Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas, Recipes and Processes by

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COPYRIGHT, 1912 AND 1907, BY THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY Also, Entered at Stationers’ Hall Court, London, England

_All rights reserved_



In compiling this book of formulas, recipes and processes, the Editor has endeavored to meet the practical requirements of the home and workshop—the mechanic, the manufacturer, the artisan, the housewife, and the general home worker.

In addition to exercising the utmost care in selecting his materials from competent sources, the Editor has also modified formulas which were obviously ill adapted for his needs, but were valuable if altered. Processes of questionable merit he has discarded. By adhering to this plan the Editor trusts that he has succeeded in preparing a repository of useful knowledge representing the experience of experts in every branch of practical achievement. Much of the matter has been specially translated for this work from foreign technological periodicals and books. In this way the Editor has embodied much practical information otherwise inaccessible to most English-speaking people.

Each recipe is to be regarded as a basis of experiment, to be modified to suit the particular purpose in hand, or the peculiar conditions which may affect the experimenter. Chemicals are not always of uniform relative purity and strength; heat or cold may markedly influence the result obtained, and lack of skill in the handling of utensils and instruments may sometimes cause failure. Inasmuch as a particular formula may not always be applicable, the Editor has thought it advisable to give as many recipes as his space would allow under each heading. In some instances a series of formulas is given which apparently differ but slightly in their ingredients. This has been done on the principle that one or more may be chosen for the purpose in hand.

Recognizing the fact that works of a similar character are not unknown, the Editor has endeavored to present in these pages the most modern methods and formulas. Naturally, old recipes and so-called trade secrets which have proven their value by long use are also included, particularly where no noteworthy advance has been made; but the primary aim has been to modernize and bring the entire work up to the present date.


JANUARY, 1914.


Apothecary, The. Berliner Drog. Zeitung. Brass World. British Journal of Photography. Chemical News. Chemiker Zeitung Repertorium. Chemisch Technische Fabrikant. Chemische Zeitung. Chemist-Druggist. Comptes Rendus. Cooley’s Receipts. Cosmos. Dekorationsmaler, Der. Deutsche Drog. Zeitung. Deutsche Goldschmiede Zeitung. Deutsche Handwerk. Deutsche Maler Zeitung. Deutsche Topfer und Ziefler Zeitung. Dingler’s Polytechnic Journal. Drogisten Zeitung. Druggists’ Circular. English Mechanic. Farben Zeitung. Gummi Zeitung. Journal der Goldschmiedekunst. Journal of Applied Microscopy. Journal of the Franklin Institute. Journal Society of Chemical Industry. Journal Suisse d’Horlogerie. Keramische Rundschau. La Nature. La Science en Famille. La Vie Scientifique. Lack und Farben Industrie. Legierungen. Le Genie Civil. Le Praticien. Leipziger Farber und Zeugdrucker Zeitung. Maler Zeitung. Metallarbeiter. Mining and Scientific Press. Neueste Erfindungen und Erfahrungen. Nouvelles Scientifiques. Oils, Colors, and Drysalteries. Papier-Zeitung. Parfumer, Der. Pharmaceutische Zeitung. Pharmaceutische Centralhalle. Pharmaceutische Era. Pharmaceutische Journal. Pharmaceutische Journal Formulary. Photo Times. Polytech. Centralblatt. Polyt. Notizblatt. Popular Science News. Pottery Gazette. Practical Druggist. Revue Chronometrique. Revue de la Droguerie. Revue des Produits Chimiques. Revue Industrielle. Science, Arts and Nature. Science Pratique. Seifensieder Zeitung, Der. Seifenfabrikant, Der. Spatula. Stein der Weisen, Der. Sudd. Apoth. Zeitung. Technisches Centralblatt. Technische Rundschau. Uhland’s Technische Rundschau. Verzinnen Verzinken Vernickeln, Das. Werkmeister Zeitung. Wiener Drogisten Zeitung. Wiener Gewerbe Zeitung. Zeitschrift für die Gesammte Kohlensaure Industrie.



ABRASION REMEDY: See Cosmetics and Ointments.

ABSINTHE: See Wines and Liquors.


«An Acid-Proof Table Top.»—


Copper sulphate 1 part Potassium chlorate 1 part Water 8 parts

Boil until salts are dissolved.


Aniline hydrochlorate 3 parts Water 20 parts

Or, if more readily procurable:

Aniline 6 parts Hydrochloric acid 9 parts Water 50 parts

By the use of a brush two coats of solution No. 1 are applied while hot; the second coat as soon as the first is dry. Then two coats of solution No. 2, and the wood allowed to dry thoroughly. Later, a coat of raw linseed oil is to be applied, using a cloth instead of a brush, in order to get a thinner coat of the oil.

A writer in the _Journal of Applied Microscopy_ states that he has used this method upon some old laboratory tables which had been finished in the usual way, the wood having been filled oiled, and varnished. After scraping off the varnish down to the wood, the solutions were applied, and the result was very satisfactory.

After some experimentations the formula was modified without materially affecting the cost, and apparently increasing the resistance of the wood to the action of strong acids and alkalies. The modified formula follows:


Iron sulphate 4 parts Copper sulphate 4 parts Potassium permanganate 8 parts Water, q. s. 100 parts


Aniline 12 parts Hydrochloric acid 18 parts Water, q. s. 100 parts


Aniline hydrochlorate 15 parts Water, q. s. 100 parts

Solution No. 2 has not been changed, except to arrange the parts per hundred.

The method of application is the same, except that after solution No. 1 has dried the excess of the solution which has dried upon the surface of the wood is thoroughly rubbed off before the application of solution No. 2. The black color does not appear at once, but usually requires a few hours before becoming ebony black. The linseed oil may be diluted with turpentine without disadvantage, and after a few applications the surface will take on a dull and not displeasing polish. The table tops are easily cleaned by washing with water or suds after a course of work is completed, and the application of another coat of oil puts them in excellent order for another course of work. Strong acids or alkalies when spilled, if soon wiped off, have scarcely a perceptible effect.

A slate or tile top is expensive not only in its original cost, but also as a destroyer of glassware. Wood tops when painted, oiled, or paraffined have objectionable features, the latter especially in warm weather. Old table tops, after the paint or oil is scraped off down to the wood, take the above finish nearly as well as the new wood.

«To Make Wood Acid- and Chlorine-Proof.»—Take 6 pounds of wood tar and 12 pounds rosin, and melt them together in an iron kettle, after which stir in 8 pounds finely powdered brick dust. The damaged parts must be cleaned perfectly and dried, whereupon they may be painted over with the warm preparation or filled up and drawn off, leaving the film on the inside.

«Protecting Cement Against Acid.»—A paint to protect cement against acid is obtained by mixing pure asbestos, very finely powdered, with a thick solution of {10} sodium silicate. The sodium silicate must be as alkaline as possible. The asbestos is first rubbed with a small quantity of the silicate, until a cake is obtained and then kept in well-closed vessels. For use this cake is simply thinned with a solution of the silicate, which furnishes a paint two or three applications of which protect the walls of reservoirs, etc., against any acid solid or liquid. This mass may also be employed for making a coating of sandstone.

«To Make Corks Impermeable and Acid-Proof.»—Choose your corks carefully. Then plunge them into a solution of gelatin or common glue, 15 parts, in 24 parts of glycerine and 500 parts of water, heated to 44° or 48° C. (112°–120° F.), and keep them there for several hours. On removing the corks, which should be weighted down in the solution, dry them in the shade until they are free from all surplus moisture. They are now perfectly tight, retaining at the same time the greater portion of their elasticity and suppleness. To render them acid-proof, they should be treated with a mixture of vaseline, 2 parts, and paraffine 7 parts, heated to about 105° F. This second operation may be avoided by adding to the gelatin solution a little ammonium dichromate and afterwards exposing the corks to the light.

«Lining for Acid Receptacles.»—Plates are formed of 1 part of brown slate, 2 of powdered glass, and 1 of Portland cement, the whole worked up with silicate of soda, molded and dried. Make a cement composed of ground slate and silicate of soda and smear the surface for the lining; then, while it is still plastic, apply the plates prepared as above described. Instead of these plates, slabs of glass or porcelain or similar substances may be employed with the same cement.

ACACIA, MUCILAGE OF: See Adhesives under Mucilages.




ACID STAINS FROM THE SKIN, TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.




«Manufacture of Glue.»—I.—The usual process of removing the phosphate of lime from bones for glue-making purposes by means of dilute hydrochloric acid has the disadvantage that the acid cannot be regenerated. Attempts to use sulphurous acid instead have so far proved unsuccessful, as, even with the large quantities used, the process is very slow. According to a German invention this difficulty with sulphurous acid can be avoided by using it in aqueous solution under pressure. The solution of the lime goes on very rapidly, it is claimed, and no troublesome precipitation of calcium sulphite takes place. Both phosphate of lime and sulphurous acid are regenerated from the lyes by simple distillation.

II.—Bones may be treated with successive quantities of combined sulphurous acid and water, from which the heat of combination has been previously dissipated, the solution being removed after each treatment, before the bone salts dissolved therein precipitate, and before the temperature rises above 74° F.—U. S. Pat. 783,784.

III.—A patent relating to the process for treating animal sinews, preparatory for the glue factory, has been granted to Florsheim, Chicago, and consists in immersing animal sinews successively in petroleum or benzine to remove the outer fleshy animal skin; in a hardening or preserving bath, as boric acid, or alum or copper sulphate; and in an alkaline bath to remove fatty matter from the fibrous part of the sinews. The sinews are afterwards tanned and disintegrated.

«Test for Glue.»—The more water the glue takes up, swelling it, the better it is. Four ounces of the glue to be examined are soaked for about 12 hours in a cool place in 4 pounds of cold water. If the glue has dissolved after this time, it is of bad quality and of little value; but if it is coherent, gelatinous, and weighing double, it is good; if it weighs up to 16 ounces, it is very good; if as much as 20 ounces, it may be called excellent.

«To Prevent Glue from Cracking.»—To prevent glue from cracking, which frequently occurs when glued articles are {11} exposed to the heat of a stove, a little chloride of potassium is added. This prevents the glue from becoming dry enough to crack. Glue thus treated will adhere to glass, metals, etc., and may also be used for pasting on labels.

«Preventing the Putrefaction of Strong Glues.»—The fatty matter always existing in small quantity in sheets of ordinary glue affects the adhesive properties and facilitates the development of bacteria, and consequently putrefaction and decomposition. These inconveniences are remedied by adding a small quantity of caustic soda to the dissolved glue. The soda prevents decomposition absolutely; with the fatty matter it forms a hard soap which renders it harmless.

«Liquid Glues.»—

I.—Glue 3 ounces Gelatin 3 ounces Acetic acid 4 ounces Water 2 ounces Alum 30 grains

Heat together for 6 hours, skim, and add:

II.—Alcohol 1 fluid ounce Brown glue, No. 2. 2 pounds Sodium carbonate 11 ounces Water 3 1/2 pints Oil of clove 160 minims

Dissolve the soda in the water, pour the solution over the dry glue, let stand over night or till thoroughly soaked and swelled, then heat carefully on a water bath until dissolved. When nearly cold stir in the oil of cloves.

By using white glue, a finer article, fit for fancy work, may be made.

III.—Dissolve by heating 60 parts of borax in 420 parts of water, add 480 parts dextrin (pale yellow) and 50 parts of glucose and heat carefully with continued stirring, to complete solution; replace the evaporated water and pour through flannel.

The glue made in this way remains clear quite a long time, and possesses great adhesive power; it also dries very quickly, but upon careless and extended heating above 90° C. (194° F.), it is apt to turn brown and brittle.

IV.—Pour 50 parts of warm (not hot) water over 50 parts of Cologne glue and allow to soak over night. Next day the swelled glue is dissolved with moderate heat, and if still too thick, a little more water is added. When this is done, add from 2 1/2 to 3 parts of crude nitric acid, stir well, and fill the liquid glue in well-corked bottles. This is a good liquid steam glue.

V.—Soak 1 pound of good glue in a quart of water for a few hours, then melt the glue by heating it, together with the unabsorbed water, then stir in 1/4 pound dry white lead, and when that is well mixed pour in 4 fluidounces of alcohol and continue the boiling 5 minutes longer.

VI.—Soak 1 pound of good glue in 1 1/2 pints of cold water for 5 hours, then add 3 ounces of zinc sulphate and 2 fluidounces of hydrochloric acid, and keep the mixture heated for 10 or 12 hours at 175° to 190° F. The glue remains liquid and may be used for sticking a variety of materials.

VII.—A very inexpensive liquid glue may be prepared by first soaking and then dissolving gelatin in twice its own weight of water at a very gentle heat; then add glacial acetic acid in weight equal to the weight of the dry gelatin. It should be remembered, however, that all acid glues are not generally applicable.

VIII.—Glue 200 parts Dilute acetic acid 400 parts

Dissolve by the aid of heat and add:

Alcohol 25 parts Alum 5 parts

IX.—Glue 5 parts Calcium chloride 1 part Water 1 part

X.—Sugar of lead 1 1/2 drachms Alum 1 1/2 drachms Gum arabic 2 1/2 drachms Wheat flour 1 av. lb. Water, q. s.

Dissolve the gum in 2 quarts of warm water; when cold mix in the flour, and add the sugar of lead and alum dissolved in water; heat the whole over a slow fire until it shows signs of ebullition. Let it cool, and add enough gum water to bring it to the proper consistence.

XI.—Dilute 1 part of official phosphoric acid with 2 parts of water and neutralize the solution with carbonate of ammonium. Add to the liquid an equal quantity of water, warm it on a water bath, and dissolve in it sufficient glue to form a thick syrupy liquid. Keep in well-stoppered bottles.

XII.—Dissolve 3 parts of glue in small pieces in 12 to 15 of saccharate of lime. By heating, the glue dissolves rapidly and remains liquid, when cold, without loss of adhesive power. Any desirable consistence can be secured by varying the amount of saccharate of lime. Thick glue retains its muddy color, while a thin solution becomes clear on standing.

The saccharate of lime is prepared by {12} dissolving 1 part of sugar in 3 parts of water, and after adding 1/4 part of the weight of the sugar of slaked lime, heating the whole from 149° to 185° F., allowing it to macerate for several days, shaking it frequently. The solution, which has the properties of mucilage, is then decanted from the sediment.

XIII.—In a solution of borax in water soak a good quantity of glue until it has thoroughly imbibed the liquid. Pour off the surplus solution and then put on the water bath and melt the glue. Cool down until the glue begins to set, then add, drop by drop, with agitation, enough acetic acid to check the tendency to solidification. If, after becoming quite cold, there is still a tendency to solidification, add a few drops more of the acid. The liquid should be of the consistence of ordinary mucilage at all times.

XIV.—Gelatin 100 parts Cabinetmakers’ glue 100 parts Alcohol 25 parts Alum 2 parts Acetic acid, 20 per cent 800 parts

Soak the gelatin and glue with the acetic acid and heat on a water bath until fluid; then add the alum and alcohol.

XV.—Glue 10 parts Water 15 parts Sodium salicylate 1 part

XVI.—Soak 5 parts of Cologne glue in an aqueous calcium chloride solution (1:4) and heat on the water bath until dissolved, replacing the evaporating water; or slack 100 parts of lime with 150 parts of hot water, dissolve 60 parts of sugar in 180 parts of water, and add 15 parts of the slacked lime to the solution, heating the whole to 75° C. (167° F.). Place aside for a few days, shaking from time to time. In the clear sugar-lime solution collected by decanting soak 60 parts of glue and assist the solution by moderate heating.

XVII.—Molasses, 100 parts, dissolved in 300 parts of water, 25 parts of quicklime (slaked to powder), being then stirred in and the mixture heated to 167° F. on a water bath, with frequent stirrings. After settling for a few days a large portion of the lime will have dissolved, and the clear, white, thick solution, when decanted, behaves like rubber solution and makes a highly adherent coating.

XVIII.—Dissolve bone glue, 250 parts, by heating in 1,000 parts of water, and add to the solution barium peroxide 10 parts, sulphuric acid (66° B.) 5 parts, and water 15 parts. Heat for 48 hours on the water bath to 80° C. (176° F.). Thus a syrupy liquid is obtained, which is allowed to settle and is then decanted. This glue has no unpleasant odor, and does not mold.

XIX.—A glue possessing the adhesive qualities of ordinary joiners’ glue, but constituting a pale yellow liquid which is ready for use without requiring heating and possesses great resistance to dampness, is produced by treating dry casein with a diluted borax solution or with enough ammonia solution to cause a faintly alkaline reaction. The preparation may be employed alone or mixed with liquid starch in any proportion.

«Glue for Celluloid.»—I.—Two parts shellac, 3 parts spirits of camphor, and 4 parts strong alcohol dissolved in a warm place, give an excellent gluing agent to fix wood, tin, and other bodies to celluloid. The glue must be kept well corked up.

II.—A collodion solution may be used, or an alcoholic solution of fine celluloid shavings.

«Glue to Form Paper Pads.»—

I.—Glue 3 1/2 ounces Glycerine 8 ounces Water, a sufficient quantity.

Pour upon the glue more than enough water to cover it and let stand for several hours, then decant the greater portion of the water; apply heat until the glue is dissolved, and add the glycerin. If the mixture is too thick, add more water.

II.—Glue 6 ounces Alum 30 grains Acetic acid 1/2 ounce Alcohol 1 1/2 ounces Water 6 1/2 ounces

Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a water bath till the glue is dissolved, allow to cool and add the alcohol.

III.—Glue 5 ounces Water 1 ounce Calcium chloride 1 ounce

Dissolve the calcium chloride in the water, add the glue, macerate until it is thoroughly softened, and then heat until completely dissolved.

IV.—Glue 20 ounces Glycerine 5 ounces Syrupy glucose 1 ounce Tannin 50 grains

Cover the glue with cold water, and let stand over night. In the morning pour off superfluous water, throw the glue on muslin, and manipulate so as to get rid of as much moisture as possible, then put in a water bath and melt. Add the {13} glycerine and syrup, and stir well in. Finally, dissolve the tannin in the smallest quantity of water possible and add.

This mixture must be used hot.

V.—Glue 15 ounces Glycerine 5 ounces Linseed oil 2 ounces Sugar 1 ounce

Soak the glue as before, melt, add the sugar and glycerine, continuing the heat, and finally add the oil gradually under constant stirring.

This must be used hot.

«Glue for Tablets.»—

I.—Glue 3 1/2 ounces Glycerine 8 ounces Water, a sufficient quantity.

Pour upon the glue more than enough water to cover it and let stand for several hours, then decant the greater portion of the water; apply heat until the glue is dissolved, and add the glycerine. If the mixture is too thick, add more water.

II.—Glue 6 ounces Alum 30 grains Acetic acid 1/2 ounce Alcohol 1 1/2 ounces Water 6 1/2 ounces

Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a water bath till the glue is dissolved, allow to cool and add the alcohol.

III.—Glue 5 ounces Water 1 ounce Calcium chloride 1 ounce

Dissolve the calcium chloride in the water, add the glue, macerate until it is thoroughly softened, and then apply heat until completely dissolved.

IV.—Glue, 1 pound; glycerine, 4 ounces; glucose syrup, 2 tablespoonfuls; tannin, 1/10 ounce. Use warm, and give an hour to dry and set on the pads. This can be colored with any aniline dye.

«Marine Glue.»—Marine glue is a product consisting of shellac and caoutchouc, which is mixed differently according to the use for which it is required. The quantity of benzol used as solvent governs the hardness or softness of the glue.

I.—One part Pará caoutchouc is dissolved in 12 parts benzol; 20 parts powdered shellac are added to the solution, and the mixture is carefully heated.

II.—Stronger glue is obtained by dissolving 10 parts good crude caoutchouc in 120 parts benzine or naphtha which solution is poured slowly and in a fine stream into 20 parts asphaltum melted in a kettle, stirring constantly and heating. Pour the finished glue, after the solvent has almost evaporated and the mass has become quite uniform, into flat molds, in which it solidifies into very hard tablets of dark brown or black color. For use, these glue tablets are first soaked in boiling water and then heated over a free flame until the marine glue has become thinly liquid. The pieces to be glued are also warmed and a very durable union is obtained.

III.—Cut caoutchouc into small pieces and dissolve in coal naphtha by heat and agitation. Add to this solution powdered shellac, and heat the whole, constantly stirring until combination takes place, then pour it on metal plates to form sheets. When used it must be heated to 248° F., and applied with a brush.

«Water-Proof Glues.»—I.—The glue is put in water till it is soft, and subsequently melted in linseed oil at moderate heat. This glue is affected neither by water nor by vapors.

II.—Dissolve a small quantity of sandarac and mastic in a little alcohol, and add a little turpentine. The solution is boiled in a kettle over the fire, and an equal quantity of a strong hot solution of glue and isinglass is added. Then filter through a cloth while hot.

III.—Water-proof glue may also be produced by the simple addition of bichromate of potassium to the liquid glue solution, and subsequent exposure to the air.

IV.—Mix glue as usual, and then add linseed oil in the proportion of 1 part oil to 8 parts glue. If it is desired that the mixture remain liquid, 1/2 ounce of nitric acid should be added to every pound of glue. This will also prevent the glue from souring.

V.—In 1,000 parts of rectified alcohol dissolve 60 parts of sandarac and as much mastic whereupon add 60 parts of white oil of turpentine. Next, prepare a rather strong glue solution and add about the like quantity of isinglass, heating the solution until it commences to boil; then slowly add the hot glue solution till a thin paste forms, which can still be filtered through a cloth. Heat the solution before use and employ like ordinary glue. A connection effected with this glue is not dissolved by cold water and even resists hot water for a long time.

VI.—Soak 1,000 parts of Cologne glue in cold water for 12 hours and in another vessel for the same length of time 150 parts of isinglass in a mixture of lamp spirit and water. Then dissolve both masses together on the water bath in a suitable vessel, thinning, if necessary, with some hot water. Next add 100 {14} parts of linseed oil varnish and filter hot through linen.

VII.—Ordinary glue is kept in water until it swells up without losing its shape. Thus softened it is placed in an iron crucible without adding water; then add linseed oil according to the quantity of the glue and leave this mixture to boil over a slow fire until a gelatinous mass results. Such glue unites materials in a very durable manner. It adheres firmly and hardens quickly. Its chief advantage, however, consists in that it neither absorbs water nor allows it to pass through, whereby the connecting places are often destroyed. A little borax will prevent putrefaction.

VIII.—Bichromate of potassium 40 parts (by weight); gelatin glue, 55 parts; alum, 5 parts. Dissolve the glue in a little water and add the bichromate of potassium and the alum.

IX.—This preparation permits an absolutely permanent gluing of pieces of cardboard, even when they are moistened by water. Melt together equal parts of good pitch and gutta-percha; of this take 9 parts, and add to it 3 parts of boiled linseed oil and 1 1/2 parts of litharge. Place this over the fire and stir it till all the ingredients are intimately mixed. The mixture may be diluted with a little benzine or oil of turpentine, and must be warm when used.

«Glue to Fasten Linoleum on Iron Stairs.»—I.—Use a mixture of glue, isinglass, and dextrin which, dissolved in water and heated, is given an admixture of turpentine. The strips pasted down must be weighted with boards and brick on top until the adhesive agent has hardened.

II.—Soak 3 parts of glue in 8 parts water, add 1/2 part hydrochloric acid and 3/4 part zinc vitriol and let this mixture boil several hours. Coat the floor and the back of the linoleum with this. Press the linoleum down uniformly and firmly and weight it for some time.

«Glue for Attaching Gloss to Precious Metals.»—Sandarac varnish, 15 parts; marine glue, 5 parts; drying oil, 5 parts; white lead, 5 parts; Spanish white, 5 parts; turpentine, 5 parts. Triturate all to form a rather homogeneous paste. This glue becomes very hard and resisting.

«Elastic Glue.»—Although elastic glue is less durable than rubber, and will not stand much heat, yet it is cheaper than rubber, and is not, like rubber affected by oil colors. Hence it is largely used for printing rollers and stamps. For stamps, good glue is soaked for 24 hours in soft water. The water is poured off, and the swollen glue is melted and mixed with glycerine and a little salicylic acid and cast into molds. The durability is increased by painting the mass with a solution of tannin, or, better, of bichromate of potassium. Printing rollers require greater firmness and elasticity. The mass for them once consisted solely of glue and vinegar, and their manufacture was very difficult. The use of glycerine has remedied this, and gives great elasticity without adhesiveness, and has removed the liability of moldiness. Swollen glue, which has been superficially dried, is fused with glycerine and cast into oil molds. Similar mixtures are used for casting plaster ornaments, etc., and give very sharp casts. A mass consisting of glue and glycerine is poured over the model in a box. When the mold is removed, it is painted with plaster outside and with boiled oil inside, and can then be used many times for making reproductions of the model.

«Glue for Paper and Metal.»—A glue which will keep well and adhere tightly is obtained by diluting 1,000 parts by weight of potato starch in 1,200 parts by weight of water and adding 50 parts by weight of pure nitric acid. The mixture is kept in a hot place for 48 hours, taking care to stir frequently. It is afterwards boiled to a thick and transparent consistency, diluted with water if there is occasion, and then there are added in the form of a screened powder, 2 parts of sal ammoniac and 1 part of sulphur flowers.

«Glue for Attaching Cloth Strips to Iron.»—Soak 500 parts of Cologne glue in the evening with clean cold water in a clean vessel; in the morning pour off the water, place the softened glue without admixture of water into a clean copper or enamel receptacle, which is put on a moderate low fire (charcoal or steam apparatus). During the dissolution the mass must be continually stirred with a wooden trowel or spatula. If the glue is too thick, it is thinned with diluted spirit, but not with water. As soon as the glue has reached the boiling point, about 50 parts of linseed oil varnish (boiled oil) is added to the mass with constant stirring. When the latter has been stirred up well, add 50 parts of powdered colophony and shake it into the mass with stirring, subsequently removing the glue from the fire. In order to increase the binding qualities and to guard against moisture, it is well still to add about 50 parts of isinglass, which has been previously cut {15} into narrow strips and placed, well beaten, in a vessel, into which enough spirit of wine has been poured to cover all. When dissolved, the last-named mass is added to the boiling glue with constant stirring. The adhesive agent is now ready for use and is employed hot, it being advisable to warm the iron also. Apply glue only to a surface equivalent to a single strip at a time. The strips are pressed down with a stiff brush or a wad of cloth.

«Glue for Leather or Cardboard.»—To attach leather to cardboard dissolve good glue (softened by spelling in water) with a little turpentine and enough water in an ordinary glue pot, and then having made a thick paste with starch in the proportion of 2 parts by weight, of starch powder for every 1 part, by weight, of dry glue, mix the compounds and allow the mixture to become cold before application to the cardboard.

«For Wood, Glass, Cardboard, and all Articles of a Metallic or Mineral Character.»—Take boiled linseed oil 20 parts, Flemish glue 20 parts, hydrated lime 15 parts, powdered turpentine 5 parts, alum 5 parts acetic acid 5 parts. Dissolve the glue with the acetic acid, add the alum, then the hydrated lime, and finally the turpentine and the boiled linseed oil. Triturate all well until it forms a homogeneous paste and keep in well-closed flasks. Use like any other glue.

«Glue for Uniting Metals with Fabrics.»—Cologne glue of good quality is soaked and boiled down to the consistency of that used by cabinetmakers. Then add, with constant stirring, sifted wood ashes until a moderately thick, homogeneous mass results. Use hot and press the pieces well together during the drying. For tinfoil, about 2 per cent of boracic acid should be added instead of the wood ashes.

«Glue or Paste for Making Paper Boxes.»—

Chloral hydrate 5 parts Gelatin, white 8 parts Gum arabic 2 parts Boiling water 30 parts

Mix the chloral, gelatin, and gum arabic in a porcelain container, pour the boiling water over the mixture and let stand for 1 day, giving it a vigorous stirring several times during the day. In cold weather this is apt to get hard and stiff, but this may be obviated by standing the container in warm water for a few minutes. This paste adheres to any surface whatever.

«Natural Glue for Cementing Porcelain, Crystal Glass, etc.»—The large shell snails which are found in vineyards have at the extremity of their body a small, whitish bladder filled with a substance of greasy and gelatinous aspect. If this substance extracted from the bladder is applied on the fragments of porcelain or any body whatever, which are juxtaposed by being made to touch at all parts, they acquire such adhesion that if one strives to separate them by a blow, they are more liable to break at another place than the cemented seam. It is necessary to give this glue sufficient time to dry perfectly, so as to permit it to acquire the highest degree of strength and tenacity.

«Belt Glue.»—A glue for belts can be prepared as follows: Soak 50 parts of gelatin in water, pour off the excess of water, and heat on the water bath. With good stirring add, first, 5 parts, by weight, of glycerine, then 10 parts, by weight, of turpentine, and 5 parts, by weight, of linseed oil varnish and thin with water as required. The ends of the belts to be glued are cut off obliquely and warmed; then the hot glue is applied, and the united parts are subjected to strong pressure, allowing them to dry thus for 24 hours before the belts are used.

«Chromium Glue for Wood, Paper, and Cloth.»—I.—(_a_) One-half pound strong glue (any glue if color is immaterial, white fish glue otherwise); soak 12 hours in 12 fluidounces of cold water. (_b_) One-quarter pound gelatin; soak 2 hours in 12 fluidounces cold water. (_c_) Two ounces bichromate of potassium dissolved in 8 fluidounces boiling water. Dissolve (_a_) after soaking, in a glue pot, and add (_b_). After (_a_) and (_b_) are mixed and dissolved, stir in (_c_). This glue is exceedingly strong, and if the article cemented be exposed to strong sunlight for 1 hour, the glue becomes perfectly waterproof. Of course, it is understood that the exposure to sunlight is to be made after the glue is thoroughly dry. The one objectionable feature of this cement is its color, which is a yellow-brown. By substituting chrome alum in place of the bichromate, an olive color is obtained.

II.—Use a moderately strong gelatin solution (containing 5 to 10 per cent of dry gelatin), to which about 1 part of acid chromate of potassium in solution is added to every 5 parts of gelatin. This mixture has the property of becoming insoluble by water through the action of sunlight under partial reduction of the chromic acid. {16}

«Fireproof Glue.»—

Raw linseed oil 8 parts Glue or gelatin 1 part Quicklime 2 parts

Soak the glue or gelatin in the oil for 10 to 12 hours, and then melt it by gently heating the oil, and when perfectly fluid stir in the quicklime until the whole mass is homogeneous, then spread out in layers to dry gradually, out of the sun’s rays. For use, reheat the glue in a glue pot in the ordinary way of melting glue.


Under this heading will be found only cements for causing one substance to adhere to another. Cements used primarily as fillers, such as dental cements, will be found under Cements, Putties, etc.

«Cutlers’ Cements for Fixing Knife Blades into Handles.»—

I.—Rosin 4 pounds Beeswax 1 pound Plaster of Paris or brickdust 1 pound

II.—Pitch 5 pounds Wood ashes 1 pound Tallow 1 pound

III.—Rosin, 12; sulphur flowers, 3; iron filings, 5. Melt together, fill the handle while hot, and insert the instrument.

IV.—Plaster of Paris is ordinarily used for fastening loose handles. It is made into a moderately thick paste with water run into the hole in the head of the pestle, the handle inserted and held in place till the cement hardens. Some add sand to the paste, and claim to get better results.

V.—Boil together 1 part of caustic soda, 3 parts of rosin, and 5 parts of water till homogeneous and add 4 parts of plaster of Paris. The paste sets in half an hour and is but little affected by water.

VI.—Equal quantities of gutta percha and shellac are melted together and well stirred. This is best done in an iron capsule placed on a sandbath and heated over a gas furnace or on the top of a stove. The combination possesses both hardness and toughness, qualities that make it particularly desirable in mending mortars and pestles. In using, the articles to be cemented should be warmed to about the melting point of the mixture and retained in proper position until cool, when they are ready for use.

VII.—Rosin 600 parts by weight Sulphur 150 parts by weight Iron filings 250 parts by weight

Pour the mixture, hot, into the opening of the heated handle and shove in the knife likewise heated.

VIII.—Melt sufficient black rosin, and incorporate thoroughly with it one-fifth its weight of very fine silver sand. Make the pestle hot, pour in a little of the mixture, then force the handle well home, and set aside for a day before using.

IX.—Make a smooth, moderately soft paste with litharge and glycerine; fill the hole in the pestle with the cement, and firmly press the handle in place, keeping it under pressure for three or four days.

«Cements for Stone.»—I.—An excellent cement for broken marble consists of 4 parts of gypsum and 1 part of finely powdered gum arabic. Mix intimately. Then with a cold solution of borax make into a mortarlike mass. Smear on each face of the parts to be joined, and fasten the bits of marble together. In the course of a few days the cement becomes very hard and holds very tenaciously. The object mended should not be touched for several days. In mending colored marbles the cement may be given the hue of the marble by adding the color to the borax solution.

II.—A cement which dries instantaneously, qualifying it for all sorts of repairing and only presenting the disadvantage of having to be freshly prepared each time, notwithstanding any subsequent heating, may be made as follows: In a metal vessel or iron spoon melt 4 to 5 parts of rosin (or preferably mastic) and 1 part of beeswax. This mixture must be applied rapidly, it being of advantage slightly to heat the surfaces to be united, which naturally must have been previously well cleaned.

III.—Slaked lime, 10 parts; chalk, 15 parts; kaolin, 5 parts; mix, and immediately before use stir with a corresponding amount of potash water glass.

IV.—Cement on Marble Slabs.—The whole marble slab is thoroughly warmed and laid face down upon a neatly cleaned planing bench upon which a woolen cloth is spread so as not to injure the polish of the slab. Next apply to the slab very hot, weak glue and quickly sift hot plaster of Paris on the glue in a thin even layer, stirring the plaster rapidly into the applied glue by means of a strong spatula, so that a uniform glue-plaster coating is formed on the warm slab. Before this has time to harden tip the respective piece of furniture on the slab. The frame, likewise warmed, will adhere very firmly to the slab after two days. Besides, this process has the advantage of great cleanliness. {17}

V.—The following is a recipe used by marble workers, and which probably can be used to advantage: Flour of sulphur, 1 part; hydrochlorate of ammonia, 2 parts; iron filings, 16 parts. The above substances must be reduced to a powder, and securely preserved in closely stoppered vessels. When the cement is to be employed, take 20 parts very fine iron filings and 1 part of the above powder; mix them together with enough water to form a manageable paste. This paste solidifies in 20 days and becomes as hard as iron. A recipe for another cement useful for joining small pieces of marble or alabaster is as follows: Add 1/2 pint of vinegar to 1/2 pint skimmed milk; mix the curd with the whites of 5 eggs, well beaten, and sufficient powdered quicklime sifted in with constant stirring so as to form a paste. It resists water and a moderate degree of heat.

VI.—Cement for Iron and Marble.—For fastening iron to marble or stone a good cement is made as follows: Thirty parts plaster of Paris, 10 parts iron filings, 1/2 part sal ammoniac mixed with vinegar to a fluid paste fresh for use.

«Cement for Sandstones.»—One part sulphur and 1 part rosin are melted separately; the melted masses are mixed and 3 parts litharge and 2 parts ground glass stirred in. The latter ingredients must be perfectly dry, and have been well pulverized and mixed previously.

Equally good cement is obtained by melting together 1 part pitch and 1/10 part wax, and mixing with 2 parts brickdust.

The stones to be cemented, or between the joints of which the putty is to be poured, must be perfectly dry. If practicable, they should be warmed a little, and the surfaces to which the putty is to adhere painted with oil varnish once or twice. The above two formulæ are of especial value in case the stones are very much exposed to the heat of the sun in summer, as well as to cold, rain, and snow in winter. Experience has shown that in these instances the above-mentioned cements give better satisfaction than the other brands of cement.

«Cements for Attaching Objects to Glass.»—

Rosin 1 part Yellow wax 2 parts

Melt together.

«To Attach Copper to Glass.»—Boil 1 part of caustic soda and 3 parts of colophony in 5 parts of water and mix with the like quantity of plaster of Paris. This cement is not attacked by water, heat, and petroleum. If, in place of the plaster of Paris, zinc white, white lead, or slaked lime is used, the cement hardens more slowly.

«To Fasten Brass upon Glass.»—Boil together 1 part of caustic soda, 3 parts of rosin, 3 parts of gypsum, and 5 parts of water. The cement made in this way hardens in about half an hour, hence it must be applied quickly. During the preparation it should be stirred constantly. All the ingredients used must be in a finely powdered state.

«Uniting Glass with Horn.»—(1) A solution of 2 parts of gelatin in 20 parts water is evaporated up to one-sixth of its volume and 1/3 mastic dissolved in 1/2 spirit added and some zinc white stirred in. The putty is applied warm; it dries easily and can be kept a long time. (2) Mix gold size with the equal volume of water glass.

«To Cement Glass to Iron.»—

I.—Rosin 5 ounces Yellow wax 1 ounce Venetian red 1 ounce

Melt the wax and rosin on a water bath and add, under constant stirring, the Venetian red previously well dried. Stir until nearly cool, so as to prevent the Venetian red from settling to the bottom.

II.—Portland cement 2 ounces Prepared chalk 1 ounce Fine sand 1 ounce Solution of sodium silicate enough to form a semi-liquid paste. III.—Litharge 2 parts White lead 1 part

Work into a pasty condition by using 3 parts boiled linseed oil, 1 part copal varnish.

«Celluloid Cements.»—I.—To mend broken draughting triangles and other celluloid articles, use 3 parts alcohol and 4 parts ether mixed together and applied to the fracture with a brush until the edges become warm. The edges are then stuck together, and left to dry for at least 24 hours.

II.—Camphor, 1 part; alcohol, 4 parts. Dissolve and add equal quantity (by weight) of shellac to this solution.

III.—If firmness is desired in putting celluloid on wood, tin, etc., the following gluing agent is recommended, viz.: A compound of 2 parts shellac, 3 parts spirit of camphor, and 4 parts strong alcohol. {18}

IV.—Shellac 2 ounces Spirits of camphor 2 ounces Alcohol, 90 per cent 6 to 8 ounces

V.—Make a moderately strong glue or solution of gelatin. In a dark place or a dark room mix with the above a small amount of concentrated solution of potassium dichromate. Coat the back of the label, which must be clean, with a thin layer of the mixture. Strongly press the label against the bottle and keep the two in close contact by tying with twine or otherwise. Expose to sunlight for some hours; this causes the cement to be insoluble even in hot water.

VI.—Lime av. oz. 1 White of egg av. oz. 2 1/2 Plaster of Paris av. oz. 5 1/2 Water fl. oz. 1

Reduce the lime to a fine powder; mix it with the white of egg by trituration, forming a uniform paste. Dilute with water, rapidly incorporate the plaster of Paris, and use the cement immediately. The surfaces to be cemented must first be moistened with water so that the cement will readily adhere. The pieces must be firmly pressed together and kept in this position for about 12 hours.

«Cementing Celluloid and Hard-Rubber Articles.»—I.—Celluloid articles can be mended by making a mixture composed of 3 parts of alcohol and 4 parts of ether. This mixture should be kept in a well-corked bottle, and when celluloid articles are to be mended, the broken surfaces are painted over with the alcohol and ether mixture until the surfaces soften: then press together and bind and allow to dry for at least 24 hours.

II.—Dissolve 1 part of gum camphor in 4 parts of alcohol; dissolve an equal weight of shellac in such strong camphor solution. The cement is applied warm and the parts united must not be disturbed until the cement is hard. Hard-rubber articles are never mended to form a strong joint.

III.—Melt together equal parts of gutta percha and real asphaltum. The cement is applied hot, and the broken surfaces pressed together and held in place while cooling.

«Sign-Letter Cements.»—

I.—Copal varnish 15 parts Drying oil 5 parts Turpentine (spirits) 3 parts Oil of turpentine 2 parts Liquefied glue 5 parts

Melt all together on a water bath until well mixed, and then add 10 parts slaked lime.

II.—Mix 100 parts finely powdered white litharge with 50 parts dry white lead, knead together 3 parts linseed oil varnish and 1 part copal varnish into a firm dough. Coat the side to be attached with this, removing the superfluous cement. It will dry quickly and become very hard.

III.—Copal varnish 15 parts Linseed-oil varnish 5 parts Raw turpentine 3 parts Oil of turpentine 2 parts Carpenters’ glue, dissolved in water 5 parts Precipitated chalk 10 parts

IV.—Mastic gum 1 part Litharge, lead 2 parts White lead 1 part Linseed oil 3 parts

Melt together to a homogeneous mass. Apply hot. To make a thorough and reliable job, the letters should be heated to at least the temperature of the cement.

«To Fix Gold Letters, etc., upon Glass.»—I.—The glass must be entirely clean and polished, and the medium is prepared in the following manner: One ounce fish glue or isinglass is dissolved in water so that the latter covers the glue. When this is dissolved a quart of rectified spirit of wine is added, and enough water is poured in to make up one-quarter the whole. The substance must be kept well corked.

II.—Take 1/2 quart of the best rum and 1/4 ounce fish glue, which is dissolved in the former at a moderate degree of heat. Then add 1/2 quart distilled water, and filter through a piece of old linen. The glass is laid upon a perfectly level table and is covered with this substance to the thickness of 1/8 inch, using a clean brush. Seize the gold leaf with a pointed object and place it smoothly upon the prepared mass, and it will be attracted by the glass at once. After 5 minutes hold the glass slightly slanting so that the superfluous mass can run off, and leave the plate in this position for 24 hours, when it will be perfectly dry. Now trace the letters or the design on a piece of paper, and perforate the lines with a thick needle, making the holes 1/16 inch apart. Then place the perforated paper upon the surface of the glass, and stamp the tracery on with powdered chalk. The paper pattern is then carefully removed, and the accurate design will remain upon the gold. The outlines are now filled out with an oily gold mass, mixed with a little chrome orange and diluted with boiled oil or turpentine. When all is dry the superfluous gold is washed off {19} with water by means of a common rag. The back of the glass is then painted with a suitable color.

«Attaching Enamel Letters to Glass.»—To affix enamel letters to glass, first clean the surface of the glass perfectly, leaving no grease or sticky substance of any kind adhering to the surface. Then with a piece of soap sketch the outlines of the design. Make the proper division of the guide lines, and strike off accurately the position each letter is to occupy. Then to the back of the letters apply a cement made as follows: White lead ground in oil, 2 parts; dry white lead, 3 parts. Mix to a soft putty consistency with good copal varnish.

With a small knife or spatula apply the cement to the back of the letters, observing especial care in getting the mixture well and uniformly laid around the inside edges of the letter. In attaching the letters to the glass make sure to expel the air from beneath the characters, and to do this, work them up and down and sidewise. If the weather be at all warm, support the letters while drying by pressing tiny beads of sealing wax against the glass, close to the under side or bottom of the letters. With a putty knife, keenly sharpened on one edge, next remove all the surplus cement. Give the letters a hard, firm pressure against the glass around all edges to securely guard against the disruptive attacks of moisture.

The seepage of moisture beneath the surface of the letters is the main cause of their early detachment from the glass.

The removal of the letters from the glass may be effected by applying turpentine to the top of the characters, allowing it to soak down and through the cement. Oxalic acid applied in the same way will usually slick the letters off in a trice.

«Cement for Porcelain Letters.»—Slake 15 parts of fresh quicklime in 20 parts of water. Melt 50 parts of caoutchouc and 50 parts of linseed-oil varnish together, and bring the mixture to a boil. While boiling, pour the liquid on the slaked lime, little by little, under constant stirring. Pass the mixture, while still hot, through muslin, to remove any possible lumps, and let cool. It takes the cement 2 days to set completely, but when dry it makes a joint that will resist a great deal of strain. By thinning the mixture down with oil of turpentine, a brilliant, powerfully adhesive varnish is obtained.

«Water-Glass Cements.»—I.—Water glass (sodium of potassium silicate), which is frequently recommended for cementing glass, does not, as is often asserted, form a vitreous connection between the joined surfaces; and, in fact, some of the commercial varieties will not even dry, but merely form a thick paste, which has a strong affinity for moisture. Good 30° B. water glass is, however, suitable for mending articles that are exposed to heat, and is best applied to surfaces that have been gently warmed; when the pieces are put together they should be pressed warmly, to expel any superfluous cement, and then heated strongly.

To repair cracked glasses or bottles through which water will leak, water glasses may be used, the application being effected in the following easy manner: The vessel is warmed to induce rarefaction of the internal air, after which the mouth is closed, either by a cork in the case of bottles, or by a piece of parchment or bladder if a wide-mouthed vessel is under treatment.

While still hot, the outside of the crack is covered with a little glass, and the vessel set aside to cool, whereupon the difference between the pressure of the external and internal air will force the cement into the fissure and close it completely. All that is then necessary is to take off the cover and leave the vessel to warm for a few hours. Subsequently rinse it out with lime water, followed by clean water, and it will then hold any liquid, acids and alkaline fluids alone excepted.

II.—When water glass is brought into contact with calcium chloride, a calcium silicate is at once formed which is insoluble in water. It seems possible that this reaction may be used in binding together masses of sand, etc. The process indicated has long been used in the preservation of stone which has become “weathered.” The stone is first brushed with the water glass and afterwards with a solution of calcium chloride. The conditions here are of course different.

Calcium chloride must not be confounded with the so-called “chloride of lime” which is a mixture of calcium hypochlorite and other bodies.

«To Fasten Paper Tickets to Glass.»—To attach paper tickets to glass, the employment of water glass is efficacious. Care should be taken to spread this product on the glass and not on the paper, and then to apply the paper dry, which should be done immediately. When the solution is dry the paper cannot be {20} detached. The silicate should be somewhat diluted. It is spread on the glass with a rag or a small sponge.


Jewelers and goldsmiths require, for the cementing of genuine and colored gems, as well as for the placing of colored folio under certain stones, very adhesive gluing agents, which must, however, be colorless. In this respect these are distinguished chiefly by the so-called diamond cement and the regular jewelers’ cement. Diamond cement is much esteemed by jewelers for cementing precious stones and corals, but may also be employed with advantage for laying colored fluxes of glass on white glass. The diamond cement is of such a nature as to be able to remain for some time in contact with water without becoming soft. It adheres best between glass or between precious stones. It is composed as follows: Isinglass 8 parts, gum ammoniac 1 part, galbanum 1 part, spirit of wine 4 parts. Soak the isinglass in water with admixture of a little spirit of wine and add the solution of the gums in the remainder of the spirit of wine. Before use, heat the diamond cement a little so as to soften it. Jewelers’ cement is used for similar purposes as is the diamond cement, and is prepared from: Isinglass (dry) 10 parts, mastic varnish 5 parts. Dissolve the isinglass in very little water, adding some strong spirit of wine. The mastic varnish is prepared by pouring a mixture of highly rectified spirit of wine and benzine over finely powdered mastic and dissolving it in the smallest possible quantity of liquid. The two solutions of isinglass and mastic are intimately ground together in a porcelain dish.

«Armenian Cement.»—The celebrated “Armenian” cement, so called formerly used by Turkish and Oriental jewelers generally, for setting precious stones, “facing diamonds,” rubies, etc., is made as follows:

Mastic gum 10 parts Isinglass (fish glue) 20 parts Gum ammoniac 5 parts Alcohol absolute 60 parts Alcohol, 50 per cent 35 parts Water 100 parts

Dissolve the mastic in the absolute alcohol; dissolve, by the aid of gentle heat, on the water bath, the isinglass in the water, and add 10 parts of the dilute alcohol. Now dissolve the ammoniacum in the residue of the dilute alcohol. Add the first solution to the second, mix thoroughly by agitation and then add the solution of gum ammoniac and stir well in. Finally put on the water bath, and keeping at a moderate heat, evaporate the whole down to 175 parts.

«Cement for Enameled Dials.»—The following is a good cement for enameled dials, plates, or other pieces: Grind into a fine powder 2 1/2 parts of dammar rosin and 2 1/2 parts of copal, using colorless pieces if possible. Next add 2 parts of Venetian turpentine and enough spirit of wine so that the whole forms a thick paste. To this grind 3 parts of the finest zinc white. The mass now has the consistency of prepared oil paint. To remove the yellow tinge of the cement add a trifle of Berlin blue to the zinc white. Finally, the whole is heated until the spirit of wine is driven off and a molten mass remains, which is allowed to cool and is kept for use. Heat the parts to be cemented.

«Watch-Lid Cement.»—The hardest cement for fixing on watch lids is shellac. If the lids are exceedingly thin the engraving will always press through. Before cementing it on the inside of the lid, in order not to injure the polish, it is coated with chalk dissolved in alcohol, which is first allowed to dry. Next melt the shellac on the stick, heat the watch lid and put it on. After the engraving has been done, simply force the lid off and remove the remaining shellac from the latter by light tapping. If this does not remove it completely lay the lid in alcohol, leaving it therein until all the shellac has dissolved. All that remains to be done now is to wash out the watch lid.

«Jewelers’ Glue Cement.»—Dissolve on a water bath 50 parts of fish glue in a little 95-per-cent alcohol, adding 4 parts, by weight, of gum ammoniac. On the other hand, dissolve 2 parts, by weight, of mastic in 10 parts, by weight, of alcohol. Mix these two solutions and preserve in a well-corked flask. For use it suffices to soften it on the water bath.

«Casein Cements.»—

I.—Borax 5 parts Water 95 parts Casein, sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the borax in water and incorporate enough casein to produce a mass of the proper consistency.

II.—The casein is made feebly alkaline by means of soda or potash lye and {21} then subjected for about 24 hours to a temperature of 140° F. Next follow the customary admixture, such as lime and water glass, and finally, to accomplish a quicker resinification, substances containing tannin are added. For tannic admixtures to the partially disintegrated casein, slight quantities—about 1 per cent—of gallic acid, cutch, or quercitannic acid are employed. The feebly alkaline casein cement containing tannic acid is used in the well-known manner for the gluing together of wood.

«For Metals.»—Make a paste with 16 ounces casein, 20 ounces slaked lime, and 20 ounces of sand, in water.

«For Glass.»—I.—Dissolve casein in a concentrated solution of borax.

II.—Make a paste of casein and water glass.

«Pasteboard and Paper Cement.»—I.—Let pure glue swell in cold water; pour and press off the excess; put on the water bath and melt. Paper or other material cemented with this is then immediately, before the cement dries, submitted to the action of formaldehyde and dried. The cement resists the action of water, even hot.

II.—Melt together equal parts of good pitch and gutta percha. To 9 parts of this mass add 3 parts of boiled linseed oil and 1/5 part litharge. The heat is kept up until, with constant stirring, an intimate union of all the ingredients has taken place. The mixture is diluted with a little benzine or oil of turpentine and applied while still warm. The cement is waterproof.

III.—The _National Druggist_ says that experience with pasting or cementing parchment paper seems to show that about the best agent is casein cement, made by dissolving casein in a saturated aqueous solution of borax.

IV.—The following is recommended for paper boxes:

Chloral hydrate 5 parts Gelatin, white 8 parts Gum arabic 2 parts Boiling water 30 parts

Mix the chloral, gelatin, and gum arabic in a porcelain container, pour the boiling water over the mixture and let stand for 1 day, giving it a vigorous stirring several times during the day. In cold weather this is apt to get hard and stiff, but this may be obviated by standing the container in warm water for a few minutes. This paste adheres to any surface whatever.

«Waterproof Cements for Glass, Stoneware, and Metal.»—I.—Make a paste of sulphur, sal ammoniac, iron filings, and boiled oil.

II.—Mix together dry: Whiting, 6 pounds; plaster of Paris, 3 pounds; sand, 3 pounds; litharge, 3 pounds; rosin, 1 pound. Make to a paste with copal varnish.

III.—Make a paste of boiled oil, 6 pounds; copal, 6 pounds; litharge, 2 pounds; white lead, 1 pound.

IV.—Make a paste with boiled oil, 3 pounds; brickdust 2 pounds; dry slaked lime, 1 pound.

V.—Dissolve 93 ounces of alum and 93 ounces of sugar of lead in water to concentration. Dissolve separately 152 ounces of gum arabic in 25 gallons of water, and then stir in 62 1/2 pounds of flour. Then heat to a uniform paste with the metallic salts, but take care not to boil the mass.

VI.—For Iron and Marble to Stand in Heat.—In 3 pounds of water dissolve first, 1 pound water glass and then 1 pound of borax. With the solution make 2 pounds of clay and 1 pound of barytes, first mixed dry, to a paste.

VII.—Glue to Resist Boiling Water.—Dissolve separately in water 55 pounds of glue and a mixture of 40 pounds of bichromate and 5 pounds of alum. Mix as wanted.

VIII. (Chinese Glue).—Dissolve shellac in 10 times its weight of ammonia.

IX.—Make a paste of 40 ounces of dry slaked lime 10 ounces of alum, and 50 ounces of white of egg.

X.—Alcohol 1,000 parts Sandarac 60 parts Mastic 60 parts Turpentine oil 60 parts

Dissolve the gums in the alcohol and add the oil and stir in. Now prepare a solution of equal parts of glue and isinglass, by soaking 125 parts of each in cold water until it becomes saturated, pouring and pressing off the residue, and melting on the water bath. This should produce a volume of glue nearly equal to that of the solution of gums. The latter should, in the meantime, have been cautiously raised to the boiling point on the water bath, and then mixed with the hot glue solution.

It is said that articles united with this substance will stand the strain of cold water for an unlimited time, and it takes hot water even a long time to affect it. {22}

XI.—Burgundy pitch 6 parts Gutta percha 1 part Pumice stone, in fine powder 3 parts

Melt the gutta percha very carefully add the pumice stone, and lastly the pitch, and stir until homogeneous.

Use while still hot. This cement will withstand water and dilute mineral acids.


I.—Use a melted mixture of gutta percha and genuine asphalt, applied hot. The hard-rubber goods must be kept pressed together until the cement has cooled.

II.—A cement which is effective for cementing rubber to iron and which is especially valuable for fastening rubber bands to bandsaw wheels is made as follows: Powdered shellac, 1 part; strong water of ammonia, 10 parts. Put the shellac in the ammonia water and set it away in a tightly closed jar for 3 or 4 weeks. By that time the mixture will become a perfectly liquid transparent mass and is then ready for use. When applied to rubber the ammonia softens it, but it quickly evaporates, leaving the rubber in the same condition as before. The shellac clings to the iron and thus forms a firm bond between the iron and the rubber.

III.—Gutta percha white 1 drachm Carbon disulphide 1 ounce

Dissolve, filter, and add:

India rubber 15 grains


«Cement for Metal on Hard Rubber.»—I.—Soak good Cologne glue and boil down so as to give it the consistency of joiners’ glue, and add with constant stirring, enough sifted wood ashes until a homogeneous, moderately thick mass results. Use warm and fit the pieces well together while drying.

«How to Unite Rubber and Leather.»—II.—Roughen both surfaces, the leather and the rubber, with a sharp glass edge; apply to both a diluted solution of gutta percha in carbon bisulphide and let this solution soak into the material. Then press upon each surface a skin of gutta percha 1/10 of an inch in thickness between rolls. The two surfaces are now united in a press, which should be warm but not hot. This method should answer in all cases in which it is applicable. The other prescription covers cases in which a press cannot be used. Cut 30 parts of rubber into small pieces, and dissolve it in 140 parts of carbon bisulphide, the vessel being placed on a water bath of 30° C. (86° F.). Further, melt 10 parts of rubber with 15 of colophony, and add 35 parts of oil of turpentine. When the rubber has been completely dissolved, the two liquids may be mixed. The resulting cement must be kept well corked.

«To Fasten Rubber to Wood.»—I.—Make a cement by macerating virgin gum rubber, or as pure rubber as can be had, cut in small pieces, in just enough naphtha or gasoline to cover it. Let it stand in a very tightly corked or sealed jar for 14 days, or a sufficient time to become dissolved, shaking the mixture daily.

II.—Dissolve pulverized gum shellac, 1 ounce, in 9 1/2 ounces of strong ammonia. This of course must be kept tightly corked. It will not be as elastic as the first preparation.

III.—Fuse together shellac and gutta percha in equal weights.

IV.—India rubber 8 ounces Gutta percha 4 ounces Isinglass 2 ounces Bisulphide of carbon 32 ounces

V.—India rubber 5 ounces Gum mastic 1 ounce Chloroform 3 ounces

VI.—Gutta percha 16 ounces India rubber 4 ounces Pitch 4 ounces Shellac 1 ounce Linseed oil 1 ounce

Amalgamate by heat.

VII.—Mix 1 ounce of oil of turpentine with 10 ounces of bisulphide of carbon in which as much gutta percha as possible has been dissolved.

VIII.—Amalgamate by heat:

Gutta percha 100 ounces Venice turpentine 80 ounces Shellac 8 ounces India rubber 2 ounces Liquid storax 10 ounces

IX.—Amalgamate by heat:

India rubber 100 ounces Rosin 15 ounces Shellac 10 ounces

Then dissolve in bisulphide of carbon.

X.—Make the following solutions separately and mix:

(_a_) India rubber 5 ounces Chloroform 140 ounces

(_b_) India rubber 5 ounces Rosin 2 ounces Venice turpentine 1 ounce Oil of turpentine 20 ounces


«Cement for Patching Rubber Boots and Shoes.»—

I.—India rubber, finely chopped 100 parts Rosin 15 parts Shellac 10 parts Carbon disulphide, q. s. to dissolve.

This will not only unite leather to leather, india rubber, etc., but will unite rubber to almost any substance.

II.—Caoutchouc, finely cut 4 parts India rubber, finely cut 1 part Carbon disulphide 32 parts

Dissolve the caoutchouc in the carbon disulphide, add the rubber, let macerate a few days, then mash with a palette knife to a smooth paste. The vessel in which the solution is made in both instances above must be kept tightly closed, and should have frequent agitations.

III.—Take 100 parts of crude rubber or caoutchouc, cut it up in small bits, and dissolve it in sufficient carbon bisulphide, add to it 15 parts of rosin and 10 parts of gum lac. The user must not overlook the great inflammability and exceedingly volatile nature of the carbon bisulphide.

«Tire Cements.»—

I.—India rubber 15 grams Chloroform 2 ounces Mastic 1/2 ounce

Mix the india rubber and chloroform together, and when dissolved, the mastic is added in powder. It is then allowed to stand a week or two before using.

II.—The following is recommended as very good for cementing pneumatic tires to bicycle wheels:

Shellac 1 ounce Gutta percha 1 ounce Sulphur 45 grains Red lead 45 grains

Melt together the shellac and gutta percha, then add, with constant stirring, the sulphur and red lead. Use while hot.

III.—Raw gutta percha 16 ounces Carbon bisulphide 72 ounces Eau de Cologne 2 2/3 ounces

This cement is the subject of an English patent and is recommended for patching cycle and motor tires, insulating electric wires, etc.

IV.—A good thick shellac varnish with which a small amount of castor oil has been mixed will be found a very excellent bicycle rim cement. The formula recommended by Edel is as follows:

Shellac 1 pound Alcohol 1 pint

Mix and dissolve, then add:

Castor oil 1/2 ounce

The castor oil prevents the cement from becoming hard and brittle.

A cement used to fasten bicycle tires may be made by melting together at a gentle heat equal parts of gutta percha and asphalt. Apply hot. Sometimes a small quantity each of sulphur and red lead is added (about 1 part of each to 20 parts of cement).

«Cements for Leather.»—

I.—Gutta percha 20 parts Syrian asphalt, powdered 20 parts Carbon disulphide 50 parts Oil of turpentine 10 parts

The gutta percha, shredded fine, is dissolved in the carbon disulphide and turpentine oil. To the solution add the asphalt and set away for several days, or until the asphalt is dissolved. The cement should have the consistency of honey. If the preparation is thinner than this let it stand, open, for a few days. Articles to be patched should first be washed with benzine.

II.—Glue 1 ounce Starch paste 2 ounces Turpentine 1 drachm Water, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the glue in sufficient water with heat; mix the starch paste with water; add the turpentine, and finally mix with the glue while hot.

III.—Soak for one day 1 pound of common glue in enough water to cover, and 1 pound of isinglass in ale droppings. Then mix together and heat gently until boiling. At this point add a little pure tannin and keep boiling for an hour. If the glue and isinglass when mixed are too thick, add water. This cement should be used warm and the jointed leather pressed tightly together for 12 hours.

IV.—A waterproof cement for leather caoutchouc, or balata, is prepared by dissolving gutta percha, caoutchouc, benzoin, gum lac, mastic, etc., in some convenient solvent like carbon disulphide, chloroform, ether, or alcohol. The best solvent, however, in the case of gutta percha, is carbon disulphide and ether for mastic. The most favorable proportions are as follows: Gutta percha, 200 to 300 parts to 100 parts of the solvent, and 75 to 85 parts of mastic to 100 parts of ether. From 5 to 8 parts of the former solution are mixed with 1 {24} part of the latter, and the mixture is then boiled on the water bath, or in a vessel fitted with a water jacket.

V.—Make a solution of 200 to 300 parts of caoutchouc, gutta percha, india rubber, benzoin, or similar gum, in 1,000 parts of carbon disulphide, chloroform, ether, or alcohol, and of this add 5 to 8 parts to a solution of mastic (75 to 125 parts) in ether 100 parts, of equal volume and boil together. Use hot water as the boiling agent, or boil very cautiously on the water bath.

VI.—Forty parts of aluminum acetate, 10° B., 10 parts of glue, 10 parts of rye flour. These materials are either to be simultaneously mixed and boiled, or else the glue is to be dissolved in the aluminum acetate, and the flour stirred into the solution. This is an excellent cement for leather, and is used in so-called art work with leather, and with leather articles which are made of several pieces. It is to be applied warm.

«Rubber Cement for Cloth.»—The following formulas have been recommended:

I.—Caoutchouc, 5 parts; chloroform, 3 parts. Dissolve and add gum mastic (powder) 1 part.

II.—Gutta percha, 16 parts; india rubber, 4 parts; pitch, 2 parts; shellac, 1 part; linseed oil, 2 parts. Reduce the solids to small pieces, melt together with the oil and mix well.

III.—The following cement for mending rubber shoes and tires will answer similar purposes:

Caoutchouc in shavings 10 parts by weight Rosin 4 parts by weight Gum turpentine 40 parts by weight Oil turpentine, enough.

Melt together first the caoutchouc and rosin, then add the gum turpentine, and when all is liquefied, add enough of oil of turpentine to preserve it liquid. A second solution is prepared by dissolving together:

Caoutchouc 10 parts by weight Chloroform 280 parts by weight

For use these two solutions are mixed. Wash the hole in the rubber shoe over with the cement, then a piece of linen dipped in it is placed over it; as soon as the linen adheres to the sole, the cement is then applied as thickly as required.


«Cements for Iron.»—I.—To make a good cement for iron on iron, make a thick paste, with water, of powdered iron, 60 parts; sal ammoniac, 2 parts, and sulphur flowers, 1 part. Use while fresh.

II.—Sulphur flowers, 6 parts; dry white lead 6 parts, and powdered borax, 1 part. Mix by sifting and keep as a dry powder in a closed tin box. To use, make into a thin paste with strong sulphuric acid and press together immediately. This cement will harden in 5 days.

III.—Graphite 50 pounds Whiting 15 pounds Litharge 15 pounds

Make to a paste with a boiled oil.

IV.—Make a paste of white lead and asbestos.

V.—Make a paste of litharge and glycerine. Red lead may be added. This also does for stone.

VI.—Make a paste of boiled oil of equal parts of white lead, pipe clay, and black oxide of manganese.

VII.—Make iron filings to a paste with water glass.

VIII.—Sal ammoniac 4 ounces Sulphur 2 ounces Iron filings 32 ounces

Make as much as is to be used at once to a paste with a little water. This remark applies to both the following dry recipes:

IX.—Iron filings 160 ounces Lime 80 ounces Red lead 16 ounces Alum 8 ounces Sal ammoniac 2 ounces

X.—Clay 10 ounces Iron filings 4 ounces Salt 1 ounce Borax 1 ounce Black oxide of manganese 2 ounces


Iron filings 180 ounces Lime 45 ounces Salt 8 ounces


Iron filings 140 ounces Hydraulic lime 20 ounces Sand 25 ounces Sal ammoniac 3 ounces

Either of these last two mixtures is made into a paste with strong vinegar just before use.

XIII.—Mix equal weights of zinc oxide and black oxide of manganese into a paste with water glass.

XIV.—Copal varnish, 15 parts; hydrated lime, 10 parts; glue _de nerfs_ (of sinews), 5 parts; fat drying oil, 5 parts; {25} powdered turpentine, 3 parts; essence of turpentine, 2 parts. Dissolve the glue _de nerfs_ on the water bath, add all the other substances, and triturate intimately.

XV.—Copal varnish, 15 parts; powdered turpentine, 3 parts; essence of turpentine, 2 parts; powdered fish glue, 3 parts; iron filings, 3 parts; ocher, 10 parts.

XVI.—To make a cement for cast iron, take 16 ounces cast-iron borings; 2 ounces sal ammoniac, and 1 ounce sulphur. Mix well and keep dry. When ready to use take 1 part of this powder to 20 parts of cast-iron borings and mix thoroughly into a stiff paste, adding a little water.

XVII.—Litharge 2 parts Boiled linseed oil 2 parts White lead 1 part Copal 1 part

Heat together until of a uniform consistence and apply warm.

XVIII.—A cement for iron which is said to be perfectly waterproof and fireproof is made by working up a mixture of equal weights of red lead and litharge with glycerine till the mass is perfectly homogeneous and has the consistency of a glazier’s putty. This cement is said to answer well, even for very large iron vessels, and to be unsurpassable for stopping up cracks in large iron pans of steam pipes.

«Cement for Metal, Glass, and Porcelain.»—A soft alloy is prepared by mixing from 30 to 36 parts of copper precipitated in the form of a fine brown powder, with sulphuric acid of a specific gravity of 1.85 in a cast-iron or porcelain mortar and incorporating by stirring with 75 parts of mercury, the acid being afterwards removed by washing with water. In from 10 to 14 hours the amalgam becomes harder than tin, but when heated to 692° F., it can be kneaded like wax. In this condition it is applied to the surface to be cemented, and will fix them firmly together on cooling.

Dissolve 1 drachm of gum mastic in 3 drachms of spirits of wine. In a separate vessel containing water soak 3 drachms of isinglass. When thoroughly soaked take it out of the water and put it into 5 drachms of spirits of wine. Take a piece of gum ammoniacum the size of a large pea and grind it up finely with a little spirits of wine and isinglass until it has dissolved. Then mix the whole together with sufficient heat. It will be found most convenient to place the vessel on a hot-water bath. Keep this cement in a bottle closely stoppered, and when it is to be used, place it in hot water until dissolved.

«Cements for Fastening Porcelain to Metal.»—I.—Mix equal parts of alcohol (95 per cent) and water, and make a paste by incorporating the liquid with 300 parts of finely pulverized chalk and 250 parts of starch.

II.—Mix finely powdered burned lime, 300 parts, with powdered starch, 250 parts, and moisten the mixture with a compound of equal parts of water and alcohol of 95 per cent until a paste results.

III.—Cement or plaster can be used if the surfaces are sufficiently large; cement is the better article when the object may be exposed to moisture or subjected to much pressure. A process which can be recommended consists in mingling equal weights of chalk, brickdust, clay, and Romain cement. These materials, pulverized and sifted are incorporated with linseed oil in the proportion of half a kilo of oil to 3 kilos of the mingled powder. The Romain or Romanic cement is so designated from the district in France where the calcareous stone from which it is prepared is found in considerable quantity. Although its adhesive qualities are unquestioned, there are undoubtedly American cements equally as good.

IV.—Acetate of lead, 46 1/2 parts by weight; alum, 46 1/2 parts by weight; gum arabic, 76 parts by weight; flour, 500 parts by weight; water, 2,000 parts by weight. Dissolve the acetate of lead and the alum in a little water; on the other hand dissolve the gum arabic in water by pouring, for instance, the 2 liters of boiling water on the gum arabic reduced to powder. When the gum has dissolved, add the flour, put all on the fire, and stir well with a piece of wood; then add the solution of acetate of lead and the alum; agitate well so as to prevent any lumps from forming; retire from the fire before allowing to boil. This glue is used cold, does not peel off, and is excellent to make wood, glass, cardboard, etc. adhere to metals.

«Cement for Leather and Iron.»—To face a cast-iron pulley with leather apply acetic acid to the face of the pulley with a brush, which will roughen it by rusting, and then when dry apply a cement made of 1 pound of fish glue and 1/2 pound of common glue, melted in a mixture of alcohol and water. The leather should then be placed on the pulley and dried under pressure. {26}

«Amber Cements.»—I.—To solder together two pieces of yellow amber, slightly heat the parts to be united and moisten them with a solution of caustic soda; then bring the two pieces together quickly.

II.—Dissolve in a closed bottle 75 parts of cut-up caoutchouc in 60 parts of chloroform. Add 15 parts of mastic and let the mixture stand in the cold until all has dissolved.

III.—Moisten the pieces to be joined with caustic potash and press them together when warm. The union is so perfect that no trace of the juncture is visible. A concentrated alcoholic solution of the rosin over the amber, soluble in alcohol, is also employed for this purpose. Another medium is a solution of hard and very finely powdered copal in pure sulphuric ether. Coat both fractures, previously well cleaned, with this solution and endeavor to combine them intimately by tying or pressing.

IV.—In 30 parts by weight of copal dissolve 30 parts by weight of alumina by means of a water bath. Bathe the surface to be cemented with this gelatinous liquid, but very slightly. Unite the fractures and press them together firmly until the mixture is dry.

«Acid-Proof Cements for Stoneware and Glass.»—I.—Mix with the aid of heat equal weights of pitch, rosin, and plaster of Paris.

II.—Mix silicate of soda to a paste with ground glass.

III.—Mix boiled oil to a paste with china clay.

IV.—Mix coal tar to a paste with pipe clay.

V.—Mix boiled oil to a paste with quicklime.

VI.—Mix with the aid of heat: Sulphur, 100 pounds; tallow, 2 pounds; rosin, 2 pounds. Thicken with ground glass.

VII.—Mix with the aid of heat: Rosin, 2 pounds; sulphur, 2 pounds; brickdust, 4 pounds.

VIII.—Mix with the aid of heat 2 pounds of india rubber and 4 pounds of oiled oil. Thicken with 12 pounds of pipe clay.

IX.—Fuse 100 pounds of india rubber with 7 pounds of tallow. Then make to a paste with dry slaked lime and finally add 20 pounds of red lead.

X.—Mix with the aid of heat: Rosin, 24 pounds; red ocher, 8 pounds; boiled oil, 2 pounds; plaster of Paris, 4 pounds.

«Acid-Proof Cement for Wood, Metals, etc.»—

I.—Powdered asbestos 2 parts Ground baryta 1 part Sodium water-glass solution 2 parts


II.—To withstand hot nitric acid the following is used:

Sodium water-glass solution 2 parts Sand 1 part Asbestos 1 part


III.—Asbestos 2 parts Sulphate of barium 3 parts Silicate of sodium 2 parts

By mixing these ingredients a cement strong enough to resist the strongest nitric acid will be obtained.

IV.—If hot acids are dealt with, the following mixture will be found to possess still more resistant powers:

Silicate of sodium (50° Baumé) 2 parts Fine sand 1 part Asbestos 1 part

Both these cements take a few hours to set. If the cement is wanted to set at once, use silicate of potassium, instead of silicate of sodium. This mixture will be instantly effective and possesses the same power of resistance as the other.

«Directions for Repairing Broken Glass, Porcelain, Bric-à-Brac.»—Broken glass, china, bric-à-brac, and picture frames, not to name casts, require each a different cement—in fact, several different cements. Glass may be beautifully mended to look at, but seldom so as to be safely used. For clear glass the best cement is isinglass dissolved in gin. Put 2 ounces of isinglass in a clean, wide-mouthed bottle, add half a pint of gin, and set in the sun until dissolved. Shake well every day, and before using strain through double lawn, squeezing very gently.

Spread a white cloth over the mending table and supply it with plenty of clean linen rags, strong rubber bands, and narrow white tape, also a basin of tepid water and a clean soft towel. Wash the broken glass very clean, especially along the break, but take care not to chip it further. Wet both broken edges well with the glue, using a camel’s-hair pencil. Fit the break to a nicety, then slip on rubber bands length- and cross-wise, every way they will hold. If they will not hold true as upon a stemmed {27} thing, a vase or jug or scent bottle, string half a dozen bands of the same size and strength upon a bit of tape, and tie the tape about neck or base before beginning the gluing. After the parts are joined slip another tape through the same bands and tie it above the fracture; thus with all their strength the bands pull the break together. The bands can be used thus on casts of china—in fact, to hold anything mendable. In glass mending the greater the pressure the better—if only it stops short of the breaking point. Properly made the isinglass cement is as clear as water. When the pieces fit true one on the other the break should be hardly visible, if the pressure has been great enough to force out the tiny bubbles, which otherwise refract the light and make the line of cleavage distressingly apparent. Mended glass may be used to hold dry things—as rose leaves, sachets, violet powder, even candies and fruits. But it will not bear to have any sort of liquid left standing in it, nor to be washed beyond a quick rinsing in tepid water. In wiping always use a very soft towel, and pat the vessel dry with due regard to its infirmities.

Mend a lamp loose in the collar with sifted plaster of Paris mixed to a very soft paste with beaten white of egg. Have everything ready before wetting up the plaster, and work quickly so it may set in place. With several lamps to mend wet enough plaster for one at a time. It takes less than 5 minutes to set, and is utterly worthless if one tries working it over. Metal work apart from the glass needs the soldering iron. Dust the break well with powdered rosin, tie the parts firmly together, lay the stick of solder above the break, and fetch the iron down on it lightly but firmly. When the solder cools, remove the melted rosin with a cloth dipped in alcohol.

Since breakables have so unhappy a knack of fracturing themselves in such fashion they cannot possibly stand upright, one needs a sand box. It is only a box of handy size with 8 inches of clean, coarse sand in the bottom. Along with it there should be some small leaden weights, with rings cast in them, running from an ounce to a quarter pound. Two of each weight are needed. In use, tapes are tied to the rings, and the pair of weights swung outside the edges of the box, so as to press in place the upper part of a broken thing to which the tapes have been fastened.

Set broken platters on edge in the sand box with the break up. The sand will hold them firm, and the broken bit can be slapped on. It is the same with plates and saucers. None of these commonly requires weighting. But very fine pieces where an invisible seam is wanted should be held firm until partly set, then have the pair of heaviest weights accurately balanced across the broken piece. The weights are also very useful to prop and stay topheavy articles and balance them so they shall not get out of kilter. A cup broken, as is so common with cups, can have the tape passed around it, crossing inside the handle, then be set firmly in the sand, face down, and be held by the hanging weights pulling one against the other.

The most dependable cement for china is pure white lead, ground in linseed oil, so thick it will barely spread smoothly with a knife. Given time enough to harden (some 3 months), it makes a seam practically indestructible. The objection to it is that it always shows in a staring white line. A better cement for fine china is white of egg and plaster. Sift the plaster three times and tie a generous pinch of it loosely in mosquito netting. Then beat the egg until it will stick to the plaster. Have the broken edge very clean, cover both with the beaten egg, dust well with the plaster, fit together at once, tie, using rubber bands if possible, wrap loosely in very soft tissue paper, and bury head and ears in the sand box, taking care that the break lies so that the sand will hold it together. Leave in the box 24 hours. After a week the superfluous plaster may be gently scraped away.

«General Formulas for Cements for Repairing Porcelain, Glassware, Crockery, Plaster, and Meerschaum.»—I.—An excellent cement for joining broken crockery and similar small articles can be made by melting 4 or 5 parts of rosin (or, better still, gum mastic) with 1 part of beeswax in an iron spoon or similar vessel. Apply while hot. It will not stand great heat.

II.—An excellent cement for porcelain and stoneware is obtained by mixing 20 parts of fish glue with an equal weight of crystallizable acetic acid and evaporate the mixture carefully to a syrupy consistency so that it forms a gelatinous mass on cooling. For use the cement thus obtained is made liquid again by heating and applied to the fracture with a brush. The pieces should now be pressed firmly together, by winding a twine tightly around them, until the cement has hardened.

III.—For luting vessels made of glass, {28} porcelain, etc., which are to be used to hold strong acids, a mixture of asbestos powder, water glass, and an indifferent powder (permanent white, sand, etc.) is recommended. To begin with, asbestos powder is made into a pulp with three or four times the quantity (weight) of a solution of soda water glass (of 30° B.). The same is exceedingly fat and plastic, but is not very well suited for working, as it shrinks too much and cracks when drying. By an addition of fine writing sand of the same weight as the asbestos used, the mass can be made less fat, so as to obviate shrinking, without detracting from the plasticity. Small vessels were molded from it and dried in the air, to be tested afterwards. Put in water, the hardened mass becomes soft again and falls apart. Brought into contact, however, with very strong mineral acids, it becomes even firmer and withstands the liquid perfectly. Concentrated nitric acid was kept in such small vessels without the mass being visibly attacked or anything penetrating it. The action of the acid manifestly has the effect that silicic acid is set free from the water glass in excess, which clogs up the pores entirely and contributes to the lutation. Later on, the mass cannot be dissolved by pure water any more. The mass is also highly fireproof. One of the molded bodies can be kept glowing in a Bunsen gas flame for about half a day after treatment with acid, without slagging in the least. For many purposes it ought to be welcome to have such a mass at hand. It cannot be kept ready for use, however, as it hardens a few hours after being prepared; if potash water glass is used, instead of the soda composition, this induration takes place still more quickly.

IV.—Cement for Glass, Porcelain, etc.—

Isinglass (fish glue) 50 parts Gum ammoniac 4 parts Gum mastic 2 parts Alcohol, 95 per cent 10 parts Water, q. s.

Soak the isinglass in cold water over night, or until it has become swollen and soft throughout. In the morning throw off any superfluous fluid and throw the isinglass on a clean towel or other coarse cloth, and hang it up in such a way that any free residual water will drain away. Upon doing this thoroughly depends, in a great measure, the strength of the cement. When the gelatin has become thoroughly drained put it into a flask or other container, place it in the water bath and heat carefully until it becomes fluid, being careful not to let it come to a boil, as this injures its adhesive properties (the same may be said in regard to glues and gelatins of all kinds). Dissolve the gums in the alcohol and add the solution to the gelatin after removing the same from the water bath, and letting it cool down to about 160° F. Stir well together or mix by agitation.

The following precautions must be observed: 1. Both surfaces to be joined must be absolutely clean, free from dust, dirt, grease, etc. 2. Where the cement is one that requires the application of heat before use, the objects to be united should also _be heated to a point at least as high as the melting point of the cement_. Otherwise, the cement on application is chilled and consequently fails to make a lasting joint. 3. The thinner the layer of cement the stronger the joint; avoid, therefore, using too much of the binding material. Cover both surfaces to be united, coapt them exactly, and press together as closely as possible. In this manner the thinnest possible layer is secured. 4. Bind the parts securely together, and let remain without loosening or attempting to use the article for 2 or 3 days or longer. A liquid cement acquires its full strength only after evaporation of the fluids used as solvents, and this can occur only from the infinitesimal line of exposed surface.

V.—Liquid Porcelain Cement.—Fish glue, 20 parts; glass acetic acid, 20 parts; heat together until the mass gelatinizes on cooling.

VI.—Take 1 ounce of Russian isinglass, cut in small pieces, and bruise well; then add 6 ounces of warm water, and leave it in a warm place for from 24 to 48 hours. Evaporate the resulting solution to about 3 ounces. Next dissolve 1/2 ounce of mastic in 4 ounces of alcohol, and add the mastic solution to the isinglass in small quantities at a time, continuing the heat and stirring well. While still hot strain the liquid through muslin.

VII.—For optical glasses, Canada balsam is employed, the two pieces being firmly pressed together. After a while, especially by humidity, punctures will form, and the glass is separated by a mist of varying reflexes, while in certain climates the heat will melt the balsam. For all other glass articles which require only simple treatment, such as knobs of covers, plates, etc., silicate of potash is excellent.

VIII.—Glass Cement.—Dissolve in 150 parts of acetic acid of 96 per cent, 100 {29} parts of gelatin by the use of heat, and add ammonium bichromate, 5 parts. This glue must be kept away from the light.

IX.—White glue 10 parts Potassium bichromate 2 parts Water 100 parts

The glue is dissolved in a portion of the water by the aid of heat, the bichromate in the remainder, and the liquids mixed, the mixing being done in a feebly lighted place, and the mixture is then kept in the dark. It is applied in feeble light, being reliquefied by gentle heat, and the glass, the fractured pieces being tightly clamped together, is then exposed to a strong light for some time. By this exposure the cement becomes insoluble. This is waterproof cement for glass.

X.—Diamond Glass Cement.—Dissolve 100 parts of fish glue in 150 parts of 90 per cent alcohol and add, with constant stirring, 200 parts of powdered rosin. This cement must be preserved in absolutely tight bottles, as it solidifies very quickly.

XI.—To unite objects of crystal dissolve 8 parts of caoutchouc and 100 parts of gum mastic in 600 parts of chloroform. Set aside, hermetically closed, for 8 days; then apply with a brush, cold.

XII.—To make a transparent cement for glass, digest together for a week in the cold 1 ounce of india rubber, 67 ounces of chloroform, and 40 ounces of mastic.

XIII.—A mixture of traumaticin, a solution of caoutchouc in chloroform, and a concentrated solution of water glass make a capital cement for uniting articles of glass. Not only is the joint very strong, but it is transparent. Neither changes of temperature nor moisture affect the cement.

XIV.—A transparent cement for porcelain is prepared by dissolving 75 parts of india rubber, cut into small pieces, in a bottle containing 60 parts chloroform; to this add 15 parts green mastic. Let the bottle stand in the cold until the ingredients have become thoroughly dissolved.

XV.—Some preparations resist the action of heat and moisture a short time, but generally yield very quickly. The following cement for glass has proven most resistant to liquids and heat:

Silver litharge 1,000 parts White lead 50 parts Boiled linseed oil 3 parts Copal varnish 1 part

Mix the lead and litharge thoroughly, and the oil and copal in the same manner, and preserve separately. When needed for use, mix in the proportions indicated (150 parts of the powder to 4 parts of the liquid) and knead well together. Apply to the edges of the glass, bind the broken parts together, and let stand for from 24 to 48 hours.

XVI.—To reunite plaster articles dissolve small pieces of celluloid in ether; in a quarter of an hour decant, and use the pasty deposit which remains for smearing the edges of the articles. It dries rapidly and is insoluble in water.

XVII.—To Mend Wedgwood Mortars.—It is easy enough to mend mortars so that they may be used for making emulsions and other light work which does not tax their strength too much. But a mended mortar will hardly be able to stand the force required for powdering hard substances. A good cement for mending mortars is the following:

_a._—Glass flour elutriated 10 parts Fluorspar, powdered and elutriated 20 parts Silicate of soda 60 parts

Both glass and fluorspar must be in the finest possible condition, which is best done by shaking each in fine powder, with water allowing the coarser particles to deposit, and then to pour off the remainder, which holds the finest particles in suspension. The mixture must be made very rapidly by quick stirring, and when thoroughly mixed must be at once applied. This is said to yield an excellent cement.

_b._—Freshly burnt plaster of Paris 5 parts Freshly burnt lime 1 part White of egg, sufficient.

Reduce the first two ingredients to a very fine powder and mix them well; moisten the two surfaces to be united with a small quantity of white of egg to make them adhesive; then mix the powder very rapidly with the white of egg and apply the mixture to the broken surfaces. If they are large, two persons should do this, each applying the cement to one portion. The pieces are then firmly pressed together and left undisturbed for several days. The less cement is used the better will the articles hold together.

_c._—If there is no objection to dark-colored cement, the very best that can be used is probably marine glue. This is made thus: Ten parts of caoutchouc or india rubber are dissolved in 120 parts of benzine or petroleum naphtha, with {30} the aid of a gentle heat. When the solution is complete, which sometimes requires from 10 to 14 days, 20 parts of asphalt are melted in an iron vessel and the caoutchouc solution is poured in very slowly in a fine stream and under continued heating, until the mass has become homogeneous and nearly all the solvent has been driven off. It is then poured out and cast into greased tin molds. It forms dark brown or black cakes, which are very hard to break. This cement requires considerable heat to melt it; and to prevent it from being burnt it is best to heat a capsule containing a piece of it first on a water bath until the cake softens and begins to be liquid. It is then carefully wiped dry and heated over a naked flame, under constant stirring, up to about 300° F. The edges of the article to be mended should, if possible, also be heated to at least 212° F., so as to permit the cement to be applied at leisure and with care. The thinner the cement is applied the better it binds.

«Meerschaum Cements.»—I.—If the material is genuine (natural) meerschaum a lasting joint can be made between the parts by proceeding as follows: Clean a clove or two of garlic (the fresher the better) by removing all the outside hull of skin; throw into a little mortar and mash to a paste. Rub this paste over each surface to be united and join quickly. Bring the parts as closely together as possible and fasten in this position. Have ready some boiling fresh milk; place the article in it and continue the boiling for 30 minutes. Remove and let cool slowly. If properly done, this makes a joint that will stand any ordinary treatment, and is nearly invisible. For composition, use a cement made of quicklime, rubbed to a thick cream with egg albumen.

II.—Mix very fine meerschaum shavings with albumen or dissolve casein in water glass, stir finely powdered magnesia into the mass, and use the cement at once. This hardens quickly.

«Asbestos Cement.»—Ground asbestos may be made into a cement which will stand a high degree of heat by simply mixing it with a solution of sodium silicate. By subsequent treatment with a solution of calcium chloride the mass may be made insoluble, silicate of calcium being formed.

A cement said to stand a high degree of heat and to be suitable for cementing glass, porcelain, or other vessels intended to hold corrosive acids, is this one:

I.—Asbestos 2 parts Barium sulphate 3 parts Sodium silicate 2 parts

By mixing these ingredients a cement strong enough to resist the strongest nitric acid will be obtained. If hot acids are dealt with, the following mixture will be found to possess still more resistant powers:

II.—Sodium silicate 2 parts Fine sand 1 part Asbestos powder 1 part

Both these cements take a few hours to set. If the cement is wanted to set at once, use potassium silicate instead of sodium silicate. This mixture will be instantly effective, and possesses the same power of resistance as the other.

«Parisian Cement.»—Mix 1 part of finely ground glass powder, obtained by levigation, with 3 parts of finely powdered zinc oxide rendered perfectly free from carbonic acid by calcination. Besides prepare a solution of 1 part, by weight, of borax in a very small quantity of hot water and mix this with 50 parts of a highly concentrated zinc chloride solution of 1.5 to 1.6 specific gravity. As is well known the mixture of this powder with the liquid into a soft uniform paste is accomplished only immediately before use. The induration to a stonelike mass takes place within a few minutes, the admixture of borax retarding the solidification somewhat. The pure white color of the powder may be tinted with ocher, manganese, etc., according to the shade desired.

«Strong Cement.»—Pour over well-washed and cleaned casein 12 1/2 parts of boiled linseed oil and the same amount of castor oil. Boil. Stir actively and add a small amount of a saturated aqueous solution of alum; remove from the fire and set aside. After a while a milky looking fluid will separate and rise. This should be poured off. To the residue add 120 parts of rock candy syrup and 6 parts of dextrin.

«A Cheap and Excellent Cement.»—A cheap and excellent cement, insoluble after drying in water, petroleum, oils, carbon disulphide, etc., very hard when dry and of very considerable tensile strength, is composed of casein and some tannic-acid compound, as, for instance, calcium tannate, and is prepared as follows:

First, a tannin solution is prepared either by dissolving a tannin salt, or by extraction from vegetable sources (as barks from certain trees, etc.), to which {31} is added clear lime water (obtained by filtering milk of lime, or by letting the milk stand until the lime subsides) until no further precipitation occurs, and red litmus paper plunged in the fluid is turned blue. The liquid is now separated from its precipitate, either by decantation or otherwise, and the precipitate is dried. In operating with large quantities of the substance, this is done by passing a stream of atmospheric air through the same. The lime tannate obtained thus is then mixed with casein in proportions running from 1:1 up to 1:10, and the mixture, thoroughly dried, is milled into the consistency of the finest powder. This powder has now only to be mixed with water to be ready for use, the consistency of the preparation depending upon the use to which it is to be put.

«Universal Cement.»—Take gum arabic, 100 parts, by weight; starch, 75 parts, by weight; white sugar, 21 parts, by weight; camphor, 4 parts, by weight. Dissolve the gum arabic in a little water; also dissolve the starch in a little water. Mix and add the sugar and camphor. Boil on the water bath until a paste is formed which, on coating, will thicken.

«Cement for Ivory.»—Melt together equal parts of gutta percha and ordinary pitch. The pieces to be united have to be warmed.

«Cement for Belts.»—Mix 50 parts, by weight, of fish glue with equal parts of whey and acetic acid. Then add 50 parts, by weight, of garlic in paste form and boil the whole on the water bath. At the same time make a solution of 100 parts, by weight, of gelatin in the same quantity of whey, and mix both liquids. To the whole add, finally, 50 parts, by weight, of 90-per-cent alcohol and, after filtration, a cement is obtained which can be readily applied with a brush and possesses extraordinary binding qualities.

«Cement for Chemical Apparatus.»—Melt together 20 parts of gutta percha, 10 parts of yellow wax, and 30 parts of shellac.

«Size Over Portland Cement.»—The best size to use on Portland cement molding for wall paper would ordinarily be glue and alum size put on thin and warm, made in proportion of 1/2 pound of glue and same weight of alum dissolved in separate pails, then poured together.

«Aquarium Cements.»—

I.—Litharge 3 ounces Fine white sand 3 ounces Plaster of Paris 3 ounces Rosin, in fine powder 1 ounce Linseed oil, enough. Drier, enough.

Mix the first three ingredients, add sufficient linseed oil to make a homogeneous paste, and then add a small quantity of drier. This should stand a few hours before it is used. It is said that glass joined to iron with this cement will break before it will come loose.

II.—Litharge 1 ounce Fine white sand 1 ounce Plaster of Paris 1 ounce Manganese borate 20 grains Rosin, in fine powder 3 1/2 pounds Linseed varnish oil, enough.

III.—Take equal parts of flowers of sulphur, ammonium chloride, and iron filings, and mix thoroughly with boiled linseed oil. Finally, add enough white lead to form a thin paste.

IV.—Powdered graphite 6 parts Slaked lime 3 parts Barium sulphate 8 parts Linseed varnish oil 7 parts

V.—Simply mix equal parts of white and red lead with a little kettle-boiled linseed oil.

«Substitute for Cement on Grinder Disks.»—A good substitute in place of glue or various kinds of cement for fastening emery cloth to the disks of grinders of the Gardner type is to heat or warm the disk and apply a thin coating of beeswax; then put the emery cloth in place and allow to set and cool under pressure.

«Knockenplombe.»—If 1 part of thymol be mixed with 2 parts of iodoform we obtain a substance that retains its fluidity down to 72° C. (161.6° F.). If the temperature be carried down to 60° C. (140° F.) it suddenly becomes solid and hard. If, in its liquid condition, this substance be mixed intimately with an equal quantity of calcined bone, it forms a cement that can be molded or kneaded into any shape, that, at the temperature of the body (98° F.), becomes as hard as stone, a fact that suggests many useful purposes to which the mixture may be put.

«Cement for General Use.»—Take gum arabic, 100 parts, by weight; starch, 75 {32} parts by weight; white sugar, 21 parts, by weight; camphor, 4 parts, by weight. Dissolve the gum arabic in a little water. On the other hand, dissolve the starch also in some water. When this is done add the sugar and the camphor and put in a water bath. Boil until a paste is formed, which must be rather thin, because it will thicken on cooling.

«Strong Cement.»—Pour over well-washed and cleaned casein 12 1/2 parts of boiled linseed oil and the same amount of castor oil, put on the fire and bring to a boil; stir actively and add a small amount of a saturated aqueous solution of alum; remove from the fire and set aside. After standing a while a milky-looking fluid will separate at the bottom and rise to the top. This should be poured off and to the residue add 120 parts of rock-candy syrup and 6 parts of dextrine.

«Syndeticon.»—I.—Slake 100 parts of burnt lime with 50 parts of water, pour off the supernatant water; next, dissolve 60 parts of lump sugar in 160 parts of water, add to the solution 15 parts of the slaked lime, heat to 70° or 80° C. (158° to 176° F.), and set aside, shaking frequently. Finally dissolve 50 to 60 parts of genuine Cologne glue in 250 parts of the clear solution.

II.—A solution of 10 parts gum arabic and 30 parts of sugar in 100 parts of soda water glass.

III.—A hot solution of 50 parts of Cologne glue in 60 parts of a 20-per-cent aqueous calcium-chloride solution.

IV.—A solution of 50 parts of Cologne glue in 60 parts of acetic acid.

V.—Soak isinglass (fish bladder) in acetic acid of 70 per cent until it swells up, then rub it up, adding a little water during the process.

«“Shio Liao.”»—Under this name the Chinese manufacture an excellent cement which takes the place of glue, and with which gypsum, marble, porcelain, stone, and stoneware can be cemented. It consists of the following parts (by weight): Slaked powdered lime, 54 parts; powdered alum, 6 parts; and fresh, well-strained blood, 40 parts. These materials are stirred thoroughly until an intimately bound mass of the consistency of a more or less stiff salve is obtained. In paste form this mass is used as cement; in a liquid state it is employed for painting all sorts of articles which are to be rendered waterproof and durable. Cardboard covers, which are coated with it two or three times, become as hard as wood. The Chinese paint their houses with “shio liao” and glaze their barrels with it, in which they transport oil and other greasy substances.


Lutes always consist of a menstruum and dissolved or suspended solids, and they must not be attacked by the gases and liquids coming in contact with them. In some cases the constituents of the lute react to form a more strongly adhering mass.

The conditions of application are, in brief:

(_a_) Heating the composition to make it plastic until firmly fixed in place.

(_b_) Heating the surfaces.

(_c_) Applying the lute with water or a volatile solvent, which is allowed to volatilize.

(_d_) Moistening the surfaces with water, oil, etc. (the menstruum of the lute itself).

(_e_) Applying the lute in workable condition and the setting taking place by chemical reactions.

(_f_) Setting by hydration.

(_g_) Setting by oxidation.

These principles will be found to cover nearly all cases.

Joints should not be ill-fitting, depending upon the lute to do what the pipes or other parts of the apparatus should do. In most cases one part of the fitting should overlap the other, so as to make a small amount of the lute effective and to keep the parts of the apparatus rigid, as a luted joint is not supposed to be a particularly strong one, but rather one quickly applied, effective while in place and easily removed.

Very moderate amounts of the lute should be used, as large amounts are likely to develop cracks, be rubbed off, etc.

A classification may be given as follows:

(1) Plaster of Paris.

(2) Hydraulic cement.

(3) Clay.

(4) Lime.

(5) Asphalt and pitch.

(6) Rosin.

(7) Rubber.

(8) Linseed oil.

(9) Casein and albumen.

(10) Silicates of soda and oxychloride cements.

(11) Flour and starch.

(12) Miscellaneous, including core compounds.

I. Plaster of Paris is, of course, often used alone as a paste; which quickly {33} solidifies, for gas and wood distillation retorts, etc., and similar places where quickness of setting is requisite. It is more often, however, used with some fibrous material to give it greater strength. Asbestos is the most commonly used material of these, as it will stand a high temperature. When that is not so important, straw, plush trimmings, hair, etc., are used as binders, while broken stone, glass, and various mineral substances are used as fillers, but they do not add anything to the strength. These lutes seem to be particularly suitable for oil vapors and hydrocarbon gases.


(1) Plaster and water. (2) Plaster (wet) and asbestos. (3) Plaster (wet) and straw. (4) Plaster (wet) and plush trimmings. (5) Plaster (wet) and hair. (6) Plaster (wet) and broken stone, etc.

II. Hydraulic Cement.—Cement is used either alone or with sand, asbestos, etc. These lutes are suitable for nitric acid. When used with substances such as rosin or sulphur, cement is probably employed because it is in such a fine state of division and used as a filler and not because of any powers of setting by hydration.


(1) Cement—neat. (2) Cement and asbestos. (3) Cement and sand.

III. Clay.—This most frequently enters into the composition of lutes as a filler, but even then the very finely divided condition of certain grades renders it valuable, as it gives body to a liquid, such as linseed oil, which, unless stiffened, would be pervious to a gas, the clay in all cases being neutral. Thus, for luting pipes carrying chlorine, a stiff paste of clay and molasses has been suggested by Theo. Köller in _Die Surrogate_, but it soon gives way.


(1) Clay and linseed oil. (2) Same, using fire clay. (3) Clay and molasses.

(1) Is suitable for steam, etc.; (2) for chlorine, and (3) for oil vapors.

IV. Lime is used in the old lute known as putty, which consists of caustic lime and linseed oil. Frequently the lime is replaced by chalk and china clay, but the lime should be, in part at least, caustic, so as to form a certain amount of lime soap. Lime is also used in silicate and casein compositions, which are very strong and useful, but will be described elsewhere.


(1) Lime and boiled oil to stiff mass. (2) Clay, etc., boiled oil to stiff mass.

V. Asphalt and Pitch.—These substances are used in lutes somewhat interchangeably. As a rule, pitch makes the stronger lutes. Tar is sometimes used, but, because of the light oils and, frequently, water contained, it is not so good as either of the others.

Asphalt dissolved in benzol is very useful for uniting glass for photographic, microscopical, and other uses. Also for coating wood, concrete, etc., where the melted asphalt would be too thick to cover well. Benzol is the cheapest solvent that is satisfactory for this purpose, as the only one that is cheaper would be a petroleum naphtha, which does not dissolve all the constituents of the asphalt. For waterproofing wood, brick, concrete, etc., melted asphalt alone is much used, but when a little paraffine is added, it improves its waterproofing qualities, and in particular cases boiled oil is also added to advantage.


1. Refined lake asphalt.

2. Asphalt 4 parts Paraffine 1 part

3. Asphalt 10 parts Paraffine 2 parts Boiled oil 1 part

Any of these may be thinned with hot benzol or toluol. Toluol is less volatile than benzol and about as cheap, if not cheaper, the straw-colored grades being about 24 cents per gallon.

Examples of so-called “stone cement” are:

4. Pitch 8 parts Rosin 6 parts Wax 1 part Plaster 1/4 to 1/2 part

5. Pitch 8 parts Rosin 7 parts Sulphur 2 parts Stone powder 1 part

These compositions are used to unite slate slabs and stoneware for domestic, engineering, and chemical purposes. Various rosin and pitch mixtures are used for these purposes, and the proportions of these two ingredients are determined by the consistency desired. Sulphur and stone powder are added to prevent the formation of cracks, sulphur acting chemically and stone powder mechanically. {34} Where the lute would come in contact with acid or vapors of the same, limestone should not be the powder used, otherwise it is about the best. Wax is a useful ingredient to keep the composition from getting brittle with age.

A class of lutes under this general grouping that are much used are so-called “marine glues” (q. v.). They must be tough and elastic. When used for calking on a vessel they must expand and contract with the temperature and not crack or come loose.


6. Pitch 3 parts Shellac 2 parts Pure crude rubber 1 part

7. Pitch 1 part Shellac 1 part Rubber substitute 1 part

These are used by melting over a burner.

VI. Rosin, Shellac, and Wax.—A strong cement, used as a stone cement, is:

1. Rosin 8 parts Wax 1 part Turpentine 1 part

It has little or no body, and is used in thin layers.

For nitric and hydrochloric acid vapors:

2. Rosin 1 part Sulphur 1 part Fire clay 2 parts

Sulphur gives great hardness and permanency to rosin lutes, but this composition is somewhat brittle.

Good waterproof lutes of this class are:

3. Rosin 1 part Wax 1 part Powdered stone 2 parts

4. Shellac 5 parts Wax 1 part Turpentine 1 part Chalk, etc. 8 to 10 parts

For a soft air-tight paste for ground-glass surfaces:

5. Wax 1 part Vaseline 1 part

6. A strong cement, without body, for metals (other than copper or alloys of same), porcelain, and glass is made by letting 1 part of finely powdered shellac stand with 10 parts of ammonia water until solution is effected.

VII. Rubber.—Because of its toughness, elasticity, and resistance to alterative influences, rubber is a very useful constituent in lutes, but its price makes its use very limited.

Leather Cement.

1. Asphalt 1 part Rosin 1 part Gutta percha 4 parts Carbon disulphide 20 parts

To stand acid vapors:

2. Rubber 1 part Linseed oil 3 parts Fire clay 3 parts

3. Plain Rubber Cement.—Cut the crude rubber in small pieces and then add the solvent. Carbon disulphide is the best, benzol good and much cheaper, but gasoline is probably most extensively used because of its cheapness.

4. To make corks and wood impervious to steam and water, soak them in a rubber solution as above; if it is desired to protect them from oil vapors, use glue composition. (See Section IX.)

VIII. Linseed Oil.—This is one of the most generally useful substances we have for luting purposes, if absorbed by a porous substance that is inert.

Formulas: 1. China clay of general utility for aqueous vapors.

Linseed oil of general utility for aqueous vapors.

2. Lime forming the well-known putty.

Linseed oil forming the well-known putty.

3. Red or white lead and linseed oil.

These mixtures become very strong when set and are best diluted with powdered glass, clay, or graphite. There are almost an endless number of lutes using metallic oxides and linseed oil. A very good one, not getting as hard as those containing lead, is:

4. Oxide of iron and linseed oil.

IX. Casein, Albumen, and Glue.—These, if properly made, become very tough and tenacious; they stand moderate heat and oil vapors, but not acid vapors.

1. Finely powdered casein 12 parts Slaked lime (fresh) 50 parts Fine sand 50 parts Water to thick mush.

A very strong cement which stands moderate heat is the following:

2. Casein in very fine powder 1 part Rubbed up with silicate of soda 3 parts

A strong lute for general purposes, {35} which must be used promptly when made:

3. White of egg made into a paste with slaked lime.

A composition for soaking corks, wood, packing, etc., to render them impervious to oil vapors, is:

Gelatine or good glue 2 parts Glycerine 1/2 to 1 part Water 6 parts Oil of wintergreen, etc., to keep from spoiling.

X. Silicate of Oxychloride Cements.—For oil vapors, standing the highest heat:

1. A stiff paste of silicate of soda and asbestos.

Gaskets for superheated steam, retorts, furnaces, etc.:

2. Silicate of soda and powdered glass; dry the mixture and heat.

Not so strong, however, as the following:

3. Silicate of soda 50 parts Asbestos 15 parts Slaked lime 10 parts

Metal Cement:

4. Silicate of soda 1 part Oxides of metal, such as zinc oxide; litharge, iron oxide, singly or mixed 1 part

Very hard and extra strong compositions:

5. Zinc oxide 2 parts Zinc chloride 1 part Water to make a paste.

6. Magnesium oxide 2 parts Magnesium chloride 1 part Water to make a paste.

XI. Flour and Starch Compositions.—

1. The well-known flaxseed poultice sets very tough, but does not stand water or condensed steam.

2. Flour and molasses, made by making a stiff composition of the two. This is an excellent lute to have at hand at all times for emergency use, etc.

3. Stiff paste of flour and strong zinc-chloride solution forms a more impervious lute, and is more permanent as a cement. This is good for most purposes, at ordinary temperature, where it would not be in contact with nitric-acid vapors or condensing steam.

4. A mixture of dextrine and fine sand makes a good composition, mainly used as core compound.

XII. Miscellaneous.—

1. Litharge. Glycerine.

Mixed to form a stiff paste, sets and becomes very hard and strong, and is very useful for inserting glass tubes, etc., in iron or brass.

For a high heat:

2. Alumina 1 part Sand 4 parts Slaked lime 1 part Borax 1/2 part Water sufficient.

A class of mixtures that can be classified only according to their intended use are core compounds.

I.—Dextrine, about 1 part Sand, about 10 parts With enough water to form a paste.

II.—Powdered anthracite coal, with molasses to form a stiff paste.

III.—Rosin, partly saponified by soda lye 1 part Flour 2 parts Sand (with sufficient water) 4 parts

(These proportions are approximate and the amount of sand can be increased for some purposes.)

IV.—Glue, powdered 1 part Flour 4 parts Sand (with sufficient water) 6 parts

For some purposes the following mixture is used. It does not seem to be a gasket or a core compound:

V.—Oats (or wheat) ground 25 parts Glue, powdered 6 parts Sal ammoniac 1 part

_Paper read by Samuel S. Sadtler before the Franklin Institute._


«Dextrine Pastes.»—

I.—Borax, powdered 60 parts Dextrine, light yellow 480 parts Glucose 50 parts Water 420 parts

By the aid of heat, dissolve the borax in the water and add the dextrine and glucose. Continue the heat, but do not let the mixture boil, and stir constantly until a homogeneous solution is obtained, from time to time renewing the water lost by evaporation with hot water. Finally, bring up to full weight (1,000 parts) by the addition of hot water, then strain through flannel. Prepared in this manner the paste remains bright and clear for a long time. It has extraordinary adhesive properties and dries very rapidly. If care is not taken to keep the cooking temperature below the boiling point of water, the paste is apt to become brown and to be very brittle on drying. {36}

II.—Dissolve in hot water a sufficient quantity of dextrine to bring it to the consistency of honey. This forms a strong adhesive paste that will keep a long time unchanged, if the water is not allowed to evaporate. Sheets of paper may be prepared for extempore labels by coating one side with the paste and allowing it to dry; by slightly wetting the gummed side, the label will adhere to glass. This paste is very useful in the office or laboratory.

