remained on the flats for about twelve years. He next removed to Walla Walla but after a year took up his abode at College Place, where he engaged in gardening. Subsequently he organized the L. L. Hunt Fruit & Produce Shipping Company and built up the business to extensive proportions, his interests becoming one of the chief industries of this section. He managed his affairs wisely and well and prosperity resulted. He now has retired from active business life and is enjoying a rest which he has truly earned and richly merits.

In 1888 Mr. Hunt returned to Boston for his bride and was there married on the 21st of October of that year to Miss Olivia Crosby. She was born in Nova Scotia and came to the United States at the age of sixteen years, her parents continuing in Nova Scotia, where they passed away. Mr. Hunt brought his bride to the west and they have since been widely and favorably known in this section of the state. They are consistent members of the Presbyterian church, in the work of which they take an active and helpful interest, and Mr. Hunt is now serving as one of the elders of the church. His political endorsement is given to the republican party and while living on the Flats he served for two years as postmaster. He also belongs to Trinity Lodge, No. 121, I. O. O. F. Both he and his wife hold membership in the Pioneers Association and are honored as among the early settlers who have contributed in marked measure to the upbuilding and progress of this section of the country. Mr. Hunt has led a most busy, active and useful life. From the time when he became connected with a military post on the frontier he has done everything in his power to further the interests and development of this section of the country and his business affairs, too, have been of a character that have contributed to public progress and improvement as well as to personal success. His memory compasses the period when the majority of homes in this section of the state were little cabins, when few roads had been laid out, when the forests were uncut and the streams unbridged. He has lived to witness many changes since those days and in the work of transformation has borne his full share.

GEORGE F. PRICE.

George F. Price is actively identified with farming interests in Columbia county, while making his home in Dayton. He is one of the native sons of the county, his birth having occurred within its borders January 7, 1874. His parents were Alexander and Clarinda J. (Anderson) Price, who are mentioned elsewhere in this work. He spent his youthful days under the parental roof and mastered the branches of learning taught in the district schools, supplementing his early education by a commercial course in the Empire Business College at Walla Walla. He also attended the Gem City Business College at Quincy, Illinois, and when his studies were completed he became the active assistant of his father in farming enterprises. This association was maintained until the father's death, after which George F. Price operated the lands that constituted the family estate for several years. He is the owner of six hundred and forty acres of rich and valuable land and, also cultivating other tracts, is now successfully engaged in farming three thousand acres. This places him among the principal agriculturists of the county and in managing his business affairs he displays sound judgment, unremitting industry and notable perseverance. His record is therefore one crowned with success.

In 1903 Mr. Price was united in marriage to Miss L. Minerva Guernsey, a daughter of Dennis C. Guernsey, who took up his abode among the pioneer settlers of Columbia county and now resides in Starbuck. Mr. and Mrs. Price have two children, Dennis Alexander and Elizabeth Jane.

In his fraternal relations Mr. Price is a Knight of Pythias, belonging to Dayton Lodge, No. 3. His political endorsement is given to the democratic party and he is serving at the present time as a member of the city council and also as a member of the Dayton school board. He is much interested in everything that pertains to the public welfare and cooperates heartily in those measures and movements which are a matter of civic virtue and of civic pride. His wife is a member of the Congregational church and their influence is always felt on the side of reform and improvement. It is as a business man, however, that Mr. Price is perhaps best known and aside from controlling mammoth agricultural interests he is a director of the Columbia National Bank and a director of the Edwards-Hindle Company, which controls the leading mercantile establishment of Dayton. The call of opportunity is ever to him a call to action and one to which he readily responds. His power has grown through the exercise of effort. He has readily adapted himself to changing conditions in the business world and as he has progressed step by step he has gained a broader outlook and wider opportunities.

CONRAD HENRY KASEBERG.

Conrad Henry Kaseberg, a well known retired wagon maker residing in Walla Walla, was born in Germany, March 10, 1834, a son of Johannes and Mary Christina (Rumpf) Kaseberg, also natives of Germany, where they passed their entire lives.

Conrad Henry Kaseberg passed his boyhood and youth in his native country and there received his education. In 1857, when a young man, he crossed the Atlantic on a sailing vessel which docked at Baltimore, Maryland. From that city he removed to St. Louis, Missouri, whence, after a few weeks, he removed to Weston, Missouri, where his brother lived, and some three months later he went to St. Joseph, Missouri, where he remained from October, 1857, to June, 1859. The following two years were spent in St. Louis, after which he went to California. In 1867 he left the Golden state and returned to St. Louis, where he was married and where he continued to live until 1871, his business being across the river in Venice, Illinois. It was in that year that he came to Walla Walla county, Washington, and purchased the home where he still lives in the city of Walla Walla. He worked at the wagon maker's trade, which he had learned in Germany, having a shop at Second and Alder streets, until 1887, and he then bought seven hundred acres of fine wheat land on Dry creek, eleven miles out of Walla Walla, which he operated for a time and which he still owns, deriving a gratifying income from its rental. He is a stockholder in the Farmers Savings Bank.

Mr. Kaseberg was married on Christmas day, 1867, to Miss Augusta D. Timmermeister, also a native of Germany, and they became the parents of one child, who, however, died in infancy. Mrs. Kaseberg passed away in February, 1912, and was laid to rest in the Mountain View cemetery. She was an active member of the Lutheran church and her life was that of a devout Christian.

[Illustration: CONRAD H. KASEBERG]

[Illustration: MRS. CONRAD H. KASEBERG]

Mr. Kaseberg also belongs to that church and has never failed to give both his moral and financial support to its work. Fraternally he is a member of the Odd Fellows lodge of Walla Walla. He is a republican in politics but his interest in public affairs is only that of a loyal citizen, though he served one year on the city council. He is a self-made man, having come to this country empty-handed, but through the opportunities here offered and his industry and good management he has gained financial independence. He has reached an advanced age but is still keen of mind and active of body and is accorded the honor due those who have behind them the record of a long and honorable life.

JOHN A. LANE.

John A. Lane, concentrating his efforts and attention upon general agricultural pursuits, cultivating eleven hundred acres of land, makes his home on section 24, township 8 north, range 36 east, in Walla Walla county. Almost the width of the continent separates him from the place of his birth, which was in Cameron county, Pennsylvania. He was born September 28, 1878, a son of Joseph and Mary (Berfield) Lane, both of whom were natives of the Keystone state. The father was born in Philadelphia, where his youth was spent. His father died when the son was a lad in his teens and the burden of the support of the family fell upon his shoulders. He bravely met the task and throughout his entire life displayed the same spirit of resolution and energy. He continued his residence in his native state until 1880, when he came west to Walla Walla county, Washington, and took up his abode upon a farm near the present home of his son John. He purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land and as his financial resources increased kept adding to his holdings until his landed possessions aggregated three hundred and forty-six acres. He continued to give his undivided time and attention to his farming interests until death called him on the 10th of September, 1905. His widow is still living and now resides with a daughter in Walla Walla.

John A. Lane was educated in the district schools and in the Waitsburg Academy, which he attended through the winter months, while the summer seasons were devoted to farm work. Upon the completion of his education he began farming on his own account, renting a tract of three hundred and twenty acres of land in the township where he still resides. He cultivated that place for three years and then took up a homestead in what was Yakima county, now Benton county. This he improved and cultivated for five years and he still owns that place. In 1907, however, he returned to the old homestead farm, which is owned conjointly by himself and his mother. He cultivates this place of three hundred and forty-six acres and rents adjoining land, operating altogether eleven hundred acres. He has thus come to rank with the leading and extensive farmers of his section of the state and his business affairs are carefully managed and conducted.

On October 16, 1898, Mr. Lane was united in marriage to Miss Nora P. Smith, a daughter of Mrs. Charles Ellis, of Dixie. Her father died during her infancy and her mother afterward married again. To Mr. and Mrs. Lane have been born three children of whom two are living, Dorothy M., who is attending the Walla Walla high school, and John A., Jr.

In his political views Mr. Lane maintains an independent attitude, voting for men and measures in preference to party dictation. He is now serving on the school board and the cause of education finds in him a stalwart champion. He belongs to the Ancient Order of United Workmen and his wife and daughter hold memberships in the Christian church. The members of the family are highly esteemed in the part of the county where they reside and have a circle of friends almost coextensive with their circle of acquaintances.

JESSE DRUMHELLER.

Jesse Drumheller, deceased, an honored pioneer of the west of 1852, was during the remainder of his life a prominent factor in the advancement of the business interests and development of this section of the country. Widely known, his life history cannot fail to prove of interest to the many friends who still cherish his memory, and it is therefore with pleasure that we present this record of his career to our readers. His birth occurred in Tennessee in 1835. There the first eight years of his life were passed, after which he accompanied his parents on their removal to Missouri, the family home being established near Springfield, where he remained until 1851. He then located near Savannah, Missouri, where he remained for a year, and in 1852 he heard and heeded the call of the west. He started out across the plains with ox teams for Washington and located in Cowlitz county, where he turned his attention to the lumber business. Soon afterward he removed to California, where for several years he engaged in mining, and in 1855 he became a resident of Oregon. There he joined the Oregon Volunteers for service in the Indian war and was sent to Walla Walla. During the eleven months in which he was a part of that command he participated in several severe engagements with the red men and aided in winning the victory which crowned the arms of the white troops. After the cessation of hostilities he entered the employ of the United States government and assisted in building the government posts at The Dalles, at Walla Walla, at Colville and at Simcoe. His activities thus became an important factor in the development of this section of the country. In 1859 he took up his abode on land two miles south of Walla Walla and turned his attention to stock raising and general farming, a business which he followed until about 1900. In this he prospered and from time to time added to his holdings until his landed possessions aggregated nearly six thousand acres. He thus carried on farming most extensively and in 1899 his crop of wheat amounted to about sixty-five thousand bushels. He followed the most progressive methods in the development of his land and stood at all times as one of the most enterprising and representative farmers of the northwest. He also carried on stock raising with success and his diligence and determination brought him prominently to the front in connection with the line of his chosen occupation.

On the 8th of October, 1863, in Walla Walla, Mr. Drumheller was united in marriage to Miss Martha A. Maxson, a pioneer of 1859. They became the parents of five sons: Samuel, of Calgary, Alberta; Oscar; George, a stock-raiser of Walla Walla; Thomas J., who is engaged in the hardware business with his older brother, Oscar, they being members of the well known firm of Drumheller & Company, dealers in hardware, furniture and crockery; and R. M., collector of customs at Seattle.

Jesse Drumheller was a member of the Masonic fraternity, holding membership in the lodge and in the chapter. His death occurred on December 2, 1907. He stood in the front rank among those who have planted civilization in the northwest and was particularly active in the growth of Walla Walla county, where for many years he made his home, and his labors were of a nature that contributed in marked measure to the substantial and moral development and upbuilding of this section of the country. He was a progressive business man, wide-awake, alert and energetic, and carried forward to successful completion whatever he undertook. While his business interests became very extensive and important, he always found time to cooperate in plans and measures for the public good and was a most loyal and devoted citizen from the time when he aided in subduing the Indian uprising, through the period of later development and progress up to the time when death called him to the home beyond.

OLE HANNAS.

Ole Hannas, who resides on section 31, township 14, range 43, owns ten hundred and sixteen acres of Garfield county's valuable wheat and pasture lands and enjoys an enviable reputation as a successful and representative agriculturist. His present prosperity is entirely attributable to his own efforts, for he came to this state empty-handed about three decades ago. His birth occurred in Norway on the 9th of September, 1866, his parents being Ole and Anna (Kittelsaa) Hannas. The father passed away in that country in 1915, but the mother survives and yet makes her home in Norway.

Ole Hannas received a thorough common school education in his native country and there spent his youth. When twenty-one years of age he crossed the Atlantic to the new world, desiring to test the truth of the many favorable reports which had reached him concerning the opportunities and advantages to be enjoyed in America. After residing for one year in Minnesota he came west to Washington in the fall of 1888 and spent the succeeding winter and spring in Tacoma. In June, 1889, he made his way to Walla Walla and in the following October took up his abode in Garfield county. Having no money to invest in land, he secured employment as a farm hand. At the end of five years, in 1894, having saved his earnings, he began farming for himself on a small scale as a renter. Prosperity attended his efforts and about 1902 he purchased a half interest in five hundred and eighty acres of land where he now resides. From that time his success has been sure and rapid and today his holdings embrace ten hundred and sixteen acres of valuable wheat and pasture land in Garfield county, so that he has become one of the most extensive agriculturists and substantial citizens of the community.

On the 5th of April, 1905, Mr. Hannas was united in marriage to Miss Guri Tveit, crossing over to Norway for his bride, of which country she is a native. They have two children, Orle and John. Mr. Hannas gives his political allegiance to the republican party and is serving as a member of the school board, the cause of education finding in him a stalwart champion. Fraternally he is identified with the Woodmen of the World, while in religious faith both he and his wife are Lutherans. They have won an extensive circle of warm friends throughout the community, being recognized as people of genuine worth whose aid and influence are given on the side of right, progress, reform and improvement.

JAMES B. WARREN.

James B. Warren became the owner of a valuable tract of land on section 4, township 10 north, range 42 east, Garfield county, and also held title to other land, his holdings comprising fourteen hundred acres at the time of his death. He was widely known and his demise was the occasion of much sincere grief. He was born in Franklin county, Tennessee, January 9, 1853, and was a son of Stewart and Louisa (Walker) Warren, both also natives of that state. There the father passed away and later the mother removed with her family to Missouri, where her death occurred in 1875. All of the six children in the family have likewise passed away.

James B. Warren received a common school education and remained with his mother until her death. In 1875 he went to California but only remained there for two years, settling in Polk county, Oregon, at the end of that period. The following year, however, he became a resident of Dayton, Columbia county, Washington, and in 1882 he purchased the farm on which his widow still resides. It comprises eight hundred acres and the buildings are located on section 4, township 10 north, range 42 east. From the operation of that place he derived such a gratifying profit that he was able to add to his holdings and became the owner of fourteen hundred acres, all of which is now in the possession of his widow. He was likewise a stockholder in the Pomeroy Mercantile Company at Pomeroy. He was a keen business man and, adding to this industry, sound judgment and a ready recognition of opportunities, it was but natural that he should gain a signal measure of success.

Mr. Warren was married in 1882 to Miss Marietta McCanse, who was born in Missouri, a daughter of Andrew G. and Margaret E. (Williams) McCanse, both natives of Tennessee, who, however, became early settlers of Lawrence county, Missouri. In 1876 the McCanse family removed to Oregon, but a year later located four and a half miles northeast of Pomeroy, Washington. Subsequently the parents returned to Missouri, where Mrs. McCanse died in 1907, her husband passing away September 8, 1909. Only three of their six children survive.

[Illustration: JAMES B. WARREN]

Mr. Warren was called to his final rest April 17, 1913, and his body was interred in the Chappele cemetery. He was a member of the Knights of Pythias and its teachings concerning the brotherhood of man found exemplification in his daily life. He took the interest of a good citizen in public affairs, although not an office seeker, and his ballot was cast in support of the republican party. He was for a third of a century a resident of Garfield county and during that time had a part in bringing about its development. His acquaintance was unusually wide and his friends were many. Mrs. Warren has retained her residence on the homestead and gives her personal supervision to its operation. The land is fertile, the improvements are modern, and she derives a handsome income from the place.

REV. A. R. OLDS.

Rev. A. R. Olds is superintendent of the Walla Walla County Poor Farm, situated on section 36, township 7 north, range 35 east in that county. He devoted many years of his life to the work of the ministry and then ill health obliged him to discontinue his labors in that connection. He is now making a most excellent record not only as superintendent of the Poor Farm in his care of the indigent ones but also in the management of crop production. He was called to this position in 1914 and has been most efficient in the discharge of all of the tasks that devolve upon him in this connection.

A native of Pennsylvania, his birth occurred in Bradford on the 30th of July, 1854, his parents being Robert D. and Hannah (Corkings) Olds, both of whom were natives of the state of New York, where they were reared and married. Soon afterward they removed to Bradford, Pennsylvania, where the father engaged in the shoe business until 1858, when he removed to Roanoke, Indiana, where he again conducted business as a boot and shoe merchant for twenty-eight years. The mother died in Roanoke and the father afterward came to the west, making his home with his son, Rev. A. R. Olds of this review, at Philomath, Oregon.

A. R. Olds pursued a public school education, supplemented by study in the Roanoke Seminary. He was thirteen years of age when he entered upon an apprenticeship to the shoemaking business, for his father conducted a custom made shoe business in connection with handling the factory product. After completing his apprenticeship A. R. Olds worked at the trade until 1882, when he made his way westward to Oregon, settling in Philomath. A year later he entered the ministry of the United Brethren church and for four years was minister at the college in Philomath. A little later he became connected with the Congregational church as a minister and for almost thirty years devoted his time and energies to the work, filling the pulpit in various churches. After his retirement from a regular charge he continued to do county missionary work until about a year ago. In September, 1896, he arrived in Walla Walla to take charge of the county missionary work but failing health caused him to give only a part of his time to the work in later years. Earnest and zealous in his efforts to upbuild the church, his labors wrought good results. He was not denied the harvest nor the full aftermath of his efforts. His high purpose, his ready sympathy, his words of wisdom all combined to act as an influencing factor drawing men to a better life.

In 1914 Rev. Olds was appointed superintendent of the County Poor Farm of Walla Walla county, in which capacity he has since served, and he has proven himself a master farmer, his crops at the present writing being among the finest in this section of the state. He also displays good business ability in the conduct and management of the Poor Farm and his official service in this connection is characteristic of traits which he has ever displayed, for it has always been his custom to carry forward to successful completion whatever he undertakes. He never falters in the face of difficulties nor obstacles and his labors have brought good results, both in promoting material and moral progress.

In 1876 Rev. Olds was united in marriage to Miss Etta Fast, of Roanoke, Indiana, by whom he has three children, namely: Earl L., who is a resident of Bend, Oregon; Francis R., living at Klamath Falls; and Ruth, the wife of H. W. Bathany, of Walla Walla.

Rev. Olds gives his political allegiance to the republican party, which he has long supported. He is prominent in Masonic circles, belonging to Walla Walla Lodge, No. 7, A. F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; and Oriental Consistory, No. 2, A. & A. S. R., of Spokane. He is likewise a member of Trinity Lodge, No. 121, I. O. O. F., and Walla Walla Encampment, No. 3, I. O. O. F., and in June, 1917, a high honor was conferred upon him, for in that month he was made grand chaplain of the grand lodge of Washington. He also belongs to the Woodmen of the World. He is one of Walla Walla county's most esteemed and representative citizens and enjoys the respect, goodwill and trust of all with whom he has come in contact. Ever ready to extend a helping hand where aid is needed, his character and work have been such as have shed around him much of life's sunshine.

ARTHUR P. BLOOMFIELD.

Arthur P. Bloomfield, who is living retired in Columbia county after many years of successful farming, was born in New Jersey, February 6, 1840, a son of Jonathan and Theodosia (Foster) Bloomfield, the former born in England and the latter in New Jersey, in which state they were married. The father passed away in New Jersey and subsequently the mother became a resident of California, where her demise occurred. To them were born three children, of whom only our subject survives.

Arthur P. Bloomfield was reared in his native state and enjoyed the educational advantages afforded by the common schools. In 1861, when he had attained his majority, he went to California, where for about twenty years he devoted his time to farming and gardening, but in 1880 he came to Old Walla Walla county, Washington, taking up as a homestead the farm on which he still lives. Here he met with success and was able to increase his holdings until he now owns one thousand and ten acres of wheat and pasture land, all within what is now Columbia county. At length, feeling that he had earned a rest, he retired and now leaves to others the active work of the fields. He also owns a half interest in the Palace Hotel at Pullman, from which he receives a rental of two hundred and fifty dollars per month.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. ARTHUR P. BLOOMFIELD]

Mr. Bloomfield was married in 1874, to Miss Anna Lang, and they became the parents of seven children: Lulu, the wife of Bert Kimball; Ida, who resides in Walla Walla; Hattie, deceased; Frank, who is farming the homestead; and three who have passed away. The wife and mother died Saturday, October 6, 1917, and was laid to rest in Walla Walla cemetery.

Mr. Bloomfield is a stanch supporter of the republican party and has served with credit as a member of the school board and as road supervisor. His career illustrates what may be accomplished in this land of opportunity by persistent hard work and good management, for he began his career empty handed and is now financially independent.

MARTIN HANSEN.

Martin Hansen is a self-made man who has gained a creditable position among the representative and prosperous farmers of Walla Walla county. He arrived in this section of the state empty-handed but he saw the opportunities here offered and has utilized them to good advantage. He is now the owner of a valuable farm property situated on section 33, township 7 north, range 35 east. He was born in Denmark on the 12th of January, 1876, and is a son of Lars and Mary Hansen, who came to the United States when he was a lad of twelve years. The family home was established in Nebraska, four sons of the family having preceded the parents to the new world. There the father and mother located and both passed away in that state, the death of the father occurring in 1915, while his wife died in 1914.

In the common schools of Denmark, Mr. Hansen pursued his education, supplemented by a winter term's study in Nebraska and by two winter terms in Walla Walla county. He also took two six-weeks winter courses at the State College of Washington. He made good use of his time and opportunities in promoting his intellectual development and he has always continued a student of men and events. In other words he has learned much in life through observation and experience and has become a substantial and well informed business man.

It was in 1887 that Martin Hansen crossed the broad Atlantic to the United States and about three years later he made his way to Walla Walla county, Washington, where he was employed for wages for five years. He saved carefully and systematically until his industry and economy had brought him sufficient capital to enable him, in 1895, to engage in farming on his own account. He then rented land and again he practiced economy and industry until in 1897 he had a capital sufficient to enable him to purchase his present home farm of one hundred and fifty-nine acres. Upon that place he has since resided and has made many valuable improvements thereon, among others drilling in 1912 two artesian wells which flow one thousand gallons of water per minute, greatly enhancing the value of the farm. Its splendid appearance is indicative of the care and labor which he has bestowed upon it. He arrived in Walla Walla without capital and today he is one of the substantial farmers of this section of the state, and what means more, the result achieved is due to his industry, his perseverance and his determination alone. He has never been afraid of hard work and he early recognized the eternal principle that industry wins.

Mr. Hansen is a republican in his political views, having supported the party since becoming a naturalized American citizen. He has served for a number of years on the school board and is one of the influential men of his community, his opinions carrying weight regarding public affairs. His life record should serve to inspire and encourage others, showing what may be accomplished when energy points out the way.

JAMES H. SCHNECKLOTH.

James H. Schneckloth, the well-known and popular postmaster of Pomeroy, was born on the 25th of October, 1868, in Scott county, Iowa, a son of Henry and Margaretha (Kuhl) Schneckloth, who were natives of Germany and on coming to America in early life settled in Scott county, Iowa, where the father engaged in farming for some years. In 1881 he brought his family to Washington and located on a farm near Pomeroy, where he still resides. His wife died in 1914. To them were born eight children and seven of them survive.

James H. Schneckloth began his education in the public schools of his native county, where the first thirteen years of his life were passed in much the usual manner of farmer boys in the middle west. He then accompanied his parents on their removal to Washington and here grew to manhood. On starting out in life for himself he engaged in the stock business and is still interested in that enterprise. As time passed he prospered in his undertakings and is today the owner of a fine stock ranch of one thousand acres.

In 1912 Mr. Schneckloth was united in marriage to Miss Rose Dougherty, and to them has been born a daughter, Janet M. They are members of the Episcopal church, and Mr. Schneckloth is also identified with the Knights of Pythias and the Foresters. By his ballot he supports the men and measures of the democratic party and he has taken a very active and influential part in public affairs. In 1904 he was elected county treasurer and acceptably filled that office until 1913. In February of the following year he was appointed postmaster of Pomeroy and is now serving in that capacity with credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. He is a self-made man, whose success in life is due to his own unaided efforts, and he is regarded as one of the leading citizens of the town.

JOSEPH WEIMER.

Joseph Weimer is a resident farmer of Garfield county, his home being on section 20, township 12 north, range 41 east. Ever loyal to his adopted country, he has made himself a creditable position as a leading agriculturist of Garfield county and as a citizen of genuine worth. He was born in Germany, June 3, 1861, and is a son of Casper and Lizzie (Braun) Weimer, who came to the United States in 1886. After arriving on the shores of the new world they made their way direct to the west with Washington as their destination and established their home in Garfield county, where the father filed on a homestead claim five miles northwest of Pomeroy. With characteristic energy he began the development and improvement of that property and devoted his attention to its further cultivation until the time of his death.

Joseph Weimer, whose name introduces this review, acquired his education in the common schools of his native country and in 1884 he set sail for the United States, landing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Crossing the continent without tarrying for any length of time in the east, he at length reached the Pacific coast and spent six months in California. He then came northward into Washington and made his final settlement. He took up a homestead in Garfield county on which he resided for seven years, at the end of which time he bought land and removed to his present home farm on section 20, township 12 north, range 41 east. Upon that place he has since resided. He is one of the self-made men of this state. He came to the northwest in very limited financial circumstances and today he owns three hundred and twenty acres of valuable wheat land in Garfield county. His plate is improved with substantial buildings, with well kept fences and good farm machinery and everything about his place indicates his careful supervision and his practical and progressive methods. The fields give promise of abundant harvests in the autumn and the work of the farm has been carried on in a most modern and effective way.

In 1891 Mr. Weimer was united in marriage to Miss Matilda Andress, a native of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, and they have become the parents of four children: Edward Joseph, Frank Henry, Fred and Tillie, all of whom are still under the parental roof. Mr. Weimer and his family are communicants of the Catholic church.

In his adopted land Mr. Weimer has found the opportunities which he sought and in their utilization has won a substantial measure of success. He has worked diligently and persistently along lines that have led to gratifying results and is now one of the enterprising farmers of Garfield county.

JOHN H. HARER.

John H. Harer is a resident farmer of Walla Walla county, owning and cultivating one hundred and thirty acres of land on section 4, township 6 north, range 35 east. He was born in Lane county, Oregon, on the 25th of February, 1859, his parents being David and Sarah (Standifer) Harer. The father was a native of Arkansas, while the mother was born in Tennessee. They were married in the former state and there resided until 1852, when they determined to try their fortune upon the Pacific coast and removed to Oregon. They settled in Lane county and in 1865 left that locality to become residents of Walla Walla county, Washington, the father having previously made several trips into this part of the country prior to the removal. He secured a homestead claim at Webfoot and later he bought and removed to the farm where Valley Chapel is now located. He kept adding to his original purchase from time to time as his financial resources increased until he was the owner of more than a section of land. Upon that property he died, passing away June 14, 1883. His widow long survived him and departed this life in 1907. During her last nine years she made her home with her son John.

John H. Harer is numbered among the honored pioneer settlers of the northwest, having resided in this section of the country for almost six decades. He acquired a district school education and also attended the public schools of Walla Walla. On reaching manhood he became engaged in the cattle business, with which he was identified for several years, and in 1889 he purchased from the other heirs their interest in the Harer estate and thus came into possession of his present home farm, upon which he has since carried on general agricultural pursuits. The farm originally comprised one hundred and sixty acres of rich and productive land, but he has recently sold thirty acres of the tract. He has brought his fields under a high state of cultivation and everything about his place indicates his careful supervision, progressive methods and indefatigable energy.

In 1882 Mr. Harer was united in marriage to Miss Eva Waterman, a native of Walla Walla county. Her father was Samuel Waterman, who crossed the plains from Iowa to California in 1860 and in the spring of 1861 arrived in Walla Walla county, taking up his abode in the vicinity of Valley Chapel. He was thus closely identified with the early development and progress of this section of the state until his death, which occurred in January, 1878. His widow survives and is now living with a daughter in Spokane, Washington. To Mr. and Mrs. Harer have been born three children, two of whom survive, namely: Inez, who is the wife of E. S. Gibson, of North Yakima, Washington; and Bertha, the wife of R. L. Ridley, who operates the farm of his father-in-law. Mrs. Harer is a member of the Christian church and is a lady of many admirable characteristics.

Mr. Harer gives his political allegiance to the democratic party. He has never sought or desired political office but for several years he served as school director and proved a stalwart champion of the cause of education. Both he and his wife are actuated by a spirit of progress and enterprise in all that they undertake and their interest centers deeply in those affairs which promise to upbuild and develop further the section of the country in which they live.

WILLIAM F. CLUSTER.

William F. Cluster, deceased, was one of the honored and highly esteemed citizens of Pomeroy. His birth occurred in Indiana on the 8th of February, 1831, and his parents were Daniel and Margaret (Tumlin) Cluster, natives of Kentucky and Ohio respectively. About 1861 they removed to Missouri, where both died. In their family were eleven children, all of whom have passed away with the exception of one sister, residing in Missouri.

[Illustration: WILLIAM F. CLUSTER]

In the state of his nativity William F. Cluster was reared and educated and on leaving the parental roof at the age of twenty-three years went to Missouri. He crossed the plains to Oregon in 1862 and spent the remainder of his life on the Pacific coast. In 1868 he married Mrs. Mary E. French, a native of Ohio, who only a short time previously had come to the northwest and had located in Oregon, where they continued to make their home until 1871. It was in that year that Mr. and Mrs. Cluster removed to old Walla Walla county, Washington, and took up a claim seven miles from Pomeroy, on which they built a log cabin, this being the family home for four years. They remained on the farm until 1882, when they took up their abode in Pomeroy and here Mrs. Cluster still lives. She continues in possession of the old homestead, which comprises two hundred acres of finely improved land, and owns a forty-acre tract which adjoins the city of Pomeroy. She has six residences in this city and derives a substantial income from all these properties.

The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Cluster are as follows: Viola E., the wife of C. E. Gray; Florence M., the wife of E. M. Pomeroy; Carrie E., deceased; and E. C., a resident of Pomeroy.

After a useful and well spent life, Mr. Cluster passed away on the 14th of June, 1915, leaving his immediate family as well as many friends to mourn his death. His remains were interred in the Pomeroy cemetery. Mrs. Cluster takes an active part in the work of the Presbyterian church, to which she belongs and is a most estimable lady who has a wide circle of friends and acquaintances in the city and throughout the surrounding country.

W. H. GILLIS.

The family of W. H. Gillis, residing in Dayton, pays fitting tribute to his memory in preserving the record of his life in this history of southeastern Washington. He was born in Montgomery county, North Carolina, and was reared and educated in his native state. In 1867 he was united in marriage to Miss Lucy A. Crump, of Stanly county, North Carolina, a daughter of Stephen and Eliza (Kendall) Crump, both of whom were natives of the Old North state, where they lived and died. They were the parents of five children, all of whom survive. Mrs. Gillis was reared and educated in North Carolina, pursuing her studies in the common schools and afterward in the Greenville and Doranport colleges of that state. To Mr. and Mrs. Gillis were born three children: Lillian, who has departed this life; John A.; and Minnie, who is the wife of J. F. Hall. The death of Mr. Gillis occurred March 2, 1906. He had been a soldier of the Civil war, serving for four years, and was brave and loyal to the cause which he espoused. He never faltered in the performance of any duty that devolved upon him and made an excellent record as a soldier. To his family he was a devoted husband and father and found his greatest happiness in promoting the welfare of his wife and children. In business affairs he was progressive and reliable and his sterling worth was acknowledged in many relations.

On the 16th of June, 1907, Mrs. Gillis became the wife of A. H. Richardson, who died five years later. Mrs. Richardson is the owner of a valuable farm property of five hundred and twenty acres pleasantly and conveniently situated about five miles east of Dayton. Upon this place many modern improvements have been made. The buildings are substantial and commodious, the fences are well kept and everything about the place indicates the progressive spirit of the owner. Mrs. Richardson rents her farm and therefrom derives a gratifying annual income. She also owns one of the finest residences of Dayton and is most comfortably situated in life. She is a member of the Christian church and takes an active interest in promoting the church work. Her social position is indicated by the fact that the hospitality of the best homes of Dayton is freely accorded her.

WILLIAM GAYLORD COLEMAN.

William Gaylord Coleman, a well known member of the Walla Walla bar, was born October 7, 1884, in the city where he still resides. His father, Dan J. Coleman, a native of Bowling Green, Kentucky, became a pioneer farmer of the Eureka Flat district and spent his last days in Walla Walla. The mother, who bore the maiden name of Mattie C. Roberts, was a daughter of E. G. Roberts and was born in an emigrant wagon somewhere along the Platte river while the family were crossing the plains. Her first marriage was with J. W. Cookerly and she later wedded Dan J. Coleman. The family ever has been closely associated with the pioneer development of Washington.

Reared in his native city, William Gaylord Coleman, after mastering the preliminary branches of learning, decided upon the practice of law as a life work and with that end in view entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and was there graduated in June, 1909, "with honors" and with the LL. B. degree. He returned to the northwest, opening an office in Walla Walla, and has since engaged in practice here. In a profession where advancement depends entirely upon individual merit and ability he has made steady progress and public opinion names him as one of the able lawyers of the Walla Walla bar.

On the 5th of September, 1911, in Walla Walla, Mr. Coleman was married to Miss Margaret S. Steel, a daughter of T. S. and Annie J. Steel. They hold membership in the Presbyterian church and Mr. Coleman is a past grand of the Odd Fellows lodge. A lifelong resident of Walla Walla, he has a wide acquaintance and his sterling worth as a man, as a lawyer and a citizen is indicated by the high regard entertained for him by his fellow citizens.

JOHN MARTIN.

John Martin, living retired in Walla Walla after many years devoted to agricultural pursuits, was born in Ireland, January 1, 1842, a son of John and Ann Martin, who spent their entire lives on the Emerald isle. The educational opportunities accorded John Martin were those common to the boys of his time, he attending the national schools, and he remained in Ireland until he was twenty-five years old, when, in 1867, he emigrated to the United States. He first resided in New York state, where he secured employment in a brickyard at Haverstraw, and subsequently went to Baltimore, Maryland, but finding it too hot to suit him there, he went to Chicago, where he was employed by the Armour Packing Company, during the winters for several years, but in summer followed his work of brick burning and helped to manufacture the brick used in the construction of the United States customs house in Chicago. After remaining in the metropolis of the middle west for eight years he came to Walla Walla, Washington, in 1882 and settled on a farm on Dry creek. He operated that place until 1905, when he retired and removed to Walla Walla, where he purchased land and built his home on Grove street, where he has since lived. He is still prominently connected with agricultural affairs, however, as he owns fourteen hundred acres of fine wheat land, all of which is well improved. He gives his personal supervision to the management of his farm although he leaves the actual work of its operation to others. All that he has he has made since coming to Walla Walla county and it is but natural that he should be enthusiastic concerning conditions here.

[Illustration: JOHN MARTIN AND FAMILY]

In 1875, in Chicago, Mr. Martin was united in marriage to Miss Sarah McAvaney, a native of Illinois, and they have become the parents of fourteen children, of whom two are deceased, the others being: James, who is now chief of police of Walla Walla; John P., who is farming in Spring valley; Mary, the wife of Joe Martin, who although of the same name is not a relative; Elizabeth, the wife of Albert Schiller; Margaret, the wife of Roy Davies; and Katherine, Agnes, Grace, Theresa, George, Lillian and William, all at home.

Mr. Martin supports the republican party and has served acceptably as member of the school board. He is a communicant of the Catholic church, and his life has been guided by high moral standards. His residence is attractive and up-to-date and he is enjoying all the comforts of his life as the result of his well directed labors and wise investments. Mr. Martin is strong and vigorous for his years but to enjoy the balmy air of the south he spends his winters in Los Angeles, California.

C. F. ACTOR.

C. F. Actor, a grain dealer and warehouse man of Starbuck, was born in Dixie, Washington, on the 27th of October, 1868, a son of H. C. Actor, one of the veterans of the early Indian wars and one of the well known men of the pioneer period of Walla Walla county. He died August 30, 1917, near Dixie and extended mention of him appears elsewhere in this work.

C. F. Actor was reared under the parental roof and acquired his education in the public schools of Dixie. He also attended the Empire Business College of Walla Walla and thus became well qualified for life's practical and responsible duties. In early manhood he worked for a time in Colfax and was variously employed, after which he returned to Walla Walla county and for some time was engaged in farming. In 1902 he removed to Starbuck and entered the grain trade, managing the Alto warehouse for the Alto Warehouse Company for a year. On the expiration of that period he became the representative of the Balfour-Guthrie Company, with which he continued for four years as grain buyer. In 1907 he engaged in the grain business on his own account and since that time has operated independently and successfully, being today one of the well known grain merchants of Columbia county, controlling a business of large volume that brings to him a good financial return.

In 1900 Mr. Actor was married to Miss Lucy May Buroker, daughter of Martin B. Buroker, of Waitsburg, and they have become the parents of five children, four sons and a daughter, namely: Charles M., Alfred A., Grace, Lester E. and Fred F.

In his political views Mr. Actor has ever been an earnest republican since attaining adult age. In January, 1917, he was appointed to fill a vacancy on the board of county commissioners and is now serving in that capacity, in which connection he is making an excellent record, carefully safe-guarding the interests of the county, yet never blocking public progress by useless retrenchment. He belongs to Tucannon Lodge, No. 106, F. & A. M., of Starbuck, and also to Starbuck Lodge, No. 158, I. O. O. F. In 1916 he was representative to the grand lodge of Odd Fellows. He is also identified with Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P. In banking circles he is known as a director of the Bank of Starbuck and he ranks with the leading and representative business men and citizens of the town, his aid and influence being always given on the side of progress and improvement. He at all times displays a public-spirited devotion to the general good and has wisely conducted his private business affairs, which have brought to him substantial and merited success.

M. W. SWEGLE.

A successful career has been that of M. W. Swegle, who now follows farming on section 32, township 7 north, range 35 east, in Walla Walla county. He has lived in this county since 1888 and is concentrating his efforts and attention upon the development and improvement of a farm of five hundred and fourteen acres. This is a memorable locality in the history of the state for it is the site of the Whitman massacre--the identical spot on which the atrocities committed by the red men culminated in the murder of the noble Reverend Whitman and his family, those venerable pioneers, who were doing such inestimable work in claiming this region for the purposes of Christian civilization, laying the cornerstone of the foundation for the moral and materially visible development of the entire region.

Mr. Swegle is a western man by birth, training and preference and exemplifies in his life the spirit of enterprise and progress which has been the dominant factor in the upbuilding of the west, leading to its wonderful development. He was born in Salem, Oregon, June 28, 1861, a son of Charles and Lucinda (Robinson) Swegle. The father was a native of New Jersey, while the mother's birth occurred in Ohio. They were married in Illinois, to which state they had removed with their respective parents, and in 1848 they crossed the plains with ox teams to Oregon, settling first in Clackamas county, although soon afterward they removed to Marion county, taking up their abode near Salem. There the father resided until 1880, when he came with his family to Walla Walla county, Washington, and purchased nine hundred acres of land, a part of which is included within the boundaries of the present home place of M. W. Swegle. In the residence where his son now resides the father passed away on the 7th of May, 1888, and in his death the community mourned the loss of an honored pioneer settler and most respected citizen--one who in every relation of life commanded the goodwill and confidence of those with whom he came in contact. His widow survived him for several years and passed away in November, 1895.

M. W. Swegle was reared upon the old home farm and acquired a common school education. From the time he attained his majority he began farming on his own account and in 1888 he established his home in Walla Walla county. Soon afterward he purchased a section of land, some of which he has since sold, while a portion thereof he deeded to his wife. The present farm, held conjointly by Mr. Swegle and his wife's heirs, comprises five hundred and fourteen acres. This land he has brought to a very high state of cultivation, carrying on farm work along the most progressive lines. He is at all times practical in what he undertakes and the results are therefore substantial and most desirable. He has placed good improvements upon his farm and its neat and attractive appearance indicates his intelligently directed activity.

