Folk Lore Notes. Vol. II—Konkan by Jackson, A. M. T. (Arthur Mason Tippetts)

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FOLK LORE NOTES.

Vol. II--KONKAN.

COMPILED FROM MATERIALS COLLECTED BY The late A. M. T. JACKSON, Indian Civil Service.

R. E. ENTHOVEN, C.I.E., I.C.S.

BRITISH INDIA PRESS, MAZGAON BOMBAY. 1915

REPRINTED FROM THE "INDIAN ANTIQUARY"

BY B. MILLER, SUPERINTENDENT, BRITISH INDIA PRESS, BOMBAY

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Nature Powers. PAGE. Worship of minor local deities. Sun-worship. The Swastika. Circumambulation round images and other sacred objects. Moon-worship. Days of special importance. Eclipses. Worship of planets and stars. The milky way. The rainbow. Worship of the earth. Thunder and lightning. Earthquakes. Worship of sacred rivers, springs and pools. Water spirits and goblins. Ceremonies at digging of wells. Well water as a cure for disease. Sacred Lakes. Palaces under the water. Sacred mountains. Deities who control the weather. Methods of causing or averting rain and of checking storms. Vratas or religious vows practised only by women. Rites in which women are excluded. Rites in which the worshipper must be nude. Superstitions in connection with aerolites and meteors 1

CHAPTER II.

The Heroic Godlings.

Village deities. Local deities. Installation of deities in new settlements. Ghostly godlings. Deities responsible for crops and cattle 21

CHAPTER III.

Disease Deities.

Causes of epidemic diseases and the remedies adopted to stop them. Cattle diseases. Remedies practised by the village people in connection with them. The methods for the exorcism of disease. Methods of expelling evil spirits from the body. The village sorcerer. Offerings of rags, coins, etc., at sacred trees and wells. The transferring of disease from one person to another. Scapegoats 29

CHAPTER IV.

The worship of Ancestors and Saints.

Shráddhas and other ceremonies performed for the propitiation and emancipation of the deceased. Worship of the founders of religious sects, of saints, etc. Ghosts. Rebirth of ancestors in the same family. Miracle-working tombs. Muhammadan saints whose worship has been adopted by Hindus. Rural methods for the cure of barrenness 40

CHAPTER V.

The Worship of the malevolent dead.

Popular notions about dreams. Auspicious and inauspicious dreams. Temporary abandonment of the body by the soul. Character and functions of the bhut or disembodied soul. The state of the soul after death. The rebirth of the soul. The souls of persons dying a sudden or violent death. The ways by which ghosts enter and leave the body. Methods of driving away evil spirits from the body. Reliefs regarding sneezing and yawning. Rákshasa or the malevolent demon. Other malignant spirits. Evil spirits which go about headless. The haunts of evil spirits. Ghosts of women dying an unnatural death. Spirits of persons killed by tigers and other wild beasts. Ghosts of women dying in childbed or menses. Precautions taken by parents at the birth of children. Beliefs in connection with bats and owls. Spirits which haunt ruins, guard buried treasure and occupy valleys 49

CHAPTER VI.

The evil eye and the scaring of ghosts.

Effects of the evil eye. Objects liable to be influenced by the evil eye. Precautions taken to evade the influence of the evil eye Opprobrious names. Change of sex. Protection against evil spirits. Amulets. Charmed circles. Omens. Numbers. Lucky and unlucky days. Rites performed to help the soul to the other world. Cremation and burial. The customs of shaving the hair. Offerings of food to the dead. Manifestation of evil spirits in form. The practice of breaking earthen vessels at death. Kites connected with mourning. Benevolent spirits. Spirits which haunt trees. The guardian spirits of crops and cattle. Spirits invoked to frighten children 60

CHAPTER VII.

Tree and Serpent worship.

Trees connected with deities and saints. Legends and superstitions connected with them. Marriage of brides and bridegrooms to trees. Snake worship. Shrines of snake deities. Deified snakes. Snakes guarding treasure. The village treatment of snake-bite. The jewel in the head of the snake. Guardian snakes 71

CHAPTER VIII.

Totemism and Fetishism.

Devaks. Names derived from animals and plants. Sacred animals. Deities associated with animal worship. Worship of stocks and stones. Survivals of human sacrifice. Disease-curing stones. Respect shown to corn sieves, corn pounders, the broom and the plough. Fire worship 78

CHAPTER IX.

Animal worship.

Sacred animals and the legends and superstitions connected with them 83

CHAPTER X.

Witchcraft.

Chetaks and Chetakins. 85

CHAPTER XI.

General.

Rural ceremonies connected with agricultural operations. Rites performed for the protection of cattle. Rites performed for scaring noxious animals and insects. Rites performed for ensuring sunshine and favourable weather. Rites performed for the protection of crops. Rites in which secrecy and silence are observed. The observances at the Holi festival. Rites performed when boys and girls attain puberty. Vows. The black art 87

APPENDIX

Glossary of vernacular terms, occurring in Volumes I and II i to xxxvii

FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN.

CHAPTER I.

NATURE POWERS.

The worship of minor local deities is connected with such low castes as Guravas, Bhopis, Marátha Kunbis, Dhangars, Wághes, Murlis, Mahárs and Mángs in the District of Kolhápur. It is believed by the Bráhmans that once an image is consecrated and worshipped, it should be worshipped uninterruptedly every day, and he who neglects to worship such an image daily incurs the sin of Brahma-hatya or Bráhman-murder. For this reason Bráhmans generally do not worship minor local deities. In former times Bráhmans who worshipped these deities were excommunicated by their caste-men. Such Pujáris were compelled to wear a folded dhotur or waist cloth, and were forbidden to put on the gandh or sandal paste mark in straight or cross lines. They were allowed to put on the tila or circular mark of sandal paste. Another reason why Bráhmans are not the Pujáris or worshippers of such deities is that Bráhmans cannot accept or partake of the Naivedya offering of cooked food, fowls, etc., made to them. Lower class people can partake of such offerings, and are therefore generally the worshippers or ministrants of minor local deities.

At Palshet in the Ratnágiri District, there are two grámdevis, viz., Jholái and Mhárjái, and the pujáris of these deities are respectively a Gurav and a Mahár. [1] The pujáris of goddesses are generally men of the lower castes. The guardian goddesses of the villages of Pule, Varavade, Nandivade, and Rila have Kunbis as their pujáris; while the pujáris of the goddesses Mahálakshmi, Bhagvati, Mahákáli, and Jogái are generally chosen from the Gurav caste. [2] In the Konkan the Ráuls (Shudras) are the pujáris of the deities Vithoba, Ravalnáth and Bhaváni; the Ghádis are the pujáris of the deities Sáteri and Khavaneshwar; while the deities Mahádev and Máruti are worshipped by pujáris belonging to the Gurav caste. [3] The goddesses Makhajan and Jakhmáta at Sangameshwar in the Ratnágiri District are worshipped by pujáris who belong to the Gurav and Bhoi castes respectively. The god Ganpati at Makhnele has for his pujári a Wáni. The pujáris of the temple of Shiva at Lánje in the Ratnágiri District are Wánis. [4] It is said that the pujári of Pundárik at Pandharpur is a Kiráta (fisherman) by caste. [5]

The pujári of the goddess Narmáta at Sidgad in the Thána District is a Koli; whilst the pujáris of Kánoba, Khandoba, and Vetál are of the lower castes. [6] The goddesses Mahálakshmi of Kolvan and Vajreshvari have their pujáris chosen from the lower castes. [7] The pujáris of Jari-Mari, Mhasoba, Bahiroba, Cheda and other deities which are said to prevent contagious diseases, are always men of the lower castes. [8]

The pujáris of the guardian goddesses of the villages Petsai, Dasgaum and Nizámpur are a Mahár, a Kumbhár or potter, and a Marátha, respectively. [9] The pujári of the guardian goddesses of Chaul in the Kolába District belongs to the lower castes. [10] The goddess Mángái has always a Mahár as her pujári. [11] Everyday the god Shiva is required to be worshipped first by a pujári of the Gurav caste. The pujári of Bahiri, a corruption of the word Bhairav, one of the manifestations of Shiva, is a man belonging to the lower castes. Similarly the pujáris of Bhagavati, Bhaváni, Ambika, Kálika, Jákhái, Jholái, Janni, Kolhái, Vadyájái, Shitaládevi, Chandika, etc., are persons belonging to lower castes. [12]

It is considered by the Hindus very meritorious and holy to worship the Sun; and by Bráhmans the Sun is considered to be their chief deity. The Gáyatri Mantra of the Bráhmans is a prayer to the Sun-god or the Savita Dev, and the Bráhmans offer arghya or oblations of water to the Sun thrice a day. Those who want health, wealth and prosperity propitiate the Sun-god by prayers and ceremonies. The Ratha Saptami is considered to be the principal day for special worship and festivities in honour of the Sun-god. On this day, on a low wooden stool, is drawn, in red sandal paste, a figure of the Sun in human shape seated in a chariot drawn by seven horses, or by a horse with seven faces. This figure is then placed in the sun-shine, and it is then worshipped by offering it arghya or spoonfuls of water, red powder, red flowers mixed with red sandal paste, camphor, incense and fruits. Some people kneel down while offering the arghyas to the Sun. These arghyas are either three or twelve in number. Some persons make a vow not to eat anything unless they have worshipped the Sun and performed the twelve Namaskaras by falling prostrate and bowing with folded hands twelve times, and at each time repeating one of the twelve names of the Sun. [13]

In the Ratnágiri District some people worship the Sun on the Sundays of the month of Shrávan. A ceremony held on the Rathasaptami day, i.e., the 7th day of the bright half of Mágh, is deemed a special festival in honour of the Sun-god. On that day people draw, on a small wooden stool, an image of the Sun, seated in a chariot drawn by seven horses, and worship it with great reverence. Milk is then boiled on a fire made of cow-dung cakes in front of the household Tulsi plant. If the milk overflows to the east, it is believed that there will be abundance of crops, but if it flows to the west it is taken as a sign of the near approach of famine. [14] The Sun-god is also worshipped on the following occasions, e.g., Trikal, Gajaccháya, Ardhodaya, Mahodaya, Vyatipát, Makar-Sankránt, Kark-Sankránt and the Solar eclipse. [15] Though there are few temples dedicated to the Sun, the village of Parule has the honour of having one called "the temple of Adi-Náráyan." Non-Bráhmanical classes are not seen worshipping the Sun in this district, despite the fact that the Sun is said to be the embodiment of the three principal deities of the Hindus. [16]

The people of the Thána District believe that the Swastika is the central point of the helmet of the Sun, and a vow called the Swastika Vrata is held in its honor. A woman who observes this vow, draws a figure of the Swastika and worships it daily during the Cháturmás (four months of the rainy season), at the expiration of which she gives a Bráhman a golden or silver plate with the sign of the Swastika upon it. [17] Another vow named Dhanurmás, common to all districts in the Konkan, requires a person to complete his daily rites before sun-rise, and to offer a preparation of food called Khichadi to the Sun-god. The observer of this vow then partakes of the food, regarding it as a gift from that god. This is either done for one day or repeated for a month till the Dhanu-Sankránt. [18] On the Somavati-Amávásya day (the 15th day of the dark half of a month falling on Monday), and the Kapiláshasthi day, the Sun is held in especial reverence. [19] A curious story is narrated regarding the offering of Arghya to the Sun. It is said that the Sun rejoices at the birth of a Bráhman, and gives 1,000,000 cows in charity, believing that the Arghya which the Bráhman will offer later on will devour his foes, one drop of the Arghya killing 1,000 of them [20]. The repetition of the Gáyatri-mantra 108 times a day is supposed to release a Bráhman from the debt of 1,000,000 cows owed in this way to the Sun. [21] The Yoga-Sutras of Pátanjali however prohibit a man from looking at the setting Sun, though the sin thus incurred is made amends for by the offering of Arghya to that god. [22] It is interesting to note that women do not grind corn on the Ratha-Saptami day. [23]

Women bow down to the Sun on the 11th, 12th, 30th or 40th day after their delivery; but Kunbi women generally worship that god on the 7th day. [24] On this occasion some women show a churning handle [25] to the Sun-god and offer him some grains of rice. [26]

The Swastika is considered so holy in the Konkan that it is always drawn on the Antarpat; and at the time of the Punyáha Wachan ceremony which precedes a Hindu wedding, a Swastika drawn in rice is worshipped. [27] The principal deities of the Hindus, whenever they are invoked on special occasions, are seated on the Swastika. [28] The people of the Ratnágiri District worship the Swastika, regarding it as the symbol as well as the seat of the Sun-god. [29]

By some the Swastika is regarded as the foundation-stone of the universe [30] and is held to be the symbol of the god Shiva, and not of the Sun. [31]

The conception of Kunbi is said to have taken place by the influence of the rays of the Sun. [32]

The Swastika is considered as an emblem of peace and prosperity, and for this reason Bráhman women draw a figure of the Swastika in front of their houses. [33] The custom of moving round such sacred objects as the Banyan, the Pipal, the Tulsi or sweet basil plant, the Umbar, the Avala (Phylanthus emblica), etc., is prevalent in the district of Kolhápur. There are no cases recorded in which women after child-birth are exposed to the Sun. But on the 12th day after her delivery, the mother puts on new bangles and new clothes; cocoanuts, betelnuts and leaves, grains of rice, plantains and grains of wheat are placed in her lap. She then comes out and bows to the Sun. Wealthy persons on this occasion perform a homa sacrifice in their houses by kindling the holy fire and feeding Bráhmans. No one in this district believes that conception is caused, or is likely to be caused, by exposure to the rays of the Sun.

The Hindu women of the Konkan walk round Pipal, Tulsi, and Umbar trees every Saturday and on the Somavati-amávásya day, i.e., the 15th day of the dark half of a month when it falls on Monday. [34] Sometimes, however, women make a vow to walk round a temple or a sacred tree one-hundred thousand times; and for the fulfilment of this vow they walk round the temple or tree for about seven or eight hours every day. If they find it difficult to make up the number of rounds themselves, they ask their near relations to assist them in their undertaking. [35]

The Moon is worshipped by the Hindus on the 2nd of the bright half of every month. On this day it is considered very lucky to see the moon, and many people, particularly the lower classes, pull out threads from the clothes they wear, and offer them to the moon, saying "O! God, accept these old clothes of ours and be pleased to give us new ones in their stead." Some people worship the moon on the Sankasti Chaturthi, 4th day of the dark half of every month; and such people will not eat anything until they have seen and worshipped the moon on that day. The moon is not worshipped on the Ganesh Chaturthi day that is, the 4th of the bright half of the month of Bhádrapad, as it is considered very unlucky to see the moon on that night. It is firmly believed that any one who sees the moon on the Ganesh Chaturthi day even by accident will be falsely accused of theft or some other crime. In order to avoid this, people who have accidently seen the moon, throw stones at the houses of their neighbours, and if the neighbours abuse them in return, the mischief makers consider themselves freed by the abuse from the sin of having looked at the moon on a forbidden night.

The spots on the surface of the moon are believed by some to be the rath or chariot of the god. Others think that they are lunar mountains; but many believe that the spots are the visible signs of the stain on the character of the moon-god due to his having outraged the modesty of the wife of his guru, the god Brahaspati or Jupiter. In the Puráns it is stated that on one occasion, a dispute arose between the moon and Brahaspati or Jupiter about the wife of Brahaspati, each of them claiming to be the cause of her conception. Subsequently a son was born who was named Budha (Mercury). Brahaspati's wife, on being asked who was the father of the child, named the moon. Thereupon Brahaspati cursed the moon for his adultery. The spots on the surface of the moon are said to be the effect of this curse.

The moon-god is believed to distribute nectar through his rays, and therefore this deity is said to have the power of removing diseases and restoring human beings to health. The moon is the king of herbs, and all trees, plants, etc., thrive owing to the influence of the moon. Sometimes people place at night, figs, plantains, sugarcane and other eatables in the moon-light and eat them early in the morning; and it is said that those who do so improve in health. The practice of drinking the moon's rays does not prevail in the Kolhápur district. But people occasionally dine in the moon light. [36]

On a full moon day people perform the special worship of their chosen deity. On the full moon of the month of Kártika temples are illuminated, and on the full moon day of Mágha, raw corn such as wheat, bájri, etc., is cooked and offered to the household and other deities. [37] On this day are also performed the special rites and ceremonies that are required in connection with the Kula-devatás or family gods or goddesses. On the full moon day of Fálguna the Holi fire is kindled and worshipped. In certain families the full moon of Chaitra is considered auspicious for making offerings to family deities. On the full moon day of Shrávan is observed the feast of Cocoanut day, and on this day Bráhmans put on new sacred threads. The full moon is considered by the Sanyásis or ascetics an auspicious day for shaving their heads.

On the new moon day the Pitras or Manes are worshipped. Lighted lamps are worshipped on the new moon day, of Ashádha. In the Kolhápur State this is called Tadali new moon day, and in the Konkan it is called Divali new moon day. On the new moon day of Ashvin, Lakshmi the goddess of wealth is worshipped. All special ceremonies for the propitiation of the Bhutas or evil spirits are usually performed on the new moon day. The Dwitiya or 2nd day of every month is considered sacred to the moon, and on this day the moon is worshipped; while the Chaturthi is considered sacred to the god Ganapati, and on the Chaturthi of Bhádrapada a special festival is held in honour of the god Ganpati. [38]

On the 15th day of the bright half of the month of Ashvin people put milk in the rays of the moon for some time, and then, after offering it to the moon, they drink it. Drinking milk in this way is called drinking the rays of the moon. [39] On the Sankránt Chaturthi day and on that Chaturthi which immediately follows the Dasara holiday, people draw an image of the moon and worship it. [40] In the Ratnágiri District several conflicting theories are held regarding the spots on the surface of the moon. Some believe that the spot observed on the moon is a tamarind tree in which that god has stationed himself; others hold that the spot is the reflection of a deer which is yoked to the chariot of the moon [41]; while many more believe that it has been occasioned by the hoof of the horse of King Nala. Some say that the spot on the surface of the moon represents a Pipal tree and a cow fastened to the roots of the tree; others on the authority of Hindu mythology suppose that God created Madan (cupid) from the essence taken from the body of the moon and hence the moon-god has spots on his body. [42] In the Mahábhárat it is stated that on the surface of the moon is reflected the island of Sudarshan on this earth, together with some trees and a great hare, the bright part being nothing but water. [43] The spot on the surface of the moon is considered by some a deer which the god has taken on his lap. [44] Some believe that Yashoda, the mother of Krishna, after waving an earthen dish round the face of Krishna, threw it at the sky. It struck the moon and thereby the spots on the surface of the moon were caused. Nectar is supposed to have been derived from the rays of the moon; and in some sacred books it is stated that the Chakora bird (Bartavelle Partridge) drinks the rays of the moon. [45]

The people of the Thána District hold similar notions regarding the spots on the surface of the moon. It has been said by some that the portion in question represents mud, while others say that the moon has been disfigured owing to a curse from a sage. [46] Some people say that the spots are due to the moon being cursed by his preceptor Brahaspati with whose wife the moon-god had connection. Being unable to bear the pain of the spots, the moon, it is said, propitiated his preceptor, who directed him to bathe in the Bhima river to alleviate the agony. Accordingly the pain was assuaged, and the part of the river where the Moon-god bathed thus came to be called Chandra bhága. [47] Some persons suggest that the spots are a Pipal tree with two deer feeding upon it from two sides. [48] Others hold that the spots on the surface of the moon are due to its having been kicked by a deer which, when pursued by a hunter, was refused shelter. [49] The people of the Thána District believe that the rays of the moon influence conception. [50]

In the Kolába District, to sit in an open place on a moon-light night, is regarded as drinking the rays of the moon. [51] The elongated part of the orb of the moon pointing towards the north or the south is supposed to forebode scarcity or abundance, respectively. [52]

It is a common belief that the moon should not be seen on the Ganesh Chaturthi day, i.e., the 4th day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

Looking at the moon continuously for a short time on every moon-light night is said to keep one's sight in good order. [53]

If the Amávásya falls on Monday, Bráhman women of the Thána District walk round a Tulsi plant or a Pipal tree and make a vow to a Bráhman. [54]

In the Kolába District a special ceremony is held in honour of minor goddesses on the 8th day of a month. The following things are avoided one on each of the fifteen tithis respectively:--

Kohala (pumpkin), dorli (Solanum indicum), salt, sesamum, sour things, oil, ávale (Emblic myrobalan), cocoanuts, bhopala (gourd), padval (snake-gourd), pávte (Dolichos Lablah), masur (Lens esculenta), brinjal, honey, gambling. [55]

The people observe a fast on the 13th (Pradosha) and the 14th day (Shivarátra) of the dark half of every month. [56] On the 15th day of the bright half of Chaitra, a fair is held in honour of the guardian deity of a village, and hens, goats, etc., are offered as a sacrifice. [57]

The following are days of special importance.

Gudhi-pádva, i.e., the first day of the bright half of Chaitra:--This being the first day of the year, gudhis and toranas are hoisted in front of every house and are worshipped. [58]

Bháu-bij:--On the 2nd day of the bright half of Kártik every sister waves round the face of her brother a lamp, and makes him a present. [59]

The ceremony on the Bháu-bij day has come into vogue on account of Subhadra having given a very pleasant bath to her brother Krishna on that day. The Court of Yama is also said to be closed on that day, since he goes to his sister; and consequently persons who die on that day, however sinful they may be, are not supposed to go to Yamaloka, i.e., hell. [60]

Akshya Tritiya:--On the third day of the bright half of Vaishákh cold water and winnowing fans are distributed as tokens for appeasing the Manes of ancestors. On this day is also celebrated the birth of the god Parashurám. [61]

Ganesh Chaturthi:--On the 4th day of the bright half of Bhádrapad, an earthen image of Ganpati is worshipped and a great ceremony is held in his honour. [62] The fourth day of the bright half of every month is called Vináyaka-Chaturthi; while that of the dark half is called Sankasti-Chaturthi. On the Vináyaka-Chaturthi day, people fast the whole day and dine the next day; while on the Sankasti Chaturthi day, they fast during the day time and dine after moon-rise. [63] That Sankasti Chaturthi which falls on Tuesday is considered the best. [64]

Nágpanchami:--On the 5th day of the bright half of Shrávan, pictures of serpents and snake holes are worshipped. [65]

Champá-Shashti:--On the 6th day of the bright half of Márgashirsha, some ceremony relating to the family-deity is performed. [66]

Ratha-Saptami:--On the 7th day of the bright half of Mágh, the sun is worshipped and milk is boiled until it overflows. [67]

Gokul-Ashtami:--On the 8th day of the dark half of Shrávan the birth of the god Krishna is celebrated. [68]

Ráma-Navami:--On the 9th day of the bright half of Chaitra the birth of the god Ráma is celebrated. [69]

Vijayádashami:--On the 10th day of the bright half of Ashvin people cross the boundary of their village and distribute sone (leaves of the Shami and Apta trees). It is a popular belief that a work commenced on this day is sure to end well. Weapons are also worshipped on this day. [70]

Ekádashi:--On the 11th day of Ashádh and Kártik a special fast is observed. People also fast on the 11th day of each month. A man who dies on this auspicious day is supposed to go to heaven. [71] Sometimes the Ekádashi falls on two consecutive days; in which case the Smártas observe the first, while the Bhágvats observe the second. [72]

Wáman-dwádashi:--On the 12th day of the bright half of Bhádrapad Wáman is worshipped and one or twelve boys are adored, being held to represent Wáman. The marriage of the Tulsi plant is sometimes celebrated on this day. [73]

Dhana-Trayodashi:--On the 13th day of the dark half of Ashvin, Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth is worshipped. [74]

Narak-Chaturdashi:--On the 14th day of the dark half of Ashvin, the demon Narakásur was killed. In consequence, on this day people take their bath before sun-rise, break Karinta (a fruit), regarding it as a demon, and apply its seeds to their heads. [75]

Nárali Paurnima:--On the 15th day of the bright half of Shrávan, people worship the sea and throw into it a cocoanut. [76]

Wata-Paurnima:--On the 15th day of the bright half of Jyeshtha, women whose husbands are alive fast the whole day, and worship the Wata-tree. [77]

On the 15th day of the bright half of Ashvin, people keep themselves awake the whole night and amuse themselves in a variety of ways. On the 15th day of the bright half of Kártika houses are illuminated. This day is called Tripuri-Paurnima. On this night people illuminate with earthen lamps all temples in the village, but particularly the temple of Shiva. This is done in commemoration of the triumph of the god Shiva over the demon Tripurásura. The full-moon day of the month of Mágha is called Chudi Paurnima. On this night people light chudies torches and with them slightly burn certain flowers, trees and plants. The full-moon day of the month of Fálguna is called the Holi or Holi-Paurnima and is the biggest holiday of the lower class Hindus. On this night the Hindus kindle the Holi-fire and worship it. [78] On the 15th day of the bright half of Ashvin people eat grain of the new harvest. On the full-moon day of Shrávan they perform the Shrávani ceremony and give a lamp in charity. On the full-moon day of the month of Chaitra, Vaishakha and Márgashirsha, the births of Máruti, Narasimha and Dattátraya respectively are celebrated. [79] The Kunbis of the Ratnágiri District believe that on the 15th or full-moon day of Pausha, the Hindu gods go out hunting and that they return from their hunting expedition on the full-moon day of the month of Mágha. During this period the Kunbis abstain from worshipping their gods. [80]

Amávásya:--On the 15th day of the dark half of every month, oblations are given to the Manes of the dead. [81] The commencement of a good deed, journey to a distant place, and the ploughing of land are postponed on the no-moon day of a month. [82] Sanyásis are enjoined to get their beard shaved on the Paurnima and Amávásya days only. [83]

People do not set out on a journey on the following tithis, regarding them as rikta (unfruitful or inauspicious):--

Chaturthi, Navami and Chaturdashi. [84]

The Chándráyana Vrata:--Widows fast on the no-moon day of a month. They are required to regulate their diet in such an increasing proportion that on the next full moon day they should have a full meal. The reverse process follows for a fortnight after, so that they observe an absolute fast on the following no-moon day. [85]

People have various ideas about the cause of the eclipses of the sun and the moon. Some say that the sun and the moon are superior deities, and that the demons Ráhu and Ketu who belong to the caste of Mángs attempt to touch them and to devour them. Others believe that the planets Ráhu and Ketu stand in the path of the Sun and the Moon and thereby darkness is caused on the earth. It is believed that about 5 hours before the commencement of the obscuration, in the case of the Sun and about 4 hours in the case of the Moon, the Vedha or malign influence of the monsters begins and during the period till the whole eclipse is over a strict fast is observed. At the commencement of the eclipse, as well as at its close, people bathe. Some sit on a low wooden stool with a rosary in their hands repeating the names of the gods, or the gáyatri or some of the mantras. But those who want to acquire the art of magic or witch-craft or the power of removing the evil effects of snake-poison, or scorpion sting, go to a lonely place on the riverside, and there standing in water repeat the mantras taught to them by their guru or teacher. People give alms to Mahárs and Mángs on this occasion, and therefore persons of this class go about the streets saying loudly "Give us alms and the eclipse will be over." De dán suté girán.

A strict fast is observed on an eclipse day, but children and pregnant women who cannot bear the privation are given something to eat under a sike. The eclipse time is so inauspicious that children and animals born at that time are considered unlucky. [86] Sometimes an eclipse cannot be observed owing to the intervention of clouds. On that occasion the people of the Konkan resort to the following expedient in order to ascertain whether the luminary is eclipsed or not. They take a potful of water and hold in it a musal. If it stands in the pot unsupported it is regarded as indicative of the existence of an eclipse. Mángs, Mahárs, etc., are supposed to be the descendants of Ráhu and Ketu; and for this reason gifts are made to them in charity on an eclipse day. [87]

The people of the Thána District believe that corn grows abundantly in a year that witnesses many eclipses. [88]

The popular cause of an eclipse in the Kolába District, is the Girha, a minor deity which is said to wander through the sky and swallow the Sun and the Moon when they cross his path. [89] Besides the mythological story regarding the cause of an eclipse, the people of the Ratnágiri District also believe that the Girha throws his shadow on the sun and the moon, when he comes to demand his dues from them. [90] The Konkan villagers, on an eclipse day, strike barren trees with a pestle, [91] in order that they may bear fruits and flowers. A barren woman is also beaten with the same motive. Similarly many other superstitious beliefs are connected with an eclipse. Pregnant women are not allowed to see the eclipse of the sun or the moon, nor are they to engage in cutting, sewing, etc. as this is believed to be injurious to the child in the womb. [92] The eclipse time is supposed to be the most suitable to learn mantras or incantations. [93] The mantris also mutter incantations during an eclipse in a naked condition. [94] The people who believe that the eclipses are caused by the influence of the planets Ráhu and Ketu offer prayers to Ráhu on the lunar eclipse day and to Ketu on the solar eclipse day. [95]

The planets and stars are worshipped by the Hindus. It is believed that a person who is to die within six months cannot see the polar star. From the movements of the planets past and future events of one's career are foretold by Bráhman and other astrologers. And as it is believed that man's good and bad luck are dependant upon the influence of the planets, offerings of various kinds are made and sacrifices performed for securing the favour of the Navagrahas or the nine planets. In order to avert the effect of the evil influence of certain planets people sometimes wear rings of those precious stones which are supposed to be the favourites of the planets.

The rain-bow is called Indra dhanushya or the Indra's bow, and it is believed that if the rain-bow appears in the east, it indicates the coming of more rain, and if it appears in the west it is a sure sign of the close of the monsoon.

The milky way is believed to be the heavenly Ganges. Well known tradition relates how Wáman (the 5th incarnation of Vishnu) went to Bali the king of the lower regions and asked him to give him land measuring three feet only. The king consented, whereupon the god Wáman enlarged his body to such an extent that by his one footstep he occupied the whole earth and by the second he occupied heaven. Upon this the god Brahma worshipped the foot of the god Vishnu which was in heaven, and from that foot sprang the heavenly Ganges which flows in heaven and is called Dudha Ganga or the milky Ganges.

The worship of stars and planets is in vogue among Konkan Hindu families of the higher castes. The polar star in particular is seen and worshipped by the bride and the bridegroom after the ceremony at the marriage altar is over. [96] A very interesting story is connected with the polar star. By the great power of his penance the sage Vishvámitra despatched king Trishanku to Heaven, but the gods hurled him down. Thereupon Vishvámitra became enraged and began to create a new heaven. Hindu mythological books say that he thus created the sages Vashista, Angiras, Pulah, Pulastya, Rutu, Atri, and Marichi, and stationed Trishanku in the sky. The Nava-grahas or the nine planets are worshipped before the commencement of all important ceremonies. [97] A cluster of seven stars called the Sapta-rishis are worshipped by men at the time of the Shrávani ceremony, while women worship them on the 5th day of the bright half of Bhádrapada. [98] These Sapta-rishis are said to have been created by the God Brahma from his own body; and teaching them the four Vedas, he handed them over to them and asked them to regulate the affairs of the world. [99]

Some people of the Ratnágiri District believe that the rain-bow is the bow used by Ráma, the hero of the Rámáyana. Its appearance on the east is regarded by them as symptomatic of the approach of rain, while its appearance on the west is equivalent to the departure of rain. [100]

The short duration of the rain-bow is held to indicate an excessive fall of rain while its long duration forbodes a scarcity of rain. [101] The appearance of the rain-bow on a river is supposed to indicate the approach of rain, while its appearance on a mountain means the departure of rain. [102] Of the two bows of which the rain-bow seems to be composed, the larger is believed to belong to Ráma, and the smaller to Lakshman. [103] Since the God Indra is supposed to send rain, the Indradhanushya (the rain-bow) is regarded as a sign of the advent of rain. [104]

By some Hindus it is believed that the milky way is a heavenly river which is a favourite bathing place of the gods. [105] Others suppose it to be a branch of the celestial Ganges which is said to have been brought down upon this earth by king Bhagiratha. [106] Some persons, however, believe that since the great sage Agastya is said to reside at Rámeshwar in the southern direction, the Ganges (the milky way) runs through the sky to the south in order to bathe him. Sometimes the milky way is believed to be a white cloud. [107]

On the authority of the Mahákála Nirván Tantra, some people of the Thána District believe that a person who cannot get a view of the polar star will die within six months; while others substitute the Arundhati star for the polar star and determine the duration of life of a diseased person by the same process. [108]

The people of the Thána District believe that the rain-bow is caused by the accumulation of moisture in the air. [109] The rain-bow is said to consecrate the region over which it appears. [110] The appearance of the rain-bow in the morning is supposed to forbode the approach of rain. [111]

Some people of the Kolába District believe that the holy persons such as Káshyapa, Arundhati and other sages, who lived on this earth in ancient times are seen shining in the sky by the sacred lustre of their powers. [112] Hindu women worship the planets Budha and Guru (Mercury and Jupiter) in the month of Shravan. [113]

The Sapta-rishis are somewhere called Khatale and Bájale (cot). [114] The rain-bow is held by some to be the symbol of Ráma and Lakshman, who visit the world in that form with the view of watching its proceedings. Others, however, believe that it represents God Indra who assumes that form to see how his orders are executed by his subordinates. [115] The rain-bow is said to foretell good if it appears either at the beginning or end of the rainy season, while its appearance at any other time is supposed to forbode evil. [116]

Hindus regard the earth as one of their important deities and worship it on various occasions. It is enjoined upon Bráhmans to worship it daily at the time of their Sandhya rite, as well as while performing the Shrávani ceremony. [117] The people of the Ratnágiri District pray to the earth as soon as they leave their bed in the morning. [118] The earth is required to be worshipped at the time of laying the foundation-stone of a house, as well as at the time of bringing into use a newly built house. [119] Since it is held unholy to sleep on the bare ground, those whose parents die, sleep on a woollen cloth on the ground till their parents' anniversary is over. [120] Wanprastas, Sanyásis, and Bráhmans are required to sleep on the ground. [121] Some pious men sleep on the bare ground during the Cháturmás (the four months of the rainy season), at the expiry of which they present a bed to a Bráhman. [122] It is enjoined upon a prince to sleep on the bare ground on the eve of the coronation day. [123]

Widows and women are required to sleep on the ground during their monthly courses. Women whose husbands are away are also to do the same. [124] In the Ratnágiri District Katkaris, on the day on which they wish to be possessed by a particular deity or spirit, are required to sleep on the earth. [125] When people are on the point of death, they are made to lie on blades of darbha grass placed on the earth. [126] The performer of a sacrifice as well as one who has observed a vow are to sleep on the ground. [127] The following articles should not be allowed to touch the earth, viz. pearls, the Sháligram stone, an image of the god Vishnu, the linga of Shiva, a conch shell, the sacred thread of a Bráhman, flowers intended for worship, basil leaves, and Govardhan. [128]

The following lines are repeated in the morning before setting foot to the ground [129]:--

O Goddess! who is clothed (surrounded) by the sea, whose breasts are mountains, and who is the wife of Vishnu, I bow down to thee; please forgive the touch of my feet. O Goddess Earth! who art born by the power of Vishnu, whose surface is of the colour of a conch shell and who art the store house of innumerable jewels, I bow down to thee.

Some women of the Thána District worship the earth daily during the Cháturmás (four months of the rainy season), at the end of which they give a Bráhman a piece of land or the money equivalent of it. [130] Persons who perform a particular rite, e.g., the Solásomavár-vrata (a vow observed on sixteen successive Mondays) are required to sleep on the bare ground. [131] At the sowing and harvest time, farmers appease the earth by offering it cocoanuts, fowls, rice mixed with curd, etc. [132] The blood of a king and the balls of rice given to the manes of the dead are not allowed to touch the ground. People convey to a distant place the water of the Ganges, without placing it on the ground. [133]

The earth is required to be worshipped before taking a portion of it for sacrificial purposes. [134] A vessel containing water over which incantations have been repeated is not allowed to touch the ground. [135] On the 15th day of the bright half of Ashvin every farmer prepares some sweetmeats in his house, and takes them to his farm. There he gathers five stones, worships them, and offers the sweetmeats to the earth. Afterwards he takes a portion of the food and scatters it over the farm. His family then gather there and take a hearty meal. In the evening the person who carried the food to the farm, picks up some grains of barley and puts them into a basket. On return home the grains are thrown over the house. [136]

Various conflicting notions are entertained regarding thunder and lightning. The people of the Ratnágiri District believe that the clouds are animals that roar. When these animals emit water it bursts forth on account of the circular motion of the winds called Chanda and Munda. This bursting is supposed to produce thunder and lightning. [137] Somewhere thunder and lightning are said to be the signals given by the god Indra, to birds, beasts, etc., of the setting in of the rainy season. [138] Some people believe that the god Indra sends rain through his elephants who, being excited, make a noise like thunder. [139]

Others regard the thunder as the roaring of the elephant of the gods, while sucking sea-water. The thunder is also believed to be the roaring of the god Varuna, the king of the clouds. [140] The boys of the Ratnágiri District believe that thunder is a sign of the wedding ceremonies performed in the heavenly houses of the gods. [141] Some Mahomedans believe that an angel called Mekail has control over the rain. To cause a fall of rain Mekail strikes the clouds with a whip of lightning. The clouds then utter a cry, and this is the cause of thunder. [142] Some people of the Thána District believe that there are big stones in the sky which strike against each other owing to the force of the wind, and produce thunder. The dashing of these stones against each other also generates lightning. [143]

In the Kolába District it is believed that thunder is the military band of the king of clouds and lightning is his banner. [144] Lightning is said to be produced by the fighting of celestial elephants; while thunder is heard when they pour out water. [145] Some people think that thunder is the noise of the feet of the elephants (clouds) that give rain; lightning is also said to be generated from their foot fall. [146] The clouds are supposed to be the messengers of gods, lightning being the manifestation of Divine power. The gods are said to confine these messengers from the nakshatra of Ardra to the nakshatra of Hasti, in which latter nakshatra they again begin to roar. [147]

Thunder is supposed to take place when the god Indra draws his bow; while lightning is said to be produced when the same god strikes his adamant against a mountain. [148]

In the Ratnágiri District it is believed that earthquake occurs whenever the thousand headed Shesha shakes its head. [149] It is said that at one time a demon named Gayásur became very troublesome, and all the gods held him down by standing on his body. Thereupon the demon requested all the gods to remain on his body for ever. Occasionally this Gayásur shakes his body and this causes the earthquake. [150] Some people believe that the earth trembles of its own accord when sins accumulate upon it. [151] Others hold that the earthquake takes place in the hollow parts of the earth. [152] Some people, however, believe that since the earth floats upon water, it naturally quakes at times. [153]

The Hindus being element worshippers naturally hold in reverence certain rivers, ponds, etc. In the Ratnágiri District the spring at Rájápur, called the Rájápurchi Ganga is considered very sacred. It flows from the roots of a Banyan tree. There are fifteen Kundas or ponds, and the principal Kunda always remains filled with water. On occasions a big játra fair is held and people from distant places come to bathe and worship at the spring. [154] Some people believe that many of the lakes, springs, etc., situated in the Kolhápur State are sacred. [155] A spring or rivulet that flows to the east is considered specially sacred. It is called a Surya-Vansi spring, and it is considered meritorious to bathe in it. [156] In the village of Kunkauli in the Ratnágiri District if a person is bitten by a snake or other poisonous reptile, no medicine is administered to him, but holy water brought from the temple of the village goddess is given to him to drink, and it is said that the patient is thus cured. [157] The water fall at Maral near Devarkuha, where the river Bán takes its rise, is held sacred. [158] At Shivam in the Ratnágiri District the people use the tirtha of a deity as medicine for diseases due to poison. They say that it is the sole remedy they apply in such cases. [159] There are ponds at Manora in the Goa State, and Vetore in the Sávantwádi State, the water of which is used as medicine for the cure of persons suffering from the poison of snakes, mice, spiders, and scorpions. [160] When a well is dug, the people call a Bráhman priest to consecrate it. The Bráhman takes cow's urine, milk, curds, ghi, sandal paste, flowers, basil leaves, and rice, and mixes them with water, and after repeating sacred mantras over the water, throws the mixture into the well. After this ceremony, the people are at liberty to drink water from the well. [161]

Before a well is dug, an expert is consulted to ascertain the place where a spring flows. A well is then dug, after offering a sacrifice to the spirits and deities that happen to dwell at that spot. A dinner is given to Bráhmans after the well is built. [162] A golden cow is often thrown into a newly built well as an offering to the water deities. [163] There is a well at Mandangad, the water of which serves as medicine to cure the poison of snakes and other reptiles. [164]

It is believed that there is a class of wicked water nymphs called Asará who generally dwell in wells, ponds, or rivers, far from the habitation of men. Whenever these nymphs come across a lonely man or woman entering a well, pond, etc., they carry that person under water. The village of Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District is a well-known resort of these Asarás, and many instances are given by the villagers of persons being drowned and carried off in the river by these wicked nymphs. A tank in the village of Hindalem in the same district has a similar reputation. [165] The people of the Konkan believe that water nymphs are sometimes seen in the form of women near wells, rivers, and ponds. [166] Some say that the water nymphs and water spirits confer objects desired by worshippers if they are propitiated by prayers. [167]

There are seven kundas, ponds, at Nirmal in the Thána District, forming a large lake. This lake is said to have been formed from the blood of the demon Vimalásur. At Sháhápur there is a holy spring of hot water under a Pipal tree. It is called Ganga. [168] There are kundas, pools, of hot water in the Vaitarna river in the Thána District, in which people bathe on the 13th day of the dark half of Chaitra. [169] There are also springs of hot water on the bank of the Surya river at Vajreshvari and at Koknere, in the Thána District. [170] A handful of corn, if thrown into the hot water kundas at Tungar, is said to be boiled at once. [171] It is held holy to bathe in the kundas of hot water that are situated in the rivers Tánsa and Bánganga in the Thána District. [172] The water of a well which is drawn without touching the earth or without being placed upon the ground is given as medicine for indigestion. Similarly the water of seven tanks, or at least of one pond, in which lotuses grow is said to check the virulence of measles, small-pox, etc. [173] A bath in a certain tank in the Mahim taluka is said to cure persons suffering from the itch, and water purified by repeating incantations over it is also said to be a good remedy for the same disease. [174]

The water of a tank or a well is supposed to be wholesome to a person of indifferent health, if given to him to drink without placing it upon the ground. [175] Some people believe that the water of the Ganges is so holy and powerful that if bows are thrown into it they are instantly reduced to powder. [176] The repair of lakes, caravanserais, temples, etc., is held more meritorious than their actual erection. [177] It is enjoined upon a man to perform a certain rite if he wishes to relinquish his right of ownership over a well or tank, and after this rite is performed, it can be utilized for public purposes. But no ceremony is required to be performed if a well is dug for the benefit of the public. [178]

The people of the Thána District believe that water nymphs reside in every reservoir of water. [179] Some people, however, believe that the water nymphs dwell in those lakes in which lotuses grow. These nymphs are said to do harm to children and young women, especially when they set out for a walk accompanied by their brother Gavala. They are unusually dangerous. [180] The people worship the images of the following seven water nymphs or apsaras, viz., Machhi, Kurmi, Karkati, Darduri, Jatupi, Somapa and Makari. [181]

The following places are said to be inhabited by water spirits:--the channel of Kalamba, the tanks of Sopara and Utaratal and the lake called Tambra-tirtha at Bassein [182]. Water nymphs are supposed to drown a person who tries to save another fallen into water. [183] A species of small men named Uda, otherwise called water-spirits, are said to dwell in water and subsist on fishes. [184] The spirits called Khais and Mhashya are supposed to reside in water. [185]

The river Sávitri in the Kolába District takes its rise near Mahábaleshwar and is considered very sacred. The following traditionary account is given of its origin. The god Brahma had two wives, Sávitri and Gáyatri. A dispute having arisen between them, they both jumped over a precipice. Sávitri assumed the form of a river and fell into the sea near Bánkot. Gáyatri, on the other hand, concealed herself in the river Sávitri and manifested herself as a spring near Harihareshwar in the Janjira State. [186] A man is said to be released from re-birth if he takes a bath in the kund (pond) named Katkale-tirtha near Násik. [187] Bows are said to be reduced to powder if thrown into a certain kund at Uddhar-Rámeshwar in the Sudhagad taluka. [188] Kupotsarga is defined to be the digging of a well for the benefit of the public and abandoning one's right of ownership over it. [189]

A pond near Khopoli in the Kolába District is held very sacred. The following story is related in connection with it. The villagers say that the water nymphs in the pond used to provide pots for marriage festivities if a written application were made to them a day previous to the wedding. The pots were, however, required to be returned within a limited time. But one man having failed to comply with this condition, they have ceased to lend pots. Another interesting story is associated with the same pond. It is as follows. A man had fallen into the pond and was taken to the abode of the nymphs. He was, however, returned by them after a few days on the understanding that he would be recalled if he spoke of what he had seen there. One day he communicated to the people the good things that he enjoyed there, and to the surprise of all he was found dead immediately after. [190] Water nymphs are said to reside in a pond at Varsai in the Kolába District. Consequently persons that are held unclean, e.g., women in their monthly course, etc., are not allowed to touch it. The nymphs of the same lake were once said to lend pots on festive occasions. [191] It is said that the water nymphs used to provide ornaments for marriage and other ceremonies, if returned within a prescribed period. But some people having failed to return them, they ceased to lend them. [192]

A spirit called Girha is supposed to reside in water. It is said to make mischief with man in a variety of ways by enticing him into deep water. [193] The Jakrin is said to be a deity residing in water. [194] Persons drowned in water are believed to become water-spirits, and to trouble innocent passers-by. [195]