III.—Pour over 1,000 parts of dextrine 450 parts of soft water and stir the mixture for 10 minutes. After the dextrine has absorbed the water, put the mixture over the fire, or, preferably, on a water bath, and heat, with lively stirring for 5 minutes, or until it forms a light milk-like liquid, on the surface of which little bubbles begin to form and the liquid is apparently beginning to boil. Do not allow it to come to a boil. Remove from the fire and set in a bucket of cold water to cool off. When cold add to every 1,000 parts of the solution 51 parts glycerine and as much salicylic acid as will stand on the tip of a knife blade. If the solution is too thick, thin it with water that has been boiled and cooled off again. Do not add any more glycerine or the solution will never set.

IV.—Soften 175 parts of thick dextrine with cold water and 250 parts of boiling water added. Boil for 5 minutes and then add 30 parts of dilute acetic acid, 30 parts glycerine, and a drop or two of clove oil.

V.—Powder coarsely 400 parts dextrine and dissolve in 600 parts of water. Add 20 parts glycerine and 10 parts glucose and heat to 90° C. (195° F.).

VI.—Stir 400 parts of dextrine with water and thin the mass with 200 parts more water, 20 parts glucose, and 10 parts aluminum sulphate. Heat the whole to 90° C. (195° F.) in the water bath until the whole mass becomes clear and liquid.

VII.—Warm 2 parts of dextrine, 5 parts of water, 1 part of acetic acid, 1 part of alcohol together, with occasional stirring until a complete solution is attained.

VIII.—Dissolve by the aid of heat 100 parts of builders’ glue in 200 parts of water add 2 parts of bleached shellac dissolved previously in 50 parts of alcohol. Dissolve by the aid of heat 50 parts of dextrine in 50 parts of water, and mix the two solutions by stirring the second slowly into the first. Strain the mixture through a cloth into a shallow dish and let it harden. When needed cut off a piece of sufficient size and warm until it becomes liquid and if necessary or advisable thin with water.

IX.—Stir up 10 parts of dextrine with sufficient water to make a thick broth. Then, over a light fire, heat and add 25 parts of sodium water glass.

X.—Dissolve 5 parts of dextrine in water and add 1 part of alum.

«Fastening Cork to Metal.»—In fastening cork to iron and brass, even when these are lacquered, a good sealing wax containing shellac will be found to serve the purpose nicely. Wax prepared with rosin is not suitable. The cork surface is painted with the melted sealing wax. The surface of the metal is heated with a spirit flame entirely free from soot, until the sealing wax melts when pressed upon the metallic surface. The wax is held in the flame until it burns, and it is then applied to the hot surface of the metal. The cork surface painted with sealing wax is now held in the flame, and as soon as the wax begins to melt the cork is pressed firmly on the metallic surface bearing the wax.

«To Paste Celluloid on Wood, Tin, or Leather.»—To attach celluloid to wood, tin, or leather, a mixture of 1 part of shellac, 1 part of spirit of camphor, 3 to 4 parts of alcohol and spirit of camphor (90°) is well adapted, in which 1 part of camphor is dissolved without heating in 7 parts of spirit of wine of 0.832 specific gravity, adding 2 parts of water.

«To Paste Paper Signs on Metal or Cloth.»—A piece of gutta percha of the same size as the label is laid under the latter and the whole is heated. If the heating cannot be accomplished by means of a spirit lamp the label should be ironed down under a protective cloth or paper in the same manner as woolen goods are pressed. This method is also very useful for attaching paper labels to minerals.

«Paste for Fastening Leather, Oilcloth, or Similar Stuff to Table or Desk Tops, etc.»—Use the same paste for leather as for oilcloth or other goods, but moisten the leather before applying the paste. Prepare the paste as follows: Mix 2 1/4 pounds of good wheat flour with 2 tablespoonfuls of pulverized gum arabic or powdered rosin and 2 tablespoonfuls of pulverized alum in a clean dish with water enough to make a uniformly thick batter; set it over a slow fire and stir continuously until the paste is uniform and free from lumps. When the mass has become so stout that the wooden spoon or stick will stand in it {37} upright, it is taken from the fire and placed in another dish and covered so that no skin will form on top. When cold, the table or desk top, etc., is covered with a thin coat of the paste, the cloth, etc., carefully laid on and smoothed from the center toward the edges with a rolling pin. The trimming of edges is accomplished when the paste has dried. To smooth out the leather after pasting, a woolen cloth is of the best service.

«To Paste Paper on Smooth Iron.»—Over a water bath dissolve 200 parts, by weight, of gelatine in 150 parts, by weight, of water; while stirring add 50 parts, by weight, of acetic acid, 50 parts alcohol, and 50 parts, by weight, of pulverized alum. The spot upon which it is desired to attach the paper must first be rubbed with a bit of fine emery paper.

«Paste for Affixing Cloth to Metal.»—

Starch 20 parts Sugar 10 parts Zinc chloride 1 part Water 100 parts

Mix the ingredients and stir until a perfectly smooth liquid results entirely free from lumps, then warm gradually until the liquid thickens.

«To Fix Paper upon Polished Metal.»—Dissolve 400 parts, by weight, of dextrine in 600 parts, by weight, of water; add to this 10 parts, by weight, of glucose, and heat almost to boiling.

«Albumen Paste.»—Fresh egg albumen is recommended as a paste for affixing labels on bottles. It is said that labels put on with this substance, and well dried at the time, will not loosen even when bottles are put into water and left there for some time. Albumen, dry, is almost proof against mold or ferments. As to cost, it is but little if any higher than gum arabic, the white of one egg being sufficient to attach at least 100 medium-sized labels.

«Paste for Parchment Paper.»—The best agent is made by dissolving casein in a saturated aqueous solution of borax.

«Medical Paste.»—As an adhesive agent for medicinal purposes Professor Reihl, of Leipsic, recommends the viscous substance contained in the white mistletoe. It is largely present in the berries and the bark of the plant; it is called viscin, and can be produced at one-tenth the price of caoutchouc. Solutions in benzine may be used like those of caoutchouc without causing any irritation if applied mixed with medicinal remedies to the skin.

«Paste That Will Not Mold.»—Mix good white flour with cold water into a thick paste. Be sure to stir out all the lumps; then add boiling water, stirring all the time until thoroughly cooked. To 6 quarts of this add 1/2 pound light brown sugar and 1/4 ounce corrosive sublimate, dissolved in a little hot water. When the paste is cool add 1 drachm oil of lavender. This paste will keep for a long time.

«Pasting Wood and Cardboard on Metal.»—In a little water dissolve 50 parts of lead acetate and 5 parts of alum. In another receptacle dissolve 75 parts of gum arabic in 2,000 parts of water. Into this gum-arabic solution pour 500 parts of flour, stirring constantly, and heat gradually to the boiling point. Mingle the solution first prepared with the second solution. It should be kept in mind that, owing to the lead acetate, this preparation is poisonous.

«Agar Agar Paste.»—The agar agar is broken up small, wetted with water, and exposed in an earthenware vessel to the action of ozone pumped under pressure into the vessel from the ozonizing apparatus. About an hour of this bleaches the agar agar and makes it freely soluble in boiling water, when solutions far more concentrated than has hitherto been possible can be prepared. On cooling, the solutions assume a milky appearance, but form no lumps and are readily reliquefied by heating. If the solution is completely evaporated, as of course happens when the adhesive is allowed to dry after use, it leaves a firmly holding mass which is insoluble in cold water. Among the uses to which the preparation can be applied are the dressing of textile fabrics and paper sizing, and the production of photographic papers, as well as the ordinary uses of an adhesive.

«Strongly Adhesive Paste.»—Four parts glue are soaked a few hours in 15 parts cold water, and moderately heated till the solution becomes perfectly clear, when 65 parts boiling water are added, while stirring. In another vessel 30 parts boiled starch are previously stirred together with 20 parts cold water, so that a thin, milky liquid without lumps results. The boiling glue solution is poured into this while stirring constantly, and the whole is kept boiling another 10 minutes.

«Paste for Tissue Paper.»—

(_a_) Pulverized gum arabic 2 ounces White sugar 4 drachms Boiling water 3 fluidounces {38} (_b_) Common laundry starch 1 1/2 ounces Cold water 3 fluidounces

Make into a batter and pour into

Boiling water 32 fluidounces

Mix (_a_) with (_b_), and keep in a wide-mouthed bottle.

«Waterproof and Acidproof Pastes.»—

I.—Chromic acid 2 1/2 parts Stronger ammonia 15 parts Sulphuric acid 1/2 part Cuprammonium solution 30 parts Fine white paper 4 parts II.—Isinglass, a sufficient quantity Acetic acid 1 part Water 7 parts

Dissolve sufficient isinglass in the mixture of acetic acid and water to make a thin mucilage.

One of the solutions is applied to the surface of one sheet of paper and the other to the other sheet, and they are then pressed together.

III.—A fair knotting varnish free from surplus oil is by far the best adhesive for fixing labels, especially on metal surfaces. It dries instantly, insuring a speedy job and immediate packing, if needful, without fear of derangement. It has great tenacity, and is not only absolutely damp-proof itself, but is actually repellent of moisture, to which all water pastes are subject. It costs more, but the additional expense is often infinitesimal compared with the pleasure of a satisfactory result.

«Balkan Paste.»—

Pale glue 4 ounces White loaf sugar 2 ounces Powdered starch 1 ounce White dextrine 1/4 pound Pure glycerine 3 ounces Carbolic acid 1/4 ounce Boiling water 32 ounces

Cut up the glue and steep it in 1/2 pint boiling water; when softened melt in a saucepan; add sugar, starch, and dextrine, and lastly the glycerine, in which carbolic acid has been mixed; add remainder of water, and boil until it thickens. Pour into jars or bottles.

«Permanent Paste.»—

I.—Wheat flour 1 pound Water, cold 1 quart Nitric acid 4 fluidrachms Boric acid 40 grains Oil of cloves 20 minims

Mix the flour, boric acid, and water, then strain the mixture; add the nitric acid, apply heat with constant stirring until the mixture thickens; when nearly cold add the oil of cloves. This paste will have a pleasant smell, will not attract flies, and can be thinned by the addition of cold water as needed.

II.—Dissolve 4 ounces alum in 4 quarts hot water. When cool add as much flour as will make it of the usual consistency; then stir into it 1/2 ounce powdered rosin; next add a little water in which a dozen cloves have been steeped; then boil it until thick as mush, stirring from the bottom all the time. Thin with warm water for use.

«Preservatives for Paste.»—Various antiseptics are employed for the preservation of flour paste, mucilage, etc. Boric and salicylic acids, oil of cloves, oil of sassafras, and solution of formaldehyde are among those which have given best service. A durable starch paste is produced by adding some borax to the water used in making it. A paste from 10 parts (weight) starch to 100 parts (weight) water with 1 per cent borax added will keep many weeks, while without this addition it will sour after six days. In the case of a gluing material prepared from starch paste and joiners’ glue, borax has also demonstrated its preserving qualities. The solution is made by mixing 10 parts (weight) starch into a paste with water and adding 10 parts (weight) glue soaked in water to the hot solution; the addition of 1/10 part (weight) of borax to the solution will cause it to keep for weeks. It is equal to the best glue, but should be warmed and stirred before use.

«Board-Sizing.»—A cheap sizing for rough, weather-beaten boards may be made by dissolving shellac in sal soda and adding some heavy-bodied pigment. This size will stick to grease spots. Linseed oil may be added if desired. Limewater and linseed oil make a good heavy sizing, but hard to spread. They are usually used half and half, though these proportions may be varied somewhat.

«Rice Paste.»—Mix the rice flour with cold water, and boil it over a gentle fire until it thickens. This paste is quite white and becomes transparent on drying. It is very adherent and of great use for many purposes.

«Casein Paste.»—A solution of tannin, prepared from a bark or from commercial tannin, is precipitated with limewater, the lime being added until the solution just turns red litmus paper blue. The supernatant liquid is then decanted, {39} and the precipitate is dried without artificial heat. The resulting calcium tannate is then mixed, according to the purpose for which the adhesive is intended, with from 1 to 10 times its weight of dry casein by grinding in a mill. The adhesive compound is soluble in water, petroleum, oils, and carbon bisulphide. It is very strong, and is applied in the form of a paste with water.


I.—Use a cheap grade of rye or wheat flour, mix thoroughly with cold water to about the consistency of dough, or a little thinner, being careful to remove all lumps; stir in a tablespoonful of powdered alum to a quart of flour, then pour in boiling water, stirring rapidly until the flour is thoroughly cooked. Let this cool before using, and thin with cold water.

II.—Venetian Paste.—

(_a_) 4 ounces white or fish glue 8 fluidounces cold water (_b_) 2 fluidounces Venice turpentine (_c_) 1 pound rye flour 16 fluidounces (1 pint) cold water (_d_) 64 fluidounces (1/2 gallon) boiling water

Soak the 4 ounces of glue in the cold water for 4 hours; dissolve on a water bath (glue pot), and while hot stir in the Venice turpentine. Make up (_c_) into a batter free from lumps and pour into (_d_). Stir briskly, and finally add the glue solution. This makes a very strong paste, and it will adhere to a painted surface, owing to the Venice turpentine in its composition.

III.—Strong Adhesive Paste.—

(_a_) 4 pounds rye flour 1/2 gallon cold water (_b_) 1 1/2 gallons boiling water (_c_) 2 ounces pulverized rosin

Make (_a_) into a batter free from lumps; then pour into (_b_). Boil if necessary, and while hot stir in the pulverized rosin a little at a time. This paste is exceedingly strong, and will stick heavy wall paper or thin leather. If the paste be too thick, thin with a little hot water; never thin paste with cold water.

IV.—Flour Paste.—

(_a_) 2 pounds wheat flour 32 fluidounces (1 quart) cold water (_b_) 1 ounce alum 4 fluidounces hot water (_c_) 96 fluidounces (1/2 gallon) boiling water

Work the wheat flour into a batter free from lumps with the cold water. Dissolve the alum as designated in (_b_). Now stir in (_a_) and (_c_) and, if necessary, continue boiling until the paste thickens into a semitransparent mucilage, after which stir in solution (_b_). The above makes a very fine paste for wall paper.

V.—Elastic or Pliable Paste.—

(_a_) 4 ounces common starch 2 ounces white dextrine 10 fluidounces cold water

(_b_) 1 ounce borax 3 fluidounces glycerine 64 fluidounces (1/2 gallon) boiling water

Beat to a batter the ingredients of (_a_). Dissolve the borax in the boiling water; then add the glycerine, after which pour (_a_) into solution (_b_). Stir until it becomes translucent. This paste will not crack, and, being very pliable, is used for paper, cloth, leather, and other material where flexibility is required.

VI.—A paste with which wall paper can be attached to wood or masonry, adhering to it firmly in spite of dampness, is prepared, as usual, of rye flour, to which, however, are added, after the boiling, 8 1/3 parts, by weight, of good linseed-oil varnish and 8 1/3 parts, by weight, of turpentine to every 500 parts, by weight.

VII.—Paste for Wall Paper.—Soak 18 pounds of bolus (bole) in water, after it has been beaten into small fragments, and pour off the supernatant water. Boil 10 ounces of glue into glue water, mix it well with the softened bolus and 2 pounds plaster of Paris and strain through a sieve by means of a brush. Thin the mass with water to the consistency of a thin paste. The paste is now ready for use. It is not only much cheaper than other varieties, but has the advantage over them of adhering better to whitewashed walls, and especially such as have been repeatedly coated over the old coatings which were not thoroughly removed. For hanging fine wall paper this paste is less commendable, as it forms a white color, with which the paper might easily become soiled if great care is not exercised in applying it. If the fine wall paper is mounted on ground paper, however, it can be recommended for pasting the ground paper on the wall.


«Pastes to Affix Labels to Tin.»—Labels separate from tin because the paste becomes too dry. Some moisture is presumably always present; but more is required to cause continued adhesion in the case of tin than where the container is of {40} glass. Paste may be kept moist by the addition of calcium chloride, which is strongly hygroscopic, or of glycerine.

The following formulas for pastes of the type indicated were proposed by Leo Eliel:

I.—Tragacanth 1 ounce Acacia 4 ounces Thymol 14 grains Glycerine 4 ounces Water, sufficient to make 2 pints

Dissolve the gums in 1 pint of water, strain, and add the glycerine, in which the thymol is suspended; shake well and add sufficient water to make 2 pints. This separates on standing, but a single shake mixes it sufficiently for use.

II.—Rye flour 8 ounces Powdered acacia 1 ounce Glycerine 2 ounces Oil of cloves 40 drops

Rub the rye flour and acacia to a smooth paste with 8 ounces of cold water; strain through cheese cloth, and pour into 1 pint of boiling water, and continue the heat until as thick as desired. When nearly cold add the glycerine and oil of cloves.

III.—Rye flour 5 parts Venice turpentine 1 part Liquid glue, a sufficient quantity

Rub up the flour with the turpentine and then add sufficient freshly prepared glue (glue or gelatine dissolved in water) to make a stiff paste. This paste dries slowly.

IV.—Dextrine 2 parts Acetic acid 1 part Water 5 parts Alcohol, 95 per cent. 1 part

Dissolve the dextrine and acetic acid in water by heating together in the water bath, and to the solution add the alcohol.

V.—Dextrine 3 pounds Borax 2 ounces Glucose 5 drachms Water 3 pints 2 ounces

Dissolve the borax in the water by warming, then add the dextrine and glucose, and continue to heat gently until dissolved.

Another variety is made by dissolving a cheap Ghatti gum in limewater, but it keeps badly.

VI.—Add tartaric acid to thick flour paste. The paste is to be boiled until quite thick, and the acid, previously dissolved in a little water, is added, the proportion being about 2 ounces to the pint of paste.

VII.—Gum arabic, 50 parts; glycerine, 10 parts; water, 30 parts; liq. Stibii chlorat., 2 parts.

VIII.—Boil rye flour and strong glue water into a mass to which are added, for 1,000 parts, good linseed-oil varnish 30 parts and oil of turpentine 30 parts. This mixture furnishes a gluing agent which, it is claimed, even renders the labels proof against being loosened by moisture.

IX.—Pour 140 parts of distilled cold water over 100 parts of gum arabic in a wide-necked bottle and dissolve by frequent shaking. To the solution, which is ready after standing for about 3 days, add 10 parts of glycerine; later, 20 parts of diluted acetic acid, and finally 6 parts of aluminum sulphate, then straining it through a fine-hair sieve.

X.—Good glue is said to be obtained by dissolving 1 part of powdered sugar in 4 parts of soda water glass.

XI.—A glue for bottle labels is prepared by dissolving borax in water; soak glue in this solution and dissolve the glue by boiling. Carefully drop as much acetic acid into the solution as will allow it to remain thin on cooling. Labels affixed with this agent adhere firmly and do not become moldy in damp cellars.

XII.—Dissolve some isinglass in acetic acid and brush the labels over with it. There will be no cause to complain of their coming off, nor of striking through the paper. Take a wide-mouthed bottle, fill about two-thirds with commercial acetic acid, and put in as much isinglass as the liquid will hold, and set aside in a warm place until completely dissolved. When cold it should form a jelly. To use it place the bottle in hot water. The cork should be well-fitting and smeared with vaseline or melted paraffine.

«How to Paste Labels on Tin.»—Brush over the entire back of the label with a flour paste, fold the label loosely by sticking both ends together without creasing the center, and throw to one side until this process has been gone through with the whole lot. Then unfold each label and place it on the can in the regular manner. The paste ought not to be thicker than maple syrup. When of this consistency it soaks through the label and makes it pliable and in a condition to be easily rubbed into position. If the paste is too thick it dries quickly, and does not soak through the label sufficiently. After the labels have been placed upon the cans the latter must be {41} kept apart until dry. In putting the paste upon the labels in the first place, follow the method of placing the dry labels over one another, back sides up, with the edge of each just protruding over the edge of the one beneath it, so that the fingers may easily grasp the label after the pasting has been done.

«Druggists’ Label Paste.»—This paste, when carefully made, is an admirable one for label use, and a very little will go a long way:

Wheat flour 4 ounces Nitric acid 1 drachm Boric acid 10 grains Oil of cloves 5 drops Carbolic acid 1/2 drachm

Stir flour and water together, mixing thoroughly, and add the other ingredients. After the stuff is well mixed, heat it, watching very carefully and removing the instant it stiffens.

«To Attach Glass Labels to Bottles.»—Melt together 1 part of rosin and 2 parts of yellow wax, and use while warm.

«Photographic Mountants (see also Photography).»—Owing to the nature of the different papers used for printing photographs, it is a matter of extreme importance to use a mountant that shall not set up decomposition in the coating of the print. For example, a mountant that exhibits acidity or alkalinity is injurious with most varieties of paper; and in photography the following formulas for pastes, mucilages, etc., have therefore been selected with regard to their absolute immunity from setting up decomposition in the print or changing its tone in any way. One of the usual mountants is rice starch or else rice water. The latter is boiled to a thick jelly, strained, and the strained mass used as an agglutinant for attaching photographic prints to the mounts. There is nothing of an injurious nature whatever in this mountant, neither is there in a mucilage made with gum dragon.

This gum (also called gum tragacanth) is usually in the form of curls (i.e., leaf gum), which take a long time to properly dissolve in water—several weeks, in fact—but during the past few years there has been put on the market a powdered gum dragon which does not occupy so many days in dissolving. To make a mucilage from gum dragon a very large volume of water is required. For example, 1 ounce of the gum, either leaf or powder, will swell up and convert 1 gallon of water into a thickish mucilage in the course of 2 or 3 weeks. Only cold water must be used, and before using the mucilage, all whitish lumps (which are particles of undissolved gum) should be picked out or else the mucilage strained. The time of solution can be considerably shortened (to a few hours) by acidifying the water in which the gum is placed with a little sulphuric or oxalic acid; but as the resultant mucilage would contain traces of their presence, such acids are not permissible when the gum-dragon mucilage is to be used for mounting photographs.

Glycerine and gum arabic make a very good adhesive of a fluid nature suited to mounting photographs; and although glycerine is hygroscopic by itself, such tendency to absorb moisture is checked by the reverse nature of the gum arabic; consequently an ideal fluid mucilage is produced. The proportions of the several ingredients are these:

Gum arabic, genuine (gum acacia, not Bassora gum) 4 ounces Boiling water 12 ounces Glycerine, pure 1 ounce

First dissolve the gum in the water, and then stir in the glycerine, and allow all _débris_ from the gum to deposit before using. The following adhesive compound is also one that is free from chemical reactions, and is suited for photographic purposes:

Water 2 pints Gum dragon, powdered 1 ounce Gum arabic, genuine 4 ounces Glycerine 4 ounces

Mix the gum arabic with half the water, and in the remainder of the water dissolve the gum dragon. When both solids are dissolved, mix them together, and then stir in the glycerine.

The following paste will be found a useful mountant:

Gum arabic, genuine 1 ounce Rice starch 1 ounce White sugar 4 ounces Water, q. s.

Dissolve the gum in just sufficient water to completely dissolve it, then add the sugar, and when that has completely dissolved stir in the starch paste, and then boil the mixture until the starch is properly cooked.

A very strong, stiff paste for fastening cardboard mounts to frames, wood, and other materials is prepared by making a bowl of starch paste in the usual way, and then adding 1 ounce of Venice turpentine per pound of paste, and {42} boiling and stirring the mixture until the thick turpentine has become well incorporated. Venice turpentine stirred into flour paste and boiled will also be found a very adhesive cement for fastening cardboard, strawboard, leatherette, and skiver leather to wood or metal; but owing to the resinous nature of the Venice turpentine, such pastes are not suitable for mounting photographic prints. The following half-dozen compounds are suitable mountants to use with silver prints:

Alcohol, absolute 10 ounces Gelatine, good 1 ounce Glycerine 1/2 to 1 ounce

Soak the gelatine in water for an hour or two until it is completely softened; take the gelatine out of the water, and allow it to drain, and put it into a bottle and pour alcohol over it; add the glycerine (if the gelatine is soft, use only 1/2 ounce; if the gelatine is hard, use 1 ounce of the glycerine), then melt the gelatine by standing the bottle in a vessel of hot water, and shake up very well. For use, remelt by heat. The alcohol prevents the prints from stretching or cockling, as they are apt to, under the influence of the gelatine.

In the following compound, however, only sufficient alcohol is used to serve as an antiseptic, and prevent the agglutinant from decomposing: Dissolve 4 ounces of photographic gelatine in 16 ounces of water (first soaking the gelatine therein for an hour or two until it is completely softened), then remove the gelatine from the water, allow it to drain, and put it into the bottle, and pour the alcohol over it, and put in the glycerine (if the gelatine is soft, use only 1/2 ounce; if the gelatine is hard, use 1 ounce of the glycerine), then melt the gelatine by standing the bottle in a vessel of hot water, and shake up well and mix thoroughly. For use, remelt by heat. The alcohol prevents the print from stretching or cockling up under the influence of the gelatine.

The following paste agglutinant is one that is very permanent and useful for all purposes required in a photographic studio: Take 5 pints of water, 10 ounces of arrowroot, 1 ounce of gelatine, and a 1/2 pint (10 fluidounces) of alcohol, and proceed to combine them as follows: Make arrowroot into a thick cream with a little of the water, and in the remainder of the water soak the gelatine for a few hours, after which melt the gelatine in the water by heating it, add the arrowroot paste, and bring the mixture to the boil and allow to boil for 4 or 5 minutes, then allow to cool, and mix in the alcohol, adding a few drops of oil of cloves.

Perhaps one of the most useful compounds for photographic purposes is that prepared as follows: Soak 4 ounces of hard gelatine in 15 ounces of water for a few hours, then melt the gelatine by heating it in a glue pot until the solution is quite clear and free from lumps, stir in 65 fluidounces of cold water so that it is free from lumps, and pour in the boiling-hot solution of gelatine and continue stirring, and if the starch is not completely cooked, boil up the mixture for a few minutes until it “blows,” being careful to keep it well stirred so as not to burn; when cold add a few drops of carbolic acid or some essential oil as an antiseptic to prevent the compound from decomposing or becoming sour.

A useful photographic mucilage, which is very liquid, is obtained by mixing equal bulks of gum-arabic and gum-dragon mucilages of the same consistence. The mixture of these mucilages will be considerably thinner than either of them when alone.

As an agglutinant for general use in the studio, the following is recommended: Dissolve 2 ounces of gum arabic in 5 ounces of water, and for every 250 parts of the mucilage add 20 parts of a solution of sulphate of aluminum, prepared by dissolving 1 part of the sulphate in 20 parts of water (common alum should not be used, only the pure aluminum sulphate, because common alum is a mixture of sulphates, and usually contaminated with iron salts). The addition of the sulphate solution to the gum mucilage renders the latter less hygroscopic, and practically waterproof, besides being very adhesive to any materials, particularly those exhibiting a smooth surface.


«For Affixing Labels to Glass and Other Objects.»—I.—The mucilage is made by simply pouring over the gum enough water to a little more than cover it, and then, as the gum swells, adding more water from time to time in small portions, until the mucilage is brought to such consistency that it may be easily spread with the brush. The mucilage keeps fairly well without the addition of any antiseptic.

II.—Tragacanth 1 ounce Acacia 4 ounces Thymol 14 grains Glycerine 4 ounces Water, sufficient to make 2 pints


Dissolve the gums in 1 pint of water, strain and add the glycerine, in which the thymol is suspended; shake well and add sufficient water to make 2 pints. This separates on standing, but a single shake mixes it sufficiently for use.

III.—Rye flour 8 ounces Powdered acacia 1 ounce Glycerine 2 ounces Oil of cloves 40 drops Water, a sufficient quantity.

Rub the rye flour and the acacia to a smooth paste with 8 ounces of cold water; strain through cheese cloth, and pour into 1 pint of boiling water and continue the heat until as thick as desired. When nearly cold add the glycerine and oil of cloves.

IV.—One part, by weight, of tragacanth, when mixed with 95-per-cent alcohol to form 4 fluidounces, forms a liquid in which a portion of the tragacanth is dissolved and the remainder suspended; this remains permanently fluid, never deteriorates, and can be used in place of the present mucilage; 4 to 8 minims to each ounce of mixture is sufficient to suspend any of the insoluble substances usually given in mixtures.

V.—To 250 parts of gum-arabic mucilage add 20 parts of water and 2 parts of sulphate of alumina and heat until dissolved.

VI.—Dissolve 1/2 pound gum tragacanth, powdered, 1/4 pound gum arabic, powdered, cold water to the desired consistency, and add 40 drops carbolic acid.

«Mucilage of Acacia.»—Put the gum, which should be of the best kind, in a flask the size of which should be large enough to contain the mucilage with about one-fifth of its space to spare (i. e., the product should fill it about four-fifths full). Now tare, and wash the gum with distilled water, letting the latter drain away as much as possible before proceeding further. Add the requisite quantity of distilled water slowly, which, however, should first have added to it about 10 per cent of limewater. Now cork the flask, and lay it, without shaking, horizontally in a cool place and let it remain quietly for about 3 hours, then give it a half turn to the right without disturbing its horizontal position. Repeat this operation three or four times during the day, and keep it up until the gum is completely dissolved (which will not be until the fourth day probably), then strain through a thin cloth previously wet with distilled water, avoiding, in so doing, the formation of foam or bubbles. This precaution should also be observed in decantation of the percolate into smaller bottles provided with paraffine corks. The small amount of limewater, as will be understood, is added to the solvent water in order to prevent the action of free acid.

«Commercial Mucilage.»—Dissolve 1/2 pound white glue in equal parts water and strong vinegar, and add 1/4 as much alcohol and 1/2 ounce alum dissolved in a little water. To proceed, first get good glue and soak in cold water until it swells and softens. Use pale vinegar. Pour off the cold water, then melt the glue to a thick paste in hot water, and add the vinegar hot. When a little cool add the alcohol and alum water.

«To Render Gum Arabic More Adhesive.»—I.—Add crystallized aluminum sulphate in the proportion of 2 dissolved in 20 parts of water to 250 parts of concentrated gum solution (75 parts of gum in 175 parts of water).

II.—Add to 250 parts of concentrated gum solution (2 parts of gum in 5 parts of water) 2 parts of crystallized aluminum sulphate dissolved in 20 parts of water. This mixture glues even unsized paper, pasteboard on pasteboard, wood on wood, glass, porcelain, and other substances on which labels frequently do not adhere well.

«Envelope Gum.»—The gum used by the United States Government on postage stamps is probably one of the best that could be used not only for envelopes but for labels as well. It will stick to almost any surface. Its composition is said to be the following:

Gum arabic 1 part Starch 1 part Sugar 4 parts Water, sufficient to give the desired consistency.

The gum arabic is first dissolved in some water, the sugar added, then the starch, after which the mixture is boiled for a few minutes in order to dissolve the starch, after which it is thinned down to the desired consistency.

Cheaper envelope gums can be made by substituting dextrine for the gum arabic, glucose for the sugar, and adding boric acid to preserve and help stiffen it.

«Mucilage to Make Wood and Pasteboard Adhere to Metals.»—Dissolve 50 parts, by weight, of lead acetate together with 5 parts, by weight, of alum in a little water. Make a separate solution of 75 parts, by weight, of gum arabic in 2,000 parts, by weight, of water, stir in this 500 {44} parts, by weight, of flour, and heat slowly to boiling, stirring the while. Let it cool somewhat, and mix with it the solution containing the lead acetate and alum, stirring them well together.

«Preservation of Gum Solution.»—Put a small piece of camphor in the mucilage bottle. Camphor vapors are generated which kill all the bacterial germs that have entered the bottle. The gum maintains its adhesiveness to the last drop.


ADUROL DEVELOPER: See Photography.

ÆSCO-QUININE: See Horse Chestnut.

AGAR AGAR PASTE: See Adhesives.


Prepare a mixture or frit of 33 parts of quartz sand, 65 parts calcium phosphate, and 2 parts of potash. The frit, which has been reduced by heat to the fusing point, is finely ground, intimately mingled with a small quantity of kaolin and pressed in molds which yield button-shaped masses. These masses, after having been fired, are given a transparent glaze by any of the well-known processes.

AGATE (IMITATION): See Gems, Artificial.




This air bath is employed in cases in which, upon drying or heating substances, acid vapors arise because the walls of the bath are not attacked by them. For the production of the drying apparatus take a flask with the bottom burst off or a bell jar tubulated above. This is placed either upon a sand bath or upon asbestos paper, previously laid upon a piece of sheet iron. The sand bath or the sheet iron is put on a tripod, so that it can be heated by means of a burner placed underneath. The substance to be dried is placed in a glass or porcelain dish, which is put under the bell jar, and if desired the drying dish may be hung on the tripod. For regulating the temperature the tubulure of the jar is closed with a pierced cork, through whose aperture the thermometer is thrust. In order to permit the vapors to escape, the cork is grooved lengthwise along the periphery.




«Ozonatine» is a fragrant air-purifying preparation consisting of dextrogyrate turpentine oil scented with slight quantities of fragrant oils.

ALABASTER CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



Patein (_Pharm. Zeit._) recommends the following test for albumen in urine: Dissolve 250 grams of citric acid in a sufficient quantity of water, add enough ammonia to neutralize, then 50 grams of alcohol, and finally enough water to make 1 liter. To the acid (or acidulated) urine, one-tenth its volume of the ammonium-citrate solution made as above is added, and the whole heated in the usual manner. The appearance of the faintest turbidity is said to indicate with positive certainty the presence of albumen.

ALBUMEN PAPER: See Photography.

ALBUMEN PASTE: See Adhesives.


After the manuscript of this book was ready for the press, Congress passed the bill which has since become a law, whereby the prohibitive tax on industrial or denatured alcohol is removed. So important is this legislative measure that the Editor has deemed it wise to insert an article on the sources of alcohol and the manufacture of alcohol from farm products. Because the first portion of the book was in type when this step was decided upon, the Editor was compelled to relegate to a later page a monograph which should properly have appeared here. The reader will find the matter on alcohol referred to under the heading {45} “Spirit”; likewise methods of denaturing and a list of denaturants.


«Alcohol, Tests for Absolute.»—The committee for the compilation of the German Arzneibuch established the following tests for the determination of absolute alcohol:

Absolute alcohol is a clear, colorless, volatile, readily imflammable liquid which burns with a faintly luminous flame. Absolute alcohol has a peculiar odor, a burning taste, and does not affect litmus paper. Boiling point, 78.50. Specific gravity, 0.795 to 0.797. One hundred parts contain 99.7 to 99.4 parts, by volume, or 99.6 to 99.0 parts, by weight, of alcohol.

Absolute alcohol should have no foreign smell and should mix with water without cloudiness.

After the admixture of 5 drops of silver-nitrate solution, 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol should not become turbid or colored even on heating.

A mixture of 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol and 0.2 cubic centimeter of potash lye evaporated down to 1 cubic centimeter should not exhibit an odor of fusel oil after supersaturation with dilute sulphuric acid.

Five cubic centimeters of sulphuric acid, carefully covered, in a test tube, with a stratum of 5 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol, should not form a rose-colored zone at the surface of contact, even on standing for some time.

The red color of a mixture of 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol and 1 cubic centimeter of potassium-permanganate solution should not pass into yellow before 20 minutes.

Absolute alcohol should not be dyed by hydrogen sulphide water or by aqueous ammonia.

Five cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol should not leave behind a weighable residue after evaporation on water bath.

«Absolute Alcohol.»—If gelatine be suspended in ordinary alcohol it will absorb the water, but as it is insoluble in alcohol, that substance will remain behind, and thus nearly absolute alcohol will be obtained without distillation.

«Perfumed Denaturized Alcohol.»—

East India lemon oil 1,250 parts Mirbane oil 1,000 parts Cassia oil 50 parts Clove oil 75 parts Lemon oil 100 parts Amyl acetate 500 parts Spirit (95 per cent) 7,000 parts

Dissolve the oils in the spirit and add the amyl acetate. The mixture serves for destroying the bad odor of denaturized spirit in distilling. Use 50 parts of the perfume per 1,000 parts of spirit.

«Solid Alcohol.»—I.—Heat 1,000 parts of denaturized alcohol (90 per cent) in a flask of double the capacity on the water bath to about 140° F., and then mix with 28 to 30 parts of well-dried, rasped Venetian soap and 2 parts of gum lac. After repeated shaking, complete dissolution will take place. The solution is put, while still warm, into metallic vessels, closing them up at once and allowing the mixture to cool therein. The admixture of gum lac effects a better preservation and also prevents the evaporation of the alcohol. On lighting the solid spirit the soap remains behind.

II.—Smaragdine is a trade name for solidified alcohol. It consists of alcohol and gun cotton, colored with malachite green. It appears in the market in the form of small cubes.

«Alcohol in Fermented Beers.»—Experience has shown that 1/4 pound of sugar to 1 gallon of water yields about 2 per cent of proof spirit, or about 1 per cent of absolute alcohol. Beyond this amount it is not safe to go, if the legal limit is to be observed, yet a ginger beer brewed with 1/4 pound per gallon of sugar would be a very wishy-washy compound, and there is little doubt that a much larger quantity is generally used. The more sugar that is used—up to 1 1/2 or 1 1/4 pounds per gallon—the better the drink will be and the more customers will relish it; but it will be as “strong” as lager and contain perhaps 5 per cent of alcohol, which will make it anything but a “temperance” drink. Any maker who is using as much as even 1/2 pound of sugar per gallon is bound to get more spirit than the law allows. Meanwhile it is scarcely accurate to term ginger beers, etc., non-alcoholic.

«Alcohol Deodorizer.»—

Alcohol 160 ounces Powdered quicklime 300 grains Powdered alum 150 grains Spirit of nitrous ether 1 1/4 drachms

Mix the lime and alum intimately by trituration; add the alcohol and shake well; then add the spirit of nitrous ether; set aside for 7 days and filter through animal charcoal.

«Denaturized Alcohol.»—There are two general classes or degrees of denaturizing, viz., the “complete” and the “incomplete,” according to the purpose for {46} which the alcohol so denaturized is to be ultimately used.

I.—Complete denaturization by the German system is accomplished by the addition to every 100 liters (equal to 26 1/2 gallons) of spirits:

(_a_) Two and one-half liters of the “standard” denaturizer, made of 4 parts of wood alcohol, 1 part of pyridine (a nitrogenous base obtained by distilling bone oil or coal tar), with the addition of 50 grams to each liter of oil of lavender or rosemary.

(_b_) One and one-fourth liters of the above “standard” and 2 liters of benzol with every 100 liters of alcohol.

II.—Incomplete denaturization—i. e., sufficient to prevent alcohol from being drunk, but not to disqualify it from use for various special purposes, for which the wholly denaturized spirits would be unavailable—is accomplished by several methods as follows, the quantity and nature of each substance given being the prescribed dose for each 100 liters (26 1/2 gallons) of spirits:

(_c_) Five liters of wood alcohol or 1/2 liter of pyridine.

(_d_) Twenty liters of solution of shellac, containing 1 part gum to 2 parts alcohol of 90-per-cent purity. Alcohol for the manufacture of celluloid and pegamoid is denaturized.

(_e_) By the addition of 1 kilogram of camphor or 2 liters oil of turpentine or 1/2 liter benzol to each 100 liters of spirits. Alcohol to be used in the manufacture of ethers, aldehyde, agaricin, white lead, bromo-silver gelatines, photographic papers and plates, electrode plates, collodion, salicylic acid and salts, aniline chemistry, and a great number of other purposes, is denaturized by the addition of—

(_f_) Ten liters sulphuric ether, or 1 part of benzol, or 1/2 part oil of turpentine, or 0.025 part of animal oil.

For the manufacture of varnishes and inks alcohol is denaturized by the addition of oil of turpentine or animal oil, and for the production of soda soaps by the addition of 1 kilogram of castor oil. Alcohol for the production of lanolin is prepared by adding 5 liters of benzine to each hectoliter of spirits.


The ale of the modern brewer is manufactured in several varieties, which are determined by the wants of the consumer and the particular market for which it is intended. Thus, the finer kinds of Burton, East India, Bavarian, and other like ales, having undergone a thorough fermentation, contain only a small quantity of undecomposed sugar and gum, varying from 1 to 5 per cent. Some of these are highly “hopped” or “bittered,” the further to promote their preservation during transit and change of temperature. Mild or sweet ales, on the contrary, are less accentuated by lengthened fermentation, and abound in saccharine and gummy matter. They are, therefore, more nutritious, though less intoxicating, than those previously referred to.

In brewing the finer kinds of ales, pale malt and the best hops of the current season’s growth are always employed; and when it is desired to produce a liquor possessing little color, very great attention is paid to their selection. With the same object, the boiling is conducted with more than the usual precautions, and the fermentation is carried on at a somewhat lower temperature than that commonly allowed for other varieties of beer. For ordinary ale, intended for immediate use, the malt may be all pale; but, if the liquor be brewed for keeping, and in warm weather, when a slight color is not objectionable, one-fifth, or even one-fourth of amber malt may be advantageously employed. From 4 1/2 to 6 pounds of hops is the quantity commonly used to the one-fourth of malt, for ordinary ales; and 7 pounds to 10 pounds for “keeping” ales. The proportions, however, must greatly depend on the intended quality and description of the brewing and the period that will be allowed for its maturation.

The stronger varieties of ale usually contain from 6 to 8 per cent of “absolute alcohol”; ordinary strong ale, 4 1/2 to 6 per cent; mild ale, 3 to 4 percent; and table ale, 1 to 1 1/2 per cent (each by volume); together with some undecomposed saccharine, gummy, and extractive matter, the bitter and narcotic principles of the hop, some acetic acid formed by the oxidation of the alcohol, and very small and variable quantities of mineral and saline matter.

Ordinary ale-wort (preferably pale), sufficient to produce 1 barrel, is slowly boiled with about 3 handfuls of hops, and 12 to 14 pounds of crushed groats, until the whole of the soluble matter of the latter is extracted. The resulting liquor, after being run through a coarse strainer and become lukewarm, is fermented with 2 or 3 pints of yeast; and, as soon as the fermentation is at its height, is either closely bunged up for draft or is at once put into strong stoneware bottles, which are then well corked and wired.

White ale is said to be very nutritious, though apt to prove laxative to those {47} unaccustomed to its use. It is drunk in a state of effervescence or lively fermentation; the glass or cup containing it being kept in constant motion, when removed from the mouth, until the whole is consumed, in order that the thicker portion may not subside to the bottom.

ALE, GINGER: See Beverages.





No general rules can be given for alloying metals. Alloys differing greatly in fusibility are commonly made by adding the more fusible ones, either in the melted state or in small portions at a time, to the other melted or heated to the lowest possible temperature at which a perfect union will take place between them. The mixture is usually effected under a flux, or some material that will promote liquefaction and prevent volatilization and unnecessary exposure to the air. Thus, in melting lead and tin together for solder, rosin or tallow is thrown upon the surface is rubbed with sal ammoniac; and in combining some metals, powdered charcoal is used for the same purpose. Mercury or quicksilver combines with many metals in the cold, forming AMALGAMS, or easily fusible alloys (q. v.).

Alloys generally possess characteristics unshared by their component metals. Thus, copper and zinc form brass, which has a different density, hardness, and color from either of its constituents. Whether the metals tend to unite in atomic proportions or in any definite ratio is still undetermined. The evidence afforded by the natural alloys of gold and silver, and by the phenomena accompanying the cooling of several alloys from the state of fusion, goes far to prove that such is the case (Rudberg). The subject is, however, one of considerable difficulty, as metals and metallic compounds are generally soluble in each other, and unite by simple fusion and contact. That they do not combine indifferently with each other, but exercise a species of elective affinity not dissimilar to other bodies, is clearly shown by the homogeneity and superior quality of many alloys in which the constituent metals are in atomic proportion. The variation of the specific gravity and melting points of alloys from the mean of those of their component metals also affords strong evidence of a chemical change having taken place. Thus, alloys generally melt at lower temperatures than their separate metals. They also usually possess more tenacity and hardness than the mean of their constituents.

Matthiessen found that when weights are suspended to spirals of hard-drawn wire made of copper, gold, or platinum, they become nearly straightened when stretched by a moderate weight; but wires of equal dimensions composed of copper-tin (12 per cent of tin), silver-platinum (36 per cent of platinum), and gold-copper (84 per cent of copper) scarcely undergo any permanent change in form when subjected to tension by the same weight.

The same chemist gives the following approximate results upon the tenacity of certain metals and wires hard-drawn through the same gauge (No. 23):

Pounds Copper, breaking strain 25–30 Tin, breaking strain under 7 Lead, breaking strain under 7 Tin-lead (20% lead) about 7 Tin-copper (12% copper) about 7 Copper-tin (12% tin) about 80–90 Gold (12% tin) 20–25 Gold-copper (8.4% copper) 70–75 Silver (8.4% copper) 45–50 Platinum (8.4% copper) 45–50 Silver-platinum (30% platinum) 75–80

On the other hand, the malleability, ductility, and power of resisting oxygen of alloys is generally diminished. The alloy formed of two brittle metals is always brittle; that of a brittle and a ductile metal, generally so; and even two ductile metals sometimes unite to form a brittle compound. The alloys formed of metals having different fusing points are usually malleable while cold and brittle while hot. The action of the air on alloys is generally less than on their simple metals, unless the former are heated. A mixture of 1 part of tin and 3 parts of lead is scarcely acted on at common temperatures; but at a red heat it readily takes fire, and continues to burn for some time like a piece of bad turf. In like manner, a mixture of tin and zinc, when strongly heated, decomposes both moist air and steam with rapidity.

The specific gravity of alloys is rarely {48} the arithmetical mean of that of their constituents, as commonly taught; and in many cases considerable condensation or expansion occurs. When there is a strong affinity between two metals, the density of their alloy is generally greater than the calculated mean; and vice versa, as may be seen in the following table:

ALLOYS HAVING A DENSITY Greater than the Mean of their Constituents:

Copper and bismuth, Copper and palladium, Copper and tin, Copper and zinc, Gold and antimony, Gold and bismuth, Gold and cobalt, Gold and tin, Gold and zinc, Lead and antimony, Palladium and bismuth, Silver and antimony, Silver and bismuth, Silver and lead, Silver and tin, Silver and zinc.

Less than the Mean of their Constituents:

Gold and copper, Gold and iridium, Gold and iron, Gold and lead, Gold and nickel, Gold and silver, Iron and antimony, Iron and bismuth, Iron and lead, Nickel and arsenic, Silver and copper, Tin and antimony, Tin and lead, Tin and palladium, Zinc and antimony.

«Compounding Alloys.»—Considerable experience is necessary to insure success in compounding alloys, especially when the metals employed vary greatly in fusibility and volatility. The following are rules supplied by an experienced workman:

1. Melt the least fusible, oxidizable, and volatile first, and then add the others heated to their point of fusion or near it. Thus, if it is desired to make an alloy of exactly 1 part of copper and 3 of zinc, it will be impossible to do so by putting proportions of the metals in a crucible and exposing the whole to heat. Much of the zinc would fly off in vapor before the copper was melted. First, melt the copper and add the zinc, which has been melted in another crucible. The zinc should be in excess, as some of it will be lost anyway.

2. Some alloys, as copper and zinc, copper and arsenic, may be formed by exposing heated plates of the least fusible metal to the vapor of the other. In making brass in the large way, thin plates of copper are dissolved, as it were, in melted zinc until the proper proportions have been obtained.

3. The surface of all oxidizable metals should be covered with some protecting agent, as tallow for very fusible ones, rosin for lead and tin, charcoal for zinc, copper, etc.

4. Stir the metal before casting and if possible, when casting, with a whitewood stick; this is much better for the purpose than an iron rod.

5. If possible, add a small portion of old alloy to the new. If the alloy is required to make sharp castings and strength is not a very great object, the proportion of old alloy to the new should be increased. In all cases a new or thoroughly well-cleansed crucible should be used.

To obtain metals and metallic alloys from their compounds, such as oxides, sulphides, chlorides, etc., a process lately patented makes use of the reducing qualities of aluminum or its alloys with magnesium. The finely powdered material (e. g., chromic oxide) is placed in a crucible mixed with aluminum oxide. The mixture is set afire by means of a soldering pipe or a burning magnesium wire, and the desired reaction takes place. For igniting, one may also employ with advantage a special priming cartridge consisting of pulverized aluminum to which a little magnesium may be mixed, and peroxide of magnesia, which is shaped into balls and lighted with a magnesium wire. By suitable additions to the pulverized mixture, alloys containing aluminum, magnetism, chromium, manganese, copper, iron, boron, silicic acid, etc., are obtained.


M. H. Pecheux has contributed to the _Comptes Rendus_, from time to time, the results of his investigations into the alloys of aluminum with soft metals, and the following constitutes a brief summary of his observations:

«Lead.»—When aluminum is melted and lead is added in proportion greater than 10 per cent, the metals separate on cooling into three layers—lead, aluminum, and between them an alloy containing from 90 to 97 per cent of aluminum. {49} The alloys with 93, 95, and 98 per cent have densities of 2.745, 2.674, and 2.600 respectively, and melting points near that of aluminum. Their color is like that of aluminum, but they are less lustrous. All are malleable, easily cut, softer than aluminum, and have a granular fracture. On remelting they become somewhat richer in lead, through a tendency to liquation. They do not oxidize in moist air, nor at their melting points. They are attacked in the cold by hydrochloric and by strong sulphuric acid, with evolution of hydrogen, and by strong nitric acid when hot; strong solution of potassium hydroxide also attacks them. They are without action on distilled water, whether cold or hot.

«Zinc.»—Well-defined alloys were obtained, corresponding to the formulas Zn_〈3〉Al, Zn_〈2〉Al, ZnAl, ZnAl_〈2〉, ZnAl_〈3〉, ZnAl_〈4〉, ZnAl_〈6〉, ZnAl_〈10〉, ZnAl_〈12〉. Their melting points and densities all lie between those of zinc and aluminum, and those containing most zinc are the hardest. They are all dissolved by cold hydrochloric acid and by hot dilute nitric acid. Cold concentrated nitric acid attacks the first three, and cold dilute acid the first five. The Zn_〈3〉Al, ZnAl_〈6〉, ZnAl_〈10〉, and ZnAl_〈12〉 are only slightly affected by cold potassium-hydroxide solution; the others are strongly attacked, potassium zincate and aluminate probably being formed.

«Tin.»—A filed rod of tin-aluminum alloy plunged in cold water gives off for some minutes bubbles of gas, composed of hydrogen and oxygen in explosive proportions. An unfiled rod, or a filed rod of either aluminum or tin, is without action, though the unfiled rod of alloy will act on boiling water. The filed rod of alloy, in faintly acid solution of copper or zinc sulphate, becomes covered with a deposit of copper or zinc, while bubbles of oxygen are given off. M. Pecheux believes that the metals are truly alloyed only at the surface, and that filing lays bare an almost infinitely numerous series of junctions of the two metals, which, heated by the filing, act as thermocouples.

«Bismuth.»—By the method used for lead, bismuth alloys were obtained containing 75, 85, 88, and 94 per cent of aluminum, with densities 2.86, 2.79, 2.78, and 2.74 respectively. They were sonorous, brittle, finely grained, and homogeneous, silver-white, and with melting points between those of their constituents, but nearer that of aluminum. They are not oxidized in air at the temperature of casting, but are readily attacked by acids, concentrated or dilute, and by potassium-hydroxide solution. The filed alloys behave like those of tin, but still more markedly.

«Magnesium.»—These were obtained with 66, 68, 73, 77, and 85 per cent of aluminum, and densities 2.24, 2.47, 2.32, 2.37, 2.47. They are brittle, with large granular fracture, silver-white, file well, take a good polish, and have melting points near that of aluminum. Being viscous when melted, they are difficult to cast, and when slowly cooled form a gray, spongy mass which cannot be remelted. They do not oxidize in air at the ordinary temperatures, but burn readily at a bright-red heat. They are attacked violently by acids and by potassium-hydroxide solution, decompose hydrogen peroxide, and slowly decompose water even in the cold.

«Tin, Bismuth, and Magnesium.»—The action of water on these alloys just referred to has been recently demonstrated on a larger scale, 5 to 6 cubic centimeters of hydrogen having been obtained in 20 minutes from 2 cubic centimeters of the filed tin alloy. The bismuth alloy yielded more hydrogen than the tin alloy, and the magnesium alloy more than the bismuth alloy. The oxygen of the decomposed water unites with the aluminum. Larger quantities of hydrogen are obtained from copper-sulphate solution, apart from the decomposition of this solution by precipitation of copper at the expense of the metal alloyed with the aluminum. The alloys of aluminum with zinc and lead do not decompose pure water, but do decompose the water of copper-sulphate solution, and, more slowly, that of zinc-sulphate solution.

Aluminum is a metal whose properties are very materially influenced by a proportionately small addition of copper. Alloys of 99 per cent aluminum and 1 per cent of copper are hard, brittle, and bluish in color; 95 per cent of aluminum and 5 per cent of copper give an alloy which can be hammered, but with 10 percent of copper the metal can no longer be worked. With 80 per cent and upward of copper are obtained alloys of a beautiful yellow color, and these mixtures, containing from 5 to 10 percent of aluminum and from 90 to 95 per cent of copper, are the genuine aluminum bronzes. The 10-per-cent alloys are of a pure golden-yellow color; with 5 per cent of aluminum they are reddish yellow, like gold heavily alloyed with copper, and a 2-per-cent admixture is of an almost pure copper red. {50} As the proportion of copper increases, the brittleness is diminished, and alloys containing 10 per cent and less of aluminum can be used for industrial purposes, the best consisting of 90 per cent of copper and 10 of aluminum. The hardness of this alloy approaches that of the general bronzes, whence its name. It can be stretched out into thin sheets between rollers, worked under the hammer, and shaped as desired by beating or pressure, in powerful stamping presses. On account of its hardness it takes a fine polish, and its peculiar greenish-gold color resembles that of gold alloyed with copper and silver together.

Alloys with a still greater proportion of copper approach this metal more and more nearly in their character; the color of an alloy, for instance, composed of 95 per cent of copper and 5 per cent of aluminum, can be distinguished from pure gold only by direct comparison, and the metal is very hard, and also very malleable.

«Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum Alloys.»—During three years’ exposure to the atmosphere, copper-aluminum alloys in one test gradually diminished in conductivity in proportion to the amount of copper they contained. The nickel-copper aluminum alloys, which show such remarkably increased tensile strength as compared with good commercial aluminum, considerably diminished in total conductivity. On the other hand, the manganese-copper aluminum alloys suffered comparatively little diminution in total conductivity, and one of them retained comparatively high tensile strength. It was thought that an examination of the structure of these alloys by aid of microphotography might throw some light on the great difference which exists between some of their physical properties. For instance, a nickel-copper aluminum alloy has 1.6 times the tensile strength of ordinary commercial aluminum. Under a magnification of 800 diameters practically no structure could be discovered. Considering the remarkable crystalline structure exhibited by ordinary commercial aluminum near the surface of an ingot, when allowed to solidify at an ordinary rate, the want of structure in these alloys must be attributed to the process of drawing down. The inference is that the great difference which exists between their tensile strengths and other qualities is not due to variation in structure.

«Colored Alloys of Aluminum.»—A purple scintillating composition is produced by an alloyage of 78 parts of gold and 22 parts aluminum. With platinum a gold-colored alloy is obtained; with palladium a copper-colored one; and with cobalt and nickel one of a yellow color. Easily fusible metals of the color of aluminum give white alloys. Metal difficult of fusion, such as iridium, osmium, titanium, etc., appear in abnormal tones of color through such alloyages.

«Aluminum-Brass.»—Aluminum, 1 per cent; specific gravity, 8.35; tensile strength, 40. Aluminum, 3 per cent; specific gravity, 8.33; tensile strength, 65. The last named is harder than the first.

«Aluminum-Copper.»—Minikin is principally aluminum with a small percentage of copper and nickel. It is alloyed by mixing the aluminum and copper, then adding the nickel. It resembles palladium and is very strong.

«Aluminum-Silver.»—I.—Silver, 3 per cent; aluminum, 97 per cent. A handsome color.

II.—A silver aluminum that is easily worked into various articles contains about one-fourth silver and three-fourths of aluminum.

«Aluminum-Tin.»—Bourbon metal is composed of equal parts of aluminum and tin; it solders readily.

«Aluminum-Tungsten.»—A new metal alloy consisting of aluminum and tungsten is used of late in France in the construction of conveyances, especially carriages, bicycles, and motor vehicles. The French call it partinium; the composition of the new alloy varies according to the purposes for which it is used. It is considerably cheaper than aluminum, almost as light, and has a greater resistance. The strength is stated at 32 to 37 kilograms per square millimeter.

«Aluminum-Zinc.»—Zinc, 3 per cent; aluminum, 97 per cent. Very ductile, white, and harder than aluminum.

AMALGAMS: See Fusible Alloys.

«Anti-Friction Bearing or Babbitt Metals.»—These alloys are usually supported by bearings of brass, into which it is poured after they have been tinned, and heated and put together with an exact model of the axle, or other working piece, plastic clay being previously applied, in the usual manner, as a lute or outer mold. Soft gun metal is also excellent, and is much used for bearings. They all become less heated in working than the {51} harder metals, and less grease or oil is consequently required when they are used.

I.—An anti-friction metal of excellent quality and one that has been used with success is made as follows: 17 parts zinc; 1 part copper; 1 1/2 parts antimony; prepared in the following way: Melt the copper in a small crucible, then add the antimony, and lastly the zinc, care being taken not to burn the zinc. Burning can be prevented by allowing the copper and antimony to cool slightly before adding the zinc. This metal is preferably cast into the shape desired and is not used as a lining metal because it requires too great a heat to pour. It machines nicely and takes a fine polish on bearing surfaces. It has the appearance of aluminum when finished. Use a lubricating oil made from any good grade of machine oil to which 3 parts of kerosene have been added.

II.—Copper, 6 parts; tin, 12 parts; lead, 150 parts; antimony, 30 parts; wrought iron, 1 part; cast iron, 1 part. For certain purposes the composition is modified as follows: Copper, 16 parts; tin, 40 parts; lead, 120 parts; antimony, 24 parts; wrought iron, 1 part; cast iron, 1 part. In both cases the wrought iron is cut up in small pieces, and in this state it will melt readily in fused copper and cast iron. After the mixture has been well stirred, the tin, lead, and antimony are added; these are previously melted in separate crucibles, and when mingled the whole mass is again stirred thoroughly. The product may then be run into ingots, to be employed when needed. When run into the molds the surface should be well skimmed, for in this state it oxidizes rapidly. The proportions may be varied without materially affecting the results.

III.—From tin, 16 to 20 parts; antimony, 2 parts; lead, 1 part; fused together, and then blended with copper, 80 parts. Used where there is much friction or high velocity.

IV.—Zinc, 6 parts; tin, 1 part; copper, 20 parts. Used when the metal is exposed to violent shocks.

V.—Lead, 1 part; tin, 2 parts; zinc, 4 parts; copper, 68 parts. Used when the metal is exposed to heat.

VI.—Tin, 48 to 50 parts; antimony, 5 parts; copper, 1 part.

VII.—(Fenton’s.) Tin, with some zinc, and a little copper.

VIII.—(Ordinary.) Tin, or hard pewter, with or without a small portion of antimony or copper. Without the last it is apt to spread out under the weight of heavy machinery. Used for the bearings of locomotives, etc.

The following two compositions are for motor and dynamo shafts: 100 pounds tin; 10 pounds copper; 10 pounds antimony.

83 1/2 pounds tin; 8 1/4 pounds antimony; 8 1/4 pounds copper.

IX.—Lead, 75 parts; antimony, 23 parts; tin, 2 parts.

X.—Magnolia Metal.—This is composed of 40 parts of lead, 7 1/2 parts of antimony, 2 1/2 of tin, 1/8 of bismuth, 1/8 of aluminum, and 1/4 of graphite. It is used as an anti-friction metal, and takes its name from its manufacturer’s mark, a magnolia flower.

ARGENTAN: See German Silver, under this title.


The composition of bell metal varies considerably, as may be seen below:

I.—(Standard.) Copper, 78 parts; tin, 22 parts; fused together and cast. The most sonorous of all the alloys of copper and tin. It is easily fusible, and has a fine compact grain, and a vitreous conchoidal and yellowish-red fracture. According to Klaproth, the finest-toned Indian gongs have this composition.

II.—(Founder’s Standard.) Copper, 77 parts; tin, 21 parts; antimony, 2 parts. Slightly paler and inferior to No. I.

III.—Copper, 80 parts; tin, 20 parts. Very deep-toned and sonorous. Used in China and India for the larger gongs, tam-tams, etc.

IV.—Copper, 78 to 80 parts; tin, 22 to 20 parts. Usual composition of Chinese cymbals, tam-tams, etc.

V.—Copper, 75 (= 3) parts; tin, 25 (= 1) part. Somewhat brittle. In fracture, semivitreous and bluish-red. Used for church and other large bells.

VI.—Copper, 80 parts; tin, 10 1/4 parts; zinc, 5 1/2 parts; lead, 4 1/4 parts. English bell metal, according to Thomson. Inferior to the last; the lead being apt to form isolated drops, to the injury of the uniformity of the alloy.

VII.—Copper, 68 parts; tin, 32 parts. Brittle; fracture conchoidal and ash-gray. Best proportions for house bells, hand bells, etc.; for which, however, 2 of copper and 1 of tin is commonly substituted by the founders.

VIII.—Copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 1/2 parts; iron, 1 1/2 parts. Used by the Paris houses for the bells of small clocks.

IX.—Copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 parts; zinc, 2 parts. Used, like the last, for very small bells.

X.—Copper, 70 parts; tin, 26 parts; {52} zinc, 2 parts. Used for the bells of repeating watches.

XI.—Melt together copper, 100 parts; tin, 25 parts. After being cast into the required object, it should be made red-hot, and then plunged immediately into cold water in order to impart to it the requisite degree of sonorousness. For cymbals and gongs.

XII.—Melt together copper, 80 parts; tin, 20 parts. When cold it has to be hammered out with frequent annealing.

XIII.—Copper, 78 parts; tin, 22 parts; This is superior to the former, and it can be rolled out. For tam-tams and gongs.

XIV.—Melt together copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 to 56 parts; iron 1/44 part. Used in making the bells of ornamental French clocks.

Castings in bell metal are all more or less brittle; and, when recent, have a color varying from a dark ash-gray to grayish-white, which is darkest in the more cuprous varieties, in which it turns somewhat on the yellowish-red or bluish-red. The larger the proportion of copper in the alloy, the deeper and graver the tone of the bells formed of it. The addition of tin, iron, or zinc, causes them to give out their tones sharper. Bismuth and lead are also often used to modify the tone, which each metal affects differently. The addition of antimony and bismuth is frequently made by the founder to give a more crystalline grain to the alloy. All these conditions are, however, prejudicial to the sonorousness of bells, and of very doubtful utility. Rapid refrigeration increases the sonorousness of all these alloys. Hence M. D’Arcet recommends that the “pieces” be heated to a cherry-red after they are cast, and after having been suddenly plunged into cold water, that they be submitted to well-regulated pressure by skillful hammering, until they assume their proper form; after which they are to be again heated and allowed to cool slowly in the air. This is the method adopted by the Chinese with their gongs, etc., a casing of sheet iron being employed by them to support and protect the pieces during the exposure to heat. In a general way, however, bells are formed and completed by simple casting. This is necessarily the case with all very large bells. Where the quality of their tones is the chief object sought after, the greatest care should be taken to use commercially pure copper. The presence of a very little lead or any similar metal greatly lessens the sonorousness of this alloy; while that of silver increases it.

The specific gravity of a large bell is seldom uniform through its whole substance; nor can the specific gravity from any given portion of its constituent metals be exactly calculated owing to the many interfering circumstances. The nearer this uniformity is approached, or, in other words, chemical combination is complete, the more durable and finer-toned will be the bell. In general, it is found necessary to take about one-tenth more metal than the weight of the intended bell, or bells, in order to allow for waste and scorification during the operations of fusing and casting.


Bismuth possesses the unusual quality of expanding in cooling. It is, therefore, introduced in many alloys to reduce or check shrinkage in the mold.

For delicate castings, and for taking impressions from dies, medals, etc., various bismuth alloys are in use, whose composition corresponds to the following figures:

I II III IV Bismuth 6 5 2 8 Tin 3 2 1 3 Lead 13 3 1 5

V.—Cliché Metal.—This alloy is composed of tin, 48 parts; lead, 32.5; bismuth, 9; and antimony, 10.5. It is especially well adapted to dabbing rollers for printing cotton goods, and as it possesses a considerable degree of hardness, it wears well.

VI.—For filling out defective places in metallic castings, an alloy of bismuth 1 part, antimony 3, lead 8, can be advantageously used.

VII.—For Cementing Glass.—Most of the cements in ordinary use are dissolved, or at least softened, by petroleum. An alloy of lead 3 parts, tin 2, bismuth 2.5, melting at 212° F., is not affected by petroleum, and is therefore very useful for cementing lamps made of metal and glass combined.



In general brass is composed of two-thirds copper and one-third zinc, but a little lead or tin is sometimes advantageous, as the following:

I.—Red copper, 66 parts; zinc, 34 parts; lead, 1 part.

II.—Copper, 66 parts; zinc, 32 parts; tin, 1 part; lead, 1 part.

III.—Copper, 64.5 parts; zinc, 33.5 parts; lead, 1.5 parts; tin, 0.5 part.

«Brass-Aluminum.»—A small addition of aluminum to brass (1.5 to 8 per cent) {53} greatly increases its hardness and elasticity, and this alloy is also easily worked for any purpose. Brass containing 8 per cent of aluminum has the valuable property of being but slightly affected by acids or gases. A larger percentage of aluminum makes the brass brittle. It is to be noted that aluminum brass decreases very materially in volume in casting, and the casts must be cooled slowly or they will be brittle. It is an alloy easily made, and its low price, combined with its excellent qualities, would seem to make it in many cases an advantageous substitute for the expensive phosphorous bronze.

«Bristol Brass (Prince’s Metal).»—This alloy, which possesses properties similar to those of French brass, is prepared in the following proportions:

I II III Copper 75.7 67.2 60.8 Zinc 24.3 32.8 39.2

Particular care is required to prevent the zinc from evaporating during the fusing, and for this purpose it is customary to put only half of it into the first melting, and to add the remainder when the first mass is liquefied.

«Brass-Iron (Aich’s Metal).»—This is a variety of brass with an admixture of iron, which gives it a considerable degree of tenacity. It is especially adapted for purposes which require a hard and, at the same time, tenacious metal. Analyses of the various kinds of this metal show considerable variation in the proportions. Even the amount of iron, to which the hardening effect must be attributed, may vary within wide limits without materially modifying the tenacity which is the essential characteristic of this alloy.

I.—The best variety of Aich’s metal consists of copper, 60 parts; zinc, 38.2; iron, 1.8. The predominating quality of this alloy is its hardness, which is claimed to be not inferior to that of certain kinds of steel. It has a beautiful golden-yellow color, and is said not to oxidize easily, a valuable property for articles exposed to the action of air and water.

II.—Copper, 60.2 parts; zinc, 38.2; iron, 1.6. The permissible variations in the content of iron are from 0.4 to 3 per cent.

Sterro metal may properly be considered in connection with Aich’s metal, since its constituents are the same and its properties very similar. The principal difference between the two metals is that sterro metal contains a much larger amount of iron. The composition of this alloy varies considerably with different manufacturers.

III.—Two varieties of excellent quality are the product of the Rosthorn factory, in Lower Austria—copper, 55.33 parts; zinc, 41.80; iron, 4.66. Also

IV.—English sterro metal (Gedge’s alloy for ship sheathing), copper, 60 parts; zinc, 38.125; iron, 1.5.

The great value of this alloy lies in its strength, which is equaled only by that of the best steel. As an illustration of this, a wrought-iron pipe broke with a pressure of 267 atmospheres, while a similar pipe of sterro metal withstood the enormous pressure of 763 atmospheres without cracking. Besides its remarkable strength, it possesses a high degree of elasticity, and is, therefore, particularly suitable for purposes which require the combination of these two qualities, such as the construction of hydraulic cylinders. It is well known that these cylinders, at a certain pressure, begin to sweat, that is, the interior pressure is so great that the water permeates through the pores of the steel. With a sterro metal cylinder, the pressure can be considerably increased without any moisture being perceptible on the outside of the cylinder.

Sterro metal can be made even more hard and dense, if required for special purposes, but this is effected rather by mechanical manipulation than by any change in the chemical composition. If rolled or hammered in heat, its strength is increased, and it acquires, in addition, an exceedingly high degree of tenacity. Special care must be taken, however, in hammering not to overheat the metal, as in this case it would become brittle and might crack under the hammer. Sterro metal is especially suitable for all the purposes for which the so-called red metal has been in the past almost exclusively used. Axle bearings, for example, made of sterro metal have such excellent qualities that many machine factories are now using this material entirely for the purpose.

«Cast Brass.»—The various articles of bronze, so called, statuettes, clock cases, etc., made in France, where this industry has attained great perfection and extensive proportions, are not, in many cases, genuine bronze, but fine cast brass. Following are the compositions of a few mixtures of metals most frequently used by French manufacturers:

Copper Zinc Tin Lead I 63.70 33.55 2.50 0.25 II 64.45 32.44 0.25 2.86 III 70.90 24.05 2.00 3.05 IV 72.43 22.75 1.87 2.95


Their special advantage is that they can be readily cast, worked with file and chisel, and easily gilded.

«To Cast Yellow Brass.»—If good, clean, yellow brass sand castings are desired, the brass should not contain over 30 per cent of zinc. This will assure an alloy of good color and one which will run free and clean. Tin or lead may be added without affecting the property of casting clean. A mixture of 7 pounds of copper, 3 pounds of spelter, 4 ounces of tin, and 3 ounces of lead makes a good casting alloy and one which will cut free and is strong. If a stronger alloy be desired, more tin may be added, but 4 ounces is usually sufficient. If the alloy be too hard, reduce the proportion of tin.

«Leaf Brass.»—This alloy is also called Dutch gold, or imitation gold leaf. It is made of copper, 77.75 to 84.5 parts; zinc, 15.5 to 22.25. Its color is pale or bright yellow or greenish, according to the proportions of the metals. It has an unusual degree of ductility.

«Malleable Brass.»—This metal is affected less by sea water than pure copper, and was formerly much used for ship sheathing, and for making nails and rivets which were to come in contact with sea water. At the present day it has lost much of its importance, since all the larger ships are made of steel. It is usually composed of copper, 60 to 62 parts; and zinc, 40 to 38 parts. It is sometimes called yellow metal, or Müntz metal (called after its inventor), and is prepared with certain precautions, directed toward obtaining as fine a grain as possible, experience having shown that only a fine-grained alloy of uniform density can resist the action of the sea water evenly. A metal of uneven density will wear in holes. To obtain as uniform a grain as possible, small samples taken from the fused mass are cooled quickly and examined as to fracture. If they do not show the desired uniform grain, some zinc is added to the mass. After it has permeated the whole mass, a fresh sample is taken and tested, this being continued until the desired result is reached. It is scarcely necessary to remark that considerable experience is required to tell the correct composition of the alloy from the fracture. The mass is finally poured into molds and rolled cold. Malleable brass can be worked warm, like iron, being ductile in heat, a valuable quality.

Experiments with malleable brass show that all alloys containing up to 58.33 per cent of copper and up to 41.67 per cent of zinc are malleable. There is, in addition, a second group of such alloys, with 61.54 per cent of copper and 38.46 per cent of zinc, which are also malleable in heat.

The preparation of these alloys requires considerable experience, and is best accomplished by melting the metals together in the usual manner, and heating the fused mass as strongly as possible. It must be covered with a layer of charcoal dust to prevent oxidation of the zinc. The mass becomes thinly fluid, and an intimate mixture of the constituents is effected. Small pieces of the same alloy are thrown into the liquid mass until it no longer shows a reflecting surface, when it is cast into ingots in iron molds. The ingots are plunged into water while still red-hot, and acquire by this treatment a very high degree of ductility. The alloy, properly prepared, has a fibrous fracture and a reddish-yellow color.

«Sheet Brass» (For Sheet and Wire).—In the preparation of brass for the manufacture of wire, an especially pure quality of copper must be used; without this, all efforts to produce a suitable quality of brass will be in vain. That pure copper is indispensable to the manufacture of good, ductile brass may be seen from the great difference in the composition of the various kinds, all of which answer their purpose, but contain widely varying quantities of copper and zinc. The following table shows the composition of some excellent qualities of brass suitable for making sheet and wire:

───────────────────+──────+──────+──────+───── Brass Sheet—Source │Copper│ Zinc │ Lead │ Tin ───────────────────+──────+──────+──────+───── Jemappes │ 64.6 │ 33.7 │ 1.4 │ 0.2 Stolberg │ 64.8 │ 32.8 │ 2.0 │ 0.4 Romilly │ 70.1 │ 29.26│ 0.38 │ 0.17 Rosthorn (Vienna) │ 68.1 │ 31.9 │ — │ — Rosthorn (Vienna) │ 71.5 │ 28.5 │ — │ — Rosthorn (Vienna) │ 71.1 │ 27.6 │ 1.3 │ — Iserlohn & Romilly │ 70.1 │ 29.9 │ — │ — Lüdenscheid │ 72.73│ 27.27│ — │ — (Brittle) │ 63.66│ 33.02│ 2.52 │ — Hegermühl │ 70.16│ 27.45│ 0.79 │ 0.20 Oker │ 68.98│ 29.54│ 0.97 │ — │ │ │ │ Brass Wire— │ │ │ │ England │ 70.29│ 29.26│ 0.28 │ 0.17 Augsburg │ 71.89│ 27.63│ 0.85 │ — Neustadt │ 70.16│ 27.45│ 0.2 │ 0.79 Neustadt │ 71.36│ 28.15│ — │ — Neustadt │ 71.5 │ 28.5 │ — │ — Neustadt │ 71.0 │ 27.6 │ — │ — (Good quality) │ 65.4 │ 34.6 │ — │ — (Brittle) │ 65.5 │ 32.4 │ 2.1 │ — For wire and sheet │ 67.0 │ 32.0 │ 0.5 │ 0.5 ───────────────────+──────+──────+──────+─────


As the above figures show, the percentage of zinc in the different kinds of brass lies between 27 and 34. Recently, alloys containing a somewhat larger quantity of zinc have been used, it having been found that the toughness and ductility of the brass are increased thereby, without injury to its tenacity. Alloys containing up to 37 per cent of zinc possess a high degree of ductility in the cold, and are well adapted for wire and sheet.

«Gilders’ Sheet Brass.»—Copper, 1 part; zinc, 1 part; tin, 1/10 part; lead, 1/10 part. Very readily fusible and very dense.

«White Brass.»—Birmingham platina is an alloy of a pure white, almost silver-white color, remaining unaffected by tolerably long exposure to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this alloy is so brittle that it can rarely be shaped except by casting. It is used only in the manufacture of buttons. The alloy is poured into molds giving rather sharp impressions and allowing the design on the button (letters or coat of arms) to stand out prominently with careful stamping. The composition of this alloy, also known by the name of platinum lead, is as follows:

I II Copper 46.5 4 Zinc 53.5 16

III.—Zinc, 80 parts; copper, 10 parts; iron, 10 parts.


Britannia metal is an alloy consisting principally of tin and antimony. Many varieties contain only these two metals, and may be considered simply as tin hardened with antimony, while others contain, in addition, certain quantities of copper, sometimes lead, and occasionally, though rarely on account of its cost, bismuth. Britannia metal is always of a silvery-white color, with a bluish tinge, and its hardness makes it capable of taking a high polish, which is not lost through exposure to the air. Ninety per cent of tin and 10 per cent of antimony gives a composition which is the best for many purposes, especially for casting, as it fills out the molds well, and is readily fusible. In some cases, where articles made from it are to be subjected to constant wear, a harder alloy is required. In the proportions given above, the metal is indeed much harder than tin, but would still soon give way under usage.

A table is appended, giving the composition of some of the varieties of Britannia metal and their special names.

───────────────────────+─────+────────+──────+──────+──── │ Tin │Antimony│Copper│ Zinc │Lead ───────────────────────+─────+────────+──────+──────+──── English │81.90│ 16.25 │ 1.84 │ — │ — English │90.62│ 7.81 │ 1.46 │ — │ — English │90.1 │ 6.3 │ 3.1 │ 0.5 │ — English │85.4 │ 9.66 │ 0.81 │ 3.06 │ — Pewter │81.2 │ 5.7 │ 1.60 │ — │11.5 Pewter │89.3 │ 7.6 │ 1.8 │ — │ 1.8 Tutania │91.4 │ — │ 0.7 │ 0.3 │ 7.6 Queen’s metal │88.5 │ 7.1 │ 3.5 │ 0.9 │ — German │72.0 │ 24.0 │ 4.0 │ — │ — German │84.0 │ 9.0 │ 2.0 │ 5.0 │ — German (for casting) │20.0 │ 64.0 │ 10.0 │ 6.0 │ — Malleable (for casting)│48.0 │ — │ 3.0 │48.0 │ 1.0 ───────────────────────+─────+────────+──────+──────+────

Britannia metal is prepared by melting the copper alone first, then adding a part of the tin and the whole of the antimony. The heat can then be quickly moderated, as the melting point of the new alloy is much lower than that of copper. Finally, the rest of the tin is added, and the mixture stirred constantly for some time to make it thoroughly homogeneous.

An alloy which bears a resemblance to Britannia metal is Ashberry metal, for which there are two formulas.

I II Copper 2 3 Tin 8 79 Antimony 14 15 Zinc 1 2 Nickel 2 1


The composition of bronze must be effected immediately before the casting, for bronze cannot be kept in store ready prepared. In forming the alloy, the refractory compound, copper, is first melted separately, the other metals, tin, zinc, etc., previously heated, being then added; the whole is then stirred and the casting carried out without loss of time. The process of forming the alloy must be effected quickly, so that there may be no loss of zinc, tin, or lead through oxidation, and also no interruption to the flow of metal, as metal added after an interval of time will not combine perfectly with the metal already poured in. It is important, therefore, to ascertain the specific weights of the metals, for the heavier metal will naturally tend to sink to the bottom and the lighter to collect at the top. Only in this way, and by vigorous stirring, can the complete blending of the two metals be secured. In adding the zinc, great care {56} must be taken that the latter sinks at once to the level of the copper, otherwise a considerable portion will be volatilized before reaching the copper. When the castings are made, they must be cooled as quickly as possible, for the components of bronze have a tendency to form separate alloys of various composition, thus producing the so-called tin spots. This is much more likely to occur with a slow than with a sudden cooling of the mass.

«Annealing Bronze.»—This process is more particularly employed in the preparation of alloys used in the manufacture of cymbals, gongs, bells, etc. The alloy is naturally brittle, and acquires the properties essential to the purpose for which it is intended only after casting. The instruments are plunged into cold water while red-hot, hammered, reheated, and slowly cooled, when they become soft and sonorous. The alloy of copper and tin has the peculiar property that, whereas steel becomes hard through cooling, this mixture, when cooled suddenly, becomes noticeably soft and more malleable. The alloy is heated to a dark-red heat, or, in the case of thin articles, to the melting point of lead, and then plunged in cold water. The alloy may be hammered without splitting or breaking.

«Aluminum Bronze.»—This is prepared by melting the finest copper in a crucible, and adding the aluminum. The copper is cooled thereby to the thickly fluid point, but at the moment of the combination of the two metals, so much heat is released that the alloy becomes white hot and thinly fluid. Aluminum bronze thus prepared is usually brittle, and acquires its best qualities only after having been remelted several times. It may be remarked that, in order to obtain a bronze of the best quality, only the very purest copper must be used; with an inferior quality of copper, all labor is wasted. Aluminum bronze is not affected by exposure to the air; and its beautiful color makes it very suitable for manufacturing various ornamental articles, including clock cases, door knobs, etc.

Aluminum bronze wire is almost as strong as good steel wire, and castings made from it are almost as hard as steely iron; its resistance to bending or sagging is great.

I.—A good formula is 90 to 95 per cent of aluminum and 5 to 10 per cent of copper, of golden color, which keeps well in the air, without soon becoming dull and changing color like pure copper and its alloys with tin and zinc (bronze, brass, etc.). It can be cast excellently, can be filed well and turned, possesses an extraordinary hardness and firmness, and attains a high degree of polish; it is malleable and forgeable. On the latter quality are founded applications which were formerly never thought of, viz.: forged works of art for decorative purposes. An alloy of 95 parts aluminum and 5 parts copper is used here. The technical working of bronze is not materially different from that of iron. The metal, especially in a hot condition, is worked like iron on the anvil, with hammer and chisel, only that the temperature to be maintained in forging lies between dark and light cherry red. If the articles are not forged in one piece and the putting together of the separate parts becomes necessary, riveting or soldering has to be resorted to. Besides forging, aluminum bronze is well suited for embossing, which is not surprising considering the high percentage of copper. After finishing the pieces, the metal can be toned in manifold ways by treatment with acid.

II.—Copper, 89 to 98 per cent; aluminum and nickel, 1 to 2 per cent. Aluminum and nickel change in the opposite way, that is to say, in increasing the percentage of nickel the amount of aluminum is decreased by the equal quantity. It should be borne in mind that the best ratio is aluminum, 9.5 per cent; nickel, 1 to 1.5 per cent at most. In preparing the alloy a deoxidizing agent is added, viz., phosphorus to 0.5 per cent; magnesium to 1.5 per cent. The phosphorus should always be added in the form of phosphorous copper or phosphor aluminum of exactly determined percentage. It is first added to the copper, then the aluminum and the nickel, and finally the magnesium, the last named at the moment of liquidity, are admixed.

III.—A gold bronze, containing 3 to 5 per cent aluminum; specific gravity, 8.37 to 8.15. Handsome golden color. This alloy oxidizes less on heating than copper and iron, and is therefore especially adapted for locomotive fireboxes and spindles, etc.

IV.—A steel bronze containing on an average 8.5 per cent aluminum (including 1 per cent silicium); specific gravity, 7.7. Very ductile and tough, but slightly elastic; hence its use is excluded where, with large demands upon tension and pressure, no permanent change of form must ensue. This is changed by working, such as rolling, drawing, etc. {57} Especially useful where infrangibility is desired, as in machinery, ordnance, etc. At high temperature this bronze loses its elasticity again.

V.—This contains 8.5 per cent aluminum and 1 1/2 to 2 per cent silicium. Its use is advisable in cases where the metal is to possess a good elasticity, even in the cast state, and to retain it after being worked in red heat.

VI.—An acid bronze, containing 10 per cent aluminum; specific gravity, 7.65. Especially serviceable to resist oxidation and the action of acids.

VII.—Diamond bronze, containing 10 per cent aluminum and 2 per cent silicium. Specific gravity, 7.3. Very hard; of great firmness, but brittle.

«Art Bronzes.» (See also Aluminum Bronzes and Japanese Bronzes under this title.)—I.—Copper, 84 parts; zinc, 11 parts; tin, 5 parts.

II.—Copper, 90 parts; zinc, 6 parts; tin, 2 parts; lead, 2 parts.

III.—Copper, 65 parts; zinc, 30 parts; tin, 5 parts.

IV.—Copper, 90 parts; tin, 5 parts; zinc, 4 parts; lead, 1 part.

V.—Copper, 85 parts; zinc, 10 parts; tin, 3 parts; lead, 2 parts.

VI.—Copper, 72 parts; zinc, 23 parts; tin, 3 parts; lead, 2 parts.

«Statuary Bronze.»—Many of the antique statues were made of genuine bronze, which has advantages for this purpose, but has been superseded in modern times by mixtures of metals containing, besides copper and tin—the constituents of real bronze—a quantity of zinc, the alloy thus formed being really an intermediate product between bronze and brass. The reason for the use of such mixtures lies partly in the comparative cheapness of their production as compared with genuine bronze, and partly in the purpose for which the metal is to be used. A thoroughly good statuary bronze must become thinly fluid in fusing, fill the molds out sharply, allow of being easily worked with the file, and must take on the beautiful green coating called patina, after being exposed to the air for a short time.

Genuine bronze, however strongly heated, does not become thin enough to fill out the molds well, and it is also difficult to obtain homogeneous castings from it. Brass alone is also too thickly fluid, and not hard enough for the required fine chiseling or chasing of the finished object. Alloys containing zinc and tin, in addition to copper, can be prepared in such a manner that they will become very thinly fluid, and will give fine castings which can easily be worked with the file and chisel. The best proportions seem to be from 10 to 18 per cent of zinc and from 2 to 4 per cent of tin. In point of hardness, statuary bronze holds an intermediate position between genuine bronze and brass, being harder and tougher than the latter, but not so much so as the former.

Since statuary bronze is used principally for artistic purposes, much depends upon the color. This can be varied from pale yellow to orange yellow by slightly varying the content of tin or zinc, which must, of course, still be kept between the limits given above. Too much tin makes the alloy brittle and difficult to chisel; with too much zinc, on the other hand, the warm tone of color is lost, and the bronze does not acquire a fine patina.

The best proportions for statuary bronze are very definitely known at the present day; yet it sometimes happens that large castings have not the right character. They are either defective in color, or they do not take on a fine patina, or they are difficult to chisel. These phenomena may be due to the use of impure metals—containing oxides, iron, lead, etc.—or to improper treatment of the alloy in melting. With the most careful work possible, there is a considerable loss in melting—3 per cent at the very least, and sometimes as much as 10. This is due to the large proportion of zinc, and it is evident that, in consequence of it, the nature of the alloy will be different from what might be expected from the quantities of metals used in its manufacture.

It has been remarked that slight variations in composition quickly change the color of the alloy. The following table gives a series of alloys of different colors, suitable for statuary bronze:

──────+────────+───────+──────+─────────────── │ Copper │ Zinc │ Tin │ Color ──────+────────+───────+──────+─────────────── I │ 84.42 │ 11.28 │ 4.30 │ Reddish yellow II │ 84.00 │ 11.00 │ 5.00 │ Orange red III │ 83.05 │ 13.03 │ 3.92 │ Orange red IV │ 83.00 │ 12.00 │ 5.00 │ Orange red V │ 81.05 │ 15.32 │ 3.63 │ Orange yellow VI │ 81.00 │ 15.00 │ 4.00 │ Orange yellow VII │ 78.09 │ 18.47 │ 3.44 │ Orange yellow VIII │ 73.58 │ 23.27 │ 3.15 │ Orange yellow IX │ 73.00 │ 23.00 │ 4.00 │ Pale orange X │ 70.36 │ 26.88 │ 2.76 │ Pale yellow XI │ 70.00 │ 27.00 │ 3.00 │ Pale yellow XII │ 65.95 │ 31.56 │ 2.49 │ Pale yellow ──────+────────+───────+──────+───────────────


Perhaps the most satisfactory bronze metal is the alloy used in France for more than a century. It contains 91.60 per cent of copper, 5.33 per cent of zinc, 1.70 per cent of tin, and 1.37 per cent of lead. Somewhat more zinc is taken for articles to be gilded.

«Bismuth Bronze.»—Copper, 52 parts; nickel, 30 parts; zinc, 12 parts; lead, 5 parts; bismuth, 1 part. For metallic mirrors, lamp reflectors, etc.

Gun Bronze.—See Phosphor Bronze under this title.

«Japanese Bronzes.»—The formulas given below contain a large percentage of lead, which greatly improves the patina. The ingredients and the ratio of their parts for several sorts of modern Japanese bronze follow:

I.—Copper, 81.62 per cent; tin, 4.61 per cent; lead, 10.21 per cent.

II.—Copper, 76.60 per cent; tin, 4.38 per cent; lead, 11.88 per cent; zinc, 6.53 per cent.

III.—Copper, 88.55 per cent; tin, 2.42 per cent; lead, 4.72 per cent; zinc, 3.20 per cent.

Sometimes a little antimony is added just before casting, and such a composition would be represented more nearly by this formula:

IV.—Copper, 68.25 per cent; tin, 5.47 per cent; zinc, 8.88 per cent; lead, 17.06 per cent; antimony, 0.34 per cent.

For imitation Japanese bronze, see Plating under Bronzing.

«Machine Bronze.»—I.—Copper, 89 per cent; tin, 11 per cent.

II.—Copper, 80 per cent; tin, 16 per cent.

«Phosphor Bronze.»—Phosphor bronze is bronze containing varying amounts of phosphorus, from a few hundredths of 1 per cent to 1 or 2 per cent. Bronze containing simply copper and tin is very liable to be defective from the presence of oxygen, sulphur, or occluded gases. Oxygen causes the metal to be spongy and weak. Sulphur and occluded gases cause porosity. Oxygen gets into the metal by absorption from the air. It can be eliminated by adding to the metal something which combines with the oxygen and then fluxes off. Such deoxidizers are zinc, antimony, aluminum, manganese, silicon, and phosphorus. Sulphur and occluded gases can be eliminated by melting the metal, exposing it to the air, and letting it thus absorb some oxygen, which then burns the sulphur and gas. The oxygen can then be removed by adding one of the above-mentioned deoxidizers. The important use of phosphorus in bronze is, therefore, to remove oxygen and also indirectly to destroy occluded gas and sulphur.

A bronze is sometimes made with an extra high percentage of phosphorus, namely, 6 per cent. This alloy is made so as to have phosphorus in convenient form for use, and the process of manufacture is as follows: Ninety pounds of copper are melted under charcoal in a No. 70 crucible, which holds about 200 pounds of metal when full; 11 pounds of tin are added and the metal is allowed to become hot. The crucible is then removed from the furnace and 7 pounds of phosphorus are introduced in the following manner: A 3-gallon stone jar, half full of dilute solution of blue vitriol, is weighed. Then the weights are increased 7 pounds, and phosphorus in sticks about 4 inches long is added till the scales balance again. The phosphorus is left in this solution half an hour or longer, the phosphorus being given a coating of copper, so that it may be dried and exposed to the air without igniting. Have ready a pan about 30 inches square and 6 inches deep, containing about 2 inches of water. Over the water is a wire netting, which is laid loose on ledges or supports along the inner sides of the pan. On the netting is blotting paper, and on this the phosphorus is laid to dry when taken out of the blue-vitriol solution. The pan also has a lid which can be put down in case of ignition of the phosphorus.

The phosphorus is now ready for introduction into the metal. This is done by means of a cup-shaped instrument called a retort or phosphorizer. One man holds the retort on the rim of the crucible in a horizontal position. A second man takes about three pieces of phosphorus and throws them into the retort. The first man then immediately plunges the mouth of the retort below the surface of the metal before the phosphorus has a chance to fall or flow out. Of course the phosphorus immediately melts and also begins to volatilize. As the phosphorus comes in contact with the metal, it combines with it. This process is continued till all the 7 pounds of phosphorus has been put into the metal. The metal is then poured into slabs about 3 inches by 4 inches by 1 inch thick. The metal is so hard that a greater thickness would make it difficult to break it up. When finished, the metal contains, by analysis, 6 per cent of phosphorus. When phosphorus is to be added to metal, a little of this hardener is employed.

Copper is a soft, ductile metal, with its melting point at about 2,000° F. {59} Molten copper has the marked property of absorbing various gases. It is for this reason that it is so difficult to make sound castings of clear copper. Molten copper combines readily with the oxygen of the air, forming oxide of copper, which dissolves in the copper and mixes homogeneously with it.

A casting made from such metal would be very spongy. The bad effect of oxygen is intended to be overcome by adding zinc to the extent of 1 per cent or more. This result can be much more effectively attained by the use of aluminum, manganese, or phosphorus. The action of these substances is to combine with the oxygen, and as the product formed separates and goes to the surface, the metal is left in a sound condition. Aluminum and manganese deoxidize copper and bronze very effectively, and the oxide formed goes to the surface as a scum. When a casting is made from such metal, the oxide or scum, instead of freeing itself from the casting perfectly, generally remains in the top part of the casting mixed with the metal, as a fractured surface will show. Phosphorus deoxidizes copper, and the oxide formed leaves the metal in the form of a gas, so that a casting made from such metal shows a clean fracture throughout, although the metal is not so dense as when aluminum or manganese is used.

Copper also has the property of absorbing or occluding carbon monoxide. But the carbonic oxide thus absorbed is in a different condition from the oxygen absorbed. When oxygen is absorbed by copper, the oxygen combines chemically with the copper and loses its own identity as a gas. But when coal gas is absorbed by the copper, it keeps its own physical identity and simply exists in the copper in a state of solution. All natural waters, such as lake water, river water, spring water, etc., contain air in solution or occlusion. When such water is cooled and frozen, just at the time of changing from the liquid to the solid state, the dissolved gas separates and forms air bubbles, which remain entangled in the ice. The carbonic oxide which is dissolved or occluded in copper acts in exactly the same way.

Hydrogen acts in exactly the same manner as carbonic oxide. Sulphur also has a bad effect upon copper and bronze. Sulphur combines with copper and other metals, forming sulphide of copper, etc. When molten copper or bronze containing sulphur comes in contact with air it absorbs some oxygen, and this in turn combines with the sulphur present, forming sulphur dioxide, which is a gas which remains occluded in the metal.

Tin is a soft, white metal, melting at 440° F. Toward gases it acts something like copper, but not in so marked a degree. Although copper and tin are both soft, yet when mixed they make a harder metal. When bronze cools from the molten state, the copper and the copper-tin alloy tend to crystallize by themselves. The quicker the cooling occurs the less separation will there be, and also the fracture will be more homogeneous in appearance.

Gun bronze contains copper and tin in the proportion of 9 or 10 parts of copper to 1 of tin. This is the metal used when an ordinary bronze casting is wanted. A harder bronze is copper and tin in the ratio of 6 to 1. This is often used as a bearing metal. When either of these metals is to be turned in the machine shop, they should contain about 3 per cent of lead, which will make them work very much better, but it also decreases their tensile strength. Bearing metal now generally contains about 10 per cent of lead, with copper and tin in varying ratios. The large percentage of lead is put in that the metal may wear away slower. Lead, although a metal having properties similar to tin, acts entirely different toward copper. Copper and tin have a good deal of affinity for each other, but copper and lead show no attraction at all for each other. Copper and tin mix in all proportions, but copper and lead mix only to a very limited extent. About 3 per cent of lead can be mixed with copper. With bronze about 15 per cent to 20 per cent of lead can be mixed. In bearing bronze the lead keeps its own physical properties, so that the constituent lead melts long before the metal attains a red heat. It sometimes happens when a bearing runs warm that the lead actually sweats out and forms pimples on the metal. Or, sometimes, in remelting a bearing bronze casting the lead may be seen to drop out while the metal is warming up. All of these metals, however, should contain something to flux or deoxidize them, such as zinc, manganese, aluminum, silicon, antimony, or phosphorus.

The phosphor bronze bearing metal in vogue has the following composition: Copper, 79.7 per cent; tin, 10 per cent; lead, 10 percent; and phosphorus, 0.3 per cent.

Melt 140 pounds of copper in a No. 70 pot, covering with charcoal. When copper is all melted, add 17 1/2 pounds of tin to 17 1/2 pounds of lead, and allow the metal to become sufficiently warm, but {60} not any hotter than is needed. Then add 10 pounds of “hardener” (made as previously described) and stir well. Remove from furnace, skim off the charcoal, cool the metal with gates to as low a temperature as is consistent with getting a good casting, stir well again, and pour. The molds for this kind of work are faced with plumbago.

There are several firms that make phosphor-bronze bearings with a composition similar to the above one, and most of them, or perhaps all, make it by melting the metals and then charging with phosphorus to the extent of 0.7 to 1 per cent. But some metal from all brands contains occluded gas. So that after such metal is cast (in about two minutes or so) the metal will ooze or sweat out through the gate, and such a casting will be found to be porous. But not one such experience with metal made as described above has yet been found.

This practical point should be heeded, viz., that pig phosphor bronze should be brought to the specifications that the metal should have shrunk in the ingot mold in cooling, as shown by the concave surface of the upper side, and that it should make a casting in a sand mold without rising in the gate after being poured.

In bearing metal, occluded gas is very objectionable, because the gas, in trying to free itself, shoves the very hard copper-tin compound (which has a low melting point and remains liquid after the copper has begun to set) into spots, and thus causes hard spots in the metal.

Phosphorus is very dangerous to handle, and there is great risk from fire with it, so that many would not care to handle the phosphorus itself. But phosphor copper containing 5 per cent of phosphorus, and phosphor tin containing 2 to 7 per cent of phosphorus, and several other such alloys can be obtained in the market. It may be suggested to those who wish to make phosphor bronze, but do not want to handle phosphorus itself, to make it by using the proper amounts of one of these high phosphorus alloys. In using phosphorus it is only necessary to use enough to thoroughly deoxidize the metal, say 0.3 per cent. More than this will make the metal harder, but not any sounder.

Phosphor bronze is not a special kind of alloy, but any bronze can be made into phosphor bronze; it is, in fact, simply a deoxidized bronze, produced under treatment with phosphorus compounds.

Although the effect of phosphorus in improving the quality of bronze has been known for more than fifty years, it is only of late that the mode for preparing phosphor bronze has been perfected. It is now manufactured in many localities. Besides its action in reducing the oxides dissolved in the alloy, the phosphorus exerts another very material influence upon the properties of the bronze. The ordinary bronzes consist of mixtures in which the copper is really the only crystallized constituent, since the tin crystallizes with great difficulty. As a consequence of this dissimilarity in the nature of the two metals, the alloy is not so solid as it would be if both were crystallized. The phosphorus causes the tin to crystallize, and the result is a more homogeneous mixture of the two metals.

If enough phosphorus is added, so that its presence can be detected in the finished bronze, the latter may be considered an alloy of crystallized phosphor tin with copper. If the content of phosphor is still more increased, a part of the copper combines with the phosphorus, and the bronze then contains, besides copper and tin, compounds of crystallized copper phosphide with phosphide of tin. The strength and tenacity of the bronze are not lessened by a larger amount of phosphorus, and its hardness is considerably increased. Most phosphor bronzes are equal in this respect to the best steel, and some even surpass it in general properties.

The phosphorus is added to the bronze in the form of copper phosphide or phosphide of tin, the two being sometimes used together. They must be specially prepared for this purpose, and the best methods will be here given. Copper phosphide is prepared by heating a mixture of 4 parts of superphosphate of lime, 2 parts of granulated copper, and 1 part of finely pulverized coal in a crucible at a temperature not too high. The melted copper phosphide, containing 14 per cent of phosphorus, separates on the bottom of the crucible.

Tin phosphide is prepared as follows: Place a bar of zinc in an aqueous solution of tin chloride. The tin will be separated in the form of a sponge-like mass. Collect it, and put it into a crucible, upon the bottom of which sticks of phosphorus have been placed. Press the tin tightly into the crucible, and expose to a gentle heat. Continue the heating until flames of burning phosphorus are no longer observed on the crucible. The pure tin phosphide, in the form of a coarsely crystalline mass, tin-white in color, will be found on the bottom of the crucible.

To prepare the phosphor bronze, the {61} alloy to be treated is melted in the usual way, and small pieces of the copper phosphide and tin phosphide are added.

Phosphor bronze, properly prepared, has nearly the same melting point as that of ordinary bronze. In cooling, however, it has the peculiarity of passing directly from the liquid to the solid state, without first becoming thickly fluid. In a melted state it retains a perfectly bright surface, while ordinary bronze in this condition is always covered with a thin film of oxide.

If phosphor bronze is kept for a long time at the melting point, there is not any loss of tin, but the amount of phosphorus is slightly diminished.

The most valuable properties of phosphor bronze are its extraordinary tenacity and strength. It can be rolled, hammered, and stretched cold, and its strength is nearly double that of the best ordinary bronze. It is principally used in cases where great strength and power of resistance to outward influences are required, as, for instance, in objects which are to be exposed to the action of sea water.

Phosphor bronze containing about 4 per cent of tin is excellently well adapted for sheet bronze. With not more than 5 per cent of tin, it can be used, forged, for firearms. Seven to 10 per cent of tin gives the greatest hardness, and such bronze is especially suited to the manufacture of axle bearings, cylinders for steam fire engines, cogwheels, and, in general, for parts of machines where great strength and hardness are required. Phosphor bronze, if exposed to the air, soon becomes covered with a beautiful, closely adhering patina, and is therefore well adapted to purposes of art. The amount of phosphorus added varies from 0.25 to 2.5 per cent, according to the purpose of the bronze. The composition of a number of kinds of phosphor bronze is given below:

─────+──────+─────+─────+─────+────+─────── │Copper│ Tin │ Zinc│ Lead│Iron│Phosp- │ │ │ │ │ │horus ─────+──────+─────+─────+─────+────+─────── I.│ 85.55│ 9.85│ 3.77│ 0.62│trs.│ 0.05 II.│ — │ 4–15│ — │ 4–15│ — │ 0.5–3 III.│ — │ 4–15│ 8–20│ 4–15│ — │ .25–2 IV.│ 77.85│11.00│ 7.65│ — │ — │ — V.│ 72.50│ 8.00│17.00│ — │ — │ — VI.│ 73.50│ 6.00│19.00│ — │ — │ — VII.│ 74.50│11.00│11.00│ — │ — │ — VIII.│ 83.50│ 8.00│ 3.00│ — │ — │ — IX.│ 90.34│ 8.90│ — │ — │ — │ 0.76 X.│ 90.86│ 8.56│ — │ — │ — │ 0.196 XI.│ 94.71│ 4.39│ — │ — │ — │ 0.053 ─────+──────+─────+─────+─────+────+───────

I for axle bearings, II and III for harder and softer axle bearings, IV to VIII for railroad purposes, IV especially for valves of locomotives, V and VI axle bearings for wagons, VII for connecting rods, VIII for piston rods in hydraulic presses.

«Steel Bronze».—Copper, 60; ferromanganese (containing 70 to 80 per cent manganese), 40; zinc, 15.

«Silicon Bronze.»—Silicon, similarly to phosphorus, acts as a deoxidizing agent, and the bronzes produced under its influence are very ductile and elastic, do not rust, and are very strong. On account of these qualities silicon bronze is much used for telegraph and telephone wires. The process of manufacture is similar to that of phosphor bronze; the silicon is used in the form of copper silicide. Some good silicon bronzes are as follows:

I II Copper 97.12 97.37 Tin 1.14 1.32 Zinc 1.10 1.27 Silicon 0.05 0.07

«Sun Bronze.»—The alloy called sun bronze contains 10 parts of aluminum, 30 to 50 parts of copper, and 40 to 60 parts of cobalt. The mixture known by the name of metalline has 25 per cent of aluminum, 30 of copper, 10 of iron, and 35 of cobalt. These alloys melt at a point approaching the melting point of copper, are tenacious, ductile, and very hard.

«Tobin Bronze.»—This alloy is nearly similar in composition and properties to Delta metal.

I II III IV Copper 61.203 59.00 61.20 82.67 Zinc 27.440 38.40 37.14 3.23 Tin 0.906 2.16 0.90 12.40 Iron 0.180 0.11 0.18 0.10 Lead 0.359 0.31 0.35 2.14 Silver — — — 0.07 Phosphorus — — — 0.005

The alloy marked IV is sometimes called deoxidized bronze.

Violet-colored bronze is 50 parts copper and 50 parts antimony.


See also Fusible Alloys.

«Lipowitz’s Alloy.»—I.—This alloy is composed of cadmium, 3 parts; tin, 4; bismuth, 15; and lead, 8. The simplest method of preparation is to heat the metals, in small pieces, in a crucible, stirring constantly, as soon as fusion {62} begins, with a stick of hard wood. The stirring is important, in order to prevent the metals, whose specific gravity varies considerably, from being deposited in layers. The alloy softens at 140° F. and melts completely at 158° F. The color is silvery white, with a luster like polished silver, and the metal can be bent, hammered, and turned. These properties would make it valuable for many purposes where a beautiful appearance is of special importance, but on account of the considerable amount of cadmium and bismuth which it contains, it is rather expensive, and therefore limited in use. Casts of small animals, insects, lizards, etc., have been prepared from it, which were equal in sharpness to the best galvanoplastic work. Plaster of Paris is poured over the animal to be cast, and after sharp drying, the animal is removed and the mold filled up with Lipowitz’s metal. The mold is placed in a vessel of water, and by heating to the boiling point the metal is melted and deposited in the finest impressions of the mold.

This alloy is most excellent for soldering tin, lead, Britannia metal, and nickel, being especially adapted to the last two metals on account of its silver-white color. But here again its costliness prevents its general use, and cheaper alloys possessing the same properties have been sought. In cases where the silver-white color and the low melting point are not of the first importance, the alloys given below may very well be used in the place of it.

II.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 170° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 3; lead, 11; bismuth, 16.

III.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 167° F.): Cadmium, 10 parts; tin, 3; lead, 8; bismuth, 8.

Cadmium alloys (melting point, 203° F.):

IV V VI Cadmium 1 1 1 parts Tin 2 3 1 parts Bismuth 3 5 2 parts

VII.—A very fusible alloy, melting at 150° F., is composed of tin, 1 or 2 parts; lead, 2 or 3; bismuth, 4 or 15; cadmium, 1 or 2.

VIII.—Wood’s alloy melts between 140° and 161.5° F. It is composed of lead, 4 parts; tin, 2; bismuth, 5 to 8; cadmium, 1 to 2. In color it resembles platinum, and is malleable to a certain extent.