On the 2d of July, 1890, Mr. Swegle was united in marriage to Miss Libby Brooks, also a native of Oregon, although at the time of her marriage she was living in Walla Walla county. She was a daughter of John Brooks, who came to this county from that of Yamhill in Oregon. He is still living and at the present time is a resident of Portland, Oregon, the beautiful city of roses. To Mr. and Mrs. Swegle were born eight children, seven of whom survive, namely: Floyd and Jesse, who are operating the home farm; May; Alice; Frank; Florence; and Irene. All the children are yet at home. The wife and mother passed away February 19, 1916, her death being the occasion of deep and widespread regret among her many friends. All who knew her sympathized and grieved with the family, to whose welfare and interest she was always most devoted.

Mr. Swegle votes with the democratic party. He has never been an aspirant for office, preferring to give his time to and concentrate his energies upon his own affairs, upon the interests of his home, upon his business and upon those things which help to further the welfare of the community. For thirty years he has been a resident of Walla Walla county and has witnessed many favorable changes during this period, having by his own labors in no small measure contributed to agricultural development.

S. V. DAVIN.

One of the energetic and progressive business men of Walla Walla is S. V. Davin, president and manager of the Washington Weeder Works. He is a native of France, born September 20, 1861, and is a son of Joseph E. and Nomie (Escalle) Davin, who came with their family to America in 1873 and located in California, where the parents continued to make their home until death. Of their thirteen children only two are living, these being Joseph and S. V., of this review.

S. V. Davin was twelve years of age on the emigration of the family to the United States and in the schools of California he completed his education, which was begun in his native land. He remained in the Golden state until 1888, when he came to Walla Walla and spent three years on a ranch in this locality. During the following ten years he engaged in business in the city and was also interested in farming and stock raising, owning sixty-three hundred acres of land in Franklin county, Washington, stocked with sheep, and is president of the Davin-Mitchell sheep and cattle ranch, the company owning one thousand acres of land. Mr. Davin also owns one hundred and ninety-four acres of land west of the garrison, which is worth eight hundred dollars per acre and has two hundred and twenty-five acres at Lowden, Walla Walla county, upon which he keeps both cattle and sheep and has twenty-five cows for dairy purposes. Since 1910, however, Mr. Davin has given his attention largely to the business of the Washington Weeder Works, which is in a flourishing condition, manufacturing a double-disc weeder, which was awarded the gold medal at the Lewis & Clark Exposition as the best weed killer and cultivator exhibited. Besides the property already mentioned Mr. Davin owns a business building, also the Ritz Hotel and three residences in Walla Walla.

In 1893 he was united in marriage to Miss Ardella Haight, who died in 1901, leaving no children, and in 1903 he again married. To this union were born two sons, Jackson Joseph and Virgil Edward Marion. The family attend the Methodist Episcopal church and Mr. Davin is an active member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Eagles, the Moose and the Red Men. In politics he is a republican but has never cared for office. He gives his undivided attention to his extensive business interests, is prompt, energetic and progressive and carries to successful completion what he sets out to accomplish.

HON. JOHN F. ROCKHILL.

Hon. John F. Rockhill owns and operates a farm of five hundred acres of land in Columbia county, upon which he has resided for almost a quarter of a century, having taken up his abode upon that place in 1893. He was born in Marshall county, Iowa, April 29, 1855, a son of Anthony and Rosetta (Robbins) Rockhill, the former a native of Ohio, while the latter was born in the state of New York. They lived for some time in Iowa, but at length determined to try their fortunes upon the Pacific coast and in 1864 crossed the plains, establishing their home in Grande Ronde valley, Oregon. In 1865, however, they removed to the vicinity of Portland and in 1868 they came to Washington, settling in Walla Walla county, where the father rented a farm for two years. In 1870 he removed to a farm near Dayton and upon that place continued to reside until his demise. His widow also spent her last days upon that farm. They had a family of nine children, of whom six are yet living.

[Illustration: HON. JOHN F. ROCKHILL]

[Illustration: MRS. JOHN F. ROCKHILL]

Hon. John F. Rockhill of this family was a little lad of nine years when he left his native state in company with his parents and came to the northwest. From the age of thirteen years he has lived in Washington and in the public schools of this section of the state he completed his education. He afterward took up land and engaged in farming, bringing to his duties broad practical experience which had come to him through assisting his father in the development and cultivation of the old home property. In 1885 John F. Rockhill removed to Whitman county, where he resided for eight years, but in 1893 he returned to Columbia county and purchased his present farm, upon which he is now living. He owns five hundred acres of excellent wheat land and in connection with the production of that cereal he is also successfully engaged in raising stock. In a word, his business affairs are capably managed and whatever he undertakes he carries forward to successful completion. He is likewise a stockholder in the warehouse at Turner and at Dayton and is regarded as a prominent figure in the business circles of his section of the state.

In 1877 Mr. Rockhill was united in marriage to Miss Mabel L. Taylor, a native of Iowa, and to them have been born eight children: Don M. a resident of Columbia county; Daisy, now the wife of C. I. Fleming, of Oregon; Hazel, deceased; Luella, who is a graduate of a normal school and is now engaged in teaching; Nora, who has departed this life; Cora, who was graduated from the high school and is now the wife of Edgar Hilbert, of Columbia county; John, who is engaged in farming with his father; and Mabel L., who is also a graduate of the high school and is the wife of Glenn Cecil.

Mrs. Rockhill is a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church and is a lady of many excellent qualities. Mr. Rockhill belongs to Dayton Lodge, No. 136, I. O. O. F. His political allegiance is given to the republican party and in 1915 he was called upon to represent his district in the state legislature, of which he proved an able member, carefully considering the vital and significant problems which came up for settlement and throwing the weight of his influence where he felt that the public good could best be conserved or promoted. For several years he has served on the school board and the cause of education finds in him a stalwart champion. He is a self-made man whose business advancement is attributable entirely to his own well directed efforts. Not only has he progressed in a financial way but has also come to be recognized as one of the prominent and influential citizens of Columbia county, where for almost a half century he has made his home, therefore witnessing the greater part of the growth and development of this section of the state. Great indeed have been the changes which have occurred during this period and Mr. Rockhill is numbered among the worthy pioneer settlers.

W. E. SPROUT.

W. E. Sprout is regarded as among the foremost business men of Starbuck, where he is engaged in general merchandising and he also is president of the Bank of Starbuck. He was born in Grundy county, Missouri, on the 31st of January, 1861, a son of Francis M. and Sarah (Winters) Sprout, the former a native of Indiana, while the latter was born in Ohio. They were married in Grundy county, Missouri, to which place they had removed in boyhood and girlhood with their respective parents. Following their marriage the father turned his attention to farming in Grundy county, but at the time of the Civil war he put aside all business and personal considerations to espouse the cause of his country, serving for a year and a half in the Civil war. He was wounded in the battle of Shiloh, losing his right arm. His first wife had died when their son, W. E. Sprout, was an infant of but four months and three years later the father married Miss Sophia Newland. He continued his residence in Missouri until 1888, when he removed to Hutchinson, Kansas, where he was engaged in farming until the death of his second wife in the year 1905. Since that date he has lived retired in Hutchinson, where he still makes his home, being now in the eightieth year of his age.

W. E. Sprout acquired but a limited education, his opportunities being such as the district schools afforded. When not busy with his textbooks he worked in the fields and thus early received the training which well qualified him to begin farming on his own account when he attained his majority. He carried on general agricultural pursuits in Grundy county for three years and in 1884 he came west to Washington, settling in Dayton, where he spent two years as a farm hand, working for wages. In 1886 he invested in land, becoming owner of a farm on the Tucanon, a half mile outside the city limits of the town site of Starbuck. Upon that place he engaged in general farming and stock raising, which business claimed his time and attention until the year 1892, when Starbuck was made a railroad division point and Mr. Sprout then established a butchering business in the village. This was largely done in order to find a profitable market for his cattle. Eight years later, in 1900, he bought out the mercantile business of A. L. O'Neil of Starbuck and has since been prominently identified with the commercial interests of the town. For eight years he carried on the business independently and then, in 1908, organized the Sprout & Barnhart Mercantile Company, which was incorporated with Mr. Sprout as the president and W. H. Barnhart as the secretary and manager of the company. In 1907 Mr. Sprout was also the dominant factor in the organization of the Bank of Starbuck, of which he became president and has since served in that connection. He is thus actively identified with the financial interests of the county and has made the Bank of Starbuck one of the strong and thoroughly reliable moneyed institutions of this section of the state.

In 1890 Mr. Sprout was united in marriage to Miss Minnie Wooten, a native of Columbia county, Washington, and a daughter of W. S. Wooten, who came to this state from Missouri about 1878 and still makes his home in Dayton. Mr. and Mrs. Sprout became the parents of one child, who has passed away, and the wife and mother died in January, 1906. Two years later, in April, 1908, Mr. Sprout was again married, his second union being with Miss Ida Hukill, a native of Walla Walla and a daughter of Allen Hukill, who was one of the early pioneers of Columbia county, taking up a homestead in this section of the state shortly after his arrival in Washington, when the entire region was largely an undeveloped section. To the second marriage of Mr. Sprout has been born one child, Allen M.

In his political views Mr. Sprout is a republican and served as the first mayor after the city of Starbuck was incorporated. He also served for a number of years as a member of the town council and ever exercised his official prerogatives in support of well defined plans and measures for the general good. He likewise served on the school board and the cause of education has ever found in him a stalwart champion. Fraternally he is connected with Tucannon Lodge, No. 106, F. & A. M., of Starbuck, and also with Starbuck Lodge, No. 158, I. O. O. F. He has recently disposed of his landed possessions but Mrs. Sprout still owns her homestead which she entered prior to her marriage. Mr. Sprout belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church and its teachings have been the guiding force in his life, making him a man among men, honored and respected by reason of his sterling worth, his patriotic loyalty in citizenship, his integrity and progressiveness in business and his faithfulness in friendship. In his public offices he has displayed the same spirit of enterprise and recognition of opportunity that has marked his business career, and Starbuck has profited much by his labors.

LESTER LEE ROBISON.

Lester Lee Robison, one of the foremost agriculturists and most extensive sheep growers of Walla Walla county, has in his own name three thousand acres of wheat land and seventy-five hundred acres of grazing land. His home is on section 34, township 8 north, range 35 east. His birth occurred in Dayton, Columbia county, Washington, on the 13th of April, 1884, his parents being Andrew M. and Theodosia (Fall) Robison, the former born in Austin, Texas, March 16, 1854, and the latter in Sidney, Iowa, on the 7th of September, 1857. It was in the year 1872 that the mother came to Washington with her parents, the family home being established near Dayton in Columbia county. Andrew M. Robison made his way to this state in the winter of 1876-7, when a young man of twenty-two years, and after his arrival he secured a contract with the Northern Pacific Railroad Company in construction work. Later he bought stock throughout this section, furnishing meat for the railroad construction gangs, which numbered about seven thousand Chinamen. Subsequently Mr. Robison took up his abode near Dayton and engaged in farming and in the stock business, being recognized for a number of years as one of the extensive stock buyers of this section of the state. In the fall of 1897 he removed to Walla Walla county, locating on Dry creek, four and one-half miles northwest of Walla Walla, where he acquired extensive farm lands, owning at the time of his death some twenty-eight hundred acres. He was widely recognized as one of the influential and leading citizens of southeastern Washington and was a prominent representative of the Masonic fraternity. His demise occurred on the 21st of October, 1907, but his widow survives, making her home in Walla Walla, where she has an extensive circle of friends.

Lester L. Robison acquired his education in the city schools of Walla Walla and also attended the State Agricultural College at Pullman, Washington. After putting aside his textbooks he worked with his father until 1907, when he started out independently as an agriculturist, taking charge of his father's large holdings, which he has managed with marked success to the present time. The property in his own name embraces three thousand acres of wheat land and also some seventy-five hundred acres of grazing land. Moreover, he has been heavily interested in the stock business for a number of years and is one of the foremost sheep growers of Walla Walla county.

On the 11th of September, 1907, Mr. Robison was united in marriage to Miss Elsie Riffle, of Walla Walla, her father being Elihu G. Riffle, who was one of the earliest pioneers of this county. Mr. and Mrs. Robison have a daughter, Laura Lee. Politically Mr. Robison is a democrat and fraternally is identified with the following Masonic organizations: Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; the Knight Templar Commandery; Oriental Consistory, A. & A. S. R.; and El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. He also belongs to Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E. A young man of enterprise, ambition and ability, he has ably carried forward the work of his honored father and his career bids fair to be one of continued achievement.

JAMES G. WOODEND.

James G. Woodend was one of the prominent farmers of southeastern Washington for many years and won a substantial measure of success by reason of the careful manner in which he developed his fields and managed his business affairs. He was a native of England and came to America when a young man of twenty-seven years. He did not tarry on the Atlantic coast but made his away across the country and took up his abode in Columbia county, Washington, at Starbuck. Here he occupied the position of section foreman for nineteen years and on the expiration of that period turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, purchasing a farm which he at once began to further develop and improve. Year after year he carefully tilled the soil and his plowing and planting, with the careful cultivation of his fields, brought to him substantial harvests which sold at a good figure. He was thus busily and successfully engaged in general farming up to the time of his death. In the intervening years he had added to his holdings as opportunity offered until he had become the owner of sixteen hundred acres of land which is still in possession of his widow, the greater part being wheat land. He was regarded as one of the most prominent men in the valley and his life work indicates what can be accomplished in the way of wheat production in this section of the state. Moreover, his history shows clearly what can be attained by honorable purpose and indefatigable energy.

In 1886 Mr. Woodend was united in marriage to Miss Margaret Bellingham, a native of England, who came to America in the same year. To them were born six children: Isabel, the wife of F. F. Kent; Anna M., who is living in Spokane; Robert G., who follows farming; Thomas S., at home; Marguerite V., the wife of A. J. Burke; and Mildred A., who is a student in the high school at Spokane.

[Illustration: JAMES G. WOODEND]

The death of the husband and father occurred on September 21, 1915, and his remains were interred in the Starbuck cemetery. He left a widow and six children to mourn his loss, his demise being also a matter of deep regret to his many friends who sincerely esteemed him. He possessed many sterling traits of character, was thoroughly reliable in business, was public spirited in citizenship, held friendship inviolable and was devoted to the welfare and happiness of his wife and children. Mrs. Woodend still owns and manages her farm property and in fact has added to the sixteen hundred acres left by her husband, making an additional purchase of six hundred and twenty acres, also in Columbia county, so that she now owns over two thousand two hundred acres of valuable land in this section of the state.

M. B. WINCHELL.

M. B. Winchell, who is engaged in general merchandising in Touchet, Walla Walla county, ranks with the foremost business men of this section of the state. A spirit of progress and enterprise actuates him in all that he undertakes and his course has been characterized by a determined purpose. He has ever recognized the fact that when one avenue of success seems closed there can always be marked out another path that will lead to the desired goal. Alert and energetic and thoroughly reliable, his position among the business men of Walla Walla county is indeed enviable. A native son of Washington, he was born at Lyons Ferry on the 28th of March, 1888, his parents being Hezekiah and Alice L. (Palmer) Winchell. The father was a native of Michigan and the mother of the state of New York. They were married, however, in Minnesota, where the father was identified with timber interests for a number of years. In 1883 he brought his family to the west, settling in Walla Walla county, Washington, at which time he filed on a homestead near Lyons Ferry but resided thereon only long enough to prove up on the property. He then took up his abode in Waitsburg and for twenty-two years the family lived in or near that town. The father was engaged in farming during this time. He died in 1905, at the comparatively early age of fifty-six years. The sons in the family continued to make their home with their mother, her death occurring on the 5th of June, 1917. Mr. and Mrs. Winchell were worthy pioneer people of this section of the state and contributed much to its development and progress.

M. B. Winchell pursued his education in the graded schools of Waitsburg and also in the Waitsburg Academy, while subsequently he spent three terms in the Waitsburg high school, which he attended in the winter seasons. In fact his attendance at school was by no means continuous, but he utilized every opportunity to promote his education by entering school whenever he could. His father met with financial reverses and thus Mr. Winchell of this review was obliged early to start out in the business world and provide for his own support. He also earned the money that enabled him to continue his education. After finishing his course of study in the graded schools he devoted two years to work before he entered the academy and there was also a period of two years between his academic course and his high school course. In the meantime, however, he was learning many valuable lessons through experience. He was employed during the summer months and he made every spare hour count. He continued farm work and subsequently turned his attention to the grain business, becoming manager of an elevator when a youth of but seventeen years. This elevator was located at Alto, and he subsequently managed elevators at other points for the same company, a fact which is indicative of his capability and of his faithfulness. It is recognized that the best way to learn to do a thing is to do it. Habit brings accuracy and power grows through the exercise of effort. Labor does not tire--it gives resisting force; and all of these facts Mr. Winchell demonstrated in his life. He studied every task that came to his hand and from each new experience learned valuable lessons which have proven of worth to him in later years. He learned to correctly judge men and read character, while at the same time he was acquainting himself with commercial methods. While engaged in the grain trade he bought and shipped grain on tonnage during the winter months and attended school when there was no grain to ship. In other words he improved every opportunity to promote his knowledge as well as to advance his material interests. In 1914 he entered the employ of the Allen Grocery Company in Waitsburg and there laid the foundation for his mercantile success. In 1916 he took up his abode at Touchet and became one of the dominant factors in the organization of the Quality Stores Company, having stores at Touchet, Lowden and Waitsburg. He became the manager of the establishment at Touchet, which at the last inventory showed a stock of over thirty-one thousand dollars value, while annually he does a business of from seventy-five to eighty-five thousand dollars. This is a splendid establishment to be under the care of a young man who had to fight his own way, make his own way through school unaided and at all times rely upon his own resources. In the parlance of the present day, he is a live wire, or in other words he has the dynamic force which makes things move. An opportunity is to him a call to action and the call is never neglected.

On the 22d of September, 1912, Mr. Winchell was united in marriage to Miss Alberta Williams, of Walla Walla, by whom he has two children, Zilpha Alice and Ruth Emily. Mr. Winchell maintains an independent course in regard to politics, voting for men and measures rather than for party. Fraternally he is connected with Delta Lodge, No. 75, K. P., of Waitsburg, and also with the Ancient Order of United Workmen, while both he and his wife hold membership in the Community church of Touchet. He is interested in all that pertains to the material, political, social, mental and moral progress of the community. In a word his aid and influence are given on the side of advancement and improvement, and with him each day must mark off a full-faithed attempt to grow more and to know more.

WILLIAM C. WOODWARD.

William C. Woodward, a resident farmer of Columbia county, Washington, was born February 13, 1862, within the boundaries of the county where he still resides and which has been his home throughout the intervening period. He is a son of Albert and Oral Woodward, of whom mention is made in connection with the sketch of his sister, Mrs. Mary Nichols, on another page of this work. He spent his youthful days under the parental roof and divided his time between the acquirement of an education and work in the fields. His early training under his father's direction acquainted him with the best methods of tilling the soil and caring for the crops, so that valuable experience aided him when, on attaining his majority, he started out in the business world for himself. He began farming and has since been identified with general agricultural pursuits, owning valuable property which he has brought under a high state of cultivation, so that year after year his fields return to him good harvests that bring him a substantial income.

In 1891 Mr. Woodward was united in marriage to Miss Nora Davis, a native of Oregon and a daughter of Daniel and Isabella (Laughlin) Davis. Mr. and Mrs. Woodward have become the parents of six children: Albert D., S. M., O. H., L. S., H. L. and Sarah Alice. The parents are members of the Christian Science church and in his political views Mr. Woodward is a republican. He has served as county commissioner for two terms and has made an excellent record in his devotion to the public welfare. He has also been a member of the school board and the cause of education finds in him a stalwart champion. He has many sterling traits of character, is thoroughly reliable as well as enterprising in the conduct of his farming interests, is progressive in citizenship and loyal in friendship. In fact, he is most faithful to every cause which he espouses, does not hesitate to express his honest convictions and his position upon any important question is never an equivocal one. A resident of what is now Columbia county for fifty-five years, he has been a witness of practically its entire growth and development and is justly numbered among its worthy and honored pioneer settlers.

JOHN ROBERTSON.

John Robertson, who follows farming on section 25, township 11 north, range 41 east, in Garfield county, was born in Prince Edward Island, Canada, on the 30th of November, 1866, but since 1882 has been a resident of Washington and through all the intervening years has been identified with its agricultural development. His parents, John and Mary (Steel) Robertson, were also natives of Prince Edward Island and were of Scotch parentage. In 1873 they removed with their family to California, settling in the Livermore valley, where the father's death occurred four years later, and in the fall of 1882, Mrs. Robertson with her four sons and one daughter came by team to Washington, where they proceeded to make a home for themselves. There was a strong family bond between the brothers, mother and sister and they held all of their interests jointly for many years, the brothers cooperating in their farming enterprises, and as a consequence all of them prospered. The mother is still living and makes her home with her son John, whose filial love and devotion repay her for the care which she gave to him in his youth.

John Robertson pursued a district school education in California, to which state he was taken by his parents when a lad of but seven years. He was a youth of sixteen when the family home was established in Garfield county, Washington, and here in connection with his three older brothers he began farming. Early in the '90s he homesteaded eighty acres which adjoins his present home farm, but he continued to engage in business in connection with his brothers until 1902, since which time he has followed farming independently. As the years have passed on he has prospered in his undertakings by reason of his close application and indefatigable energy and, making judicious investment in real estate, is now the owner of five hundred and sixty-five acres of excellent farm land and is regarded as one of the prominent agriculturists of his section of the state.

J. M. CRAWFORD.

A notable example of successful personal achievement is the history of J. M. Crawford, president and general manager of the Tum-a-lum Lumber Company of Walla Walla. Since making his initial step in the business world his career has been marked by an orderly progression that has brought him forward step by step until he now occupies a most prominent position in the commercial and manufacturing circles of the northwest. He was born in Smithfield, Ohio, June 3, 1865, and is a son of Dr. J. B. Crawford, who was engaged in the practice of medicine in Gillespie, Illinois, for many years. In 1910 he came to Walla Walla and here passed away in 1915 at the age of eighty-eight years.

J. M. Crawford spent his early life in the states of Illinois, Nebraska and Kansas. At the age of twenty-two years he was employed by the Badger Lumber Company of Kansas City and remained with them from 1887 to 1890, acting as line yard manager for western Kansas at a salary of fifty dollars per month, but he found his work very congenial. In 1889 he was married in western Kansas to Miss Martha Cox and they began their domestic life in a humble way, their first home being made in a lumber shed of the company, and here their oldest son was born. On starting in business for himself Mr. Crawford purchased a stock of lumber from the Paddock Lumber Company of Raywood, Illinois, and thus he laid the foundation for his present successful business.

In 1904 Mr. Crawford came to Walla Walla and formed the Whitehouse-Crawford Company by purchasing the control of a company from its original owners and later bought out those still interested in the business, so that today it is an entirely new corporation. In 1908 his brother, Joseph F. Crawford, came to Walla Walla and is now general manager of the company. They own a plant devoted to the manufacture of interior trimmings, showcases, bank and store fixtures, in addition to which they deal extensively in lumber, this being one of the most important industries of Walla Walla. The plant covers a block and a half on North Second street and forty men are employed throughout the year in the manufacture of a product which finds a ready sale on the market.

It was in 1906 that Mr. Crawford started the Tum-a-lum Lumber Company with five lumberyards, but which has since grown until it now has forty-five lumberyards in eastern Washington and central Oregon and is capitalized for five hundred thousand dollars. Of this company Mr. Crawford is the president and general manager. His business interests have thus assumed very extensive proportions and his activities constitute an important element in the material growth and commercial development of the northwest. Moreover, Mr. Crawford has been most active in advancing the welfare and upbuilding of his city by inducing many others to locate here. He has prevailed on many of his old friends to come from the east and make their homes in Walla Walla and five different Crawford families have located here.

[Illustration: J. M. CRAWFORD]

[Illustration: MRS. J. M. CRAWFORD]

To Mr. and Mrs. Crawford have been horn three children. Harold E. is a graduate of Whitman College and the Boston School of Technology. He now has charge of the engineering department of the Tum-a-lum Lumber Company, which constructs elevators, furnishes plans for houses and promotes good buildings, the plans and work being given patrons free of charge. C. Howard is treasurer of the Tum-a-lum Lumber Company and office man. He attended the Walla Walla high school until the age of seventeen, when he entered the office of the company and has steadily advanced, being a young man of practical experience and pronounced ability. Both sons are progressive and able to fill positions calling for skill and effectiveness. Susan M., the only daughter, was at one time a student at the University of Washington but is now attending Whitman College.

Mr. Crawford is a Knight Templar Mason and a member of the Mystic Shrine. He has taken a marked interest in the Walla Walla Commercial Club and served on its board of directors for some years and as its president for one year. Both he and his wife hold membership in the Presbyterian church and Mr. Crawford was on the building committee when the present house of worship was erected. He is a self-made man, able, forceful and successful, and can well be numbered among the builders of Walla Walla. Alert and enterprising, he seems to lose sight of no opportunity that will advance his legitimate business interests or will promote the welfare and upbuilding of the community at large. His keen sagacity has been an important element in public progress and Walla Walla honors him as one of her most valued and representative men.

GRANT LOW.

Grant Low, a resident farmer of Columbia county, living on section 3, township 10 north, range 40 east, is numbered among the native sons of North Carolina, his birth having occurred within the borders of the Old North state December 25, 1870. His parents were Samuel and Dillie (Proctor) Low, who were also natives of North Carolina, where they spent their entire lives, the father there conducting a plantation.

Grant Low was reared upon the old home farm until his sixteenth year, and acquired but a limited common school education. His parents died when he was a youth of ten years and he was placed with a guardian, for whom he worked for his board and clothes. He did not like the treatment he received, however, and at the age of sixteen he ran away from his foster parents and went to Missouri, where he was employed as a farm hand for three years. In July, 1889, he made his way westward to Dayton, Washington, where he arrived with a cash capital of but five dollars. His financial condition rendered it imperative that he secure immediate employment and soon afterward he began working for wages at farm labor, spending three years in that way. He next purchased a place of one hundred and sixty acres on credit. He did not have a cent with which to make an initial payment but he possessed courage and determination and was not afraid to work. Moreover, he recognized the eternal principle that industry wins. He began farming for himself and within the next five years was able to clear his place of all indebtedness. From that time forward he has steadily added to his holdings until he now has twelve hundred and forty acres in his home farm and he owns altogether forty-four hundred acres near Starbuck, in Columbia county, of which eighteen hundred acres is valuable farm land. He operates altogether three thousand acres of his own land and six hundred acres belonging to the Dwelly estate, which he farms under lease. He is one of the leading agriculturists of southeastern Washington, his business affairs having been most carefully managed and his investments most judiciously made. He employs progressive methods in the care and cultivation of his land and he has added many improvements to his farm, which is today valuable and which constitutes one of the attractive features in the landscape.

On December 3, 1891, Mr. Low was united in marriage to Miss Oral Monnett, of Covello, Columbia county, Washington, a daughter of Wallace Monnett and a sister of A. A. Monnett, one of the prominent business men of Dayton. Mr. and Mrs. Low became the parents of five children, four of whom survive, namely: Nellie, Josie, Alberta and Donald. All are at home.

Mr. Low gives his political allegiance to the republican party and is a stanch advocate of its principles but does not seek nor desire office as a reward for party fealty. He has always preferred to concentrate his efforts and attention upon his business affairs and, working steadily and persistently, he has gained a comfortable competence, being numbered among the leading and progressive agriculturists of Columbia county.

ANGUS McKAY.

Angus McKay, a well known and enterprising farmer of Walla Walla county, was born in Canada on the 13th of January, 1836, and is a son of Angus and Margaret (Campbell) McKay, both of Highland Scotch birth. In 1832 they crossed the Atlantic and settled in Canada, where they continued to make their home until called from this life. To them were born eight children but Angus is the only one of the number now living.

Mr. McKay grew to manhood in Canada with the usual advantages of a boy of that period, attending school as he found opportunity. He subsequently served three years apprenticeship in a general merchandise store and remained in the Dominion in various capacities until in 1861 he left Canada and came to Walla Walla, Washington, where he engaged in the confectionery and tobacco business for five years. His former experience stood him in good stead and that he was successful along business lines is evident from the fact that at the end of that period he was enabled to secure a homestead of three hundred and twenty acres on Russell creek and he has since given his time and attention to farming with good results, becoming one of the well-to-do men of his community.

In 1866 Mr. McKay married Mrs. Mary A. Winship, a native of Ohio, who crossed the plains with her parents in 1852 in a covered wagon drawn by ox teams and settled in Oregon. To this union have been born seven children, of whom three are living, namely: March, residing and assisting on the ranch; Angus, living in Prossor; and Bessie, the wife of Oscar M. Shelton.

Mr. and Mrs. McKay are living on the ranch which has been their home for over half a century and besides this property they own a residence in the city of Walla Walla. Fraternally Mr. McKay is a member of the Masonic order and being a strong temperance man he organized the first Good Templars lodge in this region in 1866. In politics he is a republican and for fifty years he has efficiently served as justice of the peace, his rulings being fair and impartial. He has also filled the office of assessor for several years and no trust reposed in him has ever been betrayed in the slightest degree. His honorable principles have won him many friends and all who know him hold him in the highest esteem.

JOHN W. FOLEY.

The life record of John W. Foley spells success. He has succeeded in whatever he has undertaken by reason of close application, determined purpose and indefatigable energy. Early in life, when little more than a youth, he started out upon a mercantile career in Adam, Oregon, and the prosperity which attended that venture gave him his start for bigger things. He was likewise successful in the live stock business and later in farming operations, which he has carried on extensively, being regarded today as one of the foremost representatives of agricultural interests in Garfield county, his home being on section 3, township 12 north, range 41 east. He was born in the Willamette valley of Oregon on the 1st of November, 1866, and is a son of Francis and Hannah (Reese) Foley. The father is a native of Ohio and the mother of Kansas and in early life they crossed the plains, becoming residents of Oregon. They now make their home in California.

Liberal educational advantages were accorded John W. Foley. After mastering the branches of learning taught in the public schools he became a student in the Willamette University of Salem, Oregon, and subsequently attended the Portland University, thus becoming well qualified for life's practical and responsible duties. In young manhood he turned his attention to the hardware business, establishing a store in Adam, Oregon, where he remained for two years. The venture proved profitable and he sold out at a good advance. He then went to Rock Lake in Whitman county, Washington, and for seven years was engaged in the cattle business. Again success attended his undertaking and on the expiration of that period he removed to Walla Walla, where he was engaged in the hardware and implement business for two years. He also devoted a part of his attention to farming when in Walla Walla county and in March, 1916, he took up his abode upon his present home farm in Meadow Gulch, Garfield county, where he owns sixteen hundred acres of rich and valuable land that responds readily to the care and cultivation which he bestows upon it. In business affairs he displays sound judgment and discriminates readily between the essential and the non-essential, discarding the latter and utilizing the former to the best possible advantage.

In 1893 Mr. Foley was united in marriage to Miss Edith Babcock, a daughter of W. A. Babcock, one of the early pioneer settlers of Whitman county who is now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Foley have three children: Harold F., Eva and Wayne C. Mr. Foley gives his political allegiance to the republican party and is a stanch advocate of its principles but he has no desire for public office. He and his wife are consistent members of the Methodist church, contributing generously to its support and doing their part in its work. They are interested in all that pertains to the welfare and upbuilding of the community in which they reside and have been active factors in advancing its material, social and moral progress. They are widely and favorably known and the hospitality of the best homes of their locality is accorded them.

ANDREW J. ABEL.

Among the well known residents of Columbia county is Andrew J. Abel, a retired farmer. He was born in Indiana, October 28, 1838, a son of Andrew and Sarah Abel, both of whom were Hoosiers by birth. They grew to mature years and were married in Indiana but in 1840 removed with their family to Iowa, whence, in 1864, they set out by wagon for the far west. They at length reached Old Walla Walla county, Washington, and took up their residence on a farm near Dayton. Their first home in this section was a log cabin with a slab floor and a clapboard roof. Subsequently good buildings were erected upon the place, and the parents resided there until their death.

Andrew J. Abel, who is one of two living children of a family of ten, received the greater part of his education in Iowa and there grew to manhood. Upon removing to Washington with the other members of the family in 1864 he took a preemption claim in Paddock Hollow, and there he maintained his home for six years. At the end of that time he sold this place and took up as a homestead the farm on which he still lives. This comprises two hundred and forty acres, is in a high state of cultivation and is well improved. During his active life he gave the closest attention to the management of his affairs and as the years passed his resources increased. He is now in good financial circumstances and is living practically retired.

Mr. Abel married Miss Sarah A. Brodhead, and they have had eleven children, of whom eight survive, namely: Andrew J., Jr.; Maria J., the wife of James Woodward; Sarah E., who married William Newby; Cora A., now Mrs. Charles Ingram; Adele, the wife of Seymour Litter; Maud, the wife of Sterling Litter; Chester, a resident of Columbia county; and Tressie, who married Lenn Collins, now of Missouri.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. ANDREW J. ABEL]

Mr. Abel gives his political allegiance to the democratic party but has not served in any office with the exception of that of member of the school board. His wife belongs to the Christian church and he also casts his influence on the side of right and justice. For more than five decades he has been an interested witness of the progress that has been made in Old Walla Walla county, and his reminiscences of the early days are of much interest to the younger generation who are growing up amid conditions vastly different from those that their parents found here.

SMITH OWENS GWINN.

Smith Owens Gwinn is successfully engaged in farming on section 20, township 11 north, range 40 east, in Columbia county. He was born in Putnam county, Missouri, February 17, 1855, his parents being William and Nancy (Triplett) Gwinn, both of whom were natives of Kentucky, where they were reared and married. Soon afterward they removed to Putnam county, Missouri, where they resided until 1864, when they heard and heeded the call of the west. The stories which reached them concerning the opportunities on the Pacific coast led them to the determination to try their fortune in Washington. With ox teams and wagons they traveled across the plains, being six months on the journey, and at length they established their home in Walla Walla county, six miles east of Walla Walla, where the father purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land, for which he paid eighteen hundred dollars. Today the same property is worth forty thousand dollars. He lived upon that farm for a number of years and then sold the property, after which he took up his abode in the city of Walla Walla, spending his remaining days in the enjoyment of well earned rest. He had acquired a comfortable competence sufficient to meet all of his needs and also sufficient to supply him with the comforts of life. He passed away in 1897, while his widow survived for about twelve years, her death occurring in 1909. In his political views Mr. Gwinn was a democrat, giving stalwart allegiance to the party. He served as county assessor of Walla Walla county before it was divided, occupying that position for three or four years. He was widely known throughout the county, ranking as a representative business man and progressive citizen, and as a pioneer he contributed much to the early development of his section of the state. He and his wife were consistent and faithful members of the Methodist Episcopal church and were people of the highest respectability, enjoying the goodwill and confidence of all with whom they were associated. They left the impress of their individuality for good upon the material, political and moral development of the community.

Smith O. Gwinn was a lad of but nine years at the time of the removal of the family to Washington, so that he pursued his education largely in the schools of this district. He attended the Maxson school on Russell creek and on reaching his majority he began farming on his own account, renting land for that purpose. He raised two crops in Walla Walla county and in the fall of 1877 removed to Columbia county, where he homesteaded eighty acres. He failed, however, to get water on his land and therefore sold his right, after which he purchased another eighty acres with water on it. About 1880 he disposed of that farm and invested in his present home place of one hundred and sixty acres. In 1895 he leased this farm to Charlie Thronson and removed to Dayton, where he turned his attention to the livery business, with which he was identified for four years. Later he was engaged in various lines of business and retained his residence in Dayton until 1904, when he removed to Portland, where he resided for two years. He then went to Spokane, where the following year was passed, after which he returned to Portland, Oregon, where he again lived for three years. Once more he took up his abode in Spokane, where he remained until July, 1917, when he returned to the old home farm in Columbia county. Upon this place he has recently erected one of the most commodious and beautiful country homes in southeastern Washington and he has added many other modern improvements which add to the value and attractive appearance of the place. He also owns four hundred and eighty acres of land which constitutes one of the valuable wheat ranches of Columbia county. His business affairs are carefully managed and his unfaltering energy has carried him steadily forward to the goal of success.

Mr. Gwinn votes with the democratic party, of which he has been a stalwart champion since attaining his majority. He belongs to Touchet Lodge, I. O. O. F., and is one of the well known citizens of Columbia county who has gained a gratifying measure of success owing to his close application and indefatigable energy. His efforts have been a contributing factor in bringing about the splendid results that have been achieved in making southeastern Washington a notable agricultural belt, especially adapted to wheat raising.

W. H. YOUNGER.

W. H. Younger, who superintends the operation of the Prescott mills as agent for the Portland Flouring Mills Company, the largest concern of the kind in the northwest, was born in Stockton, California, on the 29th of January, 1889, a son of Thomas W. and Nannie (Welch) Younger. For a period of forty-three years the father was connected with the Southern Pacific Railroad Company as superintendent of motive power but has recently retired and now makes his home at Forest Grove, Oregon.

In the acquirement of his education W. H. Younger attended the public schools of Portland and also the Portland Academy. When a youth of sixteen years he entered the employ of the Portland Flouring Mills Company, securing a position as office boy in their Portland offices. With this important enterprise he has been connected continuously to the present time, becoming thoroughly familiar with every phase of the milling business, and that his services have been recognized as of value is indicated by his steady promotion. In 1909 he was made bookkeeper under E. H. Leonard, agent of the Prescott mills, serving in that capacity for four years or until the 1st of April, 1913, when he was appointed agent of the mills at Dayton, Washington. He had charge of the mills there for four years and on the 1st of May, 1917, was transferred to Prescott as agent at this point, in which connection he is making an excellent and most commendable record.

On the 28th of June, 1910, Mr. Younger was united in marriage to Miss Jessie Grace Anderson, of Portland, Oregon. Mr. Younger gives his political allegiance to the republican party and is deeply interested in matters of civic concern, having served as president of the Dayton Commercial Club and as a member of the Dayton Board of Trade. Fraternally he is identified with Dayton Lodge, F. & A. M., and he is also a charter member of Whetstone Lodge, No. 157, K. P., in which he has passed through all the chairs. His wife belongs to Trinity Episcopal church of Portland and both enjoy an enviable position in the social circles of Prescott, where they now make their home.

WILEY L. ARNOLD.

Wiley L. Arnold, a representative and successful agriculturist of Walla Walla county, resides on section 26, township 8 north, range 37 east, where he operates a well improved farm of forty-five acres, and he is also the owner of another valuable farm of one hundred and eighteen acres four miles distant from the aforementioned place. His birth occurred in Tennessee on the 8th of September, 1866, his parents being John and Anna Arnold, who spent their entire lives in that state. They had two sons, the brother of our subject being Grant, who is still a resident of Tennessee.

Wiley L. Arnold spent the period of his minority in his native state and in 1887, when a young man of twenty-one years, made his may to Spokane, Washington. Soon afterward, however, he removed to Vancouver, Washington, where he also spent but a short time and then went to Grants Pass, Oregon, there remaining during a winter season. Subsequently he came to Walla Walla county, Washington, and here worked on a ranch for three and one-half years. On the expiration of that period he returned to Grants Pass, Oregon, but two years later again made his way to Walla Walla county and purchased the farm on which he now resides and to the cultivation of which he has devoted his attention continuously to the present time. It is a highly improved property, comprising forty-five acres on section 26, township 8 north, range 37 east, near Dixie. Mr. Arnold also owns another farm of one hundred and eighteen acres nearby and in the conduct of his agricultural interests has met with gratifying and well deserved success, being energetic, enterprising and progressive. He is also a stockholder in the warehouse at Sapellel.

