English Heraldic Book-stamps by Davenport, Cyril

ENGLISH HERALDIC BOOK-STAMPS

[Illustration]

THIS FRONTISPIECE SHOWING THE BOOK-STAMP OF HIS MAJESTY THE KING IS REPRODUCED BY HIS MAJESTY'S GRACIOUS PERMISSION.

[FOR DESCRIPTION See p. 155]

ENGLISH HERALDIC BOOK-STAMPS

FIGURED AND DESCRIBED

BY CYRIL DAVENPORT V.D. F.S.A.

AUTHOR OF 'THE BOOK,' ETC.

[Illustration]

LONDON ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO Ltd 1909

CONTENTS

PAGE

INTRODUCTION 1

COATS-OF-ARMS 41

BIBLIOGRAPHY 413

INDICES--

INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION 417

INDEX TO THE COATS-OF-ARMS, ETC. 421

Introduction

The coats-of-arms and crests which are figured and described in the following pages do not exhaust the number of stamps of this kind that must exist on bookbindings throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland. Perhaps some day I shall go on my travels and search for unrecorded coats, but the present collection, even if it should prove to have been only a first instalment, will not easily be equalled in interest.

Little attention has been hitherto paid to English coats-of-arms outside books. For French coats of the same kind an excellent and comprehensive handbook has been compiled by M. J. Guigard, _Nouvel Armorial du Bibliophile_, Paris, 1890.

Two short papers have already been written about my present subject, and both of these are illustrated with drawings by myself. The earlier paper is by Mr. W. Y. Fletcher, and appeared in vol. iii. of _Bibliographica_ in 1897; it is called "English Armorial Book-Stamps and their Owners." The second paper is by Mr. A. W. Pollard, and appeared in _The Library_ of April 1902; it is called "The Franks Collection of Armorial Book-Stamps." The drawings I made for these two papers were carefully drawn exactly as the stamps were cut, and consequently look very black; in my newer drawings, however, I have in many cases only given the outlines of supporters, crests, helmets, and accessories generally, the effect of which is less heavy and equally useful for identification.

Armorial devices stamped on the outsides of books occur in England from the end of the fifteenth century onwards, and very fine examples are found of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries particularly. Towards the end of the seventeenth century the popularity of the book-stamp was diminished by the growth of the use of adhesive book-plates. It may be mentioned that, especially during the reign of Elizabeth, many fine armorial woodcuts are found in English books, the arms being generally those of the patron to whom the book was dedicated.

The succession of English Royal coats-of-arms on books is complete from the time of Henry VII. to that of Edward VII., and they will all be found in this book. The usual authorities for Royal armorials are great seals and coins, but the books which belonged to our sovereigns supply an equally fine and equally accurate collection. Every change of bearings, supporters, mottoes or badges is duly represented, and there are very few old private libraries in England which have not some Royal books upon their shelves. These books have either been given away by the sovereigns themselves, or acquired as official perquisites.

With regard to the identification of coats-of-arms or crests on books, this is a process of exhaustion, and it will be found easiest to begin with accessories, if there are any. These accessories are found either as augmentations _on_ the shield or additions _outside_ it, and by their help it is often easy to narrow down the limits within which the owner must come. By the help of coronets it is possible to fix the exact rank of the owner, and this alone, together with the date of the book, ought to make the identification easy, by help of a Peerage of the same date.

The decorations which surround a shield are often of great use; the coat-of-arms and coronet of an Earl, for instance, may be easily identified, but there may nevertheless be three or four persons who succeeded each other rapidly, and bore the same coat, to whom the book may have belonged. But round such a coat perhaps there is the Garter, or the collar of the Bath, or the insignia of some other order, and this will very likely decide which Earl was the actual owner.

The date of the printing of a book is of some use, if everything else fails, but it must be understood that as a rule it only means that the binding belonged to somebody at a later date. Even that is not quite certain, because old stamped bindings have too often been transferred to newer books. Such a transfer would be evident to a binder, but it may well deceive any one else.

The large majority of the stamps illustrated herewith are in the British Museum, but I have included a few in private ownership, and to these owners my sincere thanks are due for their kindness in allowing me to copy the various coats. I have in every case mentioned this private ownership, and where such mention is not found the book from which the drawing has been made is in the British Museum, either in the Department of Printed Books or in the Department of Manuscripts.

Heraldry is of military origin, but its decorative side, and the various exact rules which govern it, were probably brought into use during the Middle Ages, in connection with the frequent Tournaments which were governed by strict rules. The ceremonies to be followed at the Tournaments were very closely laid down; heralds as well as their assistants of all sorts came into much prominence, and personal insignia acquired an importance they have never had since. Even now there are a few signs of ancient personal heraldry existing in our army; crests and tartans of private families may be found among the Highland regiments, but the modern tendency, especially since the late war in South Africa, has been to abolish such peculiarities.

To Blazon is to describe the different divisions and bearings on a coat-of-arms in proper sequence and in heraldic language, so that an heraldic artist can, from the description, draw and colour the coat correctly.

The colours of shields and bearings ought to be given in every case, either of blazon or illustration; but as this is not always convenient, two methods of indicating colours have been adopted. The first is known as Trick, and in this manner colours were marked until the seventeenth century.

In Trick the colours or tinctures are indicated by letters, and they are described in Gerard Legh's _Accedens of Armory_, London, 1562, as follows:--

O. Or. Yelowe. A. Argent. Whyghte. G. Geules, betweene Red and Tenne. B. Azure, bright Blewe. V. Vert. Grene. P. Purpure. Purple. E. Ermyn. White poudred wt Black. Es. Ermines. Black powdred whight. T. Tenne. Orynge coloure. M. Sangwyne. Murreye. Pr. Proper coloure. Naturall. BB. Blewe. Sad Blewe.

The letters are put either in the spaces or on the charges to which they refer, or they may be found in the margin with a directing line drawn to the proper place.

Several other methods of indicating colour by means of black and white lines laid in certain directions have been tried, but they have all failed to stand the test of time except that invented by an Italian Jesuit Father, Silvestro Petra Sancta, who lived in the seventeenth century. His method is figured and described in a book he wrote and illustrated on Italian coats-of-arms. It is a very useful book, because the coats are arranged according to the devices upon them. It is in fact an illustrated ordinary of Italian arms, _Tesserae Gentilitiae_, Romae, 1638.

The colours and lines given by Father Petra Sancta are as follows:--

[Illustration: Aurum (Or)]

[Illustration: Argentum (Argent)]

[Illustration: Puniceum (Gueulles)]

[Illustration: Cyaneum (Azur)]

[Illustration: Prasinum Viridem (Sinople)]

[Illustration: Violaceum (Pourpre)]

[Illustration: Nigrum]

These are still the commonest colours, but a few more have been added since; they are, however, rarely used.

Besides the metals and the colours a few furs are used in heraldry; the two most usual of these are Ermine and Vair. Ermine is white and shows little conventional spots on it, which represent the black tips of the tails of the same animal.

[Illustration]

Vair is supposed to represent little grey squirrel skins spread out and arranged touching each other. It is coloured blue and white.

[Illustration]

The others, rarely found, are variations on one or other of these two.

Ermines shows white tails on a black ground.

Erminois shows black tails on a gold ground.

Erminites is the same as Ermine, but each black tail has one outer red hair on each side.

Pean shows gold tails on a black ground.

Counter Vair has the skins differently arranged.

Potent is like Vair, but the skins are differently shaped, like thick T's.

Counter Potent has the Potent skins differently arranged.

The heraldic lines, dots, and furs should be learnt, as they must be understood and are continually met with in heraldic works of late date. The tincture lines do not show on English Royal book-stamps until the time of George II., and on earlier book-stamps the want of any indication of colour is a great element of doubt in the attribution of coats-of-arms to particular persons, in the absence of assistance from marks outside the shields, coronets, helmets, crests, and the like.

An heraldic heiress is a lady whose father is armigerous but leaves no son. In such a case the lady's coat, if she married, would be shown on an escutcheon of Pretence placed in the centre of her husband's coat, and may be shown as a quartering on the coats-of-arms of her children.

Marshalling is the manner and method of conjoining divers arms upon one shield according to heraldic precedent and usage; it is an exact process.

The marshalling of the many family coats which may be inherited through marriages with heraldic heiresses is often a very elaborate and difficult matter. The rules, however, for such marshalling are well known and logical. A very good summary of this important part of a herald's duty can be found in Mr. A. C. Fox Davies's _Art of Heraldry_, in the chapter on Marshalling. A coat-of-arms is, however, sometimes found with many quarterings which only show the successive alliances, but in such a case the facts should always be stated. In default of such explanation the existence of the proper heraldic heiress rights must always be presumed.

When a man quarters the coat-of-arms of an ancestral heiress, he has also the right to use the crest belonging to it. The right of bearing a crest, although not allowed to ladies, seems to be latent in them, as it can be inherited through them, if heiresses, by their male descendants. But in ordinary English usage it is usual only to use one crest, except in the case of an assumption by Royal Licence of an additional surname, coat-of-arms, and crest. In German heraldry such quartered coats are usually accompanied by all their respective crests, which are placed along the top of the coat in an arched line, each on its proper helmet, and all facing inwards.

Distinctive personal marks on English shields are few; the commonest is the Ulster hand which is used as an augmentation by Baronets. The rank of Baronet, which is hereditary, was instituted by James I. in 1611. By the original Statutes of the Order, Baronets in order to qualify for the rank had to maintain "thirty soldiers three years at eightpence a day in the Province of Ulster in Ireland." A Baronet had to prove that he was a gentleman by birth and to possess property to the value of £1000 per annum.

The arms of Ulster are a red left hand appaumé on a silver ground, and the origin of this curious coat is said to be that on an Irish expedition for the acquisition of new territory in ancient days, the ancestor of the O'Neiles, finding that an adversary was reaching the coveted shore more quickly than he was, cut off his left hand, and threw it ashore, thereby establishing a "first landing" claim to the new territory. The claim was allowed, and so the successful chieftain became the first king of Ulster and the ancestor of the succeeding kings.

The Ulster hand, either with or without its silver shield, usually shows either on the honour point in the centre of a shield, in the dexter chief, or in the centre chief, but there is no definite rule as to its position.

In 1625 a similar hereditary rank was instituted for Nova Scotia in North America, but since 1801 all Baronets have been "of the United Kingdom." The Baronets of Ulster and of the United Kingdom both use the Ulster hand as their symbol, borne upon their shield, but the Baronets of Nova Scotia indicate their rank in another way. The badge of a Baronet of Nova Scotia hangs from the base of his shield, suspended by a tawny ribbon; the badge is oval, and shows "argent, a saltire azure, thereon an inescutcheon of the arms of Scotland ensigned with an Imperial Crown, the whole encircled by a fillet on which are the words 'FAX MENTIS HONESTAE GLORIA.'"

Concerning the Knights of the English Langue of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Guillim says that they may wear "their Paternal coat armour insigned with this cross on the chief of their Paternal Coat." The cross he speaks of is, he says, that of Amadeus, Earl of Savoy (Gu., a cross argent), who fought in company with the Knights of St. John at the Siege of Acre in the thirteenth century, and, the Grand Master being slain, put on his dress and demeaned himself so gallantly that he was asked to allow the Order to adopt his coat-of-arms.

In the Charter of Incorporation of this Order granted by Queen Victoria in 1888, it is ordained that "Knights of Justice may bear the Arms of the Order, viz. Gules, a cross argent embellished alternately in each of the principal angles with a Lion guardant and a Unicorn, both passant or," as a chief on their coat-of-arms. The lion and the unicorn were added to the then existing arms of the English Langue of the Order by George IV.

Knights of other Orders and Knights Bachelors do not, as such, use any augmentations on their shields.

Several forms of marks of cadency are given in the _Book of St. Albans_, printed in the fifteenth century, and many more had been used in mediæval times, but the manner of indicating cadency which has lasted until the present day is the only one that it is necessary to describe here.

In an old window at St. Mary's Church, Warwick, the six sons of the Earl of Warwick, who died in the thirty-fourth year of Edward III., are marked by the six following devices on their shields:--

[Illustration: 1st, a Label]

[Illustration: 2nd, a Crescent]

[Illustration: 3rd, a Mullet or spur rowel, sometimes pierced]

[Illustration: 4th, a Martlet]

[Illustration: 5th, an Annulet]

[Illustration: 6th, a Fleur-de-lys]

Gerard Legh in his _Accedens of Armory_ mentions three more such marks:--

7th, a Rose. 8th, a Cross moline. 9th, a double Quatrefoil.

The first six are often met with, but the last three very rarely.

The Royal Family all use labels as cadency marks, distinguished by charges upon them, or by the number of points, differences which are all specially granted, the eldest son always wearing a plain silver label of three points.

English coronets seem to have followed a definite line of development, but they were not actually settled as to their respective designs until the time of Charles II., at whose coronation all the ranks of the Peerage carried their respective coronets exactly in their present form.

At first coronets of rank were only circlets of metal, then on this circlet were put balls or "pearls" (as in the portrait of King Alfred on the Dowgate Hill brooch, or the coronet of a Baron or Viscount), then the pearls were ornamentally tripled, and this trefoil soon turned into a leaf form (_e.g._ the coronet of an Earl or Marquis, alternately pearls and leaves), and finally leaves alone figure as the mark of the highest peerage rank of a subject (_e.g._ the coronet of a Duke, leaves only).

The Royal Crown has gone through a similar line of development, but in this case the trefoil has evolved into two different forms, that of the cross pattée, and that of the fleur-de-lys. These forms became fixed in the time of Henry VII., the existing crown of England being essentially of the same pattern as that then finally adopted, arches and all.

While fully appreciating the fact that the forms of modern coronets only date from the time of Charles II., it is still interesting to inquire by what methods peers of earlier date marked their dignity pictorially, and it seems that this was done by means of the use of a crest-chapeau, and the use of a helmet under it. But in sculpture certain forms of coronets also appear. Crowns and coronets are placed immediately upon the top of the shield. Over the crown or coronet comes the helmet, and over the helmet the crest.

The Royal Crown of England has followed a definite line of development, and, as mentioned above, it reached its present form in the time of Henry VII., but, curiously enough, on the only known book-stamp that is attributed to this king the crown is shown in a more ancient form, that of a circlet ornamented with fleurs-de-lys of different sizes. The centre cross pattée on the English crown was not used before it was invented by Henry VI., and it first shows on his seal for foreign affairs.

[Illustration]

The Royal Crown of England now has upon the circlet four crosses pattée and four fleurs-de-lys, and from the tops of the crosses rise two complete arches, bearing a mound and cross at their point of junction. The Stuart crowns often show two more arches, rising from the tops of the fleurs-de-lys, and this peculiarity was lately shown on the diamond crown made for the coronation of Queen Alexandra. The Royal crowns are richly jewelled.

[Illustration]

The coronet of the Prince of Wales is the same as the crown of the Sovereign, except that it has only one arch and no jewels. The single arch was granted, for the future, by Charles II.; before that the princely coronet had no arch. The older form of this coronet can still be seen on the Prince of Wales's badge of three ostrich feathers, which are held together by a coronet of the old shape. The three feathers are said to have been the badge of John, King of Bohemia, who was killed by the Black Prince at Crécy in 1346. The motto "ICH DIEN" also belonged to the King of Bohemia.

The coronets of younger children of the Sovereign are the same as that of the Prince of Wales, but without the arch.

[Illustration]

The coronets of Princes, grandchildren of the Sovereign, are the same as those of the younger children of the Sovereign, except that the two outer crosses pattée are replaced by strawberry leaves.

[Illustration]

Charles II. settled all these matters as they now are, and also ordained that Princes, grandchildren or nephews of the Sovereign, being also Dukes, should wear on their coronets four crosses pattée alternately with four strawberry leaves.

[Illustration]

The Black Prince was the first English Duke. The title derives from Dux, a leader, and was, and still is, a sovereign title in many instances. The Black Prince was created a Duke in 1337 by his father Edward III. On the Prince's tomb at Canterbury he wears over his helmet a coronet which shows ten or more leaves on short pyramidal points rising from the circlet. The present ducal coronet is probably a survival of this form. The Black Prince's helmet with chapeau and crest is also preserved at Canterbury. On the tomb of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset (1444), at Wimborne Minster, he is shown wearing a coronet set with several trefoils or leaves rising from the circlet. The same design shows in _Prince Arthur's Book_ (1501-2) at the College of Arms, where the banner of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, is ensigned with a coronet bearing several leaves resembling strawberry leaves.

At the coronation of Edward VII., the official description of a Duke's coronet is "of silver gilt, and on the circle eight strawberry leaves." Pictorially five of these leaves are shown.

[Illustration]

The first English Marquis was Robert de Vere, created Marquis of Dublin by Richard II. in 1387. A Lord Marcher was a Governor or Ruler of the Marches, or Frontiers, but the dignity did not become hereditary until the fourteenth century. It was a position of much importance and responsibility. The coronet of a Marquis is nearly the same as that of a Duke, but each alternate leaf is turned into a silver ball or pearl.

At the coronation of Edward VII., the official description of a Marquis's coronet is "of silver gilt, and on the circle four gold strawberry leaves and four silver balls alternately, the latter a little raised on points above the rim." Pictorially three strawberry leaves and two pearls are shown.

[Illustration]

The title of Earl, or Eorl, is one of Anglo-Saxon origin, and probably derived from the Danish Jarl. Eorls were warriors and had charge of shires, but by the Normans they were called Counts. It is the oldest English title of nobility.

The Saxon form of name has, however, in this case, proved the most lasting, but the remains of the Norman nomenclature exist in the title of Countess, and also in the name County. The Earl or Shire man had his deputy, the Sheriff, and he became the Vice-count or "Viscount." Hugh Lupus, created Earl of Chester by the Conqueror, is said to have been the first properly constituted English hereditary Earl. The coronet worn by Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, in the early fourteenth century, and which is said by Sandford to have been shown on the Earl's tomb in St. Paul's Cathedral, was a simple circlet; and so is that worn by William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who died in the thirteenth century, on his tomb at Westminster.

Margaret, Countess of Richmond, the mother of Henry VII., wears, on her tomb at Westminster, a coronet with eight leaves and eight pearls on points; essentially the same form of a Countess's coronet as used now. But on her seal she uses a circlet from which rise alternately roses and fleurs-de-lys, five roses and four fleurs-de-lys, each on a short pyramidal point. This shows that at that time there was no definite pattern.

On the tomb, at Windsor, of Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester, who died about the middle of the sixteenth century, is a coronet with nine trefoils, or leaves, of equal size, and his son Henry, Earl of Worcester (_d._ 1549), on his tomb in the Parish Church at Chepstow, shows a coronet of leaves and pearls, all on short pyramidal stems, rising from the circlet. Except for the proportion of the stems this coronet is the same as that now used. At a little later date, in Elizabeth's reign, I think the Earl's coronet took definite shape, and, among others, it shows both on the seals of Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, essentially in its present form.

[Illustration]

At the coronation of Edward VII. the official description of an Earl's coronet is "of silver gilt, and on the circle eight silver balls raised upon points, with gold strawberry leaves between the points." Pictorially five points with pearls and four strawberry leaves are shown.

A Viscount is a Vicecomes, or deputy for a Count or Earl. The Earls have retained their Saxon name, but the Viscount has kept the Norman equivalent of their rank as Sheriffs. Both the Earl and his Viscount were originally county officials. Since 1441 the title has been one of hereditary rank. The first English Viscount was John, Viscount Beaumont, so created by Henry VI. The first English Viscount to wear a coronet was Robert, Lord Cecil of Effingdon, who was created Viscount Cranbourn by James I. in 1605, and his coronet was essentially the same as is now used.

[Illustration]

At the coronation of Edward VII., the official description of a Viscount's coronet is "of silver gilt and on the circle sixteen silver balls." Pictorially nine of these silver balls are shown.

The Barons are probably the modern representatives of the ancient Saxon Thanes. It is an old Norman name for the Thane, and it is found often enough in ancient documents. Guillim says that citizens of London were called "Barons Londonni," and in _Domesday_ there is mention of Barons of Warwick. There were Barons of the Exchequer, and there are still the Barons of the Cinque Ports. But none of these were hereditary titles.

Edward III., however, created William de la Pole an hereditary Baron, and since that time the dignity has been generally hereditary. Baronies were at first held by Tenure, that is by reason of the existence of adequate territorial possessions, and Guillim says that this essential was forgone by Henry III., who created Barons by Writ. In later times, when the rank became hereditary, Baronies by Writ have been heritable through the female line, and because of this, Baronial titles have in many instances been held by several allied families, with different family names.

The coronet of a Baron was originally a plain circlet, but Charles II. ordained that in future there should be six balls upon it, and the Barons at his coronation wore such additional ornamentation. In Ireland, however, this form of Barons' coronets had already been fixed by James I.

At the coronation of Edward VII., the official description of a Baron's coronet is "of silver gilt and on the circle six silver balls at equal distances." Pictorially four silver balls are shown.

[Illustration]

The coronet of a King-of-Arms is of silver gilt, and on the circlet is inscribed the words "MISERERE MEI DEUS SECUNDUM MAGNAM MISERICORDIAM TUAM," taken from the 51st Psalm. From the circlet rise alternately long and short oak leaves.

[Illustration]

The Kings-of-Arms, Heralds, and Pursuivants were incorporated as a College by Richard III. in 1483, and Derby House in the city, now the College of Arms, was given to them as their headquarters in 1555. Kings-of-Arms wore coronets from the beginning; a portrait of William Bruges, the first Garter King-of-Arms, in 1420, in an illuminated manuscript, shows him wearing a coronet on which are four trefoils, or leaves, upon short pyramidal stems. On the grant of arms of the Tallow Chandlers' Company, John Smert, Garter King-of-Arms in 1456, is shown wearing a coronet on which are three leaves and two pearls or balls. Sir William Dugdale, Garter King-of-Arms during the latter half of the seventeenth century, wore a coronet with twelve oak leaves of equal height on the circlet, on which there was no inscription. The coronet as now used was probably first decided upon early in the eighteenth century.

Heralds and Kings-of-Arms are entitled to surround their arms with the ancient collar of SS. The same honour is allowed to the Serjeants-at-Arms and several of the Judges.

Imitation jewels are repoussé upon the circlets of all these coronets, except those of Barons and Heralds. No English crowns or coronets, except those worn by the Sovereign or the Queen Consort, have any real jewels upon them.

Crowns and coronets are only officially worn in England on the occasion of the coronation, and then with the ordered coronation dress. They are put on when the crown is put upon the head of the Sovereign. But if they are held over the head of the owner it appears to be sufficient, as in Sir George Hayter's beautiful picture of the coronation of Queen Victoria, the Duchess of Cambridge is shown with a Lady-in-Waiting holding her coronet over her head. The Duchess was wearing a very handsome diamond tiara which, no doubt, she considered more becoming than her coronet.

Crowns and coronets are properly depicted without any cap within them, but when they are worn it is always over the Peer's cap, known variously as a Cap of Estate, of Maintenance, or of Dignity. The same cap is also used in many early instances as a crest-chapeau. The cap is the same for all ranks, from the Sovereign to the King-of-Arms; it consists of a red velvet cap lined with white silk and turned up with miniver, which is white ermine fur having small dots or tufts of black horsehair sewn into it at intervals. At the top is an ornamental gold button, with fringes of gold thread.

[Illustration]

The earliest figure of a cap of this sort can be seen on the Black Prince's helmet over his tomb at Canterbury; it has been painted red and miniver, but is now in a very bad condition. The crest stands upon it.

The Cap of Estate, without any crown or coronet over it, is worn by the Sovereign on the way to the coronation, and it is also generally borne on a cushion by one of the great officers of State when the Sovereign is present in State or Semi-State. It is carried by the Marquis of Winchester or his representative. Peers used such caps pictorially before they showed coronets, and on fifteenth and sixteenth century seals the Cap of Estate marks a high rank. It commonly shows on the seals of Dukes and Earls in conjunction with a helmet. The chapeau in early times seems to end in two swallow-tails, but now it is worn round. As a crest support in modern times it is rarely granted, but there still remain a few instances of its use.

Although it is correct to depict coronets without the Cap of Estate, it is also correct to show them with it. In the latter case the miniver turn-up comes just below the lower rim of the circlet. It is a common mistake to show the miniver turn-up without the velvet Cap above it, which is obviously absurd.

In the absence of a crown or coronet the Helmet rests directly on the upper part of a shield. In fifteenth and sixteenth century seals it shows very large in comparison with the coat-of-arms, and so does the crest; the helmet often shows the guige or shield belt, and the shield often hangs _couchée_ or sideways. The Helmet, so says Guillim, is the true mark of English nobility, and it certainly shows as such on seals dating from the fourteenth until about the end of the sixteenth century, when rank coronets began to be used instead of, or together with, a corresponding form of helmet.

From the early seventeenth century the shapes and metals of the helmets denoting rank have been clearly laid down, and they are as follows:--

[Illustration: _Royal._--A Helmet of Gold, with six bars, set affrontée.]

[Illustration: _Peers._--A Helmet of Silver, barred, with five bars, and garnished gold, usually set in profile, but Dukes sometimes used it affrontée.]

[Illustration: _Baronets_ and _Knights_.--A Helmet of Steel, garnished with silver, without bars, the visor open, and set affrontée.]

[Illustration: _Esquires._--A Helmet of Steel, the visor closed, and set in profile.]

On the Helmet, between it and the crest support, comes the mantling, the survival of the helmet cover torn in war, and showing in strips, now ornamentally treated. The main metals and colours of the coat-of-arms should be repeated in the mantling.

To wear a crest at a Tournament implied more social status than the possession of a shield, and in the latter part of the fourteenth century all great nobles were very careful to display their crests, but lesser gentry had to be content with their shields only. In early visitations coats-of-arms were frequently granted without crest at all.

Later, in Jacobean times, crests were sometimes given to persons already bearing arms, and they became commoner. Whenever ancestral coats-of-arms are quartered with a given coat, the corresponding crests may also be worn, but in English usage this is rarely done. In the event, however, of an additional surname being adopted by Royal Licence, with the corresponding coat-of-arms and crest, the second crest is commonly used; but it is very rare in English Heraldry to show more than two crests.

Crests are undoubtedly derived from the fact that in the days of Armour, Knights were completely covered up and required some evident mark by which they could be recognised. To meet this difficulty a coloured device set on the top of a man's helmet offered an obvious and ornamental solution. Such a crest was strictly personal; the retainers of a Knight wore his badge and his colours, but never his crest. The modern use of livery colours and badges can be well seen in the case of the Beefeaters at the Tower. Very ancient helmets were sometimes ornamentally coloured.

The crest "Crista," a cockscomb, was often of a fan or cockscomb shape on the top of a helmet, but gradually it assumed more distinguishing peculiarities. On the Great Seal of Richard I., on the equestrian side, a cockscomb crest shows on the King's helmet, with a lion of England on the flat base of it. The whole coat-of-arms sometimes shows on the Fan crest, as it does in the crest of the City of London. The original Fan, however, in this instance, has become curiously modified into the shape of a dragon's wing.

Crests are carried on some sort of support; those usually found are one or other of the following:--

On a crest-chapeau, the old cap of maintenance, dignity, or of estate. It was, and is, usually used by persons of high rank. The earliest remaining example of the use of the crest-chapeau is in Canterbury Cathedral, and a model of one is there on the helmet of the Black Prince, over his tomb. The cap is of red velvet turned up with miniver; it is not a round cap like its modern representative, but is of an elongated shape, ending in two swallow-tails.

Issuing from an heraldic coronet showing three strawberry leaves, the colour of the coronet being exemplified in the official grant. This coronet does not appear to have any meaning.

Issuing from a Mural coronet, sometimes granted to Army officers.

Issuing from a Naval coronet, sometimes granted to Naval officers.

On a fillet or twisted torse of the chief metal and chief colour of the coat-of-arms with which it is used. This fillet is the commonest crest support, and the others, chapeau or coronet, are themselves sometimes set upon a torse. It should be stated in the grant.

Crests carry the same cadency marks as occur on the coat-of-arms.

Crests are of very ancient use; marks of dignity worn upon the head are among the earliest signs of chieftainship used by mankind. A savage chief would readily wear a rare bird's feather in his head as a mark of dignity, or even his own hair matted into particular forms, as the Zulus still do. As for feathers, we still wear them on our heads as indications of rank; they can be found on the ceremonial hats of all the great Orders of Knighthood, on the hats of the Staff of our army as well as on several Regimental head-dresses, and on the hats of our Civil Servants.

Knights and Companions, or Esquires, of Orders of Knighthood show the badge or badges of the Order or Orders to which they belong suspended from the proper ribbon from the base of their shields. Medals are seldom so shown. Knights Commanders of Orders of Knighthood usually, in addition, surround their coats-of-arms with the ribbon and motto of their senior Order. From this ribbon may depend the badges of all the Orders to which the Knight belongs. Knights Grand Cross may further surround their coats-of-arms with the collars of any or all the Orders having collars to which they belong, the badge of each depending from its proper collar. When several collars are shown they are sometimes halved, each badge always being so arranged as to hang from a link of its own collar.

Many officials besides those already mentioned are entitled to show emblems of their office outside their shields, but few of these show on book-stamps. An instance, however, may be seen on one of the stamps used by Samuel Pepys, where he shows two anchors behind his shield as a mark of his position as Secretary to the Admiralty. In the same way Field-Marshals are entitled to place crossed batons behind their shields.

Clergymen of high rank sometimes ensign their coats-of-arms with a Mitre, but as non-combatants they use no crests. Archbishops and Bishops impale the Arms of their See with their own paternal coats, the official coat taking the dexter position. Deans also and lesser ecclesiastical dignitaries in many cases impale their family coats with an official one, in the same way.

The origin of Supporters to coats-of-arms is a matter upon which there is much difference of opinion. It is probable that as now used they are partly of utilitarian and partly of decorative origin. Badges and charges on coats-of-arms have often developed into Supporters. Henry VIII., in 1528, borrowed one of the lions of England from his coat-of-arms and adopted him as a Dexter Supporter, a dignity he has retained ever since.

At Tournaments, before the combatants entered the Lists their banners and shields were displayed and held by retainers or pages. These serving-men were dressed in their Lord's livery or in some fancy dress. So that a Knight's shield would be recognised not only by the devices upon it, but also by the colours and appearance of its Supporter.

Many foreign shields, and ancient English ones also, show only one Supporter, and it is likely enough that when pictorial heraldry began generally to show Supporters, a second Supporter was often added for the sake of uniformity alone. In King Arthur's Book at the College of Arms, illuminated quite early in the sixteenth century, banners are shown with only one Supporter holding them up.

Supporters were regularly used by persons of high rank from early in the fifteenth century; they carry on them any marks of cadency which may be on the shield to which they belong. The right to use Supporters depends upon the wording of the grant of Arms concerned. Practically they are now seldom granted except to Peers. In the past, however, many commoners have been granted Supporters for their coats-of-arms, by Royal Warrant, and some of these are hereditary. This is a point which would be specified in the grant, and without such specification the Supporters would not be hereditary.

In Scotland ancient usage is allowed to be a good cause for using Supporters.

Supporters have at present no defined status, they indicate no rank; but the tendency now is to restrict their use, and it is quite probable that some day they will become actual evidences of Peerage rank, as they probably originally were. No list of English Heraldic Supporters has yet been published.

Mottoes largely derive from War-cries. In England they are not mentioned in grants of arms, and very rarely in visitation books. Mottoes are not hereditary, but can be changed at the will of any armigerous person. Officers of arms will record mottoes by request, provided they do not infringe any existing rights.

In Scotland, however, mottoes are recognised officially; they are subject to grant, and their position with regard to the coat-of-arms or crest to which they belong is specified. Heraldic mottoes appear to have been used in England in the sixteenth century; they show on some of the Garter Plates at Windsor. Mottoes often accompanied badges, and in many cases they may have been transferred from them to the coat-of-arms or to the crest.

The motto "DIEU ET MON DROIT" was adopted by Edward III., in allusion to his claim to the Throne of France. In 1801, on the Legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland, the title of King of France, as well as the coat-of-arms of France which had appeared on the English coat-of-arms ever since the time of Edward III., was discontinued, but the motto has been retained and is still used. Useful lists of English mottoes are given in several editions of Burke's _Peerage_, and in the 1905 edition of Fairbairn's _Crests_.

Some elementary knowledge of heraldic terms and bearings must be acquired before it is possible to use any of the ordinaries, or lists of coats-of-arms, arranged according to the divisions of shields and the bearings upon them.

Fortunately the primary and, at the same time, the most important divisions of a shield are few and easily learnt. They had originally a structural origin, and although I begin with a line in my analysis, it is likely that the charges were originally first; for instance, a red scarf tied across the top of a shield would develop heraldically into "a chief gu." In the same way a red scarf tied from top to bottom of an iron shield would become heraldically "sa., a pale gu." and so on. There are now proper proportions for all these charges, but in practice they are not strictly adhered to.

A large number of coats are not divided up at all, but are simply charged with bearings that may be easily identified if the colours are known; such coats have frequently animal forms upon them, a Lion rampant or an Eagle displayed, or more than one animal arranged in a certain order. Such coats can generally be easily found in an Ordinary, but the colour in old seals and on old books is seldom given, and this often makes any unsupported identification very doubtful.

[Illustration]

The shield may be divided by a centre perpendicular line from top to bottom; this is called division _per Pale_, and when the dividing line is thickened it becomes a charge, and is described "a Pale." A husband impales his wife's coat with his own, on the sinister side, except when the lady is an heraldic heiress, when her coat will be found on an escutcheon of Pretence in the centre of her husband's shield. Children of such a marriage are entitled to quarter their mother's coat with their paternal coat. They can also use any ancestral quarterings to which their mother was entitled.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

When a shield is divided by a central horizontal line it is said to be divided _per Fess_, and when the dividing line is thickened it becomes a charge and is called "a Fess." Several small fesses are called bars, or the shield may be described as "Barry."

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

If the perpendicular pale and the horizontal fess lines are combined, a shield becomes "Quartered" or "Quarterly," and if these lines are thickened we get the Cross, of which there are several varieties, _e.g._ cross pattée, with the ends flattened out like feet; cross crosslet with each end crossed by a little bar; cross moline with double-pointed ends; cross fleury with triple-pointed ends, and so on. If a shield is covered all over with reduplications of the quartering lines, so as to be divided into a number of little squares, or quarterings, it is said to be chequy or compony.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

When a shield is divided diagonally, either from right to left, or from left to right, which must be specified, it is said to be _per Bend_, dexter or sinister, as the case may be. If either of these lines is thickened so as to become a charge it is called "a Bend" (dexter or sinister). If the dexter and sinister dividing Bend lines are combined, a division _per Saltire_ is the result, and if these lines are thickened so as to become a charge, it is called "a Saltire." If the upper triangle in the Saltire is drawn down into a narrow point and forms a charge, it is called "a Pile." There may be several of these, and their number, position, and colour are always stated. If the Saltire lines are repeated so as to cover the entire shield with diamond-shaped spaces, it is said to be Lozengy, and if these lines are thickened so as to become charges, it is called Fretty, and the little bars are interlaced.

[Illustration]

If now the dividing lines of a quartered coat and those of a coat divided per Saltire be combined, we get a division known as Gyronny, common in Scottish heraldry.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

If a shield is divided by an angular line in a gable form, the two lowest lines of a division per Saltire, it is called _per Chevron_, and if this line is thickened so as to become a charge, it is called a Chevron.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

When a third part of the top of a shield is marked off by a horizontal line it forms what is called a Chief, and when the top left-hand corner is marked off as a small square, measuring about a third of the chief, it is called a Canton, and is often an honourable augmentation to a coat-of-arms, granted for some distinguished service.

[Illustration]

When a shield has a narrow border all round it, it is called a Bordure, and this is also often an honourable augmentation, difference, or mark of cadency on a family coat-of-arms.

The boundary lines of all these charges are normally straight, but they may also be either

[Illustration: Engrailed]

[Illustration: Embattled]

[Illustration: Indented]

[Illustration: Dancetty]

[Illustration: Wavy]

[Illustration: Raguly]

[Illustration: Nebuly]

and a few more which are rarely met with.

Charges are usually placed on shields in certain positions which follow one or other of the main lines of division which have just been enumerated.

For instance, the three lions of England are arranged one under the other, on an imaginary line running from the top to the bottom of the shield. If such a broad line existed it would be called a Pale, so the lions are said to be "In, or Per Pale." Similarly, they might be arranged "In Fess" or "In Bend," and so on.

All charges and bearings on shields should be shown flat except

The Fret, which is interlaced.

Fretty, a small fret repeated, also interlaced.

Roundels in colour, which should be shown as hemispherical. They doubtless represent the bosses on a shield. The metal roundels, however, the Bezant of gold, and the Plate of silver, no doubt represent coins, and are shown flat; and that Cadency marks may correctly be represented, as in relief on a shield.

Heraldic charges are numerous, and if any prolonged investigation is likely to be required their names and forms will have to be learnt. But a few of the commoner charges may well be explained here, as such explanation may possibly in many cases save a long search.

[Illustration: A Dragon is a monster with scales all over him; he has four legs ending in eagle's talons and a spear-head at the end of his tail, his wings are like the wings of a bat, with a claw at the end of each rib.]

[Illustration: A Griffin has the head, front legs, and wings of an eagle, and the hind-quarters of a lion.]

[Illustration: A Wyvern has a dragon's head and wings, with two eagle's legs, his tail is curled round itself and ends in a spear-point. He is scaly all over.]

A _Cockatrice_ is a Wyvern with a cock's head.

A _Basilisk_ is a cockatrice with its tail ending in a dragon's head.

A _Lion_ shows one eye, one ear, and stands upon one foot, rampant. He has a mane, and his tail has a tuft at the end, and he shows no spots. If a lion is otherwise depicted it must be mentioned in the blazon. A lion showing two eyes and two ears is a lion "Leopardé."

A _Leopard_ shows two eyes and two ears; he has no mane and his tail is not tufted. He should show spots and be "nowhere shaggy." If he only shows one eye and one ear he is a leopard "Lionné."

Most of the other animals explain themselves, but there are a few curious charges, no doubt survivals of common forms, which also retain their ancient heraldic names, and these forms and names are useful to remember; among them the following occur perhaps most frequently:--

[Illustration: A Caltrap.]

[Illustration: A Chess-rook.]

[Illustration: A Clarion.]

[Illustration: A Fer-de-Moline.]

[Illustration: A Fermail.]

[Illustration: A Fountain.]

[Illustration: A Fret.]

[Illustration: A Fusil.]

[Illustration: A Mascle.]

[Illustration: A Maunch or Sleeve.]

[Illustration: A Pheon.]

[Illustration: A Rustre.]

[Illustration: A Water Bouget.]

Heraldic Shields changed their forms at different periods, but it is not necessary to trouble much about that here, as coats-of-arms on books are always simple in shape. But it may be noted that unmarried ladies or widows show their arms in the form of a Lozenge. Guillim says, "This form is derived from the fusil, or spindle for yarn, single women being called spinsters." The lozenge is an inconvenient form, and it is broadened out whenever possible. When a wife's coat is shown on an escutcheon of Pretence in the centre of her husband's shield, it loses its lozenge form.

In view of a possible second volume in continuation of the present, I should feel most grateful if any librarians or owners of libraries will send me rubbings of any more coats-of-arms on books that they know of. To make a rubbing, from which I can make a drawing, is quite easy. A piece of soft paper should be used, and kept from slipping by a weight. Put the paper carefully over the stamped part of the book, and then with the finger gently press the paper down into the stamped leather. When the design can just be distinguished, rub over the paper, without letting it slip, with an H.B. pencil cut to a broad round point, and it will be found that in this way, with a little practice, every line and dot in a stamp will show quite clearly. The impressed lines on the leather will show as white on the rubbing. From such a rubbing a drawing can be made. Besides the rubbing, I should also like a copy of the title of the book, and the name of the owner or library to which it belongs.

I am aware that many of my attributions of coats in the following pages are open to criticism, and I shall be very grateful if any of my readers can correct any of them with authority. At the end of the book I have given a short list of the books of reference, heraldic and biographical, which I have found of most service in the compilation of this book, and I gratefully record my indebtedness to them all.

I have taken the Royal Titles from the respective Great Seals.

C. D.

BURLINGTON FINE ARTS CLUB, _September 1908_.

Coats-of-Arms

[Illustration]

ABBOT, GEORGE, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Arg., an archiepiscopal staff, headed with a cross pattée or, surmounted by a pall arg., charged with four crosses pattée fitchée sable, fringed and edged or. _The See of Canterbury._

Sinister: Gules, a chevron between three pears pendent or. _Abbot._

[Several volumes in the Library at Lambeth Palace.]

George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury (born 29th October 1562, died 4th August 1633), was a native of Guildford, and took orders in 1585, afterwards becoming a tutor at Oxford, where he was also a Fellow of Balliol. He was a strong Puritan and a popular preacher at St. Mary's.

In 1597, Abbot was elected Master of University College, and in 1599 he became Dean of Winchester and also Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. He wrote several treatises on the religious questions of his time, and enjoyed the personal esteem of James I., who thought very highly of him as a theologian and as a politician.

The King's favour showed in the rapid promotion of Dr. Abbot. In 1609 he was consecrated Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and later in the same year he was translated to London. In the next year, on the death of Archbishop Bancroft, Abbot was made Archbishop of Canterbury. Dr. Abbot had no sinecure in his Archbishopric, and his many enemies and the troubled state of theological matters generally left him but little peace. In 1621, when shooting with a crossbow at a buck, he accidentally killed a gamekeeper, and this not only preyed much upon his mind, but it also offered a handle for his detractors, especially those among the clergy, many of whom held that homicide rendered him unfit for his high position.

On the death of James I. Royal favour deserted the Archbishop, as Charles I. never appears to have thought well of him. In 1627, on more or less unjust pretexts, he suffered sequestration of his office, and a commission was appointed to exercise the Archiepiscopal functions, and Abbot retired to his native town, Guildford, where he died in 1633. Many of his books remain in the Library at Lambeth Palace.

[Illustration]

ABROL

_Arms._--Per pale or and gu., three roundels interchanged, a crescent for difference.

_Motto._--TERES ATQUE ROTUNDUS.

Probably belonged to the Library of a member of the Worcestershire family of Abrol.

[TUSSER. _Five hundred pointes of good Husbandrie._ 1593.]

[Illustration]

ALBERT OF SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA, PRINCE CONSORT OF QUEEN VICTORIA

The initial "A" within the garter and ensigned with the Ducal Crown of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

[RAPHAEL. Works at Windsor Castle, 1876.]

Prince Albert (born 26th August 1819, died 14th December 1861) was the second son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He married Queen Victoria at St. James's, 16th February 1840, and was all his life a Patron of the Arts and of Literature, and the International Exhibition of 1851 is said to have been originally thought of by him.

Prince Albert's books were kept at one or other of the Royal Palaces, and few of them are anywhere else.

[Illustration]

ANNE (BULLEN), QUEEN CONSORT OF HENRY VIII.

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1 and 4. France } All as used by Henry VIII. 2 and 3. England } (q.v.).

Sinister: Quartered.

1. Gu., 3 lions passant guardant or, a label of three points az., each charged with three Fleur-de-lys or. _Earls of Lancaster._

2. Az., semée de Fleur-de-lys or, a label of five points gu. _Angoulême._

3. Gu., a lion passant guardant or. _Guyenne._

4. Quarterly, first and fourth, per fess indented az. and or. _Butler._ Second and third arg., a lion rampant sa., crowned or. _Rochford._

5. Gu., 3 lions passant guardant or, a label of three points arg. _Brotherton_, Earl of Norfolk.

6. Chequy, or and az. _Warren_, Earl of Warren and Surrey.

The first three of these coats were granted to Anne Bullen by Henry VIII., when he created her Marchioness of Pembroke. The paternal coat of Bullen, "Arg., a chevron gules, between three bulls' heads sa.," is omitted.

The shield is ensigned with the Royal Crown of England, and supported by two angels.

[WHITTINGTON. _De octo partibus orationis._ Londini [1521], and other Sixteenth-Century Tracts.]

Anne Bullen, or Boleyn (born 1507, died 19th May 1536), was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, of Hever Castle in Kent. She was maid of honour to Catherine of Aragon, Queen of Henry VIII., and while acting in this capacity she attracted the attention of the king, who decided that he would marry her if he could get rid of Queen Catherine.

Consequently, after many difficulties, a divorce was arranged, and Henry married Anne Bullen in 1532, and she was crowned Queen in 1533. Queen Elizabeth was her only child.

In 1536 the Queen was indicted of high treason, and on 19th May of the same year she was beheaded. Some of the books bearing Queen Anne Bullen's arms form part of the old Royal library in the British Museum; the stamp is impressed in blind, without gold, and with it is often associated one or other of the panel stamps having the coat-of-arms of Henry VIII.

[Illustration]

ANNE OF DENMARK, QUEEN CONSORT OF JAMES I.

_Arms._--A cross gu., surmounted of another arg. _Frederick II._, King of Denmark and Norway.

Dexter canton: Or, semé of hearts ppr., 3 lions passant guardant az., crowned or. _Denmark._

Sinister canton: Gu., a lion rampant, crowned or, holding in his paws a battle-axe arg. _Norway._

Dexter base: Az., 3 crowns ppr. _Sweden._

Sinister base: Or, 9 hearts, 4, 3, and 2, gu., in chief a lion passant guardant az. _Gothes._

In base: Gu., a wyvern, wings expanded and tail nowed or. _The Vandals._

An escutcheon of Pretence, quarterly;

1. Or, 2 lions passant guardant az. _Sleswick._

2. Gu., an inescutcheon having a nail fixed in every point thereof in triangle, between as many holly leaves, all arg. _Holstein._

3. Gu., a swan, wings close arg. _Stormer._

4. Az., a chevalier armed at all points, brandishing his sword, his helmet plumed, upon a courser arg., trapped or. _Ditzmers._

Over the whole an inescutcheon per pale--

Dexter: Az., a cross formée fitchée or. _Dalmenhurst._

Sinister: Or, 2 bars gu. _Oldenburg._

_Motto._--LA MIA GRANDEZZA VIENE DAL ECCELSO.

[PLUTARCH. _Les Œuvres morales de Plutarque._ Paris, 1588.]

Anne of Denmark (born 12th December 1574, died 1619), Queen Consort of James I., King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, was the daughter of Frederick II., King of Denmark and Norway. The alliance between the Danish Princess and James VI. of Scotland was not agreeable to Queen Elizabeth, but in spite of her opposition the marriage took place in 1589 at Upslo. In 1590 the king and queen returned to Scotland, and in 1603, on the death of Queen Elizabeth, they came to England.