A mountain near the village Pule, in the district of Ratnágiri is held sacred on account of the residence of the god Ganpati at that place. For this reason people walk round the mountain and worship it. Tradition says that Ganpati was at first at Gule in the Ratnágiri District, but on account of the sanctity of the place being violated by some wicked persons the god transferred his residence to Pule. At Gule there is still a very beautiful temple of Ganpati, though it is now in a dilapidated condition. [196] The cave of the sage Much-kund near Machal on the Sahyádri mountain is considered sacred. In the Konkan it is not held sinful to ascend a mountain or a hill, though to sit upon its summit is considered sinful. [197] The hill of Mirya near Ratnágiri is considered sacred. This hill is believed to be a particle (miri) of the mythological mountain Dronagiri. [198]

A hill near Dhárávi in the Thána District is consecrated by the temple of a goddess upon the top. This goddess is said to preserve ships at sea, and people are occasionally possessed by her. It is said that a Roman Catholic priest met instantaneous death on having insulted her. [199]

The hill of Mahálakshmi in the Dahánu táluka is held sacred. The villagers consider it dangerous to ascend this hill. [200] On the hill of the same name is a temple of the goddess Jivadhani, who is said to preserve children from small-pox. The following story is told in connection with the goddess. A person in need of money used to place before her image as large a heap of flowers as he wanted gold, stating that he would return the gold when he had done with it. He used then to go home and return on an appointed day for the gold, which was sure to be found where he had placed the heap of flowers. Once a man failed to return the gold, and thenceforth the goddess withheld her bounty. There is no door to the temple of this goddess. It is only through a hole in a big stone that one can have a view of her image. Sweet scent is said to be continually emitted from this hole. The goddess is said to have fastened the door of her temple for the following reason. One day the goddess was walking at the foot of the hill at night. A cowherd who happened to be there was bewitched by her matchless beauty and fell a prey to evil desire. He pursued her to the top of the hill, when the goddess, divining his motive, fastened the door of her temple with a prodigious stone. On the same hill is a cattle shed in which fresh cow-dung is said to be always found. This place being inaccessible to cows and other quadrupeds, the people believe that the goddess keeps a cow of her own. [201]

The hill of Tungar is consecrated by the temple of a certain goddess upon it. There is also a very famous hill near Arnála, called the hill of Buddha. This hill was once the seat of a king belonging to the weaver caste. Recently a pond was discovered upon it, in which was found a stone-box containing a begging-pot and a diamond. A great fair is held annually on the hill of Motmávali near Bandra in the Thána district. The devotees of the deity are Hindus, Parsis, and Christians. It is said this goddess was once worshipped by Hindus only. A Bráhman is the pujári of the Pir on the hill of Bába Malang near Kalyán. It is said that the Pir has declared that no Moslem pujári should worship him. The Hindus and Moslems worship him alike. [202]

Bráhmans do not cross the top of a mountain without stopping for a short time before ascending the summit. [203]

At a short distance from Chaul in the Kolába District is a hill dedicated to the god Dattatraya, in whose honour a great fair is held annually. The following story is told in connection with this hill. In ancient times a Bráhman used to practise austerities on this hill near a Tulsi plant (the place on which the present temple stands). He used to spend the whole day there, but returned home at nightfall. On his way home fearful scenes were often presented to him, and in his dreams he was asked not to go there any more. But the Bráhman was obdurate. He persisted in his resolution to practise austerities for a number of years, and at last succeeded in obtaining a personal interview with the god Dattatraya, who commanded him to bow down to his feet (páduka). From that time pious men live on this hill and offer their prayers to the god Dattatraya. Nearly four hundred steps have been constructed for the ascent of this hill, and additional steps are being built every year. Here also are some springs of pure water. It is worth while to note that the pujári of this god is a Shudra by caste. [204] On the north-east side of the hill dedicated to the god Dattatraya stands the temple of the goddess Hingláj. To the north of this temple are four caves, while to the west is a deep den resembling a well, through which a lane appears to have been dug. This is said to be the road excavated by the Pándavas to enable them to go to Kási. [205] At a distance of two miles from Akóla in the Kolába District is a hill called Mallikárjun. This is said to be a small stone fallen from the mythological mountain Dronagiri. This hill is said to contain many medical herbs. [206] The hill at Kankeshwar near Alibág is held sacred, and tradition says that in ancient times it had golden dust upon it. [207] A cave at Ambivali near Karjat in the Kolába District consists of seven rooms, one of which is spacious enough to accommodate five hundred persons. In the same taluka there is another cave at Kondhavane. [208]

The gods Indra and Varuna are supposed to send rain; but it is believed that the god Shiva in chief has the power of causing the fall of rain, and for this reason whenever there is a scarcity of rain people pour water over the linga of Shiva until the whole linga is submerged. [209] In order that there should be a fall of rain, some people besmear the linga of the god Shiva with cooked rice and curds. [210] In the Ratnágiri District, whenever there is a scarcity of rain, people go to the place known as Parashurám Kshetra, and there pray to the god Parashurám to send rain. [211] Sacrifices are also offered to Indra, the god of rain, in order that there should be plenty of rain. Some believe that there are certain mantris or enchanters who by the power of their mantras are able to prevent the fall of rain. [212]

In the Ratnágiri District the following ceremony is performed by the lower castes such as Kunbis, etc., to avert drought. All the male villagers assemble together at an appointed place, and there they select one of them as their Gowala-deva. All of them then go about in the village from house to house. The owner of every house sprinkles water over the assembly, and curds and butter-milk over the body of the Gowala-deva. They are also given some shidha consisting of rice, pulse, vegetables, etc. After visiting most of the houses in the village, the assembly headed by the Gowala-deva go to the bank of a river. Here they cook the food, offer it first to the Gowala-deva and then partake of the remainder as a prasád from the Gowala-deva. [213] Some people make an image of the sage Shringarishi for the purpose of causing the fall of rain. [214] Others make an image of Dhondal-deva in order that there should be plenty of rain. [215] Sometimes people repeat mantras addressed to Parjanya (rain) so that rain should fall. [216] The goddess Navachandika is worshipped in order that there should be rain. The Kunbis perform a peculiar rite for checking the fall of rain. They ask a person born in the months of Jyeshtha, Ashádh, Shrávan or Bhádrapad to fetch some rain-water in an alu leaf, and this is fastened to the eaves of thatched houses by means of a string. Note that, if this rite is to be performed in the month of Jyeshtha, a person born in that month only is required and no other; and so forth. [217] In order to check an excessive fall of rain the villagers sometimes ask a boy to take off his clothes and then to catch rainwater in the leaves of the alu plant. The leaves containing the water are then tied to the eaves of the house. [218] The people say that during the rule of the Peshwás there was a class of mantris who had the power of causing a failure of rain. [219] To check the fall of rain, some people ask naked boys to throw burning coals into the rain water. [220] Irale (a protection against rain, made of the leaves of trees) is kept in the rain upside down, the goddess Holika is worshipped, the boughs of the Avali tree are conveyed to a place where four roads meet and stones are heaped over it, and eaves of thatched houses are beaten by boys who do not wear clothes, all these being done by the villagers with a view to preventing an excessive fall of rain. [221]

The people of the Thána District believe that distinct deities preside over distinct seasons, e.g., Mars presides over the spring (Vasant), Venus over summer (Grishma), the moon over autumn (Varsha), Mercury over sharat, Saturn over winter (Hemant and Shishir). [222] When the people are in need of rain they say to the god of rain "Let us have plenty of rain to-morrow and we will give thee, Oh! God of rain! rice mixed with curd." The same offer is made to the god of rain even when they do not want it. In order that there should be no scarcity of rain, some people perform the rites of Laghu-rudra and Mahá-rudra. [223] The following measure if adopted is said to cause rain. The villagers go from house to house with boughs of the Limb tree on their heads, and water is then poured upon them by the inmates. [224] The fall of rain is supposed to cease if a person born in the month of Fálgun extinguishes burning coals in rainwater when his garments have been removed. [225]

Some stones are supposed to have influence over rain fall. There is a big stone at Varasai in the Kolába District on which are drawn certain images. The people believe that it rains hard if this stone is held straight, and then swung to and fro. [226] Some people perform the following rite known as the Dhondilgajya. They ask a person of the Kaikádi or Vadar caste to remain naked and break the string round his waist. A small image of black earth is made and placed upon his head. The boy then conveys the image from house to house in the village. A woman in each house sprinkles water over the image while the boy dances saying "Dhondil gajya, Páus gajya." It is believed that it rains in the direction in which the water sprinkled falls. A person who accompanies the boy gathers corn at every house. A dinner is then prepared, and the people of the caste to which the boy belongs, partake of it heartily. It is also said that making water in a standing posture causes the fall of rain. [227] The god Rámeshwar at Chaul in the Kolába District is said to have control over rain. In the temple of this god there is a parjanya-kund (pond) which is opened after performing a sacred rite, if there be a scarcity of rain. There are also other kundas in the temple, viz., Váyu-kund and Agni-kund, but no occasion has yet arisen to open them. [228] Some people believe that the god Agni regulates the seasons [229].

Eaves of thatched houses are cleansed with a brush made from the leaves of cocoanut trees in order that a fall of rain should be prevented. [230]

The ceremonies of Haritálika, Rishi-Panchami, Vata-Sávitri, Vaná-Shasthi, Mangalá-Gouri, Shital-Saptami are to be performed by women alone. [231] Similarly, the ceremonies of Mahálakshmi, Vasubáras, Shiva-mutha, and a rite on the Makar Sankrant day are performed by women exclusively. [232]

The rite of Rishi-Panchami is performed on the 5th day of the bright-half of Bhádrapad to make amends for sins committed without knowledge. On this day women go to a river, a well, or some other sacred place, cleanse their teeth with the leaves of the Agháda plant, and take baths with something on the head. They then take some stones from that place and worship them as Rishis. On the conclusion of the worship, they partake of fruits. On the Vrata-Sávitri day women worship a banyan tree or its boughs. The ceremony falls on the 15th day of the bright half of Jyeshtha. [233] On the Haritálika day, i.e., the 3rd day of the bright half of Bhádrapad, women make images of earth of Párvati and her two friends and worship them and fast the whole day. The observance of this rite contributes to their good fortune. Even girls of tender years observe this fast. The worship of Mangalá-Gauri is a ceremony performed by married girls for five successive years on every Tuesday of the month of Shrávan. Similarly, the goddess Mahálakshmi is worshipped on the 8th day of the bright half of Ashvin. On the Makar Sankránt day women worship a sugad [234] and present it to a Bráhman. [235] The Shiva-mutha consists of a handful of corn offered to the god Shiva by married girls on every Monday in the month of Shrávan. [236]

The worship of Shadananda and the Holika Devi and the ceremonies of Shrávani, Shráddha and Antyesti are performed by men alone. [237]

In some families of non-Bráhmans on a particular day, especially on the full-moon day of Ashvin, the host and the hostess put off their clothes and perform certain family rites. [238]

The women of the Thána District fast the whole day on the 12th day of the dark half of Ashvin. At night they worship a cow, give in charity a calf, and then take their meal. It is to be noted that this ceremony called the Vasu-dwádasi is performed by women who have children. On the Haritálika day some women live on the leaves of a Rui tree. [239]

On the Somavati-Amávásya day women worship a Pipal tree and offer it a hundred and eight things of one kind. [240] Women desirous of having a son perform a certain rite at midnight, without clothing. [241] If one wishes to have a son, one has to go through a ceremony called the Hanumán in a naked state. [242]

The god Kálbhairav is worshipped by a naked person on the Narka-Chathurdasi day (14th day of the dark half of Ashvin). Those learning the dark lore, e.g., muth márane, are also required to remain naked while studying it. They learn this lore on an eclipse day on the bank of a river. [243] The rite called Somaya is performed by the host when his clothes are off his body. On a certain Monday in the month of Shrávan a lamp of wheat flour is prepared and burned by adding ghi. This lamp is regarded as a deity, and is worshipped solemnly. During the performance of this ceremony as well as the preparation of the requisite food, the host and the hostess are required to remain naked. [244]

The Swayambhu (unartificial) linga of the god Shiva is supposed to have influence over the fall of rain. [245]

The people of the Thána District believe that the following ceremony causes a fall of rain. Stones are taken out of a pool and worshipped. They are then carried to every house in the village, and water is poured upon them by the inmates. [246] There is a temple of the god of clouds at Viranáth in the Thána District. [247]

The appearance of a comet is regarded by the Hindus as symptomatic of a coming evil, e.g., a big war, a great famine, or a terrible contagious disease spreading itself throughout the length and breadth of a country. [248] Some persons think that comets and shooting stars bode evil to the king. [249]

Whenever a great person or a very holy man is about to be born, it is believed that he alights on the earth in the shape of a shooting star. Sometimes a big star falls on the earth, and thereby a noise like that of thunder is produced. When this happens, people believe that a great Rája or a holy saint whose merit has been exhausted is going to be born on earth. [250] The following verse from the Mrichhakatika Nátak supports the view in accordance with which orthodox people in the Konkan avoid looking at shooting stars:--

INDRADHANUSHYA ANI GOPRASUTI | NAKSHATRANCI ADHOGATI SATPURUSHANCI PRANAVIPATTI || PAHUM NAYE SACARA || i.e., The following four things, viz., the rainbow, the fall of shooting stars, the delivery of a cow, and the death-struggle of saints or holy men should not be looked at. [251] It is generally believed by Hindus that a child will immediately be born in the house towards which shooting stars are directed. [252]

CHAPTER II.

THE HEROIC GODLINGS.

In the Konkan the deities of the Hindus are divided into the following five classes, viz.:--

(1) The Grámadevatás or Village deities,

(2) The Sthánadevatás or Local deities,

(3) The Kuladevatás or Family deities,

(4) The Ishtadevatás or Chosen deities, and

(5) The Wástudevatás or Grihadevatás, that is, the class of deity which presides over the house and is established at the time of the housewarming or Wástu ceremony.

The principal Gráma-devatás are Hanumán or Máruti, Kálika, Amba, Wághoba, Chedoba, Mhasoba, Bahiroba or Bhairav, Ganesh, Vira, Mhálsa or Maha Lakshmi, Chámunda, Vetál, Khandoba Malhári Jogái, Bhawáni, and Wágeshwari and Shiva. In most villages the chief village god is Máruti or Hanumán, whose temple is situated at the entrance of the village. Máruti is considered to be an avatár or incarnation of Shiva, and is held in great reverence by all classes. A festival or jatra is held in honour of Hanumán on the bright half of the month of Chaitra. On this occasion the temple is decorated with ever-greens, and flowers, the stone image of the god is newly painted or covered with red lead and oil, and garlands of the Rui (Gigantic snake wort) flowers are placed round the neck of the image, cocoanuts, plantains, betelnuts and leaves are offered to the god, camphor is lighted and waved round the image, incense is burnt, cooked food and sweets are offered, and money presents are made. Every worshipper brings with him some oil, red-lead or Cendur, a cocoanut, a vidá-supári, i.e., two betel leaves, one betelnut and a copper coin, and a garland of Rui flowers. These are given to the temple ministrant, who offers a part of the oil and red lead to the deity, places the garland round the deity's neck, and, breaking the cocoanut into pieces, gives a piece or two to the devotee as the prasád or favoured gift of the deity. Saturday is the sacred day of the monkey god Máruti. Every Saturday fresh oil and red lead are offered to the god by the devotees. The Pujáris in most of the temples of Máruti are Guravs, Ghádis, Maráthás or Gosávis.

Every Saturday in the month of Shrávan (August), called the Sampat Shaniwár or the wealth-giving Saturday a special puja or worship is performed in the temples of Máruti in Bombay as well as in the Konkan. On this day people fast the whole day and dine in the evening, after offering the god Hanumán or Máruti a preparation of rice and pulse called khichadi and cakes made of udid flour called vade. [253]

There is no village in the Konkan which has not the honour of having a temple of the god Máruti. Máruti is supposed to guard the village against evils of all kinds. Care is therefore taken to build the temple of Máruti at the outskirts of the village. [254] There is a tradition that at the time of leaving the Dandaka forest (the present Maháráshtra), Ráma asked Máruti to reside therein. It is for this reason, the people say, that every village in the Konkan and on the Gháts has a temple of Máruti. [255] The god Máruti is worshipped in the village of Wásind on Tuesdays and Saturdays. [256] In former days it was customary to establish an image of the god Máruti in a newly built castle or fort. [257] Hanumán, the son of Anjani and the wind or Márut, is known for his loyalty to his master and for his bravery. In days gone by he utilized his strength for the protection of Saints, Rishis, Bráhmans and cows, and for this merit he was elevated to the rank of a Hindu god. Every Hindu village or locality is supposed to possess at least one temple of the god Máruti, and in Maháráshtra Máruti is the guardian of every village. He is a Brahmachári, or bachelor and is one of the seven heroes who are believed to be chiranjívis or immortals. [258] Máruti is supposed to be the originator of the Mantra-Shástra, by the study and repetition of which one obtains strength and superhuman power. Women desirous of getting children go to the temple of Máruti, and there burn before his image lamps made of wheat flour and filled with ghi. The image of Hanumán is represented in temples in two ways, that is (1) Víra Hanumán or Warrior Hanumán, (2) Dása-Hanumán or servant Hanumán. The former is found in a temple consecrated to the worship of the god Hanumán alone, whereas the latter is found in a temple dedicated to the worship of the god Ráma. [259] Since Máruti is the god of strength, gymnasts tie an image of Máruti to their wrists, and they also consecrate an image of Máruti in their gymnasiums. The number eleven is said to be dear and sacred to him because he is believed to be an incarnation of the eleven Rudras. The birth day of the god Máruti which falls on the 15th of the bright half of Chaitra, called the Hanumán Jayanti day, is celebrated in the Kolhápur District with great reverence. Those who wish to have a son draw the figure of Máruti on a wall in red-lead, and worship it daily with sandal paste, flowers and garlands of Rui. Others burn lamps made of wheat flour before the image of the god. Persons who are under the evil influence of the planets, and especially of the planet Saturn, worship the god Hanumán on Saturdays in order to propitiate the planets. On this day they make wreaths of the leaves and flowers of the Rui plant and adorn his neck with them. They also offer him udid (Phaseolus radiatus) and salt. The story told of Máruti is that Anjani his mother pleased the god Shiva with her penance, and when the god asked her to claim a boon, she requested that Shiva himself should be born as her son. Shiva therefore took birth in her womb and manifested himself as Hanumán or Máruti [260].

The Local deities are generally found in special localities or sacred places called Kshetras or Punya sthánas. Thus the god Ráma at Násik, Vithoba at Pandharpur, Krishna at Dwárka, Mahálakshmi at Kolwan, Wájreshwari at Nirmal (Thána), Mharloba in the Ratnágiri, Shitala devi at Kelwa Máhim, and Khandoba or Khanderái at Jejuri.

Khanderái is said to be an incarnation of the god Shiva. Khanderái killed the demon Mani-Malla who was devastating the earth, and he is therefore called Mallári or Malhári. Kunbis and lower class Hindus in the Konkan as well as in the Deccan occasionally make a vow to the god Khandoba that if their desire is fulfilled they will offer their first born male or female child to the service of the god. The male child thus dedicated to Khandoba is called Wághya and the female is called Murali. The Wághya and Murali do not engage in any business, but maintain themselves by begging in the streets in the name of the god Khanderái. Though they are not actually married, the Wághyas and Muralis live as husband and wife, and their progeny are also called Wághyas and Muralis. They repeat the sacred cry jai khanderáyácha Elkot, and give to people bel-bhandár of Khanderái consisting of the sacred Bel leaves and turmeric powder. The god Khanderái is the family deity of some Deshasth Bráhmans, who perform a family rite called Tali bharane on every purnima or full moon day. The rite is as follows:--

A tali or plate is filled with cocoanuts, fruits, betel nuts, saffron, turmeric or bel-bhandár, etc. Then a pot is filled with water, and on its mouth a cocoanut is placed. This cocoanut, with the pot, is then worshipped with flowers, sandal paste, etc., a lighted lamp filled with ghi is put in the same place, and the tali is waved thrice round the pot, which is supposed to contain the god Khandoba. Five persons then lift up the cocoanut with the tali and place it three times on the pot, repeating each time the words Elkot or Khande ráyácha Elkot. The cocoanut is then broken into pieces, mixed with sugar or jágri, and is distributed among friends and relations as prasád. On this occasion, as well as on the occasions of all Kuladharmas, that is, the days fixed for performing the special worship of the family goddess or family god of each family, the ceremony called the Gondhal dance is performed. On the same occasion another ceremony called Bodan is performed by the Deshasths and by the Chitpávans. It is as follows:-- An image of the family deity is placed in a pot or plate called támhan, and it is then bathed in the panchámrit, that is, the five holy things, viz., milk, curds, ghi, honey and sugar. Sandalpaste is offered to it as well as flowers, lighted lamps and some sweets and incense. Five women whose husbands are alive then prepare five lamps of wheat flour called Kuranandi and wave them thrice round the face of the goddess or god, as the case may be. All the limps are then placed in the plate or támhan in which the deity is kept, and the panchámrita and other materials of worship and food and sweet cakes are mixed together. Occasionally one of the five women becomes possessed with the spirit of the kula-devi or family deity, and confers blessings on the members of the family for their devotion. It is believed that those families which fail to perform periodically the Bodan, Tali and Gondhal ceremonies in honour of their tutelary deity are sure to suffer, from some misfortune or calamity during the year. [261] The local deities chiefly worshipped at Chaul, Kolába District, are Hingláj, Jakhmáta, Bhagawati, Champáwati, Mahikáwati, and Golamba-devi. At the sowing and reaping times, people of the lower castes offer fowls and goats to these deities, and Bráhmans offer cocoanuts. [262] The local deity of the village Wávashi near Pen in the Kolába District is said to possess the power of averting evil, and is accordingly held in great respect by the people of many villages in the District. Every third year a great fair is held, and a buffalo is sacrificed to the goddess on the full moon day of the month of Chaitra. The Pujári of this goddess is a Gurav. [263] Another celebrated Sthána-deva in the Kolába District is Bahiri-Somajai of Khopoli. It is believed that a person suffering from snake-bite is cured without any medicine if he simply resides for one night in the temple of this goddess. Sacrifices of goats, fowls and cocoanuts are made to this goddess at the time of sowing and reaping. The Pujáris of this deity are known as Shingade Guravs. [264] The worship of the local deity Bápdev is much in favour among the villages of Apta and the surrounding places. At the times of sowing and reaping, offerings of fowls, goats and cocoanuts are made to Bápdev through the Pujári. [265] The worship of the local deities Kolambái, Bhawáni, and Giroba is prevalent in the Chauk villages. [266] To the Gráma-devi of the village of Tale every third year a buffalo is sacrificed, and at an interval of two years goats are offered. [267] The deities Shiva and Kálkái are worshipped with great reverence at Bakavali in the Ratnágiri District. [268] In many villages of the Ratnágiri District the goddess Pandhar is considered to be the Gaon-devi or the chief goddess of the village. The Pujári is generally a Gurav or Marátha Kunbi. On every full moon day cocoanuts are offered, and on the occasions of sowing and reaping, goats and fowls are sacrificed to this deity. [269] At Devgad there is a temple of the goddess Gajábái on the sea shore. The Pujári of this goddess is a man of the Ghádi caste. On the first day of the bright half of the month of Márgashirsh (December) special offerings of goats, fowls and cocoanuts are made by the villagers. [270] The deities Ravalnáth, Máuli, Vetál, Rámeshwar and Hanumán are usually worshipped in most villages in Ratnágiri. The villagers in the Ratnágiri District have great faith in their local deities, and before undertaking any important business they obtain the consent or take the omen of the deity. This ceremony is known as kaul ghálne and it is performed as follows:--Two betel nuts or flowers are taken and one of them is placed on the right side of the deity and the other on the left side. The worshipper then bows before the deity and requests her to let the nut on the right side fall first if the deity is pleased to consent, if not, to let the nut on the left side fall first. Naturally one of the two nuts falls first, and they interpret this as either consent or dissent as the case may be. The villagers have so much faith in this kaul that they make use of this method of divination to ascertain whether sick or diseased persons will recover or die. Special sacrifices are offered to these local deities whenever an epidemic like cholera occurs. [271] In the Ratnágiri District, at many places, there are Swayambhu or natural lingas of the god Shiva, and over these places temples are built. The Pujáris of these temples are generally Jangams or Lingayat Guravs. No animal sacrifices are made at these shrines. [272] At a short distance from the village of Makhamle there is a temple of the god Shiva called Amnáyeshwar. The following legend is narrated in connection with this temple:--The place where the present temple stands once abounded with Amani trees and formed a pasture for cattle. The cow of a certain man of the village daily used to go to graze at this place. The cow used to give milk twice, but one day she gave milk only once, and thereafter she continued to give milk only once a day. The owner therefore asked the Gavali or cowherd to ascertain the cause of this sudden change. One day the cowherd noticed that the cow allowed her milk to drop upon a stone. At this the cowherd was so enraged that he struck the stone with his scythe so hard that it was cloven in two and blood gushed forth. He hurriedly repaired to the village and related this wonderful phenomenon to the people. The villagers came to the spot, and decided to build a temple to the god Shiva over the stone. One part of the stone is in this temple and the other part was taken to the village of Kalamburi, where another temple was built over it. [273] In the Sangameshwar village the Bráhmans also worship the images of the local goddesses Chandukái, Jholái and Sunkái. In the Konkan the deities Náráyan, Rawalnáth, Manli, Datta, Vetál and Shiva are worshipped everywhere. [274] The following legend is told about the deity Vetál, the leader of the ghosts:--In the Sávantwádi State there is a temple of Vetál in the village of Ajgaon. [275] As part of his worship it is considered necessary to offer to this deity a pair of shoes every month. The people believe that after a few days the shoes become worn out. The inference drawn from this by the people is that at night the god Vetál goes out walking in the new shoes. [276] In the village of Khed in the Ratnágiri District, a buffalo is offered to the goddess Redjái on the full moon day of Chaitra every third year. [277] At Náringre offerings of cocoanuts, etc. are made to the deities Bhávakái, Chala, etc. on the 1st of the month of Márgashirsha. [278] The Schoolmaster of Ibrámpur states that one of the following deities is the grámadevata of every village in the Ratnágiri District viz.: Chandkái, Varadhan, Khem, Bahiri, Kedár, Vággaya, Antaral, Manaya, Salbaya and Vághámbari. A procession in their honour takes place in the months of Chaitra and Fálgun. The Pujáris are generally either Guravs or Marátha Kunbis. A ceremony called Palejatra is performed in the sowing season, while the Dhal-jatra is performed at the harvest time. At these fairs fowls, cocoanuts, goats, fruits, etc. are offered to these deities. [279] At Málwan on the no-moon day of Shrávan (August) local deities and ghosts are propitiated by offering to them goats, fowls, etc. [280] At Pálset in the Ratnágiri District, the god Parashurám is the most important deity especially for Chitpávans. He exterminated the Kshatriyas twenty-one times, and having no space for himself and his Bráhmans, he asked the sea to provide him with new land. On meeting with a refusal, Parashurám became enraged and was about to push the sea back with his arrow, when, at the instigation of the sea, a black-bee (bhunga) cut the string of his bow, and the arrow only went a short distance. The people say that the space thus recovered from the sea came to be called Konkan. [281] At Anjarle there are two local goddesses Sawanekarin and Bahiri. Offerings of goats and fowls are made to them in the months of Márgashirsha (December) and Fálgun (March). Sometimes liquor and eggs are also offered. Offerings can be made on any day except Monday and Ekádashi, Tuesdays and Sundays being considered most suitable. [282] At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District, Ravalnáth and Bhutanáth are held in great reverence. They are believed to be incarnations of the god Shiva. The Pujáris are generally Guravs, Ghádis, Ráuls and Sutárs. [283] The following goddesses which are popular in the Ratnágiri District are believed to be incarnations of the goddess Durga, viz. Navala-devi, Vághur-devi, Jakha-devi and Kálkái. [284] At Maral in the Ratnágiri District there is a swayambhu or natural linga of the god Shiva. It is called Maheshwar, and in its honour a fair is held on the Sankránt day. [285] The chief local deity of the Dahánu taluka, Thána District, is Mahálakshmi. She has seven sisters and one brother, two of the sisters being the Pangala-devi at Tárápur and the Delavadi-devi at Ghivali. Goats and fowls are offered to the Pangala-devi on the Dasara day. Her Pujári is a Gurav. It is said that the goddess Delwadi used to receive her garments from the sea, but now this is no longer the case though it is still believed that the incense which is burnt before her comes floating from Dwárka. [286] In the village of Edwan there is a goddess called Ashápuri, who used to supply her devotees with whatever they wanted. The devotee was required to besmear with cow-dung a plot of ground in the temple, and to pray for the things wanted by him. The next day, when he came to the temple, he found the desired things on the spot besmeared with cow-dung. [287] At Mángaon the Pujári of the local goddess is either the Pátil or the Madhavi of the village. [288] In the village of Dahigaon cocoanuts are offered annually to the village Máruti, and fowls and goats to the other local deities, in order that the village may be protected against danger and disease. [289] It is believed that any Bráhman who acts as the Pujári of the god Shiva will find his family exterminated, and for this reason Bráhmans do not act as Pujáris in the temples of Shiva.

In a few temples of goddesses like Jakhái etc. the Pujári is of the Mahár caste. [290] A great fair is held in honour of the goddess Vajrá-bái or Vajreshwari near Nirmal in the month of Kártika (November). The Pujári of the goddess is a Gosávi of the Giri sect. The worship of Bhimasena is not prevalent in the Konkan, but the hero Bhima, like Máruti, is held in reverence by the gymnasts. Bhima is not worshipped, but a work called the Bhima-stavaráj is read at the bed of a dying man in order that he may obtain salvation. At Ashirgad there is a gumpha or cave of Ashwattháma, a hero of the Mahábhárata, and it is said that a noise is heard coming from the cave on the full moon day. [291]

Wherever a village is founded, it is customary to establish a village deity as the guardian of the village. The deities chosen are Máruti, Káli, Chandkái, Varadani, etc. In the Konkan, goddesses are preferred, and on the Ghats generally Máruti is preferred. Certain ceremonies are performed for consecrating the place to the deity, and sometimes the deity is called after the village as Marleshwar [292] etc. By many lower class people the goddess Pondhar is often selected as the guardian of a new village. At Shahpur, if the newly founded village is to be inhabited by high class Hindus, the deities Máruti and Durga are selected as gráma-devatas, but if it is to be inhabited by lower class people, then such deities as Mhasoba, Chedoba, Jákhái, etc. are chosen. [293] In the Bassein and Sálsette tálukas the following deities viz. Máruti, Chedá, Chandkái, and Shiva, are chosen as village deities. Cheda is represented by a long piece of wood or stone besmeared with red-powder, and is placed on the outskirts of the village. No Bráhman is necessary for establishing a Cheda. The Pujári is generally a Kunbi or Máli, and he establishes the deity by offering it a goat or fowls and cocoanuts. [294] Sometimes the guardian deity of a new settlement is decided upon by a Kaul. Two or three names of deities are selected, betelnuts or flowers are placed on the sides of the guardian deity of the neighbouring village and that deity in whose name the betelnut falls first is chosen as the deity of the new village. [295] At Chaul, the deity called Bápdev is very popular among the lower classes. It is represented by a big stone fixed on mortar and besmeared with red-powder. When it is established for the first time in a village, a Bráhman is required to make the first púja or worship, but after this it is worshipped by a Pujári of a lower caste. [296] The Mahars in the Kolába District select the ghost-deity called Jhaloba as the guardian deity of a new settlement. [297] In many cases the deity of their former village or of the neighbouring village [298] is named by a Bhagat or exorcist, who becomes possessed. [299]

In the Konkan every village farm is supposed to be under the guardianship of the minor godlings, the majority of which are called Bhuta-Devatás or ghostly godlings. In some cases the field guardians are also the Bráhmanic godlings like Máruti and Shiva. [300] To the Bráhmanic guardians of the field, cocoanuts and flowers are offered at the sowing and reaping seasons, and to the rest, fowls, cocoanuts, and sometimes goats, are offered. The higher classes feed one or two Bráhmans in order to propitiate the deities of the fields; and for the propitiation of the minor deities of the field the lower classes perform a rite called Dalap. This rite is performed by a man of the Gurav, Ghádi, or Rául, caste by sacrificing to the field deity a goat or fowls and cocoanuts. The pujári repeats prayers for a good harvest, and then distributes portions of the offerings among the people assembled there for witnessing the rite. [301] In the Ratnágiri District on the no-moon day of Jeshta people assemble in the temple of the village deity and perform a rite called Gárháne in order that they should have a good crop, that their village may be free from diseases, and that their cattle may be protected. A similar rite is performed on the first day of the bright half of the month of Márgashirsha (December), and on this occasion sometimes a goat or sheep is sacrificed at the boundary of the village. [302] In order that there should be a good harvest, the villagers of Kankaoli worship on certain days from the month of Kártika (November) to the month of Shimga (March) the minor deities of the field by offering them fowls, cocoanuts, etc. [303] At Achare (Ratnágiri) some people worship the god of the clouds on the day on which the Mrigashirsha constellation begins, and they believe that thereby plenty of rain is ensured for the season. [304] For good harvests and for the protection of their cattle, the villagers of Achare pray to the Gráma-devata in the month of Jeshta (June), and then go in procession from the temple of the village deity to the boundary of the village, where they sacrifice a cock and offer some cooked rice with a burning wick upon it, to the deity that presides over the fields and harvests. [305] In the village of Palset of the Ratnágiri District the goddess Khema is worshipped by the villagers to obtain good crops, and for the protection of their cattle. The Púja or special worship takes place on the full-moon day of Márgashirsha and on this occasion the sacred Gondhal dance is also performed. [306] In certain villages of the Ratnágiri District, for obtaining good harvest, people worship the godling Mahápurush at the beginning of the sowing and reaping operations, and offer the deity fowls, cocoanuts and cooked rice. [307] In the village of Málwan, at the sowing and reaping seasons, the villagers usually make offerings of fowls and cocoanuts and goats to the guardians of the fields, but Bráhmans and such Kunbi farmers as do not eat flesh make offerings of cooked rice mixed with curds. [308] At Ubhádánda village, in order to secure a good harvest and for the protection of the cattle, the villagers worship the spirit godlings called Sambandhas and perform the rite called Devachár. [309] At Kochare, annual prayers are offered to the godling called Gavatdev for the protection of the village cattle. [310] In the Devgad taluka people believe that some deity resides in every farm or in every collection of fields, and that good or bad harvests are caused as the deity is pleased or displeased. [311] In order that there should be plenty of rain and that the cattle should be protected, the villagers of Málgund assemble in the temple of the village deity and offer prayers on the full moon day of Fálgun (March) and on the 1st day of the bright half of Márgashirsh. [312] In the Kolába District, for the protection of cattle and for good crops, prayers are offered to the god Bahiri and the ghosts Khavis and Sambandh. [313]

At Chauk in the Kolába District the villagers perform a special púja or worship of the god Krishna in order that the village cattle may be protected. [314] At Sasawane a fair called pále jatra is held in the month of Bhádrapad (September) in order that the villagers may have a good harvest, and that their cattle may be protected against tigers and disease. [315] At Akol, on the day which follows the Ganesh-Chaturthi, people throw parched rice over their fields and houses so that the rats may not run over them. [316] At Málád in the Thána District, for the protection of cattle, the god Wághoba is worshipped at night on the 12th of Ashvin which is called the Wágh-báras. [317] In some villages of the Thána District the deity Wághoba or Wághya is worshipped on the 12th day of the dark half of Kártik. On that day the cowherds collect a quantity of milk and prepare a kind of food known as Khir by mixing jágri and cooked rice. They then proceed to the stone image of the deity in the jungle, and besmear it with new red-lead or shendur. They pour a portion of the sweet milk over the stone, and offer prayers for the protection of their cattle. They then partake of the remaining milk. [318] At Agáshi and other neighbouring villages, before the fields are ploughed, the villagers assemble and collect a certain sum of money, with which they buy goats, fowls, red-powder, cocoanuts and parched grain. A goat and some cocks are then sacrificed to the spirits residing in the cemeteries and at the boundary of the village. Cocoanuts besmeared with gulál red powder are also offered to these ghost godlings. A goat decorated with garlands and red powder is then made to walk round the village three times at night, accompanied by the villagers, who throw láhya parched rice while passing. This rite is called Siwa Bándhane or binding the boundary, and is supposed to protect the village crops and cattle. No farmer dares to sow his seed unless this rite has been performed. After this rite has been performed, every farmer appeases his family deity, i.e. Khandoba, Bahiroba, Kankoba, etc., by performing a ceremony at home called Deopan or Devaski, which relates to the worship of ancestors. Most of the farmers regard one of their dead ancestors as their chief deity, and represent him in their house by a cocoanut. They do not enter on any new business without first offering prayers to this cocoanut, and they also believe that they can bring evil upon their enemies by simply cursing them before the deified cocoanut. The only materials generally required for the worship of this cocoanut are red powder, incense and flowers. On rare occasions, goats and fowls are sacrificed. It is believed that the ancestor in the cocoanut likes to be worshipped by the wife or husband (as the case may be) of the person represented by the cocoanut. Some farmers, in addition to the cocoanut, worship a stick or cap of their ancestor along with the cocoanut, and offer prayers for the protection of their cattle, for good rain and harvest, and also for the destruction of their enemies. [319]

CHAPTER III.

DISEASE DEITIES.

At Vengurla, in the Ratnágiri District, when epidemic diseases prevail, the people of the village assemble and prepare a basket in which are placed cooked rice, cocoanuts, lemons, wine, red flowers and Udid (Phaseolus radiatus) grain. The basket is then carried out of the village along with a cock or a goat, and deposited outside the village boundary. To carry this basket, a person belonging to the Mahár caste is generally selected. The people of the next village similarly carry the basket beyond their village limits; and it is finally thrown into the sea. It is believed that if the basket of offerings to the disease-deities is carried from one village to another, it is sure to bring the disease with it. Great care is therefore taken to throw the offerings into the sea. In cases of small pox a feast is given to women whose husbands are alive. In some cases boiled rice is mixed with the blood of a cock, and on the rice is placed a burning black cotton wick in a cocoanut shell with a little oil in it. The whole is then carried beyond the village boundary and thrown away. [320] In the village of Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District, epidemic diseases like cholera, small pox, plague, etc., are supposed to come from disease deities, and in order to avoid the danger of such diseases the people of the village go to the temple of the village deity and pray for protection. The special form of worship on such occasions is the Kaul, i.e., asking a favour from the deity. When an epidemic of plague broke out for the first time at Sangameshwar, the people of the village at once proceeded to worship the village deity; but a few cases of plague occurred, even after worshipping the village goddess Jákhmáta. When the people went to the temple and asked the reason why the plague continued, it was announced by the deity through the temple ministrant that she was helpless in the case of plague, and desired the people to worship the god Shiva, thereby signifying that the village deity has limited powers, and that the power of averting great evils lies with Shiva the god of destruction. [321] In the Devgad Taluka of the Ratnágiri District in epidemic diseases like cholera, etc., the usual ceremony, i.e., the Paradi (disease-scaring basket) is performed. A basket containing boiled rice, red powder, red flowers, lemons, betel nuts, betel leaves, etc., is prepared, and on that rice is kept a burning cotton wick dipped in oil. The basket is then carried beyond the village boundary along with a goat having a red flower garland round its neck. The goat is set free at the outskirts of the village. In cases of small pox, married women whose husbands are alive are worshipped with turmeric powder, cocoanuts, flowers, etc., and incense is kept burning in the house. The deity of small pox is also specially worshipped for a number of days. It is represented by a brass or copper lota with a cocoanut placed over it. This process is called mánd bharane i.e. arranging the materials of worship. The girls in the house sing songs in praise of the small pox deity. It is believed that in this way the severity of the disease is reduced. [322]

In the Sangameshwar taluka of the Ratnágiri District, when epidemic diseases prevail, the people of the village assemble in the temple of the village deity, offer a cocoanut to the goddess, and ask for a Kaul (omen). After receiving the Kaul they pray for mercy. It is believed that if the Kaul is in favour of the people the diseases will disappear. [323] At Achare in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District it is believed that epidemic diseases such as cholera, small pox, etc., are caused by the anger of the deities Jari and Mari; and in order to satisfy those deities animal sacrifices are offered at the time of their worship. There are no other deities who cause such diseases. [324] At Vijayadurg in the Ratnágiri District, in cases of small pox, the child suffering from the disease is made to sleep on a silk garment Sovalen. Flowers are thrown upon the patient's body, and are given to him to smell. Incense is burnt in the house. On the seventh day from the beginning of the disease, the child is first bathed in milk and then in water. Black scented powder called Abir is thrown on the body. After two or three days an image representing the deity is made of flour, which is worshipped, and a feast is given to Bráhmans and unwidowed women. [325]

At Basani in the Ratnágiri District the disease of small pox is averted by a Bráhman worshipping the goddess Shitala. Bráhmans are also worshipped, and a feast is given to them. In cases of cholera and the other epidemic diseases the village deity is worshipped and sacrifices are made to her. [326]

At Kochare in the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District, a woman whose husband is alive is made to represent the goddess Jari Mari, and is worshipped with flowers, red powder Kunku and black ointment Kájal. She is given a feast of sweet things; and rice and cocoanuts are put into her lap by another woman whose husband is alive. She is then carried in procession through the village with beating of drums and the singing of songs. This is similar to the Paradi procession, which is also common in that District. [327]

At Navare in the Ratnágiri District, in cases of small pox, the diseased child and the person into whose body the small pox deities called Báyás enter, are worshipped with Abir black scented powder, flower garlands, &c. [328]

At Pendur in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District the wrath of the female deities or Mátrikás is supposed to be the cause of epidemic diseases, and these Mátrikás are accordingly worshipped for their pacification. [329]

At Chaul in the Kolába District the god Shankar is worshipped by Bráhmans when epidemic diseases prevail in a village. The worship consists in repeating Vedic hymns. The nine planets are also propitiated by sacrifices of boiled rice, etc. There is a famous temple of the goddess Shitala at Chaul where the deity is worshipped by Bráhmans, who recite Vedic hymns, whenever small pox prevails in the village. The mantras of the goddess and the Shitala Ashtaka are also repeated in the Pauránic style. The women walk round the temple every day as long as the signs of the disease are visible on their children. The goddess is worshipped with turmeric and red powders, and clothes and fruits are given to her. The Kaul ceremony is also practised in this District. It is worth noticing that even Musalmáns ask for a Kaul from this goddess. The days fixed for Kaul are:--Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday. The morning hours are considered specially auspicious for the Kaul. There is another temple at Chaul, of the goddess Shri Golába Devi. This goddess is also worshipped when other epidemic diseases prevail in the village. Saptáha i.e. continuous worship for seven days is also performed in honour of the deity. The gardeners (Mális) of the village worship this deity every Tuesday morning with cocoanuts gathered from every house in the village. This temple is being repaired at present. [330]

When epidemic diseases prevail in the village of Poladpur of the Kolába District the god Shiva is worshipped by continuously pouring water over the deity's head or linga. Sacrifices of fruits and animals are also offered to the village deity. Where there is a temple of the deity Mári or Mahámári, the deity is worshipped through a Bráhman, and sacrifices of cocks and goats are offered to her. The deity named Shitala is worshipped in cases of small pox. [331]

At Vávashi in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District, in cases of epidemic diseases, the people of the village invoke the god Shiva, and holy fires called homa are kindled in honour of that god. Sacrifices of boiled rice are also offered to the deity. For averting small pox the deity Shitala is invoked by the mantras called Shitala Ashtaka. For averting fevers the gods Shankar and Vishnu are also worshipped. [332]

At Medhe in the Rohe taluka of the Kolába District the god Shiva is worshipped in order to avert an epidemic, and Hanumán is worshipped to avert fevers. [333]

At Málád in the Salsette taluka of the Thána District, when an epidemic prevails in a village, the goddess Navachandi is worshipped and the Homa is kindled in her honour. On the last day of worship a goat is set free as a sacrifice to the deity. The Bali, i.e., the offering of boiled rice, and the goat are taken beyond the boundary of the village, and handed over to the people of the neighbouring village, who follow the same procedure, and at last both the sacrifices are thrown into the sea. The goat generally dies, as it does not get water and food till it reaches the sea. [334]

In the village of Anjur in the Thána District, in cases of long standing fevers the Bráhmans observe the ceremony called Udak Shanti or propitiation by water. It is as follows:--An earthen pot filled with water is placed on the ground. On the top of the pot is placed a round plate in which the image of the god Brahmadev the son of Vishnu is consecrated. Four Bráhmans sit on the four sides of the pot and repeat their Vedic hymns. These four Bráhmans are supposed to be the four mouths of the god Brahmadev. It is believed by the people that by performing this ceremony the fever is made to disappear. [335]

At Rái in the Thána District some people believe that malarial fevers are averted by placing secretly a small stone on the head of the god Hanumán. [336]

In the Kolhápur District the nine planets are worshipped in the house to ward off diseases such as cholera, small pox, fevers, etc. The goddess Laxmi is worshipped in order to avert small pox, the worship being generally performed in a garden or a grove of mango trees, when parched rice, cocoanuts and lemons are offered to her. The people assembled at the spot partake of the food. To avert fever, the people perform a certain ceremony ordained in the Shástras. If the sick person is supposed to be under the evil influence of the planet Saturn, the planet is invoked by repeating the mantras, and worshipped with the usual offerings. Garments such as a Sári and a Choli are offered to the goddesses Mári and Kálubái. When an epidemic disease such as cholera prevails in a village, the people of the village install the deity Margai at a place where four roads meet, and worship her for seven or eight days with much ceremony. Every one brings offerings of cocoanuts, lemons, ambil or conjee, cooked rice and curds, etc. with the beating of drums to offer to the deity. After worshipping the goddess in this manner for eight successive days they sacrifice a Bali of a he-buffalo before her. The deity is then put upon a bullock cart and carried through the village with the beating of drums and much ceremony, to be thrown away beyond the village boundary along with the offerings. [337]