In 1893 Mr. Arnold was united in marriage to Miss Carrie Perry, a native of California and a daughter of Thomas and Sarah (Shinn) Perry, the former born in Canada and the latter in Michigan. They made the trip to California in 1849 and after a number of years' residence in that state took up their abode in Grants Pass, Oregon, where they spent the remainder of their lives. They became the parents of twelve children, eight of whom survive. To Mr. and Mrs. Arnold have been born six children, as follows: Veora I., who is the wife of George W. Bruce; Marion Harvey; Zeffie A.; Sarah F.; Ivan W.; and one who died in infancy.

Mr. Arnold gives his political allegiance to the republican party and has ably served as school director here. Fraternally he is identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to Lodge No. 117, and his wife is a consistent member of the Christian church. They are widely and favorably known in Walla Walla county and Mr. Arnold enjoys an enviable reputation as a self-made man whose success is the merited reward of his unremitting industry and sound business judgment.

JOHN HOFFMANN.

John Hoffmann is one of the honored pioneer settlers of Walla Walla and of the Inland Empire. There is no phase of the frontier development with which he is not familiar, for he came here when the work of progress seemed scarcely begun. In the years which have since elapsed he has not only witnessed remarkable changes that have brought this county to a foremost place in the way of improvement and development but he has also taken a most active part in bringing about this result by reason of his extensive interests and activities as an agriculturist.

Mr. Hoffmann was born in Germany, March 28, 1852, and remained in that country until he reached the age of sixteen years, when his father sent him to the new world in order that he might escape Bismarck's compulsory military service law, which had been established at the close of the Franco-Prussian war. He remained for a period in New York and in the eastern part of the country but in 1878 reached Walla Walla, being then a young man of twenty-six years. He began life as a farm hand, and something of the intense activity and enterprise which has ever characterized him is indicated in the fact that he came to be the possessor of eight thousand acres of the finest land in the wheat belt of Washington, having six thousand and eighty acres in one body, which was but bunch grass land when taken by Mr. Hoffmann. It is now well improved with fine buildings, supplied with best modern improvements, including electric light and baths. Water is secured at a depth of nine hundred and forty-five feet, Mr. Hoffmann being the first to drill a deep well in this locality. His fine place certainly indicates what energy, good judgment and determination can do. At the time of his arrival, however, little land had been brought under the plow and the city of Walla Walla was scarcely more than a trading and military post. The wide fields were covered with sagebrush or bunchgrass and there were no railroads. Mr. Hoffmann brought with him a heavy team and with this he at once began work, hauling freight from Wallula to Spokane and into the Coeur d'Alenes. It often required two or three months to make such trips, for the horses had to be fed on grass, as there was little grain for that purpose. With the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad, Mr. Hoffmann recognized the fact that freighting would no longer be profitable and therefore looked about him for some other means of support. He was unable to secure a homestead because he could not remain upon it, necessity forcing him to provide for his support in other ways. He therefore used his preemption right and occupied one hundred and sixty acres of land on what is now Eureka Flats. He used his team in work for others and as opportunity offered rented adjoining land. It was about 1880 that he threshed his first wheat crop from a tract of seventy-five acres, selling the crop at about forty-four cents per bushel after hauling it eighteen miles to Prescott. In his third year he harvested half a section of wheat but as yet had no farm machinery. When sowing and threshing time came, Mr. Hoffmann with his eight horses continued to work for others and in this way paid for putting in and gathering his crops for several years. In the meantime he was most carefully saving his earnings in order to equip a farm, and whenever opportunity offered he also added to his holdings, becoming the owner of four thousand four hundred acres on the Eureka Flats. There he introduced punctuality and regulations as stringent as those of a factory. He began work after three o'clock in the morning to round up the horses and ended the day's work at dark or later. He secured modern steam machinery and with his working system he did more work than if he had forced his employes to continue their labor from daylight until dark. There was no loss of time and each move was made to count for the utmost. He kept in touch with every phase of progressive farming and in fact was a recognized leader in introducing improved methods. He studied agriculture from the practical and from the scientific standpoints and, in fact, he recognized that these two things are one. The results achieved were marvelous and as his financial resources increased he continued making investments. From time to time he purchased cheap land. He bought six sections of railroad land along the Snake river to be used as horse pasturage until rapidly moving settlement required it. For this he paid only seventy-five cents per acre and after a few years he sold it at a net profit of five dollars per acre, thus realizing a handsome sum on his investment. He made other similar purchases of land, which in time he turned into ready money, continuing to realize a fair profit. His holdings at one time embraced over twelve thousand acres. He continued to occupy his farm until 1893, when he removed his family to Walla Walla, and in 1903 he retired from the active management of his farming property. He helped to organize and is a director of Walla Walla's Farmers Agency.

[Illustration: JOHN HOFFMANN]

[Illustration: THERESA HOFFMANN]

On April 25, 1881, Mr. Hoffmann was united in marriage to Miss Theresa Kirchner, a native of Minnesota, who came to Washington with her parents when she was a child of but four years. Mr. and Mrs. Hoffmann have become the parents of ten children, seven of whom are yet living: John Edward, an agriculturist of Columbia county, Washington; Bessie D., who is the wife of Ben Grote, of Walla Walla; Anna, who gave her hand in marriage to George Retzer, a druggist residing in Walla Walla; Valline, who is pursuing a course in mechanical engineering in the University of Washington at Seattle; Philip, a senior in the high school; John William, who is an eighth grade pupil; and Corleen, who is a freshman in the high school.

In politics Mr. Hoffmann has long been a stalwart republican and gives unfaltering allegiance to the principles of the party, yet without desire for office. He belongs to the Commercial Club and through that agency works for the upbuilding and development of the city in which he makes his home. He is well known in fraternal circles, holding membership in Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, A. F. & A. M.; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; Columbia Commandery, K. T.; Oriental Consistory, No. 2, A. & A. S. R.; and El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. For from thirty to forty years he has belonged to the order. He and his wife are also members of the Order of the Eastern Star and they are widely and prominently known socially, having a circle of friends almost coextensive with the circle of their acquaintance. The life record of Mr. Hoffmann is indeed a notable one and there is no resident of Walla Walla who has more truly earned the proud American title of a self-made man. Being early released from the military rule of Germany, he found in the opportunities of the new world the chances for advancement if the individual possesses industry and determination. These qualities are his in large measure and step by step he has progressed until he has long since occupied a place among the men of affluence in Washington. For almost forty years he has been a witness of the changes which have here occurred and is today one of the honored pioneer settlers of Walla Walla county, his memory forming a connecting link between the primitive past and the progressive present.

U. F. CORKRUM.

No student of history can carry his investigations far into the annals of Walla Walla county without learning of the close connection of the Corkrum family with the development of the agricultural interests of this section of the state. U. F. Corkrum is numbered among the progressive and enterprising wheat growers of Walla Walla county, where he was born on the 1st of June, 1866. His father, Francis M. Corkrum, was a native of Kentucky, and in early life went to Illinois, where he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Killabrew, who was a native of that state. They were residents of Illinois until 1865, when they crossed the plains with ox teams to Washington. On their arrival the father took up a homestead on Dry creek, about six miles northeast of Walla Walla, where he resided until about 1895. He then removed to the city, where the last twelve years of his life were passed, his death occurring in 1907. He was one of the first men in this county to take up wheat growing, demonstrating the possibilities for the successful production of that crop in this section of the state. He became one of the most extensive wheat growers of eastern Washington and acquired twelve hundred acres of land, mostly devoted to wheat raising. His widow survived him for a brief period, passing away in 1910.

U. F. Corkrum was educated in the Union school on Dry creek, with one term at Whitman College. The winter seasons were devoted to his school work, while the summer months were spent in farm labor. As early as his nineteenth year he began farming on his own account and on attaining his majority he made his first purchase of land, becoming owner of a farm of two hundred and forty acres on Dry creek. To this he added at intervals as his financial resources increased until 1893, at which time he had ten hundred and thirty-five acres, but the widespread financial panic of that year caused him to lose all that he had and to start in business life anew. That he met discouragement bravely and undertook his task with stout heart is indicated in the fact that he now owns six hundred and forty acres of rich and valuable wheat land and recently sold another tract of one hundred and sixty acres. He is now residing in Walla Walla in order to give his children the advantages of the city, but he is still one of the active wheat growers of the county and his business affairs are systematically managed, while the results that are attained are most desirable.

In 1897 Mr. Corkrum was united in marriage to Miss Kathryn Williams, of Brecknockshire, Wales, who emigrated to the United States in 1894, and came to Washington two years later. They now have four children, namely: Franklin Carl, Frederick Victor and Ralph Edward, all of whom are students in the Walla Walla high school; and Bertie Stanford, who is attending the graded school.

In politics Mr. Corkrum is a democrat but is without ambition for public office. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, to the teachings of which they consistently adhere, and their influence is always on the side of right, progress and improvement. They are honored among those whose financial liberality made possible the fine new church built in 1917. Their cooperation can ever be counted upon to advance and support movements for the benefit of the individual and of the community at large and they advocate the highest standards of citizenship. Mr. Corkrum's example is well worthy of emulation. Many a man of less resolute spirit would have become utterly discouraged by failure, but in his career difficulties and obstacles have seemed but to serve as an impetus for renewed effort, calling forth his latent powers. Recognizing that perseverance and industry are essential features to success, he has ever cultivated those qualities and has gained a most creditable position in business circles.

CLINTON H. CUMMINGS.

Clinton H. Cummings is a well known agriculturist residing on section 4, township 6 north, range 35 east, Walla Walla county, there owning eighty acres of land in the richest part of the valley. His birth occurred in Lewisburg, Union county, Pennsylvania, on the 13th of August, 1855, his parents being Andrew and Catherine (Boney) Cummings, who spent their entire lives in the Keystone state. The father worked at the cabinet maker's trade in early life, but after the period of the Civil war embarked in the furniture business and was identified therewith in later years.

Clinton H. Cummings acquired a limited education in the district schools and subsequently secured a position as clerk in a mercantile establishment, while for a year and a half he was in the employ of the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Company. In 1883 he heard and heeded the call of the west and made his way to the Pacific coast country, reaching Seattle on the 28th of April of that year. He remained in that city for eight years, being employed in various ways, and in 1891 he came to Walla Walla county, Washington, where he secured a position as manager of a grain warehouse. He was afterward employed in different capacities at Walla Walla until 1896, when he took up a homestead in the Nez Percé reservation and there devoted his attention to general agricultural pursuits for seven years. On the expiration of that period he disposed of the property and returned to Walla Walla, where he established himself in the grocery business, successfully conducting an enterprise of that character for ten years. He then traded his store for his present farm holdings, which embrace eighty acres of the richest land in the valley and to the cultivation of which he has since devoted his attention, meeting with a well deserved and gratifying measure of prosperity in this connection.

In 1889 Mr. Cummings was united in marriage to Miss Frances Belle Kennedy, of Walla Walla. He is a democrat in politics and has served for two terms as a member of the city council of Walla Walla, the fact that he was elected in a strong republican ward being indicative of his personal popularity and the public confidence in his capability. Fraternally he is identified with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, belonging to the Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287. His well directed business activities have won him material success and by his upright and honorable life he has gained the warm regard and friendship of many with whom he has been brought in contact.

CHARLES ISECKE.

For almost a third of a century Charles Isecke was a resident of Washington and during that long period made valuable contributions to the work of development and progress in the state. There was no phase of pioneer life in Washington with which he was not thoroughly familiar and at all times he bore his part in the work of development and won a substantial measure of business success. His personal qualities, too, made him very popular and everyone whom he met was his friend.

Mr. Isecke was born in Pommern, western Prussia, May 8, 1842, and had therefore completed the Psalmist's span of three score years and ten when called to his final rest. He acquired his education in the common and normal schools of his native country and after putting aside his textbooks began learning the miller's trade, with which he became thoroughly familiar. He was twenty-four years of age when in 1866 he severed home ties and bade adieu to his native land preparatory to becoming a resident of America. Crossing the Atlantic, he located at Buffalo, New York, and was there employed for a time in carpenter work but afterward turned his attention to railway bridge building. The west, however, attracted him and in 1874 he made his way to California, where for four years he was employed in the car shops at Salida. In the spring of 1878 he arrived in Washington, and after seeking a favorable location decided upon Anatone, where he purchased a small store that had been established only a short time before. Increasing the size of the stock immediately, he continued to carry on the business for eleven years with substantial success and in 1889 sold out to W. J. Clemans. He then removed to Asotin and during the period of his residence in that city was connected with various important industries and business enterprises, becoming president of the Blue Mountain Lumber & Manufacturing Company and also president of the bank of Asotin from its organization until his demise.

[Illustration: CHARLES ISECKE]

Mr. Isecke was married in 1879, about a year after taking up his abode in Anatone, the lady of his choice being Miss Mary L. Sutherland, of Truro, Nova Scotia, with whom he had become acquainted in California. Mr. Isecke was prominent in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and became a charter member of Hope Lodge, No. 30, at Anatone. He regularly attended the lodge meetings, had filled all of the offices in the organization and was always in attendance at the annual sessions of the Grand Lodge. He gave his financial aid and assistance to all movements calculated to benefit the community in which he lived and he was most generous in his contributions to religious organizations and charitable societies. He possessed a cheery nature, was ever considerate of others and never failed to extend a helping hand where he could give assistance. At Christmas time he was most generous in his gifts to the poor and it was his desire that all people should be happy. His kindly nature made him loved by all and his circle of friends was coextensive with the circle of his acquaintance. On the fiftieth anniversary of their graduation Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote a poem concerning his classmates in which he termed them "The Boys." Speaking of one of them he said:

"You see that boy laughing, you think he's all fun But the angels laugh, too, at the good he has done. The children laugh loud as they troop to his call But the poor man that knows him laughs loudest of all."

These words are entirely applicable to Mr. Isecke, who belonged to that class of men who shed around them much of life's sunshine and who are ever putting forth earnest and effective effort to ameliorate the hard conditions of life for the unfortunate.

WILLIAM H. LEONARD.

William H. Leonard, one of the best known stock breeders in southeastern Washington, where he took up his abode almost four decades ago, is the proprietor of the Blue Ribbon Stock Farm on section 28, township 14 north, range 41 east, and owns eleven hundred and sixty acres of land, comprising one of the best improved farms in Garfield county. His birth occurred in Vermilion county, Illinois, on the 1st of March, 1860, his parents being William J. and Sarah Jane (Cronkhite) Leonard, who were married in Illinois and spent the remainder of their lives in Vermilion county, that state. The father was an agriculturist, owning and cultivating two hundred and eighty acres of valuable corn land in Vermilion county. He died when yet a comparatively young man, passing away in 1866 or 1867, and his wife survived him for but ten years.

William H. Leonard was a youth of but sixteen years when he lost his mother and since that time he has made his own way in the world. In 1877 he journeyed westward by immigrant train to California, spending two years in Los Angeles county, where he worked for wages. In 1879 he came to Washington, locating in Walla Walla county, where he again worked for others for a period of two years and at the end of that time settled in what was then Columbia county and is now Garfield county. Here he took up a preemption claim of one hundred and sixty acres, subsequently commuted this and then took up a homestead. At the same time that he filed on his homestead he bought a quit claim on a timber claim, on which he proved up later. Since then he has added to this by purchase until his present holdings comprise eleven hundred and sixty acres and he enjoys the distinction of owning one of the best improved farms in Garfield county. During the past fourteen years Mr. Leonard has specialized in the breeding of registered thoroughbred shorthorn cattle and now has more than eighty head that are registered or eligible to registry. He has attended the Lewiston livestock show and sale with a carload of cattle for the past three years and has gained a most enviable reputation as a breeder. His style of dealing with his customers has contributed most to his success, demonstrating that honesty is the best policy, for when one of his animals is placed on the auctioneer's block, the buyers of his stock know that there are no by-bidders running up the price and that every animal purchased from him measures up to the standard set. The prosperity which has come to him is indeed well deserved, for he has worked earnestly and energetically as the years have gone on and by able management and sound judgment has won a place among the leading stock breeders and farmers of this section of the state.

In 1881 Mr. Leonard was united in marriage to Miss Matilda Starr, of Columbia county, her father, William H. Starr, being among the early pioneer settlers of that county. They have become the parents of five children, as follows: Clara E., who is the wife of Fernando Freeburn, a farmer of Garfield county; Izza C., who gave her hand in marriage to W. Morse, of Waitsburg, Washington; William J., who operates the home farm; Mary M., who was educated in the State Normal School at Cheney, Washington, and is now engaged in teaching; and Mildred T., at home.

HEZEKIAH N. BROWN.

Hezekiah N. Brown, a retired farmer, residing in Dayton, Columbia county, was born in central Tennessee, August 28, 1845, a son of John and Perlina (Kincade) Brown, who were also natives of that state. In 1847 they removed west to Arkansas, and there the father spent his remaining years. The mother, however, came to Columbia county, Washington, in 1874. The following year her death occurred. They had eight children, of whom five survive, two residents of Washington; two of Idaho; and one of Texas.

Hezekiah N. Brown received his education in Arkansas and there grew to manhood. Most of his boyhood was spent in rail splitting and hard work on the farm. In 1872 he determined to cast in his lot with the Pacific northwest and came to what is now Columbia county, Washington, but was then a part of Walla Walla county. He acquired title to land and as time passed he was able to add to his holdings. Success was the natural result of his hard work, thrift and good management, and he still owns nine hundred and thirty-two acres, which is in a high state of cultivation and is well improved. Although the buildings upon the farm are now commodious, up-to-date and attractive in design, during the first years of his residence here he lived in a box house. In 1909 he retired and removed to Dayton, where he still lives.

Mr. Brown was married in Arkansas in 1869, to Miss Elizabeth Carpenter, whose birth occurred in Runnells county, Missouri, February 14, 1849. To them have been born five children: Leo and George, both of whom are farming; Elmer H., who is living in Seattle; Walter S., a merchant of Spokane; and Luella, deceased.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. HEZEKIAH N. BROWN]

Mr. Brown has been a lifelong adherent to the democratic party and for twenty-five years he rendered capable service as a member of the school board. At the time of the Civil war he served in the Confederate army under General Cooper, and although he was at the front four years and took part in much hard fighting he came out without a scratch. Both he and his wife are members of the Christian church, whose teachings are the guiding principles of their lives. Mr. Brown was not only thrown upon his own resources at an early age but until he was twenty-four years old aided materially in the support of his parents. He is, therefore, a self-made man and is entitled to the credit given those who, through their own unaided efforts, have gained material success and an honored place in their community.

C. A. HALES.

Since 1892, C. A. Hales has been identified with the sheep industry in Washington and Oregon and is now senior partner in the firm of C. A. Hales & Sons, prominent sheep raisers of Walla Walla county. He resides on section 12, township 9 north, range 37 east, and has been a lifelong resident of the northwest, his birth having occurred in Marion county, Oregon, October 16, 1867, his parents being William H. and Lucinda (Turner) Hales. The father crossed the plains in 1851, when a young man of twenty-one years, and located near Portland, Oregon, when there were but one or two log cabins on the site of the present beautiful city. Later he went to California, where he followed mining for a number of years, and in 1873 he became a resident of Weston, Oregon, where he engaged in ranching and in the livestock business. He acquired extensive land holdings and became a prominent factor in the livestock industry in that section of the country, there remaining until his death, which occurred in 1887. His wife had crossed the plains with her parents in 1849, when but four years of age, the family home being established in Marion county, Oregon. She still survives and makes her home near that of her son, C. A. Hales, of this review.

In the common schools C. A. Hales acquired his education. He was but twenty years of age at the time of his father's death, at which time the latter's extensive and important business interests devolved upon the son. He had to assume the management of the large farm holdings and livestock interests, and though his responsibilities were heavy, he proved adequate to the demands placed upon him. In 1892 he turned his attention to the sheep industry and has in the course of years become one of the foremost sheep men of the northwest, running some twelve thousand head of sheep at the present time. His splendid business ability is demonstrated by his successful control of extensive interests of this character. He has a vast acreage on which to pasture his flocks and he keeps in close touch with every condition bearing upon the welfare of his business and upon the market. He is thus thoroughly acquainted with everything that has to do with the successful conduct of his interests.

In 1890 Mr. Hales was married to Miss Lucinda Galloway, of Morrow county, Oregon, and to them have been born eight children, six of whom are living, namely: Willis R., who is associated with his father in the sheep business and is the manager of the Union Stock Yards at Pasco, Washington; Alfred L. and Lester M., who are also associated with their father in the sheep business; Marvin R.; Ila M.;, and Gertrude E.

Politically Mr. Hales is a stanch republican, while fraternally he is identified with the Masons, belonging to Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, F. & A. M., and Dayton Chapter, R. A. M. Mr. Hales and his family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. He is much interested in its work and generous in its support. He stands at all times for those things which are a matter of benefit to the individual and to the community at large and his influence is always on the side of progress, justice, truth and right. His career has been notably successful. It is true that something came to him through inheritance; on the other hand, it is true that necessity is the spur of ambition and industry, and there are too many cases where inheritance has seemed to enfeeble effort rather than to call forth the most persistent purpose. Mr. Hales, however, nobly met the tasks that developed upon him at his father's death and in the conduct of business interests was and is always looking for opportunities to advance. His course has been marked by a steady progression and each forward step has brought him a broader outlook and wider opportunities, which he has eagerly, promptly and rightfully utilized. Moreover, his business affairs have always been of a character that have contributed to public progress as well as to individual success and through the management of his extensive sheep interests he has done much to further prosperity in Walla Walla county.

HARVEY B. BATEMAN.

Among the honored early settlers of Old Walla Walla county was Harvey B. Bateman, who took an active part in the development of this region, especially along agricultural lines. He was born in Illinois on the 10th of November, 1833, and in early manhood crossed the plains, enduring all the hardships and dangers of such a journey. On reaching Washington he bought a farm near Waitsburg and continued to reside thereon up to the time of his death, his time and attention being devoted to farming.

In 1876 Mr. Bateman was united in marriage to Miss Susan Thomas, a native of Missouri and a daughter of T. T. and Nancy (Curl) Thomas, who in 1851 left their home in the Mississippi valley and after crossing mountains and desert finally reached Linn county, Oregon, where the father took up a donation claim. He built thereon a log cabin with a clapboard roof and stick chimney and in this frontier home the family lived in true pioneer style. He became one of the prominent and influential citizens of his community and was called upon to represent his district in the state legislature for two terms. Later he went to Alaska, where his death occurred. His wife died in Washington. In their family were ten children, of whom five are still living.

To Mr. and Mrs. Bateman were born twelve children, but Mida, the wife of J. O. Windust, and four others are deceased. Those living are: Mary, the wife of Andrew Gregg of Oakesdale, Washington; Nancy, the wife of Wesley Star; John M.; James S.; Dollie, the wife of Fred Porter; Katherine, the wife of W. F. Hawks; and Wilber, who is now operating the homestead farm, comprising three hundred acres. The place is well improved with good and substantial buildings and still belongs to Mrs. Bateman.

Mr. Bateman was a faithful member of the Methodist Episcopal church, to which his widow also belongs, and his earnest Christian life won for him the confidence and high regard of all with whom he came in contact either in business or social life. He passed away in 1904 and was laid to rest in the Waitsburg cemetery. Mrs. Bateman has not only reared her own family but has also cared for five grandchildren, which she has educated as well. Her life has been a busy and useful one and she well merits the high esteem in which she is uniformly held.

WILLIAM E. CAHILL.

William E. Cahill, who is engaged in the abstract and general loan business in Dayton, was born in Green Lake county, Wisconsin, on the 18th of January, 1862, his parents being William R. and Angeline C. (Church) Cahill, both of whom were natives of the state of New York, but in early life removed with their respective parents to Wisconsin, where they reached man and womanhood. It was there that William R. Cahill and Angeline C. Church were married, after which they located upon a farm, Mr. Cahill devoting his attention to the development and improvement of that place until after the outbreak of the Civil war, when he responded to the country's call for troops, enlisting in the Union army in the fall of 1861. He served for three years and participated in many hotly contested engagements. On one occasion he was carrying on his back from the field a wounded man when a shell burst near them and cut the man squarely in two and threw Mr. Cahill a distance of seventy-five feet, the concussion being so great that it burst both ear drums and partially paralyzed him, making him a physical wreck through the following years of his life. He passed away in 1890. In 1878 he had removed with his family to Columbia county, Washington, arriving in Dayton on the 4th of May of that year. He took up his abode upon a farm near Dayton, where he resided until about a year prior to his death, when he established his home in the city of Dayton. His widow still survives and now resides with her son, A. P. Cahill.

William E. Cahill spent the first sixteen years of his life in his native state and during that period acquired a common school education in Wisconsin. In 1878 he accompanied his parents to Washington and subsequently became a student in the Dayton high school. At the age of nineteen years he started upon his business career in a humble capacity, being employed to wheel sawdust from under the saw in a sawmill in the mountains near Dayton. Thirty days later he was promoted to the position of driving a bull team of five yoke of bulls at the sawmill. For three months during this summer he lived on red beans and sour dough bread and he carried fifty cents in his pocket for that entire period without having occasion to spend it. During the following winter he attended the Dayton high school and subsequently he took up the profession of teaching, which he followed for two years. During this time he saved enough money to pay his tuition in the Portland Business College, where he became a student. After completing his course in that institution he once more returned to Dayton and on the 4th of May, 1884, he accepted a clerkship in the mercantile house of M. Hexter, by whom he was employed for seven years, his long retention in that position indicating most clearly his fidelity, capability and trustworthiness. He resigned his position on the 4th of May, 1891, and opened a set of abstract books, since which time he has been engaged in the abstract and insurance business, also handling mortgage loans and acting as agent for various clients. He has built up a business of extensive proportions and derives therefrom a gratifying annual income. He was also one of the organizers of the Broughton National Bank and became a member of the board of directors, in which capacity he is still serving. He has from time to time made extensive investments in farm lands and is now the owner of farm property comprising two thousand acres eight miles east of Dayton.

Fraternally Mr. Cahill is connected with Columbia Lodge, No. 26, F. & A. M., of Dayton, and with Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P. He is loyal to the teachings and purposes of those organizations and enjoys the high regard of his brethren. Dayton numbers him among its foremost citizens and he is progressive in every movement that looks to the advancement of the city and the upbuilding of its interests. There is no movement for the public good which seeks his aid in vain, but he never has been imbued with political ambition and prefers to do his public service as a private citizen. He has been an interested witness of the growth and development of this section of the state since pioneer times and has been a contributing factor to the work that has been accomplished in the way of promoting public improvement. Each forward step in his career has brought him a wider outlook and broader opportunities and his entire record has been marked by an orderly progression that has brought substantial results.

HON. MILES CONWAY MOORE.

Honored and respected by all, there is no man who occupies a more enviable position in public regard in Walla Walla than does Hon. Miles Conway Moore, the last territorial governor of Washington and now a prominent figure in banking circles. His high position in the regard of his fellowmen is due not to the success which he has achieved but to the straightforward, honorable purpose which he has ever followed. He has made wise use of his time, his talents and his opportunities and in laboring to promote his individual interests has also advanced the welfare and progress of city and state at large. He is now the president of the Baker-Boyer National Bank.

[Illustration: HON. MILES CONWAY MOORE]

Mr. Moore was born in Muskingum county, Ohio, April 17, 1845. His father, Amos L. Moore, was a native of Delaware, while his mother belonged to the Monroe family of which President James Monroe was a representative--one of the oldest and most prominent families of Virginia. At the age of twelve years Miles C. Moore accompanied his parents on their removal from Ohio to Wisconsin and he was educated in the Methodist Episcopal Institute at Point Bluff, Wisconsin. In 1863 he came to Walla Walla, then a youth of but eighteen years, and was first employed as a clerk in the store of Kyger & Reese. The following year he embarked in business on his own account in Blackfoot City, a mining town in Montana, but in the fall of 1866 he returned to Walla Walla and entered into partnership in the conduct of a store under the firm style of H. E. Johnson & Company. In 1869 he opened a general store as a member of the firm of Paine Brothers & Moore. This establishment was later converted into an agricultural implement business, which was the first of the kind in eastern Washington.

In 1877 Mr. Moore became associated with his father-in-law, Dr. D. S. Baker, in the grain business, buying extensively for those early days. They loaded three ships at Astoria with the first wheat brought from the interior of the state and continued in the wheat business until 1879. The partnership, however, was maintained until the death of Dr. Baker in 1888, at which time Mr. Moore was made one of the administrators of the estate. Together they built six miles of railroad up Mill creek in order to bring down timber and wood from the mountains. After Dr. Baker retired from the grain business Mr. Moore formed a partnership with his brother Charles and continued along that line until the death of his brother in 1888. They bought grain in the Palouse district and along Snake river. Our subject afterward devoted several years to public affairs and in 1889 was chosen territorial governor of Washington, which office he most ably filled. He was interested in the Baker & Boyer Bank, which was the first private bank established in this state, being organized in 1869 and made a national bank in 1889. Mr. Moore became a stockholder and the vice president, remaining in that position until the death of Mr. Boyer in 1898, when he succeeded to the presidency and still remains at the head of the institution, discharging his duties with marked capability. He possesses notable executive force and his administrative direction has been characterized by a recognition of all the different phases of the business and its opportunities. He was likewise a stockholder in the First National Bank of Walla Walla and is extensively interested in real estate in various parts of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. His investments have been most judiciously made and have brought to him a very gratifying financial return.

In Walla Walla, in March, 1873, Mr. Moore was married to Miss Mary E. Baker, a daughter of Dr. D. S. Baker, who was born in Portland, Oregon. They are the parents of three children: Frank A., a resident of Walla Walla; Walter B., deceased; and Robert L., also of Walla Walla. Mrs. Moore died in 1904 at Oakland, California, where she had gone with the hope of benefiting her health. In 1884 Mr. Moore purchased property and erected the residence which has since been his home and where his children grew up.

Governor Moore early came to a recognition of the duties and obligations as well as of the privileges of citizenship and has been a leading factor in promoting political progress and in advancing the interests of his community and the commonwealth along many lines. In 1877 he was elected mayor of Walla Walla and in 1889 was appointed governor, serving in that important position at the time when the territory was merging into statehood. The duties which devolved upon him in this connection were of a most delicate and important character, but were discharged with credit and honor to himself and to the satisfaction of the people at large. No plan or movement for the benefit of the city along lines of progress and improvement seeks his aid in vain. The public work that he has done has largely been of a nature that has brought no pecuniary reward and yet has made extensive demand upon his time, his thought and his energy. Opportunities that others have passed by heedlessly he has noted and improved to the betterment of the city and the state in many ways. He is extremely modest and unostentatious in manner and all who know him speak of him in terms of praise. In his life are the elements of greatness because of the use he has made of his talents and his opportunities, because his thoughts are not self-centered but are given to the mastery of life's problems and the fulfillment of his duty as a man in his relations to his fellowman and as citizen in his relations to his city, state and country.

J. C. LEWIS

J. C. Lewis, who has resided in the Pacific northwest for more than seventy years, is one of the most honored residents of Dayton. His birth occurred in Kentucky, February 1, 1842, but when he was two years old he was taken by his parents to Missouri, where the family home was maintained for a year. In 1845 they removed to the Willamette valley, the long trip across the plains being comparatively uneventful as there was no trouble with the Indians and no serious shortage of food or water. He grew to manhood in the Willamette valley and received his education in its pioneer schools. He remained in Oregon until the fall of 1869, when he came to Old Walla Walla county, Washington. The following winter was spent on the site of the town of Dixie, which was not platted until a number of years later, but in the fall of 1870 he took up a homestead in Columbia county eleven miles northeast of Dayton. He devoted his time and attention to the cultivation of his fields and the raising of stock and derived a gratifying annual income from the sale of his farm products. In 1898, feeling that he had accumulated a competence, he retired to Dayton, where he is still living.

In 1864, in Oregon, Mr. Lewis was united in marriage to Miss Maria Lapham, who in the spring of 1853, when seven years of age, accompanied her parents and an elder sister on their removal from Michigan to the Willamette valley. Not only was the trip across the plains long and tedious, as the journey was made by ox team, but many misfortunes overtook the train, which, captained by a Mr. Eliott, attempted to reach the Willamette valley by a cut off route known as the "lost trail." As the result of the many hardships of the journey Mrs. Lapham died in eastern Oregon and the only coffin available was the wagon box. Not long after this the party lost its way and all came very nearly perishing of thirst. They were also attacked by Indians and their cattle driven away and Mr. Lapham and his small daughters found themselves alone and afoot in the Deschutes country. Leaving the two little girls in camp with a little flour, the father set out in search of the cattle, hoping to find at least a few. During his absence a rescuing party found the girls and took them to the Willamette, Maria riding behind the captain of the party down the Mackenzie river. Mr. Laphan settled in Willamette valley and passed away in Dayton, Washington in 1901 at the age of ninety years. The older daughter died soon after reaching the family's destination but the younger, as before stated, became the wife of Mr. Lewis and is still living in Dayton. By her marriage she became the mother of six children, but only two daughters are now living: Mrs. Wilson McBride and Mrs. John A. McCauley, both of Columbia county.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. J. C. LEWIS]

Mr. Lewis is a strong advocate of republican principles and supports the candidates of that party by his ballot. He served as county commissioner from 1888 to 1892 and in 1906 was appointed to the board to fill out eighteen months of an unexpired term. Practically the entire story of the development of the northwest is a matter of personal knowledge to him, for when he accompanied his parents to Oregon the city of Portland had not been thought of and there were no settlements in the valley with the exception of Oregon City and a trading post at Salem. He has taken great pleasure in watching the marvelous changes that have since occurred and is confident that a still greater future is in store for this section. At all times his attitude has been that of a public-spirited citizen willing to subordinate private interests to the general good and performing faithfully all the duties devolving upon him. Both he and his wife have hosts of friends in Dayton and throughout Columbia county, and the leisure which they are enjoying is well merited.

LAWRENCE O. McINROE.

Lawrence O. McInroe is the owner of one of the well improved farms of Walla Walla county, his place being situated on section 34, township 8 north, range 36 east, where he has four hundred and forty-two acres of rich and valuable land. He is one of the native sons of the county, his birth having occurred within its borders December 29, 1874. His parents were James and Cordelia (Nelson) McInroe, the former a native of the state of New York, while the latter was born in Iowa, where their marriage was celebrated. The father crossed the plains in the year 1852, assisting Mr. Sharpstein in bringing a herd of horses across the country. He remained for some time but afterward returned to Iowa and it was subsequent to that event that he was married. The spell of the west, however, was upon him and soon after his marriage he brought his bride to Walla Walla county. Here he took up a homestead and later he purchased more land, becoming actively and prominently identified with agricultural interests. Adding to his possessions from time to time, he was at his death the owner of eight hundred and eighty acres of valuable wheat land and was numbered among the prosperous farmers of this section of the state. Both he and his wife died in this county. In their family were but two sons, the younger being Frank, who now resides southeast of Walla Walla.

Lawrence O. McInroe was reared and educated in the county where he still resides, supplementing his public school course by study in a business college. After attaining his majority he began farming on his own account on the land which he now owns. He had been reared to the occupation of farming and had early become familiar with the best methods of tilling the soil and caring for the crops. He has always kept in close touch with the trend of modern progress along agricultural lines and his valuable farm property of four hundred and forty-two acres indicates his careful supervision and his progressive methods. He has added splendid buildings to his place and all modern equipments and improvements. He makes a specialty of raising wheat, to which the soil is splendidly adapted, and he is also successfully engaged in stock raising, keeping high grade cattle, horses and hogs upon his farm.

In 1902 Mr. McInroe was united in marriage to Miss Zenna Buroker, a native of Walla Walla county and a daughter of William and May (Gallaher) Buroker. Mr. McInroe belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and his wife is connected with the Rebekahs. He is also a member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. His political allegiance is given to the democratic party but he has never sought nor desired office. He and his wife attend the Presbyterian church and they are widely and favorably known in the community where they reside. Since starting out in the business world he has made steady progress. His industry and perseverance are among his salient characteristics and upon these qualities he has builded his success. He is not only progressive in all that he undertakes but is thoroughly reliable and his business integrity stands as an unquestioned fact in his career.

SAMUEL WALTERS.

Samuel Walters, a well known merchant and assistant postmaster of Starbuck, Washington, was born in Australia on the 24th of May, 1869, his parents being John T. and Elizabeth (Neil) Walters. His father was a native of Pennsylvania but in 1853 went to Australia, where he was married, the mother being of Scotch descent but born in Australia. They continued to reside in that country until 1871 when they came to the United States and took up their abode in Iowa, where they made their home for nine years. In 1880 they arrived in Walla Walla county, Washington, but after living here for about three years removed to Whitman county and later to Stevens county, where their last days were passed. To them were born eight children and six of the number still survive.

Samuel Walters was only two years of age when his father returned to America, bringing with him his family, and the son was principally educated in the common and high schools of Whitman county, Washington. After putting aside his textbooks he entered the service of a railroad company and continued in that line of work for six years. In 1910 he came to Starbuck and has since engaged in mercantile pursuits, carrying on business under the name of the Starbuck Trading Company, of which he is secretary and treasurer. He is a progressive, energetic business man of sound judgment and keen discrimination.

Mr. Walters was married in 1908 to Miss Alberta Gerking, of Waitsburg, Washington, and to them has been born a daughter, Elizabeth. Mrs. Walters is a member of the Episcopal church, and Mr. Walters is identified with the Woodmen of the World and the Masonic fraternity, holding membership in Lodge No. 106, A. F. & A. M., in which he has filled all the chairs. The democratic party finds in him a stanch supporter of its principles and he is now serving as chairman of his precinct. For the past five years he has served as city treasurer of Starbuck and is also filling the position of assistant postmaster. No trust reposed in him has ever been betrayed in the slightest degree and he well merits the confidence of his fellow citizens.

JOHN BLESSINGER.

For more than forty-two years John Blessinger was a resident of Columbia county and was one of its most esteemed citizens, manifesting throughout his entire life those sterling traits of character which in every land and clime awaken confidence and regard. He was born in Pennsylvania on the 8th of March, 1838, and when he was but a young child accompanied his parents on their removal to Hancock county, Indiana. It was there that he was reared to early manhood and in the common schools of that locality he acquired his education. About 1859, however, he left the middle west and made his way to the Pacific coast, settling in the Willamette valley near Salem, Oregon. During the following ten years or more he devoted his attention to mining and then came northward to Washington, arriving in Dayton on the 1st of November, 1872. This section was then a largely undeveloped and unimproved district. He purchased land and turned his attention to farming, his home ranch being located about five miles east of Dayton. It comprised six hundred and forty acres of rich and productive land and he developed it into one of the most valuable wheat farms of Columbia county. The soil is splendidly adapted to the production of that crop and Mr. Blessinger's methods were at once practical and progressive. In addition to that property he owned other land and was classed among the county's most successful and enterprising farmers. His labors brought splendid results and his methods constituted the last word in progressive agriculture. About 1900 he removed to Dayton, turning over the operation of his farm to his sons, and he then became one of the organizers of the Broughton National Bank, of which he was made a member of the board of directors.

On the 21st of April, 1872, Mr. Blessinger was united in marriage to Miss Harriet Byrd, of Marion county, Oregon, a daughter of Luther Byrd, who crossed the plains with ox teams from Arkansas to Oregon in 1854 or 1855. He took up his abode in Marion county, that state, and there engaged in farming to the time of his death. Mr. and Mrs. Blessinger became the parents of seven children, five of whom survive, as follows: John B., who follows farming in Columbia county, Washington; Albert E., who is an agriculturist of Columbia county and resides in Dayton; Myrtle, at home; Leo, who is engaged in farming in Columbia county; and Fred, who operates the home place.