Queen Anne was a great patron of Progresses, Pageants, and Masques, and is said to have been a beautiful dancer. She was very extravagant, and incurred much censure for running into debt, although her allowances were very liberal. At one period Queen Anne was suspected of leanings towards the Roman Catholic religion. She objected to the marriage, ultimately of the greatest importance, of her daughter Elizabeth to Frederick V., Elector Palatine of the Rhine, on the ground that his position was not high enough, but she attended the marriage in 1612.

Several of her books are among the old Royal collection presented to the British Museum in 1757.

[Illustration]

ANNE, QUEEN OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_First Coat-of-Arms_

1. _Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters; quarterly; France and England.

2nd grand quarter; Scotland.

3rd grand quarter; Ireland.

As used by James I. (q.v.).

Used from 8th March 1702 until 6th March 1706.

[BIANCHINI. _De Kalendario et Cyclo Cæsaris._ Romae, 1703.]

[Illustration]

_Second Coat-of-Arms_

2. _Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters, impaled.

Dexter: England.

Sinister: Scotland.

2nd grand quarter; France.

3rd grand quarter; Ireland.

Colours as used by James I. (q.v.).

Used from 6th March 1706 until 1st August 1714.

_Crest._--A Royal Crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Supporters._--Lion and unicorn.

_Motto._--SEMPER EADEM.

_Badges._--Tudor rose and Thistle.

[ENGLAND. _Laws._ 1702.]

[Illustration]

The Royal name ensigned with a Royal Crown, and the motto "VIVAT REGINA" upheld by two cherubs.

[EUCLID. _Elements._ Oxford, 1703.]

[Illustration]

The Royal Monogram ensigned with a Royal Crown.

[OVERBECK. _Reliq. Ant. Romae._ Amst., 1708.]

Queen Anne (born 10th May 1655, died 1st August 1714) was the second daughter of James II. and Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, first Earl of Clarendon. She succeeded her cousin, William III., on the throne of England in 1702. Queen Anne was the last of the Stuart line to occupy the throne of England.

The first coat-of-arms used by Queen Anne was the same as that generally used by her predecessor, but without the arms of Nassau, that is to say, first and fourth grand quarters, France and England quarterly; second grand quarter, Scotland; and third grand quarter, Ireland. In 1702 a notice was published in the _London Gazette_ to the effect that "wheresoever there shall be occasion to embroider, depict, grave, carve, or paint Her Majesty's Royal Arms with a motto, this Motto following, _viz_. SEMPER EADEM, is to be used" (23rd December). It will be remembered that this motto had been previously used by Queen Elizabeth.

The Legislative Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland took place on Thursday, 6th March 1706, when the royal assent was given to the Act. A change in the Royal coat-of-arms took place in consequence of this Act, and for the remainder of the reign of Queen Anne (1706-1714) the first and fourth grand quarters contained the coats of England and Scotland impaled, in the manner used to denote husband and wife; the second grand quarter, France; and the third grand quarter, Ireland. Besides the coat-of-arms, the crowned initials and name of Queen Anne were frequently stamped upon her books, and some of her book-stamps appear to have been designed by foreigners.

Queen Anne's books came to the British Museum with the rest of the old Royal Library of England in 1757.

[Illustration]

ASTLE, THOMAS

_Arms._--Az., a cinquefoil erm., a bordure engrailed of the second. _Astle._

_Crest._--On a chapeau, a plume of five feathers in a case arg. banded gu., and environed with a ducal coronet or.

[Collection of miscellaneous MSS. Stowe, 516.]

Thomas Astle (born 22nd December 1735, died 1st December 1803) was a book collector and antiquary, and a native of Yoxall in Staffordshire. In 1783 he was appointed Keeper of the Records in the Tower of London, where his literary tastes stood him in good stead, and he edited and indexed the treasures which were under his care with energy and success; he was also a Trustee of the British Museum.

Astle wrote several important works; perhaps the most useful of them are the Catalogue of the MSS. in the Cottonian Library, and a treatise on the Origin and Progress of Writing. His printed books now belong to the library of the Royal Institution, and his collection of Manuscripts is kept at the British Museum. This important collection belonged successively to the Marquis of Buckingham at Stowe, and then to the Earl of Ashburnham, who sold it in 1883 to the Trustees of the British Museum.

Mr. Astle was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries.

[Illustration]

AYLMER, MATTHEW, 1ST BARON AYLMER

_Arms._--Arg., a cross sa., between four Cornish Choughs of the second. _Aylmer._

_Coronet._--That of a Baron.

_Motto._--STEADY.

[BURNET. _History of the Reformation._ London, 1681.]

Matthew Aylmer (born 1660 (?), died 18th August 1720) was a sailor who took part in the Battle of La Hogue. He subsequently became Rear-Admiral of Great Britain and Governor of Chelsea Hospital. In 1718 he was created Baron Aylmer of Balrath in Meath.

[Illustration]

BACON, FRANCIS, BARON VERULAM AND VISCOUNT ST. ALBANS

_Crest._--A boar passant erm., armed and hoofed or, a crescent for difference. _Bacon._

[BACON. _Novum Organum._ Londini, 1620.]

[University Library, Cambridge.]

Francis Bacon (born 22nd January 1561, died 9th April 1626) was a son of Sir Nicolas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the Seals to Queen Elizabeth. He went to Cambridge at the age of thirteen and studied law.

In 1595 he was elected Member of Parliament for Middlesex, but presently fell upon evil times and, among other troubles, managed to offend the Queen by some of his writings. James I., however, restored him to Royal favour. In 1619 he became Lord Chancellor, and shortly afterwards was created Baron Verulam and Viscount St. Albans. Bacon's enemies presently prevailed against him again, and his own malpractices with regard to various judicial matters gave them the opportunity of ruining him. In spite of the king's favour and efforts in his behalf, in 1621 Bacon was ordered to pay a fine of £40,000 for his misdeeds; he was adjudged to be incapable of sitting in Parliament or to accept any public office under the Crown, neither was he to be permitted to live in any place where the Royal Court might be. He was, moreover, condemned to be kept a prisoner in the Tower of London during the king's pleasure.

In 1625, when Charles I. came to the throne of England, all these judgments were reversed and Bacon was rehabilitated, but did not live much longer to enjoy his honours.

[Illustration]

BAGOT, RT. HON. SIR CHARLES, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Erm., two chevrons az. _Bagot._

_Crest._--Out of an heraldic coronet, a goat's head ar., attired or.

_Helmet._--That of a Knight.

_Decoration._--The collar and badge of a Knight Grand Cross (civil) of the Order of the Bath, with the motto "TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO."

_Legend._--THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR CHARLES BAGOT.

[CARY. _Memoirs._ Edinburgh, 1808.]

Sir Charles Bagot (born 23rd September 1781, died 19th May 1843) was the second son of William, first Baron Bagot, who for many years represented Stafford in the House of Commons.

Sir Charles had an important political and diplomatic career; he was a Privy Councillor and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. In 1807 he was Under-Secretary of State for Foreign affairs, and acted as Minister Plenipotentiary both to France and to the United States of America.

In 1841 Sir Charles Bagot was governor of Canada, and at different times he held the posts of Ambassador to Russia, the Netherlands, and to Austria.

[Illustration]

BATEMAN, WILLIAM, VISCOUNT BATEMAN

_Arms._--On a fess sa., between three muscovy ducks ppr., a rose of the field. _Bateman._ All within a fillet bearing the legend "TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO," being the motto of the Order of the Bath; dependent from the fillet is the badge of the same Order.

_Coronet._--That of a Viscount.

_Supporters._--Two lions rampant reguardant ppr., collared and chained or.

_Motto._--NEC PRECE NEC PRETIO.

[MONDONVILLE. _Sonates._]

William Bateman (born circ. 1680, died December 1744) was the son of Sir James Bateman, Lord Mayor of London in 1717.

Mr. Bateman was twice Member of Parliament for Leominster, and in 1725 was created Viscount Bateman in the Peerage of Ireland. In 1731 he was made a Knight of the Order of the Bath.

[Illustration]

BAYNTUN, WILLIAM

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Sa., a bend lozengy arg. _Bayntun._

Sinister: Gu., a fess dancetty between three cross crosslets fitchée or. _Gore._

_Crest._--A griffin's head erased sa., beaked or.

_Legend._--SIGIL GUL BAYNTUN.

[ENGLAND. _Statuta in Parlameto, etc._ London, 1504.]

Probably the arms of William Bayntun, who was Consul-General at Algiers in the latter half of the eighteenth century. His son Henry became an Admiral and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1839.

[Illustration]

BEATON, JAMES, ARCHBISHOP OF GLASGOW

_Arms._--On a Bishop's cross. Quarterly, first and fourth, arg., a fess between three mascles or; second and third arg., a chevron sa., charged with an otter's head erased of the first. _Beaton._ At the base of the shield, the fish of Glasgow holding a ring in its mouth.

_Motto._--FERENDVM VT VINCAS.

_Legend._--IACOBVS A BETOVN ARCHIEPISCOPVS GLASGVENSIS 1576.

[_Hours of the Diocese of Salisbury._ 1526.]

James Beaton (born 1517, died 1603) was a son of John Beaton of Balfour, Fife. He was a man of high character and much esteemed both in Scotland and in France, where circumstances caused him to spend a considerable portion of his life. Beaton acted as Ambassador from Scotland at the French Court, and lived in Paris at the Scots College, an Institution of which he was very proud, and to which he bequeathed the greater part of his fortune.

Beaton also took a leading part in the politics of his time, and was a staunch friend to Mary Queen of Scots. In 1552 he was, in Paris, consecrated Archbishop of Glasgow, and he also held several important ecclesiastical preferments in France.

[Illustration]

BENNET, HENRY, EARL OF ARLINGTON

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Gu., a bezant between three demi lions rampant arg. _Bennet._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[_Hist. del Ministerio del Card. Guilio Mazarino._ Colonia, 1669.]

Henry Bennet (born 1618, died 20th July 1685) was the second son of Sir John Bennet of Dawley in Middlesex. He was an excellent scholar and linguist, and a skilled diplomatist, especially in foreign affairs, but his standard of political morality does not appear to have been a very high one.

Bennet was a favourite of Charles II. for a long time, and the king honoured him highly. He was made Keeper of the Privy Purse, and Secretary of State in 1662; next year he was created Baron Arlington. In 1672 he was made a Knight of the Garter and Earl of Arlington, in 1674 Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and in 1675 a Lord of the Admiralty.

Arlington was a member of the Cabal Ministry; in 1674 he was impeached for his promotion of popery, breach of trust, and other misdeeds, but the vote of censure was lost. In 1674 he sold his secretaryship to Sir Joseph Williamson, and retired, more or less in disgrace, to his estate at Euston in Suffolk, where he had built a splendid house. Here he died in 1685.

[Illustration]

BERKELEY, ROBERT

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., a chevron between 10 cinquefoils ar. _Berkeley._

2nd and 3rd; gu., a lion rampant arg., ducally crowned or. _Hayward._

_Crest._--A bear's head couped arg., muzzled gu.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[POLANO. _The Historie of the Council of Trent._ London, 1620.]

Robert Berkeley (born 1713, died 20th December 1804) was a son of Thomas Berkeley of Spetchley in Worcestershire. He wrote several anonymous treatises, both political and theological, on questions of his time. He married three times but left no issue. Thomas Phillips wrote his _Life of Cardinal Pole_ while he was chaplain at Spetchley.

[Illustration]

BLUNDELL, HENRY

_Crest._--A squirrel sejant gu., collared and holding a nut or. _Blundell._

_Motto._--AGE QUOD AGIS.

_Initials._--H. B. (Henry Blundell).

[_Engravings and etchings of the Principal Statues, etc., in the collection of Henry Blundell, Esq., at Nice._ 1809.]

Henry Blundell (born 1723, died 1810), of Nice-Blundell in Lancashire, was the son of Robert Blundell of Nice. He was a noted collector of works of art and an antiquary of some repute. His contributions to literature are accounts of his own collections, and are illustrated with fine engravings.

Blundell was a friend of the antiquary and collector Charles Towneley of Towneley Hall, also in Lancashire, and it is probable that his archæological tastes were largely fostered by this friendship. Towneley certainly suggested the production of Blundell's catalogues.

[Illustration]

BOOTHBY, SIR BROOKE, BART.

_Arms._--Ar., on a canton sa., a lion's gamb erased erect or. _Boothby._ In the centre of the shield an inescutcheon arg., bearing the Ulster hand gu.

_Crest._--A lion's gamb erased erect or.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[WILLIAMS. _Antichrist._ London, 1660.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--A lion's gamb erased erect or. On an escutcheon arg., pendent from a branch, the Ulster hand gu., the badge of a Baronet.

[CAMPANELLA. _A discourse touching the Spanish Monarchy._ London.]

Sir Brooke Boothby, 7th Baronet (born 1743, died 1824), was the eldest son of Sir Brooke Boothby, 6th Baronet, of Ashbourne Hall, Derbyshire.

Sir Brooke was the author of several political treatises and miscellaneous works, many of which are in verse. He belonged to the literary circles of his time, and spent some time in France, where he is said to have enjoyed the friendship of Rousseau.

[Illustration]

BOSCAWEN, HUGH, VISCOUNT FALMOUTH

_Arms._--Erm., a rose gu., barbed and seeded ppr. _Boscawen._

[SETTLE. _Rebellion display'd._ London, 1715.]

Hugh Boscawen of Tregothnen, Cornwall (born 1680 (?), died 25th October 1734), was a noted whig politician. He represented successively, Tregony, Cornwall, Truro, and Penryn, following in the footsteps of his father, Edward Boscawen, who had also been a member of Parliament for a long time.

In 1720 Boscawen was created Viscount Falmouth, and he held the appointments of Comptroller of the Household, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, and Warden of the Stanneries, besides others of lesser note. He was also a member of the Privy Council.

[Illustration]

BOURCHIER, RACHEL, COUNTESS OF BATH

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Arg., a cross engrailed gu., between four water bougets sa. _Bourchier._

Sinister: Arg., three dexter gauntlets, backs affrontées or. _Fane._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Mottoes._--BON TEMPS VIENDRA.

NE VILE FANO.

NON EST MORTALE QVOD OPTO.

SEMPER EADEM.

_Legend._--EX DONO RACHAEL COMITISSÆ BATHON DOTARE AN. DOM. MDCLXX.

[_Symbolarum in Matthaeum Tom. I., etc._ Tolosae, 1646.]

Rachael Fane (born 1613, died 11th November 1680) was the daughter of Francis Fane, first Earl of Westmorland. In 1638 she married (1) Henry Bourchier, 6th Earl of Bath, and (2) Lionel Cranfield, 3rd Earl of Middlesex, retaining, however, her precedency as Countess of Bath by Royal Warrant.

The earliest English lady's armorial book-plate belonged to Lady Bath, and was similar to the book-stamp illustrated herewith.

[Illustration]

BRIDGMAN, SIR ORLANDO, BART.

_Arms._--Sa., ten plates, four, three, two, and one; on a chief arg., a lion passant erm. _Bridgman._

_Crest._--A demi lion rampant arg., holding between the paws a garland of laurel ppr.

[LAURI. _Antiquae urbis Splendor._ Romae, 1612.]

Sir Orlando Bridgman (born 1606 (?), died 1674) was a distinguished lawyer and legal author. He was the son of John Bridgman, Bishop of Chester, and a Fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge.

In 1640 Bridgman was elected Member of Parliament for Wigan and was Knighted. By submitting to Cromwell he escaped the penalties of being a Royalist, and made himself of much importance as a lawyer during the Commonwealth. At the Restoration Sir Orlando was received into Royal favour in consideration of his former loyalty, and was given a Baronetcy and made Chief Baron of the Exchequer. In 1660 he was made Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and in 1667 Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. On occasions he acted as Speaker in the House of Lords. Towards the end of his life he fell into some sort of disfavour, and lived in retirement at Teddington.

[Illustration]

BROWNLOW, JOHN, VISCOUNT TYRCONNEL

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; or, an inescutcheon within an orle of martlets sa. _Brownlow._

2nd and 3rd; arg., a lion rampant az. _Mason._

_Crest._--On a chapeau gules, turned up with ermine, a greyhound passant or, collared of the first.

_Supporters._--Two talbots ppr., collared gu.

_Coronet._--That of a Viscount.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Motto._--ESSE QUAM VIDERE.

[SAVAGE. _The Wanderer._ London, 1729.]

[Edward Almack, Esq., F.S.A., Brighton.]

Sir John Brownlow (born 1692 (?), died 27th February 1754) was the eldest son of Sir William Brownlow of Belton in Lincolnshire. He was Member of Parliament for Grantham and for Lincolnshire, and in 1718 was created Viscount Tyrconnel. In 1725 he was made a Knight of the Order of the Bath. Lord Tyrconnel died at his country seat of Belton, and left no heir.

[Illustration]

BRUDENELL OF STANTON WYVILE

_Crest._--A dexter arm embowed, covered with leaves vert, grasping a spiked club, in bend sinister or, slung to the arm with a chain of the last. _Brudenell._

[LE MIRE. _Geographia Ecclesiastica._ Lugd., 1620.]

Books bearing this crest probably belonged to a member of the family of Brudenell, of Stanton Wyvile in Leicestershire.

[Illustration]

BULLINGHAM

_Arms._--Az., an eagle displayed arg., in the beak a sprig vert, on a chief or, a rose between two crosses crosslet gu. _Bullingham._

[_Hardwick Papers_, Vol. 766.]

The book belonged to a member of the Lincolnshire family of Bullingham, in the seventeenth century.

[Illustration]

BURRELL, SIR WILLIAM, BART.

_Arms._--Vert, 3 shields arg., 2 and 1, each charged with a bordure engrailed or. In the chief point on an escutcheon arg., the Ulster hand gu.

_Crest._--A naked arm embowed holding a branch of laurel, all ppr.

_Motto._--SVB LIBERTATE QVIETEM.

[COLLINSON. _The History and Antiquities of the County of Summerset._ Bath, 1791.]

William Burrell (born 10th October 1732, died 20th January 1796) was the son of Peter Burrell of Beckenham, Kent, and was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated LL.D.

In 1789 Burrell succeeded, by special remainder, to the Baronetcy of his father-in-law, Sir Charles Raymond. Sir William Burrell was Member of Parliament for Haslemere; a Commissioner of Excise; a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. He was especially interested in the antiquities of Sussex, both architectural and genealogical. He made a large collection of prints, drawings, and manuscripts relating to Sussex, which he bequeathed to the British Museum, and which are now in the Department of Manuscripts. He died at Deepdene in Surrey.

[Illustration]

BYNG

_Crest._--An heraldic antelope statant erm., armed, crined, and unguled or. _Byng._

[RHODES. _Book of Nurture._ 1577.]

Mr. Byng's Library, largely composed of Shakespeare literature, was mostly bound in a straight-grain green morocco. He was probably a member of the family of the Earl of Strafford.

[Illustration]

CAMPBELL, HUGH, THIRD EARL OF LOUDOUN

_Arms._--Gyronny of eight, erm. and gu. _Campbell_ of Auchmannoch.

_Crest._--A double-headed eagle, on the dexter side a sun in glory ppr.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Motto._--NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSIT, being the motto of the Order of the Thistle.

[SETTLE. _Irene Triumphaus._ London, 1713.]

Hugh Campbell (born c. 1666, died 20th November 1731) was the eldest son of James, 2nd Earl of Loudoun. He succeeded to the title in 1684. Lord Loudoun held several important official posts in Scotland; he was a Lord of Session, a member of the Scottish Privy Council, and a Commissioner of the Treasury. In 1704 he was a joint Secretary of State for Scotland, and a Commissioner for the Union. In 1707 Lord Loudoun was made a Knight of the Order of the Thistle, and shortly afterwards Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland and a member of the English Privy Council.

Lord Loudoun fought at Sheriffmuir in 1715. He was one of the Scottish representative peers in the House of Lords, and Lord Lieutenant of Ayrshire. The Earldom of Loudoun descends through the female line and has consequently belonged to various families; it has been held by representatives, among others, of the families of Rawdon, Campbell, and Hastings.

[Illustration]

CAMPBELL, JOHN FREDERICK, EARL CAWDOR

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1. Or, a hart's head caboshed sa., attired gu. _Calder._

2. Gyronny of eight, or and sa. _Campbell._

3. Arg., a lymphad sa. _Lorn._

4. Per fess, az. and gu., a cross or. _Lort._ Sinister: Quarterly.

1 and 4. Barry of 10, or and sa. _Botevile._

2 and 3. Arg., a lion rampant, tail nowed and erected gu. _Thynne._

_Crest._--A swan ppr., crowned or.

_Coronet._--That of a Baron.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Supporters._--Dexter, a lion rampant guardant gu. Sinister, a hart ppr.

_Motto._--BE MINDFULL.

[CAXTON. _Chronicles of England._ Westminster, 1482.]

John Frederick Campbell (born 8th November 1790, died 7th November 1860) was the eldest son of John Campbell of Stackpole Court, Pembrokeshire, first Baron Cawdor. In 1821 John Frederick succeeded to his father's Barony, and in 1816 he married Elizabeth Thynne, daughter of the Marquis of Bath. In 1827 he was created Earl Cawdor of Castlemartin. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and Lord Lieutenant of Carmarthen.

The coat-of-arms of Calder, which is given the place of honour in Lord Cawdor's coat, is borne by right of Muriel, heiress of John Calder, or Cawdor, of Nairn. She married Sir John Campbell, son of Archibald, Earl of Argyll, about 1510, and was the ancestress of the present family.

[Illustration]

CAPELL, WILLIAM, EARL OF ESSEX

_Arms._--Gu., a lion rampant between 3 crosses crosslet fitchée or. _Capell._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Supporters._--Two lions rampant arg., ducally crowned gu.

_Motto._--FIDE ET FORTITUDINE.

[BASNAGE. _History of the Jews._ London, 1708.]

William Capell (born 1697, died 17th January 1742) was the son of Algernon, Earl of Essex, and succeeded his father in the Earldom in 1710.

Lord Essex held several important offices, among them those of Keeper of Hyde Park, Ambassador to Sardinia in 1735, Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, Ranger of St. James's Park, and Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire. In 1725 he was made a Knight of the Order of the Thistle, and in 1738 a Knight of the Garter.

[Illustration]

CAREW, GEORGE, EARL OF TOTNESS

_Arms._--Or, 3 lioncels passant sa. _Carew._

[PRATEOLUS. _Elenchus Haereticorum._ COLONIAE, 1605.]

George Carew (born 29th May 1555, died 22nd March 1629) was the son of George Carew, Dean of Windsor, and educated at Oxford. In 1583 he was Sheriff of Carlow in Ireland, and was Knighted in 1585. Sir George Carew held several important military appointments in Ireland, and became Master of the Ordnance and commander of expeditions to Cadiz and other places, and in 1598 he was Ambassador to France. In 1600 he was President of Munster, and shortly afterwards Vice-Chamberlain to Anne, Queen Consort, and Member of Parliament for Hastings.

In 1605 he was created Baron Carew, and he became Master of the Ordnance in England and Governor of Guernsey, and in 1625 he was created Earl of Totness, and afterwards became Treasurer-General to Queen Henrietta Maria.

Lord Totness was an excellent antiquary and a friend of Sir Robert Cotton. He collected manuscripts, especially those concerning Ireland, and his collections are now scattered, but are chiefly to be found in the British Museum, at Lambeth, in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, at Hatfield, or in the State Paper Office.

[Illustration]

CARTERET, GEORGE, BARON CARTERET

_Arms._--Gu., four fusils in fess arg., with the Ulster hand gu., in an escutcheon arg., in the dexter chief. _Carteret._

_Crest._--On a mount vert, a squirrel sejant, cracking a nut ppr.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer, but wrongly shown, as it should be in three-quarters position.

_Supporters._--Two winged stags.

_Motto._--LOYAL DEVOIR.

[CHURCHILL. _Divi Britannici._ London, 1675.]

George Carteret (born 1669, died 1695) was the grandson of Sir George Carteret, Governor of Jersey, who had been created a Baronet by Charles I. in 1645. In 1681 Sir George was created Baron Carteret of Hawnes, and married Grace, daughter of John Granville, Earl of Bath, in 1674. In 1714 she was created Countess Granville, and at her death her son John succeeded to the Earldom.

[Illustration]

CARTERET, JOHN, SECOND BARON CARTERET--AFTERWARDS SECOND EARL GRANVILLE.

_Arms._--Gu., four fusils in fess arg. _Carteret._

_Crest._--On a mount vert, a squirrel sejant, cracking a nut ppr.

_Coronet._--That of a Baron.

_Supporters._--Two winged stags.

_Motto._--LOYAL DEVOIR.

[THUCYDIDES. _De Bello Peloponnesiaco._ Oxonii, 1696.]

[Sir William Worsley, Bart., Hovingham Hall, York.]

John Carteret (born 12th April 1690, died 2nd January 1763) succeeded his father as second Baron Carteret in 1695, and in 1744 became Earl Granville on the death of his mother, Countess Granville, whose Earldom was created January 1, 1714. Lord Granville was a Lord of the Bedchamber to George I., and in 1716 Lord Lieutenant and Curtos Rotulorum of Devonshire. In 1719 he was Ambassador to Sweden.

In 1721 Lord Granville was Secretary of State, and three years later Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was also a Knight of the Garter. In 1710 he married Frances, daughter of Sir Robert Worsley, Bart., of Appledurcombe, in the Isle of Wight.

[Illustration]

CATHERINE OF ARAGON, QUEEN CONSORT OF HENRY VIII.

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1st and 4th, France. 2nd and 3rd, England. All as used by Henry VIII. (q.v.).

Sinister: Quartered.

1st and 4th grand quarters, quarterly.

1 and 4. Gu., a castle or. _Castile._

2 and 3. Arg., a lion rampant gu. _Leon._

2nd and 3rd grand quarters, per pale.

Dexter: Or, paly of 4 gu. _Aragon._

Sinister: Per saltire arg., 2 eagles displayed sa. and or, paly of 4 gu. _Sicily._

In the base point, arg., a pomegranate or. _Grenada._

Ensigned with a Royal Crown and supported by two angels.

[HOLKOT. _Opus revera insignissimum in librum Sapietie Salomonis editum._ Parisius, 1518.]

Catherine of Aragon (born 15th December 1485, died 6th January 1536) was the youngest daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and in 1501 she married Arthur, Prince of Wales, who died in 1502.

In 1509, Catherine married Henry VIII., and they had several children, of whom only Mary, afterwards Queen, survived her infancy. Henry VIII. divorced Queen Catherine in 1533, on the plea that the marriage was illegal as she was his brother's widow, and in the same year he married Anne Bullen, who was one of the Queen's Maids of Honour.

Queen Catherine died at Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire, in 1536, and was buried at Peterborough. A few of her books came with the old Royal Library to the British Museum in 1757. She was fond of literature and a patron to learning of all sorts, and a friend of Erasmus. She appointed Ludovicus Vives, a well-known Spanish savant and author, to be tutor to her daughter Mary.

[Illustration]

CATHERINE OF BRAGANZA, QUEEN CONSORT OF CHARLES II.

_Arms._--Arg., 5 shields az., 1, 3, and 1, each charged with 5 plates, 2, 1, and 2; a bordure of Castile, gu., 7 towers or, 3, 2, and 2. _Portugal._

_Crown._--The Royal Crown of England.

[_Jesus Maria Joseph; or, The devout Pilgrim of the Virgin Mary._ Amsterdam, 1663.]

[Edward Almack, Esq., F.S.A., Brighton.]

Catherine of Braganza (born 15th November 1638, died 31st December 1705) was the daughter of John, Duke of Braganza, who in 1640 became Juan IV., King of Portugal. In 1662 the Princess Catherine married Charles II., King of England, and as part of her very large dowry, the King received Tangier, commanding the Straits of Gibraltar, and Bombay.

After Charles's death Queen Catherine retired to Portugal, where in 1704-5 she acted ably as Regent for her brother, Pedro II.

[Illustration]

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM GEORGE SPENCER, SIXTH DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE

_Arms._--Sa., 3 bucks' heads, caboshed arg. _Cavendish._

_Crest._--A serpent nowed ppr.

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

_Supporters._--Two bucks ppr.

_Motto._--CAVENDO TUTUS.

[THEODOCRITUS. Δ. Χαλκονδυλου ἐρωτηματα συνοπτικα των ὀκτω του λογου μερων μετα τινων χρησμων κανονων. Milan, 1493.]

William George Spencer Cavendish (born 21st May 1790, died 17th January 1858) was the son of William, fifth Duke of Devonshire, and succeeded to the family honours in 1811.

The Library at Chatsworth was already one of much importance, but the sixth Duke of Devonshire added to it so extensively that he is generally considered as its founder. He purchased rare books at all the great sales of his time, and removed the books which had accumulated at his other residences to Chatsworth. His collection has been further added to by successive owners.

The Duke was a Knight of the Garter, a Member of the Privy Council, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of Derbyshire, and High Steward of Derby. In 1821 he carried the orb at the Coronation of George IV. In 1826 he was Ambassador Extraordinary to Russia, and twice held the office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household. At the Coronation of Queen Victoria His Grace carried the Sword "Curtana," the square-tipped Sword of Mercy.

[Illustration]

CECIL, WILLIAM, FIRST BARON BURGHLEY

_Arms._--Quartered.

1 and 6. Barry of 10, arg. and az.; over all six escutcheons sa., 3, 2, and 1, each charged with a lion rampant of the first. _Cecil._

2. Per pale, gu. and az. a lion rampant arg., supporting a tree eradicated vert. _Wynstone._

3. Sa., a plate between 3 castles arg. _Etchington._

4. Gu., on a bend cotised arg., 3 cinquefoils sa. _Berondon._

5. Arg., a chevron erm., between 3 chess-rooks. _Pinchbeck._

_Crest._--Six arrows in saltire or, barbed and feathered arg., girt together with a belt gu., buckled and garnished or, over the arrows a morion cap ppr.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Supporters._--Two lions rampant erm.

_Motto._--COR · VNV · VIA · VNA.

[_Hebrew Bible._ Antverpiae, 1582.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Within the Garter, the crest is shown without the morion cap, and the two Supporters are moved up from the side of the shield, the usual place for Supporters, and used as Supporters for the crest.

[ARIOSTO. _Orlando Furioso in English Heroical Verse_, by John Harington. London, 1591.]

William Cecil (born 13th September 1520, died 4th August 1598) was the son of Richard Cecil, Master of the Robes to Henry VIII. He was educated at Cambridge, and soon showed a remarkable ability. After Cambridge Cecil went to Gray's Inn and studied Law, and presently came under the personal notice of Henry VIII., who at once took a strong liking to him. At Court Cecil rapidly gained place and power, and under the Protector Somerset he became Secretary of State. He steered his way with some difficulty through the troubles accruing through the claim of Lady Jane Grey to the throne, but managed to escape serious misfortune, and was elected Member of Parliament for Lincolnshire.

At this time he also made himself useful to the Princess Elizabeth, then holding a difficult political position, and when she became Queen in 1558 she at once made Cecil a member of her Privy Council and Secretary of State. In 1563 he was Speaker of the House of Commons. Although not on friendly terms with the Earl of Leicester, and in a position which gave cause to much envy, Cecil was able to retain the confidence of Queen Elizabeth, who, in 1571, created him Baron Burghley, and shortly afterwards a Knight of the Garter.

Lord Burghley seems to have had a considerable library, and most of his books have upon them one or other of his beautiful stamps, sometimes in gold and sometimes in blind.

[Illustration]

CHALLESTON, FAMILY OF

_Arms._--Arg., a chevron vairé between 3 eagles displayed vert. _Challeston._

_Crest._--A demi eagle vert, wings displayed vairé.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[STOW. _Survey of London._ 1618.]

The family of Challeston does not appear to have distinguished itself in any of the ordinary ways, but the arms are described in Burke's _General Armory_, and also in Papworth's _Dictionary of Coats-of-Arms_.

[Illustration]

CHARLES I., KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters; France and England quarterly.

2nd grand quarter; Scotland.

3rd grand quarter; Ireland. All as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Crest._--A Royal Crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Helmet._--Royal.

_Supporters._--A lion and a unicorn, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEV ET MON DROIT.

[CESPEDES Y MENESES. _Historia de Don Felipe III., Rey de las Españas._ Barcelona, 1634.]

Prince Charles (born 29th November 1600, died 30th January 1649) was the second son of James I., and on the death of his brother Henry became heir to the Crown. He was created Prince of Wales on 3rd November 1616, and while holding this rank he often used some of his brother's book-stamps, differentiating them, however, by the addition of his initials "C. P.," and also by the substitution of gold for silver in places where the latter metal had been used by Prince Henry, as, for instance, in the case of the label of the eldest son and the feathers in the Prince of Wales' plumes.

As Prince, Charles had a few small books bound for him in red leather, the first instance of its use for English Royal bindings, and towards the end of his reign again he had several fine bindings made for him in the fine red morocco which was so largely used by Samuel Mearne for Charles II. Whether Charles I.'s red bindings were made by Mearne is doubtful, but it is possible that they were. They are quite plain except for the fine coat-of-arms in the centre, and for delicate gold tooling, of Mearne style, in the panels of the back. Charles I. was a patron of the Arts and a man of cultured and literary tastes. The style of binding that is generally associated with his name is of a better order than the semis and heavy corners which marked the bindings made for James I.

Many of James I.'s stamps were, however, used by King Charles I., and in a majority of cases it is only by the date of the printing of the book that it is possible to say to which king the volume belonged. There is a tendency for the corner-pieces to become less, and also a tendency to substitute a more distinguished manner with regard to small gold toolings than that of the formal symmetrical repetition so prevalent in the previous reign.

[Illustration]

CHARLES II., KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters; France and England quarterly.

2nd grand quarter; Scotland.

3rd grand quarter; Ireland. All as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Crest._--A Royal Crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Helmet._--Royal.

_Supporters._--A lion and a unicorn, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEV ET MON DROIT.

_Initials._--C. R. (Carolus Rex).

[Reynold's _Works_, 1658.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Without Supporters.

[_Common Prayer._ London, 1660.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Within the Garter and without Supporters.

[_Paraphrasis in Psalmos Davidis._ Salmurii, 1662.]

[Illustration]

The Royal name and title abbreviated. "CAR. REX" (Carolus Rex) ensigned with a Royal Crown, and with the motto "DIEV ET MON DROIT."

[SANDERSON. _Complete History of the Life and Raigne of King Charles._ London, 1658.]

[Illustration]

Crowned initials "C.C." adossés, within palm branches, commonly found on books bound for Charles II. by Samuel Mearne, the Royal Bookbinder.

[CRANZIUS. _Vandaliae and Saxoniae Alberti Cranzii Continuatio._ Wittebergae, 1586.]

Charles II. (born May 1630, died 6th February 1685) was the elder son of Charles I. In 1660 Charles ascended the throne of England, although his accession is sometimes counted from the date of the death of Charles I., 30th January 1649. In Scotland it is always so dated.

Samuel Mearne was appointed Royal Bookbinder to Charles II. in June 1660, and he bound the greater number of the King's books in a beautiful red morocco. On most of these bindings the King's initials within a palm spray appear, and sometimes the edges of the leaves of the books have designs painted upon them, only showing when the book is open. Charles II. also used several of the book-stamps that had been made for Charles I.

Mearne was one of the greatest bookbinders of any time, and apart from the splendid work he did for Charles II., he executed numbers of other bindings, many of which are inlaid and have the leather stained and painted. He invented what is known as the "Cottage" design, and his style and detail is often copied even at the present time.

[Illustration]

CHARLOTTE OF MECKLENBURG, QUEEN CONSORT OF GEORGE III.

_Arms._--On two separate shields, side by side.

Dexter shield: Quarterly.

1st and 4th, France and England, quarterly.

2nd, Scotland.

3rd, Ireland. All as used by James I. (q.v.).

Sinister shield, the arms of Charlotte of Mecklenburg. Quartered.

1. Arg., a bull's head in pale sa. (crowned gu.), armed and ringed arg. _Mecklenburg._

2. Az., a griffin segreant or. _Wenden._

3. Vert, in chief az., a griffin segreant or. Principality of _Schwerin_.

4. Gu., a cross pattée arg. _Ratzeburg._

5. Gu., an arm armoured ppr., holding a ring or, issuing from a cloud. County of _Schwerin_.

6. Or, a bull's head sa., in bend sinister (crowned gu.), armed and ringed arg. _Rostock._

Over all, on an escutcheon of pretence, the arms of _Stargard_, per fess, gu. and or.

The two shields are ensigned with the Royal Crown of England.

This stamp is probably of foreign design, as it will be noted that the Royal coat-of-arms of England is as that used by Queen Anne before 1706, and not that used by George III., for whom it is intended.

[CEFFALONIE. _Monument élevé à la gloire de Pierre-le-Grand._ Paris, 1777.]

Charlotte Sophia (born 16th May 1744, died 17th November 1818) was the youngest daughter of Charles Louis, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

In 1761 the Princess married George III., King of England, and her married life was uneventful. As Queen she devoted herself entirely to domestic matters.

[Illustration]

CHETWYND, WALTER

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Az., a chevron between 3 mullets or. _Chetwynd._

2. Arg., 2 chevrons az. _Bagot._

3. Quarterly, arg. and az., on a bend gu., 3 fleurs-de-lys or. _Garshall._

4. Arg., 3 bars sa. _Raymond._

5. Gu., 10 billets or. _Salter._

6. Sa., 3 fishes naiant in pale or. _Verney._

7. Gu., a lion rampant erm. _Meriford._

8. Gu., 5 piles issuing from the sinister. _Henderson_ (?).

9. Sa., 3 pheons arg. _Egerton_ of Shropshire.

10. Paly wavy of 6, arg. and gu. _Gurnon._

11. Arg., a chevron between 3 oak leaves vert. _Haslerigg._

12. Az., a lion rampant or. _Hetherfield._

[DEMOCRITUS. _Anatomy of Melancholy._ Oxford, 1628.]

Walter Chetwynd (born circ. 1620, died 1693) was a son of Walter Chetwynd of Ingestre, in Staffordshire. He was Member of Parliament for Stafford, and for Staffordshire, and Sheriff in 1680.

Chetwynd was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and an Antiquary, particularly as concerned the County of Staffordshire. He was a friend of Dr. Robert Plot, who wrote _The Natural History of Staffordshire_ in 1686, and assisted him in many ways. His collections of drawings and manuscripts were nearly all lost in a fire at Ingestre in 1882.

[Illustration]

CHITTING, HENRY

_Arms._--Quarterly; arg. and az., on a bend gu., 3 quatrefoils of the first. _Chitting._

_Crest._--A talbot's head erased arg.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Motto._--FIDELITATE ET SAGACITATE.

_Initials._--H. C. (Henry Chitting).

[_Collection of rolls of the reigns of many kings._ Stowe, 601.]

Henry Chitting (born 1580 (?), died 1638) was a herald and genealogist. In 1618 he became Chester Herald, and conducted several of the heraldic visitations of English counties. Chitting wrote a valuable work on the _Extinct Baronage of England_, and others of less general importance.

[Illustration]

CHOLMONDELEY, GEORGE, THIRD EARL CHOLMONDELEY

_Arms._--Gu., in chief 2 helmets in profile arg., and in base a garb or. _Cholmondeley._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[FAERNI. _Fabulae._ London, 1743.]

George Cholmondeley (born 2nd January 1702, died 10th June 1770) was the son of George, second Earl Cholmondeley, and succeeded his father in the Earldom in 1733. He was Member of Parliament for East Looe, and afterwards for Windsor, and Governor of Chester Castle. In 1725 Viscount Malpas, the courtesy title used by George Cholmondeley, was made a Knight of the Order of the Bath, and he subsequently held the offices of Master of the Robes, Master of the Horse, and was Lord Lieutenant of North Wales and of Montgomery. In 1736 he became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and in 1743 Lord Privy Seal. He held the rank of Lieutenant-General in the army.

[Illustration]

CHURCHILL, GEORGE SPENCER, FIFTH DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1st and 4th sa., a lion rampant arg., on a canton of the last a cross gu. _Churchill._

2nd and 3rd quarterly, arg. and gu., in the second and third quarters a fret or; over all on a bend sa., 3 escallops of the first. _Spencer._

Sinister: Or, a bend sa.; over all a lion rampant gu. _Abernethy_ (?).

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

_Motto._--FIEL PERO DESDICHADO.

The whole arms are borne upon an Imperial eagle, the heraldic indication of the rank of a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, a dignity given to John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. The eagle is ensigned with a closed crown, the circlet of which bears the strawberry leaves and pearls of an English Marquis.

[FERRAROTTO. _Della preeminenza dell' officio di Stradicò della nobile città di Messina._ Venetiis, 1593.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Used as Marquis of Blandford before 1817. _Spencer._

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th quarterly, arg. and gu., on the second and third quarters a fret or; over all on a bend sa., 3 escallops of the first. _Spencer._

2nd and 3rd sa., a lion rampant arg., on a canton of the last a cross gu. _Churchill._

_Coronet._--That of a Marquis.

_Motto._--DIEU DEFEND LE DROIT.

The whole arms are borne upon an Imperial eagle as before, but in this case the whole is ensigned with a Royal orb between the two horns of a crescent arg., issuing from a Marquis's coronet.

[COLONNA. _Discours du Songe de Poliphile._ Paris, 1654.]

George Spencer, afterwards Spencer-Churchill (born 6th March 1766, died 5th March 1840), was the son of George, fourth Duke of Marlborough. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, and served as Member of Parliament for Oxfordshire and for Tregony, and was a Lord of the Treasury. He married Susan, daughter of the Earl of Galloway.

In 1817, on the death of his father, he succeeded to the Dukedom of Marlborough, and in the same year he assumed by Royal Licence the surname and arms of Churchill in addition to his patronymic of Spencer. This was done in memory of the first Duke of Marlborough, who left no male heir, but whose second daughter Anne had married Charles Spencer, third Earl of Sunderland, and their son Charles, fifth Earl of Sunderland, succeeded his aunt Henrietta, _suo jure_ Duchess of Marlborough, in the Dukedom in 1733. While Marquis of Blandford the Duke collected a magnificent library at his house, White Knights, near Reading, but extravagance in living compelled him to part with it by auction in 1819.

[Illustration]

COCHRANE, JOHN, FOURTH EARL OF DUNDONALD

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Arg., a chevron gu., between 3 boars' heads erased arg. _Cochrane._

Sinister: Az., 3 mullets arg., within a double tressure flory counterflory or. _Murray._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[SETTLE. _Virtute Sacellum._ London, 1720.]

John Cochrane (born 1660 (?), died 5th June 1720) was the second son of John, second Earl of Dundonald, and succeeded his brother William in the Earldom in 1705. In 1706 he married Anne, daughter of Charles Murray, Earl of Dunmore. Lord Dundonald was a Representative Peer of Scotland and Colonel of the 4th Regiment of Horse Guards.

[Illustration]

COCKS, JOHN, BARON SOMERS

_Crest._--On a mount vert, a stag lodged reguardant arg., attired sa., and gorged with a chaplet of laurel leaves vert. _Cocks._

_Coronet._--That of a Baron.

[_Common Prayer._ London, 1669.]

John Somers Cocks (born 6th May 1760, died circ. 1841) was the son of Charles Cocks, Baron Somers, and was educated at Oxford. He was successively Member of Parliament for West Looe, for Grampound, and for Reigate. In 1806 he succeeded to his father's barony, and in 1821 was created Earl Somers. Lord Somers married as his second wife, Jane, daughter of his Uncle James, and widow of the Rev. George Waddington.

[Illustration]

COKE, THOMAS, FIRST EARL OF LEICESTER

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Per pale, gu. and az., 3 eagles displayed or. _Coke._

Sinister: Sa., an eagle displayed erm. _Tufton._

_Crest._--On a chapeau az., turned up erm., an ostrich arg., holding in its mouth a horseshoe or.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Motto._--PRUDENS QUI PATIENS.

[MORGUES. _Diverses Pièces pour la Defense de la Royne Mère du Roy Louys XIII._ Paris, 1637.]

Thomas Coke (born circ. 1699, died 20th April 1759) was the eldest son of Edward Coke of Holkham in Norfolk. In 1725 Mr. Coke was made a Knight of the Order of the Bath, and in 1728 he was created Baron Lovel. In 1733 Lord Lovel was Postmaster-General, and in 1744 he was given a step in the Peerage and created Viscount Coke and Earl of Leicester. In 1718 Lord Leicester married Lady Mary Tufton, daughter of Thomas, Earl of Thanet. He left no heir, but the Earldom of Leicester was revived in 1837 in the person of one of his collateral descendants.

[Illustration]

THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND

_Arms._--On two separate shields side by side.

Dexter shield: Arg., a cross gu., being the arms of St. George of England.

Sinister shield: Az., a harp or, stringed arg., being the Harp of Ireland.

_Motto._--GOD WITH VS.

_Legend._--THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND.

[_Proclamations of the Lord Protector_, G. 5194.]

The Commonwealth was established in England in 1649, and Oliver Cromwell made Protector. In 1649 Charles, Prince of Wales, was crowned King at Scone, and in the next year at Carlisle. In 1658, on the death of Cromwell, the people of England felt that the Commonwealth had lasted long enough, and in 1660 Charles II. returned among general rejoicings. From a bookbinding point of view the period of the Commonwealth was one of little interest, but on the Restoration, Samuel Mearne raised the standard of English bookbinding to a very high level.

[Illustration]

COOTE, CHARLES

_Arms._--Arg., a chevron between 3 coots sa. _Coote._

_Crest._--A coot ppr.

_Motto._--VINCIT VERITAS.

[BOULAINVILLIERS. _Parliaments of France._ London, 1739.]

Charles Coote (born circ. 1761, died 19th November 1835) was the son of a London bookseller, John Coote, and was educated at St. Paul's School and at Oxford, where he distinguished himself by his diligence and literary tastes. He took his D.C.L. degree in 1789. Dr. Coote wrote several historical works of much importance, and in 1789 he was admitted to the College of Advocates, but he never appears to have taken much to law. His son H. C. Coote was an author of much note and a high authority on the subject of the Romans in Britain.

[Illustration]

COTTON, SIR ROBERT, BART.

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Az., an eagle displayed arg. _Cotton._

2. Sa., a fess dancetté between 3 mullets arg. _Wesenham._

3. Or, a saltire gu., a chief of the first. _Bruce._

4. Three piles gu., meeting in point. _Wishart_; over all on an escutcheon or, a lion rampant sa., within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second. _Buchanan._

5. Or, a lion rampant sa., a chief gu. _Beauchamp_ (?).

6. Az., a cross flory between 4 martlets or. _King Edward the Confessor._

[_Breviary of the Diocese of Salisbury._ Parisiis, 1499.]

[Illustration]

_Variety_, with four quarterings only.

[PAPEBURG. _Comment._ Basileae, 1551.]