Epidemic diseases are not attributed to witchcraft at Devgad in the Ratnágiri District. It is believed that they are caused by the accumulated sins of the people. [338] In the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District epidemic diseases are attributed to witchcraft by low caste people. The power of averting such diseases lies in the hands of the village deities. They are therefore propitiated by the sacrifices of cocks, goats, and cocoanuts. [339] At Poládpur in the Kolába District, epidemic diseases are sometimes attributed to witchcraft by low caste people. Persons well versed in the mantras of evil spirits are called Bhagats or exorcists. Some of them keep evil spirits at their command. The poor people believe that what these exorcists foretell is sure to occur. It is believed that the spirit dwells on the tongue of these exorcists. When these spirits are hungry, they are let loose in the village by the sorcerers for the destruction of the people, thus causing an epidemic. When a spirit is to be destroyed, the people of the village assemble in a mob and attack the sorcerer, a small quantity of blood is taken from his tongue and water from the earthen pot of a Chámbhár is poured upon it. It is believed that by so doing the spirit is permanently destroyed and the sorcerer either forgets all his mantras or they become ineffective. The spirit is called tond bhut, and it sometimes troubles even animals. [340]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, the people believe that the devotees of the Mári deity bring on epidemic diseases by the use of their mantras, and in order to satisfy them, offerings are made to the deity Mári which are taken by the devotees or Bhagats. [341] At Váde in the Thána District epidemic diseases are attributed to witchcraft. There are some women who are supposed to bring on, or at least foster, the growth of such diseases by their evil mantras. Such women are threatened or punished by the people, and sometimes they are even driven out of the village. [342] In the village of Anjur of the Thána District, if a man vomits blood accidently and falls ill, or dies, it is believed to be due to the act of Muth Márane, that is, the throwing of a handful of rice over which incantations have been repeated. If there be any sorcerer in the village who has learnt the same incantations, he alone is able to return the Muth to the sorcerer who first used it. [343] At Shirgaum in the Umbergaon taluka of the Thána District, when epidemic diseases prevail in the village, the people of the village take a turn round the village in a body and kill a buffalo. A Bali or offering of boiled rice, cocoanuts, cocks and goats is also offered to the deities that cause epidemic diseases. [344]

When cattle disease breaks out in a village the people of the Devagad taluka in the Ratnágiri District generally prevent the healthy cattle from mixing with the diseased, and the people of the neighbouring villages take precautions against using the milk, etc. of the diseased cattle. At such times the cattle of the village in which the disease breaks out are prohibited from entering the neighbouring villages. [345] At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District, the deity named Maha Gira is worshipped in connection with cattle diseases. At some places a feast is given to Bráhmans, and in certain villages of this District a man is painted like a tiger, carried out of the village and bathed in a river. It is believed that this is one of the remedies for averting cattle diseases. [346] At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District, when cattle disease breaks out, a goat or a cock is sacrificed at the temple of the village deity. [347] In some villages of the Málwan taluka the deity Bráhman is worshipped. [348] At Basani in the Ratnágiri District the gods of the Mahárs as also the village deity are worshipped in connection with the cattle diseases. [349] At Vávashi in the Kolába District when cattle disease prevails in a village, a pig is killed and buried on the border of the village. A sweet oil lamp in the shell of a crab or a lobster is kept burning in the cowshed. River or sweet water fishes are boiled in water, and the water is given to the animals to drink. The owner also cleans the cowshed and burns sulphur, camphor, dammer and other disinfectants. [350] At Varsai in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District a Kaul is taken from the village deity to prevent cattle diseases, that is, the village deity is consulted through the temple ministrant, who acts as the spokesman of the oracle. [351] At Medhe in the Rohe taluka of the Kolába District the village deity Bahiroba is worshipped in connection with cattle diseases. The diseased animals are minutely examined, and the affected part of their body is branded with a red hot iron. [352] In the village of Umela of the Thána District the village deity is worshipped and sacrifices are offered to her. Milk from the affected villages is prohibited, and vegetables are not fried in oil during the prevalence of the disease in the village. [353] At Kolhápur, the people make vows to the god, and ashes from the temples are brought and applied to the forehead of the cattle. Cotton strings are tied to the feet or the neck of the cattle in the name of the god. They also make vows to the deities Tamjái and Wághjái, and offer to them eyes made of silver, a new cloth, a fowl or a goat, when their animals are cured of the disease. [354]

In the Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri District, in cases of malarial fevers pieces of certain kinds of herbs are fastened together with black cotton strings, and tied round the arm or neck of the person suffering from the disease. Sacred ashes are put in a copper amulet and the amulet is tied in the manner above described. [355] At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District, in addition to herbs and copper amulets, peacock feathers in black cotton strings are tied to the arms of the persons suffering from malarial fevers, etc. [356] At Vengurla in the Ratnágiri District, in fevers like malaria, black strings of cotton are tied round the arm or neck, and certain secret mantras are repeated at the time. It is believed that the power of the mantras is lost if they are disclosed to the public. [357] At Murud in the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District the mantras of the god Narsinh, the fourth incarnation of Vishnu, are repeated for the exorcism of diseases. [358] In the Dápoli taluka people who want to get rid of their diseases tie a copper amulet to their arms. The mantras that are repeated on such occasions are kept secret. There are at present some persons in the Anjarle village who give such amulets and charms. [359] In the Chiplun taluka of the Ratnágiri District the following articles are used for averting diseases:--Copper amulets, black cotton strings, and holy water over which certain mantras have been repeated by the exorcist. [360] At Poladpur in the Kolába District, black cotton strings are tied round the arm in cases of malarial fevers. Some mantras are repeated in cases of pain in the right or left side of the body. Besides the mantras some signs and figures are drawn on birch leaves, and tied round the arm or the neck of the patient. Women who wish to have children wear such black cotton strings and copper amulets. [361] At Vávashi in the Kolába District mantras are in vogue for the exorcism of diseases such as liver and spleen affections. For exorcising eye diseases black cotton thread is tied to the ear. [362] At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, ashes are applied to the body of the sick person after repeating certain mantras over them. [363] At Málád in the Thána District, for exorcising diseases caused by evil spirits, certain letters of the Nrisinha mantra are written on a birch leaf, and the leaf is tied round the arm of the sick man with a copper amulet. In order to drive out the evil spirit permanently, the god Nrisinha is worshipped, and sacred fire is kindled to propitiate the deity. For the worship of Nrisinha the ministrant required must be a regular devotee of Nrisinha, and he must also be a Panchákshari, i.e., one who knows the mantras of evil spirits. [364] In the village of Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District, in addition to copper amulets and black threads of cotton, mantras of Musalmán saints or pirs are in vogue for exorcising disease. [365] At Kolhápur, the higher classes perform the religious ceremony called Anushthán to propitiate Shiva, the god of destruction, in order to avert disease, and also make vows to the same deity. The lower classes offer cocoanuts, fowls or a goat. They sometimes go to the exorcist for ashes in the name of the god, and apply them to the forehead of the diseased person. Copper amulets and cotton strings given by the exorcist are also tied round the neck of the sick person. [366]

At Adivare in the Ratnágiri District the following practices are adopted for driving out evil spirits that cause disease. Incense is burnt before the exorcist, drums are beaten, and then the exorcist takes a burning wick in his hand and frightens the diseased person by striking the ground with a cane or a broom of peacock feathers. He also cries out loudly. He then draws out the evil spirit from the body of the diseased person, and puts it in a bottle, which is either carried out of the village and buried under ground near a big tree or is thrown into the sea. [367] In the Sangameshwar taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the process of exorcising is sometimes accompanied by dancing and loud cries. The person who suffers from evil spirits is taken to Narsoba's Wádi in the Kolhápur State where patients are believed to find a cure. [368] In the Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri District the exorcist, when possessed, does not dance as at other places, but freely uses abusive epithets to drive out the evil spirits; and on such occasions the threats are repeated loudly by the exorcist. [369] In the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District, dancing is used in exorcism. While dancing, the exorcist makes a show of different kinds of fits. They are similar to those made by a person suffering from hysteria. He also stands and sways his body to and fro for some time, then assumes a serene and quiet attitude, and begins to cry out loudly. [370] There are some sorcerers at Dásgaon in the Kolába District, who dance and cry out loudly in order to drive out the evil spirits from the body of the diseased. [371] At Málád in the Thána District dancing is used in exorcism. The following is a description of one of these dances. Songs of the deity which is to be summoned on the occasion are sung along with the music of the Tál (a kind of cymbal) and the beating of drums called Ghumat. The Ghumat is an earthen jar, the lower and upper ends of which are covered over with leather. The man in whose body the deity is to make its appearance takes his bath and sits by the side of a small prayer carpet called Asan. A small quantity of rice (about a ser) is put in front of the carpet, and a copper pot filled with water is placed on the rice. The musicians begin to strike their instrument with a loud clash, and the exorcist's body begins to shake. The shaking of the body is a sure indication of his being spirit-possessed. He then sits upon the carpet and begins to throw grains of rice into the copper pot containing water, gives out the name of the particular spirit with which he is possessed, and the cause for which it has attacked the patient. He then explains the measures and rites by which the spirit can be driven out. The people abide by his directions, and the patient is thus cured. [372]

At Padghe in the Thána District, when an evil spirit is to be driven out from the body of the patient, the latter is asked to hold in his mouth a betelnut or a lemon. After some time, the betelnut or the lemon is put into a bottle, the bottle is then tightly corked and buried underground. A copper pot is filled with water, and the diseased person is asked to hold the pot upside down. If the water runs out it is believed that the spirit has disappeared. [373]

In the village of Edwan of the Thána District, dancing is practised in cases of spirit possession, but it is resorted to among the lower castes only. While dancing, the sorcerer cries out loudly, and throws grains of Udid (Phaseolus radiatus) on the body of the diseased person [374] after repeating certain mantras. This rite is styled Bhárani or the process of charming.

At Kolhápur, dancing is not used in exorcism, but the people suffering from evil spirits sometimes dance and cry out loudly. Some of them loose their hair while dancing, and even strike their heads. Some quarrel like combatants, and some of them try to make speeches like orators. There is a temple of the god Shri Dutta at Narsinhwádi in the Kolhápur State, to which people suffering from evil spirits are brought for a cure. These people cry out loudly when the palanquin of the Swámi Maháráj is carried through the village, and spirits usually quit the bodies of their victims at this time, for it is said that they cannot bear the proximity of the Swámi Maháráj. Patients are also cured by residing in the village for a certain period. On this account the village of Narsobáchiwádi is considered very holy. A big festival is celebrated in this village annually on the twelfth day of the dark half of Ashvin (October). Feasts are given to the Bráhmans, the expenses being borne by the Kolhápur State. [375]

In the Sangameshwar taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the Bhagat or exorcist is respected by the lower caste people. His duties are to ask a kaul from the deity on behalf of the people and to alleviate their sufferings. His appointment is hereditary, the clever member of the family generally following the profession of his father. [376] In the Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri District, low class people are afraid of sorcerers because they might injure them if they are offended. They therefore are careful not to cause them displeasure. There, the profession of a sorcerer or exorcist is not hereditary. Any one who learns the wicked mantras after attending regularly the burial and burning grounds for some days becomes an expert, and may follow the profession. [377] In the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District the chief function of the village sorcerer is to worship the village deity. All kinds of gifts and presents intended for the deity are made through him. His profession is hereditary and he is much respected by the ignorant people [378]. At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District the exorcist is not appointed, but one who can satisfactorily interpret or explain to the village deity the sufferings of the people is generally selected. [379]

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the chief function of the village sorcerer is to find remedies for the cure of persons suffering from evil spirits. His position among the people of the low classes is considered high. He follows the hereditary profession of a sorcerer, and generally the eldest son succeeds his father. [380]

At Chidhran in the Panwel taluka of the Kolába District, Bhutes, a caste of beggars, are the devotees of a goddess. Some of them are called Bhagats. Devrishis are very rare. The difference between a Devrishi and a Bhagat is as follows:--A Devrishi removes the evil spirits by simply repeating the mantras while the Bhagat removes them by bringing the evil spirit into his own body and by dancing, etc. [381]

At Chaul in the Kolába District, Bhutes go begging in the morning every day for the first nine days of the month of Ashvin (October). On the tenth day the Bhutya is given a pice from every house. These Bhutes are devotees of the goddess Shakti. At Sasawane in the Kolába District the village sorcerer comes to beg every day and is given rice, etc., but during the first nine days of the bright half of Ashvin (October) he is given copper coins. [382] At Anjur in the Thána District the devotee of a particular god is called Bhagat, and one who knows how to summon or eject evil spirits is called Bhutya. A Devrishi is a person who knows the mantras for warding off the great evil spirits such as Brahma Rákshasa, Brahma Samband, etc. These three classes are respected only for performing their respective duties, and not otherwise. [383]

At Kolhápur, the sorcerer is never appointed. His functions are to ask a kaul from the deity, to pray for the welfare of the people, and explain to them what he sees in his dreams. He holds no position in higher society, but the poor people who believe in him are afraid of him. Sorcerers are generally very cunning; they frighten poor people, and obtain from them presents and gifts for their maintenance. [384]

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District red flags are hoisted on Banyan, Pipal, and Umbar trees, and on certain occasions offerings of coins and cocoanuts are made. It is believed that when the three kinds of trees happen to grow together, i.e., close to each other, near a well or on the bank of a river, the god Datta resides there, but such cases are very rare. These trees are supposed to be the haunts of the Munja spirit, and therefore copper coins waved round the persons suffering from evil spirits are thrown underneath them. There are no sacred wells in this taluka. [385] In the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the Banyan and Pipal trees are worshipped. The former is worshipped by women on the full moon day of the month of Jestha (June) and on the no moon day when it falls on Monday. On these occasions a cotton thread is tied round the tree, and offerings of glass beads, cocoanuts, fruits, etc., are made. These trees are also worshipped with offerings of copper coins, etc. [386] In the Dápoli taluka, there is a certain place between the two villages of Anjarla and Harnai where persons passing by that side throw one or two stones, causing thereby a heap of stones there. It is believed that by doing this the person who throws such stones gets rid of his itch. This place is called Girjoba. Hands and feet made of wood are also offered by persons who make vows to do so when their hands or legs are affected by any disease. [387] At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District offerings of cotton thread, copper coins, and fruit are made to Banyan and Pipal trees on the full moon day of the month of Jestha (June) and on every Saturday in the month of Shráwan (August). [388]

At Vavanje in the Panwel taluka of the Kolába District, offerings of coins, etc., to sacred trees are made at the time of Parwani (a festival). For instance, when the no moon day falls on Monday, the women worship the Pipal tree, and on the full moon day of Jestha (June) they worship the Banyan tree. The custom prevails of the worship of a well by women after their delivery. A woman, after completing the period of her confinement or ceremonial impurity, is taken to a well, from which she has to bring home water, and is required to worship the well with the following materials, viz.:--cotton thread, copper coins, cocoanuts and such other fruit as can be had on the occasion. [389] At Varsai in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District, offerings of cotton cloth, copper coins, cocoanuts, betelnuts and plantains are made to the Banyan, Pipal, and Umbar trees, and also to holy wells. The Pipal, Tulsi, and Umbar trees are worshipped daily by women in this district, while the Banyan is worshipped on the full moon day of Jestha (June). The materials of worship are:--rice, fruits, water, sandalpaste, flowers, mangoes and jack fruits. [390]

At Málád in the Thána District, the Banyan tree is worshipped by women of the Dwijas, i.e., of the twice born castes, on the full moon day of the month of Jestha. Copper or silver coins and fruit are offered to the tree. These offerings are taken by the Bráhman priest, who explains to them the modes of worship. The Bráhman priest is also given some money as a gift. This Vrata, i.e., vow, is observed by women by fasting for three successive days, from the 13th to the 15th day of the bright half of Jestha (June). The Pipal tree is worshipped daily by some men and women of the Bráhman caste. Women walk round this tree for a hundred and eight times or more daily. Some persons hold a thread ceremony for the Pipal tree in order to obtain a son, and worship the tree for a certain period. It is worshipped with fruit and copper coins. Wooden cradles are also offered to the tree. Wells are worshipped on auspicious days such as Parwani by women of the upper castes. [391] At Padghe in the Thána District the Banyan tree is worshipped on the full moon day of Jestha, and the Pipal is worshipped every Saturday in the month of Shráwan (August). The Pipal tree is not worshipped before the performance of its thread ceremony, and its thread ceremony is not performed till the tree bears at least one thousand leaves. [392]

At Kolhápur, the Banyan and Pipal trees are considered very holy, and offerings of rags, coins, etc., are made to them. It is a custom among the Hindu women to worship the Banyan tree on the full moon day of Jestha. Offerings of cloth and fruit are made to this tree, and copper or silver coins are given as dakshana. Some women make a small model in gold, silver, or copper of the Banyan tree or of its leaf, and present it to the Bráhman priest along with a present of money. All these rites are required to be strictly performed as enjoined in the Shástras. [393]

At Nágothane in the Kolába District, it is believed that men who are well versed in the mantras of witchcraft and sorcery sometimes transfer diseases from one person to another. [394] Vaccination is believed to be a method of transferring disease to other persons. [395]

At Málád in the Thána District a method of transferring disease from one person to another is in practice among the Shudras. It is as follows:--A woman without a child cuts secretly a little piece from the garment of a woman who has children. She then burns the piece, puts the ashes into water, and the mixture is then drunk by the barren woman. It is believed that, by so doing, the evil spirit of the disease that is troubling the barren woman is transferred to the other who has children. The barrenness of the first woman then disappears, and she begets children. It is said that if the second woman comes to know of the mischief before using that garment, she discontinues the use of the same, and no harm is done to her. [396]

In the Umbergaon taluka of the Thána District the methods of transferring disease are called Muth Márane, i.e., a bewitched lime is sent to the person to whom the disease is to be transferred. Various mantras are also secretly repeated with the object of transferring the disease to an enemy. [397]

At Kolhápur, there are no methods of transferring disease to other persons, but it is said that the following ceremony is practised in the case of persons suffering from swollen glands. Rice, Udid grain etc. are tied in a yellow cloth, and three knots are made in it. This is then kept for one night under the pillow of the diseased person. It is taken out the next morning and thrown away at a place where three roads meet. It is then supposed that the person who steps on the bundle first is attacked with the disease, and the one for whom the rite is performed is cured. [398]

At Devgad taluka in the Ratnágiri District it is believed that evil spirits are fond of things like a cock, cocoanuts, boiled rice, etc., and when a person considers himself attacked by evil spirits, these things are waved round his body and thrown away at some distance from his residence. This is generally done in the evening, but if necessary it can be done at any time. The person who goes to throw these things away is prohibited from looking behind. The things required for a bali, i.e., oblation, on such occasions are boiled rice, red powder, and an oil lamp made of black cotton wick. [399]

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District, when a person is suffering from any disease for a long time, and when ordinary medicines prove to be ineffective, a goat or a cock is waved round the body of the patient, and are then put beyond the village boundary or taken away by the sorcerer. While performing this rite, the man must repeat certain mantras. [400]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District, the use of scapegoats is resorted to in cases of persons supposed to have been attacked by evil spirits. Curds and boiled rice are waved round the body of the diseased person and thrown away at a distance from the house. In some cases it is said that the cock which is waved round the body of the sick person dies instantaneously. [401]

In the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District the scapegoat (often a cock) is waved three times round the sick person and thrown into the street. The man who goes to throw it away is prohibited from looking behind. Burnt cowdung ashes are thrown out of the door after the man has left the house, and the door is closed at once. [402]

In the Dápoli taluka, cocoanuts, curds, boiled rice, turmeric powder, red powder, cocks etc. are waved round the body of the sick person and taken beyond the village boundary or to a big tree supposed to be haunted by evil spirits, and in some cases these things are thrown away where four roads meet. [403]

In the Rájápur taluka of the Ratnágiri District scapegoats are used by the low caste people, while Bráhmans use cocoanuts, boiled rice and copper coins. [404] At Kálshe in the Ratnágiri District eggs, cocks, goats, etc. are used as scapegoats. These things are waved round the body of the patient, and taken beyond the village limits or far from the residence of the sick person. For this rite a man from the Ghádi, Gurav, Rával, or Mahár caste is invited at night, and he is paid in cash for his services. [405]

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District, the cocks and goats used for driving out evil spirits from the body of the patient are not thrown away, but are eaten by the exorcist. [406]

At Navre in the Ratnágiri District, hens are used to extract the poison of snake bites from the body of the sufferer. In cases of evil spirits alone, cocoanuts, cocks and goats are used as scapegoats. [407]

At Dásgaon in the Kolába District, a Paradi (basket) containing black glass beads, bangles, turmeric and red powders, sweetmeat of five sorts, flowers, cocoanut, a burning scented stick, and rice, is waved three times round the body of the patient, and thrown away outside the village. [408]

At Kolhápur, the use of fowls, goats, limes, cocoanuts, copper coins, dry chillies and salt is in vogue, not only in cases of sick persons, but also when a person performs a feat such as bending an iron bar, or doubling with his hands a silver coin, or winning a victory in wrestling. The articles are then waved round him and thrown away in order that he may not suffer from an evil eye. Among the rich the same rite is performed on ordinary occasions such as leaving a house, starting on a journey etc. In cases of illness it is specially performed in the evening, and the articles are thrown away at the outskirts of the village, or by the side of a well. [409]

CHAPTER IV.

WORSHIP OF ANCESTORS AND SAINTS.

In the Konkan, especially among the lower classes, a strong belief prevails regarding the mortality of the spirits of the dead and of their re-appearance or re-birth in their children. And for this reason, as well as for protection against evil, the dead ancestors are worshipped.

The custom regarding the worship of ancestors prevailing at Kálshe in the Ratnágiri District is as follows:--The worship of ancestors is called Shráddha (anniversary). It is performed on the no moon day of every month, on the date of the death of the person every year, and also on the same date of the dark half of the month of Bhádrapada (September). Among the Bráhmans, Bráhman priests are invited, worshipped, and are given a feast, after worshipping balls of boiled rice as representing the dead ancestors. The special materials used for worship are sesamum and barley grain. The same custom prevails among non-Bráhmans with the exception that the balls are made of rice flour and not of boiled rice. To partake of the food on such occasions, the lower classes invite married persons of their own caste. The anniversary day of Sádhus and Mahants, i.e., saints, is called Punya tithi, i.e., the day of merit.

It is commonly believed that spirits are mortal. The life of the deceased remains in the spirit condition until the sins which he may have committed are washed away by the good deeds of his descendants. There is no belief that one spirit dies and another takes its place, but it is believed that the ancestors are sometimes reborn in the same family. [410]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District ancestors are worshipped every year on the same date of the month (according to the Hindu calendar year) on which the person died, by performing a Shráddha rite. They are also worshipped on the same date in the second half of Bhádrapada (September) every year. This is by a rite called Mahálaya Shráddha. On both these occasions Bráhmans are invited, and the worshipping ceremony is performed by repeating the mantras. After the ceremony, all the invited guests men and women partake of food.

Sádhus are worshipped after washing their feet with sandal paste, flowers, cocoanuts and gifts of money.

It is believed that evil spirits undergo a transformation after a lapse of twelve years. The practice of giving the names of ancestors to children is common, and it is due to the belief that the spirits of the dead are reborn in children in the same family. [411]

At Pendur in the Ratnágiri District the ancestors are worshipped on the last day of every Hindu calendar month. This monthly worship is called Darsha Shráddha. The annual anniversary of the manes is celebrated by the ceremony called the Sámvatsarik Shráddha. If any ancestor has died after becoming a recluse or Sanyási, his body is buried, and a tomb called a samádhi is erected over it; and his descendants, instead of performing the annual Shráddha, worship the tomb of the recluse every day. It is believed that the spirits take a different form after the lapse of seven generations. The belief that the spirits of the dead are reborn in the same family prevails among the people of this district. The following measures are adopted for the purpose of identification. When a person dies in a family, a basil or bel leaf is placed on a certain part of the body, or some familiar sign is made in sandal paste; and when a child is born in the family, its body is carefully examined to ascertain whether there are any signs on the body of the child such as were made on the dead body of the ancestor. If the same sign appears to the satisfaction of the members of the family, it is believed that the dead person has been reborn in the same family. [412]

At Navare in the Ratnágiri District Bráhmans are invited, worshipped and given a feast in honour of ancestors. Sádhus and Mahants, or saints, are worshipped by giving them the same honour accorded to the family deities. [413]

At Basani in the Ratnágiri District the anniversary day of saints is observed by the performance of a Bhajan, which consists in singing the good deeds of saints and in offering prayers. It is believed that spirits are mortal, but they do not die like ordinary human beings. They cease to exist as spirits as soon as the period of their release is over. The spirits obtain absolution by visiting certain holy places. [414]

At Dabhol in the Ratnágiri District the people believe that the souls of ancestors are reborn in children in the same family if some of their desires remain unfulfilled at the time of their demise. [415]

At Shiravde in the Ratnágiri District ancestors are worshipped every year by performing the rites called tarpan, which consist in offering oblations of holy water, sesamum, barley grains and repeating prayers. The tarpan is observed on the very date of the month in which the person died. The procedure of worshipping the Hindu saints is similar to that of the other deities. Owing to the belief that the spirits of the dead are reborn in children in the same family the name of the grandfather is given to the grandson. [416]

At Náringre in the Ratnágiri taluka ancestors are worshipped by inviting Bráhman priests, and worshipping them with sandal paste and flowers. These Bráhmans are supposed to represent the father, grandfather and great grandfather of the worshipper. [417]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District the leaves of the herb called pudina, (a good medicine for worms) sesamum, and darbha grass are required for the worship of ancestors. The man who worships the ancestors has to turn his sacred thread from the right hand to the left. [418]

At Anjarle in the Ratnágiri District Mahants and Sádhus are worshipped in their life-time like family deities, and their tombs are worshipped after their death. [419]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District ancestors are worshipped by making balls of boiled rice on their anniversary day. The balls are supposed to take the place of the dead parents, and they are worshipped with sandal paste and flowers, and by burning incense and lighting a lamp of clarified butter. Betelnuts and leaves, cocoanuts and Dakshina (presents of money) are given to them. People also bow before them. Mahants and Sádhus are worshipped by washing their feet, sandal paste is applied to their body, and they are garlanded with flowers. Cocoanuts, a piece of cloth and a gift in coins are given to them according to the means of the giver. It is said that spirits can remain as spirits for about a thousand years. [420]

At Vijayadurg in the Ratnágiri District the method of worshipping ancestors is as follows:--In some cases elderly parents as well as a grandfather and great grandfather are also worshipped, their feet are washed with water, and the water is accepted as tirth or holy water. While worshipping the Mahants and Sádhus, or saints, water is poured on their right hand, and they are worshipped with sandal paste and flowers, and given a dakshana or gifts of money according to one's means and will. The pádukas, or foot prints, of saints are worshipped after their death. [421]

At Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District holy persons such as Sanyásis are worshipped after their death by performing their anniversary ceremony every year. It is believed that spirits are mortal. Evil spirits such as munjas, etc., undergo a kind of transformation, and it is believed that this occurs at places like Narsoba's Wádi. [422]

At Devgad in the Ratnágiri District ancestors are worshipped on their anniversary days, the manes being represented by pieces of Darbha grass and balls of boiled rice. [423]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District a person whose father is alive but who has lost his mother's father, has to perform the Shráddha of that grandfather on the 1st day of the bright half of Ashvin (October). This Shráddha is called Duhitra. A person who has lost his wife has to perform the Shráddha for that wife on the 9th day of the dark half of the month of Bhádrapada. This day is called Ahev Navami. These different sorts of Shráddhas are observed only by the high class Hindus. The lower classes worship their ancestors on the last day of the month of Bhádrapada by preparing a ball of boiled rice or flour, and putting it out for the crows to eat. It is believed that spirits are mortal. The ceremony called Narayan Nagabali is performed when it is believed that the spirit of an ancestor is giving trouble to the family. When this rite is performed, the spirit is saved and the ailment ceases. It is believed that the spirits of the dead are sometimes reborn in children in the same family, and in such cases the names of the ancestors are given to their children by the people. [424]

At Khopoli in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District the form of worship of ancestors is similar to that of the ordinary Hindu deities. In the case of the worship of the deities the person performing the worship has to sit with his face towards the east, while at the worship of the ancestors he has to sit with his face towards the south. [425]

At Chaul in the Kolába District, the tombs of Sanyásis, i.e., ascetics and Sádhus are worshipped on their anniversary days, and a great fair is held in their honour. The other ancestors are worshipped by the shráddha rites. The anniversary of the founders of the different sects is observed by their followers by a bhajan, i.e., singing songs in their own style and exhibiting the different insignia and flag of the sect as advised by their founders. [426]

The people of Chidhran in the Kolába District believe that the period for which the soul has to remain in the spirit state depends upon the sins of the person, or the wishes which remained unfulfilled during his life time. It is not that all the spirits of the dead are reborn in children. The rebirth depends upon the good or bad deeds of the deceased. However, if the nature of any child suggests the nature of any dead person in the family, it is assumed that the spirit of the deceased has returned to the family. [427]

At Nágothane in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District some of the communities worship small images called tánks on the anniversary of their ancestors' death; among the Shudras food is given to the crows on the last day of Bhádrapad. The custom of giving a grandfather's name to the grandson prevails largely, and is due to the belief that the spirits of the dead are sometimes reborn in the same family. [428] It is also said that in some of the Hindu communities, if a child cries continuously, ashes are applied to its forehead in the name of one of the ancestors in the family; and if the child sleeps quietly or stops crying, the name of that ancestor is given to it. [429]

At Shirgaon in the Thána District, the worship of ancestors is performed on the day of the father's death, every year. On any auspicious occasion the rite called Nandi shráddha is performed at the beginning of the ceremony. It is believed that evil spirits or ghosts have to remain in the ghostly state for about one thousand years, or at least until one of the descendants in the family goes to a holy place like Káshi (Benares) and there performs the shráddha rites of his ancestors. [430]

At Málád in the Thána District, the worship of ancestors is performed on the day of the father's death every month till the completion of one year by inviting Bráhmans and giving them a feast. This is done among Bráhmans only. The other communities worship their ancestors by performing the rite called Chata Shráddha and by giving Shidha, i.e., rice, pulse, vegetables and ghi to Bráhman priests. A feast is then given to their castemen. [431]

At Kolhápur, ancestors, Mahants and Sádhus are worshipped by the rites known as the Puranic ritual, that is, no Vedic mantras are repeated while performing these rites. It is a common belief in this province that the soul of the person who has committed a murder, or has incurred debt and enmity, is obliged to repay the debt by being born again as a servant or in some other subordinate capacity of the debtor. [432]

The tombs of the Hindu and Mahomedan saints are considered holy, but they are not supposed to possess miracular powers. [433] The following is a list of saints who have been deified and worshipped by the people of the Ratnágiri District. (1) Mukundráj, (2) Dnyándev, (3) Tukárám, (4) Eknáth, (5) Námdev, (6) Rámdás, (7) Akkalkotche Swámi, (8) Ranganáth, (9) Dev Mámlatdár, (10) Kabir, (11) Kamál, (12) Nipat Niranjan, (13) Tulshidás, (14) Pundalik, (15) Vashistha, (16) Dattátraya, (17) Sohiroba, (18) Gorakshanath, (19) Purnanáth.

At Shiroda in the Ratnágiri District a practice prevails of making vows to the tombs of women who burnt themselves as Satvis. Vows are also made to the Musalman Pirs, and offerings are often made in fulfilment of such vows. [434]

At the fort of Vishálgad there is a tomb of a Pir (saint). It is usual to make a vow to worship this Pir with fetters on one's legs, and it is believed that, at the time of worship, the chains break off. [435]

There is at Dahibáv in the Ratnágiri District a tomb of a Hindu saint named Shri Anand Murti, to which the people of that locality make vows when severe calamities befall them, and it is believed that the saint listens to their prayers. [436]

When a Bráhman assumes the garb of a recluse or Sanyási, he is considered by the people as sacred as a Hindu god, and is worshipped with great reverence, provided he abides by the rules contained in the shástras. [437]

There is a tomb of a Pir at Báwa Málangad in the Panwel taluka of the Kolába District, where the people make vows to the Pir, and it is believed that the Pir fulfils their wishes. Hindu saints such as Rámdás, Dnyáneshwar, Námdev are held in great honour in this District. [438]

There is a temple of Nágoba at Avas in the Kolába District where persons suffering from snake-bite, if carried to the temple while still alive, are said to be cured. [439]

At Kawad in the Bhiwandi taluka of the Thána District there is a tomb of a Brahmachári named Sakhárám Báva who has been deified by the people of that District. A great fair is held at the tomb every year. [440]

The following instance is given of a miracle at the tomb of Sakhárám Báva of Kawad. A man suffering from fits showed an inclination to go to Kawad to read Guru Charitra for seven successive days. He was taken to that place accordingly. After his arrival, he continued to suffer from these fits in the morning and evening at the time of the worship at the tomb. Once during the fits he said that he would be free from the disease if Rs. 200 were spent in giving a feast to the Bráhmans at Páli. The relatives of the sufferer agreed to arrange accordingly, and instantly the man put his head on the Samádhi (tomb) and threw himself on his back. He came to his senses after ten minutes, and from that time he was completely cured. A feast was then given to the Bráhmans at Páli, and Rs. 200 were spent over it as promised. Another instance of miracular power is cited, and that is of the priest of the goddess Mahaluxmi of Kolwan. This priest goes up and hoists the flag of the goddess on a steep hill which no other person can climb, and it is believed that he can do this only when the spirit of the goddess enters his body. [441]

At Umbergaon in the Thána District there is a miracle-working tomb of a saint called the Dátár "Pir." Sakhárámbáva of Angaon Kawad, a Hindu saint, is held in high honour in this village. [442] At this place it is also believed that some of the Pirs walk round the village at night, and their tombs are said to be seen in motion. The Dátár Pir is worshipped even by the Hindus of that locality. [443]

At Shirosi in the Murbád Taluka of the Thána District, Sakhárámbáva of Kawad, Dev Mámlatdár, Chandirámbuva of Khed, Narayanbuva of Nanuri, the Swámi of Akkalkot, the Swámi of Kumbhar Peth at Kolhápur, and the Dandekerbuva of Rájápur are the principal saints held in honour by the people. [444]

At Mánikpur in the Thána District it is said that a bright light or flames emanate from certain tombs of Musalman saints. [445]

At Umela in the Thána District it is said that flames and smoke are given out from the tombs of certain Mahomedan saints situated in the locality. These flames appear and disappear very suddenly. [446]

In the Kolhápur District people believe that the Samádhi of Swámi Anandmúrti, who was a disciple of Raghunath Swámi of Bhramanál, shakes on the Shiwarátri day, that is the 13th of the dark half of Mágha, and on the Rámanawami day i.e. the 9th of the bright half of Chaitra, at the time of the worship called Bhajan. Among the tombs held most sacred by the Hindus of the Konkan may be mentioned the following viz.: Bhujang Swámi of Lokapur, Rámdás Swámi, the Samádhi of Shri Shankaráchárya at Shirgaon, Chintaman Swámi of Murgud, and the Samádhi of Mangalmúrti Morya at Chinchwad near Poona. All these Swámis were Brahmacháris or bachelors, and they spent their lives in the service of God and preached virtue and morality to the masses. These Samádhis are of two kinds: (1) of saints after death, and (2) of saints on the point of death. The third kind is called Jal Samádhi, i.e., immersion in water, but no tomb of the latter kind is to be found in this Province. It is said that, if a lime is placed above the Samádhi of Bhujanga Swámi, it begins to shake at the time of the Arti ceremony. The present disciple of Bhujanga Swámi sits in (Samádhi) meditation continuously for four to eight days. There prevails a belief at Kolhápur that the swámi whose body is buried in the tomb at Chinchwad is still alive. Some years ago when the present disciple of the Chinchwad Swámi was anxious to take Samádh, he had a dream in which the swámi in the tomb told him that he was still living in that Samádhi, and that therefore there was no need for his disciple to take Samádh. He was thus obliged to forego the project. The Peshwas of Poona, who were staunch devotees of the Chinchwad swámi, and by whose favour they were raised to a position of social equality among the Deccan Bráhmans, granted an Inam of some villages for the maintenance of this Samádhi, and the British Government have allowed the descendants of the swámi to retain the Inam. The following are the principal Musalman saints who have been deified in the Kolhapur District:--

(1) Bába Jamál, (2) Ghod Pir, (3) Bara Imám, (4) Avachit Pir, (5) Buran Sáheb and (5) Mira Sáheb of Miraj. All these Pirs have been supplied with annual grants of money by the Kolhápur State. [447]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District some Hindus have adopted the worship of Mahomedan saints. Mahomedan Pirs are worshipped in the month of Moharram. On these occasions Hindus beg in the town in the disguise of Fakirs, and the alms thus obtained are offered to the Pir. They make offerings of water to the Pirs, while the tábuts are being carried to the sea for immersion. But this practice is being slowly discontinued. [448]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District Hindus offer cocoanuts and khichadi to the Pirs at the time of the Moharram, and at some places a lamp is kept burning every Monday in honour of a Pir. [449]

At Kálbádevi in the Ratnágiri taluka there is a tomb of a Musalmán saint who is worshipped by the Hindus. Similarly there is a Pir at Gaonkhádi in the Rájápur taluka who is held in reverence even by high caste Hindus. [450]

At Ade in the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District there is a tomb of a Musalman saint which is worshipped by the Hindus including the Bráhmans. The building and also the mosque in that village have been repaired from contributions obtained from high class Hindus. [451] Many Hindus of Devagad in the Ratnágiri District worship Musalman saints. Occasionally they offer cocoanuts to tábuts, and throw red powder over them. They also make vows to the Pirs. [452]

There are two Pirs at Vijayadurg who are worshipped by the Hindus. The same practice prevails at Rájápur and Khárepátan. [453]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District some Hindus worship Pirs. The members of the Ketkar family of Chauk are the Pujáris or ministrants of the Musalmán saint known as Báva Málangad. This shows that even Bráhmans worship Musalmán saints. [454]

The tomb of Báva Málangad situated in the Kolába District is worshipped first by a Bráhman and then by Musalmáns. The Bráhman worshipper performs this task more for the pecuniary benefit which he derives from the worship than from faith in the divinity of the Pir. [455]

At Poladpur in the Mahád taluka of the Kolába District there are no instances of Musalmán saints being worshipped by Hindus, but persons wishing to have children make vows to Pirs, and children born by the favour of such Pirs are required to assume the robe of a Fakir during the Moharram festivities. [456]

The practice of worshipping such saints exists at Khopoli in the Kolába District. Persons in trouble, or desirous of getting children, make vows to the saint Imám Hussein, and when their desires are fulfilled they dress themselves as Fakirs and beg at certain places during the Moharram festivities. [457] A certain Lakshman Gangádhar Joshi of Rewdanda in the Kolába District is the Mujáwar (priest or ministrant) of a Musalman saint Chánsewalli and he holds an Inám in connection with his office of Mujáwar of the saint's Darga. [458]

At Akshi in the Kolába District there is a tomb of a Pir which is worshipped by lower class Hindus such as Kolis, Mális and Bhandáris. [459]

The Hindus of Bhuwan in the Murbád taluka of the Kolába District worship the Pir of the locality. It is said that the cultivators of the village once lost their cattle, and that a Fakir attributed the loss to the rage of the Pir. Since that time they are careful to worship the saint, and the result is that there has been no disease among their cattle. They offer Malinda, i.e., bread and jágri, to the Pir every Thursday. [460]

The Hindu inhabitants of Málád in the Thána District sprinkle water over the roads by which the tábuts are to pass, and allow their children to pass beneath the tábuts. Some throw sweetmeat on the tábuts, and distribute the same to the poor. [461]

At Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District some Hindus make vows to the local Pir and take part in the tábut procession. They pour water over the feet of the tábut bearers, and throw abir (black scented powder) and flowers on the tábuts. They also distribute to the fakirs Malinda, or Khichadi. [462]

The Mujáwar (priest) of the saint Walli Amir Shaha of Shahápur in the Thána District is a Marátha by caste. [463]

In the Kolhápur District Pirs are held in great reverence by Hindus. They make vows to the Pirs in order to get a son, and when their object is fulfilled they offer a preparation of Til (sesamum) and sugar called Rewadi, and other sweets called Chonge, Malinda and Pedhe at the time of Moharram. They also give Fakiri to their sons in the tábut season. Some of them even bring a tábut and Nál sáheb to their houses, and spend much money on them for illuminations, etc. They dance from one Nálpir to the other saying that the Nálpir has entered their bodies. While going through the streets they cry out very loudly the words 'Yalli Dhulla'. The holiday of the Moharram is observed for ten days. On the tenth day the tábuts and the Nálpirs are taken to the river for the purpose of immersion. While returning home from the river with the bundle of the Patka of Nálpir on their heads they cry out loudly the following words: "Alabidáyo ála bidásha ya Husan bani alidosháke sultán albida". On the third day after the immersion of tábuts into the river, the Pirs devotees kill a goat in the name of their patron Pir and make a preparation of the goat's flesh called Konduri. [464]

The following rites are in vogue for the cure of barrenness in the village of Dábhol in the Ratnágiri District.--(1) Walking round the Pipal tree daily; (2) Observing a fast for sixteen successive Mondays; (3) Performing the worship of Shiva after observing the aforesaid fast. [465]

At Kálshe in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District a barren woman is required to walk round a Pipal tree every day in the morning, and if the barrenness be attributed to the disfavour of any deity or the attack of an evil spirit, the same deity or the evil spirit is invoked and worshipped by the woman herself, or through a medium who knows the appropriate mode of worship. [466]

To steal an earthen image of the God Ganpati, to make a cross or a Swástika on the bodies of children with marking nut, and the worship of the god Máruti or some other powerful deity at midnight in the no moon by a barren woman, after divesting herself of her clothes, are rural methods for the cure of barrenness observed at Anjarle and other places in the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District. [467]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District copper amulets and black cotton strings are used to cure barrenness. Some people make vows to a particular deity, and some perform the rite of Nágabali. [468]

To walk round Pipal and Umbar trees, to circumambulate the temple of a particular deity, and to make vows to that deity, to recite or have recited the holy scripture Harivansha, are methods in practice for cure of barrenness at Achre in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District. [469]

At Vijayadurg in the Ratnágiri District, it is believed that beating a woman at the time of an eclipse is one of the surest methods of curing barrenness. Some people give charity, observe fasts, worship certain deities and make vows to them to obtain children. [470]

At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District, stealing the idol of Krishna when it is being worshipped on the 8th day of the dark half of Shráwan (August), the birth day of the god Krishna, and putting a cocoanut or a betelnut in its place is believed to be the best method of curing barrenness. [471]

At Chauk in the Kolába District, the same plan of stealing the idol of the god Krishna is observed as a cure for barrenness. But here the idol is returned with great pomp, and replaced in its original place after the birth of a child. The godlings Hanumán and Bawan Vir are also worshipped for the cure of barrenness. [472]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District the favourite method of curing barrenness is to obtain copper amulets and black or red cotton strings from a Fakir. [473]

The following are the methods in vogue for the cure of barrenness at Khopoli in the Kolába District.

(1) To inquire from a sorcerer the cause of barrenness, and then to perform the rites mentioned by him.

(2) To use copper amulets and cotton strings taken from a Mántrik, i.e., one well versed in the mantras.

(3) To walk round the Tulsi (basil) plant or the Pipal or Banyan tree daily in the morning after worshipping it.

(4) To feed another woman's child, or to give milk to a child. [474]

At Náta in the Kolába District, a woman wishing to have a child is required to strike with a knife the Jack, the Tamarind, and the Chámpa trees during an eclipse. It is believed that by so doing the woman will bear a child, and the trees will also bear flowers and fruits. [475]

At Medhe in the Roha taluka of the Kolába District, the following methods are in vogue for the cure of barrenness:--

(1) To worship the god Shiva and to observe fasts on Mondays.

(2) To worship the god Ganpati and to observe fasts on Sankasthi chaturthi, i.e., the fourth day of the dark half of every month.

(3) To walk round the temple of Máruti and Pipal and Umbar trees every day, in the morning. [476]

At Padaghe in the Bhiwandi taluka of the Thána District, images of Ráma and Krishna are put into the lap of a barren woman on their respective birthdays i.e., the 9th day of the bright half of Chaitra, and the 8th day of the dark half of Shráwan. Cocoanuts are also placed in her lap with these images. [477]

At Mánikpur in the Thána District the goddess Shitala is worshipped by women to cure barrenness. They observe fasts, and go to the temple of the goddess bare-footed with their hair loose and throwing milk on their path. They offer to the goddess wooden cradles and children's toys in fulfilment of their vows. [478]

At Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District, it is said that the repetition of the mantra "Santán Gopál jáy" is resorted to as a cure for barrenness. [479]

At Wáde in the Thána District, women make vows even to minor deities such as Chedoba to get rid of barrenness. They also use copper amulets and cotton strings procured from a sorcerer well versed in the use of mantras. [480]

At Dahigaon in the Thána District the worship of the god Shri Satya Náráyan is held to cure barrenness. Some women also distribute to the poor jágri equal to the weight of a child. [481]

At Dehari in the Murbád taluka of the Thána District, the village deity Dehari Máta is invoked and worshipped by women for the cure of barrenness. [482] In the Kolhápur District, the help of the family deities and of the household deities is invoked. Women take turns round the Banyan, Pipal and Umbar, trees. Some make vows to the gods, and perform certain propitiatory rites as well as the Náráyan Nágabali. It is believed that the children do not live long if a member of the family has killed a snake, or if the funeral rites of a person in the family have remained unperformed. The following ceremony is known as Náráyan Nágabali. A snake is made from the flour of Rála (panie seed), and another made of gold is put into it. It is then burnt like a dead body. All the ordinary funeral rites are performed. After performing the eleventh day rites, homa, i.e., sacred fire, is kindled at night time, and after keeping vigil for the whole night, milk and a dakshana are given to Bráhmans. A feast is given to eleven Bráhmans on that day. On the twelfth day sixteen Bráhmans are fed, and on the thirteenth, five Bráhmans are given a feast, after performing the Shráddha rites. On the fourteenth day, again, a feast is given to about 100 to 500 Bráhmans according to the means of the host. It is believed that, after the performance of these rites, the soul of the deceased reaches heaven, and there is an end to the troubles and misfortunes of the family. [483]

CHAPTER V.