Mrs. Blessinger resides in a comfortable home in Dayton, her husband having left her in easy financial circumstances. She is a devoted member of the Congregational church and her aid and influence are always given on the side of reform and progress. She is a member of the Halpine Society and is also a member of the Red Cross Society. She is a lady of culture and refinement and is constantly extending a helping hand where aid is needed, taking a most active part in charitable work. Mr. Blessinger was numbered among the esteemed citizens of Dayton, being a man of sterling character, and when death called him the deepest regret was felt throughout the community in which he lived.

HENRY F. WATROUS.

Prominent among the self-made men of Columbia county is Henry F. Watrous, whose life has been principally devoted to agricultural pursuits, and success has attended his well directed efforts. He was born in Green county, Wisconsin, January 26, 1848, his parents being Levi W. and Elmira (Fish) Watrous, natives of Canada and Ohio, respectively. On leaving the Dominion the father removed to Wisconsin, where he was married and where he continued to make his home until 1850. The following five years were spent in Iowa but at the end of that time he went to Minnesota, where he lived for the same length of time. He then returned to Iowa and in 1875 came to Washington, settling in Old Walla Walla county. He took up a soldier's claim of one hundred and sixty acres a mile and a half from Dayton and built thereon a box house, making his home upon that place until the required improvements were made; he then sold the farm and brought his family here. There were eleven children and nine of the number are still living.

During his boyhood Henry F. Watrous accompanied his parents on their various removals but was principally reared and educated in Iowa, attending the common schools there. At an early age he began earning his own livelihood by working as a farm hand at seventeen dollars per month and was thus employed for two years, during which time he saved enough money to come west. It was in 1871 that he crossed the continent to Salt Lake City, which was then the terminus of the railroad, and from there continued his journey on horseback in company with an uncle and his family who rode in a wagon. On reaching Dayton, Washington, he found employment on a farm at four hundred dollars per year and at the end of that time was able to send for his father. After the latter's arrival they contracted to purchase a sawmill near the mouth of Jim creek, agreeing to pay for the plant with lumber, which was the principal medium of exchange in those days. Whenever enough clear lumber had been cut to warrant a trip to Walla Walla, Henry Watrous would start with a load drawn by oxen and would sell the same for thirty-five to forty dollars per thousand. After operating the mill for four years it was traded for the farm still owned by our subject but he has added to the original tract until he now owns nine hundred and fifty acres of land, all improved and devoted to wheat. Until 1914 he operated his land but has since rented the place and is now living retired in Dayton, where he owns a fine residence. He is a stockholder in a grain warehouse there and is today one of the prosperous citizens of the community.

[Illustration: HENRY F. WATROUS]

[Illustration: MRS. HENRY F. WATROUS]

In 1903 Mr. Watrous married Miss Sadie Williams, a native of Missouri, and although they have no children of their own they have an adopted daughter, Bonnie. Mr. Watrous is a member of the Odd Fellows Lodge, No. 10, of Dayton, and is a republican in politics. He has efficiently served as a member of the school board but has never had the time nor inclination for office, his business affairs claiming his undivided attention. Although he has met with hardships and difficulties in his career he has overcome these by persistent effort and is today one of the substantial citizens of his community, his success being the just reward of his industry and good management, for he is a man of excellent business ability and sound judgment.

E. F. DUNLAP.

E. F. Dunlap holds the responsible position of manager of the Dayton plant of the Portland Flouring Mills Company and throughout his entire career has been connected with this corporation, entering its service in the humble capacity of office boy. From that point he has steadily worked his way upward and his orderly progression has brought him to the position which he now occupies and for which he is well qualified, for as the years have gone on he has gained comprehensive and extensive knowledge of the business in all of its phases. He is numbered among the native sons of Oregon, his birth having occurred in Wallowa county, on the 5th of October, 1887, his parents being Robert C. and Mary E. (Pool) Dunlap, both of whom are natives of the Willamette valley of Oregon, their respective parents having been among the earliest settlers of that section of the country. Following their marriage they established their home in Wallowa county, where the father engaged in the live stock business, there remaining until 1898, when he removed to Walla Walla county, Washington. He took up his abode upon a ranch near Prescott and is here engaged in operating a hay and dairy farm, being numbered among the representative agriculturists of this section of the state.

E. F. Dunlap, spending his boyhood days under the parental roof, acquired his education in the graded schools and in 1902, when a youth of fifteen, started upon his business career, securing a position as office boy in the plant of the Portland Flouring Mills Company at Prescott, Washington. His fidelity, ability and trustworthiness led to promotion and he was afterward made assistant bookkeeper. In 1908 he was transferred to the Dayton mills as bookkeeper and in 1913 he was returned to Prescott as local manager of the plant. On the 1st of May, 1917, he was again sent to Dayton as manager of the mills, in which capacity he is now serving and as the controlling factor in the operation of the plant here he is doing splendid work for the company. The latest processes of flour manufacture are utilized here and the plant is splendidly equipped, while the standard of excellence is ever fully maintained.

In 1913 Mr. Dunlap was united in marriage to Miss Susan Weatherford, a daughter of F. M. Weatherford, of whom extended mention is made elsewhere in this work. In his political views Mr. Dunlap maintains an independent attitude with republican tendencies. He belongs to Alki Lodge, No. 136, I. O. O. F., and also to Whetstone Lodge, No. 157, K. P., of Prescott. He is one of Dayton's representative and progressive men. Almost his entire life has been passed in Washington and the spirit of western enterprise finds exemplification in his career and has gained for him a substantial measure of success.

W. H. STONECIPHER.

W. H. Stonecipher, who follows farming on section 10, township 8 north, range 37 east, in Walla Walla county, is a representative business man whose wise use of time and opportunities has gained for him a place among the prosperous agriculturists of this part of the state. He had no assistance at the outset of his career and whatever he has achieved and enjoyed is the direct result of his own labors. He came to the Pacific coast country from the middle west, his birth having occurred in Washington county, Illinois, December 29, 1869, his parents being James A. and Margaret (Breeze) Stonecipher. The father was a native of Indiana but removed to Jefferson county, Illinois, with his parents when but two years of age and it was in the latter county that the mother was born and reared. They were there married and the father subsequently purchased a farm just over the county line in Washington county, where he lived until his seventieth year, when he returned to Jefferson county, taking up his abode in the town of Cravat, where he lived retired in the enjoyment of well earned rest up to the time of his demise.

W. H. Stonecipher acquired a limited education in the district schools near his father's farm and through the period of his boyhood and youth aided in the work of the fields, early becoming familiar with all of the arduous tasks incident to the development and cultivation of the crops. After reaching his twenty-first year, or in the spring of 1891, he came to the west with Washington as his destination. He arrived in Waitsburg on the 13th of March and during the following summer worked for wages as a farm hand. In 1892 he went into the Palouse country and there prospected for a desirable location. Not finding anything to suit him, however, he returned to Walla Walla county and through the succeeding five years was again employed by others. In 1896 he made his first purchase of land, becoming the owner of a forty-acre tract. Not long afterward he acquired eighty acres additional and two years later he bought one hundred and twenty acres making his farm one of two hundred and forty acres. For some years he not only cultivated this land but also worked for wages for others in order to help pay for his own place. He made use of every spare hour and as a consequence he has prospered. In 1909 he purchased the Electric Farm of five hundred and fifty acres. Prior to this, or in 1907, he had purchased the Boley Robbins farm of four hundred and eighty acres, which he traded in on the Electric Farm in 1909. In 1913 he traded the latter property for seven hundred and thirteen acres adjoining his home place, which thus was extended, becoming a tract of nine hundred and fifty-three acres. It is located in the heart of the Spring valley district, the richest wheat growing belt of Walla Walla county. Mr. Stonecipher not only successfully cultivates this land but for the past fourteen years he has also rented and farmed the T. P. Ingall's place of seven hundred and four acres. This property he purchased in December, 1917, and he therefore now owns one thousand six hundred and fifty-seven acres, his interests being most extensive, so that he is ranked with the leading agriculturists of Walla Walla county. He has closely studied soil and climatic conditions, so that he is thoroughly acquainted with what can be done in the way of crop production here. His methods are most progressive, his business affairs are systematically handled and in all things he displays sound judgment as well as unfaltering enterprise.

In 1895 Mr. Stonecipher was united in marriage to Miss Alta Winifred Gerking, a daughter of D. B. Gerking, who was one of the pioneer settlers of Walla Walla county and now resides in Rose Lake, Idaho. Mr. and Mrs. Stonecipher have become the parents of six children, three sons and three daughters, as follows: Lola M., the wife of O. Glen Conover, who is in the service of his father-in-law; Grace H., who attended the Washington State College for two years and is now pursuing her studies in the State Normal School at Ellensburg; James D., who is in his senior year in the Waitsburg high school; M. Blanche, a public school pupil; Harvey V.; and Chester B. On December 23, 1917, a baby daughter was born to Mr. and Mrs. Glen Conover, the first granddaughter of Mr. and Mrs. Stonecipher.

Mr. Stonecipher gives his political endorsement to the republican party. He has served as a member of the school board for twenty years and his wife is now a member of that board. Fraternally he is connected with Waitsburg Lodge, No. 5, I. O. O. F., and with the Woodmen of the World and is true and loyal to the teachings of these organizations, which recognize man's obligations to his fellowmen. At different points in his career difficulties and obstacles have barred his path and he has had many hardships to overcome, but persistent energy has enabled him to work his way upward and his life proves the eternal principle that industry wins. His course may well be followed by others who desire to attain honorable success, and although he started out in life empty-handed, he is now the possessor of a very handsome competence and has worthily won the proud American title of a "self-made man."

WILLIAM P. FISHER.

William P. Fisher is an enterprising farmer of Walla Walla county, residing on section 27, Small township, where he owns and cultivates a valuable tract of land embracing eighty acres. His birth occurred in Ohio an the 6th of October, 1860, his parents being Joseph and Lydia E. (Dyke) Fisher, the former a native of Virginia and the latter of Ohio. They were married in the Buckeye state and a number of years later removed to Kansas, where the father passed away and where the mother still makes her home. They became the parents of five children, all of whom are living.

William P. Fisher was a lad of twelve years when the family home was established in Kansas and it was in that state that he acquired his education. In 1900, seeking the broader opportunities of the west, he made his way to the Yakima country and there remained for twelve years. The year 1915 witnessed his arrival in Walla Walla county, Washington, where he has since resided. He purchased eighty acres of land on section 27, Small township, and has improved the property until it is now a valuable and productive tract, annually yielding golden harvests in return for the care and labor which he bestows upon it. He also owns a well improved farm of one hundred and sixty-five acres on the Snake river and has won a place among the substantial and progressive agriculturists of the community.

In 1881 Mr. Fisher was united in marriage to Miss Martha L. Twidwell, born near Peoria, Illinois, and a daughter of A. K. and Mary Ann (Myers) Twidwell, who were also natives of Illinois. Both passed away in Kansas, in which state they had established their home in the early '70s. To Mr. and Mrs. Fisher have been born seven children, as follows: Charles L., who is a farmer of Washington; George L., living at Mabton, this state; Myrtle V., the wife of L. B. Heffron, of Walla Walla; R. B., who is a resident of Grandview, Washington; Nina B., who is the wife of H. P. Mears, of Touchet, Washington; D. O., who is engaged in farming; and W. F., who operates his father's farm. Mr. Fisher gives his political allegiance to the republican party and has ably served as a member of the school board. Both he and his wife are devoted members of the Christian church, taking an active and helpful part in its work. They have an extensive circle of friends throughout the locality and are widely recognized as people of genuine personal worth.

JAMES L. DUMAS.

Among the horticulturists of southeastern Washington who have won prominence in their chosen calling is James L. Dumas, one of the pioneer orchardists of the northwest. He is proprietor of the famous Pomona Fruit Ranch, five miles west of Dayton, Washington, which contains an orchard of one hundred and twenty acres of commercial apples. His home is one of the most beautiful country residences in Columbia county and the place is provided with all city conveniences.

Mr. Dumas was born in Clark county, Missouri, on the 1st of December, 1862, and is a son of Louis P. and Nancy W. (Waggener) Dumas, the former a native of Kentucky and the latter of Virginia. Both parents died in Missouri, where they made their home for some years, and of the five sons born to them only two are now living.

James L. Dumas grew to manhood in his native state and on leaving there in 1882 came to Washington, where he attended Whitman College for three years. Several years were then devoted to teaching and he subsequently pursued a course in a normal school in New York state, from which he was graduated in 1891. The following year he was sent to the Hawaiian islands to conduct a teachers training school and he remained in that beautiful country for five years.

It was while en route to the Hawaiian islands that Mr. Dumas made a trip through the fruit districts of California and this undoubtedly influenced him to take up horticulture on coming to Washington. Thus originated the Commercial apple industry in the Touchet valley. On his return to this state in 1897 Mr. Dumas purchased his present farm of two hundred and forty acres in Columbia county and he now has about half of that amount in apples, from which he has raised on an average of thirty-four thousand one hundred boxes of apples in the last ten years. In the fall of 1917 he harvested over forty thousand boxes of apples.

[Illustration: JAMES L. DUMAS]

In 1888 Mr. Dumas married Miss Fannie J. Storie, a native of New York, in which state her parents, Kennedy and Isabel Storie, both died. Mr. and Mrs. Dumas have four children, namely: Loren F., who is a graduate of the Washington State College; Mabel, a student at the Bellingham Normal School; Alura, who is attending high school; and Edwin, now seven years of age.

Mr. and Mrs. Dumas are members of the Congregational church of Dayton and he is one of its trustees. In politics he is an ardent republican and has served as a delegate to the state conventions of that party. Fraternally he is identified with the Masons and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows but his chief interest is in the apple industry and he has taken a very active and prominent part in the work of those organizations designed to promote horticulture. He has served as president of the Washington State Horticultural Society and as such did much to improve the orchards of the northwest. The society never had a more active head or one who took the same impartial interest in all fruit growing districts of this section. He has made two trips to the nation's capital in the interest of the northwestern growers. A lover of the great outdoors, it was but natural that he should be among the first to join the "back-to-the-farm" movement in this country and as a representative of the Washington State Country Life Commission he has addressed thousands of interested people in the northwest. Mr. Dumas is vice president of the Broughton National Bank. He has served on the state board of education and is a member of the American Pomological Society; the Society for the Promotion of Horticultural Science; the National Educational Association; and the American Genetic Society. He has been superintendent of the Dayton schools and the public schools of Pullman and was the honored president of the Washington State Educational Association. In 1915 he was elected one of the five members of the executive board of the American Pomological Society. It will thus be seen that he has been prominently identified with a number of organizations whose object has been to promote the welfare of this region along many lines and he well deserves mention among its most public-spirited and progressive citizens.

R. W. LOUNDAGIN, D. V. M.

Dr. R. W. Loundagin, who is engaged in the practice of veterinary surgery in Waitsburg, was born in Benton, Arkansas, December 28, 1859, a son of George W. and Rhoda J. (Stewart) Loundagin. The father was a native of Tennessee and the mother's birth occurred in Indiana. They removed to Arkansas with their respective parents and were married later in that state. In April, 1861, they left Little Rock, Arkansas, for the Pacific coast country, crossing the plains with ox teams. They were en route for six months and at length arrived in Walla Walla, Washington, about the 1st of October. They camped in the shadow of the fort for three or four weeks, after which Mr. Loundagin rented a small place of forty acres from an old man of the name of Massey. Upon that tract Mr. Loundagin spent the winter and followed farming. In the following summer he purchased a quit claim deed from W. P. Bruce on a quarter section about a mile and a half south of Waitsburg. This was in the Coppei valley. He paid Mr. Bruce two thousand dollars to move off the claim and Mr. Loundagin filed on the property as a homestead. In the years following he purchased land adjoining and continued to add to his possessions until his holdings comprised one thousand acres, constituting one of the most valuable wheat farms in Walla Walla county. He also owned other lands throughout the county, his holdings amounting together between four and five thousand acres. He was one of the first men to demonstrate that wheat could be successfully grown on the hills and uplands, and in proving this fact he contributed much to the development and prosperity of the county, as many followed his example and now the Walla Walla wheat belt is famous throughout the country. Mr. Loundagin continued to reside upon the old home farm up to within seven years of his death, when he removed to Waitsburg, turning over the operations of his farm to a son. He passed away about 1910, having for five years survived his wife. In their deaths the county lost two of its representative and valued pioneer people.

R. W. Loundagin was only about two years of age when brought by his family to the northwest. He acquired a district school education and through the period of his boyhood and youth worked with his father, to whom he continued to render active assistance until 1883. He then embarked in business on his own account, purchasing a livery stable in Waitsburg. The following year, however, he sold that property and again resumed active connection with agricultural interests, purchasing four hundred and eighty acres of railroad land two and a half miles north of Bolles Junction, for which he paid five dollars per acre. He lived upon that farm and kept bachelor's hall for eighteen years, after which he sold the property at ten dollars per acre, which was all that he could get at that time. Recently, however, the farm sold for seventy dollars per acre. While residing upon that tract of land Mr. Loundagin purchased one hundred and sixty acres in Columbia county, in the Hog Eye valley, four and a half miles east of Waitsburg. Most of that land is devoted to alfalfa and is very valuable. Mr. Loundagin still owns that farm property and from it derives a gratifying annual income.

From his youth Dr. Loundagin was deeply interested in horses, and by reason of the successful manner in which he treated his own horses when they needed medical attention, he was called upon to treat his neighbors' horses. As these calls became more frequent he began to read and study recognized works on veterinary surgery, including such authorities as Professor Fleming, A. H. Baker, Professor James A. Lawe, A. C. Copeland and others. His practice in time became a very large one and today he is classed among the ablest veterinary surgeons in southeastern Washington. In 1909 he built a modern veterinary hospital, which was the first private institution of this kind built in the state. It proved a financial success and his practice has continuously and successfully increased to the present time.

In 1902 Dr. Loundagin was married to Miss Albertina Smith, of Hanford, California. He votes with the democratic party and keeps well informed on the questions and issues of the day. He has never been an office seeker. Both he and his wife hold membership in the Christian church and are loyal to its teachings and its principles. His life has been an active and useful one and he has made steady progress in the field of his chosen profession and his other fields of endeavor, and his ability, industry and thoroughness have brought him a substantial measure of success.

OSCAR E. KING.

Farming interests in Columbia county find a worthy representative in Oscar E. King, a well known agriculturist who owns and cultivates a valuable property on section 9, township 11 north, range 40 east. He was born on the farm where he now resides, February 15, 1871, his parents being William B. and Elizabeth (Cantonwine) King, the former a native of Indiana, while the latter was born in Iowa. The father crossed the plains to the Pacific coast as a young man, making his way to California in 1852. There he was employed for a time in survey work and subsequently he conducted the Woodville House, a well known hostelry situated on the Rabbit Creek road, about forty miles from Marysville, California. In 1855 he returned to the east by way of the Isthmus route, but the lure of the west was upon him and again by way of the Isthmus route he made his way to the Pacific coast. In those days hay was worth eighty dollars per ton and Mr. King brought with him six hundred pounds of Hungarian grass seed, expecting to make a small fortune in the growing of hay. The following season, however was one of drought and, failing to raise a crop, his funds were exhausted in the venture and his season's work amounted to naught. In 1862 he came to Walla Walla county, arriving in the city of Walla Walla on the 4th of July. He then went up into the Idaho mines, but not meeting with success, he retracted his steps and spent the winter in Oregon. In the spring of 1863 he again came to Walla Walla and the following spring took a sub-contract under Captain Mullen to carry the mail from Walla Walla to Colville. He took the mail on horseback and remained as mail carrier for two years and nine months. His employer, Captain Mullen, becoming involved in financial difficulties, Mr. King was unable to collect a cent for his services for the entire period. Later he secured the mail contract direct from the government and operated a stage line from Walla Walla to Lewiston for four years. In 1867 he turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, purchasing his farm on the Tucanon river in Columbia county, and in 1868 he settled upon his land, while at the same time he continued to operate his stage line with hired help. He was thus closely and prominently associated with the work of early development and improvement in this section of the northwest. His wife had crossed the plains with her parents in 1863, the family having as their outfit both ox and mule teams. Mrs. King was then a young girl in her teens and drove the mule team throughout the entire journey across the plains. The Cantonwine family spent the winter of 1863-4 in the Willamette valley of Oregon and in the spring of the latter year came to Washington, where they took up a homestead near the present site of Dixie, and later Mr. Cantonwine built the first hotel in Waitsburg, his daughter, Mrs. King, acting as cook for the few boarders who patronized the house in that early period. After locating on his farm William B. King took up a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres adjoining his original place and in subsequent years he and his sons in partnership bought other farm lands until their holdings approximated two thousand acres. Mr. King was thus actively, prominently and successfully identified with the agricultural development of the county until his death, which occurred April 12, 1911. His widow survived him for but a brief period, passing away on the 11th of March, 1912. In their family were four sons and three daughters who are yet living, as follows: Harry and Edwin S., well known farmers of Columbia county, Washington; Oscar E., of this review; Silas L., a resident of Pomeroy, Washington; Zorah I., who is the widow of R. A. Jackson and resides in Dayton; Alice, who gave her hand in marriage to Henry Delaney, a farmer of Columbia county; and Frankie G., the wife of A. P. Cahill, who is a banker of Dayton, Washington.

Oscar E. King pursued his early education in the country schools and supplemented it by a business course in the Portland Business College. After reaching adult age he joined his brothers and his father in their extensive farming operations, and following the father's death the sons continued to cooperate in their farming enterprises until 1915, when the partnership was dissolved and a division of their holdings was made. Oscar E. King now owns five hundred and fifty-six acres of valuable land and is one of the substantial farmers of the Tucanon valley. His business affairs have been carefully managed and directed and his unfaltering enterprise and unremitting diligence have brought to him a substantial measure of success. In his political views he is an earnest republican but has never been an office seeker, and he is widely known as one of the influential citizens of Columbia county.

B. F. BREWER.

B. F. Brewer is one of the most prominent farmers of Walla Walla county, living on township 6, range 36 east. He is the president of the Farmers Union and occupies a foremost position as a representative of that progressiveness which has largely revolutionized farming methods in the past quarter of a century. Moreover, his labors have demonstrated the possibilities of this section for agricultural development and have contributed much to the wealth of the district.

Mr. Brewer was born November 2, 1879, on the farm where he now lives, a son of John F. Brewer, who is mentioned elsewhere in this work. He was reared on the old homestead and pursued a public school education, attending the high schools of Walla Walla and Seattle, while later he became a student in the State Agricultural College at Pullman. Following the completion of his course he entered the First National Bank of Walla Walla as bookkeeper and for four years was identified with that institution. Upon his father's death he took charge of the home farm and has since operated it. He is now cultivating this place of five hundred and twenty acres and he and his mother own conjointly a farm of seventeen hundred and eighty acres, which they purchased in 1908. His farming interests are thus extensive and are conducted according to the most progressive methods. He has the latest improved machinery to facilitate the work of the fields and he understands the scientific principles that underlie all of his activities. In his work, however, it is definitely seen that he is a man of action rather than of theory and sound judgment directing his labors, has brought splendid results.

[Illustration: B. F. BREWER]

[Illustration: MRS. B. F. BREWER]

On May 25, 1904, Mr. Brewer was united in marriage to Miss Harriet Chew, a daughter of H. C. Chew, one of the pioneer nurserymen of Walla Walla county, now deceased. To Mr. and Mrs. Brewer have been born two children but only one is living, Mary Charlotte.

Mr. and Mrs. Brewer are worthy Christian people whose belief actuates them in all life's relations. Mr. Brewer belongs to the Presbyterian church, while his wife is a member of the First Methodist church. His political allegiance is given to the democratic party and he is thoroughly informed concerning the issues and questions of the day but has never taken an active part in party work. He has served as secretary of the Farmers Union and during the past two years has been president of the organization. When the Farmers Agency was established he was made its first manager and served in that important capacity for three years, but his private interests demanded his entire attention and he therefore resigned his position. He does everything in his power to promote the welfare and interests of the agriculturist and in all that he does is actuated by a spirit of enterprise that produces splendid results. He is a man of sound business judgment, sagacious and farsighted, and his well defined plans are carried forward to successful completion.

WILLIAM GOODYEAR.

William Goodyear, a prosperous business man of Starbuck, dealing in wood and coal, was born on the 11th of March, 1853, in Canada, and is a son of Thomas and Mary (Hynes) Goodyear, the former a native of England and the latter of Ireland. On crossing the Atlantic to the new world in 1833 they settled on a farm in Canada and continued to make it their home until their deaths. They had a family of ten children of whom seven survive.

Reared in the Dominion, William Goodyear is indebted to its schools for the education he enjoyed during his boyhood and youth. On leaving home in 1870 he went to Fort Scott, Kansas, where he spent a short time, but later in the same year crossed the plains, driving four cows to a covered wagon. On reaching Salt Lake City he hired out to a Mormon bishop, and subsequently he went to Idaho, where he was interested in a sawmill for twelve years. In 1883 Mr. Goodyear came to Old Walla Walla county, Washington, and for two years drove cattle from here to Cheyenne, Wyoming. Later he bought and sold horses and also engaged in farming until 1903, when he sold out and removed to Starbuck, which has since been his home. He owns considerable property in the village, being extensively engaged in the real estate business, and also deals in wood and coal.

Mr. Goodyear was married in 1902 to Miss Emma Woods, a native of Missouri, and having no children of their own they are now rearing a boy, Richard H. Wellman by name who is a grand nephew of Mrs. Goodyear.

Mrs. Goodyear is serving as postmistress of Starbuck and is a lady of more than ordinary business ability. She is a member of the Eastern Star and Mr. Goodyear holds membership in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He has filled all the chairs in his lodge and is a stanch democrat in politics. Since coming to the United States he has steadily prospered in his business undertakings until he has become one of the well-to-do citizens of his community and the success that has come to him is due entirely to his own well directed efforts.

W. E. McKINNEY.

W. E. McKinney, the well known proprietor of the McKinney Auto Company of Waitsburg, was born in Walla Walla county, about a mile from Waitsburg, on the 6th of April, 1868. His father, William McKinney, is a retired farmer living in Waitsburg. He was one of the early pioneer settlers of the northwest country and through many years was closely and prominently associated with the agricultural development and the upbuilding of this section. He was born in Warren county, Indiana, May 5, 1836, and is a son of William and Ann (Walter) McKinney, who crossed the plains with ox teams to Oregon in 1845. On their arrival in that state they settled in Washington county, near Hillsboro, and their later years were spent in Oregon. Their son, William McKinney, was a lad of but nine years at the time they crossed the plains and thus he was reared on the western frontier and early became familiar with all of the experiences, hardships and privations which fall to the lot of the pioneer settler. In 1855-6 he served as a member of Company A under Colonel Kelly and later under Colonel Cornelius in the Indian war. He spent the winter of those two years in Walla Walla, which was then a far western frontier fort. In 1856 he returned to Oregon and was employed on his father's farm until 1858, when he made his way up to The Dalles with the intention of going on to Walla Walla in order to homestead in that locality. He was told, however, that the country was not yet open for settlement and he therefore returned to the vicinity of Portland, Oregon, where he spent the winter. The following spring he made his way northward as a member of the state boundary survey as government packer and in the fall of 1859 he came to Walla Walla county to locate and has since resided in this section of the state. In 1864 he filed on a homestead on the Touchet river, one mile below Waitsburg, and there continued to live for more than a quarter of a century. He also took up a timber claim and he purchased adjoining land, so that his ranch became one of five hundred and fifty-two and one-half acres. This property he still owns. In 1890, however, he removed to Waitsburg, where he has a beautiful city residence and is most attractively and comfortably situated.

William McKinney was married on the 14th of December, 1865, to Miss Sarah J. Paulson, who crossed the plains in 1864. They became the parents of four children, as follows: Frank P., who is a banker residing in Olympia, Washington; William E., of this review; Thomas V., who operates his father's farm; and Emma, at home. William McKinney is a democrat in his political views. Late in the '70s or early '80s he was a candidate, through the insistence of his friends, for the office of county commissioner, and while the county was almost two to one republican, he was defeated by only twenty-five votes, a fact which indicated his personal popularity and the confidence reposed in him. He is held in the highest esteem wherever known and ranks with the honored old pioneer settlers of Walla Walla county. In 1914 he was called upon to mourn the loss of his wife, who passed away on the 20th of August of that year.

Their son, William E. McKinney, was educated in the Waitsburg public schools and also attended the Waitsburg Academy. On reaching manhood he became the active assistant of his father in important farming enterprises, and upon his father's removal to Waitsburg a year or two later, W. E. McKinney took charge of the home place, which he cultivated for twelve or thirteen years. He then assumed the management of the old Lewis Neace farm of twelve hundred or thirteen hundred acres and he also leased twelve hundred acres more, so that he operated in all twenty-four hundred acres of land. This he continued to do until September, 1916, when he retired from farming and engaged in the automobile business, purchasing the Dickinson & Denney garage, which is the largest garage of Waitsburg. He has the agency for the Velie and Buick cars and is one of the leading automobile dealers of the county, having built up a business of large and important proportions.

In 1891 Mr. McKinney was united in marriage to Miss Lelia Brown, a daughter of Mrs. Jennie Brown, of Lincoln county, Washington. To them have been born three children, one son and two daughters, as follows: William E., who is a member of the United States navy; Mrs. John Rhinehart, of Waitsburg; and Imogen, who gave her hand in marriage to Guy McLaughlin, of Waitsburg.

Mr. McKinney has always voted with the democratic party but has never been a candidate for office. Fraternally he is connected with Delta Lodge, No. 70, K. P., and also with the Ancient Order of United Workmen. His position as a business man ranks him with the leading representatives of automobile interests in his section of the state and he is classed with the foremost citizens of Walla Walla county. He is alert and energetic and is watchful of every opportunity that points to a possible development of his business. His sale of motor cars has reached a substantial figure, while in the repair department he also does a business of gratifying extent.

JOHN C. NEACE.

No student of the history of Columbia county can carry his investigations far without learning of the important part which the Neace family has taken in the agricultural development of this section of the country. John C. Neace is now extensively and successfully engaged in general agricultural pursuits, having fifteen hundred and thirty-two acres of land in Columbia county. He was born on the Tucanon, in what is now Columbia county, July 14, 1865, a son of Louis Neace, of whom extended mention is made elsewhere in this work. After acquiring a public school education he continued his studies in the schools of Forest Grove, Oregon, where he had as an instructor Professor W. D. Lyman. On reaching manhood he became associated with J. H. Marrow, of Waitsburg, in the mercantile business, under the firm name of J. H. Marrow & Company, and remained in that connection until 1895, when Mr. Neace and T. M. Hanger bought out the interest of Mr. Marrow in the business and thus formed the firm of Neace, Hanger & Company. Mr. Neace was thereafter identified with commercial interests until 1897, when he sold out and in 1898 went to Montana, where he and his brothers, together with their father, formed the Neace Cattle Company and engaged extensively in raising cattle in that state. John C. Neace remained in Montana until May, 1916, when he returned to Columbia county. The Neace Cattle Company owns twenty thousand acres of land in Montana and John C. Neace individually owns fifteen hundred and thirty-two acres in a body in Columbia county, where he now resides. This land is being operated by his son, Donald D.

On the 8th of April, 1888, Mr. Neace was united in marriage to Miss India A. Denney, of Waitsburg, a daughter of Nathaniel B. and Priscilla (Hawk) Denney. The father first crossed the plains to Washington in 1861 and subsequently returned to Iowa, but in 1870 he again came to this state, making the journey across the plains from Iowa in company with his family. Mr. and Mrs. Neace are the parents of a daughter and son: Mildred L., who is the wife of Dr. A. T. Gilhus, of White Sulphur Springs, Montana; and Donald D., who is operating the home farm.

In politics Mr. Neace maintains an independent course, voting for men and measures rather than party. He belongs to Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, F. & A. M., and is a loyal Mason. He has always been closely connected with Columbia county even during the period of his residence in Montana and is widely known as one of its progressive agriculturists. His business methods constitute the last word in modern farming, and undeterred by any obstacles or difficulties which he may meet, he pushes his way steadily forward to success.

J. G. BRUNTON.

J. G. Brunton, a well known and successful farmer residing an section 20, township 8 north, range 38 east, Walla Walla county, was born in that township on the 23d of January, 1881. His parents, W. H. H. and Sarah A. (Lewis) Brunton, are mentioned at length elsewhere in this work. He received his education in the Fix district schools and at Whitman Academy, which he attended for three or four terms. He was a young man of twenty years at the time of his father's death and a year later he left school and turned his attention to farming. In 1903 he filed upon a homestead in Franklin county, but in 1904 he commuted his claim and returned to the home farm. He has since operated about three hundred acres of the land owned by the estate and one hundred and ten acres adjoining, and the large crops which he annually raises are proof of his industry and his practical knowledge of agriculture. He still owns valuable property in Walla Walla which he obtained in trade for his homestead, and he has already gained a competence although still a young man. He gives the most careful attention to whatever task he has in hand and this habit of concentration has been an important factor in his success.

[Illustration: J. G. BRUNTON AND FAMILY]

In June, 1913, Mr. Brunton was united in marriage to Miss Geneva Eldridge, a daughter of Hon. H. D. Eldridge, a prominent farmer and influential citizen of Walla Walla county, a biography of whom appears on another page in these volumes. One son, William Eldridge, has been born to Mr. and Mrs. Brunton.

Mr. Brunton is a republican in politics and is loyal in his support of its candidates and measures. His fraternal connections are with Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E., and with Mountain Gem Lodge, No. 136, K. P. Both he and his wife are members of the Christian church and the highest moral standards have ever guided their lives. They have a wide acquaintance and are universally held in high esteem.

HIRAM M. HOOVER.

Hiram M. Hoover, who has lived retired in Waitsburg since 1911, was long and actively identified with agricultural pursuits in Walla Walla county and is still the owner of four hundred and eighty acres of valuable land. His birth occurred in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, on the 4th of July, 1853, his parents being Myers and Ann (Royer) Hoover, who spent their entire lives in that county, where the father followed farming throughout his active business career.

Hiram M. Hoover was reared under the parental roof and acquired his education in the public schools. When a young man of twenty years he left home to provide for his own support and, making his way to Ohio, worked as a farm hand in Wayne county, that state, for four years. On the expiration of that period he removed to Iowa, in which state he spent three years, and in 1880 he journeyed westward to San Francisco, California, where he hired out to a surveying party, with which he worked in southern Nevada for six months. He then returned to California and worked in the harvest fields of the Sacramento valley, while later he engaged in salmon fishing. In the fall of 1881 he returned to his native state, taking ship from San Francisco to the Isthmus of Panama, which voyage consumed twenty-one days, and crossing the Isthmus by railroad along the route of the present canal and then boarding a steamer which reached New York city at the end of seven days. After a few months spent at his home he returned to San Francisco, California, in the spring of 1882 and there remained throughout the following summer. He then sailed for Puget Sound, locating in Whatcom county, Washington, where he took up a homestead and continued to reside until the summer of 1885. That year witnessed his arrival in Walla Walla county and his settlement in Waitsburg, where he has made his home almost continuously since. He cultivated rented land during the first four years of his residence here and then purchased a tract of one hundred and sixty acres about two miles northeast of Waitsburg, over the county line, in Columbia county. Since that date, as his financial resources have increased owing to his well directed activity and able management, he has added to his holdings by additional purchase from time to time until at present he owns four hundred and eighty acres. The cultivation of this property claimed his attention and energies until 1911, when he put aside the active work of the fields and has since rented the place to a tenant. He is a stockholder in the Exchange Bank of Waitsburg and has long been numbered among the leading and substantial citizens of that place.

In 1886 Mr. Hoover was united in marriage to Miss Eva I. Loundagin, a sister of Dr. R. W. Loundagin, of Waitsburg, and the daughter of G. W. Loundagin, who came to Walla Walla county as a pioneer in 1861. Mr. and Mrs. Hoover became the parents of six children, three of whom survive, namely: Anna L., who is her father's housekeeper; Elam H., a ranchman, residing in Carter, Montana; and Emory M., who is a second lieutenant in the United States army and is now stationed at Douglas, Arizona. The wife and mother was called to her final rest in August, 1912, and her demise was deeply mourned by her immediate family as well as by an extensive circle of friends. Mr. Hoover gives his political allegiance to the republican party, while his religious faith is that of the Christian church, in which he holds membership. The period of his residence in Walla Walla county covers more than three decades and he has won a place among its esteemed and representative citizens.

W. H. WOOD.

More than a century ago George Washington said, "Agriculture is the most useful as well as the most honorable occupation of man." Its worth as the basis of all other business prosperity has been continuously demonstrated since the world began, and at no time has its usefulness been greater than at this era in the world's history, when all civilization is facing a crisis. The work of the farmer is indeed of the utmost worth and to this occupation W. H. Wood is devoting his time and energies with good results. He was born in Alvorado, Texas, on the 29th of April, 1880, and is a son of Daniel J. and Alice E. (Scott) Wood, both of whom are natives of Illinois, where they were reared and married. Soon afterward they went to Texas, where the father engaged in cotton growing, remaining in the Lone Star state for a year and a half. He was urged by his neighbors to remain for another year, being told that if he would stay for that length of time he would never desire to leave. His answer was that he was well aware of the fact that if he remained for another year he would not have money enough to get out, so turning his back upon Texas, he went again to Illinois, where he continued through the winter. In the spring of 1881 he started for the west, hoping to find more favorable conditions in this section of the country. He made Washington his destination and after crossing plains and mountains he took up his abode in Columbia county, where he secured a homestead in Smith Hollow. There he still resides, having long been numbered among the substantial farmers of that section of the state.

W. H. Wood was reared under the parental roof, being only about a year old when brought by his parents to the northwest. He became familiar with every phase of pioneer life in this section of Washington and has lived to witness the remarkable growth and development that has occurred in the intervening years. He acquired his education in the district schools and at the age of eighteen he started out independently in the business world by leasing one hundred and sixty acres of land, on which he began farming. He sold his wheat at thirty-eight cents per bushel and realized three hundred dollars profit from his crop. He continued to carry on farming on his own account and carefully saved his earnings until his industry and economy had brought him sufficient capital to enable him to purchase, in 1902, his first land. He invested in one hundred and sixty acres, the purchase price of which was one thousand dollars. He borrowed much of the money with which to pay for his farm and thus made his start toward success. He continued to practice the most rigid economy and the most unfaltering industry and within three years he had cleared his ranch of all indebtedness. From that time forward he made it his purpose to add to his holdings whenever favorable opportunity offered and today he owns and cultivates four hundred and fifty-seven acres and also leases another tract of four hundred and eighty acres, and is now extensively engaged in farming in Thorn Hollow. He has brought his land under high cultivation, has added many improvements to the place and thereon are found all the accessories, conveniences and modern equipment of a model farm. In addition to his agricultural interests Mr. Wood is a stockholder in the Dayton Mercantile Company. Opportunity is to him ever a call to action and a call to which he readily responds.

In 1902 Mr. Wood was united in marriage to Miss Maud McCall, a daughter of Charles T. McCall, one of the early settlers of Columbia county, who now makes his home in Oregon. Mr. and Mrs. Wood have two children, Daniel W. and Walter H.

In his political views Mr. Wood is a republican and always votes for the men and measures of the party but has never been an office seeker. He prefers to concentrate his thought and attention upon his business affairs. He is a man of strong purpose whose plans are well defined and he displays resourcefulness in accomplishing any object for which he starts out. Practically a lifelong resident of Washington, there is no phase of its development through three decades with which he is not familiar and as a farmer he has contributed much to the agricultural progress of this section of the state.

