Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 3 of 4: N-R) by

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.

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In this version [=e] signifies "e macron"; [)e] "e breve"; [.e] "e with dot above"; and so forth.




LONDON: 47 Paternoster Row W. & R. CHAMBERS, LIMITED EDINBURGH: 339 High Street 1908


THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORDS.--Every word is given in its _alphabetical_ order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the signification of the affix: thus the meanings of _Darkness_ are obtained by prefixing the meaning of _ness_, _state of being_, to those of _Dark_.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

THE PRONUNCIATION.--The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word, by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used has its ordinary unvarying sound, _no consonant being employed that has more than one sound_. The same sounds are always represented by the same letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of _th_, which is printed in common letters when sounded as in _thick_, but in italics when sounded as in _th_en. _Unmarked vowels_ have always their short sounds, as in _lad_, _led_, _lid_, _lot_, _but_, _book_. The _marked vowels_ are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of each page:--

f[=a]te, fär; m[=e], h[.e]r; m[=i]ne; m[=o]te; m[=u]te; m[=oo]n; _th_en.

The vowel _u_ when marked thus, _ü_, has the sound heard in Scotch _bluid_, _gude_, the French _du_, almost that of the German _ü_ in _Müller_. Where more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first is more accepted.

THE SPELLING.--When more than one form of a word is given, that which is placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German. The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A. H. Murray:--the dropping of the final or inflexional silent _e_; the restoration of the historical _-t_ after breath consonants; uniformity in the employment of double consonants, as in _traveler_, &c.; the discarding of _ue_ in words like _demagogue_ and _catalogue_; the uniform levelling of the agent _-our_ into _-or_; the making of _ea = [)e]_ short into _e_ and the long _ie_ into _ee_; the restoration of _some_, _come_, _tongue_, to their old English forms, _sum_, _cum_, _tung_; a more extended use of _z_ in the body of words, as _chozen_, _praize_, _raize_; and the correction of the worst individual monstrosities, as _foreign_, _scent_, _scythe_, _ache_, _debt_, _people_, _parliament_, _court_, _would_, _sceptic_, _phthisis_, _queue_, _schedule_, _twopence-halfpenny_, _yeoman_, _sieve_, _gauge_, _barque_, _buoy_, _yacht_, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be established in good usage, by the adoption of _-or_ for _-our_, as _color_, _labor_, &c.; of _-er_ for _-re_, as _center_, _meter_, &c.; _-ize_ for _-ise_, as _civilize_, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an unaccented vowel, as _traveler_ for _traveller_; the adoption of _e_ for _oe_ or _æ_ in _hemorrhage_, _diarrhea_, &c.

THE MEANINGS.--The current and most important meaning of a word is usually given first. But in cases like _Clerk_, _Livery_, _Marshal_, where the force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage defined.

THE ETYMOLOGY.--The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings, within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, BAN, BASE, the student is referred to it; also that here the sign--is always to be read as meaning 'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given, though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.

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_aor._ aorist. _abbrev._ abbreviation. _abl._ ablative. _acc._ according. _accus._ accusative. _adj._ adjective. _adv._ adverb. _agri._ agriculture. _alg._ algebra. _anat._ anatomy. _app._ apparently. _arch._ archaic. _archit._ architecture. _arith._ arithmetic. _astrol._ astrology. _astron._ astronomy. _attrib._ attributive. _augm._ augmentative. _B._ Bible. _biol._ biology. _book-k._ book-keeping. _bot._ botany. _c._ (_circa_) about. _c._, _cent._ century. _carp._ carpentry. _cf._ compare. _chem._ chemistry. _cog._ cognate. _coll._, _colloq._ colloquially. _comp._ comparative. _conch._ conchology. _conj._ conjunction. _conn._ connected. _contr._ contracted. _cook._ cookery. _corr._ corruption. _crystal._ crystallography. _dat._ dative. _demons._ demonstrative. _der._ derivation. _dial._ dialect, dialectal. _Dict._ Dictionary. _dim._ diminutive. _dub._ doubtful. _eccles._ ecclesiastical history. _e.g._ for example. _elect._ electricity. _entom._ entomology. _esp._ especially. _ety._ etymology. _fem._ feminine. _fig._ figuratively. _fol._ followed; following. _fort._ fortification. _freq._ frequentative. _fut._ future. _gen._ genitive. _gener._ generally. _geog._ geography. _geol._ geology. _geom._ geometry. _ger._ gerundive. _gram._ grammar. _gun._ gunnery. _her._ heraldry. _hist._ history. _hort._ horticulture. _hum._ humorous. _i.e._ that is. _imit._ imitative. _imper._ imperative. _impers._ impersonal. _indic._ indicative. _infin._ infinitive. _inten._ intensive. _interj._ interjection. _interrog._ interrogative. _jew._ jewellery. _lit._ literally. _mach._ machinery. _masc._ masculine. _math._ mathematics. _mech._ mechanics. _med._ medicine. _metaph._ metaphysics. _mil._ military. _Milt._ Milton. _min._ mineralogy. _mod._ modern. _Mt._ Mount. _mus._ music. _myth._ mythology. _n._, _ns._ noun, nouns. _nat. hist._ natural history. _naut._ nautical. _neg._ negative. _neut._ neuter. noun plural. _n.sing._ noun singular. _N.T._ New Testament. _obs._ obsolete. _opp._ opposed. _opt._ optics. _orig._ originally. _ornith._ ornithology. _O.S._ old style. _O.T._ Old Testament. _p._, _part._ participle. _p.adj._ participial adjective. _paint._ painting. _paleog._ paleography. _paleon._ paleontology. _palm._ palmistry. _pa.p._ past participle. _pass._ passive. _pa.t._ past tense. _path._ pathology. _perf._ perfect. _perh._ perhaps. _pers._ person. _pfx._ prefix. _phil._, _philos._ philosophy. _philol._ philology. _phon._ phonetics. _phot._ photography. _phrenol._ phrenology. _phys._ physics. _physiol._ physiology. _pl._ plural. _poet._ poetical. _pol. econ._ political economy. _poss._ possessive. _Pr.Bk._ Book of Common Prayer. _pr.p._ present participle. _prep._ preposition. _pres._ present. _print._ printing. _priv._ privative. _prob._ probably. _Prof._ Professor. _pron._ pronoun; pronounced; pronunciation. _prop._ properly. _pros._ prosody. _prov._ provincial. _q.v._ which see. _R.C._ Roman Catholic. _recip._ reciprocal. _redup._ reduplication. _refl._ reflexive. _rel._ related; relative. _rhet._ rhetoric. _sculp._ sculpture. _Shak._ Shakespeare. _sig._ signifying. _sing._ singular. _spec._ specifically. _Spens_. Spenser. _subj._ subjunctive. _suff._ suffix. _superl._ superlative. _surg._ surgery. _term._ termination. _teleg._ telegraphy. _Tenn._ Tennyson. _Test._ Testament. _theat._ theatre; theatricals. _theol._ theology. _trig._ trigonometry. _ult._ ultimately. _v.i._ verb intransitive. _voc._ vocative. _v.t._ verb transitive. _vul._ vulgar. _zool._ zoology.

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Amer. American. Ar. Arabic. A.S. Anglo-Saxon. Austr. Australian. Bav. Bavarian. Beng. Bengali. Bohem. Bohemian. Braz. Brazilian. Bret. Breton. Carib. Caribbean. Celt. Celtic. Chal. Chaldean. Chin. Chinese. Corn. Cornish. Dan. Danish. Dut. Dutch. Egypt. Egyptian. Eng. English. Finn. Finnish. Flem. Flemish. Fr. French. Fris. Frisian. Gael. Gaelic. Ger. German. Goth. Gothic. Gr. Greek. Heb. Hebrew. Hind. Hindustani. Hung. Hungarian. Ice. Icelandic. Ind. Indian. Ion. Ionic. Ir. Irish. It. Italian. Jap. Japanese. Jav. Javanese. L. Latin. Lith. Lithuanian. L. L. Low or Late Latin. M. E. Middle English. Mex. Mexican. Norm. Norman. Norw. Norwegian. O. Fr. Old French. Pers. Persian. Peruv. Peruvian. Pol. Polish. Port. Portuguese. Prov. Provençal. Rom. Romance. Russ. Russian Sans. Sanskrit. Scand. Scandinavian. Scot. Scottish. Singh. Singhalese. Slav. Slavonic. Sp. Spanish. Sw. Swedish. Teut. Teutonic. Turk. Turkish. U.S. United States. W. Welsh.

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N the fourteenth letter and eleventh consonant of our alphabet, a nasal-dental: (_chem._) the symbol for nitrogen: (_math._) an indefinite constant whole number, esp. the degree of a quantic or an equation: as a numeral, formerly, N=90, and ([=N])=90,000.

NA, nä, a Scotch form of _no_.

NAB, nab, _v.t._ to seize suddenly:--_pr.p._ nab'bing; _pa.p._ nabbed. [Sw. _nappa_; Dan. _nappe_, to catch.]

NAB, nab, _n._ a hill-top: the projecting cavity fixed to the jamb of a door to receive the latch or bolt: (_obs._) a hat. [For _knab_=_knap_.]

NABATÆAN, nab-a-t[=e]'an, _adj._ of or pertaining to a once powerful Arab people who formerly dwelt on the east and south-east of Palestine, identified by some with the _Nebaioth_ of Isa. lx. 7, the _Nabathites_ of 1 Maccab. v. 25.--Also NABATH[=E]'AN.

NABK, nabk, _n._ one of the plants in the crown of thorns (_Zizyphus Spina-Christi_). [Prob. Ar.]

NABOB, n[=a]'bob, _n._ a deputy or governor under the Mogul Empire: a European who has enriched himself in the East: any man of great wealth. [Corr. of Hind. _nawwâb_, a deputy, from Ar. _naww[=a]b_, pl. (used as sing.) of _n[=a]ib_, a deputy.]

NACARAT, nak'a-rat, _n._ a light-red colour, scarlet: a fabric of this colour. [Fr.]

NACKET, nak'et, _n._ (_Scot._) a small cake, luncheon.

NACRE, n[=a]'kr, _n._ mother-of-pearl.--_adj._ iridescent.--_adj._ N[=A]'CREOUS, consisting of nacre: having a pearly lustre. [Fr.,--Ar. _nak[=i]r_, hollowed.]

NADIR, n[=a]'dir, _n._ the point of the heavens diametrically opposite to the zenith: the lowest point of anything. [Fr.,--Ar. _naz[=i]r_, from _nazara_, to be like.]

NÆVUS, n[=e]'vus, _n._ a birth-mark: a congenital growth strictly on a part of the skin, whether a _pigmentary nævus_ or mole, or a _vascular naevus_ or overgrowth of capillary blood-vessels--also _Mother-spot_ or _Birth-mark_--also NÆVE, NEVE:--_pl._ NÆ'V[=I].--_adjs._ NÆ'VOID, NÆ'VOUS, NÆ'VOSE. [L.]

NAG, nag, _n._ a horse, but particularly a small one--(_Scot._) NAIG: (_Shak._) a jade. [M. E. _nagge_--Mid. Dut. _negge_, _negghe_ (mod. Dut. _negge_); cf. _Neigh._]

NAG, nag, _v.t._ to worry or annoy continually: to tease or vex: to find fault with constantly:--_pr.p._ nag'ging; _pa.p._ nagged.--_n._ NAG'GER. [Cf. _Gnaw_.]

NAGA, nä'ga, _n._ the name of deified serpents in Hindu mythology.


NAIAD, n[=a]'yad, _n._ a water-nymph or a goddess, presiding over rivers and springs:--_pl._ NAI'ADES. [L. and Gr. _naias_, _naiados_, from _naein_, to flow.]

NAIANT, n[=a]'yant, _adj._ floating: (_her._) swimming, as a fish placed horizontally across a shield. [L. _nans_, _nantis_, pr.p. of _nat[=a]re_, to swim.]

NAÏF, nä-[=e]f', NAÏVE, nä-[=e]v', _adj._ with natural or unaffected simplicity, esp. in thought, manners, or speech: artless: ingenuous.--_adv._ NAÏVE'LY.--_n._ NAÏVETÉ (nä-[=e]v-t[=a]'), natural simplicity and unreservedness of thought, manner, or speech. [Fr. _naïf_, fem, _naïve_--L. _nativus_, native--_nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]

NAIL, n[=a]l, _n._ one of the flattened, elastic, horny plates placed as protective coverings on the dorsal surface of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes: the claw of a bird or other animal: a thin pointed piece of metal for fastening wood: a measure of length (2¼ inches):--_v.t._ to fasten with nails: to make certain: to confirm, pin down, hold fast: to catch or secure through promptitude; to trip up or expose.--_ns._ NAIL'-BRUSH, a small brush for cleaning the nails; NAIL'ER, one whose trade is to make nails; NAIL'ERY, a place where nails are made.--_adj._ NAIL'-HEAD'ED, having a head like that of a nail: formed like nail-heads, said of ornamental marks on cloth and on certain kinds of mouldings (_dog-tooth_).--_n._ NAIL'-ROD, a strip cut from an iron plate to be made into nails: a trade name for a strong kind of manufactured tobacco.--NAIL TO THE COUNTER, to expose publicly as false, from the habit of nailing a counterfeit coin to a shop counter.--DRIVE A NAIL IN ONE'S COFFIN (see COFFIN); HIT THE NAIL ON THE HEAD, to touch the exact point; ON THE NAIL, on the spot: immediately: without delay. [A.S. _nægel_; Ger. _nagel_.]

NAINSELL, n[=a]n'sel, _n._ own self--_Highland Scotch_.

NAINSOOK, n[=a]n's[=oo]k, _n._ a kind of muslin like jaconet, both plain and striped. [Hind.]

NAISSANT, n[=a]s'sant, _adj._ (_her._) rising or coming forth, as an animal newly born or about to be born. [Fr., pr.p. of _naître_--L. _nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]


NAKED, n[=a]'ked, _adj._ without clothes: uncovered: open to view: unconcealed: evident: unarmed: defenceless: unprovided: without addition or ornament: simple: artless: (_bot._) without the usual covering.--_adv._ N[=A]'KEDLY.--_n._ N[=A]'KEDNESS.--NAKED EYE, the eye unassisted by glasses of any kind; NAKED LADY, the meadow-saffron.--STARK NAKED, entirely naked. [A.S. _nacod_; Ger. _nackt_.]

NAKER, n[=a]'ker, _n._ a kettledrum. [O. Fr.,--Ar.]

NAM, nam, _n._ an obsolete law term for distraint.--_n._ NAM[=A]'TION. [A.S. _niman_, pa.t. _nam_, to take.]

NAMBY-PAMBY, nam'bi-pam'bi, _n._ silly talking or writing.--_adj._ sentimental, affectedly pretty.--_v.t._ to coddle. [H. Carey's nickname for _Ambrose_ Philips (1671-1749), from his childish odes to children.]

NAME, n[=a]m, _n._ that by which a person or a thing is known or called: a designation: that which is said of a person: reputed character: reputation: fame: celebrity: remembrance: a race or family: appearance, not reality: authority: behalf: assumed character of another: (_gram._) a noun.--_v.t._ to give a name to: to designate: to speak of or to call by name: to mention for a post or office: to nominate: to mention formally by name a person in the House of Commons as guilty of disorderly conduct.--_adjs._ NAM'ABLE, NAME'ABLE; NAME'LESS, without a name: undistinguished: indescribable; NAME'WORTHY, distinguished.--_adv._ NAME'LESSLY.--_n._ NAME'LESSNESS.--_adv._ NAME'LY, by name: that is to say.--_ns._ NAME'-PLATE, a plate of metal having on it the name of a person, usually affixed to a door or a gate; NAM'ER; NAME'SAKE, one bearing the same name as another for his sake.--NAME THE DAY, to fix a day, esp. for a marriage.--CALL NAMES, to nickname; CHRISTIAN NAME (see CHRISTIAN); IN NAME OF, on behalf of: by the authority of; PROPER NAME, a name given to a particular person, place, or thing; TAKE A NAME IN VAIN, to use a name lightly or profanely. [A.S. _nama_; Ger. _name_; L. _nomen_.]

NANCY, nan'si, _n._ an effeminate young man, often a 'Miss Nancy.'--NANCY PRETTY, a corruption of _none so pretty_, the _Saxifraga umbrosa_.

NANDINE, nan'din, _n._ a small West African paradoxure, with spotted sides.

NANDU, NANDOO, nan'd[=oo], _n._ the South American ostrich.

NANISM, n[=a]'nizm, _n._ dwarfishness.--_n._ NANIS[=A]'TION, the artificial dwarfing of trees.--_adj._ N[=A]'NOID. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _nanos_, a dwarf.]

NANKEEN, nan-k[=e]n', _n._ a buff-coloured cotton cloth first made at _Nankin_ in China: (_pl._) clothes, esp. breeches, made of nankeen.--Also NANKIN'.

NANNY, nan'i, _n._ a female goat.--Also NANN'Y-GOAT.

NAP, nap, _n._ a short sleep.--_v.i._ to take a short sleep: to feel drowsy and secure:--_pr.p._ nap'ping; _pa.p._ napped.--CATCH NAPPING, to come upon unprepared. [A.S. _hnappian_; cf. Ger. _nicken_, to nod.]

NAP, nap, _n._ the woolly substance on the surface of cloth: the downy covering of plants.--_v.t._ to raise a nap on.--_ns._ NAP'-M[=E]'TER, a machine for testing the wearing strength of cloth; NAP'PINESS.--_adj._ NAP'PY. [M. E. _noppe_: the same as _knop_.]

NAP, nap, _n._ a game of cards--_Napoleon_ (q.v.).

NAP, nap, _v.t._ to seize, to take hold of, steal.

NAPE, n[=a]p, _n._ the back upper part of the neck, perhaps so called from the knob or projecting point of the neck behind. [_Knap_, _knob_.]

NAPERY, n[=a]'per-i, _n._ linen, esp. for the table: table-cloths, napkins, &c. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _naparia_--_napa, a cloth_--L. _mappa_, a napkin.]

NAPHTHA, naf'tha, or nap'tha, _n._ a clear, inflammable liquid distilled from petroleum, wood, coal-tar, &c.: rock-oil.--_n._ NAPH'THALENE, a grayish-white, inflammable substance obtained by the distillation of coal-tar.--_adj._ NAPHTHAL'IC, pertaining to, or derived from, naphthalene.--_v.t._ NAPH'THALISE.--_ns._ NAPH'THOL, NAPHTHYL'AMINE. [L.,--Gr.,--Ar. _naft_.]

NAPIERIAN, n[=a]-p[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to John _Napier_ of Merchiston (1550-1617), the inventor of logarithms.--NAPIER'S BONES, or RODS, an invention of Napier's for performing mechanically the operations of multiplication and division, by means of sets of rods.

NAPIFORM, n[=a]p'i-form, _adj._ shaped like a turnip: large and round above and slender below.--_adj._ NAPIF[=O]'LIOUS, with leaves like the turnip. [L. _napus_, a turnip.]

NAPKIN, nap'kin, _n._ a cloth for wiping the hands: a handkerchief.--_n._ NAP'KIN-RING, a ring in which a table-napkin is rolled. [Dim. of Fr. _nappe_.]

NAPLESS, nap'les, _adj._ without nap: threadbare.

NAPLES-YELLOW, n[=a]'plz-yel'l[=o], _n._ a light-yellow pigment consisting of antimoniate of lead, originally made in Italy by a secret process.

NAPOLEON, na-p[=o]'l[=e]-on, _n._ a French gold coin worth 20 francs, or about 15s. 10½d.: a French modification of the game of euchre, each player receiving five cards and playing for himself: a kind of rich iced cake.--_adj._ NAPOLEON'IC, relating to _Napoleon I_. or _III_., the Great or the Little.--_ns._ NAP[=O]'LEONISM; NAP[=O]'LEONIST.--GO NAP, to declare all five tricks--success rewarded by double payment all round.

NAPPY, nap'i, _adj._ heady, strong: tipsy.--_n._ strong ale. [Prob. from _nap_, a sleep.]

NAPPY, nap'i, _adj._ (_Scot._) brittle. [Cf. _Knap._]

NAPRON, nap'ron, _n._ (_Spens._) an apron.

NARCISSUS, nar-sis'us, _n._ a genus of plants of the Amaryllis family, comprising the daffodils. [L.,--Gr. _narkissos_--_nark[=e]_, torpor.]

NARCOLEPSY, nar'k[=o]-lep-si, _n._ a nervous disorder marked by frequent short attacks of irresistible drowsiness.

NARCOTIC, nar-kot'ik, _adj._ having power to produce torpor, sleep, or deadness.--_n._ a medicine producing sleep or stupor.--_n._ NARC[=O]'SIS, the stupefying effect of a narcotic.--_adv._ NARCOT'ICALLY.--_n._ NAR'COTINE, one of the organic bases or alkaloids occurring in opium.--_v.t._ NAR'COTISE.--_n._ NAR'COTISM, the influence of narcotics, or the effects produced by their use. [Fr.,--Gr. _nark[=e]_, torpor.]

NARD, närd, _n._ an aromatic plant usually called _Spikenard_: an ointment prepared from it.--_adj._ NARD'INE. [Fr.,--L. _nardus_--Gr. _nardos_--Pers. _nard_--Sans. _nalada_, from Sans. _nal_, to smell.]

NARDOO, när-d[=oo]', _n._ an Australian cryptogamic plant whose spore-cases are eaten by the natives.

NARDUS, när'dus, _n._ a genus of grasses, having but one species, _Nardus stricta_, mat-grass.

NARGHILE, när'gi-le, _n._ an Eastern tobacco-pipe, in which the smoke is passed through water.--Also NAR'GILE, NAR'GILEH, NAR'GILI. [Pers.]

NARIS, n[=a]'ris, _n._ a nostril:--_pl._ N[=A]'RES.--_adjs._ NAR'IAL, NAR'INE.--_n._ NAR'ICORN, the horny nasal sheath of the beak of some birds.--_adj._ NAR'IFORM. [L.]

NARRATE, na-r[=a]t', or nar'-, _v.t._ to tell, to give an account of.--_adj._ NARR'ABLE, capable of being told.--_n._ NARR[=A]'TION, act of telling: that which is told: an orderly account of what has happened.--_adj._ NARR'ATIVE, narrating: giving an account of any occurrence: inclined to narration: story-telling.--_n._ that which is narrated: a continued account of any occurrence: story.--_adv._ NARR'ATIVELY.--_n._ NARR[=A]'TOR, one who narrates: one who tells or states facts, &c.--_adj._ NARR'ATORY, like narrative: consisting of narrative. [Fr.,--L. _narr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_gn[=a]rus_, knowing.]

NARRE, när, _adj._ (_Spens._) an older form of _near_.

NARROW, nar'[=o], _adj._ of little breadth: of small extent from side to side: limited: contracted in mind: bigoted: not liberal: selfish: within a small distance: almost too small: close: accurate: careful.--_n._ (oftener used in the _pl._) a narrow passage, channel, or strait.--_v.t._ to make narrow: to contract or confine.--_v.i._ to become narrow: to reduce the number of stitches in knitting.--_adj._ NARR'OW-GAUGE, denoting a railroad of less width than 4 ft. 8½ in.--_n._ NARR'OWING, the act of making less in breadth: the state of being contracted: the part of anything which is made narrower.--_adv._ NARR'OWLY.--_adj._ NARR'OW-MIND'ED, of a narrow or illiberal mind.--_ns._ NARR'OW-MIND'EDNESS; NARR'OWNESS.--_adjs._ NARR'OW-PRY'ING (_Shak._), scrutinising closely, inquisitive; NARR'OW-SOULED, illiberal.--NARROW CLOTH, cloth, esp. woollen, of less than 54 inches in width; NARROW WORK, in mining, the making of passages, air-shafts, &c. [A.S. _nearu_; not conn. with _near_, but prob. with _nerve_, _snare_.]

NARTHEX, nar'theks, _n._ a former genus of umbelliferous plants, now included in _Ferula_: a portico or lobby in an early Christian or Oriental church or basilica. [L.,--Gr., _narth[=e]x_.]

NARWHAL, när'hwal, NARWAL, när'wal, _n._ the sea-unicorn, a mammal of the whale family with one large projecting tusk. [Dan. _narhval_--Ice. _náhvalr_, 'corpse-whale,' from the creature's pallid colour (Ice. _nár_, corpse).]

NARY, ner'i, a provincial corruption of _ne'er a_, _never a_.

NAS, nas, an obsolete corruption of _ne has_; of _ne was_.

NASAL, n[=a]'zal, _adj._ belonging to the nose: affected by, or sounded through, the nose.--_n._ a letter or sound uttered through the nose: the nose-piece in a helmet.--_n._ NASALIS[=A]'TION, the act of uttering with a nasal sound.--_v.i._ N[=A]'SALISE, to render nasal, as a sound: to insert a nasal letter into.--_n._ NASAL'ITY.--_adv._ N[=A]'SALLY, by or through the nose.--_adjs._ N[=A]'SICORN, having a horn on the nose, as a rhinoceros; N[=A]'SIFORM, nose-shaped.--_n._ N[=A]'SION, the median point of the naso-frontal suture.--_adjs._ NASOB[=A]'SAL, pertaining to the nose and base of the skull; NASOC'ULAR, pertaining to the nose and eye, nasorbital; NASOFRON'TAL, pertaining to the nasal bone and the frontal bone; NASOL[=A]'BIAL, pertaining to the nose and the upper lip; NASOLAC'RYMAL, pertaining to the nose and to tears, as the duct which carries tears from the eyes to the nose; NASOPAL'ATINE, pertaining to the nose and to the palate or palate-bones. [Fr.,--L. _nasus_, the nose.]

NASARD, naz'ard, _n._ a mutation-stop in organ-building.--Also NAS'ARDE.

NASCENT, nas'ent, _adj._ springing up: arising: beginning to exist or to grow.--_n._ NAS'CENCY, the beginning of production: birth or origin. [L. _nascens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]

NASEBERRY, n[=a]z'ber-i, _n._ an American tropical tree.--Also NEES'BERRY, NIS'BERRY. [Sp. _níspero_--L. _mespilus_, medlar.]

NASTURTIUM, nas-tur'shi-um, _n._ the water-cress. [L., _nasus_, the nose, _torqu[=e]re_, _tortum_, to twist.]

NASTY, nas'ti, _adj._ dirty: filthy: obscene: disagreeable to the taste or smell: difficult to deal with: ill-natured: nauseous.--_adv._ NAS'TILY.--_n._ NAS'TINESS. [Old form _nasky_, soft; cf. prov. Swed. _snaskig_, nasty, Low Ger. _nask_, nasty.]

NASUTE, n[=a]-s[=u]t', _adj._ having a long snout: keen-scented.

NATAL, n[=a]'tal, _adj._ pertaining to the nates or N[=A]'TES, the buttocks.--_adj._ NAT'IFORM. [L. _natis_, the rump.]

NATAL, n[=a]'tal, _adj._ pertaining to birth: native: presiding over birthdays.--_adj._ NATALI'TIAL, pertaining to a birthday.--_n._ NATAL'ITY, birth-rate. [Fr.,--L. _natalis_--_nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]

NATANT, n[=a]'tant, _adj._ floating on the surface, as leaves of water-plants: (_her._) in a horizontal position, as if swimming.--_n._ NAT[=A]'TION, NATAT[=O]'RES, the swimming-birds.--_adj._ NATAT[=O]'RIAL, swimming: adapted to swim.--_n._ NATAT[=O]'RIUM, a swimming-school.--_adj._ N[=A]'TATORY, pertaining to swimming: having the habit of swimming. [L. _natans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of _nat[=a]re_, inten. of _n[=a]re_, to swim.]

NATCH, nach, _n._ (_prov._) the rump.

NATCH, nach, _n._ a provincial form of _notch_.

NATHLESS, nath'les, _adj._ not the less: nevertheless.--Also NATHE'LESS. [A.S. _ná thý læs_, not the less.]

NATHMORE, nath'm[=o]r, _adv._ (_Spens._) not or never the more.--Also NATH'MOE. [A.S. _ná thý mára_.]

NATION, n[=a]'shun, _n._ a body of people born of the same stock: the people inhabiting the same country, or under the same government: a race: a great number: a division of students in a university for voting purposes at Aberdeen and Glasgow. [Fr.,--L. _nation-em_,--_nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]

NATIONAL, nash'un-al, _adj._ pertaining to a nation: public: general: attached to one's own country.--_n._ NATIONALIS[=A]'TION, the act of nationalising, as of railways, private property, &c.: the state of being nationalised.--_v.t._ NAT'IONALISE, to make national: to make a nation of.--_ns._ NAT'IONALISM; NAT'IONALIST, one who strives after national unity or independence, esp. as in Ireland for more or less separation from Great Britain: an advocate of nationalism: NATIONAL'ITY, birth or membership in a particular country: separate existence as a nation: a nation, race of people: national character.--_adv._ NAT'IONALLY.--_n._ NAT'IONALNESS.--NATIONAL AIR, ANTHEM, the popular song by which a people's patriotic feelings are expressed; NATIONAL CHURCH, the church established by law in a country; NATIONAL CONVENTION, the sovereign assembly which sat from Sept. 21, 1792, to Oct. 26, 1795, after the abolition of monarchy in France; NATIONAL DEBT, money borrowed by the government of a country and not yet paid; NATIONAL FLAG, or ENSIGN, the principal flag of a country; NATIONAL GUARD, a force which took part in the French Revolution, first formed in 1789.

NATIVE, n[=a]'tiv, _adj._ arising or appearing by birth: produced by nature: pertaining to the time or place of birth: belonging by birth, hereditary, natural, original: occurring uncombined with other substances, as metals.--_n._ one born in any place: an original inhabitant: (_pl._) oysters raised in artificial beds.--_adv._ N[=A]'TIVELY.--_ns._ N[=A]'TIVENESS; N[=A]'TIVISM, the belief that the mind possesses some ideas or forms of thought that are inborn, and not derived from sensation: the disposition to favour the natives of a country in preference to immigrants; N[=A]'TIVIST.--_adj._ NATIVIS'TIC.--_n._ NATIV'ITY, state or fact of being born: time, place, and manner of birth: the birth of Christ, hence the festival of His birth, Christmas--also a picture representing His birth: state or place of being produced: a horoscope.--NATIVE ROCK, stone not yet quarried. [Fr.,--L. _nativus_--_nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]

NATRIX, n[=a]'triks, _n._ a genus of colubrine snakes. [L.,--_nat[=a]re_, to swim.]

NATROLITE, nat'ro-l[=i]t, _n._ one of the most common of the group of minerals known as Zeolites.

NATRON, n[=a]'trun, _n._ native carbonate of sodium, or mineral alkali, the nitre of the Bible.--_n._ NATROM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the quantity of soda in salts of potash and soda. [Fr.,--L. _nitrum_--Gr. _nitron_.]

NATTER, nat'[.e]r, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_prov._) to find fault.--_adjs._ NATT'ERED, NATT'ERY, peevish.

NATTERJACK, nat'[.e]r-jak, _n._ a common European toad. [Cf. _Adder_.]

NATTES, nats, surface decoration or diaper resembling plaited or interlaced work. [Fr.]

NATTY, nat'i, _adj._ trim, tidy, neat, spruce.--_adv._ NATT'ILY.--_n._ NATT'INESS. [Allied to _neat_.]

NATURAL, nat'[=u]-ral, _adj._ pertaining to, produced by, or according to nature: inborn: not far-fetched: not acquired: tender: unaffected: in a state of nature, unregenerate: (_math._) having 1 as the base of the system, of a function or number: illegitimate: (_mus._) according to the usual diatonic scale.--_n._ an idiot: (_mus._) a character ([Natural]) which removes the effect of a preceding sharp or flat: a white key in keyboard musical instruments.--_adj._ NAT'URAL-BORN, NATUR[=A]'LIA, the sexual organs.--_n._ NATURALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ NAT'URALISE, to make natural or easy: to adapt to a different climate or to different conditions of life: to grant the privileges of natural-born subjects to.--_ns._ NAT'URALISM, mere state of nature: a close following of nature, without idealisation, in painting, sculpture, fiction, &c.: the belief that natural religion is of itself sufficient; NAT'URALIST, one who studies nature, more particularly zoology and botany: a believer in naturalism.--_adj._ NATURALIST'IC, pertaining to, or in accordance with, nature: belonging to the doctrines of naturalism.--_adv._ NAT'URALLY.--_n._ NAT'URALNESS.--NATURAL HISTORY, originally the description of all that is in nature, now used of the sciences that deal with the earth and its productions--botany, zoology, and mineralogy, esp. zoology; NATURAL LAW, the sense of right and wrong which arises from the constitution of the mind of man, as distinguished from the results of revelation or legislation; NATURAL NUMBERS, the numbers 1, 2, 3, and upwards; NATURAL ORDER, in botany, an order or division belonging to the natural system of classification, based on a consideration of all the organs of the plant; NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, the science of nature, of the physical properties of bodies: physics; NATURAL SCALE, a scale of music written without sharps or flats; NATURAL SCIENCE, the science of _nature_, as distinguished from that of _mind_ (mental and moral science), and from _pure_ science (mathematics); NATURAL SELECTION, a supposed operation of the laws of nature, the result of which is the 'survival of the fittest,' as if brought about by intelligent design; NATURAL SYSTEM, a classification of plants and animals according to real differences in structure; NATURAL THEOLOGY, or NATURAL RELIGION, the body of theological truths discoverable by reason without revelation.

NATURE, n[=a]'t[=u]r, _n._ the power which creates and which regulates the material world: the power of growth: the established order of things, the universe: the qualities of anything which make it what it is: constitution: species: conformity to nature, truth, or reality: inborn mind, character, instinct, or disposition: vital power, as of man or animal: course of life: nakedness: a primitive undomesticated condition.--_adj._ N[=A]'TURED, having a certain temper or disposition: used in compounds, as _good-natured_.--_ns._ N[=A]'TURE-D[=E]'ITY, a deity personifying some force of physical nature; N[=A]'TURE-MYTH, a myth symbolising natural phenomena; N[=A]'TURE-PRINT'ING, the process of printing in colours from plates that have been impressed with some object of nature, as a plant, leaf, &c.; N[=A]'TURE-WOR'SHIP, N[=A]'TURISM, worship of the powers of nature.--_n._ N[=A]'TURIST.--_adj._ NATURIST'IC.--DEBT OF NATURE, death; EASE, or RELIEVE, NATURE, to evacuate the bowels. [Fr.,--L. _natura_--_nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]

NAUGHT, nawt, _n._ no-whit, nothing.--_adv._ in no degree.--_adj._ of no value or account: worthless: bad.--BE NAUGHT, an obsolete form of malediction; COME TO NAUGHT, to come to nothing, to fail; SET AT NAUGHT, to treat as of no account, to despise. [Another form of _nought_. A.S. _náht_, _náwiht_--_ná_, not, _wiht_, a whit.]

NAUGHTY, nawt'i, _adj._ bad in conduct or speech: mischievous: perverse: disagreeable.--_adv._ NAUGHT'ILY.--_n._ NAUGHT'INESS.

NAUMACHY, naw'ma-ki, _n._ a sea-fight: a show representing a sea-fight.--Also NAUMACH'IA. [Gr. _naus_, a ship, _mach[=e]_, a fight.]

NAUPLIUS, naw'pli-us, _n._ a stage of development of low Crustaceans, as cirripeds, &c.:--_pl._ NAU'PLII.--_adjs._ NAU'PLIIFORM, NAU'PLIOID. [L., a kind of shell-fish--Gr. _Nauplios_, a son of Poseidon, _naus_, a ship, _plein_, to sail.]

NAUROPOMETER, naw-r[=o]-pom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring a ship's heeling or inclination at sea. [Gr. _naus_, a ship, _hrop[=e]_, inclination, _metron_, measure.]

NAUSCOPY, naw'skop-i, _n._ the art of sighting ships at great distances. [Gr. _naus_, a ship, _skopein_, to see.]

NAUSEA, naw'she-a, _n._ sea-sickness: any sickness of the stomach, with a tendency to vomit: loathing.--_adj._ NAU'SEANT, producing nausea.--_n._ a substance having this quality.--_v.i._ NAU'SE[=A]TE, to feel nausea or disgust.--_v.t._ to loathe: to strike with disgust.--_n._ NAUSE[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ NAU'SE[=A]TIVE, causing nausea or loathing; NAU'SEOUS, producing nausea: disgusting: loathsome.--_adv._ NAU'SEOUSLY.--_n._ NAU'SEOUSNESS. [L.,--Gr. _nausia_, sea-sickness--_naus_, a ship.]

NAUTCH, nawch, _n._ a kind of ballet-dance performed by professional dancers known as NAUTCH'-GIRLS in India: any form of stage entertainment with dancing. [Hind. _n[=a]ch_, dance.]

NAUTICAL, naw'tik-al, _adj._ of or pertaining to ships, to sailors, or to navigation: naval: marine.--_adv._ NAU'TICALLY.--NAUTICAL ALMANAC, an almanac giving information specially useful to sailors; NAUTICAL MILE, one-sixtieth of a degree measured at the Equator (=about 2025 yards). [L. _nauticus_--Gr. _nautikos_--_naus_; cog. with L. _navis_, a ship.]

NAUTILUS, naw'ti-lus, _n._ a Cephalopod found in the southern seas, once believed to sail by means of the expanded tentacular arms: a kind of diving-bell sinking or rising by means of condensed air:--_pl._ NAU'TILUSES, or NAU'TILI.--_adjs._ NAU'TILIFORM, NAU'TILOID.--PAPER NAUTILUS, any species of _Argonauta_. [L.,--Gr. _nautilos_, a sailor.]

NAVAL, n[=a]'val, _adj._ pertaining to ships: consisting of, or possessing, ships: marine: nautical: belonging to the navy.--NAVAL BRIGADE, a body of seamen so arranged as to be able to serve on land; NAVAL OFFICER, an officer on board a man-of-war: a custom-house officer of high rank in the United States; NAVAL TACTICS, the science and methods of managing and moving squadrons of ships. [Fr.,--L. _navalis_--_navis_, a ship.]

NAVE, n[=a]v, _n._ the middle or main body of a church, distinct from the aisles or wings.--_n._ N[=A]'VARCH, a Greek admiral. [Fr. _nef_--L. _navis_, a ship.]

NAVE, n[=a]v, _n._ the hub or piece of wood, &c., in the centre of a wheel, through which the axle passes.--_v.t._ to form as a nave. [A.S. _nafu_, nave; cf. Dut. _naaf_, Ger. _nabe_.]

NAVEL, n[=a]v'l, _n._ the mark or depression in the centre of the lower part of the abdomen, at first a small projection.--_n._ N[=A]V'EL-STRING, the umbilical cord. [A.S. _nafela_, dim. of _nafu_, nave.]

NAVEW, n[=a]'v[=u], _n._ the wild turnip.

NAVICULAR, nav-ik'[=u]-lar, _adj._ pertaining to small ships or boats: (_bot._) boat-shaped: scaphoid.--_n._ a bone in man and animals, so called from its shape.--_n._ NAVIC'ULA, an incense-boat.--NAVICULAR DISEASE, an inflammation, often rheumatic, of the small bone--the navicular--in horses, below which passes the strong flexor tendon of the foot. [L. _navicularis_--_navicula_, dim. of _navis_, a ship.]

NAVIGATE, nav'i-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to steer or manage a ship in sailing: to sail upon.--_v.i._ to go in a vessel or ship: to sail.--_ns._ NAVIGABIL'ITY, NAV'IGABLENESS.--_adj._ NAV'IGABLE, that may be passed by ships or vessels.--_adv._ NAV'IGABLY.--_ns._ NAVIG[=A]'TION, the act, science, or art of sailing ships: shipping generally: a canal or artificial waterway; NAV'IGATOR, one who navigates or sails: one who directs the course of a ship.--NAVIGATION LAWS, the laws passed from time to time to regulate the management and privileges of ships, and the conditions under which they may sail or carry on trade.--AERIAL NAVIGATION, the management of balloons in motion; INLAND NAVIGATION, the passing of boats, &c., along rivers and canals. [L. _navig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_navis_, a ship, _ag[)e]re_, to drive.]

NAVVY, nav'i, _n._ a labourer--originally a labourer on a navigation or canal: a machine for digging out earth, &c.--called also _French navvy_:--_pl._ NAVV'IES. [A contr. of _navigator_.]

NAVY, n[=a]'vi, _n._ a fleet of ships: the whole of the ships-of-war of a nation: the officers and men belonging to the warships of a nation.--_ns._ N[=A]'VY-LIST, a list of the officers and ships of a navy, published from time to time; N[=A]'VY-YARD, a government dockyard. [O. Fr. _navie_--L. _navis_, a ship.]

NAWAB, na-wab', _n._ a nabob.

NAY, n[=a], _adv._ no: not only so, but: yet more: in point of fact.--_n._ a denial: a vote against.--_n._ NAY'WARD (_Shak._), tendency to denial: the negative side. [M. E. _nay_, _nai_--Ice. _nei_, Dan. _nei_; cog. with _no_.]

NAYWORD, n[=a]'wurd, _n._ (_Shak._) a proverbial reproach, a byword, a watchword.

NAZARENE, naz'ar-[=e]n, _n._ an inhabitant of Nazareth, in Galilee: a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, originally used of Christians in contempt: one belonging to the early Christian sect of the Nazarenes, which existed from the 1st to the 4th cent. A.D.--Also NAZAR[=E]'AN. [From _Nazareth_, the town.]

NAZARITE, naz'ar-[=i]t, _n._ a Jew who vowed to abstain from strong drink, &c.--also NAZ'IRITE.--_n._ NAZ'ARITISM, the vow and practice of a Nazarite. [Heb. _n[=a]zar_, to consecrate.]

NAZE, n[=a]z, _n._ a headland or cape. [Scand., as in Dan. _næs_; a doublet of _ness_.]

NAZIR, na-z[=e]r', _n._ a native official in an Anglo-Indian court who serves summonses, &c. [Ar.]

NE, ne, _adv._ not: never. [A.S. _ne_; cf. _Nay_.]

NEAF, n[=e]f, _n._ the fist--(_Scot._) NEIVE. [M. E. _nefe_--Ice. _hnefi_, _nefi_; cf. Sw. _näfve_, the fist.]

NEAL, n[=e]l, _v.t._ to temper by heat.--_v.i._ to be tempered by heat. [Cf. _Anneal_.]

NEALOGY, n[=e]-al'o-ji, _n._ the description of the morphological correlations of the early adolescent stages of an animal.--_adj._ NEALOG'IC. [Gr. _neos_, young, logia--_legein_, to speak.]

NEANDERTHALOID, n[=e]-an'd[.e]r-tal-oid, _adj._ like the low type of skull found in 1857 in a cave in the _Neanderthal_, a valley between Düsseldorf and Elberfeld.

NEAP, n[=e]p, _adj._ low, applied to the lowest tides.--_n._ a neap-tide: the lowest point of the tide.--_adj._ NEAPED, left aground from one high tide to another. [A.S. _nép_, orig. _hnép_; Dan. _knap_, Ice. _neppr_, scanty.]

NEAPOLITAN, n[=e]-a-pol'i-tan, _adj._ pertaining to the city of Naples or its inhabitants.--_n._ a native or inhabitant of Naples.--NEAPOLITAN ICE, a combination of two different ices. [L. _Neapolitanus_--Gr. _Neapolis_, Naples--_neos_, new, _polis_, city.]

NEAR, n[=e]r, _adj._ nigh: not far away in place or time: close in kin or friendship: dear: following or imitating anything closely: close, narrow, so as barely to escape: short, as a road: greedy, stingy: on the left in riding or driving.--_adv._ at a little distance: almost: closely,--_prep._ close to.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to approach: to come nearer.--_adjs._ NEAR'-BY, adjacent; NEAR'-HAND (_Scot._), near--also _adv._ nearly.--_adv._ NEAR'LY, at no great distance: closely: intimately: pressingly: almost: stingily.--_n._ NEAR'NESS, the state of being near: closeness: intimacy: close alliance: stinginess.--_adj._ NEAR'-SIGHT'ED, seeing distinctly only when near, myopic, short-sighted.--_n._ NEAR'-SIGHT'EDNESS.--NEAR POINT, the nearest point the eye can focus. [A.S. _neár_, comp. of _neáh_, nigh; Ice. _nær_; Ger. _näher_.]

NEARCTIC, n[=e]-ark'tik, _adj._ of or pertaining to the northern part of the New World--embracing temperate and arctic North America.

NEAT, n[=e]t, _adj._ belonging to the bovine genus.--_n._ black-cattle: an ox or cow.--_ns._ NEAT'-HERD, one who herds, or has the care of, neat or cattle; NEAT'-HOUSE, a building for the shelter of neat-cattle.--NEAT'S-FOOT OIL, an oil obtained from the feet of oxen; NEAT'S LEATHER, leather made of the hides of neat-cattle. [A.S. _neát_, cattle, a beast--_neótan_, _niótan_, to use; cf. Scot. _nowt_, black-cattle.]

NEAT, n[=e]t, _adj._ trim: tidy: clean: well-shaped: without mixture or adulteration: finished, adroit, clever, skilful.--_adj._ NEAT'-HAND'ED, dexterous.--_adv._ NEAT'LY.--_n._ NEAT'NESS. [Fr. _net_--L. _nitidus_, shining--_nìt[=e]re_, to shine.]

NEB, neb, _n._ the beak of a bird: the nose: the sharp point of anything.--_adj._ NEBB'Y (_Scot._), saucy. [A.S. _nebb_, the face; cog. with Dut. _neb_, beak.]

NEBBUK, neb'uk, _n._ a shrub, _Zizyphus Spina-Christi_, one of the thorns of Christ's crown.

NEBEL, neb'el, _n._ a Hebrew stringed instrument.

NEB-NEB, neb'-neb, _n._ the dried pods of a species of acacia found in Africa, which are much used in Egypt for tanning--called also _Bablah_.

NEBRIS, neb'ris, _n._ a fawn-skin worn in imitation of Bacchus by his priests and votaries.

NEBULA, neb'[=u]-la, _n._ a little cloud: a faint, misty appearance in the heavens produced either by a group of stars too distant to be seen singly, or by diffused gaseous matter:--_pl._ NEB'ULÆ.--_adjs._ NEB'ULAR, pertaining to nebulæ: like nebulæ; NEBULÉ (neb-[=u]-l[=a]'), curved in and out (_her._); NEB'ULOSE, NEB'ULOUS, misty, hazy, vague: relating to, or having the appearance of, a nebula.--_ns._ NEBULOS'ITY, NEB'ULOUSNESS.--NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS, the theory of Laplace and Sir W. Herschel that nebulæ form the earliest stage in the formation of stars and planets. [L.; Gr. _nephel[=e]_, cloud, mist.]

NECESSARY, nes'es-sar-i, _adj._ that must be: that cannot be otherwise: unavoidable: indispensable: under compulsion: not free.--_n._ that which cannot be left out or done without (food, &c.)--used chiefly in _pl._: a privy.--_ns._ NECESS[=A]'RIAN, one who holds the doctrine of necessity; NECESS[=A]'RIANISM, the doctrine that the will is not free, but subject to causes without, which determine its action.--_adv._ NEC'ESSARILY.--_n._ NEC'ESSARINESS, the state or quality of being necessary.--NECESSARY TRUTHS, such as cannot but be true. [Fr.,--L. _necessarius_.]

NECESSITY, ne-ses'i-ti, _n._ state or quality of being necessary: that which is necessary or unavoidable: compulsion: great need: poverty.--_ns._ NECESSIT[=A]'RIAN; NECESSIT[=A]'RIANISM, necessarianism.--_v.t._ NECESS'IT[=A]TE, to make necessary: to render unavoidable: to compel.--_n._ NECESSIT[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ NECESS'ITIED (_Shak._), in a state of want; NECESS'ITOUS, in necessity: very poor: destitute.--_adv._ NECESS'ITOUSLY.--_n._ NECESS'ITOUSNESS.--NATURAL NECESSITY, the condition of being necessary according to the laws of nature; LOGICAL or MATHEMATICAL, according to those of human intelligence; MORAL, according to those of moral law; WORKS OF NECESSITY, work so necessary as to be allowable on the Sabbath. [L. _necessitas_.]

NECK, nek, _n._ the part of an animal's body between the head and trunk: anything that resembles the neck: a long narrow part or corner: (_fig._) life: the flesh of the neck and adjoining parts.--_v.t._ to break the neck or cut off the head.--_ns._ NECK'ATEE, a neckerchief; NECK'-BAND, the part of a shirt encircling the neck; NECK'-BEAR'ING, that part of a shaft which rotates in the bearing proper, a journal; NECK'BEEF, the coarse flesh of the neck of cattle; NECK'CLOTH, a piece of folded cloth worn round the neck by men as a band or cravat, the ends hanging down often of lace.--_adj._ NECKED, having a neck of a certain kind.--_ns._ NECK'ERCHIEF, a kerchief for the neck; NECK'LACE, a lace or string of beads or precious stones worn on the neck by women; NECK'LET, a simple form of necklace; NECK'-MOULD, a small moulding surrounding a column at the junction of the shaft and capital; NECK'-PIECE, the part of a suit of armour that protects the neck: an ornamental frill round the neck of a gown; NECK'TIE, a tie or cloth for the neck; NECK'VERSE, the verse (usually Ps. li. 1) in early times placed before a prisoner claiming _benefit-of-clergy_, in order to test his ability to read, which, if he could do, he was burned in the hand and set free (see BENEFIT).--_n._ STIFF'NECK (see STIFF).--NECK AND CROP, completely; NECK AND NECK, exactly equal: side by side; NECK OR NOTHING, risking everything.--HARDEN THE NECK, to grow more obstinate; TREAD ON THE NECK OF, to oppress or tyrannise over. [A.S. _hnecca_; Ger. _nacken_.]

NECROLATRY, nek-rol'a-tri, _n._ worship of the dead.--_ns._ NECROBI[=O]'SIS, degeneration of living tissue; NECROG'RAPHER, one who writes an obituary notice.--_adjs._ NECROLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to necrology.--_ns._ NECROL'OGIST, one who gives an account of deaths; NECROL'OGY, an account of those who have died, esp. of the members of some society: a register of deaths; NEC'ROMANCER, one who practises necromancy: a sorcerer; NEC'ROMANCY, the art of revealing future events by calling up and questioning the spirits of the dead: enchantment.--_adjs._ NECROMAN'TIC, -AL, pertaining to necromancy: performed by necromancy.--_adv._ NECROMAN'TICALLY.--_adj._ NECROPH'AGOUS, feeding on carrion.--_ns._ NECROPH'ILISM, a morbid love for the dead; NECROPH[=O]'BIA, a morbid horror of corpses.--_adj._ NECROPH'OROUS, carrying away and burying dead bodies, esp. of beetles of the genus _Necrophorus_.--_n._ NECROP'OLIS, a cemetery.--_adjs._ NECROSCOP'IC, -AL.--_n._ NEC'ROSCOPY, a post-mortem examination, autopsy--also NEC'ROPSY.--_adjs._ NECROSED', NECR[=O]'TIC.--_ns._ NECR[=O]'SIS, the mortification of bone: (_bot._) a disease of plants marked by small black spots; NECROT'OMIST; NECROT'OMY, dissection of dead bodies. [Gr. _nekros_, dead.]

NECTAR, nek'tar, _n._ the name given by Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, &c. to the beverage of the gods, giving life and beauty: a delicious beverage: the honey of the glands of plants.--_adjs._ NECT[=A]'REAL, NECT[=A]'REAN, pertaining to, or resembling, nectar: delicious; NEC'TARED, imbued with nectar: mingled or abounding with nectar; NECT[=A]'REOUS, NEC'TAROUS, pertaining to, containing, or resembling nectar: delicious.--_adv._ NECT[=A]'REOUSLY, in a nectareous manner.--_n._ NECT[=A]'REOUSNESS, the quality of being nectareous.--_adjs._ NECT[=A]'RIAL; NECTARIF'EROUS, producing nectar or honey: having a nectary; NEC'TARINE, sweet as nectar.--_n._ a variety of peach with a smooth fruit.--_n._ NEC'TARY, the part of a flower which secretes the nectar or honey. [L.,--Gr. _nektar_; ety. dub.]

NECTOCALYX, nek'to-k[=a]-liks, _n._ the swimming-bell of a medusa:--_pl._ NECTOC[=A]'LYCES.

NEDDY, ned'i, _n._ a donkey. [From _Ned_=Edward.]

NÉE, n[=a], _adj._ born: placed before a married woman's maiden-name, to show her own family, as Rebecca Crawley, _née_ Sharp. [Fr., fem. of _né_, pa.p. of _naître_, to be born--L. _nasci_, _natus_, to be born.]

NEED, n[=e]d, _n._ want of something which one cannot do without: necessity: a state that requires relief: want of the means of living.--_v.t._ to have occasion for: to want.--_ns._ NEED'-BE, a necessity; NEED'ER; NEED'FIRE, fire produced by friction, to which a certain virtue is superstitiously attached: a beacon generally.--_adj._ NEED'FUL, full of need: having need: needy: necessary: requisite.--_adv._ NEED'FULLY.--_n._ NEED'FULNESS.--_adv._ NEED'ILY.--_n._ NEED'INESS.--_adj._ NEED'LESS (_Shak._), having no need: not needed: unnecessary.--_adv._ NEED'LESSLY.--_n._ NEED'LESSNESS.--_adv._ NEED'LY (_Shak._), necessarily.--_n._ NEED'MENT, something needed.--_adv._ NEEDS, of necessity: indispensably--often used with _must_, as 'needs must.'--_adj._ NEED'Y, very poor: requisite.--_n._ NEED'YHOOD.--THE NEEDFUL (_slang_), ready money. [A.S. _néd_, _niéd_, _nýd_; Dut. _nood_, Ger. _noth_.]

NEEDLE, n[=e]d'l, _n._ a small, sharp-pointed steel instrument, with an eye for a thread--(_Shak._) NEELD, NEELE: any slender, pointed instrument like a needle, as the magnet or movable bar of a compass, or for knitting, etching, &c.: anything sharp and pointed, like a pinnacle of rock, &c.: an aciform crystal: a temporary support used by builders to sustain while repairing, being a strong beam resting on props: the long, narrow, needle-like leaf of a pine-tree.--_v.t._ to form into a shape like a needle, as crystals: to work with a needle.--_v.i._ to become of the shape of needles, as crystals.--_ns._ NEED'LE-BOOK, a number of pieces of cloth, leather, &c. arranged like a book, for holding needles; NEED'LE-CASE, a case for holding needles; NEED'LE-FISH, a pipe-fish: a garfish or belonid; NEED'LEFUL, as much thread as fills a needle; NEED'LE-GUN, a gun or rifle loaded at the breech, the cartridge of which is exploded by the impact of a needle or spike at its base.--_adjs._ NEED'LE-POINT'ED, pointed like a needle: without a barb, as a fish-hook; NEED'LE-SHAPED, shaped like a needle: applied to the long, slender, sharp-pointed leaves of pines, firs, and other trees.--_ns._ NEED'LE-TEL'EGRAPH, a telegraph the receiver of which gives its messages by the deflections of a magnetic needle; NEED'LEWOMAN, a woman who makes her living by her needle, a seamstress; NEED'LEWORK, work done with a needle: the business of a seamstress.--_adj._ NEED'LY, thorny. [A.S. _n['æ]dl_; Ger. _nadel_; cog. with Ger. _nähen_, to sew, L. _n[=e]re_, to spin.]

NEEP, a Scotch form of _turnip_.

NE'ER, n[=a]r, _adv._ contr. of _never_.--_adj._ and _n._ NE'ER'-DO-WELL, past all well-doing: one who is good for nothing.

NEESE, n[=e]z, _v.i._ an old form of _sneeze_.--_n._ NEES'ING, sneezing.

NEF, nef, _n._ a cadenas.

NEFANDOUS, n[=e]-fan'dus, _adj._ bad to execration, abominable. [L.,--_ne_, not, _fandus_, _f[=a]ri_, to speak.]

NEFARIOUS, n[=e]-f[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ impious: extremely wicked: villainous.--_adv._ NEF[=A]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ NEF[=A]'RIOUSNESS.--_adj._ N[=E]FAST', abominable. [L. _nefarius_, contrary to divine law--_ne_, not, _fas_, divine law, prob. from _f[=a]ri_, to speak.]

NEGATION, ne-g[=a]'shun, _n._ act of saying no: denial: (_logic_) the absence of certain qualities in anything. [Fr.,--L. _negation-em-_--_neg[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to say no--_nec_, not, _aio_, I say yes.]

NEGATIVE, neg'a-tiv, _adj._ that denies or refuses--opp. to _Affirmative_: implying absence: that stops, hinders, neutralises--opp. to _Positive_: in photography, exhibiting the reverse, as dark for light, light for dark: (_logic_) denying the connection between a subject and a predicate: (_algebra_) noting a quantity to be subtracted.--_n._ a word or statement by which something is denied: the right or act of saying 'no,' or of refusing assent: the side of a question or the decision which denies what is affirmed: in photography, an image on glass or other medium, in which the lights and shades are the opposite of those in nature, used for printing positive impressions from on paper, &c.: (_gram._) a word that denies.--_v.t._ to prove the contrary: to reject by vote.--_adv._ NEG'ATIVELY.--_ns._ NEG'ATIVENESS, NEG'ATIVISM, NEGATIV'ITY.--_adj._ NEG'ATORY, expressing denial.--NEGATIVE BATH, a silver solution in which photographic negatives are placed to be sensitised; NEGATIVE ELECTRICITY, electricity with a relatively low potential, electricity such as is developed by rubbing resinous bodies with flannel, opposite to that obtained by rubbing glass; NEGATIVE QUANTITY (_math._), a quantity with a _minus_ sign ( - ) before it, indicating that it is either to be subtracted, or reckoned in an opposite direction from some other with a _plus_ sign; NEGATIVE SIGN, the sign ( - or _minus_) of subtraction. [L. _negativus_--_neg[=a]re_, to deny.]

NEG[=A]TUR, _v._ it is denied. [L., 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. pass. of _neg[=a]re_, to deny.]

NEGLECT, neg-lekt', _v.t._ to treat carelessly, pass by without notice: to omit by carelessness.--_n._ disregard: slight: omission.--_adj._ NEGLECT'ABLE, that may be neglected.--_ns._ NEGLECT'EDNESS; NEGLECT'ER.--_adj._ NEGLECT'FUL, careless: accustomed to omit or neglect things: slighting.--_adv._ NEGLECT'FULLY.--_n._ NEGLECT'FULNESS.--_adj._ NEGLECT'IBLE.--_adv._ NEGLECT'INGLY, carelessly: heedlessly. [L. _neglig[)e]re_, _neglectum_--_nec_, not, _leg[)e]re_, to gather.]

NEGLIGÉE, neg-li-zh[=a]', _n._ easy undress: a plain, loose gown: a necklace, usually of red coral.--_adj._ carelessly or unceremoniously dressed: careless. [Fr., fem. of _négligé_--_négliger_, to neglect.]

NEGLIGENCE, neg'li-jens, _n._ fact or quality of being negligent: want of proper care: habitual neglect: a single act of carelessness or neglect, a slight: carelessness about dress, manner, &c.: omission of duty, esp. such care for the interests of others as the law may require--(_Shak._) NEGLEC'TION.--_adj._ NEG'LIGENT, neglecting: careless: inattentive: disregarding ceremony or fashion.--_adv._ NEG'LIGENTLY.--_adj._ NEG'LIGIBLE.--_adv._ NEG'LIGIBLY. [Fr.,--L. _negligentia_--_negligens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _neglig[)e]re_, to neglect.]

NEGOTIABLE, ne-g[=o]'shi-a-bl, _adj._ that may be transacted: that can be transferred to another with the same rights as belonged to the original holder, as a bill of exchange.--_n._ NEGOTIABIL'ITY.

NEGOTIATE, ne-g[=o]'shi-[=a]t, _v.i._ to carry on business: to bargain: to hold intercourse for the purpose of mutual arrangement.--_v.t._ to arrange for by agreement: to manage: to transfer to another with all the rights of the original holder: to pass, as a bill: to sell.--_ns._ NEGOTI[=A]'TION, act of negotiating: the treating with another on business; NEG[=O]'TIATOR; NEG[=O]'TIATRIX.--_adj._ NEGOTI[=A]'TORY, of or pertaining to negotiation. [L. _negoti[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_negotium_, business--_nec_, not, _otium_, leisure.]

NEGRITO, ne-gr[=e]'to, _n._ the Spanish name for certain tribes of negro-like diminutive people in the interior of some of the Philippine Islands--also _Aëtas_ or _Itas_: in a wider sense, the Papuans and all the Melanesian peoples of Polynesia.

NEGRO, n[=e]'gr[=o], _n._ one of the black-skinned woolly-haired race in the Soudan and central parts of Africa, also their descendants in America.--_adj._ of or pertaining to the race of black men:--_fem._ N[=E]'GRESS.--_ns._ N[=E]'GRO-CORN, the name given in the West Indies to the plant durra or Indian millet; N[=E]'GROHEAD, tobacco soaked in molasses and pressed into cakes, so called from its blackness.--_adj._ N[=E]'GROID.--_n._ N[=E]'GR[=O]ISM, any peculiarity of speech noticeable among negroes, esp. in the southern United States. [Sp. _negro_--L. _niger_, black.]

NEGUS, n[=e]'gus, _n._ a beverage of either port or sherry with hot water, sweetened and spiced. [Said to be so called from Colonel _Negus_, its first maker, in the reign of Queen Anne.]

NEGUS, n[=e]'gus, _n._ the title of the kings of Abyssinia.

NEIF, n[=e]f, _n._ (_Shak._) the fist.

NEIGH, n[=a], _v.i._ to utter the cry of a horse:--_pr.p._ neigh'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p_. neighed (n[=a]d).--_n._ the cry of a horse--(_Scot._) NICH'ER. [A.S. _hn['æ]gan_; Ice. _hneggja_.]

NEIGHBOUR, nä'bur, _n._ a person who dwells, sits, or stands near another: one who is on friendly terms with another.--_adj._ (_B._) neighbouring.--_v.i._ to live near each other.--_v.t._ to be near to.--_n._ NEIGH'BOURHOOD, state of being neighbours, kindly feeling: adjoining district or the people living in it: a district generally, esp. with reference to its inhabitants.--_adj._ NEIGH'BOURING, being near: adjoining.--_n._ NEIGH'BOURLINESS.--_adjs._ NEIGH'BOURLY, like or becoming a neighbour: friendly: social--also _adv._; NEIGH'BOUR-STAINED (_Shak._), stained with neighbours' blood. [A.S. _neáhbúr_, _neáhgebúr_--A.S. _neáh_, near, _gebúr_ or _búr_, a farmer.]

NEIST, n[=e]st, a dialectic form of _next_.

NEITHER, n[=e]'_th_[.e]r, or n[=i]'_th_[.e]r, _adj._ and _pron._ not either.--_conj._ not either: and not: nor yet.--_adv._ not at all: in no case. [A.S. _ná_th_er, náw_th_er_, abbrev. of _náhwæther_--_ne_, not, _áhwæther_, _áwther_, either.]

NEIVIE-NICK-NACK, n[=e]'vi-nik'-nak, _n._ a Scotch children's game of guessing in which hand a thing is held while the holder repeats a rhyme beginning with these words.

NELUMBO, n[=e]-lum'b[=o], _n._ a genus of water-lilies including the _Egyptian Bean_ of Pythagoras, and the Hindu _Lotus_.--Also NELUM'BIUM. [Ceylon name.]

NEMALITE, nem'a-l[=i]t, _n._ a fibrous hydrate of magnesia. [Gr. _n[=e]ma_, a thread, _lithos_, a stone.]

NEMATHECIUM, nem-a-th[=e]'si-um, _n._ a wart-like elevation on the surface of the thallus of certain florideous algæ. [Gr. _n[=e]ma_, a thread, _th[=e]kion_, _th[=e]k[=e]_, case.]

NEMATHELMINTHES, nem-a-thel-min'thez, a name applied to the thread-worms or nematodes (as _Ascaris_, _Guinea-worm_, _Trichina_), to the somewhat distinct _Gordiidæ_ or _hair-eels_, and to the more remotely allied _Acanthocephala_ or _Echinorhynchus_.--Also NEMATHELMIN'THA.--_adjs._ NEMATHEL'MINTH, -IC. [Gr. _n[=e]ma_, a thread, _helmins_, _-minthos_, worm.]

NEMATOCEROUS, nem-a-tos'e-rus, _adj._ having long thready antennæ, as a dipterous insect. [Gr. _n[=e]ma_, a thread, _keras_, a horn.]

NEMATOCYST, nem'a-t[=o]-sist, _n._ a cnida, one of the offensive organs of Coelenterates, as jellyfish. [Gr. _n[=e]ma_, a thread, _kystis_, a bladder.]

NEMATOID, nem'a-toid, _adj._ thread-like--also NEM' NEMATOI'DEA, a class of Vermes, with mouth, alimentary canal, and separate sexes, usually parasitic. [Gr. _n[=e]ma_, thread, _eidos_, form.]

NEMEAN, n[=e]'m[=e]-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Nemea_, a valley of Argolis in the Peloponnesus, famous for its public games held in the second and fourth of each Olympiad.

NEMERTEA, n[=e]-mer't[=e]-a, a class of Vermes, mostly marine, unsegmented, covered with cilia, often brightly coloured, with protrusile proboscis, and usually distinct sexes.--_adj._ NEMER'TEAN. [Gr. _N[=e]mert[=e]s_, a nereid's name.]

NEMESIS, nem'e-sis, _n._ (_myth._) the goddess of vengeance: retributive justice.--_adj._ NEMES'IC. [Gr.,--_nemein_, to distribute.]

NEMO, n[=e]'mo, _n._ nobody: a nobody. [L.]

NEMOCEROUS, n[=e]-mos'e-rus, _adj._ having filamentous antennæ.

NEMORAL, nem'o-ral, _adj._ pertaining to a wood or grove.--_n._ NEMOPH'ILIST.--_adjs._ NEMOPH'ILOUS, fond of woods, inhabiting woods; NEM'OROSE, growing in woodland; NEM'OROUS, woody. [L. _nemus_, _-[)o]ris_, a grove.]

NEMPT, nemt (_Spens._), named, called.

NENUPHAR, nen'[=u]-far, _n._ the great white water-lily. [Fr.,--Ar.]

NEO-CATHOLIC, n[=e]-[=o]-kath'o-lik, _adj._ pertaining to the short-lived school of liberal Catholicism that followed Lamennais, Lacordaire, and Montalembert about 1830: pertaining to a small party within the Anglican Church, who think they have outgrown Keble and Pusey and the great Caroline divines, and are more noisy than intelligent in their avowal of preference for Roman doctrine, ritual, and discipline.

NEO-CHRISTIAN, n[=e]-[=o]-kris'tyan, _adj._ and _n._ of or pertaining to so-called _Neo-Christianity_, which merely means old Rationalism.

NEOCOMIAN, n[=e]-[=o]-k[=o]'mi-an, _adj._ and _n._ (_geol._) of or pertaining to the lower division of the Cretaceous system, including the Lower Greensand and the Wealden of English geologists. [Græcised from _Neuchâtel_, near which is its typical region; Gr. _neos_, new, _k[=o]m[=e]_, a village.]

NEOCOSMIC, n[=e]-[=o]-koz'mik, _adj._ pertaining to the present condition of the universe, esp. its races of men. [Gr. _neos_, new, _kosmos_, the universe.]

NEOCRACY, n[=e]-ok'ra-si, _n._ government by upstarts.

NEOGAMIST, n[=e]-og'a-mist, _n._ a person recently married.

NEOGRAMMARIAN, n[=e]-[=o]-gra-m[=a]'ri-an, _n._ one of the more recent school in the study of Indo-European grammar and philology, who attach vast importance to phonetic change, and the laws governing it.--_adj._ NEOGRAMMAT'ICAL.

NEOHELLENISM, n[=e]-[=o]-hel'en-izm, _n._ the modern Hellenism inspired by the ancient: the devotion to ancient Greek ideals in literature and art, esp. in the Italian Renaissance.

NEO-KANTIAN, n[=e]-[=o]-kan'ti-an, _adj._ pertaining to the philosophy of _Kant_ as taught by his successors.

NEO-LATIN, n[=e]-[=o]-lat'in, _n._ Latin as written by modern writers: new Latin, as in the Romance languages sprung from the Latin.

NEOLITE, n[=e]'[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a dark-green silicate of aluminium and magnesium. [Gr. _neos_, new, _lithos_, a stone.]

NEOLITHIC, n[=e]-[=o]-lith'ik, _adj._ applied to the more recent implements of the stone age--opp. to _Palæolithic_. [Gr. _neos_, new, _lithos_, a stone.]

NEOLOGY, n[=e]-ol'o-ji, _n._ the introduction of new words, or new senses of old words, into a language: (_theol._) new doctrines, esp. German rationalism.--_n._ NEOL[=O]'GIAN.--_adjs._ NEOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to neology: using new words.--_adv._ NEOLOG'ICALLY.--_v.i._ NEOL'OGISE, to introduce new words or doctrines.--_ns._ NEOL'OGISM, a new word, phrase, or doctrine: the use of old words in a new sense; NEOL'OGIST, one who introduces new words or senses: one who introduces new doctrines in theology.--_adjs._ NEOLOGIS'TIC, -AL. [Gr. _neos_, new, _logos_, word.]

NEONOMIANISM, n[=e]-[=o]-n[=o]'mi-an-izm, _n._ the doctrine that the gospel is a new law, and that faith has abrogated the old moral obedience.--_n._ NEON[=O]'MIAN. [Gr. _neos_, new, _nomos_, law.]

NEONOMOUS, n[=e]-on'o-mus, _adj._ having a greatly modified biological structure, specialised according to recent conditions of environment. [Gr. _neos_, new, _nomos_, law.]

NEONTOLOGY, n[=e]-on-tol'o-ji, _n._ the science and description of extant, as apart from extinct, animals.--_n._ NEONTOL'OGIST. [Gr. _neos_, new, _on_, _ontos_, being, _logia_--_legein_, to speak.]

NEO-PAGANISM, n[=e]-[=o]-p[=a]'gan-izm, _n._ a revival of paganism, or its spirit--a euphemism for mere animalism.--_v.t._ NEO-P[=A]'GAN[=I]SE, to imbue with this spirit.

NEOPHOBIA, n[=e]-[=o]-f[=o]'bi-a, _n._ dread of novelty. [Gr. _neos_, new, _phobia_--_phebesthai_, to fear.]

NEOPHRON, n[=e]'[=o]-fron, _n._ a genus of vultures, having horizontal nostrils. [Gr.,--_neos_, new, _phren_, mind.]

NEOPHYTE, n[=e]'[=o]-f[=i]t, _n._ a new convert, one newly baptised or admitted to the priesthood, or to a monastery, a novice: a tyro or beginner.--_adj._ newly admitted or entered on office.--_n._ N[=E]'OPHYTISM. [L. _neophytus_--Gr. _neos_, new, _phytos_, grown--_phyein_, to produce.]

NEOPLASM, n[=e]'[=o]-plazm, _n._ a morbid new growth or formation of tissue.--_adj._ NEOPLAS'TIC.

NEOPLATONISM, n[=e]-[=o]-pl[=a]'to-nizm, _n._ a system of philosophy combining _Platonic_ and Oriental elements, originating with Ammonius Saccas at Alexandria in the 3d century, developed by Plotinus, Porphyry, Proclus, &c.--_adj._ NEOPLATON'IC.--_n._ NEOPL[=A]'TONIST.

NEOTERIC, -AL, n[=e]-[=o]-ter'ik, -al, _adj._ of recent origin, modern.--_v.i._ NEOT'ERISE.--_n._ NEOT'ERISM, the introduction of new things, esp. new words. [Gr.,--_ne[=o]teros_, comp. of _neos_, new.]

NEOTIC, n[=e]-ot'ik, _adj._ addressed to the understanding.

NEOTROPICAL, n[=e]-[=o]-trop'i-kal, _adj._ applied to the part of the New World including tropical and South America and the adjacent islands.

NEOZOIC, n[=e]-[=o]-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ denoting all rocks from the Trias down to the most recent formations, as opposed to _Palæozoic_. [Gr. _neos_, new, _zo[=e]_, life.]

NEP, nep, _n._ (_prov._) a knot in a fibre of cotton.

NEPENTHES, ne-pen'th[=e]z, _n._ (_med._) a drug that relieves pain--also NEPEN'THE: a genus of plants having a cup or pitcher attached to the leaf, often filled with a sweetish liquid, the pitcher-plant. [Gr.,--_n[=e]_, neg., _penthos_, grief.]

NEPHALISM, nef'a-lizm, _n._ total abstinence from alcoholic drinks.--_n._ NEPH'ALIST, a bigoted teetotaler. [Gr. _n[=e]phalios_, sober; _n[=e]phein_, to be sober.]

NEPHELINE, nef'e-lin, _n._ a rock-forming mineral, colourless, usually crystallising in hexagonal prisms, occurring in various volcanic rocks, as in certain basalts. [Gr. _nephel[=e]_, a cloud.]

NEPHELOID, nef'e-loid, _adj._ cloudy, turbid.--_ns._ NEPHELOM'ETER, a supposititious instrument for measuring cloudiness; NEPH'ELOSCOPE, an apparatus for illustrating the formation of cloud; NEPH'ELOSPHERE, an atmosphere of cloud surrounding a planet, &c. [Gr. _nephel[=e]_, cloud.]

NEPHEW, nev'[=u], or nef'[=u], _n._ the son of a brother or sister: (_orig._) a grandson (so in New Test.):--_fem._ NIECE. [O. Fr. _neveu_--L. _nepos_, _nepotis_, grandson, nephew; A.S. _nefa_, Ger. _neffe_, nephew.]

NEPHRALGIA, ne-fral'ji-a, _n._ pain or disease of the kidneys--also NEPHRAL'GY.--_ns._ NEPH'RITE, a mineral usually called _Jade_, an old charm against kidney disease; NEPHRIT'IC, a medicine for the cure of diseases of the kidneys.--_adjs._ NEPHRIT'IC, -AL, pertaining to the kidneys: affected with a disease of the kidneys: relieving diseases of the kidneys.--_ns._ NEPHR[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the kidneys; NEPH'ROCELE, hernia of the kidney; NEPHROG'RAPHY, a description of the kidneys.--_adj._ NEPH'ROID, kidney-shaped.--_ns._ NEPHROL'OGY, scientific knowledge of the kidneys; NEPHROT'OMY, the operation of excising the kidneys. [Gr. _nephros_, a kidney, _algos_, pain.]

NEPOTISM, nep'o-tizm, _n._ undue favouritism to one's relations, as in the bestowal of patronage.--_adjs._ NEPOT'IC, NEP[=O]'TIOUS.--_n._ NEP'OTIST, one who practises nepotism. [L. _nepos_, _nepotis_, a grandson.]

NEPTUNE, nep't[=u]n, _n._ (_Rom. myth._) the god of the sea, identified with the Greek Poseidon, represented with a trident in his hand: (_astron._) the outermost planet of the solar system, discovered in 1846.--_adj._ NEPT[=U]'NIAN, pertaining to the sea: (_geol._) formed by water: applied to stratified rocks or to those due mainly to the agency of water, as opposed to _Plutonic_ or _Igneous_.--_n._ NEP'T[=U]NIST, one who holds the Neptunian theory in geology--also _adj._ [L. _Neptunus_.]

NEREID, n[=e]'r[=e]-id, _n._ (_Gr. myth._) a sea-nymph, one of the daughters of the sea-god _Nereus_, who attended Neptune riding on sea-horses: (_zool._) a genus of marine worms like long myriapods.--_ns._ N[=E]'R[=E]IS, a nereid; N[=E]'R[=E]ITE, a fossil annelid related to the nereids. [L.,--Gr.]

NERINE, n[=e]-r[=i]'n[=e], _n._ a genus of ornamental South African plants of the Amaryllis family, with scarlet or rose-coloured flowers.--The Guernsey Lily is the _Nerine Sarniensis_.

NERITE, n[=e]'r[=i]t, _n._ a gasteropod of the genus _Nerita_ or the family _Neritidæ_.--_adj._ NERIT[=A]'CEAN.

NERIUM, n[=e]'ri-um, _n._ a genus of Mediterranean shrubs, with fragrant and showy pink, white, or yellowish flowers, the oleander.

NERO, n[=e]'ro, _n._ the last emperor of the family of the Cæsars, at Rome (54-68 A.D.): any cruel and wicked tyrant.--_adj._ NER[=O]'NIAN.

NERO-ANTICO, n[=a]-r[=o]-an-t[=e]'ko, _n._ a deep-black marble found in Roman ruins. [It.]

NERVE, n[.e]rv, _n._ bodily strength, firmness, courage: (_anat._) one of the fibres which convey sensation from all parts of the body to the brain: (_bot._) one of the fibres or ribs in the leaves of plants: a trade term for a non-porous quality of cork, slightly charred: (_pl._) hysterical nervousness.--_v.t._ to give strength or vigour to: to arm with force.--_adj._ NERV'AL.--_ns._ NERV[=A]'TION, the arrangement or distribution of nerves, esp. those of leaves; NERVE'-CELL, any cell forming part of the nervous system, esp. one of those by means of which nerve-fibres are connected with each other; NERVE'-CEN'TRE, a collection of nerve-cells from which nerves branch out.--_adj._ NERVED, furnished with nerves, or with nerves of a special character, as 'strong-nerved.'--_n._ NERVE'-F[=I]'BRE, one of the essential thread-like units of which a nerve is composed.--_adj._ NERVE'LESS, without strength.--_n._ NERVE'LESSNESS.--_adj._ NERV'INE, acting on the nerves: quieting nervous excitement.--_n._ a medicine that soothes nervous excitement.--_adjs._ NERV'OUS, having nerve: sinewy: strong, vigorous, showing strength and vigour: pertaining to the nerves: having the nerves easily excited or weak; NERV'OUS, NERVOSE', NERVED (_bot._) having parallel fibres or veins.--_adv._ NERV'OUSLY.--_n._ NERV'OUSNESS.--_adj._ NERV'[=U]LAR.--_ns._ NERV'[=U]LE, a small nerve, a small vein of an insect's wing--also _Nervulet_, _Veinlet_, _Venule_; NERV'URE, one of the nerves or veins of leaves: one of the horny tubes or divisions which expand the wings of insects: one of the ribs in a groined vault: a projecting moulding.--_adj._ NERV'Y, strong, vigorous.--NERVOUS SYSTEM (_anat._), the brain, spinal cord, and nerves collectively: the whole of the nerves and nerve-centres of the body considered as related to each other, and fitted to act together. [Fr.,--L. _nervus_; Gr. _neuron_, a sinew.]