THE WORSHIP OF THE MALEVOLENT DEAD.

At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District the following dreams are believed to be lucky and propitious. To swim through the river or sea, to rise to the sky, to see the Sun, the Moon and the other planets, to eat meat, to bathe in blood, and to eat rice and curds. It is also believed that the sight of white objects in dreams foretells success in any work or undertaking that may be in view. A deity, a Bráhman, a king, a married woman decked with ornaments, a bullock, a mountain, trees full of fruits, climbing the Umber tree, a looking glass, meat and flowers, if seen in dreams, are good omens. Climbing the Palas tree, Warul, i.e., an ant heap, the bitter lime tree, to marry, to use red clothes or red flower garlands, to eat cooked meat, to see the sun and the moon without lustre, and to see shooting stars during dreams, are said to be bad omens. [484]

At Mithbáv in the Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri District dreams are believed to be caused by indigestion and restlessness. To embrace a dead body in a dream, to see troubled waters, to dine heartily, are said to be bad omens. Feasting friends and receiving gifts from them are said to be good omens. [485]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District dreams are said to indicate things that have happened, or are about to happen in the near future. All white substances other than cotton, salt, and bones, are considered auspicious, and all black substances excepting a lotus, a horse, an elephant, and a deity are considered inauspicious. [486]

At Ibrámpur in the Chiplun taluka, horrible dreams are good omens, while pleasing dreams indicate approaching calamities. [487]

At Pendur in the Ratnágiri District it is believed that dreams foretell future events. It is believed that the dream will prove correct and effective if the person dreaming has asked three questions and received three answers in his dream. Those dreams which are caused through cold are called Jalap. They are generally false dreams, and no good omens are derived therefrom. [488]

At Basani in the Ratnágiri District it is believed that the ancestors who take interest in the welfare of their descendants appear in dreams and foretell future events, so that the dreaming person may take the needful precautions for the prevention of future calamities. [489]

At Kálshe in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District it is believed that dreams in the last part of the night, i.e., just before daybreak, and in which great men are seen, generally prove effective. If anybody sees himself married in a dream it is supposed that he will hear of the death of some relative. [490]

At Chauk in the Kolába District it is believed that, when calamities are threatened, the guardian deity of the family as well as the dead ancestors appear in dreams and give warnings of the coming calamities. [491]

The people of Poladpur in the Kolába District believe in dreams; and when some of their deities appear in dreams and give them advice or directions, they are careful to follow them. Sometimes even evil spirits appear in dreams, and advise the people to do certain things to avert calamities. People who have faith in such spirits act according to their wishes, and if they fail to do so, trouble is sure to follow. [492]

The people of Khopoli in the Kolába District believe that if a person sees in a dream, the dead body of a near relative, it indicates that the person whose corpse was seen in the dream will live long. [493]

At Birwadi in the Kolába District it is believed that if a person sees a snake in a dream, a son will be born to him; if he sees a hell, he is sure to get wealth. If he sees gold, it is a sure sign of losing wealth. Again, if a person sees himself taking his meals in a dream, it indicates that his death is nigh at hand. [494]

At Málád in the Thána District, omens are derived from dreams. In case of bad dreams the god Vishnu is remembered, and the gods Shankar and Máruti are also worshipped. [495]

At Belápur, wood, cowdung cakes and turbid water, if seen in dreams, foretell calamities. White clothes, beautiful flowers, and food containing sweetmeat are considered auspicious. [496]

At Murbád in the Thána District it is believed that all black things, and white things such as ashes, are inauspicious when seen in dreams, but a black cow, white flowers, and pearls are auspicious. Considering the four parts of the night, the dreams that occur in the first part prove effective within one year, that of the second part within six months, that of the third within three months, and of the fourth within one month, and those caused at daybreak are realized immediately. [497]

At Kolhápur, dreams are believed to be caused through some mental derangement or bodily disorder. It is customary to derive omens from dreams, but their nature greatly depends upon the different times at which these dreams occur. The dreams caused in the latter part of the night, i.e. just before daybreak, are believed to come true. [498]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka it is believed that the soul of a person leaves the body temporarily during his sleep; hence it is said that no changes or marks of colour, etc. should be made on the body of a person during sleep, because it is believed that, while returning, the soul identifies the body, and if it is satisfied with the marks of the body it enters it; otherwise it might not return. [499]

At Adivare it is believed that only Hindu saints and ascetics, after deep and devout meditation, are capable of removing the soul from the body. It is believed that their souls go to heaven during that period and return at pleasure. At present there are no such sádhus in the district. [500]

Many Hindus in the Ratnágiri District believe that the soul goes to drink water at night, and therefore keep a pot filled with water at their sleeping place. [501]

The people of Chaul in the Kolába District do not consider it possible ordinarily for the soul to leave the body, but they state that the Swámi of Alandi, who died in or about the year 1886, used to remove his soul from the body by means of Yoga. [502]

At Kolhápur, it is believed that the soul leaves the body temporarily at night when a person is asleep. [503]

At Bankavali in the Dápoli taluka, it is believed that ghosts or evil spirits have the form of a human being, but their feet are turned backwards. They can assume any form they choose. Their character is ordinarily to trouble the people, but when satisfied they are said to prove friendly. The following story is narrated of a person who went to reside in one of the villages of the Konkan. His wife was first attacked by a ghost called Girha. The Girha troubled him much by playing mischief in his house, viz.: by taking away eatables or by mixing dirt in his food. At night he used to divest the couple of their clothes, and on one occasion an ornament was removed by the spirit from the person of the wife. Tired of these annoyances, the man left the village and went to reside at a distance, when, to the astonishment of the public, it happened that the ornament which was lost at the old village was restored to the man's wife while she was asleep in the new village, and nobody knew who brought it there. All this was believed to be the work of the Girha. [504]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka people believe that a Bhut is fierce in aspect and very troublesome, but when its wishes are complied with, it becomes harmless. The Bhuts reside in jungles, burial or cremation grounds, old trees, sacred groves and deserted houses. They assume all sorts of shapes and forms. Sometimes they appear very tall, and they can instantly assume the shape of a dog, a cat, a tiger, or any other animal. Some ghosts are even seen fishing on the banks of rivers. [505]

At Mithbáv in the Devgad taluka it is believed that the souls of those who die with their wishes unfulfilled take the form of a Bhut. They enter the bodies of people. Any woman who is attacked by the Bhut of a Pir becomes able to speak in the Hindi language although it may not be her mother tongue. When a child or a person is suffering from the attacks of a spirit, incense is burnt, and it at once begins to tell the whereabouts of the spirit and the reason why the person has been attacked. He is then asked to state what he wants, and when the things which the spirit wants are offered, it goes away. [506] Spirits are generally invisible.

The spirits that belong to the class of malignant Bhuts are of a ferocious appearance; but those that belong to the class of friendly Bhuts possess bodies like human beings. [507]

At Náringre in the Devgad taluka, it is believed that spirits are cruel by nature and have no shadow, that they are capable of taking any form they like, and can perform miracles. [508] At Pendur it is believed that Bhuts eat chillies, and that they do not speak with human beings. Spirits are said to remove and conceal their victims for a certain period of time. [509] At Vijayadurg, a Bhut is considered to be of mean character. People perform certain rites to bring it under subjection. Their actions are always contrary to nature. When a person begins to cry, dance, to eat forbidden things etc. he is said to be attacked by a Bhut. When there is enmity between two persons, the one who dies first becomes a sambandh and troubles his living enemy. [510] At Basani, there is a belief that there are two kinds of spirits. Some aim at the welfare of the people, and others are always troublesome. As they have no regular form they cannot easily be recognised. They can change their forms at any time. [511]

The character of a Bhut is to trouble people and to take revenge on an old enemy. A person attacked by a spirit speaks incoherently and acts like a mad man. In such cases the leaves of the herb satáp are used. The leaves are pounded and put under the patient's nose. In a few minutes, the person who is possessed by the spirit begins to speak. [512]

The people of Chauk in the Kolába District believe that the main function of a Bhut is to frighten people, to beat them, and to make them perform unpleasant tasks and thereby to obtain food from them. [513] At Poládpur it is believed that if a person is able to bring a Bhut under his control he can make it do every kind of work for himself. [514] The people of Akshi believe that kindling fire without any reason and throwing stones at certain houses are the main functions of Bhuts. [515] At Vávashi in the Pen taluka, it is believed that Bhuts, while walking, never touch the earth but always move through the air, and that they have no shadow. [516] The old men of Shirgaum in the Máhim taluka advise young children not to respond to the call of anybody at night unless the person calling is an acquaintance. For such calls are sometimes those of an evil spirit. [517]

In the Kolhápur District, it is believed that the character of a Bhut is like that of a human being. When a person is attacked by a spirit, a great change is observed in his language and actions. He begins to speak in the language of the Bhut by which he is attacked. If the ghost is of the female sex, the person speaks the language of females. It is believed that the souls of those who have been murdered or tortured assume the form of a spirit known as Sambandh, and trouble the murderer or the torturer, by entering his body. It is said that in some cases the spirit does not leave the body of such a person till he dies, thus exacting revenge for his past misdeeds. [518] In Khopoli in Ratnágiri it is said that the cow which is given to a Bráhman while performing the funeral rites of a dead person helps him to reach heaven. He gets there by catching hold of her tail. There are three paths to the other world. They are Bhaktimárga, Karmamárga, and Yogamárga. The Karmamárga is believed to be superior to all. [519] At Málád, a belief prevails that the path to the other world is through the Himálayas. While going through the mountains of the Himálayas, souls find happiness or sorrow according to their actions in life-time. The people also believe that the soul returns every month on the date of the man's death to accept Kágvás, i.e., cooked food given to the manes, and reaches heaven at the end of one year. [520] At Dahigaon in the Murbád taluka, it is customary among the Hindus to smear with cow dung the place from which a dead body has been removed to the burning ground. The place is then covered with rice flour, and is hidden under a basket, an oil-lamp being kept, burning near by. The persons who accompany the corpse return home to look at the lamp, and it is believed that the soul of the deceased will pass to any creature or species of which footprints are seen on the rice flour. [521]

At Kolhápur it is believed that the soul of a person after death attains that state to which he aspires at the last moment before his death. Virtuous persons who die without any desire reach heaven and remain there in the form of the stars, where they are believed to enjoy the happiness of heaven. Some of them are sent to this world when they wish to return. Sinners are said to reach hell in consequence of their misdeeds, but some remain in this world in the form of Bhuts. [522]

The people of Achare in the Málwan taluka believe that the souls of persons who die by accident return to the same caste, and have to remain there till the expiry of an appointed period. [523]

The people of Chauk believe that persons dying a sudden or violent death leave wishes unfulfilled, and are therefore compelled to remain in this world in the form of Bhuts. [524]

At Rái in the Sálsette taluka it is believed that the souls of those dying a sudden or violent death attain salvation according to their deeds in lifetime, but it is a current belief that those committing suicide take the form of a ghost, and those who die on battlefields attain eternal salvation. [525]

At Kolhápur, it is believed that the souls of those who die violent deaths do not attain salvation, but are turned into ghosts. [526]

The people of Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka believe that Bhuts do not possess visible human forms. They can assume any shapes they like, but there is a common belief that the hands and feet of Bhuts are always turned backwards. [527]

The most favourable times for spirits to enter human bodies are midday, midnight and twilight. [528] Women in delivery as well as those in their menses are most liable to be attacked by spirits. [529] It is generally believed that persons adorned with ornaments are attacked by spirits, especially in cases of women and children. Again, a common belief prevails in the Konkan that persons, and particularly ladies, decked with flowers and ornaments are more liable to be attacked by spirits than others. [530] The people of Fonda are of opinion that spirits generally enter and leave human bodies through the organ of hearing, while the people of Náringre hold that the hair is the best way for spirits to enter. [531] The residents of Ibrámpur state that the mouth and the nose are the favourite channels for spirits entering human bodies. [532] At Mithbáv it is believed that spirits attack people in the throat, and generally only those persons who are uncleanly in their habits are liable to be attacked. There are no special ways for entering human bodies. [533] At Chaul a belief prevails that spirits enter the body when a person is suffering from any disease or when he is frightened. [534]

In the Konkan, people attempt to find good or bad omens in sneezing. It depends upon the time and the position or standing of the person who sneezes. If a sick person sneezes it is presumed that he will recover from his illness within a very short period, but if the sneezing is caused by the use of tobacco or snuff, no good or bad omens are drawn. [535] Sneezing at the time of conversation or when contemplating any particular task or business is held to be inauspicious. Hence if anybody sneezes at the beginning of a task, or at the time of starting out on any such task, the time is unfavourable. Yawning is said to be caused by a relative or friend remembering the person who yawns. [536] In ancient times happiness and calamities were foretold by a voice from the sky, and in modern days they are expressed by sneezing. People have much faith in sneezing, and often inquire whether it is a good or bad omen to sneeze at the beginning of any work or undertaking. [537]

If a man sneezes with his face towards the west, it is considered auspicious. If a man sneezes while contemplating any task or business, the sneezing is considered inauspicious. Sneezing at the time of taking food i.e. while at meals, while sleeping, and while sitting on a praying carpet is considered auspicious. Sneezing with one's face turned towards the north, the south, and the east is also unlucky. [538]

In the case of Bhagats and exorcists yawning is considered to indicate that the disease will disappear. [539]

In the Konkan it is believed that sneezing and yawning indicate the call of death, and therefore it is customary among the Hindus to snap the thumb and the middle finger at the time of yawning, and to repeat the words Shatanjiva i.e. Live for hundred years, at the time of sneezing. [540] Sneezing on a threshold is believed to forebode evil. [541]

At Kolhápur, people believe that sneezing and yawning forebode evil, and the practice is to repeat the following words at the time of sneezing and yawning, viz, Shatanjiva i.e. Live a hundred years, and also to repeat the name of Rám, while snapping the thumb and finger (chutaki). In the case of a person suffering from a serious illness, sneezing is supposed to indicate a cure. If a woman sneezes while a man speaks, it is lucky, and if a man sneezes it is unlucky. The reverse is the case in respect of females. [542]

In the Konkan, Rákshasas, or malevolent spirits, are believed to be very cruel. These evil spirits are held in great fear, and people try to avoid giving them offence. It is supposed that to cause displeasure to these demons may bring about death. With a view to propitiate them, offerings of cocks and goats are made to them every year regularly on fixed days. [543] If a woman gives birth to a child which is extraordinary or horrible in size and appearance, it is believed to be a demon reborn. Such a child is supposed to bring bad luck to the family. [544] The Konkan people believe that in former days Rákshasas, or malevolent demons, used to be tall, ugly, black, with long and loose hair, big teeth, and with their foreheads painted with red lead, or shendur. They could assume any form they liked, were powerful, and could fly in the air. They were fond of human flesh. [545] The people of Khopoli believe that Khavis is the ghost of an African Sidhi. This spirit is very malevolent, and exorcists find it very difficult to bring it under control. A strong belief prevails in the Konkan districts that those attacked by the spirits of non-Hindus are beyond cure. [546]

According to the belief of the people in the Kolhápur District, Brahma Rákshasa is one of the most powerful spirits. It takes up its abode in the sacred Pipal tree, and when it attacks a person, little hope is entertained of his delivery from its grasp. [547]

The following are the principal malignant spirits of the Konkan.

(1) Vetál, (2) Brahmagraha, (3) Sambandhas, (4) Devachár, (5) Munja, (6) Khavis, (7) Girha, (8) Chetak, (9) Zoting, (10) Vir, (11) Cheda, (12) Mhasoba, (13) Jákhin or Alwant, (14) Lávsant, and (15) Hadal.

(1) Vetál is believed to be the King of Spirits. [548] Vetál is considered to be a deity and not an evil spirit. It enters into the body of an exorcist and helps him to drive away other evil spirits. [549]

(2) Brahmagraha is the ghost of a Bráhman well versed in the Vedas, but who is over proud of his education. [550]

(3) Sambandha is the spirit of a person who dies without an heir, and whose funeral rites have not been performed by any member of his family. It troubles the members of the family, but when invoked through a Bhagat it becomes harmless, and even favourable to the family. [551] It is the spirit of a covetous person or a sanyási who dies with his desires unfulfilled. [552] It does not allow anybody to enjoy his wealth, and takes revenge on an enemy till death ensues. It haunts trees, wells and unoccupied houses. [553]

(4) Devachár is the spirit of a Shudra who dies after his marriage. [554] These (Devachár) spirits are said to reside on the four sides of a village. The spirits which reside in burial or cremation grounds, on river banks, and in old trees are said to be subordinate to these. Cocoanuts, plantains, sugar, cocks and goats must be given annually to gain their favour. [555]

(5) Munja is the spirit of a Bráhman boy who dies immediately after his thread ceremony, but before the final ceremony called Sod-munj is complete. It does not greatly affect its victim but simply frightens. When it attacks, it is difficult to drive out. It is cast out only when the patient makes a pilgrimage to a holy shrine. [556] It resides in a Pipal tree or in a well.

(6) Khavis is the spirit of a Musalmán or a non-Hindu. [557] It is also the spirit of a Mahár or a Máng. [558]

(7) Girha is the ghost of a person who dies by drowning, or of a murdered person. [559] Girha is not very powerful, and obeys the orders of the exorcists. It only frightens and troubles people. [560] It lives by the water side, and deceives persons at night by calling them by their names and leading them into false paths. It often troubles people while crossing rivers or creeks at night, and leads them to places where the water is very deep. It is said that the spirit Girha becomes the regular slave of a person who takes possession of the hair of its head, and gives him anything that he requires. It requests the person to return its hair, but this should not be given under any circumstances. For, if the Girha gets back its hair all sorts of misfortunes will befall the man. [561]

(8) Chetak is the ghost of a person of the Kunbi or Shudra caste. [562] This spirit is also known as Dáv.

(9) Zoting is the ghost of a man belonging to the Khárvi or Koli caste. [563] It is also said to be the ghost of a Musalmán. [564]

(10) Vir is the ghost of an unmarried person belonging to the Kshatriya community. [565] It is also said to be the ghost of a Rajput or a Purbhaya (Pardeshi.)

(11) Cheda is the ghost of an unmarried Mahár. It resides on mountains, in jungles, and the outskirts of the village. [566] Cheda attacks domestic animals. It haunts fields and farms, and resides at public places where the Holi fires are annually kindled. To avoid being troubled by it, people offer annual sacrifices of fowls and goats. [567]

(12) Mhasoba is the lord of the ghosts, and is equal in might to Vetál. [568]

(13) Jákhin or Alwant. Jákhin is the ghost of a woman who has a husband alive. Alwant is believed to be the spirit of a woman dying at childbirth or during her menses. It resides at burial or cremation grounds. Persons attacked by this spirit are taken to Narsoba's Wádi or Gángápur, which are celebrated as shrines for the removal of malignant spirits. [569]

(14) Lávsat is the ghost of a widow. It generally resides in burial and burning grounds, and attacks domestic animals and their calves. It is also said to tear clothes and eat corpses. [570]

(15) Hadal or Hedali is the ghost of a woman who dies within ten days of childbirth or during her menses. It is supposed to be an evil spirit, but it can be kept in check by the use of a cane. It attacks all sorts of persons, but leaves them as soon as it is beaten. [571]

This spirit is also known as Dákan in the Kolhápur district. [572] Satavi is the ghost of a woman. It troubles women in childbirth, and kills their children on the 5th or 6th day after their birth. [573] Shákini is the ghost of an unmarried girl. Talkhámba is the ghost of an unmarried Shudra or a person from the low castes. [574] The people of Vijayadurg believe that one who hates and troubles the Bráhmans and speaks ill of their religious duties becomes a Brahma Sambandha after death. [575] At Poládpur in the Kolába District the ghost Bápa is represented by a stone painted with red lead and oil and placed at the boundary of a field. It is the guardian of the field, and protects the owners' interests. Offerings are made to it annually. If the annual offerings are neglected, it troubles the owner of the field. It also troubles others when disturbed. [576]

The spirits known as Kálkáiche Bhut and Bahirobáche Bhut are not troublesome. When they favour any person, he enjoys health and happiness for a period of twelve years. But after that period he is ruined. [577] In addition to the varieties of malignant spirits already described, the following spirits are known at Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District. They are--Hirwa, Wághoba, Asarás, Gángud, Saitán and Chaitannadya. The spirit known as Hirwa requires the offerings of a bow and an arrow, bháng, bájri bread, and a chatni of garlic. The Wághoba haunts jungles and troubles domestic animals. Cocoanuts and lamps of ghi are offered to it. Asarás are the deities that dwell in water. They infest the wells and ponds, and attack women and children at noon time and in the evening. Red lead, cocoanuts, flowers, parched rice (láhya) and nádápudi are given to them. [578]

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District it is said that the evil spirit Zoting goes about headless. [579]

The people of Medhe in the Rohe taluka believe that the spirit known as Girha, which resides in water, goes about headless. [580]

At Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka it is believed that the spirit Hirwa goes about headless. It troubles human beings and animals. The sea and the jungle are its places of abode. To avoid being troubled by it, bháng, cocoanuts, fowls are given to it. [581]

The people of Dahigaon in the Murbád taluka believe that the Bhut known as Peesa goes about headless. [582]

Some evil spirits haunt trees such as the Pipal, Bábhul and Adulsa. Some have their haunts on a public road where three streets meet, or in a dirty place, some haunt old houses, and the rest prefer to reside in burial and burning grounds. [583]

Many spirits dwell in burial or cremation grounds. Among them are Vetál, Jákhin, Khavis, Kháprya, Zoting, Dáv, Girha, Alavat and Lávsat. [584]

The spirits Munja and Sambandh are said to reside near houses and old trees that produce sweet smelling flowers. The spirits Devchár and Chálegat are said to reside at the four corners or the boundary of a village. [585]

It is believed that all kinds of spirits assemble at night at the funeral ground when a body is burnt or buried. [586]

The evil spirits known as Khavis, Zoting and Kafri are said to dwell on mountains and in jungles; while the others named Sambandha, Jákhin, Hadal and Lávsat are said to reside on trees. [587]

Munja resides in the Pipal tree. Sambandha dwells in the Banyan, Pipal and Umbar trees. It is supposed to be a guardian of buried treasure. [588]

At Murbád in the Thána District, it is believed that an evil spirit known as Hadal infests the tamarind trees. [589]

In the Kolhápur District it is believed that the ghosts of persons dying on battlefields infest mountains and jungles, and the evil spirit known as Sambandh infests trees. [590]

Generally in the Konkan, and specially in the Ratnágiri District, young mothers and their children are supposed to be liable to the attacks of the spirits Satávi, Avagat, Alavant, Jákhin, Devchár and Chálegat. [591]

At Khopoli in the Kolába District it is believed that a young mother and her child are generally attacked by the spirit of the dead wife of her husband, or by a Hadal or Lávsat. The spirit that attacks a woman during her childbirth is difficult to drive out. The spirits are always afraid of cleanliness, and therefore, where there is cleanliness, there is very little fear of their attacks. [592]

The people of Shirgaon believe that the fiend known as Hedli attacks a young mother and her child. The Bhutya, or the sorcerer, makes use of his cane and of the dirty incense known as Nurkya Uda, and compels her to speak and to ask for what she wants. Sometimes she speaks and asks for the things required. Boiled rice and curds, and oil with red lead are given to her. When she leaves the body, the person becomes insensible for a short time. [593]

The fiend known as Hadal, and other evil spirits of the female sex, generally attack a young mother and her child. They are generally attacked by these fiends on a public cross road where three roads meet, or under a Bábhul tree, and also at wells. [594]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka it is believed that those who are killed by tigers or other wild beasts are born as kings in the next generation. [595] On the other hand the people of Bankavli are of opinion that those who suffer death at the hands of tigers and other wild beasts are turned into spirits. The spirit of a person killed by a tiger is called Vághvir. [596]

At Achare it is believed that persons killed by lions and tigers attain salvation, while those killed by inferior beasts go to hell. [597]

The people of Ibrámpur believe that unmarried persons killed by tigers or other wild beasts take the form of a ghost. Males become Girhas and females become Jákhins and Lávsats. [598]

At Pendur it is believed that persons killed by tigers and other wild beasts become Brahma Rákshasa. The same form is assumed by those who die by accident. A murdered man becomes a Devachár. [599]

In the District of Kolhápur a belief prevails that the spirits of those killed by tigers or other wild beasts assume the form of ghosts. It is also believed that persons who die before they are married do not attain salvation, and therefore it is considered inauspicious among the Hindus to remain unmarried. This is the real reason why the majority of the Hindus marry their children at an early age. [600]

The ghost of a woman dying in childbirth or during her menses assumes the form of Alwant. For the purpose of preventing the dead woman turning into a ghost the following device is adopted. The corpse, instead of being burnt as usual, is buried underground, and four iron nails are fixed at the four corners of the spot on which the body is buried, and plants bearing red flowers are planted thereon. [601]

At Bankavli it is believed that the ghost of a woman dying in childbirth or during her menses assumes the form of Jákhin, while the people of the Kolhápur District believe that it assumes the form of Hadal. [602]

The special precautions that a father has to take at the birth of a child are:--

To arrange for a suitable place or a room provided with the materials required for the occasion, and to ensure the correct moment for the birth of the child. No person other than a midwife is allowed to enter the room for the first ten days. A pot is kept filled with water and a twig of the nim tree in the entrance of the house, and all persons entering the house have to wash their feet with this water.

A knife or some other sharp weapon is kept under the bed of the woman in order that the mother and her child may not be attacked by a spirit. [603]

The chief reason for ensuring the correct moment for the birth is that, if the birth takes place at an unlucky hour, special rites are necessary for averting the evil effects. These rites consist in the recitation of certain holy mantras and in giving presents of money, sessamum, jágri, clarified butter, etc., to the Bráhmans and alms to the poor. [604]

At Medhe in the Rohe taluka, it is customary for the father to throw a stone in a well, a pond, or a river at the birth of his son, and then to look at the face of the child. [605]

An owl is considered to be a bird of such evil repute that, in all parts of the Konkan, it is considered necessary to perform expiatory rites when an owl perches on the roof. If these rites are not performed, it is firmly believed that some evil will befall the members of the family. Various omens are drawn from the cries of the bird Pingla, and these cries are known as Kilbil, Chilbil and Khit Khit. [606]

If an owl sits on the roof of a house, it is a sure sign of coming death to a member of the family. [607]

At Devgad in the Ratnágiri District the sound of a bat or an owl is considered inauspicious, and indicates the death of a sick person in the house. [608]

At Chauk an owl is said to have some connection with spirits. Its sound at night indicates the approaching death of a sick person in the house. One variety of the owl called the pingla is supposed to foretell future events by its movements and cries, while the bat is considered an inauspicious bird, and its appearance forebodes coming evil. [609]

At Umbergaon people do not throw stones at an owl. For it is considered that the owl might sit and rub the stone, and that the person throwing it will become weak and wasted as the stone wears away. [610]

The people of Kolhápur do not believe that there is any connection between the bat or owl and the spirits of the dead, but they believe that, if an owl cries out in the evening or at night, it indicates the death of a sick person in the family. This applies also to the sound of a single pingla, but the sound of a pair of pinglas is considered auspicious. [611]

It is generally believed that old unoccupied houses are haunted by evil spirits. Persons who wish to inhabit such houses first perform the Vástu shánti ceremony, and give a feast to Bráhmans. In former times, in the districts that were ruled by the Portuguese, religious persecution prevailed. To escape from these persecutions, people were compelled to leave their houses unprotected. Before leaving their houses, they used to bury their treasure in the ground, and on that spot a human being or an animal was sacrificed in order that the spirit of the dead should hover about the place, and prevent strangers from coming. [612]

The evil spirits which haunt ruins and guard buried treasures and old forts are known as Mahápurush, Khavis, Brahma Rákshasa and Sambandh. [613]

If there be any buried treasure in an old unoccupied house, the owner of the treasure remains there in the form of a ghost. If the treasure be near the temple of a deity, it is supposed to be under the guardianship of that deity. [614]

At Vijayadurg it is believed that a person who builds a house in the days of his prosperity and does not survive to enjoy it, becomes a Sambandh. He remains in that house in the form of a ghost, and troubles every one who comes to stay there, excepting the members of his family. A man who buries his treasure underground becomes a ghost after death, comes back to watch his treasure, and troubles those who try to remove it. [615]

Unoccupied houses are generally haunted by evil spirits. At certain forts in the Konkan where battles were fought, the souls of those slain in the battles are said to have assumed the forms of spirits, and to keep a watch over the forts. [616]

In the Kolhápur District there is a village Nigve beyond the river Panch Ganga at a distance of three miles from Kolhápur, where the soul of a person named Appáji Kulkarni has assumed the form of a Sambandh and guards the buried treasures in his house. When anybody tries to dig up the buried money, the ghost enters the body of his daughter-in-law and begins to dance and cry out loudly, and does not allow any one to touch his treasure. It is also said that he strikes the ground with his stick at night. Another similar instance is cited in the case of the village of Latvade in the Shirol Peta, where Bápujipant Kulkarni continues to guard his house after death. He does not allow anybody to live in the house, and if any one is bold enough to sleep there at night, the spirit of Bápuji appears and throws him out of the house. The house is therefore uninhabited at present. His wife has adopted a son, but he has to live in another village, Vadange. [617]

CHAPTER VI.

THE EVIL EYE AND THE SCARING OF GHOSTS.

Hindus generally believe in the effects of the evil eye. If an accident befall any thing of value, or it undergoes any sudden change, it is said to be due to the effects of an evil eye. In order to escape from the influence of an evil eye, people begin the use of incantations and charms on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Thursday and finish them on the third or the fifth day. Small children, domestic animals, and beautiful objects are generally liable to be affected by an evil eye.

The following are some of the methods of evading the effects of an evil eye.

1st.--Dry chillies are waved round the body of the affected person and thrown into the fire, and if they do not thereupon make a loud noise, it is said that the effects of an evil eye are averted.

2nd.--Mustard seed and salt are waved round the face of a child and then thrown into the fire.

3rd.--Alum is waved round the child and then thrown into fire. The piece of alum thus thrown is sometimes believed to be changed into the form of a man or a woman. From this, conjectures are made as to the sex of the person by whose evil eye the patient is affected. The form or the figure is then broken by a toe of the left foot of the patient, and dry chillies, garlic, hair, rubbish from the house and salt are mixed in the alum powder. The mixture is waved round the patient three times and then thrown into fire. Meanwhile the sorcerer repeats the names of all persons, things and evil spirits suspected by him. After this performance has been repeated three times, the fire is deposited in a public place where three roads meet.

4th.--If the evil eye is believed to be that of a ghost, the sorcerer mutters some words to himself, waves ashes round the affected child, and blows them in the air.

5th.--The evil eye of a tiger is removed from an affected animal in the following manner. An oil lamp is burnt in the eye of a dead tiger and the lamp is waved round the animal by a Mahár. The Mahár is given a loaf prepared from eight kinds of grain.

6th.--Copper amulets and black cotton strings charmed by a sorcerer are also tied round the neck or arms of the patient. [618]

When a child is to be removed from one village to another, rice is scattered at the boundary of the village, at the bridges, rivers, creeks, etc, that are crossed during the journey. Cocoanuts are waved round the child and thrown away at the boundary of the village and at places supposed to be haunted by ghosts. Before entering a house in a new village, a small quantity of boiled rice, bread, or grains of rice are waved round the child and thrown away. It is believed that, when black ointment is applied to the eyes, cheeks, or forehead of a child, there is no fear of its being affected by an evil eye. This also depends on the position of the stars at the birth of a child. If anybody sees a beautiful thing and praises it, there is a chance of its being affected by an evil eye. It is believed that children, animals, trees, and even wood and stones, are apt to be affected by an evil eye. In order to avoid injury from an evil eye, cocoanut shells or a shoe are tied on a conspicuous part of a tree or a creeping plant, black beads known as Vajrabuttu are tied round the necks of children, and cowries and black beads are tied round the necks of animals. Even grown up persons are affected by an evil eye. When a man is very ill or frequently becomes unconscious, cocoanuts, fowls and boiled rice are waved round him and thrown away. [619]

When the effects of an evil eye cannot be removed by ordinary methods, the evil influence is said to have entered through the bones, 'Hádi drusta padali.' In order to remove it people bring the bone of an animal in the evening, and after besmearing it with oil and turmeric powder, wash it in hot water. It is dressed in a yellow cloth, and black and red ointments are applied to it. It is then waved round the affected person, and thrown away in some public place where three roads meet. [620]

For evading the effects of an evil eye, salt, mustard seed, hair, garlic, dry leaves of onions, dry chillies, and seven small stones from the road are put on the fire. The fire is then waved round the body of the affected person and thrown away. Charmed black cotton strings are turned over the burning incense and tied round the arm or the neck. Charmed ashes from the temples of certain deities are also applied to the forehead of the affected person. [621]

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District, it is believed that a person whose eyes have come under the influence of evil stars possesses the power of the evil eye. Ashes are taken on a mango leaf, and charmed with the mantras or incantations for an evil eye, and then they are applied to the forehead of the affected person. [622]

The people of Poladpur in the Kolába District believe the effects of an evil eye to be as follows. A healthy child becomes sickly and cries, a man may suffer from indigestion or loss of appetite, a cow or a she-buffalo yielding plenty of milk suddenly ceases to give milk or gives blood in place of it, a good image is disfigured or broken, and even stones are shattered to pieces by the effects of an evil eye.

The following devices are used to ward off such evil effects. A black mark is made on the forehead of children. Black beads called Drustamani, and Vajrabuttu are tied round their necks. Marking nuts and cowries tied with a black thread are fastened round the necks of animals. A little black spot is marked on an image. A worn out shoe or a sandal is tied to the fruit-yielding trees. Salt and mustard seed are waved thrice round the face of a child repeating "Ishta mishta konyá pápinichi drushta" and thrown into the fire. Some people roll a cotton thread round a curry stone, wave it three times round the patient, and then put it into the fire; if the thread burns, the evil eye is held to have been removed. If the evil eye be on the food, three morsels of food are first raised to the mouth, and then thrown into the fire. Sacred ashes are applied to trees and creeping plants to remove the effects of an evil eye. [623]

The people of Khopoli in the Kolába District believe that the evil eye can be diverted from living creatures only, and not from inanimate things such as a stone or an earthen image. Sacred ashes are applied to the forehead of the suffering child by repeating the Rám raksha stotra, i.e., the protecting praises of Ráma, the seventh incarnation of Vishnu. Among Bráhmans, rice grains are waved thrice round the face of a child and put into water. The water is then thrown away. Even flowers are waved round the faces of small children in the evening and thrown away. [624]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, some people wave the left shoe thrice round the body of the affected person for the purpose of evading the effects of an evil eye. A red hot iron bar is also cooled in water mixed with turmeric powder. [625]

At Shirgáon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District water is drawn in a brass or a copper pot in the evening, and turmeric powder, rice, and any other edible articles on which the evil eye has fallen are put into it. Twentyone date leaves, each of them with a knot, are then waved round the body of the affected person and thrown into the water pot, burning coals being dropped into the mixture. The pot is then waved thrice round the body of the affected person, and kept in a corner of the bedroom for one night, with a basket, a broom, and a sandal or an old shoe placed on the top. It is then thrown away in the morning in some public place where three roads meet. If the water becomes red, it is supposed that the evil eye has been removed. [626]

The effects of an evil eye are sometimes visible on the face of a child in the form of small red pustules. The appearance of such pustules is called Chák padane. [627]

If a person is affected by an evil eye at the time of taking his meals, he loses his appetite. He also becomes weaker day by day. One of the modes of removing these evils is to wave fresh date leaves three times round the face of the affected person, and to throw them into water. Some people take water in a copper plate and extinguish in it burning sticks of the tamarind tree, after waving them round the body of the affected person. [628]

At Khárbáv in the Bassein taluka of the Thána District, five pieces of broken tiles are made red hot and put into water in which a little quantity of all the cooked food in the house has been mixed. Turmeric powder is also put into it. A pen knife or some other iron instrument is then turned five times in the water. A winnowing basket and a broom are waved thrice round the face of the affected person, and placed over the water pot. [629]

At Dahánu in the Thána District, two big stones, of which one has been waved round the face of a person affected by an evil eye, are struck one against the other. If the stone breaks, it is believed that the evil effect has been removed. Cowdung is mixed with water in a brass or a copper plate, and dust from a public road, hair, and burning black cotton cloth are put into another small vessel. This vessel is then waved round the person, and placed upside down over the mixture of cowdung. If it sticks to the brass plate, this is supposed to be due to the evil eye. [630]

The people of Kolhápur believe in the effects of an evil eye. A child suffering from an evil eye turns pale and thin, and suffers from headache. To avoid these effects, elderly women make a mark with lamp black on the face or brow of the child. Boiled rice and curds, and bread and oil are also passed round the face of a child, and thrown into a public road. [631]

Generally, in the Konkan districts, opprobrious names are given to children when they are sickly, always crying, and weak, or when they are short lived. These names are Marya, Rodya, Kerya, etc. It is believed that children improve in health when called by such opprobrious names. [632]

Opprobrious names such as Dhondu, Kondu, Keru, are given to children in families in which the first children are shortlived. But their real names are different. The names of the wellknown arithmetician Keru Nána Chhatre and his son Kondopant Chhatre are examples of opprobrious names. [633]

Among high class Hindus, the first son is not generally called by his real name, but by one of the opprobrious names given above. [634]

Children are sometimes weighed with shoes or sandals, and also with cowdung. In some cases, their nostrils are bored, especially the right one. [635]

Hindus generally call their children by the names of their deities and ancestors, and they attribute the premature death of their children to their own misbehaviour towards such ancestors, or to their having abused them; they fear that such abuse or misbehaviour has offended the ancestors. To avoid their displeasure and the consequent death of their children, the people give opprobrious names to their next born such as Dagadya, Dhondya, Gundya, Dandya, Kerya, Ukirdya, Kondya, Lobhya, etc. The custom of tattooing one side of the body of females also prevails in the Kolhápur District, especially in cases where the children in a family are shortlived. [636]

In the Puránas there are instances of males being transformed into females, and females into males. For example, the female Amba was transformed into a male called Shikhandi and the male Nárad was transformed into a female. Arjuna, the third brother of the Pándavas is said to have changed his sex, and turned into Bruhannada. [637]

In the Shivlilamruta, a book pertaining to the god Shiva, in the chapter of Simantini, it has been described how a man was turned into a woman. [638]

At Kolhápur, there are no instances known of a change of sex. The goddess Yallamma has a high reputation in this district for making a change in the habits and deportments of men and women, especially among low caste people. It is believed that the curse of this goddess has the power of destroying the virility of males, whereupon they behave like females. Many instances of this type can be seen at the fair of the goddess Yallamma, which is held in Márgashirsha (December); men dressed in women's clothes and vice versa are often seen at this fair. [639]

In Western India, iron nails are generally used when any spirit is to be buried in the ground. Other metals, such as gold, silver, and copper, are sometimes offered to the ghosts. The blood of fowls and goats is also offered to them. When incense is burnt before a sorcerer, the spirit enters into his body. Water is charmed and sprinkled over the body of a person attacked by an evil spirit. Rice and udid grains are required for exorcising spirits. Red powder Pinjar, turmeric powder, black ointment kájal, lemons, Narakya Wuda a kind of incense, betel-leaves, betelnuts, cocoanuts, mango leaves, Nirgudi leaves, and pieces of cloth are also used for the same purpose. [640]

Cane sticks are used by people as a protection against evil spirits. A stick cut from the tree known as Pándhri is also used as protection. Charmed black cotton strings are tied to the wrist, arm or neck. If a man is very much afraid of a ghost, he repeats the name of the monkey god Máruti or any other deity that may be favourable to his family. [641]

The blood of fowls and goats is used as a protection against ghosts and Devachárs, and also against witchcraft. Charmed water is waved round the person affected by an evil spirit, and thrown away. Rings, amulets, and anklets made of metals of five kinds are put on the hands and legs of children to ward off the effects of evil spirits. [642]

It is customary among certain people to apply spittle to the sandalpaste mark on the forehead of a man, and to the red Kunku mark on the forehead of an unwidowed woman. It is considered to be a protection against evil spirits. [643]

The beak of an eagle, a stick cut from a tree known as Pándhri, a cane having three joints, and the root of a shrub called Shrávad, which has white leaves, are used as protection against evil spirits. [644]

At Pendur in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District it is believed that an iron stick held in the hand is a protection against evil spirits. [645]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, pictures of certain deities are tattooed on the body for the purpose of protection against evil spirits. It is also believed that evil spirits run away when salt and garlic are thrown into fire as they cannot bear the smoke of burning garlic. [646]

At Medhe in the Rohe taluka, when the dead body of a woman dying within ten days of her delivery is taken out of the house for burial, an iron horseshoe is driven into the threshold of the house, and grains of Náchani are scattered in the street while the corpse is being carried to the burial ground. [647]

At Bhuwan in the Murbád taluka some people tie a square piece of leather to the necks of their children as protection against evil spirits. [648]

At Rái, a custom prevails of putting coral necklaces on children as a protective against evil spirits. [649]

Iron nails and horseshoes are driven into the threshold or on to the door of a house on the full moon day or the last day of the Hindu calendar month at evening time, to prevent the entrance of evil spirits. Dirty localities being considered to be haunts of evil spirits, people living in such localities burn incense in their houses every day. While exorcising evil spirits the sorcerers throw charmed Udid grains and Rále panic seeds on the body of the diseased, or place these things below his bed. Rings made of metals of five kinds,--iron, copper, brass, silver and gold--are charmed on an eclipse day, and worn by people. Red lead and cowries are tied to the necks or feet of animals as protection against evil spirits. The spirits that haunt buried treasures are pacified by the blood of fowls and goats when digging up such treasures. [650]

Certain mantras are written on a paper, and the paper is tied to a black cotton string, or the paper is put into a copper amulet, and then tied to a black cotton string. The black cotton string with the amulet is then tied round the arm or the neck of a person attacked by evil spirits, or suffering from malarial fevers. These mantras are never disclosed to anybody. [651]

Nádádora is a black cotton thread having seven or nine knots with a charmed paper in one of these knots. The thread is first held over burning incense, and then tied round the neck or the arm of the diseased. Sunday is generally chosen for attaching these threads. [652]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District, there lived a sorcerer who used to give such amulets and charmed threads. He placed about ten or twelve copper rings or amulets in a copper plate kept in the sun. While thus exposed to the sun, these amulets were continuously watched by the sorcerer for some two hours, repeating certain mantras. [653]

At Málád in the Thána District, copper amulets and charmed black cotton threads in the name of Kál Bhairav, an incarnation of the god Shiva, are used as protective against evil spirits. They are tied to the arms or the neck of the diseased on an eclipse day, on the last day of the Hindu calendar month, or on a Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday. [654]

At Kolhápur, the use of amulets is generally resorted to by people suffering from the attacks of evil spirits or from malarial fevers. The sorcerer who exorcises the evil spirits writes certain mantras on a paper, or draws certain symbols and repeats the mantras over them. The paper is then wrapped in an amulet made of copper or silver, and fastened to a cotton thread. This amulet is tied round the arm or the neck of the diseased. Before tying it to the arm or the neck, it is once held over burning incense. [655]

A sacred circle is frequently used as a protection from spirits. The sorcerer draws a circle on the ground, with his stick, and the following articles are put inside it. Cocoanuts, lemons, red lead, and a Kohala gourd. Fowls are also sacrificed to this circle. The filling in of this circle is called mánda bharane by the exorcists. [656]

Rice or Udid grain, and ashes charmed by mantras, are scattered round a certain area of land, or are given to a person supposed to be affected by evil spirits. The spirits cannot enter a place charmed in this manner. They are also scattered round the place supposed to be haunted by evil spirits in the belief that neither evil spirits nor snakes can transgress the boundary thus marked by a sorcerer. [657]

Formerly sages and saints used to make such sacred circles round their residence, repeating certain mantras, for their protection from evil spirits. It is believed that the spirits cannot enter or leave these enchanted circles. They used to bury bottles containing such spirits at the boundaries of these circles. There are many such places in the Kolhápur District, such as Buránsáheb of Brahmapuri, the Sádhubuwa of Panhála, and Bábu Jámál at Kolhápur. [658]

It is a general belief among all classes of Hindus in the Bombay Presidency that Saturday is an unlucky day, and in some places Friday and Tuesday are also considered inauspicious.

Sunday is considered as an ordinary day.

Monday, Wednesday and Thursday are believed to be auspicious or lucky days.

It is said that a thing suggested or thought of on Friday cannot be carried out successfully. [659]

Sowing seed and watering trees is strictly forbidden on Sunday. It is believed that trees do not bear well if watered on Sundays. [660]

Tuesday and Friday are considered unlucky days for beginning a new task. Wednesday and Saturday are said to be inauspicious for visiting another village. [661]

The numbers 2, 6, 11 and zero are believed to be lucky, 4, 5, 10 and 8 are unlucky, and 1, 3, 7 and 9 are considered as middling or moderate.