JOHN F. MARTIN.

John F. Martin, one of the leading stock raisers of Walla Walla county, is living on section 3, township 6 north, range 33 east, where he has a valuable tract of land of three hundred and thirty acres. His business affairs are wisely directed and his efforts have done much to raise the standard of stock raising in this section of the state.

From early pioneer times Mr. Martin has resided within the borders of Washington. In fact he is one of the native sons, having been born in Thurston county on the 1st of May, 1858. His parents are William and Ann E. (Yantis) Martin, the former a native of Indiana, while the latter was born in Missouri. They crossed the plains to the northwest in 1852 and settled first in Thurston county but after about two decades established their home in Walla Walla, where they resided until 1901 and where Mr. Martin was engaged in the mercantile business. In 1901 they removed to Touchet.

John F. Martin was reared and educated in this state, becoming a resident of Walla Walla county in 1872, when a youth of fourteen years. In 1883 he removed to Wallula, where he engaged in buying cattle, and in 1900 he purchased his present farm of three hundred and thirty acres, then a tract of pasture and alfalfa land. He has since concentrated his efforts and attention upon its development and improvement and the result of his labors is seen in highly cultivated fields, in well kept fences, in substantial buildings and in the latest improved machinery. He has made a specialty of stock raising and is now engaged extensively in handling Percheron horses, Durham cattle and Oxford sheep. He has closely studied the best methods of caring for stock and is familiar with all of the scientific principles that underlie his work as well as the practical phases of his activities. In addition to his live stock interests Mr. Martin is connected with the Touchet State Bank as one of its directors.

In 1886 Mr. Martin was united in marriage to Miss Belle Tyson, a native of Nebraska, by whom he has six children, namely: Charles W., who is coach at the Pennsylvania State College, which position he has held for four years; Frank J.; May, the wife of H. J. Hanson; Lucy,. who gave her hand in marriage to Wendel Barker, of Walla Walla; Blanche M., a high school graduate; and Pearl.

Fraternally Mr. Martin is connected with the Modern Woodmen of America and with the Eagles. His political allegiance is given to the democratic party. He has served for twelve years on the school board and the cause of education has found in him a faithful friend whose labors have done much to promote educational interests in this section. As a business man he is thoroughly alert and progressive, watchful of every opportunity pointing to success, and his long experience and close study enable him to speak with authority upon all matters relative to stock raising. He has, indeed, won a place of prominence in this connection in Walla Walla county.

WILLIAM G. PRESTON.

William G. Preston, deceased, was for many years a prominent citizen of Waitsburg, where he was engaged in the milling business and was also a large landowner, holding title to three thousand acres. He was born in Galway, Saratoga county, New York, November 23, 1832, a son of Dr. Calvin and Margaret (McAllister) Preston, both of whom spent their entire lives in the Empire state. In their family were four sons and two daughters, all of whom have passed away.

[Illustration: WILLIAM G. PRESTON]

[Illustration: MRS. WILLIAM G. PRESTON]

William G. Preston grew to manhood in New York and received his education in Galway Academy. At the age of eighteen he went to live with an uncle, Rev. A. W. Platt, in Tompkins county, New York, where he remained until going to sea in 1852. The following two years were spent upon the water, during which time he visited New Brunswick, New Orleans, Liverpool and many other ports in Great Britain and America, returning to Galway, New York, in 1854. In the fall of that year he made his way west to Nebraska by way of Chicago and Rock Island and down the Mississippi river to St. Louis and then up the Missouri. He located at Bellevue, Nebraska, and became captain of a large ferry boat in 1855, but when Omaha was made the territorial capital the boat was sold to the Council Bluffs & Nebraska Ferry Company and he went with it to Omaha. In 1857 he returned east to Steubenville, Ohio, where he built the Omaha City, a double engine side-wheeler used in carrying freight on the Missouri river. In 1858 he retired from the ferry business and accompanied his brother to Pike's Peak, Colorado, and built one of the finest houses in the present city of Denver. After engaging in mining in that state for two years he went to northern Idaho, which then formed a part of Washington territory. He traveled most of the way by water and crossed Snake river in a wagon box in the vicinity of an old fort situated near the mouth of the Salmon river.

It was in 1866 that Mr. Preston came to Waitsburg, Walla Walla county, and identified himself with the Washington flouring mills and machinery business, which he and his brother, Platt A. Preston, had bought. Under his management these mills became the foremost industry of Waitsburg and the high quality of their product became well known throughout the state. In addition to his milling and mercantile business Mr. Preston was prominent in other lines, being a director of the Merchants Bank of Waitsburg and a stockholder and director of the Schwabacher Company of Walla Walla. He was also prominently identified with the Puget Sound Dressed Meat Company during its existence and was much interested in farming and stock raising. At the time of his death he was the owner of more than three thousand acres of land.

In 1869 Mr. Preston was united in marriage to Miss Matilda Cox, who was perhaps the first white child born near Boise, Idaho, her birth occurring in 1845 while her parents were making the overland journey to the Pacific coast. Her father, Anderson Cox, was a native of Ohio and a farmer by occupation. On coming west he located near Albany, Oregon, on a donation claim, where he remained for a number of years, but in 1862 came to Walla Walla county, Washington, and acquired land. He also built a sawmill, the first in this county. Both Mr. and. Mrs. Cox passed away here and six of their ten children are also deceased. To Mr. and Mrs. Preston were born four children: Herbert P., who is engaged in the feed business in Toppenish, Washington; William C., who died when six months old; Charles B., a resident of Portland, Oregon; and Dale H., deceased.

Mr. Preston was a stanch republican in his political belief and served for two terms as a member of the territorial legislature. In 1881, while a member of that body, he was made chairman of the ways and means committee. He was much interested in educational affairs, especially in his later years, and in 1913 erected the beautiful auditorium known as Preston Hall at Waitsburg, it being designed for vocational training and containing a swimming pool, gymnasium and large hall for public meetings, etc. In all the relations of life he was loyal to the teachings of the Presbyterian church, of which he was a member, and his integrity was never open to question. His death occurred on the 20th of February, 1916, and he was laid to rest in the Waitsburg cemetery. Like her husband, Mrs. Preston has also been a generous contributor to all worthy enterprises for the public good and she now makes her home in Walla Walla, where she is well known and highly esteemed.

JAMES L. ROBISON.

James L. Robison is a retired farmer residing in Walla Walla. He is familiar with all of the experiences of the stock raiser on the western frontier, having ridden the range as a cowboy, while in later years he became extensively engaged in stock raising on his own account. He was born in east Tennessee, July 28, 1842. His father died during the infancy of the son, and the mother later married John Grubb, by whom James L. Robison of this review was reared. He acquired a common school education and when he was but ten years of age crossed the plains with his parents. They spent the winter in Missouri and in the spring of 1853 started on the long westward journey to Oregon. They took up their abode in Linn county, twenty miles south of Albany, where Mr. and Mrs. Grubb spent the remainder of their lives. At the early age of fifteen Mr. Robison began to work for wages and in 1861 made his way northward into eastern Oregon and spent the hard winter on the T. K. McCoy ranch on the Tum-a-Lum in Umatilla county. He continued to work for others until 1868, when he bought some cattle and thus established himself in the cattle business. He had previously engaged in riding the range for seven years prior to engaging in the cattle business on his own account. He was therefore familiar with the business and from the beginning met with success. He spent fifteen years in the cattle business, having as high as a thousand head upon the range. At length, when the free range was cut off by the settlement of the country, he retired from that business, after which he had sheep on the range for a considerable period. Eventually, in 1913, however, he put aside all business cares and retired from active life. He still owns six hundred and forty acres of valuable wheat land ten miles north of Walla Walla and from the rental of his property secures a gratifying income.

In early manhood Mr. Robison was joined in wedlock to Miss Mary J. Cecil, a daughter of William Cecil, who crossed the plains to Oregon in 1862, locating in what is now Morrow county. Mr. and Mrs. Robison became the parents of three children but only one survives, Lena M., who is the wife of Otto Haar, of North Yakima, Washington. Mrs. Robison is a member of the Congregational church and a lady of many admirable qualities.

In politics Mr. Robison is independent in thought and at local elections does not consider party ties but has always voted the republican ticket in electing a president. His life has been a very busy, active and useful one. His business activities were connected with an era that is fast passing away--the era when Washington was still the country of the open range before its lands were divided and taken up for farms. He is therefore familiar with all the phases of the history of the state in its development from pioneer times and he rejoices in what has been accomplished as the work of improvement and advancement has been carried forward here, placing this great state on a par with the older commonwealths of the east. In fact, Washington has gained a position of leadership in various respects and has every reason to be proud of her splendid record in the line of business development and especially in the progress which she has made in the organization of her school system.

In his business career Mr. Robison has at all times displayed that spirit of enterprise so characteristic of the west and now, at the age of seventy-five years, he is able to enjoy well earned rest, his former labors having resulted in a competence which meets all of his needs and requirements and yet leaves a sufficiency for many of the luxuries of life.

JOSEPH GROTE.

The farming interests of Joseph Grote would be termed mammoth even in this great west where agricultural interests are on the whole conducted on a most extensive scale. He is now operating sixty-two hundred and eighty acres of land in Columbia and Walla Walla counties, making his home on section 22, township 11 north, range 38 east, of the former county. His long experience and his extensive operations enable him to speak with authority upon everything connected with farming in the west at the present day. He recognizes fully the possibilities and the opportunities of the country and what he has accomplished represents the fit utilization of the innate powers and talents which are his. Mr. Grote is a native of Ohio, his birth having occurred in Piqua on the 7th of April, 1885, his parents being John and Anna Grote, both of whom were natives of Germany, where they were reared and married. In 1881 they came to the United States and after a residence of nine years in Ohio made their way westward to Washington, the family home being established in the Palouse country, where Mr. Grote remained, however, for a period of only two years. He then came to Walla Walla county, where he purchased a ranch north of Prescott and there he successfully engaged in farming to the time of his death. For a number of years prior to his demise he resided in the city of Walla Walla and from that point superintended the operation of his ranch. He died October 14, 1915, and is survived by his widow, who is now making her home in southern California.

Joseph Grote, whose name introduces this review, was educated in the district schools near his father's farm and in the city schools of Walla Walla. After reaching young manhood he continued to assist his father in the development of the fields until 1909, when he started out to engage in farming independently, entering into partnership with his brother Theodore. They gradually increased their operations in extent and importance until their interests placed them at the head of the leading agriculturists of Columbia county. In 1914 the partnership between the two brothers was dissolved and Joseph Grote retained twenty-three hundred acres of their holdings. In addition to this he operates four hundred and eighty acres of school land in the township where he resides and he leases and operates the Sharpstein ranch in Walla Walla county, containing thirty-five hundred acres of land. He has thus become one of the foremost agriculturists of the northwest. He plants twenty-five hundred acres to grain each year and harvests mammoth crops.

In 1917 Mr. Grote was united in marriage to Miss Lillian Baumann, a daughter of F. A. Baumann, a retired farmer of Walla Walla. In politics he maintains an independent course, not caring to bind himself by party ties. He is not remiss in the duties of citizenship, however, but stands for progress and improvement in public affairs and reaches out along helpful lines in recognition of the needs and opportunities of county and state. He is an enthusiastic advocate of the great northwest, and well he may be, for in its opportunities he has found the path to success and is today numbered among the men of affluence in southeastern Washington.

JOHN ADKINS GROSS, M. D.

There is much that is inspiring in the life record of Dr. John Adkins Gross, who for many years was prominently associated with the agricultural development and activity of southeastern Washington, acquiring extensive landed possessions which he converted into rich and productive fields. His worth as a man and citizen was widely acknowledged and there are in his life record many chapters worthy of consideration.

Dr. Gross was born in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, July 30, 1840, a son of Dr. Oren and Jane (Snow) Gross. He was reared and educated on Cape Cod. In his youth he studied navigation and also taught school for a time but at the age of twenty-three years enlisted in 1863 as a member of the Forty-third Massachusetts Infantry for service in the Civil war, remaining at the front until the close of hostilities. He became corporal of his company and while he did not engage in any of the battles between the north and the south his service was of a hazardous nature, such as scout duty and running boats loaded with provisions past blockades, etc. He ever manifested the utmost loyalty to the nation's starry banner and the cause for which it stood and with a most creditable military record returned to his home.

Soon after leaving the army Dr. Gross went to New York city, where he engaged in carpenter work until the panic of 1873 swept away all his investments. He then crossed the continent to San Francisco, California, where he lived for two years. He afterward went to Astoria, Oregon, and was in that city and in Portland until 1879, when he came to Walla Walla. Here he took up the profession of teaching, which he followed for several years. He taught at Frenchtown, riding back and forth from Walla Walla. When he had saved enough he secured a homestead in Umatilla county, Oregon, and kept adding to his landed possessions until he had over eleven hundred acres, which he brought under a high state of cultivation. He afterward purchased a ranch of twenty-five hundred acres near Starbuck, Washington, all of which has been planted to crops and has been improved with very substantial and commodious buildings. In a word his labors wrought a marked transformation in the appearance of the place and also in its value and he won recognition as one of the foremost agriculturists of this section of the state.

[Illustration: DR. JOHN A. GROSS]

Dr. Gross was married twice and when he went to war left a bride of only a few weeks. He was married a second time at Pendleton, Oregon, on the 9th of February, 1891, when Miss Bessie S. Green, of Kansas, became his wife. He had four children by his first marriage, while four were born of his second union. Carrie B., the eldest, is now, the wife of R. C. Dunnington, of Walla Walla. Jennie I. is the wife of F. H. Richmond, of Walla Walla. Millie E. is the wife of Ralph E. Story, of Silver Lake, Oregon. O. E., of Seattle, Washington, was the youngest child of the first marriage. The others are: John E., who is now upon the ranch; Julia E., who was graduated from Wellesley College in the class of 1917; Marvin, now a high school pupil; and Mabel, who is also in high school.

The death of Dr. Gross occurred July 17, 1915, and he was laid to rest in Mountain View cemetery in Walla Walla. He was a man of marked ability and in his later years he studied medicine, being graduated from the Hahnemann College at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with the class of 1900. At that time he was over sixty years of age but he possessed an especial aptitude for the physician's work and a very retentive memory, which carried statistical knowledge. The greater part of his life, however, was devoted to farming and stock raising and he became one of the most extensive and prosperous farmers of Walla Walla county. His political endorsement was given to the republican party and he always took an active part in politics. Fraternally he was connected with the Knights of Pythias and also with the Grand Army post thus maintaining pleasant relations with his old military comrades, with whom he followed the stars and stripes on the battlefields of the south. He was a man of many sterling traits of character, genial and affable, and enjoyed the high esteem of those with whom he was associated. Since his death Mrs. Gross has erected a fine residence on Boyer avenue in Walla Walla but still has charge of her ranch property and is a woman of excellent business ability, fully capable of meeting the requirements put upon her in the management of her estate.

OSSIE MARTIN.

The stock raising interests of Columbia county have a worthy representative in Ossie Martin, who is the owner of a valuable farm of seven hundred and twenty acres on section 23, township 12 north, range 38 east. He is one of Washington's native sons, his birth occurring in Old Walla Walla county, February 8, 1867. His parents, James and Bridget E. Martin, were natives of Ireland but in early life emigrated to America and first located in Missouri. In 1861, however, they started for the Pacific coast in a covered wagon drawn by mules and at length reached Walla Walla. They located on a farm and later Mr. Martin took up a homestead near Waitsburg, where he lived until 1893, when he sold the place and removed to Walla Walla. Both he and his wife died in that city. To them were born seven children and all are living.

Ossie Martin was reared in much the usual manner of farmer boys and was educated at a Catholic school in Walla Walla. On starting out in life for himself he chose the occupation with which he was thoroughly familiar--that of farming, and has since followed that pursuit with most gratifying results. In 1909 he purchased his present farm comprising seven hundred and twenty acres and in connection with its operation has given considerable attention to the raising of stock, making a specialty of the breeding of shorthorn and Hereford cattle, now having about one hundred head upon his place. Besides his valuable farm property he owns a residence in Waitsburg, which he rents.

In 1892 Mr. Martin married Miss Mary Martin, who, although of the same name, was not a relative, and to them have been born seven children, as follows: Wesley J.; Harold A., who is in the army; Cecelia K., the wife of Albert Goodyear; Melba C.; Oswald D.; Esther M.; and Wilbert H.

The family are communicants of the Catholic church and Mr. Martin is a democrat in politics but has never cared for the honors of public office, preferring to give his undivided attention to his business interests. He is one of the leading citizens of his community, and takes a commendable interest in public affairs, as every true American citizen should.

GUSTAV VOLLMER.

Among the pioneers of Walla Walla county who persevered in spite of hardships of the early days and who are now reaping the reward of their faith in this section, is Gustav Vollmer, a resident of section 12, township 9 north, range 37 east, who owns more than eleven hundred acres of fine land, which he purchased years ago at far less than its present market value. As time has passed he has adapted his methods of farming to the changed conditions and his progressive spirit has been an important factor in his success. He was born in Germany, May 7, 1854, a son of John H. and Emelia (Flaskamp) Vollmer, who passed their entire lives in that country. Of their seven children, five survive and all but our subject are still residents of Germany.

Gustav Vollmer attended the public schools of his native country in the acquirement of his education but when seventeen years old emigrated to the United States. The first two years in this country were spent in Illinois, where he was employed as a farm hand, but in 1873 he went to Nebraska, where he remained until 1879. In that year he determined to take advantage of the unusual opportunities afforded the young man in the Pacific northwest and removed to Oregon. In 1880 he took up a homestead in Umatilla county, Oregon, twenty-five miles southwest of Walla Walla and for twenty years maintained his residence thereon. For a considerable period, in order to market his wheat, it was necessary to haul it to steamboat landings on the Columbia river, which required three days. While he was gone on such trips his wife remained upon the farm with her small children, although the nearest neighbors were miles away. The isolation was one of the greatest hardships which the early settlers had to endure, but there were also other discouraging features as, for instance, the low prices, wheat selling one year for twenty-three cents a bushel. Mr. Vollmer recognized, however, that with the settlement of the country these untoward conditions would change and that the fertility of the soil guaranteed the future of the farmers, and he consistently invested his savings in land. He owns 480 acres of land in Umatilla county, eighty acres adjoining Waitsburg, where he makes his home. His holdings total 1,193 acres. All the land is rich and productive and, moreover, his farms are well improved, the excellent buildings thereon adding materially to the value of his property. He has given the greater part of his time and attention to wheat growing and is thoroughly familiar with that business. In fact his success has been in a measure due to the fact that he has concentrated his energies upon that line of endeavor. He is now one of the men of wealth in Walla Walla county and takes justifiable pride in the fact that he is a self-made man, his prosperity being due entirely to his own foresight, energy and good management.

[Illustration: GUSTAV VOLLMER AND FAMILY]

On the 12th of June, 1881, Mr. Vollmer was united in marriage to Miss Henrietta Schmitt, a daughter of John and Katherine (Martin) Schmitt. To this union have been born nine children: John H.; Clara Augusta, the wife of Harland Mills; Emma Caroline, the wife of William Harris; William, who is farming in this locality; Julia, the wife of William Stimmel; Zelma, Minnie and Charles, all at home and graduates of the high school; and Katherine, deceased.

The parents hold membership in the Evangelical Lutheran church and its work profits by their hearty support. In politics Mr. Vollmer is a stanch republican and he has served his district ably for two terms as a member of the state legislature. His interest in education has found expression in effective work as a member of the school board, and all projects for the advancement of the public welfare have received his endorsement. He finds great pleasure in contrasting the early days in this section, when the settlers were to a great extent cut off from the outside world, with the present day with its excellent means of communication with all parts of the country. As an illustration of the extent to which the pioneers were dependent upon their resources it may be mentioned that Mr. Vollmer made the furniture used in his home from timber which he had cut. For a number of years it was necessary to practice the strictest economy, but he has never regretted his pioneer experiences and finds pleasure in the knowledge that he has had a part in the development of this region.

JAMES CHRISTENSEN.

James Christensen, a well known farmer of Garfield county who owns five hundred and twenty acres of good land on section 2, township 12 north, range 41 east, has resided in various parts of the west and in Alaska and for some time engaged in mining but for several years past has devoted his attention to farming and stock raising exclusively. He was born in Denmark, February 25, 1866, a son of Christian and Gertrude Petersen, who passed their entire lives in that country. To them were born seven children, of whom six are living.

James Christensen attended the public schools of Denmark as a boy and youth, thus acquiring a good education, and in 1885, at the age of nineteen years, came to America. For one year he was employed as a farm hand in Nebraska and then was for several years a resident of California. Later he spent a year in Montana and in 1891 removed to Walla Walla county, Washington, where he worked on a farm until his removal to Alaska. A decade was devoted to gold mining there and during that time he made three trips to Europe. On leaving Alaska he went to Idaho, but remained there for only a short period, after which he again came to Walla Walla county, Washington. He decided to turn his attention to farm work and took up a homestead on Eureka flats which he cultivated for eight years. He then traded that place for a farm in the vicinity of Walla Walla but two years later exchanged that property for his present farm of five hundred and twenty acres on section 2, township 12 north, range 41 east, Garfield county. Much of his land is given over to the growing of wheat but he also engages in stock raising and derives a good profit from both branches of his business.

Mr. Christensen was married in 1905 to Miss Dora Renn, who was born in Minnesota. They are the parents of three children, namely: George F., Gertrude M. and Anna M.

Mr. Christensen is an adherent of the republican party and casts his ballot in support of its candidates. He has not taken a very active part in political affairs but is now serving as a school director, in which connection he constantly works for the advancement of the local schools. He is a self-made man, having attained prosperity solely through his own efforts, and his energy and determination have gained him the respect of all who know him.

JOHN C. WRIGHT.

John C. Wright, deceased, was an early settler of Walla Walla county, Washington, and engaged in farming here for many years. He was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, April 2, 1843, a son of Alexander and Jeannette Wright, both of whom passed away in the Empire state.

John C. Wright was reared at home and received his education in the public schools. As soon as he was old enough he went to work on the lake boats and was so employed until he enlisted for service in the Civil war as a member of Company L, Second Minnesota Cavalry. He was with the colors for three years and was then mustered out of the military service at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. In 1878 he and his wife came to the Pacific northwest, locating in Walla Walla county, Washington, where he took up a tree claim of one hundred and sixty acres. He subsequently purchased additional land and gave his entire time and attention to his farm work. He was successful, harvesting abundant crops, for which he found a ready sale, and as time passed his resources steadily increased. His widow still owns two hundred and eighty acres of excellent land with good improvements and derives a gratifying income from the rent of that property.

Mr. Wright married Mrs. Sallie Vangilder and to them were born three children: Emma Strand, a resident of Spokane, Washington; and two who died in infancy. In 1871 the wife and mother passed away and in 1872 Mr. Wright was again married, choosing as his wife Miss Carrie Griffin, a native of Vermont and a daughter of Daniel and Rhoda (Fullington) Griffin, natives respectively of New Hampshire and of Canada. In 1862 the family removed to Minnesota and there the father died, but the mother subsequently went to Kansas, where she spent her last days. To them were born eight children, of whom only two survive. Mr. and Mrs. Wright became the parents of eight children, of whom the first three died in infancy, the others being: Ada, who is married; Burt C., who is at home with his mother; Myrtle, the wife of Otis Denny; Carrie, who married Leigh Homer, of Montana; and Jack C., a railroad agent.

Mr. Wright was interested in public affairs and well informed on political issues but he never had the time nor inclination to hold office. His was a quiet, unostentatious life, marked by careful attention to his affairs, by the support of movements seeking the general good and by uncompromising honesty at all times. He passed away in 1898 and those who knew him well still cherish his memory.

CHARLES B. LAMBERT.

An eventful career is that of Charles B. Lambert, who, of Swedish birth, spent some time as a sailor on the high seas and also sojourned for a period in Alaska. He is now living a less spectacular but none the less useful life as an architect and contractor of Walla Walla and in professional circles has gained for himself a creditable position. Born in Sweden on the 6th of April, 1871, he is a son of August and Louise (Von Bose) Lambert, both of whom were natives of Sweden, where the mother passed away but the father is still living. In their family were five children, three of whom survive.

Charles B. Lambert was reared and educated in Sweden, where he attended the common schools until he reached the age of fourteen years. Desirous then of providing for his own support, he went to sea and spent three years as cabin boy and sailor. At the age of seventeen he returned to his native country and took up the study of architecture, to which he devoted two years, having thorough training in that regard. It was in the year 1890 that Mr. Lambert sailed for the new world, hoping to find better business opportunities on this side of the Atlantic. He landed in New York city, where he was employed for a time and later went to Chicago and to St. Paul, continuing in architectural work in these different cities. In 1897 he made his way to Alaska, where he remained for a year and a half, and in 1898 he arrived in Walla Walla, where he embarked in business on his own account. He has since become widely and prominently known as an architect and contractor and his skill and ability are manifest in many of the most substantial structures found in this city and through the surrounding district. The attractiveness of his plans has added much to the beauty of Walla Walla and in the erection of buildings he studies closely utility, comfort and convenience as well as the attractive exterior.

In 1901 Mr. Lambert was married to Miss Alma O. Jones, a native of Sweden, and they became the parents of two children: Ruth L., who is now a high school student; and Edith E. The family occupy an attractive residence which Mr. Lambert owns. He is prominent in Masonic circles, having taken all the degrees of the York and Scottish Rites up to and including the thirty-second degree in the consistory, and he is now eminent commander of the Knights Templar commandery. He also has membership with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. His study of the questions and issues of the day has led him to give his political endorsement to the republican party. He is a man of high personal worth and marked professional ability and a most progressive citizen who exemplifies in his life the spirit of western enterprise, progress and successful accomplishment.

BAILEY H. GROSS.

Bailey H. Gross was for more than a third of a century a resident of Walla Walla county and became one of its extensive landowners and prosperous farmers. He was a native of Illinois and ere reaching man's estate became a resident of Iowa--in fact continued to make his home in Iowa through the greater part of his childhood. It was there that he wedded Miss Julia A. Rice, who was born in Indiana and also became a resident of Iowa in her girlhood days. They began their domestic life in that state, where they continued until 1862 and then started on the long journey across the plains with the Pacific coast as their destination, but on reaching Virginia City, Nevada, were so pleased with the conditions they found that they decided to locate there. For eight years the father was engaged in dairying in that place and in 1870 resumed his interrupted journey westward and for ten years was a resident of what is now Modoc county, California. On the expiration of that decade he made his way northward into Walla Walla, Washington, arriving in the year 1880, accompanied by his family. Here he turned his attention to farming, in which he prospered greatly, and as his financial resources increased he kept adding to his landed possessions until he was the owner of thirteen hundred and sixty acres of fine wheat land. He personally supervised the operation of his farm, which was largely devoted to the production of wheat and other cereals. His methods were most progressive and his labors brought him most gratifying success. He continued to supervise the operation of his farm until 1913 and then retired, taking up his abode in Walla Walla, where his remaining days were passed in the enjoyment of well earned rest, his death occurring March 12, 1915. He had for about three years survived his wife, who died in June, 1912. During the thirty-five years of his residence in the county he witnessed great changes as the work of progress and of transformation was carried steadily forward. His activity as an agriculturist constituted a substantial contribution to the development of the state and, moreover, his life work proved what can be accomplished through individual effort and ability. He started out in the business world empty-handed and by reason of personal worth and effort gained a place among the substantial citizens of the northwest.

[Illustration: BAILEY H. GROSS]

HENRY SCHMITT.

Henry Schmitt engaged in farming for many years and won a competence which enables him to live retired in Waitsburg. He was born in Lee county, Iowa, December 17, 1859, a son of John and Katharina (Martin) Schmitt, both natives of Germany. In 1840 they emigrated to America and located in Iowa, whence they removed to Nebraska where the mother passed away. Subsequently the father returned to Iowa with his children but after living there for a year went to Umatilla county, Oregon, and became the owner of a good farm there. He is deceased and six of his ten children have also passed away.

Henry Schmitt passed his boyhood and youth mainly in Iowa, and after completing the course in the common schools became a student in the high school at Burlington, from which he was graduated. For some time thereafter he resided at home, assisting his father, but on attaining his majority began farming in Umatilla county, Oregon, the family in the meantime having removed west. He purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land on which he resided for thirty-four years, during which time he brought the place to a high state of development and made many excellent improvements thereon. His practical methods and his industry were rewarded by large crops and he gave careful attention to the markets, and thus was able to dispose of his crops to good advantage. Since selling his farm he has taken up his abode in Waitsburg, where he owns a fine residence and three acres of land.

On the 7th of September, 1881, Mr. Schmitt was married to Miss Carrie Piepke, a native of Germany. Both hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church and can always be counted upon to do their part in promoting its welfare. Mr. Schmitt is identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Oregon and has exemplified in his life the beneficent principles upon which that organization is based.

EMMETT S. HENNESSEY.

Emmett S. Hennessey, senior member of the firm of Hennessey & Calloway, a leading undertaking firm of Walla Walla, was born in Saratoga, Illinois, December 27, 1881, his parents being Joseph Daniel and Kathrine (Harney) Hennessey, who are natives of Illinois and of Irish parentage. In 1908 they removed westward to Walla Walla, where they still reside. They were the parents of five children, all of whom are yet living.

Emmett S. Hennessey, the eldest of the family, pursued his education in the public schools of Henry, Illinois, until graduated from the high school on the 1st of June, 1900. He is also a graduate licensed embalmer. After completing his high school course he spent one term as a teacher in a rural school at Grafton, Nebraska, and for one year was teller and accountant in a bank in Michigan, North Dakota, but fearing for his health, he left the bank to enter the University of Minnesota as a medical student. Later, however, he changed his course to the study of anatomy, embalming and sanitary science. He took up the undertaking business in Walla Walla in connection with the oldest undertaking company of the state in 1903, becoming a member of the firm of Picard & Hennessey. That association was maintained until 1908, when he bought out the interests of his partner and conducted the business alone until recently, when he became associated with Mr. Calloway. His reliable methods, his enterprise and the excellent line of goods which he carries have secured to him a very liberal and gratifying patronage and he is now regarded as one of the leading undertakers of the Inland Empire.

On the 25th of May, 1909, Mr. Hennessey was united in marriage to Miss Mary Harter, a native of Walla Walla and a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Anton Harter, who are natives of Germany and came to America in 1868. In 1872 they established their home in Walla Walla, where, they still reside. To Mr. and Mrs. Hennessey have been born four children, namely: Charles, Patrick, Harry and Mary, all of whom are still under the parental roof.

Mr. and Mrs. Hennessey are members of the Catholic church, in which Mr. Hennessey is serving as a trustee. He also holds membership with the Knights of Columbus and is a past grand knight. He belongs to the Elks Lodge, No. 287, with which he has been identified for twelve years, and at the present writing, in 1917, is holding the office of loyal knight. He likewise belongs to the Commercial Club and cooperates in all of its well defined plans and movements for the upbuilding of the city. In politics he is a republican and in 1911 and 1912 filled the office of county coroner. He does not seek nor desire political preferment to any extent, however, as he wishes to concentrate his efforts and attention upon his business affairs. He is well known in this city and through the period of his residence here has gained an extensive circle of warm friends.

JAMES E. SHORT.

In the death of James E. Short, Walla Walla county lost one of its pioneer settlers and progressive farmers. He was born in Grant county, Wisconsin, April 8, 1847, and was a young lad of eleven years when his parents removed with their family to Iowa, where they continued to reside until he reached the age of nineteen. The family home was then established in Texas, where the parents later passed away.

James E. Short was reared and educated in Iowa, pursuing his studies in the public schools through the winter months, while in the summer seasons he worked in the fields. He was thus employed until he was twenty-three years of age. In the meantime the family had removed to Texas and in the Lone Star state he was married to Miss Martha E. Vickers, who was born in Texas. They began their domestic life there and after thirteen years removed to Oklahoma, where they resided for a number of years. On the expiration of that period they sold their property in the southwest and came to the Pacific coast country with Washington as their destination. In 1905 Mr. Short purchased land in the Walla Walla valley, becoming owner of six hundred and forty acres. This is wheat land, all under a high state of cultivation. He ranked with the leading and prosperous farmers of the county and followed the most progressive methods in all of his work. His place ever presented a neat and thrifty appearance, which indicated the careful supervision of a practical and progressive owner.

To Mr. and Mrs. Short were born nine children, namely: Adelaide T., who is a graduate nurse; James V.; Amie E., who is the wife of William F. Dolling; William E.; John W.; Oscar N.; Susan Eva; Elma M. C.; and Martha S.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. JAMES E. SHORT]

The family attend the Methodist Episcopal church, as did Mr. Short, and his influence was ever on the side of right, truth, reform and progress. His political allegiance was given to the democratic party and of its principles he was a stanch champion, but he never sought nor desired political office. He served, however, as a school director and was interested in all that pertained to the intellectual advancement of the community. He died May 7, 1917, and was laid to rest in Mountview cemetery in Walla Walla, leaving a widow and nine children to mourn his loss. His death was also the occasion of deep regret to many friends, for he had become widely and favorably known during the period of his residence in this section of the country. He had many substantial traits of character, was thoroughly reliable in business and was a public-spirited citizen. His widow and sons now operate the farm and the family occupies a prominent social position in this section of the state.

JAMES P. NEAL.

James P. Neal, deputy prosecuting attorney of Walla Walla county and a resident of the city of Walla Walla, was born in Westfield, Indiana, November 12, 1883, a son of the Rev. A. G. Neal, who is pastor of the First Methodist church of Fort Wayne, Indiana, and of Laura (Johns) Neal.

James P. Neal was accorded liberal educational opportunities. After graduating from the high school at Angola, Indiana, as a member of the class of 1901 he entered De Pauw University at Greencastle, that state, and pursued a classical course, winning his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1906. After leaving De Pauw he went east for law study and matriculated as a law student in Harvard University, where he remained until 1908. Having been admitted to practice law in Madison county, Indiana, in 1907, he maintained an office for a time at Alexandria, that state. He was admitted to practice before the supreme court of Indiana in 1908, was admitted to practice in Oregon in the same year and in Washington in 1914. In 1908 he opened an office in Freewater, Oregon, and in 1913 he became connected with the firm of Brooks & Bartlett in Walla Walla, that association being maintained until 1915. Since February of the latter year he has been a partner in the firm of Stafford & Neal and in this connection enjoys a large and lucrative practice which is constantly growing in volume and importance. He has filled various positions of a professional character. In 1907 he was deputy prosecuting attorney of Madison county, Indiana, and from 1909 until 1913 was city attorney of Freewater, Oregon. In 1915 he was made city attorney of Walla Walla, which position he yet fills, and in 1917 he became deputy prosecuting attorney of Walla Walla county and is yet the incumbent in that office.

Mr. Neal was married in Walla Walla, November 6, 1912, to Miss Louise Root, a daughter of F. F. and Margaret Root. In politics Mr. Neal is a republican and an active worker in party ranks, his opinions carrying considerable weight among the leaders of the party. He was a member of the county central committee of Umatilla county, Oregon, from 1910 until 1912 and in 1916 was a member of the county central committee of Walla Walla county. His fraternal relations are with the Masons, the Elks, the Moose, the Woodmen of the World and the Knights and Ladies of Security. He is also identified with Beta Theta Pi, a college fraternity. Mr. and Mrs. Neal are people of genuine worth, occupying an enviable position in social circles, and their many substantial traits of character have won them the respect and high regard of all with whom they have been brought in contact.

JOHN D. TAGGARD.

John D. Taggard is prominently connected with the development of horticultural interests of the northwest. His efforts have demonstrated the possibilities for fruit culture in Walla Walla county and he is now conducting a successful business as an orchardist, having his place on section 12, township 8 north, range 37 east. He was born amid the Ozark mountains of Missouri, near the city of Springfield, June 28, 1863, a son of Aaron and Ruth M. (Holland) Taggard, the former a native of Missouri, while the latter was born in Tennessee. For many years they resided upon a farm in Webster county, Missouri, but in later life the father retired from agricultural pursuits and took up his abode in Conway, where for some years he engaged with a younger brother in a mercantile enterprise, being associated with that business for several years. He died in 1910 and is survived by his widow, who yet resides in Conway.

John D. Taggard was reared under the parental roof and the common schools afforded him his preliminary educational privileges. He afterward attended the seminary at Lebanon, Missouri, and also became a student in the Mountain Dale Seminary, thus being accorded liberal advantages which well qualified him for life's practical and responsible duties. He left home at the age of about eighteen years and came to Washington, where he arrived in September, 1881. He took up his abode in Dayton, Columbia county, where he engaged in teaching at the Alex Baldwin schoolhouse for one year. During the following year he took the advice of friends and for the sake of his health accepted a position on the sheep ranch of Gretman Brothers and lived in the open for two years. He was at that time afflicted with pulmonary trouble and his life in the open completely restored him to health. He then went to Whitman county, where he took up a homestead six miles north of the Snake river, and there he engaged in the cattle business, remaining upon that place for nine years, but his business venture did not prove profitable and he was entirely without means when he left that country. He then removed to Waitsburg, Walla Walla county, where he engaged in gardening and fruit growing. He was a pioneer in the commercial apple business of the Walla Walla valley. From his boyhood days he was a lover and a student of tree life and is today said to be the foremost orchardist of Walla Walla county. He has studied every phase of the question both from a practical and scientific standpoint and there is perhaps no man in this section of the state better informed concerning the possibilities of fruit raising in the northwest. In 1905 Mr. Taggard and his very close friend, Rev. B. Z. Riggs, rented a twenty acre orchard of W. R. Amon and in the following year they purchased that tract together with sixteen acres adjoining, which had formerly been planted to trees, but the trees had been pulled out. Mr. Taggard and Mr. Riggs immediately replanted the sixteen acre tract and in 1907, when Mr. Riggs' health failed, Mr. Taggard took over the interests of his partner and soon afterward admitted Albert Dickinson to a partnership, the latter purchasing a half-interest in the twenty acre orchard. After three years, however, Mr. Taggard became sole owner of the orchard and the business. In 1910, in connection with others, he planted another orchard of fifty acres. He had entire charge of the planting and the care of the orchard, which is now in bearing and is one of the finest to be found in the fruit district of this section. At the present time Mr. Taggard has in course of construction a community packing house one hundred and fifty by forty feet, which will cost in the neighborhood of five thousand dollars and will have a storage capacity of twenty-five carloads of fruit. He expects to pack between fifty and sixty thousand boxes of fruit this year, which means practically one hundred carloads. In this way the association will be independent of the middleman and will allow the owner to hold the fruit until the market is right. Mr. Taggard has thus closely studied everything that has a bearing upon orcharding in the northwest and displays sound judgment, combined with the most progressive methods, in everything that he undertakes.

On the 4th of December, 1887, Mr. Taggard was married to Miss Rilda Boothe, of Dayton, and they have an adopted daughter, Lillian. In politics Mr. Taggard is a stalwart republican. In 1910 he followed the lead of Roosevelt and became a supporter of the progressive party and was nominated on its ticket for representative, but was too busy to give the time to the campaign that would secure an election. His personal popularity, however, carried weight, so that he was defeated by only a small majority. Mr. Taggard is a member of Delta Lodge, No. 5, I. O. O. F. He and his wife hold memberships in the Christian church, guiding their lives by its teachings and conforming their conduct to its principles at all times. He has been an officer of the church for twenty years. While his efforts have brought personal success, his labors have been of even broader reach and importance, for his example has been followed by many others. He has demonstrated what could be accomplished and others have taken up the ideas which he has set forth. Today there is no feature of orcharding in the northwest with which he is not familiar and his opinions are largely accepted as authority by all fruit growers in this section.

EDMOND J. JOHNSON.