IX.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 179.5° F.): Cadmium, 1 part; lead, 6 parts; bismuth, 7. This, like the preceding, can be used for soldering in hot water.

X.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 300° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 4; lead, 2. This is an excellent soft solder, with a melting point about 86 degrees below that of lead and tin alone.

«Cadmium Alloys with Gold, Silver, and Copper.»—I.—Gold, 750 parts; silver, 166 parts; cadmium, 84 parts. A malleable and ductile alloy of green color.

II.—Gold, 750 parts; silver, 125 parts; and cadmium, 125 parts. Malleable and ductile alloy of yellowish-green hue.

III.—Gold, 746 parts; silver, 114 parts; copper, 97 parts; and cadmium, 43 parts. Likewise a malleable and ductile alloy of a peculiar green shade. All these alloys are suitable for plating. As regards their production, each must be carefully melted together from its ingredients in a covered crucible lined with coal dust, or in a graphite crucible. Next, the alloy has to be remelted in a graphite crucible with charcoal (or rosin powder) and borax. If, in spite thereof, a considerable portion of the cadmium should have evaporated, the alloy must be re-fused once more with an addition of cadmium.


Alloys which fulfill the requirements of the medalist, and capable, therefore, of reproducing all details, are the following:

I II Tin 3 6 parts Lead 13 8 parts Bismuth 6 14 parts

III.—A soft alloy suitable to take impressions of woodcuts, coins, metals, engravings, etc., and which must melt at a low degree of heat, is made out of bismuth, 3 parts; tin, 1 1/2 parts; lead, 2 1/2 parts; and worn-out type, 1 part.

«Acid-proof Alloy.»—This alloy is characterized by its power of resisting the action of acids, and is therefore especially adapted to making cocks, pipes, etc., which are to come in contact with acid fluids. It is composed of copper, zinc, lead, tin, iron, nickel, cobalt, and antimony, in the following proportions:

Copper 74.75 parts Zinc 0.61 parts Lead 16.35 parts Tin 0.91 parts Iron 0.43 parts Nickel or Cobalt 0.24 parts Antimony 6.78 parts


«Albata Metal.»—Copper, 40 parts; zinc, 32 parts; and nickel, 8 parts.

«Alfenide Metal.»—Copper, 60 parts; zinc, 30; nickel, 10; traces of iron.

«Bath Metal.»—This alloy is used especially in England for the manufacture of teapots, and is very popular owing to the fine white color it possesses. It takes a high polish, and articles made from this alloy acquire in the course of time, upon only being rubbed with a white cloth, a permanent silver luster. The composition of Bath metal is copper, 55 parts; zinc, 45 parts.

«Baudoin Metal.»—This is composed of 72 parts of copper, 16.6 of nickel, 1.8 of cobalt, 1 of zinc; 1/2 per cent of aluminum may be added.


«Macht’s Yellow Metal.»—I.—This alloy consists of 33 parts of copper and 25 of zinc. It has a dark golden-yellow color, great tenacity, and can be forged at a red heat, properties which make it especially suitable for fine castings.

II.—Yellow.—Copper, 67 to 70 parts; zinc, 33 to 30 parts.

III.—Red.—Copper, 82 parts; zinc, 18 parts.

«Copper Arsenic.»—Arsenic imparts to copper a very fine white color, and makes it very hard and brittle. Before German silver was known, these alloys were sometimes used for the manufacture of such cast articles as were not to come in contact with iron. When exposed to the air, they soon lose their whiteness and take on a brownish shade. On account of this, as well as the poisonous character of the arsenic, they are very little used at the present time. Alloys of copper and arsenic are best prepared by pressing firmly into a crucible a mixture of 70 parts of copper and 30 of arsenic (the copper to be used in the form of fine shavings) and fusing this mixture in a furnace with a good draught, under a cover of glass.

«Copper Iron.»—The alloys of copper and iron are little used in the industries of the present day, but it would seem that in earlier times they were frequently prepared for the purpose of giving a considerable degree of hardness to copper; for in antique casts, consisting principally of copper, we regularly find large quantities of iron, which leads to the supposition that they were added intentionally.

These alloys, when of a certain composition, have considerable strength and hardness. With an increase in the quantity of the iron the hardness increases, but the solidity is lessened. A copper and iron alloy of considerable strength, and at the same time very hard, is made of copper, 66 parts; iron, 34. These alloys acquire, on exposure to air, an ugly color inclining toward black, and are therefore not adapted for articles of art.

«Copper Nickel.»—A. Morrell, of New York, has obtained a patent on a nickel-copper alloy which he claims is valuable on account of its noncorrosive qualities, therefore making it desirable for ships, boiler tubes, and other uses where the metal comes much in contact with water. The process of making the metal is by smelting ore containing sulphide of nickel and copper, and besemerizing the resultant matter. This is calcined in order to obtain the nickel and copper in the form of oxides. The latter are reduced in reverberating furnace with carbon, or the like, so as to produce an alloy which preferably contains 2 parts of nickel and 1 part of copper.

«Delta Metal.»—An alloy widely used for making parts of machinery, and also for artistic purposes, is the so-called Delta metal. This is a variety of brass hardened with iron; some manufacturers add small quantities of tin and lead; also, in some cases, nickel. The following analysis of Delta metal (from the factory at Düsseldorf) will show its usual composition:

──────────+───────+───────+───────+─────+───── │ I │ II │ III │ IV │ V ──────────+───────+───────+───────+─────+───── Copper │ 55.94 │ 55.80│ 55.82│54.22│58.65 Zinc │ 41.61 │ 40.07│ 41.41│42.25│38.95 Lead │ 0.72 │ 1.82│ 0.76│ 1.10│ 0.67 Iron │ 0.87 │ 1.28│ 0.86│ 0.99│ 1.62 Manganese │ 0.81 │ 0.96│ 1.38│ 1.09│ — Nickel │traces.│traces.│ 0.06│ 0.16│ 0.11 Phosphorus│ 0.013│ 0.011│traces.│ 0.02│ — ──────────+───────+───────+───────+─────+─────

I is cast, II hammered, III rolled, and IV hot-stamped metal. Delta metal is produced by heating zinc very strongly in crucibles (to about 1600° F.), and adding ferromanganese or “spiegeleisen,” producing an alloy of 95 per cent zinc and 5 per cent of iron. Copper and brass and a very small amount of copper phosphate are also added. {64}

«Gong Metal.»—A sonorous metal for cymbals, gongs, and tam-tams consists of 100 parts of copper with 25 parts tin. Ignite the piece after it is cast and plunge it into cold water immediately.

«Production of Minargent.»—This alloy consists of copper, 500 parts; nickel, 350; tungsten, 25, and aluminum, 5. The metal obtained possesses a handsome white color and greatly resembles silver.

«Minofor.»—The so-called Minofor metal is composed of copper, tin, antimony, zinc, and iron in the following proportions:

I II Copper 3.26 4 Tin 67.53 66 Antimony 17.00 20 Zinc 8.94 9 Iron — 1

Minargent and Minofor are sometimes used in England for purposes in which the ordinary Britannia metal, 2 parts tin and 1 part antimony, might equally well be employed; the latter surpasses both of them in beauty of color, but they are, on the other hand, harder.

«Retz Alloy.»—This alloy, which resists the corrosive action of alkalies and acids, is composed of 15 parts of copper, 2.34 of tin, 1.82 of lead, and 1 of antimony. It can be utilized in the manufacture of receivers, for which porcelain and ebonite are usually employed.

«Ruoltz Metal.»—This comprises 20 parts of silver, 50 of copper, 30 of nickel. These proportions may, however, vary.

«Tissier’s Metal.»—This alloy contains arsenic, is of a beautiful tombac red color, and very hard. Its composition varies a great deal, but the peculiar alloy which gives the name is composed of copper, 97 parts; zinc, 2 parts; arsenic, 1 or 2. It may be considered a brass with a very high percentage of copper, and hardened by the addition of arsenic. It is sometimes used for axle bearings, but other alloys are equally suitable for this purpose, and are to be preferred on account of the absence of arsenic, which is always dangerous.

«FILE ALLOYS.»—Many copper-tin alloys are employed for the making of files which, in distinction from the steel files, are designated composition files. Such alloys have the following compositions:

«Geneva Composition Files.»—

I II Copper 64.4 62 Tin 18.0 20 Zinc 10.0 10 Lead 7.6 8

«Vogel’s Composition Files.»—

III IV V Copper 57.0 61.5 73.0 Tin 28.5 31.0 19.0 Zinc 78.0 — 8.0 Lead 7.0 8.5 8.0

VI.—Another alloy for composition files is copper, 8 parts; tin, 2; zinc, 1, and lead, 1—fused under a cover of borax.


(These have a fusing point usually below 300° F.)

(See also Solders.)

I. Rose’s Alloy.—Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 1 part; tin, 1 part. Melting point, 200° F.

II. Darcet Alloy.—This is composed of 8 parts of bismuth, 5 of lead, and 3 of tin. It melts at 176° F. To impart greater fusibility, 1/16 part of mercury is added; the fusing is then lowered to 149° F.

III.—Newton alloy melts at 212° F., and is composed of 5 parts of bismuth, 2 of lead, and 3 of tin.

IV.—Wood’s Metal.—

Tin 2 parts Lead 4 parts Bismuth 5 to 8 parts

This silvery, fine-grained alloy fuses between 151° and 162° F., and is excellently adapted to soldering.

V.—Bismuth, 7 parts; lead, 6 parts; cadmium, 1 part. Melting point, 180° F.

VI.—Bismuth, 7 to 8 parts; lead, 4; tin, 2; cadmium, 1 to 2. Melting point, 149° to 160° F.

«Other easily fusible alloys:»

VII VIII IX Lead 1 2 3 Tin 1 2 3 Bismuth 1 1 1 Melting Point 258° F. 283° 311°

«Fusible Alloys for Electric Installations.»—These alloys are employed in electric installations as current interrupters. Serving as conductors on a short length of circuit, they melt as soon as the current becomes too strong. Following is the composition of some of these alloys.

────+───────────+──────+─────+─────────+──────── │ Fusing │ │ │ │ │temperature│ Lead │ Tin │ Bismuth │Cadmium ────+───────────+──────+─────+─────────+──────── I │ 203° F. │ 250 │ 500 │ 500 │ — II │ 193° F. │ 397 │ — │ 532 │ 71 III │ 168° F. │ 344 │ 94 │ 500 │ 62 IV │ 153° F. │ 260 │ 148 │ 522 │ 70 V │ 150° F. │ 249 │ 142 │ 501 │ 108 VI │ 145° F. │ 267 │ 136 │ 500 │ 100 ────+───────────+──────+─────+─────────+────────


These alloys are prepared by melting the lead in a stearine bath and adding successively, and during the cooling, first, the cadmium; second, the bismuth; third, the tin. It is absolutely necessary to proceed in this manner, since these metals fuse at temperatures ranging from 850° F. (for lead), to 551° F. (for tin).

«Fusible Safety Alloys for Steam Boilers.»—

───────+───────+────+────+────────+──────── │ │ │ │ Melting│ Atmos. │Bismuth│Lead│Zinc│ point │pressure ───────+───────+────+────+────────+──────── I. │ 8 │ 5 │ 3 │ 212° F.│ 1 II. │ 8 │ 8 │ 4 │ 235° F.│ 1.5 III. │ 8 │ 8 │ 3 │ 253° F.│ 2 IV. │ 8 │ 10 │ 8 │ 266° F.│ 2.5 V. │ 8 │ 12 │ 8 │ 270° F.│ 3 VI. │ 8 │ 16 │ 14 │ 280° F.│ 3.5 VII. │ 8 │ 16 │ 12 │ 285° F.│ 4 VIII. │ 8 │ 22 │ 24 │ 309° F.│ 5 IX. │ 8 │ 32 │ 36 │ 320° F.│ 6 X. │ 8 │ 32 │ 28 │ 330° F.│ 7 XI. │ 8 │ 30 │ 24 │ 340° F.│ 8 ───────+───────+────+────+────────+────────

«Lipowitz Metal.»—This amalgam is prepared as follows: Melt in a dish, cadmium, 3 parts, by weight; tin, 4 parts; bismuth, 15 parts; and lead, 8 parts, adding to the alloy, while still in fusion, 2 parts of quicksilver previously heated to about 212° F. The amalgamation proceeds easily and smoothly. The liquid mass in the dish, which should be taken from the fire immediately upon the introduction of the mercury, is stirred until the contents solidify. While Lipowitz alloy softens already at 140° F. and fuses perfectly at 158°, the amalgam has a still lower fusing point, which lies around 143 3/5° F.

This amalgam is excellently adapted for the production of impressions of various objects of nature, direct impressions of leaves, and other delicate parts of plants having been made with its aid which, in point of sharpness, are equal to the best plaster casts and have a very pleasing appearance. The amalgam has a silver-white color and a fine gloss. It is perfectly constant to atmospheric influences. This amalgam has also been used with good success for the making of small statuettes and busts, which are hollow and can be readily gilt or bronzed by electro-deposition. The production of small statues is successfully carried out by making a hollow gypsum mold of the articles to be cast and heating the mold evenly to about 140° F. A corresponding quantity of the molten amalgam is then poured in and the mold moved rapidly to and fro, so that the alloy is thrown against the sides all over. The shaking should be continued until it is certain that the amalgam has solidified. When the mold has cooled off it is taken apart and the seams removed by means of a sharp knife. If the operation is carried on correctly, a chasing of the cast mass becomes unnecessary, since the alloy fills out the finest depressions of the mold with the greatest sharpness.

«Amalgam for Plaster.»—Tin, 1 part; bismuth, 1 part; mercury, 1 part. Melt the bismuth and the tin together, and when the two metals are in fusion add the mercury while stirring. For use, rub up the amalgam with a little white of egg and brush like a varnish on the plaster articles.

«Plastic Metal Composition.»—I. Copper oxide is reduced by means of hydrogen or copper sulphate by boiling a solution of the same in water with some zinc filings in order to obtain entirely pure copper. Of the copper powder obtained in this manner, 20, 30, or 36 parts, by weight, according to the degree of hardness desired for the composition (the greater the quantity of copper used the harder will the composition become), are thoroughly moistened in a cast-iron or porcelain mortar with sulphuric acid of 1.85 specific gravity; 70 parts, by weight, of mercury are then added to this paste, the whole being constantly stirred. When all the copper has been thoroughly amalgamated with the mercury, the sulphuric acid is washed out again with boiling water, and in 12 hours after it has become cold the composition will be so hard that it can be polished. It is impervious to the action of dilute acids, alcohol, ether, and boiling water. It contains the same specific gravity, alike in the soft or the hard condition. When used as a cement, it can at any time be rendered soft and plastic in the following manner: If applied while hot and plastic to the deoxidized surfaces of two pieces of metal, these latter will unite so firmly that in about 10 or 12 hours the metal may be subjected to any mechanical process. The properties of this composition render it very useful for various purposes, and it forms a most effective cement for fine metal articles which cannot be soldered in fire.

II.—Bismuth, 5.5 parts; lead, 3; tin, 1.5.

III. Alloy d’Homburg.—Bismuth, {66} 3 parts; lead, 3; tin, 3. This alloy is fusible at 251° F., and is of a silvery white. It is employed for reproductions of medals.

IV. Alloy Valentine Rose.—Bismuth, 4 to 6 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 2 to 3 parts. This alloy fuses at 212° to 250° F.

V. Alloy Rose père.—Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 2; tin, 2. This alloy fuses at 199° F.

The remainder are plastic alloys for reproducing cuts, medals, coins, etc.:

VI.—Bismuth, 4 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 1 part.

VII.—Bismuth, 3 parts; lead, 3 parts; tin, 2 parts.

VIII.—Bismuth, 4 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 2 parts.

IX.—Bismuth, 5 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 3 parts.

X.—Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 2 parts.

«Quick-Water.»—That the amalgam may easily take hold of bronze objects and remain there, it is customary to cover the perfectly cleansed and shining article with a thin coat of mercury, which is usually accomplished by dipping it into a so-called quick-water bath.

In the form of minute globules the mercury immediately separates itself from the solution and clings to the bronze object, which thereupon presents the appearance of being plated with silver. After it has been well rinsed in clean water, the amalgam may be evenly and without difficulty applied with the scratch brush.

This quick-water (in reality a solution of mercurous nitrate), is made in the simplest manner by taking 10 parts of mercury and pouring over it 11 parts of nitric acid of a specific gravity equal to 1.33; now let it stand until every part of the mercury is dissolved; then, while stirring vigorously, add 540 parts of water. This solution must be kept in closed flasks or bottles to prevent impurities, such as dust, etc., from falling into it.

The preparatory work on the object to be gilded consists mainly in cleansing it from every trace of oxidation. First, it must be well annealed by placing it in a bed of glowing coal, care being exercised that the heating be uniform. When cooled, this piece is plunged into a highly diluted sulphuric-acid bath in order to dissolve in a measure the oxide. Next it is dipped in a 36° nitric-acid bath, of a specific gravity equal to 1.33, and brushed off with a long brush; it is now dipped into nitric acid into which a little lampblack and table salt have been thrown. It is now ready for washing in clean water and drying in unsoiled sawdust. It is of the greatest importance that the surface to be gilded should appear of a pale yellow tint all over. If it be too smooth the gold will not take hold easily, and if it be too dull it will require too much gold to cover it.


«Colored Gold Alloys.»—The alloys of gold with copper have a reddish tinge; those of gold with silver are whiter, and an alloy of gold, silver, and copper together is distinguished by a greenish tone. Manufacturers of gold ware make use of these different colors, one piece being frequently composed of several pieces of varying color. Below are given some of these alloys, with their colors:

──────+──────+──────+──────+─────+─────── │ Gold │Silver│Copper│Steel│Cadmium ──────+──────+──────+──────+─────+─────── I. │ 2.6 │ 1.0 │ — │ — │ — II. │ 75.0 │ 16.6 │ — │ — │ 8.4 III. │ 74.6 │ 11.4 │ 9.7 │ — │ 4.3 IV. │ 75.0 │ 12.6 │ — │ — │ 12.5 V. │ 1.0 │ 2.0 │ — │ — │ — VI. │ 4.0 │ 3.0 │ 1.0 │ — │ — VII. │ 14.7 │ 7.0 │ 6.0 │ — │ — VIII. │ 14.7 │ 9.0 │ 4.0 │ — │ — IX. │ 3.0 │ 1.0 │ 1.0 │ — │ — X. │ 10.0 │ 1.0 │ 4.0 │ — │ — XI. │ 1.0 │ — │ 1.0 │ — │ — XII. │ 1.0 │ — │ 2.0 │ — │ — XIII. │ 30.0 │ 3.0 │ — │ 2.0 │ — XIV. │ 4.0 │ — │ — │ 1.0 │ — XV. │ 29.0 │ 11.0 │ — │ — │ — XVI. │ 1.3 │ — │ — │ 1.0 │ — ──────+──────+──────+──────+─────+───────

Nos. I, II, III, and IV are green gold; No. V is pale yellow; Nos. VI, VII, and VIII bright yellow; Nos. IX and X pale red; Nos. XI and XII bright red; Nos. XIII, XIV, and XV gray; while No. XVI exhibits a bluish tint. The finished gold ware, before being put upon the market, is subjected to a special treatment, consisting either in the simple pickling or in the so-called coloring, which operation is conducted especially with alloys of low degree of fineness, the object being to give the layers a superficial layer of pure gold.

The presence of silver considerably modifies the color of gold, and the jeweler makes use of this property to obtain alloys of various shades. The following proportions are to be observed, viz.: {67}

Gold Silver Copper Color of Gold per per per 1,000 1,000 1,000 I. Green 750 250 — II. Dead leaves 700 300 — III. Sea green 600 400 — IV. Pink 750 200 50 V. English yellow 750 125 125 VI. English white 750 150 100 VII. Whiter 750 170 80 VIII. Less white 750 190 60 IX. Red 750 — 250

Other colored gold alloys are the following:

X. Blue.—Fine gold, 75; iron, 25.

XI. Dark Gray.—Fine gold, 94; iron, 6.

XII. Pale Gray.—Fine gold, 191; iron, 9.

XIII. Cassel Yellow.—Fine gold, 75; fine silver, 12 1/2; rose copper, 12 1/2.

The above figures are understood to be by weight.

The gold solders, known in France under the names of _soudures au quart_ (13 1/2 carat), _au tiers_ (12 carat), and _au deux_ (9 carat), are composed of 3, 2, or 1 part of gold respectively, with 1 part of an alloy consisting of two-thirds silver and one-third copper. Gold also forms with aluminum a series of alloys of greatly varying coloration, the most curious of them, composed of 22 parts of aluminum for 88 parts of gold, possessing a pretty purple shade. But all these alloys, of a highly crystalline base, are very brittle and cannot be worked, for which reason their handsome colorings have not yet been capable of being utilized.

«Enameling Alloys.»—I. Transparent.—This alloy should possess the property of transmitting rays of light so as to give the highest possible effect to the enamel. The alloy of gold for transparent green should be pale; a red or copper alloy does not do for green enamel, the copper has a tendency to darken the color and thus take away a part of its brilliancy. The following alloy for transparent green possesses about the nearest print, in color, to the enamel—which should represent, as near as possible, the color and brilliancy of the emerald—that can be arrived at:

ozs. dwts. grs. Fine gold 0 18 8 Fine silver 0 1 6 Fine copper 0 0 10

No borax must be used in the melting of this alloy, it being of a more fusible nature than the ordinary alloy, and will not take so high a heat in enameling.

II. Red Enamel.—The enamel which forms this color being of a higher fusing point, if proper care be not taken, the gold will melt first, and the work become ruined. In the preparation of red enamel, the coloring matter is usually an oxide of gold, and this so raises the temperature at which it melts that, in order to prevent any mishap, the gold to be enameled on should be what is called a 22-carat red, that is, it should contain a preponderance of copper in the alloying mixture so as to raise the fusing point of the gold. The formula is:

ozs. dwts. grs. Fine gold 0 18 8 Fine silver 0 0 10 Fine copper 0 1 6

«Gold-leaf Alloys.»—All gold made into leaf is more or less alloyed. The gold used by the goldbeater is alloyed according to the variety of color required. Fine gold is commonly supposed to be incapable of being reduced to thin leaves. This, however, is not the case, although its use for ordinary purposes is undesirable on account of its greater cost. It also adheres by contact of one leaf with another, thus causing spoiled material and wasted labor; but for work exposed to the weather it is much preferable, as it is more durable and does not tarnish or change color.

The following is a list of the principal classes of leaf recognized and ordinarily prepared by beaters with the proportion of alloy they contain:

Gold Silver Copper grs. grs. grs. I. Red gold 456–460 — 20–24 II. Pale red 464 — 16 III. Extra deep 456 12 12 IV. Deep 444 24 12 V. Citron 440 30 10 VI. Yellow 408 72 — VII. Pale yellow 384 96 — VIII. Lemon 360 120 — IX. Green or pale 312 168 — X. White 240 240 —

«Gold-Plate Alloys.»—Gold, 92 parts; copper, 8 parts.

II.—Gold, 84 parts; copper, 16 parts.

III.—Gold, 75 parts; copper, 25 parts.


I.—One hundred parts, by weight, of copper of the purest quality; 14 of zinc or tin; 6 of magnesia; 3/6 of sal ammoniac, limestone, and cream of tartar. The copper is first melted, then the magnesia, sal ammoniac, limestone, and cream of tartar in powder are added separately and gradually. The whole mass is kept stirred for a half hour, the zinc or tin being dropped in piece by piece, the {68} stirring being kept up till they melt. Finally the crucible is covered and the mass is kept in fusion 35 minutes and, the same being removed, the metal is poured into molds, and is then ready for use. The alloy thus made is said to be fine-grained, malleable, takes a high polish, and does not easily oxidize.

II.—An invention, patented in Germany, covers a metallic alloy, to take the place of gold, which, even if exposed for some time to the action of ammoniacal and acid vapors, does not oxidize or lose its gold color. It can be rolled and worked like gold and has the appearance of genuine gold without containing the slightest admixture of that metal. The alloy consists of copper and antimony in the approximate ratio of 100 to 6, and is produced by adding to molten copper, as soon as it has reached a certain degree of heat, the said percentage of antimony. When the antimony has likewise melted and entered into intimate union with the copper, some charcoal ashes, magnesium, and lime spar are added to the mass when the latter is still in the crucible.

III. Aluminum Gold.—This alloy, called Nuremberg gold, is used for making cheap gold ware, and is excellent for this purpose, as its color is exactly that of pure gold, and does not change in the air. Articles made of Nuremberg gold need no gilding, and retain their color under the hardest usage; even the fracture of this alloy shows the pure gold color. The composition is usually 90 parts of copper, 2.5 of gold, and 7.5 of aluminum.

IV.—Imitation gold, capable of being worked and drawn into wire, consists of 950 parts copper, 45 aluminum, and 2 to 5 of silver.

V.—Chrysochalk is similar in composition to Mannheim gold:

I II Copper 90.5 58.68 Zinc 7.9 40.22 Lead 1.6 1.90

In color it resembles gold, but quickly loses its beauty if exposed to the air, on account of the oxidation of the copper. It can, however, be kept bright for a long time by a coating of colorless varnish, which excludes the air and prevents oxidation. Chrysochalk is used for most of the ordinary imitations of gold. Cheap watch chains and jewelry are manufactured from it, and it is widely used by the manufacturers of imitation bronze ornaments.

«Mannheim Gold or Similor.»—Mannheim gold is composed of copper, zinc, and tin, in proportions about as follows:

I II Copper 83.7 89.8 Zinc 9.3 9.9 Tin 7.0 0.6

It has a fine yellow color, and was formerly much used in making buttons and pressed articles resembling gold. Later alloys, however, surpass it in color, and it has fallen somewhat into disuse. One variety of Mannheim gold, so called, contains 1.40 parts of brass (composition 3 Cu_〈2〉 1 Zn) to 10 of copper and 0.1 of zinc.

«Mosaic Gold.»—This is an alloy composed—with slight deviations—of 100 parts of copper and 50 to 55 of zinc. It has a beautiful color, closely resembling that of gold, and is distinguished by a very fine grain, which makes it especially suitable for the manufacture of castings which are afterwards to be gilded. The best method of obtaining a thoroughly homogeneous mixture of the two metals is first to put into the crucible one-half of the zinc to be used, place the cover upon it, and fuse the mixture under a cover of borax at as low a temperature as possible. Have ready the other half of the zinc, cut into small pieces and heated almost to melting, and when the contents of the crucible are liquid throw it in, a small portion at a time, stirring constantly to effect as intimate a mixture of the metals as possible.

«Oreïde or Oroïde (French Gold).»—The so-called French gold, when polished, so closely resembles genuine gold in color that it can scarcely be distinguished from it. Besides its beautiful color, it has the valuable properties of being very ductile and tenacious, so that it can easily be stamped into any desired shape; it also takes a high polish. It is frequently used for the manufacture of spoons, forks, etc., but is unsuitable for this purpose on account of the large amount of copper contained in it, rendering it injurious to health. The directions for preparing this alloy vary greatly. The products of some Paris factories show the following composition:

I II III Copper 90 80.5 86.21 Zinc 10 14.5 31.52 Tin — — 0.48 Iron — — 0.24

A special receipt for oreïde is the following:

IV.—Melt 100 parts of copper and add, with constant stirring, 6 parts of magnesia, 3.6 of sal ammoniac, 1.8 of lime, and 9 of crude tartar. Stir again {69} thoroughly, and add 17 parts of granulated zinc, and after mixing it with the copper by vigorous stirring keep the alloy liquid for one hour. Then carefully remove the scum and pour off the alloy.

«Pinchbeck.»—This was first manufactured in England. Its dark gold color is the best imitation of gold alloyed with copper. Being very ductile, it can easily be rolled out into thin plates, which can be given any desired shape by stamping. It does not readily oxidize, and thus fulfills all the requirements for making cheap jewelry, which is its principal use.

Copper 88.8 93.6 Zinc 11.2 6.4


Copper 2.1 1.28 Zinc — 0.7 Brass 1.0 0.7

«Palladium Gold.»—Alloys of gold, copper, silver, and palladium have a brownish-red color and are nearly as hard as iron. They are sometimes (although rarely) used for the bearings for the axles of the wheels of fine watches, as they invite little friction and do not rust in the air. The composition used in the Swiss and English watch factories consists usually of gold 18 parts, copper 13 parts, silver 11, and palladium 6.

«Talmi Gold.»—The name of talmi gold was first applied to articles of jewelry, chains, earrings, bracelets, etc., brought from Paris, and distinguished by beautiful workmanship, a low price, and great durability. Later, when this alloy had acquired a considerable reputation, articles were introduced under the same name, but which were really made of other metals, and which retained their beautiful gold color only as long as they were not used. The fine varieties of talmi gold are manufactured from brass, copper, or tombac, covered with a thin plate of gold, combined with the base by rolling, under strong pressure. The plates are then rolled out by passing through rollers, and the coating not only acquires considerable density, but adheres so closely to the base that the metal will keep its beautiful appearance for years. Of late, many articles of talmi gold have been introduced whose gold coating is produced by electroplating, and is in many cases so thin that hard rubbing will bring through the color of the base. Such articles, of course, are not durable. In genuine talmi gold, the coating, even though it may be thin, adheres very closely to the base, for the reason that the two metals are actually welded by the rolling, and also because alloyed gold is always used, which is much harder than pure gold. The pure gold of electroplating is very soft. The composition of some varieties of talmi gold are here given. It will be seen that the content of gold varies greatly, and the durability of the alloy will, of course, correspond to this. The alloys I, II, III are genuine Paris talmi gold; IV, V, and VI are electroplated imitations; and VII is an alloy of a wrong composition, to which the gold does not adhere firmly:

Copper Zinc Tin Iron Gold I. 89.9 9.3 — — 1.3

II. 90.8 8.3 — — 0.9

III. 90.0 8.9 — — 0.9

IV. 90.7 89.0 — — 0.5 88.2 11.4

V. 87.5 12.4 — — 0.3 83.1 17.0

VI. 93.5 6.6 — — 0.05 84.5 15.8

VII. 86.0 12.0 1.1 0.3 —

«Japanese Alloys.»—In Japan some specialties in metallic alloys are in use of which the composition is as follows:

Shadke consists of copper with from 1 to 10 per cent of gold. Articles made from this alloy are laid in a pickle of blue vitriol, alum, and verdigris, until they acquire a bluish-black color.

Gui-shi-bu-ichi is an alloy of copper containing 30 to 50 per cent of silver. It possesses a peculiar gray shade.

Mokume consists of several compositions. Thus, about 30 gold foils (genuine) are welded together with shadke, copper, silver, and gui-shi-bu-ichi and pierced. The pierced holes are, after firmly hammering together the plates, filled up with the above-named pickle.

The finest Japanese brass consists of 10 parts copper and 8 parts zinc, and is called siachu. The bell metal kara kane is composed of copper 10 parts, tin 10 parts, iron 0.5 part, and zinc 1.5 parts. The copper is first fused, then the remaining metals are added in rotation.


The composition of this alloy varies considerably, but from the adjoined figures an average may be found, which will represent, approximately, the normal composition:

Copper 50 to 66 parts Zinc 19 to 31 parts Nickel 13 to 18 parts

The properties of the different kinds, such as their color, ductility, fusibility, {70} etc., vary with the proportions of the single metals. For making spoons, forks, cups, candlesticks, etc., the most suitable proportions are 50 parts of copper, 25 of zinc, and 25 of nickel. This metal has a beautiful blue-white color, and does not tarnish easily.

German silver is sometimes so brittle that a spoon, if allowed to fall upon the floor, will break; this, of course, indicates faulty composition. But the following table will show how the character of the alloy changes with the varying percentage of the metals composing it:

Copper Zinc Nickel Quality I. 8 3.5 4 Finest quality. II. 8 3.5 6 Beautiful, but refractory. III. 8 6.5 3 Ordinary, readily fusible. IV. 52 26.0 22 First quality. V. 59 30.0 11 Second quality. VI. 63 31.0 6 Third quality.

The following analyses give further particulars in regard to different kinds of German silver:

───────────+──────+──────+──────+─────+────── For sheet │Copper│ Zinc │Nickel│ Lead│ Iron ───────────+──────+──────+──────+─────+────── (French) │ 50.0 │ 31.3 │ 18.7 │ — │ — (French) │ 50.0 │ 30.0 │ 20.0 │ — │ — (French) │ 58.3 │ 25.0 │ 16.7 │ — │ — Vienna │ 50.0 │ 25.0 │ 25.0 │ — │ — Vienna │ 55.6 │ 22.0 │ 22.0 │ — │ — Vienna │ 60.0 │ 20.0 │ 20.0 │ — │ — Berlin │ 54.0 │ 28.0 │ 18.0 │ — │ — Berlin │ 55.5 │ 29.1 │ 17.5 │ — │ — English │ 63.34│ 17.01│ 19.13│ — │ — English │ 62.40│ 22.15│ 15.05│ — │ — English │ 62.63│ 26.05│ 10.85│ — │ — English │ 57.40│ 25. │ 13.0 │ — │ 3.0 Chinese │ 26.3 │ 36.8 │ 36.8 │ — │ — Chinese │ 43.8 │ 40.6 │ 15.6 │ — │ — Chinese │ 45.7 │ 36.9 │ 17.9 │ — │ — Chinese │ 40.4 │ 25.4 │ 31.6 │ — │ 2.6 Castings │ 48.5 │ 24.3 │ 24.3 │ 2.9 │ — Castings │ 54.5 │ 21.8 │ 21.8 │ 1.9 │ — Castings │ 58.3 │ 19.4 │ 19.4 │ 2.9 │ — Castings │ 57.8 │ 27.1 │ 14.3 │ 0.8 │ — Castings │ 57. │ 20.0 │ 20.0 │ 3.0 │ — ───────────+──────+──────+──────+─────+──────

In some kinds of German silver are found varying quantities of iron, manganese, tin, and very frequently lead, added for the purpose of changing the properties of the alloy or cheapening the cost of production. But all these metals have a detrimental rather than a beneficial effect upon the general character of the alloy, and especially lessen its power of resistance to the action of dilute acids, one of its most valuable properties. Lead makes it more fusible; tin acts somewhat as in bronze, making it denser and more resonant, and enabling it to take a higher polish. With iron or manganese the alloy is whiter, but it becomes at the same time more refractory and its tendency toward brittleness is increased.


There are many formulas for alloys which claim to be substitutes for German silver; but no one of them has yet become an article of general commerce. It will be sufficient to note these materials briefly, giving the composition of the most important.

«Nickel Bronze.»—This is prepared by fusing together very highly purified nickel (99.5 per cent) with copper, tin, and zinc. A bronze is produced containing 20 per cent of nickel, light-colored and very hard.

«Bismuth Bronze.»—

I II III IV Copper 25.0 45.0 69.0 47.0 Nickel 24.0 32.5 10.0 30.9 Antimony 50.0 — — — Bismuth 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.1 Tin — 16.0 15.0 1.0 Zinc — 21.5 20.0 21.0 Aluminum — — 1.0 —

I is hard and very lustrous, suitable for lamp reflectors and axle bearings; II is hard, resonant, and not affected by sea water, for parts of ships, pipes, telegraph wires, and piano strings; III and IV are for cups, spoons, etc.

«Manganese Argentan.»—

Copper 52 to 50 parts Nickel 17 to 15 parts Zinc 5 to 10 parts Manganese 1 to 5 parts Copper, with 15 per cent phosphorus. 3 to 5 parts

Readily cast for objects of art.


Iron 66 parts Nickel 23 parts Tungsten 4 parts Copper 5 parts


Copper 55.78 parts Zinc 23.198 parts Nickel 13.406 parts Tin 4.035 parts Lead 3.544 parts

Silver white, almost ductile, suited for artistic purposes. {71}


Copper 70.0 parts Nickel 20.0 parts Zinc 5.5 parts Cadmium 4.5 parts

Resembles silver; worked like German silver.

«Silver Bronze.»—Manganese, 18 per cent; aluminum, 1.2 per cent; silicium, 5 per cent; zinc, 13 per cent; copper, 67.5 per cent. The electric resistance of silver bronze is greater than that of German silver, hence it ought to be highly suitable for rheostats.

«Instrument Alloys.»—The following are suitable for physical and optical instruments, metallic mirrors, telescopes, etc.:

I.—Copper, 62 parts; tin, 33 parts; lead, 5 parts.

II.—Copper, 80; antimony, 11; lead, 9.

III.—Copper, 10; tin, 10; antimony, 10; lead, 40.

IV.—Copper, 30; tin, 50; silver, 2; arsenic, 1.

V.—Copper, 66; tin, 33.

VI.—Copper, 64; tin, 26.

VII.—Steel, 90; nickel, 10.

VIII.—Platinum, 60; copper, 40.

IX.—Platinum, 45; steel, 55.

X.—Platinum, 55; iron, 45.

XI.—Platinum, 15; steel, 85.

XII.—Platinum, 20; copper, 79; arsenic, 1.

XIII.—Platinum, 62; iron, 28; gold, 10.

XIV.—Gold, 48; zinc, 52.

XV.—Steel, 50; rhodium, 50.

XVI.—Platinum, 12; iridium, 88.

XVII.—Copper, 89.5; tin, 8.5; zinc, 2.


The following alloys, principally lead, are used for various purposes:

«Bibra Alloy.»—This contains 8 parts of bismuth, 9 of tin, and 38 to 40 of lead.

«Metallic Coffins.»—Tin, 40 parts; lead, 45 parts; copper, 15 parts.

«Plates for Engraving.»—I.—Lead, 84 parts; antimony, 16 parts.

II.—Lead, 86 parts; antimony, 14 parts.

III.—Lead, 87 parts; antimony, 12 parts; copper, 1 part.

IV.—Lead, 81 parts; antimony, 14 parts; tin, 5 parts.

V.—Lead, 73 parts; antimony, 17 parts; zinc, 10 parts.

VI.—Tin, 53 parts; lead, 43 parts; antimony, 4 parts.

Hard lead is made of lead, 84 parts; antimony, 16 parts.

«Sheet Metal Alloy.»—

Tin 35 parts Lead 250 parts Copper 2.5 parts Zinc 0.5 part

This alloy has a fine white color, and can be readily rolled into thin sheets. For that reason it is well adapted for lining tea chests and for the production of tobacco and chocolate wrappers. The copper and zinc are used in the form of fine shavings. The alloy should be immediately cast into thin plates, which can then be passed through rolls.


Alloys which can be magnetized most strongly are composed of copper, manganese, and aluminum, the quantities of manganese and aluminum being proportional to their atomic weights (55.0 to 27.1, or about 2 to 1). The maximum magnetization increases rapidly with increase of manganese, but alloys containing much manganese are exceedingly brittle and cannot be wrought. The highest practicable proportion of manganese at present is 24 per cent.

These magnetic alloys were studied by Hensler, Haupt, and Starck, and Gumlich has recently examined them at the Physikalisch—technische Reichsanstalt, with very remarkable and interesting results.

The two alloys examined were composed as follows:

Alloy I.—Copper, 61.5 per cent; manganese, 23.5 per cent; aluminum, 15 per cent; lead, 0.1 per cent, with traces of iron and silicon.

Alloy II.—Copper, 67.7 per cent; manganese, 20.5 per cent; aluminum, 10.7 per cent; lead, 1.2 per cent, with traces of iron and silicon.

Alloy II could be worked without difficulty, but alloy I was so brittle that it broke under the hammer. A bar 7 inches long and 1/4 inch thick was obtained by grinding. This broke in two during the measurements, but, fortunately, without invalidating them. Such a material is evidently unsuited to practical uses.

The behavior of magnetic alloys at high temperatures is very peculiar. Alloy I is indifferent to temperature changes, which scarcely affect its magnetic properties, but the behavior of alloy II is very different. Prolonged heating to 230° F. produces a great increase in its capability of magnetization, which, after 544 hours’ heating, rises from 1.9 to 3.2 kilogauss, {72} approaching the strength of alloy I. But when alloy II is heated to 329° F., its capability of magnetization fails again and the material suffers permanent injury, which can be partly, but not wholly, cured by prolonged heating.

Another singular phenomenon was exhibited by both of these alloys. When a bar of iron is magnetized by an electric current, it acquires its full magnetic strength almost instantaneously on the closure of the circuit. The magnetic alloys, on the contrary, do not attain their full magnetization for several minutes. In some of the experiments a gradual increase was observed even after the current had been flowing five minutes.

In magnetic strength alloy I proved far superior to alloy II, which contained smaller proportions of manganese and aluminum. Alloy I showed magnetic strengths up to 4.5 kilogauss, while the highest magnetization obtained with alloy II was only 1.9 kilogauss. But even alloy II may be called strongly magnetic, for its maximum magnetization is about one-tenth that of good wrought iron (18 to 20 kilogauss), or one-sixth that of cast iron (10 to 12 kilogauss). Alloy I is nearly equal in magnetic properties to nickel, which can be magnetized up to about 5 kilogauss.


«Manganese bronze» is a bronze deprived of its oxide by an admixture of manganese. The manganese is used as copper manganese containing 10 to 30 per cent manganese and added to the bronze to the amount of 0.5 to 2 per cent.

«Manganese Copper.»—The alloys of copper with manganese have a beautiful silvery color, considerable ductility, great hardness and tenacity, and are more readily fusible than ordinary bronze. A special characteristic is that they exactly fill out the molds, without the formation of blowholes, and present no difficulties in casting.

Cupromanganese is suitable for many purposes for which nothing else but bronze can advantageously be used, and the cost of its production is no greater than that of genuine bronze. In preparing the alloy, the copper is used in the form of fine grains, obtained by pouring melted copper into cold water. These copper grains are mixed with the dry oxide of manganese, and the mixture put into a crucible holding about 66 pounds. Enough space must be left in the crucible to allow a thick cover of charcoal, as the manganese oxidizes easily. The crucible is placed in a well-drawing wind furnace and subjected to a strong white heat. The oxide of manganese is completely reduced to manganese, which at once combines with the copper to form an alloy. In order to prevent, as far as possible, the access of air to the fusing mass, it is advisable to cover the crucible with a lid which has an aperture in the center for the escape of the carbonic oxide formed during the reduction.

When the reduction is complete and the metals fused, the lid is removed and the contents of the crucible stirred with an iron rod, in order to make the alloy as homogeneous as possible. By repeated remelting of the cupromanganese a considerable quantity of the manganese is reconverted into oxide; it is, therefore, advisable to make the casts directly from the crucible. When poured out, the alloy rapidly solidifies, and resembles in appearance good German silver. Another reason for avoiding remelting is that the crucible is strongly attacked by the cupromanganese, and can be used but a few times.

The best kinds of cupromanganese contain between 10 and 30 per cent of manganese. They have a beautiful white color, are hard, tougher than copper, and can be worked under the hammer or with rolls. Some varieties of cupromanganese which are especially valuable for technical purposes are given below:

I II III IV Copper 75 60 65 60 Manganese 25 25 20 20 Zinc — 15 5 — Tin — — — 10 Nickel — — 10 10

«Manganin.»—This is an alloy of copper, nickel, and manganese for electric resistances.


«Amalgams for Mirrors.»—I.—Tin, 70 parts; mercury, 30 parts.

II.—For curved mirrors. Tin, 1 part; lead, 1 part; bismuth, 1 part; mercury, 9 parts.

III.—For glass balls. Tin, 80 parts; mercury, 20 parts.

IV.—Metallic cement. Copper, 30 parts; mercury, 70 parts.

V.—Mirror metal.—Copper, 100 parts; tin, 50 parts; Chinese copper, 8 parts; lead, 1 part; antimony, 1 part.

«Reflector Metals.»—I.—(Cooper’s.) Copper, 35 parts; platinum, 6; zinc, 2; tin, 16.5; arsenic, 1. On account of the hardness of this alloy, it takes a very high polish; it is impervious to the effects of the weather, and is therefore remarkably {73} well adapted to the manufacture of mirrors for fine optical instruments.

II.—(Duppler’s.) Zinc, 20 parts; silver, 80 parts.

III.—Copper, 66.22 parts; tin, 33.11 parts; arsenic, 0.67 part.

IV.—Copper, 64 parts; tin, 32 parts; arsenic, 4 parts.

V.—Copper, 82.18 parts; lead, 9.22 parts; antimony, 8.60 parts.

VI.—(Little’s.) Copper, 69.01 parts; tin, 30.82 parts; zinc, 2.44 parts; arsenic, 1.83 parts.

«Speculum Metal.»—Alloys consisting of 2 parts of copper and 1 of tin can be very brilliantly polished, and will serve for mirrors. Good speculum metal should have a very fine-grained fracture, should be white and very hard, the highest degree of polish depending upon these qualities. A composition to meet these requirements must contain at least 35 to 36 per cent of copper. Attempts have frequently been made to increase the hardness of speculum metal by additions of nickel, antimony, and arsenic. With the exception of nickel, these substances have the effect of causing the metal to lose its high luster easily, any considerable quantity of arsenic in particular having this effect.

The real speculum metal seems to be a combination of the formula Cu_〈4〉Sn, composed of copper 68.21 per cent, tin 31.7. An alloy of this nature is sometimes separated from ordnance bronze by incorrect treatment, causing the so-called tin spots; but this has not the pure white color which distinguishes the speculum metal containing 31.5 per cent of tin. By increasing the percentage of copper the color gradually shades into yellow; with a larger amount of tin into blue. It is dangerous to increase the tin too much, as this changes the other properties of the alloy, and it becomes too brittle to be worked. Below is a table showing different compositions of speculum metal. The standard alloy is undoubtedly the best.

Copper Tin Zinc Arsenic Silver Standard alloy 68.21 31.7 — — — Otto’s alloy 68.5 31.5 — — — Richardson’s alloy 65.3 30.0 0.7 2. 2. Sollit’s alloy 64.6 31.3 4.1 Nickel — Chinese speculum metal 80.83 — — 8.5 Antimony Old Roman 63.39 19.05 — 17.29 Lead


I.—An alloy of palladium 24 parts, gold 80, is white, hard as steel, unchangeable in the air, and can, like the other alloys of palladium, be used for dental purposes.

II.—Palladium 6 parts, gold 18, silver 11, and copper 13, gives a reddish-brown, hard, and very fine-grained alloy, suitable for the bearings of pivots in clock works.

The alloys of most of the other platinum metals, so called, are little used on account of their rarity and costliness. Iridium and rhodium give great hardness to steel, but the commercial rhodium and iridium steel, so called, frequently contains not a trace of either. The alloy of iridium with osmium has great hardness and resistance and is recommended for pivots, fine instruments, and points of ship compasses.

«Palladium Silver.»—This alloy, composed of 9 parts of palladium and 1 of silver, is used almost exclusively for dental purposes, and is well suited to the manufacture of artificial teeth, as it does not oxidize. An alloy even more frequently used than this consists of platinum 10 parts, palladium 8, and gold 6.

«Palladium Bearing Metal.»—This alloy is extremely hard, and is used instead of jewel bearings in watches. It is composed of palladium 24 parts, gold 72, silver 44, copper 92.


Platinum has usually been alloyed with silver in goldsmith’s work, 2 parts silver to 1 of platinum being taken to form the favorite “platinum silver.” The object has been to produce an alloy having a white appearance, which can be polished, and at the same time has a low melting point. In addition to this platinum alloy the following are well known:

I.—A mixture of 7 parts platinum with 3 parts iridium. This gives to platinum the hardness of steel, which can be still further increased by taking 4 parts of iridium.

II.—An alloy of 9 parts platinum and 1 part iridium is used by the French in the manufacture of measuring instruments of great resisting power.

Compounds of copper, nickel, cadmium, and tungsten are also used in the construction of parts of watches; the latter acquire considerable hardness without becoming magnetic or rusting like steel.

III.—For this purpose a compound of {74} 62.75 parts platinum, 18 parts copper, 1.25 parts cadmium, and 18 parts nickel is much recommended.

IV.—Very ductile platinum-copper alloys have also been made, e. g., the so-called Cooper gold, consisting of 3 parts platinum and 13 parts copper, which is almost equal to 18-carat gold in regard to color, finish, and ductility. If 4 per cent of platinum is taken, these latter alloys acquire a rose-red color, while a golden-yellow color can be produced by further adding from 1 to 2 per cent (in all 5 to 6 per cent) of platinum. The last-named alloy is extensively used for ornaments, likewise alloy V.

V.—Ten parts platinum, 60 parts nickel, and 220 parts brass, or 2 parts platinum, 1 part nickel and silver respectively, 2 parts brass, and 5 parts copper; this also gives a golden-yellow color.

VI.—For table utensils a favorite alloy is composed of 1 part platinum, 100 parts nickel, and 10 parts tin. Articles made of the latter alloy are impervious to atmospheric action and keep their polish for a long time. Pure white platinum alloys have for some time been used in dental work, and they have also proved serviceable for jewelry.

VII.—A mixture of 30 parts platinum, 10 parts gold, and 3 parts silver, or 7 parts platinum, 2 parts gold, and 3 parts silver.

VIII.—For enameled articles: Platinum, 35 parts; silver, 65 parts. First fuse the silver, then add the platinum in the spongy form. A good solder for this is platinum 80 parts, copper 20 parts.

IX.—For pens: Platinum, 4 parts; silver, 3 parts; copper, 1 part.

«Platinum Gold.»—Small quantities of platinum change the characteristics of gold in many respects. With a small percentage the color is noticeably lighter than that of pure gold, and the alloys are extremely elastic; alloys containing more than 20 per cent of platinum, however, almost entirely lose their elasticity. The melting point of the platinum-gold alloy is high, and alloys containing 70 per cent of platinum can be fused only in the flame of oxyhydrogen gas, like platinum itself. Alloys with a smaller percentage of platinum can be prepared in furnaces, but require the strongest white heat. In order to avoid the chance of an imperfect alloy from too low a temperature, it is always safer to fuse them with the oxyhydrogen flame. The alloys of platinum and gold have a somewhat limited application. Those which contain from 5 to 10 per cent of platinum are used for sheet and wire in the manufacture of artificial teeth.

«Platinum-Gold Alloys for Dental Purposes.»—

I II III Platinum 6 14 10 Gold 2 4 6 Silver 1 6 — Palladium — — 8

«Platinum Silver.»—An addition of platinum to silver makes it harder, but also more brittle, and changes the white color to gray. An alloy which contains only a very small percentage of platinum is noticeably darker in color than pure silver. Such alloys are prepared under the name of _platine au titre_, containing between 17 and 35 per cent of platinum. They are almost exclusively used for dental purposes.

«Imitation Platinum.»—I.—Brass, 100 parts; zinc, 65 parts.

II.—Brass, 120 parts; zinc, 75 parts.

III.—Copper, 5 parts; nickel, 4 parts; zinc, 1 1/2 parts; antimony, 1 part; lead, 1 part; iron, 1 part; tin, 1 part.

«Cooper’s Pen Metal.»—This alloy is especially well adapted to the manufacture of pens, on account of its great hardness, elasticity, and power of resistance to atmospheric influences, and would certainly have superseded steel if it were possible to produce it more cheaply than is the case. The compositions most frequently used for pen metal are copper 1 part, platinum 4, and silver 3; or, copper 21, platinum 50, and silver 36.

Pens have been manufactured, consisting of several sections, each of a different alloy, suited to the special purpose of the part. Thus, for instance, the sides of the pen are made of the elastic composition just described; the upper part is of an alloy of silver and platinum; and the point is made either of minute cut rubies or of an extremely hard alloy of osmium and iridium, joined to the body of the pen by melting in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. The price of such pens, made of expensive materials and at the cost of great labor, is of course exceedingly high, but their excellent qualities repay the extra expense. They are not in the least affected by any kind of ink, are most durable, and can be used constantly for years without showing any signs of wear.

The great hardness and resistance to the atmosphere of Cooper’s alloys make them very suitable for manufacturing {75} mathematical instruments where great precision is required. It can scarcely be calculated how long a chronometer, for instance, whose wheels are constructed of this alloy, will run before showing any irregularities due to wear. In the construction of such instruments, the price of the material is not to be taken into account, since the cost of the labor in their manufacture so far exceeds this.


This is an alloy of tin and lead only, or of tin with antimony and copper. The first is properly called pewter. Three varieties are known in trade:

I (Plate Pewter).—From tin, 79 per cent; antimony, 7 per cent; bismuth and copper, of each 2 per cent; fused together. Used to make plates, teapots, etc. Takes a fine polish.

II (Triple Pewter).—From tin, 79 per cent; antimony, 15 per cent; lead, 6 per cent; as the last. Used for minor articles, syringes, toys, etc.

III (Ley Pewter).—From tin, 80 per cent; lead, 20 per cent. Used for measures, inkstands, etc.

According to the report of a French commission, pewter containing more than 18 parts of lead to 82 parts of tin is unsafe for measures for wine and similar liquors, and, indeed, for any other utensils exposed to contact with food or beverages. The legal specific gravity of pewter in France is 7.764; if it be greater, it contains an excess of lead, and is liable to prove poisonous. The proportions of these metals may be approximately determined from the specific gravity; but correctly only by an assay for the purpose.


«Aluminum Silver.»—Aluminum and silver form beautiful white alloys which are considerably harder than pure aluminum, and take a very high polish. They have the advantage over copper alloys of being unchanged by exposure to the air, and of retaining their white color.

The properties of aluminum and silver alloys vary considerably according to the percentage of aluminum.

I.—An alloy of 100 parts of aluminum and 5 parts of silver is very similar to pure aluminum, but is harder and takes a finer polish.

II.—One hundred and sixty-nine parts of aluminum and 5 of silver make an elastic alloy, recommended for watch springs and dessert knives.

III.—An alloy of equal parts of silver and aluminum is as hard as bronze.

IV.—Five parts of aluminum and 1 part of silver make an alloy that is easily worked.

V.—Also aluminum, 3 parts, and silver, 1 part.

VI. Tiers-Argent.—This alloy is prepared chiefly in Paris, and used for the manufacture of various utensils. As indicated by its name (one-third silver), it consists of 33.33 parts of silver and 66.66 parts of aluminum. Its advantages over silver consist in its lower price and greater hardness; it can also be stamped and engraved more easily than the alloys of copper and silver.

VII.—This is a hard alloy which has been found very useful for the operating levers of certain machines, such as the spacing lever of a typewriter. The metal now generally used for this purpose by the various typewriter companies is “aluminum silver,” or “silver metal.” The proportions are given as follows:

Copper 57.00 Nickel 20.00 Zinc 20.00 Aluminum 3.00

This alloy when used on typewriting machines is nickel-plated for the sake of the first appearance, but so far as corrosion is concerned, nickeling is unnecessary. The alloy is stiff and strong and cannot be bent to any extent without breaking, especially if the percentage of aluminum is increased to 3.5 per cent; it casts free from pinholes and blowholes; the liquid metal completely fills the mold, giving sharp, clean castings, true to pattern; its cost is not greater than brass; its color is silver white, and its hardness makes it susceptible to a high polish.

«Arsenic.»—Alloys which contain small quantities of arsenic are very ductile, have a beautiful white color, and were formerly used in England in the manufacture of tableware. They are not, however, suitable for this purpose, on account of the poisonous character of the arsenic. They are composed usually of 49 parts of silver, 49 of copper, and 2 of arsenic.

«China Silver.»—Copper, 65.24 per cent; tin, 19.52 per cent; nickel, 13.00 per cent; silver, 2.05 per cent.

«Copper-Silver.»—When silver is alloyed with copper only one proportion is known which will give a uniform casting. The proportion is 72 per cent silver to 28 per cent copper. With more silver than 72 per cent the center of a cast bar will be {76} richer than the outside, which chills first; while with a less percentage than 72 per cent the center of the bar will be poorer and the outside richer than the average. This characteristic of silver-copper alloys is known to metallurgists as “segregation.”

When nickel is added to the silver and copper, several good alloys may be formed, as the following French compositions:

I II III Silver 33 40 20 Copper 37–42 30–40 45–55 Nickel 25–30 20–30 25–35

The whitening of alloys of silver and copper is best accomplished by annealing the alloy until it turns black on the surface. Cool in a mixture of 20 parts, by weight, of concentrated sulphuric acid to 1,000 parts of distilled water and leave therein for some time. In place of the sulphuric acid, 40 parts of potassium bisulphate may be used per 1,000 parts of liquid. Repeat the process if necessary.

«Copper, Silver, and Cadmium Alloys.»—Cadmium added to silver alloys gives great flexibility and ductility, without affecting the white color; these properties are valuable in the manufacture of silver-plated ware and wire. The proportions of the metals vary in these alloys. Some of the most important varieties are given below.

Silver Copper Cadmium I. 980 15 5 II. 950 15 35 III. 900 18 82 IV. 860 20 180 V. 666 25 309 VI. 667 50 284 VII. 500 50 450

In preparing these alloys, the great volatility of cadmium must be taken into account. It is customary to prepare first the alloy of silver and copper, and add the cadmium, which, as in the case of the alloys of silver and zinc, must be wrapped in paper. After putting it in, the mass is quickly stirred, and the alloy poured immediately into the molds. This is the surest way to prevent the volatilization of the cadmium.

«Silver, Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Alloys.»—These alloys, from the metals contained in them, may be characterized as argentan or German silver with a certain percentage of silver. They have been used for making small coins, as in the older coins of Switzerland. Being quite hard, they have the advantage of wearing well, but soon lose their beautiful white color and take on a disagreeable shade of yellow, like poor brass. The silver contained in them can be regained only by a laborious process, which is a great drawback to their use in coinage. The composition of the Swiss fractional coins is as follows:

20 centimes 10 centimes 5 centimes Silver 15 10 5 Copper 50 55 60 Nickel 25 25 25 Zinc 10 10 10

«Mousset’s Alloy.»—Copper, 59.06; silver, 27.56; zinc, 9.57; nickel, 3.42. This alloy is yellowish with a reddish tinge, but white on the fractured surface. It ranks next after Argent-Ruolz, which also contains sometimes certain quantities of zinc, and in this case may be classed together with the alloy just described. The following alloys can be rolled into sheet or drawn into wire:

I II III Silver 33.3 34 40.0 Copper 41.8 42 44.6 Nickel 8.6 8 4.6 Zinc 16.3 16 10.8

«Japanese (Gray) Silver.»—An alloy is prepared in Japan which consists of equal parts of copper and silver, and which is given a beautiful gray color by boiling in a solution of alum, to which copper sulphate and verdigris are added. The so-called “mokum,” also a Japanese alloy, is prepared by placing thin plates of gold, silver, copper, and the alloy just described over each other and stretching them under the hammer. The cross sections of the thin plates obtained in this way show the colors of the different metals, which give them a peculiar striped appearance. Mokum is principally used for decorations upon gold and silver articles.

«Silver-Zinc.»—Silver and zinc have great affinity for each other, and alloys of these two metals are therefore easily made. The required quantity of zinc, wrapped in paper, is thrown into the melted and strongly heated silver, the mass is thoroughly stirred with an iron rod, and at once poured out into molds. Alloys of silver and zinc can be obtained which are both ductile and flexible. An alloy consisting of 2 parts of zinc and 1 of silver closely resembles silver in color, and is quite ductile. With a larger proportion of zinc the alloy becomes brittle. In preparing the alloy, a somewhat larger quantity of zinc must be taken than the {77} finished alloy is intended to contain, as a small amount always volatilizes.

«Imitation Silver Alloys.»—There are a number of alloys, composed of different metals, which resemble silver, and may be briefly mentioned here.

I.—Warne’s metal is composed of tin 10 parts, bismuth 7, and cobalt 3. It is white, fine-grained, but quite difficult to fuse.

II.—Tonca’s metal contains copper 5 parts, nickel 4, tin 1, lead 1, iron 1, zinc 1, antimony 1. It is hard, difficult to fuse, not very ductile, and cannot be recommended.

III.—Trabuk metal contains tin 87.5, nickel 5.5, antimony 5, bismuth 5.

IV.—Tourun-Leonard’s metal is composed of 500 parts of tin and 64 of bell metal.

V.—Silveroid is an alloy of copper, nickel, tin, zinc, and lead.

VI.—Minargent. Copper, 100 parts; nickel, 70 parts; tungsten, 5 parts; aluminum, 1 part.

VII.—Nickel, 23 parts; aluminum, 5 parts; copper, 5 parts; iron, 65 parts; tungsten, 4 parts.

VIII.—Argasoid. Tin, 4.035; lead, 3.544; copper, 55.780; nickel, 13.406; zinc, 23.198; iron, trace.

SOLDERS: See Solders.

«STEEL ALLOYS: See also Steel.»

«For Locomotive Cylinders.»—This mixture consists of 20 per cent steel castings, old steel springs, etc.; 20 per cent No. 2 coke iron, and 60 per cent scrap. From this it is stated a good solid metal can be obtained, the castings being free from honeycombing, and finishing better than the ordinary cast-iron mixture, over which it has the advantage of 24 per cent greater strength. Its constituents are: Silicon, 1.51; manganese, 0.33; phosphorus, 0.65; sulphur, 0.068; combined carbon, 0.62; graphite, 2.45.

Nickel steel is composed of nickel 36 per cent, steel 64 per cent.

Tungsten steel is crucible steel with 5 to 12 per cent tungsten.


Lead 2 parts Tin 3 parts Bismuth 5 parts

The melting point of this alloy is 196° F. The alloy is rather costly because of the amount of bismuth which it contains. The following mixtures are cheaper:

I II III IV Tin 1 3 1 2 Lead 1 5 1.5 2 Bismuth 2 8 3 5 Antimony — — — 1


«Alloys for Dentists’ Molds and Dies.»—I.—Very hard. Tin, 16 parts; antimony, 1 part; zinc, 1 part.

II.—Softer than the former. Tin, 8 parts; zinc, 1 part; antimony, 1 part.

III.—Very hard. Tin, 12 parts; antimony, 2 parts; copper, 1 part.

«Cadmium Alloy, about the Hardness of Zinc.»—Tin, 10 parts; antimony, 1 part; cadmium, 1 part.

«Tin-Lead.»—Tin is one of those metals which is not at all susceptible to the action of acids, while lead, on the other hand, is very easily attacked by them. In such alloys, consequently, used for cooking utensils, the amount of lead must be limited, and should properly not exceed 10 or 15 per cent; but cases have been known in which the so-called tin contained a third part, by weight, of lead.

Alloys containing from 10 to 15 per cent of lead have a beautiful white color, are considerably harder than pure tin, and much cheaper. Many alloys of tin and lead are very lustrous, and are used for stage jewelry and mirrors for reflecting the light of lamps, etc. An especially brilliant alloy is called “Fahlun brilliants.” It is used for stage jewelry, and consists of 29 parts of tin and 19 of lead. It is poured into molds faceted in the same way as diamonds, and when seen by artificial light, the effect is that of diamonds. Other alloys of tin and lead are employed in the manufacture of toys. These must fill the molds well, and must also be cheap, and therefore as much as 50 per cent of lead is used. Toys can also be made from type metal, which is even cheaper than the alloys of tin and lead, but has the disadvantage of readily breaking if the articles are sharply bent. The alloys of tin and lead give very good castings, if sharp iron or brass molds are used.

Lead 19 parts Tin 29 parts

This alloy is very bright and possesses a permanent sheen. It is well adapted for the making of artificial gems for stage use. It is customary in carrying out the process to start with two parts of tin and one part of lead. Tin is added until a sample drop which is allowed to fall upon an iron plate forms a mirror. The artificial gems are produced by {78} dipping into the molten alloy pieces of glass cut to the proper shape. The tin coating of metal which adheres to the glass cools rapidly and adheres tenaciously. Outwardly these artificial gems appear rough and gray, but inwardly they are highly reflective and quite deceptive when seen in artificial light.

If the reflective surfaces be coated with red, blue, or green aniline, various colored effects can be obtained. Instead of fragile glass the gems may be produced by means of well-polished pieces of steel or bronze.

«Other Tin-Lead Alloys.»—Percentage of lead and specific gravity.

P. C. S. G. 0 7.290 1 7.316 2 7.342 3 7.369 4 7.396 5 7.423 6 7.450 7 7.477 8 7.505 9 7.533 10 7.562 11 7.590 12 7.619 13 7.648 14 7.677 15 7.706 16 7.735 17 7.764 18 7.794 19 7.824 20 7.854 21 7.885 22 7.916 23 7.947 24 7.978 25 8.009 26 8.041 27 8.073 28 8.105 29 8.137 30 8.169 31 8.202 32 8.235 33 8.268 34 8.302 35 8.336 36 8.379 37 8.405 38 8.440 39 8.476 40 8.512 41 8.548 42 8.584 43 8.621 44 8.658 45 8.695 46 8.732 47 8.770 48 8.808 49 8.846 50 8.884 60 9.299 70 9.736 80 10.225 90 10.767 100 11.370

«Tin Statuettes, Buttons, etc.»—

I.—Tin 4 parts Lead 3 parts

This is a very soft solder which sharply reproduces all details.

Another easily fusible alloy but somewhat harder, is the following:

II.—Tin. 8 parts Lead 6 parts Antimony 0.5 part

«Miscellaneous Tin Alloys.»—I.—Alger Metal.—Tin, 90 parts; antimony, 10 parts. This alloy is suitable as a protector.

II. Argentine Metal.—Tin, 85.5 per cent; antimony, 14.5 per cent.

III.—Ashberry metal is composed of 78 to 82 parts of tin, 16 to 20 of antimony, 2 to 3 of copper.

IV. Quen’s Metal.—Tin, 9 parts; lead, 1 part; antimony, 1 part; bismuth, 1 part.

«Type Metal.»—An alloy which is to serve for type metal must be readily cast, fill out the molds sharply, and be as hard as possible. It is difficult to satisfy all these requirements, but an alloy of antimony and lead answers the purpose best. At the present day there are a great many formulas for type metal in which other metals besides lead and antimony are used, either to make the alloy more readily fusible, as in the case of additions of bismuth, or to give it greater power of resistance, the latter being of especial importance for types that are subjected to constant use. Copper and iron have been recommended for this purpose, but the fusibility of the alloys is greatly impaired by these, and the manufacture of the types is consequently more difficult than with an alloy of lead and antimony alone. In the following table some alloys suitable for casting type are given:

Lead Antimony Copper Bismuth Zinc Tin Nickel I 3 1 — — — — — II 5 1 — — — — — III 10 1 — — — — — IV 10 2 — 1 — — — V 70 18 2 — — 10 — VI 60 20 — — — 20 — VII 55 25 — — — 20 — VIII 55 30 — — — 15 — IX 100 30 8 2 — 20 8 X 6 — 4 — 90 — —

The French and English types contain a certain amount of tin, as shown by the following analyses:

English Types French Types I II III Lead 69.2 61.3 55.0 55 Antimony 19.5 18.8 22.7 30 Tin 9.1 20.2 22.1 15 Copper 1.7 — — —

Ledebur gives the composition of type metal as follows:

I II III IV Lead 75 60 80 82 Antimony 23 25 20 14.8 Tin 22 15 — 3.2

WATCHMAKERS’ ALLOYS: See Watchmakers’ Formulas.


The so-called white metals are employed almost exclusively for bearings. (See Anti-friction Metals under Alloys.) In the technology of mechanics an accurate distinction is made between the different kinds of metals for bearings; and they may be classed in two groups, red brass and white metal. The {79} red-brass bearings are characterized by great hardness and power of resistance, and are principally used for bearings of heavily loaded and rapidly revolving axles. For the axles of large and heavy flywheels, revolving at great speed, bearings of red brass are preferable to white metal, though more expensive.

In recent years many machinists have found it advantageous to substitute for the soft alloys generally in use for bearings a metal almost as hard as the axle itself. Phosphor bronze (q. v.) is frequently employed for this purpose, as it can easily be made as hard as wrought or cast steel. In this case the metal is used in a thin layer, and serves only, as it were, to fill out the small interstices caused by wear on the axle and bearing, the latter being usually made of some rather easily fusible alloy of lead and tin. Such bearings are very durable, but expensive, and can only be used for large machines. For small machines, running gently and uniformly, white-metal bearings are preferred, and do excellent work, if the axle is not too heavily loaded. For axles which have a high rate of revolution, bearings made of quite hard metals are chosen, and with proper care—which, indeed, must be given to bearings of any material—they will last for a long time without needing repair.

WHITE METAL FOR BEARING. ──────+───────────────────────+──────+────────+──────+──────+──────+────── │ │ Tin │Antimony│ Zinc │ Iron │ Lead │Copper ──────+───────────────────────+──────+────────+──────+──────+──────+────── I │German, light loads │ 85.00│ 10.00 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 5.00 II │German, light loads │ 82.00│ 11.00 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 7.00 III │German, light loads │ 80.00│ 12.00 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 8.00 IV │German, light loads │ 76.00│ 17.00 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 7.00 V │German, light loads │ 3.00│ 1.00 │ 5.00│ — — │ 3.00│ 1.00 VI │German, heavy loads │ 90.00│ 8.00 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 2.00 VII │German, heavy loads │ 86.81│ 7.62 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 5.57 VIII │English, heavy loads │ 17.47│ — — │ 76.14│ — — │ — — │ 5.62 IX │English, medium loads │ 76.70│ 15.50 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 7.80 X │English, medium loads │ 72.00│ 26.00 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 2.00 XI │For mills │ 15.00│ — — │ 40.00│ — — │ 42.00│ 3.00 XII │For mills │ — — │ 1.00 │ 5.00│ — — │ 5.00│ — — XIII │For mills │ — — │ 1.00 │ 10.00│ — — │ 2.00│ — — XIV │Heavy axles │ 72.70│ 18.20 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 9.10 XV │Heavy axles │ 38.00│ 6.00 │ 47.00│ — — │ 4.00│ 1.00 XVI │Rapidly revolving axles│ 17.00│ 77.00 │ — — │ — — │ — — │ 6.00 XVII │Very hard metal │ 55.00│ — — │ — — │ 70.00│ — — │ 2.50 XVIII │Very hard metal │ 12.00│ 82.00 │ 2.00│ — — │ — — │ 4.00 XIX │Cheap metal │ 2.00│ 2.00 │ 88.00│ — — │ — — │ 8.00 XX │Cheap metal │ 1.50│ 1.50 │ 90.00│ — — │ — — │ 7.00 ──────+───────────────────────+──────+────────+──────+──────+──────+──────

Other white bearing metals are:

XXI.—Tin, 8.5; antimony, 10; copper, 5 parts.

XXII.—Tin, 42; antimony, 16; lead, 42 parts.

XXIII.—Tin, 72; antimony, 26; copper, 2 parts.

XXIV.—Tin, 81; antimony, 12.5; copper, 6.5 parts.

«White Metals Based on Copper.»—

I.—Copper, 65 parts; arsenic, 55 parts.

II.—Copper, 64 parts; arsenic, 50 parts.

III.—Copper, 10 parts; zinc, 20 parts; nickel, 30 parts.

IV.—Nickel, 70 parts; copper, 30 parts; zinc, 20 parts.

V.—Nickel, 60 parts; copper, 30 parts; zinc, 30 parts.

VI.—Copper, 8 parts; nickel, 4 parts; zinc, 4 parts.

VII.—Copper, 10 parts; nickel, 5 parts; zinc, 5 parts.

VIII.—Copper, 8 parts; nickel, 3 parts; zinc, 4 parts.

IX.—Copper, 50 parts; nickel, 25 parts; zinc, 25 parts.

X.—Copper, 55 parts; nickel, 24 parts; zinc, 21 parts.

XI.—Copper, 55 parts; nickel, 24 parts; zinc, 16 parts; iron, 2 parts; tin, 3 parts.

IX, X, and XI are suitable for tableware.

XII.—Copper, 67 parts, and arsenic, 53 parts.

XIII.—Copper, 63 parts, and arsenic, 57 parts.

XII and XIII are bright gray, unaffected by the temperature of boiling water; they are fusible at red heat.

«White Metals Based on Platinum.»—

I.—Platinum, 1 part; copper, 4 parts; or platinum, 1 1/2 parts; copper, 3 1/2 parts.

II.—Platinum, 10 parts; tin, 90 parts; or platinum, 8 parts; tin, 92 parts.

III.—Platinum, 7 parts; copper, 13 parts; tin, 80 parts.

IV.—Platinum, 2 parts; steel, 98 parts.

V.—Platinum, 2.5 parts; steel, 97.5 parts.

IV and V are for gun metal.

«Miscellaneous White-Metal Alloys.»—

I.—For lining cross-head slides: Lead, 65 parts; antimony, 25 parts; copper, 10 parts. Some object to white metal containing lead or zinc. It has been found, however, that lead and zinc have properties of great use in these alloys.

II.—Tin, 85 parts; antimony, 7 1/2 parts; copper, 7 1/2 parts.

III.—Tin, 90 parts; copper, 3 parts; antimony, 7 parts. {80}


«Bidery Metal.»—This is sometimes composed of 31 parts of zinc, 2 parts of copper, and 2 parts of lead; the whole is melted on a layer of rosin or wax to avoid oxidation. This metal is very resistive; it does not oxidize in air or moisture. It takes its name from the town of Bider, near Hyderabad (India), where it was prepared for the first time industrially for the manufacture of different utensils.

Other compositions of Indian Bidery metal (frequently imitated in England) are about as follows:

P.C. P.C. P.C. Copper 3.5 11.4 16 Zinc 93.4 84.3 112 Tin — 1.4 2 Lead 3.1 2.9 4

Erhardt recommends the following as being both ductile and hard:

Zinc 89 to 93 Tin 9 to 6 Lead 2 to 4 Copper 2 to 4

The tin is first melted, and the lead, zinc, and copper added successively.

«Zinc-Nickel.»—Zinc, 90 parts; nickel, 10 parts. Used in powder form for painting and cloth printing purposes.

«Platine for Dress Buttons.»—Copper, 43 parts; zinc, 57 parts.


«Alloys for Drawing Colors on Steel.»—Alloys of various composition are successfully used for drawing colors on steel. To draw to a straw color use 2 parts of lead and 1 part of tin, and melt in an iron ladle. Hold the steel piece to be drawn in the alloy as it melts and it will turn to straw color. This mixture melts at a temperature of about 437° F. For darker yellow use 9 parts of lead to 4 parts of tin, which melts at 458° F. For purple, use 3 parts of lead to 1 part of tin, the melting temperature being 482° F. For violet, use 9 parts of lead to 2 parts of tin, which melts at 494° F. Lead without any alloy will draw steel to a dark blue. The above apply to steel only since iron requires a somewhat greater heat and is more or less uncertain in handling.

«Alloy for Pattern Letters and Figures.»—A good alloy for casting pattern letters and figures and similar small parts of brass, iron, or plaster molds, is made of lead 80 parts, and antimony 20 parts. A better alloy will be lead 70 parts, antimony and bismuth each 15 parts. To insure perfect work the molds should be quite hot by placing them over a Bunsen burner.

«Alloy for Caliper and Gage-Rod Castings.»—A mixture of 30 parts zinc to 70 parts aluminum gives a light and durable alloy for gage rods and caliper legs; the gage rods must be steel tipped, for the alloy is soft and wears away too rapidly for gage points.

«Alloys for Small Casting Molds.»—Tin, 75 parts, and lead, 22 parts; or 75 parts of zinc and 25 parts of tin; or 30 parts of tin and 70 parts of lead; or 60 parts of lead and 40 parts of bismuth.



ALMOND LIQUEURS: See Wines and Liquors.

ALTARS, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


«Burnt Alum.»—I.—Heat the alum in a porcelain dish or other suitable vessel till it liquefies, then raise and continue the heat, not allowing it to exceed 400°, till aqueous vapor ceases to be disengaged, and the salt has lost 47 per cent of its weight. Reduce the residue to powder, and preserve it in a well-stoppered bottle.—_Cooley._

II.—Heat ordinary alum (alumina alum) with constant stirring in an iron pan in which it will first melt quietly, and then commence to form blisters. Continue heating until a dry white mass of a loose character remains, which is powdered and kept in well-closed glasses.

ALUM BATH: See Photography.

«Aluminum and its Treatment»


«Blanching of Aluminum.»—Aluminum is one of the metals most inalterable by air; nevertheless, the objects of aluminum tarnish quickly enough without being {81} altered. They may be restored to their mat whiteness in the following manner: Immerse the aluminum articles in a boiling bath of caustic potash; next plunge them quickly into nitric acid, rinse and let dry. It must be understood that this method is applicable only to pieces entirely of aluminum.

«Decolorized Aluminum.»—Gray or unsightly aluminum may be restored to its white color by washing with a mixture of 30 parts of borax dissolved in 1,000 parts of water, with a few drops of ammonia added.

«Mat Aluminum.»—In order to impart to aluminum the appearance of mat silver, plunge the article into a hot bath composed of a 10-per-cent solution of caustic soda saturated with kitchen salt. Leave it in the bath for 15 to 20 seconds, then wash and brush; put back into the bath for half a minute, wash anew and dry in sawdust.

«To Blacken Aluminum.»—I.—The surface of the sheet to be colored is polished with very fine emery powder or finest emery cloth. After polishing pour a thin layer of olive oil over the surface and heat slowly over an alcohol flame. Large sheets must, of course, be heated in the drying oven. After a short while pour on oil again, in order to obtain absolute uniformity of the coating, and heat the plate once more. Under the action of the heat the plate turns first brown, then black, according to the degrees of heat. When the desired coloration has been attained, the plate is polished over again, after cooling, with a woolen rag or soft leather.

II.—White arsenic 1 ounce Sulphate of iron 1 ounce Hydrochloric acid 12 ounces Water 12 ounces

When the arsenic and iron are dissolved by the acid add the water. The aluminum to be blackened should be well cleaned with fine emery powder and washed before immersing in the blackening solution. When the deposit of black is deep enough dry off with fine sawdust and lacquer.

«Decorating Aluminum.»—A process for decorating aluminum, patented in Germany, prescribes that the objects be first corroded, which is usually done with caustic soda lye, or, better still, by a new method which consists in heating 3 parts of sulphuric acid with 1 part of water to 140° to 158° F., in an enameled vessel. Into this liquid dip the aluminum articles, rinsing them off clean and then drying them well. The corroded articles are now placed in a bath consisting of 1,000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent), 1.50 parts of antimony, 250 parts of chemically pure hydrochloric acid, 100 parts of manganous nitrate, and 20 parts of purified and finely elutriated graphite. In this bath, which is heated to 86°–95° F., the objects are left until fumes develop around them, which takes place in a few seconds. Now they are put over a coal fire or similar arrangement until the alcohol is burned up and there is no more smoke. After they are somewhat cooled off, they are laid into cold water and worked with a brush, then rinsed with water and well dried. The pieces are now provided with a gray metallic coating, consisting mainly of antimony, manganese, and graphite. This metallic layer renders them capable of receiving a lacquer which is best prepared from 1,000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent), 50 parts of sandarac, 100 parts of shellac, and 100 parts of nigrosine (black aniline color). Then the articles are quickly but thoroughly rinsed off, dried in warmed air for a few minutes, and baked in ovens or over a moderate coal fire until they do not smoke any more and no more gloss can be seen. Finally they are rubbed with a cotton rag saturated with thin linseed-oil varnish, and the objects thus treated now appear dull black, like velvet. The covering withstands all action of the weather, so that cooking vessels coated with this varnish on the outside can be placed on the fire without injury to the coating. If the articles are engraved, the aluminum appears almost glossy white under the black layer at the engraved places. When the pieces have been provided with the gray metallic coating, colored lacquer may also be applied with the brush. In this manner paintings, etc., may be done on aluminum, while not possible on unprepared aluminum surfaces, which will not retain them.

«Making Castings in Aluminum.»—The method adopted in preparing molds and cores for aluminum work is necessarily somewhat the same as for brass, but there are particular points which need attention to insure successful work. Both in the sand and the making of the molds there are some small differences which make considerable variation in the results, and the temperature at which the metal is poured is a consideration of some importance.

In selecting the sand, which should {82} not have been previously used, that of a fine grain should be chosen, but it should not have any excess of aluminous matter, or it will not permit of the free escape of gases and air, this being an important matter. Besides this, the sand must be used as dry as possible consistent with its holding against the flow of the metal, and having only moderate compression in ramming.

In making the molds it is necessary to remember that aluminum has a large contraction in cooling, and also that at certain temperatures it is very weak and tears readily, while all metals shrink away from the mold when this is wholly outside the casting, but they shrink on to cores or portions of the mold partly inclosed by metal. Thus, if casting a plate or bar of metal, it will shrink away from the mold in all directions; but if casting a square frame, it shrinks away from the outside only, while it shrinks on to the central part or core. With brass, or iron, or such metals, this is not of much importance, but with some others, including aluminum, it is of great importance, because if the core or inclosed sand will not give somewhat with the contraction of the metal, torn or fractured castings will be the result. Both for outside and inside molds, and with cores used with aluminum, the sand should be compressed as little as possible, and hard ramming must in every case be avoided, particularly where the metal surrounds the sand. The molds must be very freely vented, and not only at the joint of the mold, but by using the vent wire freely through the body of the mold itself; in fact, for brass the venting would be considered excessive. With aluminum it is, however, necessary to get the air off as rapidly as possible, because the metal soon gets sluggish in the mold, and unless it runs up quickly it runs faint at the edges. The ingates should be wide and of fair area, but need careful making to prevent their drawing where they enter the casting, the method of doing this being known to most molders.

If it is considered desirable to use a specially made-up facing sand for the molds where the metal is of some thickness, the use of a little pea or bean meal will be all that is necessary. To use this, first dry as much sand as may be required and pass through a 20-mesh sieve, and to each bushel of the fine sand rub in about 4 quarts of meal, afterwards again passing through the sieve to insure regular mixing. This sand should then be damped as required, being careful that all parts are equally moist, rubbing on a board being a good way to get it tough, and in good condition, with the minimum of moisture.

The molds should not be sleeked with tools, but they may be dusted over with plumbago or steatite, smoothing with a camel’s-hair brush, in cases in which a very smooth face is required on the castings. Preferably, however, the use of the brush even should be avoided. Patterns for aluminum should be kept smooth and well varnished.

In melting the metal it is necessary to use a plumbago crucible which is clean and which has not been used for other metals. Clay or silica crucibles are not good for this metal, especially silica, on account of the metal absorbing silicon and becoming hard under some conditions of melting. A steady fire is necessary, and the fuel should reach only about halfway up the crucible, as it is not desirable to overheat the crucible or metal. The metal absorbs heat for some time and then fuses with some rapidity, hence the desirability of a steady heat; and as the metal should be poured when of a claret color under the film of oxide which forms on the surface, too rapid a heating is not advisable. The molding should always be well in advance of the pouring, because the metal should be used as soon as it is ready; for not only is waste caused, but the metal loses condition if kept in a molten state for long periods. The metal should be poured rapidly, but steadily, and when cast up there should not be a large head of metal left on top of the runner. In fact, it is rather a disadvantage to leave a large head, as this tends to draw rather than to feed the casting.

With properly prepared molds, and careful melting, fluxes are not required, but ground cryolite—a fluoride of sodium and aluminum—is sometimes used to increase the fluidity of the metal. In using this, a few ounces according to the bulk of metal to be treated is put into the molten metal before it is taken from the furnace, and well stirred in, and as soon as the reaction apparently ceases the pot is lifted and the metal at once skimmed and poured. The use of sodium in any form with aluminum is very undesirable, however, and should be avoided, and the same remark applies to tin, but there is no objection to alloying with zinc, when the metal thus produced is sold as an alloy.

Aluminum also casts very well in molds of plaster of Paris and crushed bath brick when such molds are perfectly dry {83} and well vented, smoothness being secured by brushing over with dry steatite or plumbago. When casting in metal molds, these should be well brushed out with steatite or plumbago, and made fairly hot before pouring, as in cold molds the metal curdles and becomes sluggish, with the result that the castings run up faint.

«To Increase the Toughness, Density, and Tenacity of Aluminum.»—For the purpose of improving aluminum, without increasing its specific gravity, the aluminum is mixed with 4 to 7 per cent of phosphorus, whereby the density, tenacity, and especially the toughness are said to be enhanced.


The great secret, if there is any, in working aluminum, either pure or alloyed, consists in the proper lubricant and the shape of the tool. Another great disadvantage in the proper working of the metal is that, when a manufacturer desires to make up an article, he will procure the pure metal in order to make his samples, which, of course, is harder to work than the alloy. But the different grades of aluminum sheet which are on the market are so numerous for different classes of work that it might be advisable to consider them for a moment before passing to the method of working them.

The pure metal, to begin with, can be purchased of all degrees of hardness, from the annealed, or what is known as the “dead soft” stock, to the pure aluminum hard rolled. Then comes a harder grade of alloys, running from “dead soft” metal, which will draw up hard, to the same metal hard rolled; and, still again, another set of alloys which, perhaps, are a little harder still when hard rolled, and will, when starting with the “dead soft,” spin up into a utensil which, when finished, will probably be as stiff as brass. These latter alloys are finding a large sale for replacing brass used in all classes of manufactured articles.

To start with lathe work on aluminum, probably more difficulty has been found here, especially in working pure metal, and more complaints are heard from this source than from any other. As stated before, however, these difficulties can all be readily overcome, if the proper tools and the proper lubricants are used, as automatic screw machines are now made so that they can be operated when working aluminum just as readily as when they are working brass, and in some cases more readily. To start with the question of the tool, this should be made as what is known as a “shearing tool,” that is, instead of a short, stubby point, such as would be used in turning brass, the point should be lengthened out and a lot of clearance provided on the inside of the tool, so as to give the chips of the metal a good chance to free themselves and not cause a clogging around the point of the tool—a similar tool, for instance, to what would be used for turning wood.

The best lubricant to be used would be coal oil or water, and plenty of it. The latter is almost as good as coal oil if enough of it is used, and with either of these lubricants and a tool properly made, there should be no difficulty whatsoever in the rapid working of aluminum, either on the lathe or on automatic screw machines.

To go from the lathe to the drawing press, the same tools here would be used in drawing up shapes of aluminum as are used for drawing up brass or other metals; the only precaution necessary in this instance being to use a proper lubricant, which in this case is a cheap grade of vaseline, or in some cases lard oil, but in the majority of instances better results will be secured by the use of vaseline. Aluminum is probably susceptible of deeper drawing with less occasion to anneal than any of the other commercial metals. It requires but one-third or one-fourth of as much annealing as brass or copper. For instance, an article which is now manufactured in brass, requiring, say, three or four operations before the article is finished, would probably have to be annealed after every operation. With aluminum, however, if the proper grade is used, it is generally possible to perform these three operations without annealing the metal at all, and at the same time to produce a finished article which, to all intents and purposes, is as stiff as an article made of sheet brass.

Too much stress cannot be laid on the fact of starting with the proper grade of metal, for either through ignorance or by not observing this point is the foundation of the majority of the complaints that aluminum “has been tried and found wanting.” If, however, it should be found necessary to anneal aluminum, this can be readily accomplished by heating it in an ordinary muffle, being careful that the temperature shall not be too high—about 650° or 700° F. The best test as to when the metal has reached the proper temperature is to take a soft pine stick and draw it across the {84} metal. If it chars the stick and leaves a black mark on the metal, it is sufficiently annealed and is in a proper condition to proceed with further operation.

Next taking up the question of spinning aluminum, success again depends particularly on starting with the proper metal. The most satisfactory speed for articles from 5 to 8 inches in diameter is about 2,600 revolutions a minute, and for larger or smaller diameters the speed should be so regulated as to give the same velocity at the circumference. Aluminum is a very easy metal to spin and no difficulty should be found at all in spinning the proper grades of sheets. Several factories that are using large quantities of aluminum now, both for spinning and stamping, are paying their men by the piece the same amount that they formerly paid on brass and tin work, and it is stated that the men working on this basis make anywhere from 10 to 20 per cent more wages by working aluminum.

After aluminum has been manufactured into the shape of an article, the next process is the finishing of it. The best polish can be obtained by first cutting down the metal with an ordinary rag buff on which use tripoli, and then finish it with a dry red rouge which comes in the lump form, or that which is known as “White Diamond Rouge.” One point, however, that it is necessary to observe carefully is that both the tripoli and the rouge should be procured ground as fine as it is possible to grind them; for, if this is not done, the metal will have little fine scratches all over it, and will not appear as bright and as handsome as it otherwise would.

If it is desired to put on a frosted appearance, this can either be done by scratch brushing or sand blasting. A brass wire scratch brush, made of crimped wire of No. 32 to No. 36 B. & S. gage, with three or four rows of bristles, will probably give the best results. This work of scratch brushing can be somewhat lessened, however, if, before applying the scratch brush to the surface of the aluminum, the article is first cut down by the use of a porpoise-hide wheel and fine Connecticut sand, placing the sand between the surface of the aluminum and the wheel, so that the skin and the irregularities on the surface are removed, and then putting the article on a buffing wheel before attempting to scratch brush it. This method, however, is probably more advantageous in the treating of aluminum castings than for articles manufactured out of the sheet metal, as in the majority of cases it is simply necessary before scratch brushing to cut down the article with tripoli, and then polish it with rouge as already described, before putting on the scratch brush; in this way the brush seems to take hold quicker and better, and to produce a more uniform polish.

An effect similar to the scratch-brush finish can be got by sand blasting, and by first sand blasting and then scratch brushing the sheets, a good finish is obtained with very much less labor than by scratch brushing alone. Another very pretty frosted effect is procured by first sand blasting and then treated as hereinafter described by “dipping” and “frosting,” and many variations in the finish of aluminum can be got by varying the treatment, either by cutting down with tripoli and polishing, scratch brushing, sand blasting, dipping, and frosting, and by combinations of those treatments. A very pretty mottled effect is secured on aluminum by first polishing and then scratch brushing and then holding the aluminum against a soft pine wheel, run at a high rate of speed on a lathe, and by careful manipulation, quite regular forms of a mottled appearance can be obtained.

The dipping and frosting of aluminum sheet is probably the cheapest way of producing a nice finish. First remove all grease and dirt from the article by dipping in benzine, then dip into water in order that the benzine adhering to the article may be removed, so as not to affect the strength of the solution into which it is next dipped. After they have been taken out of the water and well shaken, the articles should be plunged in a strong solution of caustic soda or caustic potash, and left there a sufficient length of time until the aluminum starts to turn black. Then they should be removed, dipped in water again, and then into a solution of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid, composed of 24 parts of nitric acid to 1 part of sulphuric acid. After being removed, the article should be washed thoroughly in water and dried in hot sawdust in the usual way. This finish can also be varied somewhat by making the solution of caustic soda of varying degrees of strength, or by adding a small amount of common salt to the solution.

In burnishing the metal use a bloodstone or a steel burnisher. In burnishing use a mixture of melted vaseline and coal oil, or a solution composed of 2 tablespoonfuls of ground borax dissolved in about a quart of hot water, with a few {85} drops of ammonia added. In engraving, which adds materially to the appearance of finished castings, book covers, picture frames, and similar articles made of sheet, probably the best lubricant to use on an engraver’s tool in order to obtain a clean cut, which is bright, is naphtha or coal oil, or a mixture of coal oil and vaseline. The naphtha, however, is preferred, owing to the fact that it does not destroy the satin finish in the neighborhood of the cut, as the other lubricants are very apt to do. There is, however, as much skill required in using and making a tool in order to give a bright, clean cut as there is in the choice of the lubricant to be used. The tool should be made somewhat on the same plan as the lathe tools already outlined. That is, they should be brought to a sharp point and be “cut back” rather far, so as to give plenty of clearance.

There has been one class of work in aluminum that has been developed lately and only to a certain extent, in which there are great possibilities, and that is in drop forging the metal. Some very superior bicycle parts have been manufactured by drop forging. This can be accomplished probably more readily with aluminum than with other metals, for the reason that it is not necessary with all the alloys to work them hot; consequently, they can be worked and handled more rapidly.

ALUMINUM, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


ALUMINUM BRONZE: See Alloys under Bronzes.






See also Easily Fusible Alloys under Alloys.

The name amalgam is given to alloys of metals containing mercury. The term comes to us from the alchemists. It signifies softening, because an excess of mercury dissolves a large number of metals.

«Preparation of Amalgams.»—Mercury forms amalgams with most metals. It unites directly and readily, either cold or hot, with potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, cadmium, tin, antimony, lead, bismuth, silver, and gold; directly, but more difficultly, with aluminum, copper, and palladium. This combination takes place oftenest at the ordinary temperature; certain metals, however, like aluminum and antimony, combine only when heated in presence of quicksilver.

Quicksilver has no direct action on metals of high fusing points: manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt, uranium, platinum, and their congeners. Still, amalgams of these metals can be obtained of butyrous consistency, either by electrolysis of their saline solutions, employing quicksilver as the negative electrode, or by the action of an alkaline amalgam (potassium or sodium), on their concentrated and neutral saline solutions. These same refractory metals are also amalgamated superficially when immersed in the amalgam of sodium or of ammonium in presence of water.

Processes for preparing amalgams by double decomposition between an alkaline amalgam and a metallic salt, or by electrolysis of saline solutions, with employment of mercury as the negative electrode, apply _a fortiori_ to metals capable of combining directly with the quicksilver. The latter of these methods is especially utilized for the preparation of alkaline earthy metals by electrolytic decomposition of the solutions of their salts or hydrated oxides with quicksilver as a cathode.

«General Properties of Amalgams.»—Amalgams are liquid when the quicksilver is in great excess; solid, but readily fusible, when the alloyed metal predominates.

They have a metallic luster, and a metallic structure which renders them brittle. They even form crystallized metallic combinations of constant proportions, dissolved in an excess of quicksilver, when the excess is separated by compression in a chamois skin, or by filtration in a glass funnel of slender stem, terminating with an orifice almost capillary.

According as the fusing heat of a metal is less or greater than its combination heat with quicksilver, the amalgamation of this metal produces an elevation or a lowering of temperature. Thus {86} potassium, sodium, and cadmium, in alloy with quicksilver, disengage heat; while zinc, antimony, tin, bismuth, lead, and silver combine with mercury with absorption of heat. The amalgamation of 162 parts of quicksilver with 21 parts of lead, 12 parts of tin or of antimony, and 28.5 parts of bismuth, lowers the temperature of the mixture 79° F.

Amalgams formed with disengagement of heat are electro-negative with reference to the metals alloyed with the quicksilver. The products with absorption of heat are electro-negative with reference to the metals combined with the quicksilver; consequently, in a battery of elements of pure cadmium and amalgamated cadmium, the cadmium will be the negative pole; in case of zinc and amalgamated zinc, the zinc will be the positive pole.

Heat decomposes all amalgams, vaporizing the mercury and leaving the metal alloys as a residue.

Water is decomposed by the amalgams of potassium and sodium, because the heat of formation of these amalgams, although considerable, is even less than the heat disengaged by potassium and sodium, on decomposing water. The alkaline amalgams may, therefore, serve as a source of nascent hydrogen in presence of water, giving rise to an action less energetic, and often more advantageous, than that of the alkaline metals alone. Thus is caused the frequent employment of sodium amalgam for hydrogenizing a large number of bodies. As a consequence of their action on water, the alkaline amalgams are changed by moist air, with production of free alkali or alkaline carbonate.

«Applications of Potassium Amalgams.»—I.—They furnish a process for preparing potassium by the decomposition of potash by the electric current, by employing quicksilver as the cathode, and vaporizing the quicksilver of the amalgam formed by heating this in a current of dry hydrogen.

II.—They can serve for the preparation of the amalgams of the metals, other than those of the alkaline group, by decomposing the salts of these metals, with formation of a salt of potash and of the amalgam of the metal corresponding to the original salt.

III.—They can be employed as a source of nascent hydrogen in presence of water for hydrogenizing many substances.

«Applications of Sodium Amalgams.»—These are nearly the same as those of the potassium amalgams, but the sodium amalgams are employed almost exclusively, because sodium is easier to handle than potassium, and is cheaper. These employments are the following:

I.—Sodium amalgam furnishes a process for the preparation of sodium when soda is decomposed by means of the electric current, employing quicksilver as the cathode, and afterwards vaporizing the quicksilver of the amalgam formed by heating this in a current of dry hydrogen.

II.—Amalgams of sodium serve for the preparation of amalgams of the other metals, particularly alkaline earthy metals and metals of high fusing points, by decomposing the salts of these metals, with formation of a salt of soda and of the amalgam of the metal corresponding to the original salt.

III.—They serve for amalgamating superficially the metals of high fusing point, called “refractory,” such as iron and platinum, when a well-cleaned plate of these metals is immersed in sodium amalgam in presence of water.

IV.—An amalgam of 2 or 3 per cent of sodium is employed in the processes of extraction of gold by amalgamation. It has the property of rendering quicksilver more brilliant, and consequently more energetic, by acting as a deoxidant on the pellicle of oxide formed on its surface in presence of certain ores, which, by keeping it separated from the particles of gold, destroy its activity. Sodium amalgam of 3 per cent is utilized with success for the amalgamated plates employed in crushers and other apparatus for treating the ores of gold. If a few drops of this amalgam are spread on a plate of copper, of tin, or of zinc, a brilliant coating of an amalgam of tin, copper, or zinc is immediately formed.

V.—Amalgams of from 2 to 8 per cent of sodium serve frequently in laboratories for reducing or hydrogenizing organic combinations, without running the risk of a partial destruction of these compounds by too intense action, as may occur by employing free sodium instead of its amalgam.

«Applications of Barium Amalgams.»—These can, by distillation, furnish barium. It is one of the processes for preparing this metal, which, when thus obtained, almost always retains a little sodium.

«Applications of Strontium Amalgams.»—These amalgams, washed and dried rapidly immediately after their preparation, and then heated to a nascent red {87} in a current of dry hydrogen, yield a fused mass of strontium.

«Applications of Cadmium Amalgams.»—Amalgams of cadmium, formed of equal weights of cadmium and quicksilver, have much power of cohesion and are quite malleable; the case is the same with an amalgam formed of 1 part of cadmium and 2 parts of quicksilver. They are used as dental cements for plugging teeth; for the same purpose an amalgam of 2 parts of quicksilver, 1 part of cadmium, and 2 parts of tin may be used.

«Applications of Zinc Amalgams.»—The principal employment of zinc amalgams is their use as a cathode or negative electrode in the batteries of Munson, Daniels, and Lechanché. This combination is designed to render the zinc non-attackable by the exciting liquid of the battery with open circuit. The action of the mercury is to prevent the zinc from forming a large number of small voltaic elements when foreign bodies are mingled with the metal; in a word, the giving to ordinary zinc the properties of pure zinc, and consequently of causing a great saving in expense.

For amalgamating a zinc plate it is plunged for a few seconds into water in which there is one-sixteenth in volume of sulphuric acid, then rubbing with a copper-wire brush which has been dipped in the quicksilver. The mercury takes more readily on the zinc when, after the zinc has been cleaned with water sharpened with sulphuric acid, it is moistened with a solution of corrosive sublimate, which is reduced and furnishes a first very thin coat of amalgam, on which the quicksilver is immediately fixed by simple immersion without rubbing.

The zinc of a battery may be amalgamated by putting at the bottom of the compartment containing each element, a little quicksilver in such a way that the zinc touches the liquid. The amalgamation is effected under the influence of the current, but this process applies only on condition that the zinc alone touches the bottom of the vessel containing the quicksilver.

«Applications of Manganese Amalgams.»—These may serve for the preparation of manganese. For this purpose it is sufficient to distill in a current of pure hydrogen. The manganese remains in the form of a grayish powder.

«Applications of Tin Amalgams.»—I.—Tinning of glass. This operation is accomplished in the following manner: On a cast-iron table, quite horizontal, a sheet of tin of the dimensions of the glass is spread out and covered with a layer of quicksilver, 5 or 6 millimeters in thickness. The glass is made to slide on the sheet of tin in such a way as to drive off the excess of quicksilver; when the two surfaces are covered without interposition of air, weights are placed on the glass. In a few days, the glass may be removed, having been covered with an adhering pellicle of amalgam of 4 parts of tin and 1 part of quicksilver. (See also Mirrors.)

II.—An amalgam consisting of 2 parts of zinc and 1 part tin may be used for covering the cushions of frictional electric machines. This amalgam is prepared by first melting the zinc and tin in a crucible and adding the quicksilver previously heated.

III.—Mention has been made of the cadmium amalgam employed for plugging teeth, an amalgam of 2 parts of quicksilver, 2 parts of tin, and 1 part of cadmium. For the same purpose an amalgam of tin, silver, and gold is employed. (See also Cements, Dental.)

«Applications of Copper Amalgams.»—I.—An amalgam of 30 per cent of copper has been employed for filling teeth. This use has been abandoned on account of the inconvenience occasioned by the great changeableness of the product.

II.—The amalgam of 30 per cent of copper, designated by the name of “metallic mastic,” is an excellent cement for repairing objects and utensils of porcelain. For this employment, the broken surfaces are heated to 662° F., and a little of the amalgam, previously heated to the consistency of melted wax, is applied.

III.—Copper amalgam, of 30 to 45 per cent of copper, rendered plastic by heating and grinding, may serve for obtaining with slight compression copies of delicate objects, which may, after hardening of the amalgam, be reproduced, either in wax or by galvanic process.

IV.—According to Debray, when a medal, obtained with an amalgam of 45 per cent of copper, by compression in the soft state, in molds of gutta percha, is heated progressively to redness in an atmosphere of hydrogen, the quicksilver is volatilized gradually, and the particles of copper come together without fusion in such a way as to produce a faithful reproduction, formed exclusively of metallic copper, of the original medal.

V.—In the metallurgy of gold, the crushers are furnished with amalgamated plates of copper for retaining the gold. The preparation of these plates, {88} which are at least 0.128 inches in thickness, is delicate, requiring about two weeks. They are freed from greasy matter by rubbing with ashes, or, better, with a little sand and caustic soda, or if more rapid action is desired, with a cloth dipped in dilute nitric acid; they are washed with water, then with a solution of potassium cyanide, and finally brushed with a mixture of sal ammoniac and a little quicksilver, until the surface is completely amalgamated. They are finally made to absorb as much quicksilver as possible. But the plates thus treated are useful for only a few days when they are sufficiently covered with a layer of gold amalgam; in the meantime they occasion loss of time and of gold. So it is preferable to cover them artificially with a little gold amalgam, which is prepared by dissolving gold in quicksilver. Sometimes the amalgam of gold is replaced by an amalgam of silver, which is readily poured and more economical.

Another method giving better results consists in silvering copper slabs by electroplating and covering them with a layer of silver. Then it is only necessary to apply a little quicksilver, which adheres quite rapidly, so that they are ready for use almost immediately, and are quite active at the outset.

These amalgamation slabs ought to be cleaned before each operation. Potassium cyanide removes fatty matter, and sal ammoniac the oxides of the low metals.

«Applications of Lead Amalgams.»—These meet with an interesting employment for the autogenous soldering of lead. After the surfaces to be soldered have been well cleaned, a layer of lead amalgam is applied. It is afterwards sufficient to pass along the line of junction a soldering iron heated to redness, in order that the heat should cause the volatilization of the quicksilver, and that the lead, liberated in a state of fine division, should be melted and cause the adherence of the two surfaces. The only precaution necessary is to avoid breathing the mercurial vapor, which is quite poisonous.

«Applications of Bismuth Amalgams.»—The amalgam formed of 1 per cent of bismuth and 4 parts of quicksilver will cause the strong adherence of glass. It is employed with advantage in the tinning of glass globes. For this operation it is poured into a dry hot receiver, and then passed over the whole surface of the glass; it solidifies on cooling. For the purpose of economizing the bismuth, the price of which is high, the preceding amalgam is replaced by another composed of 2 parts of quicksilver, 1 part of bismuth, 1 part of lead, and 1 part of tin. The bismuth, broken into small fragments, is added to the tin and lead, previously melted in the crucible, and when the mixture of the three metals becomes fluid, the quicksilver is poured in, while stirring with an iron rod. The impurities floating on the surface are removed, and when the temperature is sufficiently lowered this amalgam is slowly poured into the vessels to be tinned, which have been previously well cleaned and slightly heated. M. Ditte recommends for the same employment, as a very strong adherent to the glass, an amalgam obtained by dissolving hot 2 parts of bismuth and 1 part of lead in a solution of 1 part of tin in 10 parts of quicksilver. By causing a quantity of this amalgam to move around the inside of a receiver, clean, dry, and slightly heated, the surface will be covered with a thin, brilliant layer, which hardens quite rapidly.

For the injection of anatomical pieces an amalgam formed of 10 parts of quicksilver, 50 parts of bismuth, 31 parts of lead, and 18 parts of tin, fusible at 77.5° and solidifiable at 60° C., is made use of; or, again, an amalgam composed of 9 parts of Darcet alloy and 1 part of quicksilver fusible at 127 1/2° F., and pasty at a still lower temperature. This last amalgam may also be used for filling carious teeth. The Darcet alloy, as known, contains 2 parts of bismuth, 1 part of lead, and 1 part of tin, and melts at 199 1/2° F. The addition of 1 part of quicksilver lowers the fusing point to 104° F.

«Applications of Silver Amalgams.»—I.—In the silvering of mirrors by the Petitjean method, which has almost universally replaced tinning, the property of silver in readily amalgamating is taken advantage of, by substituting the glass after silvering to the action of a dilute solution of double cyanide of mercury and potassium in such a manner as to form an amalgam of white and brilliant silver adhering strongly to the glass. To facilitate the operation and utilize all the silver, while economizing the double cyanide, M. Lenoir has recommended the following: Sprinkle the glass at the time when it is covered with the mercurial solution with very fine zinc powder, which precipitates the quicksilver and regulates the amalgamation.