The figure zero is by some considered inauspicious. [662]

The numbers 5, 7, 9 are said by some to be auspicious, and 1, 3, 11 and 13 inauspicious. [663]

Odd numbers are auspicious, and even numbers are said to be inauspicious. [664]

The following are generally held to be auspicious omens:--

While going on any business, to come across an unwidowed woman, a cow, Bráhmans, a five-petaled flower, or a pot filled with water; [665] the throbbing of the right eyelid and of the right arm of a man, and of the left eyelid of a woman; a Bráhman coming in front with a cup and a spoon in his hand after taking his bath; [666] the appearance of a peacock, the Bháradwáj or the blue jay, and the mongoose, especially when they pass on the left side of the person going on business. [667]

The following are considered to be auspicious when seen within a hundred paces of a person starting on business:--

Bráhmans, unwidowed women, boiled food, meat, fishes, milk, any kind of corn, the bird Chásha or the blue jay, passing by the left side, the appearance of the moon in front, a person coming across one's path with vessels filled with water, and a married couple, a cow with its calf, images of god, cocoanuts and other fruits, the mother, white clothes, the sound of a musical instrument, a horse, an elephant, curds, flowers, a lighted lamp, a jackal, a spiritual preceptor, a public woman, a Mahár, a washerman coming with a bundle of washed clothes, and a marriage procession. [668]

The following objects and persons are generally believed to be inauspicious:--

Oil, buttermilk, a couple of snakes, a monkey, pig, and an ass, firewood, ashes and cotton, a person with a disfigured nose, a man dressing his hair in the shape of a crown, red garlands, wet clothes, a woman wearing red cloth, an empty earthen vessel, a Bráhman widow, a Brahmachári and an unmarried Bráhman, [669] a widow, a bare-headed Bráhman, a cat going across the path, a dog flapping his ears, meeting a barber with his bag, a beggar, sneezing, or the asking of a question at the time of departure, waiting, meeting a person with an empty vessel, [670] howling of dogs and jackals, a pair of crows playing on the ground, and a lighted lamp extinguished by its fall on the ground. [671]

While plans or proposals are being made, it is considered inauspicious if any one sneezes or the sound of a lizard is heard. [672] Meeting a person of the depressed classes whose touch is pollution, or a Bráhman who accepts funeral gifts, is considered inauspicious. [673] Meeting a woman who is in her menses, a mourner, a buffalo, a snake and a diwad are considered inauspicious. [674] An iron vessel or an iron bar, cow dung cakes, salt, grass, a broom, a vulture, and a washerman bringing with him dirty clothes are also considered to be inauspicious omens. [675]

Among the Hindus in Western India, for the purpose of helping the spirit to go to heaven safely, and for securing its goodwill towards the survivors, after death ceremonies called the Shráddhas are generally performed. Some perform these ceremonies once a year in the month of Bhádrapada, and others perform them twice or thrice, i.e., on the anniversary day of the deceased as well as in the dark half of Bhádrapada, which is generally known as the manes' fortnight (pitru paksha). [676]

The funeral solemnities performed from the 1st to the 14th day from the death of the deceased are as described below:--

On the first day, at the time of burning the dead body, a plot of ground is purified by repeating certain mantras, and the corpse is then placed on it. Before setting the funeral pile on fire, balls of boiled rice or wheat flour are put on the face, the forehead, arms and the chest of the corpse. Such balls are placed on the body of the deceased only when death has taken place on an unlucky day, or when there is an unlucky conjunction of stars. The son, or some other near relative, of the deceased generally performs these rites with the help of a Bráhman priest. On the third day he goes to the burning place, collects the ashes of the deceased, and throws them into the sea. On this occasion he is accompanied by the relatives of the deceased. Rich persons who are able to go to Benares keep the bones of their deceased parents and throw them into the Ganges at Prayága near Benares after performing certain Shráddhas there. The giving of oblations continues daily till the tenth day. The oblations of the tenth day are called Das Pinda. The rites of the eleventh day are called Ekotistha. On the eleventh day the person performing the rites has to change his sacred thread, after sipping a little cow's urine. Cooked food is prepared at the place where the rites of the eleventh day are performed, and Bráhmans are fed there, or at least thirty-two mouthfuls of cooked food are offered to the sacred fire. A big ball of boiled rice is put before the sacred fire or near the Bráhmans taking their meals. This ball is then thrown into the sea. A male calf is branded, worshipped and let loose. This calf is called Vasu, and is considered sacred by the villagers. On the 11th day, special ceremonies for propitiating the eight Vasus and the eleven Rudras are performed, and gifts of a plot of ground, a cow, cooking vessels, various kinds of corn, golden images, silver and copper coins, clothes, shoes, umbrellas, bedding, etc. are given to the Bráhmans collected there. On the 13th day after death a feast is given to 13 or more Bráhmans and the other relatives. Navakádán, i.e., the gift of a ship and Gopradán, i.e., of a cow and a calf, are also given to the Bráhmans on the understanding that they will help the soul of the dead while crossing the river Vaitarna. [677]

Water mixed with til or sesamum seed, sandalpaste, and oblations of boiled rice are given daily to the manes to secure their goodwill towards the survivors. [678]

At Bankavli in the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District, in order to prevent the soul from assuming the form of a ghost, there is a custom of tying a piece of Gulvel, a species of moonseed, or the seed of a vegetable known as Máthbháji, round the neck of the corpse before burning it. It is also believed that, by doing this, the soul is prevented from troubling the survivors. [679]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District, some villagers drive an iron nail into the head of the corpse before it is taken to the funeral ground. They believe that, in consequence, the soul of the deceased will not turn into an evil spirit. Some people scatter grain on the road while the corpse is being carried to the cremation ground. [680]

Among the Hindus in the Konkan, as well as in the Deccan, dead bodies are generally burnt, but under the following circumstances they are buried.

Persons dying of small pox, women dying in childbirth or during their menses, children dying within six months from their birth, and Sanyásis are buried. The bodies of persons suffering from leprosy are necessarily buried. [681] Among Lingáyats the bodies are always buried. Certain mantras are repeated while burying or burning the dead body. While burying, cocoanuts and certain kinds of grain are thrown into the grave, and after covering the dead body with salt, the grave is filled up with earth and stones. [682] While burning, the dead body is placed on the funeral pile with its head to the north and feet towards the south. Tulsi wood, sandal-wood, and Bel wood are kept on the pile before placing the dead body over it. Cocoanuts and camphor cakes are placed on the body, and it is set on fire. Among the Lingáyats and Gosávis the dead are buried. Before burying, the Lingáyats have to take a written order from their priest, the Ayya or Jangam. The paper is then tied to the neck of the deceased, and the body is placed in a bag made of new cloth, the head being allowed to remain out of the bag. Bhasma or ashes, salt and camphor are also put into the bag along with the corpse, which is then buried. The Jangam repeats mantras when the body is in the grave. No such written order is necessary for the burial of Gosávis. A cocoanut is broken on the head of the corpse at the time of burying it. Among high class Hindus the corpse is carried to the funeral ground in a bier made of bamboos. Among the Lingáyats a gaily dressed frame called Makhar is prepared on the bier, and the body is dressed with clothes and head dress and seated in the Makhar. Some of them carry the dead body in a bag made of blanket. There is a custom of keeping foot-prints on the spot where a Sanyási is buried, and they are daily worshipped by the people. [683] Among the Káthawatis of Thána and Kolába Districts the dead body is first buried, and after a few days the skeleton is taken out of the grave and then burnt as usual. [684] Among the high class Hindus the moustaches are shaved at the death of parents, paternal uncle and elder brother. Among the Shudras it is not necessary to shave. [685] Persons who have lost their parents have to perform certain funeral rites or Shráddhas when they visit holy places such as Benáres, Prayág, Ayodhya and Násik, and they have to shave their moustaches at all these places before performing the funeral rites. [686] Moustaches are also shaved as a penance for certain sins. The Agnihotri, i.e., one who preserves perpetual fire in his house for worship, has to get himself shaved every fortnight. [687]

Among high class Hindus boiled rice is daily offered to the dead after a portion has been thrown into the fire, the remainder being given to the crows. The portion thrown in the fire is called Vaishvadev, and that which is given to the crows is called Kágwás. Among other Hindus it is given on the last day of Bhádrapada and on the date of the father's death, annually. [688] Oblations of boiled rice are given to the dead every day, on the last day of the Hindu calendar month, on the date of a person's death every month, on the same date of the dark half of Bhádrapada every year. These oblations are put out of the house before taking the meals. It is believed that the ancestors come down in the form of crows to partake of these offerings. [689] Oblations of cooked food are also offered to a cow, and considered thus to be received by the dead. They are especially given to the crows annually in the dark half of Bhádrapada on the date of the deceased's death. [690] After the corpse has been carried to the funeral ground, an oil lamp containing one cotton wick is kept on the spot where the deceased expired. The flame of the lamp is directed towards the south as it is believed that the soul goes to heaven by the south. A ball of boiled rice and a little quantity of water or milk is kept daily for the first ten days near the lamp while repeating the name of the deceased and of the gotra to which it belonged. The lamp is taken out of the house on the 11th day. [691]

Hindus believe that impurity attaches to all the things in the house in consequence of the death of a person in that house. All those things which can be purified by washing are washed and taken back, while things like earthen pots, cooked food, etc. are thrown away, special care being taken to break these pots, so that they may not be used again. Even the walls of the house are white washed. [692] The earthen pots that are required for the funeral rites of the dead are all broken. One which is required for boiling water to bathe the corpse is broken when the body is carried to the funeral ground. Of the rest, one is broken at the funeral pile after the son has passed thrice round the pile with an earthen vessel filled with water. It is believed that birds and animals drinking water out of these vessels would be infected by disease, and this is the reason why these pots are broken. The mourners who use earthen vessels during the mourning break them at the end of the mourning period. [693] Among the Agris of Chaul in the Kolába District, all earthen vessels in the house are broken on the eleventh day after a death in the family, the chief reason assigned for this act being that the wishes and desires of the deceased might lurk in the earthen vessels and cause trouble to the inmates of the house. [694]

All the members of the family of the dead have to observe mourning for ten days. They are purified on the eleventh day after taking a bath and sipping Panchgavya, or the five products of the cow. The son of the dead person, or one who performs the funeral rites of the dead is purified on the twelfth day after completing the rites of Sapindi. A man in mourning does not touch those who are not in mourning. If anybody touches him, both of them have to take a bath. The son of the deceased or, in the absence of a son, any male member belonging to the family is entitled to perform the funeral rites of the dead. These rites are performed during the first twelve days, beginning from the first day or from the 3rd, 5th, 7th or the 9th. One who performs these rites has to sleep on the ground during these twelve days. A person hearing of the death of a member of his family within the first ten days from the date of the death, becomes free from that mourning on the eleventh day. If he happens to hear it within one month of the death, he has to observe it for three days and after one month he has to observe it for one day only. [695] The son, or one who performs the funeral rites of the deceased has to sleep on the ground, and has to take his meals only once a day till the end of the 13th day. He takes his bath in cold water. Sweet things are not prepared in the house during the days of mourning. During the period of mourning, every morning, a Bráhman comes to the mourner's house and recites some passages from the Garud Purána, which relates to the state of the soul after death. On the eleventh day the house is besmeared with cowdung, and cow's urine is sprinkled in the house. All the clothes are washed. Mourning is not observed in the case of a death of a Sanyási, and the Lingáyats do not observe any kind of mourning. [696]

The brother of the deceased, his son, grandson and all the members belonging to the family, have to observe the mourning for ten days. The married daughter of the deceased has to observe it for three days. From the fifth or sixth generation in the same family, it is observed for three or one day only. [697] In case of the death of a wife's parents, the husband has to observe mourning for three days. During the mourning days people do not worship the gods or go to the temples. Milk is also prohibited during the mourning period. The mourners are not to touch anybody except the members of their family. [698]

On the thirteenth day the sons and other members of the family are taken out to visit the temple of any deity by the people assembled for the purpose. It is believed that after going to the temple on the 13th day, the sons and the other members of the family are at liberty to go out of the house. [699]

At Kolhápur it is believed that the deities Etalái and Kálkái of the Konkan districts keep with them evil spirits as their servants. These servant spirits obey the orders of these deities. Some people in this district go to the temples of these deities and request them to lend them the services of these spirit servants. It is considered very lucky to secure the help of these spirits. The temple ministrant then requests the deity to give a Kaul or omen. For this purpose, the temple ministrant calls on the deity to enter his body, and when he is possessed by the spirit of the deity, he allows the applicant to take with him one of the deity's servants for a fixed period. The Gurav, or the ministrant, then explains to the person the period for which the spirit servant is given, and the amount of the annual tribute required to be given to the deity for the use of her servant. He also gives him a cocoanut and sacred ashes. The applicant then returns home, believing that the spirit servant will follow him, and from that time he prospers. This spirit servant is called Chetuk, and it can be seen only by the person in whose charge it is given by the Gurav. [700]

At Achare in the Ratnágiri District, the spirit of a Bráhman well versed in the Vedas is called Mahápurusha and it is said to be benevolent. It haunts Pipal and Umbar trees. [701]

At Murbád in the Thána District, the spirit known as Vetál, the king of evil spirits, is considered to be benevolent. [702]

The spirit known as Mahápurush haunts the Pipal and Umbar trees. Avagat the ghost of a widow haunts the Avali (Phyllanthus emblica) tree. Alavant, the ghost of a woman dying at childbirth or during her menses, lives in the Nágchámpa, Surang and the Kájra trees. Devachár, Sambandh, Munja, Zoting, Khavis and Khápra reside in trees and plants. [703]

The people of Kolhápur believe that the spirits known as Brahmasambandh, Brahma Rákshasa, and Khavis reside in trees. [704]

The spirits known as Devchár and Chálegat are considered to be the special protectors of crops and cattle. [705]

The people of Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District believe that the village deities and the Devachárs are the special protectors of crops and cattle. Offerings of fowls and cocoanuts are made to them annually. [706]

At Kochare in the Ratnágiri District, the spirit known as Viswáti is believed to be the special protector of crops and cattle. [707]

The people of the Kolába District consider that the spirits known as Mhashya, Khavis, and Bándav are the protectors of crops and cattle. [708]

At Dahánu in the Thána District, the spirit Cheda is believed to be the guardian of crops and cattle. [709]

The people of Kolhápur believe that the deities of the fields protect the crops and cattle. Those who are in possession of the Chetuk, or the servant spirit, are sure to find their crops and cattle protected by this servant spirit. [710]

Evil spirits are not usually invoked to frighten children, but occasionally the names of goblins such as Bágulbáwa, Bowáji, Gosávi etc. are mentioned to scare them. [711]

CHAPTER VII.

TREE AND SERPENT WORSHIP.

Groves of mango trees are considered to be sacred as they have a pleasing appearance, and afford grateful shelter against the heat of the day. It is a general belief among Hindus that trees from which such pleasure and protection are derived must naturally be the abode of the gods. There are many such groves in Satára. During the spring season people go to these groves and worship the trees. The Hindus have a general prejudice against cutting living trees which yield fruits, and it is considered specially inauspicious to cut the following trees:--

Umbar, Vad or Banian tree, Pipal, Saundad or Shami, Palus, Bel, Rui, Avali and the Tulsi plant, for it is believed that these trees are the abode of deities, e.g. the god Dattátraya resides under the Umbar tree, the goddess Párvati on the Banian tree, and the god Vishnu resides near the Tulsi plant. The god Brahma, the creator of the world, is found in the Pipal tree. The plantain tree is also considered to be sacred. While gathering a bunch of plantains, the tree is first cut before the bunch. It is considered inauspicious to gather the bunch without so doing. [712]

There are certain groves at Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District which are supposed to be haunted by Devachárs, and are therefore not cut by the people. [713]

The people of Ibrámpur in the Chiplun taluka consider it inauspicious to cut the Vad and Pipal trees of which the thread ceremonies have been performed. After the thread ceremony of these trees is over, a stone platform is raised around them. [714]

At Fonda in the Devgad taluka, it is considered inauspicious to cut the trees and the groves that surround the temple of a village deity, for they are believed to belong to that deity. [715]

At Padghe in the Thána District, the trees which are supposed to have been haunted by evil spirits such as Sambandh, Munja, Devachár, etc. are not generally cut by the people through fear of these spirits. When any tree is cut down, the custom is to keep a stone at the root of the tree in order that the place may no longer be affected or haunted by the spirit in the tree. [716] There are certain families who do not burn Pipal, Khair, or Shiwani wood. They believe that the burning of these trees causes harm to their families. It is said that the burning of the Apta tree causes the breeding of the insect known as Gochadi, i.e., the cattle or dog louse. [717]

There is an Awdumbar tree of the god Dattátraya at Bhillawadi, and a big Banian tree near the math of the Lingáyat swámi named Kadappa near Kolhápur, which are worshipped by the people of the neighbouring villages. The Saundad tree, better known as Shami, is worshipped once a year on the Dasara, the 10th day of the bright half of Ashvin (October). It is said that Ráma, the seventh incarnation of Vishnu, kept his arms on the Shami tree during his fourteen years' exile, and took them back again when he marched upon Lanka or Ceylon to kill Ráwan, the demon king of Ceylon. While going to Lanka he bowed to the Shami tree, and as he was successful in his undertaking, the Maráthás used to start for a campaign on the Dasara day after worshipping the Shami tree, and distributing its leaves among their friends calling it Suwarn or gold. This is said to be the origin of the festival of Dasara. A species of the tamarind tree called Gorakh Chinch is said to be connected with the Hindu saint Gorakhnáth. For this reason this tree is worshipped by the people. A great fair is held every year at Battis Shirále in the Satára District, which is situated at a distance of about ten miles from Kolhápur. [718]

The Pipal, the Umbar, the Vad or Banian tree, and the Tulsi plant are worshipped by Hindus in general. The Apta tree is worshipped by Hindus on the Dasara day, and its leaves are distributed under the name of sone, or gold, among their friends and relatives. [719]

At Medhe in the Roha taluka of the Kolába District, there is a tree Vehala (Beleric myrobalan) which is believed to be connected with the local deity Mhasoba. It is considered to be a sacred tree, and nobody dares to cut it or to touch it with the feet. [720]

At Shirgáon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District there is a Ránjani tree on the bank of a tank called Khambále, which is said to be connected with the deity Brahma; and therefore no branch of that tree is cut by the people. It is considered harmful to cut the tree. [721]

At Gángápur in the Kolhápur District, there is a Vad tree connected with the saint Kabir. It is called Kabirvad. There is also an Awdumbar tree connected with the god Dattátraya, and known as Dattátraya Awdumbar. [722]

The Umbar, Pipal, Vad, and the Tulsi plant are considered to be sacred, and are respected by Hindus. The following are some of the legends about their sacredness.

Umbar--When the god Vishnu in his fourth incarnation, called Narsinh, i.e., half man and half lion, tore into pieces the body of the demon named Hiranyakashipu with his claws, he felt a burning sensation of the poison from the body of that demon, which was assuaged by thrusting his hands into the trunk of the Umbar or Awdumbar tree. [723]

In order that they may get the auspicious sight of a deity early in the morning, Hindus generally plant the Umbar and Tulsi trees in front of their houses, and worship them daily. The juice of the root of the Umbar has a cooling effect, and hence it is freely used in cases of measles or itch. Its sap is also used as medicine for swellings. It is very pleasant to sit under the shade of this tree, and as it is believed that the god Dattátraya resides beneath this tree, it is held very sacred by the Hindus. [724]

Pipal--The Pipal tree is considered very sacred because it is believed that the god Brahma resides in the roots, the god Vishnu in the trunk, and the god Shiva on the top of this tree. Persons who make a particular vow or have any objects to be fulfilled worship the Pipal tree, and walk round it several times every day. [725] The evil spirits Sambandh, Devachár, Munja, and Vetál haunt the Pipal tree. These spirits are considered to be the servants of the god Shiva. It is also believed that persons who worship and walk round this tree daily are not affected by those spirits. The Pipal tree is specially worshipped at dawn on Saturday as it is considered that the gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh or Shiva happen to be there at that time. [726]

Vad or the Banian tree--A prince named Satyawán died of snakebite under the Vad tree. His wife named Sávitri, who was very chaste and dutiful, requested Yama, the god of death, and succeeded in securing from him the life of her husband Satyawán. As the prince Satyawán returned from the jaws of death under the Vad tree, this tree was specially worshipped by her, and it is therefore believed that Sávitri has ever since then been responsible for the practice of worshipping the Vad tree by women for the purpose of securing a long life to their husbands. [727] It is also believed that the god Vishnu takes shelter under the Vad at the time of the general destruction of the world. The worship of this tree is similar to that of the other deities, and women take turns around it at the close of the worship or puja. [728]

The Tulsi plant is worshipped daily by the Hindus in general, and women in particular, by keeping the plant near their houses. The god Vishnu is worshipped particularly by the leaf of this plant.[#2] The Tulsi plant is considered by the people to represent the goddess Luxmi, the wife of Vishnu. Hindu women will not take their meals before worshipping the Tulsi plant daily in the morning. It is also said that the god Vishnu, in his eighth incarnation called Krishna, had loved Vrunda, the wife of a demon. After her death she was burnt, but on her burning ground there grew the Tulsi plant. As Krishna loved Vrunda very dearly, he began to love this plant also, and hence the image of Bál Krishna, or the god Vishnu, is married to this plant every year on the 12th day of the bright half of Kártik (November). [729] As it is also believed that the god Vishnu resides in the Tulsi plant, the worship of this plant is equivalent to the worship of the god Vishnu. [730]

Besides the above mentioned trees, the Palus (Butea frondosa), the Bel, a tree sacred to god Shiva, and the Shami (Prosopis spicigera), a tree sacred to god Ganpati the son of Shiva, are considered to be holy by the Hindus. [731]

A common custom among Hindus is for a person who has lost his two wives and wishes to marry a third, to be first married to a Rui plant, and then to the actual bride. His marriage with the Rui plant is considered as a third marriage. After the marriage, the Rui plant is cut down and buried, and thus the marriage with the third bride is considered to be a fourth marriage. The marriage with the Rui plant has been adopted in the belief that the third wife is sure to die unless the spirit of the deceased is made to enter the Rui plant. [732]

When a girl is born under the influence of inauspicious planets which may be harmful to her husband, she is first married to a tree or an earthen pot, and then to the bridegroom. The marriage with the earthen pot is called Kumbhaviváha, or the pot-wedding. It is believed that, by observing this practice, the danger to her husband is avoided. The danger passes to the tree to which she is first married. [733]

Among the lower classes in the Thána District [734] a poor man unable to marry owing to his poverty is first married to a Rui plant and then to a widow. This marriage with a widow is called pát lávane. This remarriage of a widow among the lower classes is generally performed at night, and under an old mango tree. It is never performed in the house. A widow who has remarried cannot take part in any auspicious ceremony such as a marriage, etc.[#8]

At Vankavli in the Ratnágiri District there is a custom among the low class Hindus of a woman who has lost her second husband and wishes to marry for the third time, first marrying a cock, i.e., she takes the cock in her arms at the time of her marriage with the third husband. [735]

Persons who have no children make a vow to Khandoba at Jejuri that the firstborn, male or female, shall be offered to him. The females, offered in fulfilment of such vows are called Muralis. They are married to the god Khandoba, and have to earn their livelihood by begging in villages. A male child thus offered to the god is called a Vághya. [736]

There is a custom of offering children to the deities Yallamma and Khandoba in fulfilment of vows made in order to get a child. The child is taken to the temple of these deities, accompanied with music. The temple ministrant asks the child to stand on a wooden board on a heap of rice in front of the deity, and puts into its hands a paradi--a flat basket of bamboo, tying to its neck the darshana of the deity. A female child is married to the dagger--Katyár--of the deity. When once this ceremony has been performed, parents abandon their rights to such children. When these children come of age, the males can marry but the females cannot. The latter earns her livelihood begging jogava in the name of the goddess Amba with a paradi in her hand. A male child offered to the goddess Yallamma is called jogata, and a female, jogatin. Children dedicated to the goddess Máyáka are called Jogi and Jogin. Children offered to Firangái and Ambábái are called Bhutya (male) and Bhutin (female). [737]

In the Konkan districts there is a class of women known as Bhávinis who are said to be married to Khanjir, i.e., a dagger belonging to the god. They are also called deva yoshita, i.e., prostitutes offered to the god. They have no caste of their own. They retain the name of the caste to which they originally belonged, such as Maráthe Bhávini, Bhandári Bhávini, Sutár Bhávini, etc. The following account is given of the origin of the sect of Bhávinis. A woman wishing to abandon her husband goes to the temple of a village deity at night, and in presence of the people assembled in that temple she takes oil from the lamp burning in the temple, and pours it upon her head. This process is called Deval righane, i.e., to enter into the service of the temple. After she has poured sweet oil from the lamp upon her head, she has no further connection with her husband. She becomes the maid servant of the temple, and is free to behave as she likes. Daughters of such Bhávinis who do not wish to marry, undergo the process of shesa bharane, and follow the occupation of their mothers. The sons of the Bhávinis have an equal right to the property of their mother, but any daughter who marries a lawful husband loses her share in the property of her mother. A Devali follows the occupation of blowing the horn or cornet, and is entitled to hold the torches in the marriage ceremonies of the people in the village. Many of them learn the art of playing upon the tabour--mrudunga--and are useful to Kathekaris, i.e., those who recite legends of the gods with music and singing. Some of them become farmers while others are unoccupied.

Bhávinis follow the occupation of a maid-servant in the temple, but their real occupation is that of public women. They are not scorned by the public. On the contrary, they are required to be present at the time of a marriage to tie the marriage-string--Mangalsutra--of a bride, for they are supposed to enjoy perpetual unwidowhood--'Janma suwásini.' Some of the houses of Bhávinis become the favourite resorts of gamblers and vagabonds. In the absence of a daughter, a Bhávini purchases a girl from a harlot, and adopts her as her daughter to carry on her profession. [738]

Snakes are believed to be the step-brothers of the gods. They reside under the earth and are very powerful. The snake is considered to be very beautiful among creeping animals, and is one of the ornaments of the god Shiva. An image of a snake made of brass is kept in the temple of the god Shiva, and worshipped daily along with the god. There is a custom among the Hindus of worshipping Nága, i.e., the cobra, once a year on the Nága panchami day, i.e., the fifth day of the bright half of Shráwan (August). Images of snakes are drawn with sandalpaste on a wooden board or on the walls of houses, and worshipped by Hindu women on this day. Durva grass, sacred to Ganpati, parched rice láhya, legumes kadadan, and milk are offered to this image. Some people go to the snake's abode Várul--an ant-hill--on this day to worship the snake itself, if they happen to catch sight of it. [739]

It is said that at Battisa Shirále in the Belgáum District the real Nága comes out of its abode below the earth on this day, and is worshipped by the people. Milk and láhya, parched rice, are put outside the house at night on this day with the intention that they may be consumed by a snake. Hindus do not dig or plough the earth on Nága panchami day. Even vegetables are not cut and fried on this day by some people. [740]

Earthen images of snakes are worshipped by some people in the Konkan districts on the Nága panchami day. The Nága is considered to be a Bráhman by caste, and it is believed that the family of the person who kills a snake becomes extinct. The cobra being considered a Bráhman, its dead body is adorned with the jánawe, and then burnt as that of a human being. A copper coin is also thrown into its funeral pile. [741]

At certain villages in the Deccan a big earthen image of a snake is consecrated in a public place on the Nága panchami day, and worshipped by Hindus in general. Women sing their songs in circles before this image while men perform tamáshás by its side. In fact, the day is enjoyed by the people as a holiday. The snake is removed next day, and an idol in the form of a man made of mud is seated in its place. This idol is called Shirálshet, who is said once to have been a king and to have ruled over this earth for one and one-fourths of a ghataka, i.e., for half an hour only. This day, is observed as a day of rejoicing by the people. [742]

The names of the snake deities are Takshaka, Vásuki and Shesha. Their shrines are at Kolhápur, Nágothane, Prayaga, Nágadeváchi Wádi and Subramhanya. A great fair is held every year at Battisa Shirále on the Nága panchami day.[#4]

There is a shrine of a snake deity at Sávantwádi. The management of the shrine is in the hands of the State officials. It is believed that a real snake resides therein. [743]

There is a shrine of a snake deity at Awás in the Alibág taluka of the Kolába District, where a great fair is held every year on the 14th day of the bright half of Kártik (November). It is said that persons suffering from snakebites recover when taken in time to this temple. [744]

It is said that a covetous person who acquires great wealth during his life-time and dies without enjoying it, or without issue, becomes a snake after death, and guards his buried treasures. At Kolhápur there was a Sáwkár--money-lender--named Kodulkar who is said to have become a snake, and to guard his treasures. In the village of Kailava in the Panhála petha of the Kolhápur District there is a snake in the house of a Kulkarni, who scares away those who try to enter the storehouse of the Kulkarni. [745]

It is a general belief among the Hindus that snakes guard treasures. It is said that there are certain places guarded by snakes in Goa territory. Persons who were compelled to abandon Portuguese territory owing to religious persecutions at the hands of the Portuguese buried their treasures beneath the ground. Those who died during exile are said to have become bhuts or ghosts, and it is believed that they guard their buried treasures in the form of snakes. [746]

The Hindus generally believe that the snakes who guard buried treasures do not allow any one to go near them. The snake frightens those who try to approach, but when he wishes to hand over the treasure to anybody he goes to that person at night, and tells him in a dream that the treasure buried at such and such a place belongs to him, and requests him to take it over. After the person has taken possession of the treasure as requested, the snake disappears from the spot. [747]

It is said that a snake which guards treasure is generally very old, white in complexion, and has long hair on its body. [748]

Hindus worship the image of a snake made of Darbha grass or of silk thread on the Anant Chaturdashi day, i.e., the 14th day of the bright half of Ashvin (October), and observe that day as a holiday. Legends of the exploits of the god are related with music and singing on this day. [749]

A snake festival is observed in the Nágeshwar temple at Awás in the Kolába District on the night of the 14th day of the bright half of Kártika (November). Nearly four hundred devotees of the god Shankar assemble in the temple, holding in their hands vetra-sarpa long cane sticks with snake images at their ends. They advance dancing and repeating certain words, and take turns round the temple till midnight. After getting the permission of the chief devotee, they scatter throughout the neighbouring villages with small axes in their hands, and cut down, and bring from the gardens, cocoanuts, plantains, and other edible things that are seen on their way. They return to the temple after two hours, the last man being the chief devotee called Kuwarkándya. The fruits are then distributed among the people assembled at the temple. Nobody interferes with them on this day in taking away cocoanuts and other fruits from the village gardens. On the next day they go dancing in the same manner to the Kanakeshwar hill with the snake sticks in their hands. [750]

In the Deccan no special snake festivals like those described above are celebrated. But in the temples devoted to snake deities, on the full moon day of Kártik, which is sacred to the snake deity, the deity is worshipped with special pomp, and the crests of the temples are illuminated on that night. [751]

The village cures for snakebite are:--

1. The use of charmed water and the repetition of mantras by a sorcerer.

2. The use of certain roots and herbs as medicines.

3. The removal of the sufferer to the neighbouring temple.

4. Branding the wound with fire.

5. The drinking of soapnut juice, or of water in which copper coins have been boiled by the patient, who is thus made to vomit the snake poison. [752]

In the Deccan a person suffering from snakebite is taken to a village temple, and the ministrant is requested to give him holy water. The deity is also invoked. Thus keeping the person for one night in the temple, he is carried to his house the following day if cured. The vows made to the deity for the recovery of the person are then fulfilled. There is one turabat, a tomb of Avalia a Mahomedan saint, at Panhála where persons suffering from snakebite are made to sit near the tomb, and it is said that they are cured. In some villages there are enchanted trees of Kadulimb where persons placed under the shade of such trees are cured of snakebites. Some people tie a stone round the neck of the sufferer as soon as he is better, repeating the words Adi Gudi Imám the name of a Mahomedan saint. After recovery from snakebite the person is taken to the mosque of the Adi Gudi Imám Sáheb, where the stone is untied before the tomb, and jágri equal to the weight of the stone is offered. A feast is also given to the Mujáwar or ministrant of the mosque. There is at present a famous enchanter--Mántrika--at Satára who cures persons suffering from snakebite. It is said that he throws charmed water on the body of the sufferer, and in a few minutes the snake begins to speak through the victim. The sorcerer enquires what the snake wants. The snake gives reasons for biting the person. When any thing thus asked for by the snake is offered, the victim comes to his senses, and is cured. There are many witnesses to the above fact. [753]

At Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District chickens numbering from twenty to twenty-five are applied to the wound caused by the snakebite. A chicken has the power of drawing out the poison from the body through the wound, but this causes the death of the chicken. The remedy above described is sure to be successful if it is tried within three hours of the person being bitten. There are several other medicines which act on the snakebite, but they must be given very promptly. There are some men in this village who give charmed water for snake or any other bites. Many persons suffering from snakebite have been cured by the use of mantras and charmed water. [754]

Water from the tanks of Vetávare in the Sávantwádi State and Mánjare in Goa territory is generally used as medicine for snakebite. It is believed that by the power of mantras a snake can be prevented from entering or leaving a particular area. This process is called 'sarpa bándhane'. There are some sorcerers who can draw snakes out of their holes by the use of their mantras, and carry them away without touching them with their hands. [755]

At Adivare, in the Rájápur taluka, roots of certain herbs are mixed in water and applied to the wound caused by the snakebite, and given to the sufferer to drink. [756]

At Náringre in the Ratnágiri District, persons suffering from snakebite are given the juice of Kadulimb leaves, and are kept in the temple of Hanumán. The feet of the deity are washed with holy water, and the water is given to the victim to drink. [757]

A snake is believed to have a white jewel or mani in its head, and it loses its life when this jewel is removed. This jewel has the power of drawing out the poison of snakebite. When it is applied to the wound, it becomes green, but when kept in milk for sometime, it loses its greenness and reverts to its usual white colour. It gives out to the milk all the poison that has been absorbed from the wound, and the milk becomes green. This jewel can be used several times as an absorbent of the poison of snakebite. The green milk must be buried under ground, so that it may not be used again by any one else. [758]

It is believed that an old snake having long hair on its body has a jewel in its head. This jewel is compared with the colours of a rainbow. The snake can take this jewel from its head at night, and search for food in its lustre. Such snakes never come near the habitation of human beings, but always reside in the depth of the jungle. This species of snake is called Deva Sarpa, i.e., a snake belonging to a deity. It is related that a snake was born of a woman in the Kinkar's house at Tardál in the Sángli State, and another one in the Gabale's house at Kolhápur. [759]

CHAPTER VIII.

TOTEMISM AND FETISHISM.

The worship of totems, or Devaks, prevails among Hindus in Western India. The term Devak is applied to the deity or deities worshipped at the beginning of a thread or a marriage ceremony. The ceremony is as follows: A small quantity of rice is put into a winnowing fan, and with it six small sticks of the Umbar tree, each covered with mango leaves and cotton thread. These are worshipped as deities. Near the winnowing fan is kept an earthen or copper vessel filled with rice, turmeric, red powder, betelnuts, sweet balls made of wheat flour, ghi and sugar; and on the top of the vessel is a small sprig of mango and a cocoanut covered with cotton thread. This vessel is also worshipped as a deity, and offerings of sweet eatables are made to it. After the worship of this vessel, the regular ceremony of Punyáhavachana is performed. Twenty-seven Mátrikás, or village and local deities, represented by betelnuts are consecrated in a new winnowing fan or a bamboo basket. Seven Mátrikás are made of mango leaves, six of which contain durva grass, and the seventh darbha grass. Each of them is bound with a raw cotton thread separately. They are worshipped along with a Kalasha or a copper lota as mentioned above. This copper lota is filled with rice, betelnuts, turmeric, etc., a sprig of mango leaves is placed on the lota, and a cocoanut is put over it. The lota is also bound with a cotton thread. Sandalpaste, rice, flowers, and durva grass are required for its worship. An oil lamp called Arati is waved round the devak, the parents, and the boy or the girl whose thread or marriage ceremony is to be performed. A Suwásini is called and requested to wave this Arati, and the silver coin which is put into the Arati by the parents is taken by her. The father takes the winnowing fan and the mother takes the Kalasha, and they are carried from the mandap to the devak consecrated in the house. A lighted lamp is kept continually burning near this devak till the completion of the ceremony. After completion of the thread or marriage ceremony the devak is again worshipped, and the ceremony comes to an end. The deity in the devak is requested to depart on the second or the fourth day from the date of its consecration. No mourning is observed during the period the devak remains installed in the house.

Among Maráthás and many of the lower classes in the Ratnágiri District the branch of a Vad, Kadamba, mango, or an Apta tree is worshipped as their devak or kul. [760]

Some Maráthás have a sword or a dagger as their devak, which is worshipped by them before commencing the ritual of the marriage ceremony. [761]

The family known as Ráne at Náringre in the Davagad taluka of the Ratnágiri District, and the families known as Gadakari and Jádhava at Málwan, consider the Vad or Banian tree as their devak, and do not make use of its leaves. In the same manner, some people consider the Kadamba tree sacred to their family. [762]

There are some people among the Hindus in Western India whose surnames are derived from the names of animals and plants, such as Boke, Lándage, Wágh, Dukre, Káwale, Garud, More, Mhase, Rede, Keer, Popat, Ghode, Shelár, Gáyatonde, Wághmáre, Shálunke, Bhende, Padwal, Wálke, Apte, Ambekar, Pimpalkhare, Kelkar and Kálke.

The Hindus believe that a cow, a horse, and an elephant are sacred animals. The cow is treated with special respect by the Hindus in general, and the bull by the Lingáyats and oilmen. The milk, the urine, and the dung of a cow are used as medicines, and they are also given as offerings to the god in sacrifices.

The Shelár family considers the sheep as their devak, and they do not eat the flesh of a sheep. The Shálunke family respects the Shálunki or sparrow. People belonging to the More family do not eat the flesh of a peacock as they consider it to be their devak. [763]

The Bhandáris whose surname is Padwal do not eat the vegetable of a snake-gourd or Padwal. [764]

Hindus do not eat the flesh of the animal respected by them, and those who offer any fruit to their guru as a token of respect do not eat that fruit in future. Some Hindus do not eat onions, garlic and the fruit of a palm tree. The fruit of a tree believed to be the devak of a family is not eaten by the members of that family.

The families of Ráva and Ráne do not take their food on the leaf of a Vad or Banian tree as they consider it to be their devak. [765]

There are some Hindu families in the Kolába District who believe that their kul or totem consists of the tortoise and the goat, and they do not eat the flesh of such animals. A certain community of the Vaishyas or traders known as Swár believe that a jack tree or Phanas is their kul, and they do not use the leaves of that tree. [766]

It is believed among the Hindus that the deity Satwái protects children for the first three months from their birth. The deity is worshipped on the fifth day from the birth of a child, and if there occurs any omission or error in the worship of that deity, the child begins to cry, or does not keep good health. On such occasions the parents of the child make certain vows to the deity, and if the child recovers, the parents go to a jungle, and collect seven small stones. They then besmear the stones with red lead and oil, and worship them along with a she-goat in the manner in which the vow was promised to be fulfilled. [767]

The horse is connected with the worship of the god Khandoba because this animal is sacred to that deity, being his favourite vehicle. For this reason all the devotees or Bhaktas of Khandoba take care to worship the horse in order that its master, the god Khandoba, may be pleased with them.

It is well known that the cow is considered as most sacred of all the animals by the Hindus, and the reason assigned for this special veneration is that all the deities dwell in the cow.

The Nandi, or a bullock made of stone, consecrated in front of the temple of Shiva, the Vágh or a tiger at the temple of a goddess and cows and dogs in the temple of Dattátraya are worshipped by the Hindus.

The mouse, being the vehicle of Ganpati the god of wisdom, is worshipped by the people along with that god.

In the Konkan cattle are worshipped by the Hindus on the first day of Kártika, and they are made to pass over fire.

The mountains having caves and temples of deities are generally worshipped by the Hindus. The Abucha Pahád, the Girnár, the Panchmadhi, the Brahmagiri, the Sahyádri, the Tungár, the Jivadancha dongar, the Munja dongar at Junnar, the Tugábáicha dongar, the Ganesh Lene, and the Shivabai are the principal holy mountains in the Bombay Presidency.

Mount Abu, known as the Abucha Pahád, is believed to be very sacred, and many Hindus go on a pilgrimage to that mountain.

Hills are worshipped at Ganpati Pule and Chaul. At Pule there is a temple of the god Ganpati, the son of Shiva, and at Chaul in the Kolába District there is a temple of the god Dattátraya.

The place which produces sound when water is poured over it is considered to be holy, and is worshipped by the people.

In the Deccan, hills are worshipped by the people on the Narak chaturdashi day in Dipawáli, 14th day of the dark half of Ashvin (October). The legend of this worship is that the god Shri Krishna lifted the Govardhan mountain on this day, and protected the people of this world. A hill made of cowdung is worshipped at every house on the Narak chaturdashi day. [768]

Stones of certain kinds are first considered as one of the deities, or as one of the chief heroes in the family, and then worshipped by the people. Many such stones are found worshipped in the vicinity of any temple.

A stone coming out of the earth with a phallus or lingam of Shiva is worshipped by the Hindus. If such a lingam lies in a deep jungle, it is worshipped by them at least once a year, and daily, if practicable, in the month of Adhikamás, an intercalary month which comes every third year. [769]

The red stones found in the Narmada river represent the god Ganpati, and are worshipped by the people.

A big stone at Phutaka Tembha near Murud in the Ratnágiri District is worshipped by the people, who believe it to be the monkey god Hanumán or Máruti. All the stone images of gods that are called Swayambhu or self-existent are nothing but rough stones of peculiar shapes. There are such swayambhu--natural-images--at Kelshi and Kolthare in the Ratnágiri District. [770]

There is a big stone at Palshet in the Ratnágiri District which is worshipped as Kálikádevi. [771]

Stones are sometimes worshipped by the people in the belief that they are haunted by evil spirits. We have for example a stone called Mora Dhonda lying by the seashore at Málwan in the Ratnágiri District. It is supposed to be haunted by Devachár. [772]

The stones which are once consecrated and worshipped as deities have to be continually worshipped, even when perforated. The small, round, white stone slab known as Vishnu pada, which is naturally perforated, is considered to be holy, and is worshipped daily by the Hindus along with the other images of gods. The holes in this slab do not extend right through. [773]

It is considered inauspicious to worship the fractured images of gods, but the perforated black stone called Sháligrám, taken from the Gandaki river, is considered very holy, and worshipped by the people. For it is believed to be perforated from its very beginning. Every Sháligrám has a hole in it, even when it is in the river. [774]

Broken stones are not worshipped by the people. But the household gods of the Bráhmans and other higher classes which are called the Pancháyatan--a collection of five gods--generally consist of five stones with holes in them. [775]

No instances of human sacrifices occur in India in these days, but there are many practices and customs which appear to be the survivals of human sacrifices. These survivals are visible in the offerings of fowls, goats, buffaloes, and fruits like cocoanuts, brinjals, the Kohále or pumpkin gourd and others.

Human sacrifices are not practised in these days, but among the Karháda Bráhmans there is a practice of giving poison to animals in order to satisfy their family deity. It is said that they used to kill a Bráhman by giving him poisoned food.

It is believed that the people belonging to the caste of Karháda Bráhmans used to offer human sacrifices to their deity, and therefore nobody relies on a Karháda Bráhman in these days. There is a proverb in Maráthi which means that a man can trust even a Kasái or a butcher but not a Karháda.

As they cannot offer human sacrifices in these days, it is said that during the Navarátra holidays, i.e., the first nine days of the bright half of Ashvin (October), they offer poisoned food to crows, dogs and other animals. [776]

At Kálshe in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the servants of gods, i.e., the ministrants or the Bhopis of the temple prick their breast with a knife on the Dasara day, and cry out loudly the words 'Koya' 'Koya'. No blood comes from the breast as the wound is slight. This appears to be a survival of human sacrifice. [777]

In the Bombay Presidency, and more especially in the Konkan districts, fetish stones are generally worshipped for the purpose of averting evil and curing diseases. In every village stones are found sacred to spirit deities like Bahiroba, Chedoba, Khandoba, Mhasoba, Zoting, Vetál, Jakhái, Kokái, Kalkái and others. The low class people such as Mahárs, Mángs, etc., apply red lead and oil to stones, and call them by one of the above names, and ignorant people are very much afraid of such deities. They believe that such deities have control over all the evil spirits or ghosts. It is said that the spirit Vetál starts to take a round in a village on the night of the no-moon day of every month, accompanied by all the ghosts. When any epidemic prevails in a village, people offer to these fetish stones offerings of eatables, cocoanuts, fowls and goats.

There is a stone deity named Bhávai at Kokisare in the Bávada State, to whom vows are made by the people to cure diseases. As the deity is in the burning ground, it is naturally believed that this is the abode of spirits. [778]

At Achare, in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the round stones known as Kshetrapál are supposed to possess the power of curing diseases, and are also believed to be the abode of spirits. [779]

At Adivare, in the Ratnágiri District, there is a stone named Mahár Purukha which is worshipped by the people when cattle disease prevails, especially the disease of a large tick or the cattle or dog louse. [780]

At Ubhádánda, in the Ratnágiri District, there are some stones which are believed to be haunted by Vetál, Bhutnáth, Rawalnáth and such other servants of the god Shiva, and it is supposed that they have the power of curing epidemic diseases. People make vows to these stones when any disease prevails in the locality. [781]

The Hindus generally consider as sacred all objects that are the means of their livelihood, and, for this reason, the oilmen worship their oil-mill, the Bráhmans hold in veneration the sacred thread--Yadnopavit,--and religious books, the goldsmiths consider their firepots as sacred, and do not touch them with their feet. In case any one accidently happens to touch them with his foot, he apologises and bows to them.

It is believed by the Hindus that the broom, the winnowing fan, the páyali--a measure of four shers--the Samai or sweet-oil lamp, a metal vessel, fire and Sahán or the levigating slab should not be touched with foot.

The metals gold, silver, and copper, the King's coins, jewels and pearls, corns, the Sháligrám stone, the Ganpati stone from the Narmada river, conch-shell, sacred ashes, elephant tusks, the horns of a wild ox (Gava), tiger skin, deer skin, milk, curds, ghi, cow's urine, Bel, basil leaves or Tulsi, cocoanuts, betelnuts, and flowers are considered as sacred by the Hindus, and no one will dare to touch them with his foot.