Edmond J. Johnson is a self-made man who has gained a substantial position in business circles of Walla Walla as a dealer in wood and coal. He deserves great credit for what he has accomplished, as he started out in life empty-handed and has placed his dependence upon the substantial qualities of industry and perseverance. He was born in England in February, 1861, and was there reared and educated. He had attained the age of twenty-four years when he determined to try his fortune in America, hoping that he might find better business opportunities on this side the Atlantic. He crossed the continent after reaching American shores, making his way to Walla Walla, Washington, where he worked at the butchering trade, which he had previously learned in his native land. He followed that business for seven years and then went to work for the city in the street department, occupying a position of that character for fourteen years. On the expiration of that period he turned his attention to the wood and coal trade, in which he has since been engaged, and through the intervening years he has built up a business of very gratifying and substantial proportions. He also has the contract for street cleaning in the city and is leading a most active life. Energy has ever been one of his most marked characteristics and indefatigable effort has brought him the success which is now his.

In 1890 Mr. Johnson was united in marriage to Miss Leona Hastings, a native of Kansas, and they have become the parents of three children: Susie, who is now the wife of C. Brent, of Portland, Oregon; Hazel, who is the wife of Clem Burgman, living on a ranch in Walla Walla county; and William, who died at the age of three months.

The family occupy an attractive home in Walla Walla and Mr. Johnson has become the owner of some good residence properties in the city. His political allegiance is given to the republican party, which he has supported since becoming a naturalized American citizen. He belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and has made many warm friends in that organization. His life record should inspire and encourage others, for he started out when a lad of eleven years and has since been dependent upon his own resources. He early recognized the fact that industry wins. He may never have heard of the Greek philosopher Epicharmus, who said: "Earn thy reward; the gods give naught to sloth," but he knew the principle that underlies those words and indefatigable industry has characterized him at every point in his career. Step by step he has advanced and is now not only a substantial business man of Walla Walla but one who enjoys and deserves the respect, goodwill and confidence of all with whom he is associated.

JOHN WARREN LANGDON.

John Warren Langdon, one of the best known business men of eastern Washington, prominently identified with the commercial and financial interests and with the community life of Walla Walla, was born in New Hampton, Iowa, December 18, 1871, a son of Warren W. Langdon, who was a native of Illinois. The father was an expert tinner by trade and was also connected with banking interests of the northwest for a number of years, becoming a very prominent factor in business affairs in Moscow, Idaho.

He was superintendent of the Walla Walla waterworks for five years and figured prominently in connection with public affairs in this city. His attitude in respect to his country's welfare was clearly manifest at the time of the Civil war, when he put aside all business and personal considerations and responded to the country's call for troops, enlisting as a member of Company A, Ninety-fifth Regiment of the Illinois Volunteer Infantry, on the 9th of August, 1862, at Marengo, Illinois. He served for three years and was mustered out at Camp Butler, Illinois August 17, 1865. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Hester M. Robinson, is also a native of Illinois.

[Illustration: JOHN WARREN LANGDON]

Their son, John Warren Langdon, acquired his early education in the common schools of Moscow, Idaho, and afterward attended the Bishop Scott grammar school of Portland, Oregon, where he stood at the head of his classes, receiving the headmaster's prize for the highest standing during the school year; his marks at this school were the highest received by any student during the seventeen years of the school's existence to that time, and he also received two additional prizes for excellence in deportment and penmanship.

At the age of sixteen years he left school and was placed in the First National Bank of Moscow, Idaho, of which his father was vice president. Two years later he accepted a position with the Dorsey S. Baker estate of Walla Walla, one of the richest estates in the northwest. Ten years later, upon division of the estate, he became secretary of the firm of Baker & Baker, a strong loan company, doing business in the Walla Walla valley. Two years later, owing to increased personal business responsibilities, he resigned, and at that time incorporated the Green Investment Company of Walla Walla for the purpose of handling the business affairs of Mary F. Green, his mother-in-law. This corporation is heavily interested in both city and country real estate, and its holdings are scattered throughout the state of Washington.

There is no man more familiar with property values and conditions in this section of the country than Mr. Langdon. At the present time he is one of the joint owners and managers of the Baker-Langdon Orchard Company of Walla Walla, owners of a six hundred acre apple orchard adjoining the city of Walla Walla, which is recognized as one of the finest commercial orchard properties in the United States; is also vice president and manager of the Green Investment Company of Walla Walla; a director of the Baker-Boyer National Bank of Walla Walla, the oldest bank in the state of Washington; is vice president of the Blalock Fruit Company, owning the largest fruit and vegetable farm in the northwest; is a director of the Northwestern Fruit Exchange of Seattle and New York, one of the largest and most widely known fruit shippers in the northwest, and has still other interests which place him in the foremost rank of the business men of this section of the country.

On the 16th of September, 1897, Mr. Langdon was married to Miss Philinda Green, who was born in Walla Walla, a daughter of William O. and Mary F. (Young) Green, who were pioneers of the Walla Walla valley, having crossed the plains by team at a very early period in the settlement of the northwest. Mr. and Mrs. Langdon have become parents of two sons: Warren Orville and John Green, both now attending Walla Walla high school.

While most important business interests have claimed the attention of Mr. Langdon, he has also found time and opportunity to cooperate in plans and measures for the public good and has been a most generous supporter of interests which are looking toward the upbuilding and development of city and state.

The cause of education finds in him a stalwart champion and he is a member of the board of trustees of Whitman College and chairman of the board of directors of the Whitman Conservatory of Music. He is also a director and vice president of the Walla Walla Commercial Club and chairman of its agricultural and horticultural committee. Elected president of the park board of Walla Walla, Mr. Langdon set about to construct an ideal park for the city. The city council having set aside a beautiful tract of forty acres owned by the city, for park purposes, Mr. Langdon prepared, with his own hands, plans for the park, and working in conjunction with the Woman's Park Club of Walla Walla, assisted in developing an unusually attractive landscape, embracing play grounds, boating lake, tiny streams and waterfalls, now known as City Park. Recently he has prepared elaborate plans for the development of Dreamland Park on Ninth street. He is now and for many years past has been secretary of the board of trustees of St. Paul's School, which was the first school for girls in the territory of Washington, and today is recognized as one of the state's best educational institutions.

Holding membership in St. Paul's Episcopal church, he has served for years as one of its vestrymen and as its junior warden. He is one of the trustees of the newly organized Young Women's Christian Association, and as the first vice president of the Young Men's Christian Association in Walla Walla assisted materially in raising funds for the construction of an elegant building for this association in Walla Walla. Mr. Langdon is chairman of the membership committee of the Red Cross in Walla Walla; vice president of the Washington State Harvesters League; and a member of the state executive committee for food conservation appointed by Herbert Hoover, chairman of food conservation. Mr. Langdon is interested in art, and has done some exceedingly creditable photographic work among the northwest Indians and has reproduced in enlargements and panoramas historical scenes in the states of Oregon and Washington, many of which he has personally hand-colored. He thoroughly enjoys home life and takes great pleasure in the society of his family and friends.

He is always courteous, kindly and affable and those who know him personally entertain for him warm regard. A man of great natural ability, his success in business from the beginning of his residence in Walla Walla has been uniform and rapid.

As has been truly remarked, after all that may be done for a man in the way of giving him early opportunities for obtaining the requirements which are found in schools and in books, he must essentially formulate, determine and give shape to his own character, and this is what Mr. Langdon has done. He has persevered in the pursuit of a persistent purpose and gained a most satisfactory reward. He has endeavored to make his life exemplary in all respects and he has ever supported those interests which are calculated to uplift and benefit humanity.

JOHN BACHTOLD.

John Bachtold is a well known and representative business man of Walla Walla who is now proprietor and manager of the Dacres Hotel, one of the leading hostelries of the city. He comes from a land that has produced many famous hotel proprietors. In every country on the face of the globe the Swiss have proven their capability in that field, many of the finest hotels of every land being conducted by those who were born within the shadow of the Alps. Mr. Bachtold was born in Switzerland in 1865 and spent the first fourteen years of his life in his native country. He then crossed the Atlantic to America and became a resident of South Dakota, where he engaged in farm work for nine years. On the expiration of that period he arrived in Washington, making his way to Grays Harbor, where he secured a position as clerk in a hotel, thus receiving his initial business training in the line to which he now directs his energies. The next year he became proprietor of a hotel in Oswego, Oregon.

In 1892 Mr. Bachtold removed to Walla Walla, where he established a restaurant. The following year, however, he turned his attention to other business interests, in which he was engaged for several years. At length he took over the management of the Dacres Hotel, which is an excellent hostelry, well equipped, while his keen interest in the successful management of the business leads him to put forth every effort for the comfort and welfare of his guests. He is likewise identified with several other business concerns of the city, all of which profit by his sound judgment and indefatigable energy. That Mr. Bachtold is deeply interested in the city's welfare has been manifest by his intense activity in maintaining the efficiency of the volunteer fire department, of which he was the president. He has also been very active in fraternal circles as a member of the Improved Order of Red Men, the Ancient Order of United Workmen, the Foresters, the Eagles and the Sons of Hermann. He is also connected with the Maennerchor, which indicates his love of music and a cultivated taste in that direction.

Mr. Bachtold was married in Grays Harbor in 1892 to Miss Annie Schuerch and to them have been born six children, Ida, Annie, George, John, Edward and Walter. Mr. Bachtold has never had occasion to regret his determination to come to the new world, for in this land he has found the opportunities which he sought and in their utilization has made steady progress along the high road to success.

GEORGE J. GUTHRIDGE.

Walla Walla rightly takes pride in her efficient fire department, which is highly systematized and is conducted along the most modern methods, and as chief of the department George J. Guthridge has accomplished work that entitles him to rank among the best fire chiefs of the northwest. He is a native son of Walla Walla, born April 7, 1870, in the house which he now occupies though it has since been remodeled. His parents, Benjamin G. and Ellen J. (Goss) Guthridge, were born respectively in London, England, and Cork, Ireland, but came to the United States in young manhood and young womanhood. At that time the father had been dependent upon his own resources for a number of years, as he ran away from home when a boy and went to sea and in the next few years visited all the principal ports of the world. It was in 1862 that he decided to settle permanently in the United States and the vessel on which he was then sailing, on putting into Portland, Oregon, was wrecked on the Columbia river bar, he and the negro cook being the only persons rescued. At that time there was considerable excitement in the northwest over the newly discovered mines in Idaho and he went to that section, where he remained for a short period, after which he drifted to Walla Walla. There he engaged in the restaurant business for a time and then turned his attention to the conduct of a meat market. He was engaged in that business for a quarter of a century and derived therefrom a gratifying profit which enabled him to retire. Having disposed of his private interests, he was then offered and accepted the appointment as steward of the state penitentiary, being the first man to hold that position after the institution had been removed from Seattle. For seven years he filled that important and difficult position and then retired from all active work, spending his last years in well deserved leisure. His death occurred June 4, 1912. He had survived his wife for many years, as she passed away July 21, 1885.

George J. Guthridge was reared under the parental roof and attended the Catholic boys' schools of Walla Walla and also took a business course in a night school. As a youth and young man he assisted his father in the management of his butchering business and after the latter disposed of his meat market the son was variously employed until 1890, when he was appointed a member of the city fire department. He served in that capacity for two years and then was for a similar length of time deputy sheriff. Again he became connected with the fire department but following an accident in 1896, which occurred when answering a fire call and in which his leg and ankle were broken, he was for four years out of the department. In 1900, however, he returned to the service and in April, 1904, was appointed captain. In January, 1912, he was appointed assistant chief and on the 1st of February, 1917, was made chief. His long experience in the department has given him a thorough knowledge of the needs of the service and as captain, assistant chief and chief he has worked tirelessly and effectively to raise the work to an ever higher standard.

On the 1st of October, 1902, Mr. Guthridge was united in marriage to Miss Augusta Berg, who was born August 17, 1879, six miles east of Vancouver, Washington, but at the age of ten years removed with her parents to North Yamhill, Oregon, living there until her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Guthridge have become parents of six children, five of whom survive: Eugene, thirteen years old; Francis; Albert; Leona; and Walter.

Mr. Guthridge is a republican in politics and fraternally is identified with the Ancient Order of United Workmen, the Improved Order of Red Men, the Fraternal Order of Eagles and the Knights of Columbus. He and his family are members of the Catholic church and support the work of that organization. His entire life has been passed in the west and he is thoroughly imbued with the spirit of enterprise characteristic of this country and has great faith in the prosperous future before it.

D. C. EATON.

D. C. Eaton, a member of the present board of county commissioners, residing in Waitsburg, is ranked among the extensive wheat farmers of Walla Walla county, within the borders of which he has made his home for almost four decades and where he has acquired some quite valuable land. His birth occurred in Rock county, Wisconsin, on the 19th of September, 1854, his parents being Asael and Amanda (Pineo) Eaton, who were born, reared and married in Nova Scotia. Soon after their marriage they crossed the border into the United States, locating first in DeKalb county, Illinois, and a few years later in Wisconsin. Subsequently they took up their abode in Allamakee county, Iowa, and there spent the remainder of their lives.

[Illustration: D. C. EATON]

[Illustration: MRS. D. C. EATON]

D. C. Eaton acquired his education in the public schools of Iowa and in 1877, when a young man of twenty-two years, he left the parental roof to make his own way in the world. Journeying westward to the coast, he spent a year or more in the vicinity of Portland, Oregon, and in the spring of 1878 came to Walla Walla county, Washington. Here he was engaged in the stock business for seven or eight years and about 1886 he turned his attention to farming, which has claimed his time and energies continuously since. Success has crowned his efforts in the intervening years, he now being numbered among the extensive wheat growers of Walla Walla county.

On July 15, 1886, Mr. Eaton was united in marriage to Miss Melvina Sickler, of Waitsburg, who is a native daughter of Walla Walla county, her father, Daniel Sickler, having crossed the plains in an early day. They have become the parents of six children, five of whom survive, namely: Clarence, who is a graduate of the State Agricultural College at Pullman of the class of 1910 and who now operates one of his father's ranches; and May, Marcia, Gladys and Ruth, all of whom are attending the State Agriculture College at Pullman.

Politically Mr. Eaton is a stanch republican and in 1898 he was elected to the board of county commissioners, in which connection he made an excellent record and to which office he was again chosen in the November election of 1916, so that he is again serving at the present time. Fraternally he is identified with the Masons, belonging to Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, A. F. & A. M.; Dayton Chapter, No. 5, R. A. M.; Walla Walla Commandery, K. T.; and El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane. His is a highly creditable record and he well deserves mention in this volume as one of the foremost farmers and representative citizens of the county.

FRED GAYLORD WILLS.

Fred Gaylord Wills was born August 24, 1884, in Arlington, Oregon, a son of W. H. and Clara (Oviatt) Wills. The father was born in Plymouth, England, and when twenty-one years of age came to the states, settling in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1879 he made his way to the Palouse country to buy sheep and after spending the winter at Endicott came to Walla Walla. He considered this locality as the most desirable that he had seen and accordingly decided to make it his permanent home. He was married at Walla Walla to Miss Clara Oviatt, who was born in Akron, Summit county, Ohio, and resided there until the early '80s, when she came to Walla Walla and made her home with a sister until her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Wills have watched with great interest the development of what was a mere hamlet to a prosperous and up-to-date city of over twenty-five thousand inhabitants and they have at all times done their full share in contributing to its upbuilding.

Fred Gaylord Wills attended the public schools of Walla Walla, Whitman Academy at Walla Walla, the Rindge Manual Training School at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the University of Washington at Seattle, which in 1908 conferred upon him the degree of LL. B. It had been his intention to devote his life to the legal profession but being offered a position in July, 1908, a short time after his graduation, he entered the employ of the First National Bank of Walla Walla as messenger. In 1910 he was appointed deputy clerk of the superior court of Walla Walla county and while holding that office in addition to discharging his duties in that capacity he was employed in the First National Bank, working there after the hour of closing at the clerk's office. In 1912 he went to Seattle and for a short time engaged in the real estate business there, after which he went to Tacoma, where he turned his attention to accounting, which profession he has since followed. In 1916 he returned to Walla Walla and he has met with gratifying success here. His acquaintance among the business men of the city and his excellent business and official record were important factors in his obtaining the appointment of city clerk. He understands thoroughly the principles of finance and accounting, and his work gives uniform satisfaction.

Mr. Wills was appointed city clerk on the 20th of January, 1917, and his prompt and capable performance of his duties has won for him the commendation of the citizens. He has always given careful study to the questions and issues of the day and has been a stanch supporter of plans and projects calculated to promote the civic interests of his city and county. The greater part of his life has been passed in Walla Walla, and his genuine personal worth is indicated by the fact that those who have been intimately associated with him since boyhood are his stanchest friends.

On the 16th of June, 1917, Mr. Wills was married in Walla Walla to Miss Dorothy Frances Drum, who was graduated from the University of Washington with the A. B. degree and who from 1914 to 1917 was assistant librarian of the public library at Walla Walla. Her father, Henry Drum, was appointed warden of the state penitentiary by Governor Lister in 1912 and still holds that office.

WILLIAM LAMBIE.

William Lambie, prominent as a horse breeder and farmer of Garfield county, living on section 31, township 14 north, range 43 east, was born near Glasgow, Scotland, March 13, 1846, a son of John and Margaret (Bryson) Lambie, both of whom were born in the neighborhood of Glasgow, where they spent their entire lives, the father devoting his time and attention to the occupation of farming in order to provide for his family. His son, William Lambie, was reared under the parental roof and acquired a public school education. On attaining his twenty-first year he bade adieu to the land of hills and heather and made his way to New Zealand, where he spent four years. He then came to the United States, making his way to the Hawaiian Islands and thence to San Francisco. He spent a short time in the Sacramento valley of California, after which he removed from San Francisco to Portland, making the trip by steamer. He spent one month in the harvest fields of the Willamette valley and then came by steamer up the Columbia river to Wallula and thence by wagon to Walla Walla, Washington. This was in the summer of 1871. When he saw the Blue mountains and the Walla Walla valley he said to himself that he would travel no farther. During that fall and the succeeding winter he was employed by James Foster, located at the foot of the mountain and the following spring he started out to find land for himself. He assisted a party with cattle upon the Palouse river below Colfax and slept on the floor in his own blanket in the only house in sight in Colfax at that time. He then journeyed northward in search of land near the much-talked-of route of the Northern Pacific Railroad, which at that time, however, had not been surveyed. He pushed on to the neighborhood of Medical Lake, where he located on a beautiful prairie sloping toward the south. He then returned to Walla Walla for a team and wagon, and when he again traveled over the route he brought back with him some garden seed and grain and planted ten acres of his land that first season. In the summer he worked for a stock man upon the present site of the town of Sprague, putting up hay. In August he returned to his own place to look after his crop, but found that his potatoes had been frosted and he, therefore, abandoned his claim. That fall he started down the creek with his team and located in a big meadow on Cow creek, where he cut and sold hay, the purchaser being Thomas Durry, a sheep man. In this business he engaged for four years and afterward sold the ranch to Mr. Durry for eight hundred dollars. He then went to Lower Crab creek and bought mares with his money and began the breeding of horses. In the fall of 1877 he took up his abode upon what has since been his home farm and in the fall of that year he did the first plowing done on the bench land in the north half of Garfield county. He first preempted one hundred and sixty acres and at the same time took up a timber claim, while three years later he purchased one hundred and sixty acres of railroad land. This constituted the nucleus of his present extensive possessions and gave him his start toward his later success. From time to time he has bought adjoining land until his present holdings comprise something more than twenty-one hundred acres and he operates under lease four hundred and eighty acres in addition, which he has cultivated for more than a quarter of a century. He has been one of the foremost breeders of thoroughbred draft horses in southeastern Washington and for the first fifteen years he specialized in the breeding of Clydesdales, for which breed he has gained a wide reputation. For the last ten or twelve years he has given his attention largely to the breeding of black Percheron horses and has gained an enviable reputation in this respect throughout the entire northwest. He is regarded as one of the foremost breeders and one of the most reliable judges of good horses in Washington. In connection with his extensive operations as a breeder Mr. Lambie farms eight hundred acres to wheat and has one hundred and ten acres planted to alfalfa and annually he produces splendid crops because his methods are practical and progressive.

[Illustration: WILLIAM LAMBIE]

In 1880 Mr. Lambie was united in marriage to Miss Emma Clark, of Fresno, California, by whom he had two children, one of whom survives, John Hazen, who is a resident of Longbeach, California. Mrs. Lambie has a home at Longbeach, California, where she spends much of her time, and Mr. Lambie there passes the winter months, while in the summer seasons he remains in Washington to superintend his business interests.

He is a member of the Farmers Union and he does everything in his power to promote the interests of the agriculturist and develop the farming possibilities of the state. He holds membership in the Unitarian church and is a man of genuine personal worth, progressive and reliable in business, patriotic in citizenship and at all times guiding his life by high and honorable principles. He has never had occasion to regret his determination to leave the land of his fathers and seek a home in the new world, for here he has found good opportunities and in their utilization has worked his way steadily upward until he is now numbered among the prosperous residents of Garfield county.

H. A. TRIPPEER, M. D. V.

Dr. H. A. Trippeer is one of the leading veterinarians of southern Washington and was one of the organizers of the Veterinary Hospital Company, which erected the fine City Veterinary Hospital of Walla Walla. His birth occurred in Peru, Indiana, July 6, 1881, and he is a son of Joseph E. and Alice (Alexander) Trippeer, the former also a native of Peru, Indiana, and the latter of Linneus, Missouri. Their marriage occurred in the latter town, to which the father had removed with his parents. Not long after he was married, however he returned to Indiana, and there engaged in breeding thoroughbred race horses and Devon cattle. In 1888 he took to Wasco county, Oregon, a number of horses and the first Devon cattle ever seen in the Pacific coast country. Among the horses was Mattie Mullen, who for a considerable period was the fastest short distance horse on the entire coast. He was prominently identified with live stock interests in the northwest for a number of years but is now living retired in Cove, Oregon.

H. A. Trippeer early began assisting his father in the care of his fine stock and the experience thus gained has been of great benefit to him in his professional career as a veterinarian. In 1904 he entered the Washington State College at Pullman and after two years' work in the veterinary department of that school he went to Chicago and continued his course in the famous McKillip Veterinary College, from which he was graduated with the class of 1907. He then came to Walla Walla and took the United States examination for veterinarian at Fort Walla Walla. While awaiting the action of the government on his application he entered into private practice at Walla Walla in partnership with Dr. J. W. Woods and as he met with marked success in that connection he decided to continue in private practice. Two years later he, Dr. Woods and Dr. Baddely, organized the Veterinary Hospital Company, which later built the city Veterinary Hospital, an institution which is one of the best of its kind in the northwest. Later Dr. Baddely withdrew from the company, selling his interest therein to Dr. Woods and Dr. Trippeer. The partners have gained an enviable reputation for thorough scientific knowledge and skill in practice, and their patronage is large and steadily increasing.

Dr. Trippeer married Miss Pearl G. Griffith, of Sioux City, Iowa, and they have become the parents of a daughter, Denise. The doctor belongs to Cove Lodge, No. 91, A. F. & A. M., of Cove, Oregon; to Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E., and to the Walla Walla Commercial Club, in which connection he is associated with other enterprising business men in projects for the upbuilding of the city. He and his wife attend the services of the Episcopal church and are liberal in their support of its work. Since becoming a resident of Walla Walla the Doctor has gained a wide circle of friends and is held in the highest esteem both professionally and personally.

ORLEY HULL.

Attracted by gold discoveries in California, Orley Hull came to the Pacific coast and throughout the intervening period until his death was a resident of this section of the country. He was born in Iowa in 1825 and there the period of his boyhood and youth was passed amid the conditions of frontier life, for at that time the state of Iowa was yet a part of the great western territory that lay uninhabited and undeveloped west of the Mississippi. He continued in that state until he reached the age of twenty-four years, when the news reached him concerning the discovery of gold in California and he determined to try his fortune upon the Pacific coast. Accordingly he made the necessary arrangements for the trip, securing a covered wagon and an ox team, with which he started across the plains in 1849. The journey was a long and arduous one over the hot stretches of sand and across the mountains, but he pushed on day after day and ultimately reached his destination. After spending some time in California he determined to make his way northward and came to Walla Walla county, Washington. Here he took up the occupation of farming and stock raising, to which he devoted a number of years, becoming one of the representative agriculturists of the county. Eventually he established his home in Walla Walla, where his last days were passed.

It was in Walla Walla that Mr. Hull was united in marriage to Mrs. Hannah M. Laird, a native of Rochester, New York, and a daughter of Dr. Hiram Preston, of that city. After reaching womanhood she married Leonard Laird and they subsequently removed to Minnesota, where he engaged in farming for a time. He possessed considerable musical talent and took an active interest in religious work. On leaving Minnesota he removed to Hillsboro, Oregon, where he conducted a hotel for two years, but about 1877 brought his family to Washington, and located on a farm seven miles from Walla Walla, where he spent his remaining days, dying there in 1879. To Mr. and Mrs. Laird were born six children, of whom four are still living, namely: Miss Florence, a resident of Walla Walla; George D., of Portland, Oregon; Jennie, the widow of Millard Roff, of Walla Walla; and Nellie A., who is the widow of James A. Delaney and is living with her mother in Walla Walla. During the Spanish-American war Mr. Delaney entered the service and died of Manila fever. He left one child, Adrian L., now a guard at the Washington penitentiary in Walla Walla.

Mr. Hull was a stalwart and loyal member of the Masonic fraternity, in the work of which he was actively and helpfully interested, being ever ready to extend a helping hand to a brother of the order. He also took an active part in the upbuilding of the city of Walla Walla and his aid and cooperation could be counted upon to further any measure or movement for the public good. Those who knew him esteemed him as a man of high purpose and of honorable life and when he passed away in April, 1892, his death was the occasion of deep and widespread regret in the southeastern section of the state, where he had long made his home and his funeral was widely attended. He was a man of marked integrity and his word was always as good as his bond.

YANCEY C. BLALOCK, M. D.

With the lasting example of his honored father before him, Dr. Yancey C. Blalock has followed in his professional footsteps and has won a place among the eminent physicians and surgeons of Walla Walla. He was born in Mitchell county, North Carolina, August 3, 1859, a son of Dr. Nelson G. and Panthea A. (Durham) Blalock, of whom extended mention is made elsewhere in this work. During his infancy his parents removed with the family to Macon county, Illinois, and he was a youth of fourteen when they started across the plains to Walla Walla, making the long and arduous journey according to the primitive methods of the time. Dr. Blalock has a very vivid recollection of many of the events of the trip as they passed on over the long stretches of hot sand and through the mountain passes that eventually brought them to the Pacific Coast. His education was largely acquired in the public schools of Walla Walla and in the Whitman Seminary. At length he determined to make the practice of medicine his life work and accordingly in 1881 entered the Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from which his father had graduated many years before. He completed his course in that institution as a member of the class of 1884, after which he returned at once to Walla Walla and for a time was associated with his father in the active practice of medicine and surgery. Later, however, he established himself independently in practice, and in 1902 he accepted the appointment to the position of receiver of the United States land office at Walla Walla, serving in that capacity for two years, at the end of which time he resigned to resume the private practice of his profession. He has since given his undivided thought and attention to his professional interests and is ranked today among the leading practitioners of the county. He is most conscientious in the performance of his professional duties, recognizing how grave are the responsibilities which confront the physician.

In April, 1883, Dr. Blalock was united in marriage to Miss Julia Sanderson, a native daughter of Walla Walla, and to them was born a son, Jesse N. Mrs. Blalock passed away on the 6th of January, 1885, and in 1890 Dr. Blalock was again married, this union being with Miss Lillian Ballou, a native of Illinois and a daughter of Orlando and Elizabeth (Boyd) Ballou. To this marriage has been born a daughter, Phoebe I.

[Illustration: YANCEY C. BLALOCK, M. D.]

For many years Dr. Blalock has been prominent in fraternal circles. He has membership in Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, F. & A. M., of which he is a past master, and he also belongs to Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M., of which he is past high priest. He has taken the Knights Templar degree in Washington Commandery, of which he is a past eminent commander, and he belongs to Oriental Consistory, A. & A. S. R., of Spokane. He has also crossed the sands of the desert with El Katif Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane, and he and his wife are members of Alki Chapter, No. 25, O. E. S., of which Dr. Blalock is past patron, while his wife is a past matron. In Masonic circles the doctor occupies a very prominent position and is a past grand master of the grand lodge of the state and a past eminent commander of the grand commandery of the state. He likewise served as grand secretary of the grand chapter of the Royal Arch Masons for a number of years and was grand recorder of the grand commandery, Knights Templar. On March 6, 1914, he received the honorary thirty-third degree.

Dr. Blalock has occupied various civic offices and for three terms was county coroner. He served in the volunteer fire department of Walla Walla for twenty-two years, six of which he was chief. He is always loyal in positions of public trust and in all of his service in behalf of the community has been actuated by a singleness of purpose that has brought good results for the community. His political allegiance is given the republican party and he is an active and earnest worker in its ranks. He has served as chairman of the republican county central committee and puts forth every legitimate effort to further the success of the principles in which he so firmly believes. His prominence, professional and otherwise, is the outcome of his ability, his fidelity to duty and his high standards. His sterling characteristics commend him to the confidence and goodwill of all and throughout Walla Walla county, where almost his entire life has been passed, he has a circle of friends almost equal to the circle of his acquaintance.

THOMAS GILKERSON.

Thomas Gilkerson, who is residing on the family homestead in Walla Walla township, Walla Walla county, was born in England, October 19, 1837. His parents, George and Sarah (Rayson) Gilkerson, were also born in that country and in 1843 came with their family to America. They took up their residence in New York state, living there during their remaining days. To them were born seven children, of whom five survive, namely: Mrs. Mary Wallace, of Spokane; Thomas, of this review; James and William, who are living in New York; and Frances, who is now the wife of Thomas Curry, of Homer, New York.

Thomas Gilkerson grew to manhood in New York and there received his education. In 1860, when a young man, he and his brother James came west to Walla Walla county, Washington, and he of this review took up a homestead in Walla Walla township, where he has since remained. He proved successful in his farming operations and later from time to time added to his holdings, becoming the owner of a large and valuable tract. He now leaves the active work of the farm to others but still gives supervision to the management of his interests. He has gained a competence and the period of leisure which he is now enjoying is well deserved.

In 1862 Mr. Gilkerson was united in marriage to Mrs. Eliza (Sickles) McWhirk and they have had five children, of whom three are living, namely: Harry, Thomas J. and Dewitt A.

Mr. Gilkerson has supported the democratic party since gaining the right of franchise and has taken the interest of a good citizen in public affairs although never an aspirant for office. He has been identified with Walla Walla township for more than a half century and during that time has always proven a loyal citizen and a man of sterling worth.

CLINTON D. DAVIS.

Clinton D. Davis, who has lived in Garfield county continuously since 1878, covering a period of four decades, now owns three hundred and thirty-three acres of land on section 6, township 13 north, range 43 east, and is well known as one of the substantial farmers of the Mayview district. His birth occurred in Marion county, Oregon, on the 12th of December, 1854, his parents being Leander and Mary (Cox) Davis, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of Indiana. Leander Davis crossed the plains as a young man in 1846 or 1847, and at the same time Mary Cox, yet a young girl, accompanied her parents to Oregon, her father taking up a donation claim in Marion county. Mr. Davis also took up a donation claim in the same county and it was there that he was later married and spent the remainder of his life, passing away in 1875 at the age of forty-eight years. He served as a member of the Oregon legislature in 1866 and made a most excellent record in that connection. His widow continued her residence on the donation claim in Marion county, Oregon, until the time of her death, which occurred in the seventieth year of her age.

Clinton D. Davis attended the public schools at Silverton in the acquirement of an education and was about seventeen years of age when he began providing for his own support. During the following five years he worked for wages and was then married. He had saved enough money to feel justified in starting out independently as an agriculturist and in 1878 he brought his bride to Washington and took up a homestead in Garfield county which is a part of his present home farm, on which he has resided continuously to this time. As his financial resources have increased, owing to his untiring industry and capable management, he has extended the boundaries of his place by purchase until it now embraces three hundred and thirty-three acres. The property yields him a gratifying annual income and he has long been numbered among the representative agriculturists and substantial citizens of the county.

In 1877 Mr. Davis was united in marriage to Miss Elmira Hubbard, of Marion county, Oregon, a daughter of Joseph Hubbard, who crossed the plains from Illinois to Oregon in 1855 and took up a donation claim in Marion county, where he spent the remainder of his life. Mr. and Mrs. Davis became the parents of three children, namely: Edith, who is deceased; Alvin, at home; and Ella, who holds a clerical position in Spokane.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. CLINTON D. DAVIS]

In politics Mr. Davis is is stanch republican, having supported the men and measures of that party since age conferred upon him the right of franchise. He has witnessed the development of this section of the state from pioneer times to modern and has borne his share in the work of progress and improvement, while in the conduct of his private business interests he has also manifested the sterling traits of character which have won him the high regard and esteem of his fellow citizens.

DANIEL HAYES.

Daniel Hayes is one of the well known and honored pioneer settlers of Walla Walla county. Six decades have come and gone since he arrived in the state of Washington, and there is not a feature of its development with which he is not familiar. He has had many interesting and varied experiences incident to the life of a pioneer, and his memory forms a connecting link between the primitive past and the progressive present.

Daniel Hayes was born in County Tipperary, Ireland, in the year 1840. His parents died while he was yet a boy, and at the age of twelve years he came to America, where a brother and sister had emigrated some years before. When in America but a short time he went to work as an errand boy for James A. Hamilton, a son of Alexander Hamilton, patriot and statesman, at his beautiful home on the Hudson river. He was affectionately known to the Hamilton family as "little Danny," and the only schooling he ever received was from Mr. Hamilton's daughter Angelica, who became interested in him and taught him evenings. Mr. Hayes has never forgotten his benefactress, and his youngest daughter bears her name. When seventeen years of age he left this good home and the opportunities he was promised, and came west. He made the trip by the way of the Isthmus of Panama and landed in San Francisco in April, 1857. Shortly after arriving in San Francisco, he entered the employ of the government in the quartermaster's department. He served for eleven months at Benicia, California, and then went to The Dalles, Oregon, with Captain Jordan. In 1858, when on the way to Fort Simcoe with a government train of forty wagons, news was received of Colonel Steptoe's defeat in a battle with the Indians near the present site of Rosalia. They then returned to The Dalles, where Colonel Wright fitted out troops, and moved to the mouth of the Tucanon river where Fort Taylor was built. Mr. Hayes was the driver of an ammunition wagon and brought supplies to Fort Taylor, where Major Wise was stationed. When Fort Taylor was abandoned he joined Captain Mullan's command and assisted in building the military road from Fort Walla Walla to Fort Benton, Montana. In 1861 he left the employ of the government and went to the mines at Orofino, Idaho. There he took up a claim and engaged in mining during the summer of that year. He later bought a pack train and engaged in the business of freighting until 1873, when he settled on the farm where he still resides.

At the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in 1898, Mr. Hayes offered his services to the government and was appointed by Quartermaster Cameron at Fort Walla Walla, to take charge of a pack train in Cuba. He served in Cuba during the period of the war, carrying food and ammunition to the American soldiers at the front.

Mr. Hayes was twice married. In 1873 he was married to Miss Elizabeth O'Donnell, who died in 1876. The two children born to them died in early childhood. In 1879 he married Miss Mary Carrol, who like her husband was a native of Ireland and who still survives. Nine children were born to them, eight of whom are still living, one having died in infancy. The daughters are: Catherine (Mrs. W. C. Anderson), Nellie (Mrs. B. G. Wiley), Margaret (Mrs. William Upton), and Angela; the sons are Parnell, Tom, John and Leo. There are three grandchildren, Elinor and John Edward Wiley and William Upton.

Mr. Hayes and his family are all members of the Roman Catholic church, and give their political allegiance to the democratic party. His youngest son came of age just in time to cast the tenth vote in the family for the reelection of Woodrow Wilson. The story of his life proves that Daniel Hayes was a sturdy pioneer whose life has been closely identified with the early history of the state of Washington, and who was a man always willing to accept his share of hardships and always eager to serve his country. When war was declared on Germany he had reached an age when he could no longer be of service, but was proud in the knowledge that his children would take up the duties for which he was no longer fitted. Shortly after declaration of war his son John enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, and his daughter Angela joined the Army Nurse Corps. The former is at present stationed at Galveston, Texas, and the latter at Honolulu.

Mr. Hayes has lived to see the pioneer cabins replaced by the more commodious and beautiful homes on the farms as well as in the cities. He has seen his family grow to manhood and womanhood, and though not possessed of wealth, he is spending his late years in comfort on his productive farm in the foothills. He takes great pleasure in discussing his many interesting experiences, and when in a reminiscent mood can relate most thrilling tales of the days when the Indians were constantly on the warpath, and when he and his comrades traveled many miles over unbroken roads, swam their horses across swollen streams, and often subsisted for days on scanty rations. He has now passed the seventy-seventh milestone in life's journey, but is still hale and hearty and boasts an endurance equal to that of his sons.

MARCUS ZÜGER.

Few men control farming interests of such extent in Walla Walla county as does Marcus Züger, who is the owner of forty-two hundred acres of land. Moreover, he figures in financial circles as the president of the Exchange Bank of Waitsburg. Alert and enterprising in business, he has carefully watched his opportunities, which he has wisely improved, and his energy and determination have carried him forward into important relations in business circles. A native of Switzerland, he was born June 18, 1852, a son of Carl and Elizabeth (Horner) Züger, who were also natives of the land of the Alps, where they spent their entire lives and reared their family of twelve children, eight of whom are now living.

Marcus Züger was reared and educated in Switzerland and in 1871, when a young man of nineteen years, bade adieu to friends and native country in order to try his fortune in the new world. Crossing the Atlantic, he spent five years in Boston, Massachusetts, but in 1877 heard and heeded the call of the west. It was in that year that he arrived in Walla Walla county, Washington, and took up a homestead claim on which he built a box house. In true pioneer style he began life on the western frontier, but with the passing years he has been able to secure all of the comforts and conveniences known to the older east, for his labors have brought substantial success and his sound judgment has enabled him to wisely invest his earnings in real estate. Adding to his property from time to time, his landed possessions now aggregate forty-two hundred acres in the great wheat belt of southeastern Washington. He is now extensively engaged in the raising of wheat and also pays some attention to stock raising, he and his sons farming all of his land. His cooperation has also been sought in connection with banking and he is now the president of the Exchange Bank of Waitsburg.

In June, 1872, in Boston, Massachusetts, Mr. Züger was united in marriage to Miss Magdalena Jacober, a native of Switzerland, and they became the parents of five sons: Fred, who has passed away; Marcus, a farmer; Carl, who died while serving in the Spanish-American war; and Henry and Frank, who are associated with their father and their brother Marcus in farming operations. The wife and mother passed away in February, 1909, and was laid to rest in the Catholic cemetery in Walla Walla. Her death was the occasion of deep regret not only to her family but to many friends, for she had gained the warm regard and friendship of many with whom she had been brought in contact.

Fraternally Mr. Züger is connected with the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He has always voted the republican ticket since becoming a naturalized American citizen and he has done active service for the community as a member of the school board. He has never regretted his determination to come to America, for here he found the business opportunities which he sought and has steadily worked his way upward, winning the proud title of a self-made man. He arrayed determination, perseverance and capability against drawbacks, poverty and trials and the result was absolutely certain, for the former three are invincible--they know no defeat. He today therefore ranks among the most prosperous residents of Walla Walla county and his activities are of a character that have contributed much to the agricultural development of this section of the state. Making his home in Waitsburg, he is now able to enjoy all of the comforts and some of the luxuries of life and the most envious cannot grudge him his success, so worthily has it been won.