II.—The metallurgy of silver also takes advantage of the property of this {89} metal in combining cold with quicksilver; this for the treatment of poor silver ores.

In the Saxon or Freiburg process for treating silver ores, recourse is had to quicksilver in the case of amalgam in amalgamating casks, in which the ore, after grinding, is shaken with disks of iron, and with mercury and water. The amalgam, collected and filtered under strong pressure, contains from 30 to 33 per cent of silver. It is distilled either in cylindrical retorts of cast iron, furnished with an exit tube immersed in the water for condensing the mercurial vapors, or on plates of iron, arranged over each other along a vertical iron stem, supported by a tripod at the bottom of a tank filled with water, and covered with an iron receiver, which is itself surrounded with ignited charcoal. It should be remarked that the last portions of quicksilver in a silver amalgam submitted to distillation are volatilized only under the action of a high and prolonged temperature.

«Applications of Gold Amalgams.»—I.—Gilding with quicksilver. This process of gilding, much employed formerly, is now but little used. It can be applied only to metals slightly fusible and capable of amalgamation, like silver, copper, bronze, and brass. Iron can also be gilded by this method, provided it is previously covered with a coating of copper. To perform this gilding the surface is well cleaned, and the gold amalgam, consisting of 2 parts of gold and 1 part of quicksilver, prepared as mentioned before, is applied. The piece is afterwards heated to about the red, so as to volatilize the mercury. The gold remains, superficially alloyed with the metal, and forms an extremely solid layer of deadened gold, which can be afterwards polished. The volatilization should be effected under a chimney having strong draught, in order to avoid the poisonous action of the mercurial vapors.

II.—The amalgamation of gold finds its principal applications in the treatment of auriferous ores. The extraction of small spangles of gold scattered in gold-bearing sands is based on the ready dissolution of gold in quicksilver, and on the formation of an amalgam of solid gold by compression and filtering through a chamois skin, in a state more or less liquid. The spangles of gold are shaken with about their weight of quicksilver, collected in the cavities of sluices and mixed with a small quantity of sand. The gold is dissolved and the sand remains. The amalgam thus obtained is compressed in a chamois skin, so as to separate the excess of mercury which passes through the pores of the skin; or, yet again, it is filtered through a glass funnel having a very slender stem, with almost capillary termination. In both cases an amalgam of solid gold remains, which is submitted to the action of heat in a crucible or cast-iron retort, communicating with a bent-iron tube, of which the extremity, surrounded with a cloth immersed in water, is arranged above a receiver half full of water. The quicksilver is vaporized and condensed in the water. The gold remains in the retort.

The property of gold of combining readily with quicksilver is also used in many kinds of amalgamating apparatus for extraction and in the metallurgy of gold.

In various operations it is essential to keep the quicksilver active by preserving its limpidity. For this purpose potassium cyanide and ammonium chloride are especially employed; sometimes wood ashes, carbonate of soda, hyposulphite of soda, nitrate of potash, cupric sulphate, sea salt, and lime; the latter for precipitating the soluble sulphates proceeding from the decomposition of pyrites.

The amalgamation of gold is favored by a temperature of 38° to 45° C. (100° to 113° F.), and still more by the employment of quicksilver in the nascent state. This last property is the base of the Designol process, which consists in treating auriferous or auro-argentiferous ores, first ground with sea salt, in revolving cylinders of cast iron, with iron and mercury bichloride, in such a way that the mercury precipitated collects the gold and eventually the silver more efficaciously.

«Gold Amalgam.»—Eight parts of gold and 1 of mercury are formed into an amalgam for plating by rendering the gold into thin plates, making it red hot, and then putting it into the mercury while the latter is also heated to ebullition. The gold immediately disappears in combination with the mercury, after which the mixture may be turned into water to cool. It is then ready for use.

«Zinc Amalgam for Electric Batteries.»—Dissolve 2 parts of mercury in 1 part of aqua regia. This accomplished, add 5 parts of hydrochloric acid. This solution is made warm. It suffices to dip the zinc to be amalgamated into this liquid only for a few seconds. {90}

«Amalgam for Cementing Glass, Porcelain, Etc.»—Take tin 2 parts, and cadmium 1 part. Fuse in an iron spoon or some vessel of the same material. When the two materials are in fusion add a little mercury, previously heated. Place all in an iron crucible and boil, agitating the mass with a pestle. This amalgam is soft and can be kneaded between the fingers. It may be employed for luting glass or porcelain vessels, as well as for filling teeth. It hardens in a short while.

«Amalgam for Silvering Glass Balls.»—Lead, 25 parts; tin, 25 parts; bismuth, 25 parts; mercury, 25 parts; or, lead, 20 parts; tin, 20 parts; bismuth, 20 parts; mercury, 40 parts. Melt the lead and the tin, then add the bismuth; skim several times and add the mercury, stirring the composition vigorously.

(See also Mirror-Silvering).

«Copper Amalgam.»—Copper amalgam, or so-called Viennese metal cement, crystallizes with the greatest readiness and acquires such hardness on solidifying that it can be polished like gold. The amalgam may also be worked under the hammer or between rollers; it can also be stamped, and retains its metallic luster for a long time in the air. In air containing hydrogen sulphide, however, it quickly tarnishes and turns black. A very special property of copper amalgam consists in that it becomes very soft when laid in water, and attains such pliancy that it can be employed for modeling the most delicate objects. After a few hours the amalgam congeals again into a very fine-grained, rather malleable mass. An important application of copper amalgam is that for cementing metals. All that is necessary for this purpose is to heat the metals, which must be bright, to 80–90° C. (176–194° F.), to apply the amalgam and to press the metal pieces together. They will cohere as firmly as though soldered together.

Copper amalgam may be prepared in the following manner:

Place strips of zinc in a solution of blue vitriol and agitate the solution thoroughly. The copper thus obtained in the form of a very fine powder is washed and, while still moist, treated in a mortar with a solution of mercury nitrate. The copper powder thereby amalgamates more readily with the quicksilver. Next, hot water is poured over the copper, the mortar is kept hot, and the mercury added. Knead with the pestle of the mortar until the copper, pulverulent in the beginning, has united with the mercury into a very plastic mass. The longer the kneading is continued the more uniform will be the mass. As soon as the amalgam has acquired the suitable character—for its production 3 parts of copper and 7 parts of mercury are used—the water is poured off and the amalgam still soft is given the shape in which it is to be kept.

For cementing purposes, the amalgam is rolled out into small cylinders, whose diameter is about 0.16 to 0.2 inches, with a length of a few inches. In order to produce with this amalgam impressions of castings, which are made after woodcuts, the amalgam is rolled out hot into a thin plate and pressed firmly onto the likewise heated plaster cast. After the amalgam has hardened the thin plate of it may be reinforced by pouring on molten type metal.

«Silver Amalgam.»—Silver amalgam can easily be made with the help of finely powdered silver. The mercury need only be heated to 250° to 300° C. (482° to 572° F.); silver powder is then sprinkled on it, and mixed with it by stirring. The vessel is heated for several minutes and then allowed to cool, the excess of mercury being removed from the granulated crystalline amalgam by pressing in a leather bag. Silver amalgam can also easily be made by dissolving silver in nitric acid, evaporating the solution till the excess of free acid is eliminated, diluting with distilled water, and adding mercury to the fluid in the proportion of 4 parts, by weight, of mercury to 1 of the silver originally used. The mercury precipitates the silver in a metallic state, and immediately forms an amalgam with it; the fluid standing above after a time contains no more silver, but consists of a solution of mercury nitrate mixed with whatever copper was contained in the dissolved silver in the form of copper nitrate. The absence of a white precipitate, if a few drops of hydrochloric acid are added to a sample of the fluid in a test tube, shows that all the silver has been eliminated from the solution and is present in the form of amalgam.

«Amalgam for the Rubber of Electric Machines.»—Mercury, 100 parts; zinc, 50 parts; tin, 50 parts. This amalgam reduced to powder and incorporated with grease can be applied to the rubber of electric machines.

AMALGAM GOLD PLATING: See Gilding under Plating.


«Imitation Amber.»—Melt carefully together pine rosin, 1; lacca in tabulis, 2; white colophony, 15 parts. {91}

AMBER CEMENT: See Adhesives under Cements.

AMBER VARNISH: See Varnishes.

AMBROSIA POWDER: See Salts (Effervescent).

AMIDOL DEVELOPER: See Photography.

AMETHYST (IMITATION): See Gems, Artificial.

AMMON-CARBONITE: See Explosives.


«Household Ammonia.»—(See also Household Formulas.)—Household ammonia is simply diluted ammonia water to which borax and soap have been added. To make it cloudy add potassium nitrate or methylated spirit. The following are good formulas:

I.—Ammonia water 16 parts Yellow soap 64 parts Potassium nitrate 1 part Soft water, sufficient to make 200 parts

Shave up the soap and dissolve it in the water by heating, add the potassium nitrate and dissolve. Cool, strain, skim off any suds or bubbles, add the ammonia, mix, and bottle at once.

II.—Yellow soap 10 grains Borax 1 drachm Lavender water 20 minims Stronger ammonia water 6 ounces Water, enough to make 20 ounces

Dissolve the soap and borax in 5 ounces of boiling water; when cold add the lavender water and ammonia, and make up to a pint with water.

III.—Methylated spirit 1 gallon Soft water 1 gallon Stronger ammonia water 1 gallon

IV.—Ammonia water 5 pints Distilled water 5 pints Soap 100 grains Olive oil 5 drachms

Cut the soap in shavings, boil with the oil and water, cool, add the ammonia water, and bottle. For use in laundries, baths, and for general household purposes add one tablespoonful to one gallon of water.

V.—The best quality:

Alcohol, 94 per cent 4 ounces Soft water 4 gallons Oil of rosemary 4 drachms Oil of citronella 3 drachms

Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and add to the water. To the mixture add 4 ounces of talc (or fuller’s earth will answer), mix thoroughly, strain through canvas, and to the colate add 1, 2, or 3 gallons of ammonia water, according to the strength desired, in which has been dissolved 1, 2, or 3 ounces of white curd, or soft soap.

«Liquor Ammonii Anisatus.»—

Oil of anise, by weight 1 part Alcohol, by weight 24 parts Water of ammonia, by weight 5 parts

Dissolve the oil in the alcohol and add the water of ammonia.

It should be a clear, yellowish liquid.

«Violet Color for Ammonia.»—A purple-blue color may be given to ammonia water by adding an aqueous solution of litmus. The shade, when pale enough, will probably meet all views as to a violet color.

«Perfumed Ammonia Water.»—The following are typical formulas:

I.—Stronger water of ammonia 6 ounces Lavender water 1 ounce Soft soap 10 grains Water, enough to make 16 ounces

II.—Soft soap 1 ounce Borax 2 drachms Cologne water 1/2 ounce Stronger water of ammonia 5 1/2 ounces Water, enough to make 12 ounces

Rub up the soap and borax with water until dissolved, strain and add the other ingredients. The perfumes may be varied to suit the price.


ANGOSTURA BITTERS: See Wines and Liquors.

ANILINE: See Dyes.


ANILINE STAINS, TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. {92}

ANISE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

ANKARA: See Butter.


ANODYNES: See Pain Killers.

ANT DESTROYERS: See Insecticides.

«Antidotes for Poisons»


When a person has taken poison the first thing to do is to compel the patient to vomit, and for that purpose give any emetic that can be most readily and quickly obtained, and which is prompt and energetic, but safe in its action. For this purpose there is, perhaps, nothing better than a large teaspoonful of ground mustard in a tumblerful of warm water, and it has the advantage of being almost always at hand. If the dry mustard is not to be had use mixed mustard from the mustard pot. Its operation may generally be facilitated by the addition of a like quantity of common table salt. If the mustard is not at hand, give two or three teaspoonfuls of powdered alum in syrup or molasses, and give freely of warm water to drink; or give 10 to 20 grains of sulphate of zinc (white vitriol), or 20 to 30 grains of ipecac, with 1 or 2 grains of tartar emetic, in a large cup of warm water, and repeat every ten minutes until three or four doses are given, unless free vomiting is sooner produced. After vomiting has taken place large draughts of warm water should be given, so that the vomiting will continue until the poisonous substances have been thoroughly evacuated, and then suitable antidotes should be given. If vomiting cannot be produced the stomach pump should be used. When it is known what particular kind of poison has been swallowed, then the proper antidote for that poison should be given; but when this cannot be ascertained, as is often the case, give freely of equal parts of calcined magnesia, pulverized charcoal, and sesquioxide of iron, in a sufficient quantity of water. This is a very harmless mixture and is likely to be of great benefit, as the ingredients, though very simple, are antidotes for the most common and active poisons. In case this mixture cannot be obtained, the stomach should be soothed and protected by the free administration of demulcent, mucilaginous, or oleaginous drinks, such as the whites of eggs, milk, mucilage of gum arabic, or slippery-elm bark, flaxseed tea, starch, wheat flour, or arrowroot mixed in water, linseed or olive oil, or melted butter or lard. Subsequently the bowels should be moved by some gentle laxative, as a tablespoonful or two of castor oil, or a teaspoonful of calcined magnesia; and pain or other evidence of inflammation must be relieved by the administration of a few drops of laudanum, and the repeated application of hot poultices, fomentations, and mustard plasters.

The following are the names of the substances that may give rise to poisoning, most commonly used, and their antidotes:

«Mineral Acids—Sulphuric Acid (Oil of Vitriol), Nitric Acid (Aqua Fortis), Muriatic Acid (Spirits of Salts).»—Symptoms: Acid, burning taste in the mouth, acute pain in the throat, stomach, and bowels; frequent vomiting, generally bloody; mouth and lips excoriated, shriveled, white or yellow; hiccough, copious stools, more or less bloody, with great tenderness in the abdomen; difficult breathing, irregular pulse, excessive thirst, while drink increases the pain and rarely remains in the stomach; frequent but vain efforts to urinate; cold sweats, altered countenance; convulsions, generally preceding death. Nitric acid causes yellow stains; sulphuric acid, black ones. Treatment: Mix calcined magnesia in milk or water to the consistence of cream, and give freely to drink a glassful every couple of minutes, if it can be swallowed. Common soap (hard or soft), chalk, whiting, or even mortar from the wall mixed in water may be given, until magnesia can be obtained. Promote vomiting by tickling the throat, if necessary, and when the poison is got rid of, flaxseed or slippery-elm tea, gruel, or other mild drinks. The inflammation which always follows needs good treatment to save the patient’s life.

«Vegetable Acids—Acetic, Citric, Oxalic, Tartaric.»—Symptoms: Intense burning pain of mouth, throat, and stomach; vomiting blood which is highly acid, violent purging, collapse, stupor, death.

Oxalic acid is frequently taken in {93} mistake for Epsom salts, to which in shops it often bears a strong resemblance. Treatment: Give chalk or magnesia in a large quantity of water, or large draughts of limewater. If these are not at hand, scrape the wall or ceiling, and give the scrapings mixed with water.

«Prussic or Hydrocyanic Acid—Laurel Water, Cyanide of Potassium, Bitter Almond Oil, Etc.»—Symptoms: In large doses almost invariably instantaneously fatal; when not immediately fatal, sudden loss of sense and control of the voluntary muscles. The odor of the poison generally noticeable on the breath. Treatment: Chlorine, in the form of chlorine water, in doses of from 1 to 4 fluidrachms, diluted. Weak solution of chloride lime of soda; water of ammonia (spirits of hartshorn), largely diluted, may be given, and the vapor of it cautiously inhaled. Cold affusion, and chloroform in half to teaspoonful doses in glycerine or mucilage, repeated every few minutes, until the symptoms are ameliorated. Artificial respiration.

«Aconite—Monkshood, Wolfsbane.»—Symptoms: Numbness and tingling in the mouth and throat, and afterwards in other portions of the body, with sore throat, pain over the stomach, and vomiting; dimness of vision, dizziness, great prostration, loss of sensibility, and delirium. Treatment: An emetic and then brandy in tablespoonful doses, in ice water, every half hour; spirits of ammonia in half-teaspoonful doses in like manner; the cold douche over the head and chest, warmth to the extremities, etc.

«Alkalis and Their Salts—Concentrated Lye, Wood-ash Lye, Caustic Potash, Ammonia, Hartshorn.»—Symptoms: Caustic, acrid taste, excessive heat in the throat, stomach, and intestines; vomiting of bloody matter, cold sweats, hiccough, purging of bloody stools. Treatment: The common vegetable acids. Common vinegar, being always at hand, is most frequently used. The fixed oils, as castor, flaxseed, almond, and olive oils form soaps with the alkalis and thus also destroy their caustic effect. They should be given in large quantity.

«Antimony and Its Preparations—Tartar Emetic, Antimonial Wine, Kerme’s Mineral.»—Symptoms: Faintness and nausea, soon followed by painful and continued vomiting, severe diarrhea, constriction and burning sensation in the throat, cramps, or spasmodic twitchings, with symptoms of nervous derangement, and great prostration of strength, often terminating in death. Treatment: If vomiting has not been produced, it should be effected by tickling the fauces, and administering copious draughts of warm water. Astringent infusions, such as of gall, oak bark, Peruvian bark, act as antidotes, and should be given promptly. Powdered yellow bark may be used until the infusion is prepared, or very strong green tea should be given. To stop the vomiting, should it continue, blister over the stomach by applying a cloth wet with strong spirits of hartshorn, and then sprinkle on one-eighth to one-fourth of a grain of morphia.

«Arsenic and Its Preparations—Ratsbane, Fowler’s Solution, Etc.»—Symptoms: Generally within an hour pain and heat are felt in the stomach, soon followed by vomiting, with a burning dryness of the throat and great thirst; the matters vomited are generally colored either green yellow, or brown, and are sometimes bloody. Diarrhea or dysentery ensues, while the pulse becomes small and rapid, yet irregular. Breathing much oppressed; difficulty in vomiting may occur, while cramps, convulsions, or even paralysis often precede death, which sometimes takes place within five or six hours after arsenic has been taken. Treatment: Give a prompt emetic, and then hydrate of peroxide of iron (recently prepared) in tablespoonful doses every 10 or 15 minutes until the urgent symptoms are relieved. In the absence of this, or while it is being prepared, give large draughts of new milk and raw eggs, limewater and oil, melted butter, magnesia in a large quantity of water, or even if nothing else is at hand, flour and water, always, however, giving an emetic the first thing, or causing vomiting by tickling the throat with a feather, etc. The inflammation of the stomach which follows must be treated by blisters, hot fomentations, mucilaginous drinks, and the like.

«Belladonna, or Deadly Nightshade.»—Symptoms: Dryness of the mouth and throat, great thirst, difficulty of swallowing, nausea, dimness, confusion or loss of vision, great enlargement of the pupils, dizziness, delirium, and coma. Treatment: There is no known antidote. Give a prompt emetic and then reliance must be placed on continual stimulation with brandy, whisky, etc., and to necessary artificial respiration. Opium and its preparations, as morphia, laudanum, etc., are thought by some to {94} counteract the effect of belladonna, and may be given in small and repeated doses, as also strong black coffee and green tea.

Blue Vitriol, or Blue Stone.—See Copper.

«Cantharides (Spanish or Blistering Fly) and Modern Potato Bug.»—Symptoms: Sickening odor of the breath, sour taste, with burning heat in the throat, stomach, and bowels; frequent vomiting, often bloody; copious bloody stools, great pain in the stomach, with burning sensation in the bladder and difficulty to urinate followed with terrible convulsions, delirium, and death. Treatment: Excite vomiting by drinking plentifully of sweet oil or other wholesome oils, sugar and water, milk, or slippery-elm tea; give injections of castor oil and starch, or warm milk. The inflammatory symptoms which generally follow must be treated by a physician. Camphorated oil or camphorated spirits should be rubbed over the bowels, stomach, and thighs.

Caustic Potash.—See Alkalis under this title.

«Cobalt, or Fly Powder.»—Symptoms: Heat and pain in the throat and stomach, violent retching and vomiting, cold and clammy skin, small and feeble pulse, hurried and difficult breathing, diarrhea, etc. Treatment: An emetic, followed by the free administration of milk, eggs, wheat flour and water, and mucilaginous drinks.

«Copper—Blue Vitriol, Verdigris or Pickles or Food Cooked in Copper Vessels.»—Symptoms: General inflammation of the alimentary canal, suppression of urine; hiccough, a disagreeable metallic taste, vomiting, violent colic, excessive thirst, sense of tightness of the throat, anxiety; faintness, giddiness, and cramps and convulsions generally precede death. Treatment: Large doses of simple syrup as warm as can be swallowed, until the stomach rejects the amount it contains. The whites of eggs and large quantities of milk. Hydrated peroxide of iron.

«Creosote—Carbolic Acid.»—Symptoms: Burning pain, acrid, pungent taste, thirst, vomiting, purging, etc. Treatment: An emetic and the free administration of albumen, as the whites of eggs, or, in the absence of these, milk, or flour and water.

Corrosive Sublimate.—See Mercury under this title.

«Deadly Nightshade.»—See Belladonna under this title.

«Foxglove, or Digitalis.»—Symptoms: Loss of strength, feeble, fluttering pulse, faintness, nausea and vomiting and stupor; cold perspiration, dilated pupils, sighing, irregular breathing, and sometimes convulsions. Treatment: After vomiting, give brandy and ammonia in frequently repeated doses, apply warmth to the extremities, and if necessary resort to artificial respiration.

«Gases—Carbonic Acid, Chlorine, Cyanogen, Hydrosulphuric Acid, Etc.»—Symptoms: Great drowsiness, difficult respiration, features swollen, face blue as in strangulation. Treatment: Artificial respiration, cold douche, friction with stimulating substances to the surface of the body. Inhalation of steam containing preparations of ammonia. Cupping from nape of neck. Internal use of chloroform.

«Hellebore, or Indian Poke.»—Symptoms: Violent vomiting and purging, bloody stools, great anxiety, tremors, vertigo, fainting, sinking of the pulse, cold sweats, and convulsions. Treatment: Excite speedy vomiting by large draughts of warm water, molasses and water, tickling the throat with the finger or a feather, and emetics; give oily and mucilaginous drinks, oily purgatives, and clysters, acids, strong coffee, camphor, and opium.

«Hemlock (Conium).»—Symptoms: Dryness of the throat, tremors, dizziness, difficulty of swallowing, prostration, and faintness, limbs powerless or paralyzed, pupils dilated, pulse rapid and feeble; insensibility and convulsions sometimes precede death. Treatment: Empty the stomach and give brandy in tablespoonful doses, with half teaspoonful of spirits of ammonia, frequently repeated, and if much pain and vomiting, give bromide of ammonium in 5-grain doses every half hour. Artificial respiration may be required.

«Henbane, or Hyoscyamus.»—Symptoms: Muscular twitching, inability to articulate plainly, dimness of vision and stupor; later, vomiting and purging, small intermittent pulse, convulsive movement of the extremities, and coma. Treatment: Similar to opium poisoning, which see.

«Iodine.»—Symptoms: Burning pain in throat, lacerating pain in the stomach, fruitless effort to vomit, excessive tenderness of the epigastrium. Treatment: {95} Free emesis, prompt administration of starch, wheat flour, or arrowroot, beaten up in water.

«Lead—Acetate of Lead, Sugar of Lead, Dry White Lead, Red Lead, Litharge, or Pickles, Wine, or Vinegar Sweetened by Lead.»—Symptoms: When taken in large doses, a sweet but astringent metallic taste exists, with constriction in the throat, pain in the region of the stomach, painful, obstinate, and frequently bloody vomitings, hiccough, convulsions or spasms, and death. When taken in small but long-continued doses it produces colic, called painters’ colic; great pain, obstinate constipation, and in extreme cases paralytic symptoms, especially wrist-drop, with a blue line along the edge of the gums. Treatment: To counteract the poison give alum in water 1 1/2 ounce to a quart; or, better still, Epsom salts or Glauber’s salts, an ounce of either in a quart of water; or dilute sulphuric acid, a teaspoonful to a quart of water. If a large quantity of sugar of lead has been recently taken, empty the stomach by an emetic of sulphate of zinc (1 drachm in a quart of water), giving one-fourth to commence, and repeating smaller doses until free vomiting is produced; castor oil should be given to clear the bowels and injections of oil and starch freely administered. If the body is cold use the warm bath.

Meadow Saffron.—See Belladonna.

Laudanum.—See Opium.

«Lobelia—Indian Poke.»—Symptoms: Excessive vomiting and purging, pains in the bowels, contraction of the pupils, delirium, coma, and convulsions. Treatment: Mustard over the stomach, and brandy and ammonia.

«Mercury—Corrosive Sublimate» (bug poisons frequently contain this poison), Red Precipitate, Chinese or English Vermilion.—Symptoms: Acrid, metallic taste in the mouth, immediate constriction and burning in the throat, with anxiety and tearing pains in both stomach and bowels, sickness, and vomiting of various-colored fluids, and sometimes bloody and profuse diarrhea, with difficulty and pain in urinating; pulse quick, small, and hard; faint sensations, great debility, difficult breathing, cramps, cold sweats, syncope, and convulsions. Treatment: If vomiting does not already exist, emetics must be given immediately—white of eggs in continuous large doses, and infusion of catechu afterwards, sweet milk, mixtures of flour and water in successive cupfuls, and to check excessive salivation put a half ounce of chlorate of potash in a tumbler of water, and use freely as a gargle, and swallow a tablespoonful every hour or two.

Morphine.—See Opium.

«Nitrate of Silver (Lunar Caustic).»—Symptoms: Intense pain and vomiting, and purging of blood, mucus, and shreds of mucous membranes; and if these stand they become dark. Treatment: Give freely of a solution of common salt in water, which decomposes the poison, and afterwards flaxseed or slippery-elm-bark tea, and after a while a dose of castor oil.

«Opium and All Its Compounds—Morphine, Laudanum, Paregoric, Etc.»—Symptoms: Giddiness, drowsiness, increasing to stupor, and insensibility; pulse usually, at first, quick and irregular, and breathing hurried, and afterwards pulse slow and feeble, and respiration slow and noisy; the pupils are contracted and the eyes and face congested, and later, as death approaches, the extremities become cold, the surface is covered with cold, clammy perspiration, and the sphincters relax. The effects of opium and its preparations, in poisonous doses, appear in from a half to two hours from its administration. Treatment: Empty the stomach immediately with an emetic or with the stomach pump. Then give very strong coffee without milk; put mustard plasters on the wrists and ankles; douche the head and chest with cold water, and if the patient is cold and sinking, give brandy, or whisky and ammonia. Belladonna is thought by many to counteract the poisonous effects of opium, and may be given in doses of half to a teaspoonful of the tincture, or 2 grains of the extract, every 20 minutes, until some effect is observed in causing the pupils to expand. Use warmth and friction, and if possible prevent sleep for some hours, for which purpose the patient should be walked about between two persons. Finally, as a last resort, use artificial respiration, persistence in which will sometimes be rewarded with success in apparently hopeless cases. Electricity should also be tried.

Cooley advises as follows: Vomiting must be induced as soon as possible, by means of a strong emetic and tickling the fauces. If this does not succeed, the stomach pump should be applied. The emetic may consist of a half drachm of sulphate of zinc dissolved in a half pint of warm water, of which one-third should {96} be taken at once, and the remainder at the rate of a wineglassful every 5 or 10 minutes, until vomiting commences. When there is much drowsiness or stupor 1 or 2 fluidrachms of tincture of capsicum will be found a useful addition; or one of the formulas for emetic draughts may be taken instead. Infusion of galls, cinchona, or oak bark should be freely administered before the emetic, and water soured with vinegar and lemon juice, after the stomach has been well cleared out. To rouse the system spirit and water or strong coffee may be given. To keep the sufferer awake, rough friction should be applied to the skin, an upright posture preserved, and walking exercise enforced, if necessary. When this is ineffectual cold water may be dashed over the chest, head, and spine, or mild shocks of electricity may be had recourse to. To allow the sufferer to sleep is to abandon him to destruction. Bleeding may be subsequently necessary in plethoric habits, or in threatened congestion. The costiveness that accompanies convalescence may be best met by aromatic aperients; and the general tone of the habit restored by stimulating tonics and the shower bath. The smallest fatal dose of opium in the case of an adult within our recollection was 4 1/2 grains. Children are much more susceptible to the action of opium than of other medicines, and hence the dose of it for them must be diminished considerably below that indicated by the common method of calculation depending on the age.

Oxalic Acid.—See Acids.

«Phosphorus—Found in Lucifer Matches and Some Rat Poisons.»—Symptoms: Symptoms of irritant poisoning; pain in the stomach and bowels; vomiting, diarrhea; tenderness and tension of the abdomen. Treatment: An emetic is to be promptly given; copious draughts containing magnesia in suspension; mucilaginous drinks. General treatment for inflammatory symptoms.

«Poisonous Mushrooms.»—Symptoms: Nausea, heat and pains in the stomach and bowels; vomiting and purging, thirst, convulsions, and faintings; pulse small and frequent, dilated pupil and stupor, cold sweats and death. Treatment: The stomach and bowels are to be cleared by an emetic of ground mustard or sulphate of zinc, followed by frequent doses of Glauber’s or of Epsom salts, and large stimulating clysters. After the poison is evacuated, either may be given with small quantities of brandy and water. But if inflammatory symptoms manifest themselves such stimuli should be avoided, and these symptoms appropriately treated. A hypodermic injection of 1/62 grain of atropine is the latest discovered antidote.

Potash.—See Alkali.

Prussic or Hydrocyanic Acid.—See Acids.

«Poison Ivy.»—Symptoms: Contact with, and with many persons the near approach to, the vine gives rise to violent erysipelatous inflammation, especially of the face and hands, attended with itching, redness, burning, and swelling, with watery blisters. Treatment: Give saline laxatives, and apply weak sugar of lead and laudanum, or limewater and sweet oil, or bathe the parts freely with spirits of niter. Anointing with oil will prevent poisoning from it.

«Saltpeter (Nitrate of Potash).»—Symptoms: Only poisonous in large quantities, and then causes nausea, painful vomiting, purging, convulsions, faintness, feeble pulse, cold feet and hands, with tearing pains in stomach and bowels. Treatment: Treat as is directed for arsenic, for there is no antidote known, and emptying the stomach and bowels with mild drinks must be relied on.

«Savine.»—Symptoms: Sharp pains in the bowels, hot skin, rapid pulse, violent vomiting and sometimes purging, with great prostration. Treatment: Mustard and hot fomentations over the stomach and bowels and ice allowed in the stomach only until the inflammation ceases. If prostration comes on, food and stimulants must be given by injection.

«Stramonium, Thorn Apple, or Jamestown Weed.»—Symptoms: Vertigo, headache, perversion of vision, slight delirium, sense of suffocation, disposition to sleep, bowels relaxed, and all secretions augmented. Treatment: Same as for belladonna.

«Snake Bites, Cure for.»—The Inspector of Police in the Bengal Government reports that of 939 cases in which ammonia was freely administered, 207 victims have recovered, and in the cured instances the remedy was not administered till about 3 1/2 hours after the attack; on the average of the fatal cases the corresponding duration of time was 4 1/2 hours.

«Strychnine or Nux Vomica.»—The characteristic symptom is the special influence exerted upon the nervous system, {97} which is manifested by a general contraction of all the muscles of the body, with rigidity of the spinal column. A profound calm soon succeeds, which is followed by a new tetanic seizure, longer than the first, during which the respiration is suspended. These symptoms then cease, the breathing becomes easy, and there is stupor, followed by another general contraction. In fatal cases these attacks are renewed, at intervals, with increasing violence, until death ensues. One phenomenon which is found only in poisonings by substances containing strychnine is that touching any part of the body, or even threatening to do so, instantly produces the tetanic spasm. Antidote: The stomach should be immediately cleared by means of an emetic, tickling the fauces, etc. To counteract the asphyxia from tetanus, etc., artificial respiration should be practiced with diligence and care. “If the poison has been applied externally, we ought immediately to cauterize the part, and apply a ligature tightly above the wound. If the poison has been swallowed for some time we should give a purgative clyster, and administer draughts containing sulphuric ether or oil of turpentine, which in most cases produce a salutary effect. Lastly, injections of chlorine and decoction of tannin are of value.”

According to Ch. Gunther the greatest reliance may be placed on full doses of opium, assisted by venesection, in cases of poisoning by strychnia or nux vomica. His plan is to administer this drug in the form of solution or mixture, in combination with a saline aperient.

Another treatment is to give, if obtainable, 1 ounce or more of bone charcoal mixed with water, and follow with an active emetic; then to give chloroform in teaspoonful doses, in flour and water or glycerine, every few minutes while the spasms last, and afterwards brandy and stimulants, and warmth of the extremities if necessary. Recoveries have followed the free and prompt administration of oils or melted butter or lard. In all cases empty the stomach if possible.

Sulphate of Zinc—White Vitriol.—See Zinc.

«Tin—Chloride of Tin, Solution of Tin (used by dyers), Oxide of Tin, or Putty Powder.»—Symptoms: Vomiting, pains in the stomach, anxiety, restlessness, frequent pulse, delirium, etc. Treatment: Empty the stomach, and give whites of eggs in water, milk in large quantities, or flour beaten up in water, with magnesia or chalk.

Tartar Emetic.—See Antimony.

«Tobacco.»—Symptoms: Vertigo, stupor, fainting, nausea, vomiting, sudden nervous debility, cold sweat, tremors, and at times fatal prostration. Treatment: After the stomach is empty apply mustard to the abdomen and to the extremities, and give strong coffee, with brandy and other stimulants, with warmth to the extremities.

«Zinc—Oxide of Zinc, Sulphate of Zinc, White Vitriol, Acetate of Zinc.»—Symptoms: Violent vomiting, astringent taste, burning pain in the stomach, pale countenance, cold extremities, dull eyes, fluttering pulse. Death seldom ensues, in consequence of the emetic effect. Treatment: The vomiting may be relieved by copious draughts of warm water. Carbonate of soda, administered in solution, will decompose the sulphate of zinc. Milk and albumen will also act as antidotes. General principles to be observed in the subsequent treatment.

«Woorara.»—Symptoms: When taken into the stomach it is inert; when absorbed through a wound it causes sudden stupor and insensibility, frothing at the mouth, and speedy death. Treatment: Suck the wound immediately, or cut it out and tie a cord around the limb between the wound and the heart. Apply iodine, or iodide of potassium, and give it internally, and try artificial respiration.


The following are tried and useful formulas:

I.—Sulphite (not sulphate) of lime, in fine powder, 1 part; marble dust, ground oyster shells, or chalk, 7 parts; mix, and pack tight, so as to exclude the air.

II.—Sulphite (not sulphate) of potassa, 1 part; new black-mustard seed (ground in a pepper mill), 7 parts; mix, and pack so as to exclude air and moisture perfectly. Dose (of either), 1/2 ounce to 1 1/2 ounces per hogshead.

III.—Mustard seed, 14 pounds; cloves and capsicum, of each, 1 1/4 pounds; mix, and grind them to powder in a pepper mill. Dose, 1/4 to 1/2 pound per hogshead.

A portion of any one of these compounds added to cider, or the like, soon allays fermentation, when excessive, or when it has been renewed. The first formula is preferred when there is a tendency to acidity. The second and third may be advantageously used for wine and beer, as {98} well as for cider. The third compound greatly improves the flavor and the apparent strength of the liquor, and also improves its keeping qualities.

«Anchovy Preparations»

«Extemporaneous Anchovy Sauce.»—

Anchovies, chopped small 3 or 4 Butter 3 ounces Water 2 ounces Vinegar 1 ounce Flour 1 ounce

Mix, place over the fire, and stir until the mixture thickens. Then rub through a coarse sieve.

«Essence of Anchovies.»—Remove the bones from 1 pound of anchovies, reduce the remaining portions of the fish to a pulp in a Wedgewood mortar, and pass through a clean hair or brass sieve. Boil the bones and other portions which will not pass through the sieve in 1 pint of water for 15 minutes, and strain. To the strained liquor add 2 1/2 ounces of salt and 2 1/2 ounces of flour, and the pulped anchovies. Let the whole simmer over the fire for three or four minutes; remove from the fire, and when the mixture has cooled a little add 4 ounces of strong vinegar. The product (nearly 3 pounds) may be then bottled, and the corks tied over with bladder, and either waxed or capsuled.

«Anchovy Paste.»—

Anchovies 7 pounds Water 9 pints Salt 1 pound Flour 1 pound Capsicum 1/4 ounce Grated lemon peel 1 Mushroom catsup 4 ounces

«Anchovy Butter.»—

Anchovies, boned and beaten to a paste 1 part Butter 2 parts Spice enough


ANTIFREEZING SOLUTION: See Freezing Preventives.

ANTIFRICTION METAL: See Alloys, under Phosphor Bronze and Antifriction Metals.


The best process for the preservation of antique metallic articles consists in a retransformation of the metallic oxides into metal by the electrolytic method. For this purpose a zinc strip is wound around the article and the latter is laid in a soda-lye solution of 5 per cent, or suspended as the negative pole of a small battery in a potassium cyanide solution of 2 per cent. Where this method does not seem practicable it is advisable to edulcorate the objects in running water, in which operation fragile or easily destroyed articles may be protected by winding with gauze; next, they should be carefully dried, first in the air, then with moderate heat, and finally protected from further destruction by immersion in melted paraffine. A dry place is required for storing the articles, since paraffine is not perfectly impermeable to water in the shape of steam.



«Antiseptic Powders.»—

I.—Borax 3 ounces Dried alum 3 ounces Thymol 22 grains Eucalyptol 20 drops Menthol 1 1/2 grains Phenol 15 grains Oil of gaultheria 4 drops Carmine to give a pink tint.

II.—Alum, powdered 50 parts by weight Borax, powdered 50 parts by weight Carbolic acid, crystals 5 parts by weight Oil of eucalyptus 5 parts by weight Oil of wintergreen 5 parts by weight Menthol 5 parts by weight Thymol 5 parts by weight

III.—Boracic acid 10 ounces Sodium biborate 4 ounces Alum 1 ounce Zinc sulphocarbolate 1 ounce Thymic acid 1 drachm.

Mix thoroughly. For an antiseptic wash dissolve 1 or 2 drachms in a quart of warm water.

IV.—Ektogan is a new dusting powder which is a mixture of zinc hydroxide and dioxide. It is equivalent to about 8 per cent of active oxygen. It is a yellowish-white odorless and tasteless powder, insoluble in water. It is used externally in wounds and in skin diseases as a moist dressing mixed with citric, tartaric, or {99} tannic acid, which causes the liberation of oxygen. With iodides it liberates iodine. It is stated to be strongly antiseptic; it is used in the form of a powder, a gauze, and a plaster.

«Antiseptic Pencils.»—

I.—Tannin q. s. Alcohol, q. s 1 part Ether, q. s 3 parts

Make into a mass, using as an excipient the alcohol and ether previously mixed. Roll into pencils of the desired length and thickness. Then coat with collodion, roll in pure silver leaf, and finally coat with the following solution of gelatine and set aside to dry:

Gelatine 1 drachm Water 1 pint

Dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat.

When wanted for use, shave away a portion of the covering, dip the pencil into tepid water and apply.

II.—Pencils for stopping bleeding are prepared by mixing:

Purified alum 480 parts by weight Borax 24 parts by weight Oxide zinc 2 1/2 parts by weight Thymol 8 parts by weight Formalin 4 parts by weight

Melting carefully in a water bath, adding some perfume, and forming mixture into pencils or cones.

A very convenient way to form into pencils where no mold need be made is to take a small glass tube, roll a piece of oil paper around the tube, remove the glass tube, crimp the paper tube thus formed on one end and stand it on end or in a bottle, and pour the melted solution in it and leave until cool, then remove the paper.

«Antiseptic Paste (Poison) for Organic Specimens.»—

(_a_) Wheat flour 16 ounces Beat to a batter with cold water 16 fluidounces Then pour into boiling water 32 fluidounces

(_b_) Pulverized gum arabic 2 ounces Dissolve in boiling water 4 fluidounces

(_c_) Pulverized alum 2 ounces Dissolve in boiling water 4 fluidounces

(_d_) Acetate of lead 2 ounces Dissolve in boiling water 4 fluidounces

(_e_) Corrosive sublimate 10 grains

Mix (_a_) and (_b_) while hot and continue to simmer; meanwhile stir in (_c_) and mix thoroughly; then add (_d_). Stir briskly, and pour in the dry corrosive sublimate. This paste is very poisonous. It is used for anatomical work and for pasting organic tissue, labels on skeletons, etc.

«Mouth Antiseptics.»—I.—Thymic acid, 25 centigrams (3 1/4 grains): benzoic acid, 3 grams (45 grains); essence of peppermint, 75 centigrams (10 minims); tincture of eucalyptus, 15 grams (4 1/2 drachms); alcohol, 100 grams (3 ounces). Put sufficient in a glass of water to render latter milky.

II.—Tannin, 12 grams (3 drachms); menthol, 8 grams (2 drachms); thymol, 1 gram (15 grains); tincture benzoin, 6 grams (90 minims); alcohol, 100 grams (3 ounces). Ten drops in a half-glassful of tepid water.

See also Dentifrices for Mouth Washes.

«Antiseptic Paste.»—Difficulty is often experienced in applying an antiseptic dressing to moist surfaces, such as the lips after operation for harelip. A paste for this purpose is described by its originator, Socin. The composition is: Zinc oxide, 50 parts; zinc chloride, 5 parts; distilled water, 50 parts. The paste is applied to the wound, previously dried by means of a brush or spatula, allowed to dry on, and to remain in place five or six days. It may then be removed and a fresh application made.

Potassium bicarbonate 32.0 grams Sodium benzoate 32.0 grams Sodium borate 8.0 grams Thymol 0.2 gram Eucalyptol 2.0 c. cent. Oil of peppermint 0.2 c. cent. Oil of wintergreen 0.4 c. cent. Tincture of cudbear 15.0 c. cent. Alcohol. 60.0 c. cent. Glycerine 250.0 c. cent. Water, enough to make 1,000.0 c. centimeters

Dissolve the salts in 650 cubic centimeters of water, and the thymol, eucalyptol, and oils in the alcohol. Mix the alcoholic solution with the glycerine and add the aqueous liquid, then the tincture of cudbear, and lastly enough water to make 1,000 cubic centimeters. Allow to stand a few days, then filter, adding a little magnesium carbonate to the filter, if necessary, to get a brilliant filtrate.

This is from the Formulary of the Bournemouth Pharmaceutical Association, as reported in the Canadian Pharmaceutical Association: {100}

«Alkaline Glycerine of Thymol.»—

Sodium bicarbonate 100 grains Sodium biborate 200 grains Sodium benzoate 80 grains Sodium salicylate 40 grains Menthol 2 grains Pumilio pine oil 4 minims Wintergreen oil 2 minims Thymol 4 grains Eucalyptol 12 minims

«Compound Solution of Thymol.»—


Benzoic acid 64 grains Borax 64 grains Boric acid 128 grains Distilled water 6 ounces



Thymol 20 grains Menthol 6 grains Eucalyptol 4 minims Oil of wintergreen 4 minims Oil of peppermint 2 minims Oil of thyme 1 minim Alcohol (90 per cent) 3 ounces


Mix solutions A and B, make up to 20 fluidounces with distilled water, and filter.

«Oil of Cinnamon as an Antiseptic.»—Oil of cinnamon in a 9-per-cent emulsion, when used upon the hands, completely sterilizes them. A 7- to 8-per-cent emulsion is equal to a 1-per-cent solution of corrosive sublimate and is certainly far more agreeable to use. Oil of thyme in an 11-per-cent solution is equal to a 7-per-cent solution of cinnamon oil.

«Green Coloring for Antiseptic Solutions.»—The safest coloring substance for use in a preparation intended either for internal administration or for application to the skin is the coloring matter of leaves, chlorophyll. A tincture of spinach or of grass made by macerating 2 ounces of the freshly cut leaves in a pint of alcohol for five days will be found to give good results. If the pure coloring substance is wanted the solvent should be evaporated off.

«Antiseptic Bromine Solution.»—

Bromine 1 ounce Sodium chloride 8 ounces Water 8 pints

Dissolve the sodium chloride in the water and add the bromine. This solution is to be diluted, when applied to broken skin surfaces, 1 part with 15 parts of water.

«Substitute for Rubber Gloves.»—Murphy has found that a 4-, 6-, or 8-per-cent solution of gutta-percha in benzine, when applied to the hands of the surgeon or the skin of the patient, will seal these surfaces with an insoluble, impervious, and practically imperceptible coating—a coating that will not allow the secretions of the skin to escape, and will not admit secretions, blood, or pus into the crevices of the skin. At the same time it does not impair the sense of touch nor the pliability of the skin. A similar solution in acetone also meets most of the requirements.

Murphy’s routine method of hand preparation is as follows: First, five to seven minutes’ scrubbing with spirits of green soap and running hot water; second, three minutes’ washing with alcohol; third, when the hands are thoroughly dried, the gutta-percha solution is poured over the hands and forearms, care being taken to fill in around and beneath the nails. The hands must be kept exposed to the air with the fingers separated until thoroughly dry. The coating is very thin and can be recognized only by its glazed appearance. It will resist soap and water, but is easily removed by washing in benzine. The hands can be washed in bichloride or any of the antiseptic solutions without interfering with the coating or affecting the skin. If the operations be many, or prolonged, the coating wears away from the tips of the fingers, but is easily renewed. For the remaining portion of the hands one application is sufficient for a whole morning’s work.

The 4-per-cent solution of rubber wears better on the tips of the fingers, in handling instruments, sponges, and tissues than the acetone solution.

For the abdomen the acetone solution has the advantage, and it dries in three to four seconds after its application, while the benzine solution takes from three to four and a half minutes to make a dry, firm coating.

The preparation of the patient’s skin consists in five minutes’ scrubbing with spirits of green soap, washing with ether, followed by alcohol. The surface is then swabbed over thoroughly with the benzine or acetone solution.

The gutta-percha solution is prepared by dissolving the pure gutta-percha chips in sterile benzine or acetone. These solutions do not stand boiling, as this impairs the adhesiveness and elasticity of the coating.

ANTISEPTICS FOR CAGED BIRDS: See Veterinary Formulas. {101}


APPLE SYRUP: See Essences and Extracts.





ARGENTAN: See Alloys.

ARMENIAN CEMENT: See Adhesives under Jewelers’ Cements.

ARMS, OIL FOR: See Lubricants.

ARNICA SALVE: See Ointments.



ASBESTOS FABRIC: See Fireproofing.





«ASTHMA CURES.»—_Asthma Papers._—I.—Impregnate bibulous paper with the following: Extract of stramonium, 10; potassium nitrate, 17; sugar, 20; warm water, 200 parts. Dry.

II.—Blotting or gray filter paper, 120; potassium nitrate, 60; powdered belladonna leaves, 5; powdered stramonium leaves, 5; powdered digitalis leaves, 5; powdered lobelia, 5; myrrh, 10; olibanum, 10; phellandrium fruits, 5 parts.

_Stramonium Candle._—Powdered stramonium leaves, 120; potassium nitrate, 72; Peruvian balsam, 3; powdered sugar, 1; powdered tragacanth, 4 parts. (Water, q. s. to mass; roll into suitable shapes and dry.)

_Cleary’s Asthma Fumigating Powder._—Powdered stramonium, 15; powdered belladonna leaves, 15; powdered opium, 2; potassium nitrate, 5.

_Asthma Fumigating Powders._—I.—Powdered stramonium leaves, 4; powdered aniseed, 2; potassium nitrate, 2 parts.

II.—Powdered stramonium, 30; potassium nitrate, 5; powdered tea, 15; powdered eucalyptus leaves, 15; powdered Indian hemp, 15; powdered lobelia, 15; powdered aniseed, 2; distilled water, 45 parts. (All the herbal ingredients in coarse powder; moisten with the water in which the potassium nitrate has been previously dissolved, and dry.)

_Schiffmann’s Asthma Powder._—Potassium nitrate, 25; stramonium, 70; belladonna leaves, 5 parts.

_Neumeyer’s Asthma Powder._—Potassium nitrate, 6 parts; sugar, 4; stramonium, 6; powdered lobelia, 1.

_Fischer’s Asthma Powder._—Stramonium, 5 parts; potassium nitrate, 1; powdered _Achillea millefolium_ leaves, 1.

_Vorlaender’s Asthma Powder._—Stramonium, 150; lobelia, 80; arnica flowers, 80; potassium nitrate, 30; potassium iodide, 3; naphthol, 1,100 parts.

«Asthma Cigarettes.»—I.—Belladonna leaves, 5 parts; stramonium leaves, 5 parts; digitalis leaves, 5 parts; sage leaves, 5 parts; potassium nitrate, 75 parts; tincture of benzoin, 40 parts; boiling water, 1,000 parts. Extract the leaves with the boiling water, filter, and in the filtrate dissolve the salts. Immerse in the fluid sheets of bibulous paper (Swedish filter paper will answer) and let remain for 24 hours. At the end of this time remove, dry, cut into pieces about 2 3/4 by 4 inches, and roll into cigarettes.

II.—Sodium arseniate, 3 grains; extract of belladonna, 8 grains; extract of stramonium, 8 grains. Dissolve the arseniate of sodium in a small quantity of water, and rub it with the two extracts. Then soak up the whole mixture with fine blotting paper, which is dried and cut into 24 equal parts. Each part is rolled up in a piece of cigarette paper. Four or five inhalations are generally sufficient as a dose.

ASTHMA IN CANARIES: See Veterinary Formulas.

ASTRINGENT FOR HORSES: See Veterinary Formulas.

ATOMIC WEIGHTS: See Weights and Measures. {102}


The usual physiological antidotes to the mydriatic alkaloids from belladonna, stramonium, and hyoscyamus are morphine or eserine. Strong tea, coffee, or brandy are usually administered as stimulants. Chief reliance has usually been placed upon a stomach siphon and plenty of water to wash out the contents of the stomach. The best antidote ever reported was that of muscarine extracted by alcohol from the mushroom, _Amanita muscaria_, but the difficulty of securing the same has caused it to be overlooked and almost forgotten. Experiments with this antidote showed it to be an almost perfect opposite of atropine in its effects upon the animal body and that it neutralized poisonous doses.


Cort. cinnam. chinens 3 parts Flor. lavandulæ 5 parts Fol. Menth. pip. 5 parts Fol. rosmarini 5 parts Fol. salviæ 10 parts Fruct. fœniculi 3 parts Spiritus 70 parts Aqua 300 parts

Macerate the drugs in the mixed alcohol and water for 24 hours and distill 200 parts.

«AQUA REGIA.»—Aqua regia consists in principle of 2 parts of hydrochloric acid and 1 part of nitric acid. But this quantity varies according to the shop where it is used for gilding or jewelry, and sometimes the proportion is brought to 4 parts of hydrochloric acid to 1 of nitric acid.


AXLE GREASE: See Lubricants.


«Baking Powders»

I.—Tartaric acid, 3 parts; sodium bicarbonate, 1 part; starch, 0.75 part. Of this baking powder the required amount for 500 parts of flour is about 20 parts for rich cake, and 15 parts for lean cake.

The substances employed must be dry, each having been previously sifted by itself, so that no coarse pieces are present; the starch is mixed with the sodium bicarbonate before the acid is added. When large quantities are prepared the mixing is done by machine; smaller quantities are best mixed together in a spacious mortar, and then passed repeatedly through a sieve. Instead of starch, flour may be used, but starch is preferable, because it interferes with the action of the acid on the alkali.

II.—A formula proposed by Crampton, of the United States Department of Agriculture, as the result of an investigation of the leading baking powders of the market, is:

Potassium bitartrate 2 parts Sodium bicarbonate 1 part Cornstarch 1 part

The addition of the starch serves the double purpose of a “filler” to increase the weight of the powder and as a preservative. A mixture of the chemicals alone does not keep well.

The stability of the preparation is increased by drying each ingredient separately by exposure to a gentle heat, mixing at once, and immediately placing in bottles or cans and excluding access of air and consequently of moisture.

This is not a cheap powder; but it is the best that can be made, as to healthfulness.

III.—Sodium acid phosphate 20 parts Calcium acid phosphate 20 parts Sodium bicarbonate 25 parts Starch 35 parts

Caution as to drying the ingredients and keeping them dry must be observed. Even the mixing should be done in a room free from excessive humidity.

IV.—Alum Baking Powder.—

Ammonium alum, anhydrous 15 parts Sodium bicarbonate 18 parts Cornstarch, q. s. to make 100 parts.

Mix. The available carbon dioxide yielded is 7 1/2 per cent or 8 per cent.

BALANCE SPRING: See Watchmakers’ Formulas.

BALDNESS: See Hair Preparations.

BALL BLUE: See Laundry Preparations.


See also Ointments. {103}

«Wild-Cherry Balsam.»—

Wild-cherry bark 1 ounce Licorice root 1 ounce Ipecac 1 ounce Bloodroot 1 drachm Sassafras 1 drachm Compound tincture of opium 1 fluidounce Fluid extract of cubeb 4 fluidrachms

Moisten the ground drugs with the fluid extract and tincture and enough menstruum consisting of 25 per cent alcohol, and after six or eight hours pack in a percolator, and pour on menstruum until percolation begins. Then cork the orifice, cover the percolator, and allow to macerate for 24 hours. Then percolate to 10 fluidounces, pouring back the first portion of percolate until it comes through clear. In the percolate dissolve 1/2 ounce of ammonium chloride and 1/2 pound of sugar by cold percolation, adding simple syrup to make 16 fluidounces. Finally add 1 fluidrachm of chloroform.

«Balsam Spray Solution.»—

Oil of Scotch pine 30 minims Oil of eucalyptus 1 drachm Oil of cinnamon 30 minims Menthol crystals q. s. Fluid extract of balm-of-Gilead buds 1 drachm Tincture of benzoin, enough to make 4 ounces

This formula can, of course, be modified to suit your requirements. The oils of eucalyptus and cinnamon can be omitted and such quantities of tincture of tolu and tincture of myrrh incorporated as may be desired.

«Birch Balsam.»—

Parts by weight Alcohol 30,000 Birch juice 3,000 Glycerine 1,000 Bergamot oil 90 Vanillin 10 Geranium oil 50 Water 14,000

BALSAM STAINS, TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


BANANA SYRUP: See Essences and Extracts.


BANJO SOUR: See Beverages under Lemonade.

BAR POLISHES: See Polishes.

BARBERS’-ITCH CURE: See Ointments.

BARBERS’ POWDER: See Cosmetics.

BAROMETERS (PAPER): See Hygrometers and Hygroscopes.

BATH, AIR: See Air Bath.

BATH METAL: See Alloys.

BATH POWDER: See Cosmetics.


Tartaric acid 10 parts Sodium bicarbonate 9 parts Rice flour 6 parts

A few spoonfuls of this, when stirred into a bathtubful of water, causes a copious liberation of carbon dioxide, which is refreshing. This mixture can be made into tablets by compression, moistening, if necessary, with alcohol. Water, of course, cannot be used in making them, as its presence causes the decomposition referred to. Perfume may be added to this powder, essential oils being a good form. Oil of lavender would be a suitable addition, in the proportion of a fluidrachm or more to the pound of powder. A better but more expensive perfume may be obtained by mixing 1 part of oil of rose geranium with 6 parts of oil of lavender. A perfume still more desirable may be had by adding a mixture of the oils from which Cologne water is made. For an ordinary quality the following will suffice:

Oil of lavender 4 fluidrachms Oil of rosemary 4 fluidrachms Oil of bergamot 1 fluidounce Oil of lemon 2 fluidounces Oil of clove 30 minims

For the first quality the following may be taken:

Oil of neroli 6 fluidrachms Oil of rosemary 3 fluidrachms Oil of bergamot 3 fluidrachms Oil of cedrat 7 fluidrachms Oil of orange peel 7 fluidrachms

A fluidrachm or more of either of these mixtures may be used to the pound, as in the case of lavender.

These mixtures may also be used in the preparation of a bath powder {104} (non-effervescent) made by mixing equal parts of powdered soap and powdered borax.

BATH-TUB ENAMEL: See Varnishes.



I.—In the so-called dry batteries the exciting substance is a paste instead of a fluid; moisture is necessary to cause the reaction. These pastes are generally secret preparations. One of the earlier “dry” batteries is that of Gassner. The apparatus consists of a containing vessel of zinc, which forms the positive element; the negative one is a cylinder of carbon, and the space between is filled with a paste, the recipe for which is:

Oxide of zinc 1 part Sal ammoniac 1 part Plaster 3 parts Chloride of zinc 1 part Water 2 parts

The usual form of chloride-of-silver battery consists of a sealed cell containing a zinc electrode, the two being generally separated by some form of porous septum. Around the platinum or silver electrode is cast a quantity of silver chloride. This is melted and generally poured into molds surrounding the metallic electrode. The exciting fluid is either a solution of ammonium chloride, caustic potassa, or soda, or zinc sulphate. As ordinarily constructed, these cells contain a paste of the electrolyte, and are sealed up hermetically in glass or hard-rubber receptacles.

II.—The following formula is said to yield a serviceable filling for dry batteries:

Charcoal 3 ounces Graphite 1 ounce Manganese dioxide 3 ounces Calcium hydrate 1 ounce Arsenic acid 1 ounce Glucose mixed with dextrine or starch 1 ounce

Intimately mix, and then work into a paste of proper consistency with a saturated solution of sodium and ammonium chlorides containing one-tenth of its volume of a mercury-bichloride solution and an equal volume of hydrochloric acid. Add the fluid gradually, and well work up the mass.

III.—Calcium chloride, crystallized 30 parts Calcium chloride, granulated 30 parts Ammonium sulphate 15 parts Zinc sulphate 25 parts

«Solutions for Batteries.»—The almost exclusively employed solution of sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) presents the drawback that the zinc rods, glasses, etc., after a short use, become covered with a fine, yellow, very difficultly soluble, basic zinc salt, whereby the generation of the electric current is impaired, and finally arrested altogether. This evil may be remedied by an admixture of cane sugar. For a battery of ordinary size about 20 to 25 grams of sugar, dissolved in warm water, is sufficient per 50 to 60 grams of sal ammoniac. After prolonged use only large crystals (of a zinc saccharate) form, which, however, become attached only to the zinc rod in a few places, having very little disadvantageous effect upon the action of the batteries and being easy to remove, owing to their ready solubility.



I.—Oil of bay 1 drachm Alcohol 18 ounces Water 18 ounces

Mix and filter through magnesia.

II.—Bay-leaf otto 1/2 ounce Magnesium carbonate 1/2 ounce Jamaica rum 2 pints Alcohol 3 pints Water 3 pints

Triturate the otto with the magnesium carbonate, gradually adding the other ingredients, previously mixed, and filter. If the rum employed contains sufficient sugar or mucilaginous matter to cause any stickiness to be felt on the skin, rectification will be necessary.

BEAR FAT: See Fats.


BEARING METAL: See Babbitt Metal, Bearing Metal, and Phosphor Bronze, under Alloys.

BEDBUG DESTROYERS: See Insecticides.


Extract of beef 512 grains Detannated sherry wine 26 ounces Alcohol 4 ounces Citrate of iron and ammonia 256 grains Simple sirup 12 ounces {105} Tincture of orange 2 ounces Tincture of cardamom co. 1 ounce Citric acid 10 grains Water, enough to make 4 pints

Let stand 24 hours, agitate frequently, and filter. See that the orange is fresh.

BEEF PEPTONOIDS: See Peptonoids.


BEEF TEA: See Beverages.




I.—Powdered chalk is poured into the cask and allowed to remain in the beer until completely precipitated.

II.—The liquor of boiled raisins may be poured into the beer, with the result that the sour taste of the beer is disguised.

III.—A small quantity of a solution of potash will remove the sour taste of beer. Too much potash must not be added; otherwise the stomach will suffer. Beer thus restored will not keep long.

IV.—If the beer is not completely spoiled it may be restored by the addition of coarsely powdered charcoal.

V.—If the addition of any of the above-mentioned substances should affect the taste of the beer, a little powdered zingiber may be used to advantage. Syrup or molasses may also be employed.


“Foul brood” is a contagious disease to which bees are subject. It is caused by bacteria and its presence may be known by the bees becoming languid. Dark, stringy, and elastic masses are found in the bottom of the cells, while the caps are sunken or irregularly punctured. Frequently the disease is said to be accompanied by a peculiar offensive odor. Prompt removal of diseased colonies, their transfer to clean and thoroughly disinfected hives, and feeding on antiseptically treated honey or syrup are the means taken for the prevention and cure of the disease. The antiseptics used are salicylic acid, carbolic acid, or formic acid. Spraying the brood with any one of these remedies in a solution and feeding with a honey or syrup medicated with them will usually be all that is required by way of treatment. It is also said that access to salt water is important for the health of bees.

BEETLE POWDER: See Insecticides.

BELL METAL: See Alloys.

BELLADONNA, ANTIDOTES TO: See Antidotes and Atropine.


I.—Tallow 50 parts Caster oil, crude 20 parts Fish oil 20 parts Colophony 10 parts

Melt on a moderate fire and stir until the mass cools.

II.—Melt 250 parts of gum elastic with 250 parts of oil of turpentine in an iron, well-closed crucible at 122° F. (caution!) and mix well with 200 parts of colophony. After further melting add 200 parts of yellow wax and stir carefully. Melt in 750 parts of heated train oil, 250 parts of tallow, and to this add, with constant stirring, the first mixture when the latter is still warm, and let cool slowly with stirring. This grease is intended for cotton belts.

III.—Gutta-percha 40 parts Rosin 10 parts Asphalt 15 parts Petroleum 60 parts

Heat in a glass vessel on the water bath for a few hours, until a uniform solution is obtained. Let cool and add 15 parts of carbon disulphide and allow the mixture to stand, shaking it frequently.

_Directions for Use._—The leather belts to be cemented should first be roughened at the joints, and after the cement has been applied they should be subjected to a strong pressure between warm rollers, whereupon they will adhere together with much tenacity.

«Preservation of Belts.»—In a well-covered iron vessel heat at a temperature of 50° C. (152° F.) 1 part by weight of caoutchouc, cut in small pieces, with 1 part by weight of rectified turpentine. When the caoutchouc is dissolved add 0.8 part of colophony, stir until this is dissolved, and add to the mixture 0.1 part of yellow wax. Into another vessel of suitable size pour 3 parts of fish oil, add 1 part of tallow, and heat the mixture until the tallow is melted; then pour on the contents of the first vessel, constantly stirring—an operation to be continued until the matter is cooled and congealed. This grease is to be rubbed {106} on the inside of the belts from time to time, while they are in use. The belts run easily and do not slip. The grease may also serve for improving old belts. For this purpose the grease should be rubbed on both sides in a warm place. A first layer is allowed to soak in, and another applied.

«To Make a Belt Pull.»—Hold a piece of tar soap on the inside of the belt while it is running.

BELT CEMENT: See Adhesives.

BELT GLUE: See Adhesives.

BELT LUBRICANT: See Lubricants.

BÉNÉDICTINE: See Wines and Liquors.


«Benzine, to Color Green.»—Probably the simplest and cheapest as well as the best method of coloring benzine green is to dissolve in it sufficient oil soluble aniline green of the desired tint to give the required shade.

«Purification of Benzine.»—Ill-smelling benzine, mixed with about 1 to 2 per cent of its weight of free fatty acid, will dissolve therein. One-fourth per cent of tannin is added and all is mixed well. Enough potash or soda lye, or even lime milk, is added until the fatty acids are saponified, and the tannic acid is neutralized, shaking repeatedly. After a while the milky liquid separates into two layers, viz., a salty, soapy, mud-sediment and clear, colorless, and almost odorless benzine above. This benzine, filtered, may be employed for many technical purposes, but gives an excellent, pure product upon a second distillation.

Fatty acid from tallow, olive oil, or other fats may be used, but care should be taken that they have as slight an odor of rancid fat as possible. The so-called elaine or olein—more correctly oleic acid—of the candle factories may likewise be employed, but it should first be agitated with a 1/10-per-cent soda solution to get rid of the bad-smelling fatty acids, especially the butyric acid.

«The Prevention of the Inflammability of Benzine.»—A mixture of 9 volumes tetrachloride and 1 volume of benzine is practicably inflammable. The flame is soon extinguished by itself.

«Substitute for Benzine as a Cleansing Agent.»—

I.—Chloroform 75 parts Ether 75 parts Alcohol 600 parts Decoction of quillaya bark 22,500 parts


II.—Acetic ether, technically pure 10 parts Amyl acetate 10 parts Ammonia water 10 parts Alcohol dilute 70 parts


III.—Acetone 1 part Ammonia water 1 part Alcohol dilute 1 part


«Deodorizing Benzine.»—

I.—Benzine 20 ounces Oil of lavender 1 fluidrachm Potassium dichromate 1 ounce Sulphuric acid 1 fluidounce Water 20 fluidounces

Dissolve the dichromate in the water, add the acid and, when the solution is cold, the benzine. Shake every hour during the day, allow to stand all night, decant the benzine, wash with a pint of water and again decant, then add the oil of lavender.

II.—First add to the benzine 1 to 2 per cent of oleic acid, which dissolves. Then about a quarter of 1 per cent of tannin is incorporated by shaking. A sufficient quantity of caustic potassa solution, or milk of lime, to combine with the acids is then well shaken into the mixture, and the whole allowed to stand. The benzine rises to the top of the watery fluid, sufficiently deodorized and decolorized for practical purposes.

III.—To 1,750 parts of water add 250 parts of sulphuric acid, and when it has cooled down add 30 parts of potassium permanganate and let dissolve. Add this solution to 4,500 parts of benzine, stir well together, and set aside for 24 hours. Now decant the benzine and to it add a solution of 7 1/2 parts of potassium permanganate and 15 parts of sodium hydrate in 1,000 parts of water, and agitate the substances well together. Let stand until the benzine separates, then draw off.

IV.—Dissolve 3 parts of litharge and 18 parts of sodium hydrate in 40 parts of water. Add this to 200–250 parts of benzine and agitate well together for two minutes, then let settle and draw off the benzine. Rinse the latter by agitating {107} it with plenty of clear water, let settle, draw off the benzine, and, if necessary, repeat the operation.

BENZINE, CLEANING WITH: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.




A neutral, bland, oily preparation of benzoin, useful for applying various antiseptics by the aid of an atomizer, nebulizer, or vaporizer. Can be used plain or in combination with other easily dissolved medicinals.

Paraffine, liquid 16 ounces Gum benzoin 1 ounce

Digest on a sand bath for a half hour and filter.



«Old-Fashioned Ginger Beer.»—

Lemons, large and sound 6 only Ginger, bruised 3 ounces Sugar 6 cups Yeast, compressed 1/4 cake Boiling water 4 gallons Water enough

Slice the lemons into a large earthenware vessel, removing the seed. Add the ginger, sugar, and water. When the mixture has cooled to lukewarmness, add the yeast, first diffused in a little water. Cover the vessel with a piece of cheese cloth, and let the beer stand 24 hours. At the end of that time strain and bottle it. Cork securely, but not so tightly that the bottles would break before the corks would fly out, and keep in a cool place.

«Ginger Beer.»—Honey gives the beverage a peculiar softness and, from not having fermented with yeast, is the less violent in its action when opened. Ingredients: White sugar, 1/4 pound; honey, 1/4 pound; bruised ginger, 5 ounces; juice of sufficient lemons to suit the taste; water, 4 1/2 gallons. Boil the ginger in 3 quarts of the water for half an hour, then add the ginger, lemon juice, and honey, with the remainder of the water; then strain through a cloth; when cold, add the quarter of the white of an egg and a teaspoonful of essence of lemon. Let the whole stand for four days before bottling. This quantity will make a hundred bottles.

«Ginger Beer without Yeast.»—

Ginger, bruised 1 1/2 pounds Sugar 20 pounds Lemons 1 dozen Honey 1 pound Water enough

Boil the ginger in 3 gallons of water for half an hour; add the sugar, the lemons (bruised and sliced), the honey, and 17 gallons of water. Strain and, after three or four days, bottle.

«Package Pop.»—

Cream of tartar 3 ounces Ginger, bruised 1 ounce Sugar 24 ounces Citric acid 2 drachms

Put up in a package, and direct that it be shaken in 1 1/2 gallons of boiling water, strained when cooled, fermented with 1 ounce of yeast, and bottled.

«Ginger-Ale Extract.»—

I.—Jamaica ginger, coarse powder 4 ounces Mace, powder 1/2 ounce Canada snakeroot, coarse powder 60 grains Oil of lemon 1 fluidrachm Alcohol 12 fluidounces Water 4 fluidounces Magnesium carbonate or purified talcum 1 av. ounce

Mix the first four ingredients, and make 16 fluidounces of tincture with the alcohol and water, by percolation. Dissolve the oil of lemon in a small quantity of alcohol, rub with magnesia or talcum, add gradually with constant trituration the tincture, and filter. The extract may be fortified by adding 4 avoirdupois ounces of powdered grains of paradise to the ginger, etc., of the above before extraction with alcohol and water.

II.—Capsicum, coarse powder 8 ounces Water 6 pints Essence of ginger 8 fluidounces Diluted alcohol 7 fluidounces Vanilla extract 2 fluidounces Oil of lemon 20 drops Caramel 1 fluidounce

Boil the capsicum with water for three hours, occasionally replacing the water lost by evaporation; filter, concentrate the filtrate on a hot water bath to the consistency of a thin extract, add the remaining ingredients, and filter. {108}

III.—Jamaica ginger, ground 12 ounces Lemon peel, fresh, cut fine 2 ounces Capsicum, powder 1 ounce Calcined magnesia 1 ounce Alcohol sufficient Water sufficient

Extract the mixed ginger and capsicum by percolation so as to obtain 16 fluidounces of water, set the mixture aside for 24 hours, shaking vigorously from time to time, then filter, and pass through the filter enough of a mixture of 2 volumes of alcohol and 1 of water to make the filtrate measure 32 fluidounces. In the latter macerate the lemon peel for 7 days, and again filter.

«Ginger Beer.»—

Brown sugar 2 pounds Boiling water 2 gallons Cream of tartar 1 ounce Bruised ginger root 2 ounces

Infuse the ginger in the boiling water, add the sugar and cream of tartar; when lukewarm strain; then add half pint good yeast. Let it stand all night, then bottle; one lemon and the white of an egg may be added to fine it.

«Lemon Beer.»—

Boiling water 1 gallon Lemon, sliced 1 Ginger, bruised 1 ounce Yeast 1 teacupful Sugar 1 pound

Let it stand 12 to 20 hours, and it is ready to be bottled.

«Hop Beer.»—

Water 5 quarts Hops 6 ounces

Boil 3 hours, strain the liquor, add:

Water 5 quarts Bruised ginger 4 ounces

and boil a little longer, strain, and add 4 pounds of sugar, and when milk-warm, 1 pint of yeast. Let it ferment; in 24 hours it is ready for bottling.

«Œnanthic Ether as a Flavoring for Ginger Ale.»—A fruity, vinous bouquet and delightful flavor are produced by the presence of œnanthic ether or brandy flavor in ginger ale. This ether throws off a rich, pungent, vinous odor, and gives a smoothness very agreeable to any liquor or beverage of which it forms a part. It is a favorite with “brandy sophisticators.” Add a few drops of the ether (previously dissolved in eight times its bulk of Cologne spirit) to the ginger-ale syrup just before bottling.

«Soluble Extract of Ginger Ale.»—Of the following three formulas the first is intended for soda-fountain use, the second is a “cheap” extract for the bottlers who want a one-ounce-to-the-gallon extract, and the third is a bottlers’ extract to be used in the proportion of three ounces to a gallon of syrup. This latter is a most satisfactory extract and has been sold with most creditable results, both as to clearness of the finished ginger ale and delicacy of flavor.

It will be noted that in these formulas oleoresin of ginger is used in addition to the powdered root. Those who do not mind the additional expense might use one-fourth of the same quantity of volatile oil of ginger instead. This should develop an excellent flavor, since the oil is approximately sixteen times as strong as the oleoresin, and has the additional advantage of being free from resinous extractive.

The following are the formulas:

I.—(To be used in the proportion of 4 ounces of extract to 1 gallon of syrup.)

Jamaica ginger, in fine powder 8 pounds Capsicum, in fine powder 6 ounces Alcohol, a sufficient quantity.

Mix the powders intimately, moisten them with a sufficient quantity of alcohol, and set aside for 4 hours. Pack in a cylindrical percolator and percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of percolate have resulted. Place the percolate in a bottle of the capacity of 16 pints, and add to it 2 fluidrachms of oleoresin of ginger; shake, add 2 1/2 pounds of finely powdered pumice stone, and agitate thoroughly at intervals of one-half hour for 12 hours. Then add 14 pints of water in quantities of 1 pint at each addition, shaking briskly meanwhile. This part of the operation is most important. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours, agitating it strongly every hour or so during that period. Then take

Oil of lemon 1 1/2 fluidounces Oil of rose (or geranium) 3 fluidrachms Oil of bergamot 2 fluidrachms {109} Oil of cinnamon 3 fluidrachms Magnesium carbonate 3 fluidounces

Rub the oils with the magnesia in a large mortar and add 9 ounces of the clear portion of the ginger mixture to which have been previously added 2 ounces of alcohol, and continue trituration, rinsing out the mortar with the ginger mixture. Pass the ginger mixture through a double filter and add through the filter the mixture of oils and magnesia; finally pass enough water through the filter to make the resulting product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons. If the operator should desire an extract of more or less pungency, he may obtain his desired effect by increasing or decreasing the quantity of powdered capsicum in the formula.

II.—(To be used in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 gallon of syrup.)

Ginger, in moderately fine powder 6 pounds Capsicum, in fine powder 2 1/2 pounds Alcohol, a sufficient quantity.

Mix, moisten the powder with 3 pints of alcohol, and set aside in a suitable vessel for 4 hours. Then pack the powder firmly in a cylindrical percolator, and percolate until 6 pints of extract are obtained. Set this mixture aside and label Percolate No. 1, and continue the percolation with 1 1/2 pints of alcohol mixed with 1 1/2 pints of water. Set the resultant tincture aside, and label Percolate No. 2.

Take oleoresin ginger 5 fluid ounces and add to Percolate No. 1. Then take:

Oil of lemon 1 1/2 fluidounces Oil of cinnamon 1 fluidounce Oil of geranium 1/2 fluidounce Magnesium carbonate 8 ounces

Triturate the oils with the magnesia, add gradually Percolate No. 2, and set aside. Then place Percolate No. 1 in a large bottle, add 3 1/4 pounds of finely powdered pumice stone, and shake at intervals of half an hour for six hours. This being completed, add the mixture of oils, and later 10 pints of water, in quantities of 1/2 a pint at a time, shaking vigorously after each solution. Let the mixture stand for 24 hours, shaking it at intervals, and then pass it through a double filter. Finally add enough water through the filter to make the product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons.

III.—(To be used in proportion of 3 ounces to 1 gallon of syrup.)

Ginger, in moderately fine powder 8 pounds Capsicum, in moderately fine powder 2 pounds Alcohol, q. s.

Mix, moisten with alcohol, and set aside as in the preceding formula; then percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of extract are obtained. To this add oleoresin of ginger 3 drachms, and place in a large bottle. Add 2 1/2 pounds of powdered pumice stone, and shake as directed for formula No. 1. Then add 14 pints of water, in quantities of 1 pint at a time, shaking vigorously after each addition. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours, shaking at intervals. Then take:

Oil of lemon 1 1/2 fluidounces Oil of geranium 1/2 fluidounce Oil of cinnamon 3 fluidrachms Magnesia carbonate 3 ounces

Rub these in a mortar with the magnesia, and add 9 ounces of the clear portion of the ginger mixture mixed with 2 ounces of alcohol, rubbing the mixture until it becomes smooth. Prepare a double filter, and filter the ginger mixture, adding through the filter the mixture of oils and magnesia. Finally add enough water through the filter to make the final product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons.

If these formulas are properly manipulated the extracts should keep for a reasonable length of time without a precipitate. If, however, a precipitate occur after the extract has stood for a week, it should be refiltered.


«Lemonade Preparations for the Sick.»—I.—Strawberry Lemonade: Citric acid, 6 parts; water, 100 parts; sugar, 450 parts; strawberry syrup, 600 parts; cherry syrup, 300 parts; claret, 450 parts; aromatic tincture, ad lib.

II.—Lemonade Powder: Sodium bicarbonate, 65; tartaric acid, 60; sugar, 125; lemon oil, 12 drops.

III.—Lemonade juice: Sugar syrup, 200; tartaric acid, 15; distilled water, 100; lemon oil, 3; tincture of vanilla, 6 drops.

IV.—Lemonade Lozenges: Tartaric acid, 10; sugar, 30; gum arabic, 2; powdered starch, 0.5; lemon oil, 6 drops; tincture of vanilla, 25 drops; and sufficient diluted spirit of wine so that 30 lozenges can be made with it.

«Lemonade for Diabetics.»—The following is said to be useful for assuaging the thirst of diabetics: {110}

Citric acid 1 part Glycerine 50 parts Cognac 50 parts Distilled water 500 parts

«Hot Lemonade.»—Take 2 large, fresh lemons, and wash them clean with cold water. Roll them until soft; then divide each into halves, and use a lemon-squeezer or reamer to express the juice into a small pitcher. Remove all the seeds from the juice, to which add 4 or more tablespoonfuls of white sugar, according to taste. A pint of boiling water is now added, and the mixture stirred until the sugar is dissolved. The beverage is very effective in producing perspiration, and should be drunk while hot. The same formula may be used for making cold lemonade, by substituting ice water for the hot water, and adding a piece of lemon peel. If desired, a weaker lemonade may be made by using more water.

«Lemonades, Lemon and Sour Drinks for Soda-Water Fountains.»—Plain Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; filtered water, sufficient; shaved ice, sufficient.

Mix and shake well. Garnish with fruit, and serve with both spoon and straws.

Huyler’s Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; simple syrup, 2 ounces; soda water, sufficient. Dress with sliced pineapple, and serve with straws. In mixing, do not shake, but stir with a spoon.

Pineapple Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pineapple syrup, 2 ounces; soda water, sufficient. Dress with fruit. Serve with straws.

Seltzer Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls. Fill with seltzer. Dress with sliced lemon.

Apollinaris Lemonade.—The same as seltzer, substituting apollinaris water for seltzer.

Limeade.—Juice of 1 lime; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water, sufficient. Where fresh limes are not obtainable, use bottled lime juice.

Orangeade.—Juice of 1 orange; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water, sufficient; shaved ice, sufficient. Dress with sliced orange and cherries. Serve with straws.

Seltzer and Lemon.—Juice of 1 lemon; seltzer, sufficient. Serve in a small glass.

Claret Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls. Make lemonade, pour into a glass containing shaved ice until the glass lacks about one inch of being full. Pour in sufficient claret to fill the glass. Dress with cherries and sliced pineapple.

Claret Punch.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls; claret wine, 2 ounces; shaved ice, sufficient. Serve in small glass. Dress with sliced lemon, and fruit in season. Bright red cherries and plums make attractive garnishings.

Raspberry Lemonade.—I.—Juice of 1 lemon; 3 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar; 1 tablespoonful raspberry juice; shaved ice; plain water; shake.

II.—Juice of 1 lemon; 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar; 1/2 ounce raspberry syrup; shaved ice; water; shake.

Banjo Sour.—Pare a lemon, cut it in two, add a large tablespoonful of sugar, then thoroughly muddle it; add the white of an egg; an ounce of sloe gin; 3 or 4 dashes of abricotine; shake well; strain into a goblet or fizz glass, and fill balance with soda; decorate with a slice of pineapple and cherry.

Orgeat Punch.—Orgeat syrup, 12 drachms; brandy, 1 ounce; juice of 1 lemon.

Granola.—Orange syrup, 1 ounce; grape syrup, 1 ounce; juice of 1/2 lemon; shaved ice, q. s. Serve with straws. Dress with sliced lemon or pineapple.

American Lemonade.—One ounce orange syrup; 1 ounce lemon syrup; 1 teaspoonful powdered sugar; 1 dash acid-phosphate solution; 1/3 glass shaved ice. Fill with coarse stream. Add slice of orange, and run two straws through it.

Old-Fashioned Lemonade.—Put in a freezer and freeze almost hard, then add the fruits, and freeze very hard. Serve in a silver sherbet cup.

“Ping Pong” Frappé.—Grape juice, unfermented, 1 quart; port wine (California), 1/2 pint; lemon syrup, 12 ounces; pineapple syrup, 2 ounces; orange syrup, 4 ounces; Bénédictine cordial, 4 ounces; sugar, 1 pound.

Dissolve sugar in grape juice and put in wine; add the syrup and cordial; serve from a punch bowl, with ladle, into 12-ounce narrow lemonade glass and fill with solid stream; garnish with slice of orange and pineapple, and serve with straw.

Orange Frappé.—Glass half full of fine ice; tablespoonful powdered sugar; 1/2 ounce orange syrup; 2 dashes lemon syrup; dash prepared raspberry; 1/4 ounce {111} acid-phosphate solution. Fill with soda and stir well; strain into a mineral glass and serve.

«Hot Lemonades.»—

I.—Lemon essence 4 fluidrachms Solution of citric acid 1 fluidounce Syrup, enough to make 32 fluidounces

In serving, draw 2 1/2 fluidounces of the syrup into an 8-ounce mug, fill with hot water, and serve with a spoon.

II.—Lemon 1 Alcohol 1 fluidounce Solution of citric acid 2 fluidrachms Sugar 20 av. ounces Water 20 fluidounces White of 1 egg

Grate the peel of the lemon, macerate with the alcohol for a day; express; also express the lemon, mix the two, add the sugar and water, dissolve by agitation, and add the solution of citric acid and the white of egg, the latter first beaten to a froth. Serve like the preceding.

«Egg Lemonade.»—I.—Break 1 egg into a soda glass, add 1 1/4 ounces lemon syrup, a drachm of lemon juice, and a little shaved ice; then draw carbonated water to fill the glass, stirring well.

II.—Shaved ice 1/2 tumblerful Powdered sugar 4 tablespoonfuls Juice of 1 lemon Yolk of 1 egg

Shake well, and add carbonated water to fill the glass.


«Chocolate.»—I.—This may be prepared in two ways, from the powdered cocoa or from a syrup. To prepare the cocoa for use, dry mix with an equal quantity of pulverized sugar and use a heaping teaspoonful to a mug. To prepare a syrup, take 12 ounces of cocoa, 5 pints of water, and 4 pounds of sugar. Reduce the cocoa to a smooth paste with a little warm water. Put on the fire. When the water becomes hot add the paste, and then allow to boil for 3 or 4 minutes; remove from fire and add the sugar; stir carefully while heating, to prevent scorching; when cold add 3 drachms of vanilla; 1/2 to 3/4 ounce will suffice for a cup of chocolate; top off with whipped cream.

II.—Baker’s fountain chocolate 1 pound Syrup 1 gallon Extract vanilla enough

Shave the chocolate into a gallon porcelained evaporating dish and melt with a gentle heat, stirring with a thin-bladed spatula. When melted remove from the fire and add 1 ounce of cold water, mixing well. Add gradually 1 gallon of hot syrup and strain; flavor to suit. Use 1 ounce to a mug.

III.—Hot Egg Chocolate.—Break a fresh egg into a soda tumbler; add 1 1/2 ounces chocolate syrup and 1 ounce cream; shake thoroughly, add hot soda slowly into the shaker, stirring meanwhile; strain carefully into mug; top off with whipped cream and serve.

IV.—Hot Chocolate and Milk.—

Chocolate syrup 1 ounce Hot milk 4 ounces

Stir well, fill mug with hot soda and serve.

V.—Hot Egg Chocolate.—One egg, 1 1/4 ounces chocolate syrup, 1 teaspoonful sweet cream; shake, strain, add 1 cup hot soda, and 1 tablespoonful whipped cream.

«Coffee.»—I.—Make an extract by macerating 1 pound of the best Mocha and Java with 8 ounces of water for 20 minutes, then add hot water enough to percolate 1 pint. One or 2 drachms of this extract will make a delicious cup of coffee. Serve either with or without cream, and let customer sweeten to taste.

II.—Pack 1/2 pound of pulverized coffee in a percolator. Percolate with 2 quarts of boiling water, letting it run through twice. Add to this 2 quarts of milk; keep hot in an urn and draw as a finished drink. Add a lump of sugar and top off with whipped cream.

III.—Coffee syrup may be made by adding boiling water from the apparatus to 1 pound of coffee, placed in a suitable filter or coffeepot, until 2 quarts of the infusion are obtained. Add to this 3 pounds of sugar. In dispensing, first put sufficient cream in the cup, add the coffee, then sweeten, if necessary, and mix with the stream from the draught tube.

IV.—Mocha coffee (ground fine) 4 ounces Java coffee (ground fine) 4 ounces Granulated sugar 6 pounds Hot water q. s.

Percolate the coffee with hot water until the percolate measures 72 ounces. Dissolve the sugar in the percolate by agitation without heat and strain.

«Hot Egg Orangeade.»—One egg; juice {112} of 1/2 orange; 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar. Shake, strain, add 1 cup of hot water. Stir, serve with nutmeg.

«Hot Egg Bouillon.»—One-half ounce liquid extract beef; 1 egg; salt and pepper; hot water to fill 8-ounce mug. Stir extract, egg, and seasoning together; add water, still stirring; strain and serve.

«Hot Celery Punch.»—One-quarter ounce of clam juice; 1/4 ounce beef extract; 1 ounce of cream; 4 dashes of celery essence. Stir while adding hot water, and serve with spices.

«Chicken Bouillon.»—Two ounces concentrated chicken; 1/2 ounce sweet cream and spice. Stir while adding hot water.


Fluid extract of ginger 2 1/2 ounces Sugar 40 ounces Water, to 2 1/2 pints

Take 10 ounces of the sugar and mix with the fluid extract of ginger; heat on the water bath until the alcohol is evaporated. Then mix with 20 ounces of water and shake till dissolved. Filter and add the balance of the water and the sugar. Dissolve by agitation.

«Cocoa Syrup.»—

I.—Cocoa, light, soluble 4 ounces Granulated sugar 2 pounds Boiling hot water 1 quart Extract vanilla 1 ounce

Dissolve the cocoa in the hot water, by stirring, then add the sugar and dissolve. Strain, and when cold add the vanilla extract.

II.—Cocoa syrup 2 ounces Cream 1 ounce

Turn on the hot water stream and stir while filling. Top off with whipped cream.

«Hot Soda Toddy.»—

Lemon juice 2 fluidrachms Lemon syrup 1 fluidounce Aromatic bitters 1 fluidrachm Hot water, enough to fill an 8-ounce mug.

Sprinkle with nutmeg or cinnamon.

«Hot Orange Phosphate.»—

Orange syrup 1 fluidounce Solution of acid phosphate 1 fluidrachm Hot water, enough to fill an 8-ounce mug.

It is prepared more acceptably by mixing the juice of half an orange with acid phosphate, sugar, and hot water.

«Pepsin Phosphate.»—One teaspoonful of liquid pepsin; 2 dashes of acid phosphate; 1 ounce of lemon syrup; 1 cup hot water.

«Cream Beef Tea.»—Use 1 teaspoonful of liquid beef extract in a mug of hot water, season with salt and pepper, then stir in a tablespoonful of rich cream. Put a teaspoonful of whipped cream on top and serve with flakes.

«Cherry Phosphate.»—Cherry-phosphate syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; hot water to make 8 ounces.

Cherry-phosphate syrup is made as follows: Cherry juice, 3 pints; sugar, 6 pounds; water, 1 pint; acid phosphate, 4 ounces. Bring to a boil, and when cool add the acid phosphate.

«Celery Clam Punch.»—Clam juice, 2 drachms; beef extract, 1 drachm; cream, 1 ounce; essence of celery, 5 drops; hot water to make 8 ounces.

«Claret Punch.»—Claret wine, 2 ounces; sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls; juice of 1/2 lemon; hot water to make 8 ounces.

«Ginger.»—Extract of ginger, 2 drachms; sugar, 2 drachms; lemon juice, 2 dashes; hot water to make 8 ounces.

«Lemon Juice, Plain.»—Fresh lemon juice, 2 1/2 drachms; lemon syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, q. s. to make 8 ounces.

«Lime Juice.»—Lime juice, 3/4 drachm; lemon syrup, 1 ounce; hot water to make 8 ounces. Mix. Eberle remarks that lemon juice or lime juice enters into many combinations. In plain soda it may be combined with ginger and other flavors, as, for instance, chocolate and coffee.

«Lemonade.»—Juice of 1 lemon; powdered sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; hot water to make 8 ounces. A small piece of fresh lemon peel twisted over the cup lends an added flavor.

«Hot Malt.»—Extract of malt, 1 ounce; cherry syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, sufficient to make 8 ounces. Mix.

«Malted Milk.»—Horlick’s malted milk, 2 tablespoonfuls; hot water, quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces; flavoring to suit. Mix. Essence of coffee, chocolate, etc., and many of the fruit syrups go well with malted milk.

«Hot Malted Milk Coffee (or Chocolate).»—Malted milk, 2 teaspoonfuls; coffee (or chocolate) syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces.

«Hot Beef Tea.»—I.—Best beef extract, 1 tablespoonful; sweet cream, 1 ounce; hot {113} water, 7 ounces; pepper, salt, etc., quantity sufficient. Mix.

II.—Extract beef bouillon, 1 teaspoonful; extract aromatic soup herbs (see Condiments), 10 drops; hot soda, 1 cupful. Mix.

III.—Extract of beef 1 teaspoonful Hot water q. s. Pepper, salt, and celery salt.


«Hot Bouillon.»—

Beef extract 1 ounce Hot water, q. s. to make 8 ounces Pepper, salt, etc. q. s.


«Clam Bouillon.»—

I.—Clam juice 12 drachms Cream 2 ounces Hot water, q. s. to make 8 ounces


II.—Extract clam bouillon 2 ounces Prepared milk 2 drachms Extract of aromatic soup herbs 5 drops Extract white pepper 5 drops Hot soda 1 cupful


III.—Clam juice may be served with hot water, salt and pepper added. Adding butter makes this bouillon a broth.

It may also be served with milk or cream, lemon juice, tomato catsup, etc. Hot oyster juice may be served in the same way.

«Hot Tea.»—

I.—Tea syrup sufficient Hot water, q. s. to make 1 cupful

II.—Loaf sugar 4 cubes Extract of Oolong tea, about 1 dessertsp’ful Prepared milk, about 1 dessertsp’ful Hot soda 1 cupful Whipped cream 1 tablespoonful

Mix the tea extract, sugar, and prepared milk, pour on water, and dissolve. Top off with whipped cream.

«Hot Egg Drinks.»—I.—One-half to 1 ounce liquid extract of beef, 1 egg, salt and pepper to season, hot water to fill an 8-ounce mug. Stir the extract, egg, and seasoning together with a spoon, to get well mixed, add the water, stirring briskly meanwhile; then strain, and serve. Or shake the egg and extract in a shaker, add the water, and mix by pouring back and forth several times, from shaker to mug.

II.—Hot Egg Chocolate.—One to 1 1/2 ounces chocolate syrup, 1 egg, 1/2 ounce cream, hot water sufficient to fill an 8-ounce mug.

Mix the syrup, egg, and cream together in an egg-shaker; shake as in making cold drinks; add the hot water, and mix all by pouring back and forth several times, from shaker to mug. Or, prepare by beating the egg with a spoon, add the syrup and cream, mix all quickly with the spoon, and add hot water, stirring constantly, and strain.

III.—Hot Egg Coffee.—One egg, 1 dessertspoonful extract of coffee, 1 teaspoonful sweet cream, 1 ounce syrup. Shake well, strain, and add 1 cupful hot water and top with whipped cream.

IV.—Hot Egg Lemonade.—One egg, juice of 1 lemon, 3 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar. Beat the egg with lemon juice and sugar thoroughly. Mix while adding the water. Serve grated nutmeg and cinnamon. The amount of lemon juice and sugar may be varied to suit different tastes.

V.—Hot Egg Milk.—Two teaspoonfuls sugar, 1 ounce cream, 1 egg, hot milk to fill an 8-ounce mug. Prepare as in hot egg chocolate, top with whipped cream, and sprinkle with nutmeg. If there are no facilities for keeping hot milk, use about 2 ounces of cream, and fill mug with hot water.

VI.—Hot Egg Nogg.—Plain syrup, 3/4 ounce; brandy, 1/2 ounce; Angostura bitters, 3 drops; 1 egg. Put in shaker and beat well. Strain in 10-ounce mug, and fill with hot milk; finish with whipped cream and nutmeg.

VII.—Hot Egg Phosphate.—Two ounces lemon syrup, 1 egg, 1/2 ounce solution of acid phosphate. Mix in a glass, and shake together thoroughly; pour into another glass, heated previously, and slowly draw full of hot water; season with nutmeg.

VIII.—Hot Egg Phosphate.—Break fresh egg into shaker and add 1/2 ounce pineapple syrup, 1/2 ounce orange syrup, 1 dash phosphate. Shake, without ice, and pour into bouillon cup. Draw cupful of hot water, sprinkle a touch of cinnamon, and serve with wafers.


«Coffee Cream Soda.»—Serve in a 12-ounce glass. Draw 1 1/2 ounces of syrup and 1 ounce of cream. Into the shaker draw 8 ounces of carbonated water, pour into the glass sufficient to fill it to within {114} 1 inch of the top; pour from glass to shaker and back, once or twice, to mix thoroughly; give the drink a rich, creamy appearance, and make it cream sufficiently to fill the glass.

«Iced Coffee.»—Serve in a 10-ounce glass. Draw 1 ounce into glass, fill nearly full with ice-cold milk, and mix by stirring.

«Egg Malted Milk Coffee.»—Prepare same as malted milk coffee, with the exception of adding the egg before shaking, and top off with a little nutmeg, if desired. This drink is sometimes called coffee light lunch.

«Coffee Frappé.»—Serve in a 12-ounce glass. Coffee syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; white of 1 egg; 1 to 1 1/2 ounces of pure, rich, sweet cream; a small portion of fine shaved ice; shake thoroughly to beat the white of the egg light, and then remove the glass, leaving the contents in the shaker. Now fill the shaker two-thirds full, using the fine stream only. Draw as quickly as possible that the drink may be nice and light. Now pour into glass and back, and then strain into a clean glass. Serve at once, and without straws. This should be drunk at once, else it will settle, and lose its lightness and richness.

«Coffee Nogg.»—

Coffee syrup 2 ounces Brandy 4 drachms Cream 2 ounces One egg.

«Coffee Cocktail.»—

Coffee syrup 1 ounce One egg. Port wine 1 ounce Brandy 2 drachms

Shake, strain into a small glass, and add soda. Mace on top.

«Chocolate and Milk.»—

Chocolate syrup 2 ounces Sweet milk, sufficient.

Fill a glass half full of shaved ice, put in the syrup, and add milk until the glass is almost full. Shake well, and serve without straining. Put whipped cream on top and serve with straws.

«Chocolate Frappé.»—

Frozen whipped cream, sufficient. Shaved ice, sufficient.

Fill a glass half full of frozen whipped cream, fill with shaved ice nearly to the top, and pour in chocolate syrup. Other syrups may be used, if desired.

«Royal Frappé.»—This drink consists of 3 parts black coffee and 1 part of brandy, frozen in a cooler, and served while in a semifrozen state.

«Mint Julep.»—One-half tumbler shaved ice, teaspoonful powdered sugar, dash lemon juice, 2 or 3 sprigs of fresh mint. Crush the mint against side of the glass to get the flavor. Then add claret syrup, 1/2 ounce; raspberry syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; and draw carbonated water nearly to fill glass. Insert bunch of mint and fill glass, leaving full of shaved ice. Serve with straws, and decorate with fruits of the season.

«Grape Glacé.»—Beat thoroughly the whites of 4 eggs and stir in 1 pound of powdered sugar, then add 1 pint grape juice, 1 pint water, and 1 pound more of powdered sugar. Stir well until sugar is dissolved, and serve from a pitcher or glass dish, with ladle.

«“Golf Goblet.”»—Serve in a 12-ounce glass; fill two-thirds full of cracked ice, add 1/2 ounce pineapple juice, 1 teaspoonful lemon juice, 1 teaspoonful raspberry vinegar. Put spoon in glass, and fill to within one-half inch of top with carbonated water; add shaved ice, heaping full. Put strawberry or cherry on top, and stick slice of orange down side of glass. Serve with spoon and straws.

«Goldenade.»—Shaved ice, 1/2 tumblerful; powdered sugar; juice of 1 lemon; yolk of 1 egg. Shake well, add soda water from large stream, turn from tumbler to shaker, and vice versa, several times, and strain through julep strainer into a 12-ounce tumbler.

«Lunar Blend.»—Take two mixing glasses, break an egg, putting the yolk in one glass, the white into the other; into the glass with the yolk add 1 ounce cherry syrup and some cracked ice; shake, add small quantity soda, and strain into a 12-ounce glass. Into the other mixing glass add 1 ounce plain sweet cream, and beat with bar spoons until well whipped; add 1/2 ounce lemon syrup, then transfer it into the shaker, and add soda from fine stream only, and float on top of the one containing the yolk and sherry. Serve with two straws.

«Egg Chocolate.»—

Chocolate syrup 2 ounces Cream 4 ounces White of one egg. {115}

«Egg Crême de Menthe.»—

Mint syrup 12 drachms Cream 3 ounces White of one egg. Whisky 4 drachms

«Egg Sherbet.»—

Sherry syrup 4 drachms Pineapple syrup 4 drachms Raspberry syrup 4 drachms One egg. Cream.

«Egg Claret.»—

Claret syrup 2 ounces Cream 3 ounces One egg.

«Royal Mist.»—

Orange syrup 1 ounce Catawba syrup 1 ounce Cream 2 ounces One egg.

«Banana Cream.»—

Banana syrup 12 drachms Cream 4 ounces One egg.

«Egg Coffee.»—

Coffee syrup 2 ounces Cream 3 ounces One egg. Shaved ice.

«Cocoa Mint.»—

Chocolate syrup 1 ounce Peppermint syrup 1 ounce White of one egg. Cream 2 ounces

The peppermint syrup is made as follows:

Oil of peppermint 30 minims Syrup simplex 1 gallon Soda foam 1 ounce

«Egg Lemonade.»—

Juice of one lemon. Pulverized sugar 3 teasp’fuls One egg. Water, q. s.

Shake well, using plenty of ice, and serve in a small glass.


Raspberry juice 1 ounce Pineapple syrup 1 ounce One egg. Cream 2 ounces

«Siberian Flip.»—

Orange syrup 1 ounce Pineapple syrup 1 ounce One egg. Cream 2 ounces

«Egg Orgeat.»—

Orgeat syrup 12 drachms Cream 3 ounces One egg.


Peach syrup 1 ounce Grape syrup 1 ounce Cream 3 ounces Brandy 2 drachms One egg.

«Silver Fizz.»—

Catawba syrup 2 ounces Holland gin 2 drachms Lemon juice 8 dashes White of one egg.

«Golden Fizz.»—

Claret syrup 2 ounces Holland gin 1/4 ounce Lemon juice 8 dashes Yolk of one egg.

«Rose Cream.»—

Rose syrup 12 drachms Cream 4 ounces White of one egg.

«Violet Cream.»—

Violet syrup 12 drachms Cream 4 ounces White of one egg.

«Rose Mint.»—

Rose syrup 6 drachms Mint syrup 6 drachms Cream 3 ounces White of one egg.

«Currant Cream.»—

Red-currant syrup 2 ounces Cream 3 ounces One egg.

«Quince Flip.»—

Quince syrup 2 ounces Cream 3 ounces One egg. Shaved ice.

«Coffee Nogg.»—

Coffee syrup 2 ounces Brandy 4 drachms Cream 2 ounces One egg.

«Egg Sour.»—

Juice of one lemon. Simple syrup 12 drachms One egg.

Shake, strain, and fill with soda. Mace on top. {116}

«Lemon Sour.»—

Lemon syrup 12 drachms Juice of one lemon. One egg.

«Raspberry Sour.»—

Raspberry syrup 12 drachms One egg. Juice of one lemon.


One egg. Cream 2 ounces Sugar 2 teaspoonfuls Jamaica rum 1/2 ounce

Shake well, put into cup, and add hot water. Serve with whipped cream, and sprinkle mace on top.

«Prairie Oyster.»—

Cider vinegar 2 ounces One egg.

Put vinegar into glass, and break into it the egg. Season with salt and pepper. Serve without mixing.

«Fruit Frappé.»—

Granulated gelatin 1 ounce Juice of six lemons. Beaten whites of two eggs. Water 5 quarts Syrup 1 quart Maraschino cherries 8 ounces Sliced peach 4 ounces Sliced pineapple 4 ounces Whole strawberries 4 ounces Sliced orange 4 ounces

Dissolve the gelatin in 1 quart boiling hot water; add the syrup and the balance of the water; add the whites of the eggs and lemon juice.


The original koumiss is the Russian, made from mare’s milk, while that produced in this country and other parts of Europe is usually, probably always, made from cow’s milk. For this reason there is a difference in the preparation which may or may not be of consequence. It has been asserted that the ferment used in Russia differs from ordinary yeast, but this has not been established.

In an article on this subject, contributed by D. H. Davies to the _Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions_, it is pointed out that mare’s milk contains less casein and fatty matter than cow’s milk, and he states that it is “therefore far more easy of digestion.” He thinks that cow’s milk yields a better preparation when diluted with water to reduce the percentage of casein, etc. He proposes the following formula:

Fresh milk 12 ounces Water 4 ounces Brown sugar 150 grains Compressed yeast 24 grains Milk sugar 3 drachms

Dissolve the milk sugar in the water, add to the milk, rub the yeast and brown sugar down in a mortar with a little of the mixture, then strain into the other portion.

Strong bottles are very essential, champagne bottles being frequently used, and the corks should fit tightly; in fact, it is almost necessary to use a bottling machine for the purpose, and once the cork is properly fixed it should be wired down. Many failures have resulted because the corks did not fit properly, the result being that the carbon dioxide escaped as formed and left a worthless preparation. It is further necessary to keep the preparation at a moderate temperature, and to be sure that the article is properly finished the operator should gently shake the bottles each day for about 10 minutes to prevent the clotting of the casein. It is well to take the precaution of rolling a cloth around the bottle during the shaking process, as the amount of gas generated is great, and should the bottle be weak it might explode.

Kogelman says that if 1 volume of buttermilk be mixed with 1 or 2 volumes of sweet milk, in a short time lively fermentation sets in, and in about 3 days the work is completed. This, according to the author, produces a wine-scented fluid, rich in alcohol, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and casein, which, according to all investigations yet made, is identical with koumiss. The following practical hints are given for the production of a good article: The sweet milk used should not be entirely freed from cream; the bottles should be of strong glass; the fermenting milk must be industriously shaken by the operator at least 3 times a day, and then the cork put in firmly, so that the fluid will become well charged with carbon-dioxide gas; the bottles must be daily opened and at least twice each day brought nearly to a horizontal position, in order to allow the carbon dioxide to escape and air to enter; otherwise fermentation rapidly ceases. If a drink is desired strong in carbonic acid, the bottles, toward the end of fermentation, should be placed with the necks down. In order to ferment a fresh quantity of milk, simply add 1/3 of its volume of either actively fermenting or freshly fermented milk. The temperature should be from 50° to 60° F., about 60° being the most favorable. {117}

Here are some miscellaneous formulas:

I.—Fill a quart champagne bottle up to the neck with pure milk; add 2 tablespoonfuls of white sugar, after dissolving the same in a little water over a hot fire; add also a quarter of a 2-cent cake of compressed yeast. Then tie the cork in the bottle securely, and shake the mixture well; place it in a room of the temperature of 50° to 95° F. for 6 hours, and finally in the ice box over night. Handle wrapped in a towel as protection if the bottle should burst. Be sure that the milk is pure, that the bottle is sound, that the yeast is fresh, to open the mixture in the morning with great care, on account of its effervescent properties; and be sure not to drink it at all if there is any curdle or thickening part resembling cheese, as this indicates that the fermentation has been prolonged beyond the proper time.

II.—Dilute the milk with 1/6 part of hot water, and while still tepid add 1/8 of very sour (but otherwise good) buttermilk. Put it into a wide jug, cover with a clean cloth, and let stand in a warmish place (about 75° F.) for 24 hours; stir up well, and leave for another 24 hours. Then beat thoroughly together, and pour from jug to jug till perfectly smooth and creamy. It is now “still” koumiss, and may be drunk at once. To make it sparkling, which is generally preferred, put it into champagne or soda-water bottles; do not quite fill them, secure the corks well, and lay them in a cool cellar. It will then keep for 6 or 8 weeks, though it becomes increasingly acid. To mature some for drinking quickly, it is as well to keep a bottle or two to start with in some warmer place, and from time to time shake vigorously. With this treatment it should, in about 3 days, become sufficiently effervescent to spurt freely through a champagne tap, which must be used for drawing it off as required. Later on, when very frothy and acid it is more pleasant to drink if a little sweetened water (or milk and water) is first put into the glass. Shake the bottle, and hold it inverted well into the tumbler before turning the tap. Having made one lot of koumiss as above you can use some of that instead of buttermilk as a ferment for a second lot, and so on 5 or 6 times in succession; after which it will be found advisable to begin again as at first. Mare’s milk is the best for koumiss; then ass’s milk. Cow’s milk may be made more like them by adding a little sugar of milk (or even loaf sugar) with the hot water before fermenting. But perhaps the chief drawback to cow’s milk is that the cream separates permanently, whereas that of mare’s milk will remix. Hence use partially skimmed milk; for if there is much cream it only forms little lumps of butter, which are apt to clog the tap, or are left behind in the bottle.