Hindus worship annually on the Dasara day the arms and all the instruments or implements by which they earn their livelihood. The corn sieve, the winnowing basket, the broom, the rice-pounder, the plough, the Awuta or wood bill, and other such implements are worshipped on this day. The agriculturists respect their winnowing fans and corn sieves, and do not touch them with their feet.

In the Kolhápur District all the instruments and implements are worshipped by the people one day previous to the Dasara holiday. This worship is called Khándepujan. They also worship all agricultural instruments, and tie to them leaves of Pipal and mango trees. [782]

A new winnowing fan is considered to be holy by the Hindus. It is filled with rice, fruits, cocoanuts and betelnuts, and a Khana--a piece of bodicecloth--is spread over it. It is then worshipped and given to a Bráhman lady in fulfilment of certain vows, or on the occasion of the worship of a Bráhman Dampatya or married pair.

The broom is considered to be holy by the Hindus. Red powder--Kunku--is applied to a new broom before it is taken into use. It should not be touched with the feet.

At Rewadanda, in the Kolába District, some people worship a wood-bill or Koyata on the 6th day from the birth of a child. The rice-pounder, or Musal, is worshipped by them as a devak at the time of thread and marriage ceremonies. [783]

Fire is considered to be holy among the high class Hindus. It is considered as an angel that conveys the sacrificial offerings from this earth to the gods in heaven. It is considered as one of the Hindu deities, and worshipped daily by high class Hindus. A Bráhman has to worship the fire every day in connection with the ceremony Vaishwadeva--oblations of boiled rice and ghi given to the fire. It is also worshipped by the Hindus on special religious occasions.

Fire is worshipped at the time of Yadnas or Sacrifices. Sacrifices are of five kinds. They are:--

Devayadna, Bhutayadna or Brahmayadna, Rishiyadna or Atithiyadna, Pitruyadna and Manushyayadna. The offerings of rice, ghi, firewood, Til or sesamum, Java or barley, etc. are made in these yadnas. It is also worshipped at the time of Shrávani or Upákarma--the ceremony of renewing the sacred thread annually in the month of Shrávan. [784]

Among the lower classes fire is worshipped on the Mahálaya or Shráddha day. They throw oblations of food into the fire on that day.

The fire produced by rubbing sticks of the Pipal or Shevari tree is considered sacred, and it is essentially necessary that the sacred fire required for the Agnihotra rites should be produced in the manner described above.

Agnihotra is a perpetual sacred fire preserved in Agnikunda,--a hole in the ground for receiving and preserving consecrated fire. A Bráhman, who has to accept the Agnihotra, has to preserve in his house the sacred fire day and night after his thread ceremony, and to worship it three times a day after taking his bath. When an Agnihotri dies, his body is burnt by the people who prepare fire by rubbing sticks of Pipal wood together. [785]

There are some Bráhmans who keep the fire continuously burning in their houses only for Cháturmás or four months of the year. The fire which is preserved and worshipped for four months is called "Smárta Agni." [786]

CHAPTER IX.

ANIMAL WORSHIP.

The following animals, birds and insects are respected by the Hindus:--The cow, bullock, she-buffalo, horse, elephant, tiger, deer, mouse, goat, ants and alligators; and among the birds the following are held sacred:--Peacock, swan, eagle and kokil or cuckoo.

Of all the animals the cow is considered to be the most sacred by Hindus. It is generally worshipped daily in the morning for the whole year, or at least for the Cháturmás or four months beginning from the 11th day of the bright half of Ashádha to the 11th day of the bright half of the month of Kártika; and a special worship is offered to it in the evening on the 12th day of the dark half of Ashvin (October).

The cow is believed to be the abode of all the deities and rishis. It is compared with the earth in its sacredness, and it is considered that when it is pleased it is capable of giving everything required for the maintenance of mankind, and for this reason it is styled the Káma Dhenu or the giver of desired objects. It is said that a person who walks round the cow at the time of its delivery obtains the punya or merit of going round the whole earth. The cow is even worshipped by the god Vishnu.

The cow is considered next to a mother, as little children and the people in general are fed by the milk of a cow. Some women among high class Hindus take a vow not to take their meals before worshipping the cow, and when the cow is not available for worship, they draw in turmeric, white or red powder the cow's foot-prints and worship the same. At the completion of the vow it is worshipped, and then given as a gift to a Bráhman. It is considered very meritorious to give a Gopradán--a gift of a cow along with its calf--to a Bráhman. The sight of a cow in the morning is believed by all Hindus to be auspicious.

The bullock is respected by the people as it is the favourite vehicle of the god Shiva, and is very useful for agricultural purposes. The Nandi or bull is worshipped by Hindus. The bullock is specially worshipped on the 12th day of the bright half of Kártika. When performing the funeral rites of the dead, a bull is worshipped and set free. The bull thus set free is considered sacred by the people, and is never used again for agricultural or any other domestic purposes.

In order to avoid calamities arising from the influence of inauspicious planets, Hindus worship the she-buffalo, and offer it as a gift to a Bráhman. The she-buffalo is compared with the Kál Purusha or the god of Death, the reason being that Yama is believed to ride a buffalo. The Bráhman who accepts this gift has to shave his moustaches and to undergo a certain penance. The cowherds sometimes worship the she-buffalo. As it is the vehicle of Yama, the buffalo is specially worshipped by people when an epidemic occurs in a village. In certain villages in the Konkan districts the buffalo is worshipped and sacrificed on the same day.

The horse is the vehicle of the deity Khandoba of Jejuri. It is worshipped on the Vijaya Dashami or the Dasara holiday as in former days, on the occasion of the horse sacrifice or Ashwamedha.

The elephant is the vehicle of the god Indra and is specially worshipped on the Dasara day. It is also believed that there are eight sacred elephants posted at the eight directions. These are called Ashtadik-Pálas, i.e., the protectors of the eight different directions, and they are worshipped along with other deities on auspicious ceremonial occasions, like weddings, thread-girding, etc.

The deer and the tiger are considered to be holy by Hindus, and their skins are used by Bráhmans and ascetics while performing their austerities. The deer skin is used on the occasion of thread girding. A small piece of the deer skin is tied to the neck of the boy along with the new sacred thread.

The mouse, being the vehicle of the god Ganpati, is worshipped along with that deity on the Ganesh Chaturthi day, the fourth day of the bright half of Bhádrapada.

The goat is believed to be holy for sacrificial purposes. It is worshipped at the time of its sacrifice, which is performed to gain the favour of certain deities.

The ass is generally considered as unholy by the Hindus, and its mere touch is held to cause pollution. But certain lower class Hindus like the Lonáris consider it sacred, and worship it on the Gokul Ashtami day (8th day of the dark half of Shráwan).

The dog is believed to be an incarnation of the deity Khandoba, and it is respected as the favourite animal of the god Dattátraya. But it is not touched by high class Hindus.

It is considered a great sin to kill a cat.

All domestic animals are worshipped by the Hindus on the morning of the first day of Márgashirsha (December).

On this day the horns of these animals are washed with warm water, painted with red colours, and a lighted lamp is passed round their faces. They are feasted on this day as it is considered to be the gala day (Diváli holiday) of the animals.

Hindus consider it meritorious to feed ants and fish, and to throw grain to the birds. Ants are fed by the people scattering sugar and flour on the ant-hills. It is believed that, by feeding the ants with sugar or flour, a person obtains the Punya or merit of sahasrabhojan, i.e., of giving a feast to a thousand Bráhmans.

Alligators are worshipped as water deities by the Hindus.

The peacock is the favourite vehicle of Saraswati, the Goddess of Learning, and it is therefore respected by the people.

The swan is the vehicle of Brahma, the god of creation.

The eagle is the vehicle of the god Vishnu, and is a favourite devotee of that deity. It is therefore held sacred by Hindus.

The cuckoo or Kokil is believed to be an incarnation of the goddess Párwati. This bird is specially worshipped by high caste Hindu women for the period of one month on the occasion of a special festival called the festival of the cuckoos, or Kokila vrata, which is held in the month of Ashádha at intervals of twenty years.

The crow is generally held inauspicious by Hindus, but as the manes or pitras are said to assume the form of crows, these birds are respected in order that they may be able to partake of the food offered to the dead ancestors in the dark half of Bhádrapada called Pitrupaksha.

It is necessary that the oblations given in performance of the funeral rites on the tenth day after the death of a person should be eaten by the crow. But if the crow refuses to touch these oblations, it is believed that the soul of the dead has not obtained salvation; and hence it is conjectured that certain wishes of the dead have remained unfulfilled. The son or the relatives of the dead then take water in the cavity of their right hand, and solemnly promise to fulfil the wishes of the dead. When this is done, the crow begins to eat the food.

The harsh sound of a crow is taken as a sure sign of an impending mishap.

The dog, cat, pig, ass, buffalo, rat, bhálu, an old female jackal, lizard, and the birds cock, crow, kite, vulture, owl, bat, and pingla are considered as unholy and inauspicious by Hindus.

CHAPTER X.

WITCHCRAFT.

Chetak is an art secretly learnt by women. It is a form of the black art. A woman well versed in the mantras of chetak can do any mischief she chooses. She can kill a child or turn any person into a dog or other animal by the power of her incantations. The Chetakin can remove all the hair from the head of a woman, or scatter filth, etc. in a person's house, make marks of crosses with marking nuts on all the clothes, or play many other such tricks without betraying a trace of the author of the mischief. The chetakins are able to mesmerize a man and order him to do anything they want. A Chetakin or witch cannot herself appear in the form of an animal.

They follow revolting forms of ceremonies. All witches who have learnt the black art meet at night once a month on the Amávásya day or no moon day of every month, at a burning ground outside the village. On such occasions they go quite naked, and apply turmeric and red powders to the body and forehead. While coming to the cremation ground they bring on their heads burning coals in an earthen pot called Kondi. At this meeting they repeat their mantras, and take care that none are forgotten. After completing the repetition of the mantras, they go round the village and return to their respective houses. They have no special haunts or seasons.

In the Kolhápur District the woman who is in possession of a chetak is called chetakin. The chetak is said to abide by her orders. It is believed to bring corn and other things from houses or harvesting grounds. It is seen only by its mistress the chetakin. The belief that the chetakins can turn a person into the form of an animal does not prevail in this district. They do not wander from one place to another. The chetakin has to go once a year to the temple of the deity from whom the chetak has been brought, and to pay the annual tribute for the use of that chetak or servant spirit. [787]

There are no witches in the Ratnágiri District. It is said that there are some at Kolwan in the Thána District. They are generally found among Thákars. Some of them come to the Ratnágiri District, but though no one can tell anything about their powers, ignorant people are very much afraid of them. [788] It is believed that they can turn persons into animals by means of their incantations. The person once charmed by their mantras is said to blindly abide by their orders. It is also believed that they can ruin anybody by their magic.

There are no witches at Rái in the Thána District. The woman who can influence evil spirits to do harm to others is called a Bhutáli. It is said that the Bhutális assemble at the funeral ground in a naked state on the full-moon day and on the Amávásya, or the last day of every month, to refresh their knowledge of the black art. [789]

A witch has dirty habits and observances. The chief sign for detecting a witch or chetakin is a foam or froth that appears on the lips of her mouth when she is asleep. The only means to guard against her witchcraft is to remain on friendly terms with her, and not to hurt her feelings on any occasion. People generally keep a watch over the actions of a woman who is suspected to be a witch, and if she is found practising her black art, and is caught red-handed, people then pour into her mouth water brought from the shoe-maker's earthen pot or kundi. It is believed that, when she is compelled to drink such water, her black art becomes ineffective. [790]

In the Thána District it is believed that the skin round the eyes of a witch is always black, her eyes have an intoxicated appearance, her nails are generally parched and have a darkish colour, and the lower portions of her feet seem to be scraped. When any sorcerer gives out the name of such a Bhutáli, she is threatened by the people that, should she continue to give trouble in the village, her own black art or another spirit would be set against her; and she then ceases to give trouble. [791]

There are some sorcerers in the Thána District who can move a small brass cup or váti by the power of their magic. They can detect a witch by the movement of this vessel. When the brass vessel or váti reaches the house of a witch, it at once settles upon the witch's head. She is then threatened by the people that she will be driven out of the village if found practising her black art. [792]

In the Kolhápur District, when the people come to know of the existence of a witch in their village, they take special precautions at the time of harvest. They arrange to harvest a different kind of grain to the one selected for harvesting by the witch. After some time they go to the field of the witch, and discover whether there is a mixture of grain in her field. If they are convinced of the fact, they take further precautions. In order to avoid being troubled by the chetak, they keep an old, worn out shoe or sandal and a charmed copper amulet under the eaves at the main door of their houses, or make crosses with marking nut on both sides of a door. At some places chunam spots or circles are marked on the front of a house, the object being to guard against the evil effects of the chetak's tricks. [793]

CHAPTER XI.

GENERAL.

Offerings of cocoanuts, fowls or goats are annually made to the spirits that guard the fields. They are generally made at the time of beginning a plantation or the harvesting of a crop. When making these offerings, the farmers pray to the god to give prosperous crops every year. They prepare their cooked food in the field on the first harvesting day and offer it as naivedya (god's meal) along with the above mentioned offerings. [794]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District, while commencing the sowing of crops the farmers worship a certain number of bullocks made of rice flour and then throw them into the pond or river adjoining the fields. On other occasions, offerings of cocoanuts and fowls are sacrificed to the deities that protect the fields. Some people give a feast to the Bráhmans at the end of the harvesting season. [795]

Ceremonies in connection with ploughing, etc., are not observed for all the lands. But fields which are supposed to be haunted by evil spirits are worshipped at the time of ploughing, and the evil spirits are propitiated, cocoanuts, sugar, fowls or goats are offered to the local deities or devachárs. There is a custom of worshipping in the fields the heaps of new corn at the time of harvest, and this custom generally prevails in almost all the Konkan districts. [796]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District the Shiwar generally composed of boiled rice mixed with curds is kept at the corner of a field at the time of reaping the crops. The Shiwar is sometimes composed of the offerings of fowls and goats. [797] This ritual is also known by the name Chorawa. [798]

At Dásgáv in the Kolába District, there is a custom of carrying one onion in the corn taken to the fields for sowing and placing five handfuls of corn on a piece of cloth before beginning to sow the corn. At the time of Láwani or plantation of crops a fair called Palejatra is held by the people, and every farmer breaks a cocoanut in the field at the time of plantation or lávani of crops. At the time of harvesting it is customary with many of the cultivators in the Konkan to place a cocoanut in the field and to thrash it by the first bundle of crop several times before the regular operation of thrashing is begun. At the close of the harvest the peasants offer cocoanuts, fowls or a goat to the guardian deity of the field. [799]

At Váda in the Thána District the ploughs are worshipped by the farmers on Saturday and then carried to the fields for ploughing. At the time of harvesting, the wooden post to which the bullocks are tied is worshipped by them and at the close of the harvest the heap of new corn is worshipped and cocoanuts are broken over it. [800]

In the Kolhápur District the farmers worship the plough before beginning to plough the land. At the time of sowing the corn they worship the Kuri an implement for sowing corn. At the time of Ropani or transplanting the crops they split a cocoanut, and worship the stone consecrated by the side of the field after besmearing it with red powders, and make a vow of sacrificing a goat for the prosperity of their crops. At the time of harvesting they also worship the heap of new corn and after giving to the deity offerings of cocoanuts, fowls or goats they carry the corn to their houses. [801]

In the Konkan districts the village deity is invoked to protect the cattle. People offer fowls and cocoanuts in the annual fair of a village deity, and request her to protect their cattle and crops. They have to offer a goat or buffalo to the deity every third year, and to hold annual fairs in her honour. The procession of bali is one of the measures adopted for averting cattle diseases. [802]

When there was scarcity of rain the Hindus formerly invoked Indra, the god of rain, by means of Yadnyas or sacrifices, but such sacrifices are now rarely performed as they are very costly. The general method of ensuring rainfall in these days is to drown the Lingam of the god Shiva in water and to offer prayers to that deity. [803]

The following rural rites are intended to ensure sunshine and to check excessive rain. A man born in the month of Fálgun (March) is requested to collect rain water in the leaf of the Alu plant, and the leaf is then tied to a stick and kept on the roof of a house. Burning coals are also thrown into rainwater after passing them between the legs of a person born in the month of Fálgun. [804]

In order to protect the crops from wild pig the people of Umbergáon in the Thána District post in their fields twigs of Ayan tree on the Ganesh Chaturthi (fourth day of the bright half of Bhádrapada or September) day every year. [805]

In the Kolhápur District the deities Tamjái, Tungái, and Wághái are invoked by the villagers for the protection of cattle. When the cattle disease has disappeared the people offer cocoanuts and other offerings to these deities. The potters and the Chudbude Joshis observe the following ceremony for causing rainfall. A lingam or phallus of Shiva made of mud is consecrated on a wooden board or pát, and a naked boy is asked to hold it over his head. The boy carries it from house to house and the inmates of the houses pour water over the phallus. The Bráhmans and the high class Hindus pour water on the lingam at the temple of the god Shiva continuously for several days. This is called Rudrábhisheka. It is a religious rite in which eleven Bráhmans are seated in a temple to repeat the prayers of the god Shiva.

In order to scare noxious animals or insects from the fields, the owners of the fields throw charmed rice round the boundaries of their fields. The figure of a tiger made of dry leaves of sugarcane is posted at a conspicuous place in the fields for protecting the crops of sugarcane. [806]

Great secrecy is required to be observed on the occasion of the special puja of Shiva which is performed on the first day of the bright half of the month of Bhádrapada (September). This rite is called Maunya vrata or silent worship, and should be performed only by the male members of the family. On this day all the members of the family have to remain silent while taking their meals. Women do not speak while cooking, as the food which is to be offered to the god must be cooked in silence. [807]

Newly married girls have to perform the worship of Mangala Gauri successively for the first five years on every Tuesday in the month of Shráwan (August), and it is enjoined that they should not speak while taking their meals on that day. Some people do not speak while taking their meals on every Monday of Shráwan, and others make a vow of observing silence and secrecy at their meals every day. All Bráhmans have to remain silent when going to the closet and making water. [808]

Certain persons observe silence at their meals during the period of four months (Cháturmás) commencing from the 11th day of the bright half of Ashádha (July) to the 11th day of the bright half of Kártik (November). Certain classes of Hindus observe the penance of secrecy in the additional month that occurs at the lapse of every third year. [809]

Silence is essential at the time of performing certain austerities such as Sandhya, worshipping the gods, and the repetition of the Brahma Gáyatri mantra and other such mantras. Secrecy is specially observed when a disciple is initiated by his Guru or spiritual guide with the sacred mantras or incantations. [810]

Secrecy and silence are essential when learning the mantras on snakebite, on evil eye and the evil spirit of Vetál. All followers of the Shákta sect must worship the goddess (Durga) very secretly. Silence is also observed by people in welcoming to their homes and worshipping the goddess Párvati or Gauri in the bright half of Bhádrapada every year. [811]

At Váde in the Thána District, one day previous to the planting of rice crops the farmer has to go to his field even before day break with five balls of boiled rice, cocoanuts and other things. There he worships the guardian deity of the field and buries the balls of rice underground. He has to do it secretly and has to remain silent during the whole period. He is also forbidden to look behind while going to the field for the purpose. [812]

Secrecy and silence are observed when performing the rites of Chetuks and evil spirits or ghosts. Widow remarriages among the lower classes are performed secretly. The pair wishing to be remarried is accompanied by a Bráhman priest and the marriage is performed apart from the house. The priest applies red lead (Kunku) to the forehead of the bride and throws grains of rice over their heads and a stone mortar or páta is touched to the backbone of the bride. The priest then turns his face and walks away silently. [813]

The Holi is a religious festival. It is annually celebrated in memory of the death of Kámdev the God of Love who was destroyed by the god Shankar on the full moon day of Fálgun (March). The object of this festival appears to have been a desire to abstain from lust by burning in the Holi fire all vicious thoughts and desires. As a rule, females do not take any part in this festival.

In the Konkan districts the annual festival of Holi begins from the fifth day of the bright half of Fálgun (March). Boys from all the localities of a village assemble at a place appointed for the Holi. The place appointed for kindling the Holi is not generally changed. The boys then go from house to house asking for firewood, and bring it to the Holi spot. They arrange the firewood and other combustible articles around the branch of a mango, betelnut or a Sáwar tree in the pit dug out for the purpose and then set it on fire. After kindling the sacred fire they take five turns round the Holi accompanied with the beating of drums and raise loud cries of obscene words. After this they play the Indian games of Atyápátya and Khokho and occasionally rob the neighbouring people of their firewood and other combustible articles. At the close of these games they daub their foreheads with sacred ashes gathered from the Holi fire. They consider these ashes especially auspicious and carry them home for the use of the other members of their families. This process is continued every night till the close of the fullmoon day. Elderly persons take part in this festival only during the last few days.

On the fullmoon day all the males of the village, including old men, start after sunset for the Holi spot, collecting on their way pieces of firewood from all the houses in the locality and arrange them in the manner described above. After having arranged the Holi, the officiating priest recites sacred verses and the puja is performed by the mánkari of the village. This mánkari or pátil is either the headman or some other leading person of the village and to him belongs the right of kindling the Holi fire first. Some persons kindle a small Holi in front of their houses and worship it individually, but they can take part in the public Holi. In the towns the Holis of different localities are kindled separately while in small villages there is only one for every village.

At Vijaydurg in the Ratnágiri District a hen is tied to the top of a tree or a bamboo placed in the pit dug out for kindling the Holi fire. The fowl tied to the top of the bamboo is called Shit. A small quantity of dry grass is first burnt at the bottom of this tree when the Mahárs beat their drums. The Shit (fowl) is then removed from the tree after it is half burnt and taken by the Mahárs. The Holi fire is then worshipped and kindled by the Gurav. Worshipping and kindling the Holi and taking the Shit (fowl) are considered as high honours. Occasionally quarrels and differences arise over this privilege and they are decided by the village Panch. [814]

After the kindling of the Holi the people assembled there offer to the Holi a Naivedya (god's meal) of poli--a sweet cake made of Jagri, wheat flour and gram pulse. Cocoanuts from all the houses in the village are thrown into this sacred fire. Some of these cocoanuts are afterwards taken out of the sacred fire, cut into pieces, mixed with sugar and are distributed among the people assembled as prasád or favoured gift. Lower classes of Hindus offer a live goat to the Holi, take it out when it is half burnt and feast thereon.

On the night of the fullmoon day and the first day of the dark half of Fálgun, the people assembled at the Holi fire wander about the village, enter gardens and steal plantains, cocoanuts and other garden produce. Robbery of such things committed during these days is considered to be pardonable. Some people take advantage of this opportunity for taking revenge on their enemies in this respect.

The fire kindled at the Holi on the fullmoon day is kept constantly burning till the Rangpanchami day i.e., fifth day of the dark half of Fálgun. Next morning i.e., on the first day of the dark half of Fálgun, the people boil water over that fire and use it for the purpose of bathing. It is believed that water boiled on the sacred fire has the power of dispelling all the diseases from the body. People go on dancing in the village and sing songs for the next five days. They generally sing Lávanis, a kind of ballad, during this festival. Among these dancers a boy is dressed like a girl and is called Rádha. This Rádha has to dance at every house while the others repeat Lávanis.

The second day of the dark half of Fálgun is called Dhulvad or dust day when people start in procession through the village, and compel the males of every house to join the party. They thus go to the Holi fire and raise loud cries of obscene words throwing mud and ashes upon each other. They afterwards go to the river or a pond to take their bath at noon time and then return to their houses. The third day of the dark half is also spent like the previous one with a slight difference which is that cow dung is used instead of mud. This day is called Shenwad day. On the fourth day the Dhunda Rákshahasin (a demon goddess) is worshipped by the people, and the day is spent in making merry and singing obscene songs called Lávanis. The fifth day of the dark half is known as Rangpanchami day and is observed by the people in throwing coloured water upon each other. Water in which Kusumba and other colours are mixed is carried in large quantity on bullock carts through the streets of a city and sprinkled on the people passing through these streets. On this day the sacred fire of the Holi is extinguished by throwing coloured water over it. This water is also thrown upon the persons assembled at the Holi. The money collected as post during this period is utilised in feasting and drinking.

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District the image of cupid is seated in a palanquin and carried with music from the temple to the Holi ground. The palanquin is then placed on a certain spot. The place for thus depositing the image of the god is called Sáhán. [815] At Náringre there is a big stone called Holdev which is worshipped by the people before kindling the Holi fire. [816] After the kindling of the sacred fire the palanquin is lifted from the Sáhán, and turned round the Holi fire with great rejoicings. The palanquin is then carried through the village and is first taken to the house of a Mánkari, and then from house to house during the next five days. The inmates of the houses worship the deity in the palanquin and offer cocoanuts and other fruits and make certain vows. The palanquin is taken back to the temple on the fifth day of the dark half of Fálgun when on its way gulál or red powder is thrown over the image and on the people who accompany it. [817]

Among high class Hindus the thread girding ceremony of a boy is performed when he attains puberty. The girls are generally married at an early age, and when a girl attains puberty, sugar is distributed among the friends and relatives of her husband. She is then seated in a Makhar--a gaily dressed frame. Dishes of sweets which are brought by the girl's parents and the relatives of her husband are given to her for the first three days. She takes her bath on the fourth day accompanied by the playing of music and the beating of drums. Sweetmeats in dishes are brought by the relatives till the day of Rutushanti (the first bridal night). The Garbhádán or Rutushánti ceremony is one of the sixteen ceremonies that are required to be performed during the life of every Hindu. This ceremony is performed within the first sixteen days from the girl's attaining her puberty, the 4th, 7th, 9th, 11th and the 13th being considered inauspicious for this purpose. While performing this ceremony the following three rites are required to be observed. They are Ganpatipujan or the worship of the god Ganpati, Punhyáhavachan or the special ceremony for invoking divine blessings and Navagrahashánti the ceremony for propitiating the nine planets. The ritual of this ceremony is as follows:--

The husband and the wife are seated side by side on wooden boards to perform the above three rites. The Kadali pujan or plantain tree worship is performed by the pair. The sacred fire or Homa is required to be kindled. The juice of the Durwa grass is then poured into the right nostril of the bride by her husband. This is intended to expel all diseases from the body of the girl and to secure safe conception. They are then seated in a Makhar, and presents of clothes, ornaments etc., are made by the parents of the girl and other relatives. After this the husband fills the lap of the girl with rice, a cocoanut, five betelnuts, five dry dates, five almonds, five plantains and five pieces of turmeric. The girl is then carried to a temple accompanied by the playing of music. A grand feast is given to the friends and relatives at the close of this ceremony.

The Hindus generally make various kinds of vows in order to procure offspring or with some other such object, and fulfil them when they succeed in getting their desire. The following are the different kinds of vows made. They offer cocoanuts, sugar, plantains and other fruits, costly new dresses and ornaments to the deities, and give feasts to Bráhmans. Special ceremonies called Laghurudra and Mahárudra in honour of Shiva the god of destruction are also performed. Sweetmeats such as pedhas etc. are offered to the gods in fulfilment of vows. Some people make vows to observe fasts, to feed Bráhmans, and to distribute coins and clothes to the poor; while others hang torana-wreaths of flowers and mango leaves--on the entrance of the temple, and hoist flags over it. Rich people erect new temples to different Hindu deities. Some observe fasts to propitiate the goddess Chandika and worship her during Navarátra the first nine days of the bright half of Ashvin (October) and others offer fowls and goats to their favourite deities. Women make it a vow to walk round the Audumbar or Pipal tree, and to distribute cocoanuts, sugar, jagri, copper or silver equal to the weight of their children.

Vows are made by people with the object of securing health, wealth and children and other desired objects such as education etc. They are as follows:--

Performing the worship of Shri Satya Náráyan, offering clothes and ornaments to the temple deities, hanging bells, constructing a foot path or steps leading to the temple of the special deity. [818] Vows are also made to obtain freedom from disease or such other calamities. When any person in the family becomes ill or when a sudden calamity befalls a family an elderly member of the family goes to the temple of a deity and makes certain vows according to his means, fulfilling them as soon as the calamity or disease has disappeared. [819]

Vows are usually to perform acts of benevolence. These consist in distributing cocoanut mixed in sugar, giving feasts to Bráhman priests, observing fasts on Saturday, Tuesday and Sunday, offering clothes and ornaments to deities, building new temples and guest houses (dharmshálás), digging out new wells and in distributing clothes and food to the poor. [820]

At Khopoli in the Kolába District, people who have no children or whose children die shortly after birth make a vow to the Satwái deity whose temple is at a short distance from Khopoli. The vow is generally to bring the child to the darshana (sight) of the deity and to feed five or more (married) Bráhman pairs. Such vows are fulfilled after the birth of a child. Some worship the god Satya Náráyan on a grand scale and others propitiate the god Shiva by the ceremony of Abhisheka (water sprinkling). [821] Some offer nails made of gold or silver to the goddess Shitala after the recovery of a child suffering from small pox. Eyes and other parts of the body made of gold and silver are also occasionally offered in fulfilment of vows. People abstain from eating certain things till the vows are fulfilled. [822]

Vows are made in times of difficulties and sorrow. The person afflicted with sorrow or misfortune prays to his favourite deity and promises to offer particular things or to perform special ceremonies, and fulfils his vows when his desired objects are attained. The ceremonies commonly observed for these purposes are the special pujás of Satya Náráyan and Satya Vináyak. Native Christians make their vows to their saints and Mot-Mávali (Mother Mary) in the taluka of Salsette. [823]

There is a shrine of the god Shankar at Kanakeshwar a village on the sea side two miles from Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District. Many years ago it so happened that a rich Mahomedan merchant was carrying his merchandise in a ship. The ship foundered in a storm at a distance of about two or three miles from Kanakeshwar. When the vessel, seemed to be on the point of sinking the merchant despairing of his life and goods, made a vow to erect a nice temple for the Hindu shrine of Kanakeshwar if he, his vessel and its cargo were saved. By the grace of God the vessel weathered the storm and he arrived safely in his country with the merchandise. In fulfilment of this vow he erected a good temple over the shrine of Shri Shankar at Kanakeshwar, which cost him about rupees six thousand. This temple is in good condition to the present day. Many such vows are made to special deities. When the people get their desired objects they attribute the success to the favour of the deity invoked, but when their expectations are not fulfilled they blame their fate and not the deity. [824]

In the Konkan districts there are some persons who practise black art of several kinds such as Chetak, Járan, Máran and Uchátan. Chetak is a kind of evil spirit brought from the temple of the goddess Italái of the Konkan districts. It is brought for a fixed or limited period, and an annual tribute is required to be paid to the goddess for the services.

Another kind of black art widely practised in the Konkan districts is known by the name of Muth márane. In this art the sorcerer prepares an image of wheat flour, and worships it with flowers, incense, etc. A lemon pierced with a number of pins is then placed before the image. The sorcerer begins to pour spoonfuls of water mixed with Jagri on the face of the image, and repeats certain mantras. Meanwhile, the lemon gradually disappears and goes to the person whose death it is intended to secure. The person aimed at receives a heavy blow in the chest and at once falls to the ground vomitting blood. Sometimes he is known to expire instantaneously. The charmed lemon, after completing its task returns to the sorcerer, who anxiously awaits its return, for it is believed that if the lemon fails to return some calamity or misfortune is sure to occur to him. For this reason the beginner desiring to be initiated into the mystery of this black art has to make the first trial of his mantras on a tree or a fowl.

Females are also initiated into the mysteries of Jádu or black art. Such women are required to go to the burning ground at midnight in a naked state, holding in their hands hearths containing burning coals. While on their way they untie their hair, and then begin the recital of their mantras. There they dig out the bones of buried corpses, bring them home, and preserve them for practising black art.

There is a sect of Hindus known as Sháktas who practise the black art. The Sháktas worship their goddess at night, make offerings of wine and flesh, and then feast thereon.

APPENDIX.

GLOSSARY OF VERNACULAR TERMS OCCURRING IN VOLUMES I AND II. [825]

A.

ABIL: A kind of incense.

ABIR: White scented powder.

ADÁCHH: Red cotton yarn.

ADÁD: Lentils.

ADAGHO BADAGHO: A ceremony performed to drive away insects.

ADHÁSUR: Name of a demon.

ADHIKAMÁS: Intercalary month.

ADI-NÁRÁYAN: A name of Vishnu.

ADO: Useless.

ADULSA: Name of a medicinal plant.

AGÁR: Excreta.

AGASTYA: Name of a sage; name of a constellation.

AGATHI: A tree, Sesbania Grandiflora.

AGATHIO: See Agathi.

AGHÁDA: Name of a plant.

AGHORI: A sect of Hindus.

AGIÁRI: Fire temple of the Pársis.

AGNI: Fire; the deity presiding over fire.

AGNICHAR: An order of evil spirits living in fire.

AGNIHOTRA: A perpetual sacred fire preserved in a hole in the ground for receiving and preserving consecrated fire.

AGNIHOTRI: One who keeps an Agnihotra.

AGNIKUNDA: A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space, on the surface, or a metal square-mouthed vessel, for receiving and preserving consecrated fire.

AGNI-SANSKÁR: The rite of setting fire to a corpse.

AGRI: Name of a caste or an individual of it.

AHALYA: The wife of the sage Gautam.

AHEVA NAVAMI: The ninth day of the dark half of Bhádrapad.

AHI: Name of a demon.

AHIR: A caste of shepherds.

AHUTI: A handful of rice, ghi, sesamum, etc., cast into fire, water, upon the ground etc., as an offering to the deities.

AIRÁVAT: Name of the elephant of Indra; the elephant presiding over the east.

AJA: A goat.

AJAMO: Lingusticum ajwaen.

AKÁSH: The sky.

AKÁSH-GANGA: The milky way.

AKHAND SAUBHÁGYA: Perpetual unwidowhood.

AKIK: A kind of stone.

AKHÁ TRIJ: The third day of the bright half of Vaishákh.

AKSHAYA TRITIYA: See Akhá Trij.

ALAWÁNA: A sort of shawl.

ALWANT: A spirit of a woman dying in childbirth or during menses.

ALU: An esculent vegetable.

ALUNDA: Name of a vow.

AMANI: A kind of tree.

AMAR: Immortal.

AMATHO: Useless.

AMATHO MÁMO: An order of ghosts.

AMÁVÁSYA: The last day of a month.

AMBA: Name of a goddess.

AMBIL: Conjee.

AMBO: Mango.

AMNÁYESHWAR: A name of the god Mahádev.

ANAGH: Name of a vow.

ANAGODHA: See Anagh.

ANANT CHATURDASHI: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Bhádrapad sacred to Vishnu.

ANDHÁRIO: An order of ghosts.

ANGIRAS: Name of a sage.

ANJALI: Palmful.

ANJAN: Soot used as collyrium.

ANJANI: Mother of Máruti.

ÁNJANI: A sore or mole on the eye-lid.

ANKADA: Name of a poisonous plant.

ANNADEVA: The god presiding over food.

ANNAKUTA: The eighth or tenth day of the bright half of Ashvin or the second day of the bright half of Kártik when sweets are offered to gods.

ANNAPURNA: The goddess presiding over food.

ANTARAL: Name of a deity.

ANTARAPAT: The piece of cloth which is held between the bride and bridegroom at the time of a Hindu wedding.

ANTYESHTI: Funeral rites.

ANURÁDHA: Name of a constellation.

ANUSHTHÁN: Performance of certain ceremonies and works in propitiation of a god.

APASMÁR: Epilepsy.

APSARA: Certain female divinities who reside in the sky and are the wives of the Gandharvas. They are sometimes represented as the common women of the gods.

APTA: Name of a tree.

ARANI: Elaeodendron glaucum.

ARATI: The ceremony of waving (around an idol, a guru, etc.,) a platter containing a burning lamp.

ARDHODAYA: Half-risen state of a heavenly body.

ARDRA: Name of a constellation.

ARGHYA: A respectful offering to a god or a venerable person consisting of various ingredients or of water only.

ARJUNA: The third of the five Pándava brothers.

ARUNDHATI: Wife of Vasishtha; name of a star.

ASARA: A water nymph.

ASAN: A prayer carpet.

ASHÁDH: The fourth month of the Deccani Hindu and the ninth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

ASHÁPURI: Name of a goddess.

ASHLESHA: Name of a constellation.

ASHO: A corrupted form of Ashvin.

ASHAPATI: Name of a mythological king.

ASHTABHÁRO: An order of ghosts.

ASHTADALA: Eight-cornered.

ASHTA-DIK-PÁLA: Protectors of the eight different directions.

ASHTAKA: A hymn consisting of eight verses.

ASHTAMAHÁDÁN: A gift consisting of eight kinds of articles.

ASHTÁVASU: A class of divine beings eight in number.

ASHVIN: The seventh month of the Deccani Hindu and the twelfth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

ASHVINI: Name of a constellation.

ASHVINI KUMÁR: The twin sons of the sun by his wife Sanjnya in the form of a mare. They are famous as heavenly physicians.

ASHWAMEDHA: Horse sacrifice.

ASHWATTHÁMA: The only son of Drona, the military preceptor of the Kauravas and Pándavas.

ASMÁNI: An order of ghosts.

ASO: A corrupted form of Ashvin.

ASOPALAVA: Name of a tree.

ASUR GATI: The path of the demons.

ATIT: A class of religious beggars.

ATLAS: A kind of cloth.

ATRI: Name of a sage.

ATYÁPÁTYA: Name of an out-door game played in the Deccan.

AVAD-MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

AVAGAT: An order of ghosts.

AVAGATI: Fallen condition.

AVALIA: A Muhammadan saint.

AVALA: Name of a tree.

AVATÁR: An incarnation of Vishnu.

AVI: An order of ghosts.

AVLI: Name of a tree.

AWDUMBAR: A tree, Ficus glomerata.

AWUTA: Wood bill.

AYAN: Name of a tree.

B.

BÁBARO: An order of ghosts.

BÁBHUL: Acacia arabica.

BÁBRIO: See Bábaro.

BÁBRO: See Bábaro.

BABRUVÁHAN: Name of a demon; a son of Arjuna.

BÁBUL: Acacia arabica.

BÁDHA: Impending evil.

BÁGHADA: Name of an evil spirit.

BÁGULBÁWA: Name of a goblin.

BAHIRI: Name of a goddess.

BAHIRI-SOMJAI: Name of a goddess.

BAHIROBA: Name of a minor deity.

BAHIROBÁCHE BHUT: An order of ghosts.

BÁJA: Dish.

BÁJALE: A wooden cot.

BÁJAT: A wooden stool.

BAJÁNIA: A cast of tumblers or an individual of it.

BAKA: Name of a demon; name of a sage.

BÁKLA: A small round flat cake of dry boiled beans.

BÁKLÁN: See Bákla.

BAKOR: Noise.

BÁLÁ TERASH: The 13th day of the dark half of Bhádrapad.

BALAD: An ox.

BALADI: An order of ghosts.

BALDEV: Name of the brother of Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

BALEV: The full moon day of Shrávana.

BALEVA: See Balev.

BALEVIÁN: A kind of worship.

BALI: Name of a mighty demon, the lord of the nether world or pátál; an oblation; a victim offered to any deity; name of a procession.

BALIDÁN: Offering of a victim.

BALLA: An order of ghosts.

BÁNÁSUR: Name of a demon.

BANDHÁI-JAVAN: Name of a cattle disease.

BANIA: A trader.

BÁPA: Name of a guardian spirit of fields.

BÁPDEV: See Bápa.

BARANESHWAR MAHÁDEV: A name of Mahádev.

BÁRAS: The twelfth day of the bright or dark half of a month.

BÁRVATIA: An outlaw.

BATÁSA: A kind of sweetmeat.

BATRISA: A man possessed of thirty-two accomplishments.

BATUK: Name of a minor deity.

BÁU: A word used to frighten children; a goblin.

BÁVA: A term of respectful compellation or mention for an ascetic or religious teacher.

BÁVAL: See Bábul.

BÁVO: See Báva.

BAYA: Name of a deity presiding over small-pox.

BÁWAN VIR: Name of a minor deity.

BECHRA MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

BEDA: Name of a tree.

BEL: Aegle Marmelos.

BEL-BHANDÁR: Leaves of the Aegle Marmelos and the turmeric powder that are kept on an idol.

BER: Jujube tree.

BERO: Deaf.

BETHI: An order of ghosts.

BHÁBHO: Worthless.

BHÁDARWA: See Bhádrapad.

BHÁDRAPAD: The sixth month of the Deccani Hindu and the eleventh month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

BHAGAT: An exorcist.

BHAGIRATH: Name of an ancient king of the solar dynasty who is said to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to the earth.

BHÁGVAT: Name of one of the eighteen puránas.

BHAGVATI: Name of a goddess.

BHAGWÁN: An epithet of Vishnu; of Shiva.

BHAGWATI: See Bhagvati.

BHAIRAV: A name of an inferior manifestation of Shiva.

BHAJAN: Repeating the name of a god as an act of worship; hymns or pieces or verses sung to a god.

BHAKTIMÁRGA: Path of devotion.

BHÁLU: An old female jackal.

BHANDÁRI: A caste of Hindus.

BHÁNG: Hemp water.

BHANGI: A scavenger; name of the caste of scavengers.

BHANGRA: A kind of tree.

BHARANAI: Name of a goddess.

BHARANI: Name of a constellation.

BHÁRANI: The process of charming.

BHARATA: Name of a brother of Ráma the seventh incarnation of Vishnu.

BHARVÁD: A caste of shepherds.

BHÁSIKA: An order of ghosts.

BHASMA: Holy ashes.

BHASMÁSUR: Name of a demon.

BHÁUBIJ: The second day of the bright half of Kártik.

BHAVÁI: Name of a stone deity.

BHÁVAKÁI: Name of a goddess.

BHAVÁNI: A name of the goddess Párvati.

BHÁVIN: A caste of female temple servants who are prostitutes by profession.

BHAWÁNI: See Bhaváni.

BHENSA: A he-buffalo.

BHENSÁSUR: A demon in the form of a he-buffalo.

BHIKHÁRI: A beggar.

BHIKHO: A beggar.

BHIL: A partly Hindu, partly animistic tribe.

BHIMA: The second of the five Pándava brothers.

BHIMA-AGIÁRAS: The eleventh day of the bright half of Jyeshtha.

BHIMASENA: See Bhima.

BHIMNÁTH MAHÁDEV: A name of Shiva.

BHIMNÁTH SHANKAR: A name of Shiva.

BHISHMA: Son of Shántanu and the river Ganges and grand-uncle of the Pándavas and Kauravas.

BHOGAVA: Village boundary.

BHOI: A caste of fishermen and palanquin-bearers.

BHOJAPATRA: A palm-leaf.

BHOLÁNÁTH: A name of Shiva.

BHONG RINGDI: Name of a poisonous plant.

BHOPALA: Gourd.

BHOPI: The person that officiates in the temples of village deities.

BHUCHAR: An order of ghosts hovering over the earth.

BHUNGA: A black bee.

BHUSHUNDAKÁK: Name of a sage.

BHUT: An evil spirit.

BHUTA: See Bhut.

BHUTA-DEVATA: A ghostly godling.

BHUTÁLI: A woman who can influence evil spirits to do harm to others.

BHUTE: Plural of Bhutya: See Bhutya.

BHUTIN: A female member of an order of devotees of the goddess Bhaváni.

BHUTNÁTH: Name of an evil spirit.

BHUTYA: A male member of an order of devotees of the goddess Bhaváni.

BHUVA: A male exorcist.

BHUVI: A female exorcist.

BIBHISHANA: Brother of Rávana, the demon king of Lanka or Ceylon.

BIJ: The second day of the bright or dark half of a month.

BIJAVRIKSHANYÁYA: The maxim of seed and shoot. The maxim takes its origin from the mutual relation of causation that exists between seed and shoot, and is applied to cases in which two objects stand to each other in the relation of both cause and effect.

BILÁDO: A cat.

BILI: See Bel.

BINDU: A drop.

BOCHO: A coward.

BODAN: A ceremony in which curds, milk, boiled rice, fried cakes, etc., are mixed up together and presented in oblation to the goddess Mahálakshmi by a company of at least five married women and one virgin.

BODO: Bald-headed.

BOL CHOTH: The fourth day of the dark half of Shrávan.

BORÁDI: The Jujube tree.

BOTERUN: A complete cessation of rain for seventy-two days.

BOWÁJI: See Báva.

BOW: See Báu.

BRAHMA GRAHA: Ghost of a Bráhman.

BRAHMA: The first god of the Hindu Trinity.

BRAHMABHOJ: A feast to Bráhmans.

BRAHMACHARYA: Celibacy.

BRAHMACHÁRI: One who has taken a vow to lead a celibate life.

BRAHMAHATYA: The murder of a Bráhman.

BRÁHMAN: The sacerdotal caste of Hindus or an individual of it.

BRÁHMANA-VARUNA: The appointment of duly authorised Bráhmans to perform religious ceremonies.

BRAHMARANDHRA: The aperture supposed to be at the crown of the head, through which the soul takes its flight on death.

BRAHMA RÁKSHASA: See Brahma Sambandh.

BRAHMA SAMBANDH: The ghost of a Bráhman that in his life time possessed high attainments, and a haughty spirit.

BRIHASPATI: Name of the preceptor of the gods.

BRUHANNADA: The name assumed by Arjuna when residing at the palace of Viráta.

BUDHA: Mercury.

BUDDHI: Name of a wife of Ganpati.

C.

CENDUR: Red lead.

CHÁDA: Rent.

CHAITANNADYA: An order of ghosts.

CHAITRA: The first month of the Deccani Hindu and the sixth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

CHAKLI: A sparrow.

CHÁK PADANE: Appearance of red pustules on the face supposed to be caused by the influence of an evil eye.

CHAKORA: A bird, Bartavelle Partridge.

CHÁLA: Name of a deity.

CHÁLEGHAT: An order of ghosts.