[Sir W. Worsley, Hovingham Hall, York.]

Robert Bruce Cotton (born 22nd January 1570, died 6th May 1631) was the eldest son of Thomas Cotton of Connington, Huntingdon. At an early age he began to collect manuscripts, especially English ones, and the dissolution of the monasteries in the earlier half of the sixteenth century afforded him excellent opportunity of acquiring invaluable examples. So valuable was Cotton's collections, much of it containing official documents, that twice it was sequestrated by the Government; some of it, however, was restored to him. He was made a Baronet in 1611, having previously received the honour of Knighthood. The part of the collection of manuscripts which had been retained by the Government of the day was eventually restored to his son Sir Thomas Cotton.

A grandson of Sir Robert, Sir John Cotton, desired to present the collection to the Nation, together with Cotton House, with various conditions as to name and safe custody, and after tedious negotiations the collection became National property and was deposited in Essex House, Strand; in 1730 it was moved to Ashburnham House, in Little Dean's Yard, Westminster, then the property of the Government, where also the old Royal manuscripts were kept. In 1731 a fire occurred at Ashburnham House, and a large number of manuscripts were burnt and many others badly injured. The remainder were then stored in a dormitory at Westminster School, and here they remained until they were transferred to the British Museum in 1757.

The Cottonian collection of manuscripts is now kept in the Manuscript Department at the British Museum; but there are numbers of printed books as well that are widely distributed. A member of the Cotton Family is always a Family Trustee of the British Museum. Sir Robert Cotton wrote a large number of tracts, mainly political. The Cottonian MSS. are curiously arranged under the names of the Roman Emperors.

[Illustration]

COVENTRY, WILLIAM, FIFTH EARL OF COVENTRY

_Arms._--Sa., a fess erm., between 3 crescents sa.

_Crest._--A garb or, lying fesswise, thereon a cock gu., comb, wattles, and legs of the first.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

[SETTLE. _Honori Sacellum._ London, 1712.]

William Coventry (born c. 1688, died 18th March 1750) was the son of Walter Coventry of London, the lineal representative of Walter Coventry, brother of the first Earl of Coventry, in which line, by special limitation, the Earldom was allowed to rest. Mr. Coventry was Member of Parliament for Bridport, and succeeded to the Earldom of Coventry in 1719. He was Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the county of Worcester, a Member of the Privy Council, and Clerk Comptroller of the Green Cloth.

[Illustration]

COVERT, WILLIAM

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Gu., a fess ermine between 3 martlets or. _Covert._

2. Erm., 2 bars and a canton gu. _Boyes._

3. Gu., a fess between 3 lions' heads couped or. _St. Clair._

4. Arg., a chevron between 3 garbs gu. _Sheffield._

5. Or, 2 crescents, 1 and 1, gu., a canton erm. _Symonds._

6. Lozengy, arg. and gu., a fess sa. _Rockly._

7. Arg., a cross sa., with 2 crosses crosslet fitchée of the last in the upper cantons. _Balderstone._

8. Arg., on a chief gu., 3 lions rampant arg. _Yonge._

9. Or, a cross gu. _Bourke._

10. Arg., 5 fusils in bend, gu. _Bradeston._

11. Arg., on a chief gu., 3 crosses pattée fitchée of the first. _Dyall._

12. Arg., 3 garbs gu. _Comyn._

13. Lozengy, arg. and sa., each lozenge sa., charged with a martlet or. _Croft_ (?).

[BABINGTON'S _Works_. London, 1615.]

William Covert of Kent belonged to an old family, members of which were settled in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex since the sixteenth century.

John Covert, a member of the same family, had a command at the Siege of Boulogne in 1558.

[Illustration]

COWPER, WILLIAM, FIRST EARL COWPER

_Arms._--Arg., 3 martlets gu., 2 and 1, on a chief engrailed of the last, as many annulets or. _Cowper._

_Note._--The annulets are wrongly shown on this stamp.

[SETTLE. _Fears and Dangers._ London, 1706.]

William Cowper (born c. 1655, died 10th October 1723) was the son of Sir William Cowper, Bart., M.P. for Hertford, and succeeded to his father's Baronetcy in 1706. He was educated at St. Albans, and entered the Middle Temple in 1681, and became a great lawyer and politician. In 1706 he was made Lord Keeper of the Great Seal and created Baron Cowper of Wingham. In 1707 he was Lord High Chancellor, and in 1718 was created Earl Cowper. Lord Cowper was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a Governor of the Charterhouse, and Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire.

[Illustration]

CRACHERODE, CLAYTON MORDAUNT

_Arms._--Or, a saltire erm., between 4 lions' heads erased sa. _Cracherode._

_Crest._--A demi boar saliant reguardant or, wounded in the shoulder with an arrow ppr., which he holds in his mouth.

_Note._--Probably designed and the stamp cut by Roger Payne.

[SUETONIUS. _Opera._ Leovardiae, 1715.]

Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode (born 23rd June 1730, died 5th April 1799) was a son of an officer of Marines, Colonel Mordaunt Cracherode.

Clayton Cracherode was educated at Westminster and Christchurch, Oxford, and was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Society of Antiquaries, and a Trustee of the British Museum. He was ordained shortly after leaving Oxford. On the death of his father, Mr. Cracherode became a rich man, and spent his fortune freely in collecting choice books, bindings, drawings, prints, coins, and gems, always getting the finest examples procurable.

Mr. Cracherode was an eccentric and shy recluse; he hardly ever left London, and his life is said to have been embittered by the fact that he was liable to act as King's Cup-bearer at a coronation, his manor at Great Wymondley being held on that Tenure. The collections made by Mr. Cracherode were all bequeathed to the British Museum except two books, a Bible left to the Bishop of Durham, and a Homer to Cyril Jackson, Dean of Christchurch, but both of these eventually were given to the Museum Library. Several of Mr. Cracherode's books were bound for him by Roger Payne, one of the greatest English bookbinders.

[Illustration]

DERING, SIR EDWARD, BARONET

_Arms._--Or, a saltire sa. _Dering._

_Crest._--Out of an heraldic coronet a plume of 9 ostrich feathers, 4 and 5, arg.

_Legend._--EDOARDVS DERING MILES ET BARONETTVS.

[_The Catholike Moderator._ London, 1623.]

Edward Dering (born 28th January 1598, died 22nd June 1644) was the son of Sir Anthony Dering of Surrenden. He was educated at Cambridge, and soon became a collector and lover of antiquities.

In 1619 Dering received the honour of Knighthood, and in 1627 became a Baronet. He represented Kent in the House of Commons, and interested himself much in religious matters. He eventually got into trouble with Parliament about some of his writings, and was imprisoned for a time in the Tower. He raised a regiment for the King at the commencement of the Civil War, and in consequence he suffered sequestration of his estates. He does not appear to have succeeded well as a soldier. Dering never recovered from the troubles incident upon his advocacy of the Royalist cause, and he died in comparative poverty. He has left several works and pamphlets, chiefly political or theological.

[Illustration]

D'EWES, SIR SYMONDS, BARONET

_Arms._--Or, 3 quatrefoils pierced gu. _D'Ewes._

_Crest._--A wolf's head erased or, about the neck a collar vairé.

[D'EWES. _Journals of Parliaments temp. Eliz._ Harl. MS. 73.]

Symonds D'Ewes (born 18th December 1602, died 8th April 1650) was the son of Paul D'Ewes of Milden in Suffolk. He went to Cambridge, and was called to the Bar in 1623. His tastes were always of a literary and antiquarian character, and he was a friend of Sir Robert Cotton. In 1626 he received the honour of Knighthood, and on his father's death in 1631 he inherited considerable property.

D'Ewes was High Sheriff of Suffolk and Member of Parliament for Sudbury, and in 1641 he became a Baronet. He wrote many valuable historical and antiquarian works; his "Diaries" are now in the British Museum, as are several others of his manuscripts, forming part of the Harleian Collection.

[Illustration]

DIGBY, SIR KENELM, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1. Az., a fleur-de-lys arg. _Digby._

2. Arg., a chevron between 3 crosses crosslet fitchée. _Davenport._

3. Erm., on a bend sa., 3 goats' heads erased arg., armed or. _Mulsho._

4. Gu., semé of crosses crosslet arg., 3 leopards' heads jessant-de-lys, arg. _Neville._

On an escutcheon of pretence, the arms of Venetia Stanley.

Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters arg., on a bend az., 3 bucks' heads cabossed or, a crescent for difference. _Stanley._

2nd grand quarter, quarterly.

1st and 4th or, a lion rampant az. _The Duke of Brabant._

2nd and 3rd gu., 3 lucies hauriant arg. _Lucy._

3rd grand quarter az., 5 fusils conjoined in fess or. _Percy._

_Crest._--An ostrich arg., with a horseshoe in his mouth ppr.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[ARISTOTLE. _Opera._ Lut. Parisiorum, 1619.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1st and 4th, _Digby._ } } _Sir Kenelm Digby._ 2nd and 3rd, _Mulsho._ }

Sinister: Quarterly.

1st and 4th, _Stanley._ } 2nd and 3rd, _The Duke_ } _Venetia Stanley._ _of Brabant._ }

[BOCCALINI. _Delli Avvisi di Parnaso._ Venetia, 1619.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Within a vesica.

Quarterly.

1. _Digby._ 3. _Mulsho._ } } _Sir Kenelm Digby._ 2. _Davenport._ 4. _Neville._ }

On an escutcheon of pretence.

Quarterly.

1. _Stanley._ 3. _Lucy._ } 2. _The Duke of_ 4. _Percy._ } _Venetia Stanley._ _Brabant._ }

_Legend._--INSIGNIA KENELMI DIGBY EQVITIS AVRATI.

[PLATO. _Opera._ Paris, 1578.]

[Illustration]

Initials "K.D." for Kenelm Digby, and "V." for Venetia, his wife.

[ARISTOTLE. _Opera._ Lut. Parisiorum, 1619.]

Kenelm Digby (born 11th July 1603, died 11th June 1665) was the elder son of Sir Everard Digby, Knight, and Mary Mulsho, his wife. He inherited large estates from his father in spite of the fact that much of Sir Everard's property had been confiscated. Kenelm Digby was educated at Oxford, at Gloucester Hall, near Worcester College. He travelled much on the Continent, particularly in France and in Spain. In 1623 he was Knighted by James I. Quite early in life he had fallen in love with Venetia, daughter of Sir Edward Stanley, and in 1625 he married her.

In 1627 Digby fitted out and commanded a curious privateering expedition, and captured several French, Dutch, Spanish, Flemish, and Venetian ships, but his conduct was disavowed by the English government. Digby was suspected of popish sympathies and suffered various terms of imprisonment in consequence, but in 1643 he was allowed to leave England for France, and for a time he made his home in Paris, a town to which he had always been very partial, and he appears to have been well received by Louis XIV.

Sir Kenelm Digby wrote a large number of books, religious, philosophical, and scientific; he was a man of much imagination, and took delight in inventing quack medicines. He possessed a large library; many of his books were presented to the Bodleian Library at Oxford, others are said to have been given to Louis XIV., and others again were scattered. On some of the volumes the coat-of-arms of Digby alone occurs, but in the majority of cases the coat-of-arms is quartered with various other family coats, and has also the coat-of-arms of Venetia Stanley either impaled or borne as an escutcheon of pretence. Many of Sir Kenelm's books were bound in Paris.

[Illustration]

DORMER, ROBERT, EARL OF CARNARVON

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Az., 10 billets or, 4, 3, 2, and 1, on a chief of the second a demi lion rampant issuant sa. _Dormer._

Sinister: Per pale, az. and gu., 3 lions rampant arg. _Herbert._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[_Common Prayer._ Dublin, 1621.]

Robert Dormer (born circ. 1610 (?), died 20th September 1643) was the only son of Sir William Dormer, son of Robert, Baron Dormer of Wyng. In 1616 Robert Dormer succeeded to the Barony of Dormer on the death of his grandfather, his father having predeceased him. In 1628 he was created Earl of Carnarvon, and in 1641 he was Lord Lieutenant of Bucks. Lord Carnarvon was killed at the Battle of Newbury, where he fought as a Royalist. He married in 1625 Anna Sophia Herbert, daughter of Philip, Earl of Pembroke.

[Illustration]

DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, DUKE OF QUEENSBERRY

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., a human heart gu., imperially crowned ppr., on a chief az., 3 mullets of the field. _Douglas._

2nd and 3rd; az., a bend between 6 crosses crosslet fitchée or. _Marr._

All within a bordure or, charged with the double tressure (flory counterflory) of Scotland, added by Charles II. to the coat of William Douglas, Earl of Queensberry, when he conferred upon him the Marquisate of Queensberry in 1681.

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

_Supporters._--On each side a Pegasus arg., winged, maned, and hoofed or.

_Motto._--FORDWARD.

[BOETHIUS. _Scotorum Historiae a prima gentis origine._ Paris, 1526.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--A man's heart gu., ensigned with an imperial crown ppr., and winged or. _Douglas._

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

_Initials._--W. D. (William Douglas).

[PLINY. _C. Plinii Secundi Historiae Naturalis_, Lib. xxxvii. Lugd. Batavorum, 1635.]

William Douglas (born circ. 1637, died 28th March 1695), Viscount Drumlanrig, was the son of James Douglas, second Earl of Queensberry. In 1671 Lord Drumlanrig succeeded to his father's honours, and in 1681 he received a step in the Peerage, being created first Marquis of Queensberry. In 1684 he was created Duke of Queensberry. His Grace was Justice-General of Scotland in 1680 and a Lord of Session, and from 1682 to 1686 he was High Governor of Edinburgh Castle.

[Illustration]

DUDLEY, ROBERT, EARL OF LEICESTER

_Crest._--A bear arg., muzzled and chained or, grimpant on a staff raguly arg. A crescent for difference. _Dudley._

_Initials._--R. D. (Robert Dudley).

[TRISSINO. _La Italia Liberata._ Venezia, 1547.]

Robert Dudley (born 24th June 1532, died 4th September 1588) was a son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. In 1549 he married Amy Robsart, who was killed at Cumnor Place in Berks in 1560. It was supposed this was done in order to allow of a marriage between Dudley and Queen Elizabeth.

Lord Robert Dudley was a great favourite both of Edward VI., to whom he had been a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber and Master of the Buckhounds, and of Queen Elizabeth. He was for a time Member of Parliament for Norfolk. With his father, the Duke of Northumberland, Lord Robert conspired to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne of England, and for this he was sentenced to death in 1553, but shortly afterwards he was pardoned and restored in blood. Under Elizabeth Dudley received many honours. He was made Master of the Horse, Lord Steward of the Household, and Knight of the Garter in 1559, and in 1564 Earl of Leicester. In 1564 he was elected Chancellor of Oxford University, and in 1575 he entertained the Queen at his beautiful home at Kenilworth. Leicester was Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire and of other counties, and his possessions were very great. He married a second time in 1573, but left no heir.

The emblem of the ragged staff, or "Sable a staff raguly in bend arg.," was used as a coat-of-arms by the ancient Earls of Warwick, and it shows, as well as a bear, in the representations of the town of Warwick held in the hands of figures in the "Rows Roll," written and illuminated by John Rows of Warwick in the fifteenth century. The bear seems to have been assumed as a cognizance by Earl Arthgallus, and may either have been taken from the Warwick bear or as an allusion to his name "Arth," in British meaning "Bear." The successive Earls of Warwick used the bear and the ragged staff as a badge, and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, whose father, among other honours, was nineteenth Earl of Warwick, used it as a crest. Lord Leicester used a chained bear as his dexter supporter, and the ragged staff shows on one of his many quarterings.

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EDWARD VI., KING OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Quarterly, France and England as used by Henry VIII. (q.v.).

_Crown._--Royal.

_Initials._--E. R. (Edvardus Rex).

This coat-of-arms is upon a binding made for Edward VI. by Thomas Berthelet, who had been Royal Bookbinder to Henry VIII. It has been, however, transferred to a volume which belonged to Queen Elizabeth.

[_Public Acts._ London, 1559.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Quarterly, France and England as used by Henry VIII. (q.v.).

_Crown._--Royal.

_Initials._--E. R. (Edvardus Rex).

[ANDREASI. _De Amplitudine misericordiae Dei oratio._ Basileae, 1550.]

[Illustration]

_Badge._--A daisy ppr., crowned or.

The daisy was used as a badge by Edward VI., in memory of his great-grandmother, Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII.

[_Belief in Christ._ London, 1550.]

[Illustration]

_Badge._--The triple ostrich plume arg., of the Prince of Wales, within a princely coronet or.

_Motto._--IHC (_sic_) DIEN.

_Initials._--E. P. (Edward, Prince.)

[_List of Cities, etc., named in Trogus Pompeius and in the epistles of Cicero; addressed by Peter Olivarius to Edward, Prince of Wales._ 1546, MS.]

Prince Edward (born 12th October 1537, died 6th July 1553) was the son of Henry VIII. and Queen Jane Seymour, his third wife. He succeeded his father on the throne of England in 1547, and left the crown by will to his cousin Lady Jane Grey, the result of which was that her relatives endeavoured to place her upon the throne and she was beheaded in 1554 by order of Queen Mary. Although the Prince of Wales's plumes were used on the bindings made for Prince Edward, he never was Prince of Wales. The majority of his bindings were made by Thomas Berthelet, and they came to the British Museum with the rest of the old Royal Library in 1757.

The supporters used by Edward VI. were the golden lion and the red dragon, as they were used by Henry VIII. after 1528, but they do not show on any of his bindings as far as is at present known.

EDWARD VII., KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, AND OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH; EMPEROR OF INDIA.

_Arms._--Within the Garter, and surrounded by the Collar of the Order of the Garter, dependent from which is the Great George.

Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., 2 lions passant guardant in pale or, langued and unguled az. _England._

2nd; or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory gu. _Scotland._

3rd; az., a harp or, stringed arg. _Ireland._

_Crown._--Royal.

[For illustration see the Frontispiece.]

[Illustration]

EGERTON, FRANCIS HENRY, EIGHTH EARL OF BRIDGWATER

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters; arg., a lion rampant gu., between 3 pheons sa. _Egerton._

2nd grand quarter; quarterly, France and England. _Mary, daughter of Henry VII._

3rd grand quarter; barry of six, arg. and az. _Grey._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Supporters._--Dexter, a horse; sinister, a griffin; each gorged with a ducal coronet.

_Motto._--SIC DONEC.

[_Rabani Mauri Tractatus super Librum Regum._ Eg. MS. 1783.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--The shield alone.

[BEZA. _Nov. Test._ London, 1582.]

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_Crest._--A lion rampant gu., supporting an arrow erect or, headed and feathered arg.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[TAYLOR. _An arrant Thiefe._ London, 1625.]

Francis Henry Egerton (born 11th November 1756, died 11th February 1829) was a son of John Egerton, Bishop of Durham. He was educated at Eton and All Souls' College, Oxford, and was for a long time Rector of Middle, Shropshire. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. Mr. Egerton was a scholar and a book lover, and wrote several books, mostly genealogical, a subject of which he was very fond.

In 1823, on the death of his brother, Mr. Egerton became Earl of Bridgwater, but he remained in Paris, where he had lived for some time. With the Peerage Lord Bridgwater inherited a large fortune, and he bequeathed a large portion of this in the endowment of Literature, one result of which was the "Bridgwater Treatises." He also left a very large collection of manuscripts and other treasures to the Trustees of the British Museum, with property to allow of accessions.

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ELIZABETH, QUEEN OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly, first and fourth, France; second and third, England, as used by Henry VIII. (q.v.).

_Crown._--Royal.

[GRANT. _Graecae Linguae Spicilegium._ London, 1577.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Within the Garter.

[GUICCIARDINI. _Historie._ London, 1599.]

[Illustration]

_Badge._--Upon a mound or, a falcon arg., royally crowned or, and holding in his dexter claw a Royal sceptre or; growing on the dexter side of the mound a rose-tree ppr., with red and white roses.

Queen Elizabeth used this badge in memory of her mother, Queen Anne, at whose coronation it was shown in a pageant. A falcon was the crest of the Ormond family, and it is shown sculptured on the tomb of the Earl of Wiltshire, father of Anne Bullen.

[_Trogi Pompeii historiarum Philippicarum Epitoma._ Paris, 1581.]

[Illustration]

_Badge._--A Tudor rose, arg. and gu., seeded or, and leaved vert. Ensigned with a Royal Crown.

[CAIUS. _De Antiquitate Cantebrigiensis Academiae libri duo._ Londini, 1574.]

[Illustration]

_Badge._--A Tudor rose bearing a scroll upon which is the name "ELIZABETH."

[_New Testament._ London, 1532.]

The Princess Elizabeth (born 7th September 1533, died 24th March 1603) was the daughter of Henry VIII. and his second wife Anne Bullen.

In 1558 Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister Mary as Queen of England. Queen Elizabeth loved magnificence of all kinds, and the bindings made for her show a considerable range of style; several were sumptuously bound in velvet with rich embroideries and pearls, some of these being made by the workmen of Archbishop Parker; other velvet bindings were stamped in gold, and had overlays of coloured satin. As Princess, Elizabeth is supposed to have embroidered a few bindings; two of these are now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and another is in the British Museum. Others were in carved, engraved, or repoussé gold finely enamelled, and numbers were in leather, both gold tooled and blind tooled; some of the former were very likely bound for the Queen by the printer John Day, who was the first English binder to use inlays of leather coloured differently to the main part of the binding.

Small series of triple dots and small corner-pieces show for the first time on small books bound for Queen Elizabeth towards the end of her reign.

The supporters used by Queen Elizabeth were the golden lion and the red dragon; they show on some of the beautiful painted bindings done for the Queen, but not on any of the stamps. The Queen's portrait is sometimes found stamped on her books.

[Illustration]

FINCH, HENEAGE, EARL OF AYLESFORD

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., a chevron between 3 griffins passant. _Finch._

2nd and 3rd; per pale, az. and gu., 3 lions rampant arg. _Herbert._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Motto._--NEC ELATA NEC DEIECTA.

[SACCHI. _Platinae hystoria de vitis potificum._ Venetiis, 1511.]

Heneage Finch (born c. 1647, died 22nd July 1719) was the second son of the first Earl of Nottingham. Mr. Finch was an eminent lawyer, and in 1678 he became Solicitor-General. He was Member of Parliament for Oxford, and in 1702, shortly after the accession of Queen Anne, he was chosen to receive Her Majesty when she visited that city. On this occasion he was created Baron of Guernsey. On the accession of George I. Lord Guernsey was created Earl of Aylesford, and also made a Member of the Privy Council and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.

[Illustration]

FITZ-ALAN, HENRY, EIGHTEENTH EARL OF ARUNDEL

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., a lion rampant or. _Fitz-Alan._

2nd and 3rd; sa., a fret or. _Maltravers._

_Crest._--Out of an heraldic coronet gu., a demi eagle, wings displayed or.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Motto._--VIRTVTIS LAVS ACTIO.

_Note._--Coloured. The earliest heraldic book-stamp of an English subject as yet known.

[ARISTOTLE. Venetiis, 1513.]

[Illustration]

_Badge._--A horse courant arg., bearing in his mouth a sprig of oak ppr.

[_Biblia._ Venice, 1544.]

Henry Fitz-Alan (born c. 1511, died c. 1580) was the son of William, Earl of Arundel, and succeeded his father in 1544.

Lord Arundel was a soldier of repute, and took part in the siege of Boulogne in 1545. He gave political offence to the Earl of Warwick in the reign of Edward VI. and was committed to the Tower. He acted as Constable at the coronation of Queen Mary, and as Lord High Steward at that of Queen Elizabeth. He was a Knight of the Garter. Fond of books, Lord Arundel made a large collection of them, and profited by the dissolution of the monasteries in the early sixteenth century to add to his library at Nonsuch. Many of his books had belonged to Archbishop Cranmer. He bequeathed his library to his son-in-law, Lord Lumley, and they were nearly all purchased eventually by Henry, Prince of Wales.

[Illustration]

FREDERICK, ELECTOR PALATINE OF THE RHINE, AFTERWARDS KING OF BOHEMIA.

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1st and 4th; sa., a lion rampant or, crowned gu. _Pfalz-am-Rhein._

2nd and 3rd; lozengy, az. and arg. _Bavaria._

Over all an escutcheon of pretence bearing a Royal orb as an emblem of dominion.

Sinister: The Royal arms of James I. (q.v.).

_Crest._--Out of a princely coronet, a lion sejant or, crowned gu., between 2 buffalo horns lozengy, az. and arg.

_Supporters._--2 lions rampant or, crowned gu.

[LEGRAIN. _Decade contenant la vie et gestes de Henry le Grand Roy de France._ Paris, 1614.]

Frederick V., Elector Palatine of the Rhine, married the Princess Elizabeth (born 15th August 1596, died 13th February 1662), daughter of James VI. of Scotland, in 1613. In 1618, Frederick was elected King of Bohemia; his acceptance of this dignity is said to have been largely due to his wife's ambition. As Queen of Bohemia, Elizabeth's life was not easy, and she was never popular at Prague, and in 1622 the Palatinate was taken by the Duke of Bavaria. Her father, now James I. of England, does not appear to have taken much interest in the Queen of Bohemia; neither in turn did Charles I. In 1632 the King of Bohemia died, and the Queen passed the latter part of her life in England.

Queen Elizabeth's youngest daughter, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, was the mother of George I., King of England.

[Illustration]

FREDERICK, PRINCE OF WALES

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st; _England_ and _Scotland_ impaled.

2nd; _France_.

3rd; _Ireland_.

4th; the arms of the Royal Dominions in Germany.

As used by George I. (q.v.); over all the label arg. of the eldest son of the King; and the whole ensigned with a Princely coronet.

_Crest._--A Princely coronet ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, coroneted with a princely coronet ppr.

_Helmet._--Royal.

_Supporters._--The lion and unicorn of England, differenced with a label of three points arg., and the lion wearing a Prince's coronet.

_Motto._--ICH DIEN.

[_Papers relating to Cuba._ London, 1744.]

Frederick Louis, Prince of Hanover, and afterwards Prince of Wales (born 6th January 1707, died 20th March 1751), was the eldest son of George, Electoral Prince of Hanover, afterwards George II., King of England. In 1729 Prince Frederick was created Prince of Wales, but all his life there were incessant quarrels between himself and his parents. In 1736 he married the Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha; it proved an unhappy marriage.

The Prince of Wales died in 1751, from the after-effects of an accidental blow from a tennis ball, and nobody appears to have regretted him. He left nine children, the eldest of whom, George, succeeded to the throne of England on the death of his grandfather in 1760. The Prince of Wales' books were generally bound in red morocco, with one or other of his armorial stamps, some of which bear the label of the eldest son, and others do not. But they all have the motto "ICH DIEN," and occasionally the initials "F. P." at the top on each side of the crest.

[Illustration]

GARRICK, DAVID

_Arms._--Per pale, or and az., in the dexter compartment a tower gu., and in the sinister, on a mount vert, a sea-horse arg., mane, fins, and tail of the first; on a chief or, 3 mullets of the second.

_Crest._--A mullet or.

[ETHEREGE. _The Comical Revenge._ London, 1690.]

David Garrick (born 19th February 1716, died 20th January 1779) was the son of an officer in the army, and of Huguenot descent from the family of La Garrique of Bordeaux. Garrick took to the stage at an early age, and after having unsuccessfully tried other means of making a livelihood he eventually took to acting as a profession. He acted as an amateur at St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, and he wrote several plays. His family did not approve of his becoming an actor, but his rapid success ultimately reconciled them to it. His life-history is one of unvarying triumphs, which, however, naturally made him many enemies; he left the stage practically in 1762.

Garrick was a collector of treasures of all sorts, but particularly copies of Early English plays, of which he made a very large and valuable collection. These he bequeathed to the British Museum. He left a large fortune, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

[Illustration]

GEORGE I., KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st grand quarter; _England_ } and _Scotland_ impaled. } As used by Queen 2nd grand quarter; _France_. } Anne. 3rd grand quarter; _Ireland_. } 4th grand quarter; the arms of the Royal Dominions in Germany. Impaled.

Dexter: Gules, 2 lions passant guardant or. _Brunswick._

Sinister: Or, semée of hearts ppr., a lion rampant az. _Lunenburg._

In the base point gu., a horse current arg. _Saxony._

Over all an escutcheon gu., charged with the Crown of Charlemagne or, as a badge of the office of _High Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire_. The Crown of Charlemagne is one of the finest Byzantine Crowns in the world, and it is one of the very few heraldic bearings that are in actual existence. It is of gold and richly ornamented with jewels and enamels, and is kept in the Royal Treasury at Vienna.

_Crest._--A Royal Crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Helmet._--Royal.

_Supporters._--The lion and unicorn, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEU ET MON DROIT.

_Initials._--G. R. (Georgius Rex).

_Badges._--A Tudor rose and a thistle.

[_The many advantages of a good Language._ 1724.]

George Lewis, Electoral Prince of Hanover (born 28th May 1660, died 11th June 1727), was the eldest son of Sophia, youngest daughter of the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I., and Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg. In 1714 Prince George succeeded his cousin, Queen Anne, on the throne of England. He was then fifty-four years of age, and firmly fixed in his German ideas; he never spoke English well, and took every possible opportunity of revisiting his electoral dominions, where he died in 1727.

George I. made an important change in the English coat-of-arms, by including the quartered coat containing the Arms of the Royal Dominions in Germany, Brunswick, Lunenburg, and Saxony. These arms were used in the fourth quarter by George I., George II., and George III. until 1801. After that date they were shown on an escutcheon of pretence by George III., George IV., and William IV., at whose death they were discontinued altogether.

[Illustration]

GEORGE II., KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st grand quarter; _England_ and _Scotland_ impaled.

2nd grand quarter; _France_.

3rd grand quarter; _Ireland_.

4th grand quarter; Brunswick impaling Lunenburg, Saxony in the base point, and the Crown of Charlemagne on an escutcheon of pretence; all as used by George I. (q.v.).

_Crest._--A Royal Crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Supporters._--The lion and the unicorn, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEU ET MON DROIT.

_Badges._--Roses and a Thistle.

[BOERHAVE. _Methodus Studii Medici._ Amst., 1751.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Used as Prince of Wales.

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Impaled.

Dexter: The Royal Arms of England, quarterly; first, England and Scotland impaled; second, France; third, Ireland; fourth, the arms of the Dominions of the Crown in Germany; over all the label, with three points arg., of an elder son.

Sinister: The arms of Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach. Quartered.

1. Per fess, gu. and arg. _Magdeburg._

2. Arg., an eagle displayed sa. _Brandenburg._

3. Arg., an eagle displayed sa. _Jägerndorff._

4. Or, a griffin segreant gu. _Herz. Wenden._

5. Or, a griffin segreant sa. _Fürst Wenden._

6. Arg., a griffin segreant gu. _Pommern._

7. Arg., an eagle displayed sa. _Crossen._

8. Arg., a griffin segreant gu. _Kassuben._

9. Arg., an eagle displayed gu. _Prussia._

10. Per pale, arg. and gu. _Halberstadt._

11. Or, a lion rampant sa., crowned or, within a bordure gobony, arg. and gu. _Nüremberg._

12. Gu., 2 keys in saltire or. _Minden._

13. Quarterly, arg. and sa. _Hohenzollern._

14. Gu., a cross ar. _Ratzeburg._

15. Gu. For right of Regalia.

_Crest._--A Prince's coronet ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, coroneted ppr.

_Helmet._--Royal.

_Supporters._--The lion and unicorn, the Royal Supporters of England, each charged with a Prince of Wales' label. The lion is coroneted with the coronet of a Royal Prince.

_Motto._--ICH DIEN.

[PLAYFORD. _Wit and Mirth._ London, 1714.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Used as Prince of Wales. The Prince of Wales' plumes, within a princely coronet, and flanked by the initials "G. P." for "Georgius Princeps."

_Motto._--ICH DIEN.

[MUSGRAVE. _Antiquitates Britanno-Belgicae._ Exeter, 1719.]

George, Electoral Prince of Hanover, afterwards Prince of Wales (born 30th October 1683, died 25th October 1760), was the only son of George I., and succeeded his father on the throne of England in 1727.

In 1753 an Act was passed "For the purchase of the Museum or Collection of Sir Hans Sloane and of the Harleian Collection of MSS.; and for providing one General Repository for the better reception and more convenient use of the said Collections, and of the Cottonian Library." In 1757 King George II. added to these "Foundation Libraries" of the British Museum, the old Royal Library of England, which had been largely brought together by Henry, Prince of Wales. The old Royal Library underwent several vicissitudes after the death of Prince Henry. It was kept at St. James's Palace. When it was at length incorporated with the Sloane and Cotton collections it numbered altogether about fifteen thousand volumes, manuscripts, and printed books.

On 2nd September 1705, Prince George, then Electoral Prince of Hanover, married Wilhelmina Caroline (born 1st March 1683, died 20th November 1737), the eldest daughter of John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach. Queen Caroline made herself as important in Court and political affairs as she had already done as Princess, and allied herself strongly with Sir Robert Walpole, then Minister of State, and her power became very great, as the King gave way to her wishes almost invariably. Both George II. and Queen Caroline disliked their eldest son Frederick. During the King's several absences in Hanover, Queen Caroline acted as Regent, to the great annoyance of the Prince of Wales.

[Illustration]

GEORGE III., KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND, AFTERWARDS KING OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, AFTERWARDS KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

_First Coat-of-Arms_

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st, England and Scotland impaled. 2nd, France. 3rd, Ireland. 4th, The arms of the Royal Dominions in Germany; all as used by George I. (q.v.).

_Crest._--A royal crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Supporters._--The lion and the unicorn, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEU ET MON DROIT.

_Badges._--A rose for England and a thistle for Scotland.

_Note._--Used from 24th October 1760 until 1st January 1801.

[VITRUVIUS POLLIO. _Architecture._ London, 1791.]

[Illustration]

_First Coat-of-Arms_

_Variety._--With supporters bearing the standards of St. George and St. Andrew. Probably a foreign design.

[SECONDAT. _Le Temple de Guide_. Parisiis, 1772.]

[Illustration]

_First Coat-of-Arms_

_Variety._--Within the Garter, with the "George" jewel, and the badges and collars of the Orders of the Thistle and the Bath (Civil), with their respective mottoes, NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT and TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO.

[PETAVIUS. _De Nithardo breve Syntagma._ Parisiis, 1613.]

[Illustration]

_First Coat-of-Arms_

_Variety._--Used without supporters.

[MONRO. _Works._ Edinburgh, 1781.]

[Illustration]

_Second Coat-of-Arms_

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th, England. 2nd, Scotland. 3rd, Ireland.

Over all, on an escutcheon of pretence, the arms of the Royal Dominions in Germany ensigned with an electoral bonnet gu., turned up with miniver. Used from 1st January 1801 until 8th June 1816. Colours as used by George I. (q.v.).

_Crest, Supporters, and Motto_ as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Badges._--Roses and thistles.

[S. AUGUSTINUS. _De Civitate Dei, etc._ 1467.]

[Illustration]

_Third Coat-of-Arms_

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly, as in the preceding case, but with the Royal Hanoverian Crown, instead of the electoral bonnet, over the escutcheon of pretence. Used from 8th June 1816 until 29th January 1820.

_Crest, Supporters, Badges, and Motto._--As before, with a Royal helmet, but the shield is additionally enclosed within the collar of the Order of the Garter, dependent from which is the badge of the Great George.

[_Inventories of plate belonging to the Crown, etc._]

[Illustration]

The Royal Initials ensigned with a Royal Crown.

[ALLIONIUS. _Tractatio de Miliarium origine et curatione._ Aug. Taurinorum, 1758.]

[Illustration]

The Irish Harp, crowned.

[_Lord's Journals of Ireland._ Dublin, 1780.]

George III. (born 4th June 1738, died 29th January 1820) was the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and grandson of George II. He succeeded to the throne in 1760.

The troubles in Ireland ended, for a time, in the Legislative Union in 1801. During the latter part of his reign George III. became insane and the Prince of Wales was appointed Regent. Almost as soon as George III. succeeded to the throne he began collecting books, no doubt to a great extent induced to do so because of the fact that George II. had practically denuded the Royal Libraries of their treasures in 1757, but in many ways he possessed the true collector's instinct. The Royal Librarian was Sir Frederick Barnard, K.C.H., who travelled about the Continent seeking early editions and desirable books generally, under the advice of Dr. Samuel Johnson. Besides the books collected abroad by Sir Frederick, large numbers were acquired in England, among these the entire library of Joseph Smith, British Consul at Venice. Sir Frederick Barnard did not neglect the sale-room, and he acquired especially valuable additions to the Royal Library at the sales of the important libraries of James West, John Ratcliffe, and Richard Farmer, all of which took place about the same time.

The library collected by George III. is now housed in the beautiful room known as the "King's Library" in the British Museum. All the books have one or other of the many book-stamps used by the King impressed upon them, either on the sides or on the back. The estimated number of volumes in the library at the time of its acquisition by the British Museum was about eighty-four thousand, as well as a very large collection of charts, maps, and drawings, and several manuscripts. The books in the King's Library are in splendid condition, and among them are numbers of precious bindings, especially later English, Scottish, and Irish. Several of the Royal books were bound by Charles Kalthoeber, a German binder who copied the style and stamps used by Roger Payne.

The coat-of-arms used by George III. in the early part of his reign was the same as that used by his predecessor, viz. first quarter, England and Scotland impaled; second quarter, France; third quarter, Ireland; and fourth quarter, Brunswick impaling Lunenburg, in the base point Saxony, and an escutcheon of pretence bearing the crown of Charlemagne, as a badge of the office of High Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire. This coat was used until 1801.

On the 1st of January 1801, a Proclamation was issued by the King regarding the Legislative Union with Ireland, and certain armorial changes are noted. The first is that in future the title of the King is to be "of Great Britain and Ireland King," instead of as heretofore, "King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland." Next the arms "shall be Quarterly: first and fourth England; second Scotland; third Ireland; and it is our Will and Pleasure that there shall be borne therewith on an escutcheon of pretence, the arms of Our Dominions in Germany, ensigned with the electoral Bonnet." So that now the fourth quarter, as used by George I. and George II., is moved up, and shown on the escutcheon of pretence in the centre of the shield.

It will be noticed that the Fleurs-de-lys of France are now left out of the English coat-of-arms, as well as the title of King of France. The arms of France had been used in the English coat-of-arms since their adoption, with the motto "DIEU ET MON DROIT," by Edward III. in 1341, when he claimed the throne of France by right of his mother Isabella, only surviving child of Philippe IV. From that time until 6th March 1706, when Queen Anne changed the first quarter of the English coat, the French Fleurs-de-lys had held the place of honour. Although the French coat was discarded in 1801, the motto which alluded to the same claim to the French throne has been retained and is still used. The Fleurs-de-lys of France were at first semées, but Charles VI. of France reduced them to three, and a corresponding change was presently made in the English coat.

In 1816 the electorate of Hanover was given the rank of a kingdom, so that the electoral bonnet no longer properly represented the dignity. On 8th June 1816, a notice was given in the London _Gazette_ that his Majesty was in future "King of Hanover," and that a corresponding alteration is to be made in the Royal arms, and it is ordered that, "instead of the arms of His Majesty's Dominions in Germany, ensigned with the electoral bonnet, as directed by His Majesty's Proclamation above mentioned, there shall henceforth be used and borne with the arms or ensigns armorial of His Majesty's said United Kingdom, on an escutcheon of pretence, the arms of His Majesty's Dominions in Germany, ensigned with the Hanoverian Royal Crown."

The Royal title _Britanniarum Rex_, "King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland," without the Ducal titles of the Royal Dominions in Germany, which had been used by George I. and George II., first appears on the Fifth Great Seal of George III., used from 1st August 1815 to 17th September 1821.

[Illustration]

GEORGE IV., KING OF THE BRITAINS

The coat-of-arms of George IV. was the same as the last used by George III., namely 1st and 4th, England; 2nd, Scotland; 3rd, Ireland; with the arms of the Royal Dominions in Germany on an escutcheon of pretence, ensigned with the Royal Crown of Hanover.

Several of the older book-stamps of George III. were, however, frequently used by George IV.

[_Inventories of plate at Windsor, etc._]

[Illustration]

Used when Prince of Wales. A Prince of Wales' plume within a princely coronet.

[_London and its Environs described._ London, 1761.]

George IV. used the same coat-of-arms as the last one of George III., that is to say, first and fourth grand quarters, England; second grand quarter, Scotland; and third grand quarter, Ireland; on an escutcheon of pretence the arms of the Dominions of the Crown in Germany, ensigned with the Hanoverian Royal Crown.

When George IV. inherited the large library made by his father, he very soon found that it was a very costly and troublesome legacy, and at one time he was inclined to sell it to the Emperor, Alexander I. of Russia. This idea, however, was very displeasing to English feeling, and the Premier, Lord Liverpool, was able to convince the King that any such sale would be highly unpopular. After considerable trouble the matter was amicably arranged, and Ministers were able to satisfy the King by means of a fund called "Droits of Admiralty," which they could dispose of without troubling Parliament. The King then wrote a letter, 15th January 1823, to Lord Liverpool, in which he says:--

"The King, my late revered and excellent father, having formed during a long series of years, a most valuable and extensive Library, I have resolved to present this collection to the British Nation."

The library was consequently removed from Buckingham House to the British Museum in 1828, and arranged in the beautiful room built for it. In this room the books are kept by themselves, apart from the rest of the library. It is probable that some idea of the ultimate destination of this library existed as long ago as 1791, as in that year a German preacher, Frederick Wendeborn, wrote that the books in the King's private library, "it is said, will be one time or another joined to those of the British Museum."

[Illustration]

GILBERT, JOHN, ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; erm., on a chevron sa., 3 roses arg. _Gilbert._

2nd and 3rd; arg., 2 bendlets sa. _Bradshaw._

_Note._-Used before 1726.

[TESAURO. _Patriarchae Genealogia._ Mediolani, 1645.]

John Gilbert (born circ. 1693, died 9th August 1761) was a son of John Gilbert, Prebendary of Exeter. He was educated at Oxford, and ordained about 1718.

In 1722 Gilbert succeeded to his father's Prebendal stall at Exeter, and two years later he was made Dean. In 1726 Dr. Gilbert was consecrated Bishop of Llandaff, and was afterwards translated to Salisbury. In 1757 he became Archbishop of York. Gilbert was not a man of much learning, and his preferment in the Church is remarkable as being due more to influence than character. He published several sermons.

[Illustration]

GOWER, GEORGE GRANVILLE LEVESON, DUKE OF SUTHERLAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quartered.

1. Quarterly;

1st and 4th, barry of 8, arg. and gu., over all a cross patonce sa. _Gower._

2nd and 3rd, az., 3 laurel leaves or. _Leveson._

2. Barry of 8, arg. and gu., over all a cross patonce sa. _Gower._

3. Gu., 3 clarions or. _Granville._

4. Arg., a lion rampant gu., between 3 pheons, sa. _Egerton._

5. Arg., on a bend az., 3 bucks' heads cabossed or. _Stanley._

6. Gu., 2 lions passant arg. _Strange._

7. Barry of 10, arg. and gu., a lion rampant or, on a canton sa., a fess arg. _Brandon._

8. Quarterly;

1st and 4th, France.

2nd and 3rd, England; being the arms of England, borne by right of descent from the Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VII.

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

[JEWEL. _Defense of the Apologie, etc._ London, 1576.]

George Granville Leveson-Gower (born 9th January 1758, died 19th July 1833) was the son of Granville, Marquis of Stafford. Lord George was summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Gower during his father's lifetime, and succeeded to the Marquisate in 1803.

The Marquis was a Member of the Privy Council and a Knight of the Garter, and in 1833 he was created Duke of Sutherland. The Earldom of Sutherland came into the Gower family by right of Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland in her own right, who married the Duke in 1785. It is said to be the most ancient Earldom in North Britain, and to date back as far as 1057. The Duke's successors all used a quartering on their coat-of-arms for this ancient Earldom, namely, gu., 3 mullets or, within a bordure of the last, charged with a double tressure, flory counterflory of the field.

[Illustration]

GREEN, JOSEPH HENRY

_Arms._--Az., 3 bucks statant or. A crescent for difference. _Green._

_Motto._--NEC SPERO NEC DESPERO.

[BACON. _Of the Advancement and Proficience of Learning._ Oxford, 1640.]

Joseph Henry Green of Barnet (born 1st November 1791, died 13th December 1863) was the second son of Joseph Green of London. He was an eminent surgeon, and commenced his medical studies in Germany. Returning to London, Green worked at St. Thomas's Hospital, where he eventually held important office, becoming chief surgeon in 1820. In 1824, Green was appointed Professor of Anatomy at the College of Surgeons. He was Professor of Surgery at King's College, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and twice President of the College of Surgeons. Professor Green was a friend and literary executor to S. T. Coleridge.

[Illustration]

GRENVILLE, RT. HON. THOMAS

_Arms._--Vert., on a cross arg., 5 torteaux. A crescent for difference. _Grenville._

[_Tristan, Chlr. de la Table Ronde._ Paris.]

Thomas Grenville (born 31st December 1755, died 17th December 1846) was the second son of George Grenville of Wotton Hall, Bucks, and was educated at Oxford. He served for a short time in the army. In 1780 Grenville was Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire, and interested himself much in political matters. In 1790 he was Member for Aldborough, and in 1794 he was Minister Extraordinary at Vienna. His younger brother William, Baron Grenville, was Premier in 1806.

Grenville was a Member of the Privy Council, and in 1799 Ambassador to Berlin, and was the last person to hold the office of Chief-Justice in Eyre south of Trent. He was for a time First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1818 Grenville left public life. He was always an eager collector of fine books, and bequeathed his magnificent library to the nation. It is now kept at the British Museum, of which Mr. Grenville was a Trustee, in a room especially kept for it, and known as the Grenville Room.

Among the Grenville books are still a few fine old bindings, but the majority have been rebound by George Lewis, one of the most eminent of the later English trade binders.

[Illustration]

GREY, HENRY, EARL OF STAMFORD

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Barry of 6, arg. and az. A label for difference. _Grey._

2. Sa., 6 mullets or, 3, 2, and 1. _Bonvile._

3. Arg., a fret sa. _Tollemache._

4. A cross engrailed between 4 water bougets sa. _Bourchier._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[_L'Histoire de France._ Paris, 1581.]

Henry Grey (born c. 1599, died 23rd August 1673) was the son of Sir John Grey, and grandson of Henry, first Baron Grey of Groby, to whom he succeeded in the barony in 1614. In 1628 Lord Grey was created Earl of Stamford. He was a soldier, and held a command in the Parliamentary Army, but proved a bad General. He was Lord Lieutenant of Leicestershire, and served for a time as Member of Parliament for that county. In 1645 he was impeached in the House of Commons for an assault on Sir Arthur Haselrig.