«Kwass.»—Kwass is a popular drink among the Russian population of Kunzews, prepared as follows: In a big kettle put from 13 to 15 quarts of water, and bring to a boil, and when in active ebullition pour in 500 grams of malt. Let boil for 20 minutes, remove from the fire, let cool down, and strain off. The liquid is now put into a clean keg or barrel, 30 grams (about an ounce) of best compressed yeast added along with about 600 grams (20 ounces) of sugar, and the cask is put in a warm place to ferment. As soon as bubbles of carbonic gas are detected on the surface of the liquid, it is a signal that the latter is ready for bottling. In each of the bottles, which should be strong and clean, put one big raisin, fill, cork, and wire down. The bottles should be placed on the side, and in the coolest place available—best, on ice. The liquor is ready for drinking in from 2 to 3 days, and is said to be most palatable.

«“Braga.”»—Braga is a liquid of milky turbidity, resembling _café au lait_ in color, and forming a considerable precipitate if left alone. When shaken it sparkles and a little gas escapes. Its taste is more or less acid, possessing a pleasant flavor.

About 35 parts of crushed millet, to which a little wheat flour is added, are placed in a large kettle. On this about 400 parts of water are poured. The mixture is stirred well and boiled for 3 hours. After settling for 1 hour the lost water is renewed and the boiling continued for another 10 hours. A viscous mass remains in the kettle, which substance is spread upon large tables to cool. After it is perfectly cool, it is stirred with water in a wooden trough and left to ferment for 8 hours. This pulp is sifted, mixed with a little water, and after an hour the braga is ready for sale. The taste is a little sweetish at first, but becomes more and more sourish in time. Fermentation begins only in the trough.


«Campchello.»—Thoroughly beat the yolks of 12 fresh eggs with 2 1/4 pounds finely powdered, refined sugar, the juice {118} of 3 lemons and 2 oranges, and 3 bottles of Grâves or other white wine, over the fire, until rising. Remove, and slowly beat 1 bottle of Jamaica rum with it.

«Egg Wine.»—Vigorously beat 4 whole eggs and the yolks of 4 with 1/2 pound of fine sugar; next add 2 quarts of white wine and beat over a moderate fire until rising.

«Bavaroise au Cognac.»—Beat up the yolks of 8 eggs in 1 quart of good milk over the fire, until boiling, then quickly add 5 ounces of sugar and 1/8 quart of fine cognac.

«Bavaroise au Café.»—Heat 1 pint of strong coffee and 1 pint of milk, 5 ounces of sugar, and the yolks of 8 eggs, until boiling, then add 1/16 quart of Jamaica rum.

«Carbonated Pineapple Champagne.»—

Plain syrup, 42° 10 gallons Essence of pineapple 8 drachms Tincture of lemon 5 ounces Carbonate of magnesia 1 ounce Liquid saffron 2 1/2 ounces Citric-acid solution 30 ounces Caramel 2 1/2 ounces

Filter before adding the citric-acid solution and limejuice. Use 2 ounces to each bottle.

«A German Drink.»—To 100 parts of water add from 10 to 15 parts of sugar, dissolve and add to the syrup thus formed an aqueous extract of 0.8 parts of green or black tea. Add fresh beer or brewers’ yeast, put in a warm place and let ferment. When fermentation has progressed to a certain point the liquid is cleared, and then bottled, corked, and the corks tied down. The drink is said to be very pleasant.

«Limejuice Cordial.»—Limejuice cordial that will keep good for any length of time may be made as follows: Sugar, 6 pounds; water, 4 pints; citric acid, 4 ounces; boric acid, 1/2 ounce. Dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat, and when cold add refined limejuice, 60 ounces; tincture of lemon peel, 4 ounces; water to make up to 2 gallons, and color with caramel.

«Summer Drink.»—

Chopped ice 2 tablespoonfuls Chocolate syrup 2 tablespoonfuls Whipped cream 3 tablespoonfuls Milk 1/2 cup Carbonated water 1/4 cup

Shake or stir well before drinking. A tablespoonful of vanilla ice cream is a desirable addition. A plainer drink is made by combining the syrup, 3/4 cup of milk, and the ice, and shaking well.

«American Champagne.»—Good cider (crab-apple cider is the best), 7 gallons; best fourth-proof brandy, 1 quart; genuine champagne wine, 5 pints; milk, 1 gallon; bitartrate of potassa, 2 ounces. Mix, let stand a short time; bottle while fermenting. An excellent imitation.

«British Champagne.»—Loaf sugar, 56 pounds; brown sugar (pale), 48 pounds; water (warm), 45 gallons; white tartar, 4 ounces; mix, and at a proper temperature add yeast, 1 quart; and afterwards sweet cider, 5 gallons; bruised wild cherries, 14 or 15 ounces; pale spirits, 1 gallon; orris powder, 1/2 ounce. Bottle while fermenting.

«Champagne Cider.»—Good pale cider, 1 hogshead; spirits, 3 gallons; sugar, 20 pounds; mix, and let it stand one fortnight; then fine with skimmed milk, 1/2 gallon; this will be very pale, and a similar article, when properly bottled and labeled, opens so briskly that even good judges have mistaken it for genuine champagne.


«Scotch Beer.»—Add 1 peck malt to 4 gallons of boiling water and let it mash for 8 hours, and then strain, and in the strained liquor boil:

Hops 4 ounces Coriander seeds 1 ounce Honey 1 pound Orange peel 2 ounces Bruised ginger 1 ounce

Boil for half an hour, then strain and ferment in the usual way.

«Hop Bitter Beer.»—

Coriander seeds 2 ounces Orange peel 4 ounces Ginger 1 ounce Gentian root 1/2 ounce

Boil in 5 gallons of water for half an hour, then strain and put into the liquor 4 ounces hops and 3 pounds of sugar, and simmer for 15 minutes, then add sufficient yeast, and bottle when ready.

«Sarsaparilla Beer.»—I.—Compound extract of sarsaparilla, 1 1/2 ounces; hot water, 1 pint; dissolve, and when cold, add of good pale or East India ale, 7 pints.

II.—Sarsaparilla (sliced), 1 pound; guaiacum bark (bruised small), 1/4 pound; guaiacum wood (rasped) and licorice root (sliced), of each, 2 ounces; aniseed (bruised), 1 1/2 ounces; mezereon {119} root-bark, 1 ounce; cloves (cut small), 1/4 ounce; moist sugar, 3 1/2 pounds; hot water (not boiling), 9 quarts; mix in a clean stone jar, and keep it in a moderately warm room (shaking it twice or thrice daily) until active fermentation sets in, then let it repose for about a week, when it will be ready for use. This is said to be superior to the other preparations of sarsaparilla as an alterative or purifier of the blood, particularly in old affections. That usually made has generally only 1/2 of the above quantity of sugar, for which molasses is often substituted; but in either case it will not keep well; whereas, with proper caution, the products of the above formulas may be kept for 1 or even 2 years. No yeast must be used. Dose: A small tumblerful 3 or 4 times a day, or oftener.

«Spruce Beer.»—I.—Sugar, 1 pound; essence of spruce, 1/2 ounce; boiling water, 1 gallon; mix well, and when nearly cold add of yeast 1/2 wineglassful; and the next day bottle like ginger beer.

II.—Essence of spruce, 1/2 pint; pimento and ginger (bruised), of each, 5 ounces; hops, 1/2 pound; water, 3 gallons; boil the whole for 10 minutes, then add of moist sugar, 12 pounds (or good molasses, 14 pounds); warm water, 11 gallons; mix well, and, when only lukewarm, further add of yeast, 1 pint; after the liquid has fermented for about 24 hours, bottle it.

This is diuretic and antiscorbutic. It is regarded as an agreeable summer drink, and often found useful during long sea voyages. When made with lump sugar it is called White Spruce Beer; when with moist sugar or treacle, Brown Spruce Beer. An inferior sort is made by using less sugar or more water.

«Treacle Beer.»—I.—From treacle or molasses, 3/4 to 2 pounds per gallon (according to the desired strength); hops, 1/4 to 3/4 ounce; yeast, a tablespoonful; water, q. s.; treated as below.

II.—Hops, 1 1/2 pounds; corianders, 1 ounce; capsicum pods (cut small), 1/2 ounce; water, 8 gallons; boil for 10 or 15 minutes, and strain the liquor through a coarse sieve into a barrel containing treacle, 28 pounds; then throw back the hops, etc., into the copper and reboil them, for 10 minutes, with a second 8 gallons of water, which must be strained into the barrel, as before; next “rummage” the whole well with a stout stick, add of cold water 21 gallons (sufficient to make the whole measure 37 gallons), and, again after mixing, stir in 1/2 pint of good fresh yeast; lastly, let it remain for 24 hours in a moderately warm place, after which it may be put into the cellar, and in 2 or 3 days bottled or tapped on draught. In a week it will be fit to drink. For a stronger beer, 36 pounds, or even half a hundredweight of molasses may be used. It will then keep good for a twelvemonth. This is a wholesome drink, but apt to prove laxative when taken in large quantities.

«Weiss Beer.»—This differs from the ordinary lager beer in that it contains wheat malt. The proportions are 2/3 wheat to 1/3 barley malt, 1 pound hops being used with a peck of the combined malt to each 20 gallons of water. A good deal depends on the yeast, which must be of a special kind, the best grades being imported from Germany.

«Yellow Coloring for Beverages.»—The coloring agents employed are fustic, saffron, turmeric, quercitron, and the various aniline dyes. Here are some formulas:

I.—Saffron 1 ounce Deodorized alcohol 4 fluidounces Distilled water 4 fluidounces

Mix alcohol and water, and then add the saffron. Allow the mixture to stand in a warm place for several days, shaking occasionally; then filter. The tincture thus prepared has a deep orange color, and when diluted or used in small quantities gives a beautiful yellow tint to syrups, etc.

II.—Ground fustic wood 1 1/2 ounces Deodorized alcohol 4 fluidounces Distilled water 4 fluidounces

This color may be made in the same manner as the liquid saffron, and is a fine coloring for many purposes.

III.—Turmeric powder 2 ounces Alcohol, dilute 16 ounces

Macerate for several days, agitating frequently, and filter. For some beverages the addition of this tincture is not to be recommended, as it possesses a very spicy taste.

The nonpoisonous aniline dyes recommended for coloring confectionery, beverages, liquors, essences, etc., yellow are those known as acid yellow R and tropæolin 000 (orange I).

BICYCLE-TIRE CEMENT: See Adhesives, under Rubber Cements.

BICYCLE VARNISHES: See Varnishes. {120}


BILLIARD BALLS: See Ivory and Casein.


BIRCH WATER: See Hair Preparations.



See also Veterinary Formulas.

«Mixed Birdseed.»—

Canary seed 6 parts Rape seed 2 parts Maw seed 1 part Millet seed 2 parts

«Mocking-Bird Food.»—

Cayenne pepper 2 ounces Rape seed 8 ounces Hemp seed 16 ounces Corn meal 2 ounces Rice 2 ounces Cracker 8 ounces Lard oil 2 ounces

Mix the solids, grinding to a coarse powder, and incorporate the oil.

«Food for Redbirds.»—

Sunflower seed 8 ounces Hemp seed 16 ounces Canary seed 10 ounces Wheat 8 ounces Rice 6 ounces

Mix and grind to coarse powder.

BIRD LIME: See Lime.

BIRD PASTE: See Canary-Bird Paste.

BISCHOFF: See Wines and Liquors.

BISCUIT, DOG: See Dog Biscuit.



BITTERS: See Wines and Liquors.



BLACKING FOR SHOES: See Shoedressings.

BLACKING, STOVE: See Stove Blackings and Polishes.




BLANKET WASHING: See Household Formulas.

BLASTING POWDER: See Explosives.


«Linen.»—Mix common bleaching powder in the proportion of 1 pound to a gallon of water; stir it occasionally for 3 days, let it settle, and pour it off clear. Then make a lye of 1 pound of soda to 1 gallon of boiling water, in which soak the linen for 12 hours, and boil it half an hour; next soak it in the bleaching liquor, made as above; and lastly, wash it in the usual manner. Discolored linen or muslin may be restored by putting a portion of bleaching liquor into the tub wherein the articles are soaking.

«Straw.»—I.—Dip the straw in a solution of oxygenated muriatic acid, saturated with potash. (Oxygenated muriate of lime is much cheaper.) The straw is thus rendered very white, and its flexibility is increased.

II.—Straw is bleached by simply exposing it in a closed chamber to the fumes of burning sulphur. An old flour barrel is the apparatus most used for the purpose by milliners, a flat stone being laid on the ground, the sulphur ignited thereon, and the barrel containing the goods to be bleached turned over it. The goods should be previously washed in pure water.

«Wool, Silk, or Straw.»—Mix together 4 pounds of oxalic acid, 4 pounds of table salt, water 50 gallons. The goods are laid in this mixture for 1 hour; they are then generally well bleached, and only require to be thoroughly rinsed and worked. For bleaching straw it is best to soak the goods in caustic soda, and afterwards to make use of chloride of lime or Javelle water. The excess of {121} chlorine is afterwards removed by hyposulphite of soda.

«Feathers.»—Place the feathers from 3 to 4 hours in a tepid dilute solution of bichromate of potassa, to which, cautiously, some nitric acid has been added (a small quantity only). To remove a greenish hue induced by this solution, place them in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid, in water, whereby the feathers become perfectly white and bleached.

«Bleaching Solution.»—Aluminum hypochloride, or Wilson’s bleaching liquid, is produced by adding to a clear solution of lime chloride a solution of aluminum sulphate (alumina, alum) as long as a precipitate keeps forming. By mutual decomposition aluminum chloride results, which remains in solution, and lime sulphate (gypsum), which separates out in the form of an insoluble salt.


I.—Soft soap 40 parts Amyl alcohol 50 parts Methylated spirit 20 parts Water 1,000 parts II.—Soft soap 30 parts Sulphureted potash 2 parts Amyl alcohol 32 parts Water 1,000 parts III.—Soft soap 15 parts Sulphureted potash 29 parts Water 1,000 parts



BLEEDING, LOCAL: See Styptics.

BLISTER CURE: See Turpentine.

BLISTERS, FOR HORSES: See Veterinary Formulas.





To distinguish blue from green at night, use either the light of a magnesium wire for this purpose or take a number of Swedish (parlor) matches, light them, and as soon as they flash up, observe the 2 colors, when the difference can be easily told.

BLUE (BALL): See Dyes.

BLUING: See Laundry Preparations.



Use a solution of sodium carbonate and water, with a little red ink mixed in. This gives a very pleasing pink color to the changes which, at the same time, is very noticeable. The amount of sodium carbonate used depends upon the surface of the blue-print paper, as some coarse-grained papers will look better if less soda is used and _vice versa_. However, the amount of powdered soda held on a small coin dissolved in a bottle of water gives good results.


BLUE PRINTS, TO TURN BROWN: See Photography, under Toning.


Take a piece of soft linen or borated gauze, rub some vaseline upon one side of it, quickly pour upon it some chloroform, apply it to the unopened boil or carbuncle, and place a bandage over all. It smarts a little at first, but this is soon succeeded by a pleasing, cool sensation. The patient is given a bottle of the remedy, and directed to change the cloth often. In from 2 hours to 1 day the boil (no matter how indurated) softens and opens.

«Boiler Compounds»

There are three chemicals which are known to attack boiler scale. These are caustic soda, soda ash, and tannic-acid compounds, the last being derived from sumac, catechu, and the exhausted bark liquor from tanneries.

Caustic soda in large excess is injurious to boiler fittings, gaskets, valves, {122} etc. That it is injurious, in reasonable excess, to the boiler tubes themselves is yet to be proved. Foaming and priming may be caused through excess of caustic soda or soda ash, as is well known by every practical engineer. Tannic acid is to be condemned and the use of its salts is not to be recommended. It may unite with the organic matter, present in the form of albuminoids, and with calcium and magnesium carbonates. That it removes scale is an assured fact; that it removes iron with the scale is also assured, as tannic acid corrodes an iron surface rapidly.

Compounds of vegetable origin are widely advertised, but they often contain dextrine and gum, both of which are dangerous, as they coat the tubes with a compact scale, not permitting the water to reach the iron. Molasses is acid and should not be used in the boiler. Starch substances generally should be avoided. Kerosene must be dangerous, as it is very volatile and must soon leave the boiler and pass over and through the engine.

There are two materials the use of which in boilers is not prohibited through action upon the metal itself or on account of price. These are soda ash and caustic soda. Sodium triphosphate and sodium fluoride have both been used with success, but their cost is several hundred per cent greater than soda ash. If prescribed as per analysis, in slight excess, there should be no injurious results through the use of caustic soda and soda ash. It would be practicable to manufacture an intimate mixture of caustic soda and carbonate of soda, containing enough of each to soften the average water of a given district.

There is a great deal of fraud in connection with boiler compounds generally. The better class of venders advertise to prepare a special compound for special water. This is expensive, save on a large scale, in reference to a particular water, for it would mean a score or more of tanks with men to make up the mixtures. The less honest of the boiler-compound guild consign each sample of water to the sewer and send the regular goods. Others have a stock analysis which is sent to customers of a given locality, whether it contains iron, lime, or magnesium sulphates or carbonates.

Any expense for softening water in excess of 3 cents per 1,000 gallons is for the privilege of using a ready-made softener. Every superintendent in charge of a plant should insist that the compound used be pronounced by competent authority free from injurious materials, and that it be adapted to the water in use.

Boiler compounds should contain only such ingredients as will neutralize the scale-forming salts present. They should be used only by prescription, so many gallons per 1,000 gallons of feed water. A properly proportioned mixture of soda ought to answer the demands of all plants depending upon that method of softening water in limestone and shale regions.

The honest boiler compounds are, however, useful for small isolated plants, because of the simplicity of their action. For plants of from 75 to 150 horse power two 24-hour settling tanks will answer the purpose of a softening system. Each of these, capable of holding a day’s supply, provided with a soda tank in common, and with sludge valves, has paddles for stirring the contents. Large plants are operated on this principle, serving boilers of many thousand horse power. Such a system has an advantage over a continuous system, in that the exact amount of chemical solutions required for softening the particular water can be applied. For some variations of such a system, several companies have secured patents. The fundamental principles, however, have been used for many years and are not patentable.

«Prevention of Boiler Scale.»—The lime contained in the feed water, either as bicarbonate or as sulphate, is precipitated in the shape of a light mud, but the walls of the boiler remain perfectly bright without being attacked in any manner. While under ordinary atmospheric pressure calcium chromate in solution is precipitated by soda or Glauber’s salt as calcium carbonate or as calcium sulphate; the latter is separated under higher pressure by chromates as calcium chromate. An excess of chromates or chromic acid does not exercise any deleterious action upon the metal, nor upon the materials used for packing. By the slight admixture of chromates, two pounds are sufficient for a small boiler for weeks; no injurious ingredients are carried in by the wet steam, the injection water, on the contrary, having been found to be chemically pure.

«Protecting Boiler Plates from Scale.»—

I.—For a 5-horse-power boiler, fed with water which contains calcic sulphate, take catechu, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; crystallized soda, 2 pounds; potash, 1/2 pound; cane sugar, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound. {123}

II.—For a boiler of the same size, fed with water which contains lime: Turmeric, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; sodium bicarbonate, 2 pounds; potash, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; molasses, 1/2 pound.

III.—For a boiler of the same size, fed with water which contains iron: Gamboge, 2 pounds; soda, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; potash, 1/2 pound; sugar, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound.

IV.—For a boiler of the same size, fed with sea water: Catechu, 2 pounds; Glauber’s salt, 2 pounds; dextrine, 2 pounds; alum, 1/2 pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound.

When these preparations are used add 1 quart of water, and in ordinary cases charge the boiler every month; but if the incrustation is very bad, charge every two weeks.

V.—Place within the boiler of 100 horse power 1 bucketful of washing soda; put in 2 gallons of kerosene oil (after closing the blow-off cock), and fill the boiler with water. Feed in at least 1 quart of kerosene oil every day through a sight-feed oil cup attached to the feed pipe near the boiler—i. e., between the heater and the boiler—so that the oil is not entrapped within the heater. If it is inconvenient to open the boiler, then dissolve the washing soda in hot water and feed it in with the pump or through a tallow cock (attached between the ejector and the valve in the suction pipe) when the ejector is working.

VI.—A paint for protecting boiler plates from scale, and patented in Germany, is composed of 10 pounds each of train oil, horse fat, paraffine, and of finely ground zinc white. To this mixture is added 40 pounds of graphite and 10 pounds of soot made together into a paste with 1 1/2 gallons of water, and about a pound of carbolic acid. The horse fat and the zinc oxide make a soap difficult to fuse, which adheres strongly to the plates, and binds the graphite and the soot. The paraffine prevents the water from penetrating the coats. The scale which forms on this application can be detached, it is said, with a wooden mallet, without injuring the paint.

VII.—M. E. Asselin, of Paris, recommends the use of glycerine as a preventive. It increases the solubility of combinations of lime, and especially of the sulphate. It forms with these combinations soluble compounds. When the quantity of lime becomes so great that it can no longer be dissolved, nor form soluble combinations, it is deposited in a gelatinous substance, which never adheres to the surface of the iron plates. The gelatinous substances thus formed are not carried with the steam into the cylinder of the engine. M. Asselin advises the employment of 1 pound of glycerine for every 300 pounds or 400 pounds of coal burnt.

«Prevention of Electrolysis.»—In order to prevent the eating away of the sheets and tubes by electrolytic action, it has long been the practice of marine engineers to suspend slabs of zinc in their boilers. The zinc, being more susceptible to the electrolytic action than the iron, is eaten away, while the iron remains unimpaired. The use of zinc in this way has been found also to reduce the trouble from boiler scale. Whether it be due to the formation of hydrogen bubbles between the heating surfaces and incipient scale, to the presence in the water of the zinc salts resulting from the dissolution of the zinc, or to whatever cause, it appears to be a general conclusion among those who have used it that the zinc helps the scale, as well as the corrosion. Nobody has ever claimed for it that it prevented the attachment of scale altogether, but the consensus of opinion is that it “helps some.”


It hardly pays to reduce pressure on boilers, except in very extreme cases, but if it can be done by throttling before the steam reaches the cylinder of the engine it would be an advantage, because this retains the heat units due to the higher pressure in the steam, and the throttling has a slight superheating effect. As a matter of fact, tests go to show that for light loads and high pressure a throttling engine may do better than an automatic cut-off. The ideal arrangement is to throttle the steam for light loads; for heavier loads, allow the variable cut-off to come into play. This practice has been carried into effect by the design of Mr. E. J. Armstrong, in which he arranges the shaft governor so that there is negative lead up to nearly one-quarter cut-off, after which the lead becomes positive, and this has the effect of throttling the steam for the earlier loads and undoubtedly gives better economy, in addition to making the engine run more quietly.


«Bone or Ivory Black.»—All bones (and ivory is bone in a sense) consist of a framework of crystallized matter or bone earth, in the interstices of which organic matter is embedded. Hence if {124} bones are heated red-hot in a closed vessel, the organic matter is destroyed, leaving carbon, in a finely divided state, lodged in the bony framework. If the heat is applied gradually the bone retains its shape, but is quite black and of much less weight than at first. This bone black or animal charcoal is a substance which has great power of absorbing coloring matter from liquids, so that it is largely used for bleaching such liquids. For example, in the vast industry of beet-sugar manufacture the solutions first made are very dark in color, but after filtration through animal charcoal will give colorless crystals on evaporation. Chemical trades require such large quantities of bone charcoal that its production is a large industry in itself. As in breaking up the charred bones a considerable amount of waste is produced, in the form of dust and small grains which cannot be used for bleaching purposes, this waste should be worked up into a pigment. This is done by dissolving out the mineral with hydrochloric acid, and then rinsing and drying the carbon.

The mineral basis of bones consists mainly of the phosphates of lime and magnesia, salts soluble in not too dilute hydrochloric acid. A vat is half filled with the above-mentioned waste, which is then just covered with a mixture of equal volumes of commercial hydrochloric acid and water. As the mineral matter also contains carbonates, a lively effervescence at once ensues, and small quantities of hydrofluoric acid are also formed from the decomposition of calcium fluoride in the bones. Now hydrofluoric acid is a very dangerous substance, as air containing even traces of it is very injurious to the lungs. Hence the addition of hydrochloric acid should be done in the open air, and the vat should be left by itself until the evolution of fumes ceases. A plug is then pulled out at the bottom and the carbon is thoroughly drained. It is then stirred up with water and again drained, when it has fully settled to the bottom. This rinsing with clear water is repeated till all the hydrochloric acid is washed away and only pure carbon remains in the vat. As for pigment-making purposes it is essential that the carbon should be as finely divided as possible, it is as well to grind the washed carbon in an ordinary color mill. Very little power is required for this purpose, as when once the bone earth is removed the carbon particles have little cohesion. The properly ground mass forms a deep-black mud, which can be left to dry or be dried by artificial heat. When dry, the purified bone black is of a pure black and makes a most excellent pigment.

Bone black is put upon the market under all sorts of names, such as ivory black, _ebur ustum_, Frankfort black, neutral black, etc. All these consist of finely ground bone black purified from mineral matter. If leather scraps or dried blood are to be worked up, iron tubes are employed, closed at one end, and with a well-fitting lid with a small hole in it at the other. As these bodies give off large volumes of combustible gas during the charring, it is a good plan to lead the vapors from the hole by a bent tube so that they can be burnt and help to supply the heat required and so save fuel. Leather or blood gives a charcoal which hardly requires treatment with hydrochloric acid, for the amount of mineral salts present is so small that its removal appears superfluous.


Place a stethoscope on one side of the supposed fracture, and a tuning fork on the other. When the latter is vibrated, and there is no breakage, the sound will be heard distinctly through bone and stethoscope. Should any doubt exist, comparison should be made with the same bone on the other side of the body. This test shows the difference in the power of conducting sound possessed by bone and soft tissue.


BONE FAT: See Fats.


BONE POLISHES: See Polishes.

BONE FERTILIZERS: See Fertilizers.




«The Preservation of Books in Hot Climates.»—Books in hot climates quickly deteriorate unless carefully guarded. There are three destructive agencies: (1) damp, (2) a small black insect, (3) cockroaches. {125}

(1) Books which are kept in a damp atmosphere deteriorate on account of molds and fungi that grow rapidly when the conditions are favorable. Books are best kept on open, airy, well-lighted shelves. When there has been a prolonged spell of moist weather their covers should be wiped, and they should be placed in the sun or before a fire for a few hours. Damp also causes the bindings and leaves of some books to separate.

(2) A small black insect, one-eighth of an inch long and a sixteenth of an inch broad, somewhat resembling a beetle, is very destructive, and books will be found, if left untouched, after a few months to have numerous holes in the covers and leaves. If this insect be allowed plenty of time for its ravages it will make so many holes that bindings originally strong can be easily torn to pieces. All damage may be prevented by coating the covers of books with the varnish described under (3). When books are found to contain the insects they should be well wrapped and placed in the sun before varnishing.

(3) The appearance of a fine binding may be destroyed in a single night by cockroaches. The lettering of the binding may, in two or three days, be completely obliterated.

The following varnishes have been found to prevent effectually the ravages of cockroaches and of all insects that feed upon books:

I.—Dammar resin 2 ounces Mastic 2 ounces Canada balsam 1 ounce Creosote 1/2 ounce Spirit of wine 20 fl. ounces

Macerate with occasional shaking for a few days if wanted at once, but for a longer time when possible, as a better varnish will result after a maceration of several months.

II.—Corrosive sublimate, 1 ounce; carbolic acid, 1 ounce; methylated or rum spirit, 1 quart.

Where it is necessary to keep books or paper of any description in boxes, cupboards, or closed bookcases, some naphthalene balls or camphor should be always present with them. If camphor be used it is best to wrap it in paper, otherwise it volatilizes more quickly than is necessary. In dry weather the doors of closed bookcases should be left open occasionally, as a damp, still atmosphere is most favorable for deterioration.

«How to Open a Book.»—Never force the back of the book. Hold the book with its back on a smooth or covered table; let the front board down, then the other, holding the leaves in one hand while you open a few leaves at the back, then a few at the front, and so on, alternately opening back and front, gently pressing open the sections till you reach the center of the volume. Do this two or three times and you will obtain the best results. Open the volume violently or carelessly in any one place and you will probably break the back or cause a start in the leaves.

BOOK DISINFECTANT: See Disinfectants.

BOOKS, TO REMOVE FINGER-MARKS FROM: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


BOOKWORMS: See Insecticides.

BOOT DRESSINGS: See Shoe Dressings.

BOOT LUBRICANT: See Lubricant.

BOOTS, WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.


I.—Sprinkling borax is not only cheaper, but also dissolves less in soldering than pure borax.

The borax is heated in a metal vessel until it has lost its water of crystallization and mixed with calcined cooking salt and potash—borax, 8 parts; cooking salt, 3 parts; potash, 3 parts. Next it is pounded in a mortar into a fine powder, constituting the sprinkling borax.

II.—Another kind of sprinkling borax is prepared by substituting glass-gall for the potash. Glass-gall is the froth floating on the melted glass, which can be skimmed off.

The borax is either dusted on in powder form from a sprinkling box or stirred with water before use into a thin paste.


BORDEAUX MIXTURE: See Insecticides.

BOROTONIC: See Dentifrices. {126}


BOTTLE CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.


BOTTLE VARNISH: See Varnishes.

BOTTLE WAX: See Photography.

BOUILLON: See Beverages.


BOWLS OF FIRE TRICK: See Pyrotechnics.

BOX GLUE: See Adhesives.

BRAGA: See Beverages.


For the detection of sawdust in bran use a solution of 1 part of phloroglucin in 15 parts of alcohol, 15 parts of water, and 10 parts of syrupy phosphoric acid. Place 2 parts of the solution in a small porcelain dish, add a knifepointful of the bran and heat moderately. Sawdust is dyed red while bran parts only seldom acquire a faint red color. By a microscopic examination of the reddish parts, sawdust will be readily recognized.


«Magic Bottles.»—

The mystery of the “wonderful bottle,” from which can be poured in succession port wine, sherry, claret, water, champagne, or ink, at the will of the operator, is easily explained. The materials consist of an ordinary dark-colored pint wine bottle, seven wine glasses of different patterns, and the chemicals described below:

Solution A: A mixture of tincture of ferric chloride, drachms vi; hydrochloric acid, drachms ii.

Solution B: Saturated solution of ammonium sulphocyanide, drachm i.

Solution C: Strong solution of ferric chloride, drachm i.

Solution D: A weak solution of ammonium sulphocyanide.

Solution E: Concentrated solution of lead acetate.

Solution F: Solution of ammonium sulphide, drachm i; or pyrogallic acid, drachm i.

Package G: Pulverized potassium bicarbonate, drachm iss.

Having poured two teaspoonfuls of solution A into the wine bottle, treat the wine glasses with the different solutions, noting and remembering into which glasses the several solutions are placed. Into No. 1 wine glass pour one or two drops of solution B; into No. 2 glass pour one or two drops of solution C; into No. 3 one or two drops of Solution D; leave No. 4 glass empty; into No. 5 glass pour a few drops of Solution E; into No. 6 glass place a few grains of Package G; into No. 7 glass pour a little of solution F.

Request some one to bring you some cold drinking water, and to guarantee that it is pure show that your wine bottle is (practically) empty. Fill it up from the carafe, and having asked the audience whether you shall produce wine or water, milk or ink, etc., you may obtain any of these by pouring a little of the water from the bottle into the prepared glass. Thus No. 1 glass gives a port-wine color; No. 2 gives a sherry color; No. 3 gives a claret color; No. 4 is left empty to prove that the solution in the bottle is colorless; No. 5 produces milk; No. 6, effervescing champagne; No. 7, ink.

«Bottle-Capping Mixtures.»—

I.—Soak 7 pounds of good gelatin in 10 ounces of glycerine and 60 ounces of water, and heat over a water bath until dissolved, and add any desired color. Pigments may be used, and various tints can be obtained by the use of aniline colors. The resulting compound should be stored in jars. To apply liquefy the mass and dip the cork and portion of the neck of the bottle into the liquid; it sets very quickly.

II.—Gelatin 1 ounce Gum arabic 1 ounce Boric acid 20 grains Starch 1 ounce Water 16 fluidounces

Mix the gelatin, gum arabic, and boric acid with 14 fluidounces of cold water, stir occasionally until the gum is dissolved, heat the mixture to boiling, remove the scum, and strain. Also mix the starch intimately with the remainder of the water, and stir this mixture into the hot gelatin mixture until a uniform product results. As noted above, the composition may be tinted with any suitable dye. Before using, it must be softened by the application of heat. {127}

III.—Shellac 3 ounces Venice turpentine 1 1/2 ounces Boric acid 72 grains Powdered talcum 3 ounces Ether 6 fluidrams Alcohol 12 1/2 fluidounces

Dissolve the shellac, turpentine, and boric acid in the mixed alcohol and ether, color with a spirit-soluble dye, and add the talcum. During use the mixture must be agitated frequently.

«Show Bottles.»—

I.—Place in a cylindrical bottle the following liquids in the order named:

First, sulphuric acid, tinted blue with indigo; second, chloroform; third, glycerine, slightly tinted with caramel; fourth, castor oil, colored with alkanet root; fifth, 40-per-cent alcohol, slightly tinted with aniline green; sixth, cod-liver oil, containing 1 per cent of oil of turpentine. The liquids are held in place by force of gravity, and alternate with fluids which are not miscible, so that the strata of layers are clearly defined and do not mingle by diffusion.

II.—Chromic acid 1 drachm Commercial “muriatic” acid 2 ounces Nitric acid 2 ounces Water, enough to make 3 gallons

The color is magenta.

The following makes a fine pink for show carboys:

III.—Cobalt oxide 2 parts Nitric acid, c. p. 1 part Hydrochloric acid 1 part

Mix and dissolve, and to the solution add:

Strongest water of ammonia 6 parts Sulphuric acid 1 part Water, distilled, q. s. to make 400 parts

This should be left standing in a dark, cool place for at least a month before putting in the window.

IV.—Green.—Copper sulphate, 300 parts, by weight; hydrochloric acid, 450 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.

V.—Blue.—Copper sulphate, 480 parts, by weight; sulphuric acid, 60 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 450 parts, by weight.

VI.—Yellowish Brown.—Potassium dichromate, 120 parts, by weight; nitric acid, 150 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.

VII.—Yellow.—Potassium dichromate, 30 parts, by weight; sodium bicarbonate, 225 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.

VIII.—Red.—Liquid ferric chloride, officinal, 60 parts, by weight; concentrated ammonium-acetate solution, 120 parts, by weight; acetic acid, 30 per cent, 30 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 9,000 parts, by weight.

IX.—Crimson.—Potassium iodide, 7.5 parts, by weight; iodine, 7.5 parts, by weight; hydrochloric acid, 60 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.

All the solutions IV to IX should be filtered. If distilled water be used these solutions should keep for five to ten years. In order to prevent them from freezing, either add 10 per cent of alcohol, or reduce the quantity of water by 10 per cent.

«A Cheap and Excellent Warming Bottle.»—Mix sodium acetate and sodium hyposulphate in the proportion of 1 part of the former to 9 parts of the latter, and with the mixture fill an earthenware bottle about three-quarters full. Close the vessel well with a cork and place it either in hot water or in the oven, and let remain until the salts within melt. For at least a half day the jug will radiate its heat, and need only be well shaken from time to time to renew its heat-giving energy.

«Bottle Deodorizer.»—Powdered black mustard seed is successfully employed. Pour a little of it with some lukewarm water into the receptacle, rinsing it afterwards with water. If necessary, repeat the process.



Formulas for the making of Brass will be found under Alloys.

«Colors for Polished Brass.»—The brass objects are put into boiling solutions composed of different salts, and the intensity of the shade obtained is dependent upon the duration of the immersion. With a solution composed of

Sulphate of copper 120 grains Hydrochlorate of ammonia 30 grains Water 1 quart

greenish shades are obtained. With the following solution all the shades of brown from orange brown to cinnamon are obtained: {128}

Chlorate of potash 150 grains Sulphate of copper 150 grains Water 1 quart

The following solution gives the brass first a rosy tint and then colors it violet and blue:

Sulphate of copper 435 grains Hyposulphite of soda 300 grains Cream of tartar 150 grains Water 1 pint

Upon adding to the last solution

Ammoniacal sulphate of iron 300 grains Hyposulphite of soda 300 grains

there are obtained, according to the duration of the immersion, yellowish, orange, rosy, then bluish shades. Upon polarizing the ebullition the blue tint gives way to yellow, and finally to a pretty gray. Silver, under the same circumstances, becomes very beautifully colored. After a long ebullition in the following solution we obtain a yellow-brown shade, and then a remarkable fire red:

Chlorate of potash 75 grains Carbonate of nickel 30 grains Salt of nickel 75 grains Water 16 ounces

The following solution gives a beautiful, dark-brown color:

Chlorate of potash 75 grains Salt of nickel 150 grains Water 10 ounces

The following gives, in the first place, a red, which passes to blue, then to pale lilac, and finally to white:

Orpiment 75 grains Crystallized sal sodæ 150 grains Water 10 ounces

The following gives a yellow brown:

Salt of nickel 75 grains Sulphate of copper 75 grains Chlorate of potash 75 grains Water 10 ounces

On mixing the following solutions, sulphur separates and the brass becomes covered with iridescent crystallizations:

I.—Cream of tartar 75 grains Sulphate of copper 75 grains Water 10 ounces

II.—Hyposulphite of soda 225 grains Water 5 ounces

Upon leaving the brass objects immersed in the following mixture contained in corked vessels they at length acquire a very beautiful blue color:

Hepar of sulphur 15 grains Ammonia 75 grains Water 4 ounces

«Miscellaneous Coloring of Brass.»—Yellow to bright red: Dissolve 2 parts native copper carbonate with 1 part caustic soda in 10 parts water. Dip for a few minutes into the liquor, the various shades desired being obtained according to the length of time of the immersion. Green: Dissolve 1 part copper acetate (verdigris), 1 part blue vitriol, and 1 part alum in 10 parts of water and boil the articles therein. Black: For optical articles, photographic apparatus, plates, rings, screws, etc., dissolve 45 parts of malachite (native copper carbonate) in 1,000 parts of sal ammoniac. For use clean and remove the grease from the article by pickling and dip it into the bath until the coating is strong enough. The bath operates better and quicker if heated. Should the oxidation be a failure it should be removed by dipping into the brass pickle.

A verdigris color on brass is produced by treating the articles with dilute acids, acetic acid, or sulphuric acid, and drying.

Brown in all varieties of shades is obtained by immersing the metal in solutions of nitrates or ferric chloride after it has been corroded with dilute nitric acid, cleaned with sand and water, and dried. The strength of the solutions governs the deepness of the resulting color.

Violet is caused by immersing the thoroughly cleaned objects in a solution of ammonium chloride.

Chocolate color results if red ferric oxide is strewn on and burned off, followed by polishing with a small quantity of galena.

Olive green is produced by blackening the surface with a solution of iron in hydrochloric acid, polishing with galena, and coating hot with a lacquer composed of 1 part varnish, 4 parts cincuma, and 1 part gamboge.

A steel-blue coloring is obtained by means of a dilute boiling solution of chloride of arsenic, and a blue one by a treatment with strong hyposulphite of soda. Another formula for bluing brass is: Dissolve 10 parts of antimony chloride in 200 parts of water, and add 30 parts of pure hydrochloric acid. Dip the article until it is well blued, then wash and dry in sawdust.

Black is much used for optical brass articles and is produced by coating with a solution of platinum or auric chloride mixed with nitrate of tin.

«Coloring Unpolished Brass.»—A yellow color of handsome effect is obtained on {129} unpolished brass by means of antimony-chloride solution. This is produced by finely powdering gray antimony and boiling it with hydrochloric acid. With formation of hydrogen sulphide a solution of antimony results, which must not be diluted with water, since a white precipitate of antimony oxychloride is immediately formed upon admixture of water. For dilution, completely saturated cooking-salt solution is employed, using for 1 part of antimony chloride 2 parts of salt solution.

«Coloring Fluid for Brass.»—Caustic soda, 33 parts; water, 24 parts; hydrated carbonate of copper, 5.5 parts.

Dissolve the salt in water and dip the metal in the solution obtained. The intensity of the color will be proportional to the time of immersion. After removing the object from the liquid, rinse with water and dry in sawdust.

«Black Color on Brass.»—A black or oxidized surface on brass is produced by a solution of carbonate of copper in ammonia. The work is immersed and allowed to remain until the required tint is observed. The carbonate of copper is best used in a plastic condition, as it is then much more easily dissolved. Plastic carbonate of copper may be mixed as follows: Make a solution of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) in hot water, and add a strong solution of common washing soda to it as long as any precipitate forms. The precipitate is allowed to settle, and the clear liquid is poured off. Hot water is added, and the mass stirred and again allowed to settle. This operation is repeated six or eight times to remove the impurities. After the water has been removed during the last pouring, and nothing is left but an emulsion of the thick plastic carbonate in a small quantity of water, liquid ammonia is added until everything is dissolved and a clear, deep-blue liquid is produced. If too strong, water may be added, but a strong solution is better than a weak one. If it is desired to make the solution from commercial plastic carbonate of copper the following directions may be followed: Dissolve 1 pound of the plastic carbonate of copper in 2 gallons of strong ammonia. This gives the required strength of solution.

The brass which it is desired to blacken is first boiled in a strong potash solution to remove grease and oil, then well rinsed and dipped in the copper solution, which has previously been heated to from 150° to 175° F. This solution, if heated too hot, gives off all the ammonia. The brass is left in the solution until the required tint is produced. The color produced is uniform, black, and tenacious. The brass is rinsed and dried in sawdust. A great variety of effects may be produced by first finishing the brass before blackening, as the oxidizing process does not injure the texture of the metal. A satisfactory finish is produced by first rendering the surface of the brass matt, either by scratch-brush or similar methods, as the black finish thus produced by the copper solution is dead—one of the most pleasing effects of an oxidized surface. Various effects may also be produced by coloring the entire article and then buffing the exposed portions.

The best results in the use of this solution are obtained by the use of the so-called red metals—i. e., those in which the copper predominates. The reason for this is obvious. Ordinary sheet brass consists of about 2 parts of copper and 1 part of zinc, so that the large quantity of the latter somewhat hinders the production of a deep-black surface. Yellow brass is colored black by the solution, but it is well to use some metal having a reddish tint, indicating the presence of a large amount of copper. The varieties of sheet brass known as gilding or bronze work well. Copper also gives excellent results. Where the best results are desired on yellow brass a very light electroplate of copper before the oxidizing works well and gives an excellent black. With the usual articles made of yellow brass this is rarely done, but the oxidation carried out directly.

«Black Finish for Brass.»—I.—A handsome black finish may be put on brass by the following process: Dissolve in 1,000 parts of ammonia water 45 parts of natural malachite, and in the solution put the object to be blackened, after first having carefully and thoroughly cleaned the same. After letting it stand a short time gradually warm the mixture, examining the article from time to time to ascertain if the color is deep enough. Rinse and let dry.

II.—The blacking of brass may be accomplished by immersing it in the following solution and then heating over a Bunsen burner or a spirit flame: Add a saturated solution of ammonium carbonate to a saturated copper-sulphate solution, until the precipitate resulting in the beginning has almost entirely dissolved. The immersion and heating are repeated until the brass turns dark; then it is brushed and dipped in negative varnish or dull varnish. {130}

«To Give a Brown Color to Brass.»—I.—In 1,000 parts of rain or distilled water dissolve 5 parts each of verdigris (copper acetate) and ammonium chloride. Let the solution stand 4 hours, then add 1,500 parts of water. Remove the brass to be browned from its attachment to the fixtures and make the surface perfectly bright and smooth and free from grease. Place it over a charcoal fire and heat until it “sizzes” when touched with the dampened finger. The solution is then painted over the surface with a brush or swabbed on with a rag. If one swabbing does not produce a sufficient depth of color, repeat the heating and the application of the liquid until a fine durable brown is produced. For door plates, knobs, and ornamental fixtures generally, this is one of the handsomest as well as the most durable surfaces, and is easily applied.

II.—A very handsome brown may be produced on brass castings by immersing the thoroughly cleaned and dried articles in a warm solution of 15 parts of sodium hydrate and 5 parts of cupric carbonate in 100 parts of water. The metal turns dark yellow, light brown, and finally dark brown, with a greenish shimmer, and, when the desired shade is reached, is taken out of the bath, rinsed, and dried.

III.—Paint the cleaned and dried surface uniformly with a dilute solution of ammonium sulphide. When this coating is dry, it is rubbed over, and then painted with a dilute ammoniacal solution of arsenic sulphide, until the required depth of color is attained. If the results are not satisfactory the painting can be repeated after washing over with ammonia. Prolonged immersion in the second solution produces a grayish-green film, which looks well, and acquires luster when polished with a cloth.

«Refinishing Gas Fixtures.»—Gas fixtures which have become dirty or tarnished from use may be improved in appearance by painting with bronze paint and then, if a still better finish is required, varnishing after the paint is thoroughly dry with some light-colored varnish that will give a hard and brilliant coating.

If the bronze paint is made up with ordinary varnish it is liable to become discolored from acid which may be present in the varnish. One method proposed for obviating this is to mix the varnish with about five times its volume of spirit of turpentine, add to the mixture dried slaked lime in the proportion of about 40 grains to the pint, agitate well, repeating the agitation several times, and finally allowing the suspended matter to settle and decanting the clear liquid. The object of this is to neutralize any acid which may be present. To determine how effectively this has been done the varnish may be chemically tested.

«Steel Blue and Old Silver on Brass.»—For the former dissolve 100 parts of carbonic carbonate in 750 parts of ammonia and dilute this solution with distilled water, whereupon the cleaned articles are dipped into the liquid by means of a brass wire. After two to three minutes take them out, rinse in clean water, and dry in sawdust. Old silver on brass is produced as follows: The articles are first silvered and next painted with a thin paste consisting of graphite, 6 parts; pulverized hematite, 1 part; and turpentine. Use a soft brush and dry well; then brush off the powder. Oxidized silver is obtained by dipping the silvered goods into a heated solution of liver of sulphur, 5 parts; ammonia carbonate, 10 parts; and water, 10,000 parts. Only substantially silvered objects are suited for oxidation, as a weak silvering is taken off by this solution. Unsatisfactory coloring is removed with potassium-cyanide solution. It is advisable to lay the articles in hydrogen sulphide-ammonia solution diluted with water,wherein they acquire a blue to a deep-black shade.

«Tombac Color on Brass.»—This is produced by immersion in a mixture of copper carbonate, 10 parts; caustic soda, 30 parts; water, 200 parts. This layer will only endure wiping with a cloth, not vigorous scouring with sand.

«Graining of Brass.»—Brass parts of timepieces are frequently provided with a dead grained surface. For this purpose they are fastened with flat-headed pins on cork disks and brushed with a paste of water and finest powdered pumice stone. Next they are thoroughly washed and placed in a solution of 10 quarts of water, 30 grains of mercuric nitrate, and 60 grains of sulphuric acid. In this amalgamating solution the objects become at once covered with a layer of mercury, which forms an amalgam with the copper, while the zinc passes into solution. After the articles have again been washed they are treated with graining powder, which consists of silver powder, tartar, and cooking salt. These substances must be pure, dry, and very finely pulverized. The mixing is done with moderate heat. According {131} to whether a coarser or finer grain is desired, more cooking salt or more tartar must be contained in the powder. The ordinary proportions are:

Silver powder 28 28 28 parts Tartar 283 110–140 85 parts Cooking salt 900 370 900 parts

This powder is moistened with water and applied to the object. Place the article with the cork support in a flat dish and rub on the paste with a stiff brush while turning the dish incessantly. Gradually fresh portions of graining powder are put on until the desired grain is obtained. These turn out the rounder the more the dish and brush are turned. When the right grain is attained, rinse off with water, and treat the object with a scratch brush, with employment of a decoction of saponaria. The brushes must be moved around in a circle in brushing with the pumice stone, as well as in rubbing on the graining powder and in using the scratch brush. The required silver powder is produced by precipitating a diluted solution of silver nitrate with some strips of sheet copper. The precipitated silver powder is washed out on a paper filter and dried at moderate heat.

«The Dead, or Matt, Dip for Brass.»—The dead dip is used to impart a satiny or crystalline finish to the surface. The bright dip gives a smooth, shiny, and perfectly even surface, but the dead dip is the most pleasing of any dip finish, and can be used as a base for many secondary finishes.

The dead dip is a mixture of oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) and aqua fortis (nitric acid) in which there is enough sulphate of zinc (white vitriol) to saturate the solution. It is in the presence of the sulphate of zinc that the essential difference between the bright and the dead dip exists. Without it the dead or matt surface cannot be obtained.

The method generally practiced is to add the sulphate of zinc to the mixed acids (sulphuric and nitric), so that some remains undissolved in the bottom of the vessel. It is found that the sulphate of zinc occurs in small crystals having the appearance of very coarse granulated sugar. These crystals readily settle to the bottom of the vessel and do not do the work of matting properly. If they are finely pulverized the dip is slightly improved, but it is impossible to pulverize such material to a fineness that will do the desired work. The use of sulphate of zinc, then, leaves much to be desired.

The most modern method of making up the dead dip is to produce the sulphate of zinc directly in the solution and in the precipitated form. It is well known that the most finely divided materials are those which are produced by precipitation, and in the dead dip it is very important that the sulphate of zinc shall be finely divided so that it will not immediately settle to the bottom. Therefore it should be precipitated so that when it is mixed with the acids it will not settle immediately. The method of making the sulphate of zinc directly in the solution is as follows:

Take 1 gallon of yellow aqua fortis (38° F.) and place in a stone crock which is surrounded with cold water. The cold water is to keep the heat, formed by the reaction, from evaporating the acid. Add metallic zinc in small pieces until the acid will dissolve no more. The zinc may be in any convenient form—sheet clippings, lumps, granulated, etc., that may be added little by little. If all is added at once it will boil over. When the acid will dissolve no more zinc it will be found that some of the acid has evaporated by the heat, and it will be necessary to add enough fresh acid to make up to the original gallon. When this is done add 1 gallon of strong oil of vitriol. The mixture should be stirred with a wooden paddle while the oil of vitriol is being added.

As the sulphuric acid is being added the solution begins to grow milky, and finally the whole has the consistency of thick cream. This is caused by the sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) precipitating out the sulphate of zinc. Thus the very finely divided precipitate of sulphate of zinc is formed. If one desires to use known quantities of acid and zinc the following amounts may be taken: Oil of vitriol, 1 gallon; aqua fortis (38° F.), 1 gallon; metallic zinc, 6 ounces.

In dissolving the zinc in the aqua fortis it is necessary to be sure that none remains undissolved in the bottom.

The dead or matt dip is used hot, and, therefore, is kept in a stone crock surrounded with hot water. The articles to be matted are polished and cleaned, and the dip thoroughly stirred with a wooden paddle, so as to bring up the sulphate of zinc which has settled. Dip the work in the solution and allow it to remain until the matt is obtained. This is a point which can be learned only by experience. When the brass article is first introduced there is a rapid action on the surface, but in a few seconds this slows down. Remove the article and rinse and immediately dip into the usual bright dip. This {132} is necessary for the reason that the dead dip produces a dark coating upon the surface, which, were it left on, would not show the real effect or the color of the metal. The bright dip, however, removes this and exposes the true dead surface.

The usual rule for making up the dead dip is to use equal parts of oil of vitriol and aqua fortis; but these may be altered to suit the case. More oil of vitriol gives a finer matt, while a larger quantity of aqua fortis will give a coarser matt. When the dip becomes old it is unnecessary to add more zinc, as a little goes into the solution each time anything is dipped. After a while, however, the solution becomes loaded with copper salts, and should be thrown away.

A new dip does not work well, and will not give good results when used at once. It is usual to allow it to remain over night, when it will be found to be in a better working condition in the morning. A new dip will frequently refuse to work, and the addition of a little water will often start it. The water must be used sparingly, however, and only when necessary. Water, as a usual thing, spoils a dead dip, and must be avoided. After a while it may be necessary to add a little more aqua fortis, and this may be introduced as desired. Much care is needed in working the dead dip, and it requires constant watching and experience. The chief difficulty in working the dead dip is to match a given article. The only way that it can be done is to “cut and try,” and add aqua fortis or oil of vitriol as the case requires.

The dead or matt dip can be obtained only upon brass or German silver; in other words, only on alloys which contain zinc. The best results are obtained upon yellow brass high in zinc.

«To Improve Deadened Brass Parts.»—Clock parts matted with oilstone and oil, such as the hour wheels, minute wheels, etc., obtain, by mere grinding, a somewhat dull appearance, with a sensitive surface which readily takes spots. This may be improved by preparing the following powder, rubbing a little of it on a buff stick, and treating the deadened parts, which have been cleansed with benzine, by rubbing with slight pressure on cork. This imparts to the articles a handsome, permanent, metallic matt luster. The smoothing powder consists of 2 parts of jewelers’ red and 8 parts of lime carbonate, levigated in water, and well dried. Jewelers’ red alone may be employed, but this requires some practice and care, especially in the treatment of wheels, because rays are liable to form from the teeth toward the center.

«Pickle for Brass.»—Stir 10 parts (by weight) of shining soot or snuff, 10 parts of cooking salt, and 10 parts of red tartar with 250 parts of nitric acid, and afterwards add 250 parts of sulphuric acid; or else mix 7 parts of aqua fortis (nitric acid) with 10 parts of English sulphuric acid. For the mixing ratio of the acid, the kind and alloy of the metal should be the guidance, and it is best found out by practical trials. The better the alloy and the less the percentage of zinc or lead, the handsomer will be the color. Genuine bronze, for instance, acquires a golden shade. In order to give brass the appearance of handsome gilding it is often coated with gold varnish by applying same thinly with a brush or sponge and immediately heating the metal over a coal fire.

«Pickling Brass to Look Like Gold.»—To pickle brass so as to make it resemble gold allow a mixture of 6 parts of chemically pure nitric acid and 1 part of English sulphuric acid to act for some hours upon the surface of the brass; then wash with a warm solution, 20 parts of tartar in 50 parts of water, and rub off neatly with dry sawdust. Then coat the article with the proper varnish.

«Pickle for Dipping Brass.»—To improve the appearance of brass, tombac, and copper goods, they are usually dipped. For this purpose they are first immersed in diluted oil of vitriol (brown sulphuric acid), proportion, 1 to 10; next in a mixture of 10 parts of red tartar; 10 parts of cooking salt; 250 parts of English sulphuric acid, as well as 250 parts of aqua fortis (only for a moment), rinsing off well in water and drying in sawdust. For obtaining a handsome matt gold color 1/20 part of zinc vitriol (zinc sulphate) is still added to the pickle.

«Restoration of Brass Articles.»—The brass articles are first freed from adhering dirt by the use of hot soda lye; if bronzed they are dipped in a highly dilute solution of sulphuric acid and rinsed in clean water. Next they are yellowed in a mixture of nitric acid, 75 parts; sulphuric acid, 100 parts; shining lampblack, 2 parts; cooking salt, 1 part; then rinsed and polished and, to prevent oxidation, coated with a colorless spirit varnish, a celluloid varnish being best for this purpose.

«Tempering Brass.»—If hammered too brittle brass can be tempered and made {133} of a more even hardness throughout by warming it, as in tempering steel; but the heat must not be nearly so great. Brass, heated to the blue heat of steel, is almost soft again. To soften brass, heat it nearly to a dull red and allow it to cool, or, if time is an object, it may be cooled by plunging into water.

«Drawing Temper from Brass.»—Brass is rendered hard by hammering or rolling, therefore when a brass object requires to be tempered the material must be prepared before the article is shaped. Temper may be drawn from brass by heating it to a cherry red and then simply plunging it into water, the same as though steel were to be tempered.





BRASS CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



BRASSING: See Plating.

BREAD, DOG: See Dog Biscuit.


See also Dentifrices.

«Remedies for Fetid Breath.»—Fetid breath may be due to the expelled air (i. e., to disease of the respirational tract), to gases thrown off from the digestive tract, or to a diseased mouth. In the first two cases medication must be directed to the causative diseases, with the last, antisepsis principally and the neutralization of the saliva, also the removal of all residual food of dental caries.

I.—Potassium permanganate 1 part Distilled water 10 parts

Mix and dissolve. Add from 5 to 8 drops of this solution to a glass of water and with it gargle the mouth.

II.—Infusion of salvia 250 parts Glycerine 30 parts Tincture of myrrh 12 parts Tincture of lavender 12 parts Labarraque’s solution 30 parts

Mix. Rinse the mouth frequently with this mixture.

III.—Decoction of chamomile 30 parts Glycerine 80 parts Chlorinated water 15 parts

Mix. Use as a gargle and mouth wash.

IV.—Peppermint water 500 parts Cherry-laurel water 60 parts Borax 25 parts

Mix and dissolve. Use as gargle and mouth wash.

V.—Thymol 3 parts Spirit of cochlearia 300 parts Tincture of rhatany 100 parts Oil of peppermint 15 parts Oil of cloves 10 parts

Mix. Gargle and wash mouth well with 10 drops in a glass of water.

VI.—Salol 5 parts Alcohol 1,000 parts Tincture of white canella 30 parts Oil of peppermint 1 part

Mix. Use as a dentifrice.

VII.—Hydrogen peroxide 25 parts Distilled water 100 parts

Mix. Gargle the mouth twice daily with 2 tablespoonfuls of the mixture in a glass of water.

VIII.—Sodium bicarbonate 2 parts Distilled water 70 parts Spirit of cochlearia 30 parts

Mix a half-teaspoonful in a wineglassful of water. Wash mouth two or three times daily.


To stain brick flat the color of brownstone, add black to Venetian red until the desired shade is obtained. If color ground in oil is used, thin with turpentine, using a little japan as a drier. If necessary to get the desired shade add yellow ocher to the mixture of red and black. If the work is part old and part new, rub the wall down, using a brick {134} for a rubber, until the surface is uniform, and keep it well wet while rubbing with cement water, made by stirring Portland cement into water until the water looks the color of the cement. This operation fills the pores of the brick and makes a smooth, uniform surface to paint on. Tinge the wash with a little dry Venetian red and lampblack. This will help bring the brick to a uniform color, so that an even color can be obtained with one coat of stain.

BRICKS: See Ceramics.

BRICKS OF SAND-LIME: See Stone, Artificial.


BRICK WALLS, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods and Household Formulas.




BRILLIANTINE: See Hair Preparations.

BRIMSTONE (BURNING): See Pyrotechnics.



BRITANNIA METAL, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.




Bromoform is insoluble in dilute alcohol, but may be dissolved by the aid of glycerine. The following formula has been devised:

Bromoform 1 part Alcohol 2 parts Compound tincture of cardamon 2 parts Glycerine 1 1/2 parts

Some other formulas are:

«Syrup of Bromoform.»—Bromoform, 5 parts; alcohol (95 per cent), 45 parts; glycerine, 150 parts; syrup, 800 parts. Mix in the order given and place the container in warm water until the syrup becomes perfectly clear.

«Emulsion of Bromoform.»—Add 3 parts of bromoform to 20 parts of expressed oil of almond; emulsify this mixture in the usual manner with 2 parts of powdered tragacanth, 4 parts of powdered acacia, and sufficient water, using for the completed emulsion a total of 120 parts of water, and add, finally, 4 parts of cherry-laurel water.

«Bromoform Rum.»—Bromoform, 1.2 parts; chloroform, 0.8 parts; rum, sufficient to make 120 parts. Claimed to be an effective remedy in the treatment of whooping cough.

BRONZES: See Alloys.




BRONZE, RENOVATION OF: See Cleaning Compounds.

«Bronze Powders, Liquid Bronzes, Bronze Substitutes, and Bronzing»


Gold bronze is a mixture of equal parts of oxide of tin and sulphur, which are heated for some time in an earthen retort. Silver bronze is a mixture of equal parts of bismuth, tin, and mercury, which are fused in a crucible, adding the mercury only when the tin and the bismuth are in fusion. Next reduce to a very fine powder. To apply these bronzes, white of egg, gum arabic, or varnish is used. It is preferable to apply them dry upon one of the above-named mediums serving as size, than to mix them with the liquids themselves, for in the latter case their luster is impaired.

«Simple Coloring of Bronze Powder.»—In order to impart different colors to {135} bronze powders, such as pale yellow, dark yellow to copper red, the powder is heated with constant stirring in flat iron pans until through the oxidation of the copper—the bronzes consist of the brass powder of an alloy from which the so-called Dutch gold is produced—the desired shade of color is reached. As a rule a very small quantity of fat, wax, or even paraffine is added in this operation. The bronze powders are employed to produce coatings or certain finishes on metals themselves or to give articles of wood, stone, pasteboard, etc., a metallic appearance.

«General Directions for Bronzing.»—The choice of bronze powders is determined by the degree of brilliancy to be obtained. The powder is mixed with strong gum water or isinglass, and laid on with a brush or pencil, almost but not absolutely dry. A piece of soft leather, wrapped around the finger, is dipped into the powder and rubbed over the work; when all this has been covered with the bronze it must be left to dry, and the loose powder is then cleared away with a hair pencil.


«Liquid Bronzes.»—I.—For the production of liquid bronze, acid-free varnish should be used, as bronze ground with ordinary varnish will form verdigris. For the deacidification of dammar rosin pour 1,000 parts of petroleum benzine over 350 parts of finely ground dammar rosin, and dissolve by repeated shaking. Next add to the solution 250 parts of a 10-per-cent aqueous solution of caustic soda and shake up well for 10 minutes. After standing for a short time two strata will have formed, the upper one consisting of benzine-rosin solution and the lower, aqueous one containing the resinic acid dissolved as soda salts. Pour off the benzine layers and agitate again assiduously with 250 parts of the 10-per-cent caustic-soda solution. Now set aside for a complete classification and separation of the two liquids. The dammar solution siphoned off will be perfectly free from acid. To obtain gold-bronze varnish add to the deacidified dammar solution about 250 parts of bronze or brocade per liter.

II.—Or else carefully mix 100 parts of finely ground dammar rosin with 30 parts of calcined soda and heat to fusion, in which state it is maintained 2 or 3 hours with frequent stirring. Let cool, grind the turbid mass obtained, and pour a little coal benzine or petroleum benzine over it in a flask. By repeated shaking of the flask the soluble portion of the molten mass is dissolved; filter after allowing to settle; into the filtrate put 300 to 400 parts of bronze powder of any desired shade, the brocades being especially well adapted for this purpose. If the metallic powder remains distributed over the mass for a long time it is of the right consistency; if it deposits quickly it is too thin and a part of the solvent must be evaporated before stirring in the bronze powder.

III.—A liquid bronze, which, while it contains no metallic constituent, yet possesses a metallic luster and a bronze appearance, and answers excellently for many purposes, is made as follows: Dissolve by the aid of gentle heat 10 parts of aniline red and 5 parts of aniline purple in 100 parts of alcohol. When solution is complete, add 5 parts of benzoic acid, raise the heat, and let boil from 5 to 10 minutes, or until the greenish color of the mixture passes over to a clear bronze brown. For “marbling” or bronzing paper articles, this answers particularly well.

«Incombustible Bronze Tincture.»—Finely pulverize 5 parts, by weight, of prime Dammar rosin and 1.5 parts of ammonia soda. Heat gently, and stir frequently, until no more carbonic acid bubbles up. Cool and pulverize again. Put the powder into a glass carboy, and pour over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; let this stand for 2 days, stirring frequently. Then filter. Ten parts of the fluid are mixed with 5 parts of metallic bronze of any desired shade, and put into bottles. Shake well before using.

«General Formulas for Bronzing Preparations.»—I.—Take 240 parts subacetate of copper, 120 parts oxide of zinc in powder form, 60 parts borax, 60 parts saltpeter, and 3.5 parts corrosive sublimate. Prepare a paste from it with oil, stir together, and continue working with boiled linseed oil and turpentine.

II.—Dissolve 120 parts sulphate of copper and add 120 parts chipping of tin; stir well and gather the precipitating copper. After complete drying, grind very finely in boiled linseed oil and turpentine.

III.—Melt in a crucible 60 parts sulphur and 60 parts stannic acid; stir with a clay tube until the mixture takes on the appearance of Dutch gold and pour out. When cold mix the color with boiled linseed oil and turpentine, adding a small quantity of drier. These three bronzes must be covered with a pale, resistant {136} lacquer, otherwise they will soon tarnish in rooms where gas is burned.

«Florentine Bronzes.»—I.—To produce a Florentine bronzing, apply to the articles, which must have previously been dipped, a varnish composed of cherry gum lac dissolved in alcohol. This varnish is put on with a brush, and after that the bronzed piece is passed through the stove.

II.—If the article is of brass it must be given a coat of copper by means of the battery. Next dip a brush in olive oil and brush the piece uniformly; let dry for 5 or 6 hours and place in sawdust. Then heat the article on a moderate charcoal dust fire.

«Preparation of French Bronze.»—French bronze may be prepared by reducing to a powder hematite, 5 parts, and plumbago, 8 parts, and mixing into a paste with spirit of wine. Apply the composition with a soft brush to the article to be bronzed and set it aside for some hours. By polishing with a tolerably hard brush the article will assume the beautiful appearance of real bronze. The desired tint may be regulated by the proportions of the ingredients.

«How to Bronze Metals.»—Prepare a solution of 1 1/2 ounces of sodium hyposulphite in 1 pint of water and add to the same a solution of 1 1/2 ounces of lead acetate dissolved in 1 pint of water.

If, instead of lead acetate, an equal weight of sulphuric acid (1 1/2 ounces) is added to the sodium hyposulphite and the process carried on as before, the brass becomes coated with a very beautiful red, which changes to green, and finally a splendid brown with a green and red iridescence. This last is a very durable coating and may be especially recommended. It is very difficult to obtain exact shades by this process without some experience. The thorough cleansing of all articles from grease by boiling in potash is absolutely necessary to success. By substituting other metal salts for the lead acetate many changes in tints and quality of the coatings can also be effected.

When this mixture is heated to a temperature a little below the boiling point it precipitates sulphide of lead in a state of fine division. If some metal is present some of the lead is precipitated on the surface and, according to the thickness of the layer, different colors are produced. To produce an even color the articles must be evenly heated. By immersion of brass articles for 5 minutes the same may be coated with colors varying from gold to copper red, then to carmine, dark red, and from light blue to blue white, and at last a reddish white, depending on the time the metal remains in the solution and the temperature used. Iron objects treated in this solution take a steel-blue color, zinc a brown color. In the case of copper objects a golden yellow cannot be obtained.

«New Bronzing Liquid.»—Dissolve 10 parts of fuchsine and 5 parts of aniline purple in 100 parts of alcohol (95 per cent) and add to the solution 5 parts of benzoic acid. Boil the whole for 10 minutes until the color turns bronze brown. This liquid can be applied to all metals and dries quickly.

«A Bronze for Brass.»—Immerse the articles, freed from dirt and grease, in a cold solution of 10 parts of potassium permanganate, 50 parts of iron sulphate, 5 parts of hydrochloric acid in 1,000 parts of water. Let remain 30 seconds, then withdraw, rinse, and let dry in fine, soft sawdust. If the articles have become too dark, or if a reddish-brown color be desired, immerse for about 1 minute in a warm (140° F.) solution of chromic acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 10 parts; potassium permanganate, 10 parts; iron sulphate, 50 parts; water, 1,000 parts. Treat as before. If the latter solution alone be used the product will be a brighter dark-yellow or reddish-brown color. By heating in a drying oven the tone of the colors is improved.

«To Bronze Copper.»—This process is analogous to the one practiced at the Mint of Paris for bronzing medals.

Spread on the copper object a solution composed of:

Acetate or chlorhydrate of ammonia 30 parts Sea salt 10 parts Cream of tartar 10 parts Acetate of copper 10 parts Diluted acetic acid 100 parts

Let dry for 24 to 48 hours at an ordinary temperature. The surface of the metal will become covered with a series of varying tints. Brush with a waxed brush. The green portions soaked with chlorhydrate of ammonia will assume a blue coloring, and those treated with carbonate will be thick and darkened.

«Bronzing and Patinizing of Small Zinc Articles.»—Coatings of bronze tones and patina shades may be produced on zinc by means of various liquids, but the {137} articles, before being worked upon, should be rubbed down with very fine glass or emery paper, to make them not only perfectly metallic, but also somewhat rough, as a consequence of which the bronze or patina coatings will adhere much better. The best bronze or patina effects on bronze are obtained by electroplating the article with a fairly thick deposit of brass rich in copper and then treating it like genuine bronze. The solutions used, however, must always be highly diluted, otherwise they may eat entirely through the thin metallic coating.

«Bronzing of Zinc.»—Mix thoroughly 30 parts of sal ammoniac, 10 parts of oxalate of potash, and 1,000 parts of vinegar. Apply with a brush or a rag several times, until the desired tint is produced.

«Bronze Gilding on Smooth Moldings.»—A perfect substitute for dead gilding cannot be obtained by bronzing, because of the radically different reflection of the light, for the matt gilding presents to the light a perfectly smooth surface, while in bronzing every little scale of bronze reflects the light in a different direction. In consequence of this diffusion of light, all bronzing, even the best executed, is somewhat darker and dimmer than leaf gilding. This dimness, it is true, extends over the whole surface, and therefore is not perceptible to the layman, and cannot be called an evil, as the genuine leaf gold is so spotted that a bronzed surface is cleaner than a gilt one. The following process is the best known at present: Choose only the best bronze, which is first prepared thick with pure spirit. Next add a quantity of water and stir again. After the precipitation, which occurs promptly, the water is poured off and renewed repeatedly by fresh water. When the spirit has been washed out again in this manner, the remaining deposit, i. e., the bronze, is thinned with clean, good gold size. The bronze must be thin enough just to cover. The moldings are coated twice, the second time commencing at the opposite end. Under no circumstances should the dry, dead gilding give off color when grasping it firmly. If it does that, either the size is inferior or the solution too weak or the mixture too thick.

«Incombustible Bronze Tincture.»—Five parts of prime dammar rosin and 1.5 parts of ammonia soda, very finely pulverized. Heat gently, with frequent stirring, until the evolution of carbonic acid ceases. Then take from the fire, and when cool pulverize again. Put the powder into a glass carboy, and pour over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; let this stand for 2 days, stirring frequently, then filter. Ten parts of the fluid are to be mixed with each 5 parts of metallic bronze of any desired shade, and put into bottles. Shake the tincture well before using.

«Bronzing Engraved Ornaments.»—Take bronze and stir with it pale copal varnish diluted one-half with turpentine. With this paint the ornaments neatly. In 1/2 hour the bronze will have dried. The places from which the bronze is to be removed, i. e., where the bronze has overrun the polished surface, are dabbed with a small rag soaked with kerosene, taking care that it is not too wet, so as to prevent the kerosene from running into the ornament. After a short while the bronze will have dissolved and can be wiped off with a soft rag. If this does not remove it entirely, dab and wipe again. Finally finish wiping with an especially soft, clean rag. Kerosene does not attack polish on wood. The bronze must become dull and yet adhere firmly, under which condition it has a hardened color. If it does not become dull the varnish is too strong and should be diluted with turpentine.

«Durable Bronze on Banners.»—To render bronzes durable on banners, etc., the ground must be primed with gum arabic and a little glycerine. Then apply the bronze solution, prepared with dammar and one-tenth varnish. Instead of gum arabic with glycerine, gelatine glue may also be employed as an underlay.


The following recipe is used in making imitation gold bronzes:

Sandarac 50 parts Mastic 10 parts Venice turpentine 5 parts Alcohol 135 parts

In the above dissolve:

Metanil yellow and gold orange 0.4 parts

and add

Aluminum, finely powdered 20 parts

and shake.

If a deeper shade is desired it is well to use ethyl orange and gold orange in the same proportion, instead of the dyes.

For the production of imitation copper bronze take the above-mentioned rosin mixture and dissolve therein only gold {138} orange 0.8 parts, and add aluminum 20 parts, whereby a handsome copper color is produced. Metanil yellow 0.4 parts without gold orange gives with the same amount of lacquer a greenish tone of bronze. The pigments must not be made use of in larger quantities, because the luster of the bronze is materially affected. Only pigments of certain properties, such as solubility in alcohol, relative constancy to reductive agents, are suitable; unsuitable are, for instance, naphthol yellow, phenylene-diamin, etc. Likewise only a lacquer of certain composition is fit for use, other lacquers of commerce, such as zapon (celluloid) lacquer being unsuitable. The bronzes prepared in this manner excel in luster and color effect; the cost is very low. They are suitable for bronzing low-priced articles, as tinware, toys, etc. Under the action of sun and moisture the articles lose some of their luster, but objects kept indoors such as figures of plaster of Paris, inkstands, wooden boxes, etc., retain their brilliancy for years.

Some use powdered aluminum and yellow organic dyestuffs, such as gold orange. These are employed together with a varnish of certain composition, which imparts the necessary gloss to the mixture.


«To Color Bronze.»—Bronze articles acquire handsome tempering colors by heating. In order to impart an old appearance to new objects of bronze, they may be heated over a flame and rubbed with a woolen rag dipped in finely powdered graphite, until the desired shade is attained. Or else a paste is applied on the article, consisting of graphite 5 parts and bloodstone 15 parts, with a sufficient quantity of alcohol. After 24 hours brush off the dry powder. A hot solution composed of sal ammoniac 4 parts, sorrel salt 1 part, vinegar 200 parts, may also be brushed on. Another way is to dip the pieces into a boiling solution of cupric acetate 20 parts, and sal ammoniac 10 parts, dissolved in 60 to 100 parts of vinegar.

Patent bronzes (products colored by means of aniline dyes) have hitherto been used in the manufacture of toys and _de luxe_ or fancy paper, but makers of wall or stained paper have recently given their attention to these products. Wall—or _moiré_—paper prepared with these dyes furnishes covers or prints of silken gloss with a peculiar double-color effect in which the metallic brilliancy characteristic of bronze combines with the shades of the tar pigments used. Very beautiful reliefs, giving rise to the most charming play of colors in perpendicular or laterally reflected light, are produced by pressing the paper lengths or web painted with aniline-bronze dyes. The brass brocade and tin bronzes serve as bases for the aniline dyes; of the tar pigments only basic aniline dyes soluble in alcohol are used. In coloring the pulverized bronze care must be taken that the latter is as free as possible from organic fats. Tar dyes should be dissolved in as concentrated a form as possible in alcohol and stirred with the bronze, the pigment being then fixed on the vehicle with an alcoholic solution of tannin. The patent bronze is then dried by allowing the alcohol to evaporate. This method of coloring is purely mechanical, as the tar dyes do not combine with the metallic bronze, as is the case with pigments in which hydrate of alumina is used. A coating of aniline bronze of this kind is therefore very sensitive to moisture, unless spread over the paper surface with a suitable protective binding medium, or protected by a transparent coat of varnish, which of course must not interfere with the special color effect.

«Pickle for Bronzes.»—Sulphuric acid, 1,000 parts; nitric acid, 500 parts; soot, 10 parts; sea salt, 5 parts.

«Imitation Japanese Bronze.»—When the copper or coppered article is perfectly dry and the copper or copper coating made brilliant, which is produced by rubbing with a soft brush, put graphite over the piece to be bronzed so that the copper is simply dyed. Wipe off the raised portions with a damp cloth, so that the copper makes its appearance. Next put on a thin coat of Japanese varnish; wipe the relief again and let dry. Apply 1 or 2 coats after the first is perfectly dry. Handsome smoked hues may be obtained by holding the bronze either over the dust of lighted peat or powdered rosin thrown on lighted coal, so as to obtain a smoke which will change the color of the varnish employed. The varnish must be liquid enough to be worked easily, for this style of bronzing is only applicable to brass.

«Green Bronze on Iron.»—Abietate of silver, 1 part; essence of lavender, 19 parts. Dissolve the abietate of silver in the essence of lavender. After the articles have been well pickled apply the abietate-of-silver solution with a brush; next place the objects in a stove and let the temperature attain about 150° C.

«Blue Bronze.»—Blue bronze is {139} produced by the wet process by coloring white bronze (silver composition) with aniline blue. A blue-bronze color can be produced in the ordinary way from white-bronze color, the product of pure English tin, and with an alum solution consisting of 20 parts of alum in 4,500 parts of water boiled for 5 hours and washed clean and dried. The bronze prepared in this manner is placed in a porcelain dish, mixed with a solution of 15 parts of aniline blue in 1,500 parts of alcohol, stirring the bronze powder and liquid until the alcohol has evaporated entirely and the bronze color becomes dry. This manipulation must be repeated 6 or 8 times, until the desired blue shade is reached. When the bronze is dark enough it is washed out in warm water, and before entirely dry 1 tablespoonful of petroleum is poured on 2 pounds of bronze, which is intimately mixed and spread out into a thin layer, exposed to the air, whereby the smell is caused to disappear in a few days.

«Bronzing with Soluble Glass.»—To bronze wood, porcelain, glass, and metal by means of a water-glass solution, coat the article with potash water-glass of 30° Bé. and sprinkle on the respective bronze powder.

«Brown Oxidation on Bronze.»—Genuine bronze can be beautifully oxidized by painting it with a solution of 4 parts of sal ammoniac and 1 part of oxalium (oxalate of potash) in 200 parts of vinegar, allowing it to dry, and repeating the operation several times. These articles, protected against rain, soon lose the unpleasant glaring metallic luster and assume instead a soft brown tint, which bronze articles otherwise acquire only after several years’ exposure to the atmosphere. A beautiful bronze color which will remain unaffected by heat can be imparted to bronze articles by the following process: The object is first washed in a solution of 1 part of crystallized verdigris and 2 parts of sal ammoniac in 260 parts of water, and then dried before an open fire till the green color begins to disappear. The operation is repeated 10 to 20 times, but with a solution of 1 part of verdigris crystals and 2 parts of sal ammoniac in 600 parts of water. The color of the article, olive green at first, gradually turns to brown, which will remain unaltered even when exposed to strong heat.


See also Plating for general methods of bronzing, and Varnishes.

«Gold and Silver Bronze Powders.»—Genuine gold bronze is produced from the waste and parings obtained in gold beating. The parings, etc., are ground with honey or a gum solution, upon a glass plate or under hard granite stones, into a very fine powder, which is repeatedly washed out with water and dried. There are various shades of gold bronze, viz., red, reddish, deep yellow, pale yellow, as well as greenish. These tints are caused by the various percentages of gold or the various mixtures of the gold with silver and copper.

By the use of various salt solutions or acidulated substances other shades can be imparted to bronze. In water containing sulphuric acid, nitric acid, or hydrochloric acid, it turns a bright yellow; by treatment with a solution of crystallized verdigris or blue vitriol in water it assumes more of a reddish hue; other tints are obtained with the aid of cooking salt, tartar, green vitriol, or saltpeter in water.

Gold bronze is also obtained by dissolving gold in aqua regia and mixing with a solution of green vitriol in water, whereupon the gold falls down as a metallic powder which may be treated in different ways. The green vitriol, however, must be dissolved in boiling water and mixed in a glass, drop by drop, with sulphuric acid and stirred until the basic iron sulphate separating in flakes has redissolved. Another way of producing gold bronze is by dissolving gold in aqua regia and evaporating the solution in a porcelain dish. When it is almost dry add a little pure hydrochloric acid and repeat this to drive out all the free chlorine and to produce a pure hydrochlorate of gold. The gold salt is dissolved in distilled water, taking 1/2 liter per ducat (3 1/2 grams fine gold); into this solution drop, while stirring by means of a glass rod, an 8° solution (by Beaumé) of antimony chloride, as long as a precipitate forms. This deposit is gold bronze, which, dried after removal of all liquids, is chiefly employed in painting, for bronzing, and for china and glass decoration.

Metallic gold powder is, furthermore, obtained by dissolving pure and alloyed gold in aqua regia and precipitating it again by an electro-positive metal, such as iron or zinc, which is placed in the liquid in the form of rods. The gold is completely separated thereby. The rods must be perfectly clean and polished bright. The color of the gold bronze depends upon the proportions of the gold. In order to further increase the brilliancy the dried substance may still be ground. {140}

«Mosaic Gold.»—Mosaic gold, generally a compound of tin, 64.63 parts, and sulphur, 35.37 parts, is odorless and tasteless, and dissolves only in chlorine solution, aqua regia, and boiling potash lye. It is employed principally for bronzing plaster-of-Paris figures, copper, and brass, by mixing it with 6 parts of bone ashes, rubbing it on wet, or applying it with varnish or white of egg in the preparation of gold paper or for gilding cardboard and wood. Mosaic gold of golden-yellow color is produced by heating 6 parts of sulphur and 16 parts of tin amalgam with equal parts of mercury and 4 parts of sulphur; 8 parts of precipitate from stannic muriate (stannic acid) and 4 parts of sulphur also give a handsome mosaic gold.

The handsomest, purest, and most gold-like mosaic gold is obtained by melting 12 parts of pure tin, free from lead, and mixing with 6 parts of mercury to an amalgam. This is mixed with 7 parts of flowers of sulphur and 6 parts of sal ammoniac, whereupon the mass is subjected for several hours to a heat which at first does not attain redness, but eventually when no more fumes are generated is increased to dark-red heat. This operation is conducted either in a glass retort or in an earthenware crucible. The sal ammoniac escapes first on heating, next vermilion sublimates and some stannic chloride, while the mosaic gold remains on the bottom, the upper layer, consisting of lustrous, golden, delicately translucent leaflets, being the handsomest mosaic gold.

«Genuine Silver Bronze.»—This is obtained by the finely ground waste from beating leaf silver or by dissolving silver in aqua fortis. This solution is then diluted with water and brightly scoured copper plates are put in, whereby the silver precipitates as a metallic powder.

«Imitation Silver Bronze.»—This is obtained through the waste in beating imitation leaf silver, which, finely ground, is then washed and dried. In order to increase the luster it is ground again in a dry condition.

«Mosaic Silver.»—Mosaic silver is an amalgam of equal parts of mercury, bismuth, and tin. One may also melt 50 parts of good tin in a crucible, and as soon as it becomes liquid add 50 parts of bismuth, stirring all with an iron wire until the bismuth is fused as well. As soon as this occurs the crucible must be removed from the fire; then stir in, as long as the contents are still liquid, 25 parts of mercury and mix the whole mass evenly until it can be ground on a stone slab.





BROWN OINTMENT: See Ointments.






It is a good plan to fill the varnish brush before putting it in the keeper.

Whitewash or kalsomine brushes should not be put into newly slaked lime or hot kalsomine.

Cement-set brushes should never be put in any alcohol mixture, such as shelacs and spirit stains.

Varnish brushes should be selected with a view to their possessing the following qualities: 1st, excellence of material; 2d, excellence of make, which includes fullness of hair or bristles and permanency of binding; 3d, life and spring, or elasticity sufficient to enable the varnisher to spread the varnish without reducing it with turpentine; and 4th, springing, when in use, to a true chisel edge.

«Temperature for Brushes.»—The bristles of every brush are held in place by the handle. It passes through the shank of the brush and is kiln-dried to fit perfectly. If it shrinks, however, its outward tension is lost and the bristles loosened. For this reason the first principle in brush care is to keep the tool, when it is new or not soaking, in a cool place, out of hot rooms, and any temperature that would tend to shrink the wood of the handle.

«Cleaning Paint Brushes.»—No new brush should be dipped in the paint and put to work without first being {141} cleaned. By working it with a brisk movement back and forth through the hand most of the dust and loose hairs will be taken out. A paint brush, when thus thoroughly dry cleaned, should be placed in water for a few minutes, not long enough to soak or swell it, but only until wet through, and then swung and shaken dry. It is then ready to dip in the paint, and although some of the hairs may still be loose, most of them will come out in the first few minutes’ working and can be easily picked from the surface.

«Cleaning Varnish Brushes.»—Varnish brushes, and brushes used in varnish stain, buggy paint, and all color in varnish require different handling than paint brushes. They should be more thoroughly dry cleaned, in order that all loose hairs may be worked out. After working them through the hand it is a good thing to pass the brush back and forth over a sheet of sandpaper. This rough surface will pull out the loose bristles and smooth down the rough ends of the chisel point. The brush should then be washed by working it for a few minutes in clean turpentine and swinging it dry. It should never be put in water. For carriage work and fine varnishing the brush should be broken in on the rubbing coat in order to work out all the dust particles before it is used on the finishing coats.

«Setting the Paint-Brush Bristles.»—For the first 2 or 3 days new brushes require special care while at rest. They should be dipped in raw oil or the paint itself and smoothed out carefully, then laid on their sides over night. The chisel-pointed brushes should be set at an incline, the handle supported just enough to allow the brush to lie along the point. This is done to prevent twisting of the bristles, and to keep the shape of the brush. It is necessary to do this only 2 or 3 times before the shape becomes set.

«Paint Brushes at Rest.»—An important principle in brush care is never to leave the brush on end while at rest. Even for temporary rest during a job the brush should never stand on end. At night it should always be placed in a “brush-keeper”—a water-tight box, or a paint keg, with nails driven through the sides on which the brushes can be suspended in water. Holes are bored in the handles so the brush will hang free of the bottom, but with the bristles entirely under water. Before placing them in water the brushes should be wiped so as not to be too full of paint, but not cleaned.

«Varnish Brushes at Rest.»—Varnish brushes should be kept at rest in turpentine and varnish, or better, in some of the varnish that the brush is used for. They should preferably not be kept in turpentine, as that makes the brush “lousy”—roughening the bristles.

«Washing Brushes.»—All brushes should be washed in benzine or turpentine and shaken dry—not whipped—when it is desired to change from one color to another, or from one varnish to another.

«To Restore Brushes.»—A good remedy to restore lettering brushes which have lost their elasticity and do not keep a point, is as follows:

Put the pencil in oil and brush it several times over a hot iron in such a manner that the hairs touch the iron from each side; then dip the pencil quickly in cold water.

«A Removable Binding.»—The bristle bunch of brushes is bound with rope so as to keep them together for use. Instead of the twine, a covering of rubber may be employed, which is easily slipped over the bristles and can be conveniently removed again. The cleaning of the brush is much facilitated thereby, and the breadth of the stripe to be drawn with the brush can be accurately regulated, according to how far the covering is slipped over the brush.

See also Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


BUBBLE (SOAP) LIQUID: See Soap Bubble Liquid.


Bubbles of air often adhere to molds immersed in depositing solutions. They may be prevented by previously dipping the object into spirits of wine, or be removed by the aid of a soft brush, or by directing a powerful current of the liquid against them by means of a vulcanized india-rubber bladder, with a long and curved glass tube attached to it; but the liquid should be free from sediment.

BUG KILLERS: See Insecticides.

BUNIONS: See Corn Cures. {142}


See also Ointments and Turpentine.

«Mixture for Burns.»—I.—A mixture of castor oil with the white of egg is recommended for burns. The eggs are broken into a bowl and the castor oil slowly poured in while the eggs are beaten. Enough oil is added to make a thick, creamy paste, which is applied to the burn. The applications are repeated often enough to prevent their becoming dry or sticky. Leave the surface uncovered.

II.—Put 27 parts, by measure, of menthol into 44 parts, by measure, of witch hazel (distillate) and apply freely. A good plan is to bandage the parts and wet the wrappings with this mixture.

III.—A very efficacious remedy for burns is a solution of cooking salt in water. It is best to immerse fingers, hands, and arms in the solution, which must be tolerably strong. For burns in the face and other parts of the body, salt water poultices are applied.


(See also Foods.)

«Butter Color.»—Orlean, 80 parts, by weight; curcuma root (turmeric), 80 parts, by weight; olive oil, 240 parts, by weight; saffron, 1 part, by weight; alcohol, 5 parts, by weight. The orlean and turmeric are macerated with olive oil and expressed. The weight of the filtered liquid is made up again to 240 parts, by weight, with olive oil, next the filtered saffron-alcohol extract is added, and the alcohol is expelled again by heating the mixture.

«Artificial Butter.»—I.—Carefully washed beef suet furnishes a basis for the manufactures of an edible substitute for natural butter. The thoroughly washed and finely chopped suet is rendered in a steam-heated tank; 1,000 parts of fat, 300 parts of water, 1 part of potassium carbonate, and 2 stomachs of pigs or sheep, are taken. The temperature of the mixture is raised to 113° F. After 2 hours, under the influence of the pepsin in the stomachs, the membranes are dissolved and the fat is melted and rises to the top of the mixture. After the addition of a little salt the melted fat is drawn off, stood to cool so as to allow the stearine and palmitin to separate, and then pressed in bags in a hydraulic press. Forty to 50 per cent of solid stearine remains, while 50 to 60 per cent of fluid oleopalmitin (so-called “oleomargarine”) is pressed out. The “oleo oil” is then mixed with 10 per cent of its weight of milk and a little butter color and churned. The product is then worked, salted, and constituted the “oleomargarine,” or butter substitute. Leaf lard can be worked in the same way as beef suet, and will yield an oleopalmitin suitable for churning up into a butter substitute.

II.—Fat from freshly slaughtered cattle after thorough washing is placed in clean water and surrounded with ice, where it is allowed to remain until all animal heat has been removed. It is then cut into small pieces by machinery and cooked at a temperature of about 150° F. (65.6° C.) until the fat in liquid form has separated from the tissue, then settled until it is perfectly clear. Then it is drawn into the graining vats and allowed to stand for a day, when it is ready for the presses. The pressing extracts the stearine, leaving a product commercially known as oleo oil which, when churned with cream or milk, or both, and with usually a proportion of creamery butter, the whole being properly salted, gives the new food product, oleomargarine.

III.—In making butterine use neutral lard, which is made from selected leaf lard in a very similar manner to oleo oil, excepting that no stearine is extracted. This neutral lard is cured in salt brine for from 48 to 70 hours at an ice-water temperature. It is then taken and, with the desired proportion of oleo oil and fine butter, is churned with cream and milk, producing an article which when properly salted and packed is ready for the market. In both cases coloring matter is used, which is the same as that used by dairymen to color their butter. At certain seasons of the year—viz., in cold weather, a small quantity of sesame oil or salad oil made from cottonseed oil is used to soften the texture of the product.

IV.—“Ankara” is a substance which in general appearance resembles a good article of butter, being rather firmer at ordinary temperatures than that substance, approaching the consistency of cocoa butter. It is quite odorless, but in taste it resembles that of a fair article of butter and, what is more, its behavior under heat is very similar to that of butter—it browns and forms a sort of spume like that of fat. Ankara consists of a base of cocoa butter, carrying about 10 per cent of milk, colored with yolk of egg. While not derived from milk, on the one hand, nor does it come from a single vegetable or animal fat on the other, {143} ankara may be considered as belonging to the category of the margarines. Ankara is obtained in the market in the form of cakes or tablets of 2 pounds in weight.

V.—Fresh butter, 150 parts, by weight; animal fat, 80 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 40 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 30 parts, by weight.

VI.—Fresh butter, 100 parts, by weight; animal fat, 100 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 20 parts, by weight.

VII.—Fresh butter, 50 parts, by weight; animal fat, 150 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 20 parts, by weight.

It is seen that these three varieties contain respectively 50, 33, and about 16 per cent of cow’s butter. The appearance of the mixture is nearly perfect.

Formulas V to VII are for a Russian artificial butter called “Perepusk.”

«To Impart the Aroma and Taste of Natural Butter to Margarine.»—In order to give margarine the aroma and flavor of cow butter, add to it a fatty acid product, which is obtained by saponification of butter, decomposition of the soap, and distillation in the vacuum at about 140° F. The addition of the product is made upon emulsification of the fats with milk. The margarine will keep for months.

«Harmless Butter Color.»—Alum, pulverized finely, 30 parts; extract of turmeric, 1 part. With the extract dampen the powder as evenly as possible, then spread out and dry over some hot surface. When dry, again pulverize thoroughly. Protect the product from the light. As much of the powder as will lie on the point of a penknife is added to a churnful of milk, or cream, before churning, and it gives a beautiful golden color, entirely harmless. To make the extract of turmeric add 1 part of powdered turmeric to 5 parts of alcohol, and let macerate together for fully a week.

«To Sweeten Rancid Butter.»—I.—Wash the butter first with fresh milk and afterwards with spring water, carefully working out the residual water.

II.—Add 25 to 30 drops of lime chloride to every 2 pounds of butter, work the mass up thoroughly, then wash in plenty of fresh, cold water, and work out the residual water.

III.—Melt the butter in a water bath, along with some freshly burned animal charcoal, coarsely powdered and carefully sifted to free it from dust. After this has remained in contact for a few minutes, the butter is strained through a clean flannel. If the rancid odor is not completely removed, complete the process.

«An English Margarine.»—A mixture of edible fats of suitable consistency, e. g., oleo oil, 5 parts; neutral lard, 7 parts; and butter, 1 part; is mixed with albuminous “batter,” 4 parts, with the addition of 1 part of salt as a preservative. If the albuminous constituent be composed of the whites and yolks of eggs beaten to a foam the product will have the consistency and color of butter. The molten fats are added to the egg batter and the whole is stirred at a temperature sufficient to produce coagulation of the albumen (150–200° F.). The mass is then cooled gradually with continuous stirring, and the salt is worked in.

«Olive-Oil Paste.»—If an ounce of peeled garlic be rubbed up into a pulp, in a clean Wedgwood mortar, and to this be added from 3 to 4 ounces of good olive oil, with constant rubbing up with the pestle, the oil becomes converted into a pasty mass, like butter. It is possible that the mucilage obtainable from other bulbs of the _Lilium_ tribe would prove equally efficient in conferring semi-solidity on the oil, without imparting any strong smell. The above composition is largely used by the Spanish peasantry, instead of butter, which runs liquid in the Spanish summer. It is known as “aleoli.” The more easily solidified portion of olive oil is stearine, and this may be cheaply prepared from mutton fat. If added, in certain proportions, to olive oil, it would certainly raise its melting point.


Buttermilk powder, 10 parts; vinegar, 1 part; syrup of buckthorn, 1 part. Dissolve the powder in the water and add the vinegar and syrup. The powder is prepared as follows: Sodium chloride, 50 parts; milk sugar, 100 parts; potassium nitrate, 5 parts; alum, 5 parts. Mix.




CADMIUM ALLOYS: See Alloys. {144}


«Preservation and Use of Calcium Carbide.»—Calcium carbide is readily attacked by the air and the moisture contained in the generators and consequently decomposes during the storing, with formation of acetylene gas. Aside from the loss, this decomposition is also attended with dangers. One of the oldest methods of preservation is the saturation of the carbide with petroleum. In using such carbide a layer of petroleum forms on the surface of the water in the generator, which prevents the water from evaporating, thus limiting the subsequent generation of acetylene from the remaining carbide. Instead of petroleum many other substances have been proposed which answer the purpose equally well, e. g., toluol, oils, solid bodies, which previously have to be liquefied, such as stearine, paraffine, rosin, etc.

Of a different nature is a medium offered by Létang of Paris. He employs sugar or saccharine bodies to which he adds, if necessary, a little petroleum, turpentine, vaseline, or varnish of any kind, as well as chalk, limestone, talc, sulphur, or sand. The carbide is coated with this mixture. The saccharine substances dissolve in the generating water, and also have a dissolving action on the slaked lime, which is formed by the decomposition of the carbide which admits of its easy removal.

According to another process carbide is put on the market in such a shape that, without weighing, merely by counting or measuring one is in a position to use equivalent quantities for every charge. Gearing casts molten carbide in the shape of bars, and pours a layer of gelatin, glue, and water soluble varnish over the carbide bars. Others make shells containing a certain quantity of reduced carbide. For this ordinary and varnished pasteboard, wax paper, tinfoil, thin sheet zinc, and similar substances may be used which ward off atmospheric moisture, thus protecting the carbide from premature decomposition. Before use, the cartridge-like shell is pierced or cut open, so that the water can get at the contents. The more or less reduced carbide is filled in the shell, either without any admixture or united into a compact mass by a binding agent, such as colophony, pitch, tar, sand, etc.

«Deodorization of Calcium Carbide.»—Calcium carbide is known to possess a very unpleasant odor because it constantly develops small quantities of impure acetylene in contact with the moisture of the air. Le Roy, of Rouen, proposes for portable—especially bicycle—lamps, in which the evil is more noticeable than in large plants, simply to pour some petroleum over the carbide and to pour off the remainder not absorbed. The petroleum, to which it is well to add some nitro-benzol (mirbane essence), prevents the access of air to the carbide, but permits a very satisfactory generation of gas on admission of water.


CALFSKIN: See Leather.



«Fragrant Naphthalene Camphor.»—

Naphthalene white, in scales 3,000 parts Camphor 1,000 parts

Melt on the steam bath and add to the hot mass:

Coumarin 2 parts Mirbane oil 10 parts

Cast in plates or compressed tablets. The preparation is employed as a moth preventive.

«Powdered Camphor in Permanent Form.»—I.—Powder the camphor in the usual manner, with the addition of a little alcohol. When it is nearly reduced to the proper degree of fineness add a few drops of fluid petrolatum and immediately triturate again. In this manner a powder as fine as flour is obtained, which does not cake together. This powdered camphor may be used for all purposes except for solution in alcohol, as it will impart to the latter a faint opalescence, owing to the insolubility of the petrolatum.

II.—Take equal parts of strong ether and alcohol to reduce the camphor to powder. It is claimed for this method that it only takes one-half of the time required when alcohol alone is used, and that the camphor dries more quickly. Before sifting add 1 per cent of white vaseline and 5 per cent of sugar of milk. Triturate fairly dry, spread out in the air, say 15 minutes, then pass through a moderately fine wire sieve, using a stubby shaving brush to assist in working it through. {145}

«Camphor Pomade»—

Oil of bitter almonds 1 drachm Oil of cloves 20 drops Camphor 1 1/2 ounces White wax 4 ounces Lard, prepared 1 pound

Melt the wax and lard together, then add the camphor in saturated solution in spirit; put in the oils when nearly cold.

«Camphor Ice.»—

I.—White wax 16 parts Benzoated suet 48 parts Camphor, powdered 8 parts Essential oil, to perfume.

Melt the wax and suet together. When nearly cold, add the camphor and perfume, mix well, and pour into molds.

II.—Oil of almond 16 parts White wax 4 parts Spermaceti 4 parts Paraffine 8 parts Camphor, powdered 1 part Perfume, quantity sufficient.

Dissolve the camphor in the oil by the aid of a gentle heat. Melt the solids together, remove, and let cool, but before the mixture begins to set add the camphorated oil and the perfume, mix, and pour into molds.

III.—Stearine (stearic acid) 8 pounds Lard 10 pounds White wax 5 pounds Spermaceti 5 pounds

Melt on a water bath in an earthen or porcelain dish; strain into a similar vessel; add a solution of 2 ounces powdered borax in 1 pound of glycerine, previously warmed, to the melted substance when at the point of cooling; stir well; add camphor, 2 pounds, powdered by means of alcohol, 3 ounces; stir well and pour into molds.



CAN VARNISH: See Varnishes.


The following is a formula much used by German canary-bird raisers:

Sweet almonds, blanched 16 parts Pea meal 32 parts Butter, fresh (unsalted) 3 parts Honey, quantity sufficient to make a stiff paste.

The ingredients are worked into a stiff paste, which is pressed through a colander or large sieve to granulate the mass. Some add to every 5 pounds, 10 or 15 grains of saffron and the yolks of 2 eggs.



«Coloring Ceresine Candles for the Christmas Tree.»—For coloring these candles only dye stuffs soluble in oil can be employed. Blue: 23–24 lavender blue, pale or dark, 100–120 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Violet: 26 fast violet R, 150 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Silver gray: 29 silver gray, 150 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Yellow and orange: 30 wax yellow, medium, 200 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine; 61 old gold, 200 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Pink and red: 27 peach-pink, or 29 chamois, about 100 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Green: 16–17 brilliant green, 33 May green, 41 May green, 200–250 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. The above-named colors should be ground in oil and the ceresine tinted with them afterwards.

«Manufacture of Composite Paraffine Candles.»—Three parts of hydroxy-stearic acid are dissolved in 1 part of a suitable solvent (e. g., stearic acid), and the solution is mixed with paraffine wax to form a stock for the manufacture of composite candles.

«Transparent Candles.»—The following are two recipes given in a German patent specification. The figures denote parts by weight:

I.—Paraffine wax, 70; stearine, 15; petroleum, 15.

II.—Paraffine wax, 90; stearine, 5; petroleum, 5. Recipe I of course gives candles more transparent than does recipe II. The 15 per cent may be regarded as the extreme limit consistent with proper solidity of the candles.

«To Prevent the Trickling of Burning Candles.»—Dip the candles in the following mixture:

Magnesium sulphate 15 parts Dextrin 15 parts Water 100 parts

The solution dries quickly and does not affect the burning of the candle. {146}

«Candle Coloring.»—Candles are colored either throughout or they sometimes consist of a white body that is covered with a colored layer of paraffine wax. According to the material from which candles are made (stearine, paraffine, or ozokerite), the process of coloring varies.

Stearine, owing to its acid character, dissolves the coal-tar colors much more readily than do the perfectly neutral paraffine and ozokerite waxes. For coloring stearine the necessary quantity of the color is added to the melted mass and well stirred in; if the solution effected happens to be incomplete, a small addition of alcohol will prove an effective remedy. It is also an advantage to dissolve the colors previously in alcohol and add the concentrated solution to the melted stearine. The alcohol soon evaporates, and has no injurious effect on the quality of the stearine.

For a number of years there have been on the market so-called “fat colors,” formed by making concentrated solutions of the color, and also special preparations of the colors in stearine. They are more easily applied, and are, therefore, preferred to the powdered aniline colors, which are apt to cause trouble by being accidentally distributed in soluble particles, where they are not wanted. Since paraffine and ozokerite dissolve comparatively little, they will not become colored, and so must be colored indirectly. One way is to dissolve the color in oleic acid or in stearine acid and add the solution to the wax to be colored. Turpentine may be employed for the same purpose. Concerning the colors suitable for candles, there are the eosine colors previously mentioned, and also chroline yellow, auramine, taniline blue, tartrazine, brilliant green, etc. The latter, however, bleaches so rapidly that it can hardly be recommended. An interesting phenomenon is the change some colors undergo in a warm temperature; for instance, some blues turn red at a moderate degree of heat (120° F.) and return to blue only when completely cooled off; this will be noticed while the candle mixture is being melted previous to molding into candles.



CANDY: See Confectionery.




CAPPING MIXTURES FOR BOTTLES: See Bottle-Capping Mixtures.



«Cloudless Caramel Coloring.»—I.—When it is perfectly understood that in the manufacture of caramel, sugar is to be deprived of the one molecule of its water of constitution, it will be apparent that heat must not be carried on to the point of carbonization. Cloudy caramel is due to the fact that part of the sugar has been dissociated and reduced to carbon, which is insoluble in water. Hence the cloudiness. Caramel may be made on a small scale in the following manner: Place 4 or 5 ounces of granulated sugar in a shallow porcelain-lined evaporating dish and apply either a direct heat or that of an oil bath, continuing the heat until caramelization takes place or until tumescence ceases and the mass has assumed a dark-brown color. Then carefully add sufficient water to bring the viscid mass to the consistence of a heavy syrup. Extreme _care_ must be taken and the face and hands protected during the addition of the water, owing to the intensity of the heat of the mass, and consequent sputtering.

II.—The ordinary sugar coloring material is made from sugar or glucose by heating it, while being constantly stirred, up to a temperature of about 405° F. A metal pan capable of holding nearly ten times as much as the sugar used, is necessary so as to retain the mass in its swollen condition. As soon as it froths up so as nearly to fill the pan, an action which occurs suddenly, the fire must instantly be extinguished or removed. The finished product will be insoluble if more than about 15 per cent of its weight is driven off by the heat.


CARAMELS: See Confectionery. {147}


«Perfumed Carbolic Acid.»—

I.—Carbolic acid (cryst.) 1 ounce Alcohol 1 ounce Oil bergamot 10 minims Oil eucalyptus 10 minims Oil citronella 3 minims Tincture cudbear 10 minims Water, to make 10 ounces

Set aside for several days, and then filter through fuller’s earth.

II.—Carbolic acid (cryst.) 4 drachms Cologne water 4 drachms Dilute acetic acid 9 ounces

Keep in a cool place for a few days, and filter.

«Treatment of Carbolic-Acid Burns.»—Thoroughly wash the hands with alcohol, and the burning and tingling will almost immediately cease. Unless employed immediately, however, the alcohol has no effect. When the time elapsed since the burning is too great for alcohol to be of value, brush the burns with a saturated solution of picric acid in water.

«Decolorization of Carbolic Acid.»—To decolorize the acid the following simple method is recommended. For purifying carbolic acid which has already become quite brown-red on account of having been kept in a tin vessel, the receptacle is exposed for a short time to a temperature of 25° C. (77° F.), thus causing only a part of the contents to melt. In this state the acid is put into glass funnels and left to stand for 10 to 12 days in a room which is likewise kept at the above temperature. Clear white crystals form from the drippings, which remained unchanged, protected from air and light, while by repeating the same process more clear crystals are obtained from the solidified dark colored mother lye. In this manner 75 to 80 per cent of clear product is obtained altogether.

