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stats in psych TEST 2
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Terms in this set (31)
standardized score
a transformed score that relates to a raw score to the mean & SD of the distribution it came from
theoretical distributions
distribution based on a theory or idea
-theories tell shape, mean, & variability
empirical distribution
distribution of data that has been collected
normal distribution
-ex of theoretical distribution
-theory describes how individuals in populations will be distributed on a trait
normal distribution
-mean
-shape
-variability
-mean: μ
-shape: bell & symmetrical
-variability: σ
The Normal Distribution theorizes about the distribution of
a trait in a population
distribution of sample means
a theoretical distribution composed of means of all possible random samples of a given size
distribution of sampling means
-mean
-shape
-variability
-shape: bell & symmetric (@ n=30 or more)
-mean= "expected value"
-variability= standard error of the mean
The Distribution of sampling means theorizes about the distribution of
means from samples / probability
regression
a measure of the relation between the mean value of one variable (e.g., output) and corresponding values of other variables
parts of the regression equation
y= prediction for DV
b= slope
x= predictor (IV variable)
a= y-intercept
standard error of the estimate
statistic that measures accuracy of predictions made using regression
interpret standard error of the estimate
"An unstandardized equation to predict DV from IV was 'y=bx+a'. On average, predictions using this equation will be within '+or#' on a scale of DV. (SE=#)"
standard error of the mean
statistic used to measure sampling error
sampling error
amount of difference between sample statistic and a population parameter
regression towards the mean
if a variable is extreme on its first measurement, it will tend to be closer to the average on its second measurement
-happens bc of stable conditions & "luck"
correlation
determines:
-direction of relationship (+/-)
-strength of relationship (r value)
effect size
estimate the size of the impact the IV has on the DV
-practical importance of a finding
coefficient of determination
statistic that measures the proportion of variance (r2)
range restriction
when values for IV or DV are artificially restricted
-doesn't represent the entire range possible for that value
Central Limit Theorem
(shape, mean, variability)
theory that describes distribution of sample means
-shape: bell & symmetric (@ n=30 or more)
-mean= "expected value"
-variability= standard error of the mean
68-95-99.7 Rule
to estimate the percentage of the population
-68=+/- 1 SD of mean
-95=+/- 2 SD of mean
-99.7=+/- 3 SD of mean
empirical distributions that have been standardized
-mean
-shape
-variability
-mean: smaller
-shape: same
-variability: ?
compare correlation vs causality
NOT TURE: correlation does not imply causation
-the statistic does NOT affect causation
-research design shows whether you have a relationship or just an experiment
less variability when
leptokurtic
z-scores
most common standard score system
mean & SD for z-scores
mean= 0
SD= 1
interpretation of standard error of the mean
"At n=# the sample mean will be within '+/- #' points of the population mean."
interpretation of correlation coefficient
"A Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated there was a _______(ex; moderately strong), (positive or negative) relationship between the IV and DV. (r=#). The (more/less) of IV, the (more/less) of the DV."
interpretation of z-scores
-1 to +1 = normal
-4 to -1 = below average
+1 to +4 = above average
strength & accuracy
the stronger the correlation coefficient (r), the more accurate (less error) the predictions
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