Many of the books which had belonged to Lord Stamford subsequently came into the possession of Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, and now form part of the Harleian Library.

[Illustration]

GULSTON, WILLIAM, BISHOP OF BRISTOL

_Crest._--An ostrich wing, the feathers alternately arg. and gu., charged with a bend sa., charged with 3 plates. _Gulston._

[BOCCACCIO. _Decamerone._ Firenze, 1516.]

[Illustration]

_Arms._--Arg., 3 bars nebuly gu., over all a bend sa., charged with 3 plates. _Gulston._

_Note._--Used by a lady of the Gulston family.

[COQVILLE. _Histoire du Pays et Duché de Nivernois._ Paris, 1612.]

[Illustration]

Variety of crest in smaller size.

[_Tirante il Bianco valorissimo Cavaliere._ Vinegia, 1538.]

William Gulston was Rector of Symondsbury in Dorsetshire. In 1679 he was consecrated Bishop of Bristol, a preferment he held until his death in 1684.

The Gulston coat-of-arms is shown on the screen in Bristol Cathedral. The coat shown on a lozenge is that of a lady of the Gulston family, possibly a daughter of the Bishop. In most of the books on which this coat occurs there is a book-plate of "Elize Gulston," so the book-stamp was in all probability hers also. Both the small coat and the small crest are usually added on the backs of finely bound books, but the large crest occurs on the side in the usual manner.

[Illustration]

HAMILTON, JOHN, ARCHBISHOP OF ST. ANDREWS

_Arms._--On an archiepiscopal cross. Quarterly.

1 and 4. Gu., 3 cinquefoils erm. _Hamilton._

2 and 3. Arg., a lymphad sa. _Arran._

[CELSUS. _De arte Medicina._ Basileae.]

John Hamilton (born c. 1510, died 1st April 1570) at an early age became a Benedictine monk at Kilwinning, and in time went to study at Paris. The Regent Arran was his half-brother, and the priest had considerable influence with him. Hamilton's preferment in the Church was rapid. In 1545 he was made Bishop of Dunkeld, and in 1546 succeeded David Beaton as Archbishop of St. Andrews and Primate of Scotland. He was also Keeper of the Privy Seal and Lord Treasurer of Scotland.

The Archbishop was a strong adherent of Mary, Queen of Scotland, and was a Member of her Privy Council; he actively helped her escape from Loch Leven, as well as taking the field on her behalf. He was accused of complicity in the murders of Darnley and of the Regent Moray. Archbishop Hamilton wrote several theological works. He was hanged at Stirling in 1570.

[Illustration]

HARBORNE, WILLIAM

_Arms._--Gu., a lion passant or, between 3 bezants. _Harborne._

_Motto._--DEVS INDVSTRIAM BEAT.

[PASSE. _Hortus Floridus._ Utrecht, 1615.]

William Harborne (born circ. 1550, died 9th September 1617) was the son of William Harborne of Great Yarmouth. He was a great traveller. In 1582 Harborne was appointed the Queen's Ambassador to Turkey, and remained at Constantinople until 1588. His tenure of this office was beneficial to trade, and he also procured several privileges from the Sultan as to English travellers in the East. Mr. Harborne wrote an account of his voyage to Constantinople, and other books about his stay there. His manuscripts are mostly at the British Museum or at the Bodleian Library at Oxford.

[Illustration]

HARLEY, ROBERT, EARL OF OXFORD AND EARL OF MORTIMER

_Arms._--Or, a bend cotised sa. _Harley._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Supporters._--Two angels ppr.

_Motto._--VIRTUTE ET FIDE.

[_Survey of Manors in various Counties._ Harl. MS. 2192.]

[Illustration]

_Arms._--Or, a bend cotised sa. _Harley._

_Motto._--VIRTVTE ET FIDE.

_Legend._--ROBERT HARLEY.

[_The Annals of King James and King Charles the First._ London, 1681.]

Robert Harley (born 5th December 1661, died 21st May 1724) was the son of Sir Edward Harley of Brampton Bryan, Herefordshire. Robert Harley was Member of Parliament for Tregony, and afterwards for New Radnor, and was distinguished for his knowledge of finance. In 1701 he became Speaker of the House of Commons, and had a considerable share in the passing of the Act for the Protestant succession to the Throne of England.

In 1704, Mr. Speaker Harley became a Member of the Privy Council, and also was made one of the Principal Secretaries of State. Owing to various jealousies and plots against him, Harley resigned office in 1707. In 1710 he was made Chancellor of the Exchequer; in 1711 he was nearly assassinated by Antoine de Guiscard, a French adventurer, and his escape increased his popularity, and he was created Earl of Oxford, and Lord High Treasurer, an office he held until 1714.

In 1715 Lord Oxford was impeached for betrayal of duty and other matters, twenty-two articles in all, and in 1717 he was acquitted after a long trial.

Through all his many political troubles, Harley continued the collection of manuscripts, which was his dearest hobby. He brought together many of the most famous collections, among them those of Sir Thomas Smith, Sir Symonds D'Ewes, and the Earl of Stamford. In the Harleian Library were about six thousand volumes of manuscripts, as well as about fifteen thousand separate rolls and charters, and this collection was largely added to by the second Earl. The entire collection was purchased by Parliament in 1753, and is now in the British Museum. The printed books were dispersed.

Many of the Harleian books were bound, generally in red morocco, by Thomas Eliot and Christopher Chapman, with broad, gold-tooled borderings, and this style is known as the "Harleian." Several of Lord Oxford's favourite books have a facsimile signature "Robert Harley," impressed inside on the paper in gold. A member of the Harley family always holds one of the six family trusteeships of the British Museum.

[Illustration]

HASTINGS, FERDINANDO, SIXTH EARL OF HUNTINGDON

_Crest._--A bull's head erased sa., armed and ducally gorged or. _Hastings._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Motto._--HONORANTES ME HONORABO.

[CAMDEN. _Tomus alter Annalium Rerum Anglicarum ... regnante Elizabetha._ Londini, 1627.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--A bull's head erased sa., armed and ducally gorged or. _Hastings._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[REUSNER. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΩΝ _operis Genealogici Catholici Auctarium, illustres Stirpes Comitum continens, etc._ Francofurti, 1592.]

Ferdinando Hastings (born 18th January 1608, died 13th February 1655) was the son of Henry, fifth Earl of Huntingdon, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Ferdinando, Earl of Derby. He succeeded his father in the Earldom in 1643. Lord Huntingdon married Lucy, daughter of Sir John Davis of Englefield, Berks.

[Illustration]

HATTON, SIR CHRISTOPHER, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Az., a chevron between 3 garbs or. _Hatton._

2. Arg., a cross flory between 4 cornish choughs, ppr. _Offley._

3. Arg., an eagle displayed sa. _Browne._

4. Arg., a bend lozengy gu. _Bradeston._

5. Az., a cross engrailed erm. _Stanton._

6. Gu., a saltire arg. _Nevill_ of Raby.

7. Az., a chevron between 3 garbs or; a crescent for difference. _Hatton._

8. Arg., a fess sa., in chief a crescent of the last. _York._

9. Az., 5 cinquefoils in cross arg., 1, 3, and 1. _Holdenby._

10. Bendy, arg. and sa., on a canton of the second a castle of the first. _Carrell._

11. Gu., on a chief or, 3 quatrefoils vert. _Wedson._

_Crest._--A hind passant or.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[_Bible._ London, 1588.]

Christopher Hatton (born c. 1540, died 20th November 1591) was the youngest son of William Hatton of Holdenby, Northamptonshire. He was educated at Oxford and entered the Middle Temple.

Queen Elizabeth noticed Hatton at a masque, and was struck by his good looks and graceful dancing. He was shortly afterwards attached to the Court, and became a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, Captain of the Guard, Vice-Chamberlain, and a Member of the Privy Council. In 1587 he was made Lord Chancellor, and also a Knight of the Garter. From 1588 until he died, Hatton was Chancellor of the University of Oxford. He wrote a few books on law or the drama, and had a considerable library.

[Illustration]

HEATH, BENJAMIN

_Arms._--Sa., 3 heathcocks arg., membered gu. _Heath._

[COLLE. _Medicina Practica._ Pisauri, 1617.]

Benjamin Heath (born 20th April 1704, died 13th September 1766) was a son of Benjamin Heath, a merchant of Exeter. He inherited a considerable fortune from his father, and as a young man travelled much on the Continent.

Mr. Heath spent all his life in the pursuit of literature and the collection of books. Among his writings is one of some importance, "Notæ sive Lectiones ad Æschyli, quæ supersunt dramata," published at Oxford in 1762. He was a D.C.L. of Oxford. He also wrote some political pamphlets, and others concerning Shakespeare. Dr. Heath left a large family, and one of his sons became headmaster of Eton. His library was very extensive, and he gave a large portion of it to his sons during his lifetime, and the remainder was sold in 1810.

[Illustration]

HENRY VII., KING OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE, AND LORD OF IRELAND

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; az., 3 fleurs-de-lys or. _France._

2nd and 3rd; gu., 3 lions passant or, langued and unguled az. _England._

_Crown._--Royal, but of a type used before the time of Henry VI. and supported by two angels.

_Supporters._--Two lions sejant arg. _Mortimer, Earls of March._

_Note._--This stamp is sometimes said to have belonged to Edward IV. The crown as shown here is that which appears on groats of Henry VII.; but the crown which appears on his great seal, a higher authority, has the crosses pattée and fleurs-de-lys alternately as now used. The crosses pattée were first used as the seal for foreign affairs of Henry VI.

[_Impressed in blind, upon a loose cover in the Library of Westminster Abbey._ C., 1490.]

Henry Tudor (born 26th June 1456, died 1509) was the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort. In 1486 the Earl of Richmond married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV., the first King of the Yorkist line, and as the Earl himself represented the Lancastrian line, by way of Catherine Swinford, this marriage united the two houses of York and Lancaster, and gave rise to the beautiful Tudor badge of the Red and White Rose. The two colours are shown sometimes per pale, sometimes quartered, or there may be simple rows of alternate petals, or, as is most usual, the inner petals are all white and the outer petals all red; the centre is always gold, and the little leaves between the outer petals, if showing at all, are green. The portcullis and gateway, also commonly used as badges by our Sovereigns until the time of Charles I., are both used as emblems of the De Beaufort alliance. The portcullis is or, nailed az., chained and ringed of the first.

The Earl of Richmond defeated Richard III. at the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, and the king was killed. Henry VII. was crowned king on the battlefield. He possessed a considerable number of manuscripts, and also a small library of printed books, which, as far as is known, were bound in velvet. Judging from the leather binding in Westminster Abbey Library, Henry also had some commoner books stamped with his coat-of-arms.

Several bindings that were made for Henry VII. still exist; they are either at the Record Office, the Library of Westminster Abbey, or the British Museum, and are all bound in the same way. The binding is of red velvet, beautifully bossed with silver or other metal; the bosses are ornamented with the Royal coat-of-arms, with the red dragon of Cadwallader as a dexter supporter, and the white greyhound of the Nevills, or, when used by Henry VII., of the De Beauforts, as sinister supporter.

But before using the dragon and greyhound Henry VII. had used two white lions. A white lion was the badge of the Earls of March, who were distantly connected with the King.

The coat-of-arms used by Henry VII., _i.e._ France and England quarterly, was the same as had been used by all the English kings since Henry IV. in 1408, when the fleurs-de-lys semées, which had been hitherto used, were reduced to three, in accordance with the change made in the French coat by Charles VI., King of France.

[Illustration]

HENRY VIII., KING OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE, AND LORD OF IRELAND--AFTERWARDS KING OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND.

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; az., 3 fleurs-de-lys, 2 and 1, or. _France._

2nd and 3rd; gu., 3 lions passant guardant, in pale or, langued and unguled az. _England._

_Crown._--Royal.

_Supporters._--Dexter, a dragon gu. _Cadwallader._

Sinister, a greyhound arg., gorged or. _Nevill_ or _De Beaufort._

_Badges._--Dependent from the shield 2 portcullises or, nailed az., chained of the first. _De Beaufort._

At the top, a fleur-de-lys or, _France_; and a double rose gu. and arg., centred or, and leaved vert, _Tudor._

_Motto._--DIEV ET MON DROIT.

_Legend._--REX HENRICVS VIII.

[_Opus eximium de vera differentia regiae potestatis et ecclesiasticae._ London, 1534.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Arms as before. Panel stamp with 2 angels bearing scrolls. At the top a Tudor rose, and 2 portcullises dependent from the base of the shield, which is ensigned with a Royal crown, and supported by a dragon and a greyhound.

[HOLKOT. _Opus revera insignissimum in librum Sapietie Salomonis editum._ Parisiis, 1518.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Arms as before. With two scrolls and a Tudor rose on the top, and "M. D.," probably the initials of the designer, below. A dragon and a greyhound support the shield, which is ensigned with a Royal crown and flanked by two portcullises chained.

On the border are lions passant guardant and fleurs-de-lys alternately.

[_Dialogues in English._ London, 1532.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Arms as before. Within the Garter, ensigned with a Royal crown and flanked by the Tudor emblems of a Tudor rose, a fleur-de-lys, the gateway of the Castle of De Beaufort, and the cleft pomegranate of Aragon.

_Legend._--On the rectangular borders. DEUS DAT NOBIS TUAM PACEM ET POST MORTEM VITAM ETERNAM AMEN.

[England. _Le bregement des Estatuts._ London, 1521.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Arms and supporters as before. With the sun and moon in the two upper corners and the shields of St. George and the City of London. Ensigned with a Royal crown of incorrect pattern.

This design was probably used by Royal consent by members of the Stationers' Company of London, and there are many examples of it on which are also engraved the initials of London printers and publishers, _e.g._ "J. R.," probably John Reynes; "J. N.," probably Jean Norins; "G. G.," probably Garret Godfrey; "R. L.," probably Richard Lant, and several more.

These initials are usually shown at the base of the shield. _Cf._ under heading TUDOR.

Prince Henry (born 28th June 1491, died 28th January 1547) was the second son of Henry VII., and in 1509 succeeded his father on the throne of England. Henry VIII. always lived in much luxury and loved finery and splendour, and to a certain extent this feeling shows in the many beautiful bindings which were made for him. The King was certainly fond of his books, and he had several of them beautifully bound in velvet and embroidered with pearls and inlays of coloured silks and satins, finished with gold thread. Others are of gold, richly worked and enamelled.

For his Queens also several fine bindings were made; these, however, were generally armorial panel stamps, impressed without gold. He married six times. For Catherine of Aragon bindings were made which still exist, for Anne Bullen and Catherine Parr, the same, but for Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, or Katherine Howard I know of no bindings recorded or in existence. Katherine Parr is said to have herself embroidered a beautiful armorial velvet-bound copy of Petrarch with her own arms, and at the Bodleian Library at Oxford there is a book said to have been embroidered for her by the Princess Elizabeth, on which are the initials "K. P."

Thomas Berthelet, the first English bookbinder to use gold tooling was made Royal Printer and Bookbinder to Henry VIII. in 1530, and he bound the greater number of the Royal books in leather, velvet, or satin.

Henry VIII. used the same coat-of-arms and supporters as his father, namely, the red dragon of Cadwallader as a dexter supporter and the white greyhound of the Nevills as a sinister supporter, until 1528, when he adopted a golden lion rampant royally crowned as his dexter supporter, and moved the dragon to the sinister side, leaving out the greyhound altogether. This change, however, does not, as far as I know, show on any book, but it can be seen on the gold coins of the period, and also on a sculptured compartment at Caerhays, is common at the house of a member of the Trevanion family, and again on the keystone of the ceiling over the organ-loft at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and here, moreover, the date 1528 is also given.

[Illustration]

HENRY BENEDICT, CARDINAL YORK

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters, _France_ and _England_ quarterly.

2nd grand quarter, _Scotland._

3rd grand quarter, _Ireland._

All as used by James I. (q.v.). Over all a crescent for difference. Ensigned with a Royal crown and the tasselled hat of a cardinal.

_Note._--This stamp was probably designed and cut after 1788, at which date the Cardinal entitled himself King of England.

[STELLATO. _Ad frequentem in fidei controversiis interrogationem, etc._ Viennae, 1752.]

Henry Benedict (born 5th March 1725, died 13th July 1807) was the second son of James Francis Edward, called the Chevalier St. George, son of James II., King of England, and Mary of Modena, who married Mary Clementina, daughter of James Sobieski, in 1719.

Prince Henry, who occasionally used the Royal Crown of England over his coat-of-arms, is called sometimes Henry IX., King of England. He entered the Romish Church as a priest at an early age, and in 1747 he was made a Cardinal by Benedict XIV., and held several Bishoprics and the Archbishopric of Corinth, but was usually known as Cardinal York. He assumed certain airs of dignity abroad in consequence of his Royal ancestry and claims, and in 1788, on the death of his elder brother, he had a medal made and inscribed "HENRICUS NONUS MAGNAE BRITANNIAE REX."

The Cardinal lived almost always abroad, and suffered much by loss of revenue caused by the French Revolution; he had to part with much of his private property, jewels, and plate. At this juncture George III. generously assisted Cardinal York, and made him a handsome allowance, in gratitude for which His Eminence bequeathed to the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., many of the Crown Jewels which James II. had taken with him to France. Some of the most important of these stones now adorn the English Imperial Crown. The Cardinal had a large library, and several of his books are at Windsor and at the British Museum. The majority of these are in leather, but some are embroidered.

[Illustration]

HENRY FREDERICK, PRINCE OF WALES

_Arms._--Quarterly; 1st and 4th grand quarters, _France_ and _England_ quarterly; 2nd grand quarter, _Scotland_; 3rd grand quarter, _Ireland_. All as used by James I. (q.v.); and over all a label arg. of three points.

A variety of this stamp has thistles instead of roses in the border.

[APOLLONIUS GALLUS. _Exsuscitata Apollonii Pergaei_ ΠΕΡΙ ΕΠΛΦΩΝ _Geometria_. Parisiis, 1600.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Arms as before. Within the garter, and ensigned with a Princely coronet.

[VITTORI. _Tesoro de las tres lenguas Francesa, Italiana, ej Española._ Geneve, 1609.]

[Illustration]

A Prince of Wales's triple ostrich plume, commonly used as a corner stamp, all impressed in silver.

[ALUNNO. _Della Fabrica del Mondo._ Venetia, 1575.]

[Illustration]

A Prince of Wales's triple ostrich plume; the coronet, ribs of feathers, and motto generally impressed in gold, the feathers in silver. Used mostly as a centre stamp.

[LIPSIUS. _Admiranda._ Antverpiae, 1599.]

[Illustration]

A Badge of a lion rampant guardant, with princely coronet, always impressed entirely in gold.

[REUSNERUS. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΩΝ _opus genealogicum Catholicum de praecipuis familiis Imperatorum_. Francofurti, 1592.]

[Illustration]

A Badge of a Tudor rose, with princely coronet.

[BOCCACCIO. _I casi degl' Huomini Illustri._ Fiorenza, 1598.]

[Illustration]

A Badge of a fleur-de-lys.

[BARETUS. _An Alvearie, or triple Dictionarie._ London, 1573.]

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (born 19th February 1594, died 6th November 1612), was the eldest son of James I., and from his childhood showed studious and literary inclinations, as well as sporting tastes. In 1609 he purchased the library of John, Lord Lumley, a great part of which had previously belonged to his father-in-law, Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, and another large proportion to Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. He also acquired a number of books which had belonged to a Welshman, John Maurice or Morris.

On the Prince's death his library became the property of James I., and it was added to the existing Royal Library, then under the care of Patrick Young.

Prince Henry had his books bound in calf, and probably destroyed numbers of valuable old bindings which were originally used. The new bindings were ornamented with stamps bearing the Prince's coat-of-arms, without supporters, and others showing a lion rampant, with princely coronet; a Tudor rose, with princely coronet; a fleur-de-lys, and two stamps, with slight variations, of the Prince of Wales's plume of three ostrich feathers. These latter stamps are normally used as corner-pieces, but they also show now and then as centres. Smaller corner stamps are found showing coroneted Tudor roses, coroneted thistles, coroneted fleurs-de-lys, and Prince of Wales's feathers in gold. On the panels of the backs of Prince Henry's books are found small stamps of a lion rampant, with princely coronet; a unicorn rampant; a Tudor rose; a portcullis, sometimes chained, and a Royal Crown. These are arranged in various combinations.

The greater number of Prince Henry's bindings are simple, having the coat-of-arms in the centre and the badges in the corners, but several are very handsomely ornamented with accessory gold tooling. The label shown on Prince Henry's coat-of-arms is the cadency mark of the eldest son; it is generally impressed in silver, as it ought always to be. The feathers in the Prince of Wales's plume are always impressed in silver, which has now oxidised black. Prince Henry's library came to the British Museum with the rest of the Old Royal Library of England in 1757.

[Illustration]

HEYDON, SIR CHRISTOPHER, KNIGHT

_Crest._--A talbot statant erm. _Heydon._

_Note._--Painted.

[CICERO. _Orationum volumen primum, etc._ Venetiis, 1540.]

Christopher Heydon (born circ. 1550, died circ. 1623) was the son of Sir William Heydon of Bacousthorpe, Norfolk. He was educated at Cambridge. In 1588 he represented Norfolk in the House of Commons, and in 1596 he was knighted by the Earl of Essex. Sir Christopher Heydon wrote some treatises on astrology. He married first Mirabel Rivet, and secondly Anne Dodge, and left a large family.

[Illustration]

HOARE, SIR RICHARD COLT, BARONET

_Crest._--An eagle's head erased arg. _Hoare._

[HOARE. _Catalogue of Books on Italian Topography, etc._ London, 1812.]

Richard Colt Hoare (born 9th December 1758, died 19th May 1838) was the son of Sir Richard Hoare of Barn Elms, Surrey, a banker. Mr. Hoare worked for a time in the family bank, and then, having a competent fortune, he travelled much on the Continent. In 1787 he succeeded his father in the baronetcy. Sir Richard Hoare wrote a large number of works on antiquities and travel, the most important of which is the _Ancient History of North and South Wiltshire_, published at London in 1810. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. At his house "Stourhead" Sir Richard had a large library, much of which he catalogued himself.

[Illustration]

FRANCIS HORTON

_Arms._--Sa., a stag's head cabossed arg., attired or. A crescent for difference. _Horton._

_Crest._--A spear erect or, headed arg., enfiled with a dolphin of the first.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[_Songs by Several Masters._ 1704, etc.]

Francis Horton, a member of an old family belonging to Catton, county Derby, was a collector of musical works in the eighteenth century.

[Illustration]

HOWARD, CHARLES, SECOND BARON HOWARD OF EFFINGHAM

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1. Gu., on a bend between 3 cross crosslets fitchée arg., an escutcheon or, charged with a demi lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a tressure flory counterflory of the first. _Howard._

2. Gu., 3 lions passant guardant in pale or, in chief a label of 3 points arg. _Brotherton._

3. Chequy, or and az. _Warren._

4. Gu., a lion rampant or, armed and langued az. _Fitz-Alan._

A mullet for difference.

_Crest._--On a chapeau gu., turned up erm., a lion passant, ducally crowned or, and charged on the neck with a label and a mullet.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Supporters._--Two lions erm., each charged with a mullet.

_Motto._--DESIR N'A REPOS.

[CARADOC. _Historie of Cambria._ London, 1584.]

Charles Howard (born c. 1536, died 14th December 1624) was the eldest son of William Howard, Baron Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral of England. Charles Howard was a person of importance from an early age, and was sent by Queen Elizabeth on an Embassy to France. He was Member of Parliament for Surrey, and a general officer in the army as well as being a sailor. In 1574 he was made a Knight of the Garter and Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and in 1573 he succeeded to his father's barony.

Lord Howard of Effingham became Lord High Admiral of England in succession to the Earl of Lincoln, and in 1588 he defeated and dispersed the Spanish Armada. At the time of the coronation of James I. Lord Howard became Lord High Steward of England.

[Illustration]

HOWARD, HENRY, EARL OF NORTHAMPTON

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1. Gu., a bend between six crosses crosslet fitchée arg. _Howard._

2. Gu., 3 lions passant guardant in pale or, in chief a label of 3 points arg. _Brotherton._

3. Chequy, or and az. _Warren._

4. Gu., a lion rampant or, langued and armed az. _Fitz-Alan._

A crescent for difference.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[MARSILIUS. _Interpretatione, etc._ Jenae, 1586.]

Henry Howard (born 25th February 1539, died 15th June 1614) was the second son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, who was beheaded in 1547. Henry Howard the younger was restored in blood by Queen Elizabeth, and on the accession of James I. he quickly became a person of much importance. He was made a Member of the Privy Council, Warden of the Cinque Ports, and Constable of Dover Castle.

In 1604 Mr. Howard was created Earl of Northampton and a Knight of the Garter, and in 1608, Lord Privy Seal. Lord Northampton was a man of much learning, and wrote several treatises on astrology and theology. He had much taste in knowledge as to architecture, and built Northumberland House from the designs of Moses Glover.

[Illustration]

HOWARD, THOMAS, EARL OF ARUNDEL, SURREY, AND NORFOLK

_Arms._--Gu., on a bend between six crosses crosslet fitchée arg., an escutcheon or, thereon a demi lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a double tressure flory counterflory of the first. _Howard._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Legend._--BIBLIOTHECA ARVNDELIANA.

_Note._--A nineteenth-century stamp.

[LYDGATE. _Siege of Troy._ Arundel MS. 99.]

Thomas Howard (born c. 1585, died 24th September 1646) was the son of Philip, Earl of Arundel, who was attainted and died in 1595. James I. restored his father's titles to Thomas Howard, but not the property, much of which, however, he subsequently purchased; and in 1644 he was created Earl of Norfolk in addition. He was a descendant of Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, who had also been a great book collector, and whose library had been largely acquired by Henry, Prince of Wales.

Lord Arundel travelled largely and made very valuable collections of all sorts of antiquities, manuscripts particularly; but as well as these he acquired marbles, coins, gems, and pictures. Among the more notable of the collections of manuscripts purchased by Lord Arundel was that made by the Pirckheimer family of Nüremberg. The manuscripts were for some time kept at Arundel House, where they suffered much from neglect, and in 1666 most of them were given to the Royal Society and others to the Heralds' College.

In 1831 the Arundelia MSS. in the Royal Society's library were transferred, by arrangement, to the British Museum. Lord Arundel was made a Knight of the Garter in 1611; in 1616 he became a Member of the Privy Council; and in 1621 he was restored to his hereditary post of Earl Marshal. He was also High Steward of England.

[Illustration]

HUTCHINSON, THOMAS

_Arms._--Per pale gu. and az., a lion rampant between three crosses crosslet arg. _Hutchinson._

_Crest._--A cockatrice, wings expanded az., comb, wattles, and members or, issuing from a heraldic coronet.

_Motto._--FORTITER GERIT CRUCEM.

[D * * *. _Satyres sur les Femmes._ 1718.]

Thomas Hutchinson (born May 1698, died February 1769) was a son of Peter Hutchinson of Cornforth, Durham. He was educated at Oxford, and entered the Church about 1730. In 1731 he was Rector of Lyndon in Rutland, and in 1748 he was Vicar of Horsham, Rector of Cocking, and a Prebendary of Chichester.

Dr. Hutchinson edited a few editions of the classics, and published several sermons and a few essays, particularly one on Demoniacal Possession.

[Illustration]

JAMES I., KING OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters, quarterly.

1 and 4. Az., 3 fleurs-de-lys, 2 and 1, or. _France._

2 and 3. Gu., 3 lions passant guardant in pale or, langued and unguled az. _England._

2nd grand quarter; or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory gu. _Scotland._

3rd grand quarter; az., a harp or, stringed arg. _Ireland._

Ensigned with a Royal Crown.

_Supporters._--Dexter, a lion or, royally crowned ppr. _England._

Sinister, a unicorn arg., armed, crined, unguled or, gorged with a princely coronet, a chain affixed thereto, passing between the forelegs, and reflexed over the back of the last. _Scotland._

_Motto._--DIEV ET MON DROIT.

_Initials._--I. R. (Jacobus Rex).

The thistle, the badge of Scotland, shows at the base.

[COQUAEUS. _Apologia pro summis ecclesiae Romanae Pontificibus, etc._ Mediolani, 1619.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--With vine spray and a thistle at the top.

[GODWIN. _Rerum Anglicarum Annales._ London, 1616.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--With an ornamental border containing the falcon badge of Queen Anne Bullen and Queen Elizabeth, the triple ostrich plume of the Prince of Wales, the fleur-de-lys of France, the portcullis of the De Beauforts, and the Tudor rose. A thistle of Scotland at the top.

[DU BELLAY. _Mémoires._ Parisiis, 1569.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Without supporters.

[T. BRADWARDINI. _Arch. Cantuariensis de causa Dei contra Pelagium._ London, 1618.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Without supporters.

[BOVERIUS. _Orthodoxa Consultatio._ Matriti, 1623.]

[Illustration]

The badge of a Tudor rose, arg. and gu., reeded or and leaved vert, royally crowned, with sprays of rose leaves.

[PERKINS. _Works._ Cambridge, 1603.]

[Illustration]

The badge of a Tudor rose, as before, royally crowned, within a lozenge of laurel leaves.

[_Christian Dictionarie._ London, 1612.]

James Stuart (born 19th June 1566, died 27th March 1625) was the son of Mary, Queen of Scotland, and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. He was great-grandson of the Princess Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII., who had married James IV., King of Scotland, in 1502, and by right of this descent James came into the line of succession of the English throne. On the dethronement of Queen Mary in 1569, under the Regency of the Earl of Murray, James became King of Scotland under the title of James VI., and reigned for thirty-four years until the death of his cousin, Queen Elizabeth, in 1603, when he inherited the English crown and came to England as James I.

On the accession of James I., a greater change took place in the English Royal coat-of-arms than had ever occurred before. The old coat, France and England quarterly, which had practically been in use ever since the time of Edward III., now became only a quartering, and was shown in the first and fourth quarters, then in the second quarter James put the ancient coat-of-arms of Scotland, or, a lion rampant, within a double tressure flory counterflory gu.

The lion appears for the first time on the shield of Alexander II., and it is supposed to have been derived from the ancestors of the Scottish kings, the Earls of Northumberland and of Huntingdon, whose device it was. The tressure is also of doubtful origin, and is also very ancient; it is popularly supposed to have been given by Charlemagne in recognition of a league between that monarch and Achaius, King of Scotland. The double tressure is presumed to indicate that there were two treaties.

In the third quarter is the coat-of-arms of Ireland, az., a harp or, stringed arg. This harp appears on an illuminated manuscript that belonged to Elizabeth, and is said to have been granted to Ireland by Henry VIII. as a mark of his admiration for the musical qualities of the Irish. It also is used as a badge on Irish coins of and after 1526, and this single harp was increased to three in similar coins made during Elizabeth's reign. The harp was sacred to Apollo Grian or Beal, an ancient Irish deity. Irish silver groats of 1478 show the device of three crowns in pale, and this was probably the coat-of-arms of Ireland at that time, and before that, in 1422, a single crown is found as a badge.

It is curious to note the strong tendency of single devices or badges to merge into threes. It occurs first in the case of the single crown, which presently gets tripled, then the single harp does the same, and the three castles, the arms of Dublin, very likely began as one.

James I. made one more important change; he substituted one of the Scottish unicorn supporters for the red dragon of Cadwallader, used as a dexter supporter by Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. The ancient Scottish supporters were two unicorns arg., armed, maned, and unguled, gorged with a princely coronet and chained or. The origin of the unicorn supporters is lost, but the creature is generally considered to be an emblem of purity and of freedom; the horn, moreover, was credited with medical powers as a remedy against poisons. The idea of an animal bearing a single horn arose probably from the horn of the narwhal, which has diagonal striations upon it resembling those generally shown on the horn of a unicorn, and certainly does not look like the tooth of a fish. On the other hand cups made of rhinoceros horn are credited with the same magical powers as that of the unicorn. The chain attached to a princely coronet on the neck of the unicorn is not easy to explain; it is said that it alludes to an early king of Scotland, who, as a young man, accidentally killed his father, and bore the chain ever afterwards on his supporters as a sign of grief.

The lion and the unicorn have remained ever since the time of James I. as the supporters of the English Royal coat-of-arms, without any change whatever.

In Scotland James VI. had John Gibson for his bookbinder. He was appointed under the Privy Seal, and was "Our Soverane Lordis Buikbinder," but there is no binding left that can with certainty be attributed to him. On James's advent to England John and Roger Norton and Robert and Christopher Barker were made Royal binders and printers, and in 1604 John and Abraham Bateman were made "Bookbinders to the King."

The many fine armorial bindings which were used by James I. were probably made by one or other of these binders, but for the present no signed binding has been found, so the authorship of any one of them is only conjectural.

The main characteristic of the finer bindings made for James I. is the form of ornamentation known as a semis, that is to say, a powdering all over the field of small stamps arranged symmetrically near together. The commonest of these small stamps show stars, flaming hearts, ermine spots, roses, thistles, pineapples, tridents, fleurs-de-lys, and lions, but there are several others. Another characteristic is the presence of large corner stamps. These are cut in arabesque designs, and many of them are very handsome. The idea of corner ornamentation of this sort began late in Queen Elizabeth's reign, but it did not reach its highest excellence in stamp form until well into the reign of James I.

James I. was the first sovereign to have his books mainly bound in morocco, and this leather is found in most quiet colours--greens and browns and blues, but not red. Several beautiful volumes are also bound in vellum, and others in velvet and satin. The Jacobean period was a decorative one, but not one of the highest level of the art of bookbinding. The greater number of James I.'s books came to the British Museum by gift of George II. in 1757, with the rest of the Old Royal Library of England.

[Illustration]

JAMES II., KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quartered.

1st and 4th grand quarters, quarterly, France and England.

2nd grand quarter, Scotland.

3rd grand quarter, Ireland.

As used by James I. (q.v.).

_Crest._--A Royal crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Helmet._--Royal.

_Supporters._--A lion and a unicorn as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEV ET MON DROIT.

Used from 1685 until 1689, when James II. was deposed.

[_Ordnance Rules._ 1683-1685. Stowe MS. 442.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Used in France from 1689 until 1701.

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th, England.

2nd, Scotland.

3rd, Ireland.

Colours as used by James I. (q.v.). Ensigned with the Royal Crown, and between two palm branches.

In this coat James has left out the coat of France, probably out of courtesy to the French King, Louis XIV., who had given him asylum at St. Germains. It is remarkable that this coat-of-arms subsequently became that used by Queen Victoria in 1837.

[_La Renommée qui publie le Bonheur de l'Europe sous le regne de Jacques ... Roy de la Grande Bretagne._ 1688.]

[E. Almack, Esq., F.S.A., Brighton.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Within the Garter. Used in France from 1689 until 1701. The same curious coat-of-arms as in the preceding plate.

[_Traité des obligations des Chrétiens._ Paris, 1699.]

[E. Almack, Esq., F.S.A., Brighton.]

[Illustration]

Used as Duke of York.

_Initials._--J. D. (Jacobus Dux). Ensigned with a princely coronet, and within two palm branches.

This cypher occurs in corners of books, and it appears to have been designed so that either the D or the J is always properly visible. It is found in conjunction with the two C's of Charles II., which also show clearly either way up.

[_Ser. Jacobi Stuarti et Mariae Beatricis Estiae ... epithalamium._ Londini, 1673.]

James, Duke of York (born 14th October 1633, died 16th September 1701), was the second son of Charles I. He succeeded his brother Charles II. in 1685. James II. had a short and troubled reign, chiefly because he had Roman Catholic tendencies, and ultimately joined that faith. The feeling in favour of Protestantism in England was very determined, and the nation ultimately invited William, Prince of Orange, who had married James's elder daughter Mary and was a strong Protestant, to come and accept the throne. This he did, and in 1689 James was deposed and William became King in his stead.

James fled to France where he lived for the rest of his life, and the book-stamps that he had made at this time do not include the French coat. He was known as the Duke of York, but nevertheless his book-stamps show a Royal Crown. James's second wife, Mary of Modena, was a Roman Catholic and strongly influenced his views. He died at St. Germains, Paris, at the age of seventy.

[Illustration]

JAMES FRANCIS EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES

_Arms._--Quartered.

1st and 4th grand quarters, quarterly, France and England.

2nd grand quarter, Scotland.

3rd grand quarter, Ireland.

As used by James I. (q.v.). Ensigned with a princely coronet.

_Note._--A foreign stamp.

[GERVAISE. _La vie de Saint Martin, Evêque de Tours._ Tours, 1699.]

James Francis Edward (born 10th June 1688, died 1st January 1766) was the eldest son of James II. and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was born before his father became King of England. Prince James, who is known as the Old Pretender in distinction to his son Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, is also known as the Chevalier St. George. His history is an unhappy one from his birth. On his father's death in 1701 at St. Germains he was proclaimed James III. of England and VIII. of Scotland, but by the Act of Settlement made in the same year the Stuarts were cut out of the succession to the English throne.

The Chevalier St. George spent his life in fruitless endeavours to make good his claim to the English throne. His character appears to have been wanting in most of the qualities that make for success, and towards the latter part of his life his misfortunes so preyed upon him that he gave way to unworthy dissipations.

[Illustration]

KEMP, THOMAS READ

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., 3 garbs within a bordure engrailed or. _Kempe._

2nd and 3rd; sa., 3 crescents arg., 2 and 1. _Read._

[_Alliances généalogiques de France._ Paris, 1561.]

Thomas Read Kemp (born c. 1781, died 20th December 1844) was the son of Thomas Kemp, Member of Parliament for Lewes, who married Ann Read of Brookland. Mr. Kemp was educated at Cambridge, and in 1811 he represented Lewes in the House of Commons. He sold his castles at Lewes and at Hurstmonceaux and built largely near Brighton, where the district known as Kemp Town was founded by him. He spent all his fortune in this speculation, which, however, in time became of great value.

The family of Kemp or Kempe is one of great antiquity in Kent. John Kempe, Archbishop of Canterbury in the fifteenth century, and his nephew Thomas Kempe, Bishop of London, both belonged to it. The immediate ancestor of Mr. T. R. Kemp was Sir Thomas Kempe of Olantigh, near Ashford, an estate which had belonged to the family since the time of Edward I.

[Illustration]

KER, JOHN, THIRD DUKE OF ROXBURGHE

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; vert., on a chevron between 3 unicorns' heads erased arg., armed and maned or, as many mullets sa. _Ker._

2nd and 3rd; gu., 3 mascles or. _Weapont._

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

_Supporters._--Two savage men, wreathed about the head and waist with laurel, each holding, with the exterior hand, a club resting upon the shoulder, all ppr.

_Motto._--PRO CHRISTO ET PATRIA.

[_The Roxburghe Ballads._]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Without Supporters.

[ONOSANDER. _Strategicus._ Lut. Parisiorum, 1599.]

John Ker (born 23rd April 1740, died 19th March 1804) was the elder son of Robert Ker, second Duke of Roxburghe. He succeeded his father in the title in 1755. The Duke brought together a splendid library, among which was the special collection of ballads which are now known by his name. The ballads were at first collected by Robert Harley, and they were largely added to by a Mr. West and by Major T. Pearson, and after the entire collection had been purchased by the Duke of Roxburghe he continued adding to it himself.

In 1812 the Duke's library was sold and the books widely scattered; the ballads, however, in 1845 were acquired for the British Museum at the sale of the books of Mr. B. H. Bright. The Duke of Roxburghe was a Knight of the Garter, and also a Knight of the Thistle. He was a Lord of the Bedchamber and a Privy Councillor.

The Roxburghe Club of Edinburgh was founded in honour of the Duke in 1812.

[Illustration]

KERR, WILLIAM, EARL OF LOTHIAN

_Arms._--Gu., on a chevron arg., 3 mullets of the field. _Kerr._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Supporters._--Two bucks, each gorged with a collar arg., charged with 3 mullets gu.

_Motto._--SORS MEA DEXTRA DEI.

[BACON. _Of the advancement and proficience of Learning._ Oxford, 1640.]

William Kerr (born c. 1605, died October 1675) was the son of Robert Kerr, first Earl of Ancrum, and in 1631 he was created Earl of Lothian. In that year he had married Anne, Countess of Lothian in her own right, and there was some litigation about the title. The Earl was at the Battle of Newbury in 1643; he was Governor of Newcastle, and a man of much political importance. He was a Commissioner of the Treasury in Scotland, and Lieutenant-General of the Scottish army in Ireland. In 1642 he went to France for the purpose of considering the position of the Scottish Guard at the French Court.

Lord Lothian was one of the commissioners sent by the Scottish Parliament to protest against the proceedings against Charles I., and he also served on several of the commissions which were appointed about that time concerning the Restoration of Charles II.

[Illustration]

KINNEAR, JOHN GARDINER

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; sa., on a bend or, 3 martlets vert., a bordure of the second. _Kinnear._

2nd and 3rd; arg., on a fret gu., 4 hearts, one in each angle, gu., and in every interstice a rose of the second. _Gardiner._

_Crest._--An anchor in pale az.

_Motto._--SPEM FORTUNA ALIT.

[BANNATYNE CLUB. _The Palice of Honour._ Edinburgh, 1827.]

John Gardiner Kinnear was a banker of Edinburgh. He was a member of the Bannatyne Club, to which he was admitted in 1826.

The Kinnears were well known as a family of bankers, and they also had literary tastes. The particular book from which I have taken the accompanying coat-of-arms is one that was presented to the Bannatyne Club in 1827, and reprinted in that year for Mr. J. G. Kinnear. The text is taken from a rare book written by Gawyn Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, called _The Palice of Honour_, and "Imprentit at Edinburgh be Johne Ros, for Henric Charteris, Anno 1579."

[Illustration]

LAUD, WILLIAM, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Az., an archiepiscopal staff, headed with a cross pattée or, surmounted by a pall arg., charged with 4 crosses pattée fitchée sa., fringed and edged or. _See of Canterbury._

Sinister: Sa., on a chevron or, between 3 estoiles of 6 points of the second, as many crosses pattée fitchée gu. _Laud._

[LAUD. _A relation of the Conference between William Lawd ... and Mr. Fisher the Jesuite, etc._ London, 1639.]

William Laud (born 7th October 1573, died 10th January 1645) was the son of William Laud of Reading. After leaving Reading he went to Oxford and entered the Church, and quickly came into notice as a theologian. He was supposed to favour Romish doctrines. After enjoying several minor appointments, Laud was made Dean of Gloucester in 1616, and by this time he was high in the favour of James I., who in 1621 promoted him to the Bishopric of St. David's.

Under Charles I. Laud acquired still more importance. In 1626 he was made Dean of the Chapel Royal, and next year a member of the Privy Council, and in 1628 he became Bishop of London. In 1629 Laud was Chancellor of the University of Oxford, and in 1633 he was made Archbishop of Canterbury. Archbishop Laud was impeached for treason in 1641; he underwent his trial in 1644, and an ordinance of attainder was passed in the next year. Although Laud had in his possession a pardon from the king, he was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1645. He wrote a large number of books, mainly theological or historical. Several of his books are in the library at Lambeth Palace, and others are in the British Museum.

[Illustration]

LEY, JAMES, EARL OF MARLBOROUGH

_Arms._--Arg., a chevron between 3 seals' heads couped sa. Ley.

The Ulster hand gu., on an escutcheon arg., in the chief point of the chevron.

_Crest._--A lion sejant or.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

Used between 1620 and 1625.

[_Brutus Abbreviatus._ Add. MS. 34,266.]

James Ley (born c. 1550, died 14th March 1628) was the son of Henry Ley of Teffont Ewias, Wilts. He was educated as a lawyer, and attained great eminence in that profession. In 1605 he became Chief-Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland, and in 1620 he was made a Baronet, and next year Chief-Justice of the King's Bench in England.

In 1625 Sir James Ley was created Baron Ley, and became Lord Treasurer of England, and in 1626 he was created Earl of Marlborough and President of the Council. Lord Marlborough had a high reputation as a lawyer and as a judge, and he was the author of several works on history and law.

[Illustration]

LINDSAY, DAVID, BARON LINDSAY OF BALCARRES

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., a fess chequy, arg. and az. _Lindsay._

2nd and 3rd; or, a lion rampant gu., debruised of a ribbon in bend sa. _Abernethy._

All within a bordure of the third, semée of stars or.

_Crest._--A tent ppr., semée of stars or, with ASTRA CASTRA on a fillet.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Supporters._--Two lions sejant guardant gu., gorged or.

_Motto._--NVMEN LVMEN MVNIMEN.

_Legend._--DAVID DOMINVS LYNDESAY DE BALCARRES.

[_Books at Haigh Hall, Wigan._]

[The Earl of Crawford, Haigh Hall, Wigan.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--A tent ppr., semée of stars or, with ASTRA CASTRA.

[_Books at Haigh Hall, Wigan._]

[The Earl of Crawford, Haigh Hall, Wigan.]

David Lindsay (born c. 1586, died March 1640) was the son of John Lindsay, Lord Menmuir, second son of the ninth Earl of Crawford. David Lindsay succeeded his brother John in 1601, and in 1612 he was knighted. In 1633 he was created Baron Lindsay of Balcarres. He was the ancestor of the present Earl of Crawford. Lord Lindsay was a firm adherent of Charles I. He was fond of books and literature, besides being a man of science and scientific pursuits generally.

[Illustration]

LLOYD, DAVID, DEAN OF ST. ASAPH

_Arms._--Gu., 3 boars' heads erased in pale arg. _Lloyd._

_Crest._--Out of an heraldic coronet a boar's head erased arg.

_Motto._--DARE QUAM ACCIPERE.

[PORTA. _Natural Magick._ London, 1658.]

David Lloyd (born 1597, died 7th September 1663) was the son of David Lloyd of Llanidloes, Montgomery. He was educated at Oxford, and took orders about 1628. Dr. Lloyd was chaplain to the Earl of Derby, and held several benefices in Wales, and in 1660 was made Dean of St. Asaph. He wrote a well-known book called _The Legend of Captain Jones_, which was published in London in 1631. This remarkable work went through several editions, many of which were curiously added to and altered by successive editors or re-writers.

[Illustration]

LOCKER, EDWARD HAWKE

_Crest._--A buck's head erased ppr. _Locker._

_Motto._--FEAR GOD AND FEAR NOT.

_Initials._--E. H. L. (Edward Hawke Locker).

[_Descrizione delle Pitture che trovansi in alcune città dello Stato Ligure._ Genova, 1780.]