«Disguising Odor of Carbolic Acid.»—Any stronger smelling substance will disguise the odor of carbolic acid, to an extent at least, but it is a difficult odor to disguise on account of its persistence. Camphor and some of the volatile oils, such as peppermint, cajeput, caraway, clove, and wintergreen may be used.

«To Restore Reddened Carbolic Acid.»—Demont’s method consists in melting the acid on the water bath, adding 12 per cent of alcohol of 95 per cent, letting cool down and, after the greater part of the substance has crystallized out, decanting the liquid residue. The crystals obtained in this manner are snowy white, and on being melted yield a nearly colorless liquid. The alcohol may be recovered by redistillation at a low temperature. This is a rather costly procedure.



See also Paints and Wood.

«Preparation of Carbolineum.»—I.—Melt together 50 parts of American rosin (F) and 150 parts of pale paraffine oil (yellow oil), and add, with stirring, 20 parts of rosin oil (rectified).

II.—Sixty parts, by weight, of black coal tar oil of a specific gravity higher than 1.10; 25 parts, by weight, of creosote oil; 25 parts, by weight, of beechwood tar oil of a higher specific weight than 0.9. Mix together and heat to about 347° F., or until the fumes given off begin to deposit soot. The resulting carbolineum is brown, and of somewhat thick consistency; when cool it is ready for use and is packed in casks. This improved carbolineum is applied to wood or masonry with a brush; the surfaces treated dry quickly, very soon loose the odor of the carbolineum, and are effectively protected from dampness and formation of fungi.

CARBON PRINTING: See Photography.




CARDS (PLAYING), TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

CARDBOARD, WATERPROOF GLUE FOR: See Adhesives under Cements and Waterproof Glues.


CARMINATIVES: See Pain Killers.

CARPET PRESERVATION: See Household Formulas.

CARPET SOAP: See Soap. {148}


CARRON OIL: See Cosmetics.



«Dried Casein, its Manufacture and Uses.»—For the production of casein, skimmed milk or buttermilk is used, articles of slight value, as they cannot be employed for feeding hogs or for making cheese, except of a very inferior sort, of little or no alimentive qualities. This milk is heated to from 70° to 90° C. (175°–195° F.), and sulphuric or hydrochloric acid is added until it no longer causes precipitation. The precipitate is washed to free it from residual lactose, redissolved in a sodium carbonate solution, and again precipitated, this time by lactic acid. It is again washed, dried, and pulverized. It takes 8 gallons of skimmed milk to make 1 pound of dry casein.

In the manufacture of fancy papers, or papers that are made to imitate the appearance of various cloths, laces, and silks, casein is very widely used. It is also largely used in waterproofing tissues, for preparation of waterproof products, and various articles prepared from agglomeration of cork (packing boards, etc.). With lime water casein makes a glue that resists heat, steam, etc. It also enters into the manufacture of the various articles made from artificial ivory (billiard balls, combs, toilet boxes, etc.), imitation of celluloid, meerschaum, etc., and is finding new uses every day.

Casein, as known, may act the part of an acid and combine with bases to form caseinates or caseates; among these compounds, caseinates of potash, of soda, and of ammonia are the only ones soluble in water; all the others are insoluble and may be readily prepared by double decomposition. Thus, for example, to obtain caseinate of alumina it is sufficient to add to a solution of casein in caustic soda, a solution of sulphate of alumina; an insoluble precipitate of casein, or caseinate of alumina, is instantly formed.

This precipitate ought to be freed from the sulphate of soda (formed by double decomposition), by means of prolonged washing. Pure, ordinary cellulose may be incorporated with it by this process, producing a new compound, cheaper than pure cellulose, although possessing the same properties, and capable of replacing it in all its applications.

According to the results desired, in transparency, color, hardness, etc., the most suitable caseinate should be selected. Thus, if a translucent compound is to be obtained, the caseinate of alumina yields the best. If a white compound is desired, the caseinate of zinc, or of magnesia, should be chosen; and for colored products the caseinates of iron, copper, and nickel will give varied tints.

The process employed for the new products, with a base of celluloid and caseinate, is as follows: On one hand casein is dissolved in a solution of caustic soda (100 parts of water for 10 to 25 parts of soda), and this liquid is filtered to separate the matters not dissolved and the impurities. On the other hand, a salt of the base of which the caseinate is desired is dissolved, and the solution filtered. It is well not to operate on too concentrated a solution. The two solutions are mixed in a receptacle provided with a mechanical stirrer, in order to obtain the insoluble caseinate precipitate in as finely divided a state as possible. This precipitate should be washed thoroughly, so as to free it from the soda salt formed by double decomposition, but on account of its gummy or pasty state, this washing presents certain difficulties, and should be done carefully. After the washing the mass is freed from the greater part of water contained, by draining, followed by drying, or energetic pressing; then it is washed in alcohol, dried or pressed again, and is ready to be incorporated in the plastic mass of the celluloid.

For the latter immersion and washing it has been found that an addition of 1 to 5 per cent of borax is advantageous, for it renders the mass more plastic, and facilitates the operation of mixing. This may be conducted in a mixing apparatus; but, in practice, it is found preferable to effect it with a rolling mill, operating as follows:

The nitro-cellulose is introduced in the plastic state, and moistened with a solution of camphor in alcohol (40 to 50 parts of camphor in 50 to 70 of alcohol for 100 of nitro-cellulose) as it is practiced in celluloid factories.

This plastic mass of nitro-cellulose is placed in a rolling mill, the cylinders of which are slightly heated at the same time as the caseinate, prepared as above; then the whole mass is worked by the cylinders until the mixture of the two {149} is perfectly homogeneous, and the final mass is sufficiently hard to be drawn out in leaves in the same way as practiced for pure celluloid.

These leaves are placed in hydraulic presses, where they are compressed, first hot, then cold, and the block thus formed is afterwards cut into leaves of the thickness desired. These leaves are dried in an apparatus in the same way as ordinary celluloid. The product resembles celluloid, and has all its properties. At 90° to 100° C. (194° to 212° F.), it becomes quite plastic, and is easily molded. It may be sawed, filed, turned, and carved without difficulty, and takes on a superb polish. It burns less readily than celluloid, and its combustibility diminishes in proportion as the percentage of caseinate increases; finally, the cost price is less than that of celluloid, and by using a large proportion of caseinate, products may be manufactured at an extremely low cost.

«Phosphate of Casein and its Production.»—The process is designed to produce a strongly acid compound of phosphoric acid and casein, practically stable and not hydroscopic, which may be employed as an acid ingredient in bakers’ yeast and for other purposes.

The phosphoric acid may be obtained by any convenient method; for example, by decomposing dicalcic or monocalcic phosphate with sulphuric acid. The commercial phosphoric acid may also be employed.

The casein may be precipitated from the skimmed milk by means of a suitable acid, and should be washed with cold water to remove impurities. A caseinate may also be employed, such as a compound of casein and an alkali or an alkaline earth.

The new compound is produced in the following way: A sufficient quantity of phosphoric acid is incorporated with the casein or a caseinate in such a way as to insure sufficient acidity in the resulting compound. The employment of 23 to 25 parts by weight of phosphoric acid with 75 to 77 parts of casein constitutes a good proportion.

An aqueous solution of phosphoric acid is made, and the casein introduced in the proportion of 25 to 50 per cent of the weight of the phosphoric acid present. The mixture is then heated till the curdled form of the casein disappears, and it assumes a uniform fluid form. Then the mixture is concentrated to a syrupy consistency. The remainder of the casein or of the caseinate is added and mixed with the solution until it is intimately incorporated and the mass becomes uniform. The compound is dried in a current of hot air, or in any other way that will not discolor it, and it is ground to a fine powder. The intimate union of the phosphoric acid and casein during the gradual concentration of the mixture and during the grinding and drying, removes the hydroscopic property of the phosphoric acid, and produces a dry and stable product, which may be regarded as a hyperphosphate of casein. When it is mixed with water, it swells and dissolves slowly. When this compound is mingled with its equivalent of sodium bicarbonate it yields about 17 per cent of gas.

CASEIN CEMENTS: See Adhesives.

CASEIN VARNISH: See Varnishes.


«To Render Shrunken Wooden Casks Watertight.»—When a wooden receptacle has dried up it naturally cannot hold the water poured into it for the purpose of swelling it, and the pouring has to be repeated many times before the desired end is reached. A much quicker way is to stuff the receptacle full of straw or bad hay, laying a stone on top and then filling the vessel with water. Although the water runs off again, the moistened straw remains behind and greatly assists the swelling up of the wood.




CASTS, REPAIRING OF BROKEN: See Adhesives and Lutes.



«Castings Out of Various Metals.»—Until recent years metal castings were all made in sand molds; that is, the patterns were used for the impressions in the sand, the same as iron castings are produced to-day. Nearly all of the softer metals are now cast in brass, copper, zinc, or iron molds, and only the silver {150} and German silver articles, like wire real bronze, are cast the old way, in sand. Aluminum can be readily cast in iron molds, especially if the molds have been previously heated to nearly the same temperature as the molten aluminum, and after the molds are full the metal is cooled gradually and the casting taken out as soon as cooled enough to prevent breaking from the shrinkage. Large bicycle frames have been successfully cast in this manner.

The French bronzes, which are imitations, are cast in copper or brass molds. The material used is principally zinc and tin, and an unlimited number of castings can be made in the mold, but if a real bronze piece is to be produced it must be out of copper and the mold made in sand. To make the castings hollow, with sand, a core is required. This fills the inside of the figure so that the molten copper runs around it, and as the core is made out of sand, the same can be afterwards washed out. If the casting is to be hollow and is to be cast in a metal mold, then the process is very simple. The mold is filled with molten metal, and when the operator thinks the desired thickness has cooled next to the walls, he pours out the balance. An experienced man can make hollow castings in this way, and make the walls of any thickness.

Casket hardware trimmings, which are so extensively used on coffins, especially the handles, are nearly all cast out of tin and antimony, and in brass molds. The metal used is brittle, and requires strengthening at the weak portions, and this is mostly done with wood filling or with iron rods, which are secured in the molds before the metal is poured in.

Aluminum castings, which one has procured at the foundries, are usually alloyed with zinc. This has a close affinity with aluminum, and alloys readily; but this mixture is a detriment and causes much trouble afterwards. While this alloy assists the molder to produce his castings easily, on the other hand it will not polish well and will corrode in a short time. Those difficulties may be avoided if pure aluminum is used.

Plaster of Paris molds are the easiest made for pieces where only a few castings are wanted. The only difficulty is that it requires a few days to dry the plaster thoroughly, and that is absolutely necessary to use them successfully. Not only can the softer metals be run into plaster molds, but gold and silver can be run into them. A plaster mold should be well smoked over a gaslight, or until well covered with a layer of soot, and the metal should be poured in as cool a state as it will run.

«To Prevent the Adhesion of Modeling Sand to Castings.»—Use a mixture of finely ground coke and graphite. Although the former material is highly porous, possessing this quality even as a fine powder, and the fine pulverization is a difficult operation, still the invention attains its purpose of producing an absolutely smooth surface. This is accomplished by mixing both substances intimately and adding melted rosin, whereupon the whole mass is exposed to heat, so that the rosin decomposes, its carbon residue filling up the finest pores of the coke. The rosin, in melting, carries the fine graphite particles along into the pores. After cooling the mass is first ground in edge mills, then again in a suitable manner and sifted. Surprising results are obtained with this material. It is advisable to take proportionately little graphite, as the different co-efficients of expansion of the two substances may easily exercise a disturbing action. One-fifth of graphite, in respect to the whole mass, gives the best results, but it is advisable to add plenty of rosin. The liquid mixture must, before burning, possess the consistency of mortar.

«Sand Holes in Cast-Brass Work.»—Cast-brass work, when it presents numerous and deep sand holes, should be well dipped into the dipping acid before being polished, in order thoroughly to clean these objectionable cavities; and the polishing should be pushed to an extent sufficient to obliterate the smaller sand holes, if possible, as this class of work looks very unsightly, when plated and finished, if pitted all over with minute hollows. The larger holes cannot, without considerable labor, be obliterated; indeed, it not infrequently happens that in endeavoring to work out such cavities they become enlarged, as they often extend deep into the body of the metal. An experienced hand knows how far he dare go in polishing work of this awkward character.

«Black Wash for Casting Molds.»—Gumlac, 1 part; wood spirit, 2 parts; lampblack, in sufficient quantity to color.

«How to Make a Plaster Cast of a Coin or Medal.»—The most exact observance of any written or printed directions is no guarantee of success. Practice alone can give expertness in this work. {151} The composition of the mold is of the most varied, but the materials most generally used are plaster of Paris and brick dust, in the proportion of 2 parts of the first to 1 of the second, stirred in water, with the addition of a little sal ammoniac. The best quality of plaster for this purpose is the so-called alabaster, and the brick dust should be as finely powdered as possible. The addition of clay, dried and very finely powdered, is recommended. With very delicate objects the proportion of plaster may be slightly increased. The dry material should be thoroughly mixed before the addition of water.

As the geometrically exact contour of the coin or medal is often the cause of breaking of the edges, the operator sometimes uses wax to make the edges appear half round and it also allows the casting to be more easily removed from the second half of the mold. Each half of the mold should be about the thickness of the finger. The keys, so called, of every plaster casting must not be forgotten. In the first casting some little half-spherical cavities should be scooped out, which will appear in the second half-round knobs, and which, by engaging with the depressions, will ensure exactness in the finished mold.

After the plaster has set, cut a canal for the flow of the molten casting material, then dry the mold thoroughly in an oven strongly heated. The halves are now ready to be bound together with a light wire. When bound heat the mold gradually and slowly and let the mouth of the canal remain underneath while the heating is in progress, in order to prevent the possible entry of dirt or foreign matter. The heating should be continued as long as there is a suspicion of remaining moisture. When finally assured of this fact, take out the mold, open it, and blow it out, to make sure of absolute cleanness. Close and bind again and place on a hearth of fine, hot sand. The mold should still be glowing when the casting is made. The ladle should contain plenty of metal, so as to hold the heat while the casting is being made. The presence of a little zinc in the metal ensures a sharp casting. Finally, to ensure success, it is always better to provide two molds in case of accident. Even the most practiced metal molders take this precaution, especially when casting delicate objects.

«How to Make Castings of Insects.»—The object—a dead beetle, for example—is first arranged in a natural position, and the feet are connected with an oval rim of wax. It is then fixed in the center of a paper or wooden box by means of pieces of fine wire, so that it is perfectly free, and thicker wires are run from the sides of the box to the object, which subsequently serve to form air channels in the mold by their removal. A wooden stick, tapering toward the bottom, is placed upon the back of the insect to produce a runner for casting. The box is then filled up with a paste with 3 parts of plaster of Paris and 1 of brick dust, made up with a solution of alum and sal ammoniac. It is also well first to brush the object with this paste to prevent the formation of air bubbles. After the mold thus formed has set, the object is removed from the interior by first reducing it to ashes. It is, therefore, allowed to dry, very slowly at first, by leaving in the shade at a normal temperature (as in India this is much higher than in our zone, it will be necessary to place the mold in a moderately warm place), and afterwards heating gradually to a red heat. This incinerates the object, and melts the waxen base upon which it is placed. The latter escapes, and is burned as it does so, and the object, reduced to fine ashes, is removed through the wire holes as suggested above. The casting is then made in the ordinary manner.

«Casting of Soft Metal Castings.»—I.—It is often difficult to form flat back or half castings out of the softer metals so that they will run full, owing mostly to the thin edges and frail connections. Instead of using solid metal backs for the molds it is better to use cardboard, or heavy, smooth paper, fastened to a wooden board fitted to the back of the other half of the mold. By this means very thin castings may be produced that would be more difficult with a solid metal back.

II.—To obtain a full casting in brass molds for soft metal two important points should be observed. One is to have the deep recesses vented so the air will escape, and the other is to have the mold properly blued. The bluing is best done by dipping the mold in sulphuric acid, then placing it on a gas stove until the mold is a dark color. Unless this bluing is done it will be impossible to obtain a sharp casting.

«Drosses.»—All the softer grades of metal throw off considerable dross, which is usually skimmed off; especially with tin and its composition. Should much of this gather on the top of the molten {152} metal, the drosses should all be saved, and melted down when there is enough for a kettle full. Dross may be remelted five or six times before all the good metal is out.

«Fuel.»—Where a good soft coal can be had at a low price, as in the middle West, this is perhaps the cheapest and easiest fuel to use; and, besides, it has some advantages over gas, which is so much used in the East. A soft-coal fire can be regulated to keep the metal at an even temperature, and it is especially handy to keep the metal in a molten state during the noon hour. This refers particularly to the gas furnaces that are operated from the power plant in the shop; when this power shuts down during the noon hour the metal becomes chilled, and much time is lost by the remelting after one o’clock, or at the beginning in the morning.

«Molds.»—I.—Brass molds for the casting of soft metal ornaments out of britannia, pewter, spelter, etc., should be made out of brass that contains enough zinc to produce a light-colored brass. While this hard brass is more difficult for the mold maker to cut, the superiority over the dark red copper-colored brass is that it will stand more heat and rougher usage and thereby offset the extra labor of cutting the hard brass. The mold should be heavy enough to retain sufficient heat while the worker is removing a finished casting from the mold so that the next pouring will come full. If the mold is too light it cools more quickly, and consequently the castings are chilled and will not run full. Where the molds are heavy enough they will admit the use of a swab and water after each pouring. This chills the casting so that it can be removed easily with the plyers.

II.—Molds for the use of soft metal castings may be made out of soft metal. This is done with articles that are not numerous, or not often used; and may be looked upon as temporary. The molds are made in part the same as when of brass, and out of tin that contains as much hardening as possible. The hardening consists of antimony and copper. This metal mold must be painted over several times with Spanish red, which tends to prevent the metal from melting. The metal must not be used too hot, otherwise it will melt the mold. By a little careful manipulation many pieces can be cast with these molds.

III.—New iron or brass molds must be blued before they can be used for casting purposes. This is done by placing the mold face downward on a charcoal fire, or by swabbing with sulphuric acid, then placing over a gas flame or charcoal fire until the mold is perfectly oxidized.

IV.—A good substantial mold for small castings of soft metal is made of brass. The expense of making the cast mold is considerable, however, and, on that account, some manufacturers are making their molds by electro-deposition. This produces a much cheaper mold, which can be made very quickly. The electro-deposited mold, however, is very frail in comparison with a brass casting, and consequently must be handled very carefully to keep its shape. The electro-deposited ones are made out of copper, and the backs filled in with a softer metal. The handles are secured with screws.

«Plaster Molds.»—Castings of any metal can be done in a plaster mold, provided the mold has dried, at a moderate heat, for several days. Smoke the mold well with a brand of rosin to insure a full cast. Where there are only one or two ornaments or figures to cast, it may be done in a mold made out of dental plaster. After the mold is made and set enough so that it can be taken apart, it should be placed in a warm place and left to dry for a day or two. When ready to use the inside should be well smoked over a gaslight; the mold should be well warmed and the metal must not be too hot. Very good castings may be obtained this way; the only objection being the length of time needed for a thorough drying of the mold.

«Temperature of Metal.»—Metals for casting purposes should not be overheated. If any of the softer metals show blue colors after cooling it is an indication that the metal is too hot. The metal should be heated enough so that it can be poured, and the finished casting have a bright, clean appearance. The mold may be very warm, then the metal need not be so hot for bright, clean castings. Some of the metals will not stand reheating too often, as this will cause them to run sluggish. Britannia metal should not be skimmed or stirred too much, otherwise there will be too much loss in the dross.

CASTING IN WAX: See Modeling.



«Purifying Rancid Castor Oil.»—To clean rancid castor oil mix 100 parts of the oil at 95° F. with a mixture of 1 part of alcohol (96 per cent) and 1 part of sulphuric acid. Allow to settle for 24 hours and then carefully decant from the precipitate. Now wash with warm water, boiling for 1/2 hour; allow to settle for 24 hours in well closed vessels, after which time the purified oil may be taken off.

«How to Pour Out Castor Oil.»—Any one who has tried to pour castor oil from a square, 5-gallon can, when it is full, knows how difficult it is to avoid a mess. This, however, may be avoided by having a hole punched in the cap which screws onto the can, and a tube, 2 inches long and 3/4 of an inch in diameter, soldered on. With a wire nail a hole is punched in the top of the can between the screw cap and the edge of the can. This will admit air while pouring. Resting the can on a table, with the screw-cap tube to the rear, the can is carefully tilted forward with one hand and the shop bottle held in the other. In this way the bottle may be filled without spilling any of the oil and that, too, without a funnel. It is preferable to rest the can on a table when pouring from a 1- or 2-gallon square varnish can, when filling shop bottles. With the opening to the rear, the can is likewise tilted forward slowly so as to allow the surface of the liquid to become “at rest.” Even mobile liquids, such as spirits of turpentine, may be poured into shop bottles without a funnel. Of course, the main thing is that the can be lowered slowly, otherwise the first portion may spurt out over the bottle. With 5-gallon round cans it is possible to fill shop bottles in the same manner by resting the can on a box or counter. When a funnel is used for non-greasy liquids, the funnel may be slightly raised with the thumb and little finger from the neck of the bottle, while holding the bottle by the neck between the middle and ring fingers, to allow egress of air.

«Tasteless Castor Oil.»—

I.—Pure castor oil 1 pint Cologne spirit 3 fluidounces Oil of wintergreen 40 minims Oil of sassafras 20 minims Oil of anise 15 minims Saccharine 5 grains Hot water, a sufficient quantity.

Place the castor oil in a gallon bottle. Add a pint of hot water and shake vigorously for about 15 minutes. Then pour the mixture into a vessel with a stopcock at its base, and allow the mixture to stand for 12 hours. Draw off the oil, excepting the last portion, which must be rejected. Dissolve the essential oils and saccharine in the cologne spirit and add to the washed castor oil.

II.—First prepare an aromatic solution of saccharine as follows:

Refined saccharine 25 parts Vanillin 5 parts Absolute alcohol 950 parts Oil of cinnamon 20 parts

Dissolve the saccharine and vanillin in the alcohol, then add the cinnamon oil, agitate well and filter. Of this liquid add 20 parts to 980 parts of castor oil and mix by agitation. Castor oil, like cod-liver oil, may be rendered nearly tasteless, it is claimed, by treating it as follows: Into a matrass of suitable size put 50 parts of freshly roasted coffee, ground as fine as possible, and 25 parts of purified and freshly prepared bone or ivory black. Pour over the mass 1,000 parts of the oil to be deodorized and rendered tasteless, and mix. Cork the container tightly, put on a water bath, and raise the temperature to about 140° F. Keep at this heat from 15 to 20 minutes, then let cool down, slowly, to 90°, at which temperature let stand for 3 hours. Finally filter, and put up in small, well-stoppered bottles.

III.—Vanillin 3 grains Garantose 4 grains Ol. menth. pip. 8 minims Alcoholis 3 drachms Ol. ricinus 12 ounces Ol. olivæ (imported), quantity sufficient 1 pint

M. ft. sol.

Mix vanillin, garantose, ol. menth. pip. with alcohol and add castor oil and olive oil.

Dose: One drachm to 2 fluidounces.

IV.—The following keeps well:

Castor oil 24 parts Glycerine 24 parts Tincture of orange peel 8 parts Tincture of senega 2 parts Cinnamon water enough to make 100 parts

Mix and make an emulsion. Dose is 1 tablespoonful.

V.—One part of common cooking molasses to 2 of castor oil is the best {154} disguise for the taste of the oil that can be used.

VI.—Castor oil 1 1/2 ounces Powdered acacia 2 drachms Sugar 2 drachms Peppermint water 4 ounces

Triturate the sugar and acacia, adding the oil gradually; when these have been thoroughly incorporated add the peppermint water in small portions, triturating the mixture until an emulsion is formed.

VII.—This formula for an emulsion is said to yield a fairly satisfactory product:

Castor oil 500 c.c. Mucilage of acacia 125 c.c. Spirit of gaultheria 10 grams Sugar 1 gram Sodium bicarbonate 1 gram

VIII.—Castor oil 1 ounce Compound tincture of cardamom 4 drachms Oil of wintergreen 3 drops Powdered acacia 3 drachms Sugar 2 drachms Cinnamon water enough to make 4 ounces. IX.—Castor oil 12 ounces Vanillin 3 grains Saccharine 4 grains Oil of peppermint 8 minims Alcohol 3 drachms Olive oil enough to make 1 pint.

In any case, use only a fresh oil.

«How to Take Castor Oil.»—The disgust for castor oil is due to the odor, not to the taste. If the patient grips the nostrils firmly before pouring out the dose, drinks the oil complacently, and then thoroughly cleanses the mouth, lips, larynx, etc., with water, removing the last vestige of the oil before removing the fingers, he will not get the least taste from the oil, which is bland and tasteless. It all depends upon preventing any oil from entering the nose during the time while there is any oil present.

«Castor-Oil Chocolate Lozenges.»—

Cacao, free from oil 250 parts Castor oil 250 parts Sugar, pulverized 500 parts Vanillin sugar 5 parts

Mix the chocolate and oil and heat in the water, both under constant stirring. Have the sugar well dried and add, stirring constantly, to the molten mass. Continue the heat for 30 minutes, then pour out and divide into lozenges in the usual way.

CAT DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES: See Insecticides and Veterinary Formulas.


It is a well-known fact that the reactions of the compounds of silver, platinum, and chromium in photographic processes are generally voluntary ones and that the light really acts only as an accelerator, that is to say the chemical properties of the preparations also change in the dark, though a longer time is required. When these preparations are exposed to the light under a negative, the modification of their chemical properties is accelerated in such a way that, through the gradations of the tone-values in the negative, the positive print is formed. Now it has been found that we also have such accelerators in material substances that can be used in the light, the process being termed catalysis. It is remarkable that these substances, called catalyzers, apparently do not take part in the process, but bring about merely by their presence, decomposition or combination of other bodies during or upon contact. Hence, catalysis may be defined, in short, as the act of changing or accelerating the speed of a chemical reaction by means of agents which appear to remain stable.

Professor Ostwald and Dr. O. Gros, of the Leipsic University, have given the name of “catatypy” to the new copying process. The use of light is entirely done away with, except that for the sake of convenience the manipulations are executed in the light. All that is necessary is to bring paper and negative into contact, no matter whether in the light or in the dark. Hence the negative (if necessary a positive may also be employed) need not even be transparent, for the ascending and descending action of the tone values in the positive picture is produced only by the quantity in the varying density of the silver powder contained in the negative. Hence no photographic (light) picture, but a catatypic picture (produced by contact) is created, but the final result is the same.

Catatypy is carried out as follows: Pour dioxide of hydrogen over the negative, which can be done without any damage to the latter, and lay a piece of paper on (sized or unsized, rough or smooth, according to the effect desired); by a contact lasting a few seconds the paper receives the picture, dioxide of hydrogen being destroyed. From a single application several prints can be made. The acquired picture—still {155} invisible—may now in the further course of the process, have a reducing or oxydizing action. As picture-producing bodies, the large group of iron salts are above all eminently adapted, but other substances, such as chromium, manganese, etc., as well as pigments with glue solutions may also be employed. The development takes place as follows: When the paper which has been in contact with the negative is drawn through a solution of ferrous oxide, the protoxide is transformed into oxide by the peroxide, hence a yellow positive picture, consisting of iron oxide, results, which can be readily changed into other compounds, so that the most varying tones of color can be obtained. With the use of pigments, in conjunction with a glue solution, the action is as follows: In the places where the picture is, the layer with the pigments becomes insoluble and all other dye stuffs can be washed off with water.

The chemical inks and reductions, as well as color pigments, of which the pictures consist, have been carefully tested and are composed of such as are known to possess unlimited durability.

After a short contact, simply immerse the picture in the respective solution, wash out, and a permanent picture is obtained.



«Preparation of Catgut Sutures.»—The catgut is stretched tightly over a glass plate tanned in 5 per cent watery extract of quebracho, washed for a short time in water, subjected to the action of a 4 per cent formalin solution for 24 to 48 hours, washed in running water for 24 hours, boiled in water for 10 to 15 minutes, and stored in a mixture of absolute alcohol with 5 per cent glycerine and 4 per cent carbolic acid. In experiments on dogs, this suture material in aseptic wounds remained intact for 65 days, and was absorbed after 83 days. In infected wounds it was absorbed after 32 days.


CATTLE DIPS AND APPLICATIONS: See Disinfectants and Insecticides.

CEILING CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, and also Household Formulas.


Celery (seed ground) 25 parts Coca leaves (ground) 25 parts Black haw (ground) 25 parts Hyoscyamus leaves (ground) 12 1/2 parts Podophyllum (powdered) 10 parts Orange peel (ground) 6 parts Sugar (granulated) 100 parts Alcohol 150 parts Water, q. s. ad. 400 parts

Mix the alcohol with 150 parts of water and macerate drugs for 24 hours; pack in percolator and pour on menstruum till 340 parts is obtained; dissolve sugar in it and strain.

CELLS, SOLUTIONS AND FILLERS FOR BATTERY: See Battery Solutions and Fillers.

CELLARS, WATERPROOF: See Household Formulas.



«New Celluloid.»—M. Ortmann has ascertained that turpentine produced by the _Pinus larix_, generally denominated Venice turpentine, in combination with acetone (dimethyl ketone), yields the best results; but other turpentines, such as the American from the _Pinus australis_, the Canada turpentine from the _Pinus balsamea_, the French turpentine from the _Pinus maritima_, and ketones, such as the ketone of methyl-ethyl, the ketone of dinaphthyl, the ketone of methyl-oxynaphthyl, and the ketone of dioxy-naphthyl, may be employed.

To put this process in practice, 1,000 parts of pyroxyline is prepared in the usual manner, and mixed with 65 parts of turpentine, or 250 parts of ketone and 250 parts of ether; 500 parts or 750 parts of methyl alcohol is added, and a colorant, such as desired. Instead of turpentine, rosins derived from it may be employed. If the employment of camphor is desired to a certain extent, it may be added to the mixture. The whole is shaken and left at rest for about 12 hours. It is then passed between hot rollers, and finally pressed, cut, and dried, like ordinary celluloid. {156}

The product thus obtained is without odor, when camphor is not employed; and in appearance and properties it cannot be distinguished from ordinary celluloid, while the expense of production is considerably reduced.

«Formol Albumen for Preparation of Celluloid.»—Formol has the property of forming combinations with most albuminoid substances. These are not identical with reference to plasticity, and the use which may be derived from them for the manufacture of plastic substances. This difference explains why albumen should not be confounded with gelatin or casein. With this in view, the Société Anonyme l’Oyonnaxienne has originated the following processes:

I.—The albumen may be that of the egg or that of the blood, which are readily found in trade. The formolizing may be effected in the moist state or in the dry state. The dry or moist albumen is brought into contact with the solution of commercial formol diluted to 5 or 10 per cent for an hour. Care must be taken to pulverize the albumen, if it is dry. The formol penetrates rapidly into the albuminoid matter, and is filtered or decanted and washed with water until all the formol in excess has completely disappeared; this it is easy to ascertain by means of aniline water, which produces a turbid white as long as a trace of formic aldehyde remains.

The formol albumen is afterwards dried at low temperature by submitting it to the action of a current of dry air at a temperature not exceeding 107° F. Thus obtained, the product appears as a transparent corneous substance. On pulverizing, it becomes opaque and loses its transparency. It is completely insoluble in water, but swells in this liquid.

II.—The formol albumen is reduced to a perfectly homogeneous powder, and mixed intimately with the plastic matter before rolling. This cannot be considered an adequate means for effecting the mixture. It is necessary to introduce the formol albumen, in the course of the moistening, either by making an emulsion with camphor alcohol, or by mixing it thoroughly with nitro-cellulose, or by making simultaneously a thorough mixture of the three substances. When the mixture is accomplished, the paste is rolled according to the usual operation. The quantity of formol albumen to add is variable, being diminished according to the quantity of camphor.

Instead of adding the desiccated formol albumen, it may previously be swollen in water in order to render it more malleable.

Instead of simple water, alkalinized or acidified water may be taken for this purpose, or even alcoholized water. The albumen, then, should be pressed between paper or cloth, in order to remove the excess of moisture.

«Plastic Substances of Nitro-Cellulose Base.»—To manufacture plastic substances the Compagnie Française du Celluloid commences by submitting casein to a special operation. It is soaked with a solution of acetate of urea in alcohol; for 100 parts of casein 5 parts of acetate of urea and 50 parts of alcohol are employed. The mass swells, and in 48 hours the casein is thoroughly penetrated. It is then ready to be incorporated with the camphored nitro-cellulose. The nitro-cellulose, having received the addition of camphor, is soaked in the alcohol, and the mass is well mixed. The casein prepared as described is introduced into the mass. The whole is mixed and left at rest for 2 days.

The plastic pulp thus obtained is rolled, cut, and dried like ordinary cellulose, and by the same processes and apparatus. The pulp may also be converted into tubes and other forms, like ordinary celluloid.

It is advisable to subject the improved plastic pulp to a treatment with formaldehyde for the purpose of rendering insoluble the casein incorporated in the celluloid. The plastic product of nitro-cellulose base, thus obtained, presents in employment the same general properties as ordinary celluloid. It may be applied to the various manufacturing processes in use for the preparation of articles of all kinds, and its cost price diminishes more or less according to the proportion of casein associated with the ordinary celluloid. In this plastic product various colorants may be incorporated, and the appearance of shell, pearl, wood, marble, or ivory may also be imparted.

«Improved Celluloid.»—This product is obtained by mingling with celluloid, under suitable conditions, gelatin or strong glue of gelatin base. It is clear that the replacement of part of the celluloid by the gelatin, of which the cost is much less, lowers materially the cost of the final product. The result is obtained without detriment to the qualities of the objects. These are said to be of superior properties, having more firmness than those of celluloid. And the new material {157} is worked more readily than the celluloid employed alone.

The new product may be prepared in open air or in a closed vessel under pressure. When operated in the air, the gelatin is first immersed cold (in any form, and in a state more or less pure) in alcohol marking about 140° F., with the addition of a certain quantity (for example, 5 to 10 per cent) of crystallizable acetic acid. In a few hours the material has swollen considerably, and it is then introduced in alcohol of about 90 per cent, and at the same time the celluloid pulp (camphor and gun cotton), taking care to add a little acetone. The proportion of celluloid in the mixture may be 50 to 75 per cent of the weight of the gelatin, more or less, according to the result desired. After heating the mixture slightly, it is worked, cold, by the rollers ordinarily employed for celluloid and other similar pastes, or by any other suitable methods.

The preparation in a closed vessel does not differ from that which has been described, except for the introduction of the mixture of gelatin, celluloid, alcohol, and acetone, at the moment when the heating is to be accomplished in an autoclave heated with steam, capable of supporting a pressure of 2 to 5 pounds, and furnished with a mechanical agitator. This method of proceeding abridges the operation considerably; the paste comes from the autoclave well mingled, and is then submitted to the action of rollers. There is but little work in distilling the alcohol and acetic acid in the autoclave. These may be recovered, and on account of their evaporation the mass presents the desired consistency when it reaches the rollers. Whichever of the two methods of preparation may be employed, the substance may be rolled as in the ordinary process, if a boiler with agitator is made use of; the mass may be produced in any form.

«Preparation of Uninflammable Celluloid.»—The operation of this process by Woodward is the following: In a receiver of glass or porcelain, liquefied fish glue and gum arabic are introduced and allowed to swell for 24 hours in a very dry position, allowing the air to circulate freely. The receiver is not covered. Afterwards it is heated on a water bath, and the contents stirred (for example, by means of a porcelain spatula) until the gum is completely liquefied. The heating of the mass should not exceed 77° F. Then the gelatin is added in such a way that there are no solid pieces. The receiver is removed from the water bath and colza oil added, while agitating anew. When the mixture is complete it is left to repose for 24 hours.

Before cooling, the mixture is passed through a sieve in order to retain the pieces which may not have been dissolved. After swelling, and the dissolution and purification by means of the sieve, it is allowed to rest still in the same position, with access of air. The films formed while cooling may be removed. The treatment of celluloid necessitates employing a solution completely colorless and clear. The celluloid to be treated while it is still in the pasty state should be in a receiver of glass, porcelain, or similar material.

The mass containing the fish glue is poured in, drop by drop, while stirring carefully, taking care to pour it in the middle of the celluloid and to increase the surface of contact.

When the mixture is complete, the celluloid is ready to be employed and does not produce flame when exposed.

The solution of fish glue may be prepared by allowing 200 parts of it to swell for 48 hours in 1,000 parts of cold distilled water. It is then passed through the sieve, and the pieces which may remain are broken up, in order to mingle them thoroughly with the water. Ten parts of kitchen salt are then added, and the whole mass passed through the sieve.

This product may be utilized for the preparation of photographic films or for those used for cinematographs, or for replacing hard caoutchouc for the insulation of electric conductors, and for the preparation of plastic objects.

«Substitute for Camphor in the Preparation of Celluloid and Applicable to Other Purposes.»—In this process commercial oil of turpentine, after being rectified by distillation over caustic soda, is subjected to the action of gaseous chlorhydric acid, in order to produce the solid monochlorhydrate of turpentine. After having, by means of the press, extracted the liquid monochlorhydrate, and after several washings with cold water, the solid matter is desiccated and introduced into an autoclave apparatus capable of resisting a pressure of 6 atmospheres. Fifty per cent of caustic soda, calculated on the weight of the monochlorhydrate, and mingled with an equal quantity of alcohol, is added in the form of a thick solution. The apparatus is closed and heated for several hours at the {158} temperature of 284° to 302° F. The material is washed several times for freeing it from the mingled sodium chloride and sodium hydrate, and the camphor resulting from this operation is treated in the following manner:

In an autoclave constructed for the purpose, camphene and water strongly mixed with sulphuric acid are introduced and heated so as to attain 9 pounds of pressure. Then an electric current is applied, capable of producing the decomposition of water. The mass is constantly stirred, either mechanically or more simply by allowing a little of the steam to escape by a tap. In an hour, at least, the material is drawn from the apparatus, washed and dried, sublimed according to need, and is then suitable for replacing camphor in its industrial employments, for the camphene is converted entirely or in greater part into camphor, either right-hand camphor, or a product optically inactive, according to the origin of the oil of turpentine made use of.

In the electrolytic oxidation of the camphene, instead of using acidulated water, whatever is capable of furnishing, under the influence of the electric current, the oxygen necessary for the reaction, such as oxygenized water, barium bioxide, and the permanganates, may be employed.

«Plastic and Elastic Composition.»—Formaldehyde has the property, as known, of removing from gelatin its solubility and its fusibility, but it has also another property, prejudicial in certain applications, of rendering the composition hard and friable. In order to remedy this prejudicial action M. Deborda adds to the gelatin treated by means of formaldehyde, oil of turpentine, or a mixture of oil of turpentine and German turpentine or Venice turpentine. The addition removes from the composition its friability and hardness, imparting to it great softness and elasticity. The effect is accomplished by a slight proportion, 5 to 10 per cent.

«Production of Substances Resembling Celluloid.»—Most of the substitutes for camphor in the preparation of celluloid are attended with inconveniences limiting their employment and sometimes causing their rejection. Thus, in one case the celluloid does not allow of the preparation of transparent bodies; in another it occasions too much softness in the products manufactured; and in still another it does not allow of pressing, folding, or other operations, because the mass is too brittle; in still others combinations are produced which in time are affected unfavorably by the coloring substances employed.

Callenberg has found that the halogenous derivatives of etherized oils, principally oil of turpentine, and especially the solid chloride of turpentine, which is of a snowy and brilliant white, and of agreeable odor, are suitable for yielding, either alone or mixed with camphor or one of its substitutes, and combined by ordinary means with nitrated cellulose, or other ethers of cellulose, treated with acetic ether, a celluloidic product, which, it is said, is not inferior to ordinary celluloid and has the advantage of reduced cost.

«Elastic Substitute for Celluloid.»—Acetic cellulose, like nitro-cellulose, can be converted into an elastic corneous compound. The substances particularly suitable for the operation are organic substances containing one or more hydroxy, aldehydic, amide, or ketonic groups, as well as the acid amides. Probably a bond is formed when these combinations act on the acetate of cellulose, but the bond cannot well be defined, considering the complex nature of the molecule of cellulose. According to the mode of preparation, the substances obtained form a hard mass, more or less flexible. In the soft state, copies of engraved designs can be reproduced in their finest details. When hardened, they can be cut and polished. In certain respects they resemble celluloid, without its inflammability, and they can be employed in the same manner. They can be produced by the following methods—the Lederer process:

I.—Melt together 1 part of acetate of cellulose and 1 1/2 parts of phenol at about the temperature of 104° to 122° F. When a clear solution is obtained place the mass of reaction on plates of glass or metal slightly heated and allow it to cool gradually. After a rest of several days the mass, which at the outset is similar to caoutchouc, is hard and forms flexible plates, which can be worked like celluloid.

II.—Compress an intimate mixture of equal parts of acetic cellulose and hydrate of chloride or of aniline, at a temperature of 122° to 140° F., and proceed as in the previous case.

In the same way a ketone may be employed, as acetophenone, or an acid amide, as acetamide.

III.—A transparent, celluloid-like substance which is useful for the {159} production of plates, tubes, and other articles, but especially as an underlay for sensitive films in photography, is produced by dissolving 1.8 parts, by weight, of nitro-cellulose in 16 parts of glacial acetic acid, with heating and stirring and addition of 5 parts of gelatin. After this has swelled up, add 7.5 parts, by weight, of alcohol (96 per cent), stirring constantly. The syrupy product may be pressed into molds or poured, after further dilution with the said solvents in the stated proportion, upon glass plates to form thin layers. The dried articles are well washed with water, which may contain a trace of soda lye, and dried again. Photographic foundations produced in this manner do not change, nor attack the layers sensitive to light, nor do they become electric, and in developing they remain flat.

IV.—Viscose is the name of a new product of the class of substances like celluloid, pegamoid, etc., substances having most varied and valuable applications. It is obtained directly from cellulose by mascerating this substance in a 1 per cent dilution of hydrochloric acid. The maceration is allowed to continue for several hours, and at its close the liquid is decanted and the residue is pressed off and washed thoroughly. The mass (of which we will suppose there is 100 grams) is then treated with a 20 per cent aqueous solution of sodium hydrate, which dissolves it. The solution is allowed to stand for 3 days in a tightly closed vessel; 100 grams carbon disulphide are then added, the vessel closed and allowed to stand for 12 hours longer, when it is ready for purification. Viscose thus formed is soluble in water, cold or tepid, and yields a solution of a pale brownish color, from which it is precipitated by alcohol and sodium chloride, which purifies it, but at the expense of much of its solubility. A solution of the precipitated article is colorless, or of a slightly pale yellow. Under the action of heat, long continued, viscose is decomposed, yielding cellulose, caustic soda, and carbon disulphide.

See also Casein for Celluloid Substitutes.

«Celluloid of Reduced Inflammability.»—I.—A practicable method consists in incorporating silica, which does not harm the essential properties of the celluloid. The material is divided by the usual methods, and dissolved by means of the usual solvents, to which silica has been added, either in the state of amylic, ethylic, or methylic silicate, or in the state of any ether derivative of silicic acid. The suitable proportions vary according to the degree of inflammability desired, and according to the proportion of silica in the ether derivative employed; but sufficient freedom from inflammability for practical purposes is attained by the following proportions: Fifty-five to 65 parts in volume of the solvent of the celluloid, and 35 to 45 parts of the derivative of silicic acid.

When the ether derivative is in the solid form, such, for instance, as ethyl disilicate, it is brought to the liquid state by means of any of the solvents. The union of the solvent and of the derivative is accomplished by mixing the two liquids and shaking out the air as much as possible. The incorporation of this mixture with the celluloid, previously divided or reduced to the state of chips, is effected by pouring the mixture on the chips, or inversely, shaking or stirring as free from the air as possible. The usual methods are employed for the desiccation of the mass. A good result is obtained by drying very slowly, preferably at a temperature not above 10° C. (50° F.). The resulting residue is a new product scarcely distinguished from ordinary celluloid, except that the inherent inflammability is considerably reduced. It is not important to employ any individual silicate or derivative. A mixture of the silicates or derivatives mentioned will accomplish the same results.

II.—Any ignited body is extinguished in a gaseous medium which is unsuitable for combustion; the attempt has therefore been made to find products capable of producing an uninflammable gas; and products have been selected that yield chlorine, and others producing bromine; it is also necessary that these bodies should be soluble in a solvent of celluloid; therefore, among chlorated products, ferric chloride has been taken; this is soluble in the ether-alcohol mixture.

This is the process: An ether-alcohol solution of celluloid is made; then an ether-alcohol solution of ferric perchloride. The two solutions are mingled, and a clear, syrupy liquid of yellow color, yielding no precipitate, is obtained. The liquid is poured into a cup or any suitable vessel; it is left for spontaneous evaporation, and a substance of shell-color is produced, which, after washing and drying, effects the desired result. The celluloid thus treated loses none of its properties in pliability and transparency, and is not only uninflammable, but also incombustible. {160}

Of bromated compounds, calcium bromide has been selected, which produces nearly the same result; the product obtained fuses in the flame; outside, it is extinguished, without the power of ignition.

It may be objected that ferric perchloride and calcium bromide, being soluble in water, may present to the celluloid a surface capable of being affected by moist air; but the mass of celluloid, not being liable to penetration by water, fixes the chlorinated or brominated product. Still, as the celluloid undergoes a slight decomposition, on exposure to the light, allowing small quantities of camphor to evaporate, the surface of the perchlorinated celluloid may be fixed by immersion in albuminous water, after previous treatment with a solution of oxalic acid, if a light yellow product is desired.

For preventing the calcium bromide from eventually oozing on the surface of the celluloid, by reason of its deliquescence, it may be fixed by immersing the celluloid in water acidulated with sulphuric acid. For industrial products, such as toilet articles, celluloid with ferric perchloride may be employed.

Another method of preparing an uninflammable celluloid, based on the principle above mentioned, consists in mixing bromide of camphor with cotton powder, adding castor oil to soften the product, in order that it may be less brittle. The latter product is not incombustible, but it is uninflammable, and its facility of preparation reduces at least one-half the apparatus ordinarily made use of in the manufacture of celluloid. The manufacture of this product is not at all dangerous, for the camphor bromide is strictly uninflammable, and may be melted without any danger of dissolving the gun cotton.

III.—Dissolve 25 parts of ordinary celluloidin in 250 parts of acetone and add a solution of 50 parts of magnesium chloride in 150 parts of alcohol, until a paste results, which occurs with a proportion of about 100 parts of the former solution to 20 parts of the latter solution. This paste is carefully mixed and worked through, then dried, and gives an absolutely incombustible material.

IV.—Glass-like plates which are impervious to acids, salts, and alkalies, flexible, odorless, and infrangible, and still possess a transparency similar to ordinary glass, are said to be obtained by dissolving 4 to 8 per cent of collodion wool (soluble pyroxylin) in 1 per cent of ether or alcohol and mixing the solution with 2 to 4 per cent of castor oil, or a similar non-resinifying oil, and with 4 to 6 per cent of Canada balsam. The inflammability of these plates is claimed to be much less than with others of collodion, and may be almost entirely obviated by admixture of magnesium chloride. An addition of zinc white produces the appearance of ivory.

«Solvents for Celluloid.»—Celluloid dissolves in acetone, sulphuric ether, alcohol, oil of turpentine, benzine, amyl acetate, etc., alone, or in various combinations of these agents. The following are some proportions for solutions of celluloid:

I.—Celluloid 5 parts Amyl acetate 10 parts Acetone 16 parts Sulphuric ether 16 parts

II.—Celluloid 10 parts Sulphuric ether 30 parts Acetone 30 parts Amyl acetate 30 parts Camphor 3 parts

III.—Celluloid 5 parts Alcohol 50 parts Camphor 5 parts

IV.—Celluloid 5 parts Amyl acetate 50 parts

V.—Celluloid 5 parts Amyl acetate 25 parts Acetone 25 parts

«Softening and Cementing Celluloid.»—If celluloid is to be warmed only sufficiently to be able to bend it, a bath in boiling water will answer. In steam at 120° C. (248° F.), however, it becomes so soft that it may be easily kneaded like dough, so that one may even imbed in it metal, wood, or any similar material. If it be intended to soften it to solubility, the celluloid must then be scraped fine and macerated in 90 per cent alcohol, whereupon it takes on the character of cement and may be used to join broken pieces of celluloid together. Solutions of celluloid may be prepared: 1. With 5 parts, by weight, of celluloid in 16 parts, by weight, each of amyl acetate, acetone, and sulphuric ether. 2. With 10 parts, by weight, of celluloid in 30 parts, by weight, each of sulphuric ether, acetone, amyl acetate, and 4 parts, by weight, camphor. 3. With 5 parts, by weight, celluloid in 50 parts, by weight, alcohol and 5 parts, by weight, camphor. 4. With 5 parts, by weight, celluloid in 50 parts, by weight, amyl acetate. 5. With 5 parts, by weight, celluloid in 25 parts, by weight, amyl acetate and 25 parts, by weight, acetone. {161}

It is often desirable to soften celluloid so that it will not break when hammered. Dipping it in water warmed to 40° C. (104° F.) will suffice for this.

«Mending Celluloid.»—Celluloid dishes which show cracks are easily repaired by brushing the surface repeatedly with alcohol, 3 parts, and ether, 4 parts, until the mass turns soft and can be readily squeezed together. The pressure must be maintained for about one day. By putting only 1 part of ether in 3 parts of alcohol and adding a little shellac, a cement for celluloid is obtained, which, applied warm, produces quicker results. Another very useful gluing agent for celluloid receptacles is concentrated acetic acid. The celluloid fragments dabbed with it stick together almost instantaneously.

See also Adhesives for Methods of Mending Celluloid.

«Printing on Celluloid.»—Printing on celluloid may be done in the usual way. Make ready the form so as to be perfectly level on the impression—that is, uniform to impressional touch on the face. The tympan should be hard. Bring up the form squarely, allowing for about a 3- or 4-sheet cardboard to be withdrawn from the tympan when about to proceed with printing on the celluloid; this is to allow for the thickness of the sheet of celluloid. Use live but dry and well-seasoned rollers. Special inks of different colors are made for this kind of presswork; in black a good card-job quality will be found about right, if a few drops of copal varnish are mixed with the ink before beginning to print.

«Colored Celluloid.»—

Black: First dip into pure water, then into a solution of nitrate of silver; let dry in the light.

Yellow: First immerse in a solution of nitrate of lead, then in a concentrated solution of chromate of potash.

Brown: Dip into a solution of permanganate of potash made strongly alkaline by the addition of soda.

Blue: Dip into a solution of indigo neutralized by the addition of soda.

Red: First dip into a diluted bath of nitric acid; then into an ammoniacal solution of carmine.

Green: Dip into a solution of verdigris.

Aniline colors may also be employed but they are less permanent.

«Bleaching Celluloid.»—If the celluloid has become discolored throughout, its whiteness can hardly be restored, but if merely superficially discolored, wipe with a woolen rag wet with absolute alcohol and ether mixed in equal proportions. This dissolves and removes a minute superficial layer and lays bare a new surface. To restore the polish rub briskly first with a woolen cloth and finish with silk or fine chamois. A little jeweler’s rouge or putzpomade greatly facilitates matters. Ink marks may be removed in the same manner. Printer’s ink may be removed from celluloid by rubbing first with oil of turpentine and afterwards with alcohol and ether.

«Process of Impregnating Fabrics with Celluloid.»—The fabric is first saturated with a dilute celluloid solution of the consistency of olive oil, which solution penetrates deeply into the tissue; dry quickly in a heating chamber and saturate with a more concentrated celluloid solution, about as viscous as molasses. If oil be added to the celluloid solution, the quantity should be small in the first solution, e. g., 1 to 2 per cent, in the following ones 5 to 8 per cent, while the outer layer contains very little or no oil. A fabric impregnated in this manner possesses a very flexible surface, because the outer layer may be very thin, while the interior consists of many flexible fibers surrounded by celluloid.





(See also Putties.)

For Adhesive Cements intended for repairing broken articles, see Adhesives.

«Putty for Celluloid.»—To fasten celluloid to wood, tin, etc., use a compound of 2 parts shellac, 3 parts spirit of camphor, and 4 parts strong alcohol.

«Plumbers’ Cement.»—A plumbers’ cement consists of 1 part black rosin, melted, and 2 parts of brickdust, thoroughly powdered and dried.

«Cement for Steam and Water Pipes.»—A cement for pipe joints is made as follows: Ten pounds fine yellow ocher; 4 pounds {162} ground litharge; 4 pounds whiting, and 1/2 pound of hemp, cut up fine. Mix together thoroughly with linseed oil to about the consistency of putty.

«Gutter Cement.»—Stir sand and fine lime into boiled paint skins while hot and thick. Use hot.

«Cement for Pipe Joints.»—A good cement for making tight joints in pumps, pipes, etc., is made of a mixture of 15 parts of slaked lime, 30 parts of graphite, and 40 parts of barium sulphate. The ingredients are powdered, well mixed together, and stirred up with 15 parts of boiled oil. A stiffer preparation can be made by increasing the proportions of graphite and barium sulphate to 30 and 40 parts respectively, and omitting the lime. Another cement for the same purpose consists of 15 parts of chalk and 50 of graphite, ground, washed, mixed, and reground to fine powder. To this mixture is added 20 parts of ground litharge, and the whole mixed to a stiff paste with about 15 parts of boiled oil. This last preparation possesses the advantage of remaining plastic for a long time when stored in a cool place. Finally, a good and simple mixture for tightening screw connections is made from powdered shellac dissolved in 10 per cent ammonia. The mucinous mass is painted over the screw threads, after the latter have been thoroughly cleaned, and the fitting is screwed home. The ammonia soon volatilizes, leaving behind a mass which hardens quickly, makes a tight joint, and is impervious to hot and cold water.

«Protection for Cement Work.»—A coating of soluble glass will impart to cement surfaces exposed to ammonia not only a protective covering, but also increased solidness.

Cemented surfaces can be protected from the action of the weather by repeated coats of a green vitriol solution consisting of 1 part of green vitriol and 3 parts of water. Two coatings of 5 per cent soap water are said to render the cement waterproof; after drying and rubbing with a cloth or brush, this coating will become glossy like oil paint. This application is especially recommended for sick rooms, since the walls can be readily cleaned by washing with soapy water. The coating is rendered more and more waterproof thereby. The green vitriol solution is likewise commendable for application on old and new plastering, since it produces thereon waterproof coatings. From old plastering the loose particles have first to be removed by washing.

«Puncture Cement.»—A patented preparation for automatically repairing punctures in bicycle tires consists of glycerine holding gelatinous silica or aluminum hydrate in suspension. Three volumes of glycerine are mixed with 1 volume of liquid water glass, and an acid is stirred in. The resulting jelly is diluted with 3 additional volumes of glycerine, and from 4 to 6 ounces of this fluid are placed in each tire. In case of puncture, the internal pressure of the air forces the fluid into the hole, which it closes.

«To Fix Iron in Stone.»—Of the quickly hardening cements, lead and sulphur, the latter is popularly employed. It can be rendered still more suitable for purposes of pouring by the admixture of Portland cement, which is stirred into the molten sulphur in the ratio of 1 to 3 parts by weight. The strength of the latter is increased by this addition, since the formation of so coarse a crystalline structure as that of solidifying pure sulphur is disturbed by the powder added.

«White Portland Cement.»—Mix together feldspar, 40–100 parts, by weight; kaolin, 100 parts; limestone, 700 parts; magnesite, 20–40 parts; and sodium chloride, 2.5–5 parts, all as pure as possible, and heat to 1430° to 1500° C. (2606° to 2732° F.), until the whole has become sintered together, and forms a nice, white cement-like mass.

«Cement for Closing Cracks in Stoves.»—Make a putty of reduced iron (iron by hydrogen) and a solution of sodium or potassium silicate, and force it into the crack. If the crack be a very narrow one, make the iron and silicate into paste instead of putty. This material grows firmer and harder the longer the mended article is used.

«Cement for Waterpipe.»—I.—Mix together 11 parts, by weight, Portland cement; 4 parts, by weight, lead white; 1 part, by weight, litharge; and make to a paste with boiled oil in which 3 per cent of its weight of colophony has been dissolved.

II.—Mix 1 part, by weight, torn-up wadding; 1 part, by weight, of quicklime, and 3 parts, by weight, of boiled oil. This cement must be used as soon as made.

«Cement for Pallet Stones.»—Place small pieces of shellac around the stone when in position and subject it to heat. Often the lac spreads unevenly or swells up; and this, in addition to being unsightly, is apt to displace the stone. This can be avoided as follows: The pallets are {163} held in long sliding tongs. Take a piece of shellac, heat it and roll it into a cylinder between the fingers; again heat the extremity and draw it out into a fine thread. This thread will break off, leaving a point at the end of the lac. Now heat the tongs at a little distance from the pallets, testing the degree of heat by touching the tongs with the shellac. When it melts easily, lightly touch the two sides of the notch with it; a very thin layer can thus be spread over them, and the pallet stone can then be placed in position and held until cold enough. The tongs will not lose the heat suddenly, so that the stone can easily be raised or lowered as required. The projecting particles of cement can be removed by a brass wire filed to an angle and forming a scraper. To cement a ruby pin, or the like, one may also use shellac dissolved in spirit, applied in the consistency of syrup, and liquefied again by means of a hot pincette, by seizing the stone with it.


«Fairthorne’s Cement.»—Powdered glass, 5 parts; powdered borax, 4 parts; silicic acid, 8 parts; zinc oxide, 200 parts. Powder very finely and mix; then tint with a small quantity of golden ocher or manganese. The compound, mixed before use with concentrated syrupy zinc-chloride solution, soon becomes as hard as marble and constitutes a very durable tooth cement.

«Huebner’s Cement.»—Zinc oxide, 500.0 parts; powdered manganese, 1.5 parts; yellow ocher, powdered, 1.5–4.0 parts; powdered borax, 10.0 parts; powdered glass, 100.0 parts.

As a binding liquid it is well to use acid-free zinc chloride, which can be prepared by dissolving pure zinc, free from iron, in concentrated, pure, hydrochloric acid, in such a manner that zinc is always in excess. When no more hydrogen is evolved the zinc in excess is still left in the solution for some time. The latter is filtered and boiled down to the consistency of syrup.

Commercial zinc oxide cannot be employed without previous treatment, because it is too loose; the denser it is the better is it adapted for dental cements, and the harder the latter will be. For this reason it is well, in order to obtain a dense product, to stir the commercial pure zinc oxide into a stiff paste with water to which 2 per cent of nitric acid has been added; the paste is dried and heated for some time at white heat in a Hessian crucible.

After cooling, the zinc oxide, thus obtained, is very finely powdered and kept in hermetically sealed vessels, so that it cannot absorb carbonic acid. The dental cement prepared with such zinc oxide turns very hard and solidifies with the concentrated zinc-chloride solution in a few minutes.

«Phosphate Cement.»—Concentrate pure phosphoric acid till semi-solid, and mix aluminum phosphate with it by heating. For use, mix with zinc oxide to the consistency of putty. The cement is said to set in 2 minutes.

«Zinc Amalgam, or Dentists’ Zinc.»—This consists of pure zinc filings combined with twice their weight of mercury, a gentle heat being employed to render the union more complete. It is best applied as soon as made. Its color is gray, and it is said to be effective and durable.

«Sorel’s Cement.»—Mix zinc oxide with half its bulk of fine sand, add a solution of zinc chloride of 1.260 specific gravity, and rub the whole thoroughly together in a mortar. The mixture must be applied at once, as it hardens very quickly.

«Metallic Cement.»—Pure tin, with a small proportion of cadmium and sufficient mercury, forms the most lasting and, for all practical purposes, the least objectionable amalgam. Melt 2 parts of tin with 1 of cadmium, run it into ingots, and reduce it to filings. Form these into a fluid amalgam with mercury, and squeeze out the excess of the latter through leather. Work up the solid residue in the hand, and press it into the tooth. Or melt some beeswax in a pipkin, throw in 5 parts of cadmium, and when melted add 7 or 8 parts of tin in small pieces. Pour the melted metals into an iron or wooden box, and shake them until cold, so as to obtain the alloy in a powder. This is mixed with 2 1/2 to 3 times its weight of mercury in the palm of the hand, and used as above described.





CHAIN OF FIRE: See Pyrotechnics.

CHAINS (WATCH), TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


Knead together ordinary pipe clay, moistened with ultramarine blue for blue, finely ground ocher for yellow, etc., until they are uniformly mixed, roll out into thin sheets, cut and press into wooden or metallic molds, well oiled to prevent sticking, and allow to dry slowly at ordinary temperature or at a very gentle heat.

CHAPPED HANDS: See Cosmetics.

CHARTA SINAPIS: See Mustard Paper.

CHARTREUSE: See Wines and Liquors.



«Notes for Potters, Glass-, and Brick-makers.»—It is of the highest importance in selecting oxides, minerals, etc., for manufacturing different articles, for potters’ use, to secure pure goods, especially in the purchase of the following: Lead, manganese, oxide of zinc, borax, whiting, oxide of iron, and oxide of cobalt. The different ingredients comprising any given color or glaze should be thoroughly mixed before being calcined, otherwise the mass will be of a streaky or variegated kind. Calcination requires care, especially in the manufacture of enamel colors. Over-firing, particularly of colors or enamels composed in part of lead, borax, antimony, or litharge, causes a dullness of shade, or film, that reduces their value for decorative purposes, where clearness and brilliancy are of the first importance.

To arrest the unsightly defect of “crazing,” the following have been the most successful methods employed, in the order given:

I.—Flux made of 10 parts tincal; 4 parts oxide of zinc; 1 part soda.

II.—A calcination of 5 parts oxide of zinc; 1 part pearl ash.

III.—Addition of raw oxide of zinc, 6 pounds to each hundredweight of glaze.

To glazed brick and tile makers, whose chief difficulty appears to be the production of a slip to suit the contraction of their clay, and adhere strongly to either a clay or a burnt brick or tile, the following method may be recommended:

Mix together:

Ball clay 10 parts Cornwall stone 10 parts China clay 7 parts Flint 6 1/2 parts

To be mixed and lawned one week before use.

«To Cut Pottery.»—Pottery or any soft or even hard stone substance can be cut without chipping by a disk of soft iron, the edge of which has been charged with emery, diamond, or other grinding powder, that can be obtained at any tool agency. The cutting has to be done with a liberal supply of water fed continually to the revolving disk and the substance to be cut.


«White.»—When the brick or tile leaves the press, with a very soft brush cover the part to be glazed with No. 1 Slip; afterwards dip the face in the same mixture.

«No. 1 Slip.»—

Same clay as brick 9 parts Flint 1 part Ball clay 5 parts China 4 parts

Allow the brick to remain slowly drying for 8 to 10 hours, then when moist dip in the white body.

«White Body.»—

China clay 24 parts Ball clay 8 parts Feldspar 8 parts Flint 4 parts

The brick should now be dried slowly but thoroughly, and when perfectly dry dip the face in clean cold water, and immediately afterwards in glaze.

«Hard Glaze.»—

Feldspar 18 parts Cornwall stone 3 1/2 parts Whiting 1 1/2 parts Oxide of zinc 1 1/2 parts Plaster of Paris 3/4 part


«Soft Glaze.»—

White lead 13 parts Feldspar 20 parts Oxide of zinc 3 parts Plaster of Paris 1 part Flint glass 13 parts Cornwall stone 3 1/2 parts Paris white 1 1/4 parts

Where clay is used that will stand a very high fire, the white lead and glass may be left out. A wire brush should now be used to remove all superfluous glaze, etc., from the sides and ends of the brick, which is then ready for the kiln. In placing, set the bricks face to face, about an inch space being left between the two glazed faces. All the mixtures, after being mixed with water to the consistency of cream, must be passed 2 or 3 times through a very fine lawn. The kiln must not be opened till perfectly cold.

«Process for Colored Glazes.»—Use color, 1 part, to white body, 7 parts. Use color, 1 part, to glaze, 9 parts.

«Preparation of Colors.»—The specified ingredients should all be obtained finely ground, and after being mixed in the proportions given should, in a saggar or some clay vessel, be fired in the brick kiln and afterwards ground for use. In firing the ingredients the highest heat attainable is necessary.


Oxide of zinc 8 parts Oxide of cobalt 1 1/4 parts

«Grass Green.»—

Oxide of chrome 6 parts Flint 1 part Oxide of copper 1/2 part

«Royal Blue.»—

Pure alumina 20 parts Oxide of zinc 8 parts Oxide of cobalt 4 parts

«Mazarine Blue.»—

Oxide of cobalt 10 parts Paris white 9 parts Sulphate barytes 1 part

«Red Brown.»—

Oxide of zinc 40 parts Crocus of martis 6 parts Oxide of chrome 6 parts Red lead 5 parts Boracic acid 5 parts Red oxide of iron 1 part


Pure alumina 5 parts Oxide of zinc 2 parts Bichromate of potash 1 part Iron scale 1/2 part

«Claret Brown.»—

Bichromate of potash 2 parts Flint 2 parts Oxide of zinc 1 part Iron scale 1 part

«Blue Green.»—

Oxide of chrome 6 parts Flint 2 parts Oxide of cobalt 3/4 part

«Sky Blue.»—

Flint 9 parts Oxide of zinc 13 parts Cobalt 2 1/2 parts Phosphate soda 1 part

«Chrome Green.»—

Oxide of chrome 3 parts Oxide of copper 1 part Carbonate of cobalt 1 part Oxide of cobalt 2 parts


Oxide of chrome 3 parts Oxide of zinc 2 parts Flint 5 parts Oxide of cobalt 1 part

«Blood Red.»—

Oxide of zinc 30 parts Crocus martis 7 parts Oxide of chrome 7 parts Litharge 5 parts Borax 5 parts Red oxide of iron 2 parts


Chromate of iron 24 parts Oxide of nickel 2 parts Oxide of tin 2 parts Oxide of cobalt 5 parts

«Imperial Blue.»—

Oxide of cobalt 10 parts Black color 1 1/2 parts Paris white 7 1/2 parts Flint 2 1/2 parts Carbonate of soda 1 part


Chromate of iron 30 parts Oxide of manganese 20 parts Oxide of zinc 12 parts Oxide of tin 4 parts Crocus martis 2 parts

«Gordon Green.»—

Oxide of chrome 12 parts Paris white 8 parts Bichromate of potash 4 1/2 parts Oxide of cobalt 3/4 part


Oxide of cobalt 2 1/2 parts Oxide of manganese 4 parts Oxide of zinc 8 parts Cornwall stone 8 parts



Calcined oxide of zinc 5 parts Carbonate of cobalt 3/4 part Oxide of nickel 1/4 part Paris white 1 part


Manganese 4 parts Oxide of chrome 2 parts Oxide of zinc 4 parts Sulphate barytes 2 parts


Oxide of nickel 7 parts Oxide of cobalt 2 parts Oxide of chrome 1 part Oxide of flint 18 parts Paris white 3 parts

«Yellow Green.»—

Flint 6 parts Paris white 4 parts Bichromate of potash 4 1/2 parts Red lead 2 parts Fluorspar 2 parts Plaster of Paris 1 1/2 parts Oxide of copper 1/2 part



Cane marl 16 parts Ball clay 12 parts Feldspar 8 parts China clay 6 parts Flint 4 parts


Ball clay 22 parts China clay 5 1/2 parts Flint 5 parts Feldspar 3 1/2 parts Cane marl 12 parts


Ball clay 120 parts Ground ocher 120 parts Ground manganese 35 parts


Ball clay 12 parts China clay 10 parts Feldspar 8 parts Bull fire clay 16 parts Yellow ocher 3 parts


Cane marl 30 parts Ball clay 10 parts Stone 7 parts Feldspar 4 parts


Red marl 50 parts China clay 7 parts Ground manganese 6 parts Feldspar 3 parts

In making mazarine blue glazed bricks use the white body and stain the glaze only.

Mazarine blue 1 part Glaze 7 parts

For royal blue use 1 part stain to 6 parts white body, and glaze unstained.

«Blood-Red Stain.»—Numerous brick manufacturers possess beds of clay from which good and sound bricks or tiles can be made, the only drawback being that the clay does not burn a good color. In many cases this arises from the fact that the clay contains more or less sulphur or other impurity, which spoils the external appearance of the finished article. The following stain will convert clay of any color into a rich, deep red, mixed in proportions of stain, 1 part, to clay, 60 parts.


Crocus martis 20 parts Yellow ocher 4 parts Sulphate of iron 10 parts Red oxide of iron 2 parts

A still cheaper method is to put a slip or external coating upon the goods. The slip being quite opaque, effectively hides the natural color of the brick or tile upon which it may be used.

The process is to mix:

Blood-red stain 1 part Good red clay 6 parts

Add water until the mixture becomes about the consistency of cream, then with a sponge force the liquid two or three times through a very fine brass wire lawn, No. 80, and dip the goods in the liquid as soon as they are pressed or molded.

«Blue Paviors.»—Blue paving bricks may be produced with almost any kind of clay that will stand a fair amount of heat, by adopting the same methods as in the former case of blood-red bricks, that is, the clay may be stained throughout, or an outside coating may be applied.

«Stain for Blue Paviors.»—

Ground ironstone 20 parts Chromate of iron 5 parts Manganese 6 parts Oxide of nickel 1 part

Use 1 part clay and 1 part stain for coating, and 50 or 60 parts clay and 1 part stain for staining through.

Fire blue paviors very hard.

«Buff Terra-Cotta Slip.»—

Buff fire clay 16 parts China clay 6 parts {167} Yellow ocher 3 parts Ball clay 10 parts Flint 4 parts

Add water to the materials after mixing well, pass through the fine lawn, and dip the goods when soft in the liquid.

«Transparent Glaze.»—

Ground flint glass 4 parts Ground white lead 4 parts Ground oxide of zinc 1/4 part

This glaze is suitable for bricks or tiles made of very good red clay, the natural color of the clay showing through the glaze. The goods must first be fired sufficiently hard to make them durable, afterwards glazed, and fired again. The glaze being comparatively soft will fuse at about half the heat required for the first burning. The glaze may be stained, if desired, with any of the colors given in glazed-brick recipes, in the following proportions: Stain, 1 part; glaze, 1 part.


«Vitrifiable Bodies.»—The following mixtures will flux only at a very high heat. They require no glaze when a proper heat is attained, and they are admirably adapted for stoneware glazes.

I.—Cornwall stone 20 parts Feldspar 12 parts China clay 3 parts Whiting 2 parts Plaster of Paris 1 1/2 parts

II.—Feldspar 30 parts Flint 9 parts Stone 8 parts China clay 3 parts

III.—Feldspar 20 parts Stone 5 parts Oxide of zinc 3 parts Whiting 2 parts Plaster of Paris 1 part Soda crystals, dissolved 1 part

«Special Glazes for Bricks or Pottery at One Burning.»—To run these glazes intense heat is required.

I.—Cornwall stone 40 parts Flint 7 parts Paris white 4 parts Ball clay 15 parts Oxide of zinc 6 parts White lead 15 parts

II.—Feldspar 20 parts Cornwall stone 5 parts Oxide of zinc 3 parts Flint 3 parts Lynn sand 1 1/2 parts Sulphate barytes 1 1/2 parts

III.—Feldspar 25 parts Cornwall stone 6 parts Oxide of zinc 2 parts China clay 2 parts

IV.—Cornwall stone 118 parts Feldspar 40 parts Paris white 28 parts Flint 4 parts

V.—Feldspar 16 parts China clay 4 parts Stone 4 parts Oxide of zinc 2 parts Plaster of Paris 1 part

VI.—Feldspar 10 parts Stone 5 parts Flint 2 parts Plaster 1/2 part

The following glaze is excellent for bricks in the biscuit and pottery, which require an easy firing:


White lead 20 parts Stone 9 parts Flint 9 parts Borax 4 parts Oxide of zinc 2 parts Feldspar 3 parts

These materials should be procured finely ground, and after being thoroughly mixed should be placed in a fire-clay crucible, and be fired for 5 or 6 hours, sharply, or until the material runs down into a liquid, then with a pair of iron tongs draw the crucible from the kiln and pour the liquid into a bucket of cold water, grind the flux to an extremely fine powder, and spread a coating upon the plate to be enameled, previously brushing a little gum thereon. The plate must then be fired until a sufficient heat is attained to run or fuse the powder.



I.—China clay 2 1/2 parts Stone 1 1/2 parts Bone 3 parts

II.—China clay 5 parts Stone 2 1/2 parts Bone 7 parts Barytes 3 parts

III.—Chain clay 5 parts Stone 3 parts Flint 1/4 part Barytes 8 parts


I.—China clay 35 parts Cornwall stone 23 parts Bone 40 parts Flint 2 parts {168}

II.—China clay 35 parts Cornwall stone 8 parts Bone 50 parts Flint 3 parts Blue clay 4 parts

III.—China clay 8 parts Cornwall stone 40 parts Bone 29 parts Flint 5 parts Blue clay 18 parts

IV.—China clay 32 parts Cornwall stone 23 parts Bone 34 parts Flint 6 parts Blue clay 5 parts

V.—China clay 7 parts Stone 40 parts Bone 28 parts Flint 5 parts Blue clay 20 parts

«Finest China Bodies.»—

I.—China clay 20 parts Bone 60 parts Feldspar 20 parts

II.—China clay 30 parts Bone 40 parts Feldspar 30 parts

III.—China clay 25 parts Stone 10 parts Bone 45 parts Feldspar 20 parts

IV.—China clay 30 parts Stone 15 parts Bone 35 parts Feldspar 20 parts

«Earthenware Bodies.»—

I.—Ball clay 13 parts China clay 9 1/2 parts Flint 5 1/2 parts Cornwall stone 4 parts

II.—Ball clay 12 1/2 parts China clay 8 parts Flint 5 1/2 parts Cornwall stone 2 1/2 parts One pint of cobalt stain to 1 ton of glaze.

III.—Ball clay 13 1/4 parts China clay 11 parts Flint 4 parts Cornwall stone 5 parts Feldspar 4 parts Stain as required.

IV.—Ball clay 18 1/2 parts China clay 13 1/2 parts Flint 8 1/2 parts Stone 4 parts Blue stain, 2 pints to ton.

V.—Ball clay 15 parts China clay 12 parts Flint 6 parts Stone 4 parts Feldspar 4 parts Blue stain, 2 pints to ton.

VI. (Parian).— Stone 11 parts Feldspar 10 parts China clay 8 parts


«Ivory Body.»—

Ball clay 22 parts China 5 1/2 parts Flint 5 parts Stone 3 1/2 parts

«Dark Drab Body.»—

Cane marl 30 parts Ball clay 10 parts Cornwall stone 7 parts Feldspar 4 parts

«Black Body.»—

Ball clay 120 parts Ocher 120 parts Manganese 35 parts Cobalt carbonate 2 parts

Grind the three last mentioned ingredients first.

«Caledonia Body.»—

Yellow clay 32 parts China clay 10 parts Flint 4 parts

«Brown Body.»—

Red clay 50 parts Common clay 7 1/2 parts Manganese 1 part Flint 1 part

«Jasper Body.»—

Cawk clay 10 parts Blue clay 10 parts Bone 5 parts Flint 2 parts Cobalt 1/4 part

«Stone Body.»—

Stone 48 parts Blue clay 25 parts China clay 24 parts Cobalt 10 parts

«Egyptian Black.»—

Blue clay 235 parts Calcined ocher 225 parts Manganese 45 parts China clay 15 parts

«Ironstone Body.»—

Stone 200 parts Cornwall clay 150 parts {169} Blue clay 200 parts Flint 100 parts Calx 1 part

«Cream Body.»—

Blue clay 1 1/2 parts Brown clay 1 1/2 parts Black clay 1 part Cornish clay 1 part Common ball clay 1/4 part Buff color 1/4 part

«Light Drab.»—

Cane marl 30 parts Ball clay 24 parts Feldspar 7 parts

«Sage Body.»—

Cane marl 15 parts Ball clay 15 parts China clay 5 parts Stained with turquoise stain.



White glaze 100 parts Oxide of cobalt 3 parts Red lead 10 parts Flowing blue 3 parts Enamel blue 3 parts



White glaze 100 parts Red lead 8 parts Marone pink U. G. 8 parts Enamel red 3 parts



White glaze 100 parts Red lead 10 parts Buff color 8 parts



White glaze 100 parts Red lead 8 parts Enamel amber 8 parts Yellow underglaze 2 parts



White glaze 100 parts Red lead 10 parts Carbonate of soda 5 parts Enamel blue 4 parts Malachite, 110 4 parts



I.—White glaze 100 parts Red lead 10 parts Oxide of uranium 8 parts


II.—Dried flint 5 parts Cornwall stone 15 parts Litharge 50 parts Yellow underglaze 4 parts



I.—Oxide of copper 8 parts Flint of glass 3 parts Flint 1 part Red lead 6 parts

Grind, then take:

Of above 1 part White glaze 6 parts

Or stronger as required.

II.—Red lead 60 parts Stone 24 parts Flint 12 parts Flint glass 12 parts China clay 3 parts Calcined oxide of copper 14 parts Oxide of cobalt 1/4 part

Grind only.

«Green Glaze, Best.»—

III.—Stone 80 parts Flint 8 parts Soda crystals 4 parts Borax 3 1/2 parts Niter 2 parts Whiting 2 parts Oxide of cobalt 1/4 part

Glost fire, then take:

Above frit 60 parts Red lead 57 parts Calcined oxide of copper 5 1/4 parts


Red lead 24 parts Raddle 4 parts Manganese 4 parts Flint 2 parts Oxide of cobalt 2 parts Carbonate of cobalt 2 parts

Glost fire.



I.—Stone 6 parts Niter 2 parts Borax 12 parts Flint 4 parts Pearl ash 2 parts

To mill:

Frit 24 parts Stone 15 1/2 parts Flint 6 1/2 parts White lead 31 parts



Stone 24 parts Borax 53 parts Lynn sand 40 parts Feldspar 32 parts Paris white 16 parts

To mill:

Frit 90 parts Stone 30 parts White lead 90 parts Flint 4 parts Glass 2 parts


Stone 50 parts Borax 40 parts Flint 30 parts Flint glass 30 parts Pearl barytes 10 parts

To mill:

Frit 160 parts Red lead 30 parts Enamel blue 1/2 part Flint glass 2 parts


Borax 100 parts China clay 55 parts Whiting 60 parts Feldspar 75 parts

To mill:

Frit 200 parts China clay 16 parts White clay 3 1/2 parts Stone 3 parts Flint 2 parts


Stone 40 parts Flint 25 parts Niter 10 parts Borax 20 parts White lead 10 parts Flint glass 40 parts

To mill:

Frit 145 parts Stone 56 parts Borax 16 parts Flint 15 parts Red lead 60 parts Flint glass 8 parts


I.—Flint 108 parts China clay 45 parts Paris white 60 parts Borax 80 parts Soda crystals 30 parts

To mill:

Frit 270 parts Flint 20 parts Paris white 15 parts Stone 80 parts White lead 65 parts


Flint 62 parts China clay 30 parts Paris white 38 parts Boracic acid 48 parts Soda crystals 26 parts

To mill:

Frit 230 parts Stone 160 parts Flint 60 parts Lead 120 parts


Stone 56 parts Paris white 55 parts Flint 60 parts China clay 20 parts Borax 120 parts Soda crystals 15 parts

To mill:

Frit 212 parts Stone 130 parts Flint 50 parts Lead 110 parts

Stain as required.


Stone 100 parts Flint 44 parts Paris white 46 parts Borax 70 parts Niter 10 parts

To mill:

Frit 200 parts Stone 60 parts Lead 80 parts

«Pearl White Glaze.»—Frit:

Flint 50 parts Stone 100 parts Paris white 20 parts Borax 60 parts Soda crystals 20 parts

To mill:

Frit 178 pounds Lead 55 pounds Stain 3 ounces

«Opaque Glaze.»—Frit:

Borax 74 parts Stone 94 parts Flint 30 parts China clay 22 parts Pearl ash 5 1/2 parts

To mill:

Frit 175 parts Lead 46 parts {171} Flint 10 parts Oxide of tin 12 parts Flint glass 12 parts

«Glaze for Granite.»—Frit:

I.—Stone 100 parts Flint 80 parts China clay 30 parts Paris white 30 parts Feldspar 40 parts Soda crystals 40 parts Borax 80 parts

To mill:

Frit 360 parts Flint 50 parts Stone 50 parts Lead 80 parts


Borax 100 parts Stone 50 parts Flint 50 parts Paris white 40 parts China clay 20 parts

To mill:

Frit 210 parts Stone 104 parts Flint 64 parts Lead 95 parts

«Raw Glazes.»—White:

I.—White lead 160 parts Borax 32 parts Stone 48 parts Flint 52 parts

Stain with blue and grind.

II.—White lead 80 parts Litharge 60 parts Boracic acid 40 parts Stone 45 parts Flint 50 parts

Treat as foregoing.

III.—White lead 100 parts Borax 4 parts Flint 11 parts Cornwall stone 50 parts

IV.—Red lead 80 parts Litharge 60 parts Tincal 40 parts Stone 40 parts Flint 52 parts


I.—Litharge 50 parts Stone 7 1/2 parts Red marl 3 parts Oxide of manganese 5 parts Red oxide of iron 1 part

II.—White lead 30 parts Stone 3 parts Flint 9 parts Red marl 3 parts Manganese 5 parts

III.—Red lead 20 parts Stone 3 parts Flint 2 parts China clay 2 parts Manganese 3 parts Red oxide of iron 1 part

«Stoneware Bodies.»—

Ball clay 14 parts China clay 10 parts Stone 8 parts

Ball clay 8 parts China clay 5 parts Flint 3 parts Stone 4 parts

Ball clay 14 parts China clay 11 parts Flint 4 parts Stone 5 parts Feldspar 4 parts

Cane marl 16 parts China clay 10 parts Stone 9 parts Flint 5 parts

«Glazes.»—Hard glaze:

Stone 10 parts Flint 5 parts Whiting 1 1/2 parts Red lead 10 parts

Hard glaze:

Feldspar 25 parts Flint 5 parts Red lead 15 parts Plaster 1 part


White lead 13 parts Flint glass 10 parts Feldspar 18 parts Stone 3 parts Whiting 1 1/2 parts


Feldspar 20 parts Flint glass 14 parts White lead 14 parts Stone 3 parts Oxide of zinc 3 parts Whiting 1 1/2 parts Plaster 1 part

«Rockingham Bodies.»—

Ball clay 20 parts China clay 13 parts Flint 7 parts Stone 1 part

Cane marl 22 parts China clay 15 parts Flint 8 parts Feldspar 1 part {172}


I.—Red lead 60 parts Stone 8 parts Red clay 3 parts Best manganese 5 parts

II.—White lead 60 parts Feldspar 6 parts Flint 16 parts Red clay 6 parts Manganese 12 parts

III.—Red lead 100 parts Stone 15 parts Flint 10 parts China clay 10 parts Manganese 40 parts Crocus martis 2 parts

IV.—Litharge 100 parts Feldspar 14 parts China clay 20 parts Manganese 40 parts Oxide of iron 2 parts

«Jet.»—Procure some first-class red marl, add water, and, by passing through a fine lawn, make it into a slip, and dip the ware therein.

When fired use the following:


Stone 60 parts Flint 30 parts Paris white 7 1/2 parts Red lead 140 parts

One part mazarine blue stain to 10 parts glaze.

Mazarine Blue Stain.—

Oxide of cobalt 10 parts Paris white 9 parts Sulphate barytes 1 part


Another Process Body.—

Ball clay 16 parts China clay 12 parts Flint clay 9 parts Stone clay 6 parts Black stain 7 parts


Litharge 70 parts Paris white 3 parts Flint 12 parts Stone 30 parts Black stain 20 parts

Black Stain.—

Chromate of iron 12 parts Oxide of nickel 2 parts Oxide of tin 2 parts Carbonate of cobalt 5 parts Oxide of manganese 2 parts

Calcine and grind.

Blue Stains.—

I.—Oxide of cobalt 2 1/2 parts Oxide of zinc 7 1/2 parts Stone 7 1/2 parts

Fire this very hard.

II.—Zinc 6 pounds Flint 4 pounds China clay 4 pounds Oxide of cobalt 5 ounces

Hard fire.

III.—Whiting 3 3/4 parts Flint 3 3/4 parts Oxide of cobalt 2 1/2 parts

Glost fire.

Turquoise Stain.—

Prepared cobalt 1 1/2 parts Oxide of zinc 6 parts China clay 6 parts Carbonate of soda. 1 part

Hard fire.


«Tin Ash.»—

Old lead 4 parts Grain tin 2 parts

Melt in an iron ladle, and pour out in water, then spread on a dish, and calcine in glost oven with plenty of air.

«Oxide of Tin.»—

Granulated tin 5 pounds Niter 1/2 pound

Put on saucers and fire in glost oven.

«Oxide of Chrome» is made by mixing powdered bichromate of potash with sulphur as follows:

Potash 6 parts Flowers of sulphur 1 part

Put in saggar, inside kiln, so that fumes are carried away, and place 4 or 5 pieces of red-hot iron on the top so as to ignite it. Leave about 12 hours, then pound very fine, and put in saggar again. Calcine in hard place of biscuit oven. Wash this until the water is quite clear, and dry for use.

«Production of Luster Colors on Porcelain and Glazed Pottery.»—The luster colors are readily decomposed by acids and atmospheric influences, because they do not contain, in consequence of the low baking temperature, enough silicic acid to form resistive compounds. In order to attain this, G. Alefeld has patented a process according to which such compounds are added to the luster preparations as leave behind after the burning an acid which transforms the luster preparation into more resisting {173} compounds. In this connection the admixture of such bodies has been found advantageous, as they form phosphides with the metallic oxides of the lusters after the burning. These phosphides are especially fitted for the production of saturated resisting compounds, not only on account of their insolubility in water, but also on account of their colorings. Similarly titanic, molybdic, tungstic, and vanadic compounds may be produced. The metallic phosphates produced by the burning give a luster coating which, as regards gloss, is not inferior to the non-saturated metallic oxides, while it materially excels them in power of resistance. Since the lusters to be applied are used dissolved in essential oils, it is necessary to make the admixture of phosphoric substance also in a form soluble in essential oils. For the production of this admixture the respective chlorides, preeminently phosphoric chloride, are suitable. They are mixed with oil of lavender in the ratio of 1 to 5, and the resulting reaction product is added to the commercial metallic oxide luster, singly or in conjunction with precious metal preparations (glossy gold, silver, platinum, etc.) in the approximate proportion of 5 to 1. Then proceed as usual. Instead of the chlorides, nitrates and acetates, as well as any readily destructible organic compounds, may also be employed, which are entered into fusing rosin or rosinous liquids.

«Metallic Luster on Pottery.»—According to a process patented in Germany, a mixture is prepared from various natural or artificial varieties of ocher, to which 25–50 per cent of finely powdered more or less metalliferous or sulphurous coal is added. The mass treated in this manner is brought together in saggars with finely divided organic substances, such as sawdust, shavings, wood-wool, cut straw, etc., and subjected to feeble red heat. After the heating the material is taken out. The glazings now exhibit that thin but stable metallic color which is governed by the substances used. Besides coal, salts and oxides of silver, cobalt, cadmium, chrome iron, nickel, manganese, copper, or zinc may be employed. The color-giving layer is removed by washing or brushing, while the desired color is burned in and remains. In this manner handsome shades can be produced.

«Metallic Glazes on Enamels.»—The formulas used by the Arabs and their Italian successors are partly disclosed in manuscripts in the British and South Kensington Museums; two are given below:

Arab Italian Copper sulphide 26.87 24.74 Silver sulphide 1.15 1.03 Mercury sulphide — 24.74 Red ocher 71.98 49.49

These were ground with vinegar and applied with the brush to the already baked enamel. A great variety of iridescent and metallic tones can be obtained by one or the other, or a mixture of the following formulas:

I II III IV V VI Copper carbonate 30 — — 28 — 95 Copper oxalate — — — — 5 — Copper sulphide — 20 — — — — Silver carbonate — 3 — 2 1 5 Bismuth subnitrate — 12 — — 10 — Stannous oxide — — 25 — — — Red ocher 70 85 55 70 84 —

Silver chloride and yellow ocher may be respectively substituted for silver carbonate and red ocher. The ingredients, ground with a little gum tragacanth and water, are applied with a brush to enamels melting about 1814° F., and are furnaced at 1202° F. in a reducing atmosphere. After cooling the ferruginous deposit is rubbed off, and the colors thus brought out.

Sulphur, free or combined, is not necessary, cinnabar has no action, ocher may be dispensed with, and any organic gummy matter may be used instead of vinegar, and broom is not needed in the furnace. The intensity and tone of the iridescence depend on the duration of the reduction, and the nature of the enamel. Enamels containing a coloring base—copper, iron, antimony, nickel—especially in presence of tin, give the best results.

«To Toughen China.»—To toughen china or glass place the new article in cold water, bring to boil gradually, boil for 4 hours, and leave standing in the water till cool. Glass or china toughened in this way will never crack with hot water.

«How to Tell Pottery and Porcelain.»—The following simple test will serve: Hold the piece up to the light, and if it can be seen through—that is, if it is translucent—it is porcelain. Pottery is opaque, and not so hard and white as porcelain. The main differences in the manufacture of stoneware, earthenware, and porcelain are due to the ingredients used, to the way they are mixed, and to the degree of heat to which they are {174} subjected in firing. Most of the old English wares found in this country are pottery or semichina, although the term china is commonly applied to them all.


«Manufacture.»—The process of cheese making is one which is eminently interesting and scientific, and which, in every gradation, depends on principles which chemistry has developed and illustrated. When a vegetable or mineral acid is added to milk, and heat applied, a coagulum is formed, which, when separated from the liquid portion, constitutes cheese. Neutral salts, earthy and metallic salts, sugar, and gum arabic, as well as some other substances, also produce the same effect; but that which answers the purpose best, and which is almost exclusively used by dairy farmers, is rennet, or the mucous membrane of the last stomach of the calf. Alkalies dissolve this curd at a boiling heat, and acids again precipitate it. The solubility of casein in milk is occasioned by the presence of the phosphates and other salts of the alkalies. In fresh milk these substances may be readily detected by the property it possesses of restoring the color of reddened litmus paper. The addition of an acid neutralizes the alkali, and so precipitates the curd in an insoluble state. The philosophy of cheese making is thus expounded by Liebig:

“The acid indispensable to the coagulation of milk is not added to the milk in the preparation of cheese, but it is formed in the milk at the expense of the milk-sugar present. A small quantity of water is left in contact with a small quantity of a calf’s stomach for a few hours, or for a night; the water absorbs so minute a portion of the mucous membrane as to be scarcely ponderable; this is mixed with milk; its state of transformation is communicated (and this is a most important circumstance) not to the cheese, but to the milk-sugar, the elements of which transpose themselves into lactic acid, which neutralizes the alkalies, and thus causes the separation of the cheese. By means of litmus paper the process may be followed and observed through all its stages; the alkaline reaction of the milk ceases as soon as the coagulation begins. If the cheese is not immediately separated from the whey, the formation of lactic acid continues, the fluid turns acid, and the cheese itself passes into a state of decomposition.

“When cheese-curd is kept in a cool place a series of transformation takes place, in consequence of which it assumes entirely new properties; it gradually becomes semi-transparent, and more or less soft, throughout the whole mass; it exhibits a feebly acid reaction, and develops the characteristic caseous odor. Fresh cheese is very sparingly soluble in water, but after having been left to itself for two or three years it becomes (especially if all the fat be previously removed) almost completely soluble in cold water, forming with it a solution which, like milk, is coagulated by the addition of the acetic or any mineral acid. The cheese, which whilst fresh is insoluble, returns during the maturation, or ripening, as it is called, to a state similar to that in which it originally existed in the milk. In those English, Dutch, and Swiss cheeses which are nearly inodorous, and in the superior kinds of French cheese, the casein of the milk is present in its unaltered state.

“The odor and flavor of the cheese is due to the decomposition of the butter; the non-volatile acids, the margaric and oleic acids, and the volatile butyric acid, capric and caproic acids are liberated in consequence of the decomposition of glycerine. Butyric acid imparts to cheese its characteristic caseous odor, and the differences in its pungency or aromatic flavor depend upon the proportion of free butyric, capric, and caproic acids present. In the cheese of certain dairies and districts, valerianic acid has been detected along with the other acids just referred to. Messrs Jljenjo and Laskowski found this acid in the cheese of Limbourg, and M. Bolard in that of Roquefort.

“The transition of the insoluble into soluble casein depends upon the decomposition of the phosphate of lime by the margaric acid of the butter; margarate of lime is formed, whilst the phosphoric acid combines with the casein, forming a compound soluble in water.

“The bad smell of inferior kinds of cheese, especially those called meager or poor cheeses, is caused by certain fetid products containing sulphur, and which are formed by the decomposition or putrefaction of the casein. The alteration which the butter undergoes (that is, in becoming rancid), or which occurs in the milk-sugar still present, being transmitted to the casein, changes both the composition of the latter substance and its nutritive qualities.

“The principal conditions for the preparation of the superior kinds of cheese {175} (other obvious circumstances being of course duly regarded) are a careful removal of the whey, which holds the milk-sugar in solution, and a low temperature during the maturation or ripening of the cheese.”

Cheese differs vastly in quality and flavor according to the method employed in its manufacture and the richness of the milk of which it is made. Much depends upon the quantity of cream it contains, and, consequently, when a superior quality of cheese is desired cream is frequently added to the curd. This plan is adopted in the manufacture of Stilton cheese and others of a like description. The addition of a pound or two of butter to the curd for a middling size cheese also vastly improves the quality of the product. To insure the richness of the milk, not only should the cows be properly fed, but certain breeds chosen. Those of Alderney, Cheddar, Cheshire, etc., have been widely preferred.

The materials employed in making cheese are milk and rennet. Rennet is used either fresh or salted and dried; generally in the latter state. The milk may be of any kind, according to the quality of the cheese required. Cows’ milk is that generally employed, but occasionally ewes’ milk is used; and sometimes, though more rarely, that from goats.

In preparing his cheese the dairy farmer puts the greater portion of the milk into a large tub, to which he adds the remainder, sufficiently heated to raise the temperature to that of new milk. The whole is then whisked together, the rennet or rennet liquor added, and the tub covered over. It is now allowed to stand until completely “turned,” when the curd is gently struck down several times with the skimming dish, after which it is allowed to subside. The vat, covered with cheese cloth, is next placed on a “horse” or “ladder” over the tub, and filled with curd by means of the skimmer, care being taken to allow as little as possible of the oily particles or butter to run back with the whey. The curd is pressed down with the hands, and more added as it sinks. This process is repeated until the curd rises to about two inches above the edge. The newly formed cheese, thus partially separated from the whey, is now placed in a clean tub, and a proper quantity of salt, as well as of annotta, added when that coloring is used, after which a board is placed over and under it, and pressure applied for about 2 or 3 hours. The cheese is next turned out and surrounded by a fresh cheese cloth, and then again submitted to pressure in the cheese press for 8 or 10 hours, after which it is commonly removed from the press, salted all over, and again pressed for 15 to 20 hours. The quality of the cheese especially depends on this part of the process, as if any of the whey is left in the cheese it rapidly becomes bad-flavored. Before placing it in the press the last time the common practice is to pare the edges smooth and sightly. It now only remains to wash the outside of the cheese in warm whey or water, to wipe it dry, and to color it with annotta or reddle, as is usually done.

The storing of the newly made cheese is the next point that engages the attention of the maker and wholesale dealer. The same principles which influence the maturation or ripening of fermented liquors also operate here. A cool cellar, neither damp nor dry, and which is uninfluenced by change of weather or season, is commonly regarded as the best for the purpose. If possible, the temperature should on no account be permitted to exceed 50° or 52° F. at any portion of the year. An average of about 45° F. is preferable when it can be procured. A place exposed to sudden changes of temperature is as unfit for storing cheese as it is for storing beer. “The quality of Roquefort cheese, which is prepared from sheep’s milk, and is very excellent, depends exclusively upon the places where the cheeses are kept after pressing and during maturation. These are cellars, communicating with mountain grottoes and caverns which are kept constantly cool, at about 41° to 42° F., by currents of air from clefts in the mountains. The value of these cellars as storehouses varies with their property of maintaining an equable and low temperature.”

It will thus be seen that very slight differences in the materials, in the preparation, or in storing of the cheese, materially influence the quality and flavor of this article. The richness of the milk; the addition to or subtraction of cream from the milk; the separation of the curd from the whey with or without compression; the salting of the curd; the collection of the curd, either whole or broken, before pressing; the addition of coloring matter, as annotta or saffron, or of flavoring; the place and method of storing; and the length of time allowed for maturation, all tend to alter the taste and odor of the cheese in some or other particular, and that in a way readily {176} perceptible to the palate of the connoisseur. No other alimentary substance appears to be so seriously affected by slight variations in the quality of the materials from which it is made, or by such apparently trifling differences in the methods of preparing.

The varieties of cheese met with in commerce are very numerous, and differ greatly from each other in richness, color, and flavor. These are commonly distinguished by names indicative of the places in which they have been manufactured, or of the quality of the materials from which they have been prepared. Thus we have Dutch, Gloucester, Stilton, skimmed milk, raw milk, cream, and other cheeses; names which explain themselves. The following are the principal varieties:

«American Factory.»—Same as Cheddar.

«Brickbat.»—Named from its form; made, in Wiltshire, of new milk and cream.

«Brie.»—A soft, white, cream cheese of French origin.

«Cheddar.»—A fine, spongy kind of cheese, the eyes or vesicles of which contain a rich oil; made up into round, thick cheeses of considerable size (150 to 200 pounds).

«Cheshire.»—From new milk, without skimming, the morning’s milk being mixed with that of the preceding evening’s, previously warmed, so that the whole may be brought to the heat of new milk. To this the rennet is added, in less quantity than is commonly used for other kinds of cheese. On this point much of the flavor and mildness of the cheese is said to depend. A piece of dried rennet, of the size of a half-dollar put into a pint of water over night, and allowed to stand until the next morning, is sufficient for 18 or 20 gallons of milk; in large, round, thick cheeses (100 to 200 pounds each). They are generally solid, homogeneous, and dry, and friable rather than viscid.

«Cottenham.»—A rich kind of cheese, in flavor and consistence not unlike Stilton, from which, however, it differs in shape, being flatter and broader than the latter.

«Cream.»—From the “strippings” (the last of the milk drawn from the cow at each milking), from a mixture of milk and cream, or from raw cream only, according to the quality desired. It is usually made in small oblong, square, or rounded cakes, a general pressure only (that of a 2- or 4-pound weight) being applied to press out the whey. After 12 hours it is placed upon a board or wooden trencher, and turned every day until dry. It ripens in about 3 weeks. A little salt is generally added, and frequently a little powdered lump sugar.

«Damson.»—Prepared from damsons boiled with a little water, the pulp passed through a sieve, and then boiled with about one-fourth the weight of sugar, until the mixture solidifies on cooling; it is next poured into small tin molds previously dusted out with sugar. Cherry cheese, gooseberry cheese, plum cheese, etc., are prepared in the same way, using the respective kinds of fruit. They are all very agreeable candies or confections.

«Derbyshire.»—A small, white, rich variety, very similar to Dunlop cheese.

«Dunlop.»—Rich, white, and buttery; in round forms, weighing from 30 to 60 pounds.

«Dutch (Holland).»—Of a globular form, 5 to 14 pounds each. Those from Edam are very highly salted; those from Gouda less so.

«Emmenthaler.»—Same as Gruyère.

«Gloucester.»—Single Gloucester, from milk deprived of part of its cream; double Gloucester, from milk retaining the whole of the cream. Mild tasted, semi-buttery consistence, without being friable; in large, round, flattish forms.

«Green or Sage.»—From milk mixed with the juice of an infusion or decoction of sage leaves, to which marigold flowers and parsley are frequently added.

«Gruyère.»—A fine kind of cheese made in Switzerland, and largely consumed on the Continent. It is firm and dry, and exhibits numerous cells of considerable magnitude.

«Holland.»—Same as Dutch.

«Leguminous.»—The Chinese prepare an actual cheese from peas, called tao-foo, which they sell in the streets of Canton. The paste from steeped ground peas is boiled, which causes the starch to dissolve with the casein; after straining the liquid it is coagulated by a solution of gypsum; this coagulum is worked up like sour milk, salted, and pressed into molds.

«Limburger.»—A strong variety of cheese, soft and well ripened.

«Lincoln.»—From new milk and cream; in pieces about 2 inches thick. Soft, and will not keep over 2 or 3 months. {177}

«Neufchâtel.»—A much-esteemed variety of Swiss cheese; made of cream, and weighs about 5 or 6 ounces.

«Norfolk.»—Dyed yellow with annotta or saffron; good, but not superior; in cheeses of 30 to 50 pounds.

«Parmesan.»—From the curd of skimmed milk, hardened by a gentle heat. The rennet is added at about 120°, and an hour afterwards the curdling milk is set on a slow fire until heated to about 150° F., during which the curd separates in small lumps. A few pinches of saffron are then thrown in. About a fortnight after making the outer crust is cut off, and the new surface varnished with linseed oil, and one side colored red.

«Roquefort.»—From ewes’ milk; the best prepared in France. It greatly resembles Stilton, but is scarcely of equal richness or quality, and possesses a peculiar pungency and flavor.

«Roquefort, Imitation.»—The gluten of wheat is kneaded with a little salt and a small portion of a solution of starch, and made up into cheeses. It is said that this mixture soon acquires the taste, smell, and unctuosity of cheese, and when kept a certain time is not to be distinguished from the celebrated Roquefort cheese, of which it possesses all the peculiar pungency. By slightly varying the process other kinds of cheese may be imitated.

«Sage.»—Same as green cheese.

«Slipcoat or Soft.»—A very rich, white cheese, somewhat resembling butter; for present use only.

«Stilton.»—The richest and finest cheese made in England. From raw milk to which cream taken from other milk is added; in cheeses generally twice as high as they are broad. Like wine, this cheese is vastly improved by age, and is therefore seldom eaten before it is 2 years old. A spurious appearance of age is sometimes given to it by placing it in a warm, damp cellar, or by surrounding it with masses of fermenting straw or dung.

«Suffolk.»—From skimmed milk; in round, flat forms, from 24 to 30 pounds each. Very hard and horny.

«Swiss.»—The principal cheeses made in Switzerland are the Gruyère, the Neufchâtel, and the Schabzieger or green cheese. The latter is flavored with melitot.

«Westphalian.»—Made in small balls or rolls of about 1 pound each. It derives its peculiar flavor from the curd being allowed to become partially putrid before being pressed. In small balls or rolls of about 1 pound each.

«Wiltshire.»—Resembles Cheshire or Gloucester. The outside is painted with reddle or red ocher or whey.

«York.»—From cream. It will not keep.

We give below the composition of some of the principal varieties of cheese:

Double Cheddar Gloucester Skim Water 36.64 35.61 43.64 Casein 23.38 21.76 45.64 Fatty matter 35.44 38.16 5.76 Mineral matter 4.54 4.47 4.96 ────── ────── ────── 100.00 100.00 100.00

Stilton Cotherstone Water 32.18 38.28 Butter 37.36 30.89 Casein 24.31 23.93 Milk, sugar, and extractive matters 2.22 3.70 Mineral matter 3.93 3.20 ────── ────── 100.00 100.00

Gruyère Ordinary (Swiss) Dutch Water 40.00 36.10 Casein 31.50 29.40 Fatty matter 24.00 27.50 Salts 3.00 .90 Non─nitrogenous organic matter and loss. 1.50 6.10 ────── ────── 100.00 100.00

When a whole cheese is cut, and the consumption small, it is generally found to become unpleasantly dry, and to lose flavor before it is consumed. This is best prevented by cutting a sufficient quantity for a few days’ consumption from the cheese, and keeping the remainder in a cool place, rather damp than dry, spreading a thin film of butter over the fresh surface, and covering it with a cloth or pan to keep off the dirt. This removes the objection existing in small families against purchasing a whole cheese at a time. The common practice of buying small quantities of cheese should be avoided, as not only a higher price is paid for any given quality, but there is little likelihood of obtaining exactly the same flavor twice running. Should cheese become too dry to be {178} agreeable, it may be used for stewing, or for making grated cheese, or Welsh rarebits.

«Goats’ Milk Cheese.»—Goats’ milk cheese is made as follows: Warm 20 quarts of milk and coagulate it with rennet, either the powder or extract. Separate the curds from the whey in a colander. After a few days the dry curd may be shaped into larger or smaller cheeses, the former only salted, the latter containing salt and caraway seed. The cheeses must be turned every day, and sprinkled with salt, and any mold removed. After a few days they may be put away on shelves to ripen, and left for several weeks. Pure goat’s milk cheese should be firm and solid all the way through. Twenty quarts of milk will make about 4 pounds of cheese.


CHEMICAL GARDENS: See Gardens, Chemical.


CHERRY CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

«Chewing Gums»

«Manufacture.»—The making of chewing gum is by no means the simple operation which it seems to be. Much experience in manipulation is necessary to succeed, and the published formulas can at best serve as a guide rather than as something to be absolutely and blindly followed. Thus, if the mass is either too hard or soft, change the proportions until it is right; often it will be found that different purchases of the same article will vary in their characteristics when worked up. But given a basis, the manufacturer can flavor and alter to suit himself. The most successful manufacturers attribute their success to the employment of the most approved machinery and the greatest attention to details. The working formulas and the processes of these manufacturers are guarded as trade secrets, and aside from publishing general formulas, little information can be given.