CHAMÁR: A caste of tanners.

CHAMPA: Michelia champaca.

CHAMPÁ-SHASHTI: The sixth day of the bright half of Márgashirsha.

CHAMPÁVATI: Name of a goddess.

CHANA: Gram.

CHANDA: Name of a kind of wind.

CHAND CHANI: An order of ghosts.

CHANDAN: Sandal wood.

CHANDIKA: Name of a goddess.

CHANDI KAVACH: A hymn in honour of the goddess Chandi or Durga.

CHANDIPÁTH: Recitation of a hymn in honour of the goddess Chandi or Durga.

CHANDKÁI: Name of a Goddess.

CHANDRA: The moon.

CHANDRAMANDAL: The disk of the moon; the lunar sphere.

CHÁNDRÁYAN VRAT: Name of a vow.

CHARAK: Excreta.

CHÁRAN: A caste of genealogists and bards.

CHARANÁMRIT: Water in which the feet of a spiritual guide have been washed.

CHARMARIA: Name of a snake deity.

CHARONTHI: A kind of flour.

CHASHA: The Blue jay.

CHAT: An image of darbha grass at Shráddha when the required Bráhman is not present.

CHATA SHRÁDDHA: A shráddha in which a chat represents a Bráhman.

CHÁTURMÁS: The period of four months commencing from the tenth day of the bright half of Ashádh and ending with the tenth day of the bright half of Kártik.

CHATURTHI: The fourth day of the bright or dark half of a month.

CHAURÁR: An order of ghosts.

CHEDA: Ghost of a person of the Kunbi or Shudra caste or an unmarried Mahár.

CHEDOBA: Name of a spirit deity.

CHELA: A disciple.

CHELAN: An oblation to a Máta or goddess.

CHETAK: A kind of black art.

CHETAKIN: A witch.

CHETUK: A spirit servant.

CHHAMACHHARI: Death anniversary.

CHHIPA: A caste of calico-printers.

CHHOGALA: Celebrated. Great.

CHHOGALO: With a tail.

CHILBIL: Notes of the Pingala bird.

CHILUM: A clay pipe.

CHINDHARO: Ragged.

CHIRANJIVA: Immortal.

CHITHI: A piece of paper on which mystic signs are drawn; an amulet.

CHITHARIA: Ragged.

CHITI: See Chithi.

CHITPÁVAN: A caste of Bráhmans also known as Konkanasth.

CHITRA: Name of a constellation.

CHOK: A square.

CHOLA: Dolichos Sinensio.

CHOLI: A bodice.

CHONGE: A kind of sweet.

CHORÁSI KÁNTINI: An order of ghosts.

CHORÁSI VIRU: An order of ghosts.

CHORAWA: A ceremony performed at the time of reaping.

CHOTH: The fourth day of the bright or dark half of a month.

CHUDBUDE JOSHI: A caste of fortune-tellers.

CHUDEL: An order of female ghosts.

CHUDELA: See Chudel.

CHUDI: A torch.

CHUDI PAURNIMA: The full-moon day of the month of Mágh.

CHUNADI: A kind of cloth worn by females.

CHUNTHO: Ragged.

CHUNVÁLIA KOLI: A tribe of Kolis.

CHURAMA: Sweet balls of wheat flour fried and soaked in ghi.

CHUTAKI: Snapping the thumb and finger.

COHAMPALO: Meddlesome.

D.

DÁDAMO: An order of ghosts.

DÁDAMOKHODIÁR: Name of a field deity.

DÁDH: A molar tooth.

DÁDH BÁNDHAVI: To deprive of the power of eating by a charm or spell.

DÁDO: An order of ghosts.

DÁKAN: A witch; an order of ghosts.

DÁKINI: See Dákan.

DÁKLA: A spirit instrument in the form of a small kettle-drum.

DAKSHA: A celebrated Prajápati born from the thumb of Brahma.

DAKSHA PRAJÁPATI: See Daksha.

DAKSHANA: A gift of money made to Bráhmans.

DÁL: Name of a sect of Hindus.

DALAP: A ceremony performed for the propitiation of the minor deities of the fields.

DÁLIA: Baked split gram.

DÁMANA: An amulet tied to the horns of a pet animal.

DAMPATYA: A married pair.

DÁNA: Corn seed.

DÁNDA: The bat at the game of trap-stick.

DÁNKLA: See Dákla.

DÁNKLA BESWÁN: The installation of a dánkla.

DÁNKLÁN: See Dákla.

DARBHA: A sacred grass; Cynodon Dactylon.

DARDURI: Name of a water nymph.

DARGA: A Muhammadan place of worship.

DARJI: A caste of tailors.

DASHA: Influence.

DARSHA SHRÁDDHA: A shráddha to the manes on every new moon day.

DASARA: The tenth day of the bright half of Kártik.

DASHARATHA: Son of Aja and father of Ráma.

DAS PINDA: The oblations collectively to the manes of a deceased ancestor which are offered daily from the first day of his decease until the tenth, or which are offered together on the tenth: also the rite.

DÁTAN: Wooden sticks for brushing the teeth.

DATTA: Name of a god.

DATTÁTRAYA: See Datta.

DÁV: An order of ghosts.

DEDAKO: A frog.

DEHARI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

DELAVADI DEVI: Name of a goddess.

DENDO: The croaking of a frog.

DEOPAN: Ceremonies and observances in propitiation of a god.

DESHASTHA: A caste of Bráhmans found in the Deccan.

DEVA: A god.

DEVACHÁR: Spirit of a Shudra who dies after his marriage.

DEVAHUTI: Name of the mother of the sage Kapil.

DEVAK: A term for the deity or deities worshipped at marriages, thread investitures etc.; a totem.

DEVAKI: Mother of Krishna.

DEVAL: A temple.

DEVAL RIGHANE: Entering into the service of the temple.

DEVALI: The male offspring of a Bhávin.

DEVALO: Not loved.

DEVARSHI: A dealer with gods and devils: one that summons, exorcises them, etc.

DEVA SARPA: A snake belonging to a deity.

DEVASKI: The annual ceremonies in honour of the tutelar divinity of a village.

DEVA YOSHITA: A woman offered to a god.

DEV DIVÁLI: The eleventh day of the bright half of Kártik.

DEVI: A goddess.

DEVIPANTH: A sect of the worshippers of the goddess Durga.

DHÁGA: An amulet made of a piece of cloth.

DHAL-JATRA: A ceremony performed at the time of harvest.

DHAMA: A name of Hanumán.

DHANA: Coriander.

DHANANJAYA: Name of a snake.

DHANA-TRAYODASHI: The thirteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin.

DHANGAR: A caste of shepherds.

DHANISHTHA: Name of a constellation.

DHANU: Sagittarius.

DHANURMÁS: The period during which the sun is in Sagittarius.

DHANU-SANKRÁNT: Transit or passage of the sun through Sagittarius.

DHÁRÁVÁDI: A stream of milk.

DHARMARÁJA: The god of death.

DHARMASHÁLA: A rest house.

DHARMASHÁSTRA: The code of body of Hindu law.

DHARMASINDHU: Name of a work treating of Hindu law.

DHED: An impure caste of Hindus.

DHEDVÁDA: The ward or place occupied by the Dhed caste.

DHINGO: Fat.

DHOBI: A caste of washermen.

DHOL: A drum.

DHOLIO: An order of ghosts.

DHONDILGAJYA: Name of a rite performed for securing rainfall.

DHORI: White.

DHOTAR: Waist cloth.

DHUL PÁDAVO: The first day of the dark half of Fálgun.

DHRUVA: The son of Uttánapáda. He was a great devotee of the god Vishnu. The solar star.

DHULETI: See Dhul Pádavo.

DHULWAD: See Dhul Pádavo. The day of throwing dust after the burning of the Holi.

DHUNDA: Name of a demon goddess.

DHUNDA RÁKSHASIN: See Dhunda.

DHUNDHUMARI: Name of a mythological personage.

DHUNI: The smoke-fire of an ascetic over which he sits inhaling the smoke.

DHUPA: Frankincense.

DIGAMBARA: Name of a goddess.

DIPO: Panther.

DISHA-SHUL: Pain caused by directions.

DIVÁLI: A festival with nocturnal illuminations, feastings, gambling, etc. held during the concluding day of Ashvin and the first and second day of Kártik.

DIVÁSA: The fifteenth day of the dark half of Ashádh.

DIWAD: A serpent of a large but harmless species.

DODKA: One hundredth part of a rupee.

DOKADO: A ball of molasses and sesamum seed cooked together.

DORA: Piece of a string; a magic thread.

DORLI: Solanum indicum.

DOSO: Old.

DRO: A kind of sacred grass.

DRONA: Son of Bháradvája, by birth a Bráhman but acquainted with military science which he received as a gift from Parashurám. He instructed the Kauravas and Pándavas in the use of arms.

DRUSTAMANI: A kind of black beads.

DUDHA: Milk.

DUDHPÁK: Rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar.

DUG-DUDIOON: See Dákla.

DUHITRA: Shráddha performed by a grandson to propitiate his maternal grandfather.

DUKÁL: Famine.

DUNDUBHI: A kettle-drum.

DUNGAR: A hill.

DURBÁR: The court of an Indian Chief.

DURGA: Name of a goddess.

DURGATI: Fallen condition.

DURVA: A kind of sacred grass.

DURYODHANA: The eldest of the Kaurava brothers.

DWIJA: A twice-born. A Bráhman, a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, whose investiture with the sacred thread constitutes, religiously and metaphorically a second birth.

DWITIYA: The second day of the bright or dark half of a month.

E.

EKÁDASHI: The eleventh day of the bright and dark halves of a month.

EKAL PER: Zizyphus jujuba.

EKÁNTARIO: Intermittent fever.

EKOTISHTA: The rites performed on the eleventh day after death.

ETALÁI: Name of a goddess.

F.

FÁG: A vulgar song.

FÁGAN: A corrupted form of Fálgun. See Fálgun.

FAKIR: A Muhammadan mendicant.

FAKIRI: Alms given to Fakirs in the Muharram.

FAKIRO: A beggar.

FÁLGUN: The twelfth month of the Deccani Hindu and the fifth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

FÁVADI: Name of a bird.

FIRANGÁI: Name of a goddess.

FUL: A flower.

FUL DOL: A festival in which coloured water is thrown.

G.

GADHEDA: A donkey.

GADHEDO: See Gadheda.

GADHERIMÁTA: Name of a goddess installed to protect a fortress or a street.

GAFAL: Stupid.

GAGANACHAR: An order of ghosts moving in the etherial regions.

GAGARBEDIUN: A piece of leather thong or a piece of black wood on which mystic spells have been cast.

GAJÁBÁI: Name of a goddess.

GAJACHHAYA: A festival--the day of the new moon of Bhádrapad the moon being in the Hasta constellation.

GALÁL: Red powder.

GANA: A troop of demigods considered as Shiva's attendants.

GANAGOR: Name of a vow.

GANDHARVA: A celestial musician; a class of demigods who are considered to be the singers of gods.

GÁNDIVA: Name of the bow of Arjuna.

GÁNDU: Name of a tree.

GANDH: Sandal paste.

GANESH CHATURTHI: The fourth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad celebrated as the birthday of Ganesh.

GANESHIO: A hook-shaped instrument used by thieves in boring holes through walls.

GANGA: The river Ganges.

GANGÁJAL: Water of the Ganges.

GANGIGOR: Name of a vow.

GÁNGLO: Stony.

GÁNGUD: An order of ghosts.

GÁNJA: Hemp flower.

GANPATI: The son of Shiva and Párvati. He is the deity of wisdom and the remover of difficulties and obstacles.

GANPATIPUJAN: The worship of Ganpati.

GÁNTHIA: A preparation of gram flour.

GAON-DEVI: Village goddess.

GARABI: A song in propitiation of a goddess.

GARBHÁDÁN: The marriage consummation ceremony.

GÁRHÁNE: Supplication to an idol.

GARUD: The eagle.

GARUD PURÁN: Name of a purán.

GÁTRÁD: Name of a goddess.

GAU: A measure of distance equal to 1 1/3 miles.

GAUTAM: Name of a sage.

GAVA: A wild ox.

GAVALI: A caste of herdsmen.

GAVATDEV: Name of a godling.

GAVATI: An order of ghosts.

GAYÁSUR: Name of a demon.

GÁYATRI: Name of a daughter of Brahma.

GÁYATRI MANTRA: A sacred verse from the Vedas held specially sacred and repeated by every Bráhman at his morning and evening devotion. The verse is in honour of the sun.

GÁYATRI PURASCHARAN: A form of devotion requiring the recitation of the Gáyatri mantra a hundred thousand times with certain symbolic ceremonies.

GÁYATRIPURASCHAVACHAN: See Gáyatripurascharan.

GEDI: A bat.

GEDI-DÁNDA: An outdoor game played by boys.

GERIA: A boy who takes an active part in the Holi festival.

GHÁDI: An exorcist. A caste of temple ministrants or an individual of it.

GHADI: A measure of time equal to twenty-four minutes.

GHADULO: A process for removing the effects of the evil eye.

GHÁNCHINI: An order of ghosts.

GHÁNDHARAVI: An order of ghosts.

GHÁNI: That quantity of oil seeds which is put in at one time to be crushed in an oil mill.

GHÁT: Steps on the side of a river or tank leading to the water.

GHATOTKACHA: Name of a demon.

GHELI: Mad.

GHELO: Mad.

GHELUN: Mad.

GHERÁYALA: Eclipsed.

GHETA: A sheep.

GHODO: A horse.

GHUGARI: Grain boiled whole, i.e., unsplit and unhusked.

GHUMAT: A sort of musical instrument--an earthen vessel, pitcher-form, covered over at the larger mouth with leather.

GHUNA: A mysterious watery pit.

GIDOTÁN: Name of a creeper.

GILLI-DÁNDA: A play amongst boys, trapstick.

GIRÁSIA: A Rajput landholder.

GIRHA: A water demon. Applied to Ráhu or to an eclipse in general, solar or lunar.

GIRI: An order or individual of it among Gosávis.

GOCHADI: Cattle or dog louse.

GODHO: A bull.

GOKARN: Name of a mythological king.

GOKHALO: A niche in the wall.

GOKUL: The name of the village at which Krishna was brought up.

GOKHARU: A species of thorns.

GOKUL-ASHTAMI: The eighth day of the dark half of Bhádrapad celebrated as the birthday of Krishna.

GOL: Molasses.

GOLÁBA: Name of a goddess.

GOLAMBÁDEVI: Name of a goddess.

GOMUKH: Mouth of a cow.

GONDARO: Place where the village cattle rest.

GONDHAL: A kind of religious dance.

GOOLVEL: A kind of creeper.

GOPÁLSANTÁN: Name of an incantation.

GOPRADÁN: Gift of a cow with its calf to a Bráhman.

GOR: A priest.

GORA: A black earthen vessel filled with curds.

GORADIA: A name of Hanumán.

GORÁIN: A married unwidowed woman.

GORAKHA: Name of a saint.

GORAKH CHINCH: A kind of tree.

GORJI: A preceptor.

GORAKHRÁJ: Name of a saint.

GOSÁVI: An ascetic.

GOTRA: A section of a caste having a common ancestor.

GOURI-PUJAN: The worship of the goddess Gouri, a festival observed only by women.

GOUTRAD: A vow in honour of the cow lasting from the eleventh day to the fifteenth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

GOUTRÁL: Name of a vow.

GOVARDHAN: A celebrated hill near Mathura. A large heap of cow dung or of rice, vegetables, etc. made on the first day of the bright half of Kártik in imitation of the mountain.

GOWALÁ-DEVA: Name of a deity connected with rain-fall.

GRAHA: A planet.

GRAHANA: An eclipse.

GRAHAN-PUJAN: The worship of the plough on the full-moon day of Shrávan.

GRAHA-SHÁNTI: A ceremony in propitiation of the planets.

GRÁMADEVATA: A village goddess.

GRÁMA-DEVI: A village goddess.

GRIHADEVATA: The deity which presides over the house.

GRISHMA-RITU: The summer.

GRIVA: Name of a deity.

GUDHI: A pole, wrapped around with a cloth, a mango sprig, etc., erected on the first day of the year before the house-door.

GUDHI-PÁDVA: The first day of the bright half of Chaitra, the new year's day of the Deccani Hindus.

GUHYAK: An order of semi-divine beings.

GULÁB: A rose.

GUGAL: Balsamodendron.

GUJAKALPA: Name of a medicinal preparation.

GULÁL: Red powder.

GUMPHA: A cave.

GUNDAR: Gum arabic.

GURAV: A caste of temple ministrants or an individual of it.

GURU: A religious preceptor; Jupiter.

GURU CHARITRA: Name of a sacred book.

H.

HADAL: Ghost of a woman who dies within ten days of childbirth or during menses.

HADALI: See Hadal.

HÁJ: A pilgrim.

HAJÁM: A caste of barbers or an individual of it.

HALÁHAL: A sort of deadly poison produced at the churning of the ocean.

HANSA: A goose.

HANUMÁN: Name of a deity in the form of a monkey. He was a great devotee of Ráma.

HANUMÁN-JAYANTI: The full-moon-day of chaitra celebrated as the birthday of Hanumán.

HAR: A name of Shiva.

HARDA: A garland of balls made of sugar.

HARDÁS: One who performs Kathás that is relates stories of Hindu deities to the accompaniment of music.

HARDE: Myrobalan.

HARI: A name of Vishnu.

HARISCHANDRA: Name of a mythological king.

HARITÁLIKA: The third day of the bright half of Bhádrapad on which images of Párvati made of earth are worshipped by women.

HARIVANSHA: Name of a purán.

HASTA: Name of a constellation.

HATHADI: An order of ghosts.

HÁTHI: An elephant.

HAVAN: A sacrificial offering.

HEDAMATIO: A name of Hanumán.

HEDAMBA: Name of a giantess.

HEDLI: An order of ghosts.

HEMANT-RITU: Winter.

HIDIMBA: Name of a giantess.

HIJADA: A eunuch.

HINGLÁJ: Name of a goddess.

HIRANYAKASHIPU: Name of a demon.

HIRANYAKASHYAPU: Name of a demon.

HIRANYÁKSHA: Name of a demon.

HIRWA: An order of ghosts.

HOL: Name of a goddess.

HOLI: A festival held at the approach of the vernal equinox. The pile arranged to be kindled at the festival.

HOLIA: A boy who takes an active part in the Holi celebrations.

HOLIKA: Name of a goddess.

HOLO: A species of birds.

HOMA: A sacrifice.

HOMAHAVAN: A formation expressing comprehensively or collectively, the several acts and points appertaining to oblation by fire: also any one indefinely of these acts and points.

HOW: Name of a demon.

HUMBAD: A caste of Vániás or an individual of it.

HUTÁSHANI: The pile arranged to be kindled at the festival of Holi.

I.

INA: An egg.

INÁM: A gift.

INDA: An egg-shaped vessel.

INDRA-DHANUSHYA: A rain-bow.

INDRAJIT: Name of a demon.

INDRAMAHOTSAVA: A festival celebrated in honour of the god Indra.

IRALE: A protection against rain made of the leaves of trees.

ISHTADEVATA: A chosen deity.

ITIDIO: A species of insects.

J.

JÁDI: Fat.

JADO: Fastened.

JÁDU: The black art.

JÁGRAN: The fifteenth day of the bright half of Ashádh.

JÁGRITI: Wakefulness.

JAIKHA: An order of ghosts.

JÁKHÁI: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKHANI: An order of semi-divine beings.

JAKHÁI-DEVI: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKHARA: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKHARO: An order of ghosts.

JÁKHIN: Spirit of a woman whose husband is alive.

JAKHMÁTA: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKRIN: Name of a deity residing in water.

JÁL: An order of ghosts; name of a tree.

JALACHAR: An order of evil spirits living in water.

JALADEVI: Water-goddess.

JALAJ: An order of ghosts.

JALA-JATRA: The ceremony of submerging the image of Shiva.

JALANDHAR: Name of a demon.

JALAP: A dream caused by cold.

JALDEVKI: Water-goddess.

JALOTSAVA: A water festival.

JAMBUVANT: One of the generals of Rama's army at the siege of Lanka or Ceylon.

JAMBUVANTI: The daughter of Jambuvant.

JAMI: An order of ghosts.

JÁN: An order of ghosts.

JANAK: A king of Mahila, the foster-father of Sita.

JÁNAWE: A sacred thread.

JANGAM: A Lingáyat priest.

JANHU: Name of a mythological king.

JANJIRO: A black cotton thread with seven knots.

JANMÁSHTAMI: The eighth day of the dark half of Shrávan celebrated as the birth-day of Krishna.

JANMA-SUWÁSINI: A woman who is perpetually unwidowed.

JANNI: Name of a minor goddess.

JANTRA: A mystical arrangement of words.

JAP: Repeating prayers in a muttering manner.

JAP-MÁL: A rosary.

JÁRAN: A kind of black art.

JARÁSANDH: Name of a demon.

JARI: Name of a goddess.

JARI-MARI: A goddess presiding over an epidemic or pestilential disease.

JATA: Matted hair.

JATRA: A fair.

JATUPI: Name of a sage.

JAVA: Barley.

JAVÁLA: Tender wheat plants.

JETHA: The eighth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

JHAPAT: A sudden encounter.

JHOLÁI: Name of a goddess.

JIMP: An order of ghosts.

JINNI: An order of ghosts.

JINO: Small.

JINTHRO: Rugged.

JIREN: Cumin-seed.

JIVADHANI: Name of a goddess.

JIVI: Live.

JIVO: Live.

JOGÁI: Name of a goddess.

JOGANI: A female harpie.

JOGATA: A male child offered to the goddess Yallamma.

JOGATIN: A female child offered to the goddess Yallamma.

JOGAVA: Begging in the name of the goddess Amba.

JOGI: A male child offered to the goddess Máyáka.

JOGIN: A female child offered to the goddess Máyáka.

JUÁRI: A kind of corn.

JULEBI: A kind of sweet.

JUTHI: False.

JUVÁRI: A kind of corn.

JYESHTHA: The third month of the Deccani Hindu and the eighth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year. Name of a constellation.

JYOTISH-SHÁSTRA: The science of astronomy.

K.

KABAR: A tomb raised over the grave of a Muhammadan saint.

KABIR: Name of a celebrated saint.

KACHA: The son of Brihaspati, the preceptor of gods.

KACHAKADA: A kind of bead.

KACHARO: Refuse.

KACHBI: Rainbow.

KÁCHHIA: A caste of vegetable sellers.

KADADAN: Legumes.

KADALIPUJAN: Plantain tree worship.

KADAMB: Anthocephalus cadamba.

KADVI: Bitter.

KADAVO: Bitter.

KADULIMB: Melia Azadirachta.

KÁFRI: An order of ghosts.

KÁGDO: A crow.

KÁGRÁSHIA: An expounder of the utterances of crows.

KÁGVA: Cooked food offered to the manes.

KAITABHA: Name of a demon.

KÁJAL: Collyrium.

KÁJRA: A kind of tree.

KAKADI: A cucumber.

KÁKBHUSHUNDI: Name of a sage.

KALASH: A jar.

KALASHI: A weight of corn.

KÁLANEMI: Name of a demon.

KALASIO: A bowl.

KÁLI: Name of a goddess.

KÁLIKA: Name of a goddess.

KÁLKÁICHE BHUT: An order of ghosts.

KÁLI CHAUDAS: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin.

KALINGI: Daughter of the king of the Kalingas.

KÁLI PARAJ: A name applied collectively to the aboriginal tribes of Gujarát.

KÁLIYA NÁG: Name of a mythological snake.

KÁLI YUGA: The fourth age of the world according to the Hindu scriptures.

KÁLO: Black.

KÁLO VA: Name of a cattle disease.

KALPAVRIKSHA: A fabulous tree granting all desires.

KÁL BHAIRAV: A name of Mahádev.

KÁL PURUSHA: The god of death.

KÁLUBÁI: Name of a minor goddess.

KALYÁN: Welfare.

KÁMA DHENU: A heavenly cow granting all desires.

KAMALA HOLI: The fourteenth day of the bright half of Fálgun.

KÁMAN: A kind of black art of bewitching a person.

KAMANDALU: A gourd.

KÁMDEV MAHÁDEV: A name of Mahádev.

KAMOD: A kind of rice.

KANAKNÁTH: A name of Mahádev.

KANKOTRI: Red powder.

KÁNOBA: Name of a minor deity.

KANSA: King of Mathura, maternal uncle of Krishna.

KANSÁR: Coarse wheat flour cooked in water or ghi and sweetened with molasses or sugar.

KANYA: A girl; Virgo.

KAPHAN: The cloth in which a corpse is wrapped.

KAPIL: Name of a sage.

KAPILÁSHASTHI: A day on which synchronize six particulars--the day, Tuesday; the month, Bhádrapad; the date, the sixth of the dark fortnight; the Nakshatra, Rohini; the Yog, Vyatipát; the Mahánakshatra, Hasti.

KAPILASHETE: See Kapiláshasthi.

KARAN: A kind of tree.

KARHÁDA: A caste of Bráhmans found in the Deccan.

KARKA: Cancer.

KARKATA: Name of a water nymph.

KARKATI: See Karkata.

KARKOTAK: Name of a snake.

KARMAMÁRGA: The path of action.

KÁRTIK: The eighth month of the Deccani Hindu and the first month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

KÁRTIKEY: Son of Shiva, the commander of the army of the gods.

KÁSADA: A kind of sacred grass.

KASÁI: A butcher.

KASATIA: Name of a god.

KASATIA-GÁNTH: Tying the knot of Kasatia, a vow observed in the name of the god Kasatia.

KÁSHI: Benares.

KÁTHAWATI: Name of a tribe.

KATHEKARI: A narrator of the legends of the gods.

KÁTHI: Name of a tribe.

KÁTKARI: Name of a tribe.

KÁTLÁN: A kind of medicinal preparation.

KATYÁR: A dagger.

KAUL: The rice, betelnuts, etc., stuck upon an idol when it is consulted.

KAUL GHÁLNE: To consult a deity by kaul.

KAURAVA: The patronymic of the descendants of Kuru, but usually applied to the sons of Dhritaráshtra.

KAUSTUBHA: Name of a celebrated gem obtained at the churning of the ocean and worn by Vishnu.

KAVANESHWAR: A name of Mahádev.

KÁYA: Body.

KEDÁR: Name of a deity.

KERÁDO: A kind of tree.

KESHAR: Saffron.

KESHAVA: A name of Krishna.

KETU: In astronomy, the ninth of the planets; in mythology, a demon.

KHABITH: An order of ghosts.

KHAD-KHADYA-BESÁDVI: A ceremony performed by exorcists to propitiate their favourite goddesses.

KHADI: Red or green earth.

KHAGACHAR: An order of ghosts roaming in the sky.

KHAIR: Acacia catechu.

KHAIS: A species of water spirits.

KHAJÁDA PANTH: A sect of Hindus.

KHÁKHARA: A kind of tree.

KHÁKHI: A sect of Hindus.

KHAL: The passage in the Shivalinga (phallus of Shiva).

KHANA: A bodice cloth.

KHÁNDE PUJAN: Worship of arms.

KHANDERÁI: A name of the deity Khandoba.

KHANDOBA: Name of a deity.

KHANJIR: A dagger.

KHÁPARI: A kind of cattle disease.

KHÁPRYA: An order of ghosts.

KHÁRAVA: A disease of cattle in which the hoofs are affected.

KHÁRVA: A caste of fishermen and sailors or an individual of it.

KHÁRVI: See Khárva.

KHÁTALE: A cot.

KHATRI: A caste of weavers.

KHAVÁS: A caste of Hindus.

KHAVIS: An order of ghosts.

KHETALO: Name of a snake deity.

KHETRVA: A field.

KHEM: An order of ghosts.

KHICHADI: A preparation of rice and pulse cooked together.

KHIJADIO: The Shami tree, Prosopis spicigera.

KHIJADO: See Khijadio.

KHIJADO MÁMO: An order of ghosts.

KHILI: A peg.

KHIR: Rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar.

KHIT KHIT: Notes of the Pingla bird.

KHODIÁR MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

KHODO: Lame.

KHODO MÁMO: Name of a minor deity.

KHOJA: A class of Musalmáns.

KHOKHO: An outdoor game played in the Deccan.

KHUNTINI: An order of ghosts.

KIDI: An ant.

KILBIL: Notes of the Pingla bird.

KINKHÁB: Silk worked with gold and silver flowers, brocade.

KINNARI: An order of semi-divine beings.

KIRÁTA: A fisherman.

KISHORDÁS: A name of Hanumán.

KODRA: Punctured millet.

KOHALA: Pumpkin.

KOKÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOKIL: A cuckoo.

KOKILA VRATA: The festival of cuckoos which is held in the month of Ashádh after a lapse of twenty years.

KOLAMBÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOLHÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOLI: A primitive tribe of Hindus common in the Bombay Presidency.

KOLO: A jackal.

KOLKÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOLU: Cucurbita maxima.

KONDI: A kind of earthen pot.

KONDURI: A preparation of mutton.

KORI: A new garment; an unused earthen jar; a small silver coin.

KOTHALI: Reticule.

KOTWÁL: Name of an untouchable caste of Hindus.

KOYATA: A wood bill.

KRISHNA: The eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

KRITIKA: Name of a constellation.

KRIYA BHAUDÁI: Name of a deity.

KSHATRIYA: The warrior class, the second of the fourfold divisions of Manu.

KSHETRA: A holy place.

KSHETRAPÁL: The guardian spirit of fields; a kind of stone.

KUBER: The lord of wealth, the regent of the north and the king of the Yakshas and Kinnaras.

KUKAD VEL: A kind of creeper.

KUL: A totem; a clan.

KULA-DEVATA: Family deity.

KULA-DEVI: Family goddess.

KULADHARMA: A special worship of the family god or goddess of each family.

KULATHI: A kind of corn.

KULERA: A mixture of wheat, oat or rice flour, clarified butter and sugar or molasses.

KULKARNI: A village accountant.

KUMBHA: Aquarius.

KUMBHAKARN: Name of a demon.

KUMBHÁR: A caste of potters.

KUMBHÁRAN: A woman of the Kumbhár caste.

KUMBHAVA: Name of a cattle disease.

KUMBHAVIVÁHA: Marriage with an earthen jar.

KUNBI: A cultivator.

KUND: A pond; a pit; a sacred pool.

KUNDALAN: A kind of magic circle.

KUNDALI: An astrological diagram of the position of planets at any particular time.

KUNDALIA: A name of Hanumán.

KUNDI: A shoe-maker's earthen pot.

KUNKU: Red powder.

KUNTI: The first wife of Pandu.

KUPOTSARGA: Digging a well for the benefit of the public--and abandoning one's right of ownership over it.

KURANANDI: Wheat flour lumps used in the ceremony of the Bodan.

KURI: An implement for sowing corn.

KURMI: Name of a water nymph.

KURUKSHETRA: The extensive plain near Delhi, the scene of the great battle between the Kauravas and Pándavas.

KUSHMÁND: An order of demi-gods.

KUSUMBA: The dye prepared from the dried flowers of the Kusumba (Carthamus tinctorius).

KUTRO: A dog.

L.

LÁDU: A sweet ball.

LAGHURUDRA: A rite in honour of the god Shiva.

LÁHYA: Parched rice.

LAKSHACHANDI: A recitation in honour of the goddess Párvati.

LAKSHAMANA: Brother of Ráma.

LAKSHMI: The goddess of wealth.

LÁLA HARDEV: Name of a minor local deity.

LÁLO: Name of a field deity.

LÁLO BHAGAT: Name of a saint.

LÁMANDIVO: An iron lamp.

LAMLAN: A branch of black magic.

LANKA: Ceylon.

LÁPSI: Coarse wheat flour fried in ghi and sweetened with molasses or sugar.

LAVENG: Clove.

LÁVANI: A kind of ballad: plantation.

LÁWANI: Plantation.

LÁVO: A Parasite.

LÁVSANT: A ghost of a widow.

LIMDO: A tree, Alantas excelsa.

LIMBO: Poisonous.

LINGA: Phallus.

LINGAM: See Linga.

LINGÁYAT: An individual of the Lingáyat religion whose chief object of worship is Shiva.

LOBÁN: Olibanum.

LOBHÁN: Incense powder.

LOTA: A water pot.

LUVÁNA: A caste of traders.

LUXMI: See Lakshmi.

M.

MACHCHENDRA NÁTH: Name of a saint.

MACHHI: Name of a water nymph.

MÁCHHO: Name of a goddess.

MACHHU: See Máchho.

MADALIUN: A hollow bracelet.

MADAN: Cupid.

MADHAVI: A village headman.

MADHU: Name of a demon.

MADHU PAVANTI: An order of ghosts.

MADHWÁCHÁRYA: Name of a great saint who founded a sect of Vaishnavism.

MAFAT: Useless.

MAFATIO: Useless.

MAG: A grain, Phaseolus mungo.

MÁGH: The eleventh month of the Deccani Hindu and the fourth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

MAGHA: Name of a constellation.

MAGHALO: A lamp of mud covered with leaves to represent the god of rain.

MAHÁBHÁRAT: Name of an epic of the Hindus.

MAHÁDEVA: A name of Shiva.

MAHA GIRA: Name of a minor deity.

MAHÁKÁLI: Name of a goddess.

MAHÁKÁLI NIRVÁN TANTRA: Name of a work on Tantric philosophy.

MAHÁLAKSHMI: Name of a goddess; Name of a ceremony in which the goddess is worshipped on the eighth day of the bright half of Ashvin.

MAHÁLAYA SHRÁDDHA: A shráddha performed in the dark half of Bhádrapad in propitiation of ancestors.

MAHÁMÁRI: Cholera goddess.

MAHANT: A saint.

MAHÁPURUSH: An order of civil spirits.

MAHÁR: An unclean caste of Hindus.

MAHÁR PURUSHA: A kind of stone.

MAHÁRÁJA: A term of respectful compellation applied to kings, religious heads, saints, etc.

MAHÁRÁKSHASA: A class of demons.

MAHÁRUDRA: A sacrifice in honour of Shiva.

MAHÁRAURAVA: A kind of hell.

MAHÁSHIVARÁTRI: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Mágh, a fast day in honour of Shiva.

MAHÁTMA: A saint.

MAHÁTMYA: Greatness.

MAHESHA: A name of Shiva.

MAHESHVAR: A name of Shiva.

MAHI: Name of a demon.

MAHIKÁWATI: Name of a goddess.

MAHODAYA: Name of a festival.

MAIDAN: A plain.

MAKARA: Capricornus.

MAKARI: Name of a water nymph.

MAKHAR: A gaily dressed up wooden frame.

MAKI: Maize.

MÁLÁR: A musical mode.

MALHÁRI: A name of Kandoba.

MALI: Red lead.

MÁLI: A caste of gardeners or an individual of it.

MALINDA: A sweet preparation of wheat flour fried in ghi.

MALIN: Unclean.

MALLÁRI: A name of Khandoba.

MÁLO: A bower.

MAMIKULA: An order of ghosts.

MÁMO: An order of ghosts; a maternal uncle.

MANAYA: Name of a deity.

MANDAL: A group.

MANDALU: A circle.

MANDAN MISHRA: Name of an ancient scholar.

MANDAP: A bower.

MÁNDA BHARANE: Filling in a magic circle as a protection from spirits.

MÁNEK-STAMBHA: The auspicious post of the marriage bower.

MÁNG: An unclean caste of the Hindus.

MÁNGÁI: Name of a goddess.

MANGAL: Mars.

MANGALÁ-GOURI: A ceremony performed by married girls for five successive years on every Tuesday of the month of Shrávan.

MANGALÁRATI: Moving a lighted lamp round an idol.

MANGALSUTRA: The lucky thread worn by married women.

MANI: A jewel; name of a deity.

MANIDHAR: A snake.

MANI MALLA: Name of a demon.

MÁNKARI: The person entitled to certain honours and presents at village assemblies.

MANKODA: A black ant.

MÁNSA KHAVANTI: An order of ghosts.

MANTRA: An incantation; a magic spell.

MANTRA-SHÁSTRA: The science of incantations.

MANTRI: An exorcist.

MÁNTRIK: An exorcist.

MANUSHYACHAR: An order of ghosts moving among men.

MÁRAN: A branch of black magic.

MÁRGA: A path; course.

MARGÁI: Name of a goddess.

MÁRGASHIRSHA: The ninth month of the Deccani Hindu and the second month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

MARGI: A sect of Hindus.

MARGI PANTHI: A follower of the Margi sect.

MARI: Name of a goddess.

MARICHI: Name of a sage.

MARIYUN: A ceremony for driving away insects.

MARVO: Marjoram.

MASUR: Lentil.

MASIDA: An order of ghosts.

MÁTA: A goddess.

MÁTÁJI: See Máta.

MÁTA ASHTAMI: The eighth day of the navarátra.

MÁTARI: Name of a goddess.

MATH: A monastery.

MÁTHBHÁJI: A kind of green vegetable.

MÁTI: Earth.

MÁTRIKA: A mother; an order of semi-divine beings.

MÁULI: Name of a goddess.

MAUNYA VRATA: A vow of silence.

MÁVADI: Ghost of a woman dying with certain desires unfulfilled.

MÁYA: Illusion.

MÁYÁKA: Name of a goddess.

MEDA: Marrow.

MEDINI: The earth.

MEGH: A cloud.

MEGHARÁJA: The god of rains.

MEGHLADDU: A sweet ball of wheat flour fried in ghi.

MEHULO: See Maghalo.

MEKAIL: Name of an angel.

MELADI: An order of ghosts.

MELDI: See Meladi.

MELI VIDYA: Sacrilegious art.

MENA: A kind of bird.

MERU: Name of a mythological mountain.

MESHA: Aries.

MHÁLSA: Name of a goddess.

MHÁRJÁI: Name of a goddess.

MHARLOBA: Name of a deity.

MHASHYA: A species of water spirits.

MHASOBA: Name of a village deity; lord of ghosts.

MIANA: A class of Musalmáns.

MINA: Pisces.

MINDHAL: A kind of fruit.

MIRI: Particle.

MITHUN: Gemini.

MIYALI: An order of ghosts.

MOBHARA: A hollow stone used for threshing corn.

MOCHI: A caste of shoe-makers.

MOCHINI: An order of ghosts.

MOGRI: Rat-tailed raddish.

MOHAN: A branch of black magic.

MOHINI: A fascinating woman.

MOHARO: The stone found in the head of the snake.

MOHOR: See Moharo.

MOKSHA: Salvation.

MOLANI: An order of ghosts.

MOTÁKAT: Name of a vow.

MOR: A peacock.

MORIA: An earthen bowl.

MOT MÁVALI: Mother Mary.

MOTUDUKH: A kind of cattle disease.

MOVA KHARAVA: Name of a cattle disease.

MRIG: A deer; name of a constellation.

MRIGÁNKA: The moon.

MRIGA TONCHANA: The moon.

MRITYUNJAYA: Name of an incantation.

MUCHKUND: Name of a sage.

MUJÁVAR: A sweeper of a mosque devoutly or piously fixed to it.

MUKTI: Salvation.

MUL: Name of a star.

MULO: Raddish.

MUNDA: A kind of wind.

MUNGESHWAR MAHÁDEV: A name of Shiva.

MUNGI MÁTA: Name of a goddess; dumb mother.

MUNJA: Spirit of Bráhman boy who dies immediately after his thread ceremony.

MURALI: A flute.

MURDUNGA: Tabour.

MURLI: See Murali.

MUSAL: A rice pounder.

MUTH: The fist.

MUTH MÁRANE: Throwing of a handful of rice over which incantations have been repeated; sending a bewitched lemon to a person to whom a disease is to be transferred or who is to be killed.

MUVA-KESHIBI: A kind of cattle disease.

N.

NÁCHANI: A kind of grain.

NÁDÁPUDI: A coloured cord with a small parcel containing incense, red powder, etc.

NÁDÁSÁDI: A cord and a robe.

NÁG: A snake; a species of semi-divine beings half men half serpents in form.

NÁGA: See Nág.

NÁGABALI: A propitiatory offering to snakes.

NÁGAR: A caste of Bráhmans found in Gujarát.

NÁGCHÁMFA: A flower tree, Alpinia mutans.

NÁGDEV: The snake god.

NÁGKANYA: A snake girl.

NÁG KESAR: Messua Ferrea.

NÁGMAGA: A class of beggars who worship the snake.

NÁGNÁTH: Name of a snake deity.

NÁG PANCHAMI: The fifth day of the bright half Shrávan, a holiday in honour of the snake deity.

NÁGO: Shameless.

NÁGOBA: The snake deity.

NÁGVEL: A kind of creeper.

NAIVEDYA: An offering of some eatable to an idol.

NAKSHATRA: A star; a constellation.

NALA: Name of a mythological king.

NÁLPIR: Name of a pir or Mahomedan saint.

NÁL SÁHEB: A familiar name for the bearer, in the Muharam, of the Tabut-pole which terminates at the top in a nál or horse-shoe member.

NAMAN: Oil poured over the image of Hanumán.

NAMASKÁR: Reverential or respectful address or salutation.

NANDA: the adoptive father of Krishna.

NANDARÁJ: Name of a mythological king.

NANDI: A bull.

NÁNDI SHRÁDDHA: A Shráddha to the manes, preliminary to any joyous occasion.

NÁNO: Small.

NAO NARASING: An order of ghosts.

NARA: Name of a sage.

NÁRAD MUNI: Name of a divine sage.

NARAK: Hell.

NARAK-CHATURDASHI: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin.

NÁRALI PAURNIMA: The cocoanut holiday, the fifteenth day of the bright half of Shrávan.

NARASIMHA: An incarnation of Vishnu in the form of half lion half man.

NÁRÁYAN: Name of a sage.

NÁRÁYANA BALI: A sacrifice in propitiation of evil spirits.

NÁRÁYAN KAVACH: A hymn in honour of Vishnu.

NÁRÁYAN NÁGABALI: A kind of offering.

NÁREL-PURNIMA: See Nárali Paurnima.

NARGUDIKALPA: A kind of medicinal preparation.

NARKYA UDA: A kind of incense.

NARSINHA: See Narasimha.

NARSINHA MEHTA: a celebrated saint of Gujarát.

NÁTAK: A drama.

NATHU: Tied.

NAVACHANDI: Name of a sacrifice.

NAVAGRAHA: The nine planets.

NAVAGRAHASHÁNTI: A ceremony in propitiation of the nine planets.

NAVAKÁDÁN: Gift of a ship.

NAVALÁ-DEVI: Name of a goddess.

NAVAMUTHIUM: A preparation of nine handfuls of wheat.

NAVARÁTRA: The first nine days of the month of Ashvin held sacred to Durga.

NAVATERI: A game of nine and thirteen.

NEHADO: A hamlet of Bharváds or shepherds.

NIAR: A kind of rice grown without ploughing.

NILOTSARGA: A kind of Shráddha.

NILOTSAVA: See Nilparván.

NILPARVÁN: A ceremony in propitiation of the spirits of deceased ancestors.

NIRGUDI: A kind of plant.

NIRMALA: Name of a goddess.

NOL VEL: A kind of creeper.

NRISINHA MANTRA: An incantation in honour of Nrisinha.

NYÁSA: Gesture.

O.

OGHAD: A fool.

OKARINU: Vomitting; a kind of sheep disease.

OLO: A species of birds.

OMKÁR MANDHÁTA: Name of a god.

P.

PÁDO: A he-buffalo.

PÁDUKA: Impressions of feet on stones.

PADVAL: Snake-gourd.

PADWAL: See Padval.

PAJUSAN: A holiday of Jains.

PALAS: A tree, Butea frondosa.

PALEJATRA: A ceremony performed at the sowing season.

PALE MARAD: An order of ghosts.

PÁLIO: A pillar. A tomb erected on the grave of a person who dies on a field of battle.

PALUS: See palas.

PÁN: A betel leaf.

PANCHAK: Grouping of constellations lasting for five days.

PANCHÁKSHARI: An exorcist.

PANCHÁMRITA: A mixture of milk, curds, sugar, ghi and honey.

PANCHARATNA: Five kinds of precious things, viz., gold, silver, copper, coral and pearls.

PANCHÁYATAN: The five deities, Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganpati and Devi.

PANCH-DEVA: See Pancháyatan.

PANCHGAVYA: A mixture of the five products of the cow.

PANCHOPACHÁR: The presenting in oblation to an idol of five articles.

PÁNDAVA: A term applied to the five sons of Pandu.

PANDHAR: Name of a goddess.

PANDIT: A scholar.

PÁNDHRI: A kind of tree.

PÁNGALÁ-DEVI: Name of a goddess.

PANOTI: Certain peculiar conjunctions of planets; name of a goddess.

PÁPAD: Wafer biscuits.

PARADI: A disease-scaring basket; a basket.

PARAKÁYÁPRAVESH: Entering the body of another.

PARASHU: An axe.

PARDESHI: A term applied to men from Upper India, usually low caste.

PARJANYA: Rain.

PARJANYA-SHÁNTI: A ceremony performed to secure rainfall.

PARMÁR: A clan of Rajputs.

PÁRO: A kind of stone.

PÁRSHAD VAIKUNTHA: Name of a heavenly region.

PÁRTHISHWAR: Lord of the earth; a god.

PÁRVATI: The consort of Shiva.

PARWANI: A festival.

PASHUCHAR: An order of ghosts moving among beasts.

PASHUPATÁKA: A weapon of Shiva.

PASTANA: The being disposed for use--vessels, etc. for idol worship.

PÁT: A low wooden stool; marriage with a widow.

PÁTÁL: The nether world.

PÁTHA: Recitation.

PÁTIL: A village headman.

PATIT-PÁVAN: Purifier of the fallen.

PATKA: A head scarf.

PÁTLA: A low wooden stool.

PÁT LÁVANE: To marry a widow.

PAURÁNIC: As prescribed in the puránas.