Edward Hawke Locker (born 9th October 1777, died 16th October 1849) was the son of William Locker, Captain R.N. He was educated at Eton, and occupied several positions of trust, until in 1819 he was made Secretary to Greenwich Hospital. Mr. Locker was a Fellow of the Royal Society, an artist and an author, and has left a few books, chiefly biographical or historical. At Greenwich he inaugurated the scheme of making a collection of naval pictures, which has proved of the greatest value. His son Frederick, who assumed the additional surname of Lampson in 1885, afterwards became a well-known book collector.

[Illustration]

LONG, CHARLES, BARON FARNBOROUGH

_Arms._--Sa., a lion passant arg., holding in the dexter paw a cross crosslet fitchée or, on a chief of the second 3 crosses crosslet of the field.

_Coronet._--That of a Baron.

_Supporters._--Two lions reguardant arg., gouttées de sang, each gorged with a ducal coronet or, thereto pendent an escutcheon sa., charged with a cross crosslet arg.

_Motto._--INGENUAS SUSPICIT ARTES.

The coat is enclosed with a fillet bearing the legend "TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO," being the motto of the Order of the Bath. This is again enclosed within the collar of the said Order, as worn by a Knight Grand Cross, from which depends the badge of the Order.

[_Letters of German Authors, etc._ Egerton MS. 2407.]

Charles Long (born circ. 1760, died 17th January 1838) was the son of Beeston Long of Carshalton Park, Surrey. He was educated at Cambridge, and was successively Member of Parliament for Rye, Midhurst and Wendover, and Haslemere, and held many important offices.

In 1800 Mr. Long became joint Secretary of the Treasury, and presently one of the Lords of the Treasury, and was Paymaster-General from 1817 until 1826, when he was created Baron Farnborough of Bromley Hill Place. He was a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and a member of the Privy Council. Lord Farnborough took an important part in the negotiations with George IV., with regard to his gift to the Nation of the Library of George III., and he also bequeathed a considerable sum of money to the Trustees of the British Museum, to augment the Bridgewater Fund. He was a Trustee of the British Museum, a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries, and possessed a valuable collection of pictures and antiquities at his house, Bromley Hill Place, in Kent.

[Illustration]

LYTTELTON, WILLIAM HENRY, BARON LYTTELTON

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1. Arg., a chevron between 3 escallops sa. _Lyttelton._

2. Arg., a bend cotised sa., within a bordure engrailed gu. (bezantée). _Westcote._

3. Gu., a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed or. _Burley._

4. France and England quarterly, within a bordure gobony, arg. and az. By right of descent from Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Gilbert Talbot, and great-great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. _Plantagenet._

_Coronet._--That of a Baron.

_Supporters._--On either side a merman ppr., in his exterior hand a trident or. But in several instances of early use, a dexter Supporter alone is found.

_Motto._--UNG DIEU UNG ROY.

[LITTLETON. _The first part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England._ London, 1794.]

[The Viscount Cobham, Hagley Hall, Stourbridge.]

William Henry Lyttelton (born 24th December 1724, died 14th September 1808) was the fifth son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, Baronet, who was created Viscount Cobham in 1718. In 1776 Mr. Lyttelton was created Baron Westcote in the Peerage of Ireland, and on the death of his nephew, Sir Thomas Lyttelton, second Baron Lyttelton, he succeeded to the Baronetcy and the English peerage expired.

Lord Westcote was Governor of South Carolina and of Jamaica, and Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of Portugal. In 1794 he was created Baron Lyttelton in the Peerage of England, assuming the same title as had become extinct by the death of his nephew in 1779. Lord Lyttelton was a descendant of the great lawyer, Sir Thomas Lyttelton, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, who wrote the celebrated treatise on Tenures, in the fifteenth century.

[Illustration]

MAITLAND, JOHN, EARL OF LAUDERDALE

_Arms._--Or, a lion rampant dechaussé, within a double tressure flory counterflory of fleurs-de-lys gu. _Maitland._

_Crest._--A lion sejant affrontée gu., ducally crowned or, holding in the dexter paw a sword ppr., pommelled and hilted or, in the sinister paw a fleur-de-lys az., on a fillet "CONSILIO ET ANIMIS."

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Supporters._--Two eagles, wings expanded, ppr.

_Legend._--IOANNES METELLANVS LAUDERIÆ COMES.

[LA BIGNE. _Magna Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum et Antiq. Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum._ Coloniae Agrippinae, 1618.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--A lion sejant affrontée gu., holding in his dexter paw a sword ppr., pommelled and hilted or, and in the sinister paw a fleur-de-lys az.

_Coronet._--That of a Viscount.

_Motto._--CONSILIO ET ANIMIS.

_Note._--Used between 1616 and 1624.

[TACITUS. _Opera._ 1595.]

John Maitland (born circ. 1580, died 18th January 1645) was the only son of John Maitland, Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, and succeeded to his father's peerage in 1595. In 1616 Lord Maitland was created Viscount Lauderdale, and in 1624, Earl of Lauderdale. Lord Lauderdale was a Lord of Session in Scotland.

[Illustration]

MANNERS, FRANCIS, SEVENTH EARL OF RUTLAND

_Crest._--Within the Garter. On a chapeau gu., turned up erm., a peacock in pride ppr. _Ros_ afterwards _Manners_.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[RUVIUS. _Commentarii in Octo libros Aristotelis de Physico._ Col. Agrippinae, 1616.]

Francis Manners (born 1578, died 17th December 1632) was the son of John Manners, Earl of Rutland. He was educated at Cambridge, and studied law at the Inner Temple. Mr. Manners was made a Knight of the Order of the Bath in 1604, and in 1612, on the death of his elder brother, Roger, he succeeded to his father's peerage.

Lord Rutland was Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire, Constable of Nottingham Castle, and in 1612 he entertained James I. at Belvoir Castle. In consequence of certain legal decisions adverse to his claim to an older title he was, in 1616, made Lord Ross of Hamlake. In the same year he was made a Knight of the Garter. He carried the sceptre with the dove at the coronation of Charles I., was Chief-Justice of Eyre north of Trent, and in 1623 he commanded the fleet sent to escort Prince Charles back from Spain.

The beautiful crest of a peacock in pride upon a chapeau was adopted by the Manners family after the marriage, in the fifteenth century, of Sir Robert Manners of Etal, Northumberland, with Eleanor, daughter and heiress of Thomas, 10th Lord Ros, whose crest it was. The family crest of Sir Robert Manners was a bull's head erased gu., ducally gorged and chained or.

[Illustration]

MANNERS, JOHN, DUKE OF RUTLAND

_Arms._--Or, 2 bars az., a chief quarterly of the second and gu.; the first and fourth quarters each charged with 2 fleurs-de-lys or, the second and third quarters each charged with a lion of England or. _Manners._

This chief was originally gu., and the change made in it, incorporating the fleurs-de-lys of France and the lion of England, was an augmentation granted in consideration of descent from Edward IV.

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

[SETTLE. _Fears and Dangers fairly display'd._ London, 1706.]

John Manners (born 29th May 1638, died 10th January 1710) was the son of John Manners, ninth Earl of Rutland, and succeeded his father in the Earldom in 1679.

Before this, however, he had been created Lord Manners of Haddon. He carried the Queen's sceptre with the cross at the coronation of James II. He supported the Protestant cause, and the Princess Anne at one time took refuge at Belvoir Castle, and when she presently became Queen she created Lord Manners Marquis of Granby and Duke of Rutland.

[Illustration]

MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th, France.

2nd and 3rd, England.

As used by Henry VIII. (q.v.).

_Crown._--Royal.

[_Epitome operum divi Augustini._ Cologne, 1549.]

The Princess Mary (born 18th February 1516, died 17th November 1558) was the daughter of Henry VIII. and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. In 1553 she succeeded her brother Edward VI. on the throne of England.

In 1554 Queen Mary married Prince Philip, afterwards Philip II., King of Spain, but the marriage was neither happy nor popular.

The bindings made for Queen Mary often show her coat-of-arms encircled by flames. They were bound by Thomas Berthelet, who had been Royal Bookbinder to Henry VIII. Most of the books are bound in calf, but some are in embroidered velvet, and show the pomegranate flower. Mary also used the badges of the fleur-de-lys and the portcullis of the De Beauforts. Her initials, "M. I.," are sometimes used on her bindings. Queen Mary used the same supporters as Henry VIII. in the latter part of his reign, namely, the lion and the red dragon, but they do not show on any of her books. Queen Mary's books came to the British Museum in 1757.

[Illustration]

MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTLAND

_Arms._--Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory gu. _Scotland._

As used by James I. (q.v.).

_Crest._--The Scottish Royal Crown, ppr., thereon a lion sejant or, holding in his dexter paw a sword and in his sinister paw a sceptre, all ppr.

_Helmet._--Royal.

_Supporters._--Two unicorns arg., armed, unguled, each gorged with a princely coronet and chained or, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--IN DEFENS.

Behind the shield are two spears, on the dexter of which is a banner bearing the arms of Scotland, and on the sinister a banner bearing the cross of St. Andrew arg., on a field az.

The shield is enclosed within the collar of the Order of the Thistle, from which depends the badge of the Order.

_Legend._--MARIA REGINA.

[_The Black Acts._ Edinburgh, 1556.]

[Illustration]

Cypher Μ., _i.e._ "Marie," and Φ, _i.e._ "Francis," used about 1559 or 1560, when Mary was Queen of Francis II., King of France.

The motto "SA VERTV MATIRE" is an anagram on the name Marie Stuuarte.

The crown is the crown of France.

_Note._--A foreign stamp.

[PTOLEMY. _Geographia._ Rome, 1490.]

[The late Sir Wollaston Franks, K.C.B.]

Mary, Princess of Scotland (born 8th December 1542, died 8th February 1587), was the daughter of James V., King of Scotland, and on his death in 1542, when she was eight days old, she succeeded to his crown. Mary was the granddaughter of the Princess Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII., who had married James IV., King of Scotland, in 1502.

In 1558 she married the Dauphin of France, who shortly afterwards became king as Francis II. He died in 1560, and Mary returned to Scotland, and in 1565 married Henry Stuart, Earl of Darnley, who was proclaimed King of Scotland on the day of his marriage.

Lord Darnley was murdered in 1567, and Queen Mary dethroned in favour of her son, James VI., and in the same year she married John Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, who is supposed to have been Darnley's murderer. Troubles multiplied round the unfortunate queen. Her husband had to take refuge abroad, and she herself was made a prisoner and shut up at Loch Leven. Queen Mary asked Queen Elizabeth's help in the discords which became incessant in Scotland, and at last Mary was induced to put herself in her rival's power, and took refuge at Carlisle.

The end was that after a long imprisonment in England she was tried, condemned, and beheaded at Fotheringay in 1587, the plea being that she had conspired against Queen Elizabeth's life.

Queen Mary was very intellectual and a notable linguist. Many of her books are bound in black and have black edges. This is supposed to have been intended as a mark of mourning for her first husband. Mary's only son, James VI., succeeded to the throne of England on the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, his title in England being James I.

The present official coat-of-arms of Scotland is, quarterly:

1st and 4th, Scotland.

2nd, England.

3rd, Ireland.

Colours as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Supporters._--Dexter: A unicorn arg., maned, horned, hoofed, and gorged with a princely coronet and chained or.

Sinister: A lion or, royally crowned.

_Crest._--The crest of Scotland as used by Mary, Queen of Scotland, but on an English Royal Crown. Behind the shield are two standards bearing respectively the crosses of St. Andrew and St. George, and the helmet, collar of the Order of the Thistle, and motto are all as used by Queen Mary.

[Illustration]

MARY OF MODENA, QUEEN CONSORT OF JAMES II.

_Arms._--Two shields side by side.

Dexter shield: Gu., 3 lions passant guardant, in pale, or, langued and unguled az. _England._

Sinister shield: Arg., an eagle displayed sa. _D'Este._

Ensigned with a Royal Crown of foreign design, and enclosed between two palm branches.

_Note._--This stamp was probably made in France after 1689.

[DESPORCELLETS. _Regne de Jacques II._ MS.]

[Illustration]

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1st and 4th grand quarters, quarterly; France and England.

2nd grand quarter; Scotland.

3rd grand quarter; Ireland.

As used by James I. (q.v.). Over all the label, with three points arg., of an eldest son.

Sinister: Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., an eagle displayed sa., coroneted ppr. _D'Este._

2nd and 3rd; az., 3 fleurs-de-lys or, within a bordure counter-indented, or and gu. _Ferrara._

Ensigned with a princely coronet.

_Supporters._--Dexter: A lion of England or, wearing a princely coronet ppr., and charged on the neck with a label of three points arg.

Sinister: An eagle of D'Este sa., wearing a ducal coronet or.

_Note._--This stamp was made while James was still Duke of York, that is to say, between 1673 and 1685.

[WALLER. _Poems._ London, 1668.]

Mary Beatrice of Modena (born 5th October 1658, died 7th May 1718) was a daughter of Alphonso IV., D'Este, Duke of Modena. She was a strong Roman Catholic. In 1673 she married James, Duke of York, whom she presently converted to the Roman Catholic religion, and when she became queen in 1685, her influence over the king continued to be very great. There were many disquieting rumours about the birth of the Prince of Wales, and Queen Mary was never liked in England. She seems, however, to have been a devoted and affectionate wife.

Her trouble culminated about 1688, when she fled to France with her little son, and was well and honourably received by Louis XIV. James II. presently joined her at the Palace of St. Germain, which the French king had put at his disposal on his deposition from the throne of England in 1689. After James's death in 1701 Queen Mary continued to live at St. Germain, and remained there for the rest of her life.

[Illustration]

MARY, PRINCESS OF ENGLAND, AFTERWARDS QUEEN OF FRANCE AND DUCHESS OF SUFFOLK.

_Arms._--Quarterly, France and England, as used by Henry VIII. (q.v.).

_Badges._--Tudor roses, gu. and arg., and portcullis arg., chained or.

_Initials._--M. S. (Mary Suffolk).

_Note._--The book bears the arms of Henry VIII., and the initials have been added. It is one of the earliest gold-tooled English bindings in existence, and was probably made by John Taverner for an earlier inside than that which it now covers.

[_Herbarum Imagines._ Francofurti, 1535.]

Mary Tudor (born 1497, died 23rd June 1534) was the youngest daughter of Henry VII. At an early age she was enamoured of Charles Brandon, afterwards Duke of Suffolk. Henry VIII., however, decided that her marriage with Louis XII. of France was more expedient, and in 1514 she became his Queen. Next year she was left a widow, and almost immediately she married the Duke of Suffolk abroad, and the marriage was afterwards re-solemnised in England.

[Illustration]

MATTHEW, TOBIAS, ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Gu., two keys in saltire arg., in chief a Royal Crown or. _See of York, after 1515._

Sinister: Quarterly.

1st and 4th; sa., a lion rampant arg.

2nd and 3rd; gu., 3 chevrons arg. _Matthew._

[_Novum Testamentum._ 1580.]

Tobias Matthew (born circ. 1546, died 29th March 1628) was the son of John Matthew of Ross in Herefordshire. He was educated at Oxford and ordained in 1566. He preached before Queen Elizabeth at St. Mary's Church in the High Street at Oxford, and attracted Her Majesty's attention by his eloquence and his handsome appearance. He was made a Canon of Christchurch Cathedral in 1570, and Dean in 1576. In 1583 he was Dean of Durham. In 1595 he was consecrated Bishop of Durham, and in 1606 Archbishop of York. Archbishop Matthew took a prominent part in the political as well as the theological affairs of his time. Lady Arabella Stuart was imprisoned in his house, and she escaped from it in 1611.

[Illustration]

MONCK, CHRISTOPHER, SECOND DUKE OF ALBEMARLE

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Gu., a chevron between 3 lions' heads erased arg. _Monck._

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

[HEYLYN. _Ecclesia Restaurata._ London, 1674.]

Christopher Monck (born circ. 1653, died 6th October 1688) was the son of General George Monck, who, in recognition of his services concerning the restoration of Charles II., was by that monarch created Duke of Albemarle in 1660. Christopher Monck succeeded his father in the Dukedom in 1669. He was made a Knight of the Garter in the same year, and in 1687 he was appointed Governor of Jamaica.

[Illustration]

MONTAGU, JOHN, SECOND DUKE OF MONTAGU

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., 3 lozenges conjoined in fess gu., within a bordure sa. _Montagu._

2nd and 3rd; or, an eagle displayed vert., beaked and membered gu. _Monthermer._

On an escutcheon of pretence. Sa., a lion rampant arg., on a canton of the last a cross gu. _Churchill._

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

[BACON. _The Historie of the Reigne of King Henry the Seventh._ London, 1641.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--Within the Garter. A griffin's head couped or, beak and wings endorsed sa. _Montagu._

[BERKELEY. _Siris._ London, 1744.]

John Montagu (born circ. 1688, died 6th July 1749) was the son of Ralph Montagu, Duke of Montagu, whom he succeeded in 1709. At the coronation of George I. the Duke of Montagu was High Constable, and he was Governor of St. Lucia and St. Vincent, both of which islands were given to him by the king.

The Duke of Montagu carried the sceptre with the cross at the coronation of George II., and in 1740 he was made Master-General of the Ordnance. He raised a regiment of cavalry, known as "Montagu's Carabineers." In 1719 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and in 1725 Grand Master of the Order of the Bath, and he also held several military appointments. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians.

The Duke's town residence, Montagu House, originally occupied the site now covered by the British Museum, and at his death it was acquired by the Government. Many alterations were carried out for the better housing of the collections which were placed in it, and eventually it was entirely rebuilt in a more convenient form. It had been originally built for Ralph, the first Duke of Montagu. The Duke married Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, the great General. Lady Mary Churchill's only brother having died as a boy, she and her sisters became heraldic heiresses, so their coat-of-arms were borne on an escutcheon of pretence in the centre of the coats-of-arms of their respective husbands.

[Illustration]

MORDAUNT, JOHN, VISCOUNT MORDAUNT

_Crest._--A Saracen's head in profile ppr., wreathed about the temples, arg. and sa. _Mordaunt._

_Coronet._--That of a Viscount.

[BUCHONIUS. _Primitiae gnomonicae Catoptricae, etc._ Avenione, 1635.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--In a smaller size.

[_Recueil general des Caquets de l'Acouchée._ 1623.]

John Mordaunt (born 18th June 1626, died 5th June 1675) was the second son of John Mordaunt, Earl of Peterborough. He was educated at Oxford and was a strong Royalist. In 1658 he was in consequence tried for his life, and only escaped death by one vote. He was with Charles II. on the Continent, and in 1659 was created Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon. In 1660, on the Restoration, Lord Mordaunt was knighted. He commanded a troop of horse and a regiment of foot, and was Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Great Park. He was also Lord Lieutenant of Surrey.

[Illustration]

MUSGRAVE, SIR WILLIAM, BARONET

_Crest._--Two arms in armour, gauntleted ppr., holding an annulet or. _Musgrave._

[SAINT GERMAN. _Doctor and Student._ In the Savoy, 1751.]

William Musgrave (born 8th October 1735, died 16th January 1800) was the second son of Sir Richard Musgrave of Hayton Castle, and succeeded to the family Baronetcy in 1755, on the death of his elder brother.

Sir William was a Commissioner of Customs and of Accounts, a Fellow and Vice-President of the Royal Society, a lawyer of much distinction, and a Bencher and Treasurer of the Middle Temple. He was author of a very useful compilation known as Musgrave's Obituary; it gives reference to places where the various persons deceased are mentioned, and also further particulars. The obituary was published by the Harleian Society in 1899-1901.

Sir William Musgrave made large collections of manuscripts on the subject of portrait-painting in England, and also concerning the history of England. He bequeathed these manuscripts, as well as a considerable number of printed books, to the British Museum, of which he was a Trustee. He had already given several books to the library during his lifetime, many of which contain an autograph note of the presentation.

[Illustration]

NAUNTON, SIR ROBERT

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Gu., 3 martlets or. _Naunton._

2. Quarterly, or and gu., in the first quarter a lion rampant of the second. _Inglish._

3. Arg., a chief indented sa. _Hillock._

4. Sa., an eagle displayed arg., between 6 bezants, 3, 2, and 1. _Busserard._

5. Arg., a lion rampant sa., a chief gu., a crescent for difference. _Ashby._

6. Gu., 10 bezants, 4, 3, 2, and 1. _Zouch._

7. Arg., 2 bars gu. _Martin._

8. Gu., a lion rampant between 14 tau crosses or. _Powell_ (?).

9. A chevron between 3 Hebrew letters "Cheth," probably standing for "Jehovah." _Unknown._

10. Erm., a cross engrailed sa. _Houghton_.

_Crest._--A basilisk ppr.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Motto._--PRVDENS SIMPLICITAS.

[_Common Prayer._ London, 1612.]

Robert Naunton (born circ. 1563, died 27th March 1635) was the son of Henry Naunton of Alderton. He was educated at Cambridge, where in 1594 he was elected Public Orator, and travelled largely on the Continent for the purpose of studying politics. He was Member of Parliament for Helston in 1606, then for Camelford and for Suffolk, and sat in three Parliaments as Member for Cambridge. In 1614 he received the honour of Knighthood, and in 1617 became Secretary of State, and afterwards Master of the Court of Wards. Sir Robert was an earnest Protestant, and the Catholics considered that he was too strongly opposed to their interests. The latter part of his life was troubled, chiefly because he was too free in expressing his own views as to matters of public interest. Although he held several important official offices, he does not appear to have been a man of much talent, but his management of the matters entrusted to him was marked by strong common sense and trustworthiness. He wrote several valuable books on travel, biography, and history.

[Illustration]

NEVILL, GEORGE, EARL OF ABERGAVENNY

_Badges._--1. A Lancastrian rose gu., seeded or, and leaved vert. 2. A portcullis of De Beaufort arg., chained and ringed or, nailed az. Both ensigned with an Earl's Coronet.

[C. SUETONIUS. _Tranquillus ex recensione F. Oudendorpii._ Lugduni Batavorum, 1751.]

George Nevill (born 24th June 1727, died 9th September 1785) was the son of William Nevill, Lord Abergavenny. He was a godson of George II., and succeeded his father in the Barony in 1744. Lord Abergavenny was Lord Lieutenant of Sussex, and in 1784 he was created Earl of Abergavenny.

The use of the badges shown is not confined to any particular earl, but had been generally used by the Nevill family for a long time. The Red Rose of Lancaster was adopted as a badge by Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick, whose daughter Anne married Edward, Prince of Wales, only son of Henry VI., the last of the Lancastrian Kings, in 1470. The Princess Anne afterwards married Richard III., the last of the Yorkist Kings. The portcullis was used as a badge of descent from the house of De Beaufort, and both badges are still used by the family of Nevill.

[Illustration]

NOEL, BAPTIST, THIRD EARL OF GAINSBOROUGH

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Or, fretty gu., a canton erm. _Noel._

Sinister: Or, two bars az., a chief quarterly of the last and gu., in the first and fourth quarters 2 fleurs-de-lys or, and in the second and third quarters a lion passant guardant, of the last langued and unguled az. _Manners._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[SETTLE. _Thalia Lacrymans._ London, 1714.]

Baptist Noel (born 1684, died 17th April 1714) was the son of Baptist Noel of Luffenham, Rutland, who was the eldest son, by his fourth marriage, of Baptist Noel, second Baron Noel and third Viscount Campden. The eldest son of Lord Campden succeeded to his father's title in 1682, and in 1681 he was created Earl of Gainsborough with special remainder to his younger brothers. In consequence of this remainder, on the death of Wriothesley Noel, second Earl of Gainsborough, in 1691, without male heir, the Earldom reverted to Baptist Noel, his cousin, who succeeded as third Earl.

Lord Gainsborough married, about 1706, his first cousin, Dorothy Manners, daughter of John, first Duke of Rutland.

[Illustration]

PARKER, MATTHEW, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

_Arms._--Gu., on a chevron between 3 keys erect arg., as many estoiles of the field. The estoiles were an augmentation added in 1559. _Parker._

[_New Testament._ London, 1574.]

Matthew Parker (born 6th August 1504, died 17th May 1575) was educated at Cambridge, and in 1527 he took orders and became a Fellow of his College, and quickly made a name as a powerful preacher. In 1537 he was made Chaplain to the King and a Prebendary of Ely. He became Master of his old College, St. Benet's (Corpus Christi), in 1544. In 1552 he was Dean of Lincoln, but on Mary's accession he lost that and his other preferments on the ground of his being married.

During all Queen Mary's reign Dr. Parker kept himself well out of the way, but when Elizabeth came to the throne he was sought out and in 1559 consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury, being the second Protestant Archbishop of that See.

Archbishop Parker concerned himself much with literature, and wrote several valuable books. He had much to do with the Book of Common Prayer, and also with the revisal of the then existing translation of the Bible, the edition finally issued by him being known as the "Bishop's Bible." He founded the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1572, and bequeathed a large number of books and manuscripts to the University of Cambridge and to his old College.

Archbishop Parker had a staff of workmen in his own house, part of which was fully equipped for their use. His work _De Antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae_, of which it is said no two copies are alike, as the Archbishop made some alterations in the proofs every time they were submitted to him, is said to have been printed at the Archbishop's press by John Day. Some of his books are beautifully bound in embroidered velvet, also supposed to have been done in his own house. In one of his letters to Lord Burghley, he says that he has in his house "Paynters, Lymners, Wryters, and Book-Bynders." It is possible that several of the fine bindings made for Queen Elizabeth and for Lord Burghley were really made in the Archbishop's workshop.

[Illustration]

PEPYS, SAMUEL, SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; sa., on a bend or, between 2 nags' heads erased arg., 3 fleurs-de-lys of the field. _Pepys._

2nd and 3rd; gu., a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed arg. _Gray._

_Crest._--A camel's head erased or, bridled, lined, ringed, and gorged with a ducal coronet or.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Motto._--MENS CUIUSQUE IS EST QUISQUE.

[_Several books in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge._]

[The Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--A shield lettered "SAM. PEPYS CAR. ET IAC. ANGL. REGIB. A SECRETIS ADMIRALIÆ."

Behind the shield are two fouled anchors.

_Crest_ and _helmet_ as in the preceding example.

[_Books at Magdalene College, Cambridge._]

[The Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge.]

Samuel Pepys (born 23rd February 1632, died 26th May 1703) was the son of John Pepys of Cottenham, in Cambridgeshire. He was educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge, and became clerk of the Acts of the Navy in 1660.

In 1673 Mr. Pepys was Secretary to the Admiralty, and he introduced several admirable reforms in the management of that office, which he retained until 1689. He accompanied Lord Dartmouth to Tangier, and made several expeditions to the Continent and about the coasts of England.

In 1690 he published his _Memoirs_ concerning the navy of England, a very important work. In 1684 Mr. Pepys was President of the Royal Society. He left a considerable library to his old College at Cambridge, manuscripts as well as printed books, and also several prints. Pepys kept a curious _Diary_ in cypher from 1659 to 1669. It has been deciphered and published several times, but the best edition is that issued by Mr. H. B. Wheatley in 1893.

[Illustration]

PERCY, HENRY, NINTH EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND

_Badge._--Within the Garter.

A crescent arg., ensigned with an Earl's coronet.

[JAMES I. _Triumphs_, etc. London, 1610.]

Henry Percy (born April 1564, died 5th November 1632) was the son of the eighth Earl of Northumberland and succeeded his father, who was murdered in the Tower, in 1585. Lord Northumberland was fined and imprisoned in the Tower in consequence of an alleged complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. In 1593 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and in 1603 he was Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen Pensioners.

Northumberland was in distant remainder to the Crown of England, and at one time it was probable that his claims might be strengthened by a marriage with Lady Arabella Stuart, niece of Lord Darnley, and great-granddaughter of Margaret, elder daughter of Henry VII., but the negotiation came to nothing. The Earl was fond of scientific pursuits and was known as "The Wizard Earl," and was a great smoker. The badge of the silver crescent was used by the Percy family generally and not exclusively by any particular member of it.

[Illustration]

PETTY, WILLIAM FITZMAURICE, MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th; erm., on a bend az., a magnetic needle pointing at a Pole Star or. _Petty._

2nd and 3rd; arg., a saltire gu., a chief erm. _Fitzmaurice._

_Coronet._--That of a Marquis.

_Supporters._--Two pegasi erm., bridled, crined, winged, and unguled or., each charged on the shoulder with a fleur-de-lys az.

_Motto._--VIRTUTE NON VERBIS.

[PONTIFICALE. Lansdowne MS. 451.]

William Fitzmaurice Petty (born 1737, died 7th May 1805) was the son of John, Earl of Shelburne. He was educated at Oxford, and then entered the army, and fought at Campen and at Minden, eventually becoming a general officer. He represented High Wycombe in Parliament. In 1761, on the death of his father, William Petty became Earl of Shelburne, and quickly made his mark in the House of Lords, and became head of the Board of Trade. In 1766 he became a Secretary of State for the Southern Department. On the death of Lord Rockingham in 1782, Lord Shelburne succeeded as Premier, and held this position until 1783. In 1784 Lord Shelburne was created Marquis of Lansdowne, and he spent the remainder of his life at his beautiful Wiltshire seat of Bowood.

About 1765 he began collecting books, particularly those concerning history and politics. Among the books collected by Lord Shelburne were several which had belonged to Sir Julius Cæsar, and also many of Lord Burghley's. Lord Lansdowne's manuscripts were acquired for the British Museum by purchase after his death.

[Illustration]

PHILPOT, JOHN, SOMERSET HERALD

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., a cross arg., between four swords erect of the second, pommelled and hilted or. _Philpot._

2nd and 3rd; sa., a bend ermine. _Philipot._

On an escutcheon of pretence. Az., a chevron erm., between 3 crescents arg. _Glover._

_Crest._--Out of a ducal coronet, a dexter arm embowed in armour holding in the hand a sword guttée de sang, all ppr.

(College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street, E.C.)

[_Books at the College of Arms._]

John Philpot (born c. 1587, died 20th November 1645) was the son of Henry Philpot, at one time Mayor of Folkestone. He married Susan Glover, niece of the Somerset Herald, Robert Glover. In 1618 Philpot was appointed Blanch Lion Pursuivant, and a little later Rouge Dragon. He was deputy for William Camden in the visitations of Kent, Hampshire, Berkshire, Gloucestershire, Sussex, Buckingham, Oxfordshire, and Rutlandshire.

In 1624 he became Somerset Herald, and held also the office of Steward of the Manors of Gillingham and Grain. Philpot supported the cause of Charles I., and fought for him, and in 1644 he was made prisoner by the Parliamentarians. Besides his several Visitations, Philpot published several other valuable historical and genealogical works, and left many more in manuscript. Several of his books are at the College of Arms.

[Illustration]

POULETT, THE LADY BRIDGET

_Arms._--On a lozenge. Sa., 3 swords in pile arg., hilts or.

[DRYDEN. _Fables._ London, 1745.]

Bridget Poulett (born c. 1720, died c. 1780) was the eldest daughter of John Poulett, Earl Poulett. Lady Bridget married Pollexpen Bastard of Kitly in Devon. She had three sisters, one of whom married John Parker, and these two would have used the same coat-of-arms within a lozenge before their marriage. The other two sisters died unmarried, so they would always have used it.

It is not now safe to say, without further information, to which of these sisters any particular book bearing this coat belonged.

[Illustration]

PYE, SIR ROBERT, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Quartered.

1 and 6. Erm., a bend fusilly, gu. _Pye_.

2. A lion passant.

3. Per pale, gu. and az., a lion rampant supporting a tree eradicated vert. _Wynstone._

4. Gu., 3 stirrups leathered and buckled or. _Scudamore._

5. Arg., on a chevron engrailed sa., between 3 ravens ppr., as many escallops or. _Croker._

_Crest._--A cross crosslet fitchée gu., between two wings expanded arg., over all a crescent for difference.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[ALLEN. _An antidote against Heresy, etc._ London, 1648.]

Robert Pye (born 1585, died 1662) was Remembrancer of the Exchequer in 1618, and received the honour of Knighthood in 1621. He was a strong Parliamentarian, and his son Robert married a daughter of John Hampden. Sir Robert Pye acquired the property of Faringdon in Berkshire, where his descendants lived for a long time. He represented Woodstock in Parliament.

[Illustration]

RADCLIFFE, ROBERT, FIFTH EARL OF SUSSEX

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quartered.

1. Arg., a bend engrailed sa. _Radcliffe._

2. Or, a fess between 2 chevrons gu. _Fitz-Walter._

3. Arg., a lion rampant sa., crowned or, a bordure az. _Burnell._

4. Arg., a saltire engrailed az. _Harding._

5. Gu., 3 lucies hauriant arg. _Lucy._

6. Barry of six, arg. and az. _Grey._

7. Arg., semée of fleurs-de-lys sa. _Bereford._

8. Arg., an eagle carrying off a child swathed gu., banded or. _Culcheth._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[LONICER. _Chronicorum Turcicorum Liber, etc._ Francoforti ad Moenum, 1578.]

Robert Radclyffe (born c. 1560, died 22nd September 1629) was the only son of Henry Radclyffe, fourth Earl of Sussex. In 1593 Robert, styled Viscount Fitzwalter, succeeded to his father's earldom. In 1594 he went to Scotland as Ambassador for the christening of Prince Henry, and he commanded a regiment of infantry at Cadiz in 1596, when he was knighted by the Earl of Essex. Lord Sussex twice acted as Earl Marshal, and in 1599 he was made a Knight of the Garter. In 1599 he was Colonel General of Foot, and in 1626 he carried the orb at the coronation of Charles I. Lord Sussex served as Lord Lieutenant of Essex and Governor of Harwich.

[Illustration]

RAWDON, JOHN, BARON RAWDON

_Crest._--On a mural coronet arg., a pheon sa., with a laurel branch issuant thereout ppr. _Rawdon._

[_Recueil general des Caquets de l'Acouchée._ 1623.]

John Rawdon (born c. 1710, died 20th June 1793) was the son of Sir John Rawdon, Baronet, of Moira, Member of Parliament for County Down. He succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 1723, and in 1750 was raised to the peerage as Baron Rawdon. In 1761 he was created Earl of Moira in the peerage of Ireland.

The same crest would have been borne for a time by the son of Lord Moira, Francis Rawdon-Hastings, who was an eminent soldier. He was in 1783 created an English Peer by the same title as was enjoyed by his father, Baron Rawdon, by which he was known until 1793, when he succeeded to the Earldom of Moira. The additional surname of Hastings was assumed by Lord Rawdon in 1790, in accordance with the will of his maternal uncle Francis Hastings, tenth Earl of Huntingdon.

[Illustration]

RAWDON, MARMADUKE

_Arms._--Arg., a fess between 3 pheons sa. _Rawdon._

[_Life of Marmaduke Rawdon of York._ MS.]

Marmaduke Rawdon (born March 1609, died 7th February 1668) belonged to an old Yorkshire family, and was the son of Laurence Rawdon of York. Mr. Rawdon entered the employ of an uncle who was a merchant, and travelled about the world in his service. He was for a long time in the Canary Islands, and he made an ascent of the Peak of Teneriffe. Rawdon was a noted antiquary, and he made valuable notes of his travels. His "Life" has been edited for the Camden Society by Mr. Robert Davies.

[Illustration]

RAWLINSON, RICHARD

_Crest._--A sheldrake ppr., in his beak an escallop arg. _Rawlinson._

[Illustration]

_Badge._--An escallop arg., being an excerpt from the Rawlinson coat-of-arms which is gu., 2 bars gemelles between 3 escallops arg.

[_Bible_, Greek. Antwerp, 1566.]

Richard Rawlinson (born 3rd January 1690, died 6th April 1755) was the fourth son of Sir Thomas Rawlinson, Lord Mayor of London. He was educated at Oxford and took Orders in 1716. In 1728 he was consecrated nonjuring Bishop, but never accepted the duties of the position. Dr. Rawlinson was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. He was a great collector of books and manuscripts, the greater part of which he bequeathed to Oxford, where they are now kept in the Bodleian Library. Others were sold by auction. Dr. Rawlinson wrote a number of books on antiquarian and topographical subjects, and he left his heart to his old college, St. John's, at Oxford, where it is still kept in the chapel in a marble urn.

[Illustration]

RIVERS, SIR JOHN, BART.

_Crest._--A bull statant arg., ducally crowned, collared, ringed and armed or. _Rivers._

[_In Aristotelis de Coelo libros quatuor._ Venetiis, 1598.]

John Rivers (born circ. 1579, died circ. 1651) was the son of Sir George Rivers, and grandson of Sir John Rivers, Lord Mayor of London. Mr. Rivers was educated at Oxford, and admitted to the Inner Temple in 1600. In 1621 he was created a Baronet.

[Illustration]

RUSSELL, FRANCIS, SECOND EARL OF BEDFORD

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quartered.

1. Quarterly; 1 and 4, arg., a lion rampant gu. _Russell._

2nd and 3rd, az., a tower with cupola arg., door gu. _De La Tour._

2. Barry of eight, or and az., a crescent for difference. _Fitzalan._

3. Gu., 3 herrings hauriant in fess arg. _Herringham._

4. Sa., a griffin segreant between 3 crosses crosslet fitchée arg. _Froxmere._

5. Sa., 3 chevrons arg. _Wyse._

6. Sa., 3 dovecotes arg., 2 and 1, a mullet for difference. _Sapcote._

7. Arg. on a cross gu., 5 mullets arg., 1, 3, and 1. _Bodenham._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[_Prayers._ Edinburgh, 1565.]

Francis Russell (born 1527, died 28th July 1585) was the son of John Russell, K.G., created Earl of Bedford in 1549. In 1554 Francis Russell succeeded to his father's earldom, and in 1546 he was made a Knight of the Bath. He was High Sheriff of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, Member of Parliament for Northumberland, and Lord Lieutenant for Bucks.

Lord Bedford served as Ambassador to France on two occasions, and in 1564 he was made a Knight of the Garter. He also served as Chief Justice in Eyre south of Trent, and Lord Lieutenant of Dorset, Devon, and Cornwall. He was known as the "Good Earl of Bedford," and entertained Queen Elizabeth both at Chenies and at Woburn.

[Illustration]

RUSSELL, WRIOTHESLEY, SECOND DUKE OF BEDFORD

_Arms._--Arg., a lion rampant gu., on a chief sa., 3 escallops of the first.

_Coronet._--That of a Duke.

[KNOLLES. _Turkish History._ London, 1701.]

Wriothesley Russell (born 1st November 1680, died 26th May 1711) was the son of William Russell, second son of William Russell, first Duke of Bedford. His mother was Rachel, daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. In 1700 Wriothesley Russell succeeded to the Dukedom on the death of his grandfather the first Duke. He was educated at Oxford, and in 1701 was a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, and acted as Lord Lieutenant of Bedfordshire, of Cambridgeshire, and of Middlesex. He was Lord High Constable at the coronation of Queen Anne, on which occasion he was made a Knight of the Garter.

Through Rachel Wriothesley the Manors of Bloomsbury and St. Giles-in-the-Fields came into possession of the Russell family, and for a long time they lived at Bedford House, which occupied the site now forming the northern side of Bloomsbury Square.

[Illustration]

SACKVILLE, EDWARD, FOURTH EARL OF DORSET

_Crest._--Out of an heraldic coronet ppr., an estoile of 8 points arg.

_Coronet._--That of an earl.

[DE PHILOTHEIA. _Canticum canticorum_, libri x. Friburgi Helvetiorum, 1609.]

Edward Sackville (born circ. 1590, died 17th July 1652) was the son of Richard Sackville, third Earl of Dorset. He was educated at Oxford, and succeeded his father in the Earldom in 1624. Mr. Sackville was Member of Parliament for Sussex, and in 1616 was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, and after his succession to the peerage he acted as Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, and later of Sussex. In 1625 he was made a Knight of the Garter.

Lord Dorset carried one of the swords at the coronation of Charles I., and served as Chamberlain of the Household in 1644. He married Mary Curzon, governess to the king's children.

[Illustration]

SAINT-GEORGE, SIR RICHARD, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Arg., a chief az., over all a lion rampant gu., crowned or. _St. George._

2. Arg., a cross flory gu. _Trussell._

3. Gu., 3 covered cups or. _Butler._

4. Arg., 3 fleurs-de-lys between 8 crosslets sa. _Mortimer._

5. Az., a fess dancetty between 6 escallops arg. _Dengayne._

6. Sa., an estoile arg. _Ingleby._

_Legend._--SIGILLVM RICARDI SANCTI GEORGII.

[_Collection of Manuscript Tracts of the Seventeenth Century._ Add. MS. 577, b. 5.]

Richard Saint-George (born circ. 1577, died 17th May 1635) was the son of Thomas Saint-George of Hatley Saint-George, Cambridge. He was always a great student of heraldry and genealogy. In 1602 he was made Berwick Pursuivant, and in 1603 Norroy King-of-Arms. He conducted visitations of Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, and other counties. In 1616 he received the honour of Knighthood.

Sir Richard became Clarencieux King-of-Arms in 1623, and presently, with Sir John Borough, Norroy, he conducted several further visitations in the southern counties of England. He wrote several valuable genealogical works, many of which are among the manuscripts in the British Museum. Many of his writings have been published. His son Henry afterwards became Garter King-of-Arms.

[Illustration]

SALWEY, HUMPHREY

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Sa., a saltire engrailed or. _Salwey._

2. Arg., on a chief az., a lion passant of the first. _Aston._

3. Or, on a bend sa., 3 eagles displayed arg. _Manley._

4. Gu., a fess compony, arg. and sa., between 6 crosses crosslet fitchée or. _Boteler._

5. Arg., 2 bendlets sa. _Bradshaw._

6. Bendy of 10, or and az. _Montfort._

7. Arg., on a bend wavy az., 3 swans of the first. _Dawes._

8. Arg., a fess az., between 3 boars' heads couped sa. _Alyson._

9. Arg., a chevron engrailed between 3 bugle horns sa., stringed or. _Wyerley._

[HATCHER. _G. Haddoni lucubrationes._ Londini, 1567.]

Humphrey Salwey (born circ. 1575, died December 1652) was educated at Oxford, and entered the Middle Temple in 1591. He took part in the Civil War on the side of Parliament. In 1644 he was appointed King's Remembrancer in the Court of Exchequer. In 1649 he was made a Judge, but never took his place as such. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

[Illustration]

SANDYS, SIR THOMAS, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Or, a fess dancetty between 3 crosses crosslet fitchée gu., a fleur-de-lys for difference. _Sandys._

[JACOBUS DE VORAGINE. _Legendario delle vite de' Santi._ Venetia, 1607.]

Edwin Sandys (born 9th December 1561, died October 1642) was the sixth son of Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' and Oxford, and in 1589 entered the Middle Temple as a student. In 1586 Mr. Sandys represented Andover in Parliament, and afterwards sat for Plympton. He wrote some books on religious subjects during a visit to Paris. In 1603 he received the honour of Knighthood, and was Member of Parliament for Stockbridge.

Sir Edwin Sandys was conspicuous in Parliament, and got into trouble about his views as to the succession to the throne, and had to appear before the Council, but nothing was done further than that he had to give security for his appearance if wanted. He was an active member of the East India Company, and the Sandys group of islands in the Somers Islands was named after him. He also took a prominent part in the affairs of the Virginia Company, of which he was elected Treasurer in 1619, in succession to Sir Thomas Smythe. His administration, however, in the long-run, was no better than that of his predecessor, and in 1621 he was imprisoned in the Tower, but soon released.

Sir Edwin was returned to Parliament as Member for Sandwich, and afterwards for Penrhyn, but soon afterwards left public life, and devoted himself to his favourite East India Company. His political career was of much interest and importance.

[Illustration]

SAY, WILLIAM

_Arms._--Quarterly, or and gu., in the first quarter a lion passant guardant az. A crescent for difference. _Say._

[_Dialogi sex._ Antverpiae, 1566.]

William Say (born c. 1604, died c. 1666) was the second son of William Say of Ickenham, Middlesex. He was educated at Oxford, and was a Bencher of the Middle Temple. Mr. Say was a Member of Parliament for Camelford, and signed the death warrant of Charles I. For a time, in the absence of Speaker Lenthal, Say acted as Speaker in the House of Commons.

At the Restoration Say had to leave England, and found refuge in Holland, where he died.

[Illustration]

SHEFFIELD, JOHN, THIRD EARL OF MULGRAVE, AFTERWARDS DUKE OF THE COUNTY OF BUCKINGHAM.

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Arg., a chevron between 3 garbs gu. _Sheffield._

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Note._--Used between 1674 and 1694.

[CUDWORTH. _The Intellectual System of the Universe._ London, 1678.]

John Sheffield (born 7th April 1648, died 24th February 1720) was the son of Edmund Sheffield, second Earl of Mulgrave, and succeeded his father in 1658. John Sheffield had an eventful military and naval career, the two professions being in his time curiously considered as one. As a sailor he took part in the fight at Solebay in 1672 under the Duke of York, and afterwards was Captain of the "Royal Catherine." As a soldier Lord Mulgrave was Colonel of the Holland Regiment, Governor of Hull, and commanded a force at Tangier. In 1674 he was made a Knight of the Garter. He was a member of the Privy Council and Lord Chamberlain of the Household. In 1694 he was made Marquis of Normandy, and in 1703, Duke of Normandy, and shortly afterwards Duke of the County of Buckingham. He was a book-lover, and an author of some repute in his own time.

[Illustration]

SHELDON, RALPH

_Arms._--Sa., a fess arg., between 3 sheldrakes ppr. _Sheldon._

[_The Annals of Cornelius Tacitus._ London, 1640.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; sa., a fess arg., between 3 sheldrakes ppr. _Sheldon._

2nd; arg., on a bend sa., between 2 lions rampant of the second, a wyvern, extended, of the first. _Newport._

3rd; gu., a saltire vair. _Wellington._

[NOSTRADAMUS. _The True Prognostications, etc._ London, 1672.]

Ralph Sheldon (born 1st August 1623, died 24th June 1684) was the son of William Sheldon of Beoley, Worcestershire, and an ardent collector of antiquities, particularly books and manuscripts. He collected a large library at his house "Weston," at Long Compton, Warwickshire, and bequeathed to the College of Arms a large number of the manuscripts of Augustine Vincent, Windsor Herald. Mr. Sheldon suffered persecution as a Catholic. He wrote several genealogical treatises, many of which are now kept at the College of Arms.

[Illustration]

SLOANE, SIR HANS, BART.

_Arms._--Gu., a sword in pale, point downwards, blade arg., hilted or, between 2 boars' heads couped at the neck of the third; on a chief erm., a lion passant of the first between 2 mascles sa. The Ulster hand gu., on an escutcheon arg., in the dexter chief.

_Legend._--BIBLIOTHECA MANUSCRIPT. SLOANEIANA.

[_State Papers_, 1515-1525. Sloane MS. 3839.]

Hans Sloane (born 16th April 1660, died 11th January 1753) was the son of Alexander Sloane, a Scotchman who settled in Ireland as receiver-general of the estates of Lord Clanricarde.