JOHN W. WOODS, D. V. S.

Dr. John W. Woods, one of the incorporators of the Veterinary Hospital Company, builders of the City Veterinary Hospital of Walla Walla, was born in Contra Costa county, California, on the 20th of May, 1868. His parents, Daniel and Sarah (Golden) Woods, crossed the plains to California about the time of the gold excitement in that state, locating in Contra Costa county, where the father engaged in mining and subsequently turned his attention to merchandising. Both he and his wife remained residents of Contra Costa county, California, until called to their final rest.

In the acquirement of an education John W. Woods attended the public and night schools of Stockton and Fresno. Having determined upon the practice of veterinary surgery as a life work, he took up the study of that profession in early manhood and in 1898 he entered the veterinary department of the Washington State College, being graduated from that institution in 1902. For a year following his graduation he served as house surgeon at the college and on the expiration of that period he located for practice in Dayton, Washington, there remaining for two years. The year 1906 witnessed his arrival in Walla Walla and for a short period he practiced independently here but in 1907 became associated with Dr. Herman A. Trippeer, with offices on Main street. Dr. Woods, Dr. Trippeer and Dr. J. C. Baddely organized the Veterinary Hospital Company and built the City Veterinary Hospital. In 1915 the two first named acquired Dr. Baddely's interests and have since conducted the business with marked success, having built up an extensive veterinary practice in Walla Walla and surrounding counties. Their hospital is equipped with all modern needs and is recognized as a model of its kind.

In 1902 Dr. Woods was united in marriage to Miss Ida M. Bruce, of Dayton, Washington, by whom he has three children, two daughters and a son, namely: Vyvien B., Sylvan M. and Edwinna M. Dr. Woods gives his political allegiance to the republican party and fraternally is identified with Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, A. F. & A. M. His wife is a consistent and devoted member of the Christian church. Both Dr. and Mrs. Woods are widely and favorably known in social circles of Walla Walla and the former enjoys an enviable reputation as a most successful representative of his profession.

JOHN SMITH.

A man of well balanced capacities and powers is always a strong character and one who inspires confidence in others; he may not have genius or any phenomenal characteristics, yet he is capable of mature judgment of his own capacities and of the people and circumstances that make up his life's contacts and experiences. He is eminently a man of business sense and easily avoids the mistakes and disasters that come to those who, though possessing remarkable faculties in some respects, are liable to erratic movements that result in unwarranted risk and failure. A man of well balanced mind, even temper and conservative habits is not necessarily lacking in enterprise of the kind that leads to great accomplishments. What a man does and what he attains depend largely upon his opportunities, but the well balanced man mentally and physically is possessed of sufficient courage to venture where favoring opportunity is presented and his judgment and even-paced energy generally carry him forward to the goal of success. Such has been the record of John Smith, a hardware and implement dealer, whose activities not only center in Walla Walla but also extend to Waitsburg, Washington, and formerly to Milton, Oregon. In a word he is one of the foremost merchants and business men of the northwest, constantly alert to opportunities which he uses wisely and well.

[Illustration: MRS. JOHN SMITH]

[Illustration: JOHN SMITH]

Mr. Smith was born in Casco, Wisconsin, on the 16th of June, 1863, a son of John M. and Kate (Larkin) Smith, both of whom were natives of Ireland. The father came to the United States with a brother when he was but a child, settling in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In his youth he learned the stone mason's trade, to which he devoted many years of his life. He passed away at the age of seventy years, while his wife died at the age of sixty-seven years. She also came to the new world in childhood with her parents and in Wisconsin became the wife of John M. Smith.

John Smith, whose name introduces this review, was reared upon the old homestead farm in Wisconsin, his father being an agriculturist as well as a stone mason. He therefore early became familiar with all duties and labors that fall to the lot of the agriculturist. He received but a limited education in the country schools of his district and at the age of fourteen years he went into the lumber woods of Wisconsin, since which time he has been dependent upon his own resources. Although young, he was rugged of constitution and he spent several months at the heavy work in the logging camps, after which he entered upon an apprenticeship to the blacksmith's trade and when still in his teens had become a skilled workman in iron. In 1884 he entered into partnership with John Huntamar and opened a blacksmith and horseshoeing shop. A year and a half later his partner withdrew from the firm and Mr. Smith was joined by others in the organization of the firm of Tierney, Smith & Company. This new company embarked in a wider field, taking over the manufacture of wagons and carriages as well as blacksmithing and horseshoeing. Two years later Mr. Smith sold his interest in the business, desiring to try his fortune in the west.

It was in 1888 that he crossed the continent to become a resident of Walla Walla and here he entered the employ of E. F. Michael, of Laporte, Indiana, as a salesman of agricultural implements in Utah, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and California. He sold goods for the Laporte house throughout these six states and remained in that position until 1893, when he resigned and embarked in business on his own account, entering into partnership with H. V. Fuller. They opened an agricultural implement warehouse in Walla Walla under the style of Fuller & Smith. This undertaking proved profitable from the beginning and after a year Mr. Smith purchased the interest of his partner in the business, which he conducted alone for a year. He then opened a branch store in Waitsburg, Washington, and in 1900 he bought out the firm of McComber & McCann, hardware dealers of Waitsburg. The hardware store was then consolidated with his implement business and the new venture was incorporated under the firm name of the John Smith Hardware Company, with Mr. Smith as the president. In order to accommodate the enlarged business he erected a brick block, seventy by one hundred and twenty feet, the finest business block in Waitsburg. In 1901 the John Smith Company of Walla Walla was incorporated, with Mr. Smith as the president, and in 1903 the Smith-Allen Hardware Company of Milton, Oregon, was organized and incorporated, Mr. Smith also becoming the president of the last named company. His interests and activities in connection with the hardware and implement business are thus extensive and important, his ramifying trade interests covering a broad territory. He carefully and wisely selects his stock, is reasonable in his prices, straightforward in his dealings and has ever recognized the fact that satisfied patrons are the best advertisement. He also has extensive land holdings in southeastern Washington and he is a heavy stockholder in the Tariff Silver Mine of British Columbia. He likewise has other property holdings. He was one of the organizers of the Interstate Building & Loan Association, the name of which was changed in 1916 to the Walla Walla Savings & Loan Association. Since its organization he has served on the loaning committee and also as one of its directors and has filled the office of vice president. During the fifteen years of its existence the company has made but two foreclosures. Efficiency has ever been his slogan and has constituted the foundation upon which he has built his success. He possesses an aggressive nature and his vocabulary knows no such word as fail. By keen attention to business, by careful management and by ready discrimination he has built up interests of large and profitable proportions which are the merited reward of his labors and which have placed him in the ranks of the foremost business men of the Inland Empire.

In 1887 Mr. Smith was united in marriage to Miss Eliza Darrow, of Madison, South Dakota, who died the following year. On the 12th of October, 1897, Mr. Smith was married to Miss Mary E. Vaile, a daughter of Rufus and Minerva Vaile, who were among the early settlers of Walla Walla. To this marriage there have been born seven children, five of whom survive, namely; Frank M., Mary Catherine, Edward Ralph, Helen B. and Bernice Elizabeth. Mr. Smith has three times been the victim of fires, each of which started on adjoining property and once almost a block away. These conflagrations swept away about forty thousand dollars worth of his property. The most disastrous of these occurred in 1902, when his barn burned and two of his children, John, four years of age, and Zera, less than three years old, were playing there and were burned to death.

It is a recognized fact in this day and age of the world that it is almost as essential to play well as to work well. In other words there must be recreation to act as a balance wheel to intense business activity lest commercialism should result in an undue development out of all proportion to other things. Fraternities provide the outlet for many men and Mr. Smith is among the active members of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and the Ancient Order of Foresters. For almost thirty years he has also been a director and once served as president of the Pacific Northwest Hardware & Implement Association and has the unusual distinction of having never missed a meeting of the board of directors. He votes with the republican party, to which he has always given his support since age conferred upon him the right of franchise. He takes an active interest in all public affairs but has never been an aspirant for office, and if asked the reason would probably answer that he has never had the time. Mrs. Smith has been a prominent member of the Walla Walla Shakespeare Club for ten years and has filled all of the offices in that organization, serving as its secretary for three terms. She is also a member of a committee of the Red Cross and is very active in its work. In early life she engaged in teaching for about eight years, having taught nine months of school when she celebrated the seventeenth anniversary of her birth. She taught for some time in the mountains of Oregon, near the Washington state line, and has also taught in this state. In church affiliation Mr. and Mrs. Smith are Catholics, loyal to the teachings of their denomination. He has justly won the proud American title of a self-made man, for he started out in life empty-handed when a youth of fourteen and his boyhood was a period of earnest and unremitting labor. In fact he has led a most strenuous life and activity and diligence have been the crowning points in his career, winning for him the prosperity which he now enjoys.

BERTON DELANY.

Among the native sons of the Pacific northwest who have elected to continue their residence in this section after reaching man's estate is Berton Delany, a well known farmer of Columbia county, whose birth occurred in Walla Walla county, April 12, 1884. His parents, George and Olive (Day) Delany, were born respectively in Tennessee and West Virginia. In 1843 the father crossed the plains with his parents when but twelve years of age and the family located in Marion county, Oregon. There he remained until 1858, when he came to the Walla Walla valley. He participated in the Rogue River Indian war. In 1864 he engaged in stock raising on an extensive scale in the Grande Ronde valley but in 1870 removed to the Crab creek country of Washington, where he devoted his attention to cattle raising until his return to the Walla Walla valley in 1880. Here he began raising grain. He was one of the earliest pioneers of this section, and here he spent his last days.

Berton Delany, who is one of six living children in a family of eight, was reared under the parental roof and attended the common and high schools in the acquirement of his education. He has concentrated his energies upon raising stock and grain, and since beginning his independent career has gained a place among the leaders in the agricultural development of Columbia county. He now owns two thousand acres, most of which is planted to wheat, and the management of his farm leaves him little time for participation in public affairs.

Mr. Delany was married in 1906 to Miss Mamie Henten, and they have two daughters, Dorothy O., and Sarah M. Mr. Delany belongs to Starbuck Lodge, No. 106, A. F. & A. M., at Starbuck, in which he has filled part of the chairs, and also to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of that place. His wife is identified with the Order of the Eastern Star.

PINCKNEY N. HARRIS.

Pinckney N. Harris, a prominent real estate dealer who has negotiated some of the most important realty transactions in the history of Walla Walla, was born in North Carolina, June 18, 1877, a son of Sidney Butler and Mary Ann (Cooper) Harris, both natives of North Carolina, where they lived and died. To them were born nine children, of whom our subject is the eighth in order of birth and of whom only four now survive. The father served throughout the entire period of the Civil war and was so fortunate as to come out without a scratch. He was mustered out of the military service at Chattanooga, after which he returned to North Carolina, where he engaged in farming until he passed away in 1898. His widow survived for sixteen years, her death occurring in 1914.

Pinckney N. Harris grew to manhood under the parental roof and in the acquirement of his education attended the district schools. As a young man he held the position of foreman in a large tannery for two years but at the time of the Spanish-American war put aside all personal interests and enlisted in Company B, First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, with which he was connected until 1900, when he received his discharge in Nebraska. He then located in Walla Walla county, Washington, and for three years followed agricultural pursuits, with which he had become familiar in his boyhood. Later he was for one and a half years engaged in mercantile business at Prescott, after which he disposed of his interests there and removed to Walla Walla, where he has since been active in the real estate field. He has carried through some of the largest sales of real estate that had ever been made in the county and is generally recognized as an authority upon conditions and prices in his line of work. He owns personally a number of valuable pieces of property in Walla Walla and has great faith in the future of the city, believing that realty here will show a steady increase in value.

In 1904 Mr. Harris was united in marriage to Miss Edith Ogden, who is a native of Oklahoma and is a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Ogden. Her parents now reside in Waitsburg, Washington, but were born respectively in Illinois and Kentucky. To Mr. and Mrs. Harris have been born three children, Arline, Edgar and Arthur T.

Mr. Harris is a member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks at Walla Walla and he also belongs to the Commercial Club, which numbers within its ranks practically all of the public-spirited and up-to-date business men of the city. He has won prominence in real estate circles and his success is doubly creditable in that it is due entirely to his own efforts.

CHARLES THOMAS MAXWELL.

Charles Thomas Maxwell is one of the pioneer photographers of western Washington, conducting a gallery at Walla Walla. He arrived in this state in April, 1883, and through all the intervening period, covering more than a third of a century, he has been closely associated with the photographic art and has maintained the highest standards in his work. He has been identified with the business in several of the leading cities of the state but has long maintained a studio in Walla Walla, where he makes his home.

Thomas Maxwell, as he is called, was born at Piney, Monroe county, Tennessee, May 20, 1865, a son of Samuel G. and Martha E. (Allison) Maxwell. He is connected in the paternal line with the Greer family. His great-grandfather, Samuel Greer, was a soldier of the Revolutionary war, serving as a private in Captain Asa Hill's company of the Second Battalion of the Cumberland County (Pa.) Militia. In the maternal line Mr. Maxwell is connected with the Allison family, his great-grandfather, John Allison, serving as a captain under Colonel Isaac of Sullivan county, Tennessee, in the battle of Kings Mountain in October, 1780, and otherwise actively sharing in all the experiences which went to make up the record of the Continental soldier in the Revolutionary war. His great-great-grandfather, John Allison, emigrating from Ireland, became a resident of Pennsylvania and was one of the Allison family from whom have descended the well known Allisons of Pennsylvania, also W. B. Allison of Iowa and Nancy (Allison) McKinley, the mother of President William McKinley. Samuel G. Maxwell, father of C. Thomas Maxwell, was born about a mile from Jonesboro, Tennessee, in 1820 and there passed away in 1867. He had attained the thirty-second degree in Masonry at the age of twenty-four years. His wife was born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, in 1826 and died in Walla Walla in 1901. Both were educated in Jonesboro and they had a family of ten children, of whom Thomas was the youngest. His eldest brother was killed in the Civil war before the birth of Thomas.

[Illustration: CHARLES T. MAXWELL]

The latter acquired a district school education at Piney and Sweetwater, Tennessee, and was a youth of eighteen years when in April, 1883, he came to Washington, making his way to Dayton, where he entered into business with his brother, Joseph D. Maxwell, who was a photographer and had made photographs in Walla Walla in 1878. He had reached Washington territory in 1877 and continued in the photographic business until his death, which occurred in 1915. Thomas Maxwell and his brother Joseph were the first photographers in Spokane, opening a permanent studio there in 1884. They were later joined by two other brothers, Grayson Y. and W. W. Maxwell, and they conducted three studios for many years--one in Spokane, one in Dayton and one in Walla Walla. Thomas Maxwell took charge of the Walla Walla establishment and is still conducting business in this city. He has at all times kept in close touch the most advanced and progressive methods and employs the latest scientific processes in photographic production.

On the 3d of July, 1911, in Walla Walla, Washington, Mr. Maxwell was united in marriage to Miss May Bradlee, who was born at San Francisco, California, December 12, 1882. The birth of her father, Frank Kimball Bradlee, occurred in California in 1849. Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell have one son, Charles Thomas (called Thomas), who was born on the 16th of July, 1913.

In politics Mr. Maxwell sometimes votes the democratic ticket, sometimes the republican. In fact he is non-partisan, supporting the candidates whom he thinks best qualified for office. For many years he has been identified with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and is also a member of the Loyal Order of Moose. His religious faith is that of the Presbyterian church. His has been an active, useful and honorable life, winning him the high esteem of all with whom he has come in contact, and Walla Walla has long numbered him among its valued, respected and representative citizens.

ALEXANDER MILNE.

Alexander Milne, who owns valuable farm holdings in Umatilla county, Oregon, now resides in Walla Walla and is well and favorably known in the city. He was born in Scotland, August 1, 1856, a son of William and Janet (Reid) Milne, also natives of that country, where they passed their entire lives. Our subject, who is one of three living children in a family of eight, received his education in his native country and remained with his parents until he was seventeen years old. He then started out on his own account and came to America, believing that this country offered better opportunities to an ambitious young man than the older countries of Europe. He went at once to Umatilla county, Oregon, and for some time was employed as a common laborer, although later he was engaged in railroad work and in freighting. In 1882 he purchased a farm in Umatilla county, Oregon, and for almost three decades his time and attention were given to the operation of that place. He worked hard and, moreover, so planned his labors as to receive the maximum result and the business phase of farming also received his careful study and he accumulated a competence which in 1910 enabled him to retire from active life. He then rented his farm of three hundred and twenty acres and removed to Walla Walla. The value of his place is enhanced by the excellence of the improvements thereon and he derives a good income from its rental.

In 1887 Mr. Milne was united in marriage to Miss Mary Armour, a native of Canada, and they have one son, Edmund, who after graduating from Whitman College went to Harvard University, where he completed his course in 1915. He is now a member of the faculty of Bowdoin College of Brunswick, Maine.

Mr. Milne is a stanch republican but his interests in public affairs is that of a public-spirited citizen and not that of a would-be office holder. His wife belongs to the Presbyterian church and his support can always be counted upon for movements seeking higher moral standards. Although he came to the northwest a boy in his teens without money or any usual advantages of any kind he has through his own efforts gained financial independence and justly ranks as one of the substantial residents of Walla Walla.

J. C. MELGER.

J. C. Melger, who since 1914 has owned and operated the farm that he now occupies on section 14, township 8 north, range 37 east in Walla Walla county, has in the course of an active and well spent life won substantial reward from his labors. While he acquired the ownership of his present farm only three years ago he has long been a resident of Walla Walla county, where he arrived in 1888, while Washington was still a territory. He was born in Russia, January 31, 1868, a son of Christ and Mary (Layman) Melger, both of whom spent their entire lives in Russia.

J. C. Melger was reared to his eighteenth year in his native country and acquired his education in its public schools. The favorable reports which had reached him concerning America and its opportunities led him to the determination to try his fortune in the new world and in 1886 he bade adieu to friends and native country and sailed for the United States. He was penniless when he arrived in New York city, but a fellow traveler advanced him money with which to reach Chicago and from there he wired to some friends in Kansas to send him the funds to continue his journey westward. Accordingly he made his way to the Sunflower state, where he spent two years. But still the lure of the west was upon him, beckoning him farther on, and in 1888 he made his way to the Pacific coast country. It was in that year that he arrived in Walla Walla county, Washington, where he secured employment on a ranch. He thus worked for eleven years in order to gain a start, after which he began farming on his own account as a renter. He was thus engaged until 1914, when his industry and economy had brought him sufficient capital to enable him to purchase his present place, comprising two hundred and eighteen acres, on which he now resides. He has since operated this farm and in connection with his home place he cultivates one hundred and sixty acres of rented land. He is industrious and energetic and is meeting with good success in his undertakings.

[Illustration: MRS. J. C. MELGER]

[Illustration: J. C. MELGER]

On July 20, 1915, Mr. Melger was united in marriage to Mrs. Clara Matthews and to them has been born a son, Clyde Joseph. By her former marriage Mrs. Melger had a daughter, Mary Thelma. Politically Mr. Melger is a republican, having supported the party since becoming a naturalized American citizen. His study of the political questions and issues of the day has led him to a belief in the efficacy of republican principles as a factor in good government. He belongs to Welcome Lodge, No. 117, I. O. O. F., of Dixie, and to Mountain Gem Lodge, No. 136, K. P. He came to this country a poor boy unable to speak the English language, but he soon mastered the tongue of his adopted land and he is today one of the progressive and influential men of his section, actuated in all that he does by the spirit of western enterprise and allowing no obstacles or difficulties to bar his path if they can be overcome by persistent, earnest and honorable effort.

HARRY W. MARTIN.

Harry W. Martin is one of the wide-awake and enterprising business men of Walla Walla county. He is now secretary and treasurer of the Blalock Fruit & Produce Company of Walla Walla, becoming half owner in this business in April, 1917. He was born in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, June 4, 1875, a son of Levi F. and Julia (Girard) Martin, both of whom were natives of the state of New York, whence they removed westward to Wisconsin after their marriage. The mother died in Wisconsin and at a later period, following his retirement from active business, the father came to Walla Walla and spent the last five years of his life in the home of his son, Harry W., passing away in 1910. He was for many years one of the leading business men of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, where during the years of his active business life he devoted his attention to merchandising.

Well defined business plans and purposes have actuated Harry W. Martin at every point in his career since he made his initial step in the business world. He was educated in the public schools of Chippewa Falls and in the University of Wisconsin, thus being splendidly qualified for life's practical duties and responsibilities. On the completion of his university course he became associated with his father in merchandising and was identified with the business until 1898, when he responded to the call of the west and made his way to Walla Walla. His first business connection here was with the Pacific Coast Elevator Company, With which he was associated for four years. Subsequently he served as private secretary to the firm of Moore & Sons, the senior partner being Governor Miles C. Moore. That association was maintained for two years, at the end of which time Mr. Martin became teller of the Baker-Boyer National Bank, in which capacity he continued for six years. He then resigned on the organization of the Inland Transfer Company, which he formed as a partner of R. H. Johnson. That business was subsequently sold to good advantage and Mr. Martin continued with Mr. Johnson as office manager of the Electric Feed Mill. During his connection with Mr. Johnson he also conducted a fire insurance business on his own account and yet remains active in that line, writing a large amount of insurance each year. In 1917 he purchased a half interest in the Blalock Fruit & Produce Company, of which he became the secretary and treasurer, and he is now bending his efforts to the executive management and direction of this business, which, carefully conducted, is meeting with very substantial success.

In 1904 Mr. Martin was united in marriage to Miss Ada Goodhue, her father being James P. Goodhue, one of the pioneers of Walla Walla. Mr. and Mrs. Martin now have two daughters, Marion and George.

Mr. Martin gives his political allegiance to the democratic party, while fraternally he is identified with the following organizations: Blue Mountain Lodge, No. 13, A. F. & A. M., of which he is a past master; Walla Walla Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; Washington Commandery, No. 1, K. T.; Oriental Consistory, No. 2, A. & A. S. R.; El Katif Temple A. A. O. N. M. S., of Spokane; and Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E. Loyalty to any cause which he espouses has ever been one of the marked characteristics of Mr. Martin. Those who know him recognize his sterling worth, place dependence upon his substantial qualities and feel that his word is as good as his bond, for that fact has been demonstrated throughout his entire connection with the business interests of the west. The limitless opportunities of the Pacific coast country make constant call to the men of business ability and learning of the east and Mr. Martin has found here ample opportunity for the exercise of his industry and enterprise--his dominant qualities.

FRANK ZÜGER.

No student of history can carry his investigations far into the records of Walla Walla county without learning of the close and prominent connection which the Züger family has had with the agricultural development of this section of the state. Their labors have been of the greatest benefit in converting the wild land into productive fields, making the Walla Walla valley one of the great wheat producing regions of the northwest. Frank Züger is now extensively engaged in farming on section 2, township 9 north, range 37 east. It was in this township of Walla Walla county that he was born August 4, 1888, his parents being Marcus and Martha (Jacober) Züger, of whom mention is made elsewhere in this work. He pursued a district school education, supplemented by study in the city schools of Walla Walla and by a course in the Empire Business College, thus becoming well qualified for life's practical and responsible duties. In 1908, at the age of twenty years, he began farming on his own account, operating a portion of his father's extensive land holdings, and at the present time he is cultivating between sixteen and seventeen hundred acres of wheat land, thus being one of the big operators in this section of the state. His great broad fields, a waving sea of grain, are a delight to the eye, indicating the ready response which nature makes when intelligent care and cultivation are applied to the fields.

On the 15th of September, 1908, Mr. Züger was united in marriage to Miss Lulu Edith Corkrum, a daughter of Jasper Corkrum, who was one of the early pioneers of Walla Walla county but is now residing in Alberta, Canada. To this union have been born four children, Martha Magdalene, Wanda Belle, Walter Elroy and Frances Elizabeth.

In his political views Mr. Züger is an earnest republican. Fraternally he is connected with Delta Lodge, No. 70, K. P., and with El Kinda Temple, D. O. K. K., of Walla Walla. He is also a member of Waitsburg Lodge, F. & A. M. His business attainments place him with the foremost representatives of agricultural life in this section of the state. He is alert, energetic and resourceful in business affairs, while at the same time his influence and aid are given on the side of progress and improvement. His entire life has been actuated by a spirit of advancement and he stands for a high type of American manhood and citizenship.

P. S. ALDRICH.

The time and attention of P. S. Aldrich, a resident of Walla Walla, are given to the supervision of his farming interests. He is a native of Walla Walla county, born January 6, 1877, and is a son of Milton and Sarah Ann (Stanfield) Aldrich. The father was born in New York state, and the mother in Iowa. In their youth they became convinced that there were better opportunities for advancement in the far west. They made the long journey across the plains with ox teams and located in Walla Walla county, Washington, where, after their marriage, they engaged in farming. The father passed away here in 1910, but the mother survives at the age of seventy-two years. They became the parents of three children: Dora, now the wife of F. M. Walker; Fred; and P. S., of this review.

The last named has passed his entire life in Walla Walla county and is indebted for his education to its public schools. Under his father's able direction he early became familiar with farm work and aided in the operation of the homestead until he became of age. He then began his independent career and since starting out for himself his resources have steadily increased. He now owns eight hundred acres of good land in Walla Walla county and is engaged in both wheat and stock raising, finding such a course more profitable than specializing in either industry. He owns an attractive and commodious residence in Walla Walla and is financially independent.

Mr. Aldrich was married in 1908 to Miss Mary Abbey, who was born in Clay county, Iowa, and they have become the parents of three children, Percy M., Robert W. and Hazel E. Mr. and Mrs. Aldrich hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church and do everything in their power to further its work. Mr. Aldrich supports the republican party but has never held office with the exception of serving on the school board. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Dixie and is also identified with the Elks. The same qualities which have made him popular in those organizations have gained him the goodwill of all who have come in contact with him. Eastern Washington offers the best of opportunities to her citizens but in order to gain success a man must be ready to take advantage of these opportunities and must display the characteristics of industry, determination and good judgment, all of which are strongly marked characteristics of P. S. Aldrich.

A. G. WEARY.

A. G. Weary is well known in agricultural and financial circles in Walla Walla county. He is engaged in farming on section 12, township 6 north, range 33 east, and he is a member of the board of directors of the Touchet State Bank. England numbers him among her native sons, for he was born in that country in the county of Cornwall, August 2, 1861, his parents being Edwin and Eliza (Oliver) Weary. The mother died in England in 1877, the father having come to the United States about 1870. For several years he worked in the mines of Pennsylvania and of Nevada. About 1878 he arrived in Walla Walla county, Washington, where he turned his attention to farming and, adding to his possessions from time to time as his financial resources permitted, he acquired twelve hundred and forty acres of land in the vicinity of Touchet and a tract of one hundred and sixty acres about six miles west of the town. He was also heavily interested in both the cattle and sheep industries, owning five thousand head of sheep at the time of his death. In a word he was a most progressive, enterprising and prosperous business man, owing his success entirely to well directed energy and thrift. He died July 21, 1896, while his wife had passed away in 1877.

A. G. Weary came to the United States in 1878, when a youth of seventeen years. He had acquired his education in the public schools of England, supplemented by an academic course, and after reaching the new world he worked on his father's ranch and was associated with his father in the live stock business up to the time of the latter's death. He is now the owner of nine hundred and twenty acres of rich and valuable land and is still extensively engaged in raising cattle and sheep in connection with the operation of his fields. In fact he stands as one of the foremost farmers and stock raisers in eastern Washington, and in addition to tilling his own soil he also operates six hundred and forty acres belonging to his father's estate which was willed to the children of Mr. Weary. He has been one of the dominant factors in the organization of the Touchet State Bank and was made a member of its board of directors, in which position he still continues.

On November 2, 1901, Mr. Weary was united in marriage to Miss Minnie Hesser, a native of Germany, who emigrated to the United States in young womanhood. They have two children, Edwin F. and Hilda M., both at home.

[Illustration: A. G. WEARY AND FAMILY]

In politics Mr. Weary is a republican and he belongs to the Community church of Touchet, while his wife is identified with the Lutheran church. Their aid and influence are always given on the side of progress and improvement, of righteousness, truth and reform. Mr. Weary is a man of marked force, ability and resourcefulness. His plans are well defined and promptly executed. He recognizes and utilizes opportunities that others pass heedlessly by, and fortunate in possessing character and ability that inspire confidence in others, the simple weight of these qualities has carried him into important relations. He is today one of the foremost business men of Walla Walla county and his course has won him honor and the respect of all with whom he has been associated.

A. B. ROTHROCK.

Among the highly esteemed residents of Walla Walla is A. B. Rothrock, who is now renting his large farm and is living retired after many years devoted to agricultural pursuits. He was born in Marion county, Oregon, June 5, 1870, a son of A. B. and Lucretia C. (Cox) Rothrock, natives respectively of North Carolina and Kentucky. The father's birth occurred in 1816 and in 1839 he removed to Illinois, which at that time was still largely unsettled. In 1863 he once more moved westward, going to Iowa, and two years later he was again numbered with the pioneers, crossing the plains in that year to Oregon. He engaged in farming for some time in Marion county, that state, but in 1868 removed to Umatilla county, where he developed a large herd of cattle, becoming one of the leading cattlemen of that section. When the country became so thickly settled that the free ranges disappeared he turned his attention to wheat growing and in that connection, too, won prominence and prosperity. He was a man of such energy and such unusual soundness of judgment that he gained a position of leadership in whatever he undertook. In his later years he removed to Weston in order to give his children better school advantages and there his death occurred in 1881. His widow survived for many years, dying in 1912.

A. B. Rothrock was reared at home and after attending the district schools continued his education in the Oregon State Normal School at Weston. He received practical training of great value under his father, as from boyhood he assisted the latter in his extensive farming operations. After reaching mature years he continued to work with his father until he was about twenty-five years old, when he began farming independently, renting the home farm of four hundred acres. In 1902 he purchased three hundred and sixty-nine acres of land in Umatilla county, which he farmed in connection with the home place, the successful management of the seven hundred and sixty-nine acres of land requiring his undivided time and attention. He continued to reside upon the home farm until 1909, when he removed with his family to Walla Walla in order to the better educate his children. He continued, however, to give personal supervision to the cultivation of his farm in Umatilla county, Oregon. In 1915 he purchased the homestead and now owns about eight hundred acres of land, which he is renting, as he feels that he has earned a period of leisure. The success which he gained as a farmer was due to the same qualities of foresight, energy and close application to his work that characterize the prosperous business man and he has always felt that agriculture should be recognized as having the same status as other industries.

On the 25th of August, 1897, Mr. Rothrock was married to Miss May Steen, a daughter of Milton Steen, one of the pioneer farmers of Umatilla county. To this union have been born four children: Velma S., who was graduated from the Walla Walla high school with the class of 1917; Forrest B. and Arthur, who are attending the Sharpstein school; and James S.

Mr. Rothrock gives his political allegiance to the democratic party but has never cared to take an active part in public affairs. However, his influence has been felt as a force making for civic advancement and he has always discharged to the full all obligations resting upon him as a citizen. He belongs to Weston Lodge, No. 58, I. O. O. F., of Weston, Oregon, and the teachings of the craft have guided him in the various relations of life. His salient qualities are such that to know him intimately is to respect him for his sterling worth, and his friends hold him in the warmest regard.

DELOS H. COFFIN.

An enterprising and active business man was Delos H. Coffin, who for many years was identified with farming interests in Walla Walla county and who passed away in 1909. His life record had spanned the intervening years from 1854, and his diligence and determination had won him a substantial measure of success, numbering him among the self-made men of this section of the country. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, August 1, 1854, a son of George D. Coffin, who in 1855 crossed the plains with his family and cast in his lot with the pioneer settlers of Oregon. He took up his abode upon a farm and there Delos H. Coffin was reared, sharing with the others of the household in all of the hardships and privations which constitute features of pioneer life in the northwest. He also assisted in the arduous task of developing a new farm and early learned the value of industry and persistency of purpose as factors in the pursuits of life.

In 1881 Mr. Coffin was united in marriage to Miss Stella Sickler, a native of Minnesota and a daughter of James and Mary (Cook) Sickler, who were natives of Pennsylvania, whence they removed westward to Minnesota in the early '50s. In 1859 they crossed the plains with ox teams and covered wagons to Washington, experiencing all the hardships of such a trip, and eventually they reached the Walla Walla valley, where they took up their abode upon a farm which the father purchased, his land including the present site of College Place. The original home of the family was a little log cabin and they lived in true frontier style until their labors enabled them to secure many of the comforts and conveniences known to the older civilization of the east. The mother died upon the old homestead and the father afterward sold that property and removed to a farm which he purchased on Mill Creek. In their family were twelve children, of whom five are now living.

[Illustration: DELOS H. COFFIN]

After the marriage of Mr. Coffin he began farming on his own account, purchasing a tract of school land upon which not a furrow had been turned or an improvement made. He at once began to develop the property and in the course of years added fine buildings to the place. He later purchased more land and Mrs. Coffin is now the owner of two hundred and forty acres left to her by her husband. Since his death she has acquired another tract of two hundred acres and also bought a farm of one hundred and eighty-four and a third acres near Dixie. She likewise has four acres where she now lives, on which she has erected an attractive home. Her land is all wheat land, very rich and productive, and her fields annually bring to her gratifying harvests. Mrs. Coffin manages all of the estate and displays excellent business ability and resourcefulness in controlling her interests.

Mr. Coffin departed this life in 1909. He was a consistent member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and was laid to rest in the Odd Fellows cemetery. He also belonged to the Fraternal Order of Eagles and took an active part in its work. His political allegiance was given to the republican party and he served as county commissioner. His was a well spent life, his career being one of activity and usefulness, and all who knew him entertained for him warm regard by reason of his many sterling traits of character. Like her husband, Mrs. Coffin is widely and favorably known in Walla Walla county and has a circle of friends almost coextensive with the circle of her acquaintance.

SAMUEL B. SWEENEY.

Samuel B. Sweeney, who is a well known landowner residing in Walla Walla, is a native of the northwest, his birth having occurred in Oregon, May 24, 1858. His parents, Rev. Alexander W. and Angeline (Allen) Sweeney, were born respectively in Missouri and Tennessee. In 1847 the mother accompanied her parents to Oregon, the journey being made by ox team. On arriving there Mr. Allen took up a donation claim and there the family home was established. Rev. Sweeney became a resident of Oregon in 1850 and later was married in that state. Subsequently he spent some time in California but in 1872 he removed with his family to Waitsburg, Washington, whence two years later he came to Walla Walla, where he passed away. His widow, however, survives at the advanced age of eighty-one years. They were the parents of three children, of whom two survive.

Samuel B. Sweeney attended school in both California and Oregon and in early manhood was a teacher in the old Whitman College. At length he decided to abandon that profession and turned his attention to farming, renting land until he had saved enough money to purchase a farm. He owns four hundred and eighty acres in Walla Walla county and also several smaller tracts of land and he derives from his holdings a gratifying annual income. His business affairs have been managed capably and he is now in excellent financial circumstances.

In 1893 Mr. Sweeney was married to Miss Adna Fudge, a native of Walla Walla county and a daughter of Adam and Mary (Perkins) Fudge. At an early day in the history of Oregon the Fudge family removed to that state, whence they eventually came to Walla Walla county, Washington. The father is now deceased but the mother still survives. To Mr. and Mrs. Sweeney have been born two children, Philip B. and Eleanor D., both of whom are attending the Oregon Agricultural College at Corvallis.

Mr. Sweeney was reared in the faith of the Presbyterian church, and his wife is a Christian Scientist. He is a stanch republican and has taken the interest of a good citizen in public affairs but has not held office with the exception of serving as a member of the school board. He belongs to the Masonic blue lodge of Walla Walla and in his daily life has exemplified the teachings of that order. Beginning his career empty-handed, he has reached the goal of success through quick recognition of opportunity, hard work and the careful management of his affairs.

JOHN A. DANIELSON.

John A. Danielson, residing in Waitsburg, is prominently connected with farming and live stock interests in Walla Walla county. He was born in Sweden, January 7, 1862, his parents being Andrew and Anna (Anderson) Danielson, who came to the United States in 1865 and first took up their abode near Grand Rapids, Michigan. They settled on a farm there and continued to reside thereon until called to their final rest. John A. Danielson was but three years of age on the emigration of the family to the new world. He was reared and educated in the district schools and in the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, Michigan.

For one term Mr. Danielson taught school in that state and in 1884 he came to Washington, settling on Whiskey creek in Walla Walla county, where he filed on a homestead and preempted another quarter section. He afterward purchased additional land, adding to his holdings from time to time until his possessions now aggregate three thousand acres. For the past eleven years he has made his home in Waitsburg in order that his children might enjoy the advantages of the public school system of this city. He is quite extensively engaged in cattle raising as well as in general farming, running two hundred head of Hereford cattle on his ranch. He is a most progressive agriculturist and stock raiser whose interests are wisely directed and carefully managed. He cultivates his farm according to the most progressive methods and as a stock raiser pays close attention to all the scientific principles which have now become a feature of the live stock business on all up-to-date farms. He is likewise a stockholder and a member of the board of directors of the Farmers Union Warehouse Company.

On November 8, 1891, Mr. Danielson was married to Miss Louisa J. Holderman, of Columbia county, Washington. Her father, Gilderoy Holderman, came to this state from Missouri in 1879, settling in what is now Columbia county. His family joined him here in 1881. He was a Civil war veteran and his early death, which occurred October 28, 1883, was the direct result of wounds and exposure which he suffered while defending the Union cause on the battlefields of the south. To Mr. and Mrs. Danielson have been born twelve children, namely: Anna L., Jessie M., Frank, Naomi, Dewey, Cecil, Ralph, Lola, Roy, Inez, John A., Jr., and one who died in infancy. The others are still under the parental roof.

Mr. Danielson is a stalwart republican and for several years he served as a member of the school board while living on his farm and is now a member of the board of education in Waitsburg. He has never sought political office, however, but is always to be found ready and willing to give his aid and assistance to any plans and measures which tend to uphold civic standards or advance the best interests of his community. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and they are held in the highest esteem by reason of their sterling worth, their integrity and their fidelity to all measures of individual and community uplift. Mr. Danielson certainly deserves much credit for what he has accomplished in a business way. He started out in life empty-handed but possessed the substantial qualities of industry and determination, and upon those qualities as a foundation he has builded his prosperity. Moreover, the course he has pursued is indicative of the fact that success and an honored name may be won simultaneously.

GEORGE L. BAILEY.

Among those men who have found success in following agricultural pursuits and are now able to live retired is George L. Bailey, of Walla Walla, who was born near The Dalles, Oregon, on the 10th of April, 1874, a son of Lyman J. and Mary (Graham) Bailey. The father was a native of New Hampshire and the mother of Missouri and they were married in Salilo, Oregon. The father's parents died when he was but a boy and at the age of nineteen, in the year 1849, he crossed the isthmus and made his way to the California gold fields. However, he did not work in the mines but drifted north into Oregon and settled at Salilo, where he learned the trade of a ship carpenter. For several years he was employed by the Oregon & Washington Railroad & Navigation Company in boat building and during those years he was associated with Lew Thompson in the cattle business, Mr. Bailey working at his trade while Mr. Thompson took care of their cattle interests. In the hard winter of 1871-2 they lost most of their cattle and Mr. Bailey and Mr. Thompson then dissolved partnership and the former gave up his position in the shipyard and went to Klickitat county, where he took up a homestead. He was the first settler and built the first house near Bickleton on Alder creek, hauling the lumber for floors some sixty miles. There he engaged in the live stock business and farming, being identified with those interests up to the time of his death.