Chicle gum is purified by boiling with water and separating the foreign matter. Flavorings, pepsin, sugar, etc., are worked in under pressure by suitable machinery. Formula:

I.—Gum chicle 1 pound Sugar 2 pounds Glucose 1 pound Caramel butter 1 pound

First mash and soften the gum at a gentle heat. Place the sugar and glucose in a small copper pan; add enough water to dissolve the sugar; set on a fire and cook to 244° F.; lift off the fire; add the caramel butter and lastly the gum; mix well into a smooth paste; roll out on a smooth marble, dusting with finely powdered sugar, run through sizing machine to the proper thickness, cut into strips, and again into thin slices.

II.—Chicle 6 ounces Paraffine 2 ounces Balsam of Tolu 2 drachms Balsam of Peru 1 drachm Sugar 20 ounces Glucose 8 ounces Water 6 ounces Flavoring, enough.

Triturate the chicle and balsams in water, take out and add the paraffine, first heated. Boil the sugar, glucose, and water together to what is known to confectioners as “crack” heat, pour the syrup over the oil slab and turn into it the gum mixture, which will make it tough and plastic. Add any desired flavor.

III.—Gum chicle. 122 parts Paraffine 42 parts Balsam of Tolu. 4 parts Sugar 384 parts Water 48 parts

Dissolve the sugar in the water by the aid of heat and pour the resultant syrup on an oiled slab. Melt the gum, balsam, and paraffine together and pour on top of the syrup, and work the whole up together.

IV.—Gum chicle 240 parts White wax 64 parts Sugar 640 parts Glucose 128 parts Water 192 parts Balsam of Peru 4 parts Flavoring matter, enough.

Proceed as indicated in II.

V.—Balsam of Tolu 4 parts Benzoin 1 part White wax 1 part Paraffine 1 part Powdered sugar 1 part

Melt together, mix well, and roll into sticks of the usual dimensions.

Mix, and, when sufficiently cool, roll out into sticks or any other desirable form. {179}

Spruce Chewing Gum.—

Spruce gum 20 parts Chicle 20 parts Sugar, powdered 60 parts

Melt the gums separately, mix while hot, and immediately add the sugar, a small portion at a time, kneading it thoroughly on a hot slab. When completely incorporated remove to a cold slab, previously dusted with powdered sugar, roll out at once into sheets, and cut into sticks. Any desired flavor or color may be added to or incorporated with the sugar.




CHILBLAINS: See Ointments.



CHILLS, BITTERS FOR: See Wines and Liquors.

CHINA CEMENTS: See Adhesives and Lutes.

CHINA: See Ceramics.

CHINA, TO REMOVE BURNED LETTERS FROM: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.



China riveting is best left to practical men, but it can be done with a drill made from a splinter of a diamond fixed on a handle. If this is not to be had, get a small three-cornered file, harden it by placing it in the fire till red hot, and then plunging it in cold water. Next grind the point on a grindstone and finish on an oilstone. With the point pick out the place to be bored, taking care to do it gently for fear of breaking the article. In a little while a piece will break off, then the hole can easily be made by working the point round. The wire may then be passed through and fastened. A good cement may be made from 1 ounce of grated cheese, 1/2 ounce of finely powdered quicklime, and white of egg sufficient to make a paste. The less cement applied the better, using a feather to spread it over the broken edge.

CHLORIDES, PLATT’S: See Disinfectants.



Prepare 1,000 parts of finished cacao and 30 parts of fresh cacao oil, in a warmed, polished, iron mortar, into a liquid substance, add to it 800 parts of finely powdered sugar, and, after a good consistency has been reached, 60 parts of powdered iron lactate and 60 parts of sugar syrup, finely rubbed together. Scent with 40 parts of vanilla sugar. Of this mass weigh out tablets of 125 parts into the molds.

«Coating Tablets with Chocolate.»—If a chocolate which is free from sugar be placed in a dish over a water bath, it will melt into a fluid of proper consistence for coating tablets. No water must be added. The coating is formed by dipping the tablets. When they are sufficiently hardened they are laid on oiled paper to dry.


CHOCOLATE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

CHOCOLATE EXTRACTS: See Essences and Extracts.


CHOKING IN CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas.


«Sun Cholera Mixture.»—

Tincture of opium 1 part Tincture of capsicum 1 part Tincture of rhubarb 1 part Spirit of camphor 1 part Spirit of peppermint 1 part

«Squibb’s Diarrhea Mixture.»—

Tincture opium 40 parts Tincture capsicum 40 parts Spirit camphor 40 parts Chloroform 15 parts Alcohol 65 parts {180}

«Aromatic Rhubarb.—»

Cinnamon, ground 8 parts Rhubarb 8 parts Calumba 4 parts Saffron 1 part Powdered opium 2 parts Oil peppermint 5 parts Alcohol, q. s. ad. 100 parts

Macerate the ground drugs with 75 parts alcohol in a closely covered percolator for several days, then allow percolation to proceed, using sufficient alcohol to obtain 95 parts of percolate. In percolate dissolve the oil of peppermint.

«Rhubarb and Camphor.—»

Tincture capsicum 2 ounces Tincture opium 2 ounces Tincture camphor 3 ounces Tincture catechu 4 ounces Tincture rhubarb 4 ounces Spirit peppermint 4 ounces

«Blackberry Mixture.—»

Fluid extract blackberry root 2 pints Fluid ginger, soluble 5 1/3 ounces Fluid catechu 5 1/3 ounces Fluid opium for tincture 160 minims Brandy 8 ounces Sugar 4 pounds Essence cloves 256 minims Essence cinnamon 256 minims Chloroform 128 minims Alcohol (25 per cent), q. s. ad. 1 gallon

CHOWCHOW: See Condiments.


CHROMIUM GLUE: See Adhesives.


The production of chromo pictures requires a little skill. Practice is necessary. The glass plate to be used should be washed off with warm water, and then laid in a 10 per cent solution of nitric acid. After one hour, wash with clean, cold water, dry with a towel, and polish the plate with good alcohol on the inside—hollow side—until no finger marks or streaks are visible. This is best ascertained by breathing on the glass; the breath should show an even blue surface on the glass.

Coat the unmounted photograph to be colored with benzine by means of wadding, but without pressure, so that the retouching of the picture is not disturbed. Place 2 tablets of ordinary kitchen gelatin in 8 3/4 ounces of distilled or pure rain water, soak for an hour, and then heat until the gelatin has completely dissolved. Pour this warm solution over the polished side of the glass, so that the liquid is evenly distributed. The best way is to pour the solution on the upper right-hand corner, allowing it to flow into the left-hand corner, from there to the left below and right below, finally letting the superfluous liquid run off. Take the photograph, which has been previously slightly moistened on the back, lay it with the picture side on the gelatin-covered plate, centering it nicely, and squeeze out the excess gelatin solution gently, preferably by means of a rubber squeegee. Care must be taken, however, not to displace the picture in this manipulation, as it is easily spoiled.

The solution must never be allowed to boil, since this would render the gelatin brittle and would result in the picture, after having been finished, cracking off from the glass in a short time. When the picture has been attached to the glass plate without blisters (which is best observed from the back), the edge of the glass is cleansed of gelatin, preferably by means of a small sponge and lukewarm water, and the plate is allowed to dry over night.

When the picture and the gelatin are perfectly dry, coat the back of the picture a few times with castor oil until it is perfectly transparent; carefully remove the oil without rubbing, and proceed with the painting, which is best accomplished with good, not over-thick oil colors. The coloring must be observed from the glass side, and for this reason the small details, such as eyes, lips, beard, and hair, should first be sketched in. When the first coat is dry the dress and the flesh tints are painted. The whole surface may be painted over, and it is not necessary to paint shadows, as these are already present in the picture, and consequently show the color through in varying strength.

When the coloring has dried, a second glass plate should be laid on for protection, pasting the two edges together with narrow strips of linen.


«To Make Cider.»—Pick the apples off the tree by hand. Every apple before going into the press should be carefully {181} wiped. As soon as a charge of apples is ground, remove the pomace and put in a cask with a false bottom and a strainer beneath it, and a vessel to catch the drainage from pomace. As fast as the juice runs from the press place it in clean, sweet, open tubs or casks with the heads out and provide with a faucet, put in about two inches above bottom. The juice should be closely watched and as soon as the least sign of fermentation appears (bubbles on top, etc.) it should be run off into casks prepared for this purpose and placed in a moderately cool room. The barrels should be entirely filled, or as near to the bunghole as possible. After fermentation is well under way the spume or foam should be scraped off with a spoon several times a day. When fermentation has ceased the cider is racked off into clean casks, filled to the bunghole, and the bung driven in tightly. It is now ready for use or for bottling.

«Champagne Cider.»—I.—To convert ordinary cider into champagne cider, proceed as follows: To 100 gallons of good cider add 3 gallons of strained honey (or 24 pounds of white sugar will answer), stir in well, tightly bung, and let alone for a week. Clarify the cider by adding a half gallon of skimmed milk, or 4 ounces of gelatin dissolved in sufficient hot water and add 4 gallons of proof spirit. Let stand 3 days longer, then syphon off, bottle, cork, and tie or wire down. Bunging the cask tightly is done in order to induce a slow fermentation, and thus retain in the cider as much carbonic acid as possible.

II.—Put 10 gallons of old and clean cider in a strong and iron-bound cask, pitched within (a sound beer cask is the very thing), and add and stir in well 40 ounces of simple syrup. Add 5 ounces of tartaric acid, let dissolve, then add 7 1/2 ounces sodium bicarbonate in powder. Have the bung ready and the moment the soda is added put it in and drive it home. The cider will be ready for use in a few hours.

«Cider Preservative.»—I.—The addition of 154 grains of bismuth subnitrate to 22 gallons of cider prevents, or materially retards, the hardening of the beverage on exposure to air; moreover, the bismuth salt renders alcoholic fermentation more complete.

II.—Calcium sulphite (sulphite of lime) is largely used to prevent fermentation in cider. About 1/8 to 1/4 of an ounce of the sulphite is required for 1 gallon of cider. It should first be dissolved in a small quantity of cider, then added to the bulk, and the whole agitated until thoroughly mixed. The barrel should then be bunged and allowed to stand for several days, until the action of the sulphite is exerted. It will preserve the sweetness of cider perfectly, but care should be taken not to add too much, as that would impart a slight sulphurous taste.

«Artificial Ciders.»—To 25 gallons of soft water add 2 pounds of tartaric acid, 25 or 30 pounds of sugar, and a pint of yeast; put in a warm place, and let ferment for 15 days, then add the flavoring matter to suit taste. The various fruit ethers are for sale at any wholesale drug house.

«Bottling Sweet Cider.»—Champagne quarts are generally used for bottling cider, as they are strong and will stand pressure, besides being a convenient size for consumers. In making cider champagne the liquor should be clarified and bottled in the sweet condition, that is to say, before the greater part of the sugar which it contains has been converted into alcohol by fermentation. The fermentation continues, to a certain extent, in the bottle, transforming more of the sugar into alcohol, and the carbonic acid, being unable to escape, is dissolved in the cider and produces the sparkling.

The greater the quantity of sugar contained in the liquor, when it is bottled, the more complete is its carbonation by the carbonic-acid gas, and consequently the more sparkling it is when poured out. But this is true only within certain limits, for if the production of sugar is too high the fermentation will be arrested.

To make the most sparkling cider the liquor is allowed to stand for three, four, five, or six weeks, during which fermentation proceeds. The time varies according to the nature of the apples, and also to the temperature; when it is very warm the first fermentation is usually completed in 7 days.

Before bottling, the liquid must be fined, and this is best done with catechu dissolved in cold cider, 2 ounces of catechu to the barrel of cider. This is well stirred and left to settle for a few days.

The cider at this stage is still sweet, and it is a point of considerable nicety not to carry the first fermentation too far. The bottle should not be quite filled, so as to allow more freedom for the carbonic-acid gas which forms.

When the bottles have been filled, {182} corked, and wired down, they should be placed in a good cellar, which should be dry, or else the cider will taste of the cork. The bottles should not be laid for four or five weeks, or breakage will ensue. When they are being laid they should be placed on laths of wood or on dry sand; they should never be allowed on cold or damp floors.

Should the cider be relatively poor in sugar, or if it has been fermented too far, about 1 ounce of powdered loaf sugar can be added to each bottle, or else a measure of sugar syrup before pouring in the cider.

«Imitation Cider.»—

I.—A formula for an imitation cider is as follows:

Rain water 100 gallons Honey, unstrained 6 gallons Catechu, powdered 3 ounces Alum, powdered 5 ounces Yeast (brewer’s preferably) 2 pints

Mix and put in a warm place to ferment. Let ferment for about 15 days; then add the following, stirring well in:

Bitter almonds, crushed 8 ounces Cloves 8 ounces

Let stand 24 hours, add two or three gallons of good whiskey, and rack off into clean casks. Bung tightly, let stand 48 hours, then bottle. If a higher color is desired use caramel sufficient to produce the correct tinge. If honey is not obtainable, use sugar-house molasses instead, but honey is preferable.

II.—The following, when properly prepared, makes a passable substitute for cider, and a very pleasant drink:

Catechu, powdered 3 parts Alum, powdered 5 parts Honey 640 parts Water 12,800 parts Yeast 32 parts

Dissolve the catechu, alum, and honey in the water, add the yeast, and put in some warm place to ferment. The container should be filled to the square opening, made by sawing out five or six inches of the center of a stave, and the spume skimmed off daily as it arises. In cooler weather from 2 weeks to 18 days will be required for thorough fermentation. In warmer weather from 12 to 13 days will be sufficient. When fermentation is complete add the following solution:

Oil of bitter almonds 1 part Oil of clover 1 part Caramel 32 parts Alcohol 192 parts

The alcohol may be replaced by twice its volume of good bourbon whiskey. A much cheaper, but correspondingly poor substitute for the above may be made as follows:

Twenty-five gallons of soft water, 2 pounds tartaric acid, 25 pounds of brown sugar, and 1 pint of yeast are allowed to stand in a warm place, in a clean cask with the bung out, for 24 hours. Then bung up the cask, after adding 3 gallons of whiskey, and let stand for 48 hours, after which the liquor is ready for use.



«Cigar Sizes and Colors.»—Cigars are named according to their color and shape. A dead-black cigar, for instance, is an “Oscuro,” a very dark-brown one is a “Colorado,” a medium brown is a “Colorado Claro,” and a yellowish light brown is a “Claro.” Most smokers know the names of the shades from “Claro” to “Colorado,” and that is as far as most of them need to know. As to the shapes, a “Napoleon” is the biggest of all cigars—being 7 inches long; a “Perfecto” swells in the middle and tapers down to a very small head at the lighting end; a “Panatela” is a thin, straight, up-and-down cigar without the graceful curve of the “Perfecto”; a “Conchas” is very short and fat, and a “Londres” is shaped like a “Perfecto” except that it does not taper to so small a head at the lighting end. A “Reina Victoria” is a “Londres” that comes packed in a ribbon-tied bundle of 50 pieces, instead of in the usual four layers of 13, 12, 13 and 12.

«How to Keep Cigars.»—Cigars kept in a case are influenced every time the case is opened. Whatever of taint there may be in the atmosphere rushes into the case, and is finally taken up by the cigars. Even though the cigars have the appearance of freshness, it is not the original freshness in which they were received from the factory. They have been dry, or comparatively so, and have absorbed more moisture than has been put in the case, and it matters not what that moisture may be, it can never restore the flavor that was lost during the drying-out process.

After all, it is a comparatively simple matter to take good care of cigars. All that is necessary is a comparatively air-tight, zinc-lined chest. This should be {183} behind the counter in a place where the temperature is even. When a customer calls for a cigar the dealer takes the box out of the chest, serves his customer, and then puts the box back again. The box being opened for a moment the cigars are not perceptibly affected. The cigars in the close, heavy chest are always safe from atmospheric influences, as the boxes are closed, and the chest is open but a moment, while the dealer is taking out a box from which to serve his customer.

Some of the best dealers have either a large chest or a cool vault in which they keep their stock, taking out from time to time whatever they need for use. Some have a number of small chests, in which they keep different brands, so as to avoid opening and closing one particular chest so often.

It may be said that it is only the higher priced cigars that need special care in handling, although the cheaper grades are not to be handled carelessly. The Havana cigars are more susceptible to change, for there is a delicacy of flavor to be preserved that is never present in the cheaper grades of cigars.

Every dealer must, of course, make a display in his show case, but he need not serve his patrons with these cigars. The shrinkage in value of the cigars in the case is merely a business proposition of profit and loss.

«Cigar Flavoring.»—I.—Macerate 2 ounces of cinnamon and 4 ounces of tonka beans, ground fine, in 1 quart of rum.

II.—Moisten ordinary cigars with a strong tincture of cascarilla, to which a little gum benzoin and storax may be added. Some persons add a small quantity of camphor or oil of cloves or cassia.

III.—Tincture of valerian 4 drachms Butyric aldehyde 4 drachms Nitrous ether 1 drachm Tincture vanilla 2 drachms Alcohol 5 ounces Water enough to make 16 ounces

IV.—Extract vanilla 4 ounces Alcohol 1/2 gallon Jamaica rum 1/2 gallon Tincture valerian 8 ounces Caraway seed 2 ounces English valerian root 2 ounces Bitter orange peel 2 ounces Tonka beans 4 drachms Myrrh 16 ounces

Soak the myrrh for 3 days in 6 quarts of water, add the alcohol, tincture valerian, and extract of vanilla, and after grinding the other ingredients to a coarse powder, put all together in a jug and macerate for 2 weeks, occasionally shaking; lastly, strain.

V.—Into a bottle filled with 1/2 pint of French brandy put 1 1/4 ounces of cascarilla bark and 1 1/4 ounces of vanilla previously ground with 1/2 pound of sugar; carefully close up the flask and distil in a warm place. After 3 days pour off the liquid, and add 1/4 pint of mastic extract. The finished cigars are moistened with this liquid, packed in boxes, and preserved from air by a well-closed lid. They are said to acquire a pleasant flavor and mild strength through this treatment.

«Cigar Spots.»—The speckled appearance of certain wrappers is due to the work of a species of fungus that attacks the growing tobacco. In a certain district of Sumatra, which produces an exceptionally fine tobacco for wrappers, the leaves of the plant are commonly speckled in this way. Several patents have been obtained for methods of spotting tobacco leaves artificially. A St. Louis firm uses a solution composed of:

Sodium carbonate 3 parts Calx chlorinata 1 part Hot water 8 parts

Dissolve the washing soda in the hot water, add the chlorinated lime, and heat the mixture to a boiling temperature for 3 minutes. When cool, decant into earthenware or stoneware jugs, cork tightly, and keep in a cool place. The corks of jugs not intended for immediate use should be covered with a piece of bladder or strong parchment paper, and tightly tied down to prevent the escape of gas, and consequent weakening of the bleaching power of the fluid. The prepared liquor is sprinkled on the tobacco, the latter being then exposed to light and air, when, it is said, the disagreeable odor produced soon disappears.

CINCHONA: See Wines and Liquors.

CINNAMON ESSENCE: See Essences and Extracts.


CITRATE OF MAGNESIUM: See Magnesium Citrate.

CLARET LEMONADE AND CLARET PUNCH: See Beverages, under Lemonades. {184}



Clarification is the process by which any solid particles suspended in a liquid are either caused to coalesce together or to adhere to the medium used for clarifying, that they may be removed by filtration (which would previously have been impossible), so as to render the liquid clear.

One of the best agents for this purpose is albumen. When clarifying vegetable extracts, the albumen which is naturally present in most plants accomplishes this purpose easily, provided the vegetable matter is extracted in the cold, so as to get as much albumen as possible in solution.

Egg albumen may also be used. The effect of albumen may be increased by the addition of cellulose, in the form of a fine magma of filtering paper. This has the further advantage that the subsequent filtration is much facilitated.

Suspended particles of gum or pectin may be removed by cautious precipitation with tannin, of which only an exceedingly small amount is usually necessary. It combines with the gelatinous substances better with the aid of heat than in the cold. There must be no excess of tannin used.

Another method of clarifying liquids turbid from particles of gum, albumen, pectin, etc., is to add to them a definite quantity of alcohol. This causes the former substances to separate in more or less large flakes. The quantity of alcohol required varies greatly according to the nature of the liquid. It should be determined in each case by an experiment on a small scale.

Resinous or waxy substances, such as are occasionally met with in honey, etc., may be removed by the addition of bole, pulped filtering paper, and heating to boiling.

In each case the clarifying process may be hastened by making the separating particles specifically heavier; that is, by incorporating some heavier substance, such as talcum, etc., which may cause the flocculi to sink more rapidly, and to form a compact sediment.

Clarifying powder for alcoholic liquids:

Egg albumen, dry 40 parts Sugar of milk 40 parts Starch 20 parts

Reduce them to very fine powder, and mix thoroughly.

For clarifying liquors, wines, essences, etc., take for every quart of liquid 75 grains of the above mixture, shake repeatedly in the course of a few days, the mixture being kept in a warm room, then filter.

Powdered talcum renders the same service, and has the additional advantage of being entirely insoluble. However, the above mixture acts more energetically.


«Claying Mixture for Forges.»—Twenty parts fire clay; 20 parts cast-iron turnings; 1 part common salt; 1/2 part sal ammoniac; all by measure.

The materials should be thoroughly mixed dry and then wet down to the consistency of common mortar, constantly stirring the mass as the wetting proceeds. A rough mold shaped to fit the tuyère opening, a trowel, and a few minutes’ time are all that are needed to complete the successful claying of the forge. This mixture dries hard and when glazed by the fire will last.

«Plastic Modeling Clay.»—A permanently plastic clay can be obtained by first mixing it with glycerine, turpentine, or similar bodies, and then adding vaseline or petroleum residues rich in vaseline. The proportion of clay to the vaseline varies according to the desired consistency of the product, the admixture of vaseline varying from 10 to 50 per cent. It is obvious that the hardness of the material decreases with the amount of vaseline added, so that the one richest in vaseline will be the softest. By the use of various varieties of clay and the suitable choice of admixtures, the plasticity, as well as the color of the mass, may be varied.

«Cleaning Preparations and Methods»

(See also Soaps, Polishes, and Household Formulas).


«Removal of Aniline-Dye Stains from the Skin.»—Rub the stained skin with a pinch of slightly moistened red crystals of chromic trioxide until a distinct sensation of warmth announces the destruction of the dye stuff by oxidation and an incipient irritation of the skin. Then rinse with soap and water. A single application usually suffices to remove {185} the stain. It is hardly necessary to call attention to the poisonousness and strong caustic action of chromic trioxide; but only moderate caution is required to avoid evil effects.

«Pyrogallic-Acid Stains on the Fingers» (see also Photography).—Pyro stains may be prevented fairly well by rubbing in a little wool fat before beginning work. A very effective way of eliminating developer stains is to dip the finger tips occasionally during development into the clearing bath. It is best to use the clearing bath, with ample friction, before resorting to soap, as the latter seems to have a fixing effect upon the stain. Lemon peel is useful for removing pyro stains, and so are the ammonium persulphate reducer and the thiocarbamide clearer.

«To Clean Very Soiled Hands.»—In the morning wash in warm water, using a stiff brush, and apply glycerine. Repeat the application two or three times during the day, washing and brushing an hour or so afterwards, or apply a warm solution of soda or potash, and wash in warm water, using a stiff brush as before. Finally, rub the hands with pumice or infusorial earth. There are soaps made especially for this purpose, similar to those for use on woodwork, etc., in which infusorial earth or similar matter is incorporated.

«To Remove Nitric-Acid Stains.»—One plan to avoid stains is to use rubber finger stalls, or rubber gloves. Nitric-acid stains can be removed from the hands by painting the stains with a solution of permanganate of potash, and washing off the permanganate with a 5 per cent solution of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. After this wash the hands with pure castile soap. Any soap that roughens the skin should be avoided at all times. Castile soap is the best to keep the skin in good condition.


«To Clean Gilt Frames and Gilded Surfaces Generally.»—Dip a soft brush in alcohol to which a few drops of ammonia water has been added, and with it go over the surface. Do not rub—at least, not roughly, or harshly. In the course of five minutes the dirt will have become soft, and easy of removal. Then go over the surface again gently with the same or a similar brush dipped in rain water. Now lay the damp article in the sunlight to dry. If there is no sunlight, place it near a warm (but not _hot_) stove, and let dry completely. In order to avoid streaks, take care that the position of the article, during the drying, is not exactly vertical.

«To Clean Fire-Gilt Articles.»—Fire-gilt articles are cleaned, according to their condition, with water, diluted hydrochloric acid, ammonia, or potash solution. If hydrochloric acid is employed thorough dilution with water is especially necessary. The acidity should hardly be noticeable on the tongue.

To clean gilt articles, such as gold moldings, etc., when they have become tarnished or covered with flyspecks, etc., rub them slowly with an onion cut in half and dipped in rectified alcohol, and wash off lightly with a moist soft sponge after about 2 hours.

«Cleaning Gilded and Polychromed Work on Altars.»—To clean bright gold a fine little sponge is used which is moistened but lightly with tartaric acid and passed over the gilding. Next go over the gilt work with a small sponge saturated with alcohol to remove all dirt. For matt gilding, use only a white flannel dipped in lye, and carefully wipe off the dead gold with this, drying next with a fine linen rag. To clean polychromed work sponge with a lye of rain water, 1,000 parts, and calcined potash, 68 parts, and immediately wash off with a clean sponge and water, so that the lye does not attack the paint too much.


«To Remove Aniline Stains.»—

I.—Sodium nitrate 7 grains Diluted sulphuric acid 15 grains Water 1 ounce

Let the mixture stand a day or two before using. Apply to the spot with a sponge, and rinse the goods with plenty of water.

II.—An excellent medium for the removal of aniline stains, which are often very stubborn, has been found to be liquid opodeldoc. After its use the stains are said to disappear at once and entirely.

«Cleansing Fluids.»—A spot remover is made as follows:

I.—Saponine 7 parts Water 130 parts Alcohol 70 parts Benzine 1,788 parts Oil mirbane 5 parts

II.—Benzene (benzol) 89 parts Ascetic ether 10 parts Pear oil 1 part

This yields an effective grease eradicator, of an agreeable odor. {186}

III.—To Remove Stains of Sulphate of copper, or of salts of mercury, silver, or gold from the hands, etc., wash them first with a dilute solution either of ammonia, iodide, bromide, or cyanide of potassium, and then with plenty of water; if the stains are old ones they should first be rubbed with the strongest acetic acid and then treated as above.

«Removal of Picric-Acid Stains.»—I.—Recent stains of picric acid may be removed readily if the stain is covered with a layer of magnesium carbonate, the carbonate moistened with a little water to form a paste, and the paste then rubbed over the spot.

II.—Apply a solution of Boric acid 4 parts Sodium benzoate 1 part Water 100 parts

III.—Dr. Prieur, of Besançon, recommends lithium carbonate for the removal of picric-acid stains from the skin or from linen. The method of using it is simply to lay a small pinch on the stain, and moisten the latter with water. Fresh stains disappear almost instantly, and old ones in a minute or two.

«To Remove Finger Marks from Books, etc.»—I.—Pour benzol (not benzine or gasoline, but Merck’s “c. p.” crystallizable) on calcined magnesia until it becomes a crumbling mass, and apply this to the spot, rubbing it in lightly, with the tip of the finger. When the benzol evaporates, brush off. Any dirt that remains can be removed by using a piece of soft rubber.

II.—If the foregoing fails (which it sometimes, though rarely, does), try the following: Make a hot solution of sodium hydrate in distilled water, of strength of from 3 per cent to 5 per cent, according to the age, etc., of the stain. Have prepared some bits of heavy blotting paper somewhat larger than the spot to be removed; also, a blotting pad, or several pieces of heavy blotting paper. Lay the soiled page face downward on the blotting pad, then, saturating one of the bits of blotter with the hot sodium hydrate solution, put it on the stain and go over it with a hot smoothing iron. If one application does not remove all the grease or stain, repeat the operation. Then saturate another bit of blotting paper with a 4 per cent or 5 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid in distilled water, apply it to the place, and pass the iron over it to neutralize the strong alkali. This process will instantly restore any faded writing or printing, and make the paper bright and fresh again.

«Glycerine as a Detergent.»—For certain kinds of obstinate spots (such as coffee and chocolate, for instance) there is no better detergent than glycerine, especially for fabrics with delicate colors. Apply the glycerine to the spot, with a sponge or otherwise, let stand a minute or so, then wash off with water or alcohol. Hot glycerine is even more efficient than cold.


«To Clean Colored Leather.»—Pour carbon bisulphide on non-vulcanized gutta-percha, and allow it to stand about 24 hours. After shaking actively add more gutta-percha gradually until the solution becomes of gelatinous consistency. This mixture is applied in suitable quantity to oil-stained, colored leather and allowed to dry two or three hours. The subsequent operation consists merely in removing the coat of gutta-percha from the surface of the leather—that is, rubbing it with the fingers, and rolling it off the surface.

The color is not injured in the least by the sulphuret of carbon; only those leathers on which a dressing containing starch has been used look a little lighter in color, but the better class of leathers are not so dressed. The dry gutta-percha can be redissolved in sulphuret of carbon and used over again.

«To Clean Skins Used for Polishing Purposes.»—First beat them thoroughly to get rid of dust, then go over the surface on both sides with a piece of good white soap and lay them in warm water in which has been put a little soda. Let them lie here for 2 hours, then wash them in plenty of tepid water, rubbing them vigorously until perfectly clean. This bath should also be made alkaline with soda. The skins are finally rinsed in warm water, and dried quickly. Cold water must be avoided at all stages of the cleansing process, as it has a tendency to shrink and harden the skins.

The best way to clean a chamois skin is to wash and rinse it out in clean water immediately after use, but this practice is apt to be neglected so that the skin becomes saturated with dirt and grime. To clean it, first thoroughly soak in clean, soft water. Then, after soaping it and rolling it into a compact wad, beat with a small round stick—a buggy spoke, say—turning the wad over repeatedly, and keeping it well wet and soaped. This should suffice to loosen the dirt. Then rinse in clean water until the skin {187} is clean. As wringing by hand is apt to injure the chamois skin, it is advisable to use a small clothes wringer. Before using the skin again rinse it in clear water to which a little pulverized alum has been added.


«To Renovate Straw Hats.»—I.—Hats made of natural (uncolored) straw, which have become soiled by wear, may be cleaned by thoroughly sponging with a weak solution of tartaric acid in water, followed by water alone. The hat after being so treated should be fastened by the rim to a board by means of pins, so that it will keep its shape in drying.

II.—Sponge the straw with a solution of

By weight Sodium hyposulphite 10 parts Glycerine 5 parts Alcohol 10 parts Water 75 parts

Lay aside in a damp place for 24 hours and then apply

By weight Citric acid 2 parts Alcohol 10 parts Water 90 parts

Press with a moderately hot iron, after stiffening with weak gum water, if necessary.

III.—If the hat has become much darkened in tint by wear the fumes of burning sulphur may be employed. The material should be first cleaned by thoroughly sponging with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, followed by a similar application of water, and it is then suspended over the sulphur fumes. These are generated by placing in a metal or earthen dish, so mounted as to keep the heat from setting fire to anything beneath, some brimstone (roll sulphur), and sprinkling over it some live coals to start combustion. The operation is conducted in a deep box or barrel, the dish of burning sulphur being placed at the bottom, and the article to be bleached being suspended from a string stretched across the top. A cover not fitting so tightly as to exclude all air is placed over it, and the apparatus allowed to stand for a few hours.

Hats so treated will require to be stiffened by the application of a little gum water, and pressed on a block with a hot iron to bring them back into shape.

«Waterproof Stiffening for Straw Hats.»—If a waterproof stiffening is required use one of the varnishes for which formulas follow:

I.—Copal 450 parts Sandarac 75 parts Venice turpentine 40 parts Castor oil 5 parts Alcohol 800 parts

II.—Shellac 500 parts Sandarac 175 parts Venice turpentine 50 parts Castor oil 15 parts Alcohol 2,000 parts

III.—Shellac 750 parts Rosin 150 parts Venice turpentine 150 parts Castor oil 20 parts Alcohol 2,500 parts

«How to Clean a Panama Hat.»—Scrub with castile soap and warm water, a nail brush being used as an aid to get the dirt away. The hat is then placed in the hot sun to dry and in the course of two or three hours is ready for use. It will not only be as clean as when new, but it will retain its shape admirably. The cleaned hat will be a trifle stiff at first, but will soon grow supple under wear.

A little glycerine added to the rinsing water entirely prevents the stiffness and brittleness acquired by some hats in drying, while a little ammonia in the washing water materially assists in the scrubbing process. Ivory, or, in fact, any good white soap, will answer as well as castile for the purpose. It is well to rinse a second time, adding the glycerine to the water used the second time. Immerse the hat completely in the rinse water, moving it about to get rid of traces of the dirty water. When the hat has been thoroughly rinsed, press out the surplus water, using a Turkish bath towel for the purpose, and let it rest on the towel when drying.


«To Remove Old Oil, Paint, or Varnish Coats.»—I.—Apply a mixture of about 5 parts of potassium silicate (water glass, 36 per cent), about 1 part of soda lye (40 per cent), and 1 part of ammonia. The composition dissolves the old varnish coat, as well as the paint, down to the bottom. The varnish coatings which are to be removed may be brushed off or left for days in a hardened state. Upon being thoroughly moistened with water the old varnish may be readily washed off, the lacquer as well as the oil paint coming off completely. The ammonia otherwise employed dissolves the varnish, but not the paint. {188}

II.—Apply a mixture of 1 part oil of turpentine and 2 parts of ammonia. This is effective, even if the coatings withstand the strongest lye. The two liquids are shaken in a bottle until they mix like milk. The mixture is applied to the coating with a little oakum; after a few minutes the old paint can be wiped off.

«To Clean Brushes and Vessels of Dry Paint» (see also Brushes and Paints).—The cleaning of the brushes and vessels in which the varnish or oil paint had dried is usually done by boiling with soda solution. This frequently spoils the brushes or cracks the vessels if of glass; besides, the process is rather slow and dirty. A much more suitable remedy is amyl acetate, which is a liquid with a pleasant odor of fruit drops, used mainly for dissolving and cementing celluloid. If amyl acetate is poured over a paint brush the varnish or hardened paint dissolves almost immediately and the brush is again rendered serviceable at once. If necessary, the process is repeated. For cleaning vessels shake the liquid about in them, which softens the paint so that it can be readily removed with paper. In this manner much labor can be saved. The amyl acetate can be easily removed from the brushes, etc., by alcohol or oil of turpentine.

«Varnish and Paint Remover.»—Dissolve 20 parts of caustic soda (98 per cent) in 100 parts of water, mix the solution with 20 parts of mineral oil, and stir in a kettle provided with a mechanical stirrer, until the emulsion is complete. Now add, with stirring, 20 parts of sawdust and pass the whole through a paint mill to obtain a uniform intermixture. Apply the paste moist.

«To Remove Varnish from Metal.»—To remove old varnish from metals, it suffices to dip the articles in equal parts of ammonia and alcohol (95 per cent).

«To Remove Water Stains from Varnished Furniture.»—Pour olive oil into a dish and scrape a little white wax into it. This mixture should be heated until the wax melts and rubbed sparingly on the stains. Finally, rub the surface with a linen rag until it is restored to brilliancy.

«To Remove Paint, Varnish, etc., from Wood.»—Varnish, paint, etc., no matter how old and hard, may be softened in a few minutes so that they can be easily scraped off, by applying the following mixture:

Water glass 5 parts Soda lye, 40° B. (27 per cent) 1 part Ammonia water 1 part


«Removing Varnish, etc.»—A patent has been taken out in England for a liquid for removing varnish, lacquer, tar, and paint. The composition is made by mixing 4 ounces of benzol, 3 ounces of fusel oil, and 1 ounce of alcohol. It is stated by the inventor that this mixture, if applied to a painted or varnished surface, will make the surface quite clean in less than 10 minutes, and that a paint-soaked brush “as hard as iron” can be made as soft and pliable as new by simply soaking for an hour or so in the mixture.

«To Remove Enamel and Tin Solder.»—Pour enough of oil of vitriol (concentrated sulphuric acid) over powdered fluorspar in an earthen or lead vessel, so as just to cover the parts whereby hydrofluoric acid is generated. For use, dip the article suspended on a wire into the liquid until the enamel or the tin is eaten away or dissolved, which does not injure the articles in any way. If heated, the liquid acts more rapidly. The work should always be conducted in the open air, and care should be taken not to inhale the fumes, which are highly injurious to the health, and not to get any liquid on the skin, as hydrofluoric acid is one of the most dangerous poisons. Hydrofluoric acid must be kept in earthen or leaden vessels, as it destroys glass.

«Removing Paint and Varnish from Wood.»—The following compound is given as one which will clean paint or varnish from wood or stone without injuring the material:

Flour or wood pulp 385 parts Hydrochloric acid 450 parts Bleaching powder 160 parts Turpentine 5 parts

This mixture is applied to the surface and left on for some time. It is then brushed off, and brings the paint away with it. It keeps moist quite long enough to be easily removed after it has acted.

«Paste for Removing Old Paint or Varnish Coats.»—

I.—Sodium hydrate 5 parts Soluble soda glass 3 parts Flour paste 6 parts Water 4 parts

II.—Soap 10 parts Potassium hydrate 7 parts Potassium silicate 2 parts


«To Remove Old Enamel.»—Lay the articles horizontally in a vessel containing a concentrated solution of alum and boil them. The solution should be just sufficient to cover the pieces. In 20 or 25 minutes the old enamel will fall into dust, and the article can be polished with emery. If narrow and deep vessels are used the operation will require more time.


«Two-Solution Ink Remover.»—

I.—(_a_) Citric acid 1 part Concentrated solution of borax 2 parts Distilled water 16 parts

Dissolve the acid in the water, add the borax solution, and mix by agitation.

(_b_) Chloride of lime 3 parts Water 16 parts Concentrated borax solution 2 part

Add the chloride of lime to the water, shake well and set aside for a week, then decant the clear liquid and to it add the borax solution.

For use, saturate the spot with solution (_a_), apply a blotter to take off the excess of liquid, then apply solution (_b_). When the stain has disappeared, apply the blotter and wet the spot with clean water; finally dry between two sheets of blotting paper.

II.—(_a_) Mix, in equal parts, potassium chloride, potassium hypochlorite, and oil of peppermint. (_b_) Sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid and water, in equal parts.

Wet the spot with (_a_), let dry, then brush it over lightly with (_b_), and rinse in clear water.

A good single mixture which will answer for most inks is made by mixing citric acid and alum in equal parts. If desired to vend in a liquid form add an equal part of water. In use, the powder is spread well over the spot and (if on cloth or woven fabrics) well rubbed in with the fingers. A few drops of water are then added, and also rubbed in. A final rinsing with water completes the process.

«Ink Erasers.»—I.—Inks made with nutgalls and copperas can be removed by using a moderately concentrated solution of oxalic acid, followed by use of pure water and frequent drying with clean blotting paper. Most other black inks are erased by use of a weak solution of chlorinated lime, followed by dilute acetic acid and water, with frequent drying with blotters. Malachite green ink is bleached by ammonia water; silver inks by potassium cyanide or sodium hyposulphite. Some aniline colors are easily removed by alcohol, and nearly all by chlorinated lime, followed by diluted acetic acid or vinegar. In all cases apply the substances with camel’s-hair brushes or feathers, and allow them to remain no longer than necessary, after which rinse well with water and dry with blotting paper.

II.—Citric acid 1 part Water, distilled 10 parts Concentrated solution of borax 2 parts

Dissolve the citric acid in the water and add the borax. Apply to the paper with a delicate camel’s-hair pencil, removing any excess of water with a blotter. A mixture of oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids, in equal parts, dissolved in just enough water to give a clean solution, acts energetically on most inks.

«Erasing Powder or Pounce.»—Alum, 1 part; amber, 1 part; sulphur, 1 part; saltpeter, 1 part. Mix well together and keep in a glass bottle. If a little of this powder is placed on an ink spot or fresh writing, rubbing very lightly with a clean linen rag, the spot or the writing will disappear at once.

«Removing Ink Stains.»—I.—The material requiring treatment should first be soaked in clean, warm water, the superfluous moisture removed, and the fabric spread over a clean cloth. Now allow a few minims of liquor ammoniæ fortis, specific gravity 0.891, to drop on the ink spot, then saturate a tiny tuft of absorbent cotton-wool with acidum phosphoricum dilutum, B. P., and apply repeatedly and with firm pressure over the stain; repeat the procedure two or three times, and finally rinse well in warm water, afterwards drying in the sun, when every trace of ink will have vanished. This method is equally reliable for old and fresh ink stains, is rapid in action, and will not injure the most delicate fabric.

II.—To remove ink spots the fabric is soaked in warm water, then it is squeezed out and spread upon a clean piece of linen. Now apply a few drops of liquid ammonia of a specific gravity of 0.891 to the spot, and dab it next with a wad of cotton which has been saturated with dilute phosphoric acid. After repeating the process several times and drying the piece in the sun, the ink spot will have disappeared without leaving the slightest trace. {190}

III.—Ink spots may be removed by the following mixture:

Oxalic acid 10 parts Stannic chloride 2 parts Acetic acid 5 parts Water to make 500 parts


IV.—The customary method of cleansing ink spots is to use oxalic acid. Thick blotting paper is soaked in a concentrated solution and dried. It is then laid immediately on the blot, and in many instances will take the latter out without leaving a trace behind. In more stubborn cases the cloth is dipped in boiling water and rubbed with crystals of oxalic acid, after which it is soaked in a weak solution of chloride of lime—say 1 ounce to a quart of water. Under such circumstances the linen should be thoroughly rinsed in several waters afterwards. Oxalic acid is undesirable for certain fabrics because it removes the color.

V.—Here is a more harmless method: Equal parts of cream of tartar and citric acid, powdered fine, and mixed together. This forms the “salts of lemon” sold by druggists. Procure a hot dinner plate, lay the part stained in the plate, and moisten with hot water; next rub in the above powder with the bowl of a spoon until the stains disappear; then rinse in clean water and dry.

«To Remove Red (Aniline) Ink.»—Stains of red anilines, except eosine, are at once removed by moistening with alcohol of 94 per cent, acidulated with acetic acid. Eosine does not disappear so easily. The amount of acetic acid to be used is ascertained by adding it, drop by drop, to the alcohol, testing the mixture from time to time, until when dropped on the stain, the latter at once disappears.


See also Household Formulas.

«To Renovate Brick Walls.»—Dissolve glue in water in the proportion of 1 ounce of glue to every gallon of water; add, while hot, a piece of alum the size of a hen’s egg, 1/2 pound Venetian red, and 1 pound Spanish brown. Add more water if too dark; more red and brown if too light.

«Cleaning Painted Doors, Walls, etc.»—The following recipe is designed for painted objects that are much soiled. Simmer gently on the fire, stirring constantly, 30 parts, by weight, of pulverized borax, and 450 parts of brown soap of good quality, cut in small pieces, in 3,000 parts of water. The liquid is applied by means of flannel and rinsed off at once with pure water.

«To Remove Aniline Stains from Ceilings, etc.»—In renewing ceilings, the old aniline color stains are often very annoying, as they penetrate the new coating. Painting over with shellac or oil paint will bring relief, but other drawbacks appear. A very practical remedy is to place a tin vessel on the floor of the room, and to burn a quantity of sulphur in it after the doors and windows of the room have been closed. The sulphur vapors destroy the aniline stains, which disappear entirely.

«Old Ceilings.»—In dealing with old ceilings the distemper must be washed off down to the plaster face, all cracks raked out and stopped with putty (plaster of Paris and distemper mixed), and the whole rubbed smooth with pumice stone and water; stained parts should be painted with oil color, and the whole distempered. If old ceilings are in bad condition it is desirable that they should be lined with paper, which should have a coat of weak size before being distempered.

«Oil Stains on Wall Paper.»—Make a medium thick paste of pipe clay and water, applying it carefully flat upon the oil stain, but avoiding all friction. The paste is allowed to remain 10 to 12 hours, after which time it is very carefully removed with a soft rag. In many cases a repeated action will be necessary until the purpose desired is fully reached. Finally, however, this will be obtained without blurring or destroying the design of the wall paper, unless it be of the cheapest variety. In the case of a light, delicate paper, the paste should be composed of magnesia and benzine.

«To Clean Painted Walls.»—A simple method is to put a little aqua ammonia in moderately warm water, dampen a flannel with it, and gently wipe over the painted surface. No scrubbing is necessary.

«Treatment of Whitewashed Walls.»—It is suggested that whitewashed walls which it is desired to paper, with a view to preventing peeling, should be treated with water, after which the scraper should be vigorously used. If the whitewash has been thoroughly soaked it can easily be removed with the scraper. Care should be taken that every part of the wall is well scraped. {191}

«Cleaning Wall Paper.»—I.—To clean wall paper the dust should first be removed by lightly brushing, preferably with a feather duster, and the surface then gently rubbed with slices of moderately stale bread, the discolored surface of the bread being removed from time to time, so as to expose a fresh portion for use. Care should be taken to avoid scratching the paper with the crust of the bread, and the rubbing should be in one direction, the surface being systematically gone over, as in painting, to avoid the production of streaks.

II.—Mix 4 ounces of powdered pumice with 1 quart of flour, and with the aid of water make a stiff dough. Form the dough into rolls 2 inches in diameter and 6 inches long; sew each roll separately in a cotton cloth, then boil for 40 or 50 minutes, so as to render the mass firm. Allow to stand for several hours, remove the crust, and they are ready for use.

III.—Bread will clean paper; but unless it is properly used the job will be a very tedious one. Select a “tin” loaf at least two days old. Cut off the crust at one end, and rub down the paper, commencing at the top. Do not rub the bread backwards and forwards, but in single strokes. When the end gets dirty take a very sharp knife and pare off a thin layer; then proceed as before.

It is well to make sure that the walls are quite dry before using the bread, or it may smear the pattern. If the room is furnished it will, of course, be necessary to place cloths around the room to catch the crumbs.

IV.—A preparation for cleansing wall paper that often proves much more effectual than ordinary bread, especially when the paper is very dirty, is made by mixing 2/3 dough and 1/3 plaster of Paris. This should be made a day before it is needed for use, and should be very gently baked.

If there are any grease spots they should be removed by holding a hot flatiron against a piece of blotting paper placed over them. If this fails, a little fuller’s earth or pipe clay should be made into a paste with water, and this should then be carefully plastered over the grease spots and allowed to remain till quite dry, when it will be found to have absorbed the grease.

V.—Mix together 1 pound each of rye flour and white flour into a dough, which is partially cooked and the crust removed. To this 1 ounce common salt and 1/2 ounce of powdered naphthaline are added, and finally 1 ounce of corn meal, and 1/8 ounce of burnt umber. The composition is formed into a mass, of the proper size to be grasped in the hand, and in use it should be drawn in one direction over the surface to be cleaned.

VI.—Procure a soft, flat sponge, being careful that there are no hard or gritty places in it, then get a bucket of new, clean, dry, wheat bran. Hold the sponge flat side up, and put a handful of bran on it, then quickly turn against the wall, and rub the wall gently and carefully with it; then repeat the operation. Hold a large pan or spread down a drip cloth to catch the bran as it falls, but never use the same bran twice. Still another way is to use Canton flannel in strips a foot wide and about 3 yards long. Roll a strip around a stick 1 inch thick and 10 inches long, so as to have the ends of the stick covered, with the nap of the cloth outside. As the cloth gets soiled, unroll the soiled part and roll it up with the soiled face inside.

In this way one can change places on the cloth when soiled and use the whole face of the cloth. To take out a grease spot requires care. First, take several thicknesses of brown wrapping paper and make a pad, place it against the grease spot, and hold a hot flatiron against it to draw out the grease, which will soak into the brown paper. Be careful to have enough layers of brown paper to keep the iron from scorching or discoloring the wall paper. If the first application does not take out nearly all the grease, repeat with clean brown paper or a blotting pad. Then take an ounce vial of washed sulphuric ether and a soft, fine, clean sponge and sponge the spot carefully until all the grease disappears. Do not wipe the place with the sponge and ether, but dab the sponge carefully against the place. A small quantity of ether is advised, as it is very inflammable.


«Soaps for Clothing and Fabrics.»—When the fabric is washable and the color fast, ordinary soap and water are sufficient for removing grease and the ordinarily attendant dirt; but special soaps are made which may possibly be more effectual.

I.—Powdered borax 30 parts Extract of soap bark 30 parts Ox gall (fresh) 120 parts Castile soap 450 parts

First make the soap-bark extract by boiling the crushed bark in water until it has assumed a dark color, then strain the liquid into an evaporating dish, and {192} by the aid of heat evaporate it to a solid extract; then powder and mix it with the borax and the ox gall. Melt the castile soap by adding a small quantity of water and warming, then add the other ingredients and mix well.

About 100 parts of soap bark make 20 parts of extract.

II.—Castile soap 2 pounds Potassium carbonate 1/2 pound Camphor 1/2 ounce Alcohol 1/2 ounce Ammonia water 1/2 ounce Hot water, 1/2 pint, or sufficient.

Dissolve the potassium carbonate in the water, add the soap previously reduced to thin shavings, keep warm over a water bath, stirring occasionally, until dissolved, adding more water if necessary, and finally, when of a consistence to become semisolid on cooling, remove from the fire. When nearly ready to set, stir in the camphor, previously dissolved in the alcohol and the ammonia.

The soap will apparently be quite as efficacious without the camphor and ammonia.

If a paste is desired, a potash soap should be used instead of the castile in the foregoing formula, and a portion or all of the water omitted. Soaps made from potash remain soft, while soda soaps harden on the evaporation of the water which they contain when first made.

A liquid preparation may be obtained, of course, by the addition of sufficient water, and some more alcohol would probably improve it.

«Clothes-Cleaning Fluids:»

See also Household Formulas.

I.—Borax 1 ounce Castile soap 1 ounce Sodium carbonate 3 drachms Ammonia water 5 ounces Alcohol 4 ounces Acetone 4 ounces Hot water to make 4 pints

Dissolve the borax, sodium bicarbonate, and soap in the hot water, mix the acetone and alcohol together, unite the two solutions, and then add the ammonia water. The addition of a couple of ounces of rose water will render it somewhat fragrant.

II.—A strong decoction of soap bark, preserved by the addition of alcohol, forms a good liquid cleanser for fabrics of the more delicate sort.

III.—Chloroform 15 parts Ether 15 parts Alcohol 120 parts Decoction of quillaia bark of 30° 4,500 parts

IV.—Acetic ether 10 parts Amyl acetate 10 parts Liquid ammonia 10 parts Dilute alcohol 70 parts

V.—Another good non-inflammable spot remover consists of equal parts of acetone, ammonia, and diluted alcohol. For use in large quantities carbon tetrachloride is suggested.

VI.—Castile soap 4 av. ounces Water, boiling 32 fluidounces

Dissolve and add:

Water 1 gallon Ammonia 8 fluidounces Ether 2 fluidounces Alcohol 4 fluidounces

«To Remove Spots from Tracing Cloth.»—It is best to use benzine, which is applied by means of a cotton rag. The benzine also takes off lead-pencil marks, but does not attack India and other inks. The places treated with benzine should subsequently be rubbed with a little talcum, otherwise it would not be possible to use the pen on them.

«Removal of Paint from Clothing.»—Before paint becomes “dry” it can be removed from cloth by the liberal application of turpentine or benzine. If the spot is not large, it may be immersed in the liquid; otherwise, a thick, folded, absorbent cloth should be placed under the fabric which has been spotted, and the liquid sponged on freely enough that it may soak through, carrying the greasy matter with it. Some skill in manipulation is requisite to avoid simply spreading the stain and leaving a “ring” to show how far it has extended.

When benzine is used the operator must be careful to apply it only in the absence of light or fire, on account of the extremely inflammable character of the vapor.

Varnish stains, when fresh, are treated in the same way, but the action of the solvent may possibly not be so complete on account of the gum rosins present.

When either paint or varnish has dried, its removal becomes more difficult. In such case soaking in strong ammonia water may answer. An emulsion, formed by shaking together 2 parts of ammonia water and 1 of spirits of turpentine, has been recommended.

«To Remove Vaseline Stains from Clothing.»—Moisten the spots with a mixture of 1 part of aniline oil, 1 of {193} powdered soap, and 10 of water. After allowing the cloth to lie for 5 or 10 minutes, wash with water.

«To Remove Grease Spots from Plush.»—Place fresh bread rolls in the oven, break them apart as soon as they have become very hot, and rub the spots with the crumbs, continuing the work by using new rolls until all traces of fat have disappeared from the fabric. Purified benzine, which does not alter even the most delicate colors, is also useful for this purpose.

«To Remove Iron Rust from Muslin and Linen.»—Wet with lemon juice and salt and expose to the sun. If one application does not remove the spots, a second rarely fails to do so.

«Keroclean.»—This non-inflammable cleanser removes grease spots from delicate fabrics without injury, cleans all kinds of jewelry and tableware by removing fats and tarnish, kills moths, insects, and household pests by suffocation and extermination, and cleans ironware by removing rust, brassware by removing grease, copperware by removing verdigris. It is as clear as water and will stand any fire test.

Kerosene. 1 ounce Carbon tetrachloride (commercial). 3 ounces Oil of citronella 2 drachms

Mix, and filter if necessary. If a strong odor of carbon bisulphide is detected in the carbon tetrachloride first shake with powdered charcoal and filter.

«To Clean Gold and Silver Lace.»—I.—Alkaline liquids sometimes used for cleaning gold lace are unsuitable, for they generally corrode or change the color of the silk. A solution of soap also interferes with certain colors, and should therefore not be employed. Alcohol is an effectual remedy for restoring the luster of gold, and it may be used without any danger to the silk, but where the gold is worn off, and the base metal exposed, it is not so successful in accomplishing its purpose, as by removing the tarnish the base metal becomes more distinguishable from the fine gold.

II.—To clean silver lace take alabaster in very fine powder, lay the lace upon a cloth, and with a soft brush take up some of the powder, and rub both sides with it till it becomes bright and clean, afterwards polish with another brush until all remnants of the powder are removed, and it exhibits a lustrous surface.

III.—Silver laces are put in curdled milk for 24 hours. A piece of Venetian soap, or any other good soap, is scraped and stirred into 2 quarts of rain water. To this a quantity of honey and fresh ox gall is added, and the whole is stirred for some time. If it becomes too thick, more water is added. This mass is allowed to stand for half a day, and the wet laces are painted with it. Wrap a wet cloth around the roller of a mangle, wind the laces over this, put another wet cloth on top, and press, wetting and repeating the application several times. Next, dip the laces in a clear solution of equal parts of sugar and gum arabic, pass them again through the mangle, between two clean pieces of cloth, and hang them up to dry thoroughly, attaching a weight to the lower end.

IV.—Soak gold laces over night in cheap white wine and then proceed as with silver laces. If the gold is worn off, put 771 grains of shellac, 31 grains of dragon’s blood, 31 grains of turmeric in strong alcohol and pour off the ruby-colored fluid. Dip a fine hair pencil in this, paint the pieces to be renewed, and hold a hot flatiron a few inches above them, so that only the laces receive the heat.

V.—Silver embroideries may also be cleaned by dusting them with Vienna lime, and brushing off with a velvet brush.

For gildings the stuff is dipped in a solution of gold chloride, and this is reduced by means of hydrogen in another vessel.

For silvering, one of the following two processes may be employed: (_a_) Painting with a solution of 1 part of phosphorus in 15 parts bisulphide of carbon and dipping in a solution of nitrate of silver; (_b_) dipping for 2 hours in a solution of nitrate of silver, mixed with ammonia, then exposing to a current of pure hydrogen.

«To Remove Silver Stains from White Fabrics.»—Moisten the fabric for two or three minutes with a solution of 5 parts of bromine and 500 parts of water. Then rinse in clear water. If a yellowish stain remains, immerse in a solution of 150 parts of sodium hyposulphite in 500 parts of water, and again rinse in clear water.

«Rust-Spot Remover.»—Dissolve potassium bioxalate, 200 parts, in distilled water, 8,800 parts; add glycerine, 1,000 parts, and filter. Moisten the rust or ink spots with this solution; let the linen, etc., lie for 3 hours, rubbing the moistened spots frequently, and then wash well with water. {194}

«To Clean Quilts.»—Quilts are cleaned by first washing them in lukewarm soapsuds, then laying them in cold, soft (rain) water over night. The next day they are pressed as dry as possible and hung up; the ends, in which the moisture remains for a long time, must be wrung out from time to time.

It is very essential to beat the drying quilts frequently with a smooth stick or board. This will have the effect of swelling up the wadding, and preventing it from felting. Furthermore, the quilts should be repeatedly turned during the drying from right to left and also from top to bottom. In this manner streaks are avoided.

«Removal of Peruvian-Balsam Stains.»—The fabric is spread out, a piece of filter paper being placed beneath the stain, and the latter is then copiously moistened with chloroform, applied by means of a tuft of cotton wool. Rubbing is to be avoided.

«Solution for Removing Nitrate of Silver Spots.»—

Bichloride of mercury 5 parts Ammonium chloride 5 parts Distilled water 40 parts

Apply the mixture to the spots with a cloth, then rub. This removes, almost instantaneously, even old stains on linen, cotton, or wool. Stains on the skin thus treated become whitish yellow and soon disappear.

«Cleaning Tracings.»—Tracing cloth can be very quickly and easily cleaned, and pencil marks removed by the use of benzine, which is applied with a cotton swab. It may be rubbed freely over the tracing without injury to lines drawn in ink, or even in water color, but the pencil marks and dirt will quickly disappear. The benzine evaporates almost immediately, leaving the tracing unharmed. The surface, however, has been softened and must be rubbed down with talc, or some similar substance, before drawing any more ink lines.

The glaze may be restored to tracing cloth after using the eraser by rubbing the roughened surface with a piece of hard wax from an old phonograph cylinder. The surface thus produced is superior to that of the original glaze, as it is absolutely oil- and water-proof.

«Rags for Cleaning and Polishing.»—Immerse flannel rags in a solution of 20 parts of dextrine and 30 parts of oxalic acid in 20 parts of logwood decoction; gently wring them out, and sift over them a mixture of finely powdered tripoli and pumice stone. Pile the moist rags one upon another, placing a layer of the powder between each two. Then press, separate, and dry.

«Cleaning Powder.»—

Bole 500 parts Magnesium carbonate 50 parts

Mix and make into a paste with a small quantity of benzine or water; apply to stains made by fats or oils on the clothing and when dry remove with a brush.


«Cleaning and Preserving Polished Woodwork.»—Rub down all the polished work with a very weak alcoholic solution of shellac (1 to 20 or even 1 to 30) and linseed oil, spread on a linen cloth. The rubbing should be firm and hard. Spots on the polished surface, made by alcohol, tinctures, water, etc., should be removed as far as possible and as soon as possible after they are made, by the use of boiled linseed oil. Afterwards they should be rubbed with the shellac and linseed oil solution on a soft linen rag. If the spots are due to acids go over them with a little dilute ammonia water. Ink spots may be removed with dilute or (if necessary) concentrated hydrochloric acid, following its use with dilute ammonia water. In extreme cases it may be necessary to use the scraper or sandpaper, or both.

Oak as a general thing is not polished, but has a matt surface which can be washed with water and soap. First all stains and spots should be gone over with a sponge or a soft brush and very weak ammonia water. The carved work should be freed of dust, etc., by the use of a stiff brush, and finally washed with dilute ammonia water. When dry it should be gone over very thinly and evenly with brunoline applied with a soft pencil. If it is desired to give an especially handsome finish, after the surface is entirely dry, give it a preliminary coat of brunoline and follow this on the day after with a second. Brunoline may be purchased of any dealer in paints. To make it, put 70 parts of linseed oil in a very capacious vessel (on account of the foam that ensues) and add to it 20 parts of powdered litharge, 20 parts of powdered minium, and 10 parts of lead acetate, also powdered. Boil until the oil is completely oxidized, stirring constantly. When completely oxidized the oil is no longer red, but is of a dark brown color. When it acquires {195} this color, remove from the fire, and add 160 parts of turpentine oil, and stir well. This brunoline serves splendidly for polishing furniture or other polished wood.

«To Clean Lacquered Goods.»—Papier-maché and lacquered goods may be cleaned perfectly by rubbing thoroughly with a paste made of wheat flour and olive oil. Apply with a bit of soft flannel or old linen, rubbing hard; wipe off and polish by rubbing with an old silk handkerchief.

«Polish for Varnished Work.»—To renovate varnished work make a polish of 1 quart good vinegar, 2 ounces butter of antimony, 2 ounces alcohol, and 1 quart oil. Shake well before using.

«To Clean Paintings.»—To clean an oil painting, take it out of its frame, lay a piece of cloth moistened with rain water on it, and leave it for a while to take up the dirt from the picture. Several applications may be required to secure a perfect result. Then wipe the picture very gently with a tuft of cotton wool damped with absolutely pure linseed oil. Gold frames may be cleaned with a freshly cut onion; they should be wiped with a soft sponge wet with rain water a few hours after the application of the onion, and finally wiped with a soft rag.

«Removing and Preventing Match Marks.»—The unsightly marks made on a painted surface by striking matches on it can sometimes be removed by scrubbing with soapsuds and a stiff brush. To prevent match marks dip a bit of flannel in alboline (liquid vaseline), and with it go over the surface, rubbing it hard. A second rubbing with a dry bit of flannel completes the job. A man may “strike” a match there all day, and neither get a light nor make a mark.


«Powder for Cleaning Gloves.»—

I.—White bole or pipe clay 60.0 parts Orris root (powdered) 30.0 parts Powdered grain soap 7.5 parts Powdered borax 15.0 parts Ammonium chloride 2.5 parts

Mix the above ingredients. Moisten the gloves with a damp cloth, rub on the powder, and brush off after drying.

II.—Four pounds powdered pipe clay, 2 pounds powdered white soap, 1 ounce lemon oil, thoroughly rubbed together. To use, make powder into a thin cream with water and rub on the gloves while on the hands. This is a cheaply produced compound, and does its work effectually.

«Soaps and Pastes for Cleaning Gloves.»—

I.—Soft soap. 1 ounce Water. 4 ounces Oil of lemon 1/2 drachm Precipitated chalk, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the soap in the water, add the oil, and make into a stiff paste with a sufficient quantity of chalk.

II.—White hard soap. 1 part Talcum. 1 part Water 4 parts

Shave the soap into ribbons, dissolve in the water by the aid of heat, and incorporate the talcum.

III.—Curd soap 1 av. ounce Water 4 fluidounces Oil of lemon. 1/2 fluidrachm French chalk, a sufficient quantity.

Shred the soap and melt it in the water by heat, add the oil of lemon, and make into a stiff paste with French chalk.

IV.—White castile soap, old and dry 15 parts Water 15 parts Solution of chlorinated soda 16 parts Ammonia water 1 part

Cut or shave up the soap, add the water, and heat on the water bath to a smooth paste. Remove, let cool, and add the other ingredients and mix thoroughly.

V.—Castile soap, white, old, and dry 100 parts Water 75 parts Tincture of quillaia 10 parts Ether, sulphuric 10 parts Ammonia water, FF 5 parts Benzine, deodorized 75 parts

Melt the soap, previously finely shaved, in the water, bring to a boil and remove from the fire. Let cool down, then add the other ingredients, incorporating them thoroughly. This should be put up in collapsible tubes or tightly closed metallic boxes. This is also useful for clothing.

«Liquid Cloth and Glove Cleaner.»—

Gasoline. 1 gallon Chloroform. 1 ounce Carbon disulphide 1 ounce {196} Essential oil almond 5 drops Oil bergamot 1 drachm Oil cloves 5 drops

Mix. To be applied with a sponge or soft cloth.


«Cleaning and Polishing Marble.»—I.—Marble that has become dirty by ordinary use or exposure may be cleaned by a simple bath of soap and water.

If this does not remove stains, a weak solution of oxalic acid should be applied with a sponge or rag, washing quickly and thoroughly with water to minimize injury to the surface.

Rubbing well after this with chalk moistened with water will, in a measure, restore the luster. Another method of finishing is to apply a solution of white wax in turpentine (about 1 in 10), rubbing thoroughly with a piece of flannel or soft leather.

If the marble has been much exposed, so that its luster has been seriously impaired, it may be necessary to repolish it in a more thorough manner. This may be accomplished by rubbing it first with sand, beginning with a moderately coarse-grained article and changing this twice for finer kinds, after which tripoli or pumice is used. The final polish is given by the so-called putty powder. A plate of iron is generally used in applying the coarse sand; with the fine sand a leaden plate is used; and the pumice is employed in the form of a smooth-surfaced piece of convenient size. For the final polishing coarse linen or bagging is used, wedged tightly into an iron planing tool. During all these applications water is allowed to trickle over the face of the stone.

The putty powder referred to is binoxide of tin, obtained by treating metallic tin with nitric acid, which converts the metal into hydrated metastannic acid. This, when heated, becomes anhydrous. In this condition it is known as putty powder. In practice putty powder is mixed with alum, sulphur, and other substances, the mixture used being dependent upon the nature of the stone to be polished.

According to Warwick, colored marble should not be treated with soap and water, but only with the solution of beeswax above mentioned.

II.—Take 2 parts of sodium bicarbonate, 1 part of powdered pumice stone, and 1 part of finely pulverized chalk. Pass through a fine sieve to screen out all particles capable of scratching the marble, and add sufficient water to form a pasty mass. Rub the marble with it vigorously, and end the cleaning with soap and water.

III.—Ox gall 1 part Saturated solution of sodium carbonate 4 parts Oil of turpentine 1 part Pipe clay enough to form a paste.

IV.—Sodium carbonate 2 ounces Chlorinated lime. 1 ounce Water 14 ounces

Mix well and apply the magma to the marble with a cloth, rubbing well in, and finally rubbing dry. It may be necessary to repeat this operation.

V.—Wash the surface with a mixture of finely powdered pumice stone and vinegar, and leave it for several hours; then brush it hard and wash it clean. When dry, rub with whiting and wash leather.

VI.—Soft soap. 4 parts Whiting 4 parts Sodium bicarbonate 1 part Copper sulphate 2 parts

Mix thoroughly and rub over the marble with a piece of flannel, and leave it on for 24 hours, then wash it off with clean water, and polish the marble with a piece of flannel or an old piece of felt.

VII.—A strong solution of oxalic acid effectually takes out ink stains. In handling it the poisonous nature of this acid should not be forgotten.

VIII.—Iron mold or ink spots may be taken out in the following manner: Take 1/2 ounce of butter of antimony and 1 ounce of oxalic acid and dissolve them in 1 pint of rain water; add enough flour to bring the mixture to a proper consistency. Lay it evenly on the stained part with a brush, and, after it has remained for a few days, wash it off and repeat the process if the stain is not wholly removed.

IX.—To remove oil stains apply common clay saturated with benzine. If the grease has remained in long the polish will be injured, but the stain will be removed.

X.—The following method for removing rust from iron depends upon the solubility of the sulphide of iron in a solution of cyanide of potassium. Clay is made into a thin paste with ammonium sulphide, and the rust spot smeared with the mixture, care being taken that the spot is only just covered. After ten minutes this paste is washed off and replaced by one consisting of white bole mixed with a solution of potassium cyanide (1 to 4), which is in its turn {197} washed off after about 2 1/2 hours. Should a reddish spot remain after washing off the first paste, a second layer may be applied for about 5 minutes.

XI.—Soft soap 4 ounces Whiting 4 ounces Sodium carbonate 1 ounce Water, a sufficient quantity. Make into a thin paste, apply on the soiled surface, and wash off after 24 hours.

XII.—In a spacious tub place a tall vessel upside down. On this set the article to be cleaned so that it will not stand in the water, which would loosen the cemented parts. Into this tub pour a few inches of cold water—hot water renders marble dull—take a soft brush and a piece of Venetian soap, dip the former in the water and rub on the latter carefully, brushing off the article from top to bottom. When in this manner dust and dirt have been dissolved, wash off all soap particles by means of a watering pot and cold water, dab the object with a clean sponge, which absorbs the moisture, place it upon a cloth and carefully dry with a very clean, soft cloth, rubbing gently. This treatment will restore the former gloss to the marble.

XIII.—Mix and shake thoroughly in a bottle equal quantities of sulphuric acid and lemon juice. Moisten the spots and rub them lightly with a linen cloth and they will disappear.

XIV.—Ink spots are treated with acid oxalate of potassium; blood stains by brushing with alabaster dust and distilled water, then bleaching with chlorine solution. Alizarine ink and aniline ink spots can be moderated by laying on rags saturated with Javelle water, chlorine water, or chloride of lime paste. Old oil stains can only be effaced by placing the whole piece of marble for hours in benzine. Fresh oil or grease spots are obliterated by repeated applications of a little damp, white clay and subsequent brushing with soap water or weak soda solution. For many other spots an application of benzine and magnesia is useful.

XV.—Marble slabs keep well and do not lose their fresh color if they are cleaned with hot water only, without the addition of soap, which is injurious to the color. Care must be taken that no liquid dries on the marble. If spots of wine, coffee, beer, etc., have already appeared, they are cleaned with diluted spirit of sal ammoniac, highly diluted oxalic acid, Javelle water, ox gall, or, take a quantity of newly slaked lime, mix it with water into a paste-like consistency, apply the paste uniformly on the spot with a brush, and leave the coating alone for two to three days before it is washed off. If the spots are not removed by a single application, repeat the latter. In using Javelle water 1 or 2 drops should be carefully poured on each spot, rinsing off with water.

«To Remove Grease Spots from Marble.»—If the spots are fresh, rub them over with a piece of cloth that has been dipped into pulverized china clay, repeating the operation several times, and then brush with soap and water. When the spots are old brush with distilled water and finest French plaster energetically, then bleach with chloride of lime that is put on a piece of white cloth. If the piece of marble is small enough to permit it, soak it for a few hours in refined benzine.

«Preparation for Cleaning Marble, Furniture, and Metals, Especially Copper.»—This preparation is claimed to give very quickly perfect brilliancy, persisting without soiling either the hand or the articles, and without leaving any odor of copper. The following is the composition for 100 parts of the product: Wax, 2.4 parts; oil of turpentine, 9.4 parts; acetic acid, 42 parts; citric acid, 42 parts; white soap, 42 parts.

«Removing Oil Stains from Marble.»—Saturate fuller’s earth with a solution of equal parts of soap liniment, ammonia, and water; apply to the greasy part of the marble; keep there for some hours, pressed down with a smoothing iron sufficiently hot to warm the mass, and as it evaporates occasionally renew the solution. When wiped off dry the stain will have nearly disappeared. Some days later, when more oil works toward the surface repeat the operation. A few such treatments should suffice.

«Cleaning Terra Cotta.»—After having carefully removed all dust, paint the terra cotta, by means of a brush, with a mixture of slightly gummed water and finely powdered terra cotta.

«Renovation of Polished and Varnished Surfaces of Wood, Stone, etc.»—This is composed of the following ingredients, though the proportions may be varied: Cereal flour or wood pulp, 38 1/2 parts; hydrochloric acid, 45 parts; chloride of lime, 16 parts; turpentine, 1/2 part. After mixing the ingredients thoroughly in order to form a homogeneous paste, the object to be treated is smeared with it and allowed to stand for some time. The paste on the surface is then removed by passing over it quickly a piece of soft {198} leather or a brush, which will remove dirt, grease, and other deleterious substances. By rubbing gently with a cloth or piece of leather a polished surface will be imparted to wood, and objects of metal will be rendered lustrous.

The addition of chloride of lime tends to keep the paste moist, thus allowing the ready removal of the paste without damaging the varnish or polish, while the turpentine serves as a disinfectant and renders the odor less disagreeable during the operation.

The preparation is rapid in its action, and does not affect the varnished or polished surfaces of wood or marble. While energetic in its cleansing action on brass and other metallic objects, it is attended with no corrosive effect.

«Nitrate of Silver Spots.»—To remove these spots from white marble, they should be painted with Javelle water, and after having been washed, passed over a concentrated solution of thiosulphate of soda (hyposulphite).

«To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from Sandstones.»—This may be done by washing the spots with pure turpentine oil, then covering the place with white argillaceous earth (pipe clay), leaving it to dry, and finally rubbing with sharp soda lye, using a brush. Caustic ammonia also removes oil-paint spots from sandstones.


«To Remove Rust from Iron or Steel Utensils.»—

I.—Apply the following solution by means of a brush, after having removed any grease by rubbing with a clean, dry cloth: 100 parts of stannic chloride are dissolved in 1,000 parts of water; this solution is added to one containing 2 parts tartaric acid dissolved in 1,000 parts of water, and finally 20 cubic centimeters indigo solution, diluted with 2,000 parts of water, are added. After allowing the solution to act upon the stain for a few seconds, it is rubbed clean, first with a moist cloth, then with a dry cloth; to restore the polish use is made of silver sand and jewelers’ rouge.

II.—When the rust is recent it is removed by rubbing the metal with a cork charged with oil. In this manner a perfect polish is obtained. To take off old rust, mix equal parts of fine tripoli and flowers of sulphur, mingling this mixture with olive oil, so as to form a paste. Rub the iron with this preparation by means of a skin.

III.—The rusty piece is connected with a piece of zinc and placed in water containing a little sulphuric acid. After the articles have been in the liquid for several days or a week, the rust will have completely disappeared. The length of time will depend upon the depth to which the rust has penetrated. A little sulphuric acid may be added from time to time, but the chief point is that the zinc always has good electric contact with the iron. To insure this an iron wire may be firmly wound around the iron object and connected with the zinc. The iron is not attacked in the least, as long as the zinc is kept in good electric contact with it. When the articles are taken from the liquid they assume a dark gray or black color and are then washed and oiled.

IV.—The rust on iron and steel objects, especially large pieces, is readily removed by rubbing the pieces with oil of tartar, or with very fine emery and a little oil, or by putting powdered alum in strong vinegar and rubbing with this alumed vinegar.

V.—Take cyanide of calcium, 25 parts; white soap, powdered, 25 parts; Spanish white, 50 parts; and water, 200 parts. Triturate all well and rub the piece with this paste. The effect will be quicker if before using this paste the rusty object has been soaked for 5 to 10 minutes in a solution of cyanide of potassium in the ratio of 1 part of cyanide to 2 parts of water.

VI.—To remove rust from polished steel cyanide of potassium is excellent. If possible, soak the instrument to be cleaned in a solution of cyanide of potassium in the proportion of 1 ounce of cyanide to 4 ounces of water. Allow this to act till all loose rust is removed, and then polish with cyanide soap. The latter is made as follows: Potassium cyanide, precipitated chalk, white castile soap. Make a saturated solution of the cyanide and add chalk sufficient to make a creamy paste. Add the soap cut in fine shavings and thoroughly incorporate in a mortar. When the mixture is stiff cease to add the soap. It should be remembered that potassium cyanide is a virulent poison.

VII.—Apply turpentine or kerosene oil, and after letting it stand over night, clean with finest emery cloth.

VIII.—To free articles of iron and steel from rust and imbedded grains of sand the articles are treated with fluorhydric acid (about 2 per cent) 1 to 2 hours, whereby the impurities but not the metal are dissolved. This is followed by a washing with lime milk, to neutralize any fluorhydric acid remaining. {199}

«To Remove Rust from Nickel.»—First grease the articles well; then, after a few days, rub them with a rag charged with ammonia. If the rust spots persist, add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to the ammonia, rub and wipe off at once. Next rinse with water, dry, and polish with tripoli.

«Removal of Rust.»—To take off the rust from small articles which glass or emery paper would bite too deeply, the ink-erasing rubber used in business offices may be employed. By beveling it, or cutting it to a point as needful, it can be introduced into the smallest cavities and windings, and a perfect cleaning be effected.

«To Remove Rust from Instruments.»—I.—Lay the instruments over night in a saturated solution of chloride of tin. The rust spots will disappear through reduction. Upon withdrawal from the solution the instruments are rinsed with water, placed in a hot soda-soap solution, and dried. Cleaning with absolute alcohol and polishing chalk may also follow.

II.—Make a solution of 1 part of kerosene in 200 parts of benzine or carbon tetrachloride, and dip the instruments, which have been dried by leaving them in heated air, in this, moving their parts, if movable, as in forceps and scissors, about under the liquid, so that it may enter all the crevices. Next lay the instruments on a plate in a dry room, so that the benzine can evaporate. Needles are simply thrown in the paraffine solution, and taken out with tongs or tweezers, after which they are allowed to dry on a plate.

III.—Pour olive oil on the rust spots and leave for several days; then rub with emery or tripoli, without wiping off the oil as far as possible, or always bringing it back on the spot. Afterwards remove the emery and the oil with a rag, rub again with emery soaked with vinegar, and finally with fine plumbago on a piece of chamois skin.

«To Preserve Steel from Rust.»—To preserve steel from rust dissolve 1 part caoutchouc and 16 parts turpentine with a gentle heat, then add 8 parts boiled oil, and mix by bringing them to the heat of boiling water. Apply to the steel with a brush, the same as varnish. It can be removed again with a cloth soaked in turpentine.


«Cleaning and Preserving Medals, Coins, and Small Iron Articles.»—The coating of silver chloride may be reduced with molten potassium cyanide. Then boil the article in water, displace the water with alcohol, and dry in a drying closet. When dry brush with a soft brush and cover with “zaponlack” (any good transparent lacquer or varnish will answer).

Instead of potassium cyanide alone, a mixture of that and potassium carbonate may be used. After treatment in this way, delicate objects of silver become less brittle. Another way is to put the article in molten sodium carbonate and remove the silver carbonate thus formed, by acetic acid of 50 per cent strength. This process produces the finest possible polish.

The potassium-cyanide process may be used with all small iron objects. For larger ones molten potassium rhodanide is recommended. This converts the iron oxide into iron sulphide that is easily washed off and leaves the surface of a fine black color.

Old coins may be cleansed by first immersing them in strong nitric acid and then washing them in clean water. Wipe them dry before putting away.

«To Clean Old Medals.»—Immerse in lemon juice until the coating of oxide has completely disappeared; 24 hours is generally sufficient, but a longer time is not harmful.

«Steel Cleaner.»—Smear the object with oil, preferably petroleum, and allow some days for penetration of the surface of the metal. Then rub vigorously with a piece of flannel or willow wood. Or, with a paste composed of olive oil, sulphur flowers, and tripoli, or of rotten stone and oil. Finally, a coating may be employed, made of 10 parts of potassium cyanide and 1 part of cream of tartar; or 25 parts of potassium cyanide, with the addition of 55 parts of carbonate of lime and 20 parts of white soap.

«Restoring Tarnished Gold.»—

Sodium bicarbonate 20 ounces Chlorinated lime 1 ounce Common salt 1 ounce Water 16 ounces

Mix well and apply with a soft brush.

A very small quantity of the solution is sufficient, and it may be used either cold or lukewarm. Plain articles may be brightened by putting a drop or two of the liquid upon them and lightly brushing the surface with fine tissue paper. {200}

«Cleaning Copper.»—

I.—Use Armenian bole mixed into a paste with oleic acid.

II.—Rotten stone 1 part Iron subcarbonate 3 parts Lard oil, a sufficient quantity.

III.—Iron oxide 10 parts Pumice stone 32 parts Oleic acid, a sufficient quantity.

IV.—Soap, cut fine 16 parts Precipitated chalk 2 parts Jewelers’ rouge 1 part Cream of tartar 1 part Magnesium carbonate 1 part Water, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the soap in the smallest quantity of water that will effect solution over a water bath. Add the other ingredients to the solution while still hot, stirring constantly.

«To Remove Hard Grease, Paint, etc., from Machinery.»—To remove grease, paint, etc., from machinery add half a pound of caustic soda to 2 gallons of water and boil the parts to be cleaned in the fluid. It is possible to use it several times before its strength is exhausted.

«Solutions for Cleaning Metals.»—

I.—Water 20 parts Alum 2 parts Tripoli 2 parts Nitric acid 1 part

II.—Water 40 parts Oxalic acid 2 parts Tripoli 7 parts

«To Cleanse Nickel.»—I.—Fifty parts of rectified alcohol; 1 part of sulphuric acid; 1 part of nitric acid. Plunge the piece in the bath for 10 to 15 seconds, rinse it off in cold water, and dip it next into rectified alcohol. Dry with a fine linen rag or with sawdust.

II.—Stearine oil 1 part Ammonia water 25 parts Benzine 50 parts Alcohol 75 parts

Rub up the stearine with the ammonia, add the benzine and then the alcohol, and agitate until homogeneous. Put in wide-mouthed vessels and close carefully.

«To Clean Petroleum Lamp Burners.»—Dissolve in a quart of soft water an ounce or an ounce and a half of washing soda, using an old half-gallon tomato can. Into this put the burner after removing the wick, set it on the stove, and let it boil strongly for 5 or 6 minutes, then take out, rinse under the tap, and dry. Every particle of carbonaceous matter will thus be got rid of, and the burner be as clean and serviceable as new. This ought to be done at least every month, but the light would be better if it were done every 2 weeks.

«Gold-Ware Cleaner.»—

Acetic acid 2 parts Sulphuric acid 2 parts Oxalic acid 1 part Jewelers’ rouge 2 parts Distilled water 200 parts

Mix the acids and water and stir in the rouge, after first rubbing it up with a portion of the liquid. With a clean cloth, wet with this mixture, go well over the article. Rinse off with hot water and dry.

«Silverware Cleaner.»—Make a thin paste of levigated (not precipitated) chalk and sodium hyposulphite, in equal parts, rubbed up in distilled water. Apply this paste to the surface, rubbing well with a soft brush. Rinse in clear water and dry in sawdust. Some authorities advise the cleaner to let the paste dry on the ware, and then to rub off and rinse with hot water.

«Silver-Coin Cleaner.»—Make a bath of 10 parts of sulphuric acid and 90 parts of water, and let the coin lie in this until the crust of silver sulphide is dissolved. From 5 to 10 minutes usually suffice. Rinse in running water, then rub with a soft brush and castile soap, rinse again, dry with a soft cloth, and then carefully rub with chamois.

«Cleaning Silver-Plated Ware.»—Into a wide-mouthed bottle provided with a good cork put the following mixture:

Cream of tartar 2 parts Levigated chalk 2 parts Alum 1 part

Powder the alum and rub up with the other ingredients, and cork tightly. When required for use wet sufficient of the powder and with soft linen rags rub the article, being careful not to use much pressure, as otherwise the thin layer of plating may be cut through. Rinse in hot suds, and afterwards in clear water, and dry in sawdust. When badly blackened with silver sulphide, if small, the article may be dipped for an instant in hydrochloric acid and immediately rinsed in running water. Larger articles may be treated as coins are—immersed for 2 or 3 minutes in a 10 per cent aqueous solution of sulphuric acid, or the surface may be rapidly wiped {201} with a swab carrying nitric acid and instantly rinsed in running water.

«Cleaning Gilt Bronze Ware.»—If greasy, wash carefully in suds, or, better, dip into a hot solution of caustic potash, and then wash in suds with a soft rag, and rinse in running water. If not then clean and bright, dip into the following mixture:

Nitric acid 10 parts Aluminum sulphate 1 part Water 40 parts

Mix. Rinse in running water.

«Britannia Metal Cleaner.»—Rub first with jewelers’ rouge made into a paste with oil; wash in suds, rinse, dry, and finish with chamois or wash leather.

«To Remove Ink Stains on Silver.»—Silver articles in domestic use, and especially silver or plated inkstands, frequently become badly stained with ink. These stains cannot be removed by ordinary processes, but readily yield to a paste of chloride of lime and water. Javelle water may be also used.

«Removing Egg Stains.»—A pinch of table salt taken between the thumb and finger and rubbed on the spot with the end of the finger will usually remove the darkest egg stain from silver.

«To Clean Silver Ornaments.»—Make a strong solution of soft soap and water, and in this boil the articles for a few minutes—five will usually be enough. Take out, pour the soap solution into a basin, and as soon as the liquid has cooled down sufficiently to be borne by the hand, with a soft brush scrub the articles with it. Rinse in boiling water and place on a porous substance (a bit of tiling, a brick, or unglazed earthenware) to dry. Finally give a light rubbing with a chamois. Articles thus treated look as bright as new.

«Solvent for Iron Rust.»—Articles attacked by rust may be conveniently cleaned by dipping them into a well-saturated solution of stannic chloride. The length of time of the action must be regulated according to the thickness of the rust. As a rule 12 to 24 hours will suffice, but it is essential to prevent an excess of acid in the bath, as this is liable to attack the iron itself. After the objects have been removed from the bath they must be rinsed with water, and subsequently with ammonia, and then quickly dried. Greasing with vaseline seems to prevent new formation of rust. Objects treated in this manner are said to resemble dead silver.

Professor Weber proposed a diluted alkali, and it has been found that after employing this remedy the dirt layer is loosened and the green platina reappears. Potash has been found to be an efficacious remedy, even in the case of statues that had apparently turned completely black.

«To Clean Polished Parts of Machines.»—Put in a flask 1,000 parts of petroleum; add 20 parts of paraffine, shaved fine; cork the bottle and stand aside for a couple of days, giving it an occasional shake. The mixture is now ready for use. To use, shake the bottle, pour a little of the liquid upon a woolen rag and rub evenly over the part to be cleaned; or apply with a brush. Set the article aside and, next day, rub it well with a dry, woolen rag. Every particle of rust, resinified grease, etc., will disappear provided the article has not been neglected too long. In this case a further application of the oil will be necessary. If too great pressure has not been made, or the rubbing continued too long, the residual oil finally leaves the surface protected by a delicate layer of paraffine that will prevent rusting for a long time.

«To Clean Articles of Nickel.»—Lay them for a few seconds in alcohol containing 2 per cent of sulphuric acid; remove, wash in running water, rinse in alcohol, and rub dry with a linen cloth. This process gives a brilliant polish and is especially useful with plated articles on the plating of which the usual polishing materials act very destructively. The yellowest and brownest nickeled articles are restored to pristine brilliancy by leaving them in the alcohol and acid for 15 seconds. Five seconds suffice ordinarily.

«How to Renovate Bronzes.»—For gilt work, first remove all grease, dirt, wax, etc., with a solution in water of potassium or sodium hydrate, then dry, and with a soft rag apply the following:

Sodium carbonate 7 parts Spanish whiting 15 parts Alcohol, 85 per cent 50 parts Water 125 parts

Go over every part carefully, using a brush to get into the minute crevices. When this dries on, brush off with a fine linen cloth or a supple chamois skin.

Or the following plan may be used: Remove grease, etc., as directed above, dry and go over the spots where the gilt surface is discolored with a brush dipped in a solution of two parts of alum in 250 parts of water and 65 parts of nitric acid. As soon as the gilding reappears or the {202} surface becomes bright, wash off, and dry in the direct sunlight.

Still another cleaner is made of nitric acid, 30 parts; aluminum sulphate, 4 parts; distilled or rain water, 125 parts. Clean of grease, etc., as above, and apply the solution with a camel’s-hair pencil. Rinse off and dry in sawdust. Finally, some articles are best cleaned by immersing in hot soap suds and rubbing with a soft brush. Rinse in clear, hot water, using a soft brush to get the residual suds out of crevices. Let dry, then finish by rubbing the gilt spots or places with a soft, linen rag, or a bit of chamois.

There are some bronzes gilt with imitation gold and varnished. Where the work is well done and the gilding has not been on too long, they will deceive even the practiced eye. The deception, however, may easily be detected by touching a spot on the gilt surface with a glass rod dipped in a solution of corrosive sublimate. If the gilding is true no discoloration will occur, but if false a brown spot will be produced.

«To Clean a Gas Stove.»—An easy method of removing grease spots consists in immersing the separable parts for several hours in a warm lye, heated to about 70° C. (158° F.), said lye to be made of 9 parts of caustic soda and 180 parts of water. These pieces, together with the fixed parts of the stove, may be well brushed with this lye and afterwards rinsed in clean, warm water. The grease will be dissolved, and the stove restored almost to its original state.

«Cleaning Copper Sinks.»—Make rotten stone into a stiff paste with soft soap and water. Rub on with a woolen rag, and polish with dry whiting and rotten stone. Finish with a leather and dry whiting. Many of the substances and mixtures used to clean brass will effectively clean copper. Oxalic acid is said to be the best medium for cleaning copper, but after using it the surface of the copper must be well washed, dried, and then rubbed with sweet oil and tripoli, or some other polishing agent. Otherwise the metal will soon tarnish again.

«Treatment of Cast-Iron Grave Crosses.»—The rust must first be thoroughly removed with a steel-wire brush. When this is done apply one or two coats of red lead or graphite paint. After this priming has become hard, paint with double-burnt lampblack and equal parts of oil of turpentine and varnish. This coating is followed by one of lampblack ground with coach varnish. Now paint the single portions with “mixtion” (gilding oil) and gild as usual. Such crosses look better when they are not altogether black. Ornaments may be very well treated in colors with oil paint and then varnished. The crosses treated in this manner are preserved for many years, but it is essential to use good exterior or coach varnish for varnishing, and not the so-called black varnish, which is mostly composed of asphalt or tar.

«Cleaning Inferior Gold Articles.»—The brown film which forms on low-quality gold articles is removed by coating with fuming hydrochloric acid, whereupon they are brushed off with Vienna lime and petroleum. Finally, clean the objects with benzine, rinse again in pure benzine, and dry in sawdust.

«To Clean Bronze.»—Clean the bronze with soft soap; next wash it in plenty of water; wipe, let dry, and apply light encaustic mixture composed of spirit of turpentine in which a small quantity of yellow wax has been dissolved. The encaustic is spread by means of a linen or woolen wad. For gilt bronze, add 1 spoonful of alkali to 3 spoonfuls of water and rub the article with this by means of a ball of wadding. Next wipe with a clean chamois, similar to that employed in silvering.

«How to Clean Brass and Steel.»—To clean brasses quickly and economically, rub them with vinegar and salt or with oxalic acid. Wash immediately after the rubbing, and polish with tripoli and sweet oil. Unless the acid is washed off the article will tarnish quickly. Copper kettles and saucepans, brass andirons, fenders, and candlesticks and trays are best cleaned with vinegar and salt. Cooking vessels in constant use need only to be well washed afterwards. Things for show—even pots and pans—need the oil polishing, which gives a deep, rich, yellow luster, good for six months. Oxalic acid and salt should be employed for furniture brasses—if it touches the wood it only improves the tone. Wipe the brasses well with a wet cloth, and polish thoroughly with oil and tripoli. Sometimes powdered rotten stone does better than the tripoli. Rub, after using, either with a dry cloth or leather, until there is no trace of oil. The brass to be cleaned must be freed completely from grease, caked dirt, and grime. Wash with strong ammonia suds and rinse dry before beginning with the acid and salt.

The best treatment for wrought steel is to wash it very clean with a stiff brush {203} and ammonia soapsuds, rinse well, dry by heat, oil plentifully with sweet oil, and dust thickly with powdered quicklime. Let the lime stay on 2 days, then brush it off with a clean, very stiff brush. Polish with a softer brush, and rub with cloths until the luster comes out. By leaving the lime on, iron and steel may be kept from rust almost indefinitely.

Before wetting any sort of bric-a-brac, and especially bronzes, remove all the dust possible. After dusting, wash well in strong white soapsuds and ammonia, rinse clean, polish with just a suspicion of oil and rotten stone, and rub off afterwards every trace of the oil. Never let acid touch a bronze surface, unless to eat and pit it for antique effects.

«Composition for Cleaning Copper, Nickel, and other Metals.»—Wool grease, 46 parts, by weight; fire clay, 30 parts, by weight; paraffine, 5 parts, by weight; Canova wax, 5 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 10 parts, by weight; oil of mirbane, 1 part, by weight. After mixing these different ingredients, which constitute a paste, this is molded in order to give a cylindrical form, and introduced into a case so that it can be used like a stick of cosmetic.

«Putz Pomade.»—I.—Oxalic acid, 1 part; caput mortuum, 15 parts (or, if white pomade is desired, tripoli, 12 parts); powdered pumice stone, best grade, 20 parts; palm oil, 60 parts; petroleum or oleine, 4 parts. Perfume with mirbane oil.

II.—Oxalic acid 1 part Peroxide of iron (jewelers’ rouge) 15 parts Rotten stone 20 parts Palm oil 60 parts Petrolatum 5 parts

Pulverize the acid and the rotten stone and mix thoroughly with the rouge. Sift to remove all grit, then make into a paste with the oil and petrolatum. A little nitro-benzol may be added to scent the mixture.

III.—Oleine 40 parts Ceresine 5 parts Tripoli 40 parts Light mineral oil (0.870) 20 parts

Melt the oleine, ceresine, and mineral oil together, and stir in the tripoli; next, grind evenly in a paint mill.

«To Clean Gummed Parts of Machinery.»—Boil about 10 to 15 parts of caustic soda or 100 parts of soda in 1,000 parts of water, immerse the parts to be cleaned in this for some time, or, better, boil them with it. Then rinse and dry. For small shops this mode of cleaning is doubtless the best.

«To Remove Silver Plating.»—I.—Put sulphuric acid 100 parts and potassium nitrate (saltpeter) 10 parts in a vessel of stoneware or porcelain, heated on the water bath. When the silver has left the copper, rinse the objects several times. This silver stripping bath may be used several times, if it is kept in a well-closed bottle. When it is saturated with silver, decant the liquid, boil it to dryness, then add the residue to the deposit, and melt in the crucible to obtain the metal.

II.—Stripping silvered articles of the silvering may be accomplished by the following mixture: Sulphuric acid, 60° B., 3 parts; nitric acid, 40° B., 1 part; heat the mixture to about 166° F., and immerse the articles by means of a copper wire. In a few seconds the acid mixture will have done the work. A thorough rinsing off is, of course, necessary.

«To Clean Zinc Articles.»—In order to clean articles of zinc, stir rye bran into a paste with boiling water, and add a handful of silver sand and a little vitriol. Rub the article with this paste, rinse with water, dry, and polish with a cloth.

«To Remove Rust from Nickel.»—Smear the rusted parts well with grease (ordinary animal fat will do), and allow the article to stand several days. If the rust is not thick the grease and rust may be rubbed off with a cloth dipped in ammonia. If the rust is very deep, apply a diluted solution of hydrochloric acid, taking care that the acid does not touch the metal, and the rust may be easily rubbed off. Then wash the article and polish in the usual way.

«Compound for Cleaning Brass.»—To make a brass cleaning compound use oxalic acid, 1 ounce; rotten stone, 6 ounces; enough whale oil and spirits of turpentine of equal parts, to mix, and make a paste.

«To Clean Gilt Objects.»—I.—Into an ordinary drinking glass pour about 20 drops of ammonia, immerse the piece to be cleaned repeatedly in this, and brush with a soft brush. Treat the article with pure water, then with alcohol, and wipe with a soft rag.

II.—Boil common alum in soft, pure water, and immerse the article in the solution, or rub the spot with it, and dry with sawdust.

III.—For cleaning picture frames, {204} moldings, and, in fact, all kinds of gilded work, the best medium is liquor potassæ, diluted with about 5 volumes of water. Dilute alcohol is also excellent. Methylated wood spirit, if the odor is not objectionable, answers admirably.

«To Scale Cast Iron.»—To remove the scale from cast iron use a solution of 1 part vitriol and 2 parts water; after mixing, apply to the scale with a cloth rolled in the form of a brush, using enough to wet the surface well. After 8 or 10 hours wash off with water, when the hard, scaly surface will be completely removed.

«Cleaning Funnels and Measures.»—Funnels and measures used for measuring varnishes, oils, etc., may be cleaned by soaking them in a strong solution of lye or pearlash. Another mixture for the same purpose consists of pearlash with quicklime in aqueous solution. The measures are allowed to soak in the solution for a short time, when the resinous matter of the paint or varnish is easily removed. A thin coating of petroleum lubricating oils may be removed, it is said, by the use of naphtha or petroleum benzine.

«To Clean Aluminum.»—I.—Aluminum articles are very hard to clean so they will have a bright, new appearance. This is especially the case with the matted or frosted pieces. To restore the pieces to brilliancy place them for some time in water that has been slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid.

II.—Wash the aluminum with coal-oil, gasoline or benzine, then put it in a concentrated solution of caustic potash, and after washing it with plenty of water, dip it in the bath composed of 2/3 nitric acid and 1/3 water. Next, subject it to a bath of concentrated nitric acid, and finally to a mixture of rum and olive oil. To render aluminum capable of being worked like pure copper, 2/3 of oil of turpentine and 1/3 stearic acid are used. For polishing by hand, take a solution of 30 parts of borax and 1,000 parts of water, to which a few drops of spirits of ammonia have been added.

«How to Clean Tarnished Silver.»—I.—If the articles are only slightly tarnished, mix 3 parts of best washed and purified chalk and 1 part of white soap, adding water, till a thin paste is formed, which should be rubbed on the silver with a dry brush, till the articles are quite bright. As a substitute, whiting, mixed with caustic ammonia to form a paste, may be used. This mixture is very effective, but it irritates the eyes and nose.

II.—An efficacious preparation is obtained by mixing beech-wood ashes, 2 parts; Venetian soap, 4/100 part; cooking salt, 2 parts; rain water, 8 parts. Brush the silver with this lye, using a somewhat stiff brush.

III.—A solution of crystallized potassium permanganate has been recommended.

IV.—A grayish violet film which silverware acquires from perspiration, can be readily removed by means of ammonia.

V.—To remove spots from silver lay it for 4 hours in soapmakers’ lye, then throw on fine powdered gypsum, moisten the latter with vinegar to cause it to adhere, dry near the fire, and wipe off. Next rub the spot with dry bran. This not only causes it to disappear, but gives extraordinary gloss to the silver.

VI.—Cleaning with the usual fine powders is attended with some difficulty and inconvenience. An excellent result is obtained without injury to the silver by employing a saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda, which is put on with a brush or rag. The article is then washed with plenty of water.

VII.—Never use soap on silverware, as it dulls the luster, giving the article more the appearance of pewter than silver. When it wants cleaning, rub it with a piece of soft leather and prepared chalk, made into a paste with pure water, entirely free from grit.

«To Clean Dull Gold.»—I.—Take 80 parts, by weight, of chloride of lime, and rub it up with gradual addition of water in a porcelain mortar into a thin, even paste, which is put into a solution of 80 parts, by weight, of bicarbonate of soda, and 20 parts, by weight, of salt, in 3,000 parts, by weight, of water. Shake it, and let stand a few days before using. If the preparation is to be kept for any length of time the bottle should be placed, well corked, in the cellar. For use, lay the tarnished articles in a dish, pour the liquid, which has previously been well shaken, over them so as just to cover them, and leave them therein for a few days.

II.—Bicarbonate of soda. 31 parts Chloride of lime 15.5 parts Cooking salt 15 parts Water 240 parts

Grind the chloride of lime with a little water to a thin paste, in a porcelain vessel, and add the remaining chemicals. Wash the objects with the aid of a soft brush with the solution, rinse several times in water, and dry in fine sawdust. {205}

«Cleaning Bronze Objects.»—Employ powdered chicory mixed with water, so as to obtain a paste, which is applied with a brush. After the brushing, rinse off and dry in the sun or near a stove.

«Cleaning Gilded Bronzes.»—I.—Commence by removing the spots of grease and wax with a little potash or soda dissolved in water. Let dry, and apply the following mixture with a rag: Carbonate of soda, 7 parts; whiting, 15 parts; alcohol (85°), 50 parts; water, 125 parts. When this coating is dry pass a fine linen cloth or a piece of supple skin over it. The hollow parts are cleaned with a brush.

II.—After removing the grease spots, let dry and pass over all the damaged parts a pencil dipped in the following mixture: Alum, 2 parts; nitric acid, 65; water, 250 parts. When the gilding becomes bright, wipe, and dry in the sun or near a fire.

III.—Wash in hot water containing a little soda, dry, and pass over the gilding a pencil soaked in a liquid made of 30 parts nitric acid, 4 parts of aluminum phosphate, and 125 parts of pure water. Dry in sawdust.

IV.—Immerse the objects in boiling soap water, and facilitate the action of the soap by rubbing with a soft brush; put the objects in hot water, brush them carefully, and let them dry in the air; when they are quite dry rub the shining parts only with an old linen cloth or a soft leather, without touching the others.

«Stripping Gilt Articles.»—Degilding or stripping gilt articles may be done by attaching the object to the positive pole of a battery and immersing it in a solution composed of 1 pound of cyanide dissolved in about 1 gallon of water. Desilvering may be effected in the same manner.

«To Clean Tarnished Zinc.»—Apply with a rag a mixture of 1 part sulphuric acid with 12 parts of water. Rinse the zinc with clear water.

«Cleaning Pewter Articles.»—Pour hot lye of wood ashes upon the tin, throw on sand, and rub with a hard, woolen rag, hat felt, or whisk until all particles of dirt have been dissolved. To polish pewter plates it is well to have the turner make similar wooden forms fitting the plates, and to rub them clean this way. Next they are rinsed with clean water and placed on a table with a clean linen cover on which they are left to dry without being touched, otherwise spots will appear. This scouring is not necessary so often if the pewter is rubbed with wheat bran after use and cleaned perfectly. New pewter is polished with a paste of whiting and brandy, rubbing the dishes with it until the mass becomes dry.

«To Clean Files.»—Files which have become clogged with tin or lead are cleaned by dipping for a few seconds into concentrated nitric acid. To remove iron filings from the file cuts, a bath of blue vitriol is employed. After the files have been rinsed in water they are likewise dipped in nitric acid. File-ridges closed up by zinc are cleaned by immersing the files in diluted sulphuric acid. Such as have become filled with copper or brass are also treated with nitric acid, but here the process has to be repeated several times. The files should always be rinsed in water after the treatment, brushed with a stiff brush, and dried in sawdust or by pouring alcohol over them, and letting it burn off on the file.

«Scale Pan Cleaner.»—About the quickest cleaner for brass scale pans is a solution of potassium bichromate in dilute sulphuric acid, using about 1 part of chromate, in powder, to 3 parts of acid and 6 parts of water. In this imbibe a cloth wrapped around a stick (to protect the hands), and with it rub the pans. Do this at tap or hydrant, so that no time is lost in placing the pan in running water after having rubbed it with the acid solution. For pans not very badly soiled rubbing with ammonia water and rinsing is sufficient.

«Tarnish on Electro-Plate Goods.»—This tarnish can be removed by dipping the article for from 1 to 15 minutes—that is, until the tarnish shall have been removed—in a pickle of the following composition: Rain water 2 gallons and potassium cyanide 1/2 pound. Dissolve together, and fill into a stone jug or jar, and close tightly. The article, after having been immersed, must be taken out and thoroughly rinsed in several waters, then dried with fine, clean sawdust. Tarnish on jewelry can be speedily removed by this process; but if the cyanide is not completely removed it will corrode the goods.


«Grease- and Paint-Spot Eradicators.»—

I.—Benzol 500 parts Benzine 500 parts Soap, best white, shaved 5 parts Water, warm, sufficient.


Dissolve the soap in the warm water, using from 50 to 60 parts. Mix the benzol and benzine, and add the soap solution, a little at a time, shaking up well after each addition. If the mixture is slow in emulsifying, add at one time from 50 to 100 parts of warm water, and shake violently. Set the emulsion aside for a few days, or until it separates, then decant the superfluous water, and pour the residual pasty mass, after stirring it up well, into suitable boxes.

II.—Soap spirit 100 parts Ammonia solution, 10 per cent 25 parts Acetic ether 15 parts

III.—Extract of quillaia 1 part Borax 1 part Ox gall, fresh 6 parts Tallow soap 15 parts

Triturate the quillaia and borax together, incorporate the ox gall, and, finally, add the tallow soap and mix thoroughly by kneading. The product is a plastic mass, which may be rolled into sticks or put up into boxes.

«Removing Oil Spots from Leather.»—To remove oil stains from leather, dab the spot carefully with spirits of sal ammoniac, and after allowing it to act for a while, wash with clean water. This treatment may have to be repeated a few times, taking care, however, not to injure the color of the leather. Sometimes the spot may be removed very simply by spreading the place rather thickly with butter and letting this act for a few hours. Next scrape off the butter with the point of a knife, and rinse the stain with soap and lukewarm water.

«To Clean Linoleum.»—Rust spots and other stains can be removed from linoleum by rubbing with steel chips.

«To Remove Putty, Grease, etc., from Plate Glass.»—To remove all kinds of greasy materials from glass, and to leave the latter bright and clean, use a paste made of benzine and burnt magnesia of such consistence that when the mass is pressed between the fingers a drop of benzine will exude. With this mixture and a wad of cotton, go over the entire surface of the glass, rubbing it well. One rubbing is usually sufficient. After drying, any of the substance left in the corners, etc., is easily removed by brushing with a suitable brush. The same preparation is very useful for cleaning mirrors and removing grease stains from books, papers, etc.

«Removing Spots from Furniture.»—White spots on polished tables are removed in the following manner: Coat the spot with oil and pour on a rag a few drops of “mixtura balsamica oleosa,” which can be bought in every drug store, and rub on the spot, which will disappear immediately.