When he was about eighteen Hans Sloane came to London to pursue his studies, particularly medicine, chemistry, and botany. In botany he became a great authority, and his botanical collections were of great importance. In 1683 he went to France to continue his scientific studies, and on his return to London he set up as a practising physician in England.

In 1687 Dr. Sloane went to the West Indies as physician to Christopher Monck, second Duke of Albemarle, who was Governor-General of the West Indian Colonies, and during the voyage the doctor made valuable collections, chiefly botanical, and also brought together a mass of material for his future use as an author. Dr. Sloane's botanical collections were largely increased by bequests from friends, particularly that of William Courten in 1702. In 1693 Dr. Sloane was Secretary to the Royal Society, and he was also Physician-in-Chief to George I., who in 1716 created him a Baronet. He was President of the College of Physicians in 1719 and of the Royal Society in 1727. Sir Hans Sloane lived in a house in Great Russell Street, and in 1741 he moved to more roomy quarters at the Manor House, Chelsea, where his collections could be better seen.

By his will Sir Hans Sloane bequeathed his natural history collections, antiquities of all sorts, manuscripts, and printed books to the British Nation, conditional on the payment to his family of £20,000, and after considerable negotiation the offer was accepted. In 1753 an Act (25th George II., chap. 22) was passed "for the purchase of the Museum or Collection of Sir Hans Sloane," and the collections were in time, with others, removed to Montagu House, which was opened to the public in 1759. The Sloane family is represented among the Family Trustees of the British Museum.

[Illustration]

SMITH, JOSEPH, CONSUL

_Arms._--Arg., 2 chevrons sa., each charged with 3 fleurs-de-lys of the first; on a chief gu., a lion passant or. _Smith._

_Crest._--A dexter arm erect, vested chequy, vert and or, holding in the hand a sheaf of 3 arrows of the last.

[PETRARCH. _Canzoniere._ Venetiis, 1533.]

Joseph Smith (born circ. 1682, died 6th November 1770) went as a young man to Venice, and quickly became known as an ardent collector of books and objects of art generally. In 1740 he was appointed British Consul at Venice. In 1762 Smith's library was bought for George III., and formed the first important nucleus of His Majesty's splendid collection. It contained especially choice editions of the classics, and also many incunabula.

Mr. Smith continued to collect books after the king had made his purchase, and these were eventually sold by auction in 1773. George III. also acquired a fine collection of pictures, coins, and gems that had been brought together by Consul Smith.

[Illustration]

SMITH, SIR THOMAS, KNIGHT, OF HILL HALL, ESSEX

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; sa., a fess dancetty arg., between 3 lioncels rampant of the second, each supporting an altar or, flaming ppr. _Smith._

2nd and 3rd; arg., on a bend sa., 3 crosses of the first, a martlet for difference. _Charnock._

In the centre point a crescent for difference.

_Crest._--A Phœnix arg., issuing from flames ppr.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

[_Short Introduction to Latin Grammar._ London, 1609.]

Thomas Smith (born 23rd December 1513, died 12th August 1577) was the second son of John Smith of Saffron Walden, and Agnes Charnock.

He was educated at Cambridge, where he attracted attention by his ability and was given a special scholarship by Henry VIII. In 1531 Smith was made a Fellow of his College, and shortly afterwards University Orator. In 1544 he was made Regius Professor of Civil Law. He was Provost of Eton and Dean of Carlisle. Although in Orders, Smith presently came to Court and became Clerk of the Privy Council, and in 1548 he was made one of the Secretaries to the King, and shortly afterwards received the honour of Knighthood. He went as Ambassador to the Emperor Charles V., and with an Embassy to France in 1551.

On the accession of Queen Mary, Smith changed his crest, and adopted that of a salamander living in the midst of flames, alluding perhaps to the fact that he escaped free from the dangers of the time, he being a strong Protestant. The Smith crest before this had been an eagle holding a pen in his claw. Queen Elizabeth in turn favoured Sir Thomas, and made him Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, and soon afterwards Secretary of State. Sir Thomas Smith had a large library of books, which he bequeathed to one or other of the Colleges at Cambridge, or among private friends. He wrote several works, mostly political.

[Illustration]

SMYTHE, THOMAS, VISCOUNT STRANGFORD

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Az., a chevron engrailed between 3 lions passant or. _Smythe._

2. Gu., a fess raguly between 3 boars' heads couped arg. _Judd._

3. Az., 3 lions rampant within a bordure arg. _Chiche._

4. Arg., 2 chevrons az., a canton gu. _Dexter._

5. Arg., a cross voided gu. _Pilkington._

6. Arg., 5 chevrons sa. _Sutton._

7. Or, a chevron between 3 cinquefoils gu. _Chichele._

8. Arg., a cross voided sa. _Duckenfield._

9. Or, on a chevron sa., a mullet arg., a crescent for difference. _Mirfin._

_Crest._--An ounce's head erased arg., collared and chained sa.

_Note._--Used before 1628.

[MOULIN. _Anatomie of Melancholy._ London, 1620.]

Thomas Smythe (born c. 1599, died 30th June 1635) was the son of Sir John Smythe of Ostenhanger and Ashford, High Sheriff of Kent in 1600. Thomas Smythe inherited a considerable fortune from his father, who was a son of Thomas Smythe, Farmer of the Customs to Queen Elizabeth, his mother being Alice Judd, daughter of Sir Andrew Judd, Lord Mayor of London and founder of Tunbridge School. In 1625, at the coronation of Charles I., Thomas Smythe was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, and three years later he was created Viscount of Strangford.

[Illustration]

SOMERS, JOHN, BARON SOMERS

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; vert, a fess dancetty erm. _Somers._

2nd and 3rd; quarterly, vert and gu., a fess dancetty erm., in chief a lion passant between 2 hawks arg. _Somers of Worcestershire._

_Coronet._--That of a Baron.

_Supporters._--2 lions erm., each charged on the neck with a fess dancetty vert.

_Motto._--PRODESSE QUAM CONSPICI.

[_Common Prayer._ Oxford, 1700.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Used between 1688 and 1697.

_Arms._--Vert, a fess dancetty erm.

_Crest._--A coat of mail hanging on a laurel tree ppr.

_Helmet._--That of a Knight.

[ECHARD. _Roman History._ London, 1695.]

John Somers (born 4th March 1650, died 26th April 1716) was son of John Somers of Clifton-on-Severn. He was educated at Worcester and Oxford, and became a Bencher of the Middle Temple in 1689.

Mr. Somers became Solicitor-General in 1688, when he received the honour of Knighthood, and he represented Worcester in Parliament. Sir John was sworn of the Privy Council in 1693, and shortly afterwards was made Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Speaker of the House of Lords, and Lord Chancellor. In 1697 he was created Baron Somers of Evesham. Lord Somers was President of the Royal Society. In 1701 he was impeached in the Commons for various supposed misdemeanours, but the charge was dismissed.

The Barony of Somers became extinct at John Somers' death in 1716, but it was revived in 1784 in the person of Charles Cocks of Castleditch, M.P. for Reigate, who was a descendant of a sister of the first Lord.

[Illustration]

SPENCER, CHARLES, THIRD EARL OF SUNDERLAND

_Arms._--Quarterly; arg. and gu., on the second and third quarters a fret or, over all on a bend sa., 3 escallops of the first. _Spencer._

_Motto._--DIEV DEFENDE LE DROICT.

_Note._--Used before 1702.

[CAMDEN. _Britain._ London, 1637.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--Out of a ducal coronet or, a griffin's head arg., gorged gu., between 2 wings expanded of the second. _Spencer._

Charles Spencer (born c. 1674, died 19th April 1722) was the son of Robert Spencer, second Earl of Sunderland, and succeeded his father in 1702. He was from an early age a great lover and collector of books, which he kept at Althorp.

In 1695 he was Member of Parliament for Tiverton; in 1706 he was a Secretary of State for the Southern Department, and became of much political importance as a Whig leader. He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1714.

In 1715 Lord Sunderland was made Lord Privy Seal, and shortly afterwards Vice-Treasurer of Ireland. He also held the posts of Groom of the Stole and Gentleman of the Bedchamber to George I.

Lord Sunderland was a great book collector, and a rival in this respect to most of his contemporaries. He was a great gambler, and his library was at one time pledged to the Duke of Marlborough, and in 1749 it was removed to Blenheim. The library was sold in 1881, and the books belonging to it were widely dispersed.

Lord Sunderland's son Charles, who in 1729 became fifth earl, on the demise of his aunt Henrietta, by special Act of Parliament Duchess of Marlborough, in 1733 succeeded to the Dukedom of the celebrated John Churchill. The Earldom of Sunderland from that time has been merged in the Dukedom of Marlborough.

[Illustration]

SPENCER, GEORGE JOHN, SECOND EARL SPENCER

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly, arg. and gu., on the 2nd and 3rd quarters a fret or, over all on a bend sa., 3 escallops of the first. _Spencer._

Sinister: Quarterly.

1st and 4th; az., a bend cotised between 6 crosses pattée or. _Bingham._

2nd and 3rd; erm., a lion rampant ducally crowned or. _Smith._

_Crest._--Out of a ducal coronet or, a griffin's head arg., gorged with a bar gemelle gu., between 2 wings expanded of the second.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Supporters._--Dexter: A griffin, per fess erm. and erminois, gorged with a collar sa., the edges flory counterflory chained of the last (on the collar 3 escallops arg.).

Sinister: A wyvern erect on his tail erm., collared and chained as the griffin.

_Motto._--DIEU DEFEND LE DROIT.

[CICERO. _Tusculanae Disputationes._ Romae, 1469.]

George John Spencer (born 1st September 1758, died 10th November 1834) was the son of John Spencer, Earl Spencer. In 1783 he succeeded his father in the family honours. He was educated at Harrow and Cambridge. In 1780 George Spencer was Member of Parliament for Northampton, and shortly afterwards became a Commissioner of the Treasury Board. He was also Lord Privy Seal and First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1806 he was made Secretary of State for the Home Department.

In 1781 Lord Spencer married Lavinia Bingham, daughter of Charles, Earl of Lucan, and in 1797 he was made a Knight of the Garter. Lord Spencer made a magnificent collection of books at Althorp Park, Northampton, and acquired several already celebrated libraries, particularly those of Count Reviczky and the Duke of Cassano-Serra. Several of Lord Spencer's books were bound for him by Charles Kalthoeber, a celebrated binder who worked also for George III., and closely imitated the work of Roger Payne, whose own work is also excellently represented in the library.

In 1892 the Althorp Library was purchased by Mrs. Rylands of Longford Hall, Manchester, and subsequently presented by her to the city of Manchester in memory of her husband, Mr. John Rylands.

[Illustration]

STANLEY, THOMAS

_Crest._--An eagle's head couped arg., charged with 3 pellets, one and two, holding in his beak an eagle's leg erased a la cuise, gu. _Stanley._

[FIORAVANTI. _Della Fisica._ Venetiis, 1582.]

Thomas Stanley (born circ. 1625, died circ. 1678) was the son of Sir Thomas Stanley of Cumberlow, Hertfordshire. He was educated at Cambridge, and occupied himself in literary pursuits from an early age.

Mr. Stanley wrote a number of poetical works, and also made several translations from Greek and Latin authors. In 1655 he published a _History of Philosophy_ which during his lifetime enjoyed a great reputation. His edition of _Æschylus_ was also very successful. Several of his manuscripts are now kept in the University Library at Cambridge.

[Illustration]

STUART, CHARLES, BARON STUART DE ROTHESAY

_Arms._--Or, a fess chequy az. and arg., within a double tressure flory counterflory gu. _Stuart._

_Crest._--A demi lion rampant gu., and over it the motto NOBILIS (est) IRA (leonis).

_Motto._--AVITO VIRET HONORE. Used before 1812.

[SEVERIM. _Noticias de Portugal._ Lisboa, 1740.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._

_Arms._--Or, a fess chequy az. and arg., within a double tressure flory counterflory gu. A mullet for difference. _Stuart._

Within the collar of a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, having the badge of the order dependent therefrom. Used after 1812.

[PEREZ DEL PULGAR. _Coronica llamada Las dos Conquistas del Regno de Napoles._ Cargoça, 1559.]

Charles Stuart (born 2nd January 1779, died 6th November 1845) was the son of General Sir Charles Stuart, K.C.B., son of the Earl of Bute. Mr. Stuart had an important diplomatic career, and filled several high posts. He was Chargé d'affaires at Madrid, Envoy to Portugal, Minister at the Hague, and Ambassador to Paris.

In 1812 he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, and in 1828 he was created Baron Stuart de Rothesay, a high honour, as the Barony of Rothesay is one of the hereditary honours of the Prince of Wales. Lord Stuart was afterwards Ambassador to St. Petersburg. He brought over from France the beautiful castle of Highcliffe, Hants, where the German Emperor recently stayed. He left no male heir, so his peerage became extinct at his death.

[Illustration]

SUTTON, THOMAS

_Arms._--On a chevron between 3 annulets gu., as many crescents of the field. _Sutton._

_Crest._--A greyhound's head couped erm., collared gu., garnished and ringed or, on the collar an annulet of the first.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Legend._--THOS · SUTTON · ARM · FUNDATOR.

_Note._--The word FUNDATOR applies to Charterhouse School.

[CÆSAR. _C. Julii Cæsaris quæ extant._ Lugduni Batavorum, 1635.]

Thomas Sutton (born circ. 1532, died 12th December 1611) was the son of Richard Sutton, Steward of the Courts of Lincoln. He is said to have been educated at Eton, and afterwards studied law at Lincoln's Inn. In early life Sutton was a soldier and saw active service, and in 1569 he was appointed Master of the Ordnance in the North.

While in the north Sutton acquired considerable possessions in land, and from these he drew a large fortune. One of the ships fitted out to resist the Spanish Armada was called the "Sutton." Sutton was very generous with his money, and in 1611 he purchased Charterhouse in Middlesex, where he founded the famous school of that name. The foundation of this school was originally intended for the benefit of forty boys of good birth and necessitous parents, but in time it came about that to be a foundation scholar, or gown boy, was a mark of distinction. Thackeray was a Charterhouse boy and was familiar with the surroundings there. Besides the school, there was a foundation or hospital at Charterhouse for "poverty-stricken gentlemen." The school was moved to Godalming in 1872, but the "hospital" still remains in Charterhouse Square. Sutton's tomb is in the Chapel at the Charterhouse.

[Illustration]

SYDNEY, ROBERT, EARL OF LEICESTER

_Arms._--Quartered.

1. Arg., a pheon az. _Sydney._

2. Barry of 10, arg. and gu., a lion rampant ducally crowned or. _Brandon._

3. Or, a lion rampant az. _Brabant._

4. Or, 2 lions passant az. _Dudley._

5. Barry of 6, arg. and az., in chief a label of the first. _Grey._

6. Arg., a maunch sa. _Hastings._

7. Az., a wolf's head erased arg. _Lupus._

8. Barry of 10, arg. and az., an orle of ten martlets gu. _Valence, Earl of Pembroke._

9. A lion rampant.?

10. Gu., 7 mascles conjoined or, three, three, and one. _Ferrers of Groby._

11. Az., a lion rampant arg., within a bordure engrailed or. _Tyrrell._

12. Gu., a fess between 6 crosses crosslet or. _Beauchamp._

13. Chequy, or and az., a chevron erm. _Warwick._

14. Gu., a lion statant arg., crowned or. _Lyle._

15. Arg., a chevron sa. _Trelawney._

16. Arg., a fess dancetty gu. _Dene._

On an escutcheon of pretence, being the arms of Barbara Gamage.

Quarterly.

1. Arg., a bend lozengy gu., on a chief az., 3 escallops arg. _Gamage._

2. Vairy, arg. and gu. _Nowers._

3. Chequy, or and arg., a fess erm. _Calthrop._

4. Arg., 3 chevrons gu. _Langton._

[_Polydori Vergilii historiae_, libri vigintiseptem. Basileae, 1570.]

Robert Sydney (born November 1563, died 13th July 1626) was the son of Sir Henry Sydney, K.G. He was educated at Oxford, and in 1584 became Member of Parliament for Glamorganshire, and afterwards for Kent. In 1586 he was knighted by the Earl of Leicester, and in 1603 he was created Baron Sydney of Penshurst, and two years afterwards Viscount L'Isle.

Lord L'Isle was made a Knight of the Garter in 1616, and in 1618 he was created Earl of Leicester. In 1584 he married Barbara Gamage of Coity, daughter of John Gamage. She died in 1621, and Lord Leicester married for his second wife Sarah, daughter of William Blount.

[Illustration]

SYKES, SIR MARK MASTERMAN, BARONET

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., a chevron sa., between 3 sykes, or fountains, ppr. _Sykes._

2nd and 3rd; gu., an estoile between 3 fleurs-de-lys arg. _Masterman._

In the centre point the Ulster hand, gu. Above the shield are the letters M[ark] M[asterman] S[ykes].

_Note._--Used after 1795.

[VALERIUS MAXIMUS. _Facta et Dicta Memorabilia_, Mainz, 1471.]

Mark Sykes (born circ. 1771, died 16th February 1823) was the son of Sir Christopher Sykes, Baronet, of Sledmere, Yorks. He succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 1801. Mr. Sykes was educated at Oxford, and in 1795 was High Sheriff of Yorkshire. He represented York in Parliament for several years. He assumed the additional name of Masterman in 1795, on the occasion of his marriage to Henrietta, daughter and heiress of Henry Masterman of Settrington, Yorks, but he left no heirs and was succeeded by his brother Tatton.

Sir Mark Sykes possessed a magnificent library, rich in classics and incunabula, and also a valuable collection of antiquities and pictures. His collections were sold at his death, and his books and other treasures are widely distributed.

[Illustration]

TASH, THOMAS

_Arms._--Per pale, or and gu., a chevron between 3 cinquefoils counterchanged, on a chief per pale of the second and first (2) escallops counterchanged. _Tash._

_Crest._--A greyhound courant or.

[TYMME. _A silver watch-bell._ Aberdene, 1627.]

[W. E. Axon, Esq. Deansgate. Manchester.]

Thomas Tash, of London, was one of the Commissioners of Custom for England and Wales in 1752, but there appears to be no more known about him. There ought to be another escallop on the coat-of-arms illustrated, and according to the printed authorities the crest of Tash should be a demi greyhound.

[Illustration]

TOPSFIELD

_Arms._--Gu., on a chevron erm., 3 martlets sa., in chief a mullet or. _Topsfield._

_Crest._--A talbot couchant guardant in front of a tree, all ppr.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Motto._--FAYTH FAILETH NOT.

[ENGLAND. _In this volume are conteined the statutes made ... from the time of King Henry the thirde unto ... Kyng Henry the VIII._ London, 1564.]

This stamp belonged to a member of the old family of Topsfield, who owned the estate of Frisingfield, near Harleston in Norfolk, but I have as yet not been able to find out which particular member used it.

[Illustration]

TOWNELEY, RICHARD

_Arms._--Arg., a fess sa., in chief 3 mullets of the second. _Towneley._

_Motto._--TENEZ LE VRAY.

_Date._--1603.

[_The Hystory writtone by Thucidides the Athenyan of the warre which was betwene the Peloponesians and the Athenyans._ London, 1550.]

The family of Towneley is one of ancient domicile in Lancashire. The member of it to whom the accompanying book-stamp probably belonged was Richard Towneley of Towneley Hall near Burnley, who lived there from about 1580 till about 1640.

His son Christopher was a well-known antiquary, but the most distinguished member of the family was Charles Towneley, who lived in the eighteenth century. He made a very important collection of ancient statuary and terra-cottas, which were purchased for the British Museum in 1805, and a member of the Towneley family is always represented on the Museum Board of Trustees.

[Illustration]

TREVOR, MARCUS, VISCOUNT DUNGANNON

_Arms._--Per bend sinister erm. and erminois, a lion rampant or. _Trevor._

[BEAULIEU. _Take heed of both extremes._ London, 1675.]

[Illustration]

_Crest._--A wyvern with wings addorsed, sa.

_Initials._--I. D.

[BEAULIEU. _Take heed of both extremes._ London, 1675.]

Marcus Trevor (born circ. 1620, died circ. 1683) belonged to the family of Trevor of Brynkinalt in Denbighshire. He was a strong Royalist, and took part in the struggle between Charles I. and the Parliamentarians. After the Restoration Charles II. made Colonel Trevor a peer, and in 1662 created him Baron Trevor and Viscount Dungannon, both of which peerages became extinct in 1706 on the death of his grandson Marcus. Lord Dungannon married twice; his first wife was a daughter of Sir Marmaduke Whitechurch, and his second wife was a daughter of John Lewis.

[Illustration]

TREWARTHEN, FAMILY OF

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1. Arg., a boar passant gu. _Trewarthen._

2. Arg., a bend sa. _Blackborne._

3. Az., on a chevron between 3 estoiles or, as many lozenges sa. _Butts._

4. Chequy, or and az., on a chief arg., gutty de sang. _Coleshill._

_Crest._--A double plume of 5 ostrich feathers, arg.

[AUSTIN. _Devout Meditations._ London, 1635.]

The family of Trewarthen is an old one belonging to the county of Cornwall, but to which particular member of the family this stamp belonged I have been unable to decide at present.

[Illustration]

TUDOR ROSE

_Device._--A Tudor Rose arg. and gu., seeded or and leaved vert, within a ribbon bearing the legend HEC ROSA VIRTUTIS DE CELO MISSA SERENO ETERNŪ FLORENS REGIA SCEPTRA FERET.

_Supporters._--Two kneeling angels.

_Badges._--In the dexter corner a sun in glory and the shield of St. George, arg., a cross gu.

In the sinister corner a half-moon with face, and the shield of the City of London, arg., a cross gu.; in the first quarter a sword in pale of the last, point upwards. In the sky stars.

_Initials._--I.N., _i.e._ Ihon Norins, with his trade device.

[CICERO. _Commentarii questionum Tusculanarum._ Parhisii, 1509.]

This stamp is generally found in combination with one or other of the armorial stamps which I have figured and placed under the heading of Henry VIII. No doubt there was some authority given to use these Royal emblems, and although so far no reliable account of such authority is forthcoming, it is likely enough that members of the Stationers' Company may have been granted the privilege. On all these bindings the coat-of-arms of the City of London appears. On many of them are also initials which are very often those of well-known contemporary printers and binders. The original stamps were cut in latten, a form of brass--copper and zinc--and impressed on the leather in blind, that is without gold, the design showing in low relief.

The latten plates were probably attached to wooden blocks by means of two or more metal pins, and in many instances, by reason of irregular pressure, these pins, the tops of which were engraved in continuation of the general design, have been forced a little out of their normal level. The result is that they show very clearly as indented marks. The pressure necessary to make a good impression from one of these large stamps is considerable; it may have been done by a slow constant pressure or by quick pressure from hammer strokes, and the leather was in any case softened by water. Bindings with these stamps upon them were either of calf or sheep-skin.

[Illustration]

USHER, JAMES, ARCHBISHOP OF ARMAGH

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Az., an archiepiscopal staff, headed with a cross pattée or, over all a pall arg., charged with 3 crosses pattée fitchée sa. _See of Armagh._

Sinister: Az., a chevron erm., between 3 batons or. _Usher._

[USHER. _Britannicae Ecclesiae Antiquitates._ Dublin, 1639.]

James Usher (born 4th January 1580, died 21st March 1656) was the son of Arnold Usher, Clerk of the Irish Court of Chancery. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1601 he took orders, and became a preacher of much note. In 1620 Dr. Usher was made Bishop of Meath and Clonmacnoise, and in 1624 he was consecrated Archbishop of Armagh.

Archbishop Usher wrote several very important theological works, and he took part in all the controversies of his time. He was a divine of much learning and a great scholar. His extensive library is for the greater part in Trinity College, Dublin, where it was sent as a gift by Charles II.

[Illustration]

UTTERSON, EDWARD VERNON

_Arms._--A Lymphad, with sail furled, on a sea in base ppr., at the poop a flag flying towards the bow, arg., fimbriated vert, charged with a pomme in fess; on a chief gu., 3 bezants, each charged with a mullet. _Utterson._

[_The Hystory of the two valyaunte brethren Valentyne and Orson_ ... translated from the French by H. Watson. London, 1565.]

Edward Vernon Utterson (born circ. 1775, died 14th July 1856) was the son of John Utterson of Fareham in Hampshire. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and in 1802 was called to the bar. He was all his life a great collector of books. Mr. Utterson set up a private press at Ryde, in the Isle of Wight, known as the Beldornie Press, and here he reprinted such of the early English plays and poems as pleased him. He also edited a number of reprints of important English books, some of which are very handsomely produced.

[Illustration]

VICTORIA, QUEEN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, EMPRESS OF INDIA.

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st and 4th; England.

2nd; Scotland.

3rd; Ireland.

All coloured as used by James I. (q.v.) and ensigned by a Royal Crown.

_Supporters._--The lion and the unicorn, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEU ET MON DROIT.

[_Galerie Royale de Costumes._ Paris, 1042.]

The Princess Victoria (born 24th May 1819, died 22nd January 1901) was the only child of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III., and Victoria Marie Louisa of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield. On the death of William IV., 18th June 1837, the Princess Victoria succeeded to the throne of England. Queen Victoria was crowned at Westminster on 20th June 1838, and on the 1st January 1877 Her Majesty was proclaimed Empress of India, at Delhi. On the 10th February 1840, Queen Victoria married her cousin Albert, the youngest son of Ernest, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

On the accession of Queen Victoria to the English throne, the Kingdom of Hanover became separated from England, in consequence of the operation of the Salic Law. The coat-of-arms of the dominions in Germany was accordingly left out of the Royal coat. The Duke of Cumberland, the Queen's uncle, became King of Hanover, which country is now part of the German Empire.

[Illustration]

VINCENT, AUGUSTINE, WINDSOR HERALD

_Arms._--Arg., on a pile az., 3 quatrefoils of the first. _Vincent._

_Crest._--Out of an heraldic coronet a bear's head ppr.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Supporter._--A bear collared and chained ppr.

_Legend._--VINCENTI AVGVSTA.

[CHASSENEUX. _Catalogus Gloriae Mundi._ Francofurti, 1603.]

Augustine Vincent (born circ. 1584, died 11th January 1625) was the son of William Vincent. He showed antiquarian and heraldic tastes at an early age, and in 1615 was made Rouge Rose Pursuivant, and in 1624 Windsor Herald. Vincent collected valuable material concerning heraldic and genealogical matter, and his manuscripts are chiefly to be found either at the College of Arms or the Bodleian Library at Oxford.

In Vincent's time it was the custom to carry out the heraldic visitations by deputy. These visitations should have been made by the Heralds in person, and in 1619 there was much trouble about the matter, and strong complaints were made to the Earl Marshal by both Garter and Norroy. The difficulty was brought to a head by the appointment of Vincent, then Rouge Rose Pursuivant, to carry out the visitations of Northamptonshire and Rutlandshire as deputy for William Camden, Clarencieux Herald.

[Illustration]

WALDEGRAVE, JAMES, SECOND EARL WALDEGRAVE

_Arms._--Per pale, arg. and gu. _Waldegrave._

_Supporters._--Two talbots sa., eared or, each gorged with a mural crown, arg.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

[PREVOST D'EXILES. _Memoirs d'un Homme de Qualité._ Paris, 1732.]

James Waldegrave (born 4th March 1714, died 13th April 1763) was the son of James, first Earl Waldegrave, and succeeded his father in the Earldom in 1741. In 1752 Lord Waldegrave was Governor and Keeper of the Privy Purse to George, Prince of Wales. In 1757 he was made a Knight of the Garter and a Teller of the Exchequer. Lord Waldegrave wrote a book of Historical Memoirs from 1754 to 1757. He married a daughter of Sir Edward Walpole but had no son, and at his death the family honours devolved upon his brother John.

[Illustration]

WALKER, SIR EDWARD, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., on a cross of St. George gu., 5 leopards' faces or. _Coat of Augmentation._

2nd and 3rd; arg., a chevron between 3 crescents sa., an annulet for difference. _Walker._

_Supporter._--A greyhound, collared.

_Motto._--LOYAVTE MON HONNEVR.

[_Indentures of Military Service, Edw. III.-Hen. VII._ Stowe MS. 440.]

Edward Walker (born 24th January 1611, died 19th February 1676) was the son of Edward Walker of Roobers, Nether Stowey, Somerset. He joined the College of Arms as an official, and in 1635 he was made Blanch Lion Pursuivant, filling successively the positions of Rouge Croix Pursuivant and Chester Herald.

Walker took part with Charles I. in the war with the Roundheads, and served as Secretary-at-War, and was at Naseby. In 1644 he was created Norroy King-of-Arms, and in 1645 he succeeded Sir Henry St. George as Garter. In the same year he received the honour of Knighthood. In 1649 Sir Edward Walker was made Clerk of the Council in Ordinary, but in 1650 he got into trouble as a Royalist, and found refuge in Holland. After some trouble he invested William, Prince of Orange, with the Garter in 1653.

At the Restoration Walker superintended the arrangements for the coronation, and his remaining years seem to have been spent in quarrels with other members of the Heralds' College. Sir Edward Walker wrote a considerable number of historical and genealogical works, particularly an illustrated edition of the coronation of Charles II. Many of his manuscripts are in the British Museum, and others are at the Bodleian Library at Oxford.

[Illustration]

WALPOLE, HORACE, FOURTH EARL OF OXFORD

_Arms._--Or, on a fess between 2 chevrons sa., 3 crosses crosslet of the first, a mullet for difference. _Walpole._

_Crest._--The bust of a man in profile couped, ppr., ducally coroneted or, and from the coronet, flowing forward, a long cap gu., tasselled or, charged with a Catherine wheel of the last.

_Helmet._--That of an Esquire.

_Motto._--FARI QUÆ SENTIAT.

[WATTS. _Memoirs of the Revolution in Bengal._ London, 1764.]

Horace Walpole (born 5th October 1717, died 2nd March 1797) was a younger son of Robert Walpole, Earl of Oxford, for many years Prime Minister of England. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and as a young man studied law. For a time Mr. Walpole served in the office of the Exchequer, and represented Callington, Castle Rising, and King's Lynn in Parliament, where the chief thing he did seems to have been that he exerted himself to save the life of Admiral Byng.

In 1792 Mr. Walpole succeeded his nephew George in the Earldom, but never took his seat in the House of Lords. On his death without heirs most of his titles became extinct, but the Barony of Walpole devolved on his cousin Horatio.

At Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham, Walpole collected a splendid library, and also a number of pictures, antiquities, and treasures of all sorts. Here also he set up a private press, at which he printed many of his own works. Many of Walpole's books are now famous; among the best known are, perhaps, the _Anecdotes of Painting_ and the _Castle of Otranto_. The Strawberry Hill Collection was sold in 1840.

[Illustration]

WARE, SIR JAMES, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Or, 2 lions passant az., within a bordure of the second, charged with 8 escallops of the first, 3, 2, 2, and 1. _Ware._

[GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. _De Topographia Hibernica._ Add. MS. 33,991.]

James Ware (born 26th November 1594, died 1st December 1666) was the son of Sir James Ware of Dublin. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and soon developed literary and antiquarian tastes, and became a collector of manuscripts and antiquities, particularly relating to Ireland. He was knighted in 1629 by the Lords Justices, and in 1632 became Auditor-General in Ireland, and in 1661 Member for the University of Dublin. Sir James was imprisoned in the Tower of London as a Royalist, and was afterwards a hostage for Ireland. Sir James Ware published some very valuable books on Irish antiquities, most of them in Latin, but a collection of his works has been translated into English.

[Illustration]

WATSON, LEWIS, EARL OF ROCKINGHAM

_Arms._--Arg., on a chevron az., between 3 martlets sa., as many crescents or. _Watson._

_Supporters._--Two griffins az., ducally gorged or.

_Coronet._--That of an Earl.

_Motto._--MEA GLORIA FIDES.

[_Poste da Roma._ Roma, 1600?]

Lewis Watson (born 29th December 1655, died 19th March 1723) was the son of Edward Watson, Baron Rockingham, and succeeded to the Barony in 1689. In 1681 Mr. Watson represented Canterbury in Parliament, and afterward Higham Ferrers. In 1703, Lord Rockingham was Master of the Buckhounds, and he was also Lord Lieutenant of Kent. In 1714, besides other dignities, Baron Rockingham was created Earl of Rockingham. He also held the posts of Vice-Admiral of Kent and Deputy-Warden of the Cinque Ports. He married twice, his first wife being a daughter of George Sondes, Viscount Sondes and Baron Throwley, besides other titles, and these two peerages were revived in 1714 in the person of Lord Rockingham when he was created an Earl.

[Illustration]

WHITE, RICHARD SAMUEL

_Arms._--Erm., on a pale gu., 2 roses ppr., on a chief indented az., 2 leopards' heads erased arg. _White._

_Crest._--A falcon, wings extended erm., charged with a rose ppr., holding in his beak an escutcheon, bendy indented gu. and arg.

_Motto._--PERSEVERANDO.

_Legend._--RICHARD SAMUEL WHITE, ESQ.

[STERNHOLD AND HOPKINS. _The whole booke of Psalmes collected into Englyshe Meter._ London, 1564.]

Richard Samuel White may have been a descendant of Captain Samuel White who married Edith, daughter of John Watson of Charlton House, Dorset. I do not find his name in any of the ordinary lists, but some of the bearings in his coat-of-arms are similar to those used by the family of White of Charlton.

[Illustration]

WHITGIFT, JOHN, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Az., an archiepiscopal staff headed with a cross pattée or, surmounted of a pall arg., charged with 4 crosses pattée fitchée sa., fringed and edged or. _See of Canterbury._

Sinister: Arg., on a cross flory sa., 4 bezants. _Whitgift._

[_Dionysii Lebei Batillii Reg. mediomatricii Praesidis Emblemata._ Francofurti ad Moen[=u], 1596.]

John Whitgift (born 1530, died 29th February 1603) was the son of Henry Whitgift of Great Grimsby in Lincolnshire. He was educated at Cambridge and took orders in 1560. He was an eloquent preacher and quickly made his name famous.

In 1567 he was made Regius Professor of Divinity, and took much interest and effected many reforms in the Government of the University. In 1571 he became Dean of Lincoln. Dr. Whitgift was made Bishop of Worcester in 1576, and in 1583 Archbishop of Canterbury. Archbishop Whitgift was a rich man, and was also a great favourite of Queen Elizabeth's. He was an excellent organiser and ruled church matters with a strong hand. He left a number of sermons and tracts, several of which have been published by the Parker Society, and others still remain in manuscript at Lambeth, the Bodleian, the Record Office, and the British Museum.

[Illustration]

WILLIAM III. AND MARY II., KING AND QUEEN OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND. AFTERWARDS WILLIAM III., KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND.

_Arms._--Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1st, _England_.

2nd, _Scotland_.

3rd, _Ireland_.

4th, _France_.

All coloured as used by James I. (q.v.). Over all on an escutcheon of pretence, az., semée of billets, a lion rampant or. _Nassau._

_Crest._--A Royal crown ppr., thereon a lion statant guardant or, crowned ppr.

_Helmet._--That of a King.

_Motto._--DIEV ET MON DROIT.

_Initials._--WR (William Rex) and MR (Mary Regina).

[_Common Prayer._ Oxford, 1681.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--Without supporters.

[TOUCHET. _Memoirs of the Earl of Castlehaven._ London, 1681.]

[Illustration]

_Initials._--WR (William Rex) within palm sprays and ensigned with a Royal Crown.

Used after 1694.

[HENRI III., KING OF FRANCE. _Le Divorce Satyrique._ Paris.]

[Illustration]

_Arms._--As Prince of Orange. Within the Garter. Quarterly.

1. Az., semée of billets, a lion rampant or. _Nassau._

2. Or, a lion rampant guardant gu., crowned az. _Dietz._

3. Gu., a fess arg. _Vianden._

4. Gu., 2 lions passant guardant or. _Catsenelboge._

On an escutcheon of pretence on the centre point. Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., a bend or. _Chalon._

2nd and 3rd; or, a bugle horn az., stringed gu. _Orange._

Over all chequy, or and az. _Geneva._

In the centre chief point on an escutcheon or, a fess gu. _Moers._

In the base point on an escutcheon gu., a fess embattled arg. _Buren._

Over all a Ducal coronet.

_Note._--Used before 1689.

[_Apologie pour la Maison de Nassau._ Madril, 1664.]

Prince William (born 4th November 1650, died 8th March 1702) was the son of William Prince of Orange and the Princess Mary, eldest daughter of Charles I. Prince William married the Princess Mary, eldest daughter of James, Duke of York, afterwards James II., and Anne Hyde. The Prince of Orange deposed his father-in-law James II., in 1689, and was declared king in his stead. William and Mary were, however, joint sovereigns, and the crowns, sceptres, and orbs were all doubled for them, and on the Great Seal they are both represented, one hand of each resting on the orb.

Queen Mary died in 1694, and after that date King William reigned alone. The same coat-of-arms was used all through, but during the double reign the initials "WR" and "MR" are generally added. It is curious to note that William III. several times altered the place of the coat-of-arms of France on the English coat.

[Illustration]

WILLIAM IV., KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND

_Arms._--Within the Garter and with the collar and badge of the order. Quarterly.

1st and 4th, _England_.

2nd, _Scotland_.

3rd, _Ireland_.

And on an escutcheon of pretence, ensigned with the Royal Crown of Hanover, the arms of the Dominions in Germany, as used by George III. (q.v.) after 1816.

_Crest._--A Royal crown ppr., thereon a lion statant or, crowned ppr.

_Helmet._--That of a King.

_Supporters._--A lion and a unicorn, as used by James I. (q.v.).

_Motto._--DIEU ET MON DROIT.

_Badges._--Tudor Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock.

[_Inventories of the various Services of Plate belonging to the Crown._ London, 1832.]

[Illustration]

_Variety._--The Royal Cypher "WR IIII." (William Rex IIII.) within the Garter and ensigned with a Royal Crown.

[DELPECH. _Iconographie des contemporains._ Paris, 1832.]

William, Duke of Clarence (born 21st August 1763, died 20th June 1837), was the third son of George III., and succeeded his brother George IV. on the throne of England in 1830. He was parsimonious, and the economy used at his coronation was so marked that it was called a "Half Crown-ation." William IV. married Adelaide, daughter of George Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, and their two daughters died as children.

The Royal Libraries were twice given to the Nation, once by George II., on the foundation of the British Museum, and again by George IV., after the death of his father. William IV. evidently thought that there had been enough generosity in this matter on the part of his predecessors, and he added to his will an autograph codicil, dated "Pavillion, Brighton, 30th November 1834," to the effect that "I further declare that all the Books, Drawings, and Plans collected in all the Palaces shall _forever_ continue heirlooms to the Crown, and on no pretence whatever to be alienated from the Crown."

[Illustration]

WILLIAMS, JOHN, BISHOP OF LINCOLN, AFTERWARDS ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Gu., 2 lions passant guardant or, on a chief az., our lady sitting with her babe crowned and sceptred. _See of Lincoln._

Sinister: Quarterly.

1st and 4th; gu., a chevron (erm.) between 3 human heads in profile, couped at the neck, ppr., hair and beards sa. 2nd and 3rd; gu., a chevron or, between 3 stags' faces arg., attired or. _Williams._

[_Hebrew Bible._]

John Williams (born 25th March 1582, died 25th March 1650) was the son of Edmond Williams of Conway, and was educated at Ruthin Grammar School and at Cambridge. In 1603 he was ordained, and he soon became known as an able preacher. After holding several minor ecclesiastical preferments and enjoying the favour of James I., he was made Dean of Salisbury in 1619. In 1620 Dr. Williams became Dean of Westminster, and in 1621 he was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln. In the House of Lords Bishop Williams took a very important part in the discussions and legislation concerning the power of the Sovereign in 1628.

In 1635 the Bishop's enemies succeeded in bringing him before the Star Chamber on a charge of subornation of perjury, and he was condemned to a heavy fine and loss of profits of his many benefices. He was imprisoned in the Tower until he was granted an unconditional release by the House of Lords in 1640. In 1641, with other Bishops, Williams was again committed to the Tower on a charge of high treason, but soon escaped, forfeiting his bail. He again took a leading part in the proceedings of the House of Lords, and was translated to the Archbishopric of York, where he was enthroned in 1642.

Archbishop Williams worked hard for the Royalist cause; he fortified Conway Castle and organised the militia. He was possessed of considerable wealth, and was liberal and charitable. Several of his sermons and speeches were published.

[Illustration]

WINDSOR, THOMAS, SIXTH BARON WINDSOR

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1. Gu., a saltire between 12 crosses pattée or. _Windsor._

2. Barry nebuly or and sa. _Blount._

3. Gu., a fret or. _Audley._

4. Vairy, arg. and sa. _Meynell._

_Crest._--A buck's head affrontée, couped at the neck arg., attired or.

_Helmet._--That of a Peer.

_Supporters._--Dexter, a unicorn arg., armed, maned, and unguled or. Sinister, a fox ppr.

[OSSAT. _Lettres._ Paris, 1627.]

Thomas Windsor (born circ. 1580, died 6th December 1642) was the son of Henry Windsor, fifth Baron Windsor. He succeeded his father in the Barony in 1605. In 1610 Lord Windsor was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, and was Rear-Admiral in the Navy. He commanded the fleet sent to Spain to bring back Prince Charles. Lord Windsor left no son, and his title was inherited by his nephew, Thomas Windsor-Hickman, the son of Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of the fifth Baron. He married Dixie Hickman of Kew, Surrey.

[Illustration]

WODHULL, MICHAEL

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Or, 3 crescents gu. _Woodhull._

Sinister: Erm., on a fess gu., 3 escallops or. _Ingram._

_Crest._--Out of an heraldic coronet 2 wings addorsed, arg.

[M. T. CICERONIS. _Quaestionorum tusculanarum_, libri quinq. Florentiae, 1514.]

Michael Wodhull (born 15th August 1740, died 10th November 1816) was the son of John Wodhull. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford. Mr. Wodhull married a Miss Ingram of Wolford in Warwickshire; he was a collector of books and an author and translator of the classics. At his library at his house at Thenford, Wodhull had an extensive collection of books, many of which were bound by Roger Payne, and among which were several fine historical bindings. These books were dispersed by sale, partly during Mr. Wodhull's lifetime, but mostly after his death. In 1783 he was High Sheriff of Northamptonshire.

[Illustration]

WORTHINGTON

_Arms._--Impaled.

Dexter: Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., 3 dung-forks sa. _Worthington._

2nd and 3rd; arg., 3 chevrons gu. _Langton._

Sinister: Arg., a cross moline gu. _Colvile._

[CALVIN. _A Harmonie upon the Gospels._ Londini, 1610.]

The family of Worthington has been well known in several counties, but chiefly in Lancashire. Members of the family have also settled in Suffolk and in Cheshire.

I have not been able to decide to which member of the Worthington family this particular coat-of-arms belonged.

[Illustration]

WOTTON, EDWARD, BARON WOTTON

_Arms._--Quarterly.

1st and 4th; arg., a saltire engrailed sa. _Wotton._

2nd and 3rd; arg., on a chief sa., a lion passant of the first. _Rudston._

_Note._--Used before 1602.

[PLINIUS SECUNDUS. _Historia Naturalis._ Lugduni, 1548.]

Edward Wotton (born circ. 1548, died circ. 1626) was the son of Thomas Wotton by his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Rudston, Lord Mayor of London. Mr. Wotton was a man of much learning and a great linguist, and in 1583 he was Member of Parliament for Kent. He was Elizabeth's emissary to James VI. concerning his marriage, and also about a treaty of alliance. In 1591 he received the honour of Knighthood, and in 1602 he was Comptroller of the Household. In the same year he was created Baron Wotton.

Lord Wotton was Lord Lieutenant of Kent, and Ambassador to France and Treasurer of the Household. He inherited his father's library, and in many cases added his own coat-of-arms impressed in silver to the beautiful bindings made for Thomas Wotton, "The English Grolier," on whose books occur the legend THOMAE WOTTONI ET AMICORUM.

[Illustration]

WRIGHT, JAMES

_Arms._--Az., 2 bars engrailed arg., in chief as many leopards' heads or. _Wright._

[LAMBERT. _Chancery Collections._ Stowe MS. 415.]

James Wright (born circ. 1643, died October 1713) was the son of Abraham Wright, of Oxfordshire. He was called to the Bar in 1672. His tastes were literary and antiquarian, and he possessed a considerable library, chiefly manuscripts. Wright wrote a number of works on antiquities, and others on the political matters of his time. The drama also had much fascination for him, and he wrote several poems, and made an epitome of Dugdale's _Monasticon_.

[Illustration]

WYCLIFFE

_Arms._--Arg., on a fess gu., 3 crescents of the first between 3 Cornish choughs ppr., in chief a spear-head of the second. _Wycliffe._

_Crest._--A Cornish chough, wings addorsed, ppr.

_Motto._--DEUS ALIT ME.

[GROOT. _Defensio fidei Catholicae de Satisfactione Christi adversus Faustum socinum._ Lugduni Batavorum, 1617.]

This stamp belonged to T. Wycliffe, probably a member of the Yorkshire family of that name, but I have not so far been able to identify the owner more particularly.

[Illustration]

WYNDHAM, SIR HUGH, KNIGHT

_Arms._--Arg., a chevron between 3 lions' heads erased or. _Wyndham._

_Crest._--A lion's head erased, within a fetterlock or.

[OLEARIUS. _The Voyages and Travels of J. Albert de Mandelslo._ London, 1669.]

Hugh Wyndham (born circ. 1603, died 27th July 1684) was the son of Sir John Wyndham of Orchard-Wyndham, Somerset. He was educated at Oxford, and called to the Bar in 1629. In 1654 Mr. Wyndham was made a Serjeant-at-Law and a Judge on the Northern Circuit. In 1670 he was made a Baron of the Exchequer, and received the honour of Knighthood. He married three times.

HERALDIC BOOKS TO CONSULT

BEDFORD, W. K. R. The Blazon of Episcopacy. London, 1858.

BERRY, W. Encyclopædia Heraldica. London, 1828. (?)

BOUTELL, C. English Heraldry. London, 1867.

BURKE, J. A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerages of England, Ireland, and Scotland, extinct, dormant, and in abeyance. London, 1831.

BURKE, J. A General Armoury of England, Scotland, and Ireland. London, 1842.

BURKE, J., and Sir J. B. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the extinct and dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland, and Scotland. London, 1841.

BURKE, J., and Sir J. B. The Knightage of Great Britain and Ireland. London, 1841.

BURKE, Sir J. B. The Book of Orders of Knighthood. London, 1850.

DAVENPORT, C. J. The English Regalia. London, 1897.

ELVEN, J. P. The Book of Family Crests. London, 1838.