NESCIENCE, nesh'ens, _n._ want of knowledge.--_adj._ NESC'IENT. [L. _nescientia_--_nesc[=i]re_, to be ignorant--_ne_, not, _sc[=i]re_, to know.]

NESH, nesh, _adj._ (_prov._) soft, crumbly: tender.--_v.t._ NESH'EN, to make tender.

NESHAMAH, nesh'a-mä, _n._ the highest degree of the soul in the cabbalistic system.

NESIOTE, n[=e]'si-[=o]t, _adj._ insular. [Gr. _n[=e]sos_, an island.]

NESKI, nes'ki, _n._ the cursive hand generally used in Arabic.--Also NESH'KI. [Ar.]

NESOGÆAN, n[=e]-s[=o]-j[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to Nesogæa--Polynesia or Oceania, New Zealand excepted, with regard to the distribution of its animals. [Gr. _n[=e]sos_, an island, _gaia_, the earth.]

NESS, nes, _n._ a promontory or headland. [A.S. _næss_; a doublet of _naze_, prob. conn. with _nose_.]

NEST, nest, _n._ the bed formed by a bird for hatching her young: the place in which the eggs of any animal are laid and hatched: a comfortable residence: a number of persons haunting one place for a bad purpose: the place itself: a number of baskets or boxes each fitting inside the next larger.--_v.t._ to form a nest for.--_v.i._ to build and occupy a nest.--_n._ NEST'-EGG, an egg left in the nest to keep the hen from forsaking it: something laid up as the beginning of an accumulation.--FEATHER ONE'S NEST, to provide for one's self, esp. from other people's property of which one has had charge. [A.S. _nest_; Ger. _nest_, L. _n[=i]dus_.]

NESTLE, nes'l, _v.i._ to lie close or snug as in a nest: to settle comfortably.--_v.t._ to cherish, as a bird does her young.--_adj._ NEST'LING, being in the nest, newly hatched.--_n._ act of making a nest: a young bird in the nest--also NEST'LER. [A.S. _nestlian_--_nest_.]

NESTOR, nes'tor, _n._ a Greek hero at Troy, remarkable for eloquence and wisdom gained through long life and varied experience: any one who possesses those qualities, a counsellor, adviser.--_adj._ NEST[=O]'RIAN.

NESTORIAN, nes-t[=o]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the Christological doctrine of _Nestorius_, patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to his condemnation and deposition at the general council of Ephesus in 431; he held the true divinity and humanity of Christ, but denied their union in a single self-conscious personality, that union being merely moral or sympathetic--thus the personality was broken up into a duality.--_n._ a follower of Nestorius.--_n._ NEST[=O]'RIANISM.

NET, net, _n._ an open fabric of twine, &c., knotted into meshes for catching birds, fishes, &c.: anything like a net for keeping out insects, &c.: a meshed bag for holding a woman's hair: machine-made lace of various kinds: a snare: a difficulty.--_adj._ made of netting or resembling it, reticulate: caught in a net.--_v.t._ to form into network: to take with a net: to protect with a net, to veil.--_v.i._ to form network:--_pr.p._ net'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ net'ted.--_ns._ NET'-FISH, any fish, like the herring, caught in nets--opp. to _Trawl-fish_ and _Line-fish_; NET'-FISH'ERY, a place for net-fishing, the business of such fishing; NET'-FISH'ING, the method or the industry of fishing with nets.--_p.adj._ NET'TED, made into a net, reticulated: caught in a net.--_ns._ NET'TING, act or process of forming network: a piece of network: any network of ropes or wire, esp. for use on shipboard; NET'TING-NEED'LE, a kind of shuttle used in netting.--_adjs._ NET'TY, like a net; NET'-VEINED, in entomology, having a great number of veins or nervures like a network on the surface, as in the wings of many Orthoptera; NET'-WINGED, having net-veined wings.--_n._ NET'WORK, any work showing cross lines or open spaces like the meshes of a net. [A.S. _net_, _nett_; Dut. _net_, Ger. _netz_.]

NET, NETT, net, _adj._ clear of all charges or deductions--opp. to _Gross_: lowest, subject to no further deductions.--_v.t._ to produce as clear profit:--_pr.p._ net'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ net'ted. [_Neat._]

NETHELESSE, neth'les, _adv._=NATHLESS.

NETHER, ne_th_'[.e]r, _adj._ beneath another, lower: infernal.--_n._ NETH'ERLANDER, an inhabitant of Holland.--_adj._ NETH'ERLANDISH, NETH'ERLINGS, stockings.--_adjs._ NETH'ERMORE, lower; NETH'ERMOST, NETH'ERSTOCKS (_Shak._), short stockings or half-hose for the leg, as distinguished from trunk hose for the thigh.--_advs._ NETH'ERWARD, -S, downward. [A.S. _neothera_, a comp. adj. due to adv. _nither_, downward; Ger. _nieder_, low.]

NETHINIM, neth'in-im, (_B._) servants of the old Jewish temple, set apart to assist the Levites. [Heb.]

NETSUKE, net'su-k[=a], _n._ a small toggle or button, carved or inlaid, on Japanese pipe-cases, pouches, &c.

NETTLE, net'l, _n._ a common plant covered with hairs which sting sharply.--_v.t._ to fret, as a nettle does the skin: to irritate.--_ns._ NETT'LE-CLOTH, thick japanned cotton cloth used for leather; NETT'LE-FISH, a jelly-fish, sea-nettle; NETT'LERASH, a kind of fever characterised by a rash or eruption on the skin; NETT'LE-TREE, a genus of trees, with simple and generally serrated leaves, the fruit a fleshy, globose, one-celled drupe; NETT'LE-WORT, any plant of the nettle family. [A.S. _netele_; Ger. _nessel_.]

NETTLING, net'ling, _n._ the joining of two ropes, end to end, without seam: the tying in pairs of yarns in a ropewalk to prevent tangling. [_Knittle._]

NEUME, n[=u]m, _n._ a succession of notes to be sung to one syllable, a sequence: an old sign for a tone or a phrase. [O. Fr.,--Gr. _pneuma_, breath.]

NEURAL, n[=u]'ral, _adj._ pertaining to the nerves--also NEUR'IC.--_ns._ NEURIC'ITY, nerve-force; NEURIL'ITY, the function of the nervous system--that of conducting stimuli.--NEURAL ARCH, the arch of a vertebra protecting the spinal cord. [Gr. _neuron_, a nerve.]

NEURALGIA, n[=u]-ral'ji-a, _n._ pain of a purely nervous character, occurring in paroxysms, usually unaccompanied by inflammation, fever, or any appreciable change of structure in the affected part--(_obs._) NEURAL'GY.--_adjs._ NEURAL'GIC, NEURAL'GIFORM. [Gr. _neuron_, nerve, _algos_, pain.]

NEURASTHENIA, n[=u]-ras-the-n[=i]'a, _n._ nervous debility.--_adj._ NEURASTHEN'IC--also _n._ one suffering from this. [Gr. _neuron_, a nerve, _astheneia_, weakness.]

NEURATION, n[=u]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ Same as NERVATION.

NEURILEMMA, n[=u]-ri-lem'a, _n._ the external sheath of a nerve-fibre.

NEURITIS, n[=u]-r[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of a nerve.

NEUROHYPNOLOGY, n[=u]-r[=o]-hip-nol'o-ji, _n._ the study of hypnotism: the means employed for inducing the hypnotic state.--_ns._ NEUROHYPNOL'OGIST; NEUROHYP'NOTISM, hypnotism. [Gr. _neuron_, nerve, _hypnos_, sleep, _logia_, discourse.]

NEUROLOGY, n[=u]-rol'o-ji, _n._ the science of the nerves.--_adj._ NEUROLOG'ICAL.--_n._ NEUROL'OGIST, a writer on neurology. [Gr. _neuron_, nerve, _logia_, science.]

NEURON, n[=u]'ron, _n._ the cerebro-spinal axis in its entirety: a nervure of an insect's wing.

NEUROPATH, n[=u]'ro-path, _n._ one who takes nervous conditions solely or mostly into account in his pathology.--_adjs._ NEUROPATH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ NEUROPATH'ICALLY.--_ns._ NEUROPATHOL'OGY, the sum of knowledge of the diseases of the nervous system; NEUROP'ATHY, nervous disease generally. [Gr. _neuron_, nerve, _pathos_, suffering.]

NEUROPTERA, n[=u]-rop't[.e]r-a, an order of insects which have generally four wings marked with a network of many nerves:--_sing._ NEUROP'TERON; also NEUROP'TER, NEUROP'TERAN.--_adjs._ NEUROP'TERAL, NEUROP'TEROUS, nerve-winged. [Gr. _neuron_, nerve, _ptera_, pl. of _pteron_, a wing.]

NEUROSE, n[=u]'r[=o]s, _adj._ nerved: having many nervures or veins, of an insect's wing, &c.

NEUROTIC, n[=u]-rot'ik, _adj._ relating to, or seated in, the nerves.--_n._ a disease of the nerves: a medicine useful for diseases of the nerves.--_adj._ NEUR[=O]'SAL.--_n._ NEUR[=O]'SIS, a nervous disease, esp. without lesion of parts, as epilepsy, &c.

NEUROTOMY, n[=u]-rot'om-i, _n._ the cutting or dissection of a nerve.--_adj._ NEUROTOM'ICAL. [Gr. _neuron_, a nerve, _tom[=e]_, cutting.]

NEUROTONIC, n[=u]-ro-ton'ik, _n._ a medicine intended to strengthen the nervous system.

NEUTER, n[=u]'t[.e]r, _adj._ neither: taking no part with either side: (_gram._) neither masculine nor feminine: neither active nor passive: (_bot._) without stamens or pistils: (_zool._) without sex.--_n._ one taking no part in a contest: (_bot._) a plant having neither stamens nor pistils: (_zool._) a sexless animal, esp. the working bee. [L., 'neither'--_ne_, not, _uter_, either.]

NEUTRAL, n[=u]'tral, _adj._ being neuter, indifferent: taking no part on either side: unbiassed: neither very good nor very bad, of no decided character: having no decided colour, bluish or grayish: (_chem._) neither acid nor alkaline.--_n._ a person or nation that takes no part in a contest.--_n._ NEUTRALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ NEU'TRALISE, to declare by convention any nation permanently neutral or neutral during certain hostilities: to make inert: to render of no effect.--_ns._ NEU'TRALISER; NEUTRAL'ITY, state of taking no part on either of two sides: those who are neutral.--_adv._ NEU'TRALLY.--NEUTRAL TINT, a dull grayish colour; NEUTRAL VOWEL, the vowel-sound heard in _but_, _firm_, _her_, &c., and commonly in unaccented syllables.--ARMED NEUTRALITY, the condition of a neutral power ready to repel aggression from either belligerent. [L. _neutralis_--_neuter_, neither.]

NÉVÉ, n[=a]-v[=a]', _n._ the same as _firn_ or _glacier snow_. [Fr.,--L. _nix_, _nivis_, snow.]

NEVEL, nev'el, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to beat with the fists.

NEVER, nev'[.e]r, _adv._ not ever: at no time: in no degree: not.--_adv._ NEV'ERMORE, at no future time.--_conj._ NEVERTHELESS', notwithstanding: in spite of that (earlier _Natheless_).--_adv._ NEVERTHEMORE' (_Spens._), none the more. [A.S. _n['æ]fre_--_ne_, not, _['æ]fre_, ever.]

NEW, n[=u], _adj._ lately made: having happened lately: recent, modern: not before seen or known: strange, different: recently commenced: changed for the better: not of an ancient family: as at first: unaccustomed: fresh from anything: uncultivated or only recently cultivated.--_adjs._ NEW'BORN (_Shak._), recently born; NEW'COME, recently arrived.--_n._ NEW'-COM'ER, one who has lately come.--_v.t._ NEW'-CREATE' (_Shak._), to create for the first time.--_adjs._ NEW'-FASH'IONED, made in a new way or fashion: lately come into fashion; NEW'-FLEDGED, having just got feathers; NEW'ISH, somewhat new: nearly new.--_adv._ NEW'LY.--_adj._ NEW'-MADE (_Shak._), recently made.--_v.t._ NEW'-MOD'EL, to model or form anew.--_n._ the Parliamentary army as remodelled by Cromwell after the second battle of Newbury, which gained a conclusive victory at Naseby (1645).--_n._ NEW'NESS.--_adj._ NEW'-SAD (_Shak._), recently made sad.--NEW BIRTH (see REGENERATION); NEW CHUM, a new arrival from the old country in Australia; NEW CHURCH, NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH, the Swedenborgian Church; NEW COVENANT (see COVENANT); NEW DEPARTURE (see DEPARTURE); NEW ENGLANDER, a native or resident in any of the New England states; NEW JERUSALEM, the heavenly city; NEW LEARNING (see RENAISSANCE); NEW LIGHT, a member of a relatively more advanced religious school--applied esp. to the party within the 18th-century Scottish Secession Church which adopted Voluntary views of the relations of Church and State, also sometimes to the Socinianising party in the Church of Scotland in the 18th century, &c.; NEW RED SANDSTONE (_geol._), the name formerly given to the great series of red sandstones which occur between the Carboniferous and Jurassic systems; NEW STYLE (see STYLE); NEW WOMAN, a name humorously applied to such modern women as rebel against the conventional restrictions of their sex, and ape men in their freedom, education, pursuits, amusements, clothing, manners, and sometimes morals; NEW WORLD, North and South America; NEW-YEAR'S DAY, the first day of the new year. [A.S. _níwe_, _neówe_; Ger. _neu_, Ir. _nuadh_, L. _novus_, Gr. _neos_.]

NEWEL, n[=u]'el, _n._ (_archit._) the upright column about which the steps of a circular staircase wind. [O. Fr. _nual_ (Fr. _noyau_), stone of fruit--Low L. _nucalis_, like a nut--L. _nux_, _nucis_, a nut.]

NEWEL, n[=u]'el, _n._ (_Spens._) a new thing: a novelty.

NEWFANGLED, n[=u]-fang'gld, _adj._ fond of new things: newly devised, novel.--_adv._ NEWFANG'LEDLY.--_ns._ NEWFANG'LEDNESS, NEWFANG'LENESS. [Corr. from M. E. _newefangel_--_newe_ (A.S. _níwe_), new, _fangel_ (A.S. _fangen_--_fón_), ready to catch.]

NEWFOUNDLAND, n[=u]-fownd'land, _n._ a large dog of great intelligence, a strong swimmer, black without any white markings, first brought from _Newfoundland_.

NEWGATE, n[=u]'g[=a]t, _n._ a famous prison in London.--NEWGATE CALENDAR, a list of Newgate prisoners, with their crimes; NEWGATE FRILL, or FRINGE, a beard under the chin and jaw.

NEWMARKET, n[=u]'mar-ket, _n._ a card-game for any number of persons, on a table on which duplicates of certain cards have been placed face up: a close-fitting coat, originally a riding-coat, a long close-fitting coat for women.

NEWS, n[=u]z, _n.sing._ something heard of that is new: recent account: first information of something that has just happened or of something not formerly known: intelligence.--_v.t._ to report.--_ns._ NEWS'AGENT, one who deals in newspapers; NEWS'BOY, NEWS'MAN, a boy or man who delivers or sells newspapers; NEWS'-HOUSE, a printing-office for newspapers only; NEWS'LETTER, an occasional letter or printed sheet containing news, the predecessor of the regular newspaper; NEWS'MONGER, one who deals in news: one who spends much time in hearing and telling news; NEWS'PAPER, a paper published periodically for circulating news, &c.--the first English newspaper was published in 1622; NEWS'PAPERDOM; NEWS'PAPERISM.--_adj._ NEWS'PAPERY, superficial.--_ns._ NEWS'ROOM, a room where newspapers, magazines, &c. lie to be read; NEWS'VENDER, a seller of newspapers; NEWS'-WRIT'ER, a reporter or writer of news.--_adj._ NEWS'Y, gossipy. [Late M. E., an imit. of Fr. _nouvelles_.]

NEWT, n[=u]t, _n._ a genus of amphibious animals like small lizards. [Formed with initial _n_, borrowed from the article _an_, from _ewt_--A.S. _efeta_.]

NEWTONIAN, n[=u]-t[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ relating to, formed, or discovered by Sir Isaac _Newton_, the celebrated philosopher (1642-1727)--also NEWTON'IC.--NEWTONIAN TELESCOPE, a form of reflecting telescope.

NEXT, nekst, _adj._ (_superl._ of NIGH) nearest in place, time, &c.--_adv._ nearest or immediately after.--_prep._ nearest to.--_n._ NEXT'NESS.--NEXT DOOR TO (see DOOR); NEXT TO NOTHING, almost nothing at all. [A.S. _néhst_, superl. of _néh_, _neáh_, near; Ger. _nächst_.]

NEXUS, nek'sus, _n._ a tie, connecting principle, bond: (_Rom. law_) a person who had contracted a _nexum_ or obligation of such a kind that, if he failed to pay, his creditor could compel him to serve until the debt was paid. [L.--_nect[)e]re_, to bind.]

NIB, nib, _n._ something small and pointed: a point, esp. of a pen: the bill of a bird: the handle of a scythe-snath.--_v.t._ to furnish with a nib: to point.--_adj._ NIBBED, having a nib. [NEB.]

NIBBLE, nib'l, _v.t._ to bite by small bits: to eat by little at a time.--_v.i._ to bite gently: to find fault.--_n._ act of nibbling: a little bit.--_ns._ NIBB'LER; NIBB'LING.--_adv._ NIBB'LINGLY. [Freq. of _nip_.]

NIBELUNGEN, n[=e]'bel-[=oo]ng-en, a supernatural race in German mythology guarding a treasure wrested from them by Siegfried, the hero of the _Nibelungenlied_, an epic of _c._ 1190-1210.

NIBLICK, nib'lik, _n._ a golf-club with cup-shaped head.

NICE, n[=i]s, _adj._ foolishly simple: over-particular: hard to please: fastidious: marking or taking notice of very small differences: done with great care and exactness, accurate: easily injured: delicate: dainty: agreeable: delightful.--_adv._ NICE'LY.--_ns._ NICE'NESS, quality of being nice: exactness: scrupulousness: pleasantness; NIC'ETY, quality of being nice: delicate management: exactness of treatment: fineness of perception: fastidiousness: that which is delicate to the taste: a delicacy.--TO A NICETY, with great exactness. [O. Fr. _nice_, foolish, simple--L. _nescius_, ignorant--_ne_, not, _sc[=i]re_, to know.]

NICENE, n[=i]'s[=e]n, _adj._ pertaining to the town of _Nice_ or _Nicæa_, in Bithynia, Asia Minor, where an ecumenical council was held in 325 for the purpose of defining the questions raised in the Arian controversy--it promulgated the _Nicene Creed_. A second council, the seventh general council, held here in 787, condemned the Iconoclasts.


NICHE, nich, _n._ a recess in a wall for a statue, vase, &c.: a person's proper place or condition in life or public estimation, one's appointed or appropriate place.--_v.t._ to place in a niche.--_adj._ NICHED, placed in a niche. [Fr.,--It. _nicchia_, a niche, _nicchio_, a shell--L. _mytilus_, _mitulus_, a sea-mussel.]

NICK, nik, _n._ a notch cut into something: a score for keeping an account: the precise moment of time: a lucky throw at hazard.--_v.t._ to cut in notches: to hit the precise time: to strike as if making a nick: to cheat: catch in the act: to cut short: (_Scot._) to cut with a single snip, as of shears: to make a cut with the pick in the face of coal to facilitate blasting or wedging.--_adj._ NICK'-EARED, crop-eared.--_n._ NICK'ER, one who, or that which, nicks: a woodpecker: a street-ruffian in the early part of the 18th century.--NICK A HORSE'S TAIL, to make a cut at the root of the tail, making the horse carry it higher. [Another spelling of _nock_, old form of _notch_.]

NICK, nik, _n._ the devil, esp. OLD NICK. [Prob. a corr. of St _Nicholas_, or from A.S. _nicor_, a water-spirit; Ice. _nykr_, Ger. _nix_, _nixe_.]

NICKEL, nik'el, _n._ a grayish-white metal related to cobalt, very malleable and ductile.--_v.t._ to plate with nickel.--_ns._ NICK'ELAGE, NICK'ELURE, the art of nickel-plating.--_adjs._ NICK'ELIC, NICK'ELOUS; NICKELIF'EROUS, containing nickel.--_ns._ NICK'ELINE, NIC'COLITE, native nickel arsenide.--_v.t._ NICK'ELISE, to plate with nickel.--_ns._ NICK'EL-PLAT'ING, the plating of metals with nickel; NICK'EL-SIL'VER, German silver (see GERMAN). [Sw. _koppar-nickel_ (Ger. _kupfernickel_), _koppar_, copper, _nickel_, a word corresponding to Ger. _nickel_, the devil (cf. _Cobalt_ and _Kobold_), or to Ice. _hnikill_, a lump.]

NICKER, nik'[.e]r, _v.i._ to neigh: to snigger.--_n._ a neigh: a loud laugh--(_obs._) NICH'ER.

NICKNACK, nik'nak, _n._ a trifle--dim. NICK'NACKET.--_n._ NICK'NACKERY. [Same as _Knick-knack_.]

NICKNAME, nik'n[=a]m, _n._ a name given in contempt or sportive familiarity.--_v.t._ to give a nickname to. [M. E. _neke-name_, with intrusive initial _n_ from _eke-name_, surname; from _eke_ and _name_.]

NICOTINE, nik'o-tin, _n._ a poisonous, volatile, alkaloid base, obtained from tobacco.--_adj._ NIC[=O]'TIAN, pertaining to tobacco, from Jean _Nicot_ (1530-1600), the benefactor who introduced it into France in 1560.--_n._ a smoker of NICOTI[=A]'NA, the literature of tobacco.--_n._ NIC'OTINISM, a morbid state induced by excessive misuse of tobacco.

NICTATE, nik't[=a]t, _v.i._ to wink--also NIC'TITATE.--_ns._ NIC'T[=A]TION, NICTIT[=A]'TION.--NICTITATING MEMBRANE, a thin movable membrane covering the eyes of birds. [L. _nict[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

NIDDER, nid'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to keep under: to pinch with cold or hunger: to molest.

NIDDLE-NODDLE, nid'l-nod'l, _adj._ vacillating.--_v.i._ to wag the head.

NIDERLING, nid'[.e]r-ling, _n._ a wicked fellow--also NID'ERING, NITH'ING.--_n._ NIDD'ERING, a noodle.

NIDGE, nij, _v.t._ to dress the face of (a stone) with a sharp-pointed hammer.

NIDGING, nij'ing, _adj._ trifling.--_n._ NIDG'ET, a fool.

NIDIFICATION, nid-i-fi-k[=a]'shun, _n._ the act or art of building a nest, and the hatching and rearing of the young.--_adj._ NIDAMENT'AL, pertaining to nests or what protects eggs.--_n._ NIDAMENT'UM, an egg-case.--_vs.i._ NID'IFICATE, NID'IFY.--_adjs._ NID'ULANT, NID'ULATE, lying free in a cup-shaped body, or in pulp.--_n._ NIDUL[=A]'TION, nest-building. [L. _nidus_, a nest, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

NIDOR, n[=i]'dor, _n._ odour, esp. of cooked food.--_adjs._ N[=I]'DOROSE, N[=I]'DOROUS, N[=I]'DOSE. [L.]

NIDUS, n[=i]'dus, _n._ a place, esp. in an animal body, in which a germ lodges and begins to develop. [L.]

NIECE, n[=e]s, _n._ (_fem._ of NEPHEW) the daughter of a brother or sister: (_orig._) a granddaughter. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _nepta_--L. _neptis_, a granddaughter, niece.]

NIELLO, ni-el'lo, _n._ a method of ornamenting silver or gold plates by engraving the surface, and filling up the lines with a black composition, to give clearness and effect to the incised design: a work produced by this method: an impression taken from the engraved surface before the incised lines have been filled up: the compound used in niello-work.--_v.t._ to decorate with niello.--_n._ NIELL'URE, the process, also the work done. [It. _niello_--Low L. _nigellum_, a black enamel--L. _nigellus_, dim. of _niger_, black.]

NIERSTEINER, n[=e]r'st[=i]-ner, _n._ a variety of Rhine wine, named from _Nierstein_, near Mainz.

NIFFER, nif'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to barter.--_n._ an exchange.

NIFFLE, nif'l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to pilfer.--_n._ NIFF'NAFF, a trifle.--_adj._ NIFF'NAFFY, fastidious.

NIFLHEIM, nifl'h[=i]m, _n._ (_Scand. myth._) a region of mist, ruled over by Hel.

NIFTY, nif'ti, _adj._ (_slang_) stylish.

NIGELLA, n[=i]-jel'a, _n._ a genus of ranunculaceous plants, with finely dissected leaves, and whitish, blue, or yellow flowers, often almost concealed by their leafy involucres--_Nigella damascena_, called Love-in-a-mist, Devil-in-a-bush, and Ragged Lady.

NIGGARD, nig'ard, _n._ a person who is unwilling to spend or give away: a miser.--_adjs._ NIGG'ARD, NIGG'ARDLY, having the qualities of a niggard: miserly; NIGG'ARDISH, rather niggardly.--_n._ NIGG'ARDLINESS, meanness in giving or spending--(_Spens._) NIGG'ARDISE.--_adv._ NIGG'ARDLY. [Ice. _hnöggr_, stingy; Ger. _genau_, close.]

NIGGER, nig'[.e]r, _n._ a black man, a negro: a native of the East Indies or one of the Australian aborigines: a black caterpillar: a Cornish holothurian.--_v.t._ to exhaust soil by cropping it year by year without manure.--_n._ NIGG'ERDOM, niggers collectively.--_adjs._ NIGG'ERISH, NIGG'ERY.--_ns._ NIGG'ER-KILL'ER, a scorpion; NIGG'ERLING, a little nigger.

NIGGLE, nig'l, _v.i._ to trifle, busy one's self with petty matters: to cramp.--_v.t._ to fill with excessive detail: to befool.--_n._ small cramped handwriting.--_ns._ NIGG'LER, one who trifles; NIGG'LING, fussiness, finicking work.--_adj._ mean: fussy. [Freq. of _nig_, which may be a variant of _nick_.]

NIGH, n[=i], _adj._ near: not distant in place or time: not far off in degree, kindred, &c.: close.--_adv._ nearly: almost.--_prep._ near to: not distant from.--_adv._ NIGH'LY, nearly: within a little.--_n._ NIGH'NESS, the state or quality of being nigh: nearness. [A.S. _néah_, _néh_; Dut. _na_, Ger. _nahe_.]

NIGHT, n[=i]t, _n._ the end of the day: the time from sunset to sunrise: darkness: ignorance, affliction, or sorrow: death.--_ns._ NIGHT'-BELL, a bell for use at night--of a physician, &c.; NIGHT'-BIRD, a bird that flies only at night, esp. the owl: the nightingale, as singing at night; NIGHT'-BLIND'NESS, inability to see in a dim light, nyctalopia; NIGHT'-BRAWL'ER, one who raises disturbances in the night; NIGHT'CAP, a cap worn at night in bed (so NIGHT'DRESS, -SHIRT, &c.): a dram taken before going to bed: a cap drawn over the face before hanging; NIGHT'-CART, a cart used to remove the contents of privies before daylight; NIGHT'-CHAIR, a night-stool; NIGHT'-CHURR, or -JAR, the British species of goat-sucker, so called from the sound of its NIGHT'-CLOTHES, garments worn in bed.--_ns._ NIGHT'-CROW, a bird that cries in the night; NIGHT'-DOG (_Shak._), a dog that hunts in the night.--_adj._ NIGHT'ED, benighted: (_Shak._) darkened, clouded.--_ns._ NIGHT'FALL, the fall or beginning of the night: the close of the day: evening; NIGHT'FARING, travelling by night; NIGHT'FIRE, a fire burning in the night: a will-o'-the-wisp; NIGHT'-FISH'ERY, a mode of fishing by night, or a place where this is done; NIGHT'-FLY, a moth that flies at night; NIGHT'-FOE, one who makes his attack by night; NIGHT'-FOSS'ICKER, one who robs a digging by night.--_adj._ NIGHT'-FOUN'DERED, lost in the night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-FOWL, a night-bird; NIGHT'-GLASS, a spy-glass with concentrating lenses for use at night; NIGHT'-GOWN, a long loose robe for sleeping in, for men or women; a loose gown for wearing in the house; NIGHT'-HAG, a witch supposed to be abroad at night; NIGHT'-HAWK, a species of migratory goat-sucker, common in America; NIGHT'-HER'ON, a heron of nocturnal habit; NIGHT'-HOUSE, a tavern allowed to be open during the night; NIGHT'-HUNT'ER, a degraded woman who prowls about the streets at night for her prey; NIGHT'-LAMP, or -LIGHT, a light left burning all night.--_adj._ NIGHT'LESS, having no night.--_n._ NIGHT'-LINE, a fishing-line set overnight.--_adj._ and _adv._ NIGHT'LONG, lasting all night.--_adj._ NIGHT'LY, done by night: done every night.--_adv._ by night: every night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-MAN, a night-watchman or scavenger; NIGHT'-OWL, an owl of exclusively nocturnal habits: one who sits up very late; NIGHT'-PAL'SY, a numbness of the lower limbs, incidental to women; NIGHT'PIECE, a picture or literary description of a night-scene: a painting to be seen best by artificial light; NIGHT'-POR'TER, a porter in attendance during the night at hotels, railway stations, &c.; NIGHT'-RAIL, a night-gown: a 17th-century form of head-dress; NIGHT'-RAV'EN (_Shak._), a bird that cries at night, supposed to be of ill-omen; NIGHT'-REST, the repose of the night; NIGHT'-RULE (_Shak._), a frolic at night.--_adv._ NIGHTS (_obs._), by night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-SCHOOL, a school held at night, esp. for those at work during the day; NIGHT'-SEA'SON, the time of night; NIGHT'SHADE, a name of several plants of the genus _Solanum_, having narcotic properties, often found in damp shady woods; NIGHT'-SHRIEK, a cry in the night; NIGHT'-SIDE, the dark, mysterious, or gloomy side of anything; NIGHT'-SING'ER, any bird like the nightingale, esp. the Irish sedge-warbler; NIGHT'-SOIL, the contents of privies, cesspools, &c., generally carried away at night; NIGHT'-SPELL, a charm against accidents by night; NIGHT'-STEED, one of the horses in the chariot of NIGHT; NIGHT'-STOOL, a close-stool for use in a bedroom; NIGHT'-T[=A]'PER, a night-light burning NIGHT'-TERR'ORS, the sudden starting from sleep of children in a state of fright.--_p.adj._ NIGHT'-TRIP'PING (_Shak._), tripping about in the night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-WAK'ING, watching in the night; NIGHT'-WALK, a walk in the night; NIGHT'-WALK'ER, one who walks in his sleep at night, a somnambulist: one who walks about at night for bad purposes, esp. a prostitute; NIGHT'-WALK'ING, walking in one's sleep, somnambulism: roving about at night with evil designs; NIGHT'-WAN'DERER, one who wanders by night.--_adjs._ NIGHT'-WAR'BLING, singing in the night; NIGHT'WARD, toward night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-WATCH, a watch or guard at night: time of watch in the night; NIGHT'-WATCH'MAN, one who acts as a watch during the night; NIGHT'-WORK, work done at night. [A.S. _niht_; Ger. _nacht_, L. _nox_.]

NIGHTINGALE, n[=i]t'in-g[=a]l, _n._ a small sylviine bird, of the Passerine family, widely distributed in the Old World, celebrated for the rich love-song of the male heard chiefly at night. [A.S. _nihtegale_--_niht_, night, _galan_, to sing; Ger. _nachtigall_.]

NIGHTINGALE, n[=i]t'in-g[=a]l, _n._ a kind of flannel scarf with sleeves, worn by invalids when sitting up in bed. [From the famous Crimean hospital nurse, Florence _Nightingale_, born 1820.]

NIGHTMARE, n[=i]t'm[=a]r, _n._ a dreadful dream accompanied with pressure on the breast, and a feeling of powerlessness to move or speak--personified as an incubus or evil-spirit.--_adj._ NIGHT'MARISH. [A.S. _niht_, night, _mara_, a nightmare; cf. Old High Ger. _mara_, incubus, Ice. _mara_, nightmare.]

NIGRESCENT, n[=i]-gres'ent, _adj._ growing black or dark: approaching to blackness.--_n._ NIGRESC'ENCE. [L., _nigresc[)e]re_, to grow black--_niger_, black.]

NIGRITE, nig'r[=i]t, _n._ an insulating composition consisting of the impure residuum obtained in the distillation of paraffin. [L. _niger_, black.]

NIGRITIAN, ni-grish'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Nigritia_, Upper Guinea, Senegambia, and the Soudan region generally, the home of the true negroes.--_n._ a native of this region, a negro.

NIGRITUDE, nig'ri-t[=u]d, _n._ blackness. [L. _nigritudo_--_niger_, black.]

NIGROSINE, nig'r[=o]-sin, _n._ a coal-tar colour prepared from the hydrochloride of violaniline. [L. _niger_, black.]

NIHIL, n[=i]'hil, _n._ nothing.--_ns._ N[=I]'HILISM, belief in nothing, extreme scepticism: in Russia, a revolutionary socialistic movement aiming at the overturn of all the existing institutions of society in order to build it up anew on different principles; N[=I]'HILIST, one who professes Nihilism.--_adj._ NIHILIST'IC.--_ns._ NIHIL'ITY, nothingness; NIL, nothing. [L.]

NIKE, n[=i]'k[=e], _n._ the goddess of victory. [Gr.]


NILL, nil, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to refuse, to reject.--_v.i._ to be unwilling. [A.S. _nillan_--_ne_, not, _willan_, to will.]

NILOMETER, n[=i]-lom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a gauge for measuring the height of water in the river _Nile_: any river-gauge--also N[=I]'LOSCOPE.--_adj._ NILOT'IC.

NIM, nim, _v.t._ to steal, pilfer. [A.S. _niman_, to take.]

NIMBLE, nim'bl, _adj._ light and quick in motion: active: swift.--_adjs._ NIM'BLE-FING'ERED, skilful with the fingers, thievish; NIM'BLE-FOOT'ED, swift of foot.--_ns._ NIM'BLENESS, NIM'BLESS (_Spens._), quickness of motion either in body or mind.--_adj._ NIM'BLE-WIT'TED, quick-witted.--_adv._ NIM'BLY. [M. E. _nimel_--A.S. _niman_, to catch; cf. Ger. _nehmen_.]

NIMBUS, nim'bus, _n._ the raincloud: (_paint._) the disc or halo, generally circular or semicircular, which encircles the head of the sacred person represented.--_adj._ NIMBIF'EROUS, bringing clouds. [L.]

NIMIETY, ni-m[=i]'e-ti, _n._ (rare) state of being too much. [L. _nimietas_--_nimis_, too much.]

NIMINY-PIMINY, nim'i-ni-pim'i-ni, _adj._ affectedly fine or delicate.--_n._ affected delicacy. [Imit.]

NIMROD, nim'rod, _n._ the founder of Babel (see Gen. x. 8-10): any great hunter.

NINCOMPOOP, nin'kom-poop, _n._ a simpleton. [Corr. of L. _non compos_ (_mentis_), not of sound mind.]

NINE, n[=i]n, _adj._ and _n._ eight and one.--_n._ NINE'-EYES, a popular name for the young lampreys found in rivers.--_adj._ NINE'FOLD, nine times folded or repeated.--_ns._ NINE'HOLES, a game in which a ball is to be bowled into nine holes in the ground or a board; NINE'PINS, a game at bowls, a form of skittles, so called from nine pins being set up to be knocked down by a ball.--_adj._ NINE'-SCORE, nine times twenty.--_n._ the number of nine times twenty.--_adj._ and _n._ NINE'TEEN, nine and ten.--_adj._ NINE'TEENTH, the ninth after the tenth: being one of nineteen equal parts.--_n._ a nineteenth part.--_adj._ NINE'TIETH, the last of ninety: next after the eighty-ninth.--_n._ a ninetieth part.--_adj._ and _n._ NINE'TY, nine tens.--_adj._ NINTH, the last of nine: next after the eighth.--_n._ one of nine equal parts.--_adv._ NINTH'LY, in the ninth place.--NINE DAYS' WONDER (see WONDER); NINE MEN'S MORRIS (see MORRIS); NINE WORTHIES, Hector, Alexander the Great, Julius Cæsar, Joshua, David, Judas Maccabæus, Arthur, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon; THE NINE, the nine muses (see MUSE); TO THE NINES, to perfection, fully, elaborately. [A.S. _nigon_; Dut. _negen_, L. _novem_, Gr. _ennea_, Sans. _navan_.]

NINNY, nin'i, _n._ a simpleton.--Also NINN'Y-HAMM'ER. [It. _ninno_, child; Sp. _niño_, infant.]

NIOBE, n[=i]'o-b[=e], _n._ daughter of Tantalus, and wife of Amphion, king of Thebes. Proud of her many children, she gloried over Latona, who had but two, Artemis and Apollo. But these killed them all, on which the weeping mother was turned into stone by Zeus.--_adj._ NIOB[=E]'AN.

NIOBIUM, n[=i]-[=o]'bi-um, _n._ a rare metal, steel-gray in colour, discovered in the mineral Tantalite--sometimes called _Columbium_.

NIP, nip, _n._ a sip, esp. of spirits--also NIP'PER (_U.S._).--_v.i._ to take a dram.--_n._ NIP'PERKIN, a small measure of liquor. [Dut. _nippen_, to sip.]

NIP, nip, _v.t._ to pinch: to press between two surfaces: to cut off the edge: to check the growth or vigour of: to destroy: to bite, sting, satirise:--_pr.p._ nip'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ nipped.--_n._ a pinch: a seizing or closing in upon: a cutting off the end: a blast: destruction by frost: (_min._) a more or less gradual thinning out of a stratum: (_naut._) a short turn in a rope, the part of a rope at the place bound by the seizing or caught by jambing.--_ns._ NIP'-CHEESE, a stingy fellow: (_naut._) the purser's steward; NIP'PER, he who, or that which, nips: one of various tools or implements like pincers: one of a pair of automatically locking handcuffs: a chela or great claw, as of a crab: the young bluefish: a boy who attends on navvies: (_obs._) a thief: one of the four fore-teeth of a horse: (_pl._) small pincers.--_v.t._ to seize (two ropes) together.--_adv._ NIP'PINGLY.--NIP IN THE BUD, to cut off in the earliest stage. [From root of _knife_; Dut. _knijpen_, Ger. _kneipen_, to pinch.]

NIPPERTY-TIPPERTY, nip'[.e]r-ti-tip'[.e]r-ti, _adj._ (_Scot._) silly, frivolous.

NIPPLE, nip'l, _n._ the pap by which milk is drawn from the breasts of females: a teat: a small projection with an orifice, as the nipple of a gun.--_v.t._ to furnish with a nipple.--_ns._ NIPP'LE-SHIELD, a defence for the nipple worn by nursing women; NIPP'LE-WORT, a small, yellow-flowered plant of remedial use. [A dim. of _neb_ or _nib_.]

NIPPY, nip'i, _adj._ (_Scot._) sharp in taste: curt: parsimonious.

NIPTER, nip't[.e]r, _n._ the ecclesiastical ceremony of washing the feet--the same as maundy. [Gr. _nipt[=e]r_, a basin--_niptein_, to wash.]

NIRLES, NIRLS, nirlz, _n._ herpes.

NIRVANA, nir-vä'na, _n._ the cessation of individual existence--the state to which a Buddhist aspires as the best attainable. [Sans., 'a blowing out.']

NIS, nis (_Spens._), is not. [A contr. of _ne is_.]

NIS, nis, _n._ a hobgoblin. [Same as _Nix_.]

NISAN, n[=i]'san, _n._ the name given after the Captivity to the Jewish month Abib. [Heb.]

NISI, n[=i]'s[=i], _conj._ unless, placed after the words 'decree' or 'rule,' to indicate that the decree or rule will be made absolute unless, after a time, some condition referred to be fulfilled.--NISI PRIUS, the name usually given in England to the sittings of juries in civil cases--from the first two words of the old Latin writ summoning the juries to appear at Westminster _unless_, _before_ the day appointed, the judges shall have come to the county.

NISUS, n[=i]'sus, _n._ effort, attempt.--NISUS FORMATIVUS (_biol._), formative effort. [L.]

NIT, nit, _n._ the egg of a louse or other small insect.--_adj._ NIT'TY, full of nits. [A.S. _hnitu_; Ger. _niss_.]

NITHING, n[=i]'_th_ing, _adj._ wicked, mean.--_n._ a wicked man. [A.S. _níthing_; Ger. _neiding_.]

NITHSDALE, niths'd[=a]l, _n._ a hood which can be drawn over the face. [From the Jacobite Earl of _Nithsdale_ who escaped from the Tower in women's clothes brought in by his wife, in 1716.]

NITID, nit'id, _adj._ shining: gay.--_n._ N[=I]'TENCY, brightness. [L. _nitidus_--_nit[=e]re_, to shine.]

NITRE, n[=i]'t[.e]r, _n._ the nitrate of potash--also called _Saltpetre_.--_n._ N[=I]'TR[=A]TE, a salt of nitric acid.--_adjs._ N[=I]'TR[=A]TED, combined with nitric acid; N[=I]'TRIC, pertaining to, formed from, or containing or resembling nitre.--_n._ N[=I]'TRIC AC'ID, an acid got by distilling a mixture of sulphuric acid and nitrate of sodium--it acts powerfully on metals, and is known by the name of _Aqua-fortis_.--_adj._ NITRIF'EROUS, nitre-bearing.--_n._ NITRIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ N[=I]'TRIFY, to convert into nitre.--_v.i._ to become nitre:--_pr.p._ n[=i]'trifying; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ n[=i]'trified.--_ns._ N[=I]'TRITE, a salt of nitrous acid; N[=I]'TRO-BEN'ZOL, a yellow oily fluid, obtained by treating benzol with warm fuming nitric acid--used in perfumery and known as _Essence of mirbane_; N[=I]'TRO-GLYC'ERINE, a powerfully explosive compound produced by the action of nitric and sulphuric acids on glycerine--sometimes used in minute doses as a medicine.--_adjs._ NITROSE', N[=I]'TROUS, resembling, or containing, nitre.--_n._ N[=I]'TROUS OX'IDE, a combination of oxygen and nitrogen, called also _Laughing gas_, which causes, when breathed, insensibility to pain.--_adj._ N[=I]'TRY, of or producing nitre.--CUBIC NITRE, nitrate of soda, so called because it crystallises in cubes. [Fr.,--L. _nitrum_--Gr. _nitron_, natron, potash, soda--Ar. _nitrún_, _natrún_.]

NITROGEN, n[=i]'tro-jen, _n._ a gas forming nearly four-fifths of common air, a necessary constituent of every organised body, so called from its being an essential constituent of nitre.--_adjs._ NITROGEN'IC, NITROG'ENOUS.--_v.t._ NITROG'ENISE, to impregnate with nitrogen.--_n._ NITROM'ETER, an apparatus for estimating nitrogen in some of its combinations. [Gr. _nitron_, and _gennaein_, to generate.]

NITTER, nit'[.e]r, _n._ a bot-fly, the horse-bot.

NITTINGS, nit'ingz, small particles of coal or refuse of any ore.

NIVAL, n[=i]'val, _adj._ snowy, growing among snow.--_adj._ NIV'EOUS, snowy, white.--_n._ NIVÔSE (n[=e]-v[=o]z'), the 4th month of the French revolutionary calendar, Dec. 21-Jan. 19. [L. _niveus_--_nix_, _nivis_, snow.]

NIX, niks, _n._ (_Teut. myth._) a water-spirit, mostly malignant.--Also NIX'IE, NIX'Y. [Ger. _nix_; cf. _Nicker_.]

NIX, niks, _n._ nothing: (_U.S._) in the postal service, anything unmailable because addressed to places which are not post-offices or to post-offices not existing in the States, &c., indicated in the address--usually in _pl._ [Ger. _nichts_, nothing.]

NIX, niks, _interj._ a roughs' street-cry of warning at the policeman, &c.

NIZAM, ni-zam', _n._ the title of the sovereign of Hyderabad in India, first used in 1713: _sing._ and _pl._ the Turkish regulars, or one of them. [Hind., contr. of _Nizam-ul-Mulk_=Regulator of the state.]

NO, n[=o], _adv._ the word of refusal or denial: not at all: never: not so: not.--_n._ a denial: a vote against or in the negative:--_pl._ NOES (n[=o]z).--_adj._ not any: not one: none.--_advs._ N[=O]'WAY, in no way, manner, or degree--also N[=O]'WAYS; N[=O]'WISE, in no way, manner, or degree.--NO ACCOUNT, worthless; NO DOUBT, surely; NO GO (see GO); NO JOKE, not a trifling matter. [A.S. _ná_, compounded of _ne_, not, and _á_ ever; _nay_, the neg. of _aye_, is Scand.]

NOACHIAN, n[=o]-[=a]'ki-an, _adj._ pertaining to the patriarch _Noah_, or to his time--also NOACH'IC.--NOAH'S ARK, a child's toy in imitation of the ark of Noah and its inhabitants.

NOB, nob, _n._ the head: a knobstick.--ONE FOR HIS NOB, a blow on the head in boxing: a point at cribbage by holding the knave of trumps. [_Knob._]

NOB, nob, _n._ a superior sort of person.--_adv._ NOB'BILY.--_adj._ NOB'BY, smart, fashionable: good, capital. [A contr. of _nobleman._]

NOBBLE, nob'l, _v.t._ (_slang_) to get hold of dishonestly, to steal: to baffle or circumvent dexterously: to injure, destroy the chances of, as a racer.--_n._ NOBB'LER, a finishing-stroke: a thimble-rigger's confederate: a dram of spirits.

NOBILITY, no-bil'i-ti, _n._ the quality of being noble: high rank: dignity: excellence: greatness of mind or character: antiquity of family: descent from noble ancestors: the persons holding the rank of nobles.--_adj._ NOBIL'IARY, pertaining to the nobility.--_v.t._ NOBIL'ITATE, to ennoble.--_n._ NOBILIT[=A]'TION.

NOBLE, n[=o]'bl, _adj._ illustrious: high in rank or character: of high birth: magnificent: generous: excellent.--_n._ a person of exalted rank: a peer: an obsolete gold coin=6s. 8d. sterling.--_n._ N[=O]'BLEMAN, a man who is noble or of rank: a peer: one above a commoner.--_adj._ N[=O]'BLE-MIND'ED, having a noble mind.--_ns._ N[=O]BLE-MIND'EDNESS; N[=O]'BLENESS, the quality of being noble: excellence in quality: dignity: greatness by birth or character: ingenuousness: worth; NOBLESS', NOBLESSE' (_Spens._), nobility: greatness: the nobility collectively; N[=O]'BLEWOMAN, the fem. of NOBLEMAN.--_adv._ N[=O]'BLY.--NOBLE ART, boxing; NOBLE METALS (see METAL).--MOST NOBLE, the style of a duke. [Fr.,--L. _nobilis_, obs. _gnobilis_--_nosc[)e]re_ (_gnosc[)e]re_), to know.]

NOBODY, n[=o]'bod-i, _n._ no body or person: no one: a person of no account, one not in fashionable society.

NOCAKE, n[=o]'k[=a]k, _n._ meal made of parched corn, once much used by North American Indians on the march. [Amer. Ind. _nookik_, meal.]

NOCENT, n[=o]'sent, _adj._ (_obs._) hurtful: guilty.--_n._ one who is hurtful or guilty.--_adv._ N[=O]'CENTLY. [L. _noc[=e]re_, to hurt.]

NOCK, nok, _n._ the forward upper end of a sail that sets with a boom: a notch, esp. that on the butt-end of an arrow for the string. [Cf. _Notch._]

NOCTAMBULATION, nok-tam-b[=u]-l[=a]'shun, _n._ walking in sleep.--_ns._ NOCTAM'BULISM, sleep-walking; NOCTAM'BULIST, one who walks in his sleep. [L. _nox_, _noctis_, night, _ambul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to walk.]

NOCTILIO, nok-til'i-[=o], _n._ a genus of American bats.

NOCTILUCA, nok-ti-l[=u]'ka, _n._ a phosphorescent marine Infusorian, abundant around the British coasts, one of the chief causes of the phosphorescence of the waves.--_adjs._ NOCTIL[=U]'CENT, NOCTIL[=U]'CID, NOCTIL[=U]'COUS, shining in the dark. [L. _nox_, _noctis_, night, _luc[=e]re_, to shine.]

NOCTIVAGANT, nok-tiv'a-gant, _adj._ wandering in the night.--_n._ NOCTIVAG[=A]'TION.--_adj._ NOCTIV'AGOUS. [L. _nox_, _noctis_, night, _vag[=a]ri_, to wander.]

NOCTOGRAPH, nok'to-graf, _n._ a writing-frame for the blind: an instrument for recording the presence of a night-watchman on his beat.--_n._ NOCTURN'OGRAPH, an instrument for recording work done in factories, &c., during the night. [L. _nox_, Gr. _graphein_, to write.]

NOCTUA, nok't[=u]-a, _n._ a generic name variously used--giving name to the NOCT[=U]'IDÆ, a large family of nocturnal lepidopterous insects, strong-bodied moths.--_n._ NOC'TUID.--_adjs._ NOCT[=U]'IDOUS; NOC'TUIFORM; NOC'TUOID.

NOCTUARY, nok't[=u]-[=a]-ri, _n._ an account kept of the events or thoughts of night.

NOCTULE, nok't[=u]l, _n._ a vespertilionine bat. [Fr.,--L. _nox_, _noctis_, night.]

NOCTURN, nok'turn, _n._ in the early church, a service of psalms and prayers at midnight or at daybreak: a portion of the psalter used at nocturns. [Fr. _nocturne_--L. _nocturnus_--_nox_, _noctis_, night.]

NOCTURNAL, nok-tur'nal, _adj._ pertaining to night: happening by night: nightly.--_n._ an instrument for observations in the night.--_adv._ NOCTUR'NALLY.

NOCTURNE, nok'turn, _n._ a painting showing a scene by night: a piece of music of a dreamy character suitable to evening or night thoughts: a serenade: a reverie. [Fr.; cf. _Nocturn_.]

NOCUOUS, nok'[=u]-us, _adj._ hurtful.--_adv._ NOC'UOUSLY. [L. _nocuus_--_noc[=e]re_, to hurt.]

NOD, nod, _v.i._ to give a quick forward motion of the head: to bend the head in assent: to salute by a quick motion of the head: to let the head drop in weariness.--_v.t._ to incline: to signify by a nod:--_pr.p._ nod'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ nod'ded.--_n._ a bending forward of the head quickly: a slight bow: a command.--_ns._ NOD'DER; NOD'DING.--_adj._ inclining the head quickly: indicating by a nod: acknowledged by a nod merely, as a nodding acquaintance: (_bot._) having the flower looking downwards.--LAND OF NOD, the state of sleep. [M. E. _nodden_, not in A.S.; but cf. Old High Ger. _hn[=o]ton_, to shake, prov. Ger. _notteln_, to wag.]

NODDLE, nod'l, _n._ properly, the projecting part at the back of the head: the head.--_v.i._ to nod repeatedly. [A variant of _knot_; cf. Old Dut. _knodde_, a knob, Ger. _knoten_, a knot.]

NODDY, nod'i, _n._ one whose head nods from weakness: a stupid fellow: a sea-fowl--easily taken: a four-wheeled carriage with a door at the back: an upright flat spring with a weight on the top, forming an inverted pendulum, indicating the vibration of any body to which it is attached. [_Nod._]

NODE, n[=o]d, _n._ a knot: a knob: a knot or entanglement: (_astron._) one of the two points in which the orbit of a planet intersects the plane of the ecliptic: (_bot._) the joint of a stem: the plot of a piece in poetry: (_math._) a point at which a curve cuts itself, and through which more than one tangent to the curve can be drawn: a similar point on a surface, where there is more than one tangent-plane.--_adjs._ NOD'AL, pertaining to nodes; NOD[=A]T'ED, knotted.--_ns._ NOD[=A]'TION, the act of making knots: the state of being knotted; NODE'-COUP'LE, a pair of points on a surface at which one plane is tangent; NODE'-CUSP, a peculiar kind of curve formed by the union of a node, a cusp, an inflection, and a bitangent.--_adjs._ NOD'ICAL, pertaining to the nodes: from a node round to the same node again; NODIF'EROUS (_bot._), bearing nodes; N[=O]'DIFORM; NOD'OSE, full of knots: having knots or swelling joints: knotty.--_n._ NODOS'ITY.--_adjs._ NOD'ULAR, of or like a nodule; NOD'UL[=A]TED, having nodules.--_ns._ NOD'ULE, NOD'ULUS, a little knot: a small lump.--_adjs._ NOD'ULED, having nodules or little knots or lumps; NODULIF'EROUS; NOD'ULIFORM; NOD'ULOSE, NOD'ULOUS (_bot._), having nodules or small knots: knotty.--_ns._ NOD'ULUS:--_pl._ NOD'UL[=I]; N[=O]'DUS:--_pl._ N[=O]'D[=I]. [L. _nodus_ (for _gnodus_), allied to _Knot_.]

NOËL, n[=o]'el, _n._ Christmas.--Same as NOWEL (q.v.).

NOEMATIC, -AL, n[=o]-[=e]-mat'ik, -al, _adj._ intellectual--also NOET'IC, -AL.--_adv._ NOEMAT' NOEM'ICS, intellectual science. [Gr. _no[=e]ma_--_noein_, to perceive.]

NOETIAN, n[=o]-[=e]'shi-an, _adj._ pertaining to NOË'TUS or NOË'TIANISM, a form of Patripassianism taught by _Noëtus_ of Smyrna about 200 A.D.

NOG, nog, _n._ a mug, small pot: a kind of strong ale.

NOG, nog, _n._ a tree nail driven through the heels of the shores, to secure them: one of the pins in the lever of a clutch-coupling: a piece of wood in an inner wall: a cog in mining.

NOGGIN, nog'in, _n._ a small mug or wooden cup, or its contents, a dram suitable for one person. [Ir. _noigin_, Gael. _noigean_.]

NOGGING, nog'ging, _n._ a partition of wooden posts with the spaces between filled up with bricks: brick-building filling up the spaces between the wooden posts of a partition.

NOHOW, n[=o]'how, _adv._ not in any way, not at all: (_coll._) out of one's ordinary way, out of sorts.

NOIANCE, noi'ans, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as ANNOYANCE.

NOILS, noilz, short pieces of wool separated from the longer fibres by combing.

NOINT, noint, _v.t._ (_Shak._). Same as ANOINT.

NOISE, noiz, _n._ sound of any kind: any over-loud or excessive sound, din: frequent or public talk: (_Shak._) report: a musical band.--_v.t._ to spread by rumour.--_v.i._ to sound loud.--_adjs._ NOISE'FUL, noisy; NOISE'LESS, without noise: silent.--_adv._ NOISE'LESSLY.--_n._ NOISE'LESSNESS.--MAKE A NOISE IN THE WORLD, to attract great notoriety. [Fr. _noise_, quarrel; prob. from L. _nausea_, disgust; but possibly from L. _noxa_, hurt--_noc[=e]re_, to hurt.]

NOISETTE, nwo-zet', _n._ a variety of rose. [Fr.]

NOISOME, noi'sum, _adj._ injurious to health: disgusting to sight or smell.--_adv._ NOI'SOMELY.--_n._ NOI'SOMENESS. [M. E. _noy_, annoyance. Cf. _Annoy_.]

NOISY, noiz'i, _adj._ making a loud noise or sound: attended with noise: clamorous: turbulent.--_adv._ NOIS'ILY.--_n._ NOIS'INESS.

NOKES, n[=o]ks, _n._ a simpleton.

NOLENS VOLENS, n[=o]lens vol'ens, unwilling (or) willing: willy-nilly.--_n._ NOLI-ME-TANGERE (n[=o]'l[=i]-m[=e]-tan'je-r[=e]), the wild cucumber: lupus of the nose: a picture showing Jesus appearing to Mary Magdalene, as in John XX.--NOLLE PROSEQUI (nol'e pros'e-kw[=i]), a term used in English law to indicate that the plaintiff does not intend to go on with his action. [L. _nolle_, to be unwilling, _velle_, to be willing, _tang[)e]re_, to touch, _prosequi_, to prosecute.]

NOLL, nol, _n._ the head.

NOM, nong, _n._ name.--NOM DE PLUME, 'pen-name:' the signature assumed by an author instead of his own name--not a Fr. phrase, but one of Eng. manufacture from Fr. _nom_, a name, _de_, of, _plume_, a pen.

NOMAD, NOMADE, nom'ad, _n._ one of a tribe that wanders about in quest of game, or of pasture for their flocks.--_adj._ NOMAD'IC, of or for the feeding of cattle: pastoral: pertaining to the life of nomads: wandering: unsettled: rude.--_adv._ NOMAD'ICALLY.--_v.i._ NOM'ADISE, to lead a nomadic or vagabond life.--_n._ NOM'ADISM, the state of being nomadic: habits of nomads. [Gr. _nomas_, _nomados_--_nomos_, pasture--_nemein_, to drive to pasture.]

NOMANCY, n[=o]'man-si, _n._ divination from the letters in a name.

NO-MAN'S-LAND, n[=o]'-manz-land, _n._ a region to which no one possesses a recognised claim.

NOMARCH, nom'ärk, _n._ the ruler of a NOME, or division of a province, as in modern Greece.--_n._ NOM'ARCHY, the district governed by a nomarch. [Gr. _nomos_, district, _arch[=e]_, rule.]

NOMBRIL, nom'bril, _n._ (_her._) the navel-point.

NOME, n[=o]m, _n._ See NOMARCH.

NOMEN, n[=o]'men, _n._ a name, esp. of the _gens_ or clan, as Caius _Julius_ Cæsar. [L.]

NOMENCLATOR, n[=o]'men-kl[=a]-tor, _n._ one who gives names to things:--_fem._ N[=O]'MENCLATRESS.--_adjs._ NOMENCLAT[=O]'RIAL, N[=O]'MENCL[=A]TORY, N[=O]'MENCL[=A]T[=U]RAL.--_n._ N[=O]'MENCL[=A]TURE, a system of naming: a list of names: a calling by name: the peculiar terms of a science. [L.,--_nomen_, a name, _cal[=a]re_, to call.]

NOMIAL, n[=o]'mi-al, _n._ (_alg._) a single name or term.

NOMIC, nom'ik, _adj._ customary, applied to the common mode of spelling--opp. to _Glossic_ and _Phonetic_. [Gr. _nomos_, custom.]

NOMINAL, nom'in-al, _adj._ pertaining to a name: existing only in name: having a name.--_ns._ NOM'INALISM, the doctrine that general terms have no corresponding reality either in or out of the mind, being mere words; NOM'INALIST, one of a sect of philosophers who held the doctrine of nominalism.--_adj._ NOMINALIST'IC, pertaining to nominalism.--_adv._ NOM'INALLY. [L. _nominalis_--_nomen_, _-[)i]nis_, a name.]

NOMINATE, nom'in-[=a]t, _v.t._ to name: to mention by name: to appoint: to propose by name, as for an office or for an appointment.--_adv._ NOM'IN[=A]TELY, by name.--_ns._ NOM'IN[=A]TION, the act or power of nominating: state of being nominated; NOM'IN[=A]TION-GAME, in billiards, a game in which the player has to name beforehand what stroke he is leading.--_adjs._ NOMIN[=A]T[=I]'VAL; NOM'IN[=A]TIVE, naming: (_gram._) applied to the case of the subject.--_n._ the naming case, the case in which the subject is expressed.--_adv._ NOM'IN[=A]TIVELY.--_n._ NOM'IN[=A]TOR, one who nominates.--NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE, a grammatical construction in which we have a subject (noun or pronoun) combined with a participle, but not connected with a finite verb or governed by any other words, as 'All being well, I will come.' [L. _nomin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to name--_nomen_.]

NOMINEE, nom-in-[=e]', _n._ one who is nominated by another: one on whose life an annuity or lease depends: one to whom the holder of a copyhold estate surrenders his interest.

NOMISTIC, n[=o]-mis'tik, _adj._ pertaining to laws founded on a sacred book. [Gr. _nomos_, a law.]

NOMOCRACY, n[=o]-mok'ra-si, _n._ a government according to a code of laws. [Gr. _nomos_, law, _kratia_--_kratein_, to rule.]

NOMOGENY, n[=o]-moj'e-ni, _n._ the origination of life according to natural law, not miracle--opp. to _Thaumatogeny_. [Gr. _nomos_, law, _geneia_--_gen[=e]s_, producing.]

NOMOGRAPHY, n[=o]-mog'ra-fi, _n._ the art of drawing up laws in proper form.--_n._ NOMOG'RAPHER, one versed in this art. [Gr. _nomos_, law, _graphein_, to write.]

NOMOLOGY, no-mol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the laws of the mind.--_adj._ NOMOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ NOMOL'OGIST. [Gr. _nomos_, law, _logia_, discourse--_legein_, to speak.]

NOMOS, nom'os, _n._ in modern Greece, a nome.

NOMOTHETIC, nom-[=o]-thet'ik, _adj._ legislative: founded on a system of laws, or by a lawgiver. [Gr. _nomothet[=e]s_, a lawgiver, one of a body of heliasts or jurors in ancient Athens, charged with the decision as to any proposed change in legislation.]

NON, non, _adv._ not, a Latin word used as a prefix, as in _ns._ NON-ABIL'ITY, want of ability; NON-ACCEPT'ANCE, want of acceptance: refusal to accept; NON-AC'CESS (_law_), absence of opportunity for marital commerce; NON-ACQUAINT'ANCE, want of acquaintance; NON-ACQUIESC'ENCE, refusal of acquiescence; NON-ADMISS'ION, refusal of admission: failure to be admitted; NON-ALIEN[=A]'TION, state of not being alienated: failure to alienate; NON-APPEAR'ANCE, failure or neglect to appear, esp. in a court of law; NON-ARR[=I]'VAL, failure to arrive; NON-ATTEND'ANCE, a failure to attend: absence; NON-ATTEN'TION, inattention; NON'-CLAIM, a failure to make claim within the time limited by law; NON-COM'BATANT, any one connected with an army who is there for some other purpose than that of fighting, as a surgeon, &c.: a civilian in time of war.--_adjs._ NON-COMMISS'IONED, not having a commission, as an officer in the army below the rank of commissioned officer--abbrev. NON-COM'.; NON-COMMIT'TAL, unwilling to commit one's self to any particular opinion or course of conduct, free from any declared preference or pledge.--_ns._ NON-COMM[=U]'NICANT, one who abstains from joining in holy communion, or who has not yet communicated; NON-COMM[=U]N'ION; NON-COMPL[=I]'ANCE, neglect or failure of compliance.--_adj._ NON-COMPLY'ING.--_n._ NON-CONCUR'RENCE, refusal to concur.--_adj._ NON-CONDUCT'ING, not conducting or transmitting: not allowing a fluid or a force to pass along, as glass does not conduct electricity.--_n._ NON-CONDUCT'OR, a substance which does not conduct or transmit certain properties or conditions, as heat or electricity.--_adj._ NONCONFORM'ING, not conforming, esp. to an established church.--_n._ and _adj._ NONCONFORM'IST, one who does not conform: esp. one who refused to conform or subscribe to the Act of Uniformity in 1662--abbrev. NON-CON'.--_n._ NONCONFORM'ITY, want of conformity, esp. to the established church.--_adj._ NON-CONT[=A]'GIOUS, not infectious.--_ns._ NON'-CONTENT, one not content: in House of Lords, one giving a negative vote; NON-DELIV'ERY, failure or neglect to deliver.--_adj._ NON-EFFECT'IVE, not efficient or serviceable: unfitted for service.--_n._ a member of a force who is not able, for some reason, to take part in active service.--_adj._ NON-EFFIC'IENT, not up to the mark required for service.--_n._ a soldier who has not yet undergone the full number of drills.--_n._ NON-[=E]'GO, in metaphysics, the not-I, the object as opposed to the subject, whatever is not the conscious self.--_adjs._ NON-EGOIS'TICAL; NON-ELAS'TIC, not elastic; NON-[=E]LECT', not elect.--_n._ one not predestined to salvation.--_n._ NON-[=E]LEC'TION, state of not being elected.--_adjs._ NON-ELEC'TRIC, -AL, not conducting the electric fluid; NON-EMPHAT'IC; NON-EMPIR'ICAL, not empirical, not presented in experience; NON-EPIS'COPAL.--_n._ NON-EPISCOP[=A]'LIAN.--_adj._ NON-ESSEN'TIAL, not essential: not absolutely required.--_n._ something that may be done without.--_n._ NON-EXIST'ENCE, negation of existence: a thing that has no existence.--_adj._ NON-EXIST'ENT.--_n._ NON-EXPORT[=A]'TION.--_adj._ NON-FOR'FEITING, of a life insurance policy not forfeited by reason of non-payment.--_ns._ NON-FULFIL'MENT; NON-IMPORT[=A]'TION.--_adj._ NON-IMPORT'ING.--_ns._ NON-INTERVEN'TION, a policy of systematic non-interference by one country with the affairs of other nations; NON-INTRU'SION, in Scottish Church history, the principle that a patron should not force an unacceptable clergyman on an unwilling congregation; NON-INTRU'SIONIST.--_adj._ NON-ISS'UABLE, not capable of being issued: not admitting of issue being taken on it.--_n._ NON-JOIN'DER (_law_), the omitting to join all the parties to the action or suit.--_adj._ NONJUR'ING, not swearing allegiance.--_n._ NONJUR'OR, one of the clergy in England and Scotland who would not swear allegiance to William and Mary in 1689, holding themselves still bound by the oath they had taken to the deposed king, James II.--_adjs._ NON-L[=U]'MINOUS; NON-MANUFACT'URING; NON-MARR'YING, not readily disposed to marry; NON-METAL'LIC, not consisting of metal: not like the metals; NON-MOR'AL, involving no moral considerations; NON-NAT'URAL, not natural: forced or strained.--_n._ in ancient medicine, anything not considered of the essence of man, but necessary to his well-being, as air, food, sleep, rest, &c.--_ns._ NON-OB[=E]'DIENCE; NON-OBSERV'ANCE, neglect or failure to observe; NON-PAY'MENT, neglect or failure to pay; NON-PERFORM'ANCE, neglect or failure to perform.--_adjs._ NON-PLACENT'AL; NON-PON'DEROUS.--_n._ NON-PRODUC'TION.--_adj._ NON-PROFESS'IONAL, not done by a professional man, amateur: not proper to be done by a professional man, as unbecoming conduct in a physician, &c.--_ns._ NON-PROFIC'IENT, one who has made no progress in the art or study in which he is engaged; NON-REGARD'ANCE, want of due regard; NON-RES'IDENCE, failure to reside, or the fact of not residing at a certain place, where one's official or social duties require one to reside.--_adj._ NON-RES'IDENT, not residing within the range of one's responsibilities.--_n._ one who does not do so, as a landlord, clergyman, &c.--_n._ NON-RESIST'ANCE, the principle of not offering opposition: passive or ready obedience.--_adjs._ NON-RESIST'ANT, NON-RESIST'ING; NON-SEX'UAL, sexless, asexual; NON-SOC[=I]'ETY, not belonging to a society, esp. of a workman not attached to a trades-union, or of a place in which such men are employed.--_n._ NON-SOL[=U]'TION.--_adjs._ NON-SOL'VENT; NON-SUBMIS'SIVE.--_n._ NON'SUIT, a legal term in England, which means that where a plaintiff in a jury trial finds he will lose his case, owing to some defect or accident, he is allowed to be nonsuited, instead of allowing a verdict and judgment to go for the defendant.--_v.t._ to record that a plaintiff drops his suit.--_n._ NON'-TERM, a vacation between two terms of a law-court.--_adj._ NON-UN'ION (see NON-SOCIETY).--_ns._ NON-[=U]'SAGER (see USAGE); NON-[=U]'SER (_law_), neglect of official duty: omission to take advantage of an easement, &c.--_adj._ NON-V[=I]'ABLE, not viable, of a foetus too young for independent life.

NONAGE, non'[=a]j, _n._ legal infancy, minority: time of immaturity generally.--_adj._ NON'AGED. [L. _non_, not, and _age_.]

NONAGENARIAN, non-a-je-n[=a]'ri-an, _n._ one who is ninety years old.--_adj._ relating to ninety.--_adj._ NONAGES'IMAL, belonging to the number ninety.--_n._ that point of the ecliptic 90 degrees from its intersection by the horizon. [L. _nonagenarius_, containing ninety--_nonaginta_, ninety.]

NONAGON, non'a-gon, _n._ (_math._) a plane figure having nine sides and nine angles. [L. _novem_, nine, _nonus_, ninth, _g[=o]nia_, angle.]

NONCE, nons, _n._ (only in phrase 'for the nonce') the present time, occasion.--NONCE-WORD, a word specially coined, like Carlyle's _gigmanity_. [The substantive has arisen by mistake from 'for the nones,' originally _for then ones_, meaning simply 'for the once.']

NONCHALANCE, non'shal-ans, _n._ unconcern: coolness: indifference.--_adj._ NONCHALANT (non'sha-lant).--_adv._ NON'CHALANTLY. [Fr., _non_, not, _chaloir_, to care for--L. _cal[=e]re_, to be warm.]

NONDESCRIPT, non'de-skript, _adj._ novel: odd.--_n._ anything not yet described or classed: a person or thing not easily described or classed. [L. _non_, not, _descriptus_, _describ[)e]re_, to describe.]

NONE, nun, _adj._ and _pron._ not one: not any: not the smallest part.--_adv._ in no respect: to no extent or degree.--_n._ NONE'-SO-PRETT'Y, or London Pride, _Saxifraga umbrosa_, a common English garden-plant.--_adj._ NONE'-SPAR'ING (_Shak._), all-destroying. [M. E. _noon_, _non_--A.S. _nán_--_ne_, not, _án_, one.]

NONENTITY, non-en'ti-ti, _n._ want of entity or being: a thing not existing: a person of no importance.

NONES, n[=o]nz, in the Roman calendar, the ninth day before the Ides (both days included)--the 5th of Jan., Feb., April, June, Aug., Sept., Nov., Dec., and the 7th of the other months: the Divine office for the ninth hour, or three o'clock. [L. _nonæ_--_nonus_ for _novenus_, ninth--_novem_, nine.]

NON EST, non est, _adj._ for absent, being a familiar shortening of the legal phrase _non est inventus_=he has not been found (_coll_).

NONESUCH, nun'such, _n._ a thing like which there is none such: an extraordinary thing.

NONET, n[=o]-net', _n._ (_mus._) a composition for nine voices or instruments.

NON-FEASANCE, non-f[=e]'zans, _n._ omission of something which ought to be done, distinguished from _Misfeasance_, which means the wrongful use of power or authority. [Pfx. _non_, not, O. Fr. _faisance_, doing--_faire_--L. _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

NONILLION, n[=o]-nil'yun, _n._ the number produced by raising a million to the ninth power.


NONNY, non'i, _n._ a meaningless refrain in Old English ballads, &c., usually 'hey, nonny'--often repeated _nonny-nonny_, _nonino_, as a cover for obscenity.

NONPAREIL, non-pa-rel', _n._ a person or thing without equal or unique: a fine apple: a printing-type forming about twelve lines to the inch, between emerald (larger) and ruby (smaller).--_adj._ without an equal: matchless. [Fr.,--_non_, not, _pareil_, equal--Low L. _pariculus_, dim. of _par_, equal.]

NONPLUS, non'plus, _n._ a state in which no more can be done or said: great difficulty.--_v.t._ to perplex completely, to puzzle:--_pr.p._ non'plussing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ non'plussed. [L. _non_, not, _plus_, more.]

NON POSSUMUS, non pos'[=u]-mus, we are not able: we cannot, a plea of inability. [L., 1st pl. pres. ind. of _posse_, to be able.]

NONSENSE, non'sens, _n._ that which has no sense: language without meaning: absurdity: trifles.--_adj._ NONSENS'ICAL, without sense: absurd.--_ns._ NONSENSICAL'ITY, NONSENS'ICALNESS.--_adv._ NONSENS'ICALLY.--NONSENSE NAME, an arbitrarily coined name, for mnemonic purposes, &c.; NONSENSE VERSES, verses perfect in form but without any connected sense, being merely exercises in metre, &c.: verses intentionally absurd, like that of the Jabberwock in _Through the Looking-glass_.

NON SEQUITUR, non sek'wi-tur, it does not follow: a wrong conclusion: one that does not follow from the premises. [L. _non_, not, and 3d sing. pres. ind. of _sequi_, to follow.]

NOODLE, n[=oo]d'l, _n._ a simpleton: a blockhead.--_n._ NOOD'LEDOM. [_Noddy._]

NOODLE, n[=oo]d'l, _n._ dried dough of wheat-flour and eggs, used in soup or as a baked dish.

NOOK, n[=oo]k, _n._ a corner: a narrow place formed by an angle: a recess: a secluded retreat.--_adjs._ NOOK'-SHOT'TEN, full of nooks and corners; NOOK'Y. [Gael. and Ir. _niuc_; Scot. _neuk_.]

NOOLOGY, no-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science of the phenomena of the mind, or of the facts of intellect. [Gr. _noos_, the mind, _logia_, discourse.]

NOON, n[=oo]n, _n._ the ninth hour of the day in Roman and ecclesiastical reckoning, three o'clock P.M.: afterwards (when the church service for the ninth hour, called _Nones_, was shifted to midday) midday: twelve o'clock: middle: height.--_adj._ belonging to midday: meridional.--_v.i._ to rest at noon.--_n._ NOON'DAY, midday: the time of greatest prosperity.--_adj._ pertaining to midday: meridional.--_ns._ NOON'ING, a rest about noon: a repast at noon; NOON'TIDE, the tide or time of noon: midday.--_adj._ pertaining to noon: meridional. [A.S. _nón-tíd_ (noontide)--L. _nona_ (_hora_), the ninth (hour).]

NOOSE, n[=oo]s, or n[=oo]z, _n._ a running knot which ties the firmer the closer it is drawn: a snare or knot generally.--_v.t._ to tie or catch in a noose. [Prob. O. Fr. _nous_, pl. of _nou_ (Fr. _noeud_)--L. _nodus_, knot.]

NOR, nor, _conj._ and not, a particle introducing the second part of a negative proposition--correlative to _neither_. [Contr. of _nother_=_neither_.]

NORIA, n[=o]'ri-a, _n._ a water-raising apparatus in Spain, Syria, and elsewhere, by means of a large paddle-wheel having fixed to its rim a series of buckets, a flush-wheel. [Sp.,--Ar.]

NORIMON, nor'i-mon, _n._ a kind of sedan-chair used in Japan. [Jap. _nori_, ride, _mono_, thing.]

NORLAND, nor'land, _n._ the same as NORTHLAND.

NORM, norm, _n._ a rule: a pattern: an authoritative standard: a type or typical unit.--_n._ NOR'MA, a rule, model: a square for measuring right angles.--_adj._ NOR'MAL, according to rule: regular: exact: perpendicular.--_n._ a perpendicular.--_ns._ NORMALIS[=A]'TION, NORMAL'ITY.--_v.t._ NOR'MALISE.--_adv._ NOR'MALLY.--_adj._ NOR'MATIVE, establishing a standard.--NORMAL SCHOOL, a training-college for teachers in the practice of their profession. [L. _norma_, a rule.]

NORMAN, nor'man, _n._ a native or inhabitant of Normandy: one of that Scandinavian race which settled in northern France about the beginning of the 10th century, founded the Duchy of Normandy, and conquered England in 1066--the _Norman Conquest_.--_adj._ pertaining to the Normans or to Normandy.--_v.t._ NOR'MANISE, to give a Norman character to.--NORMAN ARCHITECTURE, a round-arched style, a variety of Romanesque, prevalent in England from the Norman Conquest (1066) till the end of the 12th century, of massive simplicity, the churches cruciform with semicircular apse and a great tower rising from the intersection of nave and transept, deeply recessed doorways, windows small, round-headed, high in wall; NORMAN FRENCH, a form of French spoken by the Normans, which came into England at the Norman Conquest, modified the spelling, accent, and pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon, and enriched it with a large infusion of new words relating to the arts of life, &c. [_Northmen._]

NORMAN, nor'man, _n._ (_naut._) a bar inserted in a windlass, on which to fasten or veer a rope or cable.

NORN, norn, _n._ (_Scand. myth._) one of the three fates--Urd, Verdande, and Skuld.--Also NORN'A.

NORROY, nor'roi, _n._ (_her._) the third of the three English kings-at-arms, or provincial heralds, whose jurisdiction lies north of the Trent. [Fr. _nord_, north, _roy_, _roi_, king.]

NORSE, nors, _adj._ pertaining to ancient Scandinavia.--_n._ the language of ancient Scandinavia--also OLD NORSE.--_n._ NORSE'MAN, a Scandinavian or Northman. [Ice. _Norskr_; Norw. _Norsk_.]

NORTH, north, _n._ the point opposite the sun at noon: one of the four cardinal points of the horizon: the side of a church to the left of one facing the principal altar: that portion of the United States north of the former slave-holding states--i.e. north of Maryland, the Ohio, and Missouri.--_adv._ to or in the north.--_ns._ NORTH'-COCK, the snow bunting; NORTH'-EAST, the point between the north and east, equidistant from each.--_adj._ belonging to or from the north-east.--_n._ NORTH'-EAST'ER, a wind from the north-east.--_adjs._ NORTH'-EAST'ERLY, toward or coming from the north-east; NORTH'-EAST'ERN, belonging to the north-east: being in the north-east, or in that direction.--_adv._ NORTH'-EAST'WARD, toward the north-east.--_ns._ NORTH'ER (_th_), a wind or gale from the north, esp. applied to a cold wind that blows in winter over Texas and the Gulf of Mexico; NORTH'ERLINESS (_th_), state of being toward the north.--_adj._ NORTH'ERLY (_th_), being toward the north: coming from the north.--_adv._ toward or from the north.--_adj._ NORTH'ERN (_th_), pertaining to the north: being in the north or in the direction toward it: proceeding from the north.--_n._ an inhabitant of the north.--_n._ NORTH'ERNER (_th_), a native of, or resident in, the north, esp. of the northern United States.--_adjs._ NORTH'ERNMOST (_th_), NORTH'MOST, situate at the point farthest north.--_ns._ NORTH'ING, motion, distance, or tendency northward: distance of a heavenly body from the equator northward: difference of latitude made by a ship in sailing northward: deviation towards the north; NORTH'MAN, one of the ancient Scandinavians; NORTH'-POLE, the point in the heavens, or beneath it on the earth's surface, ninety degrees north of the equator; NORTH'-STAR, the north polar star; NORTHUM'BRIAN, a native of the modern _Northumberland_, or of the ancient kingdom of _Northumbria_, stretching from the Humber to the Forth: that variety of English spoken in Northumbria before the Conquest--also _adj._--_adjs._ NORTH'WARD, NORTH'WARDLY, being toward the north.--_adv._ toward the north--also NORTH'WARDS.--_n._ NORTH'-WEST, the point between the north and west, equidistant from each.--_adj._ pertaining to or from the north-west.--_adjs._ NORTH'-WEST'ERLY, toward or coming from the north-west; NORTH'-WEST'ERN, belonging to the north-west: pertaining to, or being in, the north-west or in that direction.--NORTH WATER, the space of open sea left by the winter pack of ice moving southward.--NORTH-EAST PASSAGE, a passage for ships along the north coasts of Europe and Asia to the Pacific, first made by Nordenskiöld in 1878-79; NORTHERN LIGHTS, the aurora borealis (q.v.); NORTH-WEST PASSAGE, a sea-way for ships from the Atlantic into the Pacific along the northern coast of America, first made by Sir Robert McClure, 1850-54. [A.S. _north_; cf. Ger. _nord_.]