«To Remove Spots from Drawings, etc.»—Place soapstone, fine meerschaum shavings, amianthus, or powdered magnesia on the spot, and, if necessary, lay on white filtering paper, saturating it with peroxide of hydrogen. Allow this to act for a few hours, and remove the application with a brush. If necessary, repeat the operation. In this manner black coffee spots were removed from a valuable diagram without erasure by knife or rubber.


«To Clean the Tops of Clocks in Repairing.»—Sprinkle whiting on the top. Pour good vinegar over this and rub vigorously. Rinse in clean water and dry slowly in the sun or at the fire. A good polish will be obtained.

«To Clean Watch Chains.»—Gold or silver watch chains can be cleaned with a very excellent result, no matter whether they be matt or polished, by laying them for a few seconds in pure aqua ammonia; they are then rinsed in alcohol, and finally shaken in clean sawdust, free from sand. Imitation gold and plated chains are first cleaned in benzine, then rinsed in alcohol, and afterwards shaken in dry sawdust. Ordinary chains are first dipped in the following pickle: Pure nitric acid is mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid in the proportion of 10 parts of the former to 2 parts of the latter; a little table salt is added. The chains are boiled in this mixture, then rinsed several times in water, afterwards in alcohol, and finally dried in sawdust.

«Cleaning Brass Mountings on Clock Cases, etc.»—The brass mountings are first cleaned of dirt by dipping them for a short time into boiling soda lye, and next are pickled, still warm, if possible, in a mixture consisting of nitric acid, 60 parts; sulphuric acid, 40 parts; cooking salt, 1 part; and shining soot (lampblack), 1/2 part, whereby they acquire a handsome golden-yellow coloring. The pickling mixture, however, must not be employed immediately after pouring together the acids, which causes a strong generation of heat, but should settle for at least {207} 1 day. This makes the articles handsomer and more uniform. After the dipping the objects are rinsed in plenty of clean water and dried on a hot, iron plate, and at the same time warmed for lacquering. Since the pieces would be lacquered too thick and unevenly in pure gold varnish, this is diluted with alcohol, 1 part of gold varnish sufficing for 10 parts of alcohol. Into this liquid dip the mountings previously warmed and dry them again on the hot plate.

«Gilt Zinc Clocks.»—It frequently happens that clocks of gilt zinc become covered with green spots. To remove such spots the following process is used: Soak a small wad of cotton in alkali and rub it on the spot. The green color will disappear at once, but the gilding being gone, a black spot will remain. Wipe off well to remove all traces of the alkali. To replace the gilding, put on, by means of liquid gum arabic, a little bronze powder of the color of the gilding. The powdered bronze is applied dry with the aid of a brush or cotton wad. When the gilding of the clock has become black or dull from age, it may be revived by immersion in a bath of cyanide of potassium, but frequently it suffices to wash it with a soft brush in soap and water, in which a little carbonate of soda has been dissolved. Brush the piece in the lather, rinse in clean water, and dry in rather hot sawdust. The piece should be dried well inside and outside, as moisture will cause it to turn black.

«To Clean Gummed Up Springs.»—Dissolve caustic soda in warm water, place the spring in the solution and leave it there for about one half hour. Any oil still adhering may now easily be taken off with a hard brush; next, dry the spring with a clean cloth. In this manner gummed up parts of tower clocks, locks, etc., may be quickly and thoroughly cleaned, and oil paint may be removed from metal or wood. The lye is sharp, but free from danger, nor are the steel parts attacked by it.

«To Clean Soldered Watch Cases.»—Gold, silver, and other metallic watch cases which in soldering have been exposed to heat, are laid in diluted sulphuric acid (1 part acid to 10 to 15 parts water), to free them from oxide. Heating the acid accelerates the cleaning process. The articles are then well rinsed in water and dried. Gold cases are next brushed with powdered tripoli moistened with oil, to remove the pale spots caused by the heat and boiling, and to restore the original color. After that they are cleaned with soap water and finally polished with rouge. Silver cases are polished after boiling, with a scratch brush dipped in beer.

«A Simple Way to Clean a Clock.»—Take a bit of cotton the size of a hen’s egg, dip it in kerosene and place it on the floor of the clock, in the corner; shut the door of the clock, and wait 3 or 4 days. The clock will be like a new one—and if you look inside you will find the cotton batting black with dust. The fumes of the oil loosen the particles of dust, and they fall, thus cleaning the clock.

«To Restore the Color of a Gold or Gilt Dial.»—Dip the dial for a few seconds in the following mixture: Half an ounce of cyanide of potassium is dissolved in a quart of hot water, and 2 ounces of strong ammonia, mixed with 1/2 an ounce of alcohol, are added to the solution. On removal from this bath, the dial should immediately be immersed in warm water, then brushed with soap, rinsed, and dried in hot boxwood dust. Or it may simply be immersed in dilute nitric acid; but in this case any painted figures will be destroyed.

«A Bath for Cleaning Clocks.»—In an enameled iron or terra-cotta vessel pour 2,000 parts of water, add 50 parts of scraped Marseilles soap, 80 to 100 parts of whiting, and a small cup of spirits of ammonia. To hasten the process of solution, warm, but do not allow to boil.

If the clock is very dirty or much oxidized, immerse the pieces in the bath while warm, and as long as necessary. Take them out with a skimmer or strainer, and pour over them some benzine, letting the liquid fall into an empty vessel. This being decanted and bottled can be used indefinitely for rinsing.

If the bath has too much alkali or is used when too hot, it may affect the polish and render it dull. This may be obviated by trying different strengths of the alkali. Pieces of blued steel are not injured by the alkali, even when pure.

«To Remove a Figure or Name from a Dial.»—Oil of spike lavender may be employed for erasing a letter or number. Enamel powder made into a paste with water, oil, or turpentine is also used for this purpose. It should be previously levigated so as to obtain several degrees of fineness. The powder used for repolishing the surface, where an impression has been removed, must be extremely fine. It is applied with a piece of {208} pegwood or ivory. The best method is to employ diamond powder. Take a little of the powder, make into a paste with fine oil, on the end of a copper polisher the surface of which has been freshly filed and slightly rounded. The marks will rapidly disappear when rubbed with this. The surface is left a little dull; it may be rendered bright by rubbing with the same powder mixed with a greater quantity of oil, and applied with a stick of pegwood. Watchmakers will do well to try on disused dials several degrees of fineness of the diamond powder.

«Cleaning Pearls.»—Pearls turn yellow in the course of time by absorbing perspiration on account of being worn in the hair, at the throat, and on the arms. There are several ways of rendering them white again.

I.—The best process is said to be to put the pearls into a bag with wheat bran and to heat the bag over a coal fire, with constant motion.

II.—Another method is to bring 8 parts each of well-calcined, finely powdered lime and wood charcoal, which has been strained through a gauze sieve, to a boil with 500 parts of pure rain water, suspend the pearls over the steam of the boiling water until they are warmed through, and then boil them in the liquid for 5 minutes, turning frequently. Let them cool in the liquid, take them out, and wash off well with clean water.

III.—Place the pearls in a piece of fine linen, throw salt on them, and tie them up. Next rinse the tied-up pearls in lukewarm water until all the salt has been extracted, and dry them at an ordinary temperature.

IV.—The pearls may also be boiled about 1/4 hour in cow’s milk into which a little cheese or soap has been scraped; take them out, rinse off in fresh water, and dry them with a clean, white cloth.

V.—Another method is to have the pearls, strung on a silk thread or wrapped up in thin gauze, mixed in a loaf of bread of barley flour and to have the loaf baked well in an oven, but not too brown. When cool remove the pearls.

VI.—Hang the pearls for a couple of minutes in hot, strong, wine vinegar or highly diluted sulphuric acid, remove, and rinse them in water. Do not leave them too long in the acid, otherwise they will be injured by it.


«Cleaning Preparation for Glass with Metal Decorations.»—Mix 1,000 parts of denaturized spirit (96 per cent) with 150 parts, by weight, of ammonia; 20 parts of acetic ether; 15 parts of ethylic ether; 200 parts of Vienna lime; 950 parts of bolus; and 550 parts of oleine. With this mixture both glass and metal can be quickly and thoroughly cleaned. It is particularly recommended for show windows ornamented with metal.

«Paste for Cleaning Glass.»—

Prepared chalk 6 pounds Powdered French chalk 1 1/2 pounds Phosphate calcium 2 1/4 pounds Quillaia bark 2 1/4 pounds Carbonate ammonia 18 ounces Rose pink 6 ounces

Mix the ingredients, in fine powder, and sift through muslin. Then mix with soft water to the consistency of cream, and apply to the glass by means of a soft rag or sponge; allow it to dry on, wipe off with a cloth, and polish with chamois.

«Cleaning Optical Lenses.»—For this purpose a German contemporary recommends vegetable pith. The medulla of rushes, elders, or sunflowers is cut out, the pieces are dried and pasted singly alongside of one another upon a piece of cork, whereby a brush-like apparatus is obtained, which is passed over the surface of the lens. For very small lenses pointed pieces of elder pith are employed. To dip dirty and greasy lenses into oil of turpentine or ether and rub them with a linen rag, as has been proposed, seems hazardous, because the Canada balsam with which the lenses are cemented might dissolve.

«To Remove Glue from Glass.»—If glue has simply dried upon the glass hot water ought to remove it. If, however, the spots are due to size (the gelatinous wash used by painters) when dried they become very refractory and recourse must be had to chemical means for their removal. The commonest size being a solution of gelatin, alum, and rosin dissolved in a solution of soda and combined with starch, hot solutions of caustic soda or of potash may be used. If that fails to remove them, try diluted hydrochloric, sulphuric, or any of the stronger acids. If the spots still remain some abrasive powder (flour of emery) must be used and the glass repolished with jewelers’ rouge applied by means of a chamois skin. Owing to the varied nature of sizes used the above are only suggestions.

«Cleaning Window Panes.»—Take diluted nitric acid about as strong as strong {209} vinegar and pass it over the glass pane, leave it to act a minute and throw on pulverized whiting, but just enough to give off a hissing sound. Now rub both with the hand over the whole pane and polish with a dry rag. Rinse off with clean water and a little alcohol and polish dry and clear. Repeat the process on the other side. The nitric acid removes all impurities which have remained on the glass at the factory, and even with inferior panes a good appearance is obtained.

«To Clean Store Windows.»—For cleaning the large panes of glass of store windows, and also ordinary show cases, a semiliquid paste may be employed, made of calcined magnesia and purified benzine. The glass should be rubbed with a cotton rag until it is brilliant.

«Cleaning Lamp Globes.»—Pour 2 spoonfuls of a slightly heated solution of potash into the globe, moisten the whole surface with it, and rub the stains with a fine linen rag; rinse the globe with clean water and carefully dry it with a fine, soft cloth.

«To Clean Mirrors.»—Rub the mirror with a ball of soft paper slightly dampened with methylated spirits, then with a duster on which a little whiting has been sprinkled, and finally polish with clean paper or a wash leather. This treatment will make the glass beautifully bright.

«To Clean Milk Glass.»—To remove oil spots from milk glass panes and lamp globes, knead burnt magnesia with benzine to a plastic mass, which must be kept in a tight-closing bottle. A little of this substance rubbed on the spot with a linen rag will make it disappear.

«To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from Glass.»—If the window panes have been bespattered with oil paint in painting walls, the spots are, of course, easily removed while wet. When they have become dry the operation is more difficult and alcohol and turpentine in equal parts, or spirit of sal ammoniac should be used to soften the paint. After that go over it with chalk. Polishing with salt will also remove paint spots. The salt grates somewhat, but it is not hard enough to cause scratches in the glass; a subsequent polishing with chalk is also advisable, as the drying of the salt might injure the glass. For scratching off soft paint spots sheet zinc must be used, as it cannot damage the glass on account of its softness. In the case of silicate paints (the so-called weather-proof coatings) the panes must be especially protected, because these paints destroy the polish of the glass. Rubbing the spots with brown soap is also a good way of removing the spots, but care must be taken in rinsing off that the window frames are not acted upon.

«Removing Silver Stains.»—The following solution will remove silver stains from the hands, and also from woolen, linen, or cotton goods:

Mercuric chloride 1 part Ammonia muriate 1 part Water 8 parts

The compound is poisonous.


«Universal Cleaner.»—

Green soap 20 to 25 parts Boiling water 750 parts Liquid ammonia, caustic 30 to 40 parts Acetic ether 20 to 30 parts


«To Clean Playing Cards.»—Slightly soiled playing cards may be made clean by rubbing them with a soft rag dipped in a solution of camphor. Very little of the latter is necessary.

«To Remove Vegetable Growth from Buildings.»—To remove moss and lichen from stone and masonry, apply water in which 1 per cent of carbolic acid has been dissolved. After a few hours the plants can be washed off with water.

«Solid Cleansing Compound.»—The basis of most of the solid grease eradicators is benzine and the simplest form is a benzine jelly made by shaking 3 ounces of tincture of quillaia (soap bark) with enough benzine to make 16 fluidounces. Benzine may also be solidified by the use of a soap with addition of an excess of alkali. Formulas in which soaps are used in this way follow:

I.—Cocoanut-oil soap. 2 av. ounces Ammonia water 3 fluidounces Solution of potassium 1 1/2 fluidounces Water enough to make 12 fluidounces

Dissolve the soap with the aid of heat in 4 fluidounces of water, add the ammonia and potassa and the remainder of the water.

If the benzine is added in small portions, and thoroughly agitated, 2 1/2 fluidounces of the above will be found sufficient to solidify 32 fluidounces of benzine. {210}

II.—Castile soap, white 3 1/2 av. ounces Water, boiling 3 1/2 fluidounces Water of ammonia 5 fluidrachms Benzine enough to make 16 fluidounces

Dissolve the soap in the water, and when cold, add the other ingredients.

«To Clean Oily Bottles.»—Use 2 heaped tablespoonfuls (for every quart of capacity) of fine sawdust or wheat bran, and shake well to cover the interior surface thoroughly; let stand a few minutes and then add about a gill of cold water. If the bottle be then rotated in a horizontal position, it will usually be found clean after a single treatment. In the case of drying oils, especially when old, the bottles should be moistened inside with a little ether, and left standing a few hours before the introduction of sawdust. This method is claimed to be more rapid and convenient than the customary one of using strips of paper, soap solution, etc.

«Cork Cleaner.»—Wash in 10 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid, then immerse in a solution of sodium hyposulphite and hydrochloric acid. Finally the corks are washed with a solution of soda and pure water. Corks containing oil or fat cannot be cleaned by this method.

«To Clean Sponges.»—Rinse well first in very weak, warm, caustic-soda lye, then with clean water, and finally leave the sponges in a solution of bromine in water until clean. They will whiten sooner if exposed to the sun in the bromine water. Then repeat the rinsings in weak lye and clean water, using the latter till all smell of bromine has disappeared. Dry quickly and in the sun if possible.

CLEARING BATHS: See Photography.


CLOCK-DIAL LETTERING: See Watchmakers’ Formulas.



CLOCK REPAIRING: See Watchmaking.

CLOCKMAKERS’ CLEANING PROCESSES: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


CLOTHES CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods; also, Household Formulas.


CLOTH, WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.

CLOTHING, CARE OF: See Household Formulas.

COACH VARNISH: See Varnishes.

COALS, TO EAT BURNING: See Pyrotechnics.

COAL OIL: See Oil.


COCOAS: See Beverages.

COCOA CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

COCOANUT CAKE: See Household Formulas and Recipes.




I.—Acorn.—From acorns deprived of their shells, husked, dried, and roasted.

II.—Bean.—Horse beans roasted along with a little honey or sugar.

III.—Beet Root.—From the yellow beet root, sliced, dried in a kiln or oven, and ground with a little coffee.

IV.—Dandelion.—From dandelion roots, sliced, dried, roasted, and ground with a little caramel.

All the above are roasted, before grinding them, with a little fat or lard. Those which are larger than coffee berries are cut into small slices before being roasted. They possess none of the exhilarating properties or medicinal virtues of the genuine coffee.

V.—Chicory.—This is a common adulterant. The roasted root is prepared by cutting the full-grown root into slices, and exposing it to heat in iron cylinders, along with about 1 1/2 per cent or 2 per cent of lard, in a similar way to that adopted for coffee. When ground to powder in a mill it constitutes the {211} chicory coffee so generally employed both as a substitute for coffee and as an adulterant. The addition of 1 part of good, fresh, roasted chicory to 10 or 12 parts of coffee forms a mixture which yields a beverage of a fuller flavor, and of a deeper color than that furnished by an equal quantity of pure or unmixed coffee. In this way a less quantity of coffee may be used, but it should be remembered that the article substituted for it does not possess in any degree the peculiar exciting, soothing, and hunger-staying properties of that valuable product. The use, however, of a larger proportion of chicory than that just named imparts to the beverage an insipid flavor, intermediate between that of treacle and licorice; while the continual use of roasted chicory, or highly chicorized coffee, seldom fails to weaken the powers of digestion and derange the bowels.

COFFEE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

COFFEE EXTRACTS: See Essences and Extracts.




COIN CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


COIN METAL: See Alloys.

COLAS: See Veterinary Formulas.

«Cold and Cough Mixtures»

«Cough Syrup.»—The simplest form of cough syrup of good keeping quality is syrup of wild cherry containing ammonium chloride in the dose of 2 1/2 grains to each teaspoonful. Most of the other compounds contain ingredients that are prone to undergo fermentation.

I.—Ipecacuanha wine 1 fluidounce Spirit of anise 1 fluidrachm Syrup 16 fluidounces Syrup of squill 8 fluidounces Tincture of Tolu 4 fluidrachms Distilled water enough to make 30 fluidounces

II.—Heroin 6 grains Aromatic sulphuric acid 1 1/2 fluidounces Concentrated acid infusion of roses 4 fluidounces Distilled water 5 fluidounces Glycerine 5 fluidounces Oxymel of squill 10 fluidounces

III.—Glycerine 2 fluidounces Fluid extract of wild cherry 4 fluidounces Oxymel 10 fluidounces Syrup 10 fluidounces Cochineal, a sufficient quantity.

«Benzoic-Acid Pastilles.»—

Benzoic acid 105 parts Rhatany extract 525 parts Tragacanth 35 parts Sugar 140 parts

The materials, in the shape of powders, are mixed well and sufficient fruit paste added to bring the mass up to 4,500 parts. Roll out and divide into lozenges weighing 20 grains each.

«Cough Balsam with Iceland Moss.»—

Solution of morphine acetate 12 parts Sulphuric acid, dilute 12 parts Cherry-laurel water 12 parts Orange-flower water, triple 24 parts Syrup, simple 128 parts Glycerine 48 parts Tincture of saffron 8 parts Decoction of Iceland moss 112 parts

Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful.

«Balsamic Cough Syrup.»—

Balsam of Peru 2 drachms Tincture of Tolu 4 drachms Camphorated tincture of opium 4 ounces Powdered extract licorice 1 ounce Syrup squill 4 ounces Syrup dextrine (glucose) sufficient to make 16 ounces

Add the balsam of Peru to the tinctures, and in a mortar rub up the extract of licorice with the syrups. Mix together and direct to be taken in teaspoonful doses.

«Whooping-Cough Remedies.»—The following mixture is a spray to be used {212} in the sick room in cases of whooping cough:

Thymol 1.0 Tincture of eucalyptus 30.0 Tincture of benzoin 30.0 Alcohol 100.0 Water enough to make 1000.0

Mix. Pour some of the mixture on a cloth and hold to mouth so that the mixture is inhaled, thereby giving relief.

«Expectorant Mixtures.»—

I.—Ammon. chloride 1 drachm Potass. chlorate 30 grains Paregoric 2 fluidrachms Syrup of ipecac 2 fluidrachms Syrup wild cherry enough to make 2 fluidounces

Dose: One teaspoonful.

II.—Potass. chlorate 1 drachm Tincture guaiac 3 1/2 drachms Tincture rhubarb 1 1/2 drachms Syrup wild cherry enough to make 3 fluidounces

Dose: One teaspoonful.

«Eucalyptus Bonbons for Coughs.»—

Eucalyptus oil 5 parts Tartaric acid 15 parts Extract of malt 24 parts Cacao 100 parts Peppermint oil 1.4 parts Bonbon mass 2,203 parts

Mix and make into bonbons weighing 30 grains each.

COLD CREAM: See Cosmetics.

COLIC IN CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas.


Turpentine 5 parts Ether and alcohol 10 parts Collodion 94 parts Castor oil 1 part

Dissolve the turpentine in the ether and alcohol mixture (in equal parts) and filter, then add to the mixture of collodion and castor oil. This makes a good elastic collodion.

See also Court Plaster, Liquid.

COLOGNE: See Perfumes.


COLORS: See Dyes and Pigments.





CONCRETE: See Stone, Artificial.



Curry powder 4 ounces Mustard powder 6 ounces Ginger 3 ounces Turmeric 2 ounces Cayenne 2 drachms Black pepper powder 2 drachms Coriander 1 drachm Allspice 1 drachm Mace 30 grains Thyme 30 grains Savory 30 grains Celery seed 2 drachms Cider vinegar 2 gallons

Mix all the powders with the vinegar, and steep the mixture over a very gentle fire for 3 hours. The pickles are to be parboiled with salt, and drained, and the spiced vinegar, prepared as above, is to be poured over them while it is still warm. The chowchow keeps best in small jars, tightly covered.

«Essence of Extract of Soup Herbs.»—Thyme, 4 ounces; winter savory, 4 ounces; sweet marjoram, 4 ounces; sweet basil, 4 ounces; grated lemon peel, 1 ounce; eschalots, 2 ounces; bruised celery seed, 1 ounce; alcohol (50 per cent), 64 ounces. Mix the vegetables, properly bruised, add the alcohol, close the container and set aside in a moderately warm place to digest for 15 days. Filter and press out. Preserve in 4-ounce bottles, well corked.

«Tomato Bouillon Extract.»—Tomatoes, 1 quart; arrowroot, 2 ounces; extract of beef, 1 ounce; bay leaves, 1 ounce; cloves, 2 ounces; red pepper, 4 drachms; Worcestershire sauce, quantity sufficient to flavor. Mix.

«Mock Turtle Extract.»—Extract of beef, 2 ounces; concentrated chicken, 2 ounces; clam juice, 8 ounces; tincture of black pepper, 1 ounce; extract of celery, 3 drachms; extract of orange peel, soluble, 1 drachm; hot water enough to make 2 quarts. {213}


«Digestive Relish.»—

I.—Two ounces Jamaica ginger; 2 ounces black peppercorns; 1 ounce mustard seed; 1 ounce coriander fruit (seed); 1 ounce pimento (allspice); 1/2 ounce mace; 1/2 ounce cloves; 1/2 ounce nutmegs; 1/2 ounce chili pods; 3 drachms cardamom seeds; 4 ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 pints malt vinegar.

Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and boil in vinegar for 15 minutes and strain. To this add 2 1/2 pints mushroom ketchup; 1 1/2 pints India soy.

Again simmer for 15 minutes and strain through muslin.

II.—One pound soy; 50 ounces best vinegar; 4 ounces ketchup; 4 ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 ounces capsicum; 1/2 ounce cloves; 1/2 ounce mace; 1/4 ounce cinnamon; 1 drachm cardamom seeds. Boil well and strain.

«Lincolnshire Relish.»—Two ounces garlic; 2 ounces Jamaica ginger; 3 ounces black peppercorns; 3/4 ounce cayenne pepper; 1/4 ounce ossein; 3/4 ounce nutmeg; 2 ounces salt; 1 1/2 pints India soy. Enough malt vinegar to make 1 gallon. Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and simmer in 1/2 a gallon of vinegar for 20 minutes, strain and add soy and sufficient vinegar to make 1 gallon, then boil for 5 minutes. Keep in bulk as long as possible.

«Curry Powder.»—

I.—Coriander seed 6 drachms Turmeric 5 scruples Fresh ginger 4 1/2 drachms Cumin seed 18 grains Black pepper 54 grains Poppy seed 94 grains Garlic 2 heads Cinnamon 1 scruple Cardamom 5 seeds Cloves 8 only Chillies 1 or 2 pods Grated cocoanut 1/2 nut

II.—Coriander seed 1/4 pound Turmeric 1/4 pound Cinnamon seed 2 ounces Cayenne 1/2 ounce Mustard 1 ounce Ground ginger 1 ounce Allspice 1/2 ounce Fenugreek seed 2 ounces


«Worcestershire Sauce.»—

Pimento 2 drachms Clove 1 drachm Black pepper 1 drachm Ginger 1 drachm Curry powder 1 ounce Capsicum 1 drachm Mustard 2 ounces Shallots, bruised 2 ounces Salt 2 ounces Brown sugar 8 ounces Tamarinds 4 ounces Sherry wine 1 pint Wine vinegar 2 pints

The spices must be freshly bruised. The ingredients are to simmer together with the vinegar for an hour, adding more of the vinegar as it is lost by evaporation; then add the wine, and if desired some caramel coloring. Set aside for a week, strain, and bottle.

«Table Sauce.»—Brown sugar, 16 parts; tamarinds, 16 parts; onions, 4 parts; powdered ginger, 4 parts; salt, 4 parts; garlic, 2 parts; cayenne, 2 parts; soy, 2 parts; ripe apples, 64 parts; mustard powder, 2 parts; curry powder, 1 part; vinegar, quantity sufficient. Pare and core the apples, boil them in sufficient vinegar with the tamarinds and raisins until soft, then pulp through a fine sieve. Pound the onions and garlic in a mortar and add the pulp to that of the apples. Then add the other ingredients and vinegar, 60 parts; heat to boiling, cool, and add sherry wine, 10 parts, and enough vinegar to make the sauce just pourable. If a sweet sauce is desired add sufficient treacle before the final boiling.

«Epicure’s Sauce.»—Eight ounces tamarinds; 12 ounces sultana raisins; 2 ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 ounces horse-radish root; 2 ounces black pepper; 1/2 ounce chili pods; 3 ounces raw Jamaica ginger; 1 1/2 pounds golden syrup; 1 pound burnt sugar (caramel); 1 ounce powdered cloves; 1 pint India soy; 1 gallon malt vinegar. Bruise roots, spices, etc., and boil in vinegar for 15 minutes, then strain. To the strained liquor add golden syrup, soy, and burnt sugar, then simmer for 10 minutes.

«Piccalilli Sauce.»—One drachm chili pods; 1 1/2 ounces black peppercorns; 1/2 ounce pimento; 3/4 ounce garlic; 1/2 gallon malt vinegar. Bruise spices and garlic, boil in the vinegar for 10 minutes, and strain.

One ounce ground Jamaica ginger; 1 ounce turmeric; 2 ounces flower of mustard; 2 ounces powdered natal arrowroot; 8 ounces strong acetic acid. Rub powders in a mortar with acetic acid and add to above, then boil for 5 minutes, or until it thickens.


I.—Five ounces powdered cinnamon bark; 2 1/2 ounces powdered cloves; 2 1/2 {214} ounces powdered nutmegs; 1 1/4 ounces powdered caraway seeds; 1 1/4 ounces powdered coriander seeds; 1 ounce powdered Jamaica ginger; 1/2 ounce powdered allspice. Let all be dry and in fine powder. Mix and pass through a sieve.

II.—Pickling Spice.—Ten pounds small Jamaica ginger; 2 1/2 pounds black peppercorns; 1 1/2 pounds white peppercorns; 1 1/2 pounds allspice; 3/4 pound long pepper; 1 1/4 pounds mustard seed; 1/2 pound chili pods. Cut up ginger and long pepper into small pieces, and mix all the other ingredients intimately.

One ounce to each pint of boiling vinegar is sufficient, but it may be made stronger if desired hot.

«Essence of Savory Spices.»—Two and one-half ounces black peppercorns; 1 ounce pimento; 3/4 ounce nutmeg; 1/2 ounce mace; 1/2 ounce cloves; 1/4 ounce cinnamon bark; 1/4 ounce caraway seeds; 20 grains cayenne pepper; 15 ounces spirit of wine; 5 ounces distilled water. Bruise all the spices and having mixed spirit and water, digest in mixture 14 days, shaking frequently, then filter.


«The Prepared Mustards of Commerce.»—The mustard, i. e., the flower or powdered seed, used in preparing the different condiments, is derived from three varieties of Brassica (_Cruciferæ_)—_Brassica alba L., Brassica nigra_, and _Brassica juncea_. The first yields the “white” seed of commerce, which produces a mild mustard; the second the “black” seed, yielding the more pungent powder; and the latter a very pungent and oily mustard, much employed by Russians. The pungency of the condiment is also affected by the method of preparing the paste, excessive heat destroying the sharpness completely. The pungency is further controlled and tempered, in the cold processes, by the addition of wheat or rye flour, which also has the advantage of serving as a binder of the mustard. The mustard flour is prepared by first decorticating the seed, then grinding to a fine powder, the expression of the fixed oil from which completes the process. This oil, unlike the volatile, is of a mild, pleasant taste, and of a greenish color, which, it is said, makes it valuable in the sophistication and imitation of “olive” oils, refined, cottonseed, or peanut oil being thus converted into _huile vierge de_ Lucca, Florence, or some other noted brand of olive oil. It is also extensively used for illuminating purposes, especially in southern Russia.

The flavors, other than that of the mustard itself, of the various preparations are imparted by the judicious use of spices—cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, pimento, etc.—aromatic herbs, such as thyme, sage, chervil, parsley, mint, marjoram, tarragon, etc., and finally chives, onions, shallots, leeks, garlic, etc.

In preparing the mustards on a large scale, the mustard flower and wheat or rye flour are mixed and ground to a smooth paste with vinegar, must (unfermented grape juice), wine, or whatever is used in the preparation, a mill similar to a drug or paint mill being used for the purpose. This dough immediately becomes spongy, and in this condition, technically called “cake,” is used as the basis of the various mustards of commerce.

«Mustard Cakes.»—In the mixture, the amount of flour used depends on the pungency of the mustard flower, and the flavor desired to be imparted to the finished product. The cakes are broadly divided into the yellow and the brown. A general formula for the yellow cake is:

Yellow mustard, from 20 to 30 per cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent; spices, from 1/4 to 1/2 of 1 per cent; wheat flour, from 8 to 12 per cent.

Vinegar, must, or wine, complete the mixture.

The brown cake is made with black mustard, and contains about the following proportions:

Black mustard, from 20 to 30 per cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent; spices, from 1/4 to 1/2 of 1 per cent; wheat or rye flour, from 10 to 15 per cent.

The variations are so wide, however, that it is impossible to give exact proportions. In the manufacture of table mustards, in fact, as in every other kind of manufacture, excellence is attained only by practice and the exercise of sound judgment and taste by the manufacturer.

«Moutarde des Jesuittes.»—Twelve sardels and 280 capers are crushed into a paste and stirred into 3 pints of boiling wine vinegar. Add 4 ounces of brown cake and 8 ounces of yellow cake and mix well.

«Kirschner Wine Mustard.»—Reduce 30 quarts of freshly expressed grape juice to half that quantity, by boiling over a moderate fire, on a water bath. Dissolve in the boiling liquid 5 pounds of sugar, and pour the syrup through a colander containing 2 or 3 large horse-radishes cut {215} into very thin slices and laid on a coarse towel spread over the bottom and sides of the colander. To the colate add the following, all in a state of fine powder:

Cardamom seeds 2 1/2 drachms Nutmeg 2 1/2 drachms Cloves 4 1/2 drachms Cinnamon 1 ounce Ginger 1 ounce Brown mustard cake 6 pounds Yellow mustard cake 9 pounds

Grind all together to a perfectly smooth paste, and strain several times through muslin.

«Duesseldorff Mustard.»—

Brown mustard cake 10 ounces Yellow mustard cake 48 ounces Boiling water 96 ounces Wine vinegar 64 ounces Cinnamon 5 drachms Cloves 15 drachms Sugar 64 ounces Wine, good white 64 ounces

Mix after the general directions given above.

«German Table Mustard.»—

Laurel leaves 8 ounces Cinnamon 5 drachms Cardamom seeds 2 drachms Sugar 64 ounces Wine vinegar 96 ounces Brown cake 10 ounces Yellow cake 48 ounces

Mix after general directions as given above.

«Krems Mustard, Sweet.»—

Yellow cake 10 pounds Brown cake 20 pounds Fresh grape juice 6 pints

Mix and boil down to the proper consistency.

«Krems Mustard, Sour.»—

Brown mustard flour 30 parts Yellow mustard flour 10 parts Grape juice, fresh 8 parts

Mix and boil down to a paste and then stir in 8 parts of wine vinegar.

«Tarragon Mustard.»—

Brown mustard flour 40 parts Yellow mustard flour 20 parts Vinegar 6 parts Tarragon vinegar 6 parts

Boil the mustard in the vinegar and add the tarragon vinegar.

«Tarragon Mustard, Sharp.»—This is prepared by adding to every 100 pounds of the above 21 ounces of white pepper, 5 ounces of pimento, and 2 1/2 ounces of cloves, mixing thoroughly by grinding together in a mill, then put in a warm spot and let stand for 10 days or 2 weeks. Finally strain.

«Moutarde aux Epices.»—

Mustard flour, yellow 10 pounds Mustard flour, brown 40 pounds Tarragon 1 pound Basil, herb 5 ounces Laurel leaves 12 drachms White pepper 3 ounces Cloves 12 drachms Mace 2 drachms Vinegar 1 gallon

Mix the herbs and macerate them in the vinegar to exhaustion, then add to the mustards, and grind together. Set aside for a week or ten days, then strain through muslin.

In all the foregoing formulas where the amount of salt is not specified, it is to be added according to the taste or discretion of the manufacturer.

«Mustard Vinegar.»—

Celery, chopped fine 32 parts Tarragon, the fresh herb 6 parts Cloves, coarsely powdered 6 parts Onions, chopped fine 6 parts Lemon peel, fresh, chopped fine 3 parts White-wine vinegar 575 parts White wine 515 parts Mustard seed, crushed 100 parts

Mix and macerate together for a week or 10 days in a warm place, then strain off.

«Ravigotte Mustard.»—

Parsley 2 parts Chervil 2 parts Chives 2 parts Cloves 1 part Garlic 1 part Thyme 1 part Tarragon 1 part Salt 8 parts Olive oil 4 parts White-wine vinegar 128 parts Mustard flower, sufficient

Cut or bruise the plants and spices, and macerate them in the vinegar for 15 or 20 days. Strain the liquid through a cloth and add the salt. Rub up mustard with the olive oil in a vessel set in ice, adding a little of the spiced vinegar from time to time, until the whole is incorporated and the complete mixture makes 384 parts. {216}





«Cream Bonbons for Hoarseness.»—Stir into 500 parts of cream 500 parts of white sugar. Put in a pan and cook, with continuous stirring, until it becomes brown and viscid. Now put in a baking tin and smooth out, as neatly as possible, to the thickness of, say, twice that of the back of a table knife and let it harden. Before it gets completely hard draw lines with a knife across the surface in such manner that when it is quite hard it will break along them, easily, into bits the size of a lozenge.

«Nut Candy Sticks.»—Cook to 320° F. 8 pounds best sugar in 2 pints water, with 4 pounds glucose added. Pour out on an oiled slab and add 5 pounds almonds, previously blanched, cut in small pieces, and dried in the drying room. Mix up well together to incorporate the nuts thoroughly with the sugar. When it has cooled enough to be handled, form into a round mass on the slab and spin out in long, thin sticks.

«Fig Squares.»—Place 5 pounds of sugar and 5 pounds of glucose in a copper pan, with water enough to dissolve the sugar. Set on the fire, and when it starts to boil add 5 pounds of ground figs. Stir and cook to 240° on the thermometer. Set off the fire, and then add 5 pounds of fine cocoanuts; mix well and pour out on greased marble, roll smooth, and cut like caramels.

«Caramels.»—Heat 10 pounds sugar and 8 pounds glucose in a copper kettle until dissolved. Add cream to the mixture, at intervals, until 2 1/2 quarts are used. Add 2 1/4 pounds caramel butter and 12 ounces paraffine wax to the mixture. Cook to a rather stiff ball, add nuts, pour out between iron bars and, when cool enough, cut into strips. For the white ones flavor with vanilla, and add 2 pounds melted chocolate liquor for the chocolate caramel when nearly cooked.

«Candy Orange Drops.»—It is comparatively easy to make a hard candy, but to put the material into “drop” form apparently requires experience and a machine. To make the candy itself, put, say, a pint of water into a suitable pan or kettle, heat to boiling, and add gradually to it 2 pounds or more of sugar, stirring well so as to avoid the risk of burning the sugar. Continue boiling the syrup so formed until a little of it poured on a cold slab forms a mass of the required hardness. If the candy is to be of orange flavor, a little fresh oil of orange is added just before the mass is ready to set and the taste is improved according to the general view at least by adding, also, say, 2 drachms of citric acid dissolved in a very little water. As a coloring an infusion of safflower or tincture of turmeric is used.

To make such a mass into tablets, it is necessary only to pour out on a well-greased slab, turning the edges back if inclined to run, until the candy is firm, and then scoring with a knife so that it can easily be broken into pieces when cold. To make “drops” a suitable mold is necessary.

Experiment as to the sufficiency of the boiling in making candy may be saved and greater certainty of a good result secured by the use of a chemical thermometer. As the syrup is boiled and the water evaporates the temperature of the liquid rises. When it reaches 220° F., the sugar is then in a condition to yield the “thread” form; at 240° “soft ball” is formed; at 245°, “hard ball”; at 252°, “crack”; and at 290°, “hard crack.” By simply suspending the thermometer in the liquid and observing it from time to time, one may know exactly when to end the boiling.

«Gum Drops.»—Grind 25 pounds of Arabian or Senegal gum, place it in a copper pan or in a steam jacket kettle, and pour 3 gallons of boiling water over it; stir it up well. Now set the pan with the gum into another pan containing boiling water and stir the gum slowly until dissolved, then strain it through a No. 40 sieve. Cook 19 pounds of sugar with sufficient water, 2 pounds of glucose, and a teaspoonful of cream of tartar to a stiff ball, pour it over the gum, mix well, set the pan on the kettle with the hot water, and let it steam for 1 1/2 hours, taking care that the water in the kettle does not run dry; then open the door of the stove and cover the fire with ashes, and let the gum settle for nearly an hour, then remove the scum which has settled on top, flavor and run out with the {217} funnel dropper into the starch impressions, and place the trays in the drying room for 2 days, or until dry; then take the drops out of the starch, clean them off well and place them in crystal pans, one or two layers. Cook sugar and water to 34 1/2° on the syrup gauge and pour over the drops lukewarm. Let stand in a moderately warm place over night, then drain the syrup off, and about an hour afterwards knock the gum drops out on a clean table, pick them apart, and place on trays until dry, when they are ready for sale.

«A Good Summer Taffy.»—Place in a kettle 4 pounds of sugar, 3 pounds of glucose, and 1 1/2 pints of water; when it boils drop in a piece of butter half the size of an egg and about 2 ounces of paraffine wax. Cook to 262°, pour on a slab, and when cool enough, pull, flavor, and color if you wish. Pull until light, then spin out on the table in strips about 3 inches wide and cut into 4- or 4 1/2-inch lengths. Then wrap in wax paper for the counter. This taffy keeps long without being grained by the heat.

«Chewing Candy.»—Place 20 pounds of sugar in a copper pan, add 20 pounds of glucose, and enough water to easily dissolve the sugar. Set on the fire or cook in the steam pan in 2 quarts of water. Have a pound of egg albumen soaked in 2 quarts of water. Beat this like eggs into a very stiff froth, add gradually the sugar and glucose; when well beaten up, add 5 pounds of powdered sugar, and beat at very little heat either in the steam beater or on a pan of boiling water until light, and does not stick to the back of the hand, flavor with vanilla, and put in trays dusted with fine sugar. When cold it may be cut, or else it may be stretched out on a sugar-dusted table, cut, and wrapped in wax paper. This chewing candy has to be kept in a very dry place, or else it will run and get sticky.

«Montpelier Cough Drops.»—

Brown sugar 10 pounds Tartaric acid 2 ounces Cream of tartar 1/2 ounce Water 1 1/2 quarts Anise-seed flavoring, quantity sufficient

Melt the sugar in the water, and when at a sharp boil add the cream of tartar. Cover the pan for 5 minutes. Remove the lid and let the sugar boil up to crack degree. Turn out the batch on an oiled slab, and when cool enough to handle mold in the acid and flavoring. Pass it through the acid drop rollers, and when the drops are chipped up, and before sifting, rub some icing with them.

«Medicated Cough Drops.»—

Light-brown sugar 14 pounds Tartaric acid 1 1/2 ounces Cream of tartar 1/2 ounce Water 2 quarts Anise-seed, cayenne, clove, and peppermint flavoring, a few drops of each.

Proceed as before prescribed, but when sufficiently cool pass the batch through the acid tablet rollers and dust with sugar.

«Horehound Candy.»—

Dutch crushed sugar 10 pounds Dried horehound leaves 2 ounces Cream of tartar 3/4 ounce Water 2 quarts Anise-seed flavoring, quantity sufficient.

Pour the water on the leaves and let it gently simmer till reduced to 3 pints; then strain the infusion through muslin, and add the liquid to the sugar. Put the pan containing the syrup on the fire, and when at a sharp boil add the cream of tartar. Put the lid on the pan for 5 minutes; then remove it, and let the sugar boil to stiff boil degree. Take the pan off the fire and rub portions of the sugar against the side until it produces a creamy appearance; then add the flavoring. Stir all well, and pour into square tin frames, previously well oiled.

«Menthol Cough Drops.»—

Gelatin 1 ounce Glycerine (by weight) 2 1/2 ounces Orange-flower water 2 1/2 ounces Menthol 5 grains Rectified spirits 1 drachm

Soak the gelatin in the water for 2 hours, then heat on a water bath until dissolved, and add 1 1/2 ounces of glycerine. Dissolve the menthol in the spirit, mix with the remainder of the glycerine, add to the glyco-gelatin mass, and pour into an oiled tin tray (such as the lid of a biscuit box). When the mass is cold divide into 10 dozen pastilles.

Menthol pastilles are said to be an excellent remedy for tickling cough as well as laryngitis. They should be freshly prepared, and cut oblong, so that the patient may take half of one, or less, as may be necessary.

«Violet Flavor for Candy.»—Violet flavors, like violet perfumes, are very complex mixtures, and their imitation is a {218} correspondingly difficult undertaking. The basis is vanilla (or vanillin), rose, and orris, with a very little of some pungent oil to bring up the flavor. The following will give a basis upon which a satisfactory flavor may be built:

Oil of orris 1 drachm Oil of rose 1 drachm Vanillin 2 drachms Cumarin 30 grains Oil of clove 30 minims Alcohol 11 ounces Water 5 ounces

Make a solution, adding the water last.

«CONFECTIONERY COLORS.»—The following are excellent and entirely harmless coloring agents for the purposes named:

«Red.»—Cochineal syrup prepared as follows:

Cochineal, in coarse powder 6 parts Potassium carbonate 2 parts Distilled water 15 parts Alcohol 12 parts Simple syrup enough to make 500 parts

Rub up the potassium carbonate and the cochineal together, adding the water and alcohol, little by little, under constant trituration. Set aside over night, then add the syrup and filter.


Carmine 1 part Liquor potassæ 6 parts Rose water, enough to make 48 parts

Mix. Should the color be too high, dilute with water until the requisite tint is acquired.

«Orange.»—Tincture of red sandalwood, 1 part; ethereal tincture of orlean, quantity sufficient. Add the tincture of orlean to the sandalwood tincture until the desired shade of orange is obtained.

A red added to any of the yellows gives an orange color.

The aniline colors made by the “Aktiengesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation,” of Berlin, are absolutely non-toxic, and can be used for the purposes recommended, i. e., the coloration of syrups, cakes, candies, etc., with perfect confidence in their innocuity.

«Pastille Yellow.»—

Citron yellow II 7 parts Grape sugar, first quality 1 part White dextrine 2 parts

«Sap-Blue Paste.»—

Dark blue 3 parts Grape sugar 1 part Water 6 parts

«Sugar-Black Paste.»—

Carbon black 3 parts Grape sugar 1 part Water 6 parts

«Cinnabar Red.»*—

Scarlet 65 parts White dextrine 30 parts Potato flour 5 parts

«Bluish Rose.»*—

Grenadine 65 parts White dextrine 30 parts Potato flour 5 parts

«Yellowish Rose.»—

Rosa II 60 parts Citron yellow 5 parts White dextrine 30 parts Potato flour 5 parts


Red violet 65 parts White dextrine 30 parts Potato flour 5 parts

«Carmine Green.»—

Woodruff (Waldmeister) green 55 parts Rosa II 5 parts Dextrine 35 parts Potato flour 5 parts

To the colors marked with an asterisk (*) add, for every 4 pounds, 4 1/2 ounces, a grain and a half each of potassium iodide and sodium nitrate. Colors given in form of powders should be dissolved in hot water for use.

«Yellow.»—Various shades of yellow may be obtained by the maceration of Besiello saffron, or turmeric, or grains d’Avignon in alcohol until a strong tincture is obtained. Dilute with water until the desired shade is obtained. An aqueous solution of quercitrine also gives an excellent yellow.


Indigo carmine 1 part Water 2 parts


Indigo carmine is a beautiful, powerful, and harmless agent. It may usually be bought commercially, but if it cannot be readily obtained, proceed as follows:

Into a capsule put 30 grains of indigo in powder, place on a water bath, and heat to dryness. When entirely dry put {219} into a large porcelain mortar (the substance swells enormously under subsequent treatment—hence the necessity for a large, or comparatively large, mortar) and cautiously add, drop by drop, 120 grains, by weight, of sulphuric acid, C. P., stirring continuously during the addition. Cover the swollen mass closely, and set aside for 24 hours. Now add 3 fluidounces of distilled water, a few drops at a time, rubbing or stirring continuously. Transfer the liquid thus obtained to a tall, narrow, glass cylinder or beaker, cover and let stand for 4 days, giving the liquid an occasional stirring. Make a strong solution of sodium carbonate or bicarbonate, and at the end of the time named cautiously neutralize the liquid, adding the carbonate a little at a time, stirring the indigo solution and testing it after each addition, as the least excess of alkali will cause the indigo to separate out, and fall in a doughy mass. Stop when the test shows the near approach of neutrality, as the slight remaining acidity will not affect the taste or the properties of the liquid. Filter, and evaporate in the water bath to dryness. The resultant matter is sulphindigotate of potassium, or the “indigo carmine” of commerce.

Tincture of indigo may also be used as a harmless blue.

«Green.»—The addition of the solution indigo carmine to an infusion of any of the matters given under “yellow” will produce a green color. Tincture of crocus and glycerine in equal parts, with the addition of indigo-carmine solution, also gives a fine green. A solution of commercial chlorophyll gives grass-green, in shades varying according to the concentration of the solution.

«Voice and Throat Lozenges.»—

Catechu 191 grains Tannic acid 273 grains Tartaric acid 273 grains Capsicin 30 minims Black-currant paste 7 ounces Refined sugar, Mucilage of acacia, of each a sufficient quantity.

Mix to produce 7 pounds of lozenges.

CONSTIPATION IN BIRDS: See Veterinary Formulas.


COOLING SCREEN: See Refrigeration.


«Annealing Copper.»—

Copper is almost universally annealed in muffles, in which it is raised to the desired temperature, and subsequently allowed to cool either in the air or in water. A muffle is nothing more or less than a reverberatory furnace. It is necessary to watch the copper carefully, so that when it has reached the right temperature it may be drawn from the muffle and allowed to cool. This is important, for if the copper is heated too high, or is left in the muffle at the ordinary temperature of annealing too long, it is burnt, as the workmen say. Copper that has been burnt is yellow, coarsely granular, and exceedingly brittle—even more brittle at a red heat than when cold.

In the case of coarse wire it is found that only the surface is burnt, while the interior is damaged less. This causes the exterior to split loose from the interior when bent or rolled, thus giving the appearance of a brittle copper tube with a copper wire snugly fitted into it. Cracks a half inch in depth have been observed on the surface of an ingot on its first pass through the rolls, all due to this exterior burning. It is apparent that copper that has been thus overheated in the muffle is entirely unfit for rolling. It is found that the purer forms of copper are less liable to be harmed by overheating than samples containing even a small amount of impurities. Even the ordinary heating in a muffle will often suffice to burn in this manner the surface of some specimens of copper, rendering them unfit for further working. Copper that has been thus ruined is of use only to be refined again.

As may be inferred only the highest grades of refined copper are used for drawing or for rolling. This is not because the lower grades, when refined, cannot stand sufficiently high tests, but because methods of working are not adequate to prevent these grades of copper from experiencing the deterioration due to overheating.

The process of refining copper consists in an oxidizing action followed by a reducing action which, since it is performed by the aid of gases generated by stirring the melted copper with a pole, is called poling. The object of the oxidation is to oxidize and either volatilize or turn to slag all the impurities contained in the copper. This procedure is materially aided by the fact that the {220} suboxide of copper is freely soluble in metallic copper and thus penetrates to all parts of the copper, and parting with its oxygen, oxidizes the impurities. The object of the reducing part of the refining process is to change the excess of the suboxide of copper to metallic copper. Copper containing even less than 1 per cent of the suboxide of copper shows decreased malleability and ductility, and is both cold-short and red-short. If the copper to be refined contains any impurities, such as arsenic or antimony, it is well not to remove too much of the oxygen in the refining process. If this is done, overpoled copper is produced. In this condition it is brittle, granular, of a shining yellow color, and more red-short than cold-short. When the refining has been properly done, and neither too much nor too little oxygen is present, the copper is in the condition of “tough pitch,” and is in a fit state to be worked.

Copper is said to be “tough pitch” when it requires frequent bending to break it, and when, after it is broken, the color is pale red, the fracture has a silky luster, and is fibrous like a tuft of silk. On hammering a piece to a thin plate it should show no cracks at the edge. At tough pitch copper offers the highest degree of malleability and ductility of which a given specimen is capable. This is the condition in which refined copper is (or should be) placed on the market, and if it could be worked without changing this tough pitch, any specimen of copper that could be brought to this condition would be suitable for rolling or drawing. But tough pitch is changed if oxygen is either added or taken from refined copper.

By far the more important of these is the removal of oxygen, especially from those specimens that contain more than a mere trace of impurities. This is shown by the absolutely worthless condition of overpoled copper. The addition of carbon also plays a very important part in the production of overpoled copper.

That the addition of oxygen to refined copper is not so damaging is shown by the fact that at present nearly all the copper that is worked is considerably oxidized at some stage of the process, and not especially to its detriment.

Burnt copper is nothing more or less than copper in the overpoled condition. This is brought about by the action of reducing gases in the muffle. By this means the small amount of oxygen necessary to give the copper its tough pitch is removed. This oxygen is combined with impurities in the copper, and thus renders them inert. For example, the oxide of arsenic or antimony is incapable of combining more than mechanically with the copper, but when its oxygen is removed the arsenic or antimony is left free to combine with the copper. This forms a brittle alloy, and one that corresponds almost exactly in its properties with overpoled copper. To be sure overpoled copper is supposed to contain carbon, but that this is not the essential ruling principle in case of annealing is shown by the fact that pure copper does not undergo this change under conditions that ruin impure copper, and also by the fact that the same state may be produced by annealing in pure hydrogen and thus removing the oxygen that renders the arsenic or antimony inert. No attempt is made to deny the well-known fact that carbon does combine with copper to the extent of 0.2 per cent and cause it to become exceedingly brittle. It is simply claimed that this is probably not what occurs in the production of so-called burnt copper during annealing. The amount of impurities capable of rendering copper easily burnt is exceedingly small. This may be better appreciated when it is considered that from 0.01 to 0.2 per cent expresses the amount of oxygen necessary to render the impurities inert. The removal of this very small amount of oxygen, which is often so small as to be almost within the limits of the errors of analysis, will suffice to render copper overpoled and ruin it for any use.

There are methods of avoiding the numerous accidents that may occur in the annealing of copper, due to a change of pitch. As already pointed out, the quality of refined copper is lowered if oxygen be either added to or taken from it. It is quite apparent, therefore, that a really good method of annealing copper will prevent any change in the state of oxidation. It is necessary to prevent access to the heated copper both of atmospheric air, which would oxidize it, and of the reducing gases used in heating the muffle, which would take oxygen away from it. Obviously the only way of accomplishing this is to inclose the copper when heated and till cool in an atmosphere that can neither oxidize nor deoxidize copper. By so doing copper may be heated to the melting point and allowed to cool again without suffering as regards its pitch. There are comparatively few gases that can be used for this purpose, but, fortunately, one which is exceedingly cheap and universally {221} prevalent fulfills all requirements, viz., steam. In order to apply the principles enunciated it is necessary only to anneal copper in the ordinary annealing pots such as are used for iron, care being taken to inclose the copper while heating and while cooling in an atmosphere of steam. This will effectually exclude air and prevent the ingress of gases used in heating the annealer. Twenty-four hours may be used in the process, as in the annealing of iron wire, with no detriment to the wire. This may seem incredible to those manufacturers who have tried to anneal copper wire after the manner of annealing iron wire. By this method perfectly bright annealed wire may be produced. Such a process of annealing copper offers many advantages. It allows the use of a grade of copper that has hitherto been worked only at a great disadvantage, owing to its tendency to get out of pitch. It allows the use of annealers such as are ordinarily employed for annealing iron, and thus cheapens the annealing considerably as compared with the present use of muffles. There is no chance of producing the overpoled condition from the action of reducing gases used in heating the muffles. There is no chance of producing the underpoled condition due to the absorption of suboxide of copper. None of the metal is lost as scale, and the saving that is thus effected amounts to a considerable percentage of the total value of the copper. The expense and time of cleaning are wholly saved. Incidentally bright annealed copper is produced by a process which is applicable to copper of any shape, size, or condition—a product that has hitherto been obtained only by processes (mostly secret) which are too cumbersome and too expensive for extensive use; and, as is the case with at least one process, with the danger of producing the overpoled condition, often in only a small section of the wire, but thus ruining the whole piece.


«Blacking Copper.»—To give a copper article a black covering, clean it with emery paper, heat gently in a Bunsen or a spirit flame, immerse for 10 seconds in solution of copper filings in dilute nitric acid, and heat again.

«Red Coloring of Copper.»—A fine red color may be given to copper by gradually heating it in an air bath. Prolonged heating at a comparatively low temperature, or rapid heating at a high temperature, produces the same result. As soon as the desired color is attained the metal should be rapidly cooled by quenching in water. The metal thus colored may be varnished.

«To Dye Copper Parts Violet and Orange.»—Polished copper acquires an orange-like color leaning to gold, when dipped for a few seconds into a solution of crystallized copper acetate. A handsome violet is obtained by placing the metal for a few minutes in a solution of antimony chloride and rubbing it afterwards with a piece of wood covered with cotton. During this operation the copper must be heated to a degree bearable to the hand. A crystalline appearance is produced by boiling the article in copper sulphate.

«Pickle for Copper.»—Take nitric acid, 100 parts; kitchen salt, 2 parts; calcined soot, 2 parts; or nitric acid, 10 parts; sulphuric acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 1 part. As these bleaching baths attack the copper quickly, the objects must be left in only for a few seconds, washing them afterwards in plenty of water, and drying in sawdust, bran, or spent tan.

«Preparations of Copper Water.»—I.—Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 30 parts; spirit of wine, 100 parts; essence of turpentine, 50 parts; fine tripoli, 100 parts.

II.—Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 30 parts; alcohol, 50 parts; essence of turpentine, 40 parts; fine tripoli, 50 parts.

III.—Sulphuric acid, 300 parts; sulphate of alumina, 80 parts; water, 520 parts.

«Tempered Copper.»—Objects made of copper may be satisfactorily tempered by subjecting them to a certain degree of heat for a determined period of time and bestrewing them with powdered sulphur during the heating. While hot the objects are plunged into a bath of blue vitriol; after the bath they may be heated again.


COPPER CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



COPPER LACQUERS: See Lacquers. {222}

COPPER PAPER: See Paper, Metallic.







The so-called “metallic” paper used for steam-engine indicator cards has a smooth surface, chemically prepared so that black lines can be drawn upon it with pencils made of brass, copper, silver, aluminum, or any of the softer metals. When used on the indicator it receives the faint line drawn by a brass point at one end of the pencil arm, and its special advantage over ordinary paper is that the metallic pencil slides over its surface with very little friction, and keeps its point much longer than a graphite pencil.

This paper can be used as a transfer paper for copying engravings or sketches, or anything printed or written in ink or drawn in pencil.

The best copies can be obtained by following the directions below: Lay the metallic transfer paper, face up, upon at least a dozen sheets of blank paper, and lay the print face down upon it. On the back of the print place a sheet of heavy paper, or thin cardboard, and run the rubbing tool over this protecting sheet. In this manner it is comparatively easy to prevent slipping, and prints 8 or 10 inches on a side may be copied satisfactorily.

Line drawings printed from relief plates, or pictures with sharp contrast of black and white, without any half-tones, give the best copies. Very few half-tones can be transferred satisfactorily; almost all give streaked, indistinct copies, and many of the results are worthless.

The transfer taken off as described is a reverse of the original print. If the question of right and left is not important this reversal will seldom be objectionable, for it is easy to read backward what few letters generally occur. However, if desired, the paper may be held up to the light and examined from the back, or placed before a mirror and viewed by means of its reflected image, when the true relations of right and left will be seen. Moreover, if sufficiently important, an exact counterpart of the original may be taken from the reversed copy by laying another sheet face downward upon it, and rubbing on the back of the fresh sheet just as was done in making the reversed copy. The impression thus produced will be fainter than the first, but almost always it can be made dark enough to show a distinct outline which may afterwards be retouched with a lead pencil.

For indicator cards the paper is prepared by coating one surface with a suitable compound, usually zinc oxide mixed with a little starch and enough glue to make it adhere. After drying it is passed between calendar rolls under great pressure. The various brands manufactured for the trade, though perhaps equally good for indicator diagrams, are not equally well suited for copying. If paper of firmer texture could be prepared with the same surface finish, probably much larger copies could be produced.

Other kinds of paper, notably the heavy plate papers used for some of the best trade catalogues, possess this transfer property to a slight degree, though they will not receive marks from a metallic pencil. The latter feature would seem to recommend them for transfer purposes, making them less likely to become soiled by contact with metallic objects, but so far no kind has been found which will remove enough ink to give copies anywhere near as dark as the indicator paper.

Fairly good transfers can be made from almost any common printers’ ink, but some inks copy much better than others, and some yield only the faintest impressions. The length of time since a picture was printed does not seem to determine its copying quality. Some very old prints can be copied better than new ones; in fact, it was by accidental transfer to an indicator card from a book nearly a hundred years old that the peculiar property of this “metallic” paper was discovered.

«Copying Process on Wood.»—If wood surfaces are exposed to direct sunlight the wood will exhibit, after 2 weeks action, a browning of dark tone in the exposed places. Certain parts of the surface being covered up during the entire exposure to the sun, they retain their original shade and are set off clearly and sharply against the parts browned by the sunlight. Based on this property of the {223} wood is a sun-copying process on wood. The method is used for producing tarsia in imitation on wood. A pierced stencil of tin, wood, or paper is laid on a freshly planed plate of wood, pasting it on in places to avoid shifting, and put into a common copying frame. To prevent the wood from warping a stretcher is employed, whereupon expose to the sun for from 8 to 14 days. After the brown shade has appeared the design obtained is partly fixed by polishing or by a coating of varnish, lacquer, or wax. Best suited for such works are the pine woods, especially the 5-year fir and the cembra pine, which, after the exposure, show a yellowish brown tone of handsome golden gloss, that stands out boldly, especially after subsequent polishing, and cannot be replaced by any stain or by pyrography. The design is sharper and clearer than that produced by painting. In short, the total effect is pleasing.

«How to Reproduce Old Prints.»—Prepare a bath as follows: Sulphuric acid, 3 to 5 parts (according to the antiquity of print, thickness of paper, etc.); alcohol, 3 to 5 parts; water, 100 parts. In this soak the print from 5 to 15 minutes (the time depending on age, etc., as above), remove, spread face downward on a glass or ebonite plate, and wash thoroughly in a gentle stream of running water. If the paper is heavy, reverse the sides, and let the water flow over the face of the print. Remove carefully and place on a heavy sheet of blotting paper, cover with another, and press out every drop of water possible. Where a wringing machine is convenient and sufficiently wide, passing the blotters and print through the rollers is better than mere pressing with the hands. The print, still moist, is then laid face upward on a heavy glass plate (a marble slab or a lithographers’ stone answers equally well), and smoothed out. With a very soft sponge go over the surface with a thin coating of gum-arabic water. The print is now ready for inking, which is done exactly as in lithographing, with a roller and printers’ or lithographers’ ink, cut with oil of turpentine. Suitable paper is then laid on and rolled with a dry roller. This gives a reverse image of the print, which is then applied to a zinc plate or a lithographers’ stone, and as many prints as desired pulled off in the usual lithographing method. When carefully done and the right kind of paper used, it is said that the imitation of the original is perfect in every detail.

«To Copy Old Letters, Manuscripts, etc.»—If written in the commercial ink of the period from 1860 to 1864, which was almost universally an iron and tannin or gallic-acid ink, the following process may succeed: Make a thin solution of glucose, or honey, in water, and with this wet the paper in the usually observed way in copying recent documents in the letter book, put in the press, and screw down tightly. Let it remain in the press somewhat longer than in copying recent documents. When removed, before attempting to separate the papers, expose to the fumes of strong water of ammonia, copy side downward.


See also Ropes.

«Strong Twine.»—An extraordinarily strong pack thread or cord, stronger even than the so-called “Zuckerschnur,” may be obtained by laying the thread of fibers in a strong solution of alum, and then carefully drying them.

«Preservation of Fishing Nets.»—The following recipe for the preservation of fishing nets is also applicable to ropes, etc., in contact with water. Some have been subjected to long test.

For 40 parts of cord, hemp, or cotton, 3 parts of kutch, 1 part of blue vitriol, 1/2 part of potassium chromate, and 2 1/2 parts of wood tar are required. The kutch is boiled with 150 parts of water until dissolved, and then the blue vitriol is added. Next, the net is entered and the tar added. The whole should be stirred well, and the cordage must boil 5 to 8 minutes. Now take out the netting, lay it in another vessel, cover up well, and leave alone for 12 hours. After that it is dried well, spread out in a clean place, and coated with linseed oil. Not before 6 hours have elapsed should it be folded together and put into the water. The treatment with linseed oil may be omitted.



CORDIALS: See Wines and Liquors.


«Impervious Corks.»—Corks which have been steeped in petrolatum are said to be an excellent substitute for glass stoppers. Acid in no way affects them and chemical fumes do not cause decay in them, neither do they become fixed by a blow or long disuse. {224}

«Non-Porous Corks.»—For benzine, turpentine, and varnish cans, immerse the corks in hot melted paraffine. Keep them under about 5 minutes; hold them down with a piece of wire screen cut to fit the dish in which you melt the paraffine. When taken out lay them on a screen till cool. Cheap corks can in this way be made gas- and air-tight, and can be cut and bored with ease.

«Substitute for Cork.»—Wood pulp or other ligneous material may be treated to imitate cork. For the success of the composition it is necessary that the constituents be mingled and treated under special conditions. The volumetric proportions in which these constituents combine with the best results are the following: Wood pulp, 3 parts; cornstalk pith, 1 part; gelatin, 1 part; glycerine, 1 part; water, 4 parts; 20 per cent formic-aldehyde solution, 1 part; but the proportions may be varied. After disintegrating the ligneous substances, and while these are in a moist and hot condition they are mingled with the solution of gelatin, glycerine, and water. The mass is stirred thoroughly so as to obtain a homogeneous mixture. The excess of moisture is removed. As a last operation the formic aldehyde is introduced, and the mass is left to coagulate in this solution. The formic aldehyde renders the product insoluble in nearly all liquids. So it is in this last operation that it is necessary to be careful in producing the composition properly. When the operation is terminated the substance is submitted to pressure during its coagulation, either by molding it at once into a desired form, or into a mass which is afterwards converted into the finished product.

CORKS, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.

CORK TO METAL, FASTENING: See Adhesives, under Pastes.


CORKS, WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.


I.—Salicylic-Acid Corn Cure.—Extract cannabis indica, 1 part, by measure; salicylic acid, 10 parts, by measure; oil of turpentine, 5 parts, by measure; acetic acid, glacial, 2 parts, by measure; cocaine, alkaloidal, 2 parts, by measure; collodion, elastic, sufficient to make 100 parts. Apply a thin coating every night, putting each layer directly on the preceding one. After a few applications, the mass drops off, bringing the indurated portion, and frequently the whole of the corn, off with it.

II.—Compound Salicylated Collodion Corn Cure.—Salicylic acid, 11 parts, by weight; extract of Indian hemp, 2 parts, by weight; alcohol, 10 parts, by weight; flexible collodion, U. S. P., a sufficient quantity to make 100 parts, by weight.

The extract is dissolved in the alcohol and the acid in about 50 parts, by weight, of collodion, the solutions mixed, and the liquid made up to the required amount. The Indian hemp is presumably intended to prevent pain; whether it serves this or any other useful purpose seems a matter of doubt. The acid is frequently used without this addition.

III.—Extract of cannabis indica, 90 grains; salicylic acid, 1 ounce; alcohol, 1 ounce; collodion enough to make 10 ounces. Soften the extract with the alcohol, then add the collodion, and lastly the acid.

IV.—Resorcin, 1 part, by weight; salicylic acid, 1 part, by weight; lactic acid, 1 part, by weight; collodion elasticum, 10 parts, by weight. Paint the corn daily for 5 or 6 days with the above solution and take a foot bath in very hot water. The corn will readily come off.

«Corn Plaster.»—Yellow wax, 24 parts, by weight; Venice turpentine, 3 parts, by weight; rosin, 2 parts, by weight; salicylic acid, 2 parts, by weight; balsam of Peru, 2 parts, by weight; lanolin, 4 parts, by weight.

«Corn Cure.»—Melt soap plaster, 85 parts, by weight, and yellow wax, 5 parts by weight, in a vapor bath, and stir finely ground salicylic acid, 10 parts, by weight, into it.

«Removal of Corns.»—The liquid used by chiropodists with pumice stone for the removal of corns and callosities is usually nothing more than a solution of potassa or concentrated lye, the pumice stone being dipped into the solution by the operator just before using.

«Treatment of Bunions.»—Wear right and left stockings and shoes, the inner edges of the sole of which are perfectly straight. The bunion is bathed night and morning in a 4 per cent solution of carbolic acid for a few minutes, followed by plain water. If, after several weeks, the bursa is still distended with fluid, it is aspirated. If the bunion is due to flatfoot, the arch of the foot must be restored by a plate. When the joints are enlarged because of gout or {225} rheumatism, the constitutional conditions must be treated. In other cases, osteotomy and tenotomy are required.

«The Treatment of Corns.»—Any corn may be speedily and permanently cured. The treatment is of three kinds—preventive, palliative, and curative.

I.—The preventive treatment lies in adopting such measures as will secure freedom from pressure and friction for the parts most liable to corns. To this end a well-fitting shoe is essential. The shoes should be of well-seasoned leather, soft and elastic, and should be cut to a proper model.

II.—The palliative treatment is generally carried out with chemical substances. The best method, is, briefly, as follows: A ring of glycerine jelly is painted around the circumference of the corn, to form a raised rampart. A piece of salicylic plaster mull is then cut to the size and shape of the central depression, and applied to the surface of the corn. This is then covered with a layer of glycerine jelly, and before it sets a pad of cotton wool is applied to the surface. This process is repeated as often as is necessary, until the horny layer separates and is cast off.

If the point of a sharp, thin-bladed knife be introduced at the groove which runs around the margin of the corn, and be made to penetrate toward its central axis, by the exercise of a little manual dexterity the horny part of the corn can be easily made to separate from the parts beneath.

III.—Any method of treatment to be curative must secure the removal of the entire corn, together with the underlying bursa. It is mainly in connection with the latter structure that complications, which alone make a corn a matter of serious import, are likely to arise. Freeland confidently advises the full and complete excision of corns, on the basis of his experience in upward of 60 cases.

Every precaution having been taken to render the operation aseptic, a spot is selected for the injection of the anæsthetic solution. The skin is rendered insensitive with ethyl chloride, and 5 minims of a 4 per cent solution of cocaine is injected into the subcutaneous tissue beneath the corn. After a wait of a few minutes the superficial parts of the site of the incision are rendered insensitive with ethyl chloride. Anæsthesia is now complete.

Two semielliptical incisions meeting at their extremities are made through the skin abound the circumference of the growth, care being taken that they penetrate well into the subcutaneous tissue. Seizing the parts included in the incision with a pair of dissecting forceps, a wedge-shaped piece of tissue—including the corn, a layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue, and the bursa if present—is dissected out. The oozing is pretty free, and it is sometimes necessary to torsion a small vessel; but the hemorrhage is never severe. The edges of the wound are brought together by one or two fine sutures; an antiseptic dressing is applied, and the wound is left to heal—primary union in a few days being the rule. The rapidity of the healing is often phenomenal. There is produced a scar tissue at the site of the corn, but this leads to no untoward results.



I.—Oil of almonds 425 parts Lanolin 185 parts White wax 62 parts Spermaceti 62 parts Borax 4.5 parts Rose water 300 part

Melt together the first four ingredients, then incorporate the solution of borax in the rose water.

II.—Tragacanth 125 parts Boric acid 100 parts Glycerine 140 parts Expressed oil of almonds 50 parts Glyconine 50 parts Oil of lavender 0.5 parts Water enough to make 1,000 parts

Mix the tragacanth and the boric acid with the glycerine; add the almond oil, lavender oil, and egg glycerite, which have been previously well incorporated, and, lastly, add the water in divided portions until a clear jelly of the desired consistency is obtained.

III.—Oil of almonds 26 ounces Castor oil (odorless) 6 ounces Lard (benzoated) 8 ounces White wax 8 ounces Rose water (in winter less, in summer more, than quantity named) 12 ounces Orange-flower water 8 ounces Oil of rose 15 minims Extract of jasmine 6 drachms Extract of cassia 4 drachms Borax 2 ounces Glycerine 4 ounces


Melt the oil of sweet almonds, wax, and lard together, and stir in the castor oil; make a solution of the borax in the glycerine and rose and orange-flower waters; add this solution, a little at a time, to the melted fat, stirring constantly to insure thorough incorporation; finally add the oil of rose dissolved in the extracts, and beat the ointment until cold.

IV.—Spermaceti (pure), 1/4 ounce; white wax (pure), 1/4 ounce; almond oil, 1/4 pound; butter of cocoa, 1/4 pound; lanolin, 2 ounces.

Melt and stir in 1 drachm of balsam of Peru. After settling, pour off the clear portion and add 2 fluidrachms of orange-flower water and stir briskly until it concretes.

«Camphorated Cold Cream.»—

Oil of sweet almonds 8 fluidounces White wax 1 ounce Spermaceti 1 ounce Camphor 1 ounce Rose water 5 fluidounces Borax (in fine powder) 4 drachms Oil of rose 10 drops

Melt the wax and spermaceti, add the oil of sweet almonds, in which the camphor has been dissolved with very gentle heat; then gradually add the rose water, in which the borax has previously been dissolved, beating or agitating constantly with a wooden spatula until cold. Lastly add the oil of rose.

«Petrolatum Cold Cream.»—

Petrolatum (white) 7 ounces Paraffine 1/2 ounce Lanolin 2 ounces Water 3 ounces Oil of rose 3 drops Alcohol 1 drachm

A small quantity of borax may be added, if desirable, and the perfume may be varied to suit the taste.


«Pomades for the Lips.»—Lip pomatum which is said always to retain a handsome red color and never to grow rancid is prepared as follows:

I.—Paraffine 80.0 parts Vaseline 80.0 parts Anchusine 0.5 parts Bergamot oil 1.0 part Lemon peel 1.0 part

II.—Vaseline Pomade.—

Vaseline oil, white 1,000 parts Wax, white 300 part Geranium oil, African. 40 parts Lemon oil. 20 parts

III.—Rose Pomade.—

Almond oil 1,000 parts Wax, white 300 parts Alkannin 3 parts Geranium oil 20 parts

IV.—Yellow Pomade.—

Vaseline oil, white. 1,000 parts Wax, white 200 parts Spermaceti 200 parts Saffron surrogate. 10 parts Clove oil. 20 parts

V.—White Pomade.—

Vaseline oil, white 1,000 parts Wax, white. 300 parts Bitter almond oil, genuine. 10 parts Lemon oil 2 parts

VI.—Paraffine 49.0 parts Vaseline. 49.0 parts Oil of lemon. 0.75 parts Oil of violet 0.75 parts Carmine, quantity sufficient.

«Lipol.»—For treating sore, rough, or inflamed lips, apply the following night and morning, rubbing in well with the finger tips: Camphor, 1/2 ounce; menthol, 1/2 ounce; eucalyptol, 1 drachm; petrolatum (white), 1 pound; paraffine, 1/2 pound; alkanet root, 1/2 ounce; oil of bitter almonds, 15 drops; oil of cloves, 10 drops; oil of cassia, 5 drops. Digest the root in the melted paraffine and petrolatum, strain, add the other ingredients and pour into lip jars, hot.


«Powdered Nail Polishes.»—

I.—Tin oxide 8 drachms Carmine 1/4 drachm Rose oil. 6 drops Neroli oil. 5 drops

II.—Cinnabar. 1 drachm Infusorial earth. 8 drachms

III.—Putty powder (fine). 4 drachms Carmine. 2 grains Oil of rose. 1 drop

IV.—White castile soap. 1 part Hot water 16 parts Zinc chloride solution, 10 per cent, quantity sufficient.

Dissolve the soap in the water and to the solution add the zinc-chloride solution until no further precipitation occurs. Let stand over night; pour off the supernatant fluid, wash the precipitate {227} well with water, and dry at the ordinary temperature. Carmine may be added if desired.

«Polishing Pastes for the Nails.»—

I.—Talcum. 5 drachms Stannous oxide. 3 drachms Powdered tragacanth 5 grains Glycerine 1 drachm Rose water, quantity sufficient. Solution of carmine sufficient to tint.

Make paste.

For softening the nails, curing hangnails, etc., an ointment is sometimes used consisting of white petrolatum, 8 parts; powdered castile soap, 1 part; and perfume to suit.

II.—Eosine 10 grains White wax 1/2 drachm Spermaceti 1/2 drachm Soft paraffine 1 ounce Alcohol, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the eosine in as little alcohol as will suffice, melt the other ingredients together, add the solution, and stir until cool.

«Nail-Cleaning Washes.»—

I.—Tartaric acid 1 drachm Tincture of myrrh 1 drachm Cologne water 2 drachms Water 3 ounces

Dissolve the acid in the water; mix the tincture of myrrh and cologne, and add to the acid solution.

Dip the nails in this solution, wipe, and polish with chamois skin.

II.—Oxalic acid 30 grains Rose water 1 ounce

«Nail Varnish.»—

Paraffine wax 60 grains Chloroform 2 ounces Oil of rose 3 drops


I.—Beef-Marrow Pomade.—

Vaseline oil, yellow 20,000 parts Ceresine, yellow 3,000 parts Beef marrow 2,000 parts Saffron substitute 15 parts Lemon oil 50 parts Bergamot oil 20 parts Clove oil 5 parts Lavender oil. 10 parts

II.—China Pomade.—

Vaseline oil, yellow 20,000 parts Ceresine, yellow 5,000 parts Brilliant, brown 12 parts Peru balsam 50 parts Lemon oil 5 parts Bergamot oil 5 parts Clove oil 5 parts Lavender oil 5 parts

III.—Crystalline Honey Pomade.—Nut oil, 125 drachms; spermaceti, 15 drachms; gamboge, 2 drachms; vervain oil, 10 drops; cinnamon oil, 20 drops; bergamot oil, 30 drops; rose oil, 3 drops. The spermaceti is melted in the nut oil on a water bath and digested with the gamboge for 20 minutes; it is next strained, scented, and poured into cans which are standing in water. The cooling must take place very slowly. Instead of gamboge, butter color may be used. Any desired scent mixture may be employed.

IV.—Herb Pomade.—

Vaseline oil, yellow 20,000 parts Ceresine, yellow 5,000 parts Chlorophyll 20 parts Lemon oil 50 parts Clove oil 20 parts Geranium oil, African 12 parts Curled mint oil. 4 parts

V.—Rose Pomade.—

Vaseline oil, white 20,000 parts Ceresine, white 5,000 parts Alkannin 15 parts Geranium oil, African 50 parts Palmarosa oil 30 parts Lemon oil 20 parts

VI.—Strawberry Pomade.—When the strawberry season is on, and berries are plenty and cheap, the following is timely:

Strawberries, ripe and fresh 4 parts Lard, sweet and fresh 25 parts Tallow, fresh 5 parts Alkanet tincture, quantity sufficient. Essential oil, quantity sufficient to perfume.

Melt lard and tallow together on the water bath at the temperature of boiling water. Have the strawberries arranged on a straining cloth. Add the alkanet tincture to the melted grease, stir in, and then pour the mixture over the berries. Stir the strained fats until the mass {228} begins to set, then add the perfume and stir in. A little artificial essence of strawberries may be added. The odor usually employed is rose, about 1 drop to every 2 pounds.

VII.—Stick Pomade.—

Tallow 500 parts Ceresine 150 parts Wax, yellow 50 parts Rosin, light 200 parts Paraffine oil (thick) 300 parts Oil of cassia. 5 parts Oil of bergamot 5 parts Oil of clove 2 parts

VIII.—Vaseline Pomade.—Melt 250 parts of freshly rendered lard and 25 parts of white wax at moderate heat and mix well with 200 parts of vaseline. Add 15 parts of bergamot oil, 3 parts of lavender oil, 2 parts of geranium oil, and 2 parts of lemon oil, mixing well.

IX.—Witch-Hazel Jelly.—

Oil of sweet almonds 256 parts Extract of witch-hazel fluid 10 parts Glycerine 32 parts oft soap 20 parts Tincture of musk, quantity sufficient to perfume.

Mix in a large mortar the glycerine and soft soap and stir until incorporated. Add and rub in the witch-hazel, and then add the oil, slowly, letting it fall in a very thin, small stream, under constant agitation; add the perfume, keeping up the agitation until complete incorporation is attained. Ten drops of musk to a quart of jelly is sufficient. Any other perfume may be used.

«Colors for Pomade.»—Pomade may be colored red by infusing alkanet in the grease; yellow may be obtained by using annotto in the same way; an oil-soluble chlorophyll will give a green color by admixture.

In coloring grease by means of alkanet or annotto it is best to tie the drug up in a piece of coarse cloth, place in a small portion of the grease, heat gently, squeezing well with a rod from time to time; and then adding this strongly colored grease to the remainder. This procedure obviates exposing the entire mass to heat, and neither decantation nor straining is needed.

«Brocq’s Pomade for Itching.»—

Acid phenic 1 part Acid salicylic 2 parts Acid tartaric 3 parts Glycerole of starch 60 to 100 parts

Mix and make a pomade.

«White Cosmetique.»—

Jasmine pomade 2 ounces Tuberose pomade 2 ounces White wax 2 ounces Refined suet 4 ounces Rose oil 15 minims

Melt the wax and suet over a water bath, then add the pomades, and finally the otto.

«Glycerine and Cucumber Jelly.»—

Gelatin 160 to 240 grains Boric acid 240 grains Glycerine 6 fluidounces Water 10 fluidounces

Perfume to suit. The perfume must be one that mixes without opalescence, otherwise it mars the beauty of the preparation. Orange-flower water or rose water could be substituted for the water if desired, or another perfume consisting of

Spirit of vanillin (15 grains per ounce) 2 fluidrachms Spirit of coumarin (15 grains per ounce) 2 fluidrachms Spirit of bitter almonds (1/8) 8 minims

to the quantities given above would prove agreeable.

«Cucumber Pomade.»—

Cucumber pomade 2 ounces Powdered white soap 1/2 ounce Powdered borax 2 drachms Cherry-laurel water 3 ounces Rectified spirit 3 ounces Distilled water to make 48 ounces

Rub the pomade with the soap and borax until intimately mixed, then add the distilled water (which may be warmed to blood heat), ounce by ounce, to form a smooth and uniform cream. When 40 ounces of water have been so incorporated, dissolve any essential oils desired as perfume in the spirit, and add the cherry-laurel water, making up to 48 ounces with plain water.


«Grease Paints.»—Theatrical face paints are sold in sticks, and there are many varieties of color. Yellows are obtained with ocher; browns with burnt umber; and blue is made with ultramarine. These colors should in each case be levigated finely along with their own weight {229} of equal parts of precipitated chalk and oxide of zinc and diluted with the same to the tint required, then made into sticks with mutton suet (or vaseline or paraffine, equal parts) well perfumed. By blending these colors, other tints may thus be obtained.

«White Grease Paints.»—

I.—Prepared chalk 4 av. ounces Zinc oxide 4 av. ounces Bismuth subnitrate 4 av. ounces Asbestos powder 4 av. ounces Sweet almond oil, about 2 1/2 fluidounces Camphor 40 grains Oil peppermint 3 fluidrachms Esobouquet extract 3 fluidrachms

Sufficient almond oil should be used to form a mass of proper consistence.

II.—Zinc oxide. 8 parts Bismuth subnitrate 8 parts Aluminum oxychloride 8 parts Almond oil, quantity sufficient, or 5–6 parts. Perfume, quantity sufficient.

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum oxychloride thoroughly; make into a paste with the oil. Any perfume may be added, but that generally used is composed of 1 drachm of essence of bouquet, 12 grains of camphor, and 12 minims of oil of peppermint for every 3 1/2 ounces of paste.

«Bright Red.»—

Zinc oxide 10 parts Bismuth subnitrate 10 parts Aluminum oxychloride 10 parts Almond oil, quantity sufficient.

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum salts, and to every 4 ounces of the mixture add 2 1/4 grains of eosine dissolved in a drachm of essence of bouquet, 12 minims oil of peppermint, and 12 grains of camphor. Make the whole into a paste with almond oil.


Cacao butter 4 av. ounces White wax 4 av. ounces Olive oil 2 fluidounces Oil of rose 8 drops Oil of bergamot 3 drops Oil of neroli 2 drops Tincture musk 2 drops Carmine 90 grains Ammonia water 3 fluidrachms

«Deep, or Bordeaux, Red.»—

Zinc oxide 30 parts Bismuth subnitrate 30 parts Aluminum oxychloride 30 parts Carmine 1 part Ammonia water 5 parts Essence bouquet 3 parts Peppermint, camphor, etc., quantity sufficient.

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum salts. Dissolve the carmine in the ammonia and add solution to the mixture. Add 24 grains of camphor, and 24 minims of oil of peppermint dissolved in the essence bouquet, and make the whole into a paste with oil of sweet almonds.


Vermilion 18 parts Tincture of saffron 12 parts Orris root, powdered 30 parts Chalk, precipitated 120 parts Zinc oxide 120 parts Camphor 2 parts Essence bouquet 9 parts Oil of peppermint 2 parts Almond oil, quantity sufficient.

Mix as before.


Zinc carbonate 250 parts Bismuth subnitrate 250 parts Asbestos 250 parts Expressed oil of almonds 100 parts Camphor 55 parts Oil of peppermint 55 parts Perfume 25 parts Eosine 1 part

«Dark Red.»—Like the preceding, but colored with a solution of carmine.


Zinc oxide. 2 1/2 ounces Bismuth subnitrate 2 1/2 ounces Aluminum plumbate 2 1/2 ounces Eosine 1 drachm Essence bouquet 2 drachms Camphor 6 drachms Oil of peppermint 20 minims Almond oil, quantity sufficient.

Dissolve the eosine in the essence bouquet, and mix with the camphor and peppermint; add the powder and make into a paste with almond oil.

«Black Grease Paints.»—

I.—Soot 2 av. ounces Sweet almond oil 2 fluidounces Cacao butter 6 av. ounces Perfume, sufficient.


The soot should be derived from burning camphor and repeatedly washed with alcohol. It should be triturated to a smooth mixture with the oil; then add to the melted cacao butter; add the perfume, and form into sticks.

Brown or other colors may be obtained by adding appropriate pigments, such as finely levigated burned umber, sienna, ocher, jeweler’s rouge, etc., to the foregoing base instead of lampblack.

II.—Best lampblack 1 drachm Cacao butter 3 drachms Olive oil 3 drachms Oil of neroli 2 drops

Melt the cacao butter and oil, add the lampblack, and stir constantly as the mixture cools, adding the perfume toward the end.

III.—Lampblack 1 part Cacao butter 6 parts Oil neroli, sufficient.

Melt the cacao butter and the lampblack, and while cooling make an intimate mixture, adding the perfume toward the last.

IV.—Lampblack. 1 part Expressed oil of almonds 1 part Oil cocoanut 1 part Perfume, sufficient.

Beat the lampblack into a stiff paste with glycerine. Apply with a sponge; if necessary, mix a little water with it when using.

V.—Beat the finest lampblack into a stiff paste with glycerine and apply with a sponge; if necessary, add a little water to the mixture when using. Or you can make a grease paint as follows: Drop black, 2 drachms; almond oil, 2 drachms; cocoanut oil, 6 drachms; oil of lemon, 5 minims; oil of neroli, 1 minim. Mix.

«Fatty Face Powders.»—These have a small percentage of fat mixed with them in order to make the powder adhere to the skin.

Dissolve 1 drachm anhydrous lanolin in 2 drachms of ether in a mortar. Add 3 drachms of light magnesia. Mix well, dry, and then add the following: French chalk, 2 ounces; powdered starch, 1 1/2 ounces; boric acid, 1 drachm; perfume, a sufficient quantity. A good perfume is coumarin, 2 grains, and attar of rose, 2 minims.

«Nose Putty.»—I.—Mix 1 ounce wheat flour with 2 drachms of powdered tragacanth and tint with carmine. Take as much of the powder as necessary, knead into a stiff paste with a little water and apply to the nose, having previously painted it with spirit gum.

II.—White wax, 8 parts; rosin, white, 8 parts; mutton suet, 4 parts; color to suit. Melt together.

«Rose Powder.»—As a base take 200 parts of powdered iris root, add 600 parts of rose petals, 100 parts of sandalwood, 100 parts of patchouli, 3 parts of oil of geranium, and 2 parts of true rose oil.

«Rouge Tablets.»—There are two distinct classes of these tablets: those in which the coloring matter is carmine, and those in which the aniline colors are used. The best are those prepared with carmine, or ammonium carminate, to speak more correctly. The following is an excellent formula:

Ammonium carminate 10 parts Talc, in powder 25 parts Dextrin 8 parts Simple syrup, sufficient. Perfume, to taste, sufficient.

Mix the talc and dextrin and add the perfume, preferably in the shape of an essential oil (attar of rose, synthetic oil of jasmine, or violet, etc.), using 6 to 8 drops to every 4 ounces of other ingredients. Incorporate the ammonium carminate and add just enough simple syrup to make a mass easily rolled out. Cut into tablets of the desired size. The ammonium carminate is made by adding 1 part of carmine to 2 1/2 parts of strong ammonia water. Mix in a vial, cork tightly, and set aside until a solution is formed, shaking occasionally. The ammonium carminate is made by dissolving carmine in ammonia water to saturation.

«Rouge Palettes.»—To prepare rouge palettes rub up together:

Carmine 9 parts French chalk 50 parts Almond oil 12 parts

Add enough tragacanth mucilage to make the mass adhere and spread the whole evenly on the porcelain palette.

«Liquid Rouge.»—

I.—Carmine 4 parts Stronger ammonia water 4 parts Essence of rose 16 parts Rose water to make. 500 parts

Mix. A very delightful violet odor, if this is preferred, is obtained by using ionone in place of rose essence. A cheaper preparation may be made as follows: {231}

II.—Eosine 1 part Distilled water 20 parts Glycerine 5 parts Cologne water 75 parts Alcohol 100 parts


Rub together with 10 parts of almond oil and add sufficient mucilage of tragacanth to make the mass adhere to the porcelain palette.

III.—Carmine 1 part Stronger ammonia water 1 part Attar of rose 4 parts Rose water 125 parts

Mix. Any other color may be used in place of rose, violet (ionone), for instance, or heliotrope. A cheaper preparation may be made by substituting eosine for the carmine, as follows:

IV.—Eosine 1 part Distilled water 20 parts Glycerine 5 parts Cologne water 75 parts Alcohol 100 parts


«Peach Tint.»—

_a._—Buffalo eosine 4 drachms Distilled water 16 fluidounces


_b._—Pure hydrochloric acid 2 1/2 drachms Distilled water 64 fluidounces


Pour _a_ into _b_, shake, and set aside for a few hours; then pour off the clear portion and collect the precipitate on a filter. Wash with the same amount of _b_ and immediately throw the precipitate into a glass measure, stirring in with a glass rod sufficient of _b_ to measure 16 ounces in all. Pass through a hair sieve to get out any filtering paper. To every 16 ounces add 8 ounces of glycerine.

«Theater Rouge.»—Base:

Cornstarch 4 drachms Powdered white talcum 6 drachms


_a._—Carminoline 10 grains Base 6 drachms Water 4 drachms

Dissolve the carminoline in the water, mix with the base and dry.

_b._—Geranium red 10 grains Base 6 drachms Water 4 drachms

Mix as above and dry.


Wrinkles on the face yield to a wash consisting of 50 parts milk of almonds (made with rose water) and 4 parts aluminum sulphate. Use morning and night.

Rough skin is to be washed constantly in Vichy water. Besides this, rough places are to have the following application twice daily—either a few drops of:

I.—Rose water 100 parts Glycerine 25 parts Tannin 3/4 part

Mix. Or use:

II.—Orange-flower water 100 parts Glycerine 10 parts Borax 2 parts

Mix. Sig.: Apply twice daily.

«“Beauty Cream.”»—This formula gives the skin a beautiful, smooth, and fresh appearance, and, at the same time, serves to protect and preserve it:

Alum, powdered 10 grams Whites of 2 eggs Boric acid 3 grams Tincture of benzoin 40 drops Olive oil 40 drops Mucilage of acacia 5 drops Rice flour, quantity sufficient. Perfume, quantity sufficient.

Mix the alum and the white of eggs, without any addition of water whatever, in an earthen vessel, and dissolve the alum by the aid of very gentle heat (derived from a lamp, or gaslight, regulated to a very small flame), and constant, even, stirring. This must continue until the aqueous content of the albumen is completely driven off. Care must be taken to avoid coagulation of the albumen (which occurs very easily, as all know). Let the mass obtained in this manner get completely cold, then throw into a Wedgwood mortar, add the boric acid, tincture of benzoin, oil, mucilage (instead of which a solution of fine gelatin may be used), etc., and rub up together, thickening it with the addition of sufficient rice flour to give the desired consistence, and perfuming at will. Instead of olive oil any pure fat, or fatty oil, may be used, even vaseline or glycerine.

«Face Bleach or Beautifier.»—

Syrupy lactic acid 40 ounces Glycerine 80 ounces Distilled water 5 gallons

Mix. Gradually add

Tincture of benzoin 3 ounces

Color by adding {232}

Carmine No. 40 40 grains Glycerine 1 ounce Ammonia solution 1/2 ounce Water to 3 ounces

Heat this to drive off the ammonia, and mix all. Shake, set aside; then filter, and add

Solution of ionone 1 drachm

Add a few drachms of kaolin and filter until bright.


I.—Lactic acid 1 drachm Boric acid 1 drachm Ceresine 1 drachm Paraffine oil 6 drachms Hydrous wool fat 1 1/2 ounces Castor oil 6 drachms

II.—Unna advises hydrogen dioxide in the treatment of blackheads, his prescription being:

Hydrogen dioxide 20 to 40 parts Hydrous wool fat 10 parts Petrolatum 30 parts

III.—Thymol 1 part Boric acid 2 parts Tincture of witch-hazel 18 parts Rose water sufficient to make 200 parts

Mix. Apply to the face night and morning with a sponge, first washing the face with hot water and castile soap, and drying it with a coarse towel, using force enough to start the dried secretions. An excellent plan is to steam the face by holding it over a basin of hot water, keeping the head covered with a cloth.

IV.—Ichthyol 1 drachm Zinc oxide 2 drachms Starch 2 drachms Petrolatum 3 drachms

This paste should be applied at night. The face should first be thoroughly steamed or washed in water as hot as can be comfortably borne. All pustules should then be opened and blackheads emptied with as little violence as possible. After careful drying the paste should be thoroughly rubbed into the affected areas. In the morning, after removing the paste with a bland soap, bathe with cool water and dry with little friction.


«Chapped Skin.»—

I.—Glycerine 8 parts Bay rum 4 parts Ammonia water 4 parts Rose water 4 parts

Mix the bay rum and glycerine, add the ammonia water, and finally the rose water. It is especially efficacious after shaving.

II.—As glycerine is bad for the skin of many people, here is a recipe which will be found more generally satisfactory as it contains less glycerine: Bay rum, 3 ounces; glycerine, 1 ounce; carbolic acid, 1/2 drachm (30 drops). Wash the hands well and apply while hands are soft, preferably just before going to bed. Rub in thoroughly. This rarely fails to cure the worst “chaps” in two nights.

III.—A sure remedy for chapped hands consists in keeping them carefully dry and greasing them now and then with an anhydrous fat (not cold cream). The best substances for the purpose are unguentum cereum or oleum olivarum.

If the skin of the hands is already cracked the following preparation will heal it:

Finely ground zinc oxide, 5.0 parts; bismuth oxychloride, 2.0 parts; with fat oil, 12.0 parts; next add glycerine, 5.0 parts; lanolin, 30.0 parts; and scent with rose water, 10.0 parts.

IV.—Wax salve (olive oil 7 parts, and yellow wax 3 parts), or pure olive oil.

«Hand-Cleaning Paste.»—Cleaning pastes are composed of soap and grit, either with or without some free alkali. Any soap may be used, but a white soap is preferred. Castile soap does not make as firm a paste as soap made from animal fats, and the latter also lather better. For grit, anything may be used, from powdered pumice to fine sand.

A good paste may be made by dissolving soap in the least possible quantity of hot water, and as it cools and sets stirring in the grit. A good formula is:

White soap 2 1/2 pounds Fine sand 1 pound Water 5 1/2 pints

«Lotion for the Hands.»—

Boric acid 1 drachm Glycerine 6 drachms

Dissolve by heat and mix with

Lanolin 6 drachms Vaseline 1 ounce

Add any perfume desired. The borated glycerine should be cooled before mixing it with the lanolin.

«Cosmetic Jelly.»—

Tragacanth (white ribbon) 60 grains Rose water 14 ounces

Macerate for two days and strain forcibly through coarse muslin or cheese {233} cloth. Add glycerine and alcohol, of each 1 ounce. Perfume to suit. Use immediately after bathing, rubbing in well until dry.

«Perspiring Hands.»—I.—Take rectified eau de cologne, 50 parts (by weight); belladonna dye, 8 parts; glycerine, 3 parts; rub gently twice or three times a day with half a tablespoonful of this mixture. One may also employ chalk, carbonate of magnesia, rice starch, hot and cold baths of the hands (as hot and as cold as can be borne), during 6 minutes, followed by a solution of 4 parts of tannin in 32 of glycerine.

II.—Rub the hands several times per day with the following mixture:

By weight Rose water 125 parts Borax 10 parts Glycerine 8 parts

«Hand Bleach.»—Lanolin, 30 parts; glycerine, 20 parts; borax, 10 parts; eucalyptol, 2 parts; essential oil of almonds, 1 part. After rubbing the hands with this mixture, cover them with gloves during the night.

For the removal of developing stains, see Photography.


«Massage Application.»—

White potash soap, shaved 20 parts Glycerine 30 parts Water 30 parts Alcohol (90 per cent) 10 parts

Dissolve the soap by heating it with the glycerine and water, mixed. Add the alcohol, and for every 30 ounces of the solution add 5 or 6 drops of the mistura oleoso balsamica, German Pharmacopœia. Filter while hot.

«Medicated Massage Balls.»—They are the balls of paraffine wax molded with a smooth or rough surface with menthol, camphor, oil of wintergreen, oil of peppermint, etc., added before shaping. Specially useful in headaches, neuralgias, and rheumatic affections, and many other afflictions of the skin and bones. The method of using them is to roll the ball over the affected part by the aid of the palm of the hand with pressure. Continue until relief is obtained or a sensation of warmth. The only external method for the treatment of all kinds of headaches is the menthol medicated massage ball. This may be made with smooth or corrugated surfaces. Keep wrapped in foil in cool places.

«Casein Massage Cream.»—The basis of the modern massage cream is casein. Casein is now produced very cheaply in the powdered form, and by treatment with glycerine and perfumes it is possible to turn out a satisfactory cream. The following formula is suggested:

Skimmed milk 1 gallon Water of ammonia 1 ounce Acetic acid 1 ounce Oil of rose geranium 1 drachm Oil of bitter almond 1 drachm Oil of anise 2 drachms Cold cream (see below), enough. Carmine enough to color.

Add the water of ammonia to the milk and let it stand 24 hours. Then add the acetic acid and let it stand another 24 hours. Then strain through cheese cloth and add the oils. Work this thoroughly in a Wedgwood mortar, adding enough carmine to color it a delicate pink. To the product thus obtained add an equal amount of cold cream made by the formula herewith given:

White wax 4 ounces Spermaceti 4 ounces White petrolatum 12 ounces Rose water 14 ounces Borax 80 grains

Melt the wax, spermaceti, and petrolatum together over a water bath; dissolve the borax in the rose water and add to the melted mass at one time. Agitate violently. Presumably the borax solution should be of the same temperature as the melted mass.

«Massage Skin Foods.»—

This preparation is used in massage for removing wrinkles:

I.—White wax 1/2 ounce Spermaceti 1/2 ounce Cocoanut oil 1 ounce Lanolin 1 ounce Oil of sweet almonds 2 ounces

Melt in a porcelain dish, remove from the fire, and add

Orange-flower water 1 ounce Tincture of benzoin 3 drops

Beat briskly until creamy.

II.—Snow-white cold cream 4 ounces Lanolin 4 ounces Oil of Theobroma 4 ounces White petrolatum oil 4 ounces Distilled water 4 ounces

In hot weather add

Spermaceti 1 1/2 drachms White wax 2 1/2 drachms


In winter the two latter are left out and the proportion of cocoa butter is modified. Prepared and perfumed in proportion same as cold cream.

III.—White petrolatum 7 av. ounces Paraffine wax 1/2 ounce Lanolin 2 av. ounces Water 3 fluidounces Oil of rose 3 drops Vanillin 2 grains Alcohol 1 fluidrachm

Melt the paraffine, add the lanolin and petrolatum, and when these have melted pour the mixture into a warm mortar, and, with constant stirring, incorporate the water. When nearly cold add the oil and vanillin, dissolved in the alcohol.

Preparations of this kind should be rubbed into the skin vigorously, as friction assists the absorbed fat in developing the muscles, and also imparts softness and fullness to the skin.


See also Cleaning Methods and Photography for removal of stains caused by photographic developers.

«Astringent Wash for Flabby Skin.»—This is used to correct coarse pores, and to remedy an oily or flabby skin. Apply with sponge night and morning:

Cucumber juice 1 1/2 ounces Tincture of benzoin 1/2 ounce Cologne 1 ounce Elder-flower water 5 ounces

Put the tincture of benzoin in an 8-ounce bottle, add the other ingredients, previously mixed, and shake slightly. There will be some precipitation of benzoin in this mixture, but it will settle out, or it may be strained out through cheese cloth.

«Bleaching Skin Salves.»—A skin-bleaching action, due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide, is possessed by the following mixtures:

I.—Lanolin 30 parts Bitter almond oil 10 parts

Mix and stir with this salve base a solution of

Borax 1 part Glycerine 15 parts Hydrogen peroxide 15 parts

For impure skin the following composition is recommended:

II.—White mercurial ointment 5 grams Zinc ointment 5 grams Lanolin 30 grams Bitter almond oil 10 grams

And gradually stir into this a solution of

Borax 2 grams Glycerine 30 grams Rose water 10 grams Concentrated nitric acid 5 drops

III.—Lanolin 30 grams Oil sweet almond 10 grams Borax 1 gram Glycerine 15 grams Solution hydrogen peroxide 15 grams

Mix the lanolin and oil, then incorporate the borax previously dissolved in the mixture of glycerine and peroxide solution.

IV.—Ointment ammoniac mercury 5 grams Ointment zinc oxide 5 grams Lanolin 30 grams Oil sweet almond 10 grams Borax 2 grams Glycerine 30 grams Rose water 10 grams Nitric acid, C. P. 5 drops

Prepare in a similar manner as the foregoing. Rose oil in either ointment makes a good perfume. Both ointments may, of course, be employed as a general skin bleach, which, in fact, is their real office—cosmetic creams.

«Emollient Skin Balm.»—

Quince seed 1 ounce Water 7 ounces Glycerine 1 1/2 ounces Alcohol 4 1/2 ounces Salicylic acid 6 grains Carbolic acid 10 grains Oil of bay 10 drops Oil of cloves 5 drops Oil of orange peel 10 drops Oil of wintergreen 8 drops Oil of rose 2 drops

Digest the quince seed in the water for 24 hours, and then press through a cloth; dissolve the salicylic acid in the alcohol; add the carbolic acid to the glycerine; put all together, shake well, and bottle.

«Skin Lotion.»—

Zinc sulphocarbolate 30 grains Alcohol (90 per cent) 4 fluidrachms Glycerine 2 fluidrachms Tincture of cochineal 1 fluidrachm Orange-flower water 1 1/2 fluidounces Rose water (triple) to make 6 fluidounces


«Skin Discoloration.»—Discoloration of the neck may be removed by the use of acids, the simplest of which is that in buttermilk, but if the action of this is too slow try 4 ounces of lactic acid, 2 of glycerine, and 1 of rose water. These will mix without heating. Apply several times daily with a soft linen rag; pour a small quantity into a saucer and dip the cloth into this. If the skin becomes sore use less of the remedy and allay the redness and smarting with a good cold cream. It is always an acid that removes freckles and discolorations, by burning them off. It is well to be slow in its use until you find how severe its action is. It is not wise to try for home making any of the prescriptions which include corrosive sublimate or any other deadly poison. Peroxide of hydrogen diluted with 5 times as much water, also will bleach discolorations. Do not try any of these bleaches on a skin freshly sunburned. For that, wash in hot water, or add to the hot water application enough witch-hazel to scent the water, and after that has dried into the skin it will be soon enough to try other applications.

«Detergent for Skin Stains.»—Moritz Weiss has introduced a detergent paste which will remove stains from the skin without attacking it, is non-poisonous, and can be used without hot water. Moisten the hands with a little cold water, apply a small quantity of the paste to the stained skin, rub the hands together for a few minutes, and rinse with cold water. The preparation is a mixture of soft soap and hard tallow, melted together over the fire and incorporated with a little emery powder, flint, glass, sand, quartz, pumice stone, etc., with a little essential oil to mask the smell of the soap. The mixture sets to a mass like putty, but does not dry hard. The approximate proportions of the ingredients are: Soft soap, 30 per cent; tallow, 15 per cent; emery powder, 55 per cent, and a few drops of essential oil.

If an extra detergent quality is desired, 4 ounces of sodium carbonate may be added, and the quantity of soap may be reduced. Paste thus made will attack grease, etc., more readily, but it is harder on the skin.

«Removing Inground Dirt.»—

Egg albumen 8 parts Boric acid 1 part Glycerine 32 parts Perfume to suit. Distilled water to make 50 parts

Dissolve the boric acid in a sufficient quantity of water; mix the albumen and glycerine and pass through a silk strainer. Finally, mix the two fluids and add the residue of water.

Every time the hands are washed, dry on a towel, and then moisten them lightly but thoroughly with the liquid, and dry on a soft towel without rubbing. At night, on retiring, apply the mixture and wipe slightly or just enough to take up superfluous liquid; or, better still, sleep in a pair of cotton gloves.


«Almond Cold Creams.»—A liquid almond cream may be made by the appended formula. It has been known as milk of almond:

I.—Sweet almonds 5 ounces White castile soap 2 drachms White wax 2 drachms Spermaceti 2 drachms Oil of bitter almonds 10 minims Oil of bergamot 20 minims Alcohol 6 fluidounces Water, a sufficient quantity.

Beat the almonds in a smooth mortar until as much divided as their nature will admit; then gradually add water in very small quantities, continuing the beating until a smooth paste is obtained; add to this, gradually, one pint of water, stirring well all the time. Strain the resulting emulsion without pressure through a cotton cloth previously well washed to remove all foreign matter. If new, the cloth will contain starch, etc., which must be removed. Add, through the strainer, enough water to bring the measure of the strained liquid to 1 pint. While this operation is going on let the soap be shaved into thin ribbons, and melted, with enough water to cover it, over a very gentle fire or on a water bath. When fluid add the wax and spermaceti in large pieces, so as to allow them to melt slowly, and thereby better effect union with the soap. Stir occasionally. When all is melted place the soapy mixture in a mortar, run into it slowly the emulsion, blending the two all the while with the pestle. Care must be taken not to add the emulsion faster than it can be incorporated with the soap. Lastly add the alcohol in which the perfumes have been previously dissolved, in the same manner, using great care.

This preparation is troublesome to make and rather expensive, and it is perhaps no better for the purpose than glycerine. The mistake is often made of applying the latter too freely, its “stickiness” being unpleasant, and it is {236} best to dilute it largely with water. Such a lotion