George L. Bailey, whose name introduces this review, pursued a public school education, which was supplemented by four years' study in Whitman Academy. Following the completion of his course there he went east to Boston, Massachusetts, where he attended Burdett's Business College. On finishing his studies on the Atlantic coast he returned to Walla Walla and soon afterward was united in marriage, in July, 1898, to Miss Etta Aldrich, a daughter of Newton Aldrich, one of the earliest of Walla Walla county's pioneers, having come into this section of the state from California with a bunch of cattle in 1858. He was so favorably impressed with the country and its prospects that he decided to remain and make his home. Accordingly he took up a preemption claim two and a half miles southwest of Dixie and thereon resided to the time of his death, which occurred in 1888. He was very successful and acquired large land holdings.

Mr. Bailey engaged in farming in Walla Walla county, his wife owning two hundred acres of land which she received from her father's estate, and Mr. Bailey's career as a farmer was begun upon that tract. As he has prospered in his undertakings he has purchased much other land and is now the owner of twelve hundred and eighty acres, nearly all of which is valuable wheat land. He continued to cultivate his fields until 1917 but has now rented his farm for the coming year and is giving his attention to other business interests. In wheat production he has been very successful. He has cultivated his land and cared for his crops according to the most modern methods and has annually gathered large harvests, the sale of which has added materially to his income and financial resources.

Mr. and Mrs. Bailey have become the parents of the following children, Mildred E., Dorothy A., Helen A., Gladys I., Lyman N. and Donald L. All of the children are still at home and Mildred E. and Dorothy A. are attending high school.

Mr. Bailey gives his political allegiance to the republican party and in religious faith he and his wife are Congregationalists. Both are widely known for their genuine worth. They have displayed many sterling traits of character which have gained for them warm regard and as a business man Mr. Bailey has long occupied a creditable position in this section of the state. Notwithstanding the obstacles and difficulties in his path he has advanced steadily step by step and his orderly progression has brought him to a place among the most successful agriculturists of Walla Walla county.

PHILIP YENNEY.

Philip Yenney, deceased, was for many years a well known and prominent agriculturist of western Washington. He became identified with the state in pioneer times and lived to witness the remarkable changes that were wrought as the work of development and improvement was carried forward, and with the passing years he bore his full share in the work of general progress and improvement.

Mr. Yenney was a native of Germany and came to the United States when a youth of sixteen or seventeen years and for some time worked on the Potomac river in connection with its traffic interests, while subsequently he was employed by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company. Later he secured a situation on a plantation in Virginia and on leaving the Old Dominion went to Iowa, where he met the lady whom he afterward made his wife, her parents having removed from Pennsylvania to Indiana and subsequently to Iowa, where they were residing at that time. In 1860 Mr. Yenney came to the northwest, which was then far removed from civilization, being cut off by the long stretches of hot sand and the high mountains that often seemed an insurmountable barrier to the traveler who would have desired to become a resident of the Pacific coast country. Undeterred by hardships and difficulties which he must meet, Mr. Yenney made his way to Washington and for some years was engaged in freighting between Walla Walla and the Idaho mines. The district into which he came bore little resemblance to the highly developed section that one sees here today. After freighting for a time he became connected with Mr. Still in the conduct of a trading post on Hangman's creek, near the present site of Spokane, a place which was then known as the California ranch. Subsequently he engaged in farming, with which he was prominently identified up to the time of his death, and as his financial resources increased he kept adding to his holdings by additional purchase until he had acquired some sixteen hundred acres of wheat land and one thousand acres of grazing land. He thus won a position among the foremost agriculturists of this state and his life record illustrates what it is possible to accomplish in the west when the individual possesses industry, determination and laudable ambition.

[Illustration: MRS. PHILIP YENNEY]

[Illustration: PHILIP YENNEY]

In early manhood Philip Yenney was united in marriage to Miss Rachael Winnett, a native of Pennsylvania, and they became the parents of the following children. John Fred, born in Iowa, June 5, 1858, came with his parents to Washington in 1860 and was educated in Walla Walla. During his active business life he followed farming in Columbia county, but died at San Diego, California, where he had gone with the hope of benefiting his health. He was three times married and left a family of seven children. His third wife now makes her home in East Walla Walla. Sarah M., the second of the family, married James McKee, of Walla Walla, and they made their home at Pomeroy. She died, leaving a husband and six children. Robert C. was born, reared and educated in Walla Walla. He was graduated in 1889 from Whitman College. Subsequently he entered the University of Pennsylvania, where he pursued a medical course and was graduated with the degree of M. D. After spending one year in hospital work he located in Portland, where he has since engaged in practice. He is now at the head of a hospital unit ready for service when the government calls. William H. and Lewis O. are represented on another page of this volume. Margaret, the youngest child, married Ernest E. Brown, of Spokane, where she now resides. Two children, Thomas J. and Anna R., died while young.

Mr. Yenney was a consistent member of the Lutheran church and died in that faith on the 28th of June, 1905. His life was at all times honorable and upright and commended him to the confidence and goodwill of those with whom he came in contact. His widow still survives him and now occupies the old family home at No. 834 East Alder street in Walla Walla. She, too, is a consistent Christian and has membership in the Methodist Episcopal church.

WILLIAM H. YENNEY.

The great wheat fields of Walla Walla county and the surrounding sections of this state and of northern Oregon are always a matter of marvel to the traveler, who thinks of the west as a region of mines and of forests and little realizes what wonderful strides have been made along agricultural lines. Prominent in connection with farming interests in Walla Walla county is William H. Yenney, who superintends his operations from his city home.

He was born in this county October 17, 1869, and is a son of Philip and Rachael (Winnett) Yenney. He spent his early youth on the old home farm and was educated in the district schools and in Whitman College, which he attended for two years. After reaching adult age he continued to remain on the old homestead and cooperated with his father in the latter's extensive farming and horse raising enterprises. Since his father's death he and his brother Lewis have operated the farm in partnership and are classed among the most successful agriculturists of Walla Walla county. There is no phase of progressive farming with which they are not familiar and their thoroughly up-to-date methods produce splendid results. They have broad wheat fields and also produce other crops, while at the same time they are extensively and successfully engaged in stock raising. In the spring of 1917 W. H. Yenney removed to Walla Walla, where he now lives in a handsome new residence at No. 20 Merriam street.

At Dayton, Washington, Mr. Yenney was united in marriage to Miss Cora Edgell, a daughter of William and Sarah (Kuykendall) Edgell, of Illinois. To Mr. and Mrs. Yenney have been born four children, namely: Frank, who is now on the home ranch; Philip, now attending high school; and Clark and Richard, also in school. Philip Yenney is president of the champion football team of the northwest, which is the Walla Walla high school team. It has defeated all competitors in the northwest and also the Salt Lake City team.

Mr. and Mrs. Yenney are active workers on committees for the successful prosecution of the war, being prominently connected with the work of the Red Cross, the Young Women's Christian Association and the Young Men's Christian Association. Mrs. Yenney is a Member of the Methodist Episcopal church and, like her husband, enjoys the warm regard and friendship of all with whom she has been associated. Her home is noted for its warm-hearted hospitality and is the center of a cultured society circle. Fraternally Mr. Yenney is connected with Washington Lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., and he gives his political allegiance to the democratic party. He is regarded as one of the foremost business men of Walla Walla county and there is no phase of modern day enterprise having to do with farming operations with which he is not familiar.

LEWIS O. YENNEY.

Lewis O. Yenney, a representative farmer of Walla Walla county, is residing at No. 834 East Alder street in the city of Walla Walla. He has spent his entire life in this county, where his birth occurred on the 8th of May, 1872. He represents one of its old and prominent pioneer families, his parents being Philip J. and Rachael (Winnett) Yenney, who are mentioned elsewhere in this volume.

His youthful experiences were those of the farmbred boy. He spent his early life under the parental roof and was early trained to the best methods of tilling the soil and caring for the crops. His education was acquired in the district schools, supplemented by study in Whitman College, and on reaching manhood he became the active assistant of his father and brother in the management of extensive farming interests. For some years prior to the father's death the brothers had entire charge of the important agricultural business which he had built up. He gave to them each an interest in the farm and since his death they have continued its cultivation and improvement. It is equipped with all of the latest accessories and conveniences known to the model farm of the twentieth century. There are large and commodious buildings for the shelter of grain and stock and the latest improved machinery promotes the work of the fields.

[Illustration: WILLIAM H. YENNEY]

[Illustration: MRS. WILLIAM H. YENNEY]

Mr. Yenney resides with his mother and is looking after her interest, comfort and welfare in her old age, for she has now reached the age of eighty-five, having been born on the 22d of November, 1832. She is remarkably well preserved for one of her years and keeps in touch with interests and events of modern days. The fact that many of Mr. Yenney's warmest friends are those who have known him from his boyhood is an indication that his life has been an active, useful and honorable one. For forty-five years he has lived in this county and has witnessed much of its growth and development. He has seen its lands reclaimed and cultivated, its forests cut and its other natural resources utilized. As the years have passed on he has borne his share in the work of general improvement and progress, while at the same time he has conducted his private business interests in a way that has brought very substantial results, and today Walla Walla county numbers him among her leading agriculturists.

FRED GREENVILLE.

Fred Greenville, of Walla Walla, who is engaged in farming, was born in Minnesota on the 16th of July, 1860, a son of Peter and Jean (Mitchell) Greenville. The father followed the occupation of farming in Rice county, Minnesota, where he spent his entire life. Fred Greenville acquired a limited education in the common schools, but during much of the time when he should have attended school, his services were required upon the farm and his training was that of the fields rather than of the schoolroom. On reaching his twentieth year he came to Washington in 1881, settling in Walla Walla county, where he began work as a farm hand. He continued to work for wages for a number of years but in 1881 took up a homestead on the Eureka Flats, which he operated with hired help for several years. Subsequently he rented land and began farming for himself, and as his financial resources have increased, he has added to his holdings from time to time until his farming possessions now aggregate eleven hundred and twenty acres of valuable wheat land in Walla Walla county. In fact he is one of the leading wheat growers of this section of the state and cultivates fifteen hundred acres, renting three quarter sections of his land. He also leases a section and a half of land belonging to others and a quarter section on Dry creek, together with a half section in Franklin county. His life history proves conclusively that activity doesn't tire, that it gives resisting power and develops further strength. He has learned how best to conserve time and effort and to make each blow tell in the accomplishment of his purpose. His business affairs are most carefully systematized and the work of the farm is done in the same methodical manner as that of a commercial enterprise.

In 1890 Mr. Greenville was united in marriage to Miss Amelia Timm, of Paha, Adams county, Washington, by whom he has five children, as follows: Ollie, the wife of Adolphus Myers, who is employed by her father; and Ettie, Lloyd, Lola and Howard, all at home.

Mr. Greenville gives his political allegiance to the republican party and was elected to the board of county commissioners of Walla Walla county in 1908, serving in that capacity for one term. Fraternally he is identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to Trinity Lodge, No. 121, and also to the encampment and the canton. He is also a member of the Walla Walla Lodge, No. 287, B. P. O. E., of Walla Walla Aerie, No. 26, F. O. E., and of the Woodmen of the World. Notwithstanding his lack of early advantages and educational opportunities, Mr. Greenville has made steady progress in his business career and his ambition and energy, which are among his most marked characteristics, constitute an example well worthy of emulation.

H. A. REYNOLDS.

H. A. Reynolds is largely concentrating his time and efforts upon general agricultural pursuits, being located on the Ransom Clark donation claim adjoining Walla Walla. He has, however, other important business connections and is well known as a progressive and representative citizen of his section of the state. He was born on the farm where he now resides, October 14, 1863, his parents being Almos H. and Lettice (Millican) Reynolds. He was reared upon the home farm and acquired his education in the public schools, supplemented by a high school course at Ann Arbor, Michigan. He afterward attended the State University of Michigan, from which he was graduated with the class of 1886, winning the Bachelor of Arts degree. He then took up the study of law under J. B. Allen but failing health caused him to discontinue his preparation for the bar for a time. Later, however, he continued his reading under B. L. Sharpstein and was admitted to the bar. He then practiced law for a brief period but on account of his health gave up professional activity and turned his attention to farming that he might be benefited by the outdoor life. He has since been connected with agricultural pursuits and is now giving his time largely to the further development and improvement of the Ransom Clark donation, which constitutes one of the valuable farming properties in the vicinity of Walla Walla. He has other important business connections, however, and is a stockholder in the Farmers Savings Bank and in the Malcolm McLean Grocery Company. He also is identified with other business interests of Walla Walla, where he likewise has made judicious investments in property. In business affairs he is a man of sound judgment and keen discrimination, readily judging between the essential and the non-essential, and his efforts have been most intelligently directed and his investments most judiciously made.

In 1891 Mr. Reynolds was united in marriage to Miss Bertha C. Truesdell, of Minnesota, who was a teacher in the Whitman College. To this marriage have been born five children: Carrie, who is a graduate of Mount Holyoke College of South Hadley, Massachusetts; Charlotte, who was graduated from Whitman College with the class of 1917; Margaret, who is in her junior year at Whitman College; Harry Jay; and Allen Lynn.

Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds are members of the Congregational church and take an active interest in its work and in many projects which are developed for the public good. In his political views Mr. Reynolds is a stalwart republican, and while never an aspirant for office, he has been a prominent factor in the affairs of his party for years past. He was elected to the board of county commissioners as an advocate of the project of building a new courthouse and was elected on that issue. He was also a member of the board that had in charge the construction of the new courthouse and at all times his aid and influence have been given to those projects which are looking to the present welfare and the future advancement of city and county. Those who know him esteem him as a man of genuine worth. His liberal education, his public spirit, his recognition of the duties and obligations of citizenship make him one of the valued and representative men of Walla Walla county and his social qualities make for personal popularity.

GEORGE C. ALEXANDER.

Thirty-six years have been added to the cycle of the centuries since George C. Alexander became a resident of Walla Walla county. For many years he was actively engaged in general farming and still makes his home on section 12, township 6 north, range 35 east, but is now living retired, having in former years acquired a handsome competence that enables him to rest from further labor. He was born in La Fayette, Indiana, on the 18th of March, 1861, a son of Emanuel and Antha (Stretch) Alexander, the former a native of Ohio, while the latter was born in Indiana. The father was a farmer by occupation and spent the last four years of his life in the home of his son, George C., passing away in 1905.

George C. Alexander was reared under the parental roof and acquired a public school education. At the age of twelve years, however, he became a wage earner and has since been dependent upon his own resources for whatever he has achieved and enjoyed. He worked as a farm hand for neighboring farmers up to the time of his marriage, which was celebrated on the 28th of May, 1893, Miss Lillie C. Davis becoming his wife. During her girlhood days she accompanied her parents, William J. and Lucy E. (Hecker) Davis, to Walla Walla county, the removal being made from Iowa in 1885.

George C. Alexander had arrived in Walla Walla county in 1881 and after taking up his abode here worked as a farm hand until the time of his marriage, when he began farming on his own account, renting land. In 1905 he purchased his first land, becoming owner of his present home place of two hundred and twenty acres. He had enough money to make a half payment on the place and within five years he had cleared it of all indebtedness. In subsequent years he has put improvements upon it to the value of more than twenty-five hundred dollars. He has also bought eighty acres of irrigated land in Montana. Taking up his abode upon the home farm, he concentrated his efforts and attention upon its further development and improvement and in the course of years his labors worked a marked transformation in the appearance of the place, which he brought under a high state of cultivation. He still resides upon his home farm but is now living retired and rents his land, while he is enjoying the fruits of his former labor. In politics he maintains an independent course nor has he ever sought the honors and emoluments of public office. He ranks with the leading and representative men of his township and deserves much credit for what he has accomplished. He has truly won the proud American title of a self-made man, for he started out empty-handed when a youth of but twelve years and has worked his way steadily upward by diligence and determination. Whatever he has gained has been the reward of his earnest labor and his record indicates what may be accomplished in a busy life where there is a will to dare and to do. His course should serve to inspire and encourage others, showing what may be done through persistent, earnest effort when guided by sound judgment.

D. B. STIMMEL.

Through struggles and adversities D. B. Stimmel has reached a position among the prosperous residents of Walla Walla county and is now living retired in Waitsburg. For many years he was actively connected with agricultural interests, and diligence and determination brought to him the measure of success that now enables him to rest from further labors. He was born in Columbus, Ohio, January 1, 1856, his parents being Benjamin and Charlotte (Smith) Stimmel, who were also natives of the Buckeye state, where they were reared and married. In 1861 they removed westward to Tazewell county, Illinois, and in 1879 became residents of Reno county, Kansas. There the father died in the '90s, but the mother is still living and now makes her home with a son in Oklahoma.

D. B. Stimmel was the eldest in a family of ten children, nine sons and one daughter. The duty and the burden of assisting in rearing the family and providing for their support fell upon his shoulders and as a consequence his education was limited. He could attend school only at such times as his services were not required upon the farm. He remained at home until he reached his twenty-fourth year, when in 1880 he filed on a homestead in Reno county, Kansas, and began farming on his own account. There he resided for nine years, when he determined to try his fortune in the northwest, having heard favorable reports concerning this section of the country. In the spring of 1889, therefore, he made his way to Walla Walla county, Washington, arriving in Waitsburg about the middle of May with a wife and six children and a cash capital of but fifteen dollars. Here he began working for wages, being thus employed through the harvest season, and in the fall of that year he rented a farm and began its cultivation. He was not familiar, however, with the farming conditions of this section of the country and the poor crops and the widespread financial panic of 1893 made his first few years a struggle for existence. In the winter of 1895-6 he left the farm which he had rented with an indebtedness of three thousand dollars. The following spring he went up into the Nez Percé country and engaged in hauling posts and doing other work for the Indians, in which circumstances he was reminded of the scriptural passage that "the first shall be last and the last first." He may not have liked this domination of an inferior race, but he was willing to accept any occupation or employment that would yield him an honest living. The following fall he located on a place of one hundred and sixty acres belonging to his brother-in-law and afterward purchased two hundred and forty acres adjoining that farm, assuming a mortgage of twelve hundred dollars and back taxes and interest. He paid one hundred dollars cash upon the property, which according to the terms of agreement would cost him nine dollars and sixty-five cents per acre. A year later it had more than doubled in value and recently would have sold for one hundred dollars per acre. From the time of his purchase of this property Mr. Stimmel's prosperity began. The tide seemed to have turned for him and the years brought him a substantial measure of success as a reward for his labors. At different times he continued adding to his property, acquiring two other quarter sections of land, so that his ranch came to be one of five hundred and sixty acres. A quarter section of this he afterward deeded to his two older sons upon his retirement from active business, but he still retains ownership of four hundred acres, which he rents to his sons. In 1906 he removed to Waitsburg and later erected his present handsome city residence.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. D. B. STIMMEL]

In 1879, in Reno county, Kansas, Mr. Stimmel was united in marriage to Miss Hattie E. Kirby, by whom he had ten children, eight of whom are yet living: Minnie, who is the wife of Lorenzo Bly, of Alberta, Canada; Earl and Ernest, twins, who follow farming in Walla Walla county; John T., also an agriculturist of Walla Walla county; William, who operates his father's farm; Viola, who gave her hand in marriage to Ralph Lukenbihl, of Waitsburg; Millie, who makes her home with her sister Minnie in Alberta, Canada; and Albert, also a resident of Alberta, Canada. The wife and mother passed away in December, 1908, and in 1909 Mr. Stimmel was again married, this union being with Mrs. Mary J. Lynch née Lewis, of Ontario, Canada.

Mr. Stimmel gives his political allegiance to the republican party. Fraternally he is connected with Waitsburg Lodge, No. 16, F. & A. M.; Waitsburg Lodge, No. 5, I. O. O. F.; and with the Woodmen of the World. He and his wife are members of the Methodist church and are people of genuine personal worth, enjoying the warm regard and goodwill of all with whom they have been brought in contact. Difficulties and obstacles have at times beset the path of Mr. Stimmel but with persistency of purpose he has continued his labors and as the years have gone on has earned a most satisfactory reward. When determination, perseverance and talent are arrayed against drawbacks, poverty and trials, the result is almost absolutely certain. The former are invincible--they know no defeat. The habits of industry and close application which he early developed have constituted the foundation of his present success.

MRS. MARY A. KIMMERLY.

For almost half a century Mrs. Mary A. Kimmerly has been a resident of Walla Walla and has therefore witnessed almost the entire development of this region. She was born in Portage, Genesee county, New York, and bore the maiden name of Miss Mary A. Nesdel. In early life she went to Minnesota, where she married Frank Kimmerly, also a native of New York, his birth having occurred in Watertown. By trade he was a millwright and erected the first flour mill in Rochester, Minnesota, which was one of the first mills built in the state. In 1869 he brought his family to Washington and here readily found work at his trade, erecting a mill at Lapwai, another at Weston and several others. He also branched out into general contracting and built many of the best residences in Walla Walla during the '70s. He erected the Stine House, where now the Dacres Hotel stands, and several other important business structures.

Mr. Kimmerly was not only prominent in industrial circles but also took an active part in public affairs, serving as deputy sheriff of Walla Walla county and also as city treasurer. He was a thirty-second degree Mason and was the first master of Rose Croix Lodge of Perfection at Walla Walla. He was generally recognized as one of the most prominent residents of the city and his death, which occurred on the 28th of July, 1878, was considered a great loss to the community. Mrs. Kimmerly still survives her husband and continues to live at the old Kimmerly residence with her two sons, E. S. and W. W., at No. 526 South Second street.

HON. CHARLES BESSERER.

Hon. Charles Besserer was the builder of the third house in Walla Walla and was prominently identified with the city for many years, especially in connection with newspaper publication. He became recognized as one of the foremost journalists on the Pacific coast and his editorials, original and trenchant, were widely read. He was born near Heidelberg, Germany, October 10, 1838, and at seventeen years of age he enlisted for service in the English army. While still a member of the army he was sent to the state of Washington, at which time Walla Walla was but a log cabin village. When his term of enlistment was over he decided to make the United States his home and he proved his loyalty to his adopted land by valiant service in the Union army during the Civil war. He ever took an active interest in government affairs and did not a little to shape public thought and action in regard to community interests. He early turned his attention to newspaper work. After having honorably served throughout the period of hostilities between the north and the south he returned to Walla Walla, where he erected the third house of the city. A few years later he went to Montana, where he resided for a brief period, but in 1873 he returned to Walla Walla, where he embarked in the grocery business. In 1875, however, he became actively connected with newspaper publication in the purchase of the Spirit of the West, a weekly paper published in Walla Walla, the name of which he changed to the Watchman. In 1885 he established the Milton Eagle and a year later he sold the Watchman. A few years afterward he purchased the Journal and the Watchman, both of Walla Walla, and for several years managed these papers successfully, but again he sold out and paid a visit to his native country. Upon his return to America he purchased the Union, the Journal and the Watchman and combined the three papers into a new publication known as the Morning Union. This he continued to own and edit until 1898, when he removed to Oakland, California. He was quite successful financially and it was his love of editorial work that caused him to continue his labors on the San Francisco and other papers subsequent to the establishment of his home in California. He was widely known because of his interesting and comprehensive editorials, which were eagerly read throughout the west. His paper was ever maintained as an independent sheet in regard to politics. He also wrote many articles of a worldwide scope for Harper's Weekly.

[Illustration: CHARLES BESSERER]

Hon. Charles Besserer was united in marriage to Miss Ida Sanderson, who still survives him, his death having occurred on the 2d of February, 1912, being occasioned by heart trouble. The part which he took in the early development and subsequent progress of Walla Walla well entitles him to representation in its history.

LIEUTENANT BERNARD OVIATT WILLS.

Among the native sons of Walla Walla who are rendering excellent service in the armed forces of the nation is Lieutenant Bernard Oviatt Wills, U. S. N., who is now assigned to special duty in New York city. He was born in Walla Walla, August 22, 1887, and is a son of W. H. and Clara (Oviatt) Wills, an account of whom appears in the sketch of their son, Fred Gaylord Wills.

Bernard O. Wills attended the public schools of Walla Walla and continued his study in the high school, graduating with the class of 1905. The following year he entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis and in 1910 completed the required course there and received the title of ensign. He has remained continuously in the navy and has won promotion, so that although he is still a young man he now has the rank of senior lieutenant. He is now serving by assignment on the special board of patrol, with office at No. 11 Broadway, New York city, and his highly efficient work in that connection is of importance in the great task that confronts the navy in placing the defenses and the naval forces of the United States on a war footing. He is a representative young naval officer, proud of the history and traditions of the navy, thoroughly equipped by highly specialized training for the work in hand, high-spirited and yet recognizing that the high order of ability and daring found in the personnel of the navy can only be made available to the nation's service by discipline.

On the 3d of July, 1917, Lieutenant Wills was united in marriage to Miss Lucy Lee Hanscom. Although he has been stationed in the east for some time, his many friends in Walla Walla have not lost sight of him and have followed his career with great interest and pride.

MISS MARY J. THOMAS.

In the educational circles of Walla Walla Miss Mary J. Thomas is widely and favorably known. She has done much to further the interests of the public schools and is now the principal of the Sharpstein school. She is a native daughter of Walla Walla and the spirit of western enterprise has found expression in her work. Her father, George Franklin Thomas, was born in Norfolk, Virginia, in the year 1815 and when very young left home, going to the state of New York. In 1840 he removed from the Empire state to the south and for many years engaged in staging in Georgia and in Alabama. In 1850 he became one of the Argonauts who sought gold on the western front, making his way to California. After reaching that state he resumed his staging business, which he successfully conducted, and he may well be termed the pioneer stage man of the Pacific coast. He became the president of the Oregon & California Stage Company, which conducted a fine line of stages from Sacramento to Portland. After the war between the north and the south he removed to Salem, Oregon, and on the discovery of gold in the Salmon River mountains he placed a line of stages on the road between The Dalles and Celilo. When the Oregon Steam & Navigation Company built a railroad there he moved onward and started a stage line between Wallula and Walla Walla. In 1863 he built the Thomas & Ruckle Road across the Blue mountains and was identified for many years with the principal mail route in this section of the country. In 1865 he was elected mayor of the city and for many years in rotation was elected councilman. In 1874 he was the candidate on the democratic ticket for the office of sheriff of the county and was elected over three competitors. At the next election in 1876 he was reelected and from 1878 until the time of his death was associated with this office. He passed away January 12, 1884, survived by a wife and six children, two sons and four daughters, but since then the mother and two sons have passed away. The daughters are Mrs. Thomas Durry, Mrs. Thomas Page and Miss Mary J. Thomas, of Walla Walla; and Mrs. George M. Cosgrove, of Spokane, Washington. The mother, who bore the maiden name of Bridget Rodgers, was born in Ireland, June 24, 1832, and came to America in 1844, first settling in New Orleans and later removing to California. Her death occurred in Walla Walla, November 26, 1905.

Miss Mary J. Thomas, reared in Walla Walla, was educated in St. Vincent's Academy and became a grade teacher in the Baker school of Walla Walla. She has since devoted her life to that profession and became principal of the Baker school, while later she was transferred to the Sharpstein school, of which she is now the principal. She holds to high ideals in her work, is constantly studying out new methods to improve her efficiency and her own zeal and interest in the work have inspired and encouraged both teachers and pupils under her.

JAMES F. CROPP, M. D.

For almost forty years Dr. James F. Cropp has successfully engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery in Walla Walla, where he was also the promoter and founder of the Walla Walla Hospital, an institution of which the city has every reason to be proud. He has ever occupied a prominent position in professional circles and has been instrumental in maintaining the highest standards of activity in his chosen field, recognizing fully the duties and obligations which devolve upon the physician. He was born in Virginia, April 16, 1854. His father, Silas F. Cropp, was also a native of the Old Dominion, where he followed the occupation of farming. He married Maria Katherine Martin, born in the same state, and both have passed away. They had a family of four children, of whom two have departed this life.

Dr. Cropp pursued his early education in a little log cabin school in the state of Washington, which at one time was headquarters of the army that went to rescue General Steptoe on Steptoe Butte. The family had come to Washington in 1872. They made their way westward to American Falls, Idaho, driving a team of oxen across the country. They then proceeded by stage to Portland and on to Albany and from that point walked to Walla Walla across the Cascade mountains. From this city they proceeded to a point near the Farmington country and there plowed the ground upon which Farmington is built. From that point they proceeded to Dry creek, near Walla Walla, and Dr. Cropp of this review secured employment in the hay fields, working for Sergeant Smith during the summer. He obtained a dugout near there and gathered a few common school books, and in company with E. H. Nixon, now of Walla Walla, prepared himself as best he could for educational work, after the hours of harvesting were over. He at length secured a school, of which Sergeant Smith was a director, and taught through the winter months. This was a large school and he proved capable in its management and conduct. Later he taught in various other schools through the valley, being thus engaged until 1876, when he walked the greater part of the distance to Portland and there secured passage on the old steamer Ajax, on which he worked his way to San Francisco. This step was actuated by his laudable ambition to prepare for the practice of medicine, which he had determined to make his life work. He there entered the medical department of the University of California, which at that time was only a summer school. At the close of the session, in company with Charles E. Levitt Sajous, now a famous medical practitioner and author of Philadelphia, he started for the east. They worked their way on freight trains and walked part of the way until they reached Philadelphia, where they matriculated in the Jefferson Medical College, from which institution they were both graduated in March, 1878. The determination with which he pursued his education, making his way in spite of seemingly almost insurmountable difficulties, is characteristic of Dr. Cropp. He has never faltered in the performance of a task to which he has set himself and throughout his entire life he has ever carried his well defined plans forward to successful completion. Following his graduation he returned to Walla Walla and in the intervening years has continuously and successfully practiced medicine and surgery. During this period he has also served in various official capacities of a professional nature for the city, county and the state. He has been physician and surgeon to the state penitentiary for six years and since the building of the Odd Fellows Home he has been physician to that institution. In 1890 he built the Walla Walla Hospital, which has since been successfully conducted and from which numerous nurses of very high standing have been graduated, doing important duty in their professional capacity through the city, county and surrounding states, many of them occupying most important positions in other hospitals. While many years have elapsed since Dr. Cropp was graduated, he has by broad reading and thorough study kept in touch with the trend of modern scientific thought and investigation and with the progress that is being continuously made by the profession. His ability is pronounced and he stands not only as the dean of the medical profession in Walla Walla but as one of its most distinguished representatives in the northwest.

In 1879 Dr. Cropp was united in marriage to Miss Ida Hungate, a daughter of H. H. and Mary (Duncan) Hungate and a native of California. They have become parents of a daughter, Hallie H., who is at home. She is connected with the Daughters of the American Revolution, for the ancestors of Dr. Cropp served in the struggle for independence. Dr. Cropp is thoroughly familiar with the history of pioneer development in the northwest. On the trip across the plains, when the family were making their way to the Pacific coast, they encountered considerable trouble with the Indians. He has seen this entire section of the country reclaimed for the purposes of civilization, while the work of development and improvement has been carried steadily forward. His aid and influence have ever been on the side of progress and improvement and his work has had far reaching and beneficial results. His political allegiance is given to the democratic party and fraternally he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He belongs to the Commercial Club and cooperates heartily in all of its well defined plans and measures for the welfare and upbuilding of the city. Along strictly professional lines he has connection with the Walla Walla County Medical Society and the Washington State Medical Society. He is interested in their proceedings and contributes in no small measure to the success of some of the meetings, for his judgment is accepted as an authority upon many questions of vital importance to the profession. He has ever held to the highest professional standards and anything that tends to solve the intricate problem which we call life is of interest to him.

EDWARD WILSON CLARK.

Edward Wilson Clark, one of the leading attorneys of Columbia county, practicing at Dayton, was born in Morrow county, near Heppner, Oregon, on the 15th of November, 1865, his parents being Oscar F. and Mary A. (Allen) Clark, the former a native of the state of New York and the latter of Ohio. They were married, however, in Oregon, Mr. Clark having crossed the plains as a young man of twenty-one or twenty-two years in 1846. The mother's parents died when she was but a little child and she made the long trip to the west with her brother, Charles Allen, who arrived in Oregon about 1850. She continued to reside with her brother in this section of the country until her marriage. Oscar F. Clark took part in the Cayuse Indian war and in 1848 made his way northward and settled on what is now the city of Walla Walla in Walla Walla county, Washington. The previous year the Whitman massacre occurred. He became familiar with every phase of pioneer life and bravely met all of its hardships and privations. He was married about 1850 and for some years lived in Corvallis, Oregon. He had been engaged in teaching in the east and was identified with educational work for several years after his removal to Oregon. In later years he was elected county superintendent of schools of Benton county, Oregon, and he was also appointed the first probate judge of that county. In 1866 he became a member of the board of county commissioners of Umatilla county, Oregon, and he was one of those who were most earnest and effective in securing the establishment of the county seat at Pendleton. Indeed he was recognized as a very prominent and influential citizen of Oregon, where he remained until 1877, when he removed to Columbia county, Washington. Taking up his abode in Dayton, he was soon thereafter elected justice of the peace and served in that office for many years. His decisions were strictly fair and impartial, being based upon the law and the equity in the case, and that he enjoyed the full confidence of the public is indicated by his long retention on the justice bench. Death called him in 1898 and his widow, surviving for about a decade, passed away in 1908.

[Illustration: EDWARD W. CLARK]

Edward W. Clark was reared under the parental roof and completed his education in the Dayton high school. In 1886 he took up the study of law, reading under the preceptorship of Judge M. M. Godman, of Dayton, and in 1888 he was admitted to the bar, after which he opened a law office in Dayton, his ability placing him, through the intervening years, in the front ranks of the profession. He served for ten years as prosecuting attorney of Columbia county and for five years was city attorney of Dayton. He was also for one year city clerk and at the present writing is a member of the board of education, in which position he has continuously served since 1893. The public school system indeed finds in him a stalwart champion and one whose efforts in its behalf have been characterized by marked progress.

On the 28th of February, 1892, Mr. Clark was united in marriage to Miss Nellie B. Gritman, of Dayton, a daughter of Delos W. and Mary (Davis) Gritman. Her father, who was one of the successful agriculturists and prominent citizens of Columbia county, served for a number of years as a member of the board of county commissioners and was widely recognized as a man of sterling character and genuine worth. Mr. and Mrs. Clark have a son, Roscoe L., who was graduated from Whitman College with the class of 1915 and is now a student in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia.

Fraternally Mr. Clark is connected with Dayton Camp, No. 95, W. O. W.; with Dayton Circle, No. 238, Women of Woodcraft; and with Dayton Lodge, No. 3, K. P. He ranks with the leading and representative residents of Dayton because of his loyalty in citizenship, because of his genuine personal worth and also by reason of his professional ability. He is a man of well balanced intellect, thoroughly familiar with the law, possessed also of comprehensive general information and of an analytical mind. He is recognized as a formidable adversary in legal combat but one who at all times holds to the highest standards of the profession, his record reflecting credit upon the history of the bench and bar of Washington.

BERT THOMAS, M. D.

Dr. Bert Thomas, occupying a leading position among the most capable and successful medical practitioners of Walla Walla, is well qualified in all those particulars which make for advancement in his chosen profession. His liberal preparatory training well qualified him at the outset of his professional career and in the intervening period he has studied closely and read broadly, thus keeping in touch with the trend of modern professional progress. He was born in Walla Walla county, March 4, 1874. His father, Alfred Thomas, a native of Kentucky, was born in 1828 and in the spring of 1870 made his way to the northwest, becoming identified with agricultural interests in this county. Here he spent his remaining days, covering a period of more than a quarter of a century, his death occurring in 1896. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Eleanor Lewis, was born in Iowa and has also passed away.

Dr. Thomas of this review was one of a family of twelve children, six of whom are yet living and all are residents of Walla Walla county. He acquired a common school education and afterward entered the Whitman College, from which in due time he was graduated. He next became a student in the University of Michigan, matriculating in the medical department, from which he was graduated with the class of 1904. He then put his theoretical knowledge to the practical test in a year's service in a hospital in Jackson, Michigan, and gained the broad and valuable knowledge and experience which can never be as quickly acquired in any other way as in hospital work. On the expiration of that period he returned to Walla Walla, where he has since practiced medicine and surgery, and throughout the intervening years he has maintained a place in the front ranks of the profession. He is very careful in the diagnosis of his cases and seldom, if ever, at fault in matters of professional judgment. He belongs to the Walla Walla Valley Medical Society, the Washington State Medical Association and the American Medical Association and thus keeps abreast with modern thought, investigation and research.

Dr. Thomas married Miss Orville Green, who was born in Walla Walla, a daughter of W. O. and Mary F. (Young) Green, who were pioneers of this county, having crossed the plains in 1852. Dr. Thomas belongs to the Masonic fraternity and is a faithful exemplar of the teachings of the craft. His entire life measures up to high standards and those whom he has met in social relations entertain for him the warmest friendship and regard, for his salient qualities are those which make for personal popularity.

PATRICK O'CONNOR.

Patrick O'Connor, deceased, was an enterprising and successful farmer and stock raiser of Columbia county and his name deserves a place upon the pages of its history. He was born in County Tipperary, Ireland, March 16, 1850, and was reared in the land of his birth. On reaching the age of sixteen, however, he determined to try his fortune in the new world, for he had heard favorable reports concerning its opportunities and advantages. On reaching American shores he at once crossed the continent to the Pacific coast and located in San Francisco, California, where he remained for nine years. He was there employed in a boiler factory and at street car work. After spending over five years in that city he came northward to Walla Walla in 1880 with the intention of returning to San Francisco but found Walla Walla to his liking and took up his abode there. He was made section foreman for the Union Pacific Railway and for a considerable period was active in that connection. In subsequent years he made several removals, living for a short time in Dayton and a short time on the present home ranch near Starbuck. In 1896 he took up his abode on his Columbia county farm, first purchasing forty-six acres of land. To this, however, he added from time to time as his financial resources permitted until at his death he was the owner of an excellent tract of land of two hundred and sixty-seven acres, upon which he engaged extensively in stock raising and in the growing of alfalfa. In business affairs he was energetic and determined. He allowed no obstacles nor difficulties to bar his path if they could be overcome by persistent and earnest effort. He worked diligently and as the years passed on gained a place among the substantial farmers of his adopted county, his attention being given to general agricultural pursuits and stock raising until his death, which occurred May 7, 1910.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. PATRICK O'CONNOR]

On the 30th of December, 1889, Mr. O'Connor was joined in wedlock to Miss Mary McGreevy, who was born in Iowa and came to Washington in 1887, locating on the present site of Jackson's Siding in Columbia county, where lived her uncle, Daniel McGreevy. Mr. and Mrs. O'Connor had one son, Daniel A., who is now operating the home farm.

In politics Mr. O'Connor was a stalwart democrat, giving unfaltering allegiance to the principles of his party. He served for some years as road supervisor and made an excellent official in that connection. In fact he was a progressive and public-spirited citizen, giving helpful aid to all movements for the advancement of the community. He belonged to the Catholic church, of which his widow and son are also communicants. The family has long been well known in Columbia county and, like her husband, Mrs. O'Connor enjoys the respect and goodwill of those with whom she has been brought in contact.

ALBERT M. JENSEN.

Albert M. Jensen, head of the A. M. Jensen Company of Walla Walla, was born in Denmark in 1868 and at the age of fourteen years began work in a general store. His life has been one of continuous business activity since that time. Coming to the new world in 1890, he settled in Minnesota and was employed by one of the largest department stores in St. Paul for eighteen years. He began work there as general utility boy, was advanced to the position of salesman and later became a buyer and department manager, and while thus engaged he made various trips to New York and abroad for his firm.

In 1910 Mr. Jensen came to Walla Walla and organized the A. M. Jensen Company, which then bought out the Skiles Dry Goods Company, which had been established in 1905 on a very small scale. The floor space now in use for the display and sale of women's merchandise is approximately fifteen thousand square feet.