FAIRBAIRN, J. A Book of the Crests of the Families of Great Britain and Ireland. London, 1905.

FOX-DAVIES, A. C. The Art of Heraldry. London, 1904.

GARTER, Order of the. Les noms, surnoms, qualitez, armes, et blasons de tous les chevaliers de l'ordre de la Jarretière depuis l'Institution en 1347 jusqu'à present. Paris, 1647.

GUILLIM, J. A Display of Heraldry. London, 1679.

JONES, W. Crowns and Coronations. London, 1883.

KNIGHT, F. Knight and Butters' Crests. London, 1885.

LEGH, G. The Accedens of Armory. London, 1562.

MAIR, J. A. Proverbs and Mottoes. London, 1891.

Mottoes and Motives. London, 1884.

NICHOLAS, Sir H. History of the Orders of Knighthood of the British Empire. London, 1841.

PAPWORTH, J. W. An alphabetical Dictionary of Coats-of-Arms. London, 1874.

Peerages of the date of the book.

PLANCHÉ, J. R. The Pursuivant of Arms. London, 1852.

PORNY, M. A. The Elements of Heraldry. London, 1787.

SANDFORD, F. Genealogical History of the Kings of England. London, 1677.

SEGAR, SIR W. Baronagium Genealogicum. London, 1764-84.

SIEBMACHER, J. Grosses und allgemeines Wappenbuch. Nürnberg, 1890, etc.

UPTON, N. De studio Militari, libri quatuor. Londini, 1654.

WILLEMENT, T. Regal Heraldry. London, 1821.

WOODWARD, J. A Treatise on Heraldry. Edinburgh, 1896.

BIOGRAPHICAL BOOKS TO CONSULT

Army Lists of the date of the Book.

British Museum Catalogue of Authors of Books.

COKAYNE, G. E. Complete Baronetage. Exeter, 1900.

COKAYNE, G. E. [G. E. C] Complete Peerage. London, 1887.

Directories of the date of the book.

HAYDN, J. The Book of Dignities. London, 1890.

Landed Gentry Lists of the date of the book.

MARSHALL, J. Royal Naval Biography. London, 1823.

Navy Lists of the date of the book.

Peerages of the date of the book.

STEPHEN, L. Dictionary of National Biography. London, 1885, etc.

INDICES

I

INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION

_Accedens of Armory_, 5, 12

Additions outside coat-of-arms, 3

Alfred, Crown of, 13

Amadeus, Earl of Savoy, 10

Anchors shown behind the coat-of-arms of Samuel Pepys, 28

Annulet mark of cadency, 12

Archbishops, coats-of-arms of, 28

_Armorial du Bibliophile_ by Guigard, 1

Army Staff, hats of, 27

_Art of Heraldry_, 8

Augmentations on coats-of-arms, 3

Badge of the Prince of Wales, 14

" used by Baronets of Nova Scotia, 10

" worn by retainers, 25

Badges of Orders of Knighthood, 27

Baronets, 9, 10

Baronet's helmet, 24

Barons, 19

Barons' coronets, 20

Barons Londonni, 19

" of the Cinque Ports, 19

" of the Exchequer, 19

" of Warwick, 19

Barony by Tenure, 19

" by Writ, 19

"Barry," 32

Basilisk, a, 36

Batons shown behind the coat-of-arms of a Field-marshal, 28

Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset, coronet of, 15

Beaumont, John, Viscount, 18

Bend, a, 33

Bezant, a, 35

Bishops, coats-of-arms of, 28

Black Prince, at Crécy, 14

Black Prince, cap of, 22

" " coronet of, 15

_Book of St. Albans_, 11

Book-plates, 2

Bordure, 34

Brandon, Charles, Duke of Suffolk, coronet of, 16

British Museum, examples of Book-Stamps in the, 4

Bruges, William, Garter, coronet of, 20

Burke's _Peerage_, lists of mottoes in, 30

Cadency, marks of, 11

" in relief, 35

" on crests, 26

Caltrap, 37

Cambridge, Duchess of, at the coronation of Queen Victoria, 21

Canton, 34

Cap of a Peer, Dignity, Estate, or Maintenance, 22

" the Black Prince, 22

Cecil, Robert, Viscount Cranbourn, coronet of, 19

Chapeau, 22, 23

" support for a crest, 26

Chequy, 33

Chess-rook, 37

Chevron, 34

Chief, 34

Chief used by the Knights of the English Langue of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 10

Civil Service, the feathered hats of, 27

Clarion, 37

Coats-of-arms, 31 _et seq._

Cockatrice, 36

Cockscomb crest, 25

Collar of SS., 21

Collars of Orders of Knighthood shown with coat-of-arms, 27

College of Arms, 20

Coloured helmets, 25

Colours used in Heraldry, 5, 6

Companions of Orders of Knighthood, badges of, 27

Compony, 33

Coronation, crowns and coronets worn at, 21

" of Queen Victoria, 21

Coronet, Heraldic, Mural, or Naval, 26

" of a Baron, 20

" of a Duke, 16

" of a King-of-arms, 20

" of a Marquis, 16

" of an Earl, 18

" of a Viscount, 19

" of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, 16

" of Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, 18

" of Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester, 17

" of Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 17

" of Henry Somerset, Earl of Worcester, 18

" of John Beaufort, Duke of Beaufort, 15

" of Robert Cecil, Viscount Cranbourn, 19

" of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 18

" of Sir William Dugdale, Garter, 21

" of the Black Prince, 15

" of the Duchess of Cambridge, 21

" of the Prince of Wales, 14

" of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 17

Coronets, 12-22

" of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 17

" of Princes and Princesses, 15

" worn at the coronation, 21

Couchée shield, 23

Counts, 17

Crescent mark of cadency, 11

Crest chapeau, 26

" supports, 26

Crests, 24-26

" not borne by ladies, 8

Crista, a crest, 25

Cross crosslet, 32

" fleury, 32

" moline, 12, 32

" pattée, 32

Crosses, 32

Crown of England, the, 13, 14

Crowns worn at the coronation, 21

Dancetty, 34

Date of printing of a book, 3

Deans, coats-of-arms of, 28

DIEU ET MON DROIT, 30

Dignity, cap of, 22

Dowgate Hill Brooch, 13

Dragon, 36

Dragon's wing for fan crest, 26

Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester, coronet of, 18

Dugdale, Sir William, Garter, coronet of, 21

Duke's coronet, 16

Earl's coronet, 16, 18

Ecclesiastics, coats-of-arms of, 28

Embattled, 34

English Royal book-stamps, 2

" Royal Crown, the, 13, 14

Engrailed, 34

Ermine, 7

Escutcheon of Pretence, 32

Esquire's helmet, 24

Esquires of Orders of Knighthood, badges of, 27

Estate, cap of, 22

Fairbairn's _Crests_, lists of mottoes in, 30

Fan-shaped crests, 25

FAX MENTIS HONESTAE GLORIA, 10

Fer-de-Moline, 37

Fermail, 37

Fess, a, 32

Field-marshal's coat-of-arms, 28

Fillet as crest support, 26

Fletcher's _English Armorial Book-Stamps_, 1

Fleur-de-lys mark of cadency, 12

Fountain, 37

Fox-Davies' _Art of Heraldry_, 8

Fret, the, 35, 37

Fretty, 33, 35

Furs used in heraldry, 7

Fusil, 37

Garter King-of-Arms, coronet of, 20

Griffin, 36

Guigard's _Armorial du Bibliophile_, 1

Guige, or shield belt, 23

Gyronny, 33

Hayter, Sir George, his picture of the coronation of Queen Victoria, 21

Heiress, heraldic, 8

Helmet of a Baronet, 24

" of a Knight, 24

" of an Esquire, 24

" of a Peer, 24

" of Royalty, 24

Helmets, 23, 24

" coloured, 25

Henry VIII. and the Lion Supporter, 28

Heraldic coronet, 26

" heiress, 8

Heraldry, origin of, 4

Heralds and the collar of SS., 21

Howard, Charles, Earl of Nottingham, coronet of, 18

ICH DIEN, 14

Identification of book-stamps, 3

Imitation jewels on coronets, 21

Impaling, 32

Indented, 34

Jewels on crown and coronet, 21

John, King of Bohemia, 14

John of Jerusalem, Knight of the Order of St., 10

_King Arthur's Book_, 29

King-of-Arms, coronet of a, 20

King-of-Arms and the collar of SS., 21

Knighthood, ceremonial hats of, 27

Knights' helmets, 24

Knights of Orders, badges of, 27

Labels used as marks of cadency, 11, 12

Lacy, Henry, Earl of Lincoln, coronet of, 17

Ladies' shields, 37

Legh's _Accedens of Armory_, 5, 12

Leopard, 36

Leopard Lionné, 36

Lines used to indicate colour, 6

Lion, 36

Lion Leopardé, 36

Lion of England, as the crest of Richard I., 26

Livery colours, 25

London, crest of the city of, 26

Lozenge-shaped shields, 37

Lozengy, 33

Lupus, Hugh, Earl of Chester, 17

Maintenance, cap of, 22

Mantling, 24

Margaret, Countess of Richmond, coronet of, 17

Marquis's coronet, 16

Marshalling, 5

Martlet mark of cadency, 12

Mascle, 37

Medals dependent from base of coat-of-arms, 27

Miniver, 22

MISERERE MEI DEUS SECUNDUM MAGNAM MISERICORDIAM TUAM, 20

Mitres shewn above ecclesiastical coat-of-arms, 28

Mother's coat-of-arms, quartering of, 32

Mottoes, 30

" of Orders of Knighthood shown with the coat-of-arms, 27

Mullet mark of cadency, 11

Mural coronet as crest support, 26

Naval coronet as crest support, 26

Nebuly, 34

Nova Scotia, Baronets of, 10

O'Neile, Irish chieftain, 9

Orders of Knighthood, ceremonial hats of, 27

Ostrich feather badge of the Prince of Wales, 14

Pale, 31

Peer's cap, 22

" helmet, 24

Pepys, Samuel, coat-of-arms of, 28

Per bend, 33

" chevron, 34

" fess, 32

" pale, 31

" saltire, 33

Personal heraldry in military costume, 4

Petra Sancta's _Tesserae Gentilitiae_, 6

Pheon, 37

Pile, 33

Plate, the, 35

Pole, William, Baron de la, 19

Pollard's _Franks Collection of Armorial Book-Stamps_, 1

Potent, 7

Pretence, Escutcheon of, 8, 32

_Prince Arthur's Book_, 16

Prince of Wales's coronet, 14

Princes and Princesses, coronet of, 15

Quartered coats-of-arms, 32

Quartering of mother's coat-of-arms, 32

Quarterings on coats-of-arms, 8

Quarterly, 32

Quatrefoil mark of cadency, 12

Raguly, 34

Regimental feather head-dresses, 27

Roundels, 35

Royal book-stamps, 2

" books in private ownership, 2

" coronets, 15

" Crown of England, the, 13, 14

" helmets, 24

" marks of cadency, 12

Rose mark of cadency, 12

Rubbings of book-stamps, 38

Rustre, 37

_St. Albans, Book of_, 11

Saltire, 33

Savoy, cross of, 10

Sees, coat-of-arms of, 28

Shield couchée, 23

Shields of arms, 31 _et seq._

Smert, John, Garter, coronet of, 20

Somerset, Charles, Earl of Worcester, coronet of, 17

Somerset, Henry, Earl of Worcester, coronet of, 18

SS., collar of, 21

Supporters, 28, 29

Supports for crests, 26

Tenure, Barony by, 19

_Tesserae Gentilitiae_, 6

Tiara of the Duchess of Cambridge, 21

Tincture lines used in Heraldry, 6, 7

Torse as crest support, 26

Tournaments and their ceremonial, 4

Trick, 5

Ulster, Baronets of, 10

" hand, the, 9

United Kingdom, Baronets of the, 10

Vair, 7

Valence, William de, Earl of Pembroke, coronet of, 17

Vere, Robert de, Marquis of Dublin, 16

Victoria, Queen, coronation of, 21

Viscount's coronet, 19

Viscounts, 18

Wales, badge of the Prince of, 14

" coronet of the Prince of, 14

Water Bouget, 37

Wavy, 34

Winchester, Marquis of, 22

Writ, Barony by, 19

Wyvern, 36

Zulu mark of rank, 27

II

INDEX OF ARMS, ETC.

Abergavenny, _Earl of_ (Nevill), 303

Achaius, _King of Scotland_, 246

Adelaide, of Saxe Meiningen, 399

Albemarle, _Duke of_ (Monck), 295, 342

Albert, of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, _Prince_, 380

Alexander I., _Czar_, 191

" II., _King of Scotland_, 246

Almack, E., 74, 94, 252, 253

Alphonso IV., _Duke of Modena_, 291

Althorp, 352, 355

Ancrum, _Earl of_ (Kerr), 262

Anne, _Countess of Lothian_, 262

" _Princess_, 282

Antiquaries, Society of, 307

Apollo Grian, Harp of, 246

Aragon, Catherine of, _Queen_, 92

" Pomegranate of, 218

Arlington, _Earl of_ (Bennet), 63

Armagh, _Archbishop of_ (Usher), 377

ARMS. (Small details not given here.) 3 Altars, each supported by a lion rampant. Smith, Sir T. 3 Annulets, with a chevron. Sutton, T. 3 Annulets in chief, with 3 martlets. Cowper, W., _Earl Cowper_ An Archiepiscopal Staff, with a pall. Abbot, G., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ " " Usher, J., _Archbishop of Armagh_ " " Whitgift, J., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ An Arm holding a ring. _Schwerin._ Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ 2 Bars. Oldenburg. Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ 2 Bars with a canton. _Boyes._ Covert, W. 2 Bars with a chief. _Manners._ Noel, B., _Earl of Gainsborough_ " " Manners, J., _Duke of Rutland_ " " _Martin._ Naunton, Sir R. 3 Bars. Gulston, W., _Bishop of Bristol_ 3 Bars. _Raymond._ Chetwynd, W. Barry of 6. _Grey._ Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " _Grey._ Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ " _Grey._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ " _Grey._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Barry of 8. _Fitzalan._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ Barry of 10. _Botevile._ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ " _Brandon._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " _Brandon._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ " _Valence._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ 3 Batons. Usher, J., _Archbishop of Armagh_ A Bend. Bayntun, W. A Bend. _Blackborne._ Trewarthen " _Bradeston._ Hatton, Sir C. " _Chalon._ William III. " Harley, R., _Earl of Oxford_ " Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ " Pye, Sir R. " Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ A Bend between 6 crosses. _Bingham._ Spencer, G. J., _Earl Spencer_ " " Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " " Howard, T., _Earl of Arundel_ " " _Marr._ Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ A Bend between 2 escallops. Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Bend between 2 horses' heads. Pepys, S. A Bend between 2 lions rampant. _Newport._ Sheldon, R. A Bend charged with 3 bucks' heads. _Stanley._ Digby, Sir K. " " _Stanley._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ A Bend charged with 3 cinquefoils. _Berondon._ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ A Bend charged with 3 crosses. _Charnock._ Smith, Sir T. A Bend charged with 3 eagles. _Manley._ Salwey, H. A Bend charged with 3 escallops. _Spencer._ Churchill, G. S., Duke of Marlborough " " Spencer, C., _Earl of Sunderland_ A Bend charged with an escutcheon. Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " " Howard, T., _Earl of Arundel_ A Bend charged with 3 fleurs-de-lys. _Garshall._ Chetwynd, W. " " Pepys, S. A Bend charged with 3 goats' heads. _Mulsho._ Digby, Sir K. A Bend charged with a magnetic needle. Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ A Bend charged with 3 martlets. Kinnear, J. G. A Bend charged with 3 plates. Gulston, W., _Bishop of Bristol_. A Bend charged with 3 quatrefoils. Chitting, H. A Bend charged with 3 swans. _Dawes._ Salwey, H. A Bend charged with a wyvern. _Newport._ Sheldon, H. A Bend within a bordure. Kinnear, J. G. " " _Westcote._ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ 2 Bendlets. _Bradshaw._ Gilbert, J., _Archbishop of York_ " _Bradshaw._ Salwey, H. Bendy of 4. _Carrell._ Hatton, Sir C. Bendy of 10. _Montfort._ Salwey, H. Per Bend. Trevor, M., _Viscount Dungannon_ A Bezant between 3 demi lions. Bennet, H., _Earl of Arlington_ 3 Bezants, with a lion. Harborne, W. 3 Bezants in chief, with a lymphad. Utterson, E. V. 4 Bezants on a cross. Whitgift, J., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ 10 Bezants. _Zouch._ Naunton, Sir R. 10 Billets. _Salter._ Chetwynd, W. 10 Billets, and a demi lion on a chief. Dormer, R., _Earl of Carnarvon_ A Boar passant. _Trewarthen_ 2 Boars' heads, a sword between them. Sloane, Sir H. 3 Boars' heads. Lloyd, D., _Dean of St. Asaph_ " " with a chevron. Cochrane, J., _Earl of Dundonald_ " " with a fess. _Alyson._ Salwey, H. " " with a fess raguly. _Judd._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Bordure with a bend. Kinnear, J. G. A Bordure charged with 8 escallops. Ware, Sir J. A Bordure with a lion. _Burnell._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ " " _Grey._ Pepys, S. A Bordure with 3 lions. _Chiche._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Bordure with 3 lozenges. Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ A Bordure charged with 7 towers. Catherine of Braganza, _Queen_ A Bordure with a double tressure, flory counterflory. Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ " " Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ A Bordure semée of stars. Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ A Bordure engrailed. Astle, T. " " with a bend cotised. _Westcote._ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ A Bordure engrailed with 3 garbs. Kemp, T. R. A Bordure engrailed with a lion rampant. _Burley._ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ " " Tyrrell. Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Bordure gobony, with the arms of England. _Talbot._ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ A Bordure indented, with 3 fleurs-de-lys. _Ferrara._ Mary of Modena, _Queen_ 3 Bucks statant. Green, J. H. 3 Bucks' heads. Cavendish, W. G. S., _Duke of Devonshire_ 3 Bucks' heads on a bend. _Stanley._ Digby, Sir K. " " Stanley. Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ A Bugle. _Orange._ William III. 3 Bugles with a chevron. _Wyerley._ Salwey, H. A Bull's head in bend. _Rostock._ Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ A Bull's head in pale. _Mecklenburg._ Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ A Canton and 2 bars. _Boyes._ Covert, W. A Canton charged with a castle. _Carrell._ Hatton, Sir C. A Canton and 2 crescents. _Symonds._ Hatton, Sir C. A Canton charged with a cross, with a lion. Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ A Castle. _Castile._ Catherine of Aragon, _Queen_ A Castle on a canton. The field bendy. _Carrell._ Hatton, Sir C. 3 Castles and a plate. _Etchington._ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ Chequy. _Warren._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " _Warren._ Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " _Warren._ Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " _Geneva._ William III. Chequy with a chief. _Coleshill._ Trewarthen A Chevalier on horseback. _Ditzmers._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ " " _Poland_. Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ A Chevron. _Trelawny_ A Chevron ermine. The field chequy. _Warwick._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Chevron between 3 annulets. Sutton, T. A Chevron between 3 batons. Usher, J., _Archbishop of Armagh_ A Chevron between 3 boars' heads. Cochrane, J., _Earl of Dundonald_ A Chevron between 3 bugles. _Wyerley._ Salwey., H. A Chevron between 3 chess-rooks. _Pinchbeck._ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ A Chevron between 3 cinquefoils. _Chichele._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Chevron between 3 cinquefoils, an escallop on a chief. Tash, T. A Chevron between 10 cinquefoils. Berkeley, R. A Chevron between 3 coots. Coote, C. A Chevron between 3 crescents. _Glover._ Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ " " Walker, Sir E. A Chevron between 3 crosses crosslet. _Davenport._ Digby, Sir K. A Chevron between 3 eagles. Challeston A Chevron between 3 escallops. Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ A Chevron between 3 estoiles. Laud, W., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ " " _Butts_. _Trewarthen_ A Chevron between 3 fountains. Sykes, Sir M. M. A Chevron between 3 garbs. Hatton, Sir C. " " _Sheffield_. Covert, W. " " Sheffield, J., _Earl of Mulgrave_ A Chevron between 3 griffins. Finch, H., _Earl of Aylesford_ A Chevron between 3 Hebrew letters. Naunton, Sir R. A Chevron between 3 human heads. Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ A Chevron between 3 keys. Parker, M., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ A Chevron between 3 lions passant. Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Chevron between 3 martlets. Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ A Chevron between 3 mullets. Chetwynd, W. A Chevron between 3 oak leaves. _Haslerigg._ Chetwynd, W. A Chevron between 3 pears. Abbot, G., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ A Chevron between 3 ravens. Pye, Sir R. A Chevron between 3 seals' heads. Ley, J., _Earl of Marlborough_ A Chevron between 3 stags' faces. Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ A Chevron between 3 unicorns' heads. Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ A Chevron charged with 3 crescents. Sutton, T. " " Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ A Chevron charged with 3 crosses crosslet. Laud, W., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ A Chevron charged with 3 escallops. Pye, Sir R. A Chevron charged with 3 estoiles. Parker, M., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ A Chevron charged with 3 lions' heads. Monck, C., _Duke of Albemarle_ A Chevron charged with 3 lozenges. _Butts._ Trewarthen A Chevron charged with 3 martlets. Topsfield A Chevron charged with a mullet. _Mirfin._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Chevron charged with 3 mullets. Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ " " Kerr, W., _Earl of Lothian_ A Chevron charged with an otter's head. Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ A Chevron charged with 3 roses. Gilbert, J., _Archbishop of York_ 2 Chevrons. Bagot, Sir C. " _Bagot._ Chetwynd, W. 2 Chevrons with a canton. _Dexter._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ 2 Chevrons with a chief. Smith, J. 2 Chevrons with a fess. Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ " " Walpole, H., _Earl of Oxford_ 3 Chevrons. _Langton._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " Matthew, T., _Archbishop of York_ " Wyse. Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ 5 Chevrons. _Sutton._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Chief with 3 crosses pattée. _Dyall._ Covert, W. A Chief with 3 lions. _Yonge._ Covert, W. A Chief ermine with a saltire. Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ A Chief indented. _Hillock._ Naunton, Sir R. A Chief quarterly. _Manners._ Noel, B., _Earl of Gainsborough_ A Child carried off by an eagle. _Culcheth._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ 4 Choughs and a cross. Aylmer, M., _Baron Aylmer_ 4 Choughs and a cross flory. _Offley._ Hatton, Sir C. A Cinquefoil. Astle, T. 3 Cinquefoils. Hamilton, J., _Archbishop of St. Andrews_ 3 Cinquefoils with a bend. _Berondon._ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ 3 Cinquefoils with a chevron. _Chichele._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ 3 Cinquefoils with a chevron and a chief. Tash, T. 5 Cinquefoils. _Holdenby._ Hatton, Sir C. 10 Cinquefoils with a chevron. Berkeley, R. 3 Clarions. _Granville._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ 3 Coots with a chevron. Coote, C. 3 Covered Cups. _Butler_ A Crescent with a fess. _York._ Hatton, Sir C. 2 Crescents with a canton. _Symonds._ Covert, W. 3 Crescents. Kemp, T. R. 3 Crescents on a chevron. Sutton, T. " " Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ 3 Crescents with a chevron. Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ " " Walker, Sir E. 3 Crescents with a fess. Coventry, W., _Earl of Coventry_ A Cross. _See_ also Saltire " _Bourke._ Covert, W. " Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " _Lort._ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ " _Ratzeburg._ George II. A Cross. _St. George._ The Commonwealth " George III. " Henry VIII. " Tudor Rose A Cross on a canton. _Churchill._ Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ " " Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ A Cross in saltire. _St. Andrew._ George III. " " _St. Andrew._ Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ A Cross between 4 choughs. Aylmer, M., _Baron Aylmer_ " " _Offley._ Hatton, Sir C. A Cross between 2 crosses crosslet in upper quarters. _Balderstone._ Covert, W. A Cross between 4 martlets. _Edward the Conqueror._ Cotton, Sir R. B. A Cross between 4 swords. Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ A Cross between 4 water bougets. _Bourchier._ Grey, H. E., _Earl of Stamford_ " " Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ A Cross charged with 4 bezants. Whitgift, J., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ A Cross charged with another cross. _Frederick II., King of Denmark_ " " Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ A Cross charged with a dagger. _London._ Henry VIII. " " Tudor Rose A Cross charged with 5 leopards' faces. Walker, Sir E. A Cross charged with 5 mullets. _Bodenham._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ A Cross charged with 5 torteaux. Grenville, T. A Cross engrailed. _Houghton._ Naunton, Sir R. " " _Stanton._ Hatton, Sir C. A Cross flory. _Trussell._ St. George, Sir R. A Cross formée fitchée. _Dalmenhurst._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ A Cross pattée. _Ratzeburg._ Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ A Cross voided. _Duckenfield._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ " " _Pilkington._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Cross with a sword in the first quarter. _London, City of._ Henry VIII. Tudor Rose 2 Crosses crosslet in two upper quarters, _Balderstone._ Covert, W. 2 Crosses crosslet with a rose on a chief. Bullingham 3 Crosses on a bend. _Charnock._ Smith, Sir T. 3 Crosses crosslet on a chief. _Dyall._ Covert, W. " " Long, C., _Baron Farnborough_ 3 Crosses crosslet on a fess. Walpole, H., _Earl of Oxford._ 3 Crosses crosslet with a chevron. _Davenport._ Digby, Sir K. 3 Crosses crosslet with a fess. Bayntun, W. " " Sandys, Sir T. 3 Crosses crosslet with a lion. Capell, W., _Earl of Essex_ 6 Crosses with a bend. Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ " " Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " " Howard, T., _Earl of Arundel_ " " _Bingham._ Spencer, G. T., _Earl Spencer_ 6 Crosses with a fess. _Beauchamp._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " " _Boteler._ Salwey, H. 12 Crosses with a saltire. Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ 14 Crosses with a lion. _Powell._ Naunton, Sir R. Crosses semée with 3 leopards' heads. _Neville._ Digby, Sir K. The Crown of Charlemagne. " " George I. " " George II. " " George III. " " George IV. " " William IV. 3 Crowns. _Sweden._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ 3 Dovecotes. _Sapcote._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ 3 Ducks and a fess. Bateman, W., _Viscount Bateman_ An Eagle. _Brandenburg._ George II. " _Browne._ Hatton, Sir C. " _Bullingham._ " Cotton, Sir R. B. " _Crossen._ George II. " _D'Este._ Mary of Modena, _Queen_ " _Jägerndorff._ George II. " _Monthermer._ Montague, J., _Duke of Montague_ " _Tufton._ Coke, T., _Earl of Leicester_ An Eagle between 3 bezants. _Busserard._ Naunton, Sir R. An Eagle carrying off a child. _Culcheth._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Surrey_ 3 Eagles. Coke, T., _Earl of Leicester_ 3 Eagles on a bend. _Manley._ Salwey, H. 3 Eagles with a chevron. Challeston. An Escallop on a chief. Tash, T. 3 Escallops on a bend. _Spencer._ Churchill, G. L., _Duke of Marlborough_ " " Spencer, C., _Earl of Sunderland_ " " Spencer, G. T., _Earl Spencer_ 3 Escallops on a chevron. Pye, Sir R. 3 Escallops on a chief. _Gamage._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ 8 Escallops on a bordure. Ware, Sir J. An Escutcheon. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " _Holstein._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ 3 Escutcheons. Burrell, Sir W. 5 Escutcheons. Catherine of Braganza, _Queen_ 6 Escutcheons. Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ An Estoile. _Ingleby._ St. George, Sir R. An Estoile between 3 fleurs-de-lys. _Masterman._ Sykes, Sir M. M. 3 Estoiles on a chevron. Parker, M., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ 3 Estoiles, with a chevron with 3 crosses. Laud, W., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ 3 Estoiles, with a chevron with 3 lozenges. _Butts._ Trewarthen A Fess. Bayntun, W. " _Buren._ William III. " _Calthrop._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " _Dene._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ " _Moers._ William III. " _Rockly._ Covert, W. " Somers, J., _Baron Somers_ " Towneley, R. " _Vianden._ William III. " _York._ Hatton, Sir C. A Fess between 3 boars' heads. _Alyson._ Salwey, H. " " _Judd._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Fess between 2 chevrons. _Fitz-Walter._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ A Fess between 3 crescents. Coventry, W., _Earl of Coventry_ A Fess between 3 crosses. Sandys, Sir T. A Fess between 6 crosses. _Beauchamp._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " " _Boteler._ Salwey, H. A Fess between 3 ducks. Bateman, W., _Viscount Bateman_ A Fess between 6 escallops. _Dengayne._ St. George, Sir R. A Fess between 3 lions' heads. _St. Clair._ Covert, W. A Fess between 3 lioncels. Smith, Sir T. A Fess between 3 martlets. Covert, W. A Fess between 3 mascles. Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ A Fess between 3 mullets. _Wesenham._ Cotton, Sir R. B. A Fess between 3 pheons. Rawdon, M., _Baron Rawdon_ A Fess between 3 sheldrakes. Sheldon, R. A Fess charged with 3 crosses. Walpole, _Earl of Oxford_ A Fess within a double tressure flory counterflory. Stuart, C., _Baron Stuart_ Per Fess. _Butler._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " _Magdeburg._ George II. " _Stangard._ Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ A Fish. _Glasgow._ Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ 3 Fishes hauriant. _Herringham._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " " _Lucy._ Digby, Sir K.--Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ 3 Fishes naiant. _Verney._ Chetwynd, W. A Fleur-de-lys. Digby, Sir K. 2 Fleurs-de-lys on a chief. Manners, J., _Duke of Rutland_ 3 Fleurs-de-lys. _France._ All the sovereigns of England from Henry VII. to George III. " " Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " " Henry, _Prince of Wales_ " " Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_ " " James, _Prince of Wales_ " " Mary, _Princess_ " " _Talbot._ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ 3 Fleurs-de-lys on a bend. _Garshall._ Chetwynd, W. " " Pepys, S. 3 Fleurs-de-lys with 9 crosses. _Mortimer._ St. George, Sir R. 3 Fleurs-de-lys with an estoile. _Masterman._ Sykes, Sir M. M. 3 Fleurs-de-lys within a bordure. _Ferrara._ Mary of Modena, _Queen_ 6 Fleurs-de-lys. Smith, J. Fleurs-de-lys semée. _Angoulême._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " _Bereford._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ 3 Fountains. Sykes, Sir M. M. A Fret. Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ " _Gardiner._ Kinnear, J. G. " _Maltravers._ Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ " Spencer, C., _Earl of Sunderland_ " Spencer, G. J., _Earl Spencer_ " _Tollemache._ Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ Fretty. Noel, B., _Earl of Gainsborough_ 4 Fusils. Carteret, J., _Baron Carteret_ " Carteret, G., _Baron Carteret_ 5 Fusils. _Bradeston._ Covert, W. " _Percy._ Digby, Sir K. A Garb and 2 helmets. Cholmondeley, G., _Earl Cholmondeley_ 3 Garbs. _Comyn._ Covert, W. " Hatton, Sir C. " Kemp, T. R. " _Sheffield._ Covert, W. " Sheffield, J., _Earl of Mulgrave_ 3 Gauntlets. _Fane._ Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ 3 Goats' heads. _Mulsho._ Digby, Sir K. A Griffin. _Froxmere._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " _Kassuben._ George II. " _Pommern._ George II. " _Schwerin._ Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ " _Wenden._ Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ " _Wenden._ George II. 3 Griffins. Finch, H., _Earl of Aylesford_ Gyronny. Campbell, H., _Earl of Loudoun_ " Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ Harp. _Ireland._ All the sovereigns of England from James I. to Edward VII. Harp. _Ireland._ The Commonwealth " " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " " Henry, _Prince of Wales_ " " Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_ A Heart. Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ 9 Hearts. _Gothes._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ Hearts semée. _Denmark_, Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ " " _Lunenburg._ George I., George II., George III., George IV., and William IV. 3 Heathcocks. Heath, B. 3 Hebrew letters. Naunton, Sir R. 2 Helmets. Cholmondeley, G., _Earl Cholmondeley_ 3 Herrings. _Herringham._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ A Horse current. _Saxony._ George I., George II., George III., George IV., and William IV. 2 Horses' heads. Pepys, S. 2 Human heads. Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ 2 Keys. _Minden._ George II. " _York, See of._ Matthew, T., _Archbishop of York_ 3 Keys. Parker, M., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ 3 Laurel leaves. _Leveson._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ 2 Leopards' heads. White, R. S. 3 Leopards' heads. Digby, Sir K. 5 Leopards' heads. Walker, Sir E. A Lion passant. _Aston._ Salwey, R. " " _Guyenne._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " _Gothes._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ " " Bridgman, Sir O. " " Harborne, W. " " Long, C. _Baron Farnborough_ " " Say, W. " " Smith, J. 2 Lions passant. _Brunswick._ George I., George II., George III., George IV., and William IV. " " _Catsenelboge._ William III. " " _Dudley._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " " _Lincoln, See of._ Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ " " _Sleswick._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ " " _Strange._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " " Ware, Sir J. 3 Lions passant. _Brotherton._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " _Brotherton._ Howard, G., _Baron Howard_ " " _Brotherton._ Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " " Carew, G., _Earl of Totness_ " " _England._ All sovereigns of England from Henry VII. to Edward VII. " " Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " " _Henry, Prince of Wales_ " " Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_ " " James, _Prince of Wales_ " " Mary, _Princess_ " " _Talbot._ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ " " _Frederick II., King of Denmark._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ " " _Lancaster, Earl of._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Lion rampant. _Abernethy._ Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ " " _Ashby._ Naunton, Sir R. " " _Beauchamp._ Cotton, Sir R. B. A Lion Rampant. _Brabant._ Digby, Sir K. " " _Brabant._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " " _Brandon._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " " _Churchill._ Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ " " Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ " " _Dietz._ William III. " " _Fitz-Alan._ Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " " Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ " " _Hayward._ Berkeley, R. " " _Hetherfield._ Chetwynd, W. " " _Leon._ Catherine of Aragon, _Queen_ " " _Lunenburg._ George I., George II., George III., George IV., and William IV. " " _Mason._ Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " " Matthew, T., _Archbishop of York_ " " _Meriford._ Chetwynd, W. " " _Nassau._ William III. " " _Norway._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ " " _Pfalz-am-Rhein._ Frederick, _Elector_ " " _Rochford._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " " Russell, W., _Duke of Bedford_ " " St. George, Sir R. " " _Smith._ Spencer, G. T., _Earl Spencer_ " " _Thynne._ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ " " Trevor, M., _Viscount Dungannon_ " " _Wynstone._ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ " " _Wynstone._ Pye, Sir R. A Lion rampant between 3 crosses. Capell, W., _Earl of Essex_ A Lion rampant between 8 crosses. Hutchinson, T. A lion rampant between 3 pheons. _Egerton._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " " Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ A Lion rampant between 14 tau crosses. _Powell._ Naunton, Sir R. A Lion rampant with a canton. _Brandon._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ A Lion rampant within a bordure. _Burley._ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ " " _Burnell._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ " " _Grey._ Pepys, S. " " _Nüremberg._ George II. " " _Tyrrell._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Lion rampant within a tressure, double, flory counterflory, _Scotland._ All the sovereigns of England from James I. to Edward VII. " " _Buchanan._ Cotton, Sir R. " " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " " Henry, _Prince of Wales_, Henry Benedict, _Cardinal._ James, Prince of Wales. Maitland, T., _Earl of Lauderdale._ Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ 2 Lions rampant. _Newport._ Sheldon, R. 3 Lions rampant. _Herbert._ Dormer, R., _Earl of Carnarvon_ " " _Herbert._ Finch, H., _Earl of Aylesford_ " " Smith, Sir T. " " _Yonge._ Covert, W. 3 Lions rampant within a bordure. _Chiche._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Lion statant. _Lyle._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Demi lion rampant. Dormer, R., _Earl of Carnarvon_ 3 Demi lions rampant. Bennet, H., _Earl of Arlington_ 3 Lions' heads. Cracherode, C. M. " " Monck, C., _Duke of Albemarle_ " " _St. Clair._ Covert, W. A Lion's gamb. Boothby, Sir B. 3 Lozenges. _Butts._ Trewarthen " Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ Lozengy. _Bavaria._ Frederick, _Elector_ " _Croft._ Covert, W. " _Rockly._ Covert, W. 3 Lucies. _Lucy._ Digby, Sir K. " _Lucy._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ A Lymphad. _Arran._ Hamilton, J., _Archbishop of St. Andrews_ " _Lorn._ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ " Utterson, E. V. A Magnetic needle. Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ 3 Martlets. Covert, W. " Cowper, W., _Earl Cowper_ " Kinnear, J. G. " Naunton, Sir R. " Topsfield " Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ 4 Martlets. _Edward the Confessor._ Cotton, Sir R. B. 8 Martlets. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ 10 Martlets. Valence, _Earl of Pembroke._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Mary, the Blessed Virgin, Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ 3 Mascles. Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ 3 Mascles. _Weapont._ Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ 7 Mascles. _Ferrers._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Maunch. _Hastings._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ 3 Mullets. Chetwynd, W. " Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ " Garrick, D. " Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ " Kerr, W., _Earl of Lothian_ " _Mirfin._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ " _Murray._ Cochrane, J., _Earl of Dundonald_ " _Sutherland, Earl of._ Gower, G. G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " Towneley, R. " _Wesenham._ Cotton, Sir R. B. 5 Mullets. _Bodenham._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ 6 Mullets. _Bonvile._ Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ Nails in triangle. _Holstein._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ 3 Oak leaves. _Haslerigg._ Chetwynd, W. An Orb. Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ " Frederick, _Elector_ An Orle of martlets. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " " _Valence, Earl of Pembroke._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ An Otter's head. Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ A Pale charged with 2 roses. White, R. S. Per Pale. Abrol. " _Halberstadt._ George II. " Waldegrave, J., _Earl Waldegrave_ Paly of 4. _Aragon._ Catherine of Aragon, _Queen_ Paly of 6. _Gurnon._ Chetwynd, W. A Pall. Abbot, G., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ " Laud, W., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ " Usher, J., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ " Whitgift, J., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ 3 Pears. Abbot, G., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ A Pheon. Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ 3 Pheons. _Egerton._ Chetwynd, W. " _Egerton._ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " Rawdon, M., _Baron Rawdon_ A Pile. Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ 3 Piles. _Wishart._ Cotton, Sir R. B. 5 Piles. _Henderson._ Chetwynd, W. A Plate. _Etchington._ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ 5 Plates. _Portugal._ Catherine of Braganza, _Queen_ 10 Plates. Bridgman, Sir O. A Pomegranate. _Granada._ Catherine of Aragon, _Queen_ Quarterly. _Hohenzollern._ George II. 3 Quatrefoils. Chitting, H. " D'Ewes, Sir S. " Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ " _Wedson._ Hatton, Sir C. 3 Ravens. Pye, Sir R. A Rose. Boscawen, H. " Bullingham 2 Roses. White, R. S. 3 Roses. Gilbert, J., _Archbishop of York_ 3 Roundels. Abrol. A Saltire. _See_ also Cross " _Bruce._ Cotton, Sir R. B. " Dering, Sir E. " _Harding._ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ " _Nevill._ Hatton, Sir C. " Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ " _St. Andrew._ George III. " _St. Andrew._ Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ " Salwey, H. " _Wellington._ Sheldon, R. Per Saltire. _Sicily._ Catherine of Aragon, _Queen_ A Saltire between 4 lions' heads. Cracherode, C. M. A Saltire charged with 12 crosses. Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ A Sea-Horse. Garrick, D. 3 Seals' heads. Ley, J., _Earl of Marlborough_ 3 Sheldrakes. Sheldon, R. 3 Shields. Burrell, Sir W. 5 Shields. _Portugal._ Catherine of Braganza, _Queen_ A Stag's head. _Calder._ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ " " Horton, F. 3 Stags' heads. Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ 3 Stirrups. _Scudamore._ Pye, Sir R. A Swan. _Stormer._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ 3 Swans. _Dawes._ Salwey, H. A Sword. Sloane, Sir H. 4 Swords. Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ 5 Torteaux. Grenville, T. A Tower. _De la Tour._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " Garrick, D. 7 Towers. _Castile._ Catherine of Braganza, _Queen_ A Tree supported by a lion. _Wynstone._ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ " " Wynstone. Pye, Sir R. A Tressure, double, flory counterflory. Cochrane, J., _Earl of Dundonald_ " " Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ " " Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ " " _Scotland._ _See_ Lion rampant " " Stuart, C., _Baron Stuart_ 3 Unicorns' heads. Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ Vairy. _Nowers._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ 4 Water bougets. _Bourchier._ Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ " " Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ A Wolf's head. _Lupus._ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Wyvern. _Newport._ Sheldon, R. " _Vandals._ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_

Arran, Earl of (Stewart), 201

Arthgallus, Earl of Warwick, 151

Arthur, _Prince of Wales_, 93

Arundel, Earl of (Fitz-Alan), 164, 227

" " (Howard), 226, 237

Ashburnham, _Earl of_ (Ashburnham), 54

" House, 128

Augusta, Princess of Saxe-Gotha, 169

Axon, W. E., 367

Aylesford, Earl of (Finch), 162

BADGES-- The Castle of De Beaufort. Henry VIII. A Crescent. Percy, H., _Earl of Northumberland_ A Daisy, crowned. Edward VI. An Escallop. Rawlinson, R. A Falcon crowned with sceptre. Elizabeth, _Queen_ " " James I. The Feather plume, triple, of the Black Prince. Edward VI. " " George II. " " George IV. " " Henry, _Prince of Wales_ " " James I. A Fleur-de-lys. Henry VIII. " " Henry, _Prince of Wales_ " " James I. The Harp of Ireland. George III. A Horse courant with a sprig of oak in his mouth. Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ A Lion rampant. Henry, _Prince of Wales_ A Pomegranate. Henry VIII. Portcullis. Henry VIII. " James I. " Mary, _Princess_ Portcullis. Nevill, G., _Earl of Abergavenny_ A Rose, Lancastrian. Nevill, G., _Earl of Abergavenny_ A Rose, Tudor. Anne, _Queen_. " " Elizabeth, _Queen_ " " George I. " " George III. " " Henry VIII. " " Henry, _Prince of Wales_ " " James I. " " Mary, _Princess_ " " William IV. Roses. George II. Shamrocks. George III., George IV., William IV. A Thistle. Anne, _Queen_ " George I. " George II. " George III. " James I. " Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ " William IV.