PAUSH: The tenth month of the Deccani Hindu and the third month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

PÁVAIYA: A sect of goddess worshippers.

PÁVTE: A kind of grain.

PEDHE: A kind of sweets.

PEDI: A small heap or lápsi.

PEESA: An order of ghosts.

PENDA: A kind of sweets.

PETTOD: A kind of cattle disease.

PHÁLGUN: The twelfth month of the Deccani Hindu and the fifth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

PHANAS: The jack fruit.

PIDHÁN ÁRATI: The ceremony of substituting night ornaments on an idol for the costly ornaments of the day.

PILUDI: A kind of tree.

PIND: A rice ball.

PINDA: See Pind.

PINGLA: A species of birds.

PINJAR: Red powder.

PIPAL: A tree, Ficus religiosa.

PIPALESHWAR MAHÁDEV: A name of Shiva.

PIR: A Muhammadan name for a saint.

PIRAS PIPALO: Thespesia populwa.

PISHÁCHA: An evil spirit.

PITAR: A spirit of a deceased ancestor.

PITHI: Turmeric powder.

PITPÁPDO: Glossocardi Boswellia.

PITRA: Manes.

PITRI: An ancestral spirit.

PITRI SHRÁDDHA: A Shráddha in propitiation of the ancestral spirits.

PITRRIYA: A deceased ancestor.

PITRU PAKSHA: Manes' fortnight, the dark half of the month of Bhádrapad.

POHOR: A measure of time equal to three hours.

POLIO: Hollow.

POLO: Hollow.

PONDHAR: Name of a goddess.

POPAT: A parrot.

POSHI: A class of chudels, an order of ghosts.

POTHIA: An exorcist; the bull of Shiva.

POTHIO: A bull.

PRÁCHETAS: A patronymic of Manu.

PRADAKSHINA: Circumambulation.

PRADOSHA: The thirteenth day of the dark half of a month.

PRALHÁD: The son of the demon Hiranyakashipu. He was a great devotee of Vishnu.

PRALAMBÁSUR: Name of a demon.

PRÁNA: Life.

PRÁNA-POKA: Death wail.

PRASÁD: Consecrated food.

PRASTHÁNA: See Pastana.

PRATÁB: An order of ghosts.

PRÁYASCHITTA: Penance.

PRAYOGA: Performance; experiment.

PRETA: A goblin; spirit of a person dying a sudden or accidental death.

PUDINA: Mentha Sativa.

PUJA: Worship.

PUJÁRI: A worshipper.

PUJYA: Deserving to be worshipped.

PULAP: Name of a sage.

PULASTYA: Name of a sage.

PUNARVASU: Name of a constellation.

PUNDARIK: Name of a mythological snake.

PUNEMA: The full moon day of a month.

PUNJI: Refuse.

PUNJO: Refuse.

PUNYÁHA WACHAN: A particular ceremony performed on festive occasions.

PUNYA STHÁNA: A holy place.

PUNYA TITHI: The death anniversary of a Sanyási or saint.

PURÁN: The name of a certain class of sacred books ascribed to Vyása and containing the whole body of Hindu mythology.

PURBHAYA: A term applied to persons from Upper India.

PURNÁHUTI: An offering into the fire of a handful of rice, ghi, cocoanuts and some other articles.

PURNIMA: See Paurnima.

PURNA TITHI: A complete day.

PURUSHOTTAM: Intercalary month.

PURVÁBHÁDRAPADA: Name of a constellation.

PURVÁ-FÁLGUNI: Name of a constellation.

PURVAJA: An ancestor.

PURVÁSHÁDHA: Name of a constellation.

PUSHKAR: Name of a snake.

PUSHYA: Name of a constellation.

R.

RABÁRI: A caste of shepherds.

RÁDHA: A man dressed in woman's clothes as a dancer; name of a sweetheart of Krishna.

RADIO: Crying.

RÁFDA: A kind of jujube tree.

RAGATIO: An order of ghosts.

RÁHU: A demon with the tail of a dragon whose head was severed from his body by Vishnu. The head and tail, retaining their separate existence, were transferred to the planetary heavens, and became, the first, the eighth planet, and the second (Ketu) the ninth.

RAINÁDEVI: Name of a goddess.

RÁJÁH: A king.

RÁJAYAJNA: A kind of sacrifice.

RÁJBÁI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

RÁJBHOG ARATI: The ceremony of offering dainties and cooked food to the gods.

RAJPUTÁNI: Wife of a Rajput; a Rajput woman.

RÁKHADI: A piece of silk thread.

RAKHEVÁLIO: An order of ghosts.

RÁKSHASA: A demon.

RÁLA: Panic seed.

RÁLE: Panic seed.

RAMALASHÁSTRA: The science of divining by means of figures or lines and dice.

RÁMANAVAMI: The ninth day of the bright half of Chaitra celebrated as the birth day of Ráma.

RÁMÁNUJA: Name of a great saint and philosopher who founded a sect of Vaishnavism.

RÁMÁYANA: An epic poem by Válmiki describing the exploits and adventures of Ráma.

RÁMCHANDRA: A name of Ráma.

RÁMESHWAR: A name of Shiva.

RÁMNÁTH: Name of a deity.

RÁNDAL: Name of a goddess who presides over child-birth.

RÁNDHAN CHHETHA: The cooking sixth, the sixth day of the dark half of Shráwan.

RANGPANCHAMI: The fifth day of the dark half of Phálgun on which coloured water is thrown.

RÁNJANI: A kind of tree.

RANNA DEVI: Name of a goddess who presides over child-birth.

RÁNO: A Lord.

RÁSHI: Signs of the Zodiac.

RATANVO PÁRO: A kind of stone.

RATANWA: A kind of skin disease.

RATH: A charriot.

RATHA SAPTAMI: The seventh day of the bright half of Mágh.

RATNA: A jewel.

RATNESHWAR MAHÁDEVA: A name of Shiva.

RÁUL: A caste of Hindus or an individual of it.

RÁVAL: See Rául.

RAVALNÁTH: Name of a spirit; name of a village deity.

RÁVAN: Name of the demon king of Lanka or Ceylon.

RAVI: The sun.

RAWALNÁTH: See Ravalnáth.

RÁYAN: A tree, Mimusops hexandra.

REKHA: A line.

RELA: A stream.

REVATI: Name of a constellation.

REWADI: A preparation of sesamum and sugar.

RIKTA: Unfruitful, inauspicious.

RISHI PUNCHAMI: The fifth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

RITU: A season.

ROHINI: Name of a constellation.

ROPANI: Transplanting.

ROT: A loaf prepared from eight kinds of grain.

ROTAL: Womanish.

RUDRA: An order of semi-divine beings.

RUDRÁBHISHEKA: The ceremony of pouring water in a constant stream over the image of Shiva for eleven consecutive days and nights.

RUDRÁKSHA: A tree sacred to Shiva. Eleocarpus ganitrus.

RUDRÁKSHA MÁLA: A rosary of 108 beads of the rudráksha wood.

RUDRAYÁG: A sacrifice in honour of the god Shiva.

RUI: A tree, calotropis gigantea.

RUPO: Handsome.

RUTU: Name of a sage.

RUTUSHÁNTI: The marriage consummation ceremony.

S.

SABHA: A meeting.

SÁDÁSÁTI PANOTI: A panoti extending over seven years and a half.

SÁDHAN: Accomplishment.

SÁDHU: A saint.

SAGAR: A king of the Solar race, an ancestor of Ráma.

SAHÁN: A levigating slab.

SAHASRABHOJAN: Feeding a thousand Bráhmans.

SAITÁN: An order of ghosts.

SAIYED: A name for Musalmáns directly descended from the Prophet.

SAKHARADO: A kind of disease.

SAKHOTIA: Name of a tree.

SAKINI: An order of ghosts.

SÁKSHI: Witness.

SALÁM: The word used in salutation by and to Muhammadans and other people not Hindu.

SALBAYA: Name of a deity.

SAMÁCHARI: The death anniversary.

SAMÁDH: The edifice which is erected over the burial-place of a Sanyási or saint; deep and devout meditation.

SAMÁDHI: See Samádh.

SAMAI: A brass lamp.

SÁMÁNYA PUJA: Ordinary worship.

SAMBANDHA: Spirit of a Bráhman who dies without an heir and whose funeral rites have not been performed.

SÁMELU: A log of wood.

SÁMISHYA: Entering the divine order.

SAMPAT SHANIWÁR: Wealth-giving Shaniwár, a Saturday in the month of Shrávan.

SAMUDRA: The sea.

SAMVAT: A year.

SAMVATSAR: A year; A period of three cycles of twenty years each, that is sixty years.

SAMVATSARI: Death anniversary.

SÁMVATSARIK SHRÁDDHA: The yearly Shráddha.

SANATKUMAR: One of the four sons of Brahma.

SANCHAL: A kind of salt.

SANDHYA: The morning, noon or evening prayers of a Bráhman.

SANDHYA ÁRATI: Offerings of Milk, sugar and cakes to the gods in the evening.

SANIPÁT: Delirium.

SÁNKAL: A chain.

SANKAR: A stone.

SANKASTI CHATURTHI: The fourth lunar day of every dark fortnight.

SANKRÁNT: Transit or passage of the sun or a planet from one sign of the zodiac into another.

SANKRÁNTI: See Sankránt.

SANYÁSI: The Bráhman of the fourth order, the religious mendicant.

SAPINDI: The offering of a ball of rice, etc., to the spirit of a deceased relative, commonly on the twelfth day after his decease.

SAPTÁHA: A perusal or reading through of a purán or other sacred book in seven consecutive days.

SAPTÁHA-PÁRÁYAN: See Saptáha.

SAPTA-RISHI: Ursa Major (the seven stars of which are supposed to be the seven great saints Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya. Pulaha, Kratu and Vasishtha.)

SAPTA SANI: Name of an incarnation.

SÁRANGDHA: A kind of fruit.

SARASVATI: The goddess of learning.

SÁRI: A robe.

SARPA BÁNDHANE: A process by which a snake can be prevented from entering or leaving a particular area.

SARVASÁKSHI: The observer of all things.

SATÁP: A kind of tree.

SATARSINGO: Name of a goblin.

SÁTEM: The seventh day of the bright or dark half of a month.

SÁTERI: Name of a goddess.

SÁTHARA: The place in the house where a corpse is placed.

SATHIA: An auspicious figure drawn on the floor.

SATSANG: Contract with the righteous.

SATVÁI: Name of a goddess; the ghost of a woman.

SATYA NÁRÁYAN: Name of a deity; a vow of that name.

SATYAWÁN: Name of a mythological king.

SAUDÁMINI: The lightning.

SAUNDAD: The Shami tree, Prosopis spicigera.

SÁVAJ: A wild animal.

SAVAPÁTI: Weighing about six pounds and a quarter.

SAVITA: The sun.

SÁVITRI: A mythological woman celebrated for her devotion to her husband.

SAWANEKARIN: Name of a goddess.

SÁWAR: A kind of tree.

SÁWKÁR: A money-lender.

SÁVO: Sewed.

SÁYUJJA: Merging into the divine form.

SER: A measure of weight.

SERAJA: A kind of gift.

SEVA: Vermicelli.

SEVAK: A disciple, a follower.

SEVAKA: See Sevak.

SHADÁNADA: Name of a goddess.

SHAKARIO: Name of a cattle disease.

SHÁKINI: An order of ghosts.

SHÁKTA MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

SHAKTI: The energy or active power of a deity personified as his wife; as Párvati of Shiva.

SHAKTIMÁTA: Name of a goddess.

SHAKTI-PANTHI: A follower of the Shakti or Shákta sect that is those who worship a divine energy under its feminine personification.

SHAKTIYÁG: A sacrifice in honour of Shakti.

SHÁLIGRÁM: A sacred stone supposed to represent Vishnu.

SHÁLUNKI: A species of singing birds.

SHANI: Saturn.

SHANGÁR ARATI: The ceremony of taking off the idols night garments and putting on others for the day.

SHANKARÁCHÁRYA: The designation of the celebrated teacher of the Vedánt philosophy.

SHANKÁSUR: Name of a demon.

SHANKHÁSUR: Name of a demon.

SHANKHINI: An order of ghosts.

SHÁNTANU: A king of the lunar race who married Ganga and Satyavati.

SHARÁDIAN: The dark half of the month of Bhádrapad.

SHÁRANG: The bow of Vishnu.

SHARAD PUNEMA: The full-moon day of Ashvin.

SHARAD-RITU: The Autumn.

SHÁSTRA: Scripture.

SHATACHANDI: An incantation in honour of the goddess.

SHATANJIVA: Live for a hundred years.

SHATATÁRAKA: Name of a constellation.

SHATCHANDI: An incantation in honour of the goddess Chandi.

SHES BHARANE: Name of a ceremony.

SHENDUR: Red lead.

SHESH NÁG: The snake of one thousand hoods who supports the earth.

SHEVARI: A kind of tree.

SHIKHANDI: Amba born as the daughter of Drupada. She was given out to be, and brought up as, a male child.

SHIKHAR: Top.

SHIKOTAR: Name of a goddess.

SHILI: Stale.

SHILI SÁTEM: The stale seventh, the seventh day of the dark half of Shrávan.

SHIRÁLSHET: Name of an ancient Váni or trader who became a king, and reigned three and a half ghatika (a measure of time).

SHISHIR-RITU: The cold season.

SHIT: The fowl tied to the top of the bamboo planted in the pit of the Holi fire.

SHITALA ASHTAKA: A hymn in praise of the goddess Shitala.

SHITALÁI-PUJAN: A holiday observed by women.

SHITALÁDEVI: The small-pox goddess.

SHITALA MÁTA: See Shitaládevi.

SHITAL-SAPTAMI: See Shili Sátem.

SHIVA: The third god of the Hindu Trinity.

SHIVALANGI: Name of a plant.

SHIVÁ-MUTHA: A vow in which handfuls of corn are offered by married girls to the god Vishnu on every Monday in the month of Shrávan.

SHIVARÁTRA: The fourteenth day of the dark half of every month sacred for the worship of Shiva.

SHIVARÁTRI: See Shivarátra.

SHIWANI: A kind of tree.

SHIWAR: An offering of boiled rice mixed with curds; an offering of a goat or fowl.

SHLOKA: A stanza, a verse.

SHODASHOPACHÁR: The sixteen ways of doing homage.

SHOKA-PAGLÁN: Morning foot prints.

SHRÁVAD: A kind of shrub.

SHRÁVAK: A term applied to the members of the Jain religion.

SHRÁVAN: The fifth month of the Deccani and the tenth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

SHRÁVANI: The ceremony of renewing the sacred thread.

SHRAWANA: Name of a constellation.

SHRI DUTTA: Name of a deity.

SHRINGÁR ÁRATI: See Shangár árati.

SHRINGHI: Name of a sage.

SHRI SATYA NÁRÁYAN: Name of a deity.

SHUDDHA: Pure; the bright half of a month.

SHUDRA: The last of the four-fold divisions of Manu.

SHUKAMUNI: Name of a sage.

SHUKRA: Venus.

SIDDHA: An order of semi-divine beings.

SIDDHA PURUSHA: A magician.

SIDDHI: Accomplishment; the acquisition of supernatural powers; name of a wife of Ganpati.

SIDDHI KARAN: Name of a book in which Dharmarája keeps an account of the good and bad actions of men.

SIDHA: Uncooked articles of food.

SIDIO: Nigro-like.

SIKAN: A sling.

SIKE: A sling.

SIKOTARU: See Sikoturu.

SIKOTURU: Ghost of a woman dying with certain desires unfulfilled.

SIMÁNT: The first pregnancy ceremony.

SINDHÁVÁR: Name of a goddess.

SINDUR: Red lead.

SINHA: A lion; Leo.

SINHIKA: The mother of Ráhu.

SITA: The consort of Ráma.

SIWA BÁNDHANE: Binding the boundary-name of a ceremony.

SIWO: Sewn.

SMÁRTA AGNI: The fire which is kept constantly burning and worshipped during the Cháturmás.

SOD-MUNJ: The ceremony of loosening the munja (string) from the loins of a Bráhman.

SOLANKI: Name of a clan of Rajputs.

SOLA SOMVÁR-VRATA: A vow observed on sixteen successive Mondays.

SOMAPA: Name of a water nymph.

SOMAVATI-AMÁVÁSYA: The fifteenth day of the dark half of a month falling on Monday.

SOMAGA: Name of a religious ceremony.

SONI: A caste of goldsmiths or an individual of it.

SORRO: Sulphuret of antimony.

SOSHI: Name of a class of chudels.

SOVALEN: A silk garment.

SPHATIKA MANI: A crystal stone.

STAMBHAN: A branch of black magic.

STHÁNA: Locality.

STHÁNA-DEVA: A local deity.

STHÁNADEVATA: See Sthána-deva.

STHÁPAN: Installation.

SUD: The bright half of a month.

SUDARSHAN: See Sudarshan chakra.

SUDARSHAN CHAKRA: The discus of Vishnu.

SUDHA: Nectar.

SUDHÁKAR: The moon.

SUDYAMAN: Name of a mythological king.

SUGAD: A little earthen vessel.

SUKÁL: A plentiful harvest.

SULIO: An order of ghosts.

SULEIMÁNI PÁRO: A kind of stone.

SUMARIA GANESH: A name of Ganpati.

SUNA: Unoccupied.

SUNAKU: A kind of cattle disease.

SUNKÁI: Name of a goddess.

SUNTH: Dry ginger.

SUPADUN: A winnowing fan.

SURA: Liquor.

SURAKANO: Twisted iron wire.

SURAN: A morphophallus campalatus (elephant foot).

SURANG: A kind of tree.

SURDHAN: Ghost of a male member dying with certain of his desires unfulfilled.

SURMO: See Sorro.

SUROPURO: A spirit of one who meets death on a field of battle.

SURYA: The sun.

SURYA KAVACH: A hymn in honour of the Sun.

SURYA-VRAT: A vow in honour of the Sun.

SUTAKI: One ceremonially impure on account of the death of a relative.

SUTÁR: A caste of carpenters or an individual of it.

SUTI: An order of ghosts.

SUTTEE: A woman who burns herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.

SUVA: An ingredient used in preparing spices.

SUWARN: Gold.

SUWÁSINI: An unwidowed woman.

SWÁMI: A lord, a term applied to saints.

SWÁMI MAHÁRÁJ: An epithet of Dattátraya or Shri Dutta.

SWÁMINÁRÁYAN: A sect of Hindus.

SWAPNA: A dream.

SWARGA: Heaven.

SWASTIKA: A kind of mystical figure.

SWÁTI: Name of constellation.

SWAYAMBHU: Self-existent.

SWAYAMVAR: A maiden's choice marriage.

T.

TÁDIA: A fruit of the fan-palm.

TADULI: The full moon day of Ashádh.

TAKSHAK: Name of a snake.

TÁL: A kind of cymbal.

TALABDIA KOLI: A sub-division of the Koli tribe.

TALKHÁMBA: A ghost of an unmarried Shudra.

TÁLI: A plate.

TALI BHARANE: A rite performed in honour of the god Khandoba.

TALO BHAGAT: Name of a great saint.

TAMÁSHA: A diverting exhibition; a show, play, farce, mock-fight, etc.

TÁMHAN: A flat saucer-like metal plate.

TAMJÁI: Name of a goddess.

TANYATUN: Lightning.

TAPAKESHWAR: A name of Mahádev.

TÁRÁ-BÁRAS: The star twelfth, the twelfth day after the death of a person.

TARIA TÁV: Periodical fever.

TARPAN: An offering of water.

TÁV: A sheet of paper.

TAVA: A cake fried in oil in a pan.

TAVO: Flat unleavened loaves.

TAXAMI: The ghost of a woman dying in child-bed or menses.

THÁKORJI: A name for the Deity.

THÁL: A dish.

THÁNA: A station.

THÁNAK: Locality.

THOR: A tree. Euphoria nerifolia.

TID: A locust.

TIL: Sesamum.

TILA: The sectarial mark made with coloured earths or unguents upon the forehead.

TILAD: A singing sparrow.

TINDOTÁN: A kind of creeper.

TIRTHA: Water used in bathing an idol; a holy place.

TOLA: A weight amounting to 210 grains.

TOND BHUT: An order of evil spirits.

TOSHI: A class of chudels.

TRAVENI: A confluence of three rivers.

TRETÁYUGA: The second yuga or age according to the Hindu scriptures.

TRIJ: The third day of the bright or dark half of a month.

TRIPINDI: A kind of Shráddha.

TRIPURÁSUR: Name of a demon.

TRIPURI-PAURNIMA: The full moon-day of Kártik.

TRISHANKU: Name of a king of the Solar race.

TRISHUL: A trident.

TUCHAKA: A mystical method.

TULA: Libra.

TULSI-VRAT: A vow in honour of the Tulsi or sweet basil plant.

TULSI: The sweet basil.

TUNGJÁI: Name of a goddess.

TURABAT: A tomb.

U.

UBHI: Standing; an order of ghosts.

UCHÁTAN: A branch of black magic.

UCHCHÁTAN: See Uchátan.

UDA: A species of water spirits.

UDAK SHÁNTI: Propitiation by water.

UJANI: A ceremony in propitiation of the village gods.

UJJANI; A festival in honour of the god Indra.

UKARDI: Earth with which the marriage altar is built.

UKO: A dung-hill.

UMA MAHESH: The god Mahádev and his wife Párvati; name of a vow in honour of them.

UMBAR: The Indian fig tree.

UMPI: Name of a Nág girl.

UNÁI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

UNDAR: A mouse.

UNT: A camel.

UPADEVA: A demi-god.

UPÁKARMA: The ceremony of renewing the sacred thread.

URAS: A fair held in honour of a Mahomedan saint.

UTÁR: A sacrificial offering.

UTTÁNAPÁD: Name of a mythological king.

UTTARÁ-BHÁDRAPADA: Name of a constellation.

UTTARÁ-FÁLGUNI: Name of a constellation.

UTTARÁSHÁDHA: Name of a constellation.

V.

VÁCCHADO: The spirit supposed to cure hydrophobia.

VÁCCHARO: See Vácchado.

VACHO: Even.

VAD: The banyan tree; the dark half of a month.

VADÁN: Fried cakes.

VADHÁVO: Odd.

VADYÁJÁI: Name of a goddess.

VAGÁDNAR: One who beats musical instruments like drums.

VAGGAYA: Name of a deity.

VÁGH: A tiger.

VÁGHÁMBARI: Name of a goddess.

VÁGHARAN: A woman of the Vághri caste.

VÁGHESHWARI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

VÁGHRI: A caste of Hindus.

VÁGHUR DEVI: Name of a goddess.

VÁGHVIR: The spirit of a person killed by a tiger.

VÁGHYA: A male child offered to the god Khandoba.

VAIRÁGI: A recluse.

VAISHÁKHA: The second month of the Deccani Hindu and the seventh month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

VAISHNAVA: The sect of Hindus devoted to Vishnu.

VAISHVADEV: An oblation of boiled rice into the fire.

VAISHYA: A trader, the third of the four-fold divisions of Manu.

VAITÁL: An order of demi-gods.

VAITÁLIKA: An attendant of the god Shiva.

VAIVASWAT MANU: Name of the seventh Manu now reigning.

VAJRA: Adamant.

VAJRÁBÁI: Name of a goddess.

VAJRABATTU: A kind of bead.

VAJRAMAYA: Adamantine.

VAJRESHWARI: Name of a goddess.

VAJRESWARI: See Vajreshvari.

VALAM: A mock bridegroom in the Holi festival.

VALAMA VALAMI: A procession of a mock marriage in the Holi festival.

VALAMI: A mock bride in the Holi festival.

VÁLAND: A caste of barbers or an individual of it.

VALGO SAMACHARI: Death anniversary.

VALLABHÁCHÁRYA: A great saint and scholar who founded a sect of Vaishnavism.

VALO: A kind of cattle disease.

VALU: Eccentric.

VÁMA-MÁRGI: A follower of the Váma-márga that is a mode of worship in which the idol is worshipped by the left hand, liquor drunk, etc., etc.

VÁMAN: A dwarf; name of the fifth incarnation of Vishnu.

VANA-SHASTHI: Name of a Holiday.

VANTRI: An order of ghosts.

VÁNZIÁPANA: Barrenness.

VARADANI: Name of a goddess.

VARADHAN: Name of a deity.

VARÁH: A boar.

VARÁHA-SANHITA: Name of a book.

VARSHÁ-RITU: The rainy season.

VÁRUL: The white ant-hill.

VÁSANA: Desire.

VASANTAPANCHAMI: The fifth day of the bright half of Mágh.

VASANT-RITU: The spring.

VÁSH: An oblation of rice and sweets offered to crows.

VASHIKARAN: A branch of black magic.

VASHISHTHA: Name of a sage.

VÁSTU: A religious rite performed on entering a new house.

VÁSTDEVATA: The guardian spirit of dwelling places.

VÁSTUN: See Vástu.

VÁSTUPUJAN: See Vástu.

VASU: A bull-calf or bull branded and set at liberty.

VASUBÁRAS: The twelfth day of the bright half of Ashvin.

VASUDEVA: Name of the father of Krishna.

VASU-DWÁDASI: See Vasubáras.

VÁSUKI: Name of a snake.

VÁSTU SHÁNTI: See Vástu.

VATA-SÁVITRI VRAT: Name of a vow observed by women on the full moon day of Jyeshtha.

VÁTI: A small metal cup.

VÁTKI: See Váti.

VÁV: A reservoir of water; a tank.

VÁYALI: Eccentric.

VÁYU: Wind; the deity presiding over the wind.

VÁYUSUTA: A name of Máruti.

VEDA: Name of the scriptures of the Hindus.

VEDATRAYI: The three vedas, Rik, Yajus and Sáma.

VEDHA: Malign influence.

VEDIC: Relating to the Vedas; as enjoined in the Vedas.

VEHALA: A tree, Beleric Myrobalan.

VELAN: A stick.

VELO: A creeper.

VETÁL: The lord of ghosts; name of a village deity.

VETRASARPA: A cane stick with an image of a snake at its end.

VIDÁ-SUPÁRI: Betel nut and leaves.

VIDYUT: Lightning.

VAJAYÁDASHAMI: The tenth day of the bright half of Ashvin.

VIJLI: Lightning.

VIKRAM: Name of a king.

VIMÁN: A celestial car.

VINÁYAK-CHATURTHI: The fourth day of the bright half of every month.

VINCHI: A female scorpion.

VIR: A male fiend; ghost of an unmarried Kshatriya.

VIRA: An order of ghosts; name of a village deity.

VISHA: Poison.

VISHÁKHA: Name of a constellation

VISHESHA PUJA: Special worship.

VISHI: A cycle of twenty years.

VISHNU: The second god of the Hindu Trinity.

VISHNUSAHASRANÁMA: A book containing the thousand names of Vishnu.

VISHNUYÁGA: A sacrifice in honour of Vishnu.

VISHOTAK: Name of a disease.

VISHVÁMITRA: Name of a sage.

VISHWARUPA: That exists in all forms, an epithet of Vishnu.

VISHWESHWAR: A name of Shiva.

VISWÁTI: An order of ghosts.

VITHOBA: Name of a god.

VISUCHIKA: Name of a cholera goddess.

VIVÁNCHARA: An order of ghosts.

VRAT: A vow.

VRIKODARA: Wolf-bellied, an epithet of Bhima.

VRINDA: Name of the wife of Jalendhar, a demon.

VRISCHIKA: Scorpion.

VRISHABHA: Taurus.

VRITRASÁR: Name of a demon.

VRUNDA: See Vrinda.

VYATIPÁT: The seventeenth of the Astrological Yoga (the twenty-seventh part of a circle measured on the plane of the Ecliptic).

W.

WAD: The banyan tree.

WÁDI: An enclosed piece of meadow-field or garden ground.

WÁGH-BÁRAS: The twelfth day of Ashvin.

WÁGHE: Male children offered to the god Khandoba.

WÁGHESHWARI: Name of a village goddess.

WÁGHJÁI: Name of a deity.

WÁGHOBA: An order of ghosts.

WÁJRESHWARI: Name of a village goddess.

WÁGHYA: Name of a deity; a male child offered to the god Khandoba.

WÁMAN-DWÁDASHI: The twelfth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

WÁNI: A trader; a, general name for all castes of traders i.e., banyas.

WÁNPRASTA: A Bráhman in the third order of his life; a hermit in general.

WÁRUL: An ant-hill.

WATA: The Banyan tree.

WATA-PAURNIMA: The fall moon day of Jyeshtha.

WUDA: Incense.

Y.

YADNA: See Yajna.

YADNOPAVIT: The sacred thread worn by Bráhmans.

YADNYA: See Yajna.

YAJAMÁN: A host; a person performing a sacrifice.

YAJNA: A sacrifice.

YAKSHA: A class of demi-gods, attendant on Kubera and employed in guarding his treasures.

YAKSHINI: A female Yaksha; a fairy.

YALLAMMA: Name of a goddess.

YAMA: The God of death.

YAMADUTA: A messenger of the god of death.

YAMAGHANTA: A Yog or conjunction of times, viz., a Sunday falling upon the second day of the bright or dark half of a month; a Friday falling upon the third lunar day, etc., etc.

YAMALOKA: The region of Yama.

YAMAPURI: The city of the god of death.

YANTRA: A mystical formula or diagram.

YOGA: Religious and abstract meditation.

YOGA MÁRGA: The path of meditation.

YOGA-SUTRA: Name of a work by Pátanjali containing aphorisms of the science of Yoga.

YOGAVÁSHISTHA: Name of a work on philosophy.

YOJAN: A measure of distance equal to eight miles.

YUDHISHTHIR: An epithet of Dharma, the eldest of the Pándava brothers.

Z.

ZÁMHÁDI: A female spirit guarding the village gates.

ZAMPAHADI: An order of ghosts.

ZANZARKA: Name of a goddess.

ZANZIRA: A kind of magic incantation.

ZÁR: Fever.

ZARMÁN ZARVÁN: A ceremony in which a woman fetches water for the first time after delivery.

ZILAKESHWAR: A name of Mahádeva.

ZINI: Small.

ZOD: An order of ghosts.

NOTES

[1] School Master, Palshet, Ratnágiri.

[2] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[3] School Master, Parule, Ratnágiri.

[4] School Master, Makhnele, Ratnágiri.

[5] School Master, Rájápur, Ratnágiri.

[6] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[7] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[8] School Master, Shahápur, Thána.

[9] School Master, Dasgaum, Kolába.

[10] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[11] School Master, Akola, Kolába.

[12] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[13] These twelve names are:--1 Mitra, 2 Ravi, 3 Surya, 4 Bhanu, 5 Khaga, 6 Pushne, 7 Hiranyagarbha, 8 Marichi, 9 Aditya, 10 Savita, 11 Arka, 12 Bhasker.

[14] School Master, Phonde.

[15] School Master, Devarukh.

[16] School Master, Parule.

[17] School Master, Anjur.

[18] School Master, Vasind.

[19] School Master, Málád.

[20] 33,000,0000 demons are said to be born every day to impede the journey of the Sun.

[21] School Master, Málád.

[22] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála.

[23] School Master, Padaghe.

[24] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[25] The churning handle or rod is called in Maráthi Ravi, which is one of the names of the Sun.

[26] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[27] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[28] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[29] School Master, Pendhur, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[30] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála.

[31] School Masters, Chauk, Karjat, Kolába.

[32] School Masters, Chauk, Karjat, Kolába.

[33] Ráo Sáheb Shelke.

[34] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[35] School Master, Phonde, Ratnágiri.

[36] Ráo Sáhib Shelke.

[37] In the Konkan the Navánna Purnima or full moon day of new food is observed in the month of Ashvina. This is, no doubt, due to the difference in the season of the harvest.

[38] Ráo Sáheb Shelke.

[39] School Master, Ibrámpur.

[40] School Master, Gaumkhadi, Rájápur.

[41] School Master, Adivare, Rájápur.

[42] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[43] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[44] School Master, Ubhádánda, Vengurla.

[45] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[46] School Master, Murbád.

[47] School Master, Vásind, Sáhápur.

[48] School Master, Wáda.

[49] School Master, Edwan, Máhim.

[50] School Master, Kalyán, No. 1 and School Master, Padaghe, Bhiwandi.

[51] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[52] School Master, Poládpur.

[53] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[54] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[55] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[56] School Master, Poládpur.

[57] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[58] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[59] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[60] School Master, Pendur, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[61] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[62] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[63] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[64] School Master, Ubhádánda, Vengurla.

[65] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[66] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[67] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[68] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[69] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[70] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[71] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[72] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[73] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[74] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[75] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[76] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[77] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[78] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[79] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[80] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[81] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[82] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[83] School Master, Rájápur, Ratnágiri.

[84] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[85] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[86] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V. School, Bombay.

[87] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V. School, Bombay.

[88] School Master, Padaghe, Thána.

[89] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[90] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[91] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[92] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[93] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[94] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[95] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[96] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[97] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[98] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[99] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[100] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[101] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[102] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[103] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[104] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[105] School Master, Kankavli, Ratnágiri.

[106] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[107] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[108] School Master, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[109] School Master, Rai, Thána.

[110] School Master, Badlapur, Thána.

[111] School Master, Mokhada, Thána.

[112] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[113] School Master, Kasu, Kolába.

[114] School Master, Vavasi, Kolába.

[115] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[116] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[117] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[118] School Master, Kasba, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[119] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[120] School Master, Pendhur, Ratnágiri.

[121] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[122] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[123] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[124] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[125] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[126] School Master, Kankava, Ratnágiri.

[127] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[128] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[129] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V.S., Bombay.

[130] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[131] School Master, Rai, Thána.

[132] School Master, Shahápur, Thána.

[133] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[134] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[135] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[136] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[137] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[138] School Master, Kasba, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[139] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[140] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[141] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[142] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[143] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[144] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[145] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[146] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[147] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[148] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[149] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[150] School Master, Palspot, Ratnágiri.

[151] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[152] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[153] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[154] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[155] School Master, Phonde, Ratnágiri.

[156] School Master, Wanhavli, Ratnágiri.

[157] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[158] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[159] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[160] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[161] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[162] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[163] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[164] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[165] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[166] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[167] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[168] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[169] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[170] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[171] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[172] School Master, Wáda, Thána.

[173] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[174] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[175] School Master, Saloli, Thána.

[176] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[177] School Master, Kinhavali, Thána.

[178] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[179] School Master, Khativali, Thána.

[180] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[181] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[182] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[183] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[184] School Masters, Wáda, Thána.

[185] School Master, Sháhápur, Thána.

[186] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[187] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[188] School Master, Wavasi, Kolába.

[189] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[190] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[191] School Master, Wavasi, Kolába.

[192] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[193] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[194] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[195] School Master, Vavasi, Kolába.

[196] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[197] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[198] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[199] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[200] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[201] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[202] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[203] School Master, Umbargaum, Thána.

[204] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[205] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[206] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[207] School Master, Sasawane, Kolába.

[208] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[209] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[210] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[211] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[212] School Master, Kankavli, Ratnágiri.

[213] School Master, Phonde, Ratnágiri.

[214] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[215] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[216] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[217] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[218] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[219] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[220] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[221] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[222] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[223] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[224] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[225] School Master, Padaghe, Thána.

[226] School Master, Nágothane, Kolába.

[227] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[228] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[229] School Master, Apte, Kolába.

[230] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V.S., Bombay.

[231] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[232] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[233] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[234] Two earthen pots tied face to face, one of which containing some corn and red and yellow powders.

[235] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[236] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[237] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[238] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[239] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[240] School Master, Badlapur, Kalyán.

[241] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[242] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[243] School Master, Tale, School No. I, Kolába.

[244] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[245] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[246] School Master, Badlapur, Thána.

[247] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[248] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[249] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[250] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[251] School Master, Thána.

[252] School Master, Kolába.

[253] School Master, Khetwadi, Bombay.

[254] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[255] School Master, Kamathipura, Bombay.

[256] School Master, Wásind, Thána.

[257] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[258] The Hindus believe that there are seven heroes who can never die, i.e., 1 Ashwattháma, 2 Bali, 3 Vyása, 4 Hanumán, 5 Bibhíshana, 6 Kripáchárya and 7 Parashurám. The Sanskrit text is:--

ASHVATTHAMA BALIRVYASO HANUMANTO BIBHISHANAH | KRIPACARYAH PARASHURAMASSAPTAITE CIRAJIVINAH ||

[259] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[260] School Master, Samangad, Kolhápur.

[261] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[262] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[263] School Master, Wávashi, Kolába.

[264] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[265] School Master, Apta, Kolába.

[266] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[267] School Master, Tale, Kolába.

[268] School Master, Bakavali, Ratnágiri.

[269] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[270] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[271] School Master, Parule, Ratnágiri.

[272] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[273] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[274] School Master, Makhamle, Ratnágiri.

[275] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[276] School Master, Kámáthipura, Bombay.

[277] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[278] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[279] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[280] School Master, Málwan, Ratnágiri.

[281] School Master, Palset, Ratnágiri.

[282] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[283] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[284] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[285] School Master, Sákharpe, Ratnágiri.

[286] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[287] School Master, Edwan, Thána.

[288] School Master, Mángaon, Thána.

[289] School Master, Dahigaon.

[290] School Master, Bhiwandi, Thána.

[291] School Master, Agáshi, Arnála, Thána.

[292] School Master, Agáshi, Thána.

[293] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[294] School Master, Shahápur, Thána.

[295] School Master, Agáshi, Thána.

[296] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[297] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[298] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[299] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[300] School Master, Shirosi, Thána District.

[301] School Master, Parule, Ratnágiri.

[302] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[303] School Master, Kankaoli, Ratnágiri.

[304] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[305] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[306] School Master, Palset, Ratnágiri.

[307] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[308] School Master, Málwan, Ratnágiri.

[309] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[310] School Master, Kochare, Ratnágiri.

[311] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[312] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[313] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[314] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[315] School Master, Sasawane, Kolába.

[316] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[317] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[318] School Master, Bhuwan, Thána.

[319] School Master, Agáshi, Thána District.

[320] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[321] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[322] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[323] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[324] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[325] School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratnágiri.

[326] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[327] School Master, Kochare, Ratnágiri.

[328] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[329] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[330] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[331] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[332] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[333] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[334] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[335] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[336] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[337] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[338] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[339] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[340] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[341] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[342] School Master, Váde, Thána.

[343] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[344] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[345] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[346] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[347] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[348] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[349] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[350] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[351] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[352] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[353] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[354] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[355] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[356] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[357] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[358] School Master, Murud, Ratnágiri.

[359] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[360] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[361] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[362] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[363] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[364] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[365] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[366] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[367] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[368] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[369] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[370] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[371] Schoolmaster, Dásgaon, Kolába.

[372] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[373] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[374] School Master, Edwan, Thána.

[375] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[376] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[377] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[378] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[379] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[380] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[381] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[382] School Master, Sasawane, Kolába.

[383] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[384] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[385] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[386] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[387] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[388] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[389] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[390] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[391] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[392] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[393] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[394] School Master, Nágothane, Kolába.

[395] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[396] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[397] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[398] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[399] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[400] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[401] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[402] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[403] School Master, Anjarla, Ratnágiri.

[404] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[405] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[406] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[407] School Master, Navre, Ratnágiri.

[408] School Master, Dásgaon, Kolába.

[409] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[410] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[411] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[412] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[413] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[414] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[415] School Master, Dabhol, Ratnágiri.

[416] School Master, Shiravde, Ratnágiri.

[417] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[418] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[419] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[420] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[421] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[422] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[423] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[424] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[425] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[426] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[427] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[428] School Master, Nágothane, Kolába.

[429] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[430] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[431] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[432] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[433] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[434] School Master, Shiroda, Ratnágiri.

[435] School Master, Sakharane, Ratnágiri.

[436] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[437] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[438] School Master, Chauk, Ratnágiri.

[439] School Master, Akshi, Kolába.

[440] School Master, Váda, Thána.

[441] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[442] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[443] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[444] School Master, Shirosi, Thána.

[445] School Master, Mánikpur, Thána.

[446] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[447] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[448] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[449] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[450] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[451] School Master, Murud, Ratnágiri.

[452] School Master, Devagad, Ratnágiri.

[453] School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratnágir.

[454] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[455] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[456] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[457] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[458] School Master, Chowl, Kolába.

[459] School Master, Akshi, Kolába.

[460] School Master, Bhuwan, Thána.

[461] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[462] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[463] School Master, Shirosi, Thána.

[464] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[465] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[466] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[467] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[468] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[469] School Master, Achre, Ratnágiri.

[470] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[471] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri:

[472] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[473] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[474] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[475] School Master, Náta, Kolába.

[476] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[477] School Master, Padaghe, Thána.

[478] School Master, Mánikpur, Thána.

[479] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[480] School Master, Wáde, Thána.

[481] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[482] School Master, Dehari, Thána.

[483] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[484] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[485] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[486] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[487] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[488] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[489] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[490] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[491] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[492] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[493] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[494] School Master, Birwadi, Kolába.

[495] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[496] School Master, Belápur, Thána.

[497] School Master, Bhuwan, Murbád, Thána.

[498] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[499] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[500] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[501] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[502] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[503] Ráo Sáheb Shelke.

[504] School Master, Bankavali, Ratnágiri.

[505] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[506] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[507] School Master Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[508] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[509] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[510] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[511] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[512] School Master, Chawl, Kolába,

[513] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[514] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[515] School Master, Akshi, Kolába.

[516] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[517] School Master, Shirgaum, Thána.

[518] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[519] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[520] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[521] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[522] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[523] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[524] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[525] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[526] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[527] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[528] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[529] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[530] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[531] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[532] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[533] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[534] School Master, Chawl, Kolába.

[535] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[536] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[537] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[538] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[539] School Master, Chawl, Kolába.

[540] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[541] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[542] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[543] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[544] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[545] School Master, Adivan, Ratnágiri.

[546] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[547] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[548] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[549] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[550] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[551] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[552] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[553] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[554] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[555] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[556] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[557] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[558] School Master, Chowl, Kolába.

[559] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[560] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[561] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[562] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[563] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[564] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[565] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[566] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[567] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[568] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[569] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[570] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[571] School Master, Khopol, Kolába.

[572] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[573] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[574] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[575] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[576] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[577] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[578] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[579] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[580] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[581] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[582] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[583] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[584] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[585] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[586] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[587] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[588] School Mister, Chauk, Kolába.

[589] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[590] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[591] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[592] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[593] School Mister, Shirgaon, Thána.

[594] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[595] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[596] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[597] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[598] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[599] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[600] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[601] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[602] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[603] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[604] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[605] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[606] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[607] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[608] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[609] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[610] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[611] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[612] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[613] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[614] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[615] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[616] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[617] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[618] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[619] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[620] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[621] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[622] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[623] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[624] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[625] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[626] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[627] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[628] School Master, Malád, Thána.

[629] School Master, Khárbáv, Thána.

[630] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[631] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[632] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[633] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[634] School Master, Bhayándár, Thána.

[635] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[636] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[637] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[638] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[639] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[640] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[641] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[642] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[643] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[644] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[645] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[646] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[647] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[648] School Master, Bhuwan, Thána.

[649] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[650] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[651] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[652] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[653] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[654] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[655] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[656] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[657] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[658] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[659] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[660] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[661] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[662] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[663] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[664] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[665] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[666] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[667] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[668] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[669] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[670] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[671] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[672] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[673] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[674] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[675] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[676] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[677] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[678] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[679] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[680] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[681] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[682] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[683] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[684] School Master, Mokhade, Thána.

[685] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[686] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[687] School Master, Khed, Ratnágiri.

[688] School Master, Kelwá-Máhim, Thána.

[689] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[690] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[691] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[692] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[693] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[694] School Master, Chowl, Kolába.

[695] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[696] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[697] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[698] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[699] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[700] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[701] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[702] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[703] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[704] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[705] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[706] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[707] School Master, Kochare, Ratnágiri.

[708] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[709] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[710] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[711] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[712] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[713] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[714] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[715] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[716] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[717] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[718] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[719] School Master, Shiravde, Ratnágiri.

[720] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[721] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[722] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[723] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[724] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[725] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[726] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[727] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[728] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[729] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[730] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[731] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[732] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[733] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[734] School Master, Edwan, Thána.

[735] School Master, Vankavli, Ratnágiri.

[736] School Master, Palshet, Ratnágiri.

[737] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[738] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[739] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[740] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[741] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[742] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[743] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[744] School Master, Apte, Panwel, Kolába.

[745] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[746] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[747] School Master, Chawk, Kolába.

[748] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[749] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[750] School Master, Chawl, Kolába.

[751] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[752] School Master, Jambivali, Kolába.

[753] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[754] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[755] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[756] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[757] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[758] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[759] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[760] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[761] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[762] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[763] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[764] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[765] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[766] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[767] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[768] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[769] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[770] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[771] School Master, Palshet, Ratnágiri.

[772] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[773] School Master, Mokháde, Thána.

[774] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[775] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[776] School Master, Chawk, Kolába.

[777] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[778] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[779] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[780] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[781] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[782] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[783] School Master, Rewadanda, Kolába.

[784] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[785] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[786] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[787] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[788] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[789] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[790] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[791] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[792] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[793] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[794] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[795] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[796] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[797] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[798] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[799] School Master, Dásgáv, Kolába.

[800] School Master, Váda, Thána.

[801] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[802] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[803] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[804] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[805] School Master, Umbergáon, Thána.

[806] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[807] School Master, Chinchani, Thána.

[808] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[809] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[810] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[811] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[812] School Master, Váde, Thána.

[813] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[814] School Master, Poladpur and Vijaydurg.

[815] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[816] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[817] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[818] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[819] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[820] School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratnágiri.

[821] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[822] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[823] School Master, Bassein, Thána.

[824] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[825] The terms given below are as they are used by the common people in popular parlance in which form they are given in the text. They will therefore not be found to be grammatically correct in all cases. Again, only such meanings of the terms are given as apply in the context.