NORWEGIAN, nor-w[=e]'ji-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Norway_--(_Shak._) NORW[=E]'YAN.--_n._ a native of _Norway_: a kind of fishing-boat on the Great Lakes.

NOSE, n[=o]z, _n._ the organ of smell: the power of smelling: sagacity: the projecting part of anything resembling a nose, as the spout of a kettle, &c.: a drip, a downward projection from a cornice: (_slang_) an informer.--_v.t._ to smell: to oppose rudely face to face: to sound through the nose.--_ns._ NOSE'BAG, a bag for a horse's nose, containing oats, &c.; NOSE'-BAND, the part of the bridle coming over the nose, attached to the cheek-straps.--_adjs._ NOSED, having a nose--used in composition, as bottle-_nosed_, long-_nosed_, &c.; NOSE'-LED, led by the nose, ruled and befooled completely; NOSE'LESS, without a nose.--_ns._ NOSE'-LEAF, a membranous appendage on the snouts of phyllostomine and rhinolophine bats, forming a highly sensitive tactile organ; NOSE'-OF-WAX, an over-pliable person or thing; NOSE'-PIECE, the outer end or point of a pipe, bellows, &c.: the extremity of the tube of a microscope to which the objective is attached: a nose-band: the nasal in armour; NOSE'-RING, an ornament worn in the septum of the nose or in either of its wings; NOS'ING, the projecting rounded edge of the step of a stair or of a moulding.--AQUILINE NOSE, a prominent nose, convex in profile; BOTTLE NOSE, a name given to certain species of cetaceans: an eruption on the nose such as is produced by intemperate drinking; PUG NOSE, a short turned-up nose; ROMAN NOSE, an aquiline nose.--HOLD, KEEP, or PUT ONE'S NOSE TO THE GRINDSTONE (see GRINDSTONE); LEAD BY THE NOSE, to cause to follow blindly; PUT ONE'S NOSE OUT OF JOINT, to bring down one's pride or sense of importance: to push out of favour; THRUST ONE'S NOSE INTO, to meddle officiously with anything; TURN UP ONE'S NOSE (_at_), to express contempt for a person or thing. [A.S. _nosu_; Ger. _nase_, L. _nasus_.]

NOSEGAY, n[=o]z'g[=a], _n._ a bunch of fragrant flowers: a posy or bouquet. [From _nose_ and _gay_ (adj.).]

NOSOCOMIAL, nos-[=o]-k[=o]'mi-al, _adj._ relating to a hospital. [Gr. _nosos_, sickness, _komein_, to take care of.]

NOSOGRAPHY, n[=o]-sog'ra-fi, _n._ the description of diseases.--_adj._ NOSOGRAPH'IC. [Gr. _nosos_, disease, _graphein_, to write.]

NOSOLOGY, nos-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science of diseases: the branch of medicine which treats of the classification of diseases.--_adj._ NOSOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ NOSOL'OGIST. [Gr. _nosos_, disease, _logia_, discourse.]

NOSONOMY, n[=o]-son'o-mi, _n._ the classification of diseases. [Gr. _nosos_, a disease, _onoma_, a name.]

NOSOPHOBIA, nos-o-f[=o]'bi-a, _n._ morbid dread of disease. [Gr. _nosos_, a disease, _phobia_, fear.]

NOSTALGIA, nos-tal'ji-a, _n._ home-sickness, esp. when morbid.--_adj._ NOSTAL'GIC. [Gr. _nostos_, a return, algos, pain.]

NOSTOC, nos'tok, _n._ a genus of Algæ, found in moist places.--Also _Witches' butter_, _Spittle of the stars_, _Star-jelly_, &c. [Ger. _nostoch_.]

NOSTOLOGY, nos-tol'o-ji, _n._ the science of the phenomena of extreme old age or senility in which there is ever seen a return to the characteristics of the youthful stage.--_adj._ NOSTOLOG'IC. [Gr. _nostos_, return, _logia_--_legein_, to speak.]

NOSTRADAMUS, nos-tra-d[=a]'mus, _n._ any quack doctor or charlatan--from the French astrologer (1503-66).

NOSTRIL, nos'tril, _n._ one of the openings of the nose. [M. E. _nosethirl_--A.S. _nosthyrl_--_nosu_, nose, _thyrel_, opening. Cf. _Drill_, to pierce, and _Thrill_.]

NOSTRUM, nos'trum, _n._ any secret, quack, or patent medicine: any favourite remedy or scheme. [L., 'our own,' from _nos_, we.]

NOT, not, _adv._ a word expressing denial, negation, or refusal.--NOT IN IT (_coll._), having no part in some confidence or advantage. [Same as _Naught_, from A.S. _ná_, _wiht_, a whit.]

NOTABLE, n[=o]'ta-bl, _adj._ worthy of being known or noted: remarkable: memorable: distinguished: notorious: capable, clever, industrious.--_n._ a person or thing worthy of note, esp. in _pl._ for persons of distinction and political importance in France in pre-Revolution NOTABIL'IA, things worthy of notice: noteworthy sayings.--_ns._ NOTABIL'ITY, the being notable: a notable person or thing; N[=O]'TABLENESS.--_adv._ N[=O]'TABLY.

NOTÆUM, n[=o]-t[=e]'um, _n._ the upper surface of a bird's trunk--opp. to _Gastræum_: a dorsal buckler in some gasteropods. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back.]

NOTALGIA, n[=o]-tal'ji-a, _n._ pain in the back.--_adj._ NOTAL'GIC. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back, _algos_, pain.]

NOTANDA, n[=o]-tan'da, something to be specially noted or observed:--_sing._ NOTAN'DUM. [L. pl. ger. of _not[=a]re_, to note.]

NOTARY, n[=o]'ta-ri, _n._ an officer authorised to certify deeds, contracts, copies of documents, affidavits, &c.--generally called a NOTARY PUBLIC--anciently one who took notes or memoranda of others' acts.--_adj._ NOT[=A]'RIAL.--_adv._ NOT[=A]'RIALLY.--APOSTOLICAL NOTARY, the official who despatches the orders of the Pope; ECCLESIASTICAL NOTARY, in the early church, a secretary who recorded the proceedings of councils, &c. [L. _notarius_.]

NOTATION, n[=o]-t[=a]'shun, _n._ the act or practice of recording by marks or symbols: a system of signs or symbols.--_adj._ N[=O]'TATE (_bot._), marked with coloured spots or lines.--CHEMICAL NOTATION (see CHEMISTRY). [L.,--_not[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to mark.]

NOTCH, noch, _n._ a nick cut in anything: an indentation, incision, incisure: a narrow pass in a rock, or between two mountains.--_v.t._ to cut a hollow into.--_n._ NOTCH'-BOARD, the board which receives the ends of the steps of a staircase--also _Bridge-board_.--_adjs._ NOTCH'-EARED, having emarginate ears, as the notch-eared bat; NOTCHED, nicked.--_n._ NOTCH'ING, a method of joining framing-timbers, by halving, scarfing, or caulking. [From a Teut. root, as in Old Dut. _nock_. Cf. _Nick_, a notch.]

NOTCHEL, NOCHEL, noch'el, _v.t._ (_prov._) to repudiate.

NOTE, n[=o]t, _n._ that by which a person or thing is known: a mark or sign calling attention: a brief explanation: a short remark: a brief report, a catalogue, a bill: a memorandum: a short letter: a diplomatic paper: a small size of paper used for writing: (_mus._) a mark representing a sound, also the sound itself, air, tune, tone, also a digital or key of the keyboard: a paper acknowledging a debt and promising payment, as a bank-note, a note of hand: notice, heed, observation: reputation: fame.--_v.t._ to make a note of: to notice: to attend to: to record in writing: to furnish with notes.--_n._ NOTE'-BOOK, a book in which notes or memoranda are written: a bill-book.--_adj._ NOT'ED, marked: well known: celebrated: eminent: notorious.--_adv._ NOT'EDLY.--_n._ NOT'EDNESS.--_adj._ NOTE'LESS, not attracting notice.--_ns._ NOTE'-P[=A]'PER, folded writing-paper for letters (_commercial_, 5 × 8 in.; _octavo_, 4½ × 7; _billet_, 4 × 6; _queen_, 3½ × 5-3/8; _packet_, 5½ × 9; _Bath_, 7 × 8); NOT'ER, one who notes or observes: one who makes notes, an annotator; NOTE'-SHAV'ER (_U.S._), a money-lender.--_adj._ NOTE'WORTHY, worthy of note or of notice.--NOTE A BILL, to record on the back of it a refusal of acceptance, as a ground of protest. [Fr.,--L. _nota_, _nosc[)e]re_, _notum_, to know.]

NOTE, n[=o]t (_Spens._), wot or knew not (a contr. of _ne wot_): could not (a contr. of _ne mote_).

NOTHING, nuth'ing, _n._ no thing: non-existence: absence of being: a low condition: no value or use: not anything of importance, a trifle: utter insignificance, no difficulty or trouble: no magnitude: a cipher.--_adv._ in no degree: not at all.--_adj._ and _n._ NOTHING[=A]'RIAN, believing nothing.--_ns._ NOTHING[=A]'RIANISM; NOTH'ING-GIFT (_Shak._), a gift of no value; NOTH'INGISM, nihility; NOTH'INGNESS, state of being nothing or of no value: a thing of no value.--NOTHING BUT, no more than: only; NOTHING LESS THAN, equal to: as much as.--COME TO NOTHING, to have no result: to turn out a failure; MAKE NOTHING OF, to consider as of no difficulty or importance; NECK OR NOTHING (see NECK); NEXT TO NOTHING, almost nothing. [_No_ and _thing_.]

NOTICE, n[=o]t'is, _n._ act of noting or observing: attention: observation: information: warning: a writing containing information: public intimation: civility or respectful treatment: remark.--_v.t._ to mark or see: to regard or attend to: to mention: to make observations upon: to treat with civility.--_adj._ NOT'ICEABLE, that can be noticed: worthy of notice: likely to be noticed.--_adv._ NOT'ICEABLY.--_n._ NOT'ICE-BOARD, a board on which a notice is fixed.--GIVE NOTICE, to warn beforehand: to inform. [Fr.,--L. _notitia_--_nosc[)e]re_, _notum_, to know.]

NOTIFY, n[=o]'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to make known: to declare: to give notice or information of:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ n[=o]'tified.--_adj._ N[=O]'TIFIABLE, that must be made known.--_n._ NOTIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of notifying: the notice given: the paper containing the notice. [Fr.,--L. _notific[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_notus_, known, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

NOTION, n[=o]'shun, _n._ the art of forming a conception in the mind of the various marks or qualities of an object: the result of this act, a conception: opinion: belief: judgment: a caprice or whim: any small article ingeniously devised or invented, usually in _pl._--_adj._ N[=O]'TIONAL, of the nature of a notion: ideal: fanciful.--_adv._ N[=O]'TIONALLY, in notion or mental apprehension: in idea, not in reality.--_n._ N[=O]'TIONIST, one who holds ungrounded opinions. [Fr.,--L. _notion-em_--_nosc[)e]re_, _notum_, to know.]

NOTITIA, n[=o]-tish'i-a, _n._ a roll, list, register: a catalogue of public functionaries, with their districts: a list of episcopal sees. [L.; cf. _Notice_.]

NOTOBRANCHIATE, n[=o]-t[=o]-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ and _n._ having dorsal gills, belonging to NOTOBRANCHI[=A]'TA, an order of worms having such. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back, _brangchia_, gills.]

NOTOCHORD, n[=o]'t[=o]-kord, _n._ a simple cellular rod, the basis of the future spinal column, persisting throughout life in many lower vertebrates, as the amphioxus, &c.--_adj._ N[=O]'TOCHORDAL. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back, _chord[=e]_, a string.]

NOTODONTIFORM, n[=o]-t[=o]-don'ti-form, _adj._ resembling a tooth-back or moth of the family _Notodontidæ_. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, back, _odous_, tooth, L. _forma_, form.]

NOTONECTAL, n[=o]-t[=o]-nek'tal, _adj._ swimming on the back, as certain insects: related to the _Notonectidæ_, a family of aquatic bugs, the boat-flies or water-boatmen. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back, _n[=e]kt[=e]s_, a swimmer.]

NOTOPODAL, n[=o]-top'[=o]-dal, _adj._ pertaining to the NOTOP'ODA, a division of decapods, including the dromioid crabs, &c.--Also NOTOP'ODOUS. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back, _pous_, _podos_, the foot.]

NOTOPODIUM, n[=o]-t[=o]-p[=o]'di-um, _n._ the dorsal or upper part of the parapodium of an annelid, a dorsal oar.--_adj._ NOTOP[=O]'DIAL. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back, _pous_, _podos_, the foot.]

NOTORIOUS, no-t[=o]'ri-us, _adj._ publicly known (now used in a bad sense): infamous.--_n._ NOTOR[=I]'ETY, state of being notorious: publicity: public exposure.--_adv._ NOT[=O]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ NOT[=O]'RIOUSNESS. [Low L. _notorius_--_not[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to mark--_nosc[)e]re_.]

NOTORNIS, n[=o]-tor'nis, _n._ a genus of gigantic ralline birds, with wings so much reduced as to be incapable of flight, which have within historical times become extinct in New Zealand, &c. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the south, _ornis_, a bird.]

NOTOTHERIUM, n[=o]-t[=o]-th[=e]'ri-um, _n._ a genus of gigantic fossil kangaroo-like marsupials, found in Australia. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the south, _th[=e]rion_, a wild beast.]

NOTOTREMA, n[=o]-t[=o]-tr[=e]'ma, _n._ the pouch-toads, a genus of _Hylidæ_.--_adj._ NOTOTREM'ATOUS. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back, _tr[=e]ma_, a hole.]

NOTOUR, no-t[=oo]r', _adj._ (_Scot._) well known, notorious.

NOTT-HEADED, not'-hed'ed, _adj._ (_Shak._) having the hair cut bare.--NOTT'-PAT'ED. [A.S. _hnot_, shorn.]

NOTUM, n[=o]'tum, _n._ the dorsal aspect of the thorax in insects. [Gr. _n[=o]tos_, the back.]

NOTUS, n[=o]'tus, _n._ the south or south-west wind. [L.]

NOTWITHSTANDING, not-with-stand'ing, _prep._ in spite of.--_conj._ in spite of the fact that, although.--_adv._ nevertheless, however, yet. [Orig. a participial phrase in nominative absolute=L. _non obstante_.]

NOUGAT, n[=oo]-gä', _n._ a confection made of a sweet paste filled with chopped almonds or pistachio-nuts. [Fr. (cf. Sp. _nogado_, an almond-cake)--L. _nux_, _nucis_, a nut.]

NOUGHT, nawt, _n._ not anything: nothing.--_adv._ in no degree.--SET AT NOUGHT, to despise. [Same as _Naught_.]

NOUL, n[=o]l, _n._ (_Spens._) the top of the head. [A.S. _hnoll_, top or summit.]

NOULD, n[=oo]ld (_Spens._), would not. [A contr. of _ne would_.]

NOUMENON, n[=oo]'me-non, _n._ an unknown and unknowable substance or thing as it is in itself--opp. to _Phenomenon_, or the form through which it becomes known to the senses or the understanding:--_pl._ NOU'MENA.--_adj._ NOU'MENAL. [Gr. _noumenon_, pa.p. of _noein_, to perceive--_nous_, the mind.]

NOUN, nown, _n._ (_gram._) the name of any person or thing.--_adj._ NOUN'AL. [O. Fr. _non_ (Fr. _nom_)--L. _nomen_, name.]

NOURICE, nur'is, _n._ (_Spens._) a nurse. [_Nurse._]

NOURISH, nur'ish, _v.t._ to suckle: to feed or bring up: to support: to help forward growth in any way: to encourage: to cherish: to educate.--_adjs._ NOUR'ISHABLE, able to be nourished.--_n._ NOUR'ISHER.--_adj._ NOUR'ISHING, giving nourishment.--_n._ NOUR'ISHMENT, the act of nourishing or the state of being nourished: that which nourishes: nutriment. [O. Fr. _norir_ (Fr. _nourrir_)--L. _nutr[=i]re_, to feed.]

NOURSLE, nurs'l, _v.t._ to nurse: to bring up.--Also NOUS'LE. [_Nuzzle._]

NOUS, nows, _n._ intellect: talent: common-sense. [Gr.]

NOVACULITE, n[=o]-vak'[=u]-l[=i]t, _n._ a hone-stone.

NOVALIA, n[=o]-v[=a]'li-a, (_Scots law_) waste lands newly reclaimed.

NOVATIAN, n[=o]-v[=a]'shi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Novatianus_, who had himself ordained Bishop of Rome in opposition to Cornelius (251), and headed the party of severity against the lapsed in the controversy about their treatment that arose after the Decian persecution.--_ns._ NOV[=A]'TIANISM; NOV[=A]'TIANIST.

NOVATION, n[=o]-v[=a]'shun, _n._ the substitution of a new obligation for the one existing: innovation.

NOVEL, nov'el, _adj._ new: unusual: strange.--_n._ that which is new: a new or supplemental constitution or decree, issued by certain Roman emperors, as Justinian, after their authentic publications of law (also NOVELL'A): a fictitious prose narrative or tale presenting a picture of real life, esp. of the emotional crises in the life-history of the men and women portrayed.--_n._ NOVELETTE', a small novel.--_v.t._ NOV'ELISE, to change by introducing novelties: to put into the form of novels.--_v.i._ to make innovations.--_n._ NOV'ELIST, a novel-writer: an innovator.--_adj._ NOVELIST'IC.--_n._ NOV'ELTY, newness: unusual appearance: anything new, strange, or different from anything before:--_pl._ NOV'ELTIES. [O. Fr. _novel_ (Fr. _nouveau_)--L. _novellus_--_novus_.]

NOVEMBER, n[=o]-vem'b[.e]r, _n._ the eleventh month of our year. [The _ninth_ month of the Roman year; L., from _novem_, nine.]

NOVENA, n[=o]-v[=e]'na, _n._ a devotion lasting nine days, to obtain a particular request, through the intercession of the Virgin or some saint. [L. _novenus_, nine each, _novem_, nine.]

NOVENARY, nov'en-a-ri, _adj._ pertaining to the number nine.--_adj._ NOVENE', going by nines. [L. _novenarius_--_novem_, nine.]

NOVENNIAL, n[=o]-ven'yal, _adj._ done every ninth year. [L. _novennis_--_novem_, nine, _annus_, a year.]

NOVERCAL, n[=o]-v[.e]r'kal, _adj_. pertaining to or befitting a stepmother. [L. _novercalis_--_noverca_, a stepmother.]

NOVERINT, nov'e-rint, _n._ a writ--beginning with the words _noverint universi_--let all men know. [3d pers. pl. perf. subj. of _nosc[)e]re_, to know.]

NOVICE, nov'is, _n._ one new in anything: a beginner: one newly received into the church: an inmate of a convent or nunnery who has not yet taken the vow.--_ns._ NOV'ICESHIP; NOVI'CIATE, NOVI'TIATE, the state of being a novice: the period of being a novice: a novice. [Fr.,--L. _novitius_--_novus_, new.]

NOVUM, n[=o]'vum, _n._ (_Shak._) a certain game at dice, in which the chief throws were nine and five.

NOVUS HOMO, nov'us hom'o, _n._ a new man: one who has risen from a low position to a high dignity.

NOW, now, _adv._ at the present time: at this time or a little before.--_conj._ but: after this: things being so.--_n._ the present time.--_advs._ NOW'ADAYS, in days now present.--NOW--NOW, at one time--at another time. [A.S. _nú_; Ger. _nun_, L. _nunc_, Gr. _nun_.]

NOWEL, NOËL, n[=o]'el, _n._ Christmas: a joyous shout or song at Christmas: a Christmas carol. [O. Fr. _nowel_, _noel_ (mod. Fr. _noël_; cf. Sp. _natal_, It. _natale_)--L. _natalis_, belonging to one's birthday.]

NOWHERE, n[=o]'hw[=a]r, _adv._ in no where or place: at no time.--_adv._ N[=O]'WHITHER, not any whither: to no place: in no direction: nowhere.

NOWL, nowl, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as NOUL.

NOWT, nowt, _n._ (_Scot._) cattle.--Also NOUT. [_Neat._]

NOWY, now'i, _adj._ (_her._) having a convex curvature near the middle.--Also NOWED. [O. Fr. _noue_--L. _nudatus_, knotted.]

NOXIOUS, nok'shus, _adj._ hurtful: unwholesome: injurious: destructive: poisonous.--_adj._ NOX'AL, relating to wrongful injury.--_adv._ NOX'IOUSLY.--_n._ NOX'IOUSNESS. [L. _noxius_--_noxa_, hurt--_noc[=e]re_, to hurt.]

NOY, noi, _v.t._ (_Spens._). Same as ANNOY.

NOYADE, nwa-yad', _n._ an infamous mode of drowning by means of a boat with movable bottom, practised by Carrier at Nantes, 1793-94. [Fr.,--_noyer_, to drown.]

NOYANCE, noi'ans, _n._ Same as ANNOYANCE.

NOYAU, nwo-y[=o]', _n._ a liqueur flavoured with kernels of bitter almonds or of peach-stones. [Fr., the stone of a fruit--L. _nucalis_, like a nut--_nux_, _nucis_, a nut.]

NOYOUS, noi'us, _adj._ (_Spens._) serving to annoy: troublesome: hurtful. [_Annoy._]

NOYSOME, noi'sum, _adj._ (_Spens._) noisome (q.v.).

NOZZLE, noz'l, _n._ a little nose: the snout: the extremity of anything: the open end of a pipe or tube, as of a bellows, &c. [Dim. of _nose_.]

NUANCE, n[=u]-ans', _n._ a delicate degree or shade of difference perceived by any of the senses, or by the intellect. [Fr.,--L. _nubes_, a cloud.]

NUB, nub, _v.t._ (_prov._) to push: beckon: hang.

NUB, nub, _n._ a knob, knot: point, gist.--_adjs._ NUB'BLY, full of knots; NUB'BY, lumpy, dirty.

NUBBLE, nub'l, _v.t._ to beat with the fist.

NUBECULA, n[=u]-bek'[=u]-la, _n._ a light film on the eye: a cloudy appearance in urine:--_pl._ NUBEC'ULÆ.

NUBIFEROUS, n[=u]-bif'e-rus, _adj._ bringing clouds.--_adjs._ N[=U]BIG'ENOUS, produced by clouds; N[=U]'BILOUS, cloudy, overcast--(_obs._) N[=U]'BILOSE.

NUBILE, n[=u]'bil, _adj._ marriageable.--_n._ NUBIL'ITY. [L. _nubilis_--_nub[)e]re_, to veil one's self, hence to marry.]

NUCELLUS, n[=u]-sel'us, _n._ the nucleus of the ovule.

NUCHAL, n[=u]'kal, _adj._ pertaining to the N[=U]'CHA or nape.

NUCIFORM, n[=u]s'i-form, _adj._ nut-shaped.--_adj._ NUCIF'EROUS, nut-bearing. [L. _nux_, _nucis_, nut, _forma_, form.]

NUCIFRAGA, n[=u]-sif'ra-ga, _n._ a genus of corvine birds, between crows and jays, the nutcrackers.

NUCLEUS, n[=u]'kl[=e]-us, _n._ the central mass round which matter gathers: (_astron._) the head of a comet:--_pl._ NUCLEI (n[=u]'kl[=e]-[=i]).--_adjs._ N[=U]'CL[=E]AL, N[=U]'CL[=E]AR, pertaining to a nucleus.--_v.t._ N[=U]'CL[=E][=A]TE, to gather into or around a nucleus.--_adjs._ N[=U]'CL[=E]ATE, -D, having a nucleus; N[=U]'CL[=E]IFORM.--_ns._ N[=U]'CL[=E]IN, a colourless amorphous proteid, a constituent of cell-nuclei; N[=U]'CLEOBRANCH, one of an order of molluscs which have the gills packed in the shell along with the heart:--_pl._ NUCLEOBRANCHI[)A]'TA; N[=U]'CL[=E][=O]LE, a little nucleus: a nucleus within a nucleus--also NUCL[=E]'OLUS:--_pl._ NUCL[=E]'OLI. [L.,--_nux_, _nucis_, a nut.]

NUCULE, n[=u]k'[=u]l, _n._ a little nut: in _Characeæ_ the female sexual organ. [L. _nucula_, dim. of _nux_, _nucis_, a nut.]

NUDE, n[=u]d, _adj._ naked: bare: without drapery, as a statue: void, as a contract.--_n._ N[=U]D[=A]'TION, act of making bare.--_adv._ N[=U]DE'LY.--_ns._ N[=U]DE'NESS, N[=U]'DITY, nakedness: want of covering: anything laid bare.--_adjs._ NUDIFL[=O]'ROUS, having the flowers destitute of hairs, glands, &c.; N[=U]DIF[=O]'LIOUS, having bare or smooth leaves; N[=U]DIROS'TRATE, having the rostrum N[=U]'DITIES, naked parts: figures divested of drapery.--THE NUDE, the undraped human figure as a branch of art. [L. _nudus_, naked.]

NUDGE, nuj, _n._ a gentle push.--_v.t._ to push gently. [Cf. _Knock_, _Knuckle_; Dan. _knuge_.]

NUDIBRANCH, n[=u]'di-brangk, _n._ one of an order of gasteropods having no shell, and with the gills exposed on the surface of the body:--_pl._ NUDIBRANCHI[=A]'TA. [L. _nudus_, naked, _branchiæ_, gills.]

NUGATORY, n[=u]'ga-tor-i, _adj._ trifling: vain: insignificant: of no power: ineffectual. [L. _nugatorius_,--_nugæ_, jokes, trifles.]

NUGGET, nug'et, _n._ a lump or mass, as of a metal. [Prob. _ingot_, with the _n_ of the article.]

NUISANCE, n[=u]'sans, _n._ that which annoys or hurts: that which troubles: that which is offensive.--_n._ N[=U]'ISANCER. [Fr.,--L. _noc[=e]re_, to hurt.]

NULL, nul, _adj._ of no legal force: void: invalid: of no importance.--_n._ something of no value or meaning, a cipher: a bead-like raised work.--_v.t._ to annul, nullify.--_v.i._ to kink: to form nulls, or into nulls, as in a lathe.--NULLED WORK, woodwork turned by means of a lathe so as to form a series of connected knobs--for rounds of chairs, &c. [L. _nullus_, not any, from _ne_, not, _ullus_, any.]

NULLAH, nul'a, _n._ a dry water-course.

NULLA-NULLA, nul'a-nul'a, _n._ an Australian's hard-wood club.

NULLIFIDIAN, nul-i-fid'i-an, _adj._ having no faith.--_n._ a person in such a condition. [L. _nullus_, none, _fides_, faith.]

NULLIFY, nul'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to make null: to annul: to render void or of no force:--_pr.p._ null'ifying; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ null'ified.--_ns._ NULLIFIC[=A]'TION, a rendering void or of none effect, esp. (_U.S._) of a contract by one of the parties, or of a law by one legislature which has been passed by another; NULL'IFIER; NULL'ITY, the state of being null or void: nothingness: want of existence, force, or efficacy.

NULLIPARA, nul-lip'a-ra, _n._ a woman who has never given birth to a child, esp. if not a virgin.--_adj._ NULLIP'AROUS.

NULLIPENNATE, nul-i-pen'[=a]t, _adj._ having no flight-feathers, as a penguin.

NULLIPORE, nul'i-p[=o]r, _n._ a small coral-like seaweed.--_adj._ NULL'IPOROUS.

NUMB, num, _adj._ deprived of sensation or motion: powerless to feel or act: stupefied: motionless: (_Shak._) causing numbness.--_v.t._ to make numb: to deaden: to render motionless:--_pr.p._ numbing (num'ing); _pa.p._ numbed (numd).--_adj._ NUMB'-COLD (_Shak._), numbed with cold: causing numbness.--_n._ NUMB'NESS, state of being numb: condition of living body in which it has lost the power of feeling: torpor. [A.S. _numen_, pa.p. of _niman_, to take; so Ice. _numinn_, bereft.]

NUMBER, num'b[.e]r, _n._ that by which things are counted or computed: a collection of things: more than one: a unit in counting: a numerical figure: the measure of multiplicity: sounds distributed into harmonies: metre, verse, esp. in _pl._: (_gram._) the difference in words to express singular or plural: (_pl._) the fourth book of the Old Testament.--_v.t._ to count: to reckon as one of a multitude: to mark with a number: to amount to.--_n._ NUM'BERER.--_adj._ NUM'BERLESS, without number: more than can be counted.--_ns._ NUMERABIL'ITY, N[=U]'MERABLENESS.--_adj._ N[=U]'MERABLE, that may be numbered or counted.--_adv._ N[=U]'MERABLY.--_adj._ N[=U]'MERAL, pertaining to, consisting of, or expressing number.--_n._ a figure or mark used to express a number, as 1, 2, 3, &c.: (_gram._) a word used to denote a number.--_adv._ N[=U]'MERALLY, according to number.--_adj._ N[=U]'MERARY, belonging to a certain number: contained within or counting as one of a body or a number--opp. to _Supernumerary_.--_v.t._ N[=U]'MER[=A]TE, to point off and read as figures: (_orig._) to enumerate, to number.--_ns._ N[=U]MER[=A]'TION, act of numbering: the art of reading numbers, and expressing their values; N[=U]'MER[=A]TOR, one who numbers: the upper number of a vulgar fraction, which expresses the number of fractional parts taken.--_adjs._ N[=U]MER'IC, -AL, belonging to, or consisting in, number: the same both in number and kind.--_adv._ N[=U]MER'ICALLY.--_n._ N[=U]MEROS'ITY, numerousness: harmonious flow.--_adj._ N[=U]'MEROUS, great in number: being many.--_adv._ N[=U]'MEROUSLY.--_n._ N[=U]'MEROUSNESS. [Fr. _nombre_--L. _numerus_, number.]

NUMBLES, num'bls, the entrails of a deer. See UMBLES.

NUMEROTAGE, n[=u]-me-r[=o]-täzh', _n._ the numbering of yarns so as to denote their fineness. [Fr.]

NUMISMATIC, n[=u]-mis-mat'ik, _adj._ pertaining to money, coins, or medals.--_n.sing._ N[=U]MISMAT'ICS, the science of coins and medals.--_ns._ N[=U]MIS'MATIST, one having a knowledge of coins and medals; N[=U]MISMATOG'RAPHY, description of coins; NUMISMATOL'OGIST, one versed in numismatology; N[=U]MISMATOL'OGY, the science of coins and medals in relation to history. [L. _numisma_--Gr. _nomisma_, current coin--_nomizein_, to use commonly--_nomos_, custom.]

NUMMARY, num'a-ri, _adj._ relating to coins or money.--_adjs._ NUMM'IFORM, shaped like a coin; NUMM'[=U]LAR, NUMM'[=U]LARY, NUMM'[=U]L[=A]TED, NUMM'[=U]LINE, pertaining to coins: like a coin in shape; NUMM'[=U]LIFORM.--_n._ NUMM'[=U]LITE, a fossil shell resembling a coin.--_adj._ NUMMULIT'IC. [L. _nummus_, a coin.]

NUMSKULL, num'skul, _n._ a stupid fellow: a blockhead.--_adj._ NUM'SKULLED. [From _numb_ and _skull_.]

NUN, nun, _n._ a female who, under a vow, secludes herself in a religious house, to give her time to devotion: (_zool._) a kind of pigeon with the feathers on its head like the hood of a nun.--_ns._ NUN'-BUOY, a buoy somewhat in the form of a double cone; NUN'NERY, a house for nuns.--_adj._ NUN'NISH.--_ns._ NUN'NISHNESS; NUN'S'-VEIL'ING, a woollen cloth, soft and thin, used by women for veils and dresses. [A.S. _nunne_--Low L. _nunna_, _nonna_, a nun, an old maiden lady, the orig. sig. being 'mother;' cf. Gr. _nann[=e]_, aunt, Sans. _nan[=a]_, a child's word for 'mother.']

NUNC DIMITTIS, nungk di-mit'tis, _n._ 'now lettest thou depart:' the name given to the song of Simeon (Luke, ii. 29-32) in the R.C. Breviary and the Anglican evening service--from the opening words.

NUNCHEON, nun'shun, _n._ a luncheon. [Prob. a corr. of _luncheon_, with some reference to _noon_.]

NUNCIO, nun'shi-o, _n._ a messenger: one who brings tidings: an ambassador from the Pope to an emperor or a king.--_n._ NUN'CI[=A]T[=U]RE, the office of a nuncio. [It.,--L. _nuncius_, a messenger, one who brings news--prob. a contr. of _noventius_; cf. _novus_, new.]

NUNCLE, nung'kl, _n._ (_Shak._) a contr. of _mine uncle_.

NUNCUPATIVE, nung'k[=u]-p[=a]-tiv, _adj._ declaring publicly or solemnly: (_law_) verbal, not written, as a will--also NUN'C[=U]P[=A]TORY.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ NUN'CUPATE, to declare solemnly: to declare orally.--_n._ NUNC[=U]P[=A]'TION. [Fr.,--Low L. _nuncupativus_, nominal--L. _nuncup[=a]re_, to call by name--prob. from _nomen_, name, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

NUNDINAL, nun'di-nal, _adj._ pertaining to a fair or market.--Also NUN'DINARY. [L. _nundinæ_, the market-day, properly the ninth day--i.e. from the preceding market-day, both days inclusive--_novem_, nine, _dies_, a day.]

NUPHAR, n[=u]'fär, _n._ a genus of yellow water-lilies, the _Nymphæa_.

NUPTIAL, nup'shal, _adj._ pertaining to marriage: constituting NUP'TIALS, marriage: wedding ceremony. [Fr.,--L. _nuptialis_--_nuptiæ_, marriage--_nub[)e]re_, _nuptum_, to marry.]

NUR, nur, _n._ a knot or knob in wood. See KNURR.

NURL, nurl, _v.t._ to mill or indent on the edge.--_ns._ NURL'ING, the milling of a coin: the series of indentations on the edge of some screw-heads: zigzag ornamental engraving; NURL'ING-TOOL.

NURSE, nurs, _n._ a woman who nourishes an infant: a mother while her infant is at the breast: one who has the care of infants or of the sick: (_hort._) a shrub or tree which protects a young plant.--_v.t._ to tend, as an infant or a sick person: to bring up: to cherish: to manage with care and economy: to play skilfully, as billiard-balls, in order to get them into the position one wants.--_adj._ NURSE'LIKE (_Shak._), like or becoming a nurse.--_ns._ NURSE'MAID, a girl who takes care of children; NURS'ER, one who nurses: one who promotes growth; NURS'ERY, place for nursing: an apartment for young children: a place where the growth of anything is promoted: (_hort._) a piece of ground where plants are reared; NURS'ERY-GOV'ERNESS; NURS'ERYMAID, a nurse-maid; NURS'ERYMAN, a man who owns or works a nursery: one who is employed in cultivating plants, &c., for sale; NURS'ING-FA'THER (_B._), a foster-father; NURS'LING, that which is nursed: an infant. [O. Fr. _norrice_ (Fr. _nourrice_)--L. _nutrix_--_nutr[=i]re_, to nourish.]

NURTURE, nurt'[=u]r, _n._ act of nursing or nourishing: nourishment: education: instruction.--_v.t._ to nourish: to bring up: to educate.--_n._ NURT'URER. [O. Fr. _noriture_ (Fr. _nourriture_)--Low L. _nutritura_--L. _nutr[=i]re_, to nourish.]

NUT, nut, _n._ the name popularly given to all those fruits which have the seed enclosed in a bony, woody, or leathery pericarp, not opening when ripe: (_bot._) a one-celled fruit, with a hardened pericarp, containing, when mature, only one seed: often the hazel-nut, sometimes the walnut: a small block of metal for screwing on the end of a bolt.--_v.i._ to gather nuts:--_pr.p._ nut'ting; _pa.p._ nut'ted.--_adj._ NUT'-BROWN, brown, like a ripe old nut.--_ns._ NUT'CRACKER, an instrument for cracking nuts: a genus of birds of the family _Corvidæ_; NUT'-GALL, an excrescence, chiefly of the oak; NUT'HATCH, a genus of birds of the family _Sittidæ_, agile creepers--also NUT'JOBBER, NUT'PECKER; NUT'-HOOK, a stick with a hook at the end for pulling down boughs that the nuts may be gathered: a bailiff, a thief who uses a hook; NUT'MEAL, meal made from the kernels of nuts; NUT'-OIL, an oil obtained from walnuts; NUT'-PINE, one of several pines with large edible seeds; NUT'SHELL, the hard substance that encloses the kernel of a nut: anything of little value; NUT'TER, one who gathers nuts; NUT'TINESS; NUT'TING, the gathering of nuts; NUT'-TREE, any tree bearing nuts, esp. the hazel.--_adj._ NUT'TY, abounding in nuts: having the flavour of nuts.--_n._ NUT'-WRENCH, an instrument for fixing on nuts or removing them from screws.--A NUT TO CRACK, a difficult problem to solve; BE NUTS ON (_slang_), to be very fond of; IN A NUTSHELL, in small compass. [A.S. _hnutu_; Ice. _hnot_, Dut. _noot_, Ger. _nuss_.]

NUTANT, n[=u]'tant, _adj._ nodding: (_bot._) having the top of the stem of the flower-cluster bent downward.--_n._ N[=U]T[=A]'TION, a nodding: (_astron._) a periodical and constant change of the angle made by the earth's axis, with the ecliptic, caused by the attraction of the moon on the greater mass of matter round the equator: (_bot._) the turning of flowers towards the sun. [L. _nut[=a]re_, to nod.]

NUTMEG, nut'meg, _n._ the aromatic kernel of an East Indian tree, much used as a seasoning in cookery.--_adj._ NUT'MEGGED; NUT'MEGGY. [M. E. _notemuge_, a hybrid word formed from _nut_, and O. Fr. _muge_, musk--L. _muscus_, musk.]

NUTRIA, n[=u]'tri-a, _n._ the fur of the coypou, a South American beaver. [Sp.,--L. _lutra_, an otter.]

NUTRIMENT, n[=u]'tri-ment, _n._ that which nourishes: that which helps forward growth or development: food.--_adj._ N[=U]'TRIENT, nourishing.--_n._ anything nourishing.--_adj._ N[=U]'TRIMENTAL, having the quality of nutriment or food: nutritious.--_n._ N[=U]TRI'TION, act of nourishing: process of promoting the growth of bodies: that which nourishes: nutriment.--_adjs._ N[=U]TRI'TIONAL; N[=U]TRI'TIOUS, nourishing: promoting growth.--_adv._ N[=U]TRI'TIOUSLY.--_n._ N[=U]TRI'TIOUSNESS.--_adjs._ N[=U]'TRITIVE, N[=U]'TRITORY, nourishing: concerned in nutrition.--_adv._ N[=U]'TRITIVELY.--_ns._ N[=U]'TRITIVENESS; N[=U]TRIT[=O]'RIUM, the nutritive apparatus. [L. _nutrimentum_--_nutr[=i]re_, to nourish.]

NUX VOMICA, nuks vom'ik-a, _n._ the seed of an East Indian tree, from which the powerful poison known as strychnine is obtained. [L. _nux_, a nut, _vomicus_, from _vom[)e]re_, to vomit.]

NUZZER, nuz'[.e]r, _n._ a present made to a superior. [Ind.]

NUZZLE, nuz'l, _v.i._ to rub the nose against: to fondle closely, to cuddle: to nurse or rear.--_v.t._ to touch with the nose: to go with the nose toward the ground.--Also NOUS'LE. [A freq. verb from _nose_.]

NYANZA, ni-an'za, _n._ a sheet of water, marsh, the river feeding a lake. [Afr.]


NYCTALA, nik'ta-la, _n._ a genus of owls of family _Strigidæ_.

NYCTALOPIA, nik-ta-l[=o]'pi-a, _n._ the defective vision of persons who can see in a faint light but not in bright daylight: sometimes applied to the opposite defect, inability to see save in a strong daylight--also NYC'TALOPY.--_n._ NYC'TALOPS, one affected with nyctalopia. [Gr. _nyktal[=o]ps_, seeing by night only--_nyx_, _nyktos_, night, _[=o]ps_, vision.]

NYCTITROPISM, nik'ti-tr[=o]-pizm, _n._ the so-called sleep of plants, the habit of taking at night certain positions unlike those during the day.--_adj._ NYCTITROP'IC. [Gr. _nyx_, night, _tropos_, a turn.]

NYLGHAU, nil'gaw, _n._ a large species of antelope, in North Hindustan, the males of which are of a bluish colour. [Pers. _níl gáw_--_níl_, blue, _gáw_, ox, cow.]

NYMPH, nimf, _n._ a young and beautiful maiden: (_myth._) one of the beautiful goddesses who inhabited mountains, rivers, trees, &c.--_adjs._ NYMPH'AL, relating to nymphs; NYMPH[=E]'AN, pertaining to nymphs: inhabited by nymphs; NYMPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to nymphs; NYMPH'ISH, NYMPH'LY, nymph-like; NYMPH'-LIKE.--_ns._ NYMPH'OLEPSY, a species of ecstasy or frenzy said to have seized those who had seen a nymph; NYMPH'OLEPT, a person in frenzy.--_adj._ NYMPHOLEPT'IC.--_ns._ NYMPHOM[=A]'NIA, morbid and uncontrollable sexual desire in women; NYMPHOM[=A]'NIAC, a woman affected with the foregoing.--_adjs._ NYMPHOM[=A]'NIAC, -AL. [Fr.,--L. _nympha_--Gr. _nymph[=e]_, a bride.]

NYMPH, nimf, NYMPHA, nimf'a, _n._ the pupa or chrysalis of an NYMPHÆ (nimf'[=e]), the labia minora.--_adj._ NYMPHIP'AROUS, producing pupæ.--_ns._ NYMPH[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the nymphæ; NYMPHOT'OMY, the excision of the nymphæ.

NYMPHÆA, nim-f[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of water-plants, with beautiful fragrant flowers, including the water-lily, Egyptian lotus, &c. [L. _nympha_, a nymph.]

NYS, nis (_Spens._), none is. [_Ne_, not, and _is_.]

NYSTAGMUS, nis-tag'mus, _n._ a spasmodic, lateral, oscillatory movement of the eyes, found in miners, &c. [Gr., _nystazein_, to nap.]

NYULA, ni-[=u]'la, _n._ an ichneumon.

* * * * *

O the fifteenth letter and fourth vowel of our alphabet, its sound intermediate between _a_ and _u_--with three values in English, the name-sound heard in _note_, the shorter sound heard in _not_, and the neutral vowel heard in _son_: as a numeral, 'nothing,' or 'zero' (formerly O=11, and ([=O])=11,000): (_chem._) the symbol of oxygen: anything round or nearly so (_pl._ O'S, OES, pron. [=o]z).

O, OH, [=o], _interj._ an exclamation of wonder, pain, desire, fear, &c. The form _oh_ is the more usual in prose.--O HONE! OCH HONE! an Irish exclamation of lamentation. [A.S. _eá_.]

O, usually written o', an abbrev. for _of_ and _on_.

OAF, [=o]f, _n._ a foolish or deformed child left by the fairies in place of another: a dolt, an idiot.--_adj._ OAF'ISH, idiotic, doltish. [_Elf._]

OAK, [=o]k, _n._ a tree of about 300 species, the most famous the British oak, valued for its timber in shipbuilding, &c.--_ns._ OAK'-APP'LE, a spongy substance on the leaves of the oak, caused by insects--also OAK'LEAF-GALL; OAK'-BARK, the bark of some species of oak used in tanning.--_adjs._ OAK'-CLEAV'ING (_Shak._), cleaving oaks; OAK'EN, consisting or made of oak.--_ns._ OAK'-GALL, a gall produced on the oak; OAK'-LEATH'ER, a fungus mycelium in the fissures of old oaks; OAK'LING, a young oak; OAK'-P[=A]'PER, paper for wall-hangings veined like oak.--_adj._ OAK'Y, like oak, firm.--OAK-APPLE DAY, the 29th of May, the anniversary of the Restoration in 1660, when country boys used to wear oak-apples in commemoration of Charles II. skulking in the branches of an oak (the ROYAL OAK) from Cromwell's troopers after Worcester.--SPORT ONE'S OAK, in English university slang, to signify that one does not wish visitors by closing the outer door of one's rooms; THE OAKS, one of the three great English races--for mares--the others being the Derby and St Leger. [A.S. _ác_; Ice. _eik_, Ger. _eiche_.]

OAKER, [=o]k'[.e]r, _n._ (_Spens._) ochre.

OAKUM, [=o]k'um, _n._ old ropes untwisted and teased into loose hemp for caulking the seams of ships. [A.S. _ácumba_, _['æ]cemba_--_cemban_, to comb.]

OAR, [=o]r, _n._ a light pole with a flat feather or spoon-shaped end (the _blade_) for propelling a boat: an oar-like appendage for swimming, as the antennæ of an insect or crustacean, &c.: an oarsman.--_v.t._ to impel by rowing.--_v.i._ to row.--_n._ OAR'AGE, oars collectively.--_adj._ OARED, furnished with oars.--_ns._ OAR'LAP, a rabbit with its ears standing out at right-angles to the head; OAR'-LOCK, a rowlock; OARS'MAN, one who rows with an oar; OARS'MANSHIP, skill in rowing.--_adj._ OAR'Y, having the form or use of oars.--BOAT OARS, to bring the oars inboard; FEATHER OARS, to turn the blades parallel to the water when reaching back for another stroke; LIE ON THE OARS, to cease rowing without shipping the oars: to rest, take things easily: to cease from work; PUT IN ONE'S OAR, to give advice when not wanted; SHIP, or UNSHIP, OARS, to place the oars in the rowlocks, or to take them out. [A.S. _ár_.]

OARIUM, [=o]-[=a]'ri-um, _n._ an ovary or ovarium.

OASIS, [=o]-[=a]'sis, _n._ a fertile spot in a sandy desert: any place of rest or pleasure in the midst of toil and gloom:--_pl._ OASES ([=o]-[=a]'s[=e]z). [L.,--Gr. _oasis_, an Egyptian word; cf. Coptic _ouahe_.]

OAST, [=o]st, _n._ a kiln to dry hops or malt.--_n._ OAST'-HOUSE. [A.S. _ást_.]

OAT, [=o]t (oftener in _pl._ OATS, [=o]ts), _n._ a well-known grassy plant, the seeds of which are much used as food: its seeds: a musical pipe of oat-straw: a shepherd's pipe, pastoral song generally.--_n._ OAT'CAKE, a thin broad cake made of oatmeal.--_adj._ OAT'EN, consisting of an oat stem or straw: made of oatmeal.--_ns._ OAT'-GRASS, two species of oat, useful more as fodder than for the seed; OAT'MEAL, meal made of oats.--SOW ONE'S WILD OATS, to indulge in the usual youthful dissipations. [A.S. _áta_, pl. _átan_.]

OATH, [=o]th, _n._ a solemn statement with an appeal to God as witness, and a calling for punishment from Him in case of falsehood or of failure, also the form of words in which such is made--_oath of abjuration_, _allegiance_, &c.: an irreverent use of God's name in conversation or in any way: any merely exclamatory imprecation, &c.:--_pl._ OATHS ([=o]_th_z).--_adj._ OATH'ABLE (_Shak._), capable of having an oath administered to.--_n._ OATH'-BREAK'ING (_Shak._), the violation of an oath, perjury.--UPON ONE'S OATH, sworn to speak the truth. [A.S. _áth_; Ger. _eid_, Ice. _eithr_.]

OB., for _objection_, just as _sol._ for _solution_, on the margins of old books of controversial divinity.--_n._ OB'-AND-SOL'ER, a disputant, polemic.

OBANG, [=o]-bang', _n._ an old Japanese oblong gold coin.

OBBLIGATO, ob-li-gä'to, _adj._ that cannot be done without.--_n._ a musical accompaniment, itself of independent importance, esp. that of a single instrument to a vocal piece.--Also OBLIGA'TO. [It.]

OBCONIC, -AL, ob-kon'ik, -al, _adj._ inversely conical.

OBCORDATE, ob-kor'd[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) inversely heart-shaped, as a leaf.

OBDURATE, ob'd[=u]-r[=a]t, _adj._ hardened in heart or in feelings: difficult to influence, esp. in a moral sense: stubborn: harsh.--_n._ OB'D[=U]RACY, state of being obdurate: invincible hardness of heart.--_adv._ OB'D[=U]RATELY.--_ns._ OB'D[=U]RATENESS, OBD[=U]R[=A]'TION.--_adj._ OBD[=U]RED', hardened. [L. _obdur[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, against, _dur[=a]re_, to harden--_durus_, hard.]


OBEDIENCE, [=o]-b[=e]'di-ens, _n._ state of being obedient: willingness to obey commands: dutifulness: the collective body of persons subject to any particular authority: a written instruction from the superior of an order to those under him: any official position under an abbot's jurisdiction.--_adjs._ OB[=E]'DIENT, willing to obey; OB[=E]DIEN'TIAL, submissive: obligatory.--_adv._ OB[=E]'DIENTLY.--CANONICAL OBEDIENCE, the obedience, as regulated by the canons, of an ecclesiastic to another of higher rank; PASSIVE OBEDIENCE, unresisting and unquestioning obedience to authority, like that taught by some Anglican divines as due even to faithless and worthless kings like Charles II. and James II.

OBEISANCE, [=o]-b[=a]'sans, or [=o]-b[=e]'sans, _n._ obedience: a bow or act of reverence: an expression of respect.--_adj._ OB[=E]'ISANT. [Fr.,--_obéir_--L. _obed[=i]re_, to obey.]

OBELION, [=o]-b[=e]'li-on, _n._ a point in the sagittal suture of the skull, between the two parietal foramina. [Gr. _obelos_, a spit.]

OBELISK, ob'e-lisk, _n._ a tall, four-sided, tapering pillar, usually of one stone, finished at the top like a flat pyramid: (_print._) a dagger ( + ).--_adj._ OB'ELISCAL.--_v.t._ OB'ELISE, to mark with an obelisk, to condemn as spurious, indelicate, &c.--_n._ OB'ELUS, a mark ( -- or ÷ ) used in ancient MSS. to mark suspected passages, esp. in the Septuagint to indicate passages not in the Hebrew:--_pl._ OB'ELI. [Through Fr. and L., from Gr. _obeliskos_, dim. of _obelos_, a spit.]

OBERHAUS, [=o]'ber-hows, _n._ the upper house in those German legislative bodies that have two chambers. [Ger. _ober_, upper, _haus_, house.]

OBERLAND, [=o]'ber-lant, _n._ highlands, as the Bernese Oberland in Switzerland.

OBERON, [=o]'ber-on, king of the fairies, husband of Titania.

OBESE, [=o]-b[=e]s', _adj._ fat: fleshy.--_ns._ OBESE'NESS, OBES'ITY, fatness: abnormal fatness. [L. _obesus_--_ob_, up, _ed[)e]re_, _esum_, to eat.]

OBEX, [=o]'beks, _n._ a barrier: a thickening at the calamus scriptorius of the medulla oblongata. [L., _objic[)e]re_, to throw before.]

OBEY, [=o]-b[=a]', _v.t._ to do as told by: to be ruled by: to yield to: to carry out or perform.--_v.i._ to submit to power, &c.: (_B._) to yield obedience (followed by _to_).--_n._ OBEY'ER.--_adv._ OBEY'INGLY, obediently. [Fr. _obéir_--L. _obed[=i]re_--_ob_, near, _aud[=i]re_, to hear.]

OBFUSCATE, ob-fus'k[=a]t, _v.t._ to darken: to confuse.--_n._ OBFUSC[=A]'TION. [L. _obfusc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, inten., _fuscus_, dark.]

OBI, [=o]'bi, _n._ a kind of sorcery practised by _obeah-men_ and _obeah-women_ among the negroes of the West Indies and United States, a survival of African magic: a fetish or charm--also O'BEA, O'BEAH, O'BY.--_n._ O'BIISM. [Prob. Afr.]

OBI, [=o]'bi, _n._ a broad, gaily embroidered sash worn by Japanese women. [Jap.]

OBIT, [=o]'bit, or ob'it, _n._ death: the fact or the date of death: funeral ceremonies: the anniversary of a person's death, or a service at such time.--_adj._ OBIT'UAL, pertaining to obits.--_adv._ OBIT'UARILY.--_n._ OBIT'UARIST, a writer of obituaries.--_adj._ OBIT'UARY, relating to the death of a person or persons.--_n._ a register of deaths (_orig._) in a monastery: an account of a deceased person, or a notice of his death. [Fr.,--L. _obitus_--_ob[=i]re_--_ob_, to, _[=i]re_, to go.]

OBJECT, ob-jekt', _v.t._ to place before the view: to throw in the way of: to offer in opposition: to oppose.--_v.i._ to oppose: to give a reason against.--_n._ OBJECTIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ OBJECT'IFY, to make objective.--_n._ OBJEC'TION, act of objecting: anything said or done in opposition: argument against.--_adj._ OBJEC'TIONABLE, that may be objected to: requiring to be disapproved of.--_adv._ OBJEC'TIONABLY, in an objectionable manner or degree.--_adj._ OBJECT'IVE, relating to an object: being exterior to the mind: substantive, self-existent: setting forth what is external, actual, practical, apart from the sensations or emotions of the speaker: as opposed to _Subjective_, pertaining to that which is real or exists in nature, in contrast with what is ideal or exists merely in thought: (_gram._) belonging to the case of the object.--_n._ (_gram._) the case of the object: in microscopes, &c., the lens which brings the rays to a focus: the point to which the operations of an army are directed.--_adv._ OBJECT'IVELY.--_ns._ OBJECT'IVENESS; OBJECT'IVISM.--_adj._ OBJECTIVIST'IC.--_ns._ OBJECTIV'ITY, state of being objective; OBJECT'OR. [Fr.,--L. _object[=a]re_, a freq. of _objic[)e]re_, _-jectum_--_ob_, in the way of, _jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

OBJECT, ob'jekt, _n._ anything perceived or set before the mind: that which is sought after, or that toward which an action is directed: end: motive: (_gram._) that toward which the action of a transitive verb is directed.--_ns._ OB'JECT-FIND'ER, a device in microscopes for locating an object in the field before examination by a higher power; OB'JECT-GLASS, the glass at the end of a telescope or microscope next the object; OB'JECTIST, one versed in the objective philosophy.--_adj._ OB'JECTLESS, having no object: purposeless.--_ns._ OB'JECT-LESS'ON, a lesson in which the object to be described, or a representation of it, is shown; OB'JECT-SOUL, a vital principle attributed by the primitive mind to inanimate objects.

OBJURE, ob-j[=oo]r', _v.i._ to swear.--_n._ OBJUR[=A]'TION, act of binding by oath.

OBJURGATION, ob-jur-g[=a]'shun, _n._ act of chiding: a blaming, reproof: reprehension.--_v.t._ OBJUR'GATE, to chide.--_adj._ OBJUR'GATORY, expressing blame or reproof. [Fr.,--L.,--_ob_, against, _jurg[=a]re_, to sue at law--_jus_, law, _ag[)e]re_, to drive.]

OBLANCEOLATE, ob-lan'se-o-l[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) shaped like the head of a lance reversed, as a leaf.

OBLATE, ob-l[=a]t', _n._ a secular person devoted to a monastery, but not under its vows, esp. one of the Oblate Fathers or Oblate Sisters: one dedicated to a religious order from childhood, or who takes the cowl in anticipation of death: a loaf of altar-bread before its consecration.--_n._ OBL[=A]'TION, act of offering: anything offered in worship or sacred service, esp. a eucharistic offering: an offering generally.--GREAT OBLATION, the solemn offering or presentation in memorial before God of the consecrated elements, as sacramentally the body and blood of Christ; LESSER OBLATION, the offertory. [L. _oblatus_, offered up.]

OBLATE, ob-l[=a]t', _adj._ flattened at opposite sides or poles: shaped like an orange.--_ns._ OBLATE'NESS, flatness at the poles; OBLATE'-SPHER'OID, a spherical body flattened at the poles. [L. _oblatus_, pa.p. of _offerre_, to offer--_ob_, against, _ferre_, to bring.]


OBLIGE, [=o]-bl[=i]j', _v.t._ to bind or constrain: to bind by some favour rendered, hence to do a favour to.--_adj._ OB'LIGABLE, that can be held to a promise or an undertaking: true to a promise or a contract.--_n._ OB'LIGANT, one who binds himself to another to pay or to perform something.--_v.t._ OB'LIG[=A]TE, to constrain: to bind by contract or duty:--_pr.p._ ob'lig[=a]ting; _pa.p._ ob'lig[=a]ted.--_n._ OBLIG[=A]'TION, act of obliging: the power which binds to a promise, a duty, &c.: any act which binds one to do something for another: that to which one is bound: state of being indebted for a favour: (_law_) a bond containing a penalty in case of failure.--_adv._ OB'LIGATORILY.--_n._ OB'LIGATORINESS.--_adj._ OB'LIG[=A]TORY, binding: imposing duty.--_ns._ OBLIGEE (ob-li-j[=e]'), the person to whom another is obliged; OBLIGE'MENT, a favour conferred.--_adj._ OBLIG'ING, disposed to confer favours: ready to do a good turn.--_adv._ OBLIG'INGLY.--_ns._ OBLIG'INGNESS; OB'LIGOR (_law_), the person who binds himself to another. [Fr.,--L. _oblig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, before, _lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

OBLIQUE, ob-l[=e]k', _adj._ slanting: not perpendicular: not parallel: not straightforward: obscure: (_geom._) not a right-angle: (_gram._) denoting any case except the nominative.--_v.i._ to deviate from a direct line or from the perpendicular, to slant: to advance obliquely by facing half right or left and then advancing.--_ns._ OBLIQU[=A]'TION, OBLIQUE'NESS, OBLIQ'UITY, state of being oblique: a slanting direction: error or wrong: irregularity.--_adv._ OBLIQUE'LY.--_adj._ OBLIQ'UID (_Spens._), oblique.--OBLIQUE CONE or CYLINDER, one whose axis is oblique to the plane of its base; OBLIQUE NARRATION or SPEECH (L. _oratio obliqua_), indirect narration, the actual words of the speaker, but, as related by a third person, having the first person in pronoun and verb converted into the third, adverbs of present time into the corresponding adverbs of past time, &c.; OBLIQUE SAILING, the reduction of the position of a ship from the various courses made good, oblique to the meridian or parallel of latitude; OBLIQUITY OF THE ECLIPTIC, the angle between the plane of the earth's orbit and that of the earth's equator. [Fr.,--L. _obliquus_--_ob_, before, _liquis_, slanting.]

OBLITERATE, ob-lit'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to blot out, so as not to be readable: to wear out: to destroy: to reduce to a very low state.--_n._ OBLITER[=A]'TION, act of obliterating: a blotting or wearing out: extinction.--_adj._ OBLIT'ER[=A]TIVE. [L. _obliter[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, over, _litera_, a letter.]

OBLIVION, ob-liv'i-un, _n._ act of forgetting or state of being forgotten: remission of punishment.--_adj._ OBLIV'IOUS, forgetful: prone to forget: causing forgetfulness.--_adv._ OBLIV'IOUSLY.--_ns._ OBLIV'IOUSNESS; OBLIVISC'ENCE. [Fr.,--L. _oblivion-em_--_oblivisci_, to forget.]

OBLONG, ob'long, _adj._ long in one way: longer than broad.--_n._ (_geom._) a rectangle longer than broad: any oblong figure.--_adj._ OB'LONGISH.--_adv._ OB'LONGLY.--_n._ OB'LONGNESS. [Fr.,--L. _ob_, over, _longus_, long.]

OBLOQUY, ob'lo-kwi, _n._ reproachful language: censure: calumny: disgrace. [L. _obloquium_--_ob_, against, _loqui_, to speak.]

OBMUTESCENCE, ob-m[=u]-tes'ens, _n._ loss of speech, dumbness. [L. _obmutesc[)e]re_, to become dumb.]

OBNOXIOUS, ob-nok'shus, _adj._ liable to hurt or punishment: exposed to: guilty: blameworthy: offensive: subject: answerable.--_adv._ OBNOX'IOUSLY.--_n._ OBNOX'IOUSNESS. [L.,--_ob_, before, _noxa_, hurt.]

OBNUBILATION, ob-n[=u]-bi-l[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of making dark or obscure.--_v.t._ OBN[=U]'BIL[=A]TE. [Low L. _obnubilare_, to cloud over--L. _ob_, over, _nubilus_, cloudy.]

OBOE, [=o]'b[=o]-e, _n._ a treble reed musical instrument, usually with fifteen keys, with a rich tone, giving the pitch to the violin in the orchestra: a treble stop on the organ, its bass being the bassoon--also _Hautboy._--_n._ O'B[=O]IST, a player on the oboe.--OBOE D'AMORE, an obsolete alto oboe; OBOE DI CACCIA, an obsolete tenor oboe, or rather tenor bassoon. [Fr. _hautbois_.]

OBOL, ob'ol, _n._ in ancient Greece, a small coin, worth rather more than three-halfpence: also a weight, the sixth part of a drachma--also OB'OLUS:--_pl._ OB'OLI ([=i]).--_adj_. OB'OLARY, consisting of obols: extremely poor. [Gr. _obelos_, a spit.]

OBOVATE, ob-[=o]'v[=a]t, _adj_. _(bot.)_ egg-shaped, as a leaf, with the narrow end next the leaf-stalk.--_adv._ OB[=O]'V[=A]TELY.--_adj_. OB[=O]'VOID, solidly obovate.

OBREPTION, ob-rep'shun, _n._ obtaining of gifts of escheat by falsehood--opp. to _Subreption_ (q.v.).--_adj._ OBREPTIT'IOUS.

OBSCENE, ob-s[=e]n', _adj_. offensive to chastity: unchaste: indecent: disgusting: ill-omened.--_adv_. OBSCENE'LY.--_ns._ OBSCENE'NESS, OBSCEN'ITY, quality of being obscene: lewdness. [L. _obscenus_.]

OBSCURE, ob-sk[=u]r', _adj_. dark: not distinct: not easily understood: not clear, legible, or perspicuous: unknown: humble: unknown to fame: living in darkness.--_v.t._ to darken: to make less plain: to render doubtful.--_ns._ OBSC[=U]'RANT, one who labours to prevent enlightenment or reform; OBSC[=U]'RANTISM, opposition to inquiry or reform; OBSC[=U]'RANTIST, an obscurant.--_adj_. pertaining to obscurantism.--_n._ OBSC[=U]R[=A]'TION, the act of obscuring or state of being obscured.--_adv_. OBSC[=U]RE'LY.--_ns._ OBSC[=U]RE'MENT; OBSC[=U]RE'NESS; OBSC[=U]'RER; OBSC[=U]'RITY, state or quality of being obscure: darkness: an obscure place or condition: unintelligibleness: humility. [Fr.,--L. _obscurus_.]

OBSECRATE, ob'se-kr[=a]t, _v._ to beseech: to implore.--_n._ OBSECR[=A]'TION, supplication: one of the clauses in the Litany beginning with _by._--_adj_. OB'SECR[=A]TORY, supplicatory. [L. _obsecr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to entreat; _ob_, before, _sacr[=a]re_--_sacer_, sacred.]

OBSEQUIES, ob'se-kwiz, funeral rites and solemnities:--_sing._ OB'SEQUY (_Milt._)--rarely used.--_adj_. OBS[=E]'QUIAL. [Fr. _obsèques_--L. _obsequiæ_--_ob_, before, upon, sequi, to comply.]

OBSEQUIOUS, ob-s[=e]'kwi-us, _adj_. compliant to excess: meanly condescending.--_adv_. OBS[=E]'QUIOUSLY.--_n._ OBS[=E]'QUIOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _obsequiosus_, compliant, _obsequium_, compliance.]

OBSERVE, ob-z[.e]rv', _v.t._ to keep in view: to notice: to subject to systematic observation: to regard attentively: to remark, refer to in words: to comply with: to heed and to carry out in practice: to keep with proper ceremony: to keep or guard.--_v.i._ to take notice: to attend: to remark.--_adj._ OBSERV'ABLE, that may be observed or noticed: worthy of observation: remarkable: requiring to be observed.--_n._ OBSERV'ABLENESS.--_adv_. OBSERV'ABLY.--_ns._ OBSERV'ANCE, act of observing or paying attention to: performance: attention: that which is to be observed: rule of practice, a custom to be observed: reverence: homage; OBSERV'ANCY, observance: obsequiousness.--_adj._ OBSERV'ANT, observing: having powers of observing and noting: taking notice: adhering to: carefully attentive.--_n._ (_Shak._) an obsequious attendant: one strict to comply with a custom, &c.; or OBSERV'ANTINE, one of those Franciscan monks of stricter rule who separated from the Conventuals in the 15th century.--_adv._ OBSERV'ANTLY.--_n._ OBSERV[=A]'TION, act of observing: habit of seeing and noting: attention: the act of recognising and noting phenomena as they occur in nature, as distinguished from _experiment:_ that which is observed: a remark: performance: the fact of being observed.--_adj_. OBSERV[=A]'TIONAL, consisting of, or containing, observations or remarks: derived from observation, as distinguished from _experiment_.--_adv._ OBSERV[=A]'TIONALLY.--_adj._ OBSER'VATIVE, attentive.--_ns._ OB'SERV[=A]TOR, one who observes: a remarker; OBSERV'ATORY, a place for making astronomical and physical observations, usually placed in some high and stable place; OBSERV'ER.--_adj._ OBSERV'ING, habitually taking notice: attentive.--_adv._ OBSERV'INGLY. [Fr.,--L. _observ[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, before, _serv[=a]re_, to keep.]

OBSESSION, ob-sesh'un, _n._ persistent attack, esp. of an evil spirit upon a person: the state of being so molested from without--opp. to _Possession_, or control by an evil spirit from within. [L. _obsession-em_--_obsid[=e]re_, to besiege.]

OBSIDIAN, ob-sid'i-an, _n._ a natural glass--the vitreous condition of an acid lava. [From _Obsidius_, who, according to Pliny, discovered it in Ethiopia.]

OBSIDIONAL, ob-sid'i-[=o]-nal, _adj._ pertaining to a siege.--Also OBSID'IONARY.

OBSIGNATE, ob-sig'n[=a]t, _v.t._ to seal, confirm.--_n._ OBSIGN[=A]'TION.

OBSOLESCENT, ob-so-les'ent, _adj._ going out of use.--_n._ OBSOLESC'ENCE.--_adj._ OB'SOLETE, gone out of use: antiquated: (_zool._) obscure: not clearly marked or developed: rudimental.--_adv._ OB'SOLETELY.--_ns._ OB'SOLETENESS; OBSOL[=E]'TION (_rare_); OB'SOLETISM. [L. _obsolescens_, _-entis_, _pr.p._ of _obsolesc[)e]re_, _obsoletum_--_ob_, before, _sol[=e]re_, to be wont.]

OBSTACLE, ob'sta-kl, _n._ anything that stands in the way of or hinders progress: obstruction.--OBSTACLE RACE, a race in which obstacles have to be surmounted or circumvented. [Fr.,--L. _obstaculum_--_ob_, in the way of, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

OBSTETRIC, -AL, ob-stet'rik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to midwifery.--_ns._ OBSTETRIC'IAN, one skilled in obstetrics; OBSTET'RICS, the science of midwifery, or the delivery of women in childbed; OBSTET'RIX, a midwife. [L. _obstetricius_--_obstetrix_, _-icis_, a midwife--_ob_, before, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

OBSTINATE, ob'sti-n[=a]t, _adj._ blindly or excessively firm: unyielding: stubborn: not easily subdued or remedied.--_ns._ OB'STINACY, OB'STINATENESS, the condition of being obstinate: excess of firmness: stubbornness: fixedness that yields with difficulty, as a disease.--_adv._ OB'STINATELY. [L. _obstin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, in the way of, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

OBSTIPATION, ob-sti-p[=a]'shun, _n._ extreme costiveness.

OBSTREPEROUS, ob-strep'[.e]r-us, _adj._ making a loud noise: clamorous: noisy.--_v.i._ OBSTREP'ER[=A]TE (_Sterne_).--_adv._ OBSTREP'EROUSLY.--_n._ OBSTREP'EROUSNESS. [L. _obstreperus_--_ob_, before, _strep[)e]re_, to make a noise.]

OBSTRICTION, ob-strik'shun, _n._ obligation. [L. _obstring[)e]re_, _obstrictum_, to bind up.]

OBSTROPULOUS, ob-strop'[=u]-lus, _adj._ a vulgar form of _obstreperous_.

OBSTRUCT, ob-strukt', _v.t._ to block up, to hinder from passing, to retard.--_ns._ OBSTRUC'TER, OBSTRUC'TOR, one who obstructs; OBSTRUC'TION, act of obstructing: that which hinders progress or action: opposition, esp. in a legislative assembly; OBSTRUC'TIONIST.--_adj._ OBSTRUC'TIVE, tending to obstruct: hindering.--_n._ one who opposes progress.--_adv._ OBSTRUCT'IVELY.--_adj._ OB'STRUENT, obstructing: blocking up.--_n._ (_med._) anything that obstructs, esp. in the passages of the body. [L. _obstru[)e]re_, _obstructum_--_ob_, in the way of, _stru[)e]re_, _structum_, to pile up.]

OBTAIN, ob-t[=a]n', _v.t._ to lay hold of: to hold: to procure by effort: to gain: to keep possession of.--_v.i._ to be established: to continue in use: to become customary or prevalent: to hold good: (_rare_) to succeed.--_adj._ OBTAIN'ABLE, that may be obtained, procured, or acquired.--_ns._ OBTAIN'ER; OBTAIN'MENT; OBTEN'TION, procurement.--OBTAIN TO (_Bacon_), to attain to. [Fr.,--L. _obtin[=e]re_--_ob_, upon, _ten[=e]re_, to hold.]

OBTECTED, ob-tek'ted, _adj._ covered, protected by a chitonous case, as the pupæ of most flies. [L. _obteg[)e]re_, _obtectum_, to cover over.]

OBTEMPER, ob-tem'per, _v.t._ to yield obedience to (with _to_, _unto_). [L. _obtemper[=a]re_.]

OBTEND, ob-tend', _v.t._ (_obs._) to oppose: to allege. [L. _obtend[)e]re_, to stretch before.]

OBTEST, ob-test', _v.t._ to call upon, as a witness: to beg for.--_v.i._ to protest.--_n._ OBTEST[=A]'TION, act of calling to witness: a supplication. [L. _obtest[=a]ri_, to call as a witness--_ob_, before, _testis_, a witness.]

OBTRUDE, ob-tr[=oo]d', _v.t._ to thrust in upon when not wanted: to urge upon against the will of.--_v.i._ to thrust one's self or be thrust upon.--_ns._ OBTRUD'ER; OBTRUD'ING, OBTRU'SION, a thrusting in or upon against the will of.--_adj._ OBTRUS'IVE, disposed to thrust one's self among others.--_adv._ OBTRUS'IVELY.--_n._ OBTRUS'IVENESS. [L. _obtrud[)e]re_--_ob_, before, _trud[)e]re_, _trusum_, to thrust.]

OBTRUNCATE, ob-trung'k[=a]t, _v.t._ to cut or lop off. [L. _obtrunc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, before, _trunc[=a]re_, cut off.]

OBTUND, ob-tund', _v.t._ to dull or blunt, to deaden.--_adj._ OBTUND'ENT, dulling.--_n._ an oily mucilage for sores: an application to deaden the nerve of a tooth. [L. _obtund[)e]re_, to strike upon.]

OBTURATE, ob't[=u]-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to close or stop up.--_ns._ OBTUR[=A]'TION, the act of stopping up, esp. in gunnery, of a hole to prevent the escape of gas; OB'T[=U]R[=A]TOR, that which stops or closes up, as a device of this kind in gunnery, &c.: in surgery, an artificial plate for closing an abnormal aperture or fissure, as with cleft palate, &c., or for distending an opening, as in lithotomy: any structure that shuts off a cavity or passage, esp. in anatomy, the membrane vessels, &c., closing the _obturator foramen_, or _thyroid foramen_, a large opening or fenestra in the anterior part of the hip-bone. [L. _obtur[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to stop up.]

OBTURBINATE, ob-tur'bi-n[=a]t, _adj._ inversely top-shaped.

OBTUSE, ob-t[=u]s', _adj._ blunt: not pointed: (_bot._) blunt or rounded at the point, as a leaf: stupid: not shrill: (_geom._) greater than a right angle.--_adjs._ OBTUSE'-ANG'LED, OBTUSE'-ANG'ULAR, having an angle greater than a right angle.--_adv._ OBTUSE'LY.--_ns._ OBTUSE'NESS, OBTUS'ITY. [Fr.,--L. _obtusus_--_obtund[)e]re_, to blunt--_ob_, against, _tund[)e]re_, to beat.]

OBUMBRATE, ob-um'br[=a]t, _v.t._ to overshadow, to darken.--_adj._ lying under some projecting part, as the abdomen of certain spiders.--_adj._ OBUM'BRANT, overhanging. [L. _obumbr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to overshadow.]

OBVALLATE, ob-val'[=a]t, _adj._ walled up. [L. _obvall[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to wall round.]

OBVELATION, ob-v[=e]-l[=a]'shun, _n._ concealment.

OBVENTION, ob-ven'shun, _n._ (_obs._) any incidental occurrence, or advantage, esp. an offering.

OBVERSE, ob-v[.e]rs', _adj._ turned towards one: bearing the head, as one face of a coin--opp. to _Reverse_: a second or complemental aspect of the same fact, a correlative proposition identically, implying another: (_bot._) having the base narrower than the top.--_n._ OB'VERSE, the side of a coin containing the head, or principal symbol.--_adv._ OBVERSE'LY.--_n._ OBVER'SION, the act of turning toward the front of anything: in logic, a species of immediate inference--viz. the predicating of the original subject, the contradictory of the original predicate, and changing the quality of the proposition--e.g. to infer from _all_ A is B that _no_ A is not B--also called _Permutation_ and _Equipollence_.--_v.t._ OBVERT', to turn towards the front. [L. _obversus_--_ob_, towards, _vert[)e]re_, to turn.]

OBVIATE, ob'vi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to meet on the way, hence to remove, as difficulties. [L. _obvi[=a]re_, -[=a]tum--_ob_, in the way of, _vi[=a]re_, _vi[=a]tum_, to go--_via_, a way.]

OBVIOUS, ob'vi-us, _adj._ meeting one in the way: easily discovered or understood: evident.--_adv._ OB'VIOUSLY.--_n._ OB'VIOUSNESS. [L. _obvius_.]

OBVOLUTE, -D, ob'vo-l[=u]t, -ed, _adj._ rolled or turned in, as two leaves in a bud, one edge of each out and the other in, as in the poppy.--_adj._ OBVOL'VENT, curved downward or inward. [L. _obvolutus_--_ob_, before, _volv[)e]re_, _volutum_, to roll.]

OCARINA, ok-a-r[=e]'na, _n._ a kind of musical instrument with a whistling sound, made of terra-cotta, with finger-holes and a mouthpiece. [It.]

OCCAMISM, ok'am-mizm, _n._ the doctrine of the nominalist schoolman, William of _Occam_ or _Ockham_ (_c._ 1270-1349).--_n._ OCC'AMIST, a follower of Occam.

OCCAMY, ok'a-mi, _n._ a silvery alloy. [_Alchemy._]

OCCASION, o-k[=a]'zhun, _n._ a case of something happening: a special time or season: a chance of bringing about something desired: an event which, although not the cause, determines the time at which another happens: a reason or excuse: opportunity: requirement, business: a special ceremony.--_v.t._ to cause indirectly: to influence.--_adj._ OCC[=A]'SIONAL, falling in the way or happening: occurring only at times: resulting from accident: produced on some special event.--_ns._ OCC[=A]'SIONALISM, the philosophical system of the Cartesian school for explaining the action of mind upon matter, or the combined action of both by the direct intervention of God, who on the occasion of certain modifications in our minds, excites the corresponding movements of body, and on the occasion of certain changes in our body, awakens the corresponding feelings in the mind; OCC[=A]'SIONALIST; OCCASIONAL'ITY.--_adv._ OCC[=A]'SIONALLY.--_n._ OCC[=A]'SIONER.--ON OCCASION, in case of need: as opportunity offers, from time to time; TAKE OCCASION, to take advantage of an opportunity. [Fr.,--L. _occasion-em_--_occid[)e]re_--_ob_, in the way of, _cad[)e]re_, _casum_, to fall.]

OCCIDENT, ok'si-dent, _n._ the western quarter of the sky where the sun goes down or sets: the west generally.--_adj._ OCCIDEN'TAL, noting the quarter where the sun goes down or sets: western: relatively less precious, as a gem.--_n._ a native of some occidental country--opp. to _Oriental_.--_v.t._ OCCIDEN'TALISE, to cause to conform to western ideas or customs.--_ns._ OCCIDEN'TALISM, habits, &c., of occidental peoples; OCCIDEN'TALIST, a student of occidental languages--opp. to _Orientalist_: an individual belonging to an oriental country who favours western ideas, customs, &c.--_adv._ OCCIDEN'TALLY. [Fr.,--L. _occidens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _occid[)e]re_, to fall down.]

OCCIPUT, ok'si-put, _n._ the back part of the head or skull.--_adj._ OCCIP'ITAL, pertaining to the occiput or back part of the head.--_n._ the occipital bone.--_adv._ OCCIP'ITALLY.--_adjs._ OCCIP'ITO-AX'IAL, of or pertaining to the occipital bone and to the axis or second cervical vertebra; OCCIP'ITO-FRONT'AL, pertaining to the occiput and to the forehead; OCCIP'ITO-TEM'PORAL, pertaining to the occipital and temporal regions. [L.,--_ob_, over against, _caput_, head.]

OCCLUDE, o-kl[=oo]d', _v.t._ to absorb, as a gas by a metal.--_adj._ OCCLU'DENT, serving to close.--_n._ OCCLU'SION, a closing of an opening, passage, or cavity: the act of occluding or absorbing.--_adj._ OCCLU'SIVE, serving to close.--_n._ OCCLU'SOR, that which closes, esp. an organ for closing an opening in a body. [L. _occlud[)e]re_,--_ob_, before, _claud[)e]re_, to shut.]

OCCULT, ok-kult', _adj._ covered over: escaping observation: hidden: not discovered without test or experiment: secret, unknown, transcending the bounds of natural knowledge.--_n._ OCCULT[=A]'TION, a concealing, esp. of one of the heavenly bodies by another: state of being hid.--_adj._ OCCULT'ED (_Shak._), hidden, secret: (_astron._) concealed, as by a body coming between.--_ns._ OCCULT'ISM, the doctrine or study of things hidden or mysterious--theosophy, &c.; OCCULT'IST, one who believes in occult things.--_adv._ OCCULT'LY.--_n._ OCCULT'NESS.--OCCULT SCIENCES, alchemy, astrology, magic, &c. [Fr.,--L. _occul[)e]re_, _occultum_, to hide.]

OCCUPY, ok'[=u]-p[=i], _v.t._ to take or hold possession of: to take up, as room, &c.: to fill, as an office: to employ: (_B._) to use: to trade with: (_Shak._) to possess, enjoy.--_v.i._ to hold possession: (_B._) to trade:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ occ'[=u]pied.--_ns._ OCC'UPANCY, the act of occupying, or of taking or holding possession: possession: the time during which one occupies; OCC'UPANT, one who takes or has possession.--_v.t._ OCC'UP[=A]TE (_Bacon_), to hold: to possess:--_pr.p._ occ'[=u]p[=a]ting; _pa.p._ occ'[=u]p[=a]ted.--_n._ OCCUP[=A]'TION, the act of occupying or taking possession: possession: state of being employed or occupied: that which occupies or takes up one's attention: employment.--_adj._ OCCUP[=A]'TIVE.--_n._ OCC'UPIER, one who takes or holds possession of: an occupant: (_B._) a trader. [Fr.,--L. _occup[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ob_, to, on, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

OCCUR, o-kur', _v.i._ to come or be presented to the mind: to happen: to appear: to be found here and there: to coincide in time:--_pr.p._ occur'ring; _pa.p._ occurred'.--_ns._ OCCUR'RENCE, anything that occurs: an event, esp. one unlooked for or unplanned: occasional presentation; OCCUR'RENT, one who comes to meet another: (_B._) an occurrence or chance.--_adj._ (_B._) coming in the way. [Fr.,--L. _occurr[)e]re_--_ob_, towards, _curr[)e]re_, to run.]

OCEAN, [=o]'shan, _n._ the vast expanse of salt water that covers the greater part of the surface of the globe: one of its five great divisions (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, Antarctic): any immense expanse or vast quantity.--_adj._ pertaining to the great sea.--_n._ O'CEAN-B[=A]'SIN, the depression of the earth's surface in which the waters of an ocean are contained.--_adjs._ OCEAN'IAN, pertaining to _Oceania_, which includes Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Australasia, and Malaysia; OCEAN'IC, pertaining to the ocean: found or formed in the ocean or high seas, pelagic: wide like the OCEAN'IC-IS'LANDS, islands far from the mainland, situated in the midst of the ocean; OCEAN'IDES, marine molluscs or sea-shells.--_ns._ O'CEAN-LANE (see LANE); OCEANOG'RAPHER, one versed in oceanography.--_adj._ OCEANOGRAPH'IC.--_ns._ OCEANOG'RAPHY, the scientific description of the ocean; OCEANOL'OGY, the science of the ocean: a treatise on the ocean. [Fr.,--L. _oceanus_--Gr. _[=o]keanos_, perh. from _[=o]kys_, swift.]

OCELLATE, -D, [=o]'sel-l[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ resembling an eye: marked with spots resembling eyes, as the feathers of a peacock.--_adjs._ OCEL'LAR, OC'ELLARY, ocellate, pertaining to ocelli; OCELLIF'EROUS, OCELLIG'EROUS, bearing spots like small eyes.--_n._ OCEL'LUS, a little eye, an eye-spot: one of the round spots of varied colour in the tail of a peacock, &c.:--_pl._ OCEL'L[=I]. [L. _ocellatus_--_ocellus_, dim. of _oculus_, an eye.]

OCELOT, [=o]'se-lot, _n._ the name of several species of animals in tropical America allied to the leopard, but much smaller.--_adj._ O'CELOID. [Mex.]


OCH HONE, oh h[=o]n, an exclamation of lamentation. [Ir.]

OCHIDORE, ok'i-d[=o]r, _n._ a shore-crab.

OCHLESIS, ok-l[=e]'sis, _n._ an unhealthy condition due to overcrowding.--_adj._ OCHLET'IC. [Gr. _ochlos_, a crowd.]

OCHLOCRACY, ok-lok'ra-si, _n._ mob-rule: government by the populace.--_adjs._ OCHLOCRAT'IC, -AL.--_adv._ OCHLOCRAT'ICALLY. [Gr. _ochlokratia_--_ochlos_, the mob, _kratia_, rule.]

OCHRE, [=o]'k[.e]r, _n._ a fine clay, mostly pale yellow, used for colouring walls, &c.: (_slang_) money, esp. gold.--_adjs._ O'CHEROUS, OCHR[=A]'CEOUS, O'CHREOUS, O'CHROID, O'CHRY, consisting of, containing, or resembling ochre. [Fr.,--L. _ochra_--Gr. _[=o]chra_--_[=o]chros_, pale yellow.]

OCREA, [=o]'kre-a, _n._ (_bot._) a sheath formed of two stipules united round a stem:--_pl._ O'CHREÆ, O'CREÆ.--_adj._ O'CHRE[=A]TE. [L. _ochrea_, a legging.]

OCTACHORD, ok'ta-kord, _n._ a musical instrument with eight strings: a diatonic series of eight tones.

OCTAGON, ok'ta-gon, _n._ a plane figure of eight sides and eight angles.--_adj._ OCTAG'ONAL. [Gr. _okt[=o]_, eight, _g[=o]nia_, an angle.]

OCTAHEDRON, ok-ta-h[=e]'dron, _n._ a solid bounded by eight faces.--_adj._ OCTAH[=E]'DRAL. [Gr. _okt[=o]_, eight, _hedra_, a base.]

OCTANDROUS, ok-tan'drus, _adj._ (_bot._) having eight OCTAN'DRIA.--_adj._ OCTAN'DRIAN. [Gr. _okt[=o]_, eight, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

OCTANGULAR, ok-tang'g[=u]-lar, _adj._ having eight angles.

OCTANT, ok'tant, _n._ the eighth part of a circle: an instrument for measuring angles: the aspect of two planets when 45°, or one-eighth of a circle, apart.--Also OC'TILE. [L. _octans_, _octantis_--_octo_, eight.]

OCTAPLA, ok'ta-pla, _n._ something eightfold: a Bible in eight languages. [Gr. _oktaplous_, eightfold.]

OCTAPODY, ok-tap'[=o]-di, _n._ (_pros._) a metre or verse of eight feet.--_adj._ OCTAPOD'IC.--_n._ OC'TASTICH, a strophe of eight verses or lines--also OCTAS'TICHON.--_adj._ OCTASTROPH'IC, consisting of eight strophes.


OCTAVE, ok't[=a]v, _adj._ eight: consisting of eight.--_n._ an eighth: that which consists of eight: the eighth day after a church festival, counting the feast-day itself as the first: the period between a festival and its octave: (_mus._) an eighth, or an interval of twelve semitones: the eighth part of a pipe of wine. [Fr.,--L. _octavus_, eighth--_octo_, eight.]

OCTAVO, ok-t[=a]'v[=o], _adj._ having eight leaves to the sheet.--_n._ a book printed on sheets folded into eight leaves, contracted 8vo--usually meaning a medium octavo, 6×9½ inches. Smaller octavos are--post 8vo, 5½×8½ in.; demy 8vo, 5¼×8 in.; crown 8vo, 5×7½ in.; cap 8vo, 4½×7 in. Larger octavos are--royal 8vo, 6½×10 in.; super-royal 8vo, 7×11 in.; imperial 8vo, 8¼×11 in.:--_pl._ OCT[=A]'VOS.

OCTENNIAL, ok-ten'i-al, _adj._ happening every eighth year: lasting eight years.--_adv._ OCTENN'IALLY.--_n._ OCTOCEN'TENARY, the 800th anniversary of an event. [L. _octennis_--_octo_, eight, _annus_, a year.]

OCTILLION, ok-til'yun, _n._ the number produced by raising a million to the eighth power, expressed by a unit with forty-eight ciphers: in France and the United States, one thousand raised to the ninth power, expressed by a unit with twenty-seven ciphers. [L. _octo_, eight, _million_.]

OCTOBER, ok-t[=o]'b[.e]r, _n._ the eighth month of the Roman year, which began in March: the tenth month in our calendar. [L. _octo_, eight.]

OCTOBRACHIATE, ok-t[=o]-br[=a]'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ having eight brachia, arms, or rays.

OCTOCEROUS, ok-tos'e-rus, _adj._ having eight arms or rays.

OCTODECIMO, ok-t[=o]-des'i-m[=o], _adj._ having eighteen leaves to the sheet, contracted 18mo.--_adj._ OCTODEC'IMAL (_crystal._), having eighteen faces. [L. _octodecim_, eighteen--_octo_, eight, _decem_, ten.]

OCTODENTATE, ok-t[=o]-den't[=a]t, _adj._ having eight teeth.

OCTOFID, ok't[=o]-fid, _adj._ (_bot._) cleft into eight segments.

OCTOGENARIAN, ok-t[=o]-je-n[=a]'ri-an, _n._ and _adj._ one who is eighty years old, or between eighty and ninety.--_adj._ OCTOG'ENARY.

OCTOGYNOUS, ok-toj'i-nus, _adj._ (_bot._) having eight pistils or styles. [Gr. _okt[=o]_, eight, _gyn[=e]_, wife.]


OCTOLATERAL, ok-t[=o]-lat'e-ral, _adj._ having eight sides.

OCTONARY, ok't[=o]-n[=a]-ri, _adj._ consisting of eight.

OCTONOCULAR, ok-t[=o]-nok'[=u]-lar, _adj._ having eight eyes.

OCTOPEDE, ok't[=o]-p[=e]d, _n._ an eight-footed animal.

OCTOPETALOUS, ok-t[=o]-pet'a-lus, _adj._ having eight petals.

OCTOPOD, ok't[=o]-pod, _adj._ eight-footed or eight-armed--also OCTOP'ODOUS.--_n._ an octopus.

OCTOPUS, ok't[=o]-pus, _n._ a widely distributed genus of eight-armed cuttle-fishes, covered with suckers, a devil-fish. [Gr. _okt[=o]_, eight, _pous_, _podos_, foot.]

OCTORADIATE, -D, ok-t[=o]-r[=a]'di-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ having eight rays.

OCTOROON, ok-t[=o]-r[=oo]n', _n._ the offspring of a quadroon and a white person: one who has one-eighth negro blood. [L. _octo_, eight.]

OCTOSEPALOUS, ok-t[=o]-sep'a-lus, _adj._ having eight sepals.

OCTOSPERMOUS, ok-t[=o]-sper'mus, _adj._ having eight seeds.

OCTOSPOROUS, ok-t[=o]-sp[=o]'rus, _adj._ eight-spored.

OCTOSTICHOUS, ok-tos'ti-kus, _adj._ (_bot._) eight-ranked.

OCTOSTYLE, ok't[=o]-st[=i]l, _n._ an edifice or portico with eight pillars in front.

OCTOSYLLABIC, ok-t[=o]-sil-lab'ik, _adj._ consisting of eight syllables.--_n._ OC'TOSYLLABLE, a word of eight syllables.

OCTROI, ok-trwä', _n._ a grant of the exclusive right of trade: a toll or tax levied at the gates of a city on articles brought in: the place where such taxes are paid. [Fr.,--_octroyer_, to grant--L. _auctor[=a]re_, to authorise--_auctor_, author.]

OCTUPLE, ok't[=u]-pl, _adj._ eightfold.--_n._ OC'T[=U]PLET (_mus._), a group of eight notes to be played in the time of six.

OCTYL, ok'til, _n._ a hypothetical organic radical, known only in combination--also _Capryl_.--_n._ OC'TYL[=E]NE, a hydrocarbon obtained by heating octylic alcohol with sulphuric acid.--_adj._ OCTYL'IC.

OCULAR, ok'[=u]-lar, _adj._ pertaining to the eye: formed in, or known by, the eye: received by actual sight.--_adv._ OC'ULARLY.--_adjs._ OC'UL[=A]TE, -D, having eyes, or spots like eyes; OCULAU'DITORY, representing an eye and an ear together; OCULIF'EROUS, OCULIG'EROUS, bearing an eye or eyes; OC'ULIFORM, ocular in form; OC'ULIM[=O]TOR, -Y, ocular and motory.--_n._ OC'ULIST, one skilled in diseases of the eye. [L. _ocularius_--_oculus_, the eye.]

OD, [=o]d, or od, _n._ a peculiar force acting on the nervous system, assumed by Reichenbach to exist in light, heat, electricity, living bodies, and all material substances whatever, and to produce the phenomena of mesmerism.--_adj._ O'DIC.--_ns._ OD'-FORCE, od; O'DISM, belief in od. [Gr. _hodos_, a way.]

OD, od, _n._ for God--sometimes ODD.--_interjs._ OD'S-BODIKINS, God's body; OD'S LIFE, God's life; OD'S-PITIKINS (_Shak._), a corr. of God's pity.


ODALISQUE, ODALISK, [=o]'da-lisk, _n._ a female slave in a harem. [Fr.,--Turk. _oda_, a chamber.]

ODD, od, _adj._ not paired with another: not even: left over after a round number has been taken: additional to a certain amount in round numbers: not exactly divisible by two: strange: unusual in kind or appearance: trifling: remote: (_Shak._) at variance.--_ns._ ODD'-COME-SHORTLY, an early day, any time; ODD'FELLOW, a member of a secret benevolent society called Oddfellows; ODD'ITY, the state of being odd or singular: strangeness: a singular person or thing.--_adj._ ODD'-LOOK'ING, having a singular appearance.--_adv._ ODD'LY.--_ns._ ODD'MENT, something remaining over: one of a broken set--often used in the plural; ODD' ODDS (odz), inequality: difference in favour of one against another: more than an even wager: the amount or proportion by which the bet of one exceeds that of another: advantage: dispute: scraps, miscellaneous pieces, as in the phrase ODDS AND ENDS (lit. 'points' and ends).--AT ODDS, at variance. [Scand., Ice. _oddi_, a triangle, odd number--Ice. _oddr_, point; cf. A.S. _ord_, point.]

ODE, [=o]d, _n._ a song: a poem written to be set to music: the music written for such a poem.--_adj._ O'DIC.--_n._ O'DIST, a writer of odes. [Fr. _ode_--Gr. _[=o]d[=e]_, contr. from _aoid[=e]_--_aeidein_, to sing.]

ODEUM, [=o]-d[=e]'um, _n._ in ancient Greece a theatre for musical contests, &c., sometimes applied to a modern music-hall.--Also OD[=E]'ON. [Gr.]

ODIN, [=o]'din, _n._ the chief of the gods in Norse mythology.

ODIOUS, [=o]'di-us, _adj._ hateful: offensive: repulsive: causing hatred.--_adv._ O'DIOUSLY.--_ns._ O'DIOUSNESS; O'DIUM, hatred: offensiveness: blame: quality of provoking hate.--ODIUM THEOLOGICUM, the proverbial hatred of controversial divines for each other's errors--and persons. [L.,--_odi_, to hate.]


ODONTOGLOSSUM, [=o]-don-t[=o]-glos'um, _n._ a genus of tropical American orchids with showy flowers.

ODONTOID, o-don'toid, _adj._ tooth-shaped: tooth-like.--_ns._ ODONTAL'GIA, ODONTAL'GY, toothache.--_adj._ ODONTAL'GIC.--_n._ ODONT[=I]'ASIS, the cutting of the teeth.--_adj._ ODON'TIC, dental.--_n._ ODON'TOBLAST, a cell by which dentine is developed.--_adjs._ ODON'TOCETE, toothed, as a cetacean; ODONTOGEN'IC.--_ns._ ODONTOG'ENY, the origin and development of teeth; ODONTOG'RAPHY, description of teeth.--_adjs._ ODONTOLOG'IC, -AL.--_ns._ ODONTOL'OGIST, one skilled in odontology; ODONTOL'OGY, the science of the teeth; ODONTOLOX'IA, irregularity of teeth; ODONT[=O]'MA, a small tumour composed of dentine.--_adjs._ ODON'TOMOUS, pertaining to odontoma; ODONTOPH'ORAL, ODONTOPH'ORAN.--_n._ ODON'TOPHORE, the radula, tongue, or lingual ribbon of certain molluscs.--_adjs._ ODONTOPH'OROUS, bearing teeth; ODONTOSTOM'ATOUS, having jaws which bite like teeth.--_ns._ ODONTOTHERAP[=I]'A, the treatment or care of the teeth; ODON'TRYPY, the operation of perforating a tooth to draw off purulent matter from the cavity of the pulp. [Gr. _odous_, _odontos_, a tooth.]

ODOUR, [=o]'dur, _n._ smell: perfume: estimation: reputation.--_adj._ ODORIF'EROUS, bearing odour or scent: diffusing fragrance: perfumed.--_adv._ ODORIF'EROUSLY.--_n._ ODORIF'EROUSNESS, the quality of being odoriferous.--_adj._ O'DOROUS, emitting an odour or scent: sweet-smelling: fragrant.--_adv._ O'DOROUSLY.--_n._ O'DOROUSNESS, the quality of exciting the sensation of smell.--_adjs._ O'DOURED, perfumed; O'DOURLESS, without odour.--ODOUR OF SANCTITY (see SANCTITY); IN BAD ODOUR, in bad repute. [Fr.,--L. _odor_.]

ODYLE, [=o]'dil, _n._ Same as OD (1).

ODYSSEY, od'is-si, _n._ a Greek epic poem, ascribed to Homer, describing the return of the Greeks from the Trojan war, and esp. of _Odysseus_ (Ulysses) to Ithaca after ten years' wanderings.

OECOLOGY, [=e]-kol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of animal and vegetable economy.--_n._ OE'CIUM, the household common to the individuals of a compound organism.--_adj._ OECOLOG'ICAL.


OEDEMA, [=e]-d[=e]'ma, _n._ (_med._) the swelling occasioned by the effusion or infiltration of serum into cellular or areolar structures, usually the subcutaneous cellular tissue. [Gr. _oid[=e]ma_, swelling.]

OEDEMIA, [=e]-d[=e]'mi-a, _n._ a genus of _Anatidæ_, the scoters, surf-ducks, or sea-coots. [Gr. _oid[=e]ma_.]

OEILLADE, [.e]l-yad', _n._ (_Shak._) a glance or wink given with the eye.--_ns._ OEIL-DE-BOEUF, a round or oval opening for admitting light: a small, narrow window, or bull's-eye:--_pl._ OEILS-DE-BOEUF; OEIL-DE-PERDRIX, a small, round figure in decorative art, a dot. [Fr. _oeillade_--_oeil_, eye.]

OENANTHIC, [=e]-nan'thik, _adj._ having or imparting the characteristic odour of wine.--_ns._ OENOL'OGY, the science of wines; OE'NOMANCY, divination from the appearance of wine poured out in libations; OENOM[=A]'NIA, dipsomania; OENOM'ETER, a hydrometer for measuring the alcoholic strength of wines; OENOPH'ILIST, a lover of wine. [Gr. _oinos_ wine.]

OENOMEL, [=e]'no-mel, _n._ wine mixed with honey: mead. [Gr. _oinos_, wine, and _meli_, honey.]

OENOTHERA, [=e]-n[=o]-th[=e]'ra, _n._ a genus of leafy branching plants, with yellow or purplish flowers, called also _Evening_, or _Tree_, _primrose_. [Gr. _oinos_, wine, and perh. _th[=e]ran_, to hunt.]

O'ER, [=o]r, contracted from _over_.

O'ERCOME, owr'kum, _n._ (_Scot._) the burden of a song: overplus.--_n._ O'ER'LAY, a large cravat.

OES, [=o]z, _n._ (_Bacon_) circlets of gold or silver.

OESOPHAGUS, ESOPHAGUS, [=e]-sof'a-gus, _n._ the gullet, a membranous canal about nine inches in length, extending from the pharynx to the stomach, thus forming part of the alimentary canal.--_n._ OESOPHAGAL'GIA, pain, esp. neuralgia, in the oesophagus.--_adj._ OESOPHAGEAL (-faj'-).--_ns._ OESOPHAGEC'TOMY, excision of a portion of the oesophagus; OESOPHAGIS'MUS, oesophageal spasm; OESOPHAG[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the oesophagus; OESOPHAG'OCELE, hernia of the mucous membrane of the oesophagus through its walls; OESOPHAGODYN'IA, pain in the oesophagus; OESOPHAGOP'ATHY, disease of the oesophagus; OESOPHAGOPL[=E]'GIA, paralysis of the oesophagus; OESOPHAGORRH[=A]'GIA, hemorrhage from the oesophagus; OESOPH'AGOSCOPE, an instrument for inspecting the interior of the oesophagus; OESOPHAGOSPAS'MUS, spasm of the oesophagus; OESOPHAGOSTEN[=O]'SIS, a constriction of the oesophagus. [Gr.]

OESTRUM, [=e]s'trum, _n._ violent desire.--_adj._ OES'TRUAL, in heat, rutting.--_v.i._ OES'TRU[=A]TE, to be in heat.--_ns._ OESTRU[=A]'TION; OES'TRUS, a gadfly. [L.]

OF, ov, _prep._ from or out from: belonging to: out of: among: proceeding from, so in the Litany and Nicene Creed: owing to: with: over: concerning: during: (_B._ and _Pr. Bk._) sometimes=by, from, on, or over.--OF PURPOSE (_B._), intentionally. [A.S. _of_; Dut. _af_, Ger. _ab_, also L. _ab_, Gr. _apo_.]

OFF, of, _adv._ from: away from: on the opposite side of a question.--_adj._ most distant: on the opposite or farther side: on the side of a cricket-field right of the wicket-keeper and left of the bowler: not devoted to usual business, as an OFF DAY.--_prep._ not on.--_interj._ away! depart!--_adj._ and _adv._ OFF'-AND-ON', occasional.--_adj._ OFF'-COL'OUR, of inferior value: indisposed.--_n._ OFF'-COME (_Scot._), an apology, pretext: any exhibition of temper, &c.--_adv._ OFF'-HAND, at once: without hesitating.--_adj._ without study: impromptu: free and easy.--_adj._ OFF'ISH, reserved in manner.--_ns._ OFF'-PRINT, a reprint of a single article from a magazine or other periodical--the French _tirage à part_, German _Abdruck_; OFF'-RECK'ONING, an allowance formerly made to certain British officers from the money appropriated for army clothing.--_v.t._ OFF'SADDLE, to unsaddle.--_ns._ OFF'SCOURING, matter scoured off: refuse: anything vile or despised; OFF'-SCUM, refuse or scum; OFF'SET (_in accounts_), a sum or value set off against another as an equivalent: a short lateral shoot or bulb: a terrace on a hillside: (_archit._) a horizontal ledge on the face of a wall: in surveying, a perpendicular from the main line to an outlying point.--_v.t._ (_in accounts_) to place against as an equivalent.--_n._ OFF'SHOOT, that which shoots off from the main stem, stream, &c.: anything growing out of another.--_adv._ OFF'SHORE, in a direction from the shore, as a wind: at a distance from the shore.--_adj._ from the shore.--_ns._ OFF'SIDE, the right-hand side in driving: the farther side; OFF'SPRING, that which springs from another: a child, or children: issue: production of any kind.--OFF ONE'S CHUMP, HEAD, demented; OFF ONE'S FEED, indisposed to eat.--BE OFF, to go away quickly; COME OFF, GO OFF, SHOW OFF, TAKE OFF, &c. (see COME, GO, SHOW, TAKE, &c.); ILL OFF, poor or unfortunate; TELL OFF, to count: to assign, as for a special duty; WELL OFF, rich, well provided. [Same as _Of_.]

OFFAL, of'al, _n._ waste meat: the part of an animal which is unfit for use: refuse: anything worthless. [_Off_ and _fall_.]

OFFEND, of-fend', _v.t._ to displease or make angry: to do harm to: to affront: (_B._) to cause to sin.--_v.i._ to sin: to cause anger: (_B._) to be made to sin.--_n._ OFFENCE', any cause of anger or displeasure: an injury: a crime: a sin: affront: assault.--_adjs._ OFFENCE'FUL (_Shak._) giving offence or displeasure: injurious; OFFENCE'LESS (_Milt._), unoffending: innocent.--_ns._ OFFEND'ER, one who offends or injures: a trespasser: a criminal:--_fem._ OFFEND'RESS; OFFENSE', &c., same as OFFENCE, &c.--_adj._ OFFENS'IVE, causing offence, displeasure, or injury: used in attack: making the first attack.--_n._ the act of the attacking party: the posture of one who attacks.--_adv._ OFFENS'IVELY.--_n._ OFFENS'IVENESS.--OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE, requiring all parties to make war together, or to defend each other if attacked.--GIVE OFFENCE, to cause displeasure; TAKE OFFENCE, to feel displeasure, be offended. [Fr.,--L. _ob_, against, _fend[)e]re_, to strike.]

OFFER, of'[.e]r, _v.t._ to bring to or before: to hold out for acceptance or rejection: to make a proposal to: to lay before: to present to the mind: to attempt: to propose to give, as a price or service: to present in worship.--_v.i._ to present itself: to be at hand: to declare a willingness.--_n._ act of offering: first advance: that which is offered: proposal made.--_adj._ OFF'ERABLE, that may be offered.--_ns._ OFF'ERER; OFF'ERING, act of making an offer: that which is offered: a gift: (_B._) that which is offered on an altar: a sacrifice: (_pl._) in Church of England, certain dues payable at Easter; OFF'ERTORY, act of offering, the thing offered: the verses or the anthem said or sung while the offerings of the congregation are being made and the celebrant is placing the unconsecrated elements on the altar: the money collected at a religious service: anciently a linen or silken cloth used in various ceremonies connected with the administration of the eucharist. [L. _offerre_--_ob_, towards, _ferre_, to bring.]

OFFICE, of'is, _n._ settled duty or employment: a position imposing certain duties or giving a right to exercise an employment: business: act of worship: order or form of a religious service, either public or private: that which a thing is designed or fitted to do: a place where business is carried on: (_pl._) acts of good or ill: service: the apartments of a house in which the domestics discharge their duties.--_ns._ OFF'ICE-BEAR'ER, one who holds office: one who has an appointed duty to perform in connection with some company, society, &c.; OFF'ICER, one who holds an office: a person who performs some public duty: a person entrusted with responsibility in the army or navy.--_v.t._ to furnish with officers: to command, as officers.--_adj._ OFFIC'IAL, pertaining to an office: depending on the proper office or authority: done by authority.--_n._ one who holds an office: a subordinate public officer: the deputy of a bishop, &c.--_ns._ OFFIC'IALISM, official position: excessive devotion to official routine and detail; OFFICIAL'ITY, OFFIC'IALTY, the charge, office, or jurisdiction of an official: the official headquarters of an ecclesiastical or other deliberative and governing body.--_adv._ OFFIC'IALLY.--_n._ OFFIC'IANT, one who officiates at a religious service, one who administers a sacrament.--_v.i._ OFFIC'I[=A]TE, to perform the duties of an office: (with _for_) to perform official duties in place of another.--_n._ OFFIC'I[=A]TOR.--GIVE THE OFFICE (_slang_), to suggest, supply information; HOLY OFFICE, the Inquisition. [Fr.,--L. _officium_.]

OFFICINAL, of-fis'i-nal, _adj._ belonging to, or used in, a shop: denoting an approved medicine kept prepared by apothecaries. [Fr.,--L. _officina_, a workshop--_opus_, work, _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

OFFICIOUS, of-fish'us, _adj._ too forward in offering services: overkind: intermeddling.--_adv._ OFFIC'IOUSLY.--_n._ OFFIC'IOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _officiosus_--_officium_.]

OFFING, of'ing, _n._ the part of the sea more than half-way between the shore and the horizon.

OFT, oft, OFTEN, of'n, _adv._ frequently: many times.--_adj._ OFT'EN (_B._), frequent.--_n._ OFT'ENNESS, frequency.--_advs._ OFT'TIMES, OFT'ENTIMES, many times: frequently. [A.S. _oft_; Ger. _oft_, Goth. _ufta_.]

OGEE, [=o]-j[=e]', _n._ a wave-like moulding formed of a convex curve continued or followed by a concave one. [Fr. _ogive_.]


OGHAM, OGAM, og'am, _n._ an ancient Irish writing, in straight lines crossing each other; one of the characters, twenty in number, of which it is formed.--_adjs._ OGH'AMIC, OG'AMIC.

OGIVE, [=o]'jiv, _n._ (_archit._) a pointed arch or window.--_adj._ OG[=I]'VAL. [Fr.,--Sp.,--Ar. _áwj_, summit.]

OGLE, [=o]'gl, _v.t._ to look at fondly with side glances.--_v.i._ to cast amorous glances.--_ns._ O'GLE; O'GLER; O'GLING. [Dut. _oogen_--_ooge_, the eye.]

OGRE, [=o]'g[.e]r, _n._ a man-eating monster or giant of fairy tales:--_fem._ O'GRESS.--_adj._ O'GREISH. [Fr. _ogre_--Sp. _ogro_--L. _orcus_, the lower world.]

OGYGIAN, [=o]-jij'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to the mythical Attic king _Og[)y]ges_, prehistoric, primeval.

OH, [=o], _interj._ denoting surprise, pain, sorrow, &c.

OHM, [=o]m, _n._ the unit by which electrical resistance is measured, being nearly equal to that caused by a thousand feet of copper wire one-tenth of an inch in diameter.--OHM'S LAW (see LAW). [Georg Simon _Ohm_, a German electrician, 1787-1854.]

OIDIUM, [=o]-id'i-um, _n._ a genus of parasitic fungi, including the vine-mildew, &c. [Gr. _[=o]on_, an egg.]

OIL, oil, _n._ the juice from the fruit of the olive-tree: any greasy liquid.--_v.t._ to smear or anoint with oil.--_ns._ OIL'BAG, a bag or cyst in animals containing oil; OIL'CAKE, a cake made of flax seed from which the oil has been pressed out; OIL'CLOTH, a painted floorcloth; OIL'-COL'OUR, a colouring substance mixed with oil; OIL'ER, one who, or that which, oils: an oil-can: (_coll._) a coat of oilskin; OIL'ERY, the commodities of an oil-man; OIL'-GAS, illuminating gas or heating gas made by distilling oil in closed retorts; OIL'INESS; OIL'-MAN, one who deals in oils; OIL'-MILL, a grinding-mill for expressing oil from seeds, nuts, &c.; OIL'NUT, the butter-nut of North America; OIL'-PAINT'ING, a picture painted in oil-colours: the art of painting in oil-colours; OIL'-PALM, a palm whose fruit-pulp yields palm-oil; OIL'-PRESS, a machine for expressing oils from seeds or pulp; OIL'SKIN, cloth made waterproof by means of oil: a garment made of oilskin; OIL'-SPRING, a spring whose water contains oily matter: a fissure or area from which petroleum, &c. oozes; OIL'STONE, a fine-grained kind of stone used, when wetted with oil, for sharpening tools; OIL'-WELL, a boring made for petroleum.--_adj._ OIL'Y, consisting of, containing, or having the qualities of oil: greasy.--STRIKE OIL (see STRIKE). [O. Fr. _oile_ (Fr. _huile_)--L. _oleum_--Gr. _elaion_--_elaia_, the olive.]

OINTMENT, oint'ment, _n._ anything used in anointing: (_med._) any greasy substance applied to diseased or wounded parts: (_B._) a perfume. [O. Fr.,--L. _unguentum_--_ung[)e]re_, to smear.]

OKAPI, [=o]'ka-pi, _n._ a giraffe-like animal of the Semliki forests of Central Africa.

OKE, [=o]k, _n._ a Turkish weight of 2¾ lb. avoirdupois.

OLD, [=o]ld, _adj._ advanced in years: having been long in existence: worn out: out of date, old-fashioned: ancient, former, antique, early: (_coll._) great, high: having the age or duration of: long practised: sober, wise.--_n._ OLD-CLOTHES'MAN, one who buys cast-off garments.--_v.i._ OLD'EN, to grow old, to become affected by age.--_adj._ old, ancient.--_adj._ OLD-FASH'IONED, of a fashion like that used long ago: out of date: clinging to old things and old styles: with manners like those of a grown-up person (said of a child).--_n._ OLD-FASH'IONEDNESS.--_adjs._ OLD-F[=O]'GYISH, like an old fogy; OLD-GEN'TLEMANLY, characteristic of an old gentleman; OLD'ISH, somewhat old; OLD'-LIGHT, denoting those of the Seceders from the Church of Scotland who continued to hold unchanged the principle of the connection between church and state--the position maintained by the first Seceders in 1733.--_n._ one of this body.--_ns._ OLD-MAID'HOOD, OLD-MAID'ISM.--_adj._ OLD-MAID'ISH, like the conventional old maid, prim.--_ns._ OLD'NESS; OLD'STER (_coll._), a man getting old: a midshipman of four years' standing, a master's mate.--_adj._ OLD'-TIME, of or pertaining to times long gone by: of long standing: old-fashioned.--_n._ OLD'-TIM'ER, one who has lived in a place or kept a position for a long time.--_adjs._ OLD-WOM'ANISH, like an old woman; OLD'-WORLD, belonging to earlier times, antiquated, old-fashioned.--_n._ the Eastern Hemisphere.--OLD AGE, the later part of life; OLD BACHELOR, an unmarried man somewhat advanced in years; OLD ENGLISH (see ENGLISH): the form of black letter used by 16th-century English printers; OLD GOLD, a dull gold colour like tarnished gold, used in textile fabrics; OLD HARRY, NICK, ONE, &c., the devil; OLD HUNDRED, properly OLD HUNDREDTH, a famous tune set in England about the middle of the 16th century to Kethe's version of the 100th Psalm, marked 'Old Hundredth' in Tate and Brady's new version in 1696; OLD MAID, a woman who has not been married, and is past the usual age of marriage: a simple game played by matching cards from a pack from which a card (usually a queen) has been removed; OLD MAN, unregenerate human nature: (_coll._) one's father, guardian, or employer (usually with 'the'); OLD RED SANDSTONE (see SAND); OLD SALT, an experienced sailor; OLD SCHOOL, of, or resembling, earlier days, old-fashioned; OLD SONG, a mere trifle, a very small price; OLD SQUAW, a sea-duck of the northern hemisphere--also OLD WIFE; OLD STYLE (often written with a date O.S.), the mode of reckoning time before 1752, according to the Julian calendar or year of 365¼ days; OLD TESTAMENT (see TESTAMENT); OLD TOM, a strong kind of English gin; OLD WIFE, a prating old woman, or even a man: a chimney-cap for curing smoking.--OF OLD, long ago, in ancient times, or belonging to such. [A.S. _eald_; Dut. _oud_; Ger. _alt_.]

OLEAGINOUS, [=o]-l[=e]-aj'in-us, _adj._ oily: (_bot._) fleshy and oily: unctuous, sanctimonious, fawning.--_n._ OLEAG'INOUSNESS. [L. _oleaginus_--_oleum_, oil.]

OLEANDER, [=o]-l[=e]-an'd[.e]r, _n._ an evergreen shrub with lance-shaped leathery leaves and beautiful red or white flowers, the _Rose Bay_ or _Rose Laurel_. [Fr., a corr. of Low L. _lorandrum_. Cf. _Rhododendron_.]

OLEASTER, [=o]-l[=e]-as't[.e]r, _n._ the wild olive. [L.,--_olea_, an olive-tree--Gr. _elaia_.]

OLECRANON, [=o]-l[=e]-kr[=a]'non, _n._ a process forming the upper end of the ulna.--_adj._ OLECR[=A]'NAL. [Gr.]

OLEIN, [=o]'l[=e]-in, _n._ a natural fat, found in the fatty oils of animals and vegetables.--_n._ O'LE[=A]TE, a salt of oleic acid.--_adj._ OLEF[=I]'ANT, producing oil.--_ns._ OLEF[=I]'ANT-GAS, ethylene; O'LEFINE, any one of a group of hydrocarbons homologous with ethylene.--_adjs._ O'LEIC; OLEIF'EROUS, producing oil, as seeds.--_ns._ OLEOMAR'GARINE, artificial butter at first made from pure beef-fat, now from oleo-oil, neutral lard, milk, cream, and pure butter, worked together, with a colouring matter; OLEOM'ETER, an instrument for determining the density of oils; O'LEON, a liquid obtained from the distillation of olein and lime; OLEORES'IN, a native compound of an essential oil and a resin: a preparation of a fixed or volatile oil holding resin in solution; OLEOSAC'CHARUM, a mixture of oil and sugar.--_adjs._ O'LE[=O]SE, O'LEOUS, oily. [L. _oleum_, oil.]

OLENT, [=o]'lent, _adj._ smelling. [L. _ol[=e]re_, to smell.]

OLEOGRAPH, [=o]'l[=e]-[=o]-graf, _n._ a print in oil-colours to imitate an oil-painting.--_n._ OLEOG'RAPHY, the art of preparing such. [L. _oleum_, oil, Gr. _graphein_, to write.]

OLERACEOUS, ol-e-r[=a]'shus, _adj._ of the nature of a pot-herb, for kitchen use. [L.]

OLFACTORY, ol-fak'tor-i, _adj._ pertaining to, or used in, smelling. [L. _olfact[=a]re_, to smell--_ol[=e]re_, to smell, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

OLIBANUM, [=o]-lib'a-num, _n._ a gum-resin flowing from incisions in several species of _Boswellia_ in Somaliland and southern Arabia--the _Lebonah_ of the Hebrews, _Libanos_ and _Liban[=o]tos_ of the Greeks.

OLIGÆMIA, ol-i-j[=e]'mi-a, _n._ abnormal deficiency of blood.

OLIGARCHY, ol'i-gärk-i, _n._ government by a small exclusive class: a state governed by such: a small body of men who have the supreme power of a state in their hands.--_n._ OL'IGARCH, a member of an oligarchy.--_adjs._ OLIGARCH'AL, OLIGARCH'IC, -AL, pertaining to an oligarchy. [Fr.,--Gr., _oligos_, few, _archein_, to rule.]

OLIGIST, ol'i-jist, _n._ a crystallised variety of hematite.

OLIGOCENE, ol'i-g[=o]-s[=e]n, _adj._ (_geol._) pertaining to a division of the Tertiary series, the rocks chiefly of fresh and brackish water origin, with intercalations of marine beds. [Gr. _oligos_, little, _kainos_, new.]

OLIGOCHROME, ol'i-g[=o]-kr[=o]m, _adj._ and _n._ painted in few colours. [Gr. _oligos_, few, _chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

OLIGOCLASE, ol'i-g[=o]-kl[=a]s, _n._ a soda-lime triclinic feldspar.

OLIO, [=o]'li-[=o], _n._ a savoury dish of different sorts of meat and vegetables: a mixture: a medley, literary miscellany. [Sp. _olla_--L. _olla_, a pot.]

OLIPHANT, ol'i-fant, _n._ an ancient ivory hunting-horn: an obsolete form of elephant.

OLITORY, ol'i-t[=o]-ri, _adj._ and _n._ pertaining to kitchen-vegetables:--_pl._ OL'ITORIES. [L. _olitor_, gardener.]

OLIVE, ol'iv, _n._ a tree cultivated round the Mediterranean for its oily fruit: its fruit: peace, of which the olive was the emblem: a colour like the unripe olive.--_adj._ of a brownish-green colour like the olive.--_adjs._ OLIV[=A]'CEOUS, olive-coloured: olive-green; OL'IVARY, like olives.--_ns._ OL'IVENITE, a mineral consisting chiefly of arsenic acid and protoxide of iron; OL'IVE-OIL, oil pressed from the fruit of the olive; OL'IVE-YARD, a piece of ground on which olives are grown; OL'IVINE, chrysolite.--OLIVE BRANCH, a symbol of peace: (_pl._) children (Ps. cxxviii. 4; _Pr. Bk._). [Fr.,--L. _oliva_--Gr. _elaia_.]

OLIVER, ol'i-v[.e]r, _n._ a forge-hammer worked by foot.

OLIVERIAN, ol-i-v[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ an adherent of the great Protector, _Oliver_ Cromwell (1599-1658).

OLIVET, ol'i-vet, _n._ an imitation pearl manufactured for trade with savages.

OLIVETAN, ol'i-vet-an, _n._ one of an order of Benedictine monks founded in 1313, the original house at Monte _Oliveto_, near Siena.

OLLA, ol'la, _n._ a jar or urn.--_n._ OL'LA-PODRIDA (-po-dr[=e]'da), a Spanish mixed stew or hash of meat and vegetables: any incongruous mixture or miscellaneous collection. [Sp.,--L. _olla_, a pot.]

OLLAM, ol'am, _n._ a doctor or master among the ancient Irish.--Also OLL'AMH. [Ir.]

OLOGY, ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ a science whose name ends in -ology, hence any science generally.

OLPE, ol'p[=e], _n._ a small Greek even-rimmed spoutless vase or jug. [Gr.]

OLYMPIAD, [=o]-lim'pi-ad, _n._ in ancient Greece, a period of four years, being the interval from one celebration of the Olympic games to another, used in reckoning time (the date of the first Olympiad is 776 B.C.).--_adjs._ OLYM'PIAN, OLYM'PIC, pertaining to Olympia in Elis, where the Olympic games were celebrated, or to Mount Olympus in Thessaly, the seat of the gods.--_n._ a dweller in Olympus, one of the twelve greater gods of Greek OLYM'PICS, OLYM'PIC GAMES, games celebrated every four years at Olympia, dedicated to Olympian Zeus; OLYM'PUS, the abode of the gods, supposed to have been Mount Olympus in Thessaly. [Gr. _olympias_, _-ados_, belonging to _Olympia_ in Elis.]

OMADHAUN, om'a-dawn, _n._ a stupid, silly creature. [Ir.]

OMASUM, [=o]-m[=a]'sum, _n._ a ruminant's third stomach, the psalterium or manyplies.--_adj._ OM[=A]'SAL.

OMBRE, om'b[.e]r, _n._ a game of cards played with a pack of forty cards, usually by three persons. [Fr.,--Sp. _hombre_--L. _homo_, a man.]

OMBROMETER, om-brom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a rain-gauge.

OMEGA, [=o]'meg-a, or [=o]-m[=e]'ga, _n._ the last letter of the Greek alphabet: (_B._) the end.--ALPHA AND OMEGA, the beginning and the end: the chief point or purpose (Rev. i. 8). [Gr. _[=o] mega_, the great or long _O_.]

OMELET, OMELETTE, om'e-let, _n._ a pancake chiefly of eggs, beaten up with flour, &c., and fried in a pan. [O. Fr. _amelette_ (Fr. _omelette_), which through the form _alemette_ is traced to _alemelle_, the O. Fr. form of Fr. _alumelle_, a thin plate, a corr. of _lemelle_--L. _lamella_, _lamina_, a thin plate.]

OMEN, [=o]'men, _n._ a sign of some future event, either good or evil: a foreboding.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ to prognosticate: to predict.--_adj._ O'MENED, containing omens, mostly with prefixes, as ill-_omened_. [L. for _osmen_, that which is uttered by the mouth--L. _os_; or for _ausmen_, that heard--_aud[=i]re_, to hear.]

OMENTUM, [=o]-men'tum, _n._ a fold of peritoneum, proceeding from one of the abdominal viscera to another:--_pl._ OMEN'TA.--_adj._ OMEN'TAL.--GREAT OMENTUM, the epiploon. [L.]

OMER, [=o]'m[.e]r, _n._ a Hebrew dry measure containing about half a gallon, 1/10 ephah.

OMICRON, [=o]-m[=i]'kron, _n._ the short _o_ in the Greek alphabet.

OMINOUS, om'in-us, _adj._ pertaining to, or containing, an omen: foreboding evil: inauspicious.--_adv._ OM'INOUSLY.--_n._ OM'INOUSNESS.

OMIT, [=o]-mit', _v.t._ to leave out: to neglect: to fail: to make no use of:--_pr.p._ omit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ omit'ted.--_adj._ OMISS'IBLE, that may be omitted.--_n._ OMISS'ION, act of omitting: the neglect or failure to do something required: that which is left out.--_adj._ OMISS'IVE, omitting or leaving out.--_n._ OMIT'TANCE, the act of omitting: the state of being omitted: forbearance. [L. _omitt[)e]re_, _omissum_--_ob_, away, _mitt[)e]re_, to send.]

OMLAH, om'la, _n._ a staff of native clerks or officials in India. [Ar.]

OMNI-, om'ni, from L. _omnis_, all, a combining form, as in _adjs._ OMNIF[=A]'RIOUS, of all varieties or kinds; OMNIF'EROUS, bearing or producing all kinds; OMNIF'IC, all-creating; OM'NIFORM, of, or capable of, every form.--_n._ OMNIFORM'ITY.--_v.t._ OM'NIFY (_rare_), to make universal.--_adj._ OMNIG'ENOUS, consisting of all kinds.--_n._ OMNIPAR'ITY, general equality.--_adjs._ OMNIP'AROUS, producing all things; OMNIP[=A]'TIENT, enduring all things.--_ns._ OMNIP'OTENCE, OMNIP'OTENCY, unlimited power--an attribute of God.--_adj._ OMNIP'OTENT, all-powerful, possessing unlimited power.--_adv._ OMNIP'OTENTLY.--_n._ OMNIPRES'ENCE, quality of being present everywhere at the same time--an attribute of God.--_adj._ OMNIPRES'ENT, present everywhere at the same time.--_n._ OMNISC'IENCE, knowledge of all things--an attribute of God.--_adj._ OMNISC'IENT, all-knowing: all-seeing: infinitely wise.--_adv._ OMNISC'IENTLY.--_adj._ OMNIV'OROUS, all-devouring: (_zool._) feeding on both animal and vegetable food.--THE OMNIPOTENT, God.

OMNIBUS, om'ni-bus, _adj._ including all: covering many different cases or objects, as 'an _omnibus_ clause.'--_n._ a large four-wheeled vehicle for passengers, chiefly between two fixed points:--_pl._ OM'NIBUSES. [Lit. 'for all,' L. dative pl. of _omnis_, all.]

OMNIUM, om'ni-um, _n._ a Stock Exchange term for the aggregate value of the different stocks in which a loan is funded.--_n._ OM'NIUM-GATH'ERUM (_coll._), a miscellaneous collection of things or persons. [L., 'of all;' gen. pl. of _omnis_, all.]

OMOHYOID, [=o]-m[=o]-h[=i]'oid, _adj._ pertaining to the shoulder-blade, and to the lingual or hyoid bone--also OMOHYOI'DEAN.--_n._ OMOI'DEUM, the pterygoid bone. [Gr. _[=o]mos_, the shoulder.]

OMOPHAGOUS, [=o]-mof'a-gus, _adj._ eating raw flesh--also OMOPHAG'IC.--_n._ OMOPH[=A]'GIA. [Gr. _[=o]mos_, raw, _phagein_, to eat.]

OMOPHORION, [=o]-m[=o]-f[=o]'ri-on, _n._ an eastern ecclesiastical vestment like the western pallium, worn over the phenolion by bishops and patriarchs at the eucharist, &c. [Gr. _[=o]mos_, the shoulder, _pherein_, to carry.]

OMOPLATE, [=o]'m[=o]-pl[=a]t, _n._ the shoulder-blade or scapula.--_n._ OMOPLATOS'COPY, scapulimancy. [Gr. _[=o]moplat[=e]_.]

OMOSTERNUM, [=o]-m[=o]-ster'num, _n._ a median ossification of the coraco-scapular cartilages of a batrachian. [Gr. _[=o]mos_, the shoulder, _sternon_, the chest.]

OMPHACITE, om'fa-s[=i]t, _n._ a grass-green granular variety of pyroxene, one of the constituents of eclogite.--_adj._ OM'PHACINE, pertaining to unripe fruit.

OMPHALOS, om'fal-us, _n._ the navel: a raised central point: a boss.--_adj._ OMPHAL'IC.--_ns._ OM'PHALISM, tendency to place the capital of a country at its geographical centre, or to increase the powers of central at the expense of local government; OMPHAL[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the umbilicus; OM'PHALOCELE, umbilical hernia.--_adj._ OM'PHALOID.--_ns._ OM'PHALOMANCY, divination from the number of knots in the navel-string as to how many children the mother will bear; OMPHALOP'AGUS, a double monster united at the umbilicus; OMPHALOT'OMY, cutting of the umbilical cord at birth. [Gr., the navel.]

ON, on, _prep._, in contact with the upper part of: to and toward the surface of: upon or acting by contact with: not off: at or near: at or during: in addition to: toward, for: at the peril of: in consequence: immediately after: (_B._) off.--_adv._ above, or next beyond: forward, in succession: in continuance: not off.--_interj._ go on! proceed!--_adj._ denoting the part of the field to the left of a right-handed batter, and to the right of the bowler--opp. to _Off._ [A.S. _on_; Dut. _aan_, Ice. _á_, Ger. _an_.]

ON, on, _prep._ (_Scot._) without.

ONAGER, on'[=a]-j[.e]r, _n._ the wild ass of Central Asia. [L.,--Gr. _onagros_--_onos_, an ass, _agros_, wild.]

ONANISM, [=o]'nan-izm, _n._ self-pollution.--_n._ O'NANIST.--_adj._ ONANIST'IC. [See Gen. xxxviii. 9.]

ONCE, ons, _n._ Same as OUNCE, the animal.

ONCE, wuns, _adv._ a single time: at a former time: at any time or circumstances.--_n._ one time.--ONCE AND AGAIN, more than once: repeatedly; ONCE FOR ALL, once only and not again; ONCE IN A WAY, on one occasion only: very rarely.--AT ONCE, without delay: alike: at the same time; FOR ONCE, on one occasion only. [A.S. _ánes_, orig. gen. of _án_, one, used as adv.]

ONCIDIUM, on-sid'i-um, _n._ a widely-spread American genus of orchids. [Gr. _ogkos_, a hook.]

ONCOLOGY, ong-kol'o-ji, _n._ the science of tumours.--_n._ ONCOT'OMY, incision into, or excision of, a tumour.

ONCOME, on'kum, _n._ (_prov._) a sudden fall of rain or snow: the beginning of attack by some insidious disease.--_n._ ON'COMING, approach.

ONCOMETER, ong-com'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for recording variations in volume, as of the kidney, &c.--_n._ ON'COGRAPH, an apparatus for recording such. [Gr. _ogkos_, bulk, _metron_, measure.]

ONCOST, on'kost, _n._ all charges for labour in getting mineral, other than the miners' wages: payment to the collier in addition to the rate per ON'COSTMEN, men who work in or about a mine at other work than cutting coal. [_On_ and _cost_.]

ONDINE, on'din, _n._ a water-spirit, an undine.

ONDING, on'ding, _n._ a sudden fall of rain or snow.

ONE, wun, _pron._ a person (indefinitely), as in 'one says:' any one: some one.--_n._ a single person or thing: a unit. [A special use of the numeral _one_; not conn. with Fr. _on_--L. _homo_, a man.]

ONE, wun, _adj._ single in number, position, or kind: undivided: the same: a certain, some, implying a name unknown or denoting insignificance or contempt, as '_one_ Guy Fawkes, a Spaniard!'--_adjs._ ONE'-EYED, having but one eye: limited in vision; ONE'-HAND'ED, single-handed; ONE'-HORSE, drawn by a single horse: petty, mean, inferior; ONE'-IDEA'D, entirely possessed by one idea.--_ns._ ONE'NESS, singleness, unity; ONER (wun'[.e]r), one possessing some special skill, an adept (_slang_).--_pron._ ONESELF', one's self: himself or herself.--_adj._ ONE'-SID'ED, limited to one side: partial: (_bot._) turned to one side.--_adv._ ONE'-SID'EDLY.--_n._ ONE'-SID'EDNESS.--ONE ANOTHER, each other; ONE BY ONE, singly: in order; ONE DAY, on a certain day: at an indefinite time.--ALL ONE, just the same: of no consequence; AT ONE, of one mind. [A.S. _an_; Ice. _einn_, Ger. _ein_.]

ONEIROMANCY, [=o]-n[=i]'r[=o]-man-si, _n._ the art of divining by dreams.--_ns._ ONEIROCRIT'IC, ONIROCRIT'IC, one who interprets dreams.--_adjs._ ONEIROCRIT'IC, -AL.--_ns._ ONEIRODYN'IA, nightmare; ONEIROL'OGY, the doctrine of dreams; ONEI'ROSCOPIST, an interpreter of dreams. [Gr. _oneiros_, a dream, _manteia_, divination.]

ONELY, [=o]n'li, _adv._ (_Spens._) only.

ONEROUS, on'[.e]r-us, _adj._ burdensome: oppressive.--_adj._ ON'ERARY, fitted or intended for carrying burdens: comprising burdens.--_adv._ ON'EROUSLY.--_n._ ON'EROUSNESS. [L. _onerosus_--_onus_.]

ONEYER, wun'y[.e]r, _n._ (1 _Hen. IV._, II. i. 84) probably a person that converses with great ones--hardly, as Malone explains, an accountant of the exchequer, a banker. [No doubt formed from _one_, like law_yer_, saw_yer_, &c. Malone over-ingeniously refers to the mark, an abbreviation of the Latin form _oneretur, nisi habeat sufficientem exonerationem_ ('let him be charged unless he have a sufficient discharge'), or explains as a misprint for _moneyer_.]

ONGOING, on'g[=o]-ing, _n._ a going on: course of conduct: event: (_pl._) proceedings, behaviour.

ONICOLO, [=o]-nik'[=o]-l[=o], _n._ a variety of onyx for cameos, a bluish-white band on the dark ground. [It.]

ONION, un'yun, _n._ the name given to a few species of genus _Allium_, esp. _Allium cepa_, an edible biennial bulbous root.--_adj._ ON'ION-EYED (_Shak._), having the eyes full of tears.--_n._ ON'ION-SKIN, a very thin variety of paper.--_adj._ ON'IONY. [Fr. _oignon_--L. _unio_, _-onis_--_unus_, one.]

ONLOOKER, on'l[=oo]k-[.e]r, _n._ a looker on, observer.--_adj._ ON'LOOKING.

ONLY, [=o]n'li, _adj._ single in number or kind: this above all others: alone.--_adv._ in one manner: for one purpose: singly: merely: barely: entirely.--_conj._ but: except that.--_n._ ON'LINESS. [A.S. _ánlíc_ (adj.)--_án_, one, _líc_, like.]

ONOCENTAUR, on-o-sen'tawr, _n._ a kind of centaur, half-man, half-ass.

ONOCLEA, on-[=o]-kl[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of aspidioid ferns, with contracted fertile fronds. [Gr. _onos_, a vessel, _kleiein_, to close.]

ONOLOGY, [=o]-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ foolish talk.

ONOMANTIC, on-[=o]-man'tik, _adj._ pertaining to ON'OMANCY or (_obs._) ONOMAT'OMANCY, divination by names. [Gr. _onoma_, a name, _manteia_, divination.]

ONOMASTIC, on-[=o]-mas'tik, _adj._ pertaining to a name, esp. pertaining to the signature to a paper written in another hand.--_n._ ONOMAS'TICON, a list of words: a vocabulary. [Gr., from _onoma_, a name.]

ONOMATOLOGY, on-[=o]-ma-tol'o-ji, _n._ the science of, or a treatise on, the derivation of names.--_n._ ONOMATOL'OGIST, one versed in such. [Gr. _onoma_, _onomatos_, name, _logia_--_legein_, to discourse.]

ONOMATOPOEIA, on-[=o]-mat-o-p[=e]'ya, _n._ the formation of a word so as to resemble the sound of the thing of which it is the name: such a word itself, also the use of such a word, as 'click,' 'cuckoo'--also ONOMATOPO[=E]'SIS, or ONOMATOPOI[=E]'SIS.--_adjs._ ONOMATOPOE'IC, ONOMATOPOET'IC. [Gr. _onoma_, _-atos_, a name, _poiein_, to make.]

ONSET, on'set, _n._ violent attack: assault: storming. [_On_ and _set_.]

ONSHORE, on'sh[=o]r, _adj._ toward the land.

ONSLAUGHT, on'slawt, _n._ an attack or onset: assault. [A.S. _on_, on, _sleaht_, a stroke.]

ONST, wunst, _adv._ a vulgar form of _once_.

ONSTEAD, on'sted, _n._ (_Scot._) a farmstead, the farm buildings. [M. E. _wone_--A.S. _wunian_, to dwell, _stead_, place.]

ONTOGENESIS, on-t[=o]-jen'e-sis, _n._ the history of the individual development of an organised being as distinguished from _phylogenesis_ and _biogenesis_--also ONTOG'ENY.--_adjs._ ONTOGENET'IC, -AL, ONTOGEN'IC.--_adv._ ONTOGENET'ICALLY. [Gr. _onta_, things being, neut. pl. of _[=o]n_, pr.p. of _einai_, to be, _genesis_, generation.]

ONTOLOGY, on-tol'o-ji, _n._ the science that treats of the principles of pure being: that part of metaphysics which treats of the nature and essence of things.--_adjs._ ONTOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ ONTOLOG'ICALLY.--_n._ ONTOL'OGIST, one versed in ontology. [Gr. _[=o]n_, _ontos_, being pr.p. of _einai_, to be, _logia_--_legein_, to discourse.]

ONUS, [=o]'nus, _n._ burden: responsibility.--ONUS PROBAND[=I], the burden of proving. [L. _onus_, burden.]

ONWARD, on'ward, _adj._ going on: advancing: advanced.--_adv._ (also ON'WARDS) toward a point on or in front: forward.

ONYM, on'im, _n._ (_zool._) the technical name of a species or other group.--_adjs._ ON'YMAL, ONYMAT'IC.--_v.i._ ON'YMISE.--_n._ ON'YMY, the use of onyms.

ONYX, on'iks, _n._ (_min._) an agate formed of layers of chalcedony of different colours, used for making cameos.--_ns._ ONYCH'IA, suppurative inflammation near the finger-nail; ONYCH[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the soft parts about the nail; ONYCH'IUM, a little claw; ON'YCHOMANCY, divination by means of the finger-nails; ONYCHON[=O]'SOS, disease of the nails.--_adj._ ONYCHOPATH'IC, affected with such.--_n._ ONYCH[=O]'SIS, disease of the nails. [L.,--Gr. _onyx_, _onychos_, a finger-nail.]

OODLES, [=oo]'dlz, _n._ (_U.S._) abundance.--Also OOD'LINS.

OOF, [=oo]f, _n._ (_slang_) money.

OÖGENESIS, [=o]-[=o]-jen'e-sis, _n._ the genesis and development of the ovum--also OÖG'ENY.--_adj._ OÖGENET'IC.

OÖIDAL, [=o]-oi'dal, _adj._ egg-shaped.

OÖLITE, [=o]'o-l[=i]t, _n._ (_geol._) a kind of limestone, composed of grains like the eggs or roe of a fish.--_adjs._ OÖLIT'IC; OÖLITIF'EROUS. [Gr. _[=o]on_, an egg, _lithos_, stone.]

OÖLOGY, [=o]-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science or study of birds' eggs.--_n._ O'ÖGRAPH, a mechanical device for drawing the outline of a bird's egg.--_adjs._ OÖLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ OÖLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ OÖL'OGIST, one versed in oology; OÖM'ETER, an apparatus for measuring eggs.--_adj._ OÖMET'RIC.--_n._ OÖM'ETRY, the measurement of eggs. [Gr. _[=o]on_, an egg.]

OOLONG, [=oo]'long, _n._ a variety of black tea, with the flavour of green.--Also OU'LONG.

OORIE, OURIE, [=oo]'ri, _adj._ (_Scot._) feeling cold or chill, shivering.

OOZE, [=oo]z, _n._ soft mud: gentle flow, as of water through sand or earth: a kind of mud in the bottom of the ocean: the liquor of a tan vat.--_v.i._ to flow gently: to percolate, as a liquid through pores or small openings.--_adj._ OOZ'Y, resembling ooze: slimy. [M. E. _wose_--A.S. _wase_, mud; akin to A.S. _wos_, juice, Ice. _vas_, moisture.]

OPACITY, [=o]-pas'i-ti, _n._ opaqueness: obscurity.

OPACOUS, [=o]-p[=a]'kus, _adj._ Same as OPAQUE.

OPAH, [=o]'pa, _n._ a sea-fish of the Dory family--also called _Kingfish_.

OPAL, [=o]'pal, _n._ a precious stone of a milky hue, remarkable for its changing colours.--_n._ OPALESC'ENCE.--_adjs._ OPALESC'ENT, reflecting a milky or pearly light from the interior; O'PALINE, relating to, or like, opal.--_v.t._ O'PALISE. [Fr. _opale_--L. _opalus_.]

OPAQUE, [=o]-p[=a]k', _adj._ shady: dark: that cannot be seen through: not transparent.--_adv._ OPAQUE'LY.--_n._ OPAQUE'NESS, quality of being opaque: want of transparency. [Fr.,--L. _opacus_.]

OPE, [=o]p, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_poet._) short for _open_.

OPEIDOCOPE, [=o]-p[=i]'d[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for illustrating sound by means of light.

OPEN, [=o]'pn, _adj._ not shut: allowing one to pass out or in: free from trees: not fenced: not drawn together: spread out: not frozen up: not frosty: free to be used, &c.: public: without reserve: frank: easily understood: generous: liberal: clear: unbalanced, as an account: attentive: free to be discussed.--_v.t._ to make open: to remove hinderances: to bring to view: to explain: to begin.--_v.i._ to become open: to unclose: to be unclosed: to begin to appear: to begin.--_n._ a clear space.--_n._ O'PENER.--_adjs._ O'PEN-EYED (_Shak._), watchful; O'PEN-HAND'ED, with an open hand: generous: liberal.--_n._ O'PEN-HAND'EDNESS.--_adj._ O'PEN-HEART'ED, with an open heart: frank: generous.--_ns._ O'PEN-HEART'EDNESS, liberality: generosity: frankness: candour; O'PENING, an open place: a breach: an aperture: beginning: first appearance: opportunity.--_adv._ O'PENLY.--_adj._ O'PEN-MIND'ED, free from prejudice: ready to receive and consider new ideas.--_n._ O'PEN-MIND'EDNESS.--_adj._ O'PEN-MOUTHED, gaping: greedy: clamorous.--_ns._ O'PENNESS; O'PEN-SES'AME, a form of words which makes barriers fly open--from the story of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves in the _Arabian Nights' Entertainments_; O'PEN-STEEK (_Scot._), a kind of open-work stitching; O'PEN-WORK, any work showing openings through it for ornament.--_adj._ open-cast, of mining work in open air.--OPEN VERDICT (see VERDICT). [A.S. _open_--_up_, up; cf. Dut. _open_--_op_, Ice. _opinn_--_upp_, and Ger. _offen_--_auf_.]

OPERA, op'[.e]r-a, _n._ a musical drama: a place where operas are performed.--_adj._ used in or for an opera, as an _opera_-glass, &c.--_ns._ OP'ERA-CLOAK, a cloak of elegant form and material for carrying into the auditorium of a theatre or opera-house as a protection against draughts; OP'ERA-DANC'ER, one who dances in ballets introduced into operas; OP'ERA-GLASS, a small glass or telescope for use at operas, theatres, &c.; OP'ERA-HAT, a hat which can be made flat by compression and expanded again to its full size; OP'ERA-HOUSE, a theatre where operas are represented; OP'ERA-SING'ER.--_adjs._ OPERAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to or resembling the opera. [It.,--L. _opera_. Cf. _Operate_.]

OPERA-BOUFFE, op'[.e]r-a-b[=oo]f, _n._ a comic opera. [Fr.,--It. _opera-buffa_. Cf. _Buffoon_.]

OPERATE, op'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.i._ to work: to exert strength: to produce any effect: to exert moral power: (_med._) to take effect upon the human system: (_surg._) to perform some unusual act upon the body with the hand or an instrument.--_v.t._ to effect: to produce by agency.--_n._ OPERAM'ETER, an instrument for indicating the number of movements made by a part of a machine.--_adj._ OP'ERANT, operative.--_n._ an operator.--_n._ OPER[=A]'TION, art or process of operating, or of being at work: that which is done or carried out: agency: influence: method of working: action or movements: surgical performance.--_adj._ OP'ER[=A]TIVE, having the power of operating or acting: exerting force: producing effects: efficacious.--_n._ a workman in a manufactory: a labourer.--_adv._ OP'ER[=A]TIVELY.--_ns._ OP'ER[=A]TIVENESS; OP'ER[=A]TOR, one who, or that which, operates or produces an effect: (_math._) a letter, &c., signifying an operation to be performed. [L. _oper[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_opera_, work, closely conn. with _opus_, _operis_, work.]

OPERCULUM, [=o]-p[.e]r'k[=u]-lum, _n._ (_bot._) a cover or lid: (_zool._) the plate over the entrance of a shell: the apparatus which protects the gills of fishes:--_pl._ OPER'CULA.--_adjs._ OPER'CULAR, belonging to the operculum; OPER'CULATE, -D, having an operculum; OPERCULIF'EROUS; OPER'CULIFORM; OPERCULIG'ENOUS; OPERCULIG'EROUS. [L.,--_oper[=i]re_, to cover.]

OPERETTA, op-[.e]r-et'a, _n._ a short, light musical drama. [It., dim. of _opera_.]

OPEROSE, op'[.e]r-[=o]z, _adj._ laborious: tedious.--_adv._ OP'EROSELY.--_ns._ OP'EROSENESS, OPEROS'ITY.

OPHICLEIDE, of'i-kl[=i]d, _n._ a large bass trumpet, with a deep pitch. [Fr.; coined from Gr. _ophis_, a serpent, _kleis_, _kleidos_, a key.]

OPHIDIAN, o-fid'i-an, _n._ one of the true serpents, in which the ribs are the only organs of locomotion.--_adjs._ OPHID'IAN, OPHID'IOUS, pertaining to serpents: having the nature of a serpent.--_ns._ OPHIDI[=A]'RIUM, a place where serpents are confined; OPHIOG'RAPHY, the description of serpents; OPHIOL'ATER, a serpent-worshipper.--_adj._ OPHIOL'ATROUS.--_n._ OPHIOL'ATRY, serpent-worship.--_adjs._ OPHIOLOG'IC, -AL.--_ns._ OPHIOL'OGIST, one versed in ophiology; OPHIOL'OGY, the study of serpents; OPH'IOMANCY, divination by serpents.--_adjs._ OPHIOMOR'PHIC, OPHIOMOR'PHOUS, having the form of a serpent; OPHIOPH'AGOUS, feeding on serpents.--_n._ OPH'ITE, one of a Gnostic sect who worshipped the serpent. [Gr. _ophidion_, dim. of _ophis_, _ophe[=o]s_, a serpent.]

OPHIURA, of-i-[=u]'ra, _n._ a genus of sand-stars.--_ns._ and _adjs._ OPHI[=U]'RAN; OPHI[=U]'ROID. [Gr. _ophis_, serpent, _oura_, tail.]

OPHTHALMIA, of-thal'mi-a, _n._ inflammation of the eye--also OPHTHAL'MY.--_adj._ OPHTHAL'MIC, pertaining to the eye.--_ns._ OPHTHAL'MIST, OPHTHALMOL'OGIST, one skilled in ophthalmology; OPHTHALM[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the eyeball; OPHTHALMODYN'IA, pain, esp. rheumatic pain, of the eye; OPHTHALMOG'RAPHY, a description of the eye.--_adjs._ OPHTHALMOLOG'IC, -AL.--_ns._ OPHTHALMOL'OGY, the science of the eye, its structure and functions; OPHTHALMOM'ETER, an instrument for eye-measurements; OPHTHALMOM'ETRY, the making of such; OPHTHALMOPL[=E]'GIA, paralysis of one or more of the muscles of the eye; OPHTHAL'MOSCOPE, an instrument for examining the interior of the eye.--_adjs._ OPHTHALMOSCOP'IC, -AL.--_adv._ OPHTHALMOSCOP'ICALLY.--_ns._ OPHTHAL'MOSCOPY, examination of the interior of the eye with the ophthalmoscope; OPHTHALMOT'OMY, dissection of the eye: an incision into the eye. [Gr.,--_ophthalmos_, eye.]

OPIATE, [=o]'pi-[=a]t, _n._ a drug containing opium to induce sleep: that which dulls sensation, physical or mental.--_adj._ inducing sleep.--_adj._ O'PIATED.

OPINE, o-p[=i]n', _v.i._ to suppose.--_adj._ OPIN'ABLE, capable of being thought.--_ns._ OP[=I]'NANT, one who forms an opinion; OPIN'ICUS (_her._), a half-lion, half-dragon. [Fr.,--L. _opin[=a]ri_, to think.]

OPINION, [=o]-pin'yun, _n._ one's belief, judgment: favourable estimation: (_Shak._) opinionativeness.--_adjs._ OPIN'IONABLE, that may be matter of opinion; OPIN'ION[=A]TED, OPIN'IONED, firmly adhering to one's own opinions.--_adv._ OPIN'ION[=A]TELY (_obs._).--_adj._ OPIN'ION[=A]TIVE, unduly attached to one's own opinions: stubborn.--_adv._ OPIN'ION[=A]TIVELY.--_ns._ OPIN'ION[=A]TIVENESS; OPIN'IONIST. [L.]

OPISOMETER, op-i-som'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring curved lines on a map. [Gr. _opis[=o]_, backward, _metron_, measure.]

OPISTHOBRANCHIATE, [=o]-pis-th[=o]-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ having the gills behind the heart--_n._ OPISTHOBRANCH'ISM.

OPISTHOCOELIAN, [=o]-pis-th[=o]-s[=e]'li-an, _adj._ hollow or concave behind, as a vertebra.--Also OPISTHOCOE'LOUS.

OPISTHOCOMOUS, op-is-thok'[=o]-mus, _adj._ having an occipital crest.

OPISTHODOMOS, op-is-thod'[=o]-mos, _n._ a rear-chamber or treasury at the back of the cella in some temples. [Gr.]

OPISTHODONT, [=o]-pis'th[=o]-dont, _adj._ having back teeth only.

OPISTHOGASTRIC, [=o]-pis-th[=o]-gas'trik, _adj._ behind the stomach.

OPISTHOGNATHOUS, op-is-thog'n[=a]-thus, _adj._ having retreating jaws or teeth.

OPISTHOGRAPH, [=o]-pis'th[=o]-graf, _n._ a manuscript or a slab inscribed on the back as well as the front.--_adj._ OPISTHOGRAPH'IC, written on both sides.--_n._ OPISTHOG'RAPHY.

OPIUM, [=o]'pi-um, _n._ the narcotic juice of the white poppy.--_n._ O'PIUM-EAT'ER, one who makes a habitual use of opium. [L.,--Gr. _opion_, dim. from _opos_, sap.]

OPOBALSAM, op-[=o]-bal'sam, _n._ a resinous juice, balm of Gilead.

OPODELDOC, op-[=o]-del'dok, _n._ a solution of soap in alcohol, with camphor and essential oils, soap-liniment. [Fr., perh. from Gr. _opos_, juice.]

OPOPANAX, [=o]-pop'a-naks, _n._ a gum-resin used in perfumery and formerly in medicine. [Gr., opos, juice, _panax_, a plant, _panak[=e]s_, all-healing.]

OPORICE, [=o]-por'i-s[=e], _n._ a medicine prepared from quinces, pomegranates, &c.

OPOSSUM, o-pos'um, _n._ a small American marsupial mammal, nocturnal, mainly arboreal, with prehensile tail: an Australian marsupial. [West Indian.]

OPPIDAN, op'i-dan, _n._ at Eton, a student who is not a foundationer or colleger. [L. _oppidanus_--_oppidum_, town.]

OPPILATION, op-i-l[=a]'shun, _n._ stoppage.--_v.t._ OPP'ILATE, to crowd together.--_adj._ OPP'IL[=A]TIVE, obstructive. [L.]

OPPONENT, [=o]-p[=o]'nent, _adj._ opposing in action, speech, &c.: placed in front.--_n._ one who opposes.

OPPORTUNE, op-or-t[=u]n', _adj._ present at a proper time: timely: convenient.--_adv._ OPPORTUNE'LY.--_ns._ OPPORTUNE'NESS; OPPORTUN'ISM, practice of regulating principles by favourable opportunities without regard to consistency; OPPORTUN'IST, a politician who waits for events before declaring his opinions: a person without settled principles; OPPORTUN'ITY, an opportune or convenient time: a good occasion or chance. [Fr.,--L. _opportunus_--_ob_, before, _portus_, a harbour.]

OPPOSE, o-p[=o]z', _v.t._ to place before or in the way of: to set against: to place as an obstacle: to resist: to check: to compete with.--_v.i._ to make objection.--_n._ OPPOSABIL'ITY.--_adjs._ OPPOS'ABLE, that may be opposed; OPPOSE'LESS (_Shak._), not to be opposed, irresistible.--_n._ OPPOS'ER, one who opposes.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ OPPOS'IT, to negative. [Fr.,--L. _ob_, Fr. _poser_, to place.]

OPPOSITE, op'[=o]-zit, _adj._ placed over against: standing in front: situated on opposite sides: contrasted with: opposed to: of an entirely different nature.--_n._ that which is opposed or contrary: an opponent.--_adv._ OPP'OSITELY.--_n._ OPP'OSITENESS.--BE OPPOSITE WITH (_Shak._), to be perverse and contradictory in dealing with. [Fr.,--L. _oppositus_--_ob_, against, _pon[)e]re_, _positum_, to place.]

OPPOSITION, op-[=o]-zish'un, _n._ state of being placed over against: position over against: repugnance: contrariety: contrast: act or action of opposing: resistance: that which opposes: obstacle: (_logic_) a difference of quantity or quality between two propositions having the same subject and predicate: the party that opposes the ministry or existing administration: (_astron._) the situation of heavenly bodies when 180 degrees apart.--_n._ OPPOSI'TIONIST, one who belongs to an opposing party, esp. that opposed to the government. [_Opposite._]

OPPRESS, o-pres', _v.t._ to press against or upon: to use severely: to burden: to lie heavy upon: to constrain: to overpower: to treat unjustly: to load with heavy burdens.--_n._ OPPRESS'ION, act of oppressing or treating unjustly or harshly: severity: cruelty: state of being oppressed: misery: hardship: injustice: dullness of spirits: (_Shak._) pressure.--_adj._ OPPRESS'IVE, tending to oppress: overburdensome: treating with severity or injustice: heavy: overpowering: difficult to bear.--_adv._ OPPRESS'IVELY.--_ns._ OPPRESS'IVENESS; OPPRESS'OR, one who oppresses. [Fr.,--L. _opprim[)e]re_, _oppressum_--_ob_, against, _prem[)e]re_, to press.]

OPPROBRIOUS, o-pr[=o]'bri-us, _adj._ expressive of opprobrium or disgrace: reproachful: infamous: despised.--_adv._ OPPR[=O]'BRIOUSLY.--_ns._ OPPR[=O]'BRIOUSNESS; OPPR[=O]'BRIUM, reproach expressing contempt or disdain: disgrace: infamy. [L.,--_ob_, against, _probrum_, reproach.]

OPPUGN, o-p[=u]n', _v.t._ to fight against, esp. by argument: to oppose: to resist.--_n._ OPPUGN'ER. [Fr.,--L. _oppugn[=a]re_, to fight against--_ob_, against, _pugna_, a fight.]

OPPUGNANCY, o-pug'nan-si, _n._ (_Shak._) opposition, resistance.--_adj._ OPPUG'NANT, opposing: hostile.--_n._ an opponent. [L. _oppugnans_, _-antis_, _pr.p._ of _oppugn[=a]re_.]

OPSIMATHY, op-sim'a-thi, _n._ learning obtained late in life. [Gr.,--_opse_, late, _mathein_, to learn.]

OPSIOMETER, op-si-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an optometer.

OPSONIUM, op-s[=o]'ni-um, _n._ anything eaten with bread as a relish, esp. fish.--_ns._ OPSOM[=A]'NIA, any morbid love for some special kind of food; OPSOM[=A]'NIAC, one who manifests the foregoing. [Gr. _ops[=o]nion_--_opson_, strictly boiled meat, any relish.]

OPTATIVE, op'ta-tiv, or op-t[=a]'tiv, _adj._ expressing desire or wish.--_n._ (_gram._) a mood of the verb expressing wish.--_adv._ OP'TATIVELY. [L. _optativus_--_opt[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to wish.]

OPTIC, -AL, op'tik, -al, _adj._ relating to sight, or to optics.--_n._ OP'TIC (_Pope_), an organ of sight: an eye.--_adv._ OP'TICALLY.--_ns._ OPTIC'IAN, one skilled in optics: one who makes or sells optical instruments; OP'TICS (_sing._), the science of the nature and laws of vision and light; OPTIM'ETER, OPTOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the refractive powers of the eye; OPTOM'ETRY, the measurement of the visual powers.--OPTIC AXIS, the axis of the eye--that is, a line going through the middle of the pupil and the centre of the eye. [Fr. _optique_--Gr. _optikos_.]

OPTIME, op'ti-m[=e], _n._ in the university of Cambridge, one of those in the second or third rank of honours (_senior_ and _junior optimes_ respectively), next to the OPTIM[=A]'TES, the Roman aristocracy. [L. _optimus_, best.]

OPTIMISM, op'ti-mizm, _n._ the doctrine that everything is ordered for the best: a disposition to take a hopeful view of things--opp. to _Pessimism_.--_v.i._ OP'TIMISE, to take the most hopeful view of anything.--_n._ OP'TIMIST, one who holds that everything is ordered for the best.--_adj._ OPTIMIST'IC.--_adv._ OPTIMIST'ICALLY.--_n._ OP'TIMUM (_bot._), that point of temperature at which metabolic--i.e. vegetative and fructificative processes are best carried on. [L. _optimus_, best.]

OPTION, op'shun, _n._ act of choosing: power of choosing or wishing: wish.--_adj._ OP'TIONAL, left to one's option or choice.--_adv._ OP'TIONALLY.--_n._ OP'TIONS, a mode of speculating, chiefly in stocks and shares, which is intended to limit the speculator's risk. It consists in paying a sum down for the right to _put_ (make delivery) or _call_ (call for delivery) a given amount of stock at a fixed future date, the price also being fixed at the time the contract is entered into.--LOCAL OPTION (see LOCAL). [L. _optio_, _optionis_--_opt[=a]re_, to choose.]


OPULENT, op'[=u]-lent, _adj._ wealthy.--_n._ OP'ULENCE, means: riches: wealth.--_adv._ OP'ULENTLY. [Fr.,--L. _op-ulentus_.]

OPUNTIA, [=o]-pun'shi-a, _n._ a genus of cacti.

OPUS, [=o]'pus, _n._ work, a work.--OPUS MAGNUM, the great work of one's life; OPUS OPERANTIS (_theol._), the effect of a sacrament ascribed chiefly, if not exclusively, to the spiritual disposition of the recipient, the grace flowing _ex opere operantis_--the Protestant view; OPUS OPERATUM, the due celebration of a sacrament necessarily involving the grace of the sacrament, which flows _ex opere operato_ from the sacramental act performed independent of the merit of him who administers it--the R.C. view.

OPUSCULE, [=o]-pus'k[=u]l, _n._ a little work.--Also OPUS'CLE, OPUS'CULUM. [L. _opusculum_, dim. of _opus_, work.]

OR, or, _adv._ ere, before. [_Ere._]

OR, or, _conj._ marking an alternative, and sometimes opposition [short for _other_, modern Eng. _either_].--_prep._ (_B._) before. [In this sense a corr. of _ere_.]

OR, or, _n._ (_her._) gold. [Fr.,--L. _aurum_, gold.]

ORACH, ORACHE, or'ach, _n._ one of several European plants used as spinach. [Fr. _arroche_.]

ORACLE, or'a-kl, _n._ the answer spoken or uttered by the gods: the place where responses were given, and the deities supposed to give them: a person famed for wisdom: a wise decision: (_B._) the sanctuary: (_pl._) the revelations made to the prophets: the word of God.--_adj._ ORAC'ULAR, delivering oracles: resembling oracles: grave: venerable: not to be disputed: ambiguous: obscure--also ORAC'ULOUS.--_ns._ ORACULAR'ITY, ORAC'ULARNESS.--_adv._ ORAC'ULARLY. [Fr.,--L. _ora-culum_, double dim. from _or[=a]re_, to speak--_os_, _oris_, the mouth.]

ORAGIOUS, [=o]-r[=a]'jus, _adj._ stormy. [Fr.]

ORAISON, or'i-zun, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as ORISON.

ORAL, [=o]'ral, _adj._ uttered by the mouth: spoken, not written.--_adv._ O'RALLY. [L. _os_, _oris_, the mouth.]

ORALE, or-[=a]'le, _n._ a white silk veil, with coloured stripes, sometimes worn by the Pope.

ORANG, [=o]-rang', _n._ See ORANG-OUTANG.

ORANGE, or'anj, _n._ a delightful gold-coloured fruit with a thick, rough skin, within which are usually from eight to ten juicy divisions: the tree on which it grows: a colour composed of red and yellow.--_adj._ pertaining to an orange: orange-coloured.--_ns._ ORANGE[=A]DE', a drink made with orange juice; OR'ANGE-BLOSS'OM, the white blossom of the orange-tree, worn by brides.--_adj._ OR'ANGE-COL'OURED, having the colour of an orange.--_ns._ OR'ANGE-LIL'Y, a garden-plant with large orange flowers; OR'ANGE-PEEL, the rind of an orange separated from the pulp; OR'ANGERY, a plantation of orange-trees: an orange-garden.--_adj._ OR'ANGE-TAW'NY (_Shak._), of a colour between orange and brown.--_n._ the colour itself.--_n._ OR'ANGE-WIFE (_Shak._), a woman who sells oranges. [Fr.,--It. _arancio_--Pers. _naranj_, the _n_ being dropped; it was thought to come from L. _aurum_, gold, hence Low L. _aurantium_.]

ORANGEMAN, or'anj-man, _n._ a member of a society instituted in Ireland in 1795 to uphold Protestantism, or the cause of William of _Orange_--a secret society since its formal suppression in 1835 after a protracted parliamentary inquiry.--_adj._ OR'ANGE.--_n._ OR'ANGEISM. [From the principality of _Orange_ (L. _Arausio_), near Avignon, ruled by its own sovereigns from the 11th to the 16th century, passing by the last heiress in 1531 to the Count of Nassau, father of William the Silent.]

ORANG-OUTANG, [=o]-rang'-[=oo]-tang', _n._ an anthropoid ape, found only in the forests of Sumatra and Borneo, reddish-brown, arboreal in habit.--Also ORANG' and ORANG'-UTAN'. [Malay, 'man of the woods.']

ORANT, [=o]'rant, _n._ a worshipping figure in ancient Greek and early Christian art.

ORARIAN, [=o]-r[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the coast. [L. _ora_, the shore.]

ORARION, [=o]-r[=a]'ri-on, _n._ a deacon's stole in the Eastern Church.

ORARIUM, [=o]-r[=a]'ri-um, _n._ a linen neckcloth or handkerchief: a scarf attached to a bishop's staff. [L. _os_, _oris_, the mouth.]

ORARIUM, [=o]-r[=a]'ri-um, _n._ a collection of private devotions. [L. _or[=a]re_, to pray.]

ORATION, [=o]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ a public speech of a formal character: an eloquent speech.--_n._ ORATIUN'CLE, a brief speech. [Fr.,--L. _oratio_--_or[=a]re_, to pray.]

ORATOR, or'a-tor, _n._ a public speaker: a man of eloquence: a spokesman or advocate:--_fem._ OR'ATRESS, OR'ATRIX.--_v.i._ OR'[=A]TE, to deliver an oration.--_adjs._ ORAT[=O]'RIAL; ORATOR'ICAL, pertaining to oratory: becoming an orator.--_adv._ ORATOR'ICALLY.--_n._ OR'ATORY, the art of speaking well, or so as to please and persuade, esp. publicly: the exercise of eloquence: an apartment or building for private worship: one of various congregations in the R.C. Church, esp. the Fathers of the Oratory, established by St Philip Neri (1515-95): a religious house of theirs.

ORATORIO, or-a-t[=o]'ri-[=o], _n._ a sacred story set to music, which, as in the opera, requires soloists, chorus, and full orchestra for its performance, the theatrical adjuncts, however, of scenery, costumes, and acting bring dispensed with. [It., so called because first performed in the _Oratory_ of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, near Rome, under the care of St Philip Neri (1571-94).]

ORB, orb, _adj._ (_obs._) bereft, esp. of children. [L. _orbus_.]

ORB, orb, _n._ a circle: a sphere: a celestial body: a wheel: any rolling body: the eye: (_archit._) a blank window or panel: the globe forming part of regalia, the monde or mound: the space within which the astrological influence of a planet operates.--_v.t._ to surround: to form into an orb.--_adjs._ OR'BATE; ORBED, in the form of an orb; circular; ORBIC'ULAR, having the form of an orb or sphere: spherical: round.--_n._ ORBICUL[=A]'RIS, a muscle surrounding an opening.--_adv._ ORBIC'ULARLY.--_n._ ORBIC'ULARNESS.--_adjs._ ORBIC'ULATE, -D, made in the form of an orb.--_n._ ORBICUL[=A]'TION.--_adj._ OR'BY, orbed. [L. _orbis_, circle.]

ORBILIUS, or-bil'i-us, _n._ a flogging schoolmaster--from Horace's master.

ORBIT, or'bit, _n._ the path in which one of the heavenly bodies, as a planet, moves round another, as the sun: the hollow in the bone in which the eyeball rests--also OR'BITA: the skin round the eye.--_adjs._ OR'BITAL, OR'BITARY. [L. _orbita_--_orbis_, a ring.]

ORC, ork, _n._ any whale, the grampus. [L. _orca_.]

ORCADIAN, or-k[=a]'di-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to the Orkney Islands.--_n._ an inhabitant or a native of the Orkneys. [L. _Orcades_.]

ORCHARD, or'chard, _n._ a garden of fruit-trees, esp. of apple-trees, also the enclosure containing such.--_ns._ OR'CHARD-HOUSE, a glass house for cultivating fruits without artificial heat; OR'CHARDING; OR'CHARDIST. [A.S. _orceard_--older form _ort-geard_.]

ORCHELLA-WEED=_Archil_ (q. v.).

ORCHEOCELE, or-ke-o-s[=e]l', _n._ a tumour or inflammation of the testicle.--_ns._ ORCHIAL'GIA, pain, esp. neuralgia, in a testicle; ORCHIDEC'TOMY, ORCHOT'OMY, the excision of a testicle; ORCHIODYN'IA, pain in a testicle; ORCH[=I]'TIS, inflammation of a testicle.--_adj._ ORCHIT'IC. [Gr. _orchis_, a testicle, _k[=e]l[=e]_, a tumour.]

ORCHESTRA, or'kes-tra, _n._ in the Greek theatre, the place where the chorus danced: now the part of a theatre or concert-room in which the musicians are placed: the performers in an orchestra.--_ns._ ORCH[=E]'SIS, the art of dancing or rhythmical movement of the body; ORCHESOG'RAPHY, the theory of dancing.--_adjs._ OR'CHESTRAL, ORCHES'TRIC, of or pertaining to an orchestra: performed in an orchestra.--_v.t._ OR'CHESTR[=A]TE, to arrange for an orchestra.--_ns._ ORCHESTR[=A]'TION, the arrangement of music for an orchestra: instrumentation; ORCHES'TRION, a musical instrument of the barrel-organ kind, designed to imitate an orchestra. [L.,--Gr. _orch[=e]stra_--_orchesthai_, to dance.]

ORCHID, or'kid, _n._ a plant with a rich, showy, often fragrant flower, frequently found growing, in warm countries, on rocks and stems of trees.--_adjs._ ORCHID[=A]'CEOUS, ORCHID'[=E]OUS, pertaining to the orchids.--_ns._ ORCHIDOL'OGY, the knowledge of orchids; OR'CHIS, a genus containing ten of the British species of orchids. [Gr. _orchis_, a testicle.]

ORCHIL, or'kil, _n._ the colouring matter derived from archil (q.v.).

ORCINE, or'sin, _n._ a colouring matter obtained from orchella-weed and other lichens.

ORDAIN, or-d[=a]n', _v.t._ to put in order: to appoint: to dispose or regulate: to set apart for an office: to invest with ministerial functions.--_adj._ ORDAIN'ABLE.--_ns._ ORDAIN'ER; ORDAIN'MENT.--_adj._ OR'DINAL, showing order or succession.--_n._ a number noting order or place among others: a body of regulations, a book containing forms and rules for ordination.--_n._ OR'DINANCE, that which is ordained by authority: a law: a religious practice or right established by authority.--_adj._ OR'DINANT (_Shak._), ordaining, decreeing.--_n._ one who ordains, as a bishop--opp. to OR'DINAND, or one who is to be ordained.--_n._ ORDIN[=A]'TION, the act of ordaining: admission to the Christian ministry by the laying on of hands of a bishop or a presbytery: established order. [O. Fr. _ordener_ (Fr. _ordonner_)--L. _ordin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ordo_.]

ORDEAL, or'de-al, _n._ a dealing out or giving of just judgment: an ancient form of referring a disputed question to the judgment of God, by lot, fire, water, &c.: any severe trial or examination. [A.S. _or-dél_, _or-dál_; cf. Dut. _oor-deel_, Ger. _ur-theil_.]

ORDER, or'd[.e]r, _n._ regular arrangement, method: degree, rank, or position: rule, regular system or government: command: a class, a society of persons of the same profession, &c.: a religious fraternity: a dignity conferred by a sovereign, &c., giving membership in a body, after the medieval orders of knighthood, also the distinctive insignia thereof: social rank generally: a number of genera having many important points in common: a commission to supply, purchase, or sell something: (_archit._) one of the different ways in which the column, with its various parts and its entablature, are moulded and related to each other: due action towards some end, esp. in old phrase 'to take order:' the sacerdotal or clerical function: (_pl._) the several degrees or grades of the Christian ministry.--_v.t._ to arrange: to conduct: to command.--_v.i._ to give command.--_ns._ OR'DER-BOOK, a book for entering the orders of customers, the special orders of a commanding officer, or, the motions to be put to the House of Commons; OR'DERER; OR'DERING, arrangement: management: the act or ceremony of ordaining, as priests or deacons.--_adj._ OR'DERLESS, without order: disorderly.--_n._ OR'DERLINESS.--_adj._ OR'DERLY, in good order: regular: well regulated: of good behaviour: quiet: being on duty.--_adv._ regularly: methodically.--_n._ a non-commissioned officer who carries official messages for his superior officer, formerly the first sergeant of a company.--_adj._ OR'DINATE, in order: regular.--_n._ the distance of a point in a curve from a straight line, measured along another straight line at right angles to it--the distance of the point from the other of the two lines is called the _abscissa_, and the two lines are the _axes of co-ordinates_.--_adv._ OR'DINATELY.--ORDER-IN-COUNCIL, a sovereign order given with advice of the Privy Council; ORDER-OF-BATTLE, the arrangement of troops or ships at the beginning of a battle; ORDER-OF-THE-DAY, in a legislative assembly, the business set down to be considered on any particular day: any duty assigned for a particular day.--CLOSE ORDER, the usual formation for soldiers in line or column, the ranks 16 inches apart, or for vessels two cables'-length (1440 ft.) apart--opp. to _Extended order_; FULL ORDERS, the priestly order; MINOR ORDERS, those of acolyte, exorcist, reader, and doorkeeper; OPEN ORDER, a formation in which ships are four cables'-length (2880 ft.) apart; SAILING ORDERS, written instructions given to the commander of a vessel before sailing; SEALED ORDERS, such instructions as the foregoing, not to be opened until a certain specified time; STANDING ORDERS or RULES, regulations for procedure adopted by a legislative assembly.--IN ORDER, and OUT OF ORDER, in accordance with regular and established usage of procedure, in subject or way of presenting it before a legislative assembly, &c., or the opposite; IN ORDER TO, for the end that; TAKE ORDER (_Shak._), to take measures. [Fr. _ordre_--L. _ordo_, _-inis_.]

ORDINAIRE, or-din-[=a]r', _n._ wine for ordinary use--usually _vin ordinaire_: a soldier's mess: a person of common rank.

ORDINARY, or'di-na-ri, _adj._ according to the common order: usual: of common rank: plain: of little merit: (_coll._) plain-looking.--_n._ a judge of ecclesiastical or other causes who acts in his own right: something settled or customary: actual office: a bishop or his deputy: a place where regular meals are provided at fixed charges: the common run or mass: (_her._) one of a class of armorial charges, called also _honourable ordinaries_, figures of simple outline and geometrical form, conventional in character--_chief_, _pale_, _fess_, _bend_, _bend-sinister_, _chevron_, _cross_, _saltire_, _pile_, _pall_, _bordure_, _orle_, _tressure_, _canton_, _flanches_.--_adv._ OR'DINARILY.--ORDINARY OF THE MASS, the established sequence or fixed order for saying mass.--IN ORDINARY, in regular and customary attendance.

ORDNANCE, ord'nans, _n._ great guns: artillery: (_orig._) any arrangement, disposition, or equipment.--ORDNANCE SURVEY, a preparation of maps and plans of Great Britain and Ireland, or parts thereof, undertaken by government and carried out by men selected from the Royal Engineers--so called because in earlier days the survey was carried out under the direction of the Master-general of the Ordnance. [_Ordinance._]

ORDONNANCE, or'do-nans, _n._ co-ordination, esp. the proper disposition of figures in a picture, parts of a building, &c.

ORDURE, or'd[=u]r, _n._ dirt: dung: excrement: also _fig._ anything unclean.--_adj._ OR'DUROUS. [Fr.,--O. Fr. _ord_, foul--L. _horridus_, rough.]

ORE, [=o]r, _n._ metal as it comes from the mine: metal mixed with earthy and other substances. [A.S. _ór_, another form of _ár_, brass; Ice. _eir_, L. _æs_, _ær-is_, bronze.]

OREAD, [=o]'r[=e]-ad, _n._ (_myth._) a mountain nymph:--_pl._ O'READS, or OR[=E]'ADES. [Gr. _oreias_, _oreiados_--_oros_, a mountain.]


ORGAN, or'gan, _n._ an instrument or means by which anything is done: a part of a body fitted for carrying on a natural or vital operation: a means of communication, or of conveying information or opinions from one to another of two parties, as an ambassador, a newspaper, &c.: a musical wind instrument consisting of a collection of pipes made to sound by means of compressed air from bellows, and played upon by means of keys: a system of pipes in such an organ, having an individual keyboard, a partial organ: a musical instrument having some mechanism resembling the pipe-organ, as the barrel-organ, &c.--_ns._ OR'GAN-BUILD'ER, one who constructs organs; OR'GAN-GRIND'ER, a fellow who plays a hand-organ by a crank; OR'GAN-HARM[=O]'NIUM, a large harmonium used instead of a pipe-organ.--_adjs._ ORGAN'IC, -AL, pertaining to an organ: organised: instrumental.--_adv._ ORGAN'ICALLY.--_n._ ORGAN'ICALNESS.--_v.t._ ORGAN'IFY, to add organic matter to.--_n._ ORGANISABIL'ITY.--_adj._ ORGANIS'ABLE, that may be organised.--_n._ ORGANIS[=A]'TION, the act of organising: the state of being organised.--_v.t._ OR'GAN[=I]SE, to supply with organs: to form several parts into an organised whole, to arrange.--_ns._ OR'GAN[=I]SER; OR'GANISM, organic structure, or a body exhibiting such: a living being, animal or vegetable.--_adj._ OR'GANISMAL.--_ns._ OR'GANIST, one who plays on an organ; OR'GAN-LOFT, the loft where an organ stands; ORGANOG'ENY, ORGANOGEN'ESIS, history of the development of living organs; ORGANOG'RAPHY, a description of the organs of plants or animals; ORGANOL'OGY, the study of structure and function; OR'GAN-PIPE, one of the sounding pipes of a pipe-organ (_flue-pipes_ and _reed-pipes_); OR'GAN-POINT, a note sustained through a series of chords, although only in harmony with the first and last; OR'GANRY, the music of the organ; OR'GAN-SCREEN, an ornamental stone or wood screen, on which a secondary organ is sometimes placed in cathedrals; ORGUINETTE', a mechanical musical instrument, with reeds and exhaust-bellows.--ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, the chemistry of substances of animal or vegetable origin, prior to 1828 supposed to be capable of formation only as products of vital processes: the chemistry of the compounds of carbon; ORGANIC DISEASE, a disease accompanied by changes in the structures involved; ORGANIC REMAINS, fossil remains of a plant or animal.--HYDRAULIC ORGAN, one whose bellows is operated by a hydraulic motor. [Fr. _organe_--L. _organum_--Gr. _organon_.]

ORGANON, or'ga-non, _n._ an instrument: a system of rules and principles for scientific investigation: a system of thought: the logic of Aristotle--also OR'GANUM:--_pl._ OR'GANA. [Gr., from _ergon_, a work.]

ORGANZINE, or'gan-zin, _n._ a silk thread of several twisted together, a fabric of the same. [Fr.]

ORGASM, or'gasm, _n._ immoderate excitement or action.--_adj._ ORGAS'TIC. [Gr. _orgasmos_, swelling.]

ORGEAT, or'zhat, _n._ a confectioner's syrup made from almonds, sugar, &c. [Fr. _orge_--L. _hordeum_, barley.]

ORGULOUS, or'g[=u]-lus, _adj._ (_Shak._) haughty.

ORGY, or'ji, _n._ any drunken or riotous rite or revelry, esp. by night--(_rare_) ORGE:--_pl._ OR'GIES, riotous secret rites observed in the worship of Bacchus.--_v.i._ ORGE, to indulge in riotous jollity.--_n._ OR'GIAST.--_adjs._ ORGIAS'TIC, OR'GIC. [Fr.,--L. _orgia_--Gr.]

ORICHALC, or'i-kalk, _n._ (_Spens._) a gold-coloured alloy resembling brass.--_adj._ ORICHAL'CEOUS. [Fr., from Gr. _oreichalkos_, mountain copper--_oros_, a mountain, _chalkos_, copper.]

ORIEL, [=o]'ri-el, _n._ a portico or recess in the form of a window built out from a wall, supported on brackets or corbels--distinguished from a bay window. [O. Fr. _oriol_, a porch--Low L. _oriolum_, a highly ornamented recess--L. _aureolus_, gilded--_aurum_, gold.]

ORIENT, [=o]'ri-ent, _adj._ rising, as the sun: eastern: bright or pure in colour.--_n._ the part where the sun rises: the east, or the countries of the east: purity of lustre, as in a pearl.--_v.t._ to set so as to face the east: to build, as a church, with its length from east to west.--_adj._ ORIEN'TAL, eastern: pertaining to, in, or from the east.--_n._ a native of the east.--_v.t._ ORIEN'TALISE.--_ns._ ORIEN'TALISM, an eastern word, expression, or custom; ORIEN'TALIST, one versed in the eastern languages: an oriental; ORIENTAL'ITY.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ ORIEN'T[=A]TE.--_ns._ ORIENT[=A]'TION, the act of turning or state of being turned toward the east, the process of determining the east in taking bearings: the situation of a building relative to the points of the compass: the act of making clear one's position in some matter: the homing instinct, as in pigeons; O'RIENT[=A]TOR, an instrument for orientating. [L. _oriens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _or[=i]ri_, to rise.]

ORIFICE, or'i-fis, _n._ something made like a mouth or opening. [Fr.,--L. _orificium_--_os_, _oris_, mouth, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ORIFLAMME, or'i-flam, _n._ a little banner of red silk split into many points, borne on a gilt staff--the ancient royal standard of France. [Fr.,--Low L. _auriflamma_--L. _aurum_, gold, _flamma_, a flame.]

ORIGAN, or'i-gan, _n._ wild marjoram.--Also ORIG'ANUM. [Fr.,--L. _origanum_.--Gr. _origanon_--_oros_, mountain, _ganos_, brightness.]

ORIGENIST, or'ij-en-ist, _n._ a follower of _Origen_ (_c._ 186-254 A.D.), his allegorical method of scriptural interpretation, or his theology, esp. his heresies--the subordination though eternal generation of the Logos, pre-existence of all men, and universal restoration, even of the devil.--_n._ OR'IGENISM.--_adj._ ORIGENIST'IC.

ORIGIN, or'i-jin, _n._ the rising or first existence of anything: that from which anything first proceeds: (_math._) the fixed starting-point: cause: derivation.--_adjs._ ORIG'INABLE; ORIG'INAL, pertaining to the origin or beginning: first in order or existence: in the author's own words or from the artist's own pencil: not copied: not translated: having the power to originate, as thought.--_n._ origin: first copy: the precise language used by a writer: an untranslated tongue: a person of marked individuality.--_ns._ ORIGINAL'ITY, ORIG'INALNESS, quality or state of being original or of originating ideas.--_adv._ ORIG'INALLY.--_v.t._ ORIG'IN[=A]TE, to give origin to: to bring into existence.--_v.i._ to have origin: to begin.--_n._ ORIGIN[=A]'TION, act of originating or of coming into existence: mode of production.--_adj._ ORIG'IN[=A]TIVE, having power to originate or bring into existence.--_n._ ORIG'IN[=A]TOR. [Fr. _origine_--L. _origo_, _originis_--_or[=i]ri_, to rise.]

ORILLON, o-ril'lon, _n._ a semicircular projection at the shoulder of a bastion intended to cover the guns and defenders on the flank. [Fr.,--_oreille_, an ear--L. _auricula_, dim. of _auris_, ear.]

ORIOLE, [=o]r'i-[=o]l, _n._ the golden thrush. [O. Fr. _oriol_--L. _aureolus_, dim. of _aureus_, golden--_aurum_, gold.]

ORION, [=o]-r[=i]'on, _n._ (_astron._) one of the constellations containing seven very bright stars, three of which, in a straight line, form Orion's belt. [_Orion_, a hunter placed among the stars at his death.]

ORISMOLOGY, or-is-mol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of defining technical terms.--_adjs._ ORISMOLOG'IC, -AL. [Gr. _horismos_--_horizein_, to bound.]

ORISON, or'i-zun, _n._ a prayer. [O. Fr. _orison_ (Fr. _oraison_)--L. _oratio_, _-[=o]nis_--_or[=a]re_, to pray.]

ORLE, orl, _n._ (_archit._) a fillet under the ovolo of a capital--also OR'LET: (_her._) a border within a shield at a short distance from the edge. [O. Fr., border, from Low L. _orlum_, dim. of L. _ora_, border.]

ORLEANIST, or'l[=e]-an-ist, _n._ one of the family of the Duke of _Orleans_, brother of Louis XIV. of France: a supporter of the claims of this family to the throne of France.--_adj._ favourable to the claims of the Orleans family.--_ns._ OR'LEANISM; OR'LEANS, a wool and cotton cloth for women's dresses.

ORLOP, or'lop, _n._ the deck below the berth-deck in a ship where the cables, &c., are stowed. [Dut. _overloop_, the upper deck--_overlopen_, to run over.]

ORMER, or'm[.e]r, _n._ an ear-shell or sea-ear.

ORMOLU, or'mo-l[=oo], _n._ an alloy of copper, zinc, and tin: gilt or bronzed metallic ware: gold-leaf prepared for gilding bronze, &c. [Fr. _or_--L. _aurum_, gold, _moulu_, pa.p. of _moudre_, to grind--L. _mol[=a]re_, to grind.]

ORMUZD, or'muzd, _n._ the name of the chief god of the ancient Persians: the creator and lord of the whole universe: (later) the good principle, as opposed to _Ahriman_, the bad. [A corr. of Pers. _Ahura-Mazdâh_=the Living God or Lord (_ahu_='the living,' 'life,' or 'spirit,' root _ah_='to be'), the Great Creator (_maz_+_dâ_=Sans. _mahâ_+_dhâ_), or the Wise One.]

ORNAMENT, or'na-ment, _n._ anything that adds grace or beauty: additional beauty: a mark of honour: (_pl._, _Pr. Bk._) all the articles used in the services of the church.--_v.t._ to adorn: to furnish with ornaments.--_adj._ ORNAMENT'AL, serving to adorn or beautify.--_adv._ ORNAMENT'ALLY.--_ns._ ORNAMENT[=A]'TION, act or art of ornamenting: (_archit._) ornamental work; OR'NAMENTER; OR'NAMENTIST.--_adj._ ORNATE', ornamented: decorated: highly finished, esp. applied to a style of writing.--_adv._ ORNATE'LY.--_n._ ORNATE'NESS. [Fr. _ornement_--L. _ornamentum_--_orn[=a]re_, to adorn.]

ORNIS, or'nis, _n._ the birds collectively of a region, its avifauna.--_adj._ ORNITH'IC.--_ns._ ORNITHICH'NITE (_geol._), the footmark of a bird found impressed on sandstone, &c.; ORNITHODEL'PHIA, the lowest of the three sub-classes of mammals, same as _Monotremata_--from the ornithic character of the urogenital organs.--_adjs._ ORNITHODEL'PHIAN (also _n._), ORNITHODEL'PHIC, ORNITHODEL'PHOUS; OR'NITHOID, somewhat ornithic.--_ns._ ORNITH'OLITE (_geol._), the fossil remains of a bird: a stone occurring of various colours and forms bearing the figures of birds.--_adj._ ORNITHOLOG'ICAL, pertaining to ornithology.--_adv._ ORNITHOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ ORNITHOL'OGIST, one versed in ornithology, or who makes a special study of birds; ORNITHOL'OGY, the science and study of birds; OR'NITHOMANCY, divination by means of birds, by observing their flight, &c.--_adjs._ ORNITHOMAN'TIC; ORNITHOPH'ILOUS, bird-fertilised; OR'NITHOPOD, ORNITHOP'ODOUS, having feet like a bird.--_ns._ ORNITHORHYN'CHUS, an animal in Australia, with a body like an otter and a snout like the bill of a duck, also called _Duck-bill_; ORNITHOS'COPY, observation of birds or of their habits; ORNITHOT'OMY, the act of dissecting birds. [Gr. _ornis_, _ornithos_, a bird.]

OROGRAPHY, or-og'ra-fi, _n._ the description of mountains--also OROL'OGY.--_n._ OROG'ENY, the origin and formation of mountains.--_adjs._ OROGRAPH'IC, -AL; OROLOG'ICAL, of or pertaining to orology.--_ns._ OROL'OGIST, one versed in orology; OROM'ETER, a mountain-barometer. [Gr. _oros_, a mountain.]

OROIDE, [=o]'r[=o]-[=i]d, _n._ an alloy of copper, tin, and other metals used for watch-cases, cheap jewellery, &c.--Also O'R[=E]IDE. [Fr. _or_--L. _aurum_, gold, Gr. _eidos_, form.]

OROTUND, [=o]'r[=o]-tund, _adj._ full, clear, and musical, as speech.--_n._ full, clear, and musical speech, as when directly from the larynx. [L. _os_, _oris_, the mouth, _rotundus_, round.]

ORPHAN, or'fan, _n._ a child bereft of father or mother, or of both.--_adj._ bereft of parents.--_v.t._ to bereave of parents.--_ns._ OR'PHANAGE, the state of being an orphan: a house for orphans; OR'PHAN-ASY'LUM; OR'PHANHOOD, OR'PHANISM; ORPHANOT'ROPHY, the supporting of orphans. [Gr. _orphanos_, akin to L. _orbus_, bereaved.]

ORPHARION, or-f[=a]'ri-on, _n._ a large lute with six to nine metal strings.--Also ORPHE[=O]'REON.

ORPHEAN, or'f[=e]-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Orpheus_, a poet who could move inanimate objects by the music of his lyre.--_adj._ OR'PHIC, pertaining to Orpheus, or the mysteries connected with the cult of Bacchus.--_v.i._ OR'PHISE.--_n._ OR'PHISM.

ORPHREY, or'fri, _n._ gold or other rich embroidery attached to vestments, esp. chasuble and cope. [Fr. _orfroi_--_or_--L. _aurum_, gold, Fr. _fraise_, fringe.]

ORPIMENT, or'pi-ment, _n._ arsenic trisulphide, giving king's yellow and realgar (red).--_ns._ OR'PINE, OR'PIN, a deep-yellow colour: the _Sedum Telephium_, a popular vulnerary. [Fr.,--L. _auripigmentum_--_aurum_, gold, _pigmentum_, paint.]

ORRA, or'a, _adj._ (_Scot._) odd: not matched: left over: doing odd pieces of work: worthless.

ORRERY, or'[.e]r-i, _n._ an apparatus for illustrating, by balls mounted on rods and moved by clockwork around a centre, the size, positions, motions, &c. of the heavenly bodies. [From Charles Boyle, fourth Earl of _Orrery_ (1676-1731).]

ORRIS, or'is, _n._ a species of iris in the south of Europe, the dried root of which has the smell of violets, used in perfumery.--Also ORR'ICE.

ORRIS, or'is, _n._ a peculiar kind of gold or silver lace: upholsterers' galloon and gimp. [_Orphrey._]

ORSEILLE, or-s[=a]l', _n._ a colouring matter (cf. _Archil_ and _Litmus_).--_adj._ ORSEL'LIC. [Fr.]

ORT, ort, _n._ a fragment, esp. one left from a meal--usually _pl._ [Low Ger. _ort_, refuse of fodder.]

ORTHOCEPHALY, or-th[=o]-sef'a-li, _n._ the character of a skull in which the ratio between the vertical and transverse diameters is from 70 to 75.--_adj._ ORTHOCEPHAL'IC.

ORTHOCERAS, or-thos'e-ras, _n._ a genus of fossil cephalopods, having the shell straight or but slightly curved.

ORTHOCHROMATIC, or-th[=o]-kr[=o]-mat'ik, _adj._ correct in rendering the relation of colours, without the usual photographic modifications. [Gr. _orthos_, right, _chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

ORTHOCLASE, or'tho-kl[=a]z, _n._ common or potash feldspar.--_adj._ ORTHOCLAS'TIC. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _klasis_, a fracture.]

ORTHODOX, or'tho-doks, _adj._ sound in doctrine: believing the received or established opinions, esp. in religion: according to the received doctrine.--_adv._ OR'THODOXLY.--_ns._ OR'THODOXNESS; OR'THODOXY, soundness of opinion or doctrine: belief in the commonly accepted opinions, esp. in religion. [Through Fr. and Late L. from Gr. _orthodoxos_--_orthos_, right, _doxa_, opinion--_dokein_, to seem.]

ORTHODROMIC, or-th[=o]-drom'ik, _adj._ pertaining to OR'THODROMY, the art of sailing on a great circle or in a straight course.

ORTHOËPY, or'tho-e-pi, _n._ (_gram._) correct pronunciation of words.--_adjs._ ORTHOËP'IC, -AL.--_adv._ ORTHOËP'ICALLY.--_n._ OR'THOËPIST, one versed in orthoëpy. [Gr. _orthos_, right, _epos_, a word.]

ORTHOGAMY, or-thog'a-mi, _n._ (_bot._) direct or immediate fertilisation.

ORTHOGNATHOUS, or-thog'n[=a]-thus, _adj._ straight-jawed--also ORTHOGNATH'IC.--_n._ ORTHOG'NATHISM. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _gnathos_, the jaw.]

ORTHOGON, or'tho-gon, _n._ (_geom._) a figure with all its angles right angles.--_adj._ ORTHOG'ONAL, rectangular.--_adv._ ORTHOG'ONALLY. [Gr. _orthos_, right, _g[=o]nia_, angle.]

ORTHOGRAPHER, or-thog'ra-f[.e]r, _n._ one who spells words correctly--also ORTHOG'RAPHIST.--_adjs._ ORTHOGRAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining or according to orthography: spelt correctly.--_adv._ ORTHOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ ORTHOG'RAPHY (_gram._), the art or practice of spelling words correctly. [Gr. _orthographia_--_orthos_, right, _graphein_, to write.]

ORTHOMETRY, or-thom'et-ri, _n._ the art of constructing verse correctly.

ORTHOPÆDIA, or-th[=o]-p[=e]-d[=i]'a, _n._ the art or process of curing deformities of the body, esp. in childhood--also OR'THOPÆDY, OR'THOPEDY.--_adjs._ ORTHOPÆ'DIC, -AL, ORTHOPED'IC, -AL.--_ns._ ORTHOPÆ'DICS, ORTHOPED'ICS, orthopædic surgery; OR'THOPÆDIST, OR'THOPEDIST, one skilled in the foregoing. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _pais_, _paidos_, a child.]

ORTHOPHONY, or'th[=o]-f[=o]-ni, _n._ the art of correct speaking: the proper culture of the voice. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _ph[=o]nein_, to speak--_ph[=o]n[=e]_, voice.]

ORTHOPNOEA, or-thop-n[=e]'a, _n._ dyspnoea.--_n._ ORTHOP'NIC, one who can breathe in an upright posture only. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _pnein_, to breathe.]

ORTHOPRAXY, or'th[=o]-prak-si, _n._ correct practice or procedure.

ORTHOPTERA, or-thop't[.e]r-a, _n._ an order of insects with wing-covers, that overlap at the top when shut, under which are the true wings, which fold lengthwise like a fan.--_ns._ ORTHOP'TER, ORTHOP'TERAN, an insect of the order orthoptera; ORTHOPTEROL'OGY.--_adj._ ORTHOP'TEROUS, pertaining to the orthoptera. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _ptera_, pl. of _pteron_, wing.]

ORTHOSCOPIC, or-th[=o]-skop'ik, _adj._ seeing correctly: appearing normal to the eye. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _skopein_, to see.]

ORTHOSTYLE, or'th[=o]-st[=i]l, _n._ (_archit._) an arrangement of columns or pillars in a straight line. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _stylos_, a column.]

ORTHOTONIC, or-th[=o]-ton'ik, _adj._ retaining an accent in certain positions, but not in others--also OR'THOTONE.--_n._ ORTHOTON[=E]'SIS, accentuation of a proclitic or enclitic--opp. to _Enclisis_. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _tonos_, accent.]

ORTHOTROPISM, or-thot'r[=o]-pizm, _n._ vertical growth in plants.--_adjs._ ORTHOT'ROPAL, ORTHOTROP'IC, ORTHOT'ROPOUS. [Gr. _orthos_, straight, _trepein_, to turn.]

ORTHOTYPOUS, or'th[=o]-t[=i]-pus, _adj._ in mineralogy, having a perpendicular cleavage.

ORTHROS, or'thros, _n._ one of the Greek canonical hours, corresponding to the Western lauds. [Gr. _orthros_, dawn.]

ORTIVE, or'tiv, _adj._ rising: eastern.

ORTOLAN, or't[=o]-lan, _n._ a kind of bunting, common in Europe, and considered a great table delicacy. [Fr.,--It. _ortolano_--L. _hortulanus_, belonging to gardens--_hortulus_, dim. of _hortus_, a garden.]

ORVIETAN, or-vi-[=e]'tan, _n._ a supposed antidote or counter-poison.--_n._ ORVI[=E]'TO, an esteemed still white wine.

ORYCTICS, [=o]-rik'tiks, _n._ the branch of geology relating to fossils.--_adjs._ ORYCTOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ ORYCTOZOÖL'OGY, palæontology. [Gr. _oryctos_, fossil.]

ORYX, or'iks, _n._ a genus of antelopes. [Gr., a pick-axe.]

ORYZA, [=o]-r[=i]'za, _n._ a small tropical genus of true grasses, including rice.

OS, os, _n._ a bone. [L.]

OSCAN, os'kan, _n._ and _adj._ one of an ancient Italic race in southern Italy: a language closely akin to Latin, being a ruder and more primitive form of the same central Italic tongue.

OSCHEAL, os'k[=e]-al, _adj._ pertaining to the scrotum.--_ns._ OSCHE[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the scrotum; OS'CHEOCELE, a scrotal hernia; OS'CHEOPLASTY, plastic surgery of the scrotum. [Gr. _osch[=e]_, the scrotum.]

OSCILLATE, os'sil-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to move backwards and forwards like a pendulum: to vary between certain limits.--_n._ OS'CILLANCY, a swinging condition.--_adj._ OS'CILL[=A]TING.--_n._ OSCILL[=A]'TION, act of oscillating: a swinging like a pendulum: variation within limits.--_adjs._ OS'CILL[=A]TIVE, having a tendency to vibrate; OS'CILL[=A]TORY, swinging: moving as a pendulum does. [L. _oscill[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to swing--_oscillum_, a swing.]

OSCINES, os'si-n[=e]z, a sub-order of birds of the order Passeres.--_adj._ OS'CINE--also _n._ [L. _oscen_, _oscinis_, a singing-bird.]

OSCITANCY, os'si-tan-si, _n._ sleepiness, stupidity.--_adj._ OS'CITANT.--_adv._ OS'CITANTLY.--_v.i._ OS'CITATE, to yawn.--_n._ OSCIT[=A]'TION, act of yawning or gaping from sleepiness. [L. _oscit[=a]re_, to yawn.]

OSCULANT, os'k[=u]-lant, _adj._ kissing: adhering closely: (_biol._) situated between two other genera, and partaking partly of the character of each.--_v.t._ OS'CUL[=A]TE, to kiss: to touch, as two curves: to form a connecting-link between two genera.--_adj._ of or pertaining to kissing.--_n._ OSCUL[=A]'TION.--_adj._ OS'CUL[=A]TORY, of or pertaining to kissing: (_geom._) having the same curvature at the point of contact.--_n._ a tablet with a picture of the Virgin or of Christ, which was kissed by the priest and then by the people.--_ns._ OS'CULE, a little mouth: a small bilabiate aperture; OS'C[=U]LUM, a mouth in sponges: one of the suckers on the head of a tapeworm. [L. _oscul[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_osculum_, a little mouth, a kiss, dim. of _os_, mouth.]

OSIER, [=o]'zh[.e]r, _n._ the popular name for those species of willow whose twigs are used in making baskets, &c.--_adj._ made of or like osiers.--_adj._ O'SIERED, adorned with willows.--_n._ O'SIERY, a place where osiers are grown. [Fr.; perh. from Gr. _oisos_.]

OSIRIS, [=o]-s[=i]'ris, _n._ the greatest of Egyptian gods, son of Seb and Nut, or Heaven and Earth, married to Isis, slain by Set but avenged by his son Horus, judge of the dead in the nether-world.

OSITE, os'[=i]t, _n._ Sombrero guano.

OSMANLI, os-man'li, _adj._ of or belonging to Turkey.--_n._ a member of the reigning family of Turkey: a subject of the emperor of Turkey. [_Osman_ or _Othman_, who founded the Turkish empire in Asia, and reigned 1288-1326.]

OSMETERIUM, os-m[=e]-t[=e]'ri-um, _n._ an organ devoted to the production of an odour, esp. the forked process behind the head of certain butterfly-larvæ:--_pl._ OSMET[=E]'RIA.

OSMIDROSIS, os-mi-dr[=o]'sis, _n._ the secretion of strongly smelling perspiration.--Also _Bromidrosis_. [Gr. _osm[=e]_, smell, _hidr[=o]sis_, sweat.]

OSMIUM, [=o]s'mi-um, _n._ a gray-coloured metal found in platinum ore, the oxide of which has a disagreeable smell.--_adjs._ OS'MIC, OS'MIOUS. [Gr. _osm[=e]_, smell, orig. _od-m[=e]_--_ozein_, to smell.]

OSMOSE, os'm[=o]s, _n._ the tendency of fluids to mix or become equally diffused when in contact, even through an intervening membrane or porous structure--also OSM[=O]'SIS.--_adj._ OSMOT'IC, pertaining to, or having, the property of osmose.--_adv._ OSMOT'ICALLY. [Gr. _[=o]smos_=_[=o]sis_, impulse--_[=o]thein_, to push.]

OSMUNDA, os-mun'da, _n._ a genus of ferns, the chief species being OSMUNDA REGALIS, the royal fern--also called _Bog-onion_, _King-fern_, &c.

OSNABURG, oz'na-burg, _n._ a coarse kind of linen, originally brought from _Osnaburg_ in Germany.

OSPREY, os'pr[=a], _n._ the fish-hawk, a species of eagle very common on the coast of North America. [Corr. from _ossifrage_, which see.]

OSSEOUS, os'[=e]-us, _adj._ bony: composed of, or resembling, bone: of the nature or structure of bone.--_ns._ OSS[=A]'RIUM, an ossuary; OSS'[=E]IN, the organic basis of bone; OSS'ELET, a hard substance growing on the inside of a horse's knee; OSS'ICLE, a small bone.--_adjs._ OSSIF'EROUS, producing bone: (_geol._) containing bones; OSSIF'IC.--_n._ OSSIFIC[=A]'TION, the process or state of being changed into a bony substance.--_v.t._ OSS'IFY, to make into bone or into a bone-like substance.--_v.i._ to become bone:--_pa.p._ oss'ified.--_adj._ OSSIV'OROUS, devouring or feeding on bones.--_ns._ OS'TEOBLAST, a cell concerned in the formation of bone; OS'TEOCLAST, an apparatus for fracturing bones; OSTEOCOL'LA, a deposited carbonate of lime encrusted on the roots and stems of plants; OSTEODEN'TINE, one of the varieties of dentine, resembling bone; OSTEOGEN'ESIS, the formation or growth of bone--also OSTEOG'ENY; OSTEOG'RAPHER; OSTEOG'RAPHY, description of bones.--_adj._ OS'TEOID, like bone: having the appearance of bone.--_ns._ OSTEOL'EPIS, a genus of fossil ganoid fishes peculiar to the Old Red Sandstone, so called from the bony appearance of their scales; OSTEOL'OGER, OSTEOL'OGIST, one versed in osteology.--_adjs._ OSTEOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to osteology.--_adv._ OSTEOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ OSTEOL'OGY, the science of the bones, that part of anatomy which treats of the bones; OSTEOMAL[=A]'CIA, a disease in which the earthy salts disappear from the bones, which become soft and misshapen; OS'TEOPHYTE, an abnormal bony outgrowth.--_adjs._ OSTEOPHYT'IC; OSTEOPLAST'IC.--_ns._ OS'TEOPLASTY, a plastic operation by which a loss of bone is remedied; OSTEOSARC[=O]'MA, a tumour composed of intermingled bony and sarcomatous tissue; OS'TEOTOME (_surg._), a saw-like instrument for cutting bones; OSTEOT'OMY, the division of, or incision into, a bone; OST[=I]'TIS, inflammation of bone. [L. _osseus_--_os_, _ossis_, bone; Gr. _osteon_, bone.]

OSSIANIC, os-i-an'ik, _adj._ pertaining to _Ossian_ or the poems dubiously attributed to him.

OSSIFRAGE, os'i-fr[=a]j, _n._ the sea or bald eagle, common in the United States: (_B._) the bearded vulture, the largest of European birds. [L. _ossifragus_, breaking bones--_os_, _frag_, root of _frang[)e]re_, _fractum_, to break.]

OSSUARY, os'[=u]-ar-i, _n._ a place where the bones of the dead are deposited: a charnel-house. [L. _ossuarium_, a charnel-house--_os_, a bone.]

OSTENSIBLE, os-tens'i-bl, _adj._ that may be shown: declared: put forth as real: apparent.--_n._ OSTENSIBIL'ITY.--_adv._ OSTENS'IBLY.--_adj._ OSTENS'IVE, showing: exhibiting.--_adv._ OSTENS'IVELY.--_ns._ OSTEN'SORY, a monstrance; OS'TENT (_Shak._), appearance, manner: token: portent, prodigy; OSTENT[=A]'TION, act of making a display: ambitious display: display to draw attention or admiration: boasting.--_adj._ OSTENT[=A]'TIOUS, given to show: fond of self-display: intended for display.--_adv._ OSTENT[=A]'TIOUSLY.--_n._ OSTENT[=A]'TIOUSNESS. [L. _ostend[)e]re_, _ostensum_, to show.]

OSTIARY, os'ti-ar-i, _n._ the doorkeeper of a church.

OSTIUM, os'ti-um, _n._ an opening: the mouth of a river.--_n._ OSTI[=O]'LE, a small orifice.--_adjs._ OS'TIOLAR; OS'TIOL[=A]TE, furnished with an ostiole. [L.]

OSTLER, os'l[.e]r. Same as HOSTLER.

OSTMEN, ost'men. the Danish settlers in Ireland.

OSTRACEA, os-tr[=a]'s[=e]'a, the oyster family.--_adjs._ OSTR[=A]'CEAN, OSTR[=A]'CEOUS.--_ns._ OS'TRACITE, a fossil oyster; OS'TR[=E]A, the typical genus of the oyster family; OSTR[=E]ICUL'TURE, oyster-culture; OSTR[=E]ICUL'TURIST.

OSTRACISE, os'tra-s[=i]z, _v.t._ in ancient Greece, to banish by the vote of the people written on an earthenware tablet: to banish from society.--_n._ OS'TRACISM, banishment by ostracising: expulsion from society. [Gr. _ostrakizein_--_ostrakon_, an earthenware tablet.]

OSTRICH, os'trich, _n._ the largest of birds, found in Africa, remarkable for its speed in running, and prized for its feathers.--_n._ OS'TRICH-FARM, a place where ostriches are bred and reared for their feathers. [O. Fr. _ostruche_ (Fr. _autruche_)--L. _avis-_, _struthio_, ostrich--Gr. _strouthi[=o]n_, an ostrich, _strouthos_, a bird.]

OSTROGOTH, os'tr[=o]-goth, _n._ an eastern Goth: one of the tribe of east Goths who established their power in Italy in 493, and were overthrown in 555.--_adj._ OS'TROGOTHIC.

OTACOUSTIC, ot-a-kows'tik, _adj._ assisting hearing.--_n._ an instrument to assist hearing--also OTACOUS'TICON. [Gr. _akoustikos_--_akouein_, to hear--_ous_, _[=o]tos_, ear.]

OTALGIA, [=o]-tal'ji-a, _n._ earache--also OTAL'GY.--_ns._ OTOG'RAPHY, descriptive anatomy of the ear; OTORRH[=E]'A, a purulent discharge from the ear; O'TOSCOPE, an instrument for viewing the interior of the ear.

OTARY, [=o]'tar-i, _n._ a genus of seals with an external ear:--_pl._ O'TARIES.--_adj._ OT'ARINE. [Gr. _[=o]taros_, large-eared--_ous_, _[=o]tos_, ear.]

OTHER, u_th_'[.e]r, _adj._ and _pron._ different, not the same: additional: second of two.--_adj._ OTH'ERGUESS=_Othergates_.--_n._ OTH'ERNESS.--_advs._ OTH'ERWHERE, elsewhere; OTH'ERWHILE, OTH'ERWHILES, at other times: sometimes; OTH'ERWISE, in another way or manner: by other causes: in other respects.--_conj._ else: under other conditions.--EVERY OTHER, each alternate; RATHER ... THAN OTHERWISE, rather than not; THE OTHER DAY, on some day not long past, quite recently. [A.S. _other_; cf. Ger. _ander_, L. _alter_.]

OTHERGATES, u_th_'[.e]r-g[=a]tz, _adv._ (_obs._) in another way--also _adj._ [_Other_, and _gate_, way, manner.]

OTIC, [=o]'tik, _adj._ of or pertaining to the ear.--_ns._ OT[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the internal ear; OT'OCYST, an auditory vesicle; OT'OLITH, a calcareous concretion within the membranous labyrinth of the ear; OTOL'OGIST, one skilled in otology; OTOL'OGY, knowledge of the ear. [Gr. _ous_, _[=o]tos_, ear.]

OTIOSE, o'shi-[=o]s, _adj._ unoccupied: lazy: done in a careless way, perfunctory, futile.--_n._ OTIOS'ITY, ease, idleness. [L. _otiosus_--_otium_, rest.]


OTTAVA, ot-tä'vä, _n._ an octave.--OTTAVA RIMA, an Italian form of versification consisting of eight lines, the first six rhyming alternately, the last two forming a couplet--used by Byron in _Don Juan_. [It.]

OTTER, ot'[.e]r, _n._ a large kind of weasel living entirely on fish. [A.S. _otor_, _oter_; cf. Dut. and Ger. _otter_.]

OTTO, ot'o, OTTAR, ot'ar (better ATT'AR), _n._ a fragrant oil obtained from certain flowers, esp. the rose. [Ar. _`itr_--_`atira_, to smell sweetly.]

OTTOMAN, ot'o-man, _adj._ pertaining to the Turkish Empire, founded by _Othman_ or _Osman_ about 1299.--_n._ a Turk (_Shak._ OTT'OMITE): a cushioned seat for several persons sitting with their backs to one another: a low, stuffed seat without a back: a variety of corded silk. [Fr.]

OUBIT, [=oo]'bit, _n._ a hairy caterpillar. [Prob. the A.S. _wibba_, a crawling thing.]

OUBLIETTE, [=oo]-bli-et', _n._ a dungeon with no opening but at the top: a secret pit in the floor of a dungeon into which a victim could be precipitated. [Fr.,--_oublier_, to forget--L. _oblivisci_.]

OUCH, owch, _n._ a jewel or ornament, esp. one in the form of a clasp: the socket of a precious stone. [O. Fr. _nouche_, _nosche_, from Teut., cf. Old High Ger. _nusca_, a clasp.]

OUDENARDE, [=oo]'de-närd, _n._ a kind of decorative tapestry, representing foliage, &c., once made at _Oudenarde_ in Belgium.

OUGHT, awt, _n._ (same as _Aught_) a vulgar corr. of _nought_.--_adv._ (_Scot._) OUGHT'LINGS, at all, in any degree.

OUGHT, awt, _v.i._ to be under obligation: to be proper or necessary.--_n._ OUGHT'NESS, rightness. [A.S. _áhte_, pa.t. of _ágan_, to owe.]

OUISTITI, wis'ti-ti, _n._ a wistit or marmoset.

OUNCE, owns, _n._ the twelfth part of a pound troy=480 grains: 1/16 of a pound avoirdupois=437½ troy grains. [O. Fr. _unce_--L. _uncia_, the twelfth part.]

OUNCE, owns, _n._ a carnivorous animal of the cat kind, found in Asia, allied to the leopard--(_obs._) ONCE. [Fr. _once_, prob. Pers. _yúz_, a panther.]

OUNDY, own'di, _adj._ wavy: scalloped: (_her._) undé.

OUPHE, [=oo]f, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as OAF.

OUR, owr, _adj._ and _pron._ pertaining or belonging to us--prov. OURN.--_prons._ OURS, possessive of _We_; OURSELF', myself (as a king or queen would say):--_pl._ OURSELVES (-selvz'), we, not others: us. [A.S. _úre_, gen. pl. of _wé_, we.]




OUST, owst, _v.t._ to eject or expel.--_n._ OUST'ER (_law_), ejection: dispossession. [O. Fr. _oster_ (Fr. _ôter_), to remove; acc. to Diez, from L. _haur[=i]re_, _haustum_, to draw (water).]

OUT, owt, _adv._ without, not within: gone forth: abroad: to the full stretch or extent: in a state of discovery, development, &c.: in a state of exhaustion, extinction, &c.: away from the mark: completely: at or to an end: to others, as to hire _out_: freely: forcibly: at a loss: unsheltered: uncovered.--_prep._ forth from: outside of: exterior: outlying, remote.--_n._ one who is out, esp. of office--opp. to _In_: leave to go out, an outing.--_v.i._ to go or come out.--_interj._ away! begone!--_n._ OUT'-AND-OUT'ER, a thoroughgoer, a first-rate fellow.--_adjs._ OUT'-OF-DOOR, open-air; OUT-OF-THE-WAY', uncommon: singular: secluded.--OUT AND AWAY, by far; OUT AND OUT, thoroughly: completely--also as _adj._ thorough, complete; OUT-AT-ELBOWS, worn-out, threadbare; OUT OF CHARACTER, unbecoming: improper; OUT OF COURSE, out of order; OUT OF DATE, unfashionable: not now in use; OUT OF FAVOUR, disliked; OUT OF HAND, instantly; OUT OF JOINT, not in proper connection: disjointed; OUT OF ONE'S MIND, mad; OUT OF POCKET, having spent more than one has received; OUT OF PRINT, not to be had for sale, said of books, &c.; OUT OF SORTS, or TEMPER, unhappy: cross-tempered; OUT OF THE COMMON, unusual, pre-eminent; OUT OF THE QUESTION, that cannot be at all considered; OUT OF TIME, too soon or too late: not keeping time in music; OUT WITH, away with: (_Scot._) outside of: say, do, &c., at once. [A.S. _úte_, _út_; Goth. _ut_, Ger. _aus_, Sans. _ud_.]

OUTASK, owt-ask', _v.t._ to ask or proclaim, as to be married, in church for the last time.

OUTBALANCE, owt-bal'ans, _v.t._ to exceed in weight or effect: to outweigh.

OUTBAR, owt-bär', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bar out, esp. to shut out by fortifications.

OUTBARGAIN, owt-bär'gin, _v.t._ to get the better of in a bargain.

OUTBID, owt-bid', _v.t._ to offer a higher price than another.

OUTBLUSH, owt-blush', _v.t._ to exceed in rosy colour.

OUTBLUSTER, owt-blus't[.e]r, _v.t._ to exceed in blustering: to get the better of in this way.

OUTBOUND, owt'bownd, _adj._ bound for a distant port.

OUTBOUNDS, owt'bowndz, (_Spens._) boundaries.

OUTBRAG, owt-brag', _v.t._ to surpass in bragging or boasting: to surpass in beauty or splendour.

OUTBRAVE, owt-br[=a]v', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to excel in bravery or boldness, to defy.

OUTBREAK, owt'br[=a]k, _n._ a breaking out: eruption: a disturbance of the peace.--_v.i._ OUTBREAK', to burst forth.--_ns._ OUT'BREAKER, a wave which breaks on the shore or on rocks; OUT'BREAKING.

OUTBREATHE, owt-br[=e]th', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to breathe out as breath or life: to exhaust or deprive of breath.--_v.i._ to be breathed out: (_Shak._) to expire.

OUTBUD, owt-bud', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to sprout forth.

OUTBUILDING, owt'bild-ing, _n._ a building separate from, but used in connection with, a dwelling-house or a main building: an outhouse.

OUTBURN, owt-burn', _v.t._ to exceed in burning.--_v.i._ to burn away.

OUTBURST, owt'burst, _n._ a bursting out: an explosion.

OUTBY, owt'b[=i], _adv._ (_Scot._) out of doors: (_min._) towards the shaft--opp. to _Inby._--Also OUT'BYE.

OUTCAST, owt'kast, _adj._ exiled from home or country: rejected.--_n._ a person banished: a vagabond: an exile: (_Scot._) a quarrel: the amount of increase in bulk of grain in malting.

OUTCOME, owt'kum, _n._ the issue: consequence: result.

OUTCRAFTY, owt-kraft'i, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in craft.

OUTCROP, owt'krop, _n._ the appearance, at the surface, of a layer of rock or a vein of metal, caused by tilting or inclination of the strata: the part of a layer which appears at the surface of the ground.--_v.i._ to appear at the surface.

OUTCRY, owt'kr[=i], _n._ a loud cry of distress: a confused noise: a public auction.--_v.t._ to cry louder than.

OUTDARE, owt-d[=a]r', _v.t._ to surpass in daring: to defy.

OUTDISTANCE, owt-dis'tans, _v.t._ to distance, leave far behind in any competition.

OUTDO, owt-d[=oo]', _v.t._ to surpass: excel.

OUTDOOR, owt'd[=o]r, _adj._ outside the door or the house: in the open air.--_adv._ OUT'DOORS, out of the house: abroad.--OUTDOOR RELIEF, help given to a pauper who does not live in the workhouse.

OUTDWELL, owt-dwel', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to dwell or stay beyond.--_n._ OUT-DWELL'ER, one who owns land in a parish but lives outside it.

OUT-EDGE, owt'-ej, _n._ the farthest bound.

OUTER, owt'[.e]r, _adj._ more out or without: external--opp. to _Inner_.--_n._ the part of a target outside the rings, a shot striking here.--_adj._ OUT'ERMOST, most or farthest out: most distant.--OUTER BAR, the junior barristers who plead outside the bar in court, as distinguished from King's Counsel and others who plead within the bar. [Comp. of _out_.]

OUTFACE, owt-f[=a]s', _v.t._ to stare down: to bear down by bravery or impudence: to confront boldly.

OUTFALL, owt'-fawl, _n._ the place of discharge of a river, sewer, &c.: (_prov._) a quarrel.

OUTFIELD, owt'f[=e]ld, _n._ (_Scot._) arable land continually cropped without being manured--opp. to _Infield_: any open field at a distance from the farm-steading: any undefined district or sphere: at cricket and baseball, the players collectively who occupy the outer part of the field.--_n._ OUT'FIELDER, one of such players.

OUTFIT, owt'fit, _n._ the act of making ready everything required for a journey or a voyage: complete equipment: the articles or the expenses for fitting out: the means for an outfit.--_v.t._ to fit out, equip.--_ns._ OUT'FITTER, one who furnishes outfits; OUT'FITTING, an outfit: equipment for a voyage.

OUTFLANK, owt-flangk', _v.t._ to extend the flank of one army beyond that of another: to get the better of.

OUTFLASH, owt-flash', _v.t._ to outshine.

OUTFLING, owt'fling, _n._ a sharp retort or gibe.

OUTFLOW, owt-fl[=o]', _v.i._ to flow out.--_n._ issue.

OUTFLUSH, owt'flush, _n._ any sudden glow of heat.

OUTFLY, owt-fl[=i]', _v.t._ to surpass in flying: to fly faster than: to escape by swiftness of flight.

OUTFOOT, owt-f[=oo]t', _v.i._ to outsail.

OUTFROWN, owt-frown', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to frown down.

OUTGARTH, owt'gärth, _n._ an outer yard or garden.

OUTGAZE, owt-g[=a]z', _v.t._ to stare out of countenance: to gaze farther than.

OUTGENERAL, owt-jen'[.e]r-al, _v.t._ to outdo in generalship: to prove a better general than.

OUTGIVE, owt-giv', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to surpass in liberality.

OUTGO, owt-g[=o]', _v.t._ to advance before in going: to surpass: to overreach.--_v.i._ to go out: to come to an end.--_ns._ OUT'GO, that which goes out: expenditure--opp. to _Income_; OUT'GOER; OUT'GOING, act or state of going out: extreme limit: expenditure.--_adj._ departing--opp. to _Incoming_, as a tenant.

OUTGROW, owt-gr[=o]', _v.t._ to surpass in growth: to grow out of.--_n._ OUT'GROWTH, that which grows out of a thing: growth to excess.

OUTGUARD, owt'gärd, _n._ a guard at a distance or at the farthest distance from the main body.

OUTGUSH, owt-gush', _v.i._ to issue with force.--_n._ OUT'GUSH, a gushing out.

OUTHAUL, owt'hawl, _n._ a rope for hauling out the clew of a sail.--Also OUT'HAULER.

OUT-HEROD, owt-her'od, _v.t._ to surpass (_Herod_) in cruelty: to exceed, esp. in anything bad.

OUTHIRE, owt-h[=i]r', _v.t._ to hire or let out.

OUTHOUSE, owt'hows, _n._ a small building outside a dwelling-house.

OUTING, owt'ing, _n._ the act of going out, or the distance gone out: an excursion or airing.

OUTJEST, owt-jest', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to overpower by jesting: to excel in jesting.

OUTJET, owt'jet, _n._ that which projects from anything.--_n._ OUTJUT'TING, a projection.

OUTLAND, owt'land, _n._ land beyond the limits of cultivation.--_adj._ (_Tenn._) foreign.--_n._ OUT'LANDER, a foreigner, a person not naturalised.--_adj._ OUTLAND'ISH, belonging to an out or foreign land: foreign: not according to custom: strange: rustic: rude: vulgar.--_adv._ OUTLAND'ISHLY.--_n._ OUTLAND'ISHNESS.

OUTLASH, owt'lash, _n._ any sudden outburst.

OUTLAST, owt-last', _v.t._ to last longer than.

OUTLAW, owt'law, _n._ one deprived of the protection of the law: a robber or bandit.--_v.t._ to place beyond the law: to deprive of the benefit of the law: to proscribe.--_n._ OUT'LAWRY, the act of putting a man out of the protection of the law: state of being an outlaw. [A.S. _útlaga_; cf. Ice. _útlági_--_út_, out, _lög_, law.]

OUTLAY, owt'l[=a], _n._ that which is laid out: expenditure.--_v.t._ to lay out to view.

OUTLEAP, owt'l[=e]p, _n._ a sally, flight.

OUTLEARN, owt-l[.e]rn', _v.t._ to learn: to excel in learning: to get beyond the instruction of.

OUTLET, owt'let, _n._ the place or means by which anything is let out: the passage outward, vent.

OUTLIER, owt'l[=i]-[.e]r, _n._ (_geol._) a portion of a stratum: anything, as detached from the principal mass, and lying some distance from it.--_v.t._ OUTLIE', to beat in lying.--_v.i._ to live in the open air.

OUTLINE, owt'l[=i]n, _n._ the outer line: the lines by which any figure is bounded: a sketch showing only the main lines: a draft: a set-line in fishing.--_v.t._ to draw the exterior line of: to delineate or sketch.--_adj._ OUTLIN'EAR, like an outline.

OUTLIVE, owt-liv', _v.t._ to live longer than: to survive.--_n._ OUTLIV'ER.

OUTLODGING, owt'loj-ing, _n._ a lodging outside a college bounds at Oxford and Cambridge.

OUTLOOK, owt'l[=oo]k, _n._ vigilant watch: view obtained by looking out: prospect, or (_fig._) one's prospects: a watch-tower.--_v.t._ to face courageously.

OUTLUSTRE, owt-lus't[.e]r, _v.t._ to excel in brightness.

OUTLYING, owt'l[=i]-ing, _adj._ lying out or beyond: remote: on the exterior or frontier: detached.

OUTMAN, owt-man', _v.t._ to outdo in manliness: to outnumber in men.

OUTMANOEUVRE, owt-ma-n[=u]'v[.e]r, _v.t._ to surpass in manoeuvring.

OUTMANTLE, owt-man'tl, _v.t._ to excel in dress or ornament.

OUTMARCH, owt-märch', _v.t._ to march faster than: to leave behind by marching.

OUTMATE, owt-m[=a]t', _v.t._ to outmatch.

OUTMEASURE, owt-mezh'[=u]r, _v.t._ to exceed in extent.

OUTMOST, owt'm[=o]st. Same as OUTERMOST.

OUTMOVE, owt-m[=oo]v', _v.t._ to move faster than.

OUTNAME, owt-n[=a]m', _v.t._ to surpass in name, reputation, or importance.

OUTNESS, owt'nes, _n._ state of being out, externality to the perceiving mind, objectiveness.

OUTNUMBER, owt-num'b[.e]r, _v.t._ to exceed in number.

OUTPACE, owt-p[=a]s', _v.t._ to walk faster than.

OUT-PARAMOUR, owt-par'a-m[=oo]r, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in number of mistresses.

OUTPARISH, owt'par-ish, _n._ a rural parish, as distinguished from an urban one.

OUTPART, owt'part, _n._ a part remote from the centre.

OUTPASSION, owt-pash'un, _v.t._ (_Tenn._) to go beyond in passionateness.

OUTPATIENT, owt'p[=a]-shent, _n._ a patient who receives aid from a hospital, but lives outside of it.

OUTPEER, owt-p[=e]r', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to surpass or excel.

OUT-PENSIONER, owt'-pen'shun-[.e]r, _n._ a non-resident pensioner.

OUTPORT, owt'p[=o]rt, _n._ a port out of or remote from the chief port: a place of export.

OUTPOST, owt'p[=o]st, _n._ a post or station beyond the main body of an army: the troops placed there.

OUTPOUR, owt-p[=o]r', _v.t._ to pour out: to send out in a stream.--_ns._ OUTPOUR'; OUTPOUR'ER; OUT'POURING, a pouring out: an abundant supply.

OUTPOWER, owt-pow'[.e]r, _v.t._ to surpass in power.

OUTPRAY, owt-pr[=a]', _v.t._ to exceed in earnestness of prayer.

OUTPRIZE, owt-pr[=i]z', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in the value set upon it.

OUTPUT, owt'p[=oo]t, _n._ the quantity of metal made by a smelting furnace, or of coal taken from a pit, within a certain time, production generally.

OUTQUARTERS, owt-kwär't[.e]rz, quarters situated away from headquarters.

OUTQUENCH, owt-kwensh', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to extinguish.

OUTRAGE, owt'r[=a]j, _n._ violence beyond measure: excessive abuse: wanton mischief.--_v.t._ to treat with excessive abuse: to injure by violence, esp. to violate, to ravish.--_v.i._ to be guilty of outrage.--_adj._ OUTR[=A]'GEOUS, violent: furious: turbulent: atrocious: enormous, immoderate.--_adv._ OUTR[=A]'GEOUSLY.--_n._ OUTR[=A]'GEOUSNESS. [O. Fr. _oultrage_ (mod. _outrage_)--Low L. _ultragium_--L. _ultra_, beyond.]

OUTRANCE, owt'rans, _n._ the utmost extremity: the bitter end.--À OUTRANCE, to the bitter end of a combat--usually in Eng. use, À L'OUTRANCE. [Fr.]

OUTRÉ, [=oo]t-r[=a]', _adj._ beyond what is customary or proper: extravagant: overstrained. [Fr. pa.p. of _outrer_--_outre_--L. _ultra_, beyond.]

OUTREACH, owt-r[=e]ch', _v.t._ to reach or extend beyond: to cheat or overreach.

OUTREDDEN, owt-red'n, _v.t._ (_Tenn._) to grow redder than.

OUTREIGN, owt-r[=a]n', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to reign longer than: to reign through the whole of (a period).

OUTREMER, [=oo]tr-m[=a]r', _n._ the region beyond sea. [Fr.]

OUTRIDE, owt-r[=i]d', _v.t._ to ride beyond: to ride faster than.--_n._ OUT'RIDER, one who rides abroad: a servant on horseback who attends a carriage.

OUTRIGGER, owt'rig-[.e]r, _n._ a projecting spar for extending sails or any part of the rigging: a projecting contrivance ending in a float fixed to the side of a canoe against capsizing: an iron bracket fixed to the outside of a boat carrying a rowlock at its extremity to increase the leverage of the oar: a light racing-boat with projecting rowlocks.

OUTRIGHT, owt'r[=i]t, _adv._ immediately: at once: completely.--_adj._ free from reserve: positive, undisguised.

OUTRIVAL, owt-r[=i]'val, _v.t._ to surpass, excel.

OUTROAD, owt'r[=o]d, _n._ (_obs._) a foray into an enemy's country, a hostile attack--opp. to _Inroad_.

OUTROAR, owt-r[=o]r', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in roaring.--_n._ OUT'ROAR, an uproar.

OUTROOT, owt-r[=oo]t', _v.t._ to root out.

OUTROPER, owt-r[=o]'p[.e]r, _n._ formerly an officer in London who seized the goods of foreigners sold elsewhere than in the public market.

OUTRUN, owt-run', _v.t._ to go beyond in running: to exceed: to get the better of or to escape by running.--_n._ OUT'RUNNER.

OUTRUSH, owt-rush', _v.i._ to rush out:--_n._ a rushing out.

OUTSAIL, owt-s[=a]l', _v.t._ to leave behind in sailing.

OUTSCOLD, owt-sk[=o]ld', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in scolding.

OUTSCORN, owt-skorn', _v.t._ to bear down or confront by contempt: to disregard or despise.

OUTSCOURING, owt'skowr-ing, _n._ substance washed or scoured out.

OUTSELL, owt-sel', _v.t._ to sell for a higher price than: to exceed in the number or amount of sales.

OUT-SENTRY, owt'-sen-tri, _n._ a sentry who guards the entrance to a place at a distance.--_n._ OUT'SCOUT, an advance scout.

OUTSET, owt'set, _n._ a setting out: beginning.--Also OUT'SETTING.

OUTSETTLEMENT, owt'set'l-ment, _n._ a settlement away from the main one.

OUTSHINE, owt-sh[=i]n', _v.i._ to shine out or forth.--_v.t._ to excel in shining: to be brighter than.

OUTSHOT, owt'shot, _n._ (_Scot._) a projection in a building: (_pl._) in paper-making, rags of second quality.

OUTSIDE, owt's[=i]d, _n._ the outer side: the farthest limit: the surface: the exterior: one who is without, as a passenger on a coach, &c.: the outer or soiled sheets of a package of paper.--_adj._ on the outside: exterior: superficial: external: extreme, beyond the limit.--_adv._ on the outside: not within.--_prep._ beyond.--_ns._ OUT'SIDE-CAR, an Irish jaunting-car; OUT'SIDER, one not admitted to a particular company, profession, &c., a stranger, a layman: a racehorse not included among the favourites in the betting: (_pl._) a pair of nippers for turning a key in a keyhole from the outside.--OUTSIDE COUNTRY, districts beyond the line of settlements in Australia; OUTSIDE OF, outside: (_coll._) besides.--GET OUTSIDE OF (_vulgar_), to comprehend: to eat or drink.

OUTSIGHT, owt's[=i]t, _n._ power of seeing things, outlook.--OUTSIGHT PLENISHING (_Scot._), outdoor movables.

OUTSIT, owt-sit', _v.t._ to sit beyond the time of.

OUTSKIRT, owt'sk[.e]rt, _n._ the outer skirt: border: suburb--often used in _pl._

OUTSLEEP, owt-sl[=e]p' _v.t._ (_Shak._) to sleep longer than.

OUTSLIDE, owt-sl[=i]d', _v.t._ to slide forward.

OUTSOAR, owt-s[=o]r', _v.t._ to soar beyond.

OUTSOLE, owt's[=o]l, _n._ the outer sole of a boot or shoe which rests on the ground.

OUTSPAN, owt-span', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to unyoke or unharness draught-oxen, &c., from a vehicle, to encamp--opp. to _Inspan_.

OUTSPEAK, owt-sp[=e]k', _v.t._ to say aloud: to speak more, louder, or longer than.--_v.i._ to speak boldly, to speak up.--_adj._ OUTSP[=O]'KEN, frank or bold of speech: uttered with boldness.--_n._ OUTSP[=O]'KENNESS.

OUTSPECKLE, owt'spek'l, _n._ (_Scot._) a laughing-stock.

OUTSPENT, owt-spent', _adj._ thoroughly tired out.

OUTSPORT, owt-sport', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to outdo in sporting.

OUTSPREAD, owt-spred', _v.t._ to spread out or over.--_adj._ OUTSPREAD'ING.

OUTSPRING, owt'spring, _n._ the outcome, result, or issue.

OUTSTAND, owt-stand', _v.t._ to resist or withstand: to stand beyond the proper time.--_v.i._ to stand out or project from a mass: to remain unpaid or unsettled in any way.--_adj._ OUTSTAND'ING, prominent: uncollected: remaining unpaid.

OUTSTARE, owt'st[=a]r, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to stare down or abash with effrontery.

OUTSTAY, owt-st[=a]', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to stay beyond.

OUTSTEP, owt-step', _v.t._ to step beyond, overstep.

OUTSTRETCH, owt-strech', _v.t._ to spread out, extend.

OUTSTRIKE, owt-str[=i]k', _v.t._ to exceed in striking, so as to overpower.

OUTSTRIP, owt-strip', _v.t._ to outrun: to leave behind: to escape beyond one's reach.

OUTSUM, owt-sum', _v.t._ to outnumber.

OUTSWEAR, owt-sw[=a]r', _v.t._ to exceed in swearing.

OUTSWEETEN, owt-sw[=e]t'n, _v.t._ to excel in sweetness.

OUTSWELL, owt-swel', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to overflow.

OUTTALK, owt-tawk', _v.t._ to talk down.

OUTTONGUE, owt-tung', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to bear down by talk or noise.

OUTTOP, owt-top', _v.t._ to reach higher than: to excel.

OUT-TRAVEL, owt-trav'el, _v.t._ to surpass in travelling, to go more swiftly than.

OUTVALUE, owt-val'[=u], _v.t._ to exceed in value.

OUTVENOM, owt-ven'um, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in poison.

OUTVIE, owt-v[=i]', _v.t._ to go beyond in vying with: to exceed: to surpass.

OUTVILLAIN, owt-vil'[=a]n, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in villainy.

OUTVOICE, owt-vois', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in clamour or noise: to drown the voice of.

OUTVOTE, owt-v[=o]t', _v.t._ to defeat by a greater number of votes.

OUTWALK, owt-wawk', _v.t._ to walk farther, longer, or faster than.

OUTWALL, owt'wawl, _n._ the outside wall of a building: (_Shak._) external appearance.

OUTWARD, owt'ward, _adj._ toward the outside: external: exterior: not inherent, adventitious: (_theol._) worldly, carnal--opp. to _Inward_ or spiritual: (_B._) public.--_adv._ toward the exterior: away from port: to a foreign port: superficially--also OUT'WARDS.--_n._ OUT'WARD (_Shak._), external form: the outside.--_adj._ OUT'WARD-BOUND, bound outwards or to a foreign port.--_adv._ OUT'WARDLY, in an outward manner: externally: in appearance.--_n._ OUT'WARDNESS.--_adj._ OUT'WARD-SAINT'ED, appearing outwardly to be a saint.

OUTWARD, owt-wawrd', _n._ a ward in a detached building connected with a hospital.

OUTWATCH, owt-wawch', _v.t._ to watch longer than.

OUTWEAR, owt-w[=a]r', _v.t._ to wear out: to spend tediously: to last longer than: to consume.

OUTWEARY, owt-w[=e]'ri, _v.t._ to weary out completely.

OUTWEED, owt-w[=e]d', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to root out.

OUTWEIGH, owt-w[=a]', _v.t._ to exceed in weight or importance: to overtask.

OUTWELL, owt-wel', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to pour or well out.

OUTWENT, owt-went', _v.t._ went faster than, outstripped.

OUTWIN, owt-win', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to get out of.

OUTWIND, owt-w[=i]nd', _v.t._ to extricate by winding, to unloose.

OUTWING, owt-wing', _v.t._ to outstrip in flying: to outflank.

OUTWIT, owt-wit', _v.t._ to surpass in wit or ingenuity: to defeat by superior ingenuity:--_pr.p._ outwit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ outwit'ted.

OUTWITH, owt'with, _prep._ (_Scot._), without, outside of.

OUTWORK, owt'wurk, _n._ a work outside the principal wall or line of fortification: work done in the fields, out of doors, as distinguished from indoor work.--_v.t._ OUTWORK' (_Shak._), to surpass in work or labour: to work out or bring to an end: to finish.--_n._ OUT'WORKER, one who works out of doors, or who takes away work to do at home.

OUTWORTH, owt-wurth', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to exceed in value.

OUTWREST, owt-rest', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to extort by violence.

OUVRAGE, [=oo]v'razh, _n._ work.--_ns._ (_masc._) OUVRIER ([=oo]v'ri-[=a]), (_fem._) OUVRIÈRE ([=oo]v'ri-[=a]r), a working man or woman.--_adj._ working. [Fr.]

OUZEL, [=oo]'zl, _n._ a kind of thrush--also OU'SEL. [A.S. _ósle_; cog. with Ger. _amsel_.]

OVAL, [=o]'val, _adj._ having the shape of an egg.--_n._ anything oval, a plot of ground, &c.: an ellipse.--_adv._ O'VALLY. [Fr. _ovale_--L. _ovum_, an egg.]

OVARY, [=o]'var-i, _n._ the part of the female animal in which the egg of the offspring is formed, the female genital gland: (_bot._) the part of the pistil which contains the O'VA, eggs.--_adjs._ OV[=A]'RIAL, OV[=A]'RIAN, of or pertaining to the ovary.--_ns._ OV[=A]'RI[=O]LE; OVARIOT'OMIST; OVARIOT'OMY (_surg._), the removal of a diseased tumour from the ovary.--_adj._ OV[=A]'RIOUS, consisting of eggs.--_n._ OVAR[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the ovary. [Low L. _ovaria_.]

OVATE, [=o]'v[=a]t, _n._ an Eisteddfodic graduate who is neither a bard nor a druid. [W. _ofydd_, a philosopher.]

OVATE, -D, [=o]'v[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ egg-shaped.

OVATION, [=o]-v[=a]'shun, _n._ an outburst of popular applause, an enthusiastic reception: in ancient Rome, a lesser triumph. [Fr.,--L.,--_ov[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to shout.]

OVEN, uv'n, _n._ an arched cavity over a fire for baking, heating, or drying: any apparatus used as an oven.--_ns._ OV'EN-BIRD, a South American tree-creeper which builds an oven-shaped nest; OV'EN-TIT, the willow-warbler; OV'EN-WOOD, brushwood.--DUTCH OVEN, a baking-pot, heated by heaping coals round it. [A.S. _ofen_; Ger. _ofen_.]

OVER, [=o]'v[.e]r, _prep._ higher than in place, rank, value, &c.: across: on the surface of: upon the whole surface of: through: concerning: on account of: longer than.--_adv._ on the top: above: across: from one side, person, &c. to another: above in measure: too much: in excess: left remaining: at an end: completely.--_adj._ upper or superior (often used as a prefix, as in _over_coat, _over_lord, &c.): beyond: past.--_n._ the number of balls delivered at cricket between successive changes of bowlers: an excess, overplus.--_v.t._ to go, leap, or vault over.--_v.i._ to go over.--OVER AGAIN, afresh, anew; OVER AGAINST, opposite; OVER AND ABOVE, in addition to: besides; OVER AND OVER, several times: repeatedly; OVER HEAD AND EARS, beyond one's depth: completely; OVER SEAS, to foreign lands.--All over, completely: at an end. [A.S. _ofer_; Ger. _über_, L. _super_, Gr. _huper_.]

OVERACT, [=o]-v[.e]r-akt', _v.t._ to act overmuch, to overdo any part.--_v.i._ to act more than necessary.

OVER-ALL, [=o]'v[.e]r-awl, _adv._ (_Spens._) everywhere, all O'VERALLS, loose trousers of canvas, &c., worn over the others to keep them sound or clean, waterproof leggings.

OVER-ANXIOUS, [=o]-v[.e]r-angk'shus, _adj._ anxious beyond what is right or reasonable.--_n._ OVER-ANX[=I]'ETY.--_adv._ OVER-ANX'IOUSLY.

OVERARCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-ärch', _v.t._ to arch over.--_v.i._ to hang over like an arch.

OVERAWE, [=o]-v[.e]r-aw', _v.t._ to restrain by fear or by superior influence.

OVERBALANCE, [=o]-v[.e]r-bal'ans, _v.t._ to exceed in weight, value, or importance: to cause to lose (one's) balance.--_n._ excess of weight or value.

OVERBATTLE, [=o]-v[.e]r-bat'tl, _adj._ (_obs._) too fertile.

OVERBEAR, [=o]-v[.e]r-b[=a]r', _v.t._ to bear down or overpower: to overwhelm.--_adj._ OVERBEAR'ING, inclined to domineer, esp. in manner or conduct: haughty and dogmatical: imperious.--_adv._ OVERBEAR'INGLY.--_n._ OVERBEAR'INGNESS.

OVERBID, [=o]-v[.e]r-bid', _v.t._ to offer a price greater than.--_v.i._ offer more than the value of.

OVERBLOW, [=o]-v[.e]r-bl[=o]', _v.i._ to blow over or to be past its violence: to blow with too much violence.--_v.t._ to blow away: to blow across.--_adj._ OVERBLOWN', blown over or past, at an end: burnt by an excessive blast, in the Bessemer steel process.

OVERBLOW, [=o]-v[.e]r-bl[=o]', _v.t._ to cover with blossoms or flowers.--_adj._ OVERBLOWN', past the time of flower, withered.

OVERBOARD, [=o]'v[.e]r-b[=o]rd, _adv._ over the board or side: from on board: out of a ship.--THROWN OVERBOARD, deserted, discarded, betrayed.

OVERBODY, [=o]-v[.e]r-bod'i, _v.t._ to give too much body to.

OVERBOIL, [=o]'v[.e]r-boil', _v.i._ and _v.t._ to boil excessively.

OVERBOLD, [=o]-v[.e]r-b[=o]ld', _adj._ (_Shak._) excessively bold: impudent.--_adv._ OVERBOLD'LY.

OVERBRIDGE, [=o]'v[.e]r-brij, _n._ a bridge over a road.

OVERBRIM, [=o]-v[.e]r-brim', _v.t._ to fill to overflowing.--_v.i._ to be so full as to overflow.--_adj._ OVERBRIMMED', having too large a brim.

OVERBROOD, [=o]-v[.e]r-br[=oo]d', _v.t._ to brood over.

OVERBROW, [=o]-v[.e]r-brow', _v.t._ to overhang like a projecting brow.

OVERBUILD, [=o]-v[.e]r-bild', _v.t._ to build over: to build more than is needed.--_v.i._ to build beyond one's means.

OVERBULK, [=o]-v[.e]r-bulk', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to oppress by bulk.

OVERBURDEN, [=o]-v[.e]r-bur'dn, _v.t._ to burden overmuch.--_n._ alluvial soil overlying a bed of ore.

OVERBURN, [=o]-v[.e]r-burn', _v.t._ to burn too much.--_v.i._ to be too zealous.

OVERBUSY, [=o]-v[.e]r-biz'i, _adj._ too busy, over-officious.

OVERBUY, [=o]-v[.e]r-b[=i]', _v.t._ to buy at too dear a rate: to buy more than is needed.

OVERBY, [=o]-v[.e]r-b[=i]', _adv._ a little way over--(_Scot._) OWERBY', O'ERBY'.

OVERCANOPY, [=o]-v[.e]r-kan'o-pi, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to cover as with a canopy.

OVERCAREFUL, [=o]-v[.e]r-k[=a]r'fool, _adj._ careful to excess.

OVERCARRY, [=o]-v[.e]r-kar'i, _v.t._ to carry too far, to go beyond.--_v.i._ to go to excess.

OVERCAST, [=o]-v[.e]r-kast', _v.t._ to cast over: to cloud: to cover with gloom: to sew over or stitch the edges (of a piece of cloth) slightly.--_v.i._ to grow dull or cloudy.--_n._ OVERCAST'ING, the action of the verb overcast: in bookbinding, a method of oversewing single leaves in hem-stitch style to give the pliability of folded double leaves.

OVERCATCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-kach', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to overtake.

OVERCHARGE, [=o]-v[.e]r-chärj', _v.t._ to load with too great a charge: to charge too great a price.--_n._ O'VERCHARGE, an excessive load or burden: too great a charge, as of gunpowder or of price.

OVERCHECK, [=o]-v[.e]r-chek', _n._ a check-rein passing over a horse's head between the ears.

OVERCLOUD, [=o]-v[.e]r-klowd', _v.t._ to cover over with clouds: to cause gloom or sorrow to.

OVERCLOY, [=o]-v[.e]r-kloi', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to fill beyond satiety.

OVERCOAT, [=o]'v[.e]r-k[=o]t, _n._ an outdoor coat worn over all the other dress, a top-coat.--_n._ O'VERCOATING, cloth from which such is made.

OVERCOLD, [=o]'v[.e]r-k[=o]ld, _adj._ too cold.

OVERCOLOUR, [=o]-v[.e]r-kul'ur, _v.t._ to colour to excess, to exaggerate.

OVERCOME, [=o]-v[.e]r-kum', _v.t._ to get the better of: to conquer or subdue: (_obs._) to spread over, surcharge.--_v.i._ to be victorious.

OVER-CONFIDENT, [=o]-v[.e]r-kon'fi-dent, _adj._ too confident.--_n._ OVER-CON'FIDENCE.--_adv._ OVER-CON'FIDENTLY.

OVERCOUNT, [=o]-v[.e]r-kownt', _v.t._ to outnumber.

OVERCOVER, [=o]-v[.e]r-kuv'[.e]r, _v.t._ to cover completely.

OVERCREDULOUS, [=o]-v[.e]r-kred'[=u]-lus, _adj._ too easily persuaded to believe.

OVERCROW, [=o]-v[.e]r-kr[=o]', _v.t._ to crow over, insult.

OVERCROWD, [=o]-v[.e]r-krowd', _v.t._ to fill or crowd to excess.

OVERDARING, [=o]-v[.e]r-d[=a]r'ing, _adj._ foolhardy.

OVERDATE, [=o]'v[.e]r-d[=a]t, _v.t._ to post-date.

OVER-DEVELOP, [=o]-v[.e]r-de-vel'op, _v.t._ in photography, to develop a plate too much, as by too long a process or by too strong a developer.--_n._ OVER-DEVEL'OPMENT.

OVERDIGHT, [=o]-v[.e]r-d[=i]t', _adj._ (_Spens._) dight or covered over: overspread.

OVERDO, [=o]-v[.e]r-d[=oo]', _v.t._ to do overmuch: to carry too far: to harass, to fatigue: to cook too much: to excel.--_n._ OVERDO'ER.--_adj._ OVERDONE', overacted: fatigued: cooked too much.

OVERDOSE, [=o]-v[.e]r-d[=o]s', _v.t._ to dose overmuch.--_n._ an excessive dose.

OVERDRAW, [=o]-v[.e]r-draw', _v.t._ to draw overmuch: to draw beyond one's credit: to exaggerate.--_n._ O'VERDRAFT, the act of overdrawing, the amount by which the cheque, &c., exceeds the sum against which it is drawn: a current of air passing over, not through, the ignited fuel in a furnace: an arrangement of flues by which the kiln is heated from the top toward the bottom--also O'VERDRAUGHT.

OVERDRESS, [=o]-v[.e]r-dres', _v.t._ to dress too ostentatiously.--_n._ O'VERDRESS, any garment worn over another.

OVERDRIVE, [=o]-v[.e]r-dr[=i]v', _v.t._ to drive too hard.

OVERDROP, [=o]-v[.e]r-drop', _v.t._ to drop over: to overhang.

OVERDUE, [=o]-v[.e]r-d[=u]', _adj._ due beyond the time: unpaid at the right time.

OVERDYE, [=o]-v[.e]r-d[=i]', _v.t._ to dye too deeply.

OVEREARNEST, [=o]'v[.e]r-[.e]r'nest, _adj._ too earnest.

OVEREAT, [=o]-v[.e]r-[=e]t', _v.t._ to surfeit with eating (generally reflexive): (_Shak._) to eat over again.

OVERENTREAT, [=o]-v[.e]r-en-tr[=e]t', _v.t._ to entreat to excess.

OVERESTIMATE, [=o]-v[.e]r-es'tim-[=a]t, _v.t._ to estimate too highly.--_n._ an excessive estimate.--_n._ OVERESTIM[=A]'TION.

OVEREXCITE, [=o]'v[.e]r-ek-s[=i]t', _v.t._ to excite unduly.--_n._ OVEREXCITE'MENT.

OVER-EXERTION, [=o]'v[.e]r-eg-z[.e]r'shun, _n._ too great exertion.

OVER-EXPOSURE, [=o]'v[.e]r-eks-p[=o]'zh[=u]r, _n._ excessive exposure: (_photography_) the exposure to light for too long a time of the sensitive plate.--_v.t._ OVER-EXPOSE'.

OVER-EXQUISITE, [=o]'v[.e]r-eks'kwi-zit, _adj._ excessively exquisite: over exact or nice: too careful.

OVEREYE, [=o]-v[=e]r-[=i]', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to overlook or superintend: (_Shak._) to observe or remark.

OVERFALL, [=o]'v[.e]r-fawl, _n._ a rippling or race in the sea, where, by the peculiarities of bottom, the water is propelled with immense force, esp. when the wind and tide, or current, set strongly together.

OVERFAR, [=o]-v[.e]r-fär', _adv._ (_Shak._) to too great an extent.

OVERFAST, [=o]-v[.e]r-fast', _adj._ too fast: at too great speed.

OVERFEED, [=o]-v[.e]r-f[=e]d', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to feed to excess.

OVERFILL, [=o]-v[.e]r-fil', _v.t._ to fill to excess.

OVERFINENESS, [=o]'v[.e]r-f[=i]n'nes, _n._ excessive fineness.

OVERFIRED, [=o]-v[.e]r-f[=i]rd', _adj._ overheated in firing.

OVERFISH, [=o]-v[.e]r-fish', _v.t._ to fish to excess: to diminish unduly the stock of fish.

OVERFLOURISH, [=o]'v[.e]r-flur'ish, _v.t._ to make excessive flourish of: to decorate superficially.

OVERFLOW, [=o]-v[.e]r-fl[=o]', _v.t._ to flow over: to flood: to overwhelm: to cover, as with numbers.--_v.i._ to run over: to abound.--_n._ O'VERFLOW, a flowing over: that which flows over: a pipe or channel for spare water, &c.: an inundation: superabundance: abundance: copiousness.--_adj._ flowing over: over full: abundant.--_adj._ OVERFLOW'ING, exuberant, very abundant.--_adv._ OVERFLOW'INGLY.--OVERFLOW MEETING, a supplementary meeting of those unable to find room in the main meeting.

OVERFLY, [=o]'v[.e]r-fl[=i]', _v.t._ to soar beyond.

OVERFOLD, [=o]'v[.e]r-f[=o]ld, _n._ (_geol._) a reflexed or inverted fold in strata.

OVERFOND, [=o]-v[.e]r-fond', _adj._ fond to excess.--_adv._ OVERFOND'LY.

OVERFORWARD, [=o]-v[.e]r-for'wärd, _adj._ too forward or officious.--_n._ OVERFOR'WARDNESS.

OVERFREIGHT, [=o]-v[.e]r-fr[=a]t', _v.t._ to overload.

OVERFULL, [=o]-v[.e]r-fool', _adj._ (_Shak._) too full.--_n._ OVERFULL'NESS.

OVERGAZE, [=o]-v[.e]r-g[=a]z', _v.t._ to gaze or look over.

OVERGET, [=o]-v[.e]r-get', _v.t._ (_obs._) to reach, overtake: to get over.

OVERGIVE, [=o]-v[.e]r-giv', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to give over or surrender.--_v.i._ to give too lavishly.

OVERGLANCE, [=o]-v[.e]r-glans', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to look hastily over.

OVERGLAZE, [=o]-v[.e]r-gl[=a]z', _v.t._ to glaze over: decorate superficially.--_adj._ suitable for painting on glazed articles.--_n._ O'VERGLAZE, an additional glaze given to porcelain, &c.

OVERGLOOM, [=o]-v[.e]r-gl[=oo]m', _v.t._ to cover with gloom.

OVERGO, [=o]-v[.e]r-g[=o]', _v.t._ to exceed: excel: to go over: to cover.--_v.i._ to go over: to pass away.

OVERGORGE, [=o]-v[.e]r-gorj', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to gorge to excess.

OVERGRAIN, [=o]-v[.e]r-gr[=a]n', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to grain over a surface already grained.--_n._ OVERGRAIN'ER, a long-bristled brush used in graining wood.

OVERGRASSED, [=o]-v[.e]r-grast', _adj._ (_Spens._) overstocked or overgrown with grass.

OVERGREEDY, [=o]-v[.e]r-gr[=e]d'i, _adj._ excessively greedy.

OVERGREEN, [=o]-v[.e]r-gr[=e]n', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to cover over so as to hide blemishes.

OVERGROUND, [=o]'v[.e]r-grownd, _adj._ being above ground.

OVERGROW, [=o]-v[.e]r-gr[=o]', _v.t._ to grow beyond: to rise above: to cover with growth.--_v.i._ to grow beyond the proper size.--_adj._ OVERGROWN', grown beyond the natural size.--_n._ O'VERGROWTH.

OVERHAIL, [=o]-v[.e]r-h[=a]l', _v.t._ Same as OVERHAUL.

OVERHAIR, [=o]'v[.e]r-h[=a]r, _n._ the long hair overlying the fur of many animals.

OVERHAND, [=o]'v[.e]r-hand, _adj._ having the hand raised above the elbow or over the ball at cricket (also O'VERHANDED): above the shoulder at baseball: (_min._) done from below upward.--_adv._ with the hand over the object.--_v.t._ to sew over and over.

OVERHANDLE, [=o]-v[.e]r-han'dl, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to handle or mention too often.

OVERHANG, [=o]-v[.e]r-hang', _v.t._ to hang over: to project over: to impend: to overlade with ornamentation.--_v.i._ to hang over.--_n._ O'VERHANG, a projecting part, the degree of projection, of roofs, &c.--_adj._ OVERHUNG', covered over, adorned with hangings.

OVERHAPPY, [=o]-v[.e]r-hap'i, _adj._ excessively or too happy.

OVERHASTY, [=o]-v[.e]r-h[=a]s'ti, _adj._ too hasty or rash.--_adv._ OVERHAS'TILY.--_n._ OVERHAS'TINESS.

OVERHAUL, [=o]-v[.e]r-hawl', _v.t._ to haul or draw over: to turn over for examination: to examine: to re-examine: (_naut._) to overtake in a chase.--_n._ O'VERHAUL, a hauling over: examination: repair.--OVERHAUL A SHIP, to overtake a ship: to search her for contraband goods.

OVERHEAD, [=o]'v[.e]r-hed, _adv._ over the head: aloft: in the zenith: per head.--_adj._ situated above.

OVERHEAR, [=o]-v[.e]r-h[=e]r', _v.t._ to hear what was not intended to be heard: to hear by accident: (_Shak._) to hear over again.

OVERHEAT, [=o]-v[.e]r-h[=e]t', _v.t._ to heat to excess.--_n._ O'VERHEAT, extreme heat.

OVERHEND, [=o]-v[.e]r-hend', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to overtake.

OVERHOLD, [=o]-v[.e]r-h[=o]ld', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to overvalue.

OVERHOURS, [=o]'v[.e]r-owrz, time beyond the regular number of hours: overtime in labour.

OVERHOUSE, [=o]'v[.e]r-hows, _adj._ stretched along the roofs, rather than on poles or underground.

OVERINFORM, [=o]-v[.e]r-in-form', _v.t._ to animate too much.

OVERISSUE, [=o]-v[.e]r-ish'[=u], _v.t._ to issue in excess, as bank-notes or bills of exchange.--_n._ O'VERISSUE, any excessive issue.

OVERJOY, [=o]-v[.e]r-joi', _v.t._ to fill with great joy: to transport with delight or gladness.--_n._ O'VERJOY, joy to excess: transport.

OVERJUMP, [=o]-v[.e]r-jump', _v.t._ to jump beyond: to pass by: neglect.

OVERKIND, [=o]-v[.e]r-k[=i]nd', _adj._ excessively kind.--_n._ OVERKIND'NESS.

OVERKING, [=o]'v[.e]r-king, _n._ a king holding sway over inferior kings or princes.

OVERKNEE, [=o]'v[.e]r-n[=e], _adj._ reaching above the knee, as waders, &c.

OVERLABOUR, [=o]-v[.e]r-l[=a]'bur, _v.t._ to labour excessively over: to be too nice with: to overwork.

OVERLADE, [=o]-v[.e]r-l[=a]d', _v.t._ to load with too great a burden.

OVERLAID, [=o]-v[.e]r-l[=a]d', _adj._ (_her._) lapping over.

OVERLAND, [=o]'v[.e]r-land, _adj._ passing entirely or principally by land, as a route, esp. that from England to India by the Suez Canal, rather than by the Cape of Good Hope.

OVERLAP, [=o]-v[.e]r-lap', _v.t._ to lap over: to lay so that the edge of one rests on that of another.--_n._ O'VERLAP (_geol._), a disposition of strata where the upper beds extend beyond the bottom beds of the same series.

OVERLAUNCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-lawnsh', _v.t._ to unite timbers by long splices or scarfs.

OVERLAY, [=o]-v[.e]r-l[=a]', _v.t._ to spread over or across: to cover completely: to smother by lying on (for _overlie_): to use overlays in printing: to cloud: to overwhelm or oppress: to span by means of a bridge.--_ns._ O'VERLAY, a piece of paper pasted on the impression-surface of a printing-press, so as to increase the impression in a place where it is too faint: (_Scot._) a cravat; OVERLAY'ING, a superficial covering: that which overlays: plating.

OVERLEAF, [=o]'v[.e]r-l[=e]f, _adv._ on the other side of the leaf of a book.

OVERLEAP, [=o]-v[.e]r-l[=e]p', _v.t._ to leap over: to pass over without notice.--OVERLEAP ONE'S SELF, to make too much effort in leaping: to leap too far.

OVERLEATHER, [=o]'v[.e]r-leth-[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) the upper part of a shoe or boot.

OVERLEAVEN, [=o]-v[.e]r-lev'n, _v.t._ to leaven too much: to mix too much with.

OVERLIE, [=o]-v[.e]r-l[=i]', _v.t._ to lie above or upon: to smother by lying on.

OVERLIVE, [=o]-v[.e]r-liv', _v.t._ (_B._) to live longer than: to survive.--_v.i._ to live too long: to live too fast, or so as prematurely to exhaust the fund of life.

OVERLOAD, [=o]-v[.e]r-l[=o]d', _v.t._ to load or fill overmuch.--_n._ an excessive load.

OVERLOCK, [=o]-v[.e]r-lok', _v.t._ to make the bolt of a lock go too far.

OVERLONG, [=o]-v[.e]r-long', _adj._ too long.

OVERLOOK, [=o]-v[.e]r-look', _v.t._ to look over: to see from a higher position: to view carefully: to neglect by carelessness or inadvertence: to pass by without punishment: to pardon: to slight: to bewitch by looking upon with the Evil Eye.--_n._ OVERLOOK'ER.

OVERLORD, [=o]-v[.e]r-lawrd', _n._ a lord over other lords: a feudal superior.--_n._ OVERLORD'SHIP.

OVERLUSTY, [=o]-v[.e]r-lust'i, _adj._ (_Shak._) too lusty.

OVERLY, [=o]'v[.e]r-li, _adv._ (_coll._) excessively, too.

OVERLYING, [=o]'v[.e]r-l[=i]'ing, _adj._ lying on the top.

OVERMAN, [=o]'v[.e]r-man, _n._ in mining, the person in charge of the work below ground.

OVERMAN, [=o]-v[.e]r-man', _v.t._ to keep more men than necessary on a ship, farm, &c.

OVERMANTEL, [=o]'v[.e]r-man-tl, _n._ a frame containing shelves and other decorations, and often a mirror, set on a mantel-shelf.

OVERMASTED, [=o]-v[.e]r-mast'ed, _adj._ furnished with a mast or masts too long or too heavy.

OVERMASTER, [=o]-v[.e]r-mas't[.e]r, _v.t._ to subdue, to govern: to get and keep in one's power.

OVERMATCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-mach', _v.t._ to be more than a match for: to conquer.--_n._ O'VERMATCH, one who is more than a match: one who cannot be overcome.

OVERMEASURE, [=o]'v[.e]r-mezh-[=u]r, _n._ something given over the due measure.--_v.t._ to measure too largely.

OVERMELLOW, [=o]-v[.e]r-mel'l[=o], _adj._ (_Tenn._) excessively or too mellow.

OVERMOUNT, [=o]-v[.e]r-mownt', _v.t._ to surmount: to go higher than.--_n._ O'VERMOUNT, a piece of cardboard cut in proper shape, to prevent the glass of the frame from lying too closely upon an engraving or a picture.

OVERMUCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-much', _adj._ and _adv._ too much.

OVERMULTITUDE, [=o]-v[.e]r-mul'ti-t[=u]d, _v.t._ (_Milt._) to outnumber.--_v.t._ OVERMUL'TIPLY, to repeat too often.--_v.i._ to increase to excess.

OVERNAME, [=o]-v[.e]r-n[=a]m', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to name over: to name in a series, to recount.--_n._ O'VERNAME, a surname, nickname.

OVERNEAT, [=o]-v[.e]r-n[=e]t', _adj._ unnecessarily neat.

OVERNET, [=o]-v[.e]r-net', _v.t._ to cover with a net.

OVERNICE, [=o]-v[.e]r-n[=i]s', _adj._ fastidious.--_adv._ OVERNICE'LY.

OVERNIGHT, [=o]'v[.e]r-n[=i]t, _n._ the forepart of the evening, esp. that of the day just past.--_adv._ during the night: on the evening of the day just past.

OVEROFFICE, [=o]-v[.e]r-of'is, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to lord it over by virtue of an office.

OVERPART, [=o]-v[.e]r-part' _v.t._ to assign too difficult a part to.

OVERPASS, [=o]-v[.e]r-pas', _v.t._ to pass over: to pass by without notice.--_pa.p._ OVERPAST' (_B._), that has already passed.

OVERPAY, [=o]-v[.e]r-p[=a]', _v.t._ to pay too much: to be more than an ample reward for.--_n._ OVERPAY'MENT.

OVERPEER, [=o]-v[.e]r-p[=e]r', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to overlook: to look down on: to hover above.

OVERPEOPLE, [=o]-v[.e]r-p[=e]'pl, _v.t._ to fill with too many inhabitants.--Also OVERPOP'ULATE.

OVERPERCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-p[.e]rch', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to perch or fly over.

OVERPERSUADE, [=o]-v[.e]r-p[.e]r-sw[=a]d', _v.t._ to persuade a person against his inclination.

OVERPICTURE, [=o]-v[.e]r-pik't[=u]r, _v.t._ to exceed the picture of: to exaggerate.

OVERPLATE, [=o]'v[.e]r-pl[=a]t, _n._ in armour, a large pauldron protecting the shoulder, or a cubitière protecting the elbow.

OVERPLUS, [=o]'v[.e]r-plus, _n._ that which is more than enough: surplus.

OVERPLY, [=o]-v[.e]r-pl[=i]', _v.t._ to ply to excess.

OVERPOISE, [=o]'v[.e]r-poiz, _v.t._ to outweigh.--_n._ O'VERPOISE, a weight sufficient to weigh another down.

OVERPOST, [=o]-v[.e]r-post', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to hasten over quickly.

OVERPOWER, [=o]-v[.e]r-pow'[.e]r, _v.t._ to have or gain power over: to subdue, defeat: to overwhelm.--_adj._ OVERPOW'ERING, excessive in degree or amount: irresistible.--_adv._ OVERPOW'ERINGLY.

OVERPRAISE, [=o]-v[.e]r-pr[=a]z', _v.t._ to praise too much.--_n._ OVERPRAIS'ING, excessive praise.

OVERPRESS, [=o]-v[.e]r-pres', _v.t._ to overwhelm, to crush: to overcome by importunity.--_n._ OVERPRESS'URE, excessive pressure.

OVERPRIZE, [=o]-v[.e]r-pr[=i]z', _v.t._ to value too highly: to surpass in value.

OVERPRODUCTION, [=o]'v[.e]r-pro-duk-shun, _n._ the act of producing a supply of commodities in excess of the demand.

OVERPROOF, [=o]'v[.e]r-proof, _adj._ containing more than a certain amount of alcohol, stronger than proof-spirit, the standard by which all mixtures of alcohol and water are judged--containing 57.27 per cent. by volume, and 49.50 per cent. by weight, of alcohol.

OVERPROUD, [=o]-v[.e]r-prowd', _adj._ too proud.

OVERPURCHASE, [=o]-v[.e]r-pur'ch[=a]s, _n._ a dear bargain.--_v.i._ (_obs._) to pay too dear a price.

OVERRACK, [=o]-v[.e]r-rak', _v.t._ to torture beyond bearing.

OVERRAKE, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=a]k', _v.t._ to sweep over, as a vessel by a wave.

OVERRANK, [=o]-v[.e]r-rangk', _adj._ too rank or luxurious.

OVERRATE, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=a]t', _v.t._ to rate or value too high.--_n._ O'VERRATE, an excessive estimate or rate.

OVERREACH, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=e]ch', _v.t._ to reach or extend beyond: to cheat or get the better of.--_v.i._ to strike the hindfoot against the forefoot, as a horse.

OVERREAD, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=e]d', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to read over, to peruse.--_adj._ OVERREAD ([=o]-v[.e]r-red'), having read too much.

OVER-RECKON, [=o]-v[.e]r-rek'n, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to compute too highly.

OVERRED, [=o]-v[.e]r-red', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to smear with a red colour.

OVERREFINE, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=e]-f[=i]n', _v.i._ to refine too much.--_n._ OVERREFINE'MENT, any over subtle or affected refinement.

OVERRENT, [=o]-v[.e]r-rent', _v.i._ to exact too high a rent.

OVERRIDE, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=i]d', _v.t._ to ride too much: to pass on horseback: to trample down or set aside.--OVERRIDE ONE'S COMMISSION, to act with too high a hand: to stretch one's authority too far.

OVERRIPEN, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=i]p'n, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to make too ripe.--_adj._ OVERRIPE', too ripe, more than ripe.

OVERROAST, [=o]-v[=e]r-r[=o]st', _v.t._ to roast too much.

OVERRULE, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=oo]l', _v.t._ to rule over: to influence or to set aside by greater power: (_law_) to reject or declare to be invalid.--_v.i._ to prevail.--_n._ OVERRUL'ER.--_adv._ OVERRUL'INGLY.

OVERRUN, [=o]-v[.e]r-run', _v.t._ to run or spread over: to grow over: to spread over and take possession of: to crush down: (_B._) to run faster than: to pass in running: to extend composed types beyond their first limit.--_v.i._ to run over: to extend beyond the right length, as a line or page in printing.--_n._ OVERRUN'NER, one that overruns.

OVERSCORE, [=o]-v[.e]r-sk[=o]r', _v.t._ to score or draw lines over anything: to erase by this means.

OVERSCRUPULOUS, [=o]-v[.e]r-skroop'[=u]-lus, _adj._ scrupulous to excess.--_n._ OVERSCRUP'ULOUSNESS.

OVERSCUTCHED, [=o]-v[.e]r-skucht', _adj._ (_Shak._) over switched or whipped, or more probably worn out in the service.

OVERSEA, [=o]'v[.e]r-s[=e], _adj._ foreign, from beyond the sea.--_adv._ to a place beyond the sea, abroad.--Also O'VERSEAS.

OVERSEAM, [=o]'v[.e]r-s[=e]m, _n._ a seam in which the thread is at each stitch passed over the edges sewn together.--_n._ O'VERSEAMING, the foregoing kind of sewing.

OVERSEE, [=o]-v[.e]r-s[=e]', _v.t._ to see or look over, to superintend.--_n._ OVERS[=E]'ER, one who oversees: a superintendent: an officer who has the care of the poor, and other duties, such as making out lists of voters, of persons who have not paid rates, &c.: one who manages a plantation of slaves: (_obs._) a critic.--OVERSEERS OF THE POOR, officers in England who manage the poor-rate.--BE OVERSEEN (_obs._), to be deceived: to be fuddled.

OVERSELL, [=o]-v[.e]r-sel', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to sell too dear: to sell more than exists, of stock, &c.

OVERSET, [=o]-v[.e]r-set', _v.t._ to set or turn over: to upset: to overthrow.--_v.i._ to turn or be turned over.

OVERSHADE, [=o]-v[.e]r-sh[=a]d', _v.t._ to throw a shade over.

OVERSHADOW, [=o]-v[.e]r-shad'[=o], _v.t._ to throw a shadow over: to shelter or protect.

OVERSHINE, [=o]-v[.e]r-sh[=i]n', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to shine upon, illumine: to outshine.

OVERSHOE, [=o]'v[.e]r-sh[=oo], _n._ a shoe, esp. of waterproof, worn over another.

OVERSHOOT, [=o]-v[.e]r-sh[=oo]t', _v.t._ to shoot over or beyond, as a mark: to pass swiftly over.--_v.i._ to shoot or fly beyond the mark.--_adj._ O'VERSHOT, having the water falling on it from above, as a water-wheel: surpassed: fuddled.--OVERSHOOT ONE'S SELF, to venture too far, to overreach one's self.

OVERSIDE, [=o]-v[.e]r-s[=i]d', _adj._ acting over the side.--_adv._ over the side.

OVERSIGHT, [=o]'v[.e]r-s[=i]t, _n._ a failing to notice: mistake: omission: (_orig._) superintendence.

OVERSIZE, [=o]-v[.e]r-s[=i]z', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to cover with any gluey matter: to plaster over.

OVERSKIP, [=o]-v[.e]r-skip', _v.t._ to skip, leap, or pass over: (_Shak._) to fail to see or find: to escape.

OVERSLAUGH, [=o]-v[.e]r-slaw', _v.t._ (_U.S._) to pass over in favour of another: to supersede: to hinder: to oppress. [Dut. _overslaan_ (cf. Ger. _überschlagen_), to skip over.]

OVERSLEEP, [=o]-v[.e]r-sl[=e]p', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to sleep beyond one's usual time.

OVERSLIP, [=o]-v[.e]r-slip', _v.t._ to pass without notice.

OVERSMAN, [=o]'v[.e]rz-man, _n._ an overseer: (_Scot._) an umpire appointed to decide between the differing judgment of two arbiters.

OVERSOUL, [=o]'v[.e]r-s[=o]l, _n._ the divine principle forming the spiritual unity of all being.

OVERSOW, [=o]-v[.e]r-s[=o]', _v.t._ to sow too much seed on: to sow over.

OVERSPENT, [=o]-v[.e]r-spent', _adj._ excessively fatigued.

OVERSPREAD, [=o]-v[.e]r-spred', _v.t._ to spread over: to scatter over.--_v.i._ to be spread over.

OVERSTAIN, [=o]-v[.e]r-st[=a]n', _v.t._ to besmear the surface of.

OVERSTAND, [=o]-v[.e]r-stand', _v.t._ to stand too strictly on the conditions of.

OVERSTARE, [=o]-v[.e]r-st[=a]r', _v.t._ to outstare.

OVERSTATE, [=o]-v[.e]r-st[=a]t', to state over and above: to exaggerate.--_n._ OVERSTATE'MENT.

OVERSTAY, [=o]-v[.e]r-st[=a]', _v.t._ to stay too long.

OVERSTEP, [=o]-v[.e]r-step', _v.t._ to step beyond: to exceed.

OVERSTOCK, [=o]-v[.e]r-stok', _v.t._ to stock overmuch: to fill too full.--_n._ superabundance.

OVERSTRAIN, [=o]v[.e]r-str[=a]n', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to strain or stretch too far.--_n._ too great strain.--_adj._ OVERSTRAINED', strained to excess: exaggerated.

OVERSTREAM, [=o]-v[.e]r-str[=e]m', _v.t._ to stream or flow over.

OVERSTRETCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-strech', _v.t._ to stretch to excess: to exaggerate.

OVERSTREW, [=o]-v[.e]r-str[=oo]', _v.t._ to scatter over.

OVERSTRUNG, [=o]-v[.e]r-strung', _adj._ too highly strung.

OVERSUPPLY, [=o]'v[.e]r-sup-pl[=i], _n._ an excessive supply.

OVERSWAY, [=o]-v[.e]r-sw[=a]', _v.t._ to overrule, to bear down.

OVERSWELL, [=o]-v[.e]r-swel', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to swell or rise above: to overflow.

OVERT, [=o]'v[.e]rt, _adj._ open to view: public: apparent.--_adv._ O'VERTLY.--OVERT ACT, something actually done in execution of a criminal intent.--MARKET OVERT, open or public market. [Fr. _ouvert_, pa.p. of _ouvrir_, to open; acc. to Diez, from O. Fr. _a-ovrir_, through Prov. _adubrir_, from L. _de-oper[=i]re_, to uncover--_de_=un-, and _oper[=i]re_, to cover; acc. to Littré, from L. _oper[=i]re_, to cover, confounded in meaning with _aper[=i]re_, to open.]

OVERTAKE, [=o]-v[.e]r-t[=a]k', _v.t._ to come up with: to catch: to come upon: to take by surprise.--_p.adj._ OVERT[=A]'KEN, fuddled.

OVERTASK, [=o]-v[.e]r-task', _v.t._ to task overmuch: to impose too heavy a task on.

OVERTAX, [=o]-v[.e]r-taks', _v.t._ to tax overmuch.

OVERTEDIOUS, [=o]-v[.e]r-t[=e]'di-us, _adj._ (_Shak._) too tedious.

OVERTHROW, [=o]-v[.e]r-thr[=o]', _v.t._ to throw down: to upset: to bring to an end: to demolish: to defeat utterly.--_ns._ O'VERTHROW, act of overthrowing or state of being overthrown: ruin: defeat: a throwing of a ball beyond the player; O'VERTHROWER.

OVERTHRUST, [=o]'v[.e]r-thrust, _adj._ (_geol._) belonging to earlier strata, pushed by faulting over later and higher strata.

OVERTHWART, [=o]-v[.e]r-thwawrt', _v.t._ to lie athwart: to cross.--_adj._ opposite, transverse: contrary, perverse.--_prep_. across, on the other side of.

OVERTILT, [=o]-v[.e]r-tilt', _v.t._ to upset.

OVERTIME, [=o]'v[.e]r-t[=i]m, _n._ time employed in working beyond the regular hours.

OVERTOIL, [=o]-v[.e]r-toil', _v.i._ to overwork one's self.

OVERTONE, [=o]'v[.e]r-t[=o]n, _n._ a harmonic, because heard above its fundamental tone.

OVERTOP, [=o]-v[.e]r-top', _v.t._ to rise over the top of: to make of less importance: to surpass: to obscure.

OVERTOWER, [=o]-v[.e]r-tow'er, _v.t._ to tower above.--_v.i._ to soar too high.

OVERTRADE, [=o]-v[.e]r-tr[=a]d', _v.i._ to trade overmuch or beyond capital: to buy in more than can be sold or paid for.--_n._ OVERTRAD'ING, the buying of a greater amount of goods than one can sell or pay for.

OVERTRIP, [=o]-v[.e]r-trip', _v.t._ to trip nimbly over.

OVERTURE, [=o]'v[.e]r-t[=u]r, _n._ a proposal, an offer for acceptance or rejection: (_mus._) a piece introductory to a greater piece or ballet: a discovery or disclosure: the method in Presbyterian usage of beginning legislation and maturing opinion by sending some proposition from the presbyteries to the General Assembly, and _vice versâ_, also the proposal so sent.--_v.t._ to lay a proposal before. [Fr.]

OVERTURN, [=o]-v[.e]r-turn', _v.t._ to throw down or over: to subvert: to conquer: to ruin.--_ns._ O'VERTURN, state of being overturned; OVERTURN'ER.

OVERVALUE, [=o]-v[.e]r-val'l[=u], _v.t._ to set too high a value on.--_n._ OVERVALU[=A]'TION, an overestimate.

OVERVEIL, [=o]-v[.e]r-v[=a]l', _v.t._ to veil or cover.

OVERVIEW, [=o]'v[.e]r-v[=u], _n._ (_Shak._) an inspection.

OVERWASH, [=o]'v[.e]r-wawsh, _adj._ (_geol._) carried by glacier-streams over a frontal moraine, or formed of material so carried.

OVERWATCH, [=o]-v[.e]r-wawch', _v.t._ to watch excessively: to overcome with long want of rest.

OVERWEAR, [=o]-v[.e]r-w[=a]r', _v.t._ to wear out: to outwear, outlive.--_n._ O'VERWEAR, clothes for wearing out of doors.

OVERWEATHER, [=o]-v[.e]r-weth'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to batter by violence of weather.

OVERWEEN, [=o]-v[.e]r-w[=e]n', _v.i._ (_Shak._) to think too highly or favourably, esp. of one's self.--_adj._ OVERWEEN'ING, thinking too highly of: conceited, vain.--_n._ conceit: presumption.--_adv._ OVERWEEN'INGLY.

OVERWEIGH, [=o]-v[.e]r-w[=a]', _v.t._ to be heavier than: to outweigh.--_n._ O'VERWEIGHT, weight beyond what is required or what is just.--_v.t._ OVERWEIGHT', to weigh down: to put too heavy a burden on.

OVERWHELM, [=o]-v[.e]r-hwelm', _v.t._ to overspread and crush by something heavy or strong: to flow over and bear down: to overcome.--_p.adj._ OVERWHEL'MING, crushing with weight, &c.: irresistible.--_adv._ OVERWHEL'MINGLY.

OVERWIND, [=o]-v[.e]r-w[=i]nd', _v.t._ to wind too far.

OVERWISE, [=o]-v[.e]r-w[=i]z', _adj._ wise overmuch: affectedly wise.--_adv._ OVERWISE'LY.

OVERWORK, [=o]-v[.e]r-wurk', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to work overmuch or beyond the strength: to tire.--_n._ O'VERWORK, excess of work: excessive labour.

OVERWORN, [=o]-v[.e]r-wörn', _adj._ worn out: subdued by toil: spoiled by use: worn or rubbed till threadbare.

OVERWREST, [=o]-v[.e]r-rest', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to wrest or twist from the proper position.

OVERWRESTLE, [=o]-v[.e]r-res'l, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to overcome by wrestling.

OVERWRITE, [=o]-v[.e]r-r[=i]t', _v.t._ to cover over with other writing.

OVERWROUGHT, [=o]-v[.e]r-rawt', _pa.p._ of OVERWORK, worked too hard: too highly excited: worked all over: overdone.

OVERYEAR, [=o]-v[.e]r-y[=e]r', _adj._ (_prov._) kept over from last year.

OVIDIAN, [=o]-vid'i-an, _adj._ belonging to, or resembling the style of, the Latin poet _Ovid_ (43 B.C.-17 A.D.).

OVIDUCT, [=o]'vi-dukt, _n._ a duct or passage for the egg in animals, from the ovary.

OVIFEROUS, [=o]-vif'[.e]r-us, _adj._ egg-bearing.--_n._ O'VIFER, a small wire cage on a solid base, for carrying an egg safely. [L. _ovum_, an egg, _ferre_, to bear.]

OVIFORM, [=o]'vi-form, _adj._ having the form of an oval or egg. [L. _ovum_, an egg.]

OVIFORM, [=o]'vi-form, _adj._ like a sheep: ovine. [L. _ovis_, a sheep.]

OVIGEROUS, ov-ij'[.e]r-us, _adj._ egg-bearing. [L. _ovum_, an egg, _ger[)e]re_, to bear.]

OVINE, [=o]'v[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to the _Ovinæ_, sheep-like.--_n._ OVIN[=A]'TION, inoculation of sheep with ovine virus against sheep-pox.

OVIPAROUS, [=o]-vip'a-rus, _adj._ bringing forth or laying eggs instead of fully formed OVIP'ARA, animals that lay eggs.--_ns._ OVIPAR'ITY, OVIP'AROUSNESS. [L. _ovum_, egg, _par[)e]re_, to bring forth.]

OVIPOSITOR, [=o]-vi-poz'i-tor, _n._ the organ at the extremity of the abdomen of many insects, by which the eggs are deposited.--_v.i._ OVIPOS'IT, to deposit eggs with an ovipositor.--_n._ OVIPOSIT'ION. [L. _ovum_, egg, _positor_--_pon[)e]re_, to place.]

OVISAC, [=o]v'i-sak, _n._ the cavity in the ovary which immediately contains the ovum. [L. _ovum_, an egg, and _sac_.]

OVOID, -AL, [=o]'void, -al, _adj._ oval: egg-shaped.--_n._ an egg-shaped body. [L. _ovum_, egg, Gr. _eidos_, form.]

OVOLO, [=o]'v[=o]-l[=o], _n._ (_archit._) a moulding with the rounded part composed of a quarter of a circle, or of an arc of an ellipse with the curve greatest at the top. [It.,--L. _ovum_, an egg.]

OVOVIVIPAROUS, [=o]-v[=o]-vi-vip'ar-us, _adj._ producing eggs which are hatched in the body of the parent. [L. _ovum_, an egg, _vivus_, living, _par[)e]re_, to bring forth.]

OVULE, [=o]v'[=u]l, _n._ a little egg: the seed of a plant in its rudimentary state, growing from the placenta.--_adj._ OV'ULAR.--_ns._ OVUL[=A]'TION, the formation of ova, or the period when this takes place; OV'ULITE, a fossil egg. [Dim. of L. _ovum_, an egg.]

OVUM, [=o]'vum, _n._ an egg: (_biol._) the egg-cell, in all organisms the starting-point of the embryo, development beginning as soon as it is supplemented by the male-cell or spermatozoon:--_pl._ O'VA. [L.]

OWCHE, owch, _n._ Same as OUCH.

OWE, [=o], _v.t._ to possess or to be the owner of: to have what belongs to another: to be bound to pay: to be obliged for.--_v.i._ to be in debt.--BE OWING, to be due or ascribed (to). [A.S. _ágan_, pres. indic. _áh_, pret. _áhte_, pa.p. _ágen_; Ice. _eiga_, Old High Ger. _eigan_, to possess.]

OWELTY, [=o]'el-ti, _n._ equality. [O. Fr. _oelte_.]

OWENITE, [=o]'en-[=i]t, _n._ a disciple of Robert _Owen_ (1771-1858), a social reformer, who proposed to establish society on a basis of socialistic co-operation.

OWER, ow'[.e]r (_Scot._ for _over_).--_ns._ OW'ERCOME, OW'ERWORD, the refrain of a song.

OWING, [=o]'ing, _adj._ due: that has to be paid (to): happening as a consequence of: imputable to.

OWL, owl, _n._ a carnivorous bird that seeks its food by night, noted for its howling or hooting noise.--_v.i._ to smuggle contraband goods.--_ns._ OWL'ERY, an abode of owls: (_Carlyle_) an owl-like character; OWL'ET, a little or young owl.--_adj._ OWL'-EYED, having blinking eyes like an owl.--_n._ OWL'-GLASS, a malicious figure in a popular German tale, translated into English about the end of the 16th century--the German _Tyll Eulenspiegel_--also OWLE'GLASS, HOWLE'GLASS, OWL'SPIEGLE.--_adj._ OWL'ISH, like an owl: stupid: dull-looking.--_n._ OWL'ISHNESS. [A.S. _úle_; Ger. _eule_, L. _ulula_; imit.]

OWN, [=o]n, _v.t._ to grant: to allow to be true: concede: acknowledge. [A.S. _unnan_, to grant; Ger. _gönnen_, to grant.]

OWN, [=o]n, _v.t._ to possess: to be the rightful owner of. [A.S. _ágnian_, with addition of casual suffix--_ágen_, one's own; cf. _Own_ (adj.).]

OWN, [=o]n, _adj._ possessed: belonging to one's self and to no other: peculiar.--_ns._ OWN'ER, one who owns or possesses; OWN'ERSHIP, state of being an owner: right of possession. [A.S. _ágen_, pa.p. of _ágan_, to possess. Cf. _Owe_.]

OWRE, owr, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as AUROCHS. [A.S. _úr_.]

OWSEN, ow'sen, a dialectic form of _oxen_.

OX, oks, _n._ a well-known animal that chews the cud, the female of which supplies the chief part of the milk used as human food: the male of the cow, esp. when castrated:--_pl._ OX'EN, used for both male and female.--_ns._ OX'-BOT, OX'-WAR'BLER, a bot-fly or its larva, found under the skin of cattle; OX'EYE, a common plant in meadows, with a flower like the eye of an ox.--_adj._ OX'-EYED, having large, full, ox-like eyes.--_ns._ OX'-GOAD (see GOAD); OX'-PECK'ER, OX'-BIRD, an African bird, which eats the parasites infesting the skins of cattle--also _Beefeater_; OX'-TAIL-SOUP, a kind of soup made of several ingredients, one of which is an oxtail cut in joints.--HAVE THE BLACK OX TREAD ON ONE'S FOOT, to experience sorrow or misfortune. [A.S. _oxa_, pl. _oxan_; Ice. _uxi_; Ger. _ochs_, Goth. _auhsa_, Sans. _ukshan_.]

OXALATE, oks'a-l[=a]t, _n._ a salt formed by a combination of oxalic acid with a base.--_n._ OX'ALITE, a yellow mineral composed of oxalate of iron.

OXALIS, oks'a-lis, _n._ wood-sorrel: (_bot._) a genus of plants having an acid taste.--_adj._ OXAL'IC, pertaining to or obtained from sorrel. [Gr.,--_oxys_, acid.]

OXFORD CLAY, oks'ford kl[=a], _n._ (_geol._) the principal member of the Middle Oolite series.--OXFORD MOVEMENT (see TRACTARIANISM).

OXGANG, oks'gang, _n._ as much land as can be tilled by the use of an ox (averaging about 15 acres)--called also OX'LAND or OX'GATE.

OX-HEAD, oks'-hed, _n._ (_Shak._) blockhead, dolt.

OXIDE, oks'[=i]d, _n._ a compound of oxygen and some other element or organic radical. Oxides are of three kinds--_acid-forming_, _basic_, and _neutral_.--_n._ OXIDABIL'ITY.--_adj._ OX'IDABLE, capable of being converted into an oxide.--_v.t._ OX'IDATE (same as OXIDISE).--_ns._ OXID[=A]'TION, OXIDISE'MENT, act or process of oxidising; OX'ID[=A]TOR, a contrivance for drawing a current of air to the flame of a lamp.--_adj._ OXIDIS'ABLE, capable of being oxidised.--_v.t._ OX'IDISE, to convert into an oxide.--_v.i._ to become an oxide.--_n._ OXIDIS'ER.

OXLIP, oks'lip, _n._ a species of primrose, having its flowers in an umbel on a stalk like the cowslip.

OXONIAN, oks-[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Oxford_ or to its university.--_n._ an inhabitant or a native of Oxford: a student or graduate of Oxford.

OXTER, oks't[.e]r, _n._ (_Scot._) the armpit.--_v.t._ to hug with the arms: to support by taking the arm.

OXYGEN, oks'i-jen, _n._ a gas without taste, colour, or smell, forming part of the air, water, &c., and supporting life and combustion.--_n._ OXYCHL[=O]'RIDE, a chemical compound containing both chlorine and oxygen in combination with some other element.--_v.t._ OX'YGEN[=A]TE, to unite, or cause to unite, with oxygen.--_n._ OXYGEN[=A]'TION, act of oxygenating.--_v.t._ OX'YGENISE (same as OXYGENATE).--_adj._ OXYG'ENOUS, pertaining to, or obtained from, oxygen.--_adj._ OXYHY'DROGEN, pertaining to a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, as in a form of blowpipe in which jets of either ignite as they issue from separate reservoirs. [Gr. _oxys_, sharp, _gen_, the root of _gennaein_, to generate.]

OXYMEL, oks'i-mel, _n._ a mixture of vinegar and honey. [Gr. _oxys_, sour, _meli_, honey.]

OXYMORON, ok-si-m[=o]'ron, _n._ a figure of speech, by means of which two ideas of opposite meaning are combined, so as to form an expressive phrase or epithet, as _cruel kindness_, _falsely true_, &c. [Gr.,--_oxys_, sharp, _m[=o]ros_, foolish.]

OXYOPIA, ok-si-[=o]'pi-a, _n._ unusual keenness of sight. [Gr.,--_oxys_, sharp, _[=o]ps_, the eye.]

OXYRHYNCHUS, ok-si-ring'kus, _n._ an Egyptian fish, formerly sacred to the goddess Hathor, and represented on coins and sculptures. [Gr.,--_oxys_, sharp, _rhyngchos_, a snout.]

OXYTONE, oks'i-t[=o]n, _adj._ having an acute sound: having the acute accent on the last syllable.--_n._ a word so accented. [Gr. _oxys_, sharp, _tonos_, tone.]

OYER, [=o]'y[.e]r, _n._ a hearing in a law-court, an assize.--OYER AND TERMINER, a royal commission conferring upon a judge or judges the power to hear and determine criminal causes pending in a particular county. [Norm. Fr. _oyer_ (Fr. _ouir_)--L. _aud[=i]re_, to hear.]

OYEZ, OYES, [=o]'yes, _interj._ the call of a public crier, or officer of a law-court, for attention before making a proclamation. [Norm. Fr., 2d pers. pl. imper. of _oyer_.]

OYSTER, ois't[.e]r, _n._ a well-known bivalve shellfish, used as food.--_ns._ OYS'TER-BANK, -BED, -FARM, -FIELD, -PARK, a place where oysters breed or are bred; OYS'TER-CATCH'ER, the sea pie--a sea wading bird of the family Hæmatopodidæ, having dark plumage and red bill and feet; OYS'TER-FISH'ERY, the business of catching oysters; OYS'TER-KNIFE, a knife for opening OYS'TER-PAT'TIES, small pies or pasties made from oysters.--_n._ OYS'TER-SHELL, the shell of an OYS'TER-TONGS, a tool used to dredge up oysters in deep water.--_ns._ OYS'TER-WENCH, -WIFE, -WOM'AN, a woman who vends oysters. [O. Fr. _oistre_ (Fr. _huître_)--L. _ostrea_--Gr. _ostreon_, an oyster--_osteon_, a bone.]

OZOCERITE, [=o]-z[=o]-s[=e]'r[=i]t, _n._ a waxy-like substance, having a weak bituminous odour, found in Moldavia and elsewhere, and used for making candles.--Also OZOK[=E]'RITE. [Gr. _ozein_, to smell, _keros_, wax.]

OZOENA, [=o]-z[=e]'na, _n._ a term applied to any one of various diseased conditions of the nose accompanied by fetid discharge. [Gr. _ozein_, to smell.]

OZONE, [=o]'z[=o]n, _n._ name given to a supposed allotropic form of oxygen, when affected by electric discharges, marked by a peculiar smell.--_ns._ OZON[=A]'TION; OZONIS[=A]'TION; OZONOM'ETER.--_adj._ OZONOMET'RIC.--_ns._ OZONOM'ETRY; OZ[=O]'NOSCOPE.--_adjs._ OZONOSCOP'IC; O'ZONOUS. [Gr. _ozein_, to smell.]

OZOSTOMIA, [=o]-zo-st[=o]'mi-a, _n._ foul breath due to morbid causes. [Gr. _ozein_, to smell, _stoma_, the mouth.]

* * * * *

P the sixteenth letter of our alphabet, its sound the sharp labial mute, interchanging with other labials, esp. with _b_, the flat labial mute: P=400; ([=P])=400,000: the chemical symbol for phosphorus: (_math._) the Greek [PI]=a continued product, while small [pi] denotes the ratio of the circumference to the diameter.--MIND ONE'S P'S AND Q'S (see MIND).

PA, pä, _n._ papa, a child's name for father.

PABOUCHE, pa-b[=oo]sh', _n._ a slipper.--Also _Baboosh_.

PABULUM, pab'[=u]-lum, _n._ food of any kind, especially that of animals and plants: provender: fuel: nourishment for the mind.--_adjs._ PAB'ULAR, PAB'ULOUS, of or pertaining to food: fit for food: affording food. [L.,--_pasc[)e]re_, to feed.]

PACA, pak'a, _n._ the spotted cavy of South America. [Sp. and Port., the spotted cavy--Braz. _pak_, _paq_.]

PACABLE, p[=a]'ka-bl, _adj._ that may be calmed or quieted: willing to forgive.--_adj._ PAC[=A]'TED.--_n._ PAC[=A]'TION. [L. _pac[=a]re_, to make at peace--_pax_, peace.]

PACE, p[=a]s, _n._ a stride: the space between the feet in walking, 30 inches, a step: gait: rate of walking (of a man or beast): rate of speed in movement or work, often applied to fast living: mode of stepping in horses in which the legs on the same side are lifted together: amble: (_obs._) a passage.--_v.t._ to measure by steps: to cause to progress: to train in walking or stepping.--_v.i._ to walk: to walk slowly: to amble.--_adj._ PACED, having a certain pace or gait.--_ns._ PACE'-MAK'ER, one who sets the pace, as in a race; PAC'ER, one who paces: a horse whose usual gait is a pace.--KEEP, or HOLD, PACE WITH, to go as fast as: to keep up with. [Fr. _pas_--L. _passus_, a step--_pand[)e]re_, _passum_, to stretch.]

PACE, p[=a]'s[=e], _prep._ with or by the leave of (expressing disagreement courteously). [L., abl. of _pax_, peace.]


PACHY-, pak'i-, thick, in combination, as _adjs._ PACHYDAC'TYL, -OUS, having thick digits; PACH'YDERM, thick-skinned--_n._ one of an order of non-ruminant, hoofed mammals, thick-skinned, as the elephant:--_pl._ PACH'YDERMS, or PACHYDER'MATA.--_adj._ PACHYDER'MATOUS, thick-skinned: insensible to impressions.--_n._ PACHYDER'MIA, a form of elephantiasis in which the skin becomes thick and warty.--_adj._ PACHYDER'MOID.--_ns._ PACHY[=E]'MIA, a thickening of the blood--also PACHYÆ'MIA; PACHY'MA, a genus of fungi consisting of tuber-like growths, some of which are now referred to the genus _Polyporus_--also _Tuckahoe_, _Tuckahoe truffle_, or _Indian bread_; PACHYM[=E]'NIA, a thickening of the skin.--_adj._ PACHYM[=E]'NIC.--_n._ PACHYM'ETER, an instrument for measuring small thicknesses, as of paper.--_adjs._ PACH'YODONT, with thick teeth; PACH'YOTE, with thick ears, as a bat--also _n._; PACH'YPOD, having thick feet; PACHYP'TEROUS, having thick wings or fins.--_ns._ PACHYTH[=E]'RIUM, a South American fossil genus of gigantic edentate mammals; PACHYT'YLUS, a genus of locusts, embracing the dreaded Migratory Locust (_Pachytylus migratorius_). [Gr. _pachys_, thick.]

PACIFY, pas'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to make peaceful: to appease: to bring back peace to: to calm; to soothe.--_adjs._ PAC'IFIABLE, that may be pacified; PACIF'IC, peacemaking: appeasing: peaceful: mild: tranquil.--_n._ the ocean between Asia and America, so called by its discoverer Magellan because he sailed peacefully over it after weathering Cape Horn.--_adj._ PACIF'ICAL, pacific (obs. except in phrase _Letters pacifical_, letters recommending the bearer as one in peace and fellowship with the church--also _Letters of peace_, _Pacificæ_).--_adv._ PACIF'ICALLY.--_v.t._ PACIF'IC[=A]TE, to give peace to.--_ns._ PACIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of making peace, esp. between parties at variance; PACIF'IC[=A]TOR, PAC'IFIER, a peacemaker.--_adj._ PACIF'IC[=A]TORY, tending to make peace. [Fr. _pacifier_--L. _pacific[=a]re_--_pax_, _pacis_, peace, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

PACK, pak, _n._ a bundle made to be carried on the back: a collection, stock, or store: a bundle of some particular kind or quantity, as of wool, 480 or 240 lb.: the quantity of fish packed: a complete set of cards: a number of animals herding together or kept together for hunting: a number of persons combined for bad purposes: any great number: a large extent of floating and broken ice: a wet sheet for folding round the body to allay inflammation, fever, &c.--_v.t._ to press together and fasten up: to place in order: to crowd: to assort, bring together, select, or manipulate persons, cards, &c. for some unjust object: to send away, as from one's presence or employment: to surround a joint, &c., with any substance to prevent leaking, &c.--_v.i._ to store things away anywhere for safe keeping, &c.: to settle into a firm mass: to admit of being put into compact shape: to depart in haste.--_ns._ PACK'AGE, the act of packing, also something packed: a bundle or bale: a charge made for packing; PACK'-AN'IMAL, a beast of burden used to carry goods on its back; PACK'-CINCH (-sinsh), a wide girth of canvas, &c., having a hook and ring attached for adjusting the load of a pack-animal; PACK'-CLOTH, a cloth in which goods are tied up: packsheet; PACK'ER, one who packs: one who cures and packs provisions: any device to fill the space between the tubing and the sides of an oil-well, &c.; PACK'ET, a small package: a ship or vessel employed in carrying packets of letters, passengers, &c.: a vessel plying regularly between one port and another (also PACK'ET-BOAT, PACK'ET-SHIP, &c.).--_v.t._ to bind in a packet or parcel: to send in a packet.--_ns._ PACK'ET-DAY, the day of the departure or arrival of a mail-ship; PACK'ET-NOTE (see NOTE-PAPER); PACK'-HORSE, a horse used to carry goods in panniers: a drudge; PACK'-ICE, a collection of large pieces of floating ice; PACK'ING, the act of putting into packs or of tying up for carriage: material for packing: anything used to fill an empty space, or to make a joint close, as the elastic ring round a moving rod or piston to make it a tight fit; PACK'ING-BOX, -CASE, a box in which goods are packed: a hollow place round the opening of a steam cylinder, filled with some soft substance which, being pressed hard against the piston-rod, makes it a tight fit; PACK'ING-NEED'LE, or _Sack-needle_, a strong needle for sewing up packages; PACK'ING-P[=A]'PER, a strong and thick kind of wrapping-paper; PACK'ING-PRESS, a press for squeezing goods into small compass for packing; PACK'ING-SHEET, or PACK'SHEET, coarse cloth for packing goods; PACK'-LOAD, the load an animal can carry on its back; PACK'MAN, a peddler or a man who carries a pack; PACK'-MULE, a mule used for carrying burdens; PACK'-SADD'LE, a saddle for packs or burdens; PACK'-THREAD, a coarse thread used to sew up packages; PACK'-TRAIN, a train of loaded pack-animals; PACK'WAY, a narrow path fit for pack-horses.--PACK A JURY, MEETING, &c., to fill up with persons of a particular kind for one's own purposes.--SEND ONE PACKING, to dismiss summarily. [Prob. Celt.; Gael. and Ir. _pac_, Bret. _pak_, a bundle; cf. Ger. _pack_, Dut. _pak_.]

PACK, pak, _adj._ (_Scot._) intimate, confidential.

PACKFONG, an incorrect form of _paktong_ (q.v.)

PACO, p[=a]'ko, _n._ same as ALPACA:--_pl._ P[=A]'COS.

PACT, pakt, _n._ that which is agreed on: an agreement: a contract--also PAC'TION.--_adj._ PAC'TIONAL.--PACTUM ILLICITUM, an unlawful agreement. [L. _pactum_--_pacisci_, _pactus_, to contract.]

PAD, pad, _n._ a thief on the high-road (more commonly _Footpad_): (abbrev. from _pad-horse_) a horse for riding on the road: an easy-paced horse.--_v.i._ to walk on foot: to trudge along: to rob on foot:--_pr.p._ pad'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pad'ded.--_adj._ PAD'-CLINK'ING, keeping company with thieves.--_n._ PAD'DING-KEN, a low lodging-house inhabited by thieves.--STAND PAD, to beg by the roadside. [Dut. _pad_, a path.]

PAD, pad, _n._ anything stuffed with a soft material, to prevent friction or pressure, or for filling out: a soft saddle, cushion, &c.: a number of sheets of paper or other soft material fastened together for writing upon: the fleshy, thick-skinned under-surface of the toes of many animals, as the fox: a fox's foot generally: the large floating leaf of an aquatic plant: (_pl._) thick watered ribbon for watch-guards.--_v.t._ to stuff with anything soft: to fix colours in cloth:--_pr.p._ pad'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pad'ded.--_ns._ PAD'-CLOTH, a cloth covering a horse's loins; PAD'DER, one who pads or cushions; PAD'DING, the soft stuffing of a saddle, &c.: matter of less value introduced into a book or article in order to make it of the length desired: the process of mordanting a fabric; PAD'-EL'EPHANT, a working elephant, distinguished from a war or hunting one; PAD'-SADD'LE, a treeless, padded saddle; PAD'-TREE, the wooden or metal frame to which harness-pads are attached. [A variant of _pod_, orig. sig. 'a bag.']

PADDLE, pad'l, _v.i._ to dabble in water with the hands or the feet: to touch or toy with the fingers: to beat the water as with the feet: to row: to move in the water as a duck does: (_slang_) to make off.--_v.t._ to move by means of an oar or paddle: to finger, toy with.--_n._ a short, broad, spoon-shaped oar, used for moving canoes: the blade of an oar: one of the boards at the circumference of a paddle-wheel.--_ns._ PADD'LE-BEAM, one of the large timbers at the side of a paddle-wheel; PADD'LE-BOARD, one of the floats on the circumference of a paddle-wheel; PADD'LE-BOX, a wooden box covering the upper part of the paddle-wheel of a steamer; PADD'LER, one who paddles; PADD'LE-SHAFT, the axle on which the paddle-wheels of a steamer turn; PADD'LE-WHEEL, the wheel of a steam-vessel, which by turning in the water causes it to move forward; PADD'LE-WOOD, the light, strong wood of a Guiana tree of the dogbane family. [For _pattle_, freq. of _pat_.]

PADDLE, pad'l, _n._ (_B._) a little spade.--_n._ PADD'LE-STAFF, a spade for clearing a ploughshare. [Prob. from _spaddle_; cf. _Spade_.]

PADDOCK, pad'uk, _n._ a toad or frog.--_n._ PADD'OCK-STOOL, a toadstool. [Dim. of M. E. _padde_, a toad--Ice. _padda_.]

PADDOCK, pad'uk, _n._ a small park under pasture, immediately adjoining the stables of a domain: a small field in which horses are kept. [A.S. _pearroc_, a park--_sparran_ (Ger. _sperren_), to shut.]

PADDY, pad'i, _n._ rice in the husk.--_ns._ PADD'Y-BIRD, the Java sparrow or rice-bird; PADD'Y-FIELD, a field where rice is grown. [East Ind.]

PADDY, pad'i, _n._ a familiar name for an Irishman, from St _Patrick:_ a drill used in boring wells, with cutters that expand on pressure.--_n._ PADD'Y-WHACK, a nurse's word for a slap.

PADELLA, pa-del'la, _n._ a shallow vessel filled with fat, in the centre of which a wick has been placed--used in illuminations. [It., a frying-pan.]

PADEMELON, pad'[=e]-mel-on, _n._ a brush kangaroo or wallaby.--Also PAD'YMELON, PAD'DYMELON.

PADISHAH, pä'di-sha, _n._ chief ruler: great king, a title of the Sultan of Turkey or of the Sovereign of Great Britain as ruler of India. [Pers. _p[=a]d_, master, _sh[=a]h_, king; cf. _Pasha_.]

PADLOCK, pad'lok, _n._ a movable lock with a link turning on a hinge or pivot at one end, to enable it to pass through a staple or other opening, and to be pressed down to catch the bolt at the other end.--_v.t._ to fasten with a padlock. [Prob. prov. Eng. _pad_, a basket, and _lock_.]

PADMA, pad'ma, _n._ the true lotus.

PAD-NAG, pad'-nag, _n._ an ambling nag.

PADRE, pä'dre, _n._ father, a title given to priests in some countries.--_n._ PADR[=O]'NE, a person who jobs out hand-organs, or who gets children to beg for him:--_pl._ PADR[=O]'NI. [It. and Sp.,--L. _pater_, a father.]

PADUAN, pad'[=u]-an, _adj._ and _n._ belonging to _Padua:_ one of the clever imitations of old Roman bronze coins made at Padua in the 16th century: a Spanish dance, the pavan.

PADUASOY, pad'[=u]-a-soi, _n._ a smooth silk originally manufactured at _Padua_, used in the 18th century, also a garment of the same. [Fr. _soie de Padoue_.]

PÆAN, p[=e]'an, _n._ a song of triumph: any joyous song: a song in honour of Apollo, later also of Dionysus and Ares.--_n._ PÆ'ON, a foot of four syllables, one long, three short.--_adj._ PÆON'IC. [L.,--Gr. _Paian_ or _Pai[=o]n_, an epithet of Apollo.]


PÆNULA, p[=e]'n[=u]-la, _n._ a chasuble, esp. in its older form: a woollen outer garment covering the whole body, worn on journeys and in rainy weather.

PÆONIN, p[=e]'[=o]-nin, _n._ a red colouring matter obtained from yellow coralline.

PÆONY, p[=e]'o-ni, _n._ Same as PEONY.

PAFF, paf, _n._ a meaningless word, used with _piff_ to indicate jargon.

PAGAN, p[=a]'gan, _n._ a heathen: one who does not worship the true God.--_adj._ heathenish: pertaining to the worship of false gods.--_v.t._ P[=A]'GANISE, to render pagan or heathen: to convert to paganism.--_adj._ P[=A]'GANISH, heathenish.--_n._ P[=A]'GANISM, heathenism: the beliefs and practices of the heathen. [L. _paganus_, a rustic, heathen, because the country-people were later in becoming Christians than the people of the towns--_pagus_, a district--_pang[)e]re_, to fix.]

PAGE, p[=a]j, _n._ a boy attending on a person of distinction: a young lad employed as attendant: a contrivance for holding up a woman's skirt in walking.--_n._ PAGE'HOOD, condition of a page. [Fr. _page_; acc. to Littré, prob. from Low L. _pagensis_, a peasant--L. _pagus_, a village; acc. to Diez, but hardly with probability, through the It. _paggio_, from Gr. _paidion_, dim. of _pais_, _paidos_, a boy.]

PAGE, p[=a]j, _n._ one side of a written or printed leaf--4 pages in a folio sheet, 8 in a quarto, 16 in an octavo, 24 in a duodecimo, 36 in an octodecimo: a book, record, or source of knowledge: the type, illustrations, &c. arranged for printing one side of a leaf: (_pl._) writings.--_v.t._ to number the pages of.--_adj._ PAG'INAL.--_v.t._ PAG'IN[=A]TE, to mark with consecutive numbers, to page.--_ns._ PAGIN[=A]'TION, the act of paging a book: the figures and marks that indicate the number of pages; P[=A]'GING, the marking or numbering of the pages of a book. [Fr.,--L. _pagina_, a thing fastened--_pang[)e]re_, to fasten.]

PAGEANT, paj'ant, or p[=a]'-, _n._ a showy exhibition: a spectacle: a fleeting show: (_orig._) a platform on four wheels for the purpose of representing plays, &c.--_adj._ showy: pompous.--_n._ PAGE'ANTRY, splendid display: pompous spectacle. [M. E. _pagent_ (with excrescent _-t_), from an older form _pagen_ or _pagin_--Low L. _pagina_, a stage--L. _pagina_, a slab--_pang[)e]re_, to fix; cf. _Page_ (2).]

PAGODA, pa-g[=o]'da, _n._ an idol-house: an Indian idol: its temple: a gold coin formerly current in India, so called because the figure of a pagoda was stamped upon it--also PAGODE'.--_n._ PAG[=O]'DITE, the mineral which the Chinese carve into figures of pagodas, &c. [Port., a corr. of Pers. _but-kadah_, an idol-temple.]

PAGODE, pa-g[=o]d', _n._ a funnel-shaped sleeve worn by both sexes in the first half of the 18th century.

PAGUS, p[=a]'gus, _n._ a country district with scattered hamlets, also its fortified centre: among the early Teutons, a division of the territory larger than a village, like a wapentake or hundred.

PAH, pä, _interj._ an exclamation expressing contempt or disgust.


PAID, p[=a]d, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of pay.

PAIDEUTICS, p[=a]-d[=u]'tiks, _n.sing._ the science or theory of teaching.--_n._ PAIDOL'OGY, the scientific study of the child. [Gr. _paideutikos_--_paideuein_, to teach--_pais_, _paidos_, a child.]

PAIGLE, PAGLE, p[=a]'gl, _n._ (_obs._) the cowslip or primrose.

PAIK, p[=a]k, _n._ (_Scot._) a beating.

PAIL, p[=a]l, _n._ an open vessel of wood, &c., for holding or carrying liquids.--_n._ PAIL'FUL, as much as fills a pail. [O. Fr. _paile_, _paele_--L. _patella_, a pan, dim. of _patera_--_pat[=e]re_, to be open.]

PAILLASSE, pa-lyas', _n._ a small bed, originally made of chaff or straw: an under mattress of straw.--_n._ PAILLASSON (pa-lya-song'), a form of straw bonnet. [Fr.,--_paille_, straw--L. _palea_, chaff.]

PAILLETTE, pa-lyet', _n._ a piece of metal or coloured foil used in enamel-painting: a sponge.--_n._ PAILLON (pa-lyong'), a bright metal backing for enamel, &c. [Fr.]

PAIN, p[=a]n, _n._ suffering coming as the punishment of evil-doing: suffering either of body or mind: anguish: great care or trouble taken in doing anything: (_pl._) labour: care: trouble: the throes of childbirth.--_v.t._ to cause suffering to: to distress: to torment: to grieve.--_adjs._ PAINED, showing or expressing pain: (_B._) in pain, in labour; PAIN'FUL, full of pain: causing pain: requiring labour, pain, or care: (_arch._) hard-working, painstaking: distressing: difficult.--_adv._ PAIN'FULLY.--_n._ PAIN'FULNESS.--_adj._ PAIN'LESS, without pain.--_adv._ PAIN'LESSLY.--_ns._ PAIN'LESSNESS; PAINS'TAKER, one who takes pains or care: a laborious worker.--_adj._ PAINS'TAKING, taking pains or care: laborious: diligent.--_n._ careful labour: diligence.--UNDER PAIN OF, subject to the penalty of. [Fr. _peine_--L. _poena_, satisfaction--Gr. _poin[=e]_, penalty.]

PAINIM, p[=a]'nim. See PAYNIM.

PAINT, p[=a]nt, _v.t._ to cover over with colour: to represent in a coloured picture: to describe in words: to adorn.--_v.i._ to practise painting: to lay colours on the face, to blush: (__slang__) to tipple.--_n._ a colouring substance: anything fixed with caoutchouc to harden it.--_adj._ PAINT'ABLE, that may be painted.--_ns._ PAINT'-BOX, a box in which different paints are kept in compartments; PAINT'-BRIDGE, a platform used by theatrical scene-painters in painting scenery; PAINT'-BRUSH, a brush for putting on paint.--_adj._ PAINT'ED, covered with paint: ornamented with coloured figures: marked with bright colours.--_ns._ PAINT'ED-GRASS, ribbon-grass; PAINT'ED-L[=A]'DY, the thistle-butterfly, orange-red spotted with white and black; PAINT'ER, one whose employment is to paint: one skilled in painting; PAINT'ER'S-COL'IC, lead colic; PAINT'ER-STAIN'ER, one who paints coats of arms, &c.; PAINT'INESS; PAINT'ING, the act or employment of laying on colours: the act of representing objects by colours: a picture: vivid description in words; PAINT'[=U]RE (_Dryden_), the art of painting: a picture.--_adj._ PAINT'Y, overloaded with paint, with the colours too glaringly used: smeared with paint.--PAINT THE TOWN RED (_U.S._), to break out in a boisterous spree. [O. Fr., pa.p. of Fr. _peindre_, to paint--L. _ping[)e]re_, _pictum_, to paint.]

PAINTER, p[=a]nt'[.e]r, _n._ a rope used to fasten a boat.--CUT THE PAINTER, to set adrift; LAZY PAINTER, a small painter for use in fine weather only. [A corr. of M. E. _panter_, a fowler's noose, through O. Fr. from L. _panther_, a hunting-net--Gr. _panth[=e]ros_, catching all--_pan_, neut. of _pas_, every, _th[=e]r_, wild beast.]

PAIR, p[=a]r, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to impair.

PAIR, p[=a]r, _n._ two things equal, or suited to each other, or used together: a set of two equal or like things forming one instrument, as a pair of scissors, tongs, &c., a set of like things generally: in building, a flight of stairs: a couple: a man and his wife: two members of a legislative body, holding opposite opinions, who agree with each other to abstain from voting for a certain time, so as to permit one or both to be absent.--_v.t._ to join in couples.--_v.i._ to be joined in couples: to fit as a counterpart.--_adj._ PAIRED, arranged in pairs: set by twos of a like kind: mated.--_ns._ PAIR'ING, an agreement between two members of a legislative body holding opposite opinions to refrain from voting, so that both may absent themselves; PAIR'ING-TIME, the time when birds go together in pairs; PAIR'-ROY'AL, three cards of the same denomination, esp. in cribbage.--_adv._ PAIR'-WISE, in pairs.--PAIR OF COLOURS, two flags carried by a regiment, one the national ensign, the other the flag of the regiment; PAIR OFF (see PAIRING above). [Fr. _paire_, a couple--_pair_, like--L. _par_, equal.]

PAIS, p[=a], _n._ the people from whom a jury is drawn.--MATTER-IN-PAIS, matter of fact. [O. Fr.]

PAISE, p[=a]z, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as POISE.

PAITRICK, p[=a]'trik, _n._ (_Scot._) a partridge.


PAJOCK, pä'jok, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as PEACOCK.

PAKTONG, pak'tong, _n._ the Chinese name for German silver.--Also PACK'FONG, PAK'FONG. [Chin.]

PAL, pal, _n._ (_slang_) a partner, mate. [Gipsy.]

PALABRA, pa-lä'bra, _n._ talk, palaver. [Sp., a word.]

PALACE, pal'[=a]s, _n._ the house of a king or a queen: a very large and splendid house: a bishop's official residence.--_n._ PAL'ACE-CAR, a sumptuously furnished railway-car. [Fr. _palais_--L. _Palatium_, the Roman emperor's residence on the _Palatine_ Hill at Rome.]

PALADIN, pal'a-din, _n._ one of the twelve peers of Charlemagne's household: a knight-errant, or paragon of knighthood. [Fr.,--It. _paladino_--L. _palatinus_, belonging to the palace. Cf. _Palatine_.]

PALÆARCTIC, p[=a]-l[=e]-ark'tik, _adj._ pertaining to the northern part of the Old World.--PALÆARCTIC REGION, a great division embracing Europe, Africa north of the Atlas, and Asia north of the Himalaya.

PALÆICHTHYOLOGY, p[=a]-l[=e]-ik-th[=i]-ol'o-ji, _n._ the branch of ichthyology which treats of fossil fishes.

PALÆOBOTANY, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-bot'a-ni, _n._ the science or study of fossil plants.--_adj._ PALÆOBOTAN'ICAL.--_n._ PALÆOBOT'ANIST.

PALÆOCRYSTIC, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-kris'tik, _adj._ consisting of ancient ice.

PALÆOGRAPHY, PALEOGRAPHY, p[=a]-l[=e]-og'ra-fi, _n._ ancient modes of writing: study of ancient writings and modes of writing.--_n._ PALÆOG'RAPHER, one skilled in palæography.--_adjs._ PALÆOGRAPH'IC, -AL, of or pertaining to palæography.--_n._ PALÆOG'RAPHIST. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _graphein_, to write.]

PALÆOLITHIC, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-lith'ik, _adj._ of or pertaining to the time when early stone implements were used: the first half of the stone age.--_n._ PALÆOL'ITH, a rude stone implement or object of the earlier stone age. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _lithos_, a stone.]

PALÆOLOGY, p[=a]-l[=e]-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ a discourse or treatise on antiquities: archæology.--_n._ PALÆOL'OGIST, one versed in palæology: a student of antiquity. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _logia_, discourse.]

PALÆONTOGRAPHY, p[=a]-l[=e]-on-tog'ra-fi, _n._ the description of fossil remains.--_adj._ PALÆONTOGRAPH'ICAL, pertaining to palæontography. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _onta_, existences, _graphein_, to write.]

PALÆONTOLOGY, p[=a]-l[=e]-on-tol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the ancient life of the earth: description of fossil remains: archæology.--_adj._ PALÆONTOLOG'ICAL, belonging to palæontology.--_n._ PALÆONTOL'OGIST, one versed in palæontology. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _onta_, existences, _logia_, discourse.]

PALÆOPHYTOLOGY, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-f[=i]-tol'[=o]-ji, _n._ palæobotany.

PALÆOSAURUS, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-saw'rus, _n._ a genus of fossil saurian reptiles belonging to the Permian period. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _sauros_, lizard.]

PALÆOTHERIUM, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-th[=e]'ri-um, _n._ a genus of fossil pachydermatous mammalia in the Eocene beds. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _th[=e]rion_, a wild beast.]

PALÆOZOIC, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ denoting the lowest division of the fossiliferous rocks, so called because they contain the earliest forms of life. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, _zo[=e]_, life.]

PALÆOZOOLOGY, p[=a]-l[=e]-[=o]-z[=o]-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ geologic zoology.--_adjs._ PALÆOZOOLOG'IC, -AL.

PALÆTIOLOGY, p[=a]-l[=e]-ti-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science which explains past conditions by the law of causation.--_adj._ PALÆTIOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ PALÆTIOL'OGIST.

PALAMA, pal'a-ma, _n._ the webbing of the toes of a bird:--_pl._ PAL'AMÆ.--_adj._ PAL'AM[=A]TE. [Gr. _palam[=e]_.]

PALAMPORE, pal'am-p[=o]r, _n._ a flowered chintz bedcover common in the East.--Also PAL'EMPORE. [Prob. from the Ind. town of _Palamp[=u]r_.]

PALANQUIN, PALANKEEN, pal-an-k[=e]n', _n._ a light covered carriage used in India, &c., for a single person, and borne on the shoulders of men. [Hind. _palang_, a bed--Sans. _palyanka_, a bed.]

PALAPTERYX, pal-ap't[.e]r-iks, _n._ a genus of fossil birds found in New Zealand, resembling the Apteryx. [Gr. _palaios_, ancient, and _apteryx_.]

PALAS, pal'as, _n._ a small bushy Punjab bean, yielding a kind of kino, Butea gum.

PALATE, pal'[=a]t, _n._ the roof of the mouth, consisting of two portions, the hard palate in front and the soft palate behind: taste: relish: mental liking.--_v.t._ to taste.--_adj._ PAL'ATABLE, agreeable to the palate or taste: savoury.--_n._ PAL'ATABLENESS, the quality of being agreeable to the taste.--_adv._ PAL'ATABLY.--_adj._ PAL'ATAL, pertaining to the palate: uttered by aid of the palate--also PAL'ATINE.--_n._ a letter pronounced chiefly by aid of the palate, as _k_, _g_, _e_, _i_.--_v.t._ PAL'ATALISE, to make palatal.--_adj._ PALAT'IC.--CLEFT PALATE, a congenital defect of the palate, leaving a longitudinal fissure in the roof of the mouth. [O. Fr. _palat_--L. _palatum_.]

PALATIAL, pa-l[=a]'shi-al, _adj._ of or pertaining to a palace: resembling a palace: royal: magnificent.

PALATINE, pal'a-tin, _adj._ pertaining to a palace, originally applied to officers of the royal household: possessing royal privileges.--_n._ a noble invested with royal privileges: a subject of a palatinate.--_n._ PALAT'INATE, office or rank of a palatine: province of a palatine, esp. an electorate of the ancient German Empire.--COUNT PALATINE, a feudal lord with supreme judicial authority over a province; COUNTY PALATINE, the province of a count palatine. [Fr.,--L. _palatinus._ Cf. _Palace._]

PALAVER, pa-lav'[.e]r, _n._ talk or conversation, esp. idle talk: talk intended to deceive: a public conference: in Africa, a talk with the natives.--_v.i._ to use conversation: to flatter: to talk idly.--_n._ PALAV'ERER. [Port. _palavra_--L. _parabola_, a parable.]

PALAY, pa-l[=a]', _n._ a small S. Indian tree of the dogbane family, with hard white wood.--Also _Ivory-tree_.

PALE, p[=a]l, _n._ a narrow piece of wood driven into the ground for use in enclosing grounds: anything that encloses or fences in: any enclosed field or space: limit: district: a broad stripe from top to bottom of a shield in heraldry.--_v.t._ to enclose with stakes: to encompass.--_n._ PALIFIC[=A]'TION, act of strengthening by stakes.--_adj._ PAL'IFORM.--ENGLISH PALE, the district in Ireland within which alone the English had power for centuries after the invasion in 1172. [Fr. _pal_--L. _palus_, a stake.]

PALE, p[=a]l, _adj._ somewhat white in colour: not ruddy or fresh: wan: of a faint lustre, dim: light in colour.--_v.t._ to make pale.--_v.i._ to turn pale.--_ns._ PALE'-ALE, a light-coloured pleasant bitter ale; PALE'BUCK, an antelope, the oribi.--_adj._ PALE'-EYED (_Shak._), having the eyes dimmed.--_n._ PALE'-FACE, a white person.--_adj._ PALE'-HEART'ED (_Shak._), dispirited.--_adv._ PALE'LY.--_n._ PALE'NESS.--_adjs._ PALE'-VIS'AGED (_Shak._), having no colour in the face; P[=A]'LISH, somewhat pale. [Fr.,--L. _pallidus_, pale.]

PALEA, p[=a]'l[=e]-a, _n._ (_bot._) a chaffy bract at the base of the florets in many _Compositæ_, also one of the inner scales of a grass-flower opposite the flowering glume: the throat-wattle, as in turkeys:--_pl._ P[=A]'LEÆ.--_adj._ PALE[=A]'CEOUS (_bot._), resembling, consisting of, or furnished with chaff: chaffy. [L. _palea_, chaff.]

PALEOTYPE, p[=a]'l[=e]-[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a system of spelling invented by A. J. Ellis, according to which all spoken sounds can be represented by the letters in common use, some of them being used upside down as well as in the usual way, to express varieties of sound.

PALES, p[=a]'l[=e]z, _n._ an ancient Roman divinity of flocks.--_n._ PALIL'IA, the festival of Pales, held on April 21, the traditional date of the founding of Rome.

PALESTINIAN, pal-es-tin'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Palestine_.--PALESTINE SOUP (see ARTICHOKE).

PALESTRA, p[=a]-les'tra, _n._ a wrestling school: the exercise of wrestling: any training school: academic oratory.--_adjs._ PALES'TRAL, PALES'TRIAN, PALES'TRIC, -AL, pertaining to wrestling: athletic. [L.,--Gr. _palaistra_--_pal[=e]_, wrestling.]

PALETOT, pal'e-t[=o], _n._ a loose overcoat. [Fr.]

PALETTE, pal'et, _n._ a little oval board on which a painter mixes his colours: the special arrangement of colours for any particular picture: a plate against which a person presses his breast to give force to a drill worked by the hand: a small plate covering a joint in armour.--_n._ PAL'ETTE-KNIFE, a thin round-pointed knife for mixing colours on the grinding slab. [Fr.,--It. _paletta_--_pala_, spade--L. _pala_, a spade.]

PALFREY, pal'fri, _n._ a saddle-horse, esp. for a lady.--_adj._ PAL'FREYED, riding on, or supplied with, a palfrey. [Fr. _palefroi_--Low L. _paraveredus_, prob. from Gr. _para_, beside, Low L. _veredus_, a post-horse--L. _veh[)e]re_, to draw, _rheda_, a carriage.]

PALI, pä'l[=e], _n._ the sacred language of the Buddhists of eastern India, closely allied to Sanskrit.

PALILLOGY, p[=a]-lil'[=o]-ji, _n._ a repetition of a word or phrase. [Gr. _palillogia_--_palin_, again, _legein_, to say.]

PALIMPSEST, pal'imp-sest, _n._ a manuscript which has been written upon twice, the first writing having been rubbed off to make room for the second: an engraved brass plate, with a new inscription on the reverse side. [Gr. _palimps[=e]ston_--_palin_, again, _ps[=e]stos_, rubbed.]

PALINAL, pal'i-nal, _adj._ moving backward. [Gr. _palin_.]

PALINDROME, pal'in-dr[=o]m, _n._ a word, verse, or sentence that reads the same either backward or forward, as Adam's first words to Eve: 'Madam, I'm Adam.'--_adjs._ PALINDROM'IC, -AL.--_n._ PAL'INDROMIST, an inventor of palindromes. [Gr. _palindromia_--_palin_, back, _dromos_, a running.]

PALING, p[=a]l'ing, _n._ pales collectively: a fence.

PALINGENESIS, pal-in-jen'e-sis, _n._ a new birth or a second creation: regeneration: the development of an individual germ in which it repeats that of its ancestors: the recurrence of historical events in the same order in an infinite series of cycles--also PAL'INGENY, PALING[=E]'SIA.--_adj._ PALINGET'IC.--_adv._ PALINGET'ICALLY. [Gr. _palin_, again, _genesis_, birth.]

PALINODE, pal'i-n[=o]d, _n._ a poem retracting a former one: a recantation.--_adjs._ PALIN[=O]'DIAL, PALINOD'IC.--_n._ PAL'IN[=O]DIST, a writer of palinodes. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr.,--_palin_, back, _[=o]d[=e]_, song.]

PALISADE, pal-i-s[=a]d' _n._ a fence of pointed pales or stakes firmly fixed in the ground.--_v.t._ to surround with a palisade.--Also PALIS[=A]'DO:--_pl._ PALIS[=A]'DOES. [Fr.,--L. _palus_, a stake.]

PALISANDER, pal-i-san'd[.e]r, _n._ rosewood. [Fr.]

PALISSÉE, pal-i-s[=a]', _adj._ (_her._) battlemented, the indentations pointing both up and down. [Fr.]

PALKEE, pal'k[=e], _n._ a palanquin.--_n._ PAL'KEE-GHAR'RY, a wheeled vehicle like a palanquin. [Hind.]

PALL, pawl, _n._ a cloak or mantle, an outer garment: a chalice-cover: (_her._) a Y-shaped bearing charged with crosses _patté fitché_, as in the arms of the see of Canterbury--sometimes reversed: a pallium (q.v.): a curtain or covering: the cloth over a coffin at a funeral: that which brings deep sorrow.--_n._ PALL'-BEAR'ER, one of the mourners at a funeral who used to hold up the corners of the pall. [A.S. _pæll_, purple cloth--L. _palla_, a mantle; cf. _Pallium_, a cloak.]

PALL, pawl, _v.i._ to become vapid, insipid, or wearisome.--_v.t._ to make vapid: to dispirit or depress. [W. _pallu_, to fail, _pall_, failure.]

PALLADIAN, pa-l[=a]'di-an, _adj._ in the style of architecture introduced by Andrea _Palladio_ (1518-80), modelled on Vitruvius, its faults a superfluity of pilasters and columns, broken entablatures, and inappropriate ornament.--_n._ PALL[=A]'DIANISM.

PALLADIUM, pal-l[=a]'di-um, _n._ a statue of _Pallas_, on the preservation of which the safety of ancient Troy depended: any safeguard: a rare metal in colour and ductility resembling platinum.--_adj._ PALL[=A]'DIAN.--_v.t._ PALL[=A]'DIUMISE, to coat with palladium. [L.,--Gr. _palladion_--_Pallas_, _Pallados_, Pallas.]

PALLAH, pal'a, _n._ a small African antelope.

PALLAS, pal'as, _n._ the Greek goddess of wisdom and war--the Roman Minerva.--Also PALLAS ATHENE.

PALLESCENCE, pal-les'ens, _n._ paleness.

PALLET, pal'et, _n._ a palette: the tool used by potters for shaping their wares: an instrument for spreading gold-leaf: a tool used in lettering the backs of books: one of the points moved by the pendulum of a clock which check the motion of the escape or balance wheel: a disc in the endless chain of a chain-pump: a ballast-locker in a ship: a valve by which the admission of air from the bellows to an organ-pipe may be regulated from the keyboard: a board for carrying newly moulded bricks. [_Palette_.]

PALLET, pal'et, _n._ a mattress, or couch, properly a mattress of straw. [Prov. Fr. _paillet_, dim. of Fr. _paille_, straw--L. _palea_, chaff.]

PALLIAL, pal'i-al, _adj._ pertaining to a pallium.--_n._ PALL'IAMENT (_Shak._), a robe.

PALLIASSE, pa-lyas', _n._ Same as PAILLASSE.

PALLIATE, pal'i-[=a]t, _v.t._ to cover, excuse, extenuate: to soften by pleading something in favour of: to mitigate.--_n._ PALLI[=A]'TION, act of palliating: extenuation: mitigation.--_adj._ PALL'I[=A]TIVE, serving to extenuate: mitigating.--_n._ that which lessens pain, disease, &c.--_adj._ PALL'I[=A]TORY. [L. _palli[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to cloak--_pallium_, a cloak.]

PALLID, pal'id, _adj._ pale, wan.--_ns._ PALLID'ITY, PALL'IDNESS.--_adv._ PALL'IDLY. [L. _pallidus_, pale.]

PALLIUM, pal'i-um, _n._ a large, square mantle, worn by learned Romans in imitation of the Greeks: an annular white woollen band, embroidered with black crosses, worn by the Pope, and on some occasions by archbishops, to whom it is granted: (_ornith._) the mantle:--_pl._ PALL'IA.--_adj._ PALL'IAL. [L.]

PALL-MALL, pel-mel', _n._ an old game, in which a ball was driven through an iron ring with a mallet: an alley where the game used to be played, hence the street in London.--_adv._ in pall-mall fashion. [O. Fr. _pale-maille_--Old It. _palamaglio_--_palla_--Old High Ger. _pallá_ (Ger. _ball_, Eng. _ball_), and _maglio_--L. _malleus_, a hammer.]

PALLOMETRIC, pal-o-met'rik, _adj._ pertaining to the measurement of artificial vibrations in the earth's surface. [Gr. _pallein_, to shake, _metron_, a measure.]

PALLONE, päl-l[=o]'n[=a], _n._ a game like tennis played with a ball, which is struck by the arm covered by a guard. [It.]

PALLOR, pal'or, _n._ quality or state of being pallid or pale: paleness. [L.,--_pall[=e]re_, to be pale.]

PALM, päm, _n._ the inner part of the hand: a measure of length equal to the breadth of the hand, or to its length from wrist to finger-tip: a measure of 3 and sometimes of 4 inches: that which covers the palm: the fluke of an anchor: the flattened portion of an antler.--_v.t._ to stroke with the palm or hand: to conceal in the palm of the hand: (esp. with _off_, and _on_, or _upon_) to impose by fraud.--_n._ PAL'MA, the palm: the enlarged proximal joint of the fore tarsus of a bee.--_adjs._ PAL'MAR, -Y, relating to the palm of the hand; PAL'M[=A]TE, -D, shaped like the palm of the hand: (_bot._) divided into sections, the midribs of which run to a common centre: entirely webbed, as the feet of a duck.--_adv._ PAL'M[=A]TELY.--_adjs._ PALMAT'IFID (_bot._), shaped like the hand, with the divisions extending half-way, or slightly more, down the leaf; PALMAT'IFORM, shaped like an open palm; PALMED, having palms. [Fr. _paume_--L. _palma_, the palm of the hand; Gr. _palam[=e]_.]

PALM, päm, _n._ a tropical, branchless tree of many varieties, bearing at the summit large leaves like the palm of the hand: a leaf of this tree borne in token of rejoicing or of victory: (_fig._) triumph or victory.--_adjs._ PALM[=A]'CEOUS, belonging to the order of palm-trees; PALM[=A]'RIAN, PAL'MARY, worthy of the palm: pre-eminent.--_ns._ PALM'-BUTT'ER, palm-oil; PALM'ERY, a place for growing palms; PALM'HOUSE, a glass house for raising palms and other tropical plants.--_adjs._ PALMIF'EROUS, producing palm-trees; PALMIT'IC, pertaining to, or obtained from, palm-oil.--_ns._ PAL'MITINE, a white fat, usually occurring, when crystallised from ether, in the form of scaly crystals--abundant in palm-oil; PALM'-OIL, an oil or fat obtained from the pulp of the fruit of palms, esp. of the oil-palm, allied to the coco-nut palm: (_slang_) a bribe or tip; PALM'-S[=U]'GAR, jaggery; PALM'-SUN'DAY, the Sunday before Easter, in commemoration of the day on which our Saviour entered Jerusalem, when palm-branches were strewed in His way by the people; PALM'-WINE, the fermented sap of certain palms.--_adj._ PALM'Y, bearing palms: flourishing: victorious.--PALMA CHRISTI, the castor-oil plant. [A.S. from L., as above.]

PALMER, päm'[.e]r, _n._ a pilgrim from the Holy Land, distinguished by his carrying a branch of palm: a cheat at cards or dice.--_ns._ PAL'MERIN, any medieval knightly hero, from the Palmerin romances, the original hero _Palmerin_ de Oliva; PALM'ER-WORM (_B._), a hairy worm which wanders like a palmer, devouring leaves, &c.

PALMETTE, pal'met, _n._ an ornament, somewhat like a palm-leaf, cut or painted on mouldings, &c. [Fr.]

PALMETTO, pal-met'[=o], _n._ a name for several fan-palms, esp. the cabbage-palm of Florida, &c.: a hat made of palmetto-leaves. [Sp.,--L. _palma_.]

PALMIGRADE, pal'mi-gr[=a]d, _adj._ noting animals that walk on the sole of the foot and not merely on the toes: plantigrade. [L. _palma_, palm, _gradi_, to walk.]

PALMIPED, pal'mi-p[=e]d, _adj._ web-footed.--_n._ a web-footed or swimming bird:--_pl._ PALMIP'EDES (-[=e]z). [L. _palma_, palm of the hand, _pes_, _pedis_, the foot.]

PALMIST, pal'mist, or pä'mist, _n._ one who tells fortunes by the lines and marks of the palm--also PAL'MISTER (or pä'-).--_n._ PAL'MISTRY (or pä'-), the practice of telling fortunes by the lines, &c., of the palm.

PALMYRA, pal-m[=i]'ra, _n._ an East Indian palm furnishing the greater part of the palm-wine of India (_Toddy_).--_adj._ and _n._ PALMYRENE', pertaining to the ancient Syrian city of _Palmyra_ or Tadmor.

PALOLO, pa-l[=o]'l[=o], _n._ an edible annelid allied to the lugworm, found near Polynesian coral-reefs.

PALP, palp, _n._ a jointed sensiferous organ attached in pairs to the labium or maxilla of insects, and thus distinguished from antennæ, which are on the top of the head--also PAL'PUS:--_pl._ PAL'PI.--_adjs._ PAL'PAL; PALPED; PAL'PIFORM; PALPIG'EROUS, bearing palpi; PALP'LESS.--_n._ PAL'P[=U]LUS, a little palp. [Low L. _palpus_--L. _palp[=a]re_, to stroke.]

PALPABLE, pal'pa-bl, _adj._ that can be touched or felt: easily perceived or found out, as lies, &c.: looking as if it might be touched or felt: obvious, gross.--_ns._ PALPABIL'ITY, PAL'PABLENESS, quality of being palpable: obviousness.--_adv._ PAL'PABLY.--_v.t._ PAL'P[=A]TE, to examine by touch.--_n._ PALP[=A]'TION, the act of examining by means of touch. [Fr.,--L. _palpabilis_--_palp[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to touch softly.]

PALPEBRAL, pal'pe-bral, _adj._ of or pertaining to the eyelids.--_adjs._ PAL'PEBR[=A]TE, having eyebrows; PAL'PEBROUS, having heavy eyebrows. [L. _palpebra_, the eyelid.]

PALPIFER, pal'pi-f[.e]r, _n._ an outer lobe of the maxilla.--_adj._ PALPIF'EROUS.

PALPITATE, pal'pi-t[=a]t, _v.i._ to move often and quickly: to beat rapidly: to throb: to pulsate.--_adj._ PAL'PITANT (_arch._), palpitating.--_n._ PALPIT[=A]'TION, act of palpitating: irregular action of the heart, caused by excitement, excessive exertion, or disease. [L. _palpit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, freq. of _palp[=a]re_. Cf. _Palpable_.]

PALSGRAVE, palz'gr[=a]v, _n._ one who has charge of a royal household: one of a special order of nobility, esp. one of the hereditary rulers of the Palatinate:--_fem._ PALS'GRAVINE.

PALSTAFF, pal'staf, _n._ an old Celtic and Scandinavian weapon--a wedge of stone or metal fixed by a tongue in a staff. [Dan.,--Ice. _pálstafr_.]

PALSY, pawl'zi, _n._ a loss of power or of feeling, more or less complete, in the muscles of the body: paralysis.--_v.t._ to affect with palsy: to deprive of action or energy: to paralyse:--_pa.p._ pal'sied. [Fr. _paralysie_--Gr. _paralysis_. Cf. _Paralysis_.]

PALTER, pawl't[.e]r, _v.i._ to trifle in talk: to use trickery: to dodge: to shuffle: to equivocate.--_n._ PAL'TERER. [Prob. conn. with _paltry_.]

PALTRY, pawl'tri, _adj._ mean: vile: worthless.--_adv._ PAL'TRILY.--_n._ PAL'TRINESS. [Teut.; Dan. _pialter_, rags, Low Ger. _paltrig_, ragged.]

PALUDAL, pal'[=u]-dal, _adj._ pertaining to marshes: marshy--also PAL'[=U]DINE, PAL[=U]'DINOUS, PAL'[=U]DOSE, PALUS'TRAL, PALUS'TRINE.--_n._ PAL'UDISM, marsh poisoning. [L. _palus_, _paludis_, a marsh.]

PALUDAMENTUM, p[=a]-l[=u]-da-men'tum, _n._ a military cloak worn by a Roman Imperator, or by members of his staff.--Also PAL[=U]'DAMENT. [L.]

PALY, p[=a]'li, _adj._ pale: wanting colour: (_her._) divided by pales into equal parts.

PAM, pam, _n._ the knave of clubs at loo.

PAMPAS, pam'paz, vast plains, without trees, in South America, south of the Amazon--north of that river they are called _llanos_.--_n._ PAM'PAS-GRASS, a tall, ornamental, reed-like grass with large thick silvery panicles.--_adj._ PAM'P[=E]AN.

PAMPER, pam'p[.e]r, _v.t._ to feed with fine food: to gratify to the full: to glut.--_ns._ PAM'PEREDNESS; PAM'PERER. [A freq. from _pamp_, a nasalised form of _pap_; cf. Low Ger. _pampen_--_pampe_, pap.]

PAMPERO, pam-p[=a]'ro, _n._ a violent south-west wind which sweeps over the pampas of South America. [Sp.,--_pampa_, a plain.]

PAMPHLET, pam'flet, _n._ a small book consisting of one or more sheets stitched together, but not bound: a short essay on some interesting subject.--_n._ PAMPHLETEER', a writer of pamphlets.--_p.adj._ PAMPHLETEER'ING, writing pamphlets.--_n._ the practice of writing pamphlets. [Ety. dub.; acc. to Skeat, perh. through Fr. from _Pamphila_, a 1st cent. female writer of epitomes; others suggest Fr. _paume_, the palm of the hand, and _feuillet_, a leaf.]

PAMPHRACT, pam'frakt, _adj._ (_rare_) protected completely, as by a coat of mail. [Gr. _pam_, _pan_, all, _phraktos_--_phrassein_, to fence in.]

PAMPHYSICAL, pam-fiz'ik-al, _adj._ pertaining to nature regarded as embracing all things.

PAMPINIFORM, pam-pin'i-form, _adj._ curling like the tendril of a vine. [L. _pampinus_, a tendril.]

PAMPLEGIA, pam-pl[=e]'ji-a, _n._ general paralysis. [Gr. _pan_, all, _pl[=e]g[=e]_, a blow.]

PAN, pan, _n._ a broad, shallow vessel for domestic use, or for use in the arts or manufactures: anything resembling a pan in shape, as the upper part of the skull: the part of a firelock which holds the priming.--_v.t._ to treat with the panning process, as earth, or to separate by shaking the auriferous earth with water in a pan: to obtain in any way, to secure: to cook and serve in a pan.--_v.i._ to yield gold: to appear, as gold, in a pan: to turn out well, according to expectation: to try to find gold with the pan process.--PAN OUT, to yield or afford, to result; PANNED OUT (_U.S._), exhausted, bankrupt.--FLASH IN THE PAN, to flash and go out suddenly, not igniting the charge--of the powder in the pan of a flint-lock firearm: to fail after a fitful effort, to give up without accomplishing anything; HARD-PAN (see HARD). [A.S. _panne_--prob. through the Celt., from Low L. _panna_--L. _patina_, a basin.]

PAN, pan, _n._ the Greek god of pastures, flocks, and woods, worshipped in Arcadia, and fond of music--with goat's legs and feet, and sometimes horns and ears.--_n._ PAN'S'-PIPES (see PANDEAN).

PANACEA, pan-a-s[=e]'a, _n._ a universal medicine: (_bot._) the plant Allheal (_Valeriana officinalis_). [Gr. _panakeia_--_pas_, _pan_, all, _akos_, cure.]

PANACHE, pa-nash', _n._ a plume of feathers, used as a head-dress. [Fr.]

PANADA, pa-nä'da, _n._ a dish made by boiling bread to a pulp in water, with sweetening and flavour: a batter for forcemeats. [Sp.]

PANÆSTHESIA, pan-es-th[=e]'si-a, _n._ common sensation, as distinct from special sensations or sense-perceptions.--_n._ PANSÆS'THETISM.

PANAGIA, pa-n[=a]'ji-a, _n._ an epithet of the Virgin in the Eastern Church: an ornament worn hanging on the breast by Russian bishops--also PAN[=A]'GHIA.--_n._ PANAGI[=A]'RION, a paten on which the loaf is placed, used in the 'elevation of the _Panagia_.' [Gr., 'all holy,' _pas_, all, _hagios_, holy.]

PAN-AMERICAN, pan-a-mer'i-kan, _adj._ including all the divisions of America collectively.

PAN-ANGLICAN, pan-ang'gli-kan, _adj._ representing or including all Christians everywhere who hold the doctrines and polity of the Anglican Church.

PANARITIUM, pan-a-rish'i-um, _n._ suppurative inflammation in a finger--same as _whitlow_.

PANARTHRITIS, pan-är-thr[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation involving all the structures of a joint.

PANARY, pan'a-ri, _adj._ of or pertaining to bread.--_n._ a storehouse for bread: a pantry. [L. _panis_, bread.]

PANATHENÆA, pan-ath-[=e]-n[=e]'a, the chief national festival of ancient Athens--the lesser held annually, the greater every fourth year.--_adjs._ PANATHENÆ'AN, PANATHEN[=A]'IC. [Gr.]

PANAX, pa-naks', _n._ a genus of shrubs with radiately or pinnately compound leaves and small flowers in compound umbels, the ginseng. [Gr., 'all healing.']

PANCAKE, pan'k[=a]k, _n._ a thin cake of eggs, flour, sugar, and milk fried in a pan.--_n._ PAN'CAKE-ICE, thin ice forming in smooth water.--PANCAKE TUESDAY, Shrove Tuesday.

PANCH, panch, _n._ a thick mat made of strands of rope, used in ships in places to prevent chafing.--Also PAUNCH.

PANCHATANTRA, pan-chä-tänt'rä, _n._ the oldest extant collection of apologues and stories in Sanskrit literature, arranged in five books.

PANCHEON, pan'chon, _n._ a coarse earthenware pan.--Also PANCH'IN. [_Pannikin._]

PANCLASTITE, pan-klas't[=i]t, _n._ an explosive substance of slightly less strength than dynamite, formed of a preparation of nitrogen and carbon. [Gr. _pan_, all, _klastos_, broken, _klaein_, to break.]

PANCRATIUM, pan-kr[=a]'ti-um, _n._ a contest of boxing and wrestling combined.--_adjs._ PANCR[=A]'TIAN, PANCRAT'IC.--_ns._ PANCR[=A]'TIAST, PAN'CRATIST. [Gr. _pan_, all, _kratos_, strength.]

PANCREAS, pan'kr[=e]-as, _n._ a conglomerate gland, lying transversely across the posterior wall of the abdomen, secreting the pancreatic juice which pours with the bile into the digestive system.--_adj._ PANCREAT'IC, pertaining to the pancreas.--_ns._ PAN'CREATIN, the pancreatic juice; PANCREAT[=I]T'IS, inflammation of the pancreas. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _kreas_, flesh.]

PAND, pand, _n._ (_Scot._) a narrow curtain over a bed.

PANDA, pan'da, _n._ a remarkable animal in the bear section of Carnivores found in the south-east Himalayas.--Also _Chitwah_, or _Red bear-cat_.

PANDANUS, pan-d[=a]'nus, _n._ the screw-pipe, the typical genus of the _Pandaneæ_. [Malay.]

PANDATION, pan-d[=a]'shun, _n._ a yielding or warping. [L. _pand[=a]re_, to bend.]

PANDEAN, pan-d[=e]'an, _adj._ of or relating to the god _Pan_.--_n._ PAND[=E]'AN-PIPES, or PAN'S'-PIPES, a musical instrument composed of reeds of various lengths, said to have been invented by _Pan_: a syrinx.

PANDECT, pan'dekt, _n._ a treatise containing the whole of any science: (_pl._) the digest of Roman or civil law made by command of the Emperor Justinian in the 6th century. [L.,--Gr. _pandectes_--_pas_, _pan_, all, _dechesthai_, to receive.]

PANDEMIC, pan-dem'ik, _adj._ incident to a whole people, epidemic.--_n._ a pandemic disease.--_n._ PANDEM'IA, a widespread disease. [Gr. _pand[=e]mios_--_pas_, _pan_, all, _d[=e]mos_, the people.]

PANDEMONIUM, pan-d[=e]-m[=o]'ni-um, _n._ the great hall of evil spirits, described in _Paradise Lost_: any disorderly assembly, or loud tumultuous noise. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _daim[=o]n_, a demon.]

PANDER, pan'd[.e]r, _n._ one who procures for another the means of gratifying his passions: a pimp.--_v.t._ to play the pander for.--_v.i._ to act as a pander: to minister to the passions.--_ns._ PAN'DERAGE, act, employment, or vices of a pander; PAN'DERESS, a procuress; PAN'DERISM, the employment or practices of a pander.--_adjs._ PAN'DERLY (_Shak._), acting as a pander; PAN'DEROUS. [_Pandarus_, the pimp in the story of Troilus and Cressida in the versions of Boccaccio (_Filostrato_), Chaucer, and Shakespeare.]

PANDICULATION, pan-dik-[=u]-l[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of stretching one's self after sleep, &c.: restlessness before fever, hysteria, &c.: yawning.--_adj._ PANDIC'UL[=A]TED, stretched out. [L. _pandicul[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_, to stretch one's self out.]

PANDION, pan-d[=i]'on, _n._ the genus of ospreys or fishing-hawks. [Gr., the father of Procne, who was changed into a swallow.]


PANDORA, pan-d[=o]'ra, _n._ a beautiful woman to whom Jupiter, in order to punish the theft of heavenly fire by Prometheus, gave a box containing all the ills of human life, which, on the box being opened, spread over all the earth. [Gr., _pan_, all, _d[=o]ron_, a gift.]

PANDORE, pan-d[=o]r', _n._ a musical instrument of the lute kind with three or four strings--also _Bandore_.--_n._ PAND[=U]'RA, a Neapolitan musical instrument with eight metal wires, played with a quill.--_adjs._ PAN'DURATE, -D, PAND[=U]'RIFORM, fiddle-shaped. [Gr. _pandoura_, a 3-stringed instrument, invented by _Pan_.]

PANDORE, pan'd[=o]r, _n._ an esteemed variety of oysters found near Prestonpans on the Firth of Forth.

PANDOUR, pan'd[=oo]r, _n._ a Hungarian foot-soldier in the Austrian service: a robber.--Also PAN'DOOR. [From _Pandur_, a village in Hungary.]

PANDOWDY, pan-dew'di, _n._ a pudding baked with bread and apples.

PANDY, pan'di, _n._ a stroke on the palm as a school punishment.--_v.t._ to slap. [L. _pande_, hold out, imper. of _pand[)e]re_, to hold out.]

PANE, p[=a]n, _n._ a plate of glass: a square in a pattern: a flat division or side in any kind of work: a slash in a dress, showing an under garment, or for the insertion of a piece of cloth of different colour, &c.: a panel or piece of cloth of a different colour from the rest, esp. in variegated work.--_v.t._ to insert panes or panels in.--_adj._ PANED, composed of panes or small squares: variegated. [Fr. _pan_, a lappet, pane--L. _pannus_, a cloth, a rag, akin to Gr. _p[=e]nos_, the woof.]

PANEGOISM, pan-[=e]'g[=o]-izm, _n._ Same as _Solipsism_ (q.v.).

PANEGYRIC, pan-[=e]-jir'ik, _n._ an oration or eulogy in praise of some person or event: an encomium.--_adjs._ PAN[=E]GYR'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PAN[=E]GYR'ICALLY.--_n._ PAN[=E]GYR'ICON, in the Greek Church, a collection of sermons for festivals.--_v.t._ PAN'[=E]GYRISE, to write or pronounce a panegyric on: to praise highly.--_ns._ PAN'[=E]GYRIST; PAN'[=E]GYRY (_obs._). [L.,--Gr. _pan[=e]gyrikos_, fit for a national festival--_pas_, _pan_, all, _agyris_ (_agora_), an assembly.]

PANEITY, p[=a]-n[=e]'i-ti, _n._ the state of being bread. [L. _panis_, bread.]

PANEL, pan'el, _n._ a rectangular piece of any material: (_archit._) a flat surface with raised margins, or with a surrounding frame: a thin board on which a picture is painted: (_law_) a schedule containing the names of those summoned to serve as jurors: the jury: (_Scots law_) a prisoner at the bar: a frame for carrying a mortar: a rail in a post-and-rail fence.--_v.t._ to furnish with panels:--_pr.p._ pan'elling; _pa.p._ pan'elled.--Also PANN'EL.--_ns._ PAN'EL-GAME, the act of stealing articles by means of a sliding panel; PAN'ELLING, panel-work; PAN'EL-PIC'TURE, a picture painted on a panel; PAN'EL-PL[=A]N'ER, a machine for dressing panels and feathering their edges to fit them to the grooves in the stiles; PAN'EL-SAW, a saw for cutting very thin wood; PAN'EL-STRIP, a narrow piece of wood or metal for covering a joint between two panels; PAN'EL-WORK'ING, a method of working a coal-mine by dividing it into compartments. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _pannellus_--L. _pannus_, a rag.]

PANEULOGISM, pan-[=u]'l[=o]-jizm, _n._ indiscriminate eulogy.

PANFUL, pan'fool, _n._ the quantity that a pan will hold:--_pl._ PAN'FULS.

PANG, pang, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to cram, stuff with food.

PANG, pang, _n._ a violent but not long-continued pain: a sudden and bitter feeling of sorrow: a throe.--_v.t._ to cause a pang, to torture.--_adj._ PANG'LESS, free from pain. [A form of _prong_, prob. modified by confusion with Fr. _poing_, a fist--L. _pugnus_, the fist.]

PANGENESIS, pan-jen'e-sis, _n._ the theory that every separate part of the whole organisation reproduces itself.--_adj._ PANGENET'IC. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _genesis_, production.]

PANGOLIN, pang'g[=o]-lin, _n._ the scaly ant-eater, a name given to the various species of the genus _Manis_ belonging to the mammalian order Edentata. [Malay.]

PANGRAMMATIST, pan-gram'a-tist, _n._ one who twists all the letters of the alphabet into sentences, as in the following example: 'John P. Brady, give me a black walnut box of quite a small size.'

PAN-HANDLE, pan'-han'dl, _n._ the handle of a pan: a long narrow strip projecting like this.

PANHARMONICON, pan-har-mon'i-kon, _n._ a mechanical musical instrument of the orchestrion class.--Also _Orpheus-harmonica_.

PANHELLENIC, pan-hel-en'ik, _adj._ pertaining to all Greece.--_ns._ PANHELL[=E]'NION, or PANHELL[=E]'NIUM, a council representing all the sections of the Greeks; PANHELL'ENISM, a scheme for forming all Greeks into one political body; PANHELL'ENIST, one who favours Panhellenism. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _Hell[=e]nikos_, Greek--_Hellas_, Greece.]

PANIC, pan'ik, _n._ extreme or sudden fright: great terror without any visible ground or foundation: a state of terror about investments produced by some startling collapse in credit, impelling men to rush and sell what they possess.--_adj._ of the nature of a panic: extreme or sudden: imaginary.--_adj._ PAN'ICKY (_coll._), inclined to panic or sudden terror, affected by financial panic.--_n._ PAN'IC-MONG'ER, one who creates panics.--_adjs._ PAN'IC-STRICK'EN, PAN'IC-STRUCK, struck with a panic or sudden fear. [Orig. an adj.; Gr. _panikon_ (_deima_), 'panic' (fear), from _panikos_, belonging to Pan, god of the woods.]

PANICLE, pan'i-kl, _n._ (_bot._) a form of the arrangement of flowers on a stalk, in which the cluster is irregularly branched, as in oats.--_n._ PAN'IC, a grass of the genus _Panicum_.--_adjs._ PAN'ICLED (_bot._), furnished with panicles: arranged in or like panicles; PANIC'UL[=A]TE, -D, furnished with, arranged in, or like panicles.--_adv._ PANIC'UL[=A]TELY.--_n._ PAN'ICUM, a large genus of true grasses having the one or two-flowered spikelets in spikes, racemes, or panicles--including the common millet. [L. _panicula_, double dim. of _panus_, thread wound on a bobbin, akin to L. _pannus_ and Gr. _p[=e]nos_. See PANE.]

PANIDROSIS, pan-i-dr[=o]'sis, _n._ a perspiration over the whole body. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _hidr[=o]s_, perspiration.]

PANIFICATION, pan-i-fi-k[=a]'shun, _n._ a conversion into bread.--_adj._ PANIV'OROUS, eating bread.

PANIONIC, pan-[=i]-on'ik, _adj._ pertaining to all the _Ionian_ peoples.

PANISC, pan'isk, _n._ the god _Pan_, represented as a satyr.

PANISLAMIC, pan-is-lam'ik, _adj._ relating to all _Islam_, or all the Mohammedan races.--_n._ PANIS'LAMISM, the idea of union amongst the Mohammedan races.

PANJANDRUM, pan-jan'drum, _n._ an imaginary figure of great power and importance, a burlesque potentate.--Also PANJAN'DARUM. [A gibberish word.]

PANLOGISM, pan'l[=o]-jizm, _n._ the theory that the universe is an outward manifestation of the Logos.

PANMELODION, pan-m[=e]-l[=o]'di-on, _n._ a keyboard musical instrument whose tone is produced by wheels rubbing on metal bars.

PANMIXIA, pan-mik'si-a, _n._ (_biol._) cessation of natural selection, as on a useless organ.

PANNADE, pa-n[=a]d', _n._ the curvet of a horse.

PANNAGE, pan'[=a]j, _n._ food picked up by swine in the woods, mast; also the right to this.


PANNICULUS, pa-nik'[=u]-lus, _n._ a thin, sheet-like investment. [L., dim. of _pannus_, a cloth.]

PANNIER, pan'y[.e]r, or pan'i-[.e]r, _n._ a bread-basket: one of two baskets thrown across a horse's back, for carrying light produce to market: (_archit._) a corbel: a contrivance for puffing out a woman's dress at the hips: a piece of basket-work for protecting archers, or, when filled with gravel or sand, for forming and protecting dikes, embankments, &c.--_adj._ PANN'IERED, loaded with panniers. [Fr. _panier_--L. _panarium_, a bread-basket--_panis_, bread.]

PANNIKEL, pan'i-kl, _n._ the brain-pan: (_Spens._) the skull. [Dim. of _pan_.]

PANNIKIN, pan'i-kin, _n._ a small pan or saucer.

PANNOSE, pan'[=o]s, _adj._ (_bot._) like felt in texture. [L. _pannosus_--_pannus_, cloth.]

PANNUS, pan'us, _n._ an opaque vascular membrane over the cornea: a tent for a wound: a birth-mark on the skin. [L., 'cloth.']

PANNUSCORIUM, pan-us-k[=o]'ri-um, _n._ a leather-cloth for boots. [L. _pannus_, cloth, _corium_, leather.]

PANOCHA, pa-n[=o]'cha, _n._ a Mexican coarse sugar.

PANOCHIA, pa-n[=o]'chi-a, _n._ bubo in the groin or armpit. [Gr. _cheia_, a hole.]

PANOISTIC, pan-[=o]-is'tik, _adj._ producing ova only--opp. to _Meroistic_. [Gr. _[=o]on_, an egg.]

PANOPHOBIA, pan-[=o]-f[=o]'bi-a, _n._ a morbid fear of everything. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _phobos_, fear.]

PANOPHTHALMITIS, pan-of-thal-m[=i]'tis, _n._ suppurative inflammation of the whole eye.

PANOPLY, pan'[=o]-pli, _n._ complete armour: a full suit of armour.--_adj._ PAN'OPLIED, dressed in panoply: completely armed.--_n._ PAN'OPLIST, one so armed. [Gr. _panoplia_--_pas_, _pan_, all, _hopla_ (pl.), arms.]

PANOPTICON, pan-op'ti-kon, _n._ a prison so constructed that all the prisoners can be watched from one point: an exhibition room. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _horaein_, fut. _opsesthai_, to see.]

PANORAMA, pan-[=o]-rä'ma, _n._ a wide or complete view: a picture giving views of objects in all directions: a picture representing a number of scenes unrolled and made to pass before the spectator.--_adj._ PANORA'MIC. [Gr. _pan_, all, _horama_, a view, from _horaein_, to see.]

PANOTITIS, pan-[=o]-t[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation in both the middle and internal ear.

PANOTYPE, pan'[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a picture made by the collodion process.

PANPHARMACON, pan-far'ma-kon, _n._ a universal remedy.

PAN-PRESBYTERIAN, pan-pres-bi-t[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to the whole body of Presbyterians.--PAN-PRESBYTERIAN COUNCIL, a council representing all the Presbyterian churches throughout the world.

PANSCLEROSIS, pan-skle-r[=o]'sis, _n._ complete thickening and hardening of the interstitial tissue of a part.

PANSER, pan's[.e]r, _n._ an ancient piece of armour for the abdomen. [O. Fr. _pansiere_--_panse_, the belly--L. _pantex_, the belly.]

PAN-SLAVIC, pan'-slav'ik, _adj._ pertaining to all the Slavic races.--_ns._ PAN'-SLAV'ISM, a movement for the amalgamation of all the Slavonic races into one body, with one language, literature, and social polity; PAN'-SLAV'IST, one who favours Pan-Slavism.--_adjs._ PAN-SLAV[=O]'NIAN, PAN-SLAVON'IC.

PANSOPHY, pan's[=o]-fi, _n._ a scheme of universal knowledge, esp. that of the educational reformer, John Amos Comenius (1592-1671): the pretence of universal wisdom.--_adjs._ PANSOPH'IC, -AL. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _sophia_, wisdom.]

PANSPERMATISM, pan-sper'ma-tizm, _n._ the theory of the widespread diffusion of germs--also PANSPER'MY.--_n._ PANSPER'MATIST, a holder of this.--_adj._ PANSPER'MIC. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _sperma_, seed.]

PANSTEREORAMA, pan-ster-[=e]-[=o]-rä'ma, _n._ a model showing every part in proportional relief, as of a building. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _stereos_, solid, _horama_, a view.]

PANSY, pan'zi, _n._ a species of violet developed by cultivation into large blossoms of great variety of colour--also _Heart's-ease_, _Love-in-idleness_:--_pl._ PAN'SIES.--_adj._ PAN'SIED. [Fr. _pensée_--_penser_, to think--L. _pens[=a]re_, to weigh.]

PANT, pant, _v.i._ to breathe hard and quickly: to show excitement by quickness of breathing: to gasp: to throb: to desire ardently: to heave, as the breast: to bulge and shrink successively, of iron hulls, &c.--_v.t._ to gasp out: to long for.--_ns._ PANT, PANT'ING, rapid breathing: palpitation: longing.--_adv._ PANT'INGLY, in a panting manner: with hard and rapid breathing. [Imit.; or nasalised from _pat_ (v.t.).]

PANTAGAMY, pan-tag'a-mi, _n._ a system of communistic marriage, once practised in the Oneida community. [Gr. _panta_, all, _gamos_, marriage.]

PANTAGOGUE, pan'ta-g[=o]g, _n._ a medicine once believed capable of purging away all morbid humours. [Gr. _panta_, _pas_, all, _ag[=o]gos_, drawing out--_agein_, to lead.]


PANTAGRUELISM, pan-ta-gr[=oo]'el-izm, _n._ the theories and practice of _Pantagruel_ as described by Rabelais (1483-1553)--burlesque ironical buffoonery as a cover for serious satire: empirical medical theory and practice.--_adj._ PANTAGRUEL'IAN.--_ns._ PANTAGRUEL'ION, a magic herb allegorising fortitude, patience, industry; PANTAGRU'ELIST, a cynic who uses the medium of burlesque.

PANTALEON, pan-tal'[=e]-on, _n._ a musical instrument invented about 1700 by _Pantaleon_ Hebenstreit, a very large dulcimer.

PANTALETS, pan-ta-lets', long frilled drawers, once worn by women and children: a removable kind of ruffle worn at the feet of women's drawers.

PANTALOON, pan-ta-l[=oo]n', _n._ in pantomimes, a ridiculous character, a buffoon: (_orig._) a ridiculous character in Italian comedy, also a garment worn by him, consisting of breeches and stockings all in one piece: (_pl._) a kind of trousers.--_n._ PANTALOON'ERY, buffoonery. [Fr. _pantalon_--It. _pantalone_, from _Pantaleon_ (Gr. 'all-lion'), the patron saint of Venice.]

PANTATROPHY, pan-tat'ro-fi, _n._ general atrophy of the whole body.

PANTECHNICON, pan-tek'ni-kon, _n._ a place where every species of workmanship is sold, or where furniture, &c., is stored. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _techn[=e]_, art.]

PANTER, pan't[.e]r, _n._ (_obs._). Same as PANTHER.

PANTHEISM, pan'th[=e]-izm, _n._ the form of monism which identifies mind and matter, making them manifestations of one absolute being: the doctrine that there is no God apart from nature or the universe, everything being considered as part of God, or a manifestation of Him.--_n._ PAN'TH[=E]IST, a believer in pantheism.--_adjs._ PANTH[=E]IST'IC, -AL.--_ns._ PANTH[=E]OL'OGIST, one versed in pantheology; PANTH[=E]OL'OGY, a system of theology embracing all religions and the knowledge of all gods.

PANTHEON, pan'th[=e]-on, _n._ a temple dedicated to all the gods, esp. the round one at Rome, built by Agrippa in 27 B.C.: all the gods of a nation considered as one body: a complete mythology. [L. _panth[=e]on_--Gr. _pantheion_ (_hieron_), (a temple) for all gods--_pas_, _pan_, all, _theos_, a god.]

PANTHER, pan'th[.e]r, _n._ a fierce, spotted, carnivorous quadruped of Asia and Africa:--_fem._ PAN'THERESS. [Fr. _panthère_--L.,--Gr. _panth[=e]r_.]

PANTILE, pan't[=i]l, _n._ a tile with a curved surface, convex or concave with reference to its width: a tile whose cross-section forms a double curve, forming a tegula and imbrex both in one.--_adj._ dissenting--chapels being often roofed with these.--_n._ PAN'TILING, a system of tiling with pantiles.

PANTISOCRASY, pan-ti-sok'ra-si, _n._ a Utopian community in which all are of equal rank or social position. [Gr. _pas_, _pantos_, all, isos, equal, _kratein_, to rule.]

PANTLER, pant'l[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) the officer in a great family who had charge of the bread and other provisions. [Fr. _panetier_--L. _panis_, bread.]

PANTOCHRONOMETER, pan-t[=o]-kro-nom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a combination of compass, sun-dial, and universal sun-dial.

PANTOFFLE, pan'tof'l, _n._ a slipper. [Fr.]

PANTOGRAPH, pan't[=o]-graf, _n._ an instrument for copying drawings, plans, &c. on the same, or a different, scale from the original.--_adjs._ PANTOGRAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or done by, a pantograph.--_n._ PANTOG'RAPHY, general description: entire view: process of copying by means of the pantograph. [Gr. _pan_, all, _graphein_, to write.]

PANTOLOGY, pan-tol'o-ji, _n._ universal knowledge: a view of all branches of knowledge: a book of universal information.--_adj._ PANTOLOG'IC.--_n._ PANTOL'OGIST. [Gr. _pas_, _pantos_, all, _logia_, description.]

PANTOMETER, pan-tom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring angles and perpendiculars.--_n._ PANTOM'ETRY.

PANTOMIME, pan't[=o]-m[=i]m, _n._ one who expresses his meaning by action without speaking: a play or an entertainment in dumb show: an entertainment in a theatre, usually about Christmas-time, in which some well-known story is acted, amidst showy scenery, with music and dancing, concluding with buffoonery by conventional characters--the clown, pantaloon, harlequin, and columbine.--_adj._ representing only by action without words.--_adjs._ PANTOMIM'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PANTOMIM'ICALLY.--_n._ PAN'TOMIMIST, an actor in a pantomime. [Fr.,--L.--Gr. _pantomimos_, imitator of all--_pas_, _pantos_, all, _mimos_, an imitator.]

PANTOMORPH, pan't[=o]-morf, _n._ that which exists in all shapes.--_adj._ PANTOMOR'PHIC.

PANTON, pan'ton, _n._ a horse-shoe for curing a narrow and hoof-bound heel: an idle fellow.

PANTOPHAGY, pan-tof'a-ji, _n._ morbid hunger for all kinds of food.--_n._ PANTOPH'AGIST.--_adj._ PANTOPH'AGOUS. [Gr. _panta_, all, _phagein_, to eat.]

PANTOSCOPE, pan't[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ a panoramic camera: a very wide-angled photographic lens.--_adj._ PANTOSCOP'IC, giving a wide range of vision.

PANTOSTOMATOUS, pan-t[=o]-stom'a-tus, _adj._ ingesting food at any point on the surface of the body.

PANTRY, pan'tri, _n._ a room or closet for provisions and table furnishings, or where plate, knives, &c. are cleaned. [Fr. _paneterie_, a place where bread is distributed--Low L. _panitaria_--L. _panis_, bread.]

PANTS, (_coll._) trousers, abbrev. of _pantaloons_.

PANURGIC, pan-ur'jik, _adj._ able to do all kinds of work. [Gr. _pan_, all, _ergon_, work.]

PANZOISM, pan-z[=o]'izm, _n._ the sum of the elements that make up vital force. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _z[=o][=e]_, life.]

PAP, pap, _n._ soft food for infants: pulp of fruit: nourishment: (_slang_) the emoluments or perquisites of public office.--_v.t._ to feed with pap.--_adjs._ PAPES'CENT, PAP'PY.--_ns._ PAP'MEAT, soft food for infants; PAP'SPOON, a spoon for infants. [Imit.]

PAP, pap, _n._ a nipple or teat: a woman's breast: a round conical hill, as the _Paps_ of Jura.

PAPA, pa-pä', or pä'pa, _n._ father: a bishop: a priest of the Greek Church. [Imit.]

PAPACY, p[=a]'pa-si, _n._ the office of the Pope: the authority of the Pope: popery: the Popes, as a body.--_adj._ P[=A]'PAL, belonging to, or relating to, the Pope or to popery: popish.--_v.t._ P[=A]'PALISE, to make papal.--_v.i._ to conform to popery.--_ns._ P[=A]'PALISM; P[=A]'PALIST.--_adv._ P[=A]'PALLY.--_ns._ P[=A]PAPH[=O]'BIA, extreme fear of the Pope, or the progress of papacy; P[=A]'PARCHY, papal government. [Low L. _papatia_--_papa_, a father.]

PAPAIN, pä'pa-in, _n._ a nitrogenous body, isolated from the juice of the papaw, one of the digestive ferments applied in some cases of dyspepsia, either internally or for the predigestion of food.

PAPAVEROUS, pa-pav'[.e]r-us, _adj._ resembling or having the qualities of the poppy.--_adj._ PAPAVER[=A]'CEOUS, of or like the poppy. [L. _papaver_, the poppy.]

PAPAW, pa-paw', _n._ the tree _Carica papaya_, or its fruit, native to South America, but common in the tropics, the trunk, leaves, and fruit yielding papain (q.v.), the leaves forming a powerful anthelmintic: the tree _Asimina triloba_, or its fruit, native to the United States. [The Malabar native name.]

PAPER, p[=a]'p[.e]r, _n._ the material made from rags or vegetable fibres on which we commonly write and print: a piece of paper: a written or printed document or instrument, note, receipt, bill, bond, deed, &c.: a newspaper: an essay or literary contribution, generally brief: paper-money: paper-hangings for walls: a set of examination questions: free passes of admission to a theatre, &c., also the persons admitted by such.--_adj._ consisting or made of paper.--_v.t._ to cover with paper: to fold in paper: to treat in any way by means of paper, as to sand-paper, &c.: to paste the end-papers and fly-leaves at the beginning and end of a book before fitting it into its covers.--_ns._ P[=A]'PER-BAR'ON, or -LORD, one who holds a title that is merely official, like that of a Scotch Lord of Session, &c., or whose title is merely by courtesy or convention; P[=A]'PER-CASE, a box for holding writing materials, &c.; P[=A]'PER-CHASE, the game of hounds and hares, when the hares scatter bits of paper to guide the hounds; P[=A]'PER-CIGAR', a cigarette; P[=A]'PER-CLAMP, a frame for holding newspapers, sheets of music, &c., for easy reference; P[=A]'PER-CLIP, or _Letter-clip_, an appliance with opening and closing spring, for holding papers together; P[=A]'PER-CLOTH, a fabric prepared in many of the Pacific islands from the inner bark of the mulberry, &c.; P[=A]'PER-CRED'IT, credit given to a person because he shows by bills, promissory notes, &c. that money is owing to him; P[=A]'PER-CUT'TER, a machine for cutting paper in sheets, for trimming the edges of books, &c.; P[=A]'PER-DAY, one of certain days in each term for hearing causes down in the paper or roll of business; P[=A]'PER-ENAM'EL, an enamel for cards and fine note-paper.--_adj._ P[=A]'PER-FACED (_Shak._), having a face as white as paper.--_ns._ P[=A]'PER-FEED'ER, an apparatus for delivering sheets of paper to a printing-press, &c.; P[=A]'PER-FILE, an appliance for holding letters, &c., for safety and readiness of reference; P[=A]'PER-GAUGE, a rule for measuring the type-face of matter to be printed, and the width of the margin; P[=A]'PER-HANG'ER, one who hangs paper on the walls of rooms, & P[=A]'PER-HANG'INGS, paper, either plain or with coloured figures, for hanging on or covering walls.--_ns._ P[=A]'PERING, the operation of covering or hanging with paper: the paper itself; P[=A]'PER-KNIFE, -CUT'TER, -FOLD'ER, a thin, flat blade of ivory, &c., for cutting open the leaves of books and other folded papers; P[=A]'PER-MAK'ER, one who manufactures paper; P[=A]'PER-MAK'ING; P[=A]'PER-MAR'BLER, one engaged in marbling paper; P[=A]'PER-MILL, a mill where paper is made; P[=A]'PER-MON'EY, pieces of paper stamped or marked by government or by a bank, as representing a certain value of money, which pass from hand to hand instead of the coin itself; P[=A]'PER-MUS'LIN, a glazed muslin for dress linings, &c.; P[=A]'PER-NAU'TILUS, or -SAIL'OR, the nautilus; P[=A]'PER-OFF'ICE, an office in Whitehall where state-papers are kept; P[=A]'PER-PULP, the pulp from which paper is made; P[=A]'PER-PUNCH, an apparatus for piercing holes in paper; P[=A]'PER-REED (_B._), the papyrus; P[=A]'PER-RUL'ER, one who, or an instrument which, makes straight lines on paper; P[=A]'PER-STAIN'ER, one who prepares paper-hangings; P[=A]'PER-TEST'ER, a machine for testing the stretching strength of paper; P[=A]'PER-WASH'ING (_phot._), water in which prints have been washed; P[=A]'PER-WEIGHT, a small weight for laying on a bundle of loose papers to prevent them from being displaced.--_adj._ P[=A]'PERY, like paper.--BRISTOL PAPER or BOARD, a strong smooth paper for drawing on; BROWN-PAPER (see BROWN); CHINESE PAPER, rice-paper: a fine soft slightly brownish paper made from bamboo bark, giving fine impressions from engravings; CREAM-LAID PAPER, a smooth paper of creamy colour, much used for note-paper; DISTINCTIVE PAPER, a fine silk-threaded fibre paper used in the United States for bonds, &c.; FILTER-PAPER (see FILTER); HAND-MADE PAPER, that made wholly by hand, as still with some kinds of printing and drawing papers; HEIGHT-TO-PAPER, in typefounding, the length of a type from its face to its foot (11/12 inch); HOT-PRESSED PAPER, paper polished by pressure between heated plates; IMPERFECT PAPER, sheets of poorer quality, as the two outside quires of a ream; INDIA PAPER (see INDIAN); JAPANESE PAPER, a soft fine paper made from the bark of the paper-mulberry, giving good impressions of plate engravings; LITHOGRAPHIC PAPER, paper used for taking impressions from lithographic stones; LITMUS PAPER (see LITMUS); MARBLED PAPER (see MARBLE); PARCHMENT PAPER, a tough paper, prepared in imitation of parchment by dipping in diluted sulphuric acid and washing with weak ammonia; PLAIN PAPER, unruled paper: (_phot._) any unglossy paper; PLATE PAPER, the best class of book paper; PRINTING PAPER (see PRINT); RAG-PAPER, that made from the pulp of rags; RULED PAPER, writing-paper ruled with lines for convenience; SENSITISED PAPER (_phot._), paper chemically treated so that its colour is affected by the action of light; STATE-PAPER (see STATE); TEST-PAPER (see TEST); TISSUE-PAPER, a very thin soft paper for wrapping delicate articles, protecting engravings in books, &c.--also SILK-PAPER; TRACING-PAPER, transparent paper used for copying a design, &c., by laying it over the original, and copying the lines shown through it; TRANSFER-PAPER (see TRANSFER); VELLUM PAPER, a heavy ungrained smooth paper, sometimes used in fine printing; WHATMAN PAPER, a fine quality of English paper, with fine or coarse grain, used for etchings, engravings, &c.; WOVE PAPER, paper laid on flannel or felt, showing no marks of wires; WRAPPING-PAPER, coarse paper used for wrapping up parcels, &c. [A shortened form of _papyrus_.]

PAPETERIE, pap-e-tr[=e]', _n._ a box containing paper, &c., for writing purposes: stationery. [Fr.]

PAPHIAN, p[=a]'fi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Paphos_ in Cyprus, sacred to Aphrodite: lascivious.--_n._ a native of Paphos, a votary of Aphrodite: a whore.

PAPIER-MÂCHÉ, pap'y[=a]-mä'sh[=a], _n._ a material consisting either of paper-pulp or of sheets of paper pasted together, which by a peculiar treatment resembles varnished or lacquered wood in one class of articles made of it, and in another class (chiefly architectural ornaments) somewhat resembles plaster. [Fr. _papier_--L. _papyrus_; _mâché_ is pa.p. of Fr. _mâcher_, to chew--L. _mastic[=a]re_, to masticate.]

PAPILIONACEOUS, pa-pil-yo-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ (_bot._) having a flower shaped somewhat like a butterfly, as the bean, pea, &c. [L. _papilio_, _-onis_, a butterfly.]

PAPILLA, pa-pil'a, _n._ one of the minute elevations on the skin, esp. on the upper surface of the tongue and on the tips of the fingers, and in which the nerves terminate: (_bot._) a nipple-like protuberance:--_pl._ PAPILL'Æ.--_adjs._ PAP'ILLAR, PAP'ILLARY, like a papilla, provided with papillæ; PAP'ILL[=A]TE, formed into a papilla, studded with papillæ.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ to become a papilla, to cover with such.--_adjs._ PAPILLIF'EROUS, papillate: bearing one or more fleshy excrescences; PAPILL'IFORM, like a papilla in form.--_ns._ PAPILL[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the optic papilla; PAPILL[=O]'MA, a tumour formed by the hypertrophy of one papilla, or of several, including warts, corns, &c.--_adjs._ PAPILLOM'ATOUS; PAP'ILL[=O]SE, full of papillæ, warty--also PAP'ILLOUS; PAPILL'[=U]LATE, finely papillose.--_n._ PAP'ILL[=U]LE, a very small papilla, a verruca or a variole. [L., a small pustule, dim. of _papula_.]

PAPILLOTE, pap'il-[=o]t, _n._ a curl-paper, from its fancied resemblance to a butterfly. [Fr., from _papillot_, old form of _papillon_, butterfly--L. _papilio_.]

PAPIST, p[=a]'pist, _n._ an adherent of the Pope: a name slightingly given to a Roman Catholic--(_prov._) P[=A]'PISH, P[=A]'PISHER.--_n._ P[=A]'PISM, popery.--_adjs._ P[=A]PIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to popery, or to the Church of Rome, its doctrines, &c.--_adv._ P[=A]PIST'ICALLY.--_n._ P[=A]'PISTRY, popery.

PAPOOSE, pap-[=oo]s', _n._ a N. Amer. Indian infant, usually wrapped up, fixed to a board, and thus carried by its mother or hung up for safety.--Also PAPPOOSE'.

PAPPUS, pap'us, _n._ (_bot._) the fine hair or down which grows on the seeds of some plants: the first hair on the chin.--_adjs._ PAPPIF'EROUS, bearing a pappus; PAPP[=O]SE', PAPP'OUS, provided or covered with down. [L. _pappus_--Gr. _pappos_, down.]

PAPUAN, pap'[=u]-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Papua_ or New Guinea.--_n._ an inhabitant of Papua: one of a race of black colour, dolichocephalic, with rough and frizzly hair, inhabiting many of the islands of the Pacific near Australia. [Malay.]

PAPULOSE, pap'[=u]-l[=o]s, _adj._ full of pimples--also PAP'[=U]LOUS.--_n._ PAP'[=U]LA, a small inflammatory pustule, a pimple:--_pl._ PAP'[=U]LÆ.--_adj._ PAP'[=U]LAR.--_ns._ PAP[=U]L[=A]'TION, the development of papules; PAP'[=U]LE, a pimple.--_adj._ PAPULIF'EROUS, pimply. [L. _papula_, a pimple.]

PAPYRUS, pa-p[=i]'rus, _n._ an Egyptian sedge, now scarcely found there, from the inner pith (_byblos_) of which the ancients made their paper: a manuscript on papyrus:--_pl._ PAPY'R[=I].--_adjs._ PAPYR[=A]'CEOUS, PAP'YRAL, PAPYR'[=E]AN, PAP'YRINE, pertaining to the papyrus or to papyri: like paper in appearance and consistency; PAPYRIT'IOUS, resembling paper, as the nests of certain wasps.--_n._ PAPYROGRAPH (p[=a]-p[=i]'r[=o]-graf), a hectograph or apparatus for producing copies of a written or printed document.--_v.t._ to produce by means of such.--_adj._ P[=A]PYROGRAPH'IC.--_n._ PAPYROG'RAPHY. [L.--Gr. _papyros_, prob. Egyptian.]

PAR, pär, _n._ state of equality: equal value, the norm or standard: state or value of bills, shares, &c. when they sell at exactly the price marked on them--i.e. without _premium_ or _discount_: equality of condition.--_v.t._ to fix an equality between.--PAR OF EXCHANGE, the value of coin of one country expressed in that of another.--ABOVE PAR, at a premium, or at more than the nominal value; AT PAR, at exactly the nominal value; BELOW PAR, at a discount, or at less than the nominal value; NOMINAL PAR, the value with which a bill or share is marked, or by which it is known. [L. _par_, equal.]

PAR, pär, _n._ Same as PARR.

PARA, pa-rä', _n._ a coin of copper, silver, or mixed metal in use in Turkey and Egypt, the 40th part of a piastre, and worth about 1/18th of a penny in Turkey and 1/16th in Egypt.

PARABAPTISM, par-a-bap'tizm, _n._ uncanonical baptism.

PARABASIS, pa-rab'a-sis, _n._ the chief of the choral parts in ancient Greek comedy, usually an address from the poet to the public. [Gr., _para_, beside, _basis_--_bainein_, to walk.]

PARABEMA, par-a-b[=e]'ma, _n._ in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture, the chapel of the prothesis or the diaconicon, or sacristy, where divided by walls from the bema or sanctuary:--_pl._ PARAB[=E]'MATA.--_adj._ PARABEMAT'IC.

PARABLAST, par'a-blast, _n._ the supplementary or nutritive yolk of a meroblastic egg or metovum--as distinguished from the _archiblast_, or formative yolk.--_adj._ PARABLAST'IC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _blastos_, a germ.]

PARABLE, par'a-bl, _n._ a comparison: a fable or story of something which might have happened, told to illustrate some doctrine, or to make some duty clear: (_B._) an apologue, proverb (Ps. lxxviii. 2, Hab. ii. 6).--_v.t._ to represent by a parable.--_adjs._ PARABOL'IC, -AL, like a parable or a parabola: expressed by a parable: belonging to, or of the form of, a parabola.--_adv._ PARABOL'ICALLY. [Gr. _parabol[=e]_--_paraballein_, to compare--_para_, beside, _ballein_, to throw.]

PARABLEPSIS, par-a-blep'sis, _n._ false vision.--Also PAR'ABLEPSY. [Gr. _para_, beside, _blepsis_--_bleptein_, to see.]

PARABOLA, par-ab'o-la, _n._ (_geom._) a curve or conic section, formed by cutting a cone with a plane parallel to its slope (for illustration, see CONE).--_adjs._ PARABOL'IC; PARABOL'IFORM.--_n._ PARAB'OLOID, the solid which would be generated by the rotation of a parabola about its principal axis. [Gr. _parabol[=e]_; cf. _Parable_.]

PARABOLANUS, par-a-b[=o]-l[=a]'nus, _n._ in the early Eastern Church, a lay assistant to the clergy for waiting on the sick. [Gr. _parabolos_, reckless.]

PARABOLE, par-ab'o-le, _n._ (_rhet._) a parable, a comparison or similitude. [Gr.; cf. _Parable_.]

PARACELSIAN, par-a-sel'si-an, _adj._ of or relating to the famous Swiss philosopher and physician, _Paracelsus_ (1490-1541), or resembling his theories or practice. The name was coined for himself by Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, and apparently implied a claim to be greater than Celsus.

PARACENTESIS, par-a-sen-t[=e]'sis, _n._ (_surg._) the perforation of a cavity with a trocar, &c., tapping. [Gr., _para_, beside, _kentein_, to pierce.]

PARACENTRAL, par-a-sen'tral, _adj._ situated next a centrum.--_adj._ PARACEN'TRIC, approaching to the centre or receding from it.

PARACHORDAL, par-a-k[=o]r'dal, _adj._ (_biol._) lying alongside the cranial part of the notochord. [Gr. _para_, beside, _chord[=e]_, a chord.]

PARACHROMATISM, par-a-kr[=o]'ma-tizm, _n._ colour-blindness. [Gr. _para_, beside, _chroma_, colour.]

PARACHRONISM, par-ak'ron-izm, _n._ an error in dating an event by which it is made to appear later than it really was. [Gr., _para_, beside, _chronos_, time.]

PARACHROSE, par'a-kr[=o]s, _adj._ (_min._) changing colour by exposure to weather. [Gr., _para_, beside, _chroa_, colour.]

PARACHUTE, par'a-sh[=oo]t, _n._ an apparatus like an umbrella for descending safely from a balloon.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to descend by means of such.--_n._ PAR'ACHUTIST. [Fr., for _par' à chute_, from Fr. _parer_--L. _par[=a]re_, to prepare, _chute_, a fall--L. _cad[)e]re_.]

PARACLETE, par'a-kl[=e]t, _n._ the Comforter, Advocate, or Intercessor of John, xiv. 16, 26, 1 John, ii. 1, &c.--the Holy Ghost or Spirit.--_ns._ PARACL[=E]T'ICE, PARACL[=E]T'ICON, an office-book in the Greek Church containing the troparia of the whole ferial office for the year. [Through L., from Gr. _parakl[=e]tos_--_parakalein_, _para_, beside, _kalein_, to call.]

PARACME, pa-rak'm[=e], _n._ (_biol._) the decadence of an evolutionary series of organisms after reaching its highest point of development. [Gr. _para_, beside, _akm[=e]_, a point.]

PARACOLPITIS, par-a-kol-p[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of the outer coat of the vagina. [Gr. _para_, beside, _kolpos_, the womb.]

PARACOROLLA, par-a-k[=o]-rol'a, _n._ (_bot._) a crown or appendage of a corolla, usually as a nectary. [Gr. _para_, beside, L. _corolla_.]

PARACROSTIC, par-a-kr[=o]s'tik, _n._ a poem with the first verse containing the initial letters of the others.

PARACUSIS, par-a-k[=u]'sis, _n._ disordered hearing. [Gr. _para_, beside, _akousis_, hearing.]

PARACYANOGEN, par-a-s[=i]-an'[=o]-jen, _n._ a substance obtained by heating mercury cyanide almost to redness.

PARACYESIS, par-a-s[=i]-[=e]'sis, _n._ extra-uterine pregnancy.

PARADACTYLUM, par-a-dak'ti-lum, _n._ the side of a bird's toe. [Gr. _para_, beside, _daktylos_, a finger.]

PARADE, par-[=a]d', _n._ the orderly arrangement of troops for exercise or inspection: a review of troops: the place where such a display takes place: that which is displayed: great or splendid show of any kind: a public walk or promenade.--_v.t._ to show off: to marshal in military order.--_v.i._ to march up and down as if for show: to pass in military order: to march in procession. [Fr.--Sp. _parada_--_parar_, to halt--L. _par[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to prepare.]

PARADIGM, par'a-dim, _n._ an example: model: (_gram._) an example of the inflection of a word.--_adjs._ PARADIGMAT'IC, -AL, consisting of, or resembling, paradigms.--_n._ PARADIGMAT'IC, one who narrates the lives of religious persons by way of examples.--_adv._ PARADIGMAT'ICALLY. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _paradeigma_--_para_, beside, _deiknynai_, to show.]

PARADISE, par'a-d[=i]s, _n._ a park or pleasure-ground, esp. in ancient Persia: the garden of Eden: heaven: any place of great beauty or state of blissful delights: the happy abode of the righteous in heaven: (_slang_) the upper gallery in a theatre: (_archit._) a small private apartment, a court in front of a church.--_adjs._ PARADIS[=A]'IC, -AL, PARADIS'IAC, -AL, pertaining to, or resembling, paradise.--_n._ PAR'ADISE-FISH, a Chinese species of Macropid often kept in aquaria for its beauty of form and colouring.--_adjs._ PARADIS'IAL, PARADIS'IAN, pertaining to, suitable to, or resembling paradise; PARADIS'IC, -AL, pertaining to paradise.--BIRD OF PARADISE, an Eastern bird closely allied to the crow, with splendid plumage. [Fr. _paradis_--L. _paradisus_--Gr. _paradeisos_, a park, prob. Persian.]

PARADOS, par'a-dos, _n._ earthworks behind a fortified place, protecting against a rear attack.

PARADOX, par'a-doks, _n._ that which is contrary to received opinion, or that which is apparently absurd but really true.--_n._ PAR'ADOXER.--_adjs._ PARADOX'IC, -AL, of the nature of a paradox: inclined to paradoxes, said of persons.--_adv._ PARADOX'ICALLY.--_ns._ PARADOX'ICALNESS; PARADOX'IDES, a genus of trilobites; PAR'ADOXIST; PAR'ADOXY, the quality of being paradoxical.--HYDROSTATIC PARADOX (see HYDROSTATICS). [Through Fr. and L., from Gr. _paradoxon_--_para_, contrary to, _doxa_, an opinion.]

PARADOXURE, par-a-dok's[=u]r, _n._ a civet-like carnivore of Southern Asia and Malaysia, the palm-cat of India.--_adj._ PARADOX[=U]'RINE, having a paradoxical or peculiarly curling tail.

PARÆSTHESIA, par-es-th[=e]'si-a, _n._ abnormal sensation. [Gr. _para_, beyond, _aisth[=e]sis_, sensation.]

PARAFFIN, par'af-fin, _n._ a white, transparent, crystalline substance, obtained from shale, coal-tar, &c., much used instead of wax, tallow, &c. in making candles--so named as having little affinity--for an alkali--also PAR'AFFINE.--_v.t._ to coat or impregnate with paraffin.--_ns._ PAR'AFFIN-OIL, any of the mineral burning oils associated with the manufacture of paraffin; PAR'AFFIN-SCALE, unrefined paraffin. [Fr.,--L. _parum_, little, _affinis_, allied.]

PARAFFLE, pa-raf'l, _n._ (_Scot._) any pretentious display.

PARAGASTRIC, par-a-gas'trik, _adj._ lying alongside the gastric cavity: pertaining to the paragaster or the cavity of the sac of a sponge.

PARAGE, par'[=a]j, _n._ equality in law: a woman's portion at marriage. [_Par._]

PARAGENESIS, par-a-jen'e-sis, _n._ hybridism.--_adjs._ PARAGENET'IC; PARAGEN'IC, originating with the germ or at the genesis of an individual. [Gr. _para_, beside, _genesis_, birth.]

PARAGEUSIA, par-a-g[=u]'si-a, _n._ perverted sense of taste--also PARAGEU'SIS.--_adj._ PARAGEU'SIC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _geusis_, taste.]

PARAGLENAL, par-a-gl[=e]'nal, _n._ the coracoid of a fish--also _adj._ [Gr. _para_, beside, _gl[=e]n[=e]_, a socket.]

PARAGLOBULIN, par-a-glob'[=u]-lin, _n._ a globulin found in blood-serum, fibrino-plastin.--Also PARAGL[=O]'BIN.

PARAGLOSSA, par-a-glos'a, _n._ one of the two appendages of the ligula in insects.--_adjs._ PARAGLOSS'AL; PARAGLOSS'ATE, provided with paraglossæ. [Gr. _para_, beside, _gl[=o]ssa_, the tongue.]

PARAGNATHOUS, par-ag'n[=a]-thus, _adj._ having both mandibles of equal length.--_n._ PARAG'N[=A]THISM. [Gr. _para_, beside, _gnathos_, the jaw.]

PARAGOGE, par-a-g[=o]'j[=e], _n._ the addition of a letter or a syllable to the end of a word, as _amidst_ for _amid_, _generical_ for _generic_--also called _epithesis_ and _ecstasis_, as opposed to _prosthesis_ and _apocope_.--_adjs._ PARAGOG'IC, -AL, forming a paragoge: relating to, or of the nature of, paragoge: added on: additional.--PARAGOGIC FUTURE, the cohortative tense in Hebrew grammar--a lengthened form of the imperfect or future tense, usually confined to the first person, giving the sense of 'let me' or 'let us.' [L.,--Gr. from _para_, beyond, _agein_, to lead.]

PARAGON, par'a-gon, _n._ a pattern or model with which comparisons are made: (_Spens._) a companion or a rival: something supremely excellent: a size of printing-type intermediate between great-primer and double pica, equal to 20 points in the newer system.--_v.t._ to compare: to bring into comparison with: (_Shak._) to surpass. [O. Fr., from Sp. compound prep. _para con_, in comparison with--L. _pro_, for, _ad_, to, _con=cum_, with.]

PARAGRAM, par'a-gram, _n._ a play upon words: a pun.--_n._ PARAGRAM'MATIST, a punster. [Gr. _para_, beside, _gramma_, something written, _graphein_, to write.]

PARAGRAPH, par'a-graf, _n._ a distinct part of a discourse or writing marked by ¶, or by being begun on a new line, at more than the usual distance from the margin: a short passage, or a collection of sentences with unity of purpose.--_v.t._ to form into paragraphs.--_ns._ PAR'AGRAPHER, PAR'AGRAPHIST, one who writes in paragraphs, esp. for newspapers.--_adjs._ PARAGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PARAGRAPH'ICALLY. [The mark ¶ is the reversed initial of this word, which is, through Fr. and Low L., from Gr. _paragraphos_--_para_, beside, _graphein_, to write.]

PARAHELIOTROPISM, par-a-h[=e]-li-ot'r[=o]-pizm, _n._ the diurnal sleep of plants.--_adj._ PARAHELIOTROP'IC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _h[=e]lios_, the sun, _trepein_, to turn.]


PARALEIPSIS, par-a-l[=i]p'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure by which one fixes attention on a subject by pretending to neglect it, as, 'I will not speak of his generosity, his gentleness of disposition, or his reverence for sacred things.' [Gr., from _paraleipein_, to leave on one side--_para_, beside, _leipein_, to leave.]

PARALIPOMENA, par-a-li-pom'e-na, things passed over, but given in a supplement, specially the name given in the Septuagint to the First and Second Books of Chronicles, a recapitulation of Second Samuel and the Books of Kings. [Late L.,--Gr. _paraleipomena_--_paraleipein_, to pass over.]

PARALLAX, par'a-laks, _n._ an apparent change in the position of an object caused by change of position in the observer: (_astron._) the difference between the apparent and real place of a star or other celestial object.--_adjs._ PARALLAC'TIC, -AL. [Gr. _parallaxis_--_para_, beside, _allassein_, to change--_allos_, another.]

PARALLEL, par'al-lel, _adj._ side by side: (_geom._) extended in the same direction and equi-distant in all parts: with the same direction or tendency: running in accordance with: resembling in all essential points: like or similar.--_n._ a line equi-distant from another at all points: a line drawn across a map or round a globe at right angles to the axis, marking latitude: likeness: a comparison: counterpart: (_pl._) trenches, dug parallel to the outline of a besieged fortress to protect the besiegers (_mil._).--_v.t._ to place so as to be parallel: to correspond, or to make to correspond, to:--_pr.p._ par'alleling or par'allelling; _pa.p._ par'alleled or par'allelled.--_n._ PAR'ALLELISM, state of being parallel: resemblance: comparison: likeness of form or meaning, as of two statements, clauses, or verses.--_adj._ PARALLELIS'TIC, of the nature of, or involving, parallelism.--_adv._ PAR'ALLELLY.--PARALLEL BARS, a pair of bars securely fixed, 4 to 6 feet above the ground, and about 1½ feet apart, used in gymnastics to strengthen the arms; PARALLEL FORCES, forces which act in parallel lines, having a single resultant, readily found by the method of moments; PARALLEL MOTION, a name given to any linkage by which circular motion may be changed into straight-line motion; PARALLEL RULERS, a mathematical instrument for drawing parallel lines. [Fr.,--L. _parallelus_--Gr. _parall[=e]los_--_para_, beside, _all[=e]l[=o]n_, of one another--_allos_, another.]

PARALLELEPIPED, par-al-lel-e-p[=i]'ped, _n._ a regular solid, the opposite sides and ends of which form three pairs of equal parallelograms.--Also PARALLELEP[=I]'PEDON, improperly PARALLELOP[=I]'PED, PARALLELOP[=I]'PEDON. [L.,--Gr. _parall[=e]lepipedon_--_parall[=e]los_, _epipedon_, a plane surface--_epi_, on, _pedon_, the ground.]

PARALLELOGRAM, par-al-lel'[=o]-gram, _n._ a plane four-sided figure, the opposite sides of which are parallel and equal.--_adjs._ PARALLELOGRAMMAT'IC, -AL, PARALLELOGRAM'MIC, -AL. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _parall[=e]los_, side by side, _gramma_, a line--_graphein_, to write.]

PARALOGISM, par-al'[=o]-jizm, _n._ reasoning beside the point: a conclusion not following from the premises--also PARAL'OGY.--_v.i._ PARAL'OGISE, to reason falsely. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _paralogismos_--_para_, beside, _logismos_--_logos_, discourse.]

PARALYSE, par'a-l[=i]z, _v.t._ to strike with paralysis or palsy: to make useless: to deaden the action of: to exhaust.--_n._ PARAL'YSIS, a loss of the power of motion, sensation, or function in any part of the body: palsy: loss of energy: state of being crippled.--_adj._ PARALYT'IC, of or pertaining to paralysis: afflicted with or inclined to paralysis.--_n._ one who is affected with paralysis.--GENERAL PARALYSIS, dementia paralytica. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _paralyein_, _paralysein_--_para_, beside, _lyein_, loosen.]

PARAMAGNETIC, par-a-mag-net'ik, _adj._ See under DIAMAGNETIC.

PARAMASTOID, par-a-mas'toid, _adj._ situated near the mastoid, paroccipital.--_n._ a paramastoid process.

PARAMATTA, par-a-mat'a, _n._ a fabric like merino made of worsted and cotton. [From _Paramatta_ in New South Wales.]

PARAMECIUM, par-a-m[=e]'si-um, _n._ an infusorian in pond water or vegetable infusions--also _Slipper Animalcule_:--_pl._ PARAM[=E]'CIA. [Gr. _param[=e]k[=e]s_, long-shaped, _para_, beside, _m[=e]kos_, length.]

PARAMENIA, par-a-m[=e]'ni-a, disordered menstruation. [Gr. _para_, beside, _m[=e]n_, a month.]

PARAMERE, par'a-m[=e]r, _n._ (_biol._) a radiated part or organ: either half of a bi-laterally symmetrical animal--usually _Antimere_.--_adj._ PARAMER'IC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _meros_, a part.]

PARAMETER, par-am'[=e]-t[.e]r, _n._ (_geom._) the constant quantity which enters into the equation of a curve: in conic sections, a third proportional to any diameter and its conjugate diameter. [Gr. _para_, beside, _metron_, measure.]

PARAMNESIA, par-am-n[=e]'si-a, _n._ false memory. [Gr. _para_, beside, _mim-n[=e]skein_, to remind.]

PARAMO, par'a-m[=o], _n._ a bare wind-swept elevated plain. [Sp.]

PARAMORPH, par'a-morf, _n._ (_min._) a pseudomorph formed by a change in molecular structure without change of chemical composition.--_adjs._ PARAMORPH'IC, PARAMORPH'OUS.--_ns._ PARAMORPH'ISM, PARAMORPH[=O]'SIS. [Gr. _para_, beside, _morph[=e]_, form.]

PARAMOUNT, par'a-mownt, _adj._ superior to all others: chief: of the highest order or importance--opp. to _Paravail_.--_n._ the chief: a superior.--_adv._ PAR'AMOUNTLY. [O. Fr. _par amont_, _par_--L. prep. _per_; cf. _Amount_.]

PARAMOUR, par'a-m[=oo]r, _n._ a lover of either sex, now usually in the illicit sense. [Fr. _par amour_, by or with love--L. _per amorem_.]

PARANEMA, par-a-n[=e]'ma, _n._ (_bot._) paraphysis.--_adj._ PARANEMAT'IC. [Gr. _para_, about, _n[=e]ma_, a thread.]

PARANG, par'ang, _n._ a heavy Malay knife. [Malay.]

PARANGON, pa-rang'gon, _n._ a jeweller's term for a gem of remarkable excellence. [Fr.]

PARANOEA, par-a-n[=e]'a, _n._ chronic mental derangement--also PARANOI'A.--_ns._ PARANOE'AC, PARANOI'AC.--_adj._ PARANOE'IC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _noein_, to think.]

PARANTHELION, par-an-th[=e]'li-on, _n._ a diffuse whitish image of the sun, having the same altitude, at an angular distance of about 120°--due to reflection from atmospheric ice-prisms. [Gr. _para_, beside, _anti_, against, _h[=e]lios_, the sun.]

PARANUCLEUS, par-a-n[=u]'kl[=e]-us, _n._ (_biol._) an accessory nucleus in some protozoans.--_adjs._ PARAN[=U]'CLEAR, PARAN[=U]'CLEATE.--_n._ PARAN[=U]CL[=E]'OLUS, a mass of substance extruded from the nucleus, in pollen and spore mother-cells before division.

PARANYMPH, par'a-nimf, _n._ a friend of the bridegroom who escorted the bride on the way to her marriage: a bride's-man: one who countenances and supports another. [Gr. _para_, beside, _nymph[=e]_, a bride.]

PARAPEPTONE, par-a-pep't[=o]n, _n._ a proteid compound formed in gastric digestion, acid albumen.

PARAPET, par'a-pet, _n._ a rampart breast-high, to protect soldiers on a wall from the fire of an enemy: a breast-high wall on a bridge, house-roof, a platform, &c., to prevent persons from falling over.--_adj._ PAR'APETED, having a parapet. [Fr.,--It. _parapetto_--It. _parare_, to adorn--L. _par[=a]re_, to prepare, It. _petto_--L. _pectus_, the breast.]

PARAPH, par'af, _n._ a mark or flourish under one's signature.--_v.t._ to append a paraph to, to sign with initials. [_Paragraph._]

PARAPHASIA, par-a-f[=a]'zi-a, _n._ a form of aphasia in which one word is substituted for another.

PARAPHERNALIA, par-a-f[.e]r-n[=a]l'i-a, ornaments of dress of any kind: trappings: that which a bride brings over and above her dowry: the clothes, jewels, &c. which a wife possesses beyond her dowry in her own right. [Late L. _parapherna_--Gr., from _para_, beyond, _phern[=e]_, a dowry--_pherein_, to bring.]

PARAPHIMOSIS, par-a-f[=i]-m[=o]'sis, _n._ strangulation of the glans penis by constriction of the prepuce.

PARAPHONIA, par-a-f[=o]'ni-a, _n._ in Byzantine music, a melodic progression by consonances (fourths and fifths): an abnormal condition of the voice: an alteration of the voice, as at puberty. [Gr. _para_, beside, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, the voice.]

PARAPHRAGM, par'a-fram, _n._ a kind of lateral diaphragm in Crustacea.--_adj._ PARAPHRAG'MAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _phrassein_, to fence.]

PARAPHRASE, par'a-fr[=a]z, _n._ a saying of the same thing in other words, often more fully and more clearly: an explanation of a passage: a loose or free translation: (_Scot._) one of a certain number of Scripture passages turned into verse for use in the service of praise.--_v.t._ to say the same thing in other words: to render more fully: to interpret or translate freely.--_v.i._ to make a paraphrase.--_n._ PAR'APHRAST, one who paraphrases.--_adjs._ PARAPHRAST'IC, -AL, of the nature of a paraphrase: more clear and ample than the original passage: free, loose, diffuse.--_adv._ PARAPHRAST'ICALLY.--PARAPHRASTIC CONJUGATION, one composed of the verb _sum_ (am) with participial forms of the verbs conjugated (_amaturus sum_, &c.). [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _paraphrasis_--_para_, beside, _phrasis_, a speaking--_phrazein_, to speak.]

PARAPHYLLUM, par-a-fil'um, _n._ (_bot._) a small foliaceous organ between the leaves of some mosses. [Gr. _para_, beside, _phyllon_, a leaf.]

PARAPHYSIS, pa-raf'i-sis, _n._ an erect sterile filament accompanying the sexual organs of some cryptogamous plants:--_pl._ PARAPH'YS[=E]S.

PARAPLEGIA, par-a-pl[=e]'ji-a, _n._ a form of spinal paralysis in which voluntary motion and sensation are interrupted below the level of the affected part of the spinal cord, while reflex movements may be preserved and certain forms even increased.--_adjs._ PARAPLEC'TIC, PARAPL[=E]'GIC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _pl[=e]ssein_, to strike.]

PARAPLEURUM, par-a-pl[=oo]'rum, _n._ one of the pleura or sternal side-pieces in a beetle, &c.--Also PARAPLEU'RON. [Gr. _para_, beside, _pleuron_, side.]

PARAPODIUM, par-a-p[=o]'di-um, _n._ one of the jointless lateral appendages of an annelid:--_pl._ PARAP[=O]'DIA. [Gr. _para_, beside, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

PARAPOPHYSIS, par-a-pof'i-sis, _n._ the inferior or anterior process on the side of a vertebra--the superior or posterior one being a _diapophysis_.--_adj._ PARAPOPHYS'IAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _apophysis_, an offshoot.]

PARAPSIS, pa-rap'sis, _n._ (_entom._) one of the two lateral parts of the mesoscutum of the thorax.--_adj._ PARAP'SIDAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _hapsis_, a loop.]

PARAPSIS, pa-rap'sis, _n._ a disordered sense of touch.--Also PAR[=A]'PHIA. [Gr. _para_, beside, _hapsis_, a touching.]

PARAPTERUM, pa-rap'te-rum, _n._ (_entom._) the third sclerite of each pleuron, or lateral segment of each thoracic somite--the first and second, the _episternum_, and the _epimeron_: in birds, the scapular and adjoining feathers of the wing.--_adj._ PARAP'TERAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _pteron_, a wing.]

PARAQUITO, par-a-k[=e]'to, _n._ Same as PAROQUET, PARRAKEET.

PARARCTALIA, par-ark-t[=a]'li-a, _n._ the northern temperate realm of the waters of the globe.--_adj._ PARARCT[=A]'LIAN.

PARARTHRIA, pa-rär'thri-ä, _n._ disordered articulation of speech. [Gr. _para_, beside, _arthron_, a joint.]

PARASANG, par'a-sang, _n._ a Persian measure of length, containing 30 stadia, equal to about 3¾ miles. [Gr. _parasang[=e]s_--Pers. _farsang_.]

PARASCENIUM, par-a-s[=e]'ni-um, _n._ in the Greek theatre, one of the wings on either side of the proscenium:--_pl._ PARASC[=E]'NIA. [Gr.]

PARASCEVE, par'a-s[=e]v, _n._ the eve before the Jewish Sabbath when the preparations are made: sometimes applied to Good-Friday: (_obs._) preparation.--_adj._ PARASCENAS'TIC. [Gr. _paraskeu[=e]_, preparation--_para_, beside, _skeu[=e]_, equipment.]

PARASCHEMATIC, par-a-sk[=e]-mat'ik, _adj._ imitative. [Gr. _para_, beside, _sch[=e]ma_, a scheme.]

PARASELENE, par-a-se-l[=e]'n[=e], _n._ a mock moon, seen in connection with a lunar rainbow (cf. _Parahelion_):--_pl._ PARASEL[=E]'NÆ.--_adj._ PARASELEN'IC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _sel[=e]n[=e]_, the moon.]

PARASITE, par'a-s[=i]t, _n._ one who frequents another's table: a hanger-on: a sycophant: (_bot._) a plant growing upon and nourished by the juices of another: (_zool._) an animal which lives on another--its host.--_adjs._ PARASIT'IC, -AL, like a parasite: fawning: acting as a sycophant: living on other plants or animals.--_adv._ PARASIT'ICALLY.--_ns._ PARASIT'ICALNESS; PARASIT'ICIDE, that which destroys parasites; PAR'ASITISM; PARASITOL'OGIST; PARASITOL'OGY. [Fr.,--L. _paras[=i]tus_--Gr. _parasitos_--_para_, beside, _sitos_, corn.]

PARASOL, par'a-sol, _n._ a small umbrella used by women as a shade from the sun.--_v.t._ to shelter from the sun. [Fr.,--It. _parasole_--_parare_, to keep off--L. _par[=a]re_, to prepare, _sol_, _solis_, the sun.]

PARASPHENOID, par-a-sf[=e]'noid, _n._ a bone which in some Vertebrata underlies the base of the skull from the basi-occipital to the presphenoidal region.--_adj._ lying under or alongside the sphenoid.

PARASYNTHESIS, par-a-sin'the-sis, _n._ the principle of forming words by a combined process of derivation and composition with a particle.--_adj._ PARASYNTHET'IC.--_n._ PARASYN'THETON, a word so formed:--_pl._ PARASYN'THETA.

PARATAXIS, par-a-tak'sis, _n._ (_gram._) the arrangement of clauses or propositions without connectives. [Gr.]

PARATHESIS, pa-rath'e-sis, _n._ (_gram._) apposition: (_philol._) the setting side by side of things of equivalent grade in the monosyllabic or isolating languages: (_rhet._) a parenthetic notice of something to be afterwards explained: in the Eastern Church, a prayer of the bishop over converts or catechumens. [Gr.]

PARATONIC, par-a-ton'ik, _adj._ retarding a plant's growth. [Gr. _para_, beside, _teinein_, to stretch.]

PARAVAIL, par'a-v[=a]l, _adj._ inferior: lowest, said of a feudal tenant: of least account--opp. to _Paramount_. [O. Fr. _par aval_, below--L. _per_, through, _ad_, to, _vallem_, a valley.]

PARAVANT, PARAVAUNT, par'a-vänt, _adv._ (_Spens._) in front, first, beforehand. [O. Fr. _paravant_--_par_, through, _avant_, before--L. _ab_, from, _ante_, before.]

PARBAKE, pär'b[=a]k, _v.t._ to bake partially. [Formed on analogy of _parboil_.]

PARBOIL, pär'boil, _v.t._ to boil slightly or in part--as if from _part_ and _boil_.

PARBREAK, pär'br[=a]k, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Spens._) to throw out, to vomit.--_n._ (_Spens._) vomit. [Fr. _par_--L. _per_, through, and _break_.]


PARBUCKLE, pär'buk'l, _n._ a purchase made by looping a rope in the middle to aid in rolling casks up or down an incline, or in furling a sail by rolling the yards: a sling made by passing both ends of a rope through its bight.--_v.t._ to hoist or lower by a parbuckle:--_pr.p._ par'buckling; _pa.p._ par'buckled. [Prob. L. _par_, equal, and _buckle_.]

PARCÆ, pär's[=e], the Fates.

PARCEL, pär'sel, _n._ a little part: a portion: a quantity, as of single articles: a number forming a group or a lot: a package.--_v.t._ to divide into portions:--_pr.p._ par'celling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ par'celled.--_n._ PAR'CEL-BAWD (_Shak._), one partly a bawd.--_adjs._ PAR'CEL-BEARD'ED (_Tenn._), partially bearded; PAR'CEL-GILT, partially gilded.--_n._ PAR'CEL-OFF'ICE, a place where parcels are received for despatch and delivery.--PARCELS POST, that department of the post-office which takes charge of the forwarding and delivery of small parcels. [Fr. _parcelle_ (It. _particella_)--L. _particula_, dim. of _pars_, _partis_, a part.]

PARCENARY, par'se-n[=a]-ri, _n._ co-heirship.--_n._ PAR'CENER, a co-heir.

PARCH, pärch, _v.t._ to burn slightly: to scorch.--_v.i._ to be scorched: to become very dry.--_adj._ PARCHED, scorched.--_adv._ PARCH'EDLY.--_n._ PARCH'EDNESS. [M. E. _parchen_, either a variety of _per(s)chen_=_peris(c)hen_, to kill, or from _perchen_, to pierce.]

PARCHMENT, pärch'ment, _n._ the skin of a sheep or goat prepared for writing on.--PARCHMENT PAPER, or VEGETABLE PARCHMENT (see PAPER).--VIRGIN PARCHMENT, a fine kind of parchment made from the skins of new-born lambs or kids. [Fr. _parchemin_--L. _pergamena_ (_charta_, paper)--from Gr. _Pergamos_.]

PARD, pärd, _n._ (_slang_) a partner, mate.

PARD, pärd, _n._ the panther: the leopard: in poetry, any spotted animal.--_n._ PARD'ALE (_Spens._). [L. _pardus_--Gr. _pardos_, the panther, the leopard.]

PARDIEU, pär'd[=u], PARDI, PARDY, pär'di, _adv._ (_Spens._) in truth: certainly. [Fr., by God--_par_--L. _per_, through, by, _Dieu_--L. _deus_, God.]

PARDON, pär'don, _v.t._ to forgive, said either of an offender or of a crime: to pass by without punishment or blame: to set free from punishment: to let off without doing something.--_n._ forgiveness, either of an offender or of his offence: remission of a penalty or punishment: a warrant declaring a pardon: a papal indulgence.--_adj._ PAR'DONABLE, that may be pardoned: excusable.--_n._ PAR'DONABLENESS.--_adv._ PAR'DONABLY.--_n._ PAR'DONER, one who pardons: formerly, one licensed to sell papal indulgences.--_p.adj._ PAR'DONING, disposed to pardon: forgiving: exercising the right or power to pardon: conferring authority to grant pardon.--PARDON ME, excuse me--used in apology and to soften a contradiction. [Fr. _pardonner_--Low L. _perdon[=a]re_--L. _per_, through, away, _don[=a]re_, to give.]

PARDY, pär'di, _adv._ A form of _pardieu_.

PARE, p[=a]r, _v.t._ to cut or shave off: to trim, or to remove by cutting: to diminish by littles.--_n._ P[=A]R'ER, one who, or that which, pares. [Fr. _parer_--L. _par[=a]re_, to prepare.]

PAREGORIC, par-[=e]-gor'ik, _adj._ soothing, lessening pain.--_n._ a medicine that soothes pain: tincture of opium. [L.,--Gr. _par[=e]gorikos_--_par[=e]gorein_, to exhort.]

PAREIL, par-el', _n._ an equal. [Fr.,--L. _par_, equal.]

PAREIRA, pa-r[=a]'ra, _n._ a tonic diuretic drug derived from various South and Central American plants. [Braz.]

PARELLA, pa-rel'la, _n._ a crustaceous lichen yielding archil, cudbear, and litmus.--Also PARELLE'. [Fr. _parelle_.]

PAREMBOLE, pa-rem'b[=o]-l[=e], _n._ (_rhet._) an inserted phrase modifying or explaining the thought of the sentence--closer to the context than a parenthesis. [Gr.]

PARENCHYMA, pa-reng'ki-mä, _n._ the soft cellular tissue of glandular and other organs, as the pith in plants or the pulp in fruits.--_adjs._ PARENCH'YMAL, PARENCHYM'ATOUS, PARENCH'YMOUS. [Gr., _para_, beside, _engchein_, to pour in.]

PARENESIS, pa-ren'e-sis, _n._ persuasion.--_adjs._ PARENET'IC, -AL, hortatory. [Gr. _parainesis_, exhortation, _para_, beside, _ainein_, to praise.]

PARENT, p[=a]r'ent, _n._ one who begets or brings forth: a father or a mother: one who, or that which, produces: an author: a cause.--_n._ PAR'ENTAGE, descent from parents: birth: extraction: rank or character derived from one's parents or ancestors: relation of parents to their children.--_adj._ PARENT'AL, pertaining to, or becoming, parents: affectionate: tender.--_adv._ PARENT'ALLY.--_ns._ PAR'ENTHOOD, state of being a parent: duty or feelings of a parent; PARENT'ICIDE, one who kills a parent.--_adj._ PAR'ENTLESS, without a parent. [Fr., 'kinsman'--L. _parens_, for _pariens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _par[)e]re_, to bring forth.]

PARENTHESIS, pa-ren'the-sis, _n._ a word, phrase, or sentence put in or inserted in another which is grammatically complete without it: (_pl._) the marks ( ) used to mark off a parenthesis:--_pl._ PAREN'THESES (-s[=e]z).--_v.i._ PARENTH'ESISE.--_adjs._ PARENTHET'IC, -AL, of the nature of a parenthesis: expressed in a parenthesis: using parentheses.--_adv._ PARENTHET'ICALLY. [Gr.,--_para_, beside, _en_, in, _thesis_, a placing--_tithenai_, to place.]

PARERGON, pa-r[.e]r'gon, _n._ a by-work, any work subsidiary to another. [Gr.,--_para_, beside, _ergon_, work.]

PARESIS, par'e-sis, _n._ a diminished activity of function--a partial form of paralysis.--_adj._ PARET'IC. [Gr., _parienai_, to relax.]

PARFAY, pär-f[=a]', _interj._ by or in faith. [Fr.]

PARFILAGE, pär'fi-l[=a]j, _n._ the unravelling of woven fabrics, to save gold or silver threads. [Fr.]

PARFLECHE, pär-flesh', _n._ rawhide of buffalo-skin stripped of hair and dried on a stretcher: a wallet, tent, &c. of such material. [Canadian Fr.,--Ind.]

PARGASITE, pär'ga-s[=i]t, _n._ a dark-green crystallised variety of amphibole or hornblende.

PARGET, pär'jet, _n._ (_Spens._) the plaster of a wall: paint.--_v.t._ to plaster: to paint.--_ns._ PAR'GETER; PAR'GETING, PARGE'-WORK. [L. _paries_, _parietis_, a wall; or Low L. _spargit[=a]re_, to sprinkle--L. _sparg[)e]re_.]

PARHELION, par-h[=e]'li-un, _n._ a bright light caused by refraction of light through ice crystals floating in the air, sometimes seen near the sun, and sometimes opposite to the sun, when it is called _anthelion_:--_pl._ PARH[=E]'LIA.--_adjs._ PARHEL'IC, PARHEL[=I]'ACAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _h[=e]lios_, the sun.]

PARIAH, p[=a]r'i-a, _n._ a member of a caste in southern India, lower than the four Brahminical castes: one who has lost his caste: an outcast. [Tamil.]

PARIAN, p[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to or found in the island of _Paros_, in the Ægean Sea.--_n._ an inhabitant of Paros: a fine porcelain for statuettes, resembling marble.--PARIAN MARBLE, a fine marble found in Paros, much used by the ancients for statues.

PARIDIGITATE, par-i-dij'i-t[=a]t, _adj._ having an even number of digits.

PARIETAL, pa-r[=i]'et-al, _adj._ pertaining to a wall or walls: (_anat._) forming the sides: (_bot._) growing from the inner lining of an organ, and not from the axis, as seeds in the ovary.--_n._ one of the bones of the skull. [L. _parietalis_--_paries_, _parietis_, a wall.]

PARING, p[=a]r'ing, _n._ act of trimming or cutting off: that which is pared off: rind: the cutting off of the surface of grass land for tillage.

PARIPINNATE, par-i-pin'[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) equally pinnate.

PARISH, par'ish, _n._ a district under one pastor: an ecclesiastical district having officers of its own and supporting its own poor: the people of a parish.--_adj._ belonging or relating to a parish: employed or supported by the parish.--_n._ PARISH'IONER, one who belongs to or is connected with a parish: a member of a parish church.--PARISH CLERK, the clerk or recording officer of a parish: the one who leads the responses in the service of the Church of England; PARISH PRIEST, a priest who has charge of a parish; PARISH REGISTER, a book in which the births, marriages, and deaths of a parish are registered. [Fr. _paroisse_--L. _paroecia_--Gr. _paroikia_--_paroikos_, dwelling beside--_para_, beside, _oikos_, a dwelling.]

PARISIAN, par-iz'i-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Paris_.--_n._ a native or resident of Paris:--_fem._ PARISIENNE'.--PARIS DOLL, a small figure dressed in the latest fashions, sent out by Paris modistes.

PARISYLLABIC, par-i-si-lab'ik, _adj._ having the same number of syllables.

PARITOR, par'i-tor, _n._ Same as APPARITOR.

PARITY, par'i-ti, _n._ state of being equal in rank, position, quality, &c.: resemblance: analogy. [Fr. _parité_--L. _paritas_--_par_, equal.]

PARK, pärk, _n._ an enclosed piece of land for a special purpose, as for wild beasts: a grass field: a tract of land surrounding a mansion: a piece of ground enclosed for recreation: (_mil._) a space in an encampment occupied by the artillery; hence, a collection of artillery, or stores in an encampment.--_v.t._ to enclose: to bring together in a body, as artillery.--_n._ PARK'ER, the keeper of a park. [A.S. _pearroc_, prob. modified by Fr. _parc_.]

PARLANCE, pär'lans, _n._ speaking: conversation: peculiar manner of conversation.--_adj._ and _adv._ PARLAN'DO, declamatory in style: in recitative.--_v.i._ PARLE (_Shak._), to talk.--_n._ (_Shak._) talk, conversation.--_v.i._ PAR'LEY, to speak with another: to confer on some important point: to treat with an enemy.--_n._ talk: a conference with an enemy in war. [Fr. _parler_--L. _parabola_--Gr. _parabol[=e]_, a parable, word.]

PARLIAMENT, pär'li-ment, _n._ a meeting for deliberation: the supreme legislature of Great Britain, also of some of her colonies: in France, down to the Revolution, one of certain superior and final courts of judicature, in which also the edicts of the king were registered before becoming law.--_adjs._ PARLIAMENT[=A]'RIAN, adhering to the Parliament in opposition to Charles I.; PARLIAMENT'ARY, pertaining to parliament: enacted or done by parliament: according to the rules and practices of legislative bodies.--PARLIAMENTARY AGENT, a person employed by private persons or societies for drafting bills or managing business to be brought before parliament; PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH, a borough having the right of sending a member or members to parliament; PARLIAMENTARY TRAIN, a train which, by act of parliament, runs both ways along a line of railway, at least once each day, at the rate of one penny per mile.--ACT OF PARLIAMENT, a statute that has passed through both the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and received the formal royal assent. [Fr. _parlement_--_parler_, to speak.]

PARLOUR, pär'lur, _n._ an ordinary family sitting-room: a room for receiving guests in.--_n._ PAR'LOUR-BOARD'ER, a pupil at a boarding-school who enjoys particular privileges. [Fr., _parloir_--_parler_, to speak.]

PARLOUS, pär'lus, _adj._ perilous, venturesome, notable.--_adv._ PAR'LOUSLY. [_Perilous._]

PARMACETY, par-mas-it'i, _n._ (_Shak._) a corr. of _spermaceti_.

PARMESAN, par-me-zan', _adj._ pertaining to _Parma_.--_n._ Parmesan cheese.

PARNASSUS, par-nas'us, _n._ a mountain in Greece, sacred to Apollo and the Muses.--_adj._ PARNASS'IAN.--GRASS OF PARNASSUS, a plant with beautiful white or yellowish flowers.

PARNELLISM, pär'nel-izm, _n._ the plans and methods of agitation used by Charles Stewart _Parnell_ (1846-91) for the purpose of promoting 'Home Rule' for Ireland.--_n._ PAR'NELLITE, one of the followers of C. S. Parnell.--_adj._ of or pertaining to the nationalist movement led by Parnell.

PAROCCIPITAL, par-ok-sip'i-tal, _adj._ situated near the occiput.

PAROCHIAL, par-[=o]'ki-al, _adj._ of or relating to a parish: restricted or confined within narrow limits--of sentiments, tastes, &c.--_v.t._ PAR[=O]'CHIALISE, to form into parishes.--_n._ PAR[=O]'CHIALISM, a system of local government which makes the parish the unit--hence provincialism, narrowness of view.--_adv._ PAR[=O]'CHIALLY.--PAROCHIAL BOARD (in Scotland), the board in each parish which relieves the poor. [L. _parochialis_--_parochia_, a variant of _paroecia_.]

PARODY, par'o-di, _n._ an imitation of a poem in which its words and ideas are so far changed as to produce a ridiculous effect.--_v.t._ to turn into parody, to make a parody of:--_pa.p._ par'odied.--_adjs._ PAROD'IC, -AL.--_n._ PAR'ODIST, one who writes a parody. [L.,--Gr. _par[=o]dia_--_para_, beside, _[=o]d[=e]_, an ode.]

PAROLE, par-[=o]l', _n._ word of mouth: (_mil._) word of honour (esp. by a prisoner of war, to fulfil certain conditions): the daily password in a camp or garrison.--_adj._ given by word of mouth: oral--opp. to _Documentary_, as _parole_ evidence. [Fr.,--L. _parabola_, a parable, saying.]

PARONOMASIA, par-[=o]-n[=o]-m[=a]'zhi-a, _n._ a rhetorical figure in which words similar in sound but different in meaning are set in opposition to each other: a play upon words--also PARONOM'ASY.--_adjs._ PARONOMAS'TIC, -AL.--_ns._ PAR'ONYME, PAR'ONYM, a paronymous word--opp. to _Homonym_.--_adj._ PARON'YMOUS, formed by a slight change of word or name: derived from the same root: having the same sound, but different in spelling and meaning.--_n._ PARON'YMY, quality of being paronymous. [Gr. _para_, beside, _onoma_, name.]

PAROQUET, PARROQUET, par'o-ket, _n._ a small long-tailed tropical and subtropical parrot.--Also PARR'AKEET. [Fr. _perroquet_--_Pierrot_, dim. of _Pierre_, Peter.]

PAROSMIA, pa-ros'mi-a, _n._ a perversion of the sense of smell. [Gr. _para_, beside, _osm[=e]_, smell.]

PAROTID, par-ot'id, _n._ the largest of the three pairs of salivary glands, situated immediately in front of the ear--also PAR[=O]'TIS.--_adj._ PAROT'IC, auricular, situated about the outer ear.--_ns._ PAROTID[=I]'TIS, PAROT[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the parotic gland. [L.,--Gr. _par[=o]tis_, _-idos_--_para_, beside, _ous_, _[=o]tos_, ear.]

PAROXYSM, par'oks-izm, _n._ a fit of acute pain occurring at intervals: a fit of passion: any sudden violent action.--_adjs._ PAROXYS'MAL, PAROXYS'MIC, pertaining to, or occurring in, paroxysms. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _paroxysmos_--_para_, beyond, _oxys_, sharp.]

PAROXYTONE, par-ok'si-t[=o]n, _adj._ having the acute accent on the last syllable but one.--_n._ a word with an acute accent on the second last syllable.--_v.t._ to accent a word in this way.


PARQUET, pär-ket', _n._ the part of the floor of a theatre, &c., behind the musicians' seats, but not under the gallery: the pit or the whole of the floor of a theatre: parquetry.--_n._ PAR'QUETRY, woodwork inlaid with figures, for floors. [Fr. _parquet_, an inlaid floor, dim. of _parc_, an enclosure.]

PARR, pär, _n._ a young salmon.

PARRAKEET, par'a-k[=e]t, _n._ Same as PAROQUET.

PARRHESIA, pa-r[=e]'si-a, _n._ boldness of speech. [Gr.]

PARRICIDE, par'ri-s[=i]d, _n._ the murder of one's own father or mother: the murder of a parent: the murder of any one to whom reverence is due.--_adj._ PARRICID'AL, pertaining to, or committing, parricide. [Fr.,--L. _parricida_ (for _patri-cida_)--_pater_, _patris_, father, _cæd[)e]re_, to slay.]

PARROT, par'rut, _n._ one of a family of tropical and subtropical birds, with brilliant plumage and a hooked bill, remarkable for their faculty of imitating the human voice: a repeater of the words of others.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to repeat by rote.--_ns._ PAR'ROT-COAL, a kind of coal which crepitates in burning; PAR'ROTER; PAR'ROT-FISH, a name applied to various fishes, from their colours or the shape of their jaws; PAR'ROTRY, servile imitation. [Contr. of Fr. _perroquet_.]

PARRY, par'i, _v.t._ to ward or keep off: to turn aside: to avoid:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ parr'ied.--_n._ a turning aside of a blow or a thrust: a defensive movement of any kind. [Fr. _parer_--L. _par[=a]re_, to prepare, in Low L. to keep off.]

PARSE, pärs, _v.t._ (_gram._) to tell the parts of speech of a sentence and the relations of the various words to each other.--_n._ PARS'ING. [L. _pars (orationis)_, a part of speech.]

PARSEE, PARSI, pär's[=e], _n._ one of the surviving remnant of Zoroastrianism which took refuge in India in the 7th century: a fire-worshipper.--_n._ PAR'SEEISM. [Pers. _P[=a]rs[=i]_--_P[=a]rs_, Persia.]

PARSIMONY, pär'si-mun-i, _n._ sparingness in the spending of money: frugality: niggardliness.--_adj._ PARSIM[=O]'NIOUS, sparing in the use of money: frugal to excess: niggardly: covetous.--_adv._ PARSIM[=O]'NIOUSLY.--_n._ PARSIM[=O]'NIOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _parsimonia_, _parcimonia_--_parc[)e]re_, to spare.]

PARSLEY, pärs'li, _n._ a bright-green herb, with finely divided, strongly scented leaves, used in cookery. [Fr. _persil_--L. _petroselinum_--Gr. _petroselinon_--_petros_, a rock, _selinon_, a kind of parsley.]

PARSNIP, PARSNEP, pärs'nip, _n._ an edible plant with a carrot-like root. [O. Fr. _pastenaque_--L. _pastinaca_--_pastinum_, a dibble.]

PARSON, pär'sn, _n._ the priest or incumbent of a parish: a clergyman: one who is licensed to preach.--_n._ PAR'SONAGE, the residence of the minister of a parish: (_orig._) the house, lands, tithes, &c. set apart for the support of the minister of a parish.--_adjs._ PARSON'IC, PAR'SONISH, pertaining to or like a parson. [O. Fr. _persone_--L. _pers[=o]na_, a person.]

PART, pärt, _n._ something less than the whole: a portion: a quantity or number making up with others a larger quantity or number: a fraction: a member or essential part of a whole: a proportional quantity: one's share: interest: side or party: action: character taken by an actor in a play: (_math._) a quantity which taken a certain number of times will equal a larger quantity: an exact divisor: (_mus._) one of the melodies of a harmony: (_pl._) qualities: talents.--_v.t._ to divide: to make into parts: to put or keep asunder.--_v.i._ to be separated: to be torn asunder: to have a part or share.--_adj._ PART'ED (_Shak._), endowed with parts or abilities: (_bot._) deeply cleft, as a leaf.--_n._ PART'ER.--_adv._ PART'LY, in part: in some degree.--PART OF SPEECH (_gram._), one of the various classes of words.--FOR MY PART, as far as concerns me; FOR THE MOST PART, commonly; IN BAD, or ILL, PART, unfavourably; IN GOOD PART, favourably; TAKE PART IN, to share or to assist in; TAKE PART WITH, to take one's side. [Fr.,--L. _pars_, _partis_.]

PARTAKE, pär-t[=a]k', _v.i._ to take or have a part, either absolutely, or with of or in before the thing shared, as food, &c.: to have something of the nature or properties, &c.: to be admitted: (_Shak._) to make common cause.--_v.t._ to have a part in: to share: (_Shak._) to communicate:--_pr.p._ part[=a]'king; _pa.t._ partook'; _pa.p._ part[=a]'ken.--_ns._ PART[=A]'KER, one who shares in along with others: a partner: an accomplice; PART[=A]'KING, a sharing: (_law_) a combination in an evil design. [_Part_ and _take_.]

PARTAN, par'tan, _n._ (_Scot._) a small edible sea-crab. [Gael.]

PARTERRE, par-ter', _n._ an arrangement of flower-plots with spaces of turf or gravel between for walks: the pit of a theatre, esp. beneath the galleries. [Fr.,--L. _per terram_, along the ground.]

PARTHENOGENESIS, pär-the-n[=o]-jen'e-sis, _n._ reproduction without renewed impregnation by a male, as in aphids or plant-lice, &c.--also PARTHENOG'ENY.--_adjs._ PARTHENOGENET'IC, PARTHENOG'ENOUS. [Gr. _parthenos_, a virgin, _genesis_, production.]

PARTHENON, pär'the-non, _n._ the temple of Ath[=e]n[=e] _Parth[)e]nos_, on the Acropolis at Athens. [Gr. _Parthen[=o]n_--_parthenos_, a virgin.]

PARTHIAN, par'thi-an, _adj._ of or belonging to _Parthia_, in Persia.--A PARTHIAN SHOT, a shot or blow given while pretending to fly, a parting shot.

PARTIAL, pär'shal, _adj._ relating to a part only: not total or entire: inclined to favour one person or party: having a preference: (_bot._) subordinate.--_v.t._ PAR'TIALISE (_Shak._), to render partial.--_ns._ PAR'TIALISM, the doctrine of the Partialists; PAR'TIALIST, one who holds that the atonement of Christ was made only for a part of mankind; PARTIAL'ITY, state or quality of being partial: liking for one thing more than for others.--_adv._ PAR'TIALLY.[Fr.,--Low L. _partialis_--L. _pars_, a part.]

PARTIBLE, pär'ti-bl, _adj._ that may be parted: separable.--_n._ PARTIBIL'ITY.

PARTIBUS, par'ti-bus, _n._ in Scots law, a note on the margin of a summons, giving name and designation of the pursuer.--IN PARTIBUS INFIDELIUM, a phrase applying formerly to bishops who were merely titular, without regular jurisdiction, their function to assist some other bishop or to act as delegates of the Pope where no hierarchy had as yet been established.

PARTICIPATE, pär-tis'i-p[=a]t, _v.i._ to partake: to have a share.--_v.t._ to receive a part or share of.--_n._ PÄR'TICEPS CRIM'INIS, one who, although not present, helps in any way the commission of a crime, or who after the deed assists or hides the person who did it.--_adjs._ PARTIC'IPABLE, capable of being participated in or shared; PARTIC'IPANT, participating: sharing.--_n._ a partaker.--_adv._ PARTIC'IPANTLY.--_n._ PARTICIP[=A]'TION.--_adj._ PARTIC'IP[=A]TIVE, capable of participating.--_n._ PARTIC'IP[=A]TOR, one who partakes with another: a sharer. [L. _particip[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_pars_, part, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

PARTICIPLE, pär'ti-si-pl, _n._ a word having the value of an adjective but regularly formed from a verb.--_adj._ PARTICIP'IAL, having the nature of a participle: formed from a participle.--_adv._ PARTICIP'IALLY.[L.,--_participium_--_particeps_--_pars_, a part, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

PARTICLE, pär'ti-kl, _n._ a little part: a very small portion: (_physics_) the minutest part into which a body can be divided: an atom: (_gram._) an indeclinable word, as a preposition, a conjunction, an interjection: a word that can only be used in composition, as _wise_ in side_wise_: (_R.C. Church_) a crumb of consecrated bread, also the 'smaller breads' used in the communion of the laity.--_adj._ PARTIC'ULAR, relating to a part of anything: pertaining to a single person or thing: individual: special: worthy of special attention: concerned with or marking things single or distinct: exact: nice in taste: precise.--_n._ a distinct or minute part: a single point: a single instance: (_pl._) details.--_n._ PARTICULARIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PARTIC'ULARISE, to mention the particulars of: to enumerate in detail: to give a special description of.--_v.i._ to mention or attend to single things or minute details.--_ns._ PARTIC'ULARISM, attention to one's own interest or party: a particular or minute description: the doctrine that salvation is offered only to particular individuals, the elect, and not freely to the whole race on condition of faith; PARTIC'ULARIST, one who holds the doctrine of particularism.--_adj._ PARTICULARIST'IC.--_n._ PARTICULAR'ITY, quality of being particular: minuteness of detail: a single act or case: a single or a minute circumstance: something peculiar or singular.--_adv._ PARTIC'ULARLY, in an especial manner: in a high degree: (_B._) in detail.--_n._ PARTIC'ULARNESS.--_adj._ PARTIC'UL[=A]TE, having the form of a small particle.--IN PARTICULAR, specially, distinctly. [Fr.,--L. _particula_, dim. of _pars_, _partis_, a part.]

PARTIM, part'im, _adv._ in part. [L.]

PARTING, pärt'ing, _adj._ putting apart: separating: departing: given at parting.--_n._ the act of parting: a division: a point or a line of division: the division of the hair on the head in dressing it: (_geol._) a division of a mineral into layers: a snapping or breaking under a great strain, as of a cable.--_n._ PART'ING-CUP, a drinking-cup with two handles on opposite sides.

PARTISAN, pär'ti-zan, _n._ an adherent of a party or a faction: one who is too strongly devoted to his own party or sect to be able to understand or to judge fairly of others.--_adj._ adhering to a party.--_n._ PAR'TISANSHIP. [Fr. (It. _partigiano_),--L. _part[=i]ri_.]

PARTISAN, pär'ti-zan, _n._ a kind of halberd or long-handled weapon, common in the Middle Ages: a soldier armed with such a weapon. [O. Fr. _pertuisane_, which is perh. from Old High Ger. _parta_ a battle-axe, seen in _halberd_.]

PARTITION, par-tish'un, _n._ act of parting or dividing: state of being divided: separate part: that which divides: a wall between apartments: the place where separation is made.--_v.t._ to divide into shares: to divide into parts by walls.--_adjs._ PAR'T[=I]TE, divided into parts: (_bot._) parted nearly to the base; PAR'TITIVE, parting: dividing: distributive.--_n._ (_gram._) a word denoting a part or partition.--_adv._ PAR'TITIVELY. [Fr.,--L. _partitio_--_part[=i]ri_, divide.]

PARTLET, pärt'let, _n._ a ruff or band worn round the neck or shoulders by women: a hen, from its habit of ruffling the feathers round its neck. [Prob. O. Fr. _Pertelote_, a woman's name.]

PARTNER, pärt'n[.e]r, _n._ a sharer: an associate: one engaged with another in business: one who plays on the same side in a game: one who dances with another: a husband or wife.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to join as a partner.--_ns._ PART'NERSHIP, state of being a partner: a contract between persons engaged in any business; SLEEP'ING-PART'NER, one who has money invested in a business, but takes no part in its management.

PARTRIDGE, pär'trij, _n._ a genus of gallinaceous birds preserved for game.--_n._ PAR'TRIDGE-WOOD, a hard variegated wood, from Brazil and the West Indies, used in cabinet-work. [Fr. _perdrix_--L. _perdix_, _perdicis_--Gr. _perdix_.]

PART-SINGING, pärt'-sing-ing, _n._ act or practice of singing different parts in harmony.--_n._ PART'-SONG, a song sung in parts.

PARTURE, pärt'[=u]r, _n._ (_Spens._) departure.

PARTURIENT, pär-t[=u]'ri-ent, _adj._ bringing, or about to bring, forth young: fruitful.--_n._ PART[=U]RI'TION, act of bringing forth.--_adj._ PART[=U]'RITIVE. [L. _parturiens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _partur[=i]re_--_par[)e]re_, to bring forth.]

PARTY, pär'ti, _n._ a part of a greater number of persons: a faction: a company met for a particular purpose, as a dinner party, a pleasure party, &c.: an assembly: one concerned in any affair: the person or persons on either side in a law-suit: (_colloq._) a single individual spoken of: (_mil._) a detachment of soldiers.--_adj._ belonging to a party and not to the whole: consisting of different parties, parts, or things: (_her._) parted or divided.--_adjs._ PAR'TI-COAT'ED, having on a coat of various colours; PAR'TI-COL'OURED, coloured differently at different parts.--_ns._ PAR'TYISM, devotion to party; PAR'TY-JU'RY, a jury half of natives and half of aliens; PAR'TY-MAN, a member of a party: a partisan; PAR'TY-POL'ITICS, politics viewed from a party stand-point, or arranged to suit the views or interests of a party; PAR'TY-SPIR'IT, the unreasonable spirit shown by a party-man toward those who do not belong to his party.--_adj._ PAR'TY-SPIR'ITED.--_ns._ PAR'TY-VER'DICT, a joint verdict; PAR'TY-WALL, a wall between two adjoining properties, built half on one and half on the other: a wall separating one house from another. [O. Fr. _partir_--L. _part[=i]ri_, to divide--_pars_, a part.]

PARURE, pa-rür', _n._ a set of ornaments, &c. [Fr.]

PARVANIMITY, par-va-nim'i-ti, _n._ littleness of mind.

PARVENU, pär've-n[=u], _n._ an upstart: one newly risen into notice or power.--_adj._ like a parvenu. [Fr., pa.p. of _parvenir_--L. _perven[=i]re_, to arrive at--_per_, through, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

PARVIS, PARVISE, pär'vis, _n._ a porch, or an enclosed space before a church: a room over a church porch used as a store, or schoolroom, or as an ecclesiastic's chamber. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _paravisus_, corr. of Gr. _paradeisos_; cf. _Paradise_.]

PAS, pä, _n._ a step, as in dancing or marching: a dance, as in 'Pas seul'=a dance by one person, 'Pas deux'=a dance of two persons.--PAS D'ARMES, a joust, a tilt, or a tourney.--HAVE THE PAS OF ONE, to take precedence of him. [Fr.]

PASCH, pask, _n._ the Jewish Passover: Easter.--_adj._ PASCH'AL, pertaining to the Passover, or to Easter.--_ns._ PASCH'AL-CAN'DLE, a large candle blessed and placed on the altar on the day before Easter; PASCH'AL-FLOW'ER (see PASQUE); PASCH'AL-LAMB, the lamb slain and eaten at the Jewish Passover; PASCH'-EGG, an Easter-egg.--PASCH OF THE CROSS, Good-Friday; PASCHAL CONTROVERSY, a long dispute in the early church about the proper time for celebrating Easter. [A.S. _pascha_--L.,--Gr.,--Heb. _pesach_, the Passover--_pasach_, to pass over.]

PASCUAGE, pas'k[=u]-[=a]j, _n._ the grazing or pasturing of cattle.--_adjs._ PAS'C[=U]AL, PAS'C[=U]OUS. [L. _pascuum_, pasture--_pasc[)e]re_, to feed.]

PASH, pash, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to strike, to dash, to crush.--_n._ a blow. [Perh. imit.]

PASH, pash, _n._ (_Shak._) the head, the face.

PASHA, PACHA, pash'ä, _n._ a title given to Turkish officers who are governors of provinces or hold high naval and military commands.--_ns._ PASH'ALIC, PACH'ALIC, the jurisdiction of a pasha. [Turk.,--Pers. _p[=a]sh[=a]_, _p[=a]dsh[=a]h_.]

PASIGRAPHY, pa-sig'ra-fi, _n._ a system of language-signs universally intelligible.--_adjs._ PASIGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ PAS'ILALY, universal speech. [Gr. _pas_, all, _graphein_, to write.]

PASQUE-FLOWER, pask'-flow'[.e]r, _n._ one of several genera of anemone, blooming about Easter--also _Campana_ and _Dane-flower_.

PASQUIN, pas'kwin, _n._ a lampoon or satire--also PAS'QUIL.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to lampoon or satirise--also PAS'QUIL.--_ns._ PAS'QUILANT, PAS'QUILER, PASQUIN[=A]'DER, a lampooner; PASQUIN[=A]DE', a lampoon.--_v.t._ to lampoon. [_Pasquino_, a sarcastic tailor in Rome in the 15th century, near whose house a mutilated statue was dug up just after his death, on which lampoons were posted.]

PASS, pas, _v.i._ to pace or walk onward: to move from one place or state to another: to travel: to change: to circulate: to be regarded: to go by: to go unheeded or neglected: to elapse, as time: to be finished: to move away: to disappear: (_B._) to pass away: to go through an examination or an inspection: to be approved: to meet with acceptance: to happen: to fall, as by inheritance: to flow through: to thrust, as with a sword: to run, as a road.--_v.t._ to go by, over, beyond, through, &c.: to spend: to omit: to disregard: to surpass: to enact, or to be enacted by: to cause to move: to send: to transfer: to give forth: to cause to go from one person or state to another: to approve: to undergo successfully: to give circulation to: (_fencing_) to thrust:--_pa.p._ passed and past.--_n._ a way through which one passes: a narrow passage, esp. over or through a range of mountains: a narrow defile: a passport: state or condition: a written permission to go out or in anywhere: a ticket: (_fencing_) a thrust: success in any examination or other test, a certificate of having reached a certain standard--without honours.--_adj._ PASS'ABLE, that may be passed, travelled over, or navigated: that may bear inspection: that may be accepted or allowed to pass: a little above the common: tolerable.--_n._ PASS'ABLENESS.--_adv._ PASS'ABLY.--_ns._ PASS'BOOK, a book that passes between a trader and his customer, in which credit purchases are entered: a bank-book; PASS'-CHECK, a ticket of admission to a place, or of readmission when one goes out intending to return; PASS'ER, one who passes; PASS'ER-BY, one who passes by or near; PASS'KEY, a key enabling one to enter a house: a key for opening several locks.--_adj._ PASS'LESS, having no pass: impassable.--_ns._ PASS'MAN, one who gains a degree or pass without honours at a university; PASS'PORT, a warrant of protection and permission to travel; PASS'WORD (_mil._), a private word by which a friend is distinguishable from a stranger, enabling one to pass or enter a camp, &c.--PASS MUSTER, to go through an inspection without fault being found; PASS OFF, to impose fraudulently, to palm off; PASS ON, to go forward: to proceed; PASS ON, or UPON, to come upon, to happen to: to give judgment or sentence upon: to practise artfully, to impose upon, to palm off; PASS OVER, or BY, to go to the other side of: to cross, to go past without visiting or halting: to overlook, to disregard; PASS THE TIME OF DAY, to exchange any ordinary greeting of civility; PASS THROUGH, to undergo, experience.--BRING TO PASS, to cause to happen; COME TO PASS, to happen. [O. Fr. _passer_--It. _passare_--_passus_, a step.]

PASSADE, pa-s[=a]d', _n._ (_Shak._) a push or thrust with a sword: the motion of a horse turning backwards or forwards on the same spot of ground.--Also PASS[=A]'DO.

PASSAGE, pas'[=a]j, _n._ act of passing: a moving from one place or state to another: a journey, as in a ship: course: time occupied in passing: means of passing in or out: a way: entrance: enactment of a law: right of passing: price paid for passing or for being conveyed between two places: occurrence, any incident or episode: a single clause or part of a book, &c.: a modulation in music: (_B._) a mountain-pass: ford of a river: (_zool._) migratory habits.--_v.i._ to cross: to walk sideways, of a horse.--PASSAGE OF ARMS, any feat of arms: a quarrel, esp. of words.--BIRD OF PASSAGE, a bird that passes from one climate to another at the change of the seasons.


PASSANT, pas'ant, _adj._ (_her._) walking. [Fr.]

PASSÉ, pas-s[=a]', _adj._ past one's best, faded, past the heyday of life: nearly out of date:--_fem._ PASSÉE. [Fr., pa.p. of _passer_, to pass.]

PASSEMENTERIE, pas-men-te-r[=e]', _n._ trimming for dresses, as beaded lace. [Fr.]

PASSENGER, pas'en-j[.e]r, _n._ one who passes: one who travels in some public conveyance.--PASSENGER PIGEON, a species of pigeon, a native of North America, having a small head and short bill, a very long, wedge-shaped tail, and long and pointed wings; PASSENGER TRAIN, a railway-train for the conveyance of passengers. [O. Fr. _passagier_ (Fr. _passager_), with inserted _n_, as in _messenger_, _nightingale_.]

PASSE-PARTOUT, pas'-par-t[=oo]', _n._ a means of passing anywhere: a master-key: a kind of simple picture-frame, usually of pasteboard, within which the picture is fixed by strips of paper pasted over the edges. [Fr., a 'master-key,' from _passer_, to pass, _par_, over, _tout_, all.]

PASSEPIED, pas'py[=a], _n._ a dance like the minuet, but quicker. [Fr.]

PASSERES, pas'e-rez, the name given by Cuvier to the order of birds otherwise called _Insessores_, comprising more than half of all the birds.--_adj._ PASS'ERINE, relating to the _Passeres_, an order of which the sparrow is the type. [L. _passer_, a sparrow.]

PASSIBLE, pas'i-bl, _adj._ susceptible of suffering, or of impressions from external agents.--_ns._ PASSIBIL'ITY, PASS'IBLENESS, the quality of being passible.--_adv._ PASS'IBLY, in a passible manner. [L. _passibilis_--_pati_, _passus_, to suffer.]

PASSIM, pas'im, _adv._ here and there. [L.]

PASSIMETER, pa-sim'e-ter, _n._ a pocket pedometer.

PASSING, pas'ing, _adj._ going by, through, or away: happening now: surpassing.--_adv._ exceedingly: very.--_ns._ PASS'ING-BELL, a bell tolled immediately after a person's death, originally to invite prayers for the soul passing into eternity; PASS'ING-NOTE (_mus._), a smaller note marking a tone introduced between two others, to effect a smooth passage from the one to the other, but forming no essential part of the harmony.

PASSION, pash'un, _n._ power of feeling pain or suffering: strong feeling or agitation of mind, esp. rage: ardent love: eager desire: state of the soul when receiving an impression: suffering or passive condition, as opposed to _Action_: the sufferings, esp. the death, of Christ: (_pl._) excited conditions of mind.--_ns._ PASSIFL[=O]'RA, a genus of climbing herbs or shrubs, the passion-flowers; PASS'IONAL, PASS'IONARY, a book containing accounts of the sufferings of saints and martyrs.--_adjs._ PASS'IONAL, influenced by passion; PASS'IONATE, moved by passion: showing strong and warm feeling: easily moved to anger: intense.--_adv._ PASS'IONATELY.--_n._ PASS'IONATENESS.--_adj._ PASS'IONED, moved by passion: expressing passion.--_ns._ PASS'ION-FLOW'ER, a flower so called from a fancied resemblance to a crown of thorns, the emblem of Christ's passion; PASS'IONIST (_R.C._), one of a religious congregation devoted to the commemoration of the Passion of Christ by missions, &c.--_adj._ PASS'IONLESS, free from passion: not easily excited to anger.--_n._ PASS'ION-M[=U]'SIC, music to which words describing the sufferings and death of Christ are set.--_adj._ PASS'ION-PALE (_Tenn._), pale with passion.--_ns._ PASS'ION-PLAY, a religious drama representing the sufferings and death of Christ; PASS'ION-SUN'DAY, the fifth Sunday in Lent; PASS'ION-WEEK, name commonly given in England to Holy-week (as being the week of Christ's passion); but, according to proper rubrical usage, the week preceding Holy-week. [Fr.,--L. _passio_, _passionis_--_passus_, pa.p. of _pati_, to suffer.]

PASSIVE, pas'iv, _adj._ suffering, unresisting: not acting: (_gram._) expressing the suffering of an action by the subject of the verb.--_adv._ PASS'IVELY.--_ns._ PASS'IVENESS, PASSIV'ITY, inactivity: patience: tendency of a body to preserve a given state, either of motion or of rest. [Fr.,--L. _passivus_--_pati_, suffer.]


PASSOVER, pas'[=o]-v[.e]r, _n._ annual feast of the Jews, to commemorate the destroying angel passing over the houses of the Israelites when he slew the first-born of the Egyptians.--_adj._ pertaining to the Passover.

PASSY-MEASURE, pas'si-mezh'[=u]r, _n._ (_Shak._) an old stately kind of dance, called also _Passamezzo_. [It. _passamezzo_--_passare_, to pass--_passo_--L. _passus_, a pace, _mezzo_--L. _medius_, the middle.]

PAST, past, _pa.p._ of PASS.--_adj._ gone by: elapsed: ended: now retired from service: in time already passed.--_prep._ farther than: out of reach of: no longer capable of.--_adv._ by.--THE PAST, that which has passed, esp. time.

PASTE, p[=a]st, _n._ a mass of anything made soft by wetting: flour and water forming dough for pies, &c.: a cement made of flour, water, &c.: a fine kind of glass for making artificial gems.--_v.t._ to fasten with paste.--_n._ PASTE'BOARD, a stiff board made of sheets of paper pasted together, &c.--_adj._ made of such, unsubstantial. [O. Fr. _paste_ (Fr. _pâte_)--Late L. _pasta_--Gr. _past[=e]_, a mess of food--_pastos_, salted--_passein_, to sprinkle.]

PASTEL, pas'tel, _n._ chalk mixed with other materials and various colours for crayons, a drawing made with such, also the art: woad.--_n._ PAS'TELIST.[Fr. _pastel_--It. _pastello_--L. _pastillus_, a small loaf--_pasc[)e]re_, _pastum_, to feed.]

PASTERN, pas't[.e]rn, _n._ the part of a horse's foot from the fetlock to the hoof, where the shackle is fastened. [O. Fr. _pasturon_ (Fr. _pâturon_)--O. Fr. _pasture_, pasture, a tether for a horse.]

PASTEURISM, pas-t[.e]r'izm, _n._ the method of inoculation with the attenuated virus of certain diseases, esp. hydrophobia, as introduced by Louis _Pasteur_ (1822-95).--_adj._ PASTEUR'IAN.--_n._ PASTEURIS[=A]'TION, a method of arresting the fermentation in beer, wine, &c. by heating to at least 140° F.--_v.t._ PASTEUR'ISE.

PASTICHE, pas-t[=e]sh', _n._ a mixture of many parts of different kinds, used of _music_, _painting_, &c.: a work in literature or art in direct imitation of another's style.--Also PASTIC'CIO. [It. _pasticcio_.]

PASTIL, pas'til, _n._ Same as PASTEL.

PASTILLE, pas-t[=e]l', _n._ a small cone of charcoal and aromatic substances, burned either as incense, or as a means of diffusing an agreeable odour: a small aromatic confection: a paper tube containing a firework which causes a small wheel to rotate in burning: (_art_) the same as _pastel_--also PAS'TIL.--_n._ PAS'TILLAGE.[Fr.,--L. _pastillus_, a small loaf.]

PASTIME, pas't[=i]m, _n._ that which serves to pass away the time: amusement: recreation.

PASTOR, pas'tur, _n._ one who has care of a flock: a shepherd: a clergyman.--_adj._ PAS'TORAL, relating to shepherds or to shepherd life: rustic: of or pertaining to the pastor of a church: addressed to the clergy of a diocese by their bishop.--_n._ a poem which describes the scenery and life of the country: a letter or an address by a pastor to his people, or by a bishop to his clergy: (_mus._) a simple melody.--_n._ PAS'TORALISM, pastoral character.--_adv._ PAS'TORALLY.--_ns._ PAS'TORATE, PAS'TORSHIP, the office of a pastor: the time during which one has been a pastor: the whole body of pastors in one church or district.--_adj._ PAS'TORLY, becoming a pastor.--PASTORAL ADDRESS, or LETTER (see PASTORAL, _n._); PASTORAL CHARGE, position of a pastor: the church, &c., over which a pastor is placed: an address to a newly ordained minister; PASTORAL EPISTLES, those in the New Test. to Timothy and Titus; PASTORAL STAFF, a tall staff borne as an emblem of episcopal authority, headed like a shepherd's crook, or having a T-shaped head; PASTORAL THEOLOGY, that part of theology which treats of the duties of pastors; PASTORAL WORK, the work of a pastor in visiting his people. [L., _pasc[)e]re_, _pastum_, to feed.]

PASTOR, pas'tur, _n._ a beautiful bird allied to the starlings, native to Western Asia.

PASTORALE, pas-t[=o]-rä'le, _n._ a variety of opera or cantata characterised by the idyllic or pastoral element: a vocal or instrumental piece intended to suggest pastoral life: one of the simple traditional open-air dramas still kept up among the Basques: one of the figures of a quadrille.--Also PASTOURELLE'.

PASTRY, p[=a]s'tri, _n._ articles made of paste or dough: crust of pies, tarts, &c.: act or art of making articles of paste.--_n._ P[=A]S'TRYCOOK, one who cooks or sells pastry. [_Paste._]

PASTURE, past'[=u]r, _n._ grass for grazing: ground covered with grass for grazing.--_v.t._ to feed on pasture: to supply with grass.--_v.i._ to feed on pasture: to graze.--_adj._ PAST'[=U]RABLE, that can be pastured: fit for pasture.--_ns._ PAST'[=U]RAGE, the business of feeding or grazing cattle: pasture-land: grass for feeding; PAST'[=U]RE-LAND, land appropriated to pasture.--_adj._ PAST'[=U]RELESS, destitute of pasture. [O. Fr. _pasture_ (Fr. _pâture_)--L. _pastura_--_pasc[)e]re_, _pastum_, to feed.]

PASTY, p[=a]s'ti, _adj._ like paste.--_n._ a small pie of meat and crust baked without a dish.

PAT, pat, _n._ a light, quick blow, as with the hand.--_v.t._ to strike gently: to tap:--_pr.p._ pat'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pat'ted.--PAT ON THE BACK, to mark approval by patting on the back, to patronise. [Imit.]

PAT, pat, _n._ a small, moulded lump of butter. [Celt., as Ir. _pait_, a lump.]

PAT, pat, _adj._ fitly: at the right time or place.--_adv._ PAT'LY, fitly, conveniently.--_n._ PAT'NESS, fitness, appropriateness. [_Pat_, a light blow.]

PATAGIUM, pat-[=a]-j[=i]'um, _n._ the wing-membrane of a bat, &c.: the parachute of a flying squirrel, &c.: the fold of integument between the upper arm and the forearm of a bird: one of the scales affixed to the pronotum of lepidopterous insects--the _tegula_. [L., 'a gold edging.']

PATAMAR, pat'a-mär, _n._ a vessel on the Bombay coast, with arched keel, and great stem and stern rake.

PATAVINITY, pat-a-vin'i-ti, _n._ the style of Padua (L. _Patavium_), esp. the diction of Livy, a native of Patavium, hence provincialism generally.

PATCH, pach, _v.t._ to mend by putting in a piece: to repair clumsily: to make up of pieces: to make hastily.--_n._ a piece sewed or put on to mend a defect: anything like a patch: a small piece of ground: a plot: (_Shak._) a paltry fellow, a fool--properly a jester: (_print._) an overlay to obtain a stronger impression: a small piece of black silk, &c., stuck by ladies on the face, to bring out the complexion by contrast--common in the 17th and 18th centuries.--_adj._ PATCH'ABLE.--_ns._ PATCH'-BOX, a fancy box for holding the patches worn on the face, generally having a mirror inside the lid; PATCH'ER, one who patches; PATCH'ERY (_Shak._), bungling work; PATCH'WORK, work formed of patches or pieces sewed together: work patched up or clumsily executed.--_adj._ PATCH'Y, covered with patches: inharmonious, incongruous.--NOT A PATCH ON, not fit to be compared with. [Low Ger. _patschen_; prob. conn. with _piece_.]

PATCHOCKE, pach'ok, _n._ (_Spens._) a clown. [_Patch._]

PATCHOULI, pa-ch[=oo]'li, _n._ a perfume got from the dried branches of the patchouli shrub, 2-3 ft. high: the plant itself.--Also PATCHOU'LY. [Tamil, _patchei_, gum, _elei_, a leaf.]

PATE, p[=a]t, _n._ the crown of the head: the head.--_adj._ P[=A]T'ED, having a pate. [Through O. Fr., from Ger. _platte_, a plate; cf. Low L. _platta_, tonsure.]

PÂTÉ, pä-t[=a]', _n._ pie: pasty.--PÂTÉ DE FOIE GRAS, pasty of fat goose liver: Strasburg pie. [Fr.]

PATELLA, pa-tel'la, _n._ a little dish or vase: the knee-pan: a genus of gasteropodous univalve molluscs: the limpet.--_adjs._ PATEL'LAR, pertaining to the patella or knee-cap; PATEL'LATE or PATEL'LULATE; PATEL'LIFORM, of the form of a small dish or saucer. [L., dim. of _patina_, a pan.]

PATEN, pat'en, _n._ the plate for the bread in the Eucharist. [Fr.,--L. _patina_, a plate--Gr. _patan[=e]_.]

PATENT, p[=a]'tent, or pat'ent, _adj._ lying open: conspicuous: public: protected by a patent: (_bot._) spreading: expanding.--_n._ an official document, open, and having the Great Seal of the government attached to it, conferring an exclusive right or privilege, as a title of nobility, or the sole right for a term of years to the proceeds of an invention: something invented and protected by a patent.--_v.t._ P[=A]'TENT, to grant or secure by patent.--_adj._ P[=A]'TENTABLE, capable of being patented.--_ns._ P[=A]TENTEE', one who holds a patent, or to whom a patent is granted--also P[=A]'TENTER; P[=A]'TENT-LEATH'ER, a kind of leather to which a permanently polished surface is given by a process of japanning; P[=A]'TENTOR, one who grants or who secures a patent; P[=A]'TENT-RIGHT, the exclusive right reserved by P[=A]'TENT-ROLLS, the register of letters-patent issued in England.--PATENT MEDICINE, a medicine sold under the authority of letters-patent, any proprietary medicine generally on which stamp-duty is paid; PATENT OFFICE, an office for the granting of patents for inventions; PATENT OUTSIDE, or INSIDE, a newspaper printed on the outside or inside only, sold to a publisher who fills the other side with his own material, as local news, &c. [Fr.,--L. _patens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _pat[=e]re_, to lie open.]

PATERA, pat'e-rä, _n._ a round flat dish for receiving a sacrificial libation among the Romans: (_archit._) the representation of such in bas-relief in friezes, &c.--often applied loosely to rosettes and other flat ornaments:--_pl._ PAT'ERÆ (-r[=e]).--_adj._ PAT'ERIFORM. [L.,--_pat[=e]re_, to lie open.]

PATERCOVE, pat'[.e]r-k[=o]v, _n._ Same as PATRICO.

PATERERO, pat-e-r[=a]'ro, _n._:--_pl._ PATERE'ROES (-r[=o]z). Same as PEDERERO.

PATERFAMILIAS, p[=a]-t[.e]r-fa-mil'i-as, _n._ the father or head of a family or household:--_pl._ P[=A]TRESFAMIL'IAS. [L. _pater_, a father, _familias_, arch. form of _familiæ_, gen. of _familia_, a household.]

PATERNAL, pa-t[.e]r'nal, _adj._ fatherly: showing the disposition of a father: derived from a father: hereditary.--_n._ PATER'NALISM.--_adv._ PATER'NALLY.--_n._ PATER'NITY, state of being a father: fatherhood: the relation of a father to his children: origination or authorship. [Fr. _paternel_--Low L. _paternalis_--L. _paternus_--_pater_ (Gr. _pat[=e]r_), a father.]

PATERNOSTER, p[=a]'t[.e]r-nos-t[.e]r, or pat-[.e]r-nos't[.e]r, _n._ the Lord's Prayer: every eleventh bead in a R.C. rosary, at which, in telling their beads, the Lord's Prayer is repeated: the whole rosary: anything made of objects strung together like a rosary, esp. a fishing-line with hooks at intervals: (_archit._) an ornament shaped like beads, used in astragals, &c. [L. _Pater noster_, 'Our Father,' the first two words of the Lord's Prayer in Latin.]

PATH, päth, _n._ a way trodden out by the feet: track: road: course of action or conduct:--_pl._ PATHS (pä_th_z).--_n._ PATH'FINDER, one who explores the route, a pioneer.--_adj._ PATH'LESS, without a path: untrodden. [A.S. _pæth_, _path_; Ger. _pfad_, Gr. _patos_, L. _pons_, _pontis_, a bridge.]

PATHAN, pa-than', _n._ an Afghan proper, one of Afghan race settled in India.

PATHETIC, -AL, pa-thet'ik, -al, _adj._ showing passion: affecting the tender emotions: causing pity, grief, or sorrow: touching: (_anat._) trochlear.--_adj._ PATHEMAT'IC, pertaining to emotion.--_adv._ PATHET'ICALLY.--_ns._ PATHET'ICALNESS; PATH'ETISM, animal magnetism; PATH'ETIST, one who practises this.--THE PATHETIC, the style or manner fitted to excite emotion. [Gr. _path[=e]tikos_, subject to suffering.]

PATHIC, path'ik, _adj._ pertaining to disease.--_ns._ PATHOGEN'ESIS, PATHOG'ENY, mode of production or development of disease.--_adjs._ PATHOGENET'IC, PATHOGEN'IC, PATHOG'ENOUS, producing disease.

PATHOGNOMONIC, p[=a]-thog-n[=o]-mon'ik. _adj._ characteristic of a disease.--_n._ PATHOG'NOMY. [Gr. _pathos_, suffering, _gn[=o]m[=o]n_, a judge.]

PATHOLOGY, pa-thol'o-ji, _n._ science of the nature, causes, and remedies of diseases: the whole of the morbid conditions in a disease.--_adjs._ PATHOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PATHOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ PATHOL'OGIST, one versed in pathology; PATHOPH[=O]'BIA, morbid dread of disease. [Fr.,--Gr. _pathos_, suffering, _logos_, discourse.]

PATHOS, p[=a]'thos, _n._ that in anything (as a word, a look, &c.) which touches the feelings or raises the tender emotions: the expression of deep feeling.--_n._ PATHOM'ETRY, the distinction of suffering into different kinds. [Gr., from _pathein_, 2 aorist of _paschein_, to suffer, feel.]

PATHWAY, päth'w[=a], _n._ a path or way: a footpath: course of action.

PATIBULARY, p[=a]-tib'[=u]-la-ri, _adj._ of or pertaining to a gibbet or gallows. [L. _patibulum_, a gibbet.]

PATIENCE, p[=a]'shens, _n._ quality of being patient or able calmly to endure: (_Shak._) permission: a card-game, same as Solitaire (q.v.).--_adj._ P[=A]'TIENT, sustaining pain, &c., without repining: not easily provoked: not in a hurry: persevering: expecting with calmness: long-suffering.--_n._ one who bears or suffers: a person under medical treatment.--_adv._ P[=A]'TIENTLY. [Fr.,--L. _patentia_--_patiens_--_pati_, to bear.]

PATIN, PATINE, pat'in, _n._ Same as PATEN.

PATINA, pat'i-na, _n._ a bowl, pan, patella: the encrustation which age gives to works of art: the peculiar varnish-like rust which covers ancient bronzes and medals.--_adj._ PAT'IN[=A]TED.--_n._ PATIN[=A]'TION. [It.,--L. _patina_, a dish, a kind of cake.]

PATIO, pat'i-[=o], _n._ a courtyard connected with a house. [Sp.,--L. _spatium_, a space.]


PATOIS, pat'waw, _n._ a vulgar or provincial dialect. [Fr., orig. _patrois_--L. _patriensis_, indigenous--_patria_, one's native country.]

PATONCE, pa-tons', _n._ (_her._) a cross whose four arms expand in curves from the centre, with floriated ends.--_adj._ PATONCÉE. [Fr.,--L. _pat[=e]re_, to expand.]

PATRES CONSCRIPTI, p[=a]'tres kon-skrip't[=i], conscript fathers: the senators of ancient Rome. [L. _patres_, pl. of _pater_, a father, _conscripti_, pl. of _conscriptus_,--_conscrib[)e]re_, to enrol.]

PATRIAL, p[=a]'tri-al, _adj._ designating a race or nation.--_n._ a noun derived from the name of a country.

PATRIA POTESTAS, p[=a]'tri-ä p[=o]-tes'tas, _n._ a father's control over his family, in ancient Rome, which was almost unlimited. [L.]

PATRIARCH, p[=a]'tri-ärk, _n._ one who governs his family by paternal right: (_B._) one of the early heads of families from Adam downwards to Abraham, Jacob, and his sons: in Eastern churches, a dignitary superior to an archbishop.--_adjs._ PATRIARCH'AL, PATRIARCH'IC, belonging or subject to a patriarch: like a patriarch: of the nature of a patriarch.--_ns._ P[=A]'TRIARCHALISM, the condition of tribal government by a patriarch; P[=A]'TRIARCHATE, the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch or church dignitary: the residence of a patriarch; P[=A]'TRIARCHISM, government by a patriarch; P[=A]'TRIARCHY, a community of related families under the authority of a patriarch. [O. Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _patriarch[=e]s_--_pat[=e]r_, father, _arch[=e]_, beginning.]

PATRICIAN, pa-trish'an, _n._ a nobleman in ancient Rome, being a descendant of one of the fathers or first Roman senators: a nobleman.--_adj._ pertaining to the ancient senators of Rome or to their descendants: of noble birth.--_n._ PATRIC'IATE, the position or duties of a patrician: the patrician order. [L. _patricius_--_pater_, _patris_, a father.]

PATRICIDE, pat'ri-s[=i]d, _n._ the murder or the murderer of one's own father.--_adj._ PAT'RIC[=I]DAL, relating to patricide or the murder of a father. [L. _patricida_--_pater_, _patris_, father, _cæd[)e]re_, to kill.]

PATRICO, pat'ri-k[=o], _n._ (_slang_) a gipsy or beggars' hedge-priest.--Also PAT'ERCOVE.

PATRIMONY, pat'ri-mun-i, _n._ a right or estate inherited from a father or from one's ancestors: a church estate or revenue.--_adj._ PATRIM[=O]'NIAL, pertaining to a patrimony: inherited from ancestors.--_adv._ PATRIM[=O]'NIALLY. [Fr. _patrimoine_--L. _patrimonium_, a paternal estate--_pater_, _patris_, a father.]

PATRIOT, p[=a]'tri-ot, or pat'-, _n._ one who truly loves and serves his fatherland.--_adj._ devoted to one's country.--_adj._ P[=A]TRIOT'IC, like a patriot: actuated by a love of one's country: directed to the public welfare.--_adv._ P[=A]TRIOT'ICALLY.--_n._ P[=A]'TRIOTISM, quality of being patriotic: love of one's country. [Fr.,--Low L.,--Gr. _patri[=o]t[=e]s_--_patrios_--_pat[=e]r_, a father.]

PATRIPASSIAN, p[=a]-tri-pas'i-an, _n._ a member of one of the earliest classes of anti-Trinitarian sectaries (2d century), who denied the distinction of three persons in one God, maintaining that the sufferings of the Son could be predicated of the Father. [L. _pater_, father, _pati_, _passus_, to suffer.]

PATRISTIC, -AL, pa-tris'tik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to the fathers of the Christian Church.--_ns._ P[=A]'TRIST, one versed in patristics; PATRIS'TICISM, mode of thought, &c., of the PATRIS'TICS, the knowledge of the fathers as a subject of study--sometimes PATROL'OGY. [Fr., coined from L. _pater_, _patris_, a father.]

PATROL, pa-tr[=o]l', _v.i._ to go the rounds in a camp or garrison: to watch and protect.--_v.t._ to pass round as a sentry:--_pr.p._ patr[=o]l'ling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ patr[=o]lled'.--_n._ the marching round of a guard in the night: the guard or men who make a patrol: (also PATR[=O]L'MAN) a policeman who walks about a certain beat for a specified time, such policemen collectively. [O. Fr. _patrouille_, a patrol, _patrouiller_, to march in the mud, through a form _patouiller_, from _pate_ (mod. _patte_), the paw or foot of a beast, of Teut. origin, cf. Ger. _patsche_, little hand.]

PATRON, p[=a]'trun, _n._ a protector: one who countenances or encourages: one who has the right to appoint to any office, esp. to a living in the church: a guardian saint:--_fem._ P[=A]'TRONESS.--_v.t._ to treat as a patron.--_n._ P[=A]'TRONAGE, the support given by a patron: guardianship of saints: the right of bestowing offices, privileges, or church benefices.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to support.--_adj._ P[=A]'TRONAL.--_n._ P[=A]TRONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ P[=A]'TRON[=I]SE, to act as a patron toward: to give countenance or encouragement to: to assume the air of a patron towards.--_n._ P[=A]'TRON[=I]SER.--_adj._ P[=A]'TRON[=I]SING.--_adv._ P[=A]'TRON[=I]SINGLY.--_adj._ P[=A]'TRONLESS. [Fr.,--L. _patronus_--_pater_, _patris_, a father.]

PATRONYMIC, -AL, pat-r[=o]-nim'ik, -al, _adj._ derived from the name of a father or an ancestor.--_n._ PATRONYM'IC, a name taken from one's father or ancestor. [Gr. _pat[=e]r_, a father, _onoma_, a name.]

PATROON, p[=a]-tr[=oo]n', _n._ one who received a grant of land under the old Dutch governments of New York and New Jersey.--_n._ PATROON'SHIP. [Dut.; cf. _Patron_.]

PATTE, pat, _n._ a narrow band keeping a belt or sash in its place. [Fr.]

PATTÉ, PATTÉE, pa-t[=a]', _adj._ (_her._) spreading toward the extremity. [O. Fr. _patte_, a paw.]

PATTEN, pat'en, _n._ a wooden sole with an iron ring, worn under the shoe to keep it from the wet: the iron hoop attached to the boot in cases of hip-joint disease: the base of a pillar.--_v.i._ to go about on pattens.--_adj._ PATT'ENED, provided with pattens. [O. Fr. _patin_, clog--_patte_.]

PATTER, pat'[.e]r, _v.i._ to pat or strike often, as hailstones: to make the sound of short quick steps:--_pr.p._ patt'ering; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ patt'ered. [A freq. of _pat_.]

PATTER, pat'[.e]r, _v.i._ to repeat the Lord's Prayer: to pray: to repeat over and over again indistinctly, to mumble.--_v.t._ to repeat hurriedly, to mutter.--_n._ glib talk, chatter: the cant of a class.--_ns._ PATT'ERER, one who sells articles on the street by speechifying; PATT'ER-SONG, a comic song in which a great many words are sung or spoken very rapidly.--PATTER FLASH, to talk the jargon of thieves. [_Pater-noster_.]

PATTERN, pat'[.e]rn, _n._ a person or thing to be copied: a model: an example: style of ornamental work: anything to serve as a guide in forming objects: the distribution of shot in a target at which a gun is fired.--_ns._ PATT'ERN-BOOK, a book containing designs of lace, &c., or in which patterns of cloth, &c., are pasted; PATT'ERN-BOX, in weaving, a box at each side of a loom containing the various shuttles that may be used; PATT'ERN-CARD, a piece of cardboard on which specimens of cloth are fixed; PATT'ERN-MAK'ER, one who makes the patterns for moulders in foundry-work; PATT'ERN-SHOP, the place in which patterns for a factory are prepared; PATT'ERN-WHEEL, the count-wheel in a clock movement. [Fr. _patron_, a protector, pattern.]

PATTLE, pat'l, _n._ a paddle.

PATTY, pat'i, _n._ a little pie:--_pl._ PATT'IES.--_n._ PATT'Y