Balcarres, _Baron_ Lindsay of, 269

Bannatyne Club, 264

Barker, Christopher, 247

" Robert, 247

Barnard, Sir F., 188

Bastard, Pollexpen, 317

Bateman, Abraham, 247

" John, 247

" Sir J., 57

Bath, Countess of. _Bourchier._ 71

Bath, Earl of. _Bourchier._ 72

" " _Granville._ 91

Bath, Order of the. Badge and collar, 183, 358

" " Badge, collar and motto, 273

" " Badge and motto, 58

Bavaria, Duke of, 167

Bayntun, Sir H., 60

Bear and ragged staff, 151

Beaton, D., _Primate of Scotland_, 201

Beaufort, Margaret, 213

Bedford, Duke of. _Russell._ 327

" Earl of. _Russell._ 325, 326

The Beldornie Press, 378

Belvoir Castle, 280

Bennet, Sir J., 63

Berkeley, T., 65

Berthelet, T., _Bookbinder_, 152, 154, 220, 284

Bingham, Lavinia, 355

Bishops' Bible, 307

Blanch Lion Pursuivant, 316

Blandford, Marquis of. _Churchill._ 118

Blenheim, 353

Blount, S., 363

Blundell, R., 66

Bodleian Library, Oxford, 87, 144, 202, 323, 381, 384

Bohemia, Frederick, _King of_, 166, 167

Borough, Sir J., 330

Boscawen, E., 70

Bosworth Field, 213

Bothwell, Earl of. _Hepburn._ 288

Bowood, 314

Braganza, Catherine of, _Queen_, 94

Brandenburg-Anspach, Caroline of, _Princess_, 176

Bridgwater, _Earl of_. _Egerton._ 156

Bridgwater Treatises, 157

Bright, B. H., 260

Bristol, _Bishop of_. _Gulston._ 199

British Museum, 49, 53, 54, 79, 87, 128, 135, 154, 157, 171, 177, 178, 188, 191, 195, 202, 205, 213, 222, 228, 237, 248, 260, 266, 274, 314, 330, 342, 371, 384, 399

Brownlow, Sir W., 75

Buckingham, _Duke of the County of_. _Sheffield._ 337

Buckingham, _Marquis of_. _Villiers._ 54

Bullen, Anne, _Queen_, 46, 161, 220

" Sir T., 46

Burghley, Baron. _Cecil._ 98, 307, 314

Burrell, P., 78

CADENCY MARKS. An Annulet. Fifth son. Walker, Sir E. A Crescent. Second son. Abrol, W. " _Ashby._ Naunton, Sir R. " Bacon, F., _Viscount St. Albans_ " Dudley, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " Green, J. H. " Grenville, T. " Hatton, Sir C. A Crescent. Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_ " Horton, F. " Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " _Mirfin._ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ " Pye, Sir R. " _Fitzalan._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " Say, W. " Smith, Sir T. " _Stanley._ Digby, Sir K. A Fleur-de-lys. Sixth son. Sandys, Sir T. A Label of 3 points. Eldest son. _Brotherton._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " _Brotherton._ Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " " George, Prince of Wales, afterwards George II. " " Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ " " Henry, _Prince of Wales_ " " Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " " _James, Prince of Wales._ Mary of Modena, _Queen_ A Label of 3 points, each charged with 3 Fleurs-de-lys. _Earl of Lancaster._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ A Label of 5 points. _Angoulême._ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ A Martlet. Fourth son. _Charnock._ Smith, Sir T. A Mullet. Third son. Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " _Sapcote._ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " Stuart, C., _Baron Stuart_ " _Topsfield._ Walpole, H., _Earl of Oxford_

Cadwallader, _Dragon of_, 213, 220, 247

Cæsar, Sir J., 314

Calder, Muriel, 84

Cambridge, _University of_, 307

Camden, W., _Clarencieux Herald_, 316, 381

Camden Society, 322

Campbell, J., _Baron Cawdor_, 84

" J., _Earl of Loudoun_, 82

" Sir J., 84

Campden, _Viscount._ Noel, 305

Canterbury, _Archbishop of_, Cranmer, 165

" " Kempe, 258

" " Laud, 265

" " Parker, 306

" " Whitgift, 390

Capell, A., _Earl of Essex_, 85

Carew, G., _Dean of Windsor_, 86

Carnarvon, _Earl of._ Dormer, 145

Caroline, _Queen_, 179

Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach, 176

Carteret, Sir G., 89

Cassano-Serra, _Duke of_, 355

Catherine of Aragon, _Queen_, 220

Catton, 231

Cavendish, W., _Duke of Devonshire_, 96

Cawdor, _Baron_. Campbell, 84

" _Earl_. Campbell, 83

Cecil, R., 101

Chapman, C., _Bookbinder_, 205

Charlemagne, _Crown of_, 171, 174, 180, 190, 395

Charlemagne, _Emperor_, 246

Charles V., _Emperor_, 346

" II., _King of England_, 124

" VI., _King of France_, 213

" _Prince of Wales_, 124

" Louis, _Duke_, 111

Charnock, Agnes, 345

Charterhouse School, 360

Chenies, 326

Chester, _Bishop of_. _Bridgman._ 73

Chester Herald. _Chitting._ 114

Christchurch, _Dean of_. _Jackson._ 135

Churchill, Anne, 119

" Henrietta, _Duchess of Marlborough_, 353

" J., _Duke of Marlborough_, 297

" _Mary_, 297

Clanricarde, _Marquis of._ _Canning._ 341

Clarence, _Duke of_, 398

Clarencieux Herald. _Camden._ 316, 381

Cobham, _Viscount._ _Lyttelton._ 276

Cocks, C., _Baron Somers_, 121, 350

Cocks, Jane, 121

Coke, E., 123

Coleridge, S. T., 195

College of Arms, 237, 340, 381

Commonwealth of England, 124

Conway Castle, 401

Coote, H. G., 125

" John, 125

Corinth, _Archbishop of_, 222

CORONETS, CROWNS, etc. Baron. Aylmer, M., _Baron Aylmer_ " Campbell, J. E., _Earl Cawdor_ " Carteret, J., _Baron Carteret_ " Cocks, J., _Baron Somers_ " Long, C., _Baron Farnborough_ " Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ " Rawdon, J., _Baron Rawdon_ " Somers, J., _Baron Somers_ Cardinal's Hat. Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_ Crest coronet. Astle, T. " " Bagot, Sir C. " " Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " " Coke, T., _Earl of Leicester_ " " Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ " " Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " " Hutchison, T. " " Lloyd, D., _Dean_ " " Manners, F., _Earl of Rutland_ " " Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ " " Sackville, E., _Earl of Dorset_ " " Spencer, C., _Earl of Sunderland_ " " Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ Duke. Cavendish, W. G. S., _Duke of Devonshire_ " Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ " Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ " Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ Duke. Manners, J., _Duke of Rutland_ " Monck, E., _Duke of Albemarle_ " Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ " Russell, W., _Duke of Bedford_ " _Foreign_, William III. Earl. Bennet, H., _Earl of Arlington_ " Bourchier, H., _Countess of Bath_ " Campbell, H., _Earl of Loudoun_ " Capell, W., _Earl of Essex_ " Cholmondeley, G., _Earl Cholmondeley_ " Cochrane, J., _Earl of Dundonald_ " Coventry, W., _Earl of Coventry_ " Dormer, R., _Earl of Carnarvon_ " Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " Finch, H., _Earl of Aylesford_ " Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ " Harley, R., _Earl of Oxford_ " Hastings, F., _Earl of Huntingdon_ " Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ " Howard, T., _Earl of Arundel_ " Kerr, W., _Earl of Lothian_ " Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ " Manners, F., _Earl of Rutland_ " Nevill, G., _Earl of Abergavenny_ " Noel, B., _Earl of Gainsborough_ " Percy, H., _Earl of Northumberland_ " Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ " Sackville, E., _Earl of Dorset_ " Sheffield, J., _Earl of Mulgrave_ " Spencer, G. T., _Earl Spencer_ " Waldegrave, J., _Earl Waldegrave_ " Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ Electoral cap. George III. Marquis. Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ " Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ Mural. Rawdon, J., _Baron Rawdon_ Princely. Henry, _Prince of Wales_ " James II. " James, _Prince of Wales_ " Mary of Modena, _Queen_ Royal. All of the sovereigns of England " Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_ " _French._ Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ " _Hanoverian._ George III. " " George IV. " " William IV. " _Saxe-Coburg-Gotha._ Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, _Prince_ " _Scottish._ Mary, _Queen of Scots._ Viscount. Bateman, W., _Viscount Bateman_ " Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ " Mordaunt, J., _Viscount Mordaunt_

Corpus Christi College, 306

Cottage Design on bookbindings, 109

Cotton, Sir J., 127

" Sir R., 139

" Thos., 127

" Sir T., 127

Cottonian Library, 178

Courten, W., 342

Coventry, W., 130

Covert, J., 132

Cowper, _Baron_, 133

Cranfield, L., _Earl of Middlesex_, 72

Cranmer, _Archbishop of Canterbury_, 165

Crawford, _Earl of._ Lindsay, 270

CRESTS figured. (Small details not given here.) An Anchor. Kinnear, J. G. An Antelope. Byng An Arm, with club. Brudenell. " with laurel branch. Burrell, Sir W. " with sword. Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ " holding 6 arrows. Smith, J. 2 Arms in armour, holding a ring. Musgrave, Sir W. 6 Arrows surmounted by a morion. Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ A Basilisk. Naunton, Sir R. A Bear with ragged staff. Dudley, R., _Earl of Leicester_ A Bear, head only. Berkeley, R. " " Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ A Boar. Bacon, F., _Viscount St. Albans_ " demi, wounded by an arrow. Cracherode, C. M. " head only. Lloyd, D., _Dean of Peterborough_ A Buck's head. Locker, E. H. " " Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ A Bull, crowned. Rivers, Sir J. " head only. Hastings, F., _Earl of Huntingdon_ A Camel's head. Pepys, S. A Coat of mail hanging on a tree. Somers, J., _Baron Somers_ A Cock upon a garb. Coventry, W., _Earl of Coventry_ A Cockatrice. Hutchinson, T. A Coot. Coote, C. A Cross crosslet fitchée, between wings. Pye, Sir R. An Eagle with a sun in glory. Campbell, H., _Earl of Loudoun_ " demi. Challeston. " " Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ " head only. Hoare, Sir R. C. An Eagle's head, with foot in the beak. Stanley, T. An Estoile. Sackville, E., _Earl of Dorset_ A Falcon holding a shield. White, R. S. Feather plume in a case. Astle, T. A Garb, upon which is a cock. Coventry, W., _Earl of Coventry_ A Goat's head. Bagot, Sir C. A Greyhound. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " Tash, T. A Greyhound, head only. Sutton, T. A Griffin's head. Bayntun, W. " " Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ " " Spencer, C., _Earl of Sunderland_ " " Spencer, G. J., _Earl Spencer_ A Heart, crowned and winged. Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ A Hind. Hatton, Sir C. A Lion passant. Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ A Lion rampant with an arrow. " " Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " " demi. Bridgman, Sir O. " " " Stuart, C., _Baron Stuart_ A Lion sejant. Ley, J., _Earl of Marlborough_ " " between 2 horns. Frederick, _Elector Palatine_ " " holding a sword and a fleur-de-lys. Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ " " holding a sword and a sceptre. Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ A Lion statant on a royal crown. _The Crest of England._ English Sovereigns, from James I. onwards " " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_, coroneted A Lion's gamb. Boothby, Sir B. A Man's head. Walpole, H., _Earl of Oxford_ A Mullet. Garrick, D. An Ostrich with a horseshoe in his beak. Coke, I., _Earl of Leicester_ " " Digby, Sir K. An Ostrich wing. Gulston, W., _Bishop of Bristol_ Ostrich feathers. Dering, Sir E. " " Trewarthen An Ounce's head. Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ A Peacock in Pride. Manners, F., _Earl of Rutland_ A Pheon. Rawdon, J., _Baron Rawdon_ A Phœnix. Smith, Sir T. A Saracen's head. Mordaunt, J., _Viscount Mordaunt_ A Serpent. Cavendish, W. G. S., _Duke of Devonshire_ A Sheldrake with an escallop. Rawlinson, R. A Squirrel. Blundell, A. " Carteret, J., _Baron Carteret_ " Carteret, G., _Baron Carteret_ A Stag. Cocks, J., _Baron Somers_ A Swan. Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ A Talbot. Heydon, Sir C. " with a tree. Topsfield " head only. Chitting, H. A Tent. Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ A Wolf's Head. D'Ewes, Sir S. A Wyvern. Trevor, M., _Viscount Dungannon_

Cromwell, Oliver. _Protector._ 124

Crown Jewels, 122

Crowns. _See supra_, "Coronets, etc."

Cumberland, Duke of, 379

Curtana, 97

Curzon, Mary, 328

Darnley, _Earl of_. _Stuart._ 288

Dartmouth, _Baron_. _Legge._ 211

Davies, R., 322

Day, J., _Printer_, 161, 307

De Beaufort, Greyhound of, 213

" House of, 303

De Guiscard, A., 204

Derby, F., _Earl of_. _Stanley._ 208

Dering, Sir A., 136

D'Este, Alphonso IV., _Duke of Modena_, 291

Devonshire, _Duke of_. _Cavendish._ 96

D'Ewes, Paul, 138

" Sir S., 205

Diary of S. Pepys, 311

Digby, Sir E., 144

Dodge, Anne, 229

Dormer, Sir W., 146

Dorset, _Earl of_. _Sackville._ 332

Douglas, Gawyn, 264

Droits of Admiralty, 191

Drumlanrig, _Viscount_. _Douglas._ 149

Dublin, _Arms of_, 247

Dundonald, _Earl of_. _Cochrane._ 120

Dungannon, _Viscount_. _Trevor._ 372

Dunkeld, _Bishop of_. _Hamilton._ 201

Durham, _Bishop of_. _Egerton._ 135, 157

East India Company, 334

Edward IV., 212

Effingham, _Baron Howard of_, 232-3

Eliot, T., _Bookbinder_, 205

Elizabeth, _Queen_, 49, 161, 210

" _Princess_, daughter of James I., 167

" _of York_, 213

Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 44

Essex, _Earl of_. _Capell._ 85, 229, 320

Falmouth, _Viscount_. _Boscawen._ 69

Farmer, R., 188

Farnborough, _Baron_. _Long._ 273

Ferdinand, _King of Spain_, 93

Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_, 227

" W., _Earl of Arundel_, 165

Fitzwalter, _Viscount_. _Radclyffe._ 320

Foundation Libraries of the British Museum, 178

France, Arms of, 189

" _Queen of_. _Mary of England._ 293

Francis II., _King of France_, 287

Franks, Sir W., 287

Frederick V., _Elector_, 49

" II., King of Denmark, 49

" Prince of Wales, 187

Frisingfield, 369

Gainsborough, _Earl of_. _Noel._ 304-5

Gamage, Barbara, 363

The Garter. Alone, 44, 50, 63, 100, 103, 158, 164, 168, 171, 174, 180, 193, 214, 224, 234, 239, 249, 279, 295, 296, 312, 313, 319, 336, 392

" With the Great George and the Collar. _Frontispiece_, 183, 186, 190, 395

George III., 222, 344

" IV., 97, 222

The George. The badge of the Order of the Garter. _Frontispiece_, 183, 186, 190, 395

Germany, English Dominions in. Arms of, 189

Gibson, John, _Bookbinder_, 247

Glasgow, _Archbishop of_. _Beaton._ 61

Glover, M., 235

" R., 316

" Susan, 316

Gower, _Baron_, 194

Granby, _Marquis of_. _Manners._ 282

Granville, _Countess_, 89

Green, J., 195

Grenville, _Baron_, 195

" George, 196

Grey, _Lady_ Jane, 101, 150, 154, 293

Grey of Groby, _Baron_, 197

The Great George. _Frontispiece_, 183, 186, 190, 395

Great Wymondley, Manor of, 135

Grolier, the English, 407

Guernsey, _Baron of_. _Finch._ 163

Gulston, Elise, 200

Gunpowder Plot, 312

Hampden, John, 318

Hanover, 189, 379

Harley, Sir E., 204

" R., 260

" Library of, 178, 197, 205

The Harp of Ireland, 187, 246

Haselrig, Sir A., 197

Hatton, W., 210

HELMETS. Esquire. Berkeley, R. " Boothby, Sir B. " Challeston " Chitting, H. " Coke, T., _Earl of Leicester_ " Digby, Sir K. " Hatton, Sir C. " Ley, J. _Earl of Marlborough_ " Naunton, Sir R. " Pepys, S. " Pye, Sir R. " Smith, Sir T. " Sutton, T. " Topsfield Esquire. Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ " Walpole, H., _Earl of Oxford_ Knight. Bagot, Sir C. " Somers, J., _Baron Somers_ Peer. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " Campbell, _Earl of Loudoun_ " " J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ " Carteret, G., _Baron Carteret_ " Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ " Coventry, W., _Earl of Coventry_ " Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ " Howard, C, _Baron Howard_ " Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ " Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ Royal. Anne, _Queen_ " Charles I. " " II. " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " George I. " " II. " " III. " " IV. " James II. " Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ " William III. " " IV.

Henry VII., 220, 293

" Prince of Wales, 165, 237

Hepburn, J., _Earl of Bothwell_, 288

Herbert, Anne, 146

Heydon, Sir C., 229

Hickman, Dixie, 403

Highcliffe Castle, 358

Howard, P., _Earl of Arundel_, 237

" W., _Baron Howard_

Huntingdon, _Earl of_. _Hastings._ 208, 321

Hutchinson, P., 238

Hyde, Anne, 53, 395

" E., 53

India, _Emperor of_, 155

" _Empress of_, 379

Ingestre, 113

INITIALS. A. Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, _Prince_ A. R. Anne, _Queen_ C. C. Charles II. C. R. " Car. Rex. " E. H. L. Locker, E. H. E. P. Edward VI. E. R. " E. R. Elizabeth, _Queen_ G. P. George II. G. R. " I. G. R. " III. H. B. Blundell, H. H. C. Chitting, H. I. D. Trevor, M., _Viscount Dungannon_ I. R. (_i.e._ I. Reynes.) Tudor Rose J. D. James II. J. R. " I. K. D. V. Digby, Sir K. M. D. Henry VIII. M. M. S. Sykes, Sir M. M. M. Φ. Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ M. R. William III. and Mary II. M. S. Mary, _Princess_ R. D. Dudley, R., _Earl of Leicester_ W. D. Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ W. R. William III.

The Irish Harp, 187, 246

Isabella, _Queen of Spain_, 93

Jackson, Cyril, _Dean of Christchurch_, 135

James I., _King of England_, 227, 280

" II., " " 395

" IV., _King of Scotland_, 246

" V. " " 287

John of Gaunt, 276

Johnson, Dr. S., 188

Juan IV., _King of Portugal_, 95

Judd, Alice, 348

" Sir A., 348

Kalthoeber, C., _Bookbinder_, 188, 355

Kemp Town, 258

Kempe, J., _Archbishop of Canterbury_, 258

Kempe, T., _Bishop of London_, 258

" Sir T., 258

Kenilworth, 151

Kent, Edward, _Duke of_, 379

Ker, R., _Duke of Roxburghe_, 260

Kerr, R., _Earl of Ancrum_, 262

The King's Library, British Museum, 188

La Garrique, family of, 170

Lambeth Palace Library, 42, 266

Lansdowne, _Earl and Marquis of_. Petty, 314

Lauderdale, _Viscount and Earl of_. Maitland, 278

Legends. _See_ Mottoes.

Legislative Union of Great Britain with Ireland, 1801. 188

Legislative Union of England and Scotland, 1706. 53

Leicester, _Earl of_. Coke, 121

" " Dudley, 150

" " Sydney, 363

Lewis, G., 196

" J., 373

Ley, H., 268

" J., _Baron Ley_, 268

Lincoln, _Bishop of_. Williams, 401

" _Earl of_. Clinton, 233

Lindsay, _Baron_, 270

" J., _Lord Menmuir_, 270

L'Isle, _Viscount_. Sydney, 363

Liverpool, _Earl of_. Jenkinson, 191

Llandaff, _Bishop of_. Gilbert, 192

Locker, W., 272

Locker-Lampson, F., 272

London, _Bishop of_. Kempe, 258

Long, Beeston, 274

Lothian, _Countess of_. Kerr, 262

" _Earl of_. Kerr, 262

Loudoun, _Earl of_. Campbell, 82

Louis XII., _King of France_, 293

" XIV., _King of France_, 144, 291

Lovel, _Baron_, 123

Lucan, _Earl of_. Bingham, 355

Lumley, _Baron_, 165, 227

Lyttelton, _Baron_, 276

" G. C., _Viscount Cobham_, 276

" Sir T., 276

Magdalene College, Cambridge, 309

Maitland, _Baron_, 278

Malpas, _Viscount_. Cholmondeley, 115

Manners, Dorothy, 305

" J., _Earl of Rutland_, 279

" Sir R., 280

March, _Earls of_. Mortimer, 213

Marie Louisa, of Saxe-Coburg, Saalfield, 379

Marlborough, _Duke of_. Churchill, 297, 353

Marlborough, Henrietta, _Duchess of_, 297, 353

Marlborough, _Earl of_. Ley, 267

Mary, _Queen of Scotland_, 101, 246

Masterman, Henrietta, 365

" Henry, 365

Matthew, J., 294

Maurice, John, 227

Mearne, S., _Bookbinder_, 109, 124

Mecklenburg, Charlotte of, _Queen_, 110

Menmuir, _Lord_. Lindsay, 270

Middlesex, _Earl of_. Cranfield, 72

Modena, Alphonso IV., _Duke of_, 289, 291

Moira, _Earl of_. Hastings, 321

Monck, D., _Duke of Albemarle_, 342

" G., " " 295

Montagu, _Duke of_, 297

" House, 342

The Moon, 219, 375

Mordaunt, J., _Earl of Peterborough_, 299

Mortimer, _Earl of_. Harley, 203

MOTTOES AND LEGENDS. AGE QUOD AGIS. Blundell, H. ANNA. Anne, _Queen_ ASTRA CASTRA (with the crest). Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ AVITO VIRET HONORE. Stuart, C., _Baron Stuart_ BE MINDFULL. Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ BIBLIOTHECA ARUNDELIANA. Howard, T., _Earl of Arundel_ BIBLIOTHECA MANUSCRIPT. SLOANEIANA. Sloane, Sir H. BON TEMPS VIENDRA. Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ CAVENDO TUTUS. Cavendish, W. G. S., _Duke of Devonshire_ THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND. The Commonwealth CONSILIO ET ANIMIS (with the crest). Maitland, T., _Earl of Lauderdale_ COR VNV VIA VNA. Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ DARE QUAM ACCIPERE. Lloyd, D., _Dean of St. Asaph_ DAVID DOMINVS LYNDESAY DE BALCARRES. Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ DESIR NA' REPOS. Howard, C., _Baron Howard of Effingham_ DEUS DAT NOBIS TUAM PACEM ET POSTMORTEM VITAM ETERNAM AMEN. Henry VIII. DEVS INDVSTRIAM BEAT. Harborne, W. DIEU DEFEND LE DROIT. Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ " " Spencer, C., _Earl of Sunderland_ " " Spencer, G. J., _Earl Spencer_ DIEU ET MON DROIT. Charles I. " " Charles II. " " George I. " " George II. " " George III. " " George IV. " " Henry VIII. " " James I. " " James II. EDOARDVS DERING MILES ET BARONETTVS. Dering, Sir E. ELIZABETH. Elizabeth, _Queen_ ESSE QUAM VIDERE. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ EX DONO RACHAEL COMITISSÆ BATHON DOTARE AN DOM. MDCLXX. Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ FARI QUÆ SENTIAT. Walpole, H., _Earl of Oxford_ FAYTH FAILETH NOT. Topsfield FEAR GOD AND FEAR NOT. Locker, E. H. FERENDVM VT VINCAS. Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ FIDE ET FORTITUDINE. Capell, W., _Earl of Essex_ FIDELITATE ET SAGACITATE. Chitting, H. FIEL PERO DESDICHADO. Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ FORDWARD. Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ FORTITER GERIT CRUCEM. Hutchinson, T. GOD WITH US. The Commonwealth HEC ROSA VIRTUTIS DE CELO MISSA SERENO ETERNŪ FLORENS REGIA SCEPTRA FERET. Tudor Rose HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE. (The motto of the order of the Garter.) Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, _Prince._ Anne, _Queen_. Bennet, H., _Earl of Arlington_. Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_. Charles I. Charles II. Elizabeth, _Queen_. Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_. Frederick, _Prince of Wales_. George I. George II. George III. George IV. Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_. Henry VIII. Henry, _Prince of Wales_. Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_. James I. James II. Manners, F., _Earl of Rutland_. Monck, C., _Duke of Albemarle_. Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ HONORANTES ME HONORABO. Hastings, F., _Earl of Huntingdon_ IACOBVS A BETOVN ARCHIEPISCOPVS GLASGVENSIS, 1576. Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ ICH DIEN. Edward VI. " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " George II. James I. IN DEFENS. Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ INGENUAS SUSPICIT ARTES. Long, C., _Baron Farnborough_ INSIGNIA KENELMI DIGBY EQVITIS AVRATI. Digby, Sir K. JOANNES METELLANVS LAUDERIÆ COMES. Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ LOYAL DEVOIR. Carteret, G., _Baron Carteret_ " " Carteret, J., _Baron Carteret_ LOYAVTE MON HONNEVR. Walker, Sir E. MARIA REGINA. Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ MEA GLORIA FIDES. Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ MENS CUIUSQUE IS EST QUISQUE. Pepys, S. LA MIA GRANDEZZA VIENE DAL ECCELSO. Anne, _of Denmark, Queen_ NEC ELATA NEC DEIECTA. Finch, H., _Earl of Aylesford_ NEC PRECE NEC PRETIO. Bateman, W., _Viscount Bateman_ NEC SPERO NEC DESPERO. Green, J. H. NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSIT. (The motto of the Order of the Thistle.) Campbell, A., _Earl of Loudoun_ " " George III. NE VILE FANO. Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ NOBILIS IRA (with crest). Stuart, C., _Baron Stuart de Rothesay_ NON EST MORTALE QUOD OPTO. Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ NVMEN LUMEN MVNIMEN. Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ PERSEVERANDO. White, R. S. PRO CHRISTO ET PATRIA. Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ PRODESSE QUAM CONSPICI. Somers, J., _Baron Somers_ PRUDENS QUI PATIENS. Coke, T., _Earl of Leicester_ PRUDENS SIMPLICITAS. Naunton, Sir R. REX HENRICUS VIII. Henry VIII. RICHARD SAMUEL WHITE, ESQ. White, R. S. THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR CHARLES BAGOT. Bagot, Sir C. ROBERT HARLEY. Harley, R., _Earl of Oxford_ SAM. PEPYS CAR. ET IAC. ANGL. REGIB. A SECRETIS ADMIRALIÆ. Pepys, S. SA VERTU MATIRE. Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ SEMPER EADEM. Anne, _Queen_ " " Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ SIC DONEC. Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ SIGIL. GUL. BAYNTUN. Bayntun, W. SIGILLVM RICARDI SANCTI GEORGII. St. George, Sir R. SORS MEA DEXTRA DEI. Kerr, W., _Earl of Lothian_ SPEM FORTUNA ALIT. Kinnear, J. G. STEADY. Aylmer, M., _Baron Aylmer_ STOURHEAD LIBRARY. Hoare, Sir R. C. SVB LIBERTATE QVIETEM. Burrell, Sir W. TENEZ LE VRAY. Towneley, R. TERES ATQUE ROTUNDUS. Abrol THOS. SUTTON ARM. FUNDATOR. Sutton, T. TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO. (The motto of the Order of the Bath.) Bagot, Sir C. Bateman, W., _Viscount Bateman_. George III. Long, C., _Baron Farnborough_ UNG DIEU UNG ROY. Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ VINCENTI AUGUSTA. Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ VINCIT VERITAS. Coote, C. VIRTUTE ET FIDE. Harley, R., _Earl of Oxford_ VIRTUTE NON VERBIS. Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ VIRTVTIS LAVS ACTIO. Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ VIVAT REGINA. Anne, _Queen_

Mulgrave, _Earl of_. Sheffield, 337

Mulsho, Mary, 144

Murray, Anne, 120

" _Earl of_. Stuart, 246

Musgrave, Sir R., 300

Naunton, H., 302

Nevill, Anne, 303

" R., _Earl of Warwick_, 303

" W., _Earl of Abergavenny_, 303

" greyhound of, 213, 220

Noel, _Baron_, 305

Norfolk, _Earl_ and _Marquis of_. Howard, 236

Normandy, _Marquis_ and _Duke of_, 337

Northampton, _Earl of_. Howard, 234

Northumberland, _Duke of_. Percy, 150

" _Earl of_. Percy, 312

" House, 235

Norton, J., 247

" R., 247

Olantigh, 258

Old Royal Library, British Museum, 178

Orange, _Prince of_, 394

The Orb, 97

Oxford, _Earl of_. Walpole, 386

" " Harley, 203

Parker, J., 317

" M., _Archbishop of Canterbury_, 161

Parker Society, 391

Parr, Catherine, _Queen_, 220

Pavilion, Brighton, 399

Payne, Roger, _Bookbinder_, 135, 355, 405

Pearson, T., 260

Pedro II., _King of Portugal_, 95

Pepys, John, 310

" Library, Cambridge, 309

PERSONS AND FAMILIES whose Arms or Crests are figured. Abbot, G., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ Abernethy. _See_ Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ Abrol Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, _Prince_ Alyson. _See_ Salwey, H. Anne, _Queen_ " Bullen, _Queen_ " of Denmark, _Queen_ Ashby. _See_ Naunton, Sir R. Astle, T. Aston. _See_ Salwey, R. Audley. _See_ Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ Aylmer, M., _Baron Aylmer_ Bacon, F., _Viscount St. Albans_ Bagot. _See_ Chetwynd, W. " Sir C. Balderstone. _See_ Covert, W. Bateman, W., _Viscount Bateman_ Bayntun, W. Beaton, J., _Archbishop of Glasgow_ Beauchamp. _See_ Cotton, Sir R. B. " " Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Bennet, H., _Earl of Arlington_ Bereford. _See_ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ Berkeley, R. Berondon. _See_ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ Bingham. _See_ Spencer, G. T., _Earl Spencer_ Blackborne. _See_ Trewarthen Blount. _See_ Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ Blundell, H. Bodenham. _See_ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ Bonvile. _See_ Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ Boothby, Sir B. Boscawen, H., _Viscount Falmouth_ Boteler. _See_ Salwey, H. Botevile. _See_ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ Bourchier. _See_ Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ " R., _Countess of Bath_ Bourke. _See_ Covert, W. Boyes. _See_ Covert, W. Brabant, _Duke of_. _See_ Digby, Sir K. Bradeston. _See_ Covert, W. " _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Bradshaw. _See_ Gilbert, J., _Archbishop of York_ " _See_ Salwey, H. Brandon. _See_ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " " Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Bridgman, Sir O. Brotherton. _See_ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " " Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ Browne. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ Bruce. _See_ Cotton, Sir R. B. Brudenell Bullingham Burley. _See_ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ Burnell. _See_ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ Burrell, Sir W. Busserard. _See_ Naunton, Sir R. Butler. _See_ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " St. George, Sir R. Butts. _See_ Trewarthen Byng Calder. _See_ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ Calthrop. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Campbell, H., _Earl of Loudoun_ " J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ Capell, W., _Earl of Essex_ Carew, G., _Earl of Totness_ Caroline of Brandenburg. _See_ George II. Carrell. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Carteret, G., _Baron Carteret_ " J., " " Catherine of Aragon, _Queen_ " Braganza, _Queen_ Cavendish, W. G. S., _Duke of Devonshire_ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ Challeston Charles I. " II. Charlotte of Mecklenburg, _Queen_ Chetwynd, W. Chiche. _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Chichele. _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Charnock. _See_ Smith, Sir T. Chitting, H. Cholmondeley, G., _Earl Cholmondeley_ Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ Cochrane, J., _Earl of Dundonald_ Cocks, J., _Baron Somers_ Coke, T., _Earl of Leicester_ Coleshill. _See_ Trewarthen Colvile. _See_ Worthington Comyn. _See_ Covert, W. Coote, C. Cotton, Sir R. B. Coventry, W., _Earl of Coventry_ Covert, W. Cowper, W., _Earl Cowper_ Cracherode, C. M. Culcheth. _See_ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ Davenport. _See_ Digby, Sir K. Dawes. _See_ Salwey, H. De La Tour. _See_ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ Dene. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Dengayne. _See_ St. George, Sir R. Dering, Sir E. D'Este. _See_ Mary of Modena, _Queen_ D'Ewes, Sir S. Dexter. _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Digby, Sir K. Dormer, R., _Earl of Carnarvon_ Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ Duckenfield. _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Dudley. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " R., _Earl of Leicester_ Dyall. _See_ Covert, W. Edward the Confessor. _See_ Cotton, Sir R. B. Edward VI. " VII. Egerton. _See_ Chetwynd, W. " " Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ Elizabeth, _Queen_ Etchington. _See_ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ Fane. _See_ Bourchier, R., _Countess of Bath_ Ferrara. _See_ Mary of Modena, _Queen_ Ferrers. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Finch, H., _Earl of Aylesford_ Fitzalan. _See_ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ Fitz-Walter. _See_ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ Frederick, _Elector Palatine_ " II., _King of Denmark._ _See_ Anne of Denmark, _Queen_ " _Prince of Wales_ Froxmere. _See_ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ Gamage. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Gardiner. _See_ Kinnear, J. G. Garrick, D. Garshall. _See_ Chetwynd, W. George I. " II. " III. " IV. Gilbert, J., _Archbishop of York_ Glover. _See_ Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ Gore. _See_ Bayntun, W. Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ Granville. _See_ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ Green, J. H. Grenville, T. Grey. _See_ Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " " Pepys Grey. _See_ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ " Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " H., _Earl of Stamford_ Gulston, W., _Bishop of Bristol_ Gurnon. _See_ Chetwynd, W. Hamilton, J., _Archbishop of St. Andrews_ Harborne, W. Harding. _See_ Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ Harley, R., _Earl of Oxford_ Haslerigg. _See_ Chetwynd, W. Hastings. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Hatton, Sir C. Hayward. _See_ Berkeley, R. Heath, B. Henderson. _See_ Chetwynd, W. Henry VII. " VIII. " _Prince of Wales_ " Benedict, _Cardinal York_ Herbert. _See_ Dormer, R., _Earl of Carnarvon_ " " Finch, H., _Earl of Aylesford_ Herringham. _See_ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ Heydon, Sir C. Hillock. _See_ Naunton, Sir R. Hoare, Sir R. C. Holdenby. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Horton, F. Houghton. _See_ Naunton, Sir R. Howard, C., _Baron Howard of Effingham_ " H., _Earl of Northampton_ " T., _Earl of Arundel_ Hutchinson, T. Ingleby. _See_ St. George, Sir R. Inglish. _See_ Naunton, Sir R. James I. " I. _See_ Frederick, _Elector_ " II. " _Prince of Wales_ Judd. _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Kemp, T. R. Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ Kerr, W., _Earl of Lothian_ Kinnear, J. G. Lancaster, _Earl of_. _See_ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ Langton. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ " _See_ Worthington Laud, W., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ Leveson. _See_ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ Ley, J., _Earl of Marlborough_ Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ Lloyd, D., _Dean of St. Asaph_ Locker, E. H. Long, C., _Baron Farnborough_ Lorn. _See_ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ Lort. _See_ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ Lucy. _See_ Digby, Sir K. " " Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ Lupus. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Lyle. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ Maltravers. _See_ Fitz-Alan, H., _Earl of Arundel_ Manners. _See_ Noel, B., _Earl of Gainsborough_ " F., _Earl of Rutland_ " J., _Duke of Rutland_ Marr. _See_ Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ Marlin. _See_ Naunton, Sir R. Mary I., _Queen of England_ " II., " " " _Queen of Scotland_ " of Modena, _Queen_ " _Princess of England_ " " _See_ Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ " " _See_ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ Mason. _See_ Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ Masterman. _See_ Sykes, Sir M. M. Matthew, T., _Archbishop of York_ Meriford. _See_ Chetwynd, W. Meynell. _See_ Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ Mirfin. _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Monck, C., _Duke of Albemarle_ Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ Montfort. _See_ Salwey, H. Monthermer. _See_ Montagu, J., _Duke of Montagu_ Mordaunt, J., _Viscount Mordaunt_ Mortimer. _See_ St. George, Sir R. Mulsho. _See_ Digby, Sir K. Murray. _See_ Cochrane, J., _Earl of Dundonald_ Musgrave, Sir W. Naunton, Sir R. Nevill. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. " G. E., _Earl of Abergavenny_ Neville. _See_ Digby, Sir K. Newport. _See_ Sheldon, R. Noel, B., _Earl of Gainsborough_ Nowers. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Offley. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Parker, M., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ Pepys, S. Percy, H., _Earl of Northumberland_ Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ Philpot, J., _Somerset Herald_ Pilkington. _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Pinchbeck. _See_ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ Poulett, B., _Lady_ Powell. _See_ Naunton, Sir R. Pye, Sir R. Radcliffe, R., _Earl of Sussex_ Rawdon, J., _Baron Rawdon_ " M. Rawlinson, R. Raymond. _See_ Chetwynd, W. Rivers, Sir. J. Rochford. _See_ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ Rockly. _See_ Covert, W. Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ " W., _Duke of Bedford_ Sackville, E., _Earl of Dorset_ St. Andrew. _See_ Commonwealth " " George III. " " Mary, _Queen of Scotland_ St. Clair. _See_ Covert, W. St. George. _See_ Commonwealth " " George III. " " Henry VIII. St. George. _See_ Tudor Rose St. George, Sir R. Salter. _See_ Chetwynd Salwey, H. Sandys, Sir T. Sapcote. _See_ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ Say, W. Scudamore. _See_ Pye, Sir R. Sheffield. _See_ Covert, W. " J., _Earl of Mulgrave_ Sheldon, R. Sloane, Sir H. Smith. _See_ Spencer, G. J., _Earl Spencer_ " J. " Sir T. Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ Somers, J., _Baron Somers_ Spencer. _See_ Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ " C., _Earl of Sunderland_ " G. J., _Earl Spencer_ Stanley. _See_ Digby, Sir K. " " Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " T. Stanton. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Strange. _See_ Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ Stuart, C., _Baron Stuart de Rothesay_ Sutton, _See_ Smythe, T., _Viscount Strangford_ " T. Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Sykes, Sir M. M. Symonds. _See_ Covert, W. Talbot. _See_ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ Tash, T. Thynne. _See_ Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_ Tollemache. _See_ Grey, H., _Earl of Stamford_ Topsfield Towneley, R. Trelawny. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Trevor, M., _Viscount Dungannon_ Trewarthen Trussell. _See_ St. George, Sir R. Tyrrell. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Usher, J., _Archbishop of Armagh_ Utterson, E. V. Valence, _Earl of Pembroke._ _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Vandals. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Verney. _See_ Chetwynd, W. Victoria, _Queen_ Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ Waldegrave, J., _Earl Waldegrave_ Walker, Sir E. Walpole, H., _Earl of Oxford_ Ware, Sir J. Warren. _See_ Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " " Howard, H., _Earl of Northampton_ Warwick. _See_ Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ Weapont. _See_ Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ Wedson. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Wellington. _See_ Sheldon, R. Wesenham. _See_ Cotton, Sir R. B. Westcote. _See_ Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ White, R. S. Whitgift, J., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ William III. and Mary II. Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ Wodhull, M. Worthington Wotton, E., _Baron Wotton_ Wright, J. Wycliffe Wyerley. _See_ Salwey, H. Wyndham, Sir H. Wynstone. _See_ Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ " " Pye, Sir R. Wyse. _See_ Russell, F., _Earl of Bedford_ Yonge. _See_ Covert, W. York. _See_ Hatton, Sir C. Zouch. _See_ Naunton, Sir R.

Peterborough, _Earl of_. Mordaunt, 299

Philip II., _King of Spain_, 283

Phillips, T., 65

Philpot, H., 316

Pirckheimer family, 237

PLACES, the Arms of which are figured. Angoulême. Anne Bullen, _Queen_ Aragon. Catherine, _of Aragon_, _Queen_ Armagh, _See of_. Usher, J., _Archbishop of Armagh_ Bavaria. Frederick, _Elector Palatine_ Brabant. Sydney, R., _Earl of Leicester_ Brandenburg. George II. Brunswick. George I. George II. George IV. William IV. Buren. William III. Canterbury, _See of_. Abbot, G., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ " " Laud, W., _Archbishop of Canterbury_ " " Whitgift Castile. Catherine, _of Aragon_, _Queen_ Castile, a bordure of. Catherine, _of Braganza_, _Queen_ Catsenelboge. William III. Chalon. William III. Crossen. George II. Dalmenhurst. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Denmark. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Dietz. William III. Ditzmers. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ England. All the sovereigns of England from Henry VII. to Edward VII. " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ " Gower, G. L., _Duke of Sutherland_ " Henry, _Prince of Wales_. " Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_. " James, _Prince of Wales_ " Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ " Mary, _Princess_ " " _of Modena_, _Queen_ France. " " " Geneva. William III. Gothes. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Grenada. Catherine, _of Aragon_, _Queen_ Guyenne. Anne Bullen, _Queen_ Halberstadt. George II. Hohenzollern. George II. Holstein. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Ireland. All the sovereigns of England from James I. to Edward VII. Frederick, _Prince of Wales_. Henry, _Prince of Wales_. Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_. James, _Prince of Wales_. Mary, _of Modena_, _Queen_ Jägerndorff. George II. Leon. Catherine, _of Aragon_, _Queen_ Lincoln, _See of_. Williams, J., _Bishop of Lincoln_ London, _City of_. Henry VIII. " " Tudor Rose Lunenburg. George I. George II. George III. George IV. William IV. Magdeburg. George II. Mecklenburg. Charlotte, _of Mecklenburg_, _Queen_ Minden. George II. Moers. William III. Nassau. William III. Norway. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Nüremberg. George II. Oldenburg. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Orange. William III. Pfalz-am-Rhein. Frederick, _Elector Palatine_ Pommern. George II. Portugal. Catherine, _of Braganza_, _Queen_ Prussia. George II. Ratzeburg. Charlotte, _of Mecklenburg_, _Queen_ " George II. Saxony. George I. George II. George III. George IV. William IV. Scotland. All sovereigns of England from James I. to Edward VII. Frederick, _Prince of Wales_. Henry, _Prince of Wales_. Henry Benedict, _Cardinal_. James, _Prince of Wales_. Mary, _Queen of Scotland_. Mary, _of Modena_, _Queen_ Schwerin. Charlotte, _of Mecklenburg_, _Queen_ Sicily. Catherine, _of Aragon_, _Queen_ Sleswick. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Stormer. Anne, _of Denmark_, _Queen_ Sweden. " " " Vianden. William III. Wenden. Charlotte, _of Mecklenburg_, _Queen_ Wenden. George II. York, _See of_. Matthew, T., _Archbishop of York_

Plot, Robert, 113

Poulett, Earl, 317

Queensberry, _Duke of_. Douglas, 147

" _Earl of_. Douglas, 149

" _Marquis of_. Douglas, 147, 149

Radclyffe, H., 320

" R., 320

Ratcliffe, J., 188

Rawdon, Sir J., 321

" L., 322

Rawlinson, Sir T., 323

Raymond, Sir C., 78

The Record Office, 213

Reviczky, _Count_, 355

Reynes, J., _Bookbinder_, 219, 376

Richard III., 213, 303

Richmond, _Earl of_. Tudor, 213

Rivers, Sir G., 324

" Sir J., 324

Rivet, Mirabel, 229

Robsart, Amy, 150

Rockingham, _Earl of_. Watson, 314

" " " 388

Ros, of Hamlake, _Baron_. Manners, 280

" Eleanor, 280

Rothesay, _Baron_ Stuart de. Stuart, 357

Rouge Dragon Pursuivant. Philpot, 316

Rows, John, 151

" Roll, 151

Roxburghe, _Duke of_. Ker, 259, 260

" Club, 260

Royal Libraries, 399

" Society, 237

" Titles, 189

Rutland, _Duke of_. Manners, 281, 305

" _Earl of_. " 279

Rylands, J., 355

" Mrs. 355

Sackville, R., _Earl of Dorset_, 328

Saint Albans, _Viscount_. Bacon, 56

" Andrews, _Archbishop of_. Hamilton, 201

" Asaph, _Dean of_. Lloyd, 271

" Benet's College, 306

" George, 375

" " The Chevalier, 222, 257

" " Sir H., 384

" " T., 330

" John's Gate, Clerkenwell, 170

Salic Law, 380

Salisbury, _Bishop of_. Gilbert, 192

" _Dean of_. Williams, 401

Sandys, E., _Archbishop of York_, 333

Sandys Islands, 334

Say, W., 335

Sceptre with the Dove, 280

Semper eadem, 53

Shelburne, _Earl of_. Petty, 314

Sheldon, W., 340

Sloane, Alex., 341

" Sir H., 178

Smith, J., 345

" Sir T., 205

Smythe, Sir J., 348

" Sir T., 334

Sobieski, Mary Clementina, 222

Solebay, _Battle of_, 337

Somers, _Baron_. Cocks, 121, 350

Somers Islands, 334

Somerset Herald. Philpot, 315, 316

Sondes, _Viscount_, 388

Sophia, _Electress_, 167, 173

Southampton, _Earl of_. Wriothesley, 327

Spanish Armada, 233

Stafford, _Marquis of_. Gower, 194

Stamford, _Earl of_. Grey, 197, 205

Stanley, Sir E., 356

" Sir T., 144

" Venetia, 144

Stanneries, Warden of the, 70

Stanley, Elizabeth, 208

Stourhead Library, 230

Stowe, Library at, 54

Strawberry Hill, 386

Stuart, Lady Arabella, 294, 312

" Sir C., 358

" Henry, _Earl of Darnley_, 288

" Susan, 119

Suffolk, _Duchess of_. Brandon, 293

Suffolk, _Duke of_. Brandon, 293

Sun in glory, 219, 375

Sunderland, _Earl of_. Spencer, 119, 352

SUPPORTERS. Angels, two. Anne Bullen, _Queen_ " " Catherine, _of Aragon_, _Queen_ " " Harley, R., _Earl of Oxford_ " " to crown. Henry VII. " " Tudor Rose A Bear. Vincent, A., _Windsor Herald_ Bucks, two. Cavendish, W. G. S., _Duke of Devonshire_ " " Kerr, W., _Earl of Lothian_ A Dragon and a greyhound. Henry VIII. An Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire. Churchill, G. S., _Duke of Marlborough_ Eagles, two. Maitland, J., _Earl of Lauderdale_ A Greyhound. Walker, Sir E. Griffins, two. Watson, L., _Earl of Rockingham_ A Griffin and a Wyvern. Spencer, G. J., _Earl Spencer_ A Horse and a Griffin. Egerton, F. H., _Earl of Bridgwater_ Lions rampant, two. Bateman, W., _Baron Bateman_ " " Capell, W., _Earl of Essex_ " " Cecil, W., _Baron Burghley_ " " Frederick, _Elector Palatine_ " " Howard, C., _Baron Howard_ " " Long, C., _Baron Farnborough_ " " Somers, J., _Baron Somers_ Lions sejant, two. Henry VII. " " Lindsay, D., _Baron Lindsay_ A Lion and an Eagle. Mary of Modena, _Queen_ " and a Hart. Campbell, J. F., _Earl Cawdor_

A Lion and a Unicorn. All the sovereigns of England from James I. to Edward VII. " " Frederick, _Prince of Wales_ Men, two. Ker, J., _Duke of Roxburghe_ Mermen, two. Lyttelton, W. H., _Baron Lyttelton_ Pegasi, two. Douglas, W., _Duke of Queensberry_ " " Petty, W. F., _Marquis of Lansdowne_ Stags, two. Carteret, G., _Baron Carteret_ " " Carteret, J., _Baron Carteret_ Talbots, two. Brownlow, J., _Viscount Tyrconnel_ " " Waldegrave, J., _Earl Waldegrave_ A Unicorn and a Fox. Windsor, T., _Baron Windsor_ Unicorns, two. Mary, _Queen of Scotland_

Surrey, _Earl of_. Howard, 235

Sussex, _Earl of_. Radcliffe, 319

Sutherland, _Countess of_. Gower, 194

" _Duke of_. Gower, 193

" _Earl of_. " 194

" _Marquis of_. " 194

Sutton, R., 560

Swinford, Catherine, 213

Sydney, _Baron_, 363

" Sir H., 363

Sykes, Sir C., 365

Talbot, Elizabeth, 276

" Sir G., 276

Tangier, 95, 311

Taverner, John, 293

Thackeray, W. M., 360

Thenford, 405

Thistle, Order of the, Badge and Collar, 183, 285

" " Motto, 81

Thomae Wottoni et Amicorum, 408

Throwley, _Baron_. Sondes, 387

Thynne, Elizabeth, 84

Totness, _Earl of_. Carew, 86

Towneley, Charles, 61, 371

" Christopher, 371

Towneley, Richard, 371

Trevor, _Baron_, 373

Trinity College, Dublin, 377

Tudor, E., _Earl of Richmond_, 213

" Margaret, 246, 287

" Rose, 213, 375

Tufton, Mary, 123

Tyrconnel, _Viscount_. Brownlow, 74

The Ulster Hand. Boothby, Sir B.

" " Burrell, Sir W.

" " Carteret, G., _Baron Carteret_

" " Ley, J., _Earl of Marlborough_

" " Sloane, Sir H.

" " Sykes, Sir M. M.

The Unicorn of Scotland, 247

The Union of England and Ireland, 188

The Union of England and Scotland, 53

University Library, Cambridge, 356

Usher, Arnold, 377

Utterson, John, 378

Velvet Bindings, 161

Venice, Consul at. Smith, 188

Verulam, _Baron_. Bacon, 56

Victoria, _Queen_, 44, 97

Vincent, W., 381

The Virginia Company, 334

Vives, Ludovicus, 93

Waddington, G., 121

Wales, Princes of, 176, 187, 191, 223, 256

Walpole, R., _Earl of Oxford_, 386

Warwick, Arthgallus, _Earl of_, 151

" Richard, _Earl of_. Neville, 303

Watson, Edith, 389

Wendeborn, F., 191

West, J., 188

" Mr., 260

Westcote, _Baron_. Lyttelton, 275

Westminster, _Dean of_. Williams, 401

" Abbey Library, 213

Westminster School Dormitory, 128

Westmoreland, _Earl of_. Fane, 72

Wheatley, H. B., 311

White Knights, 119

Whitechurch, Sir M., 373

Whitgift, H., 390

Wilhelmina Caroline, _Queen_, 179

Williams, Edmond, 401

Williamson, Sir J., 64

Wiltshire, _Earl of_. Bullen, 160

Windsor, _Baron_, 402

" _Dean of_. Carew, 86

" Herald. Vincent, 379

" Library at, 222

Woburn, 326

Wodhull, J., 404

Worsley, Frances, 91

" Sir R., 91

" Sir W., 90, 127

Wotton, T., 407

Wright, A., 408

Wriothesley, Rachel, 327

" T., _Earl of Southampton_, 327

Wyndham, Sir J., 410

York, _Archbishop of_. Gilbert, 192

" " " Matthew, 294

" " " Sandys, 333

" " " Williams, 401

" _Cardinal_. Henry Benedict, 221-222

" _Duke of_. (Aft. James II.), 254-337

Young, Patrick, 227

THE END

Transcriber's Notes:

Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were silently corrected.

Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

P. 41 added "Coats-of-Arms" heading to section beginning to agree with TOC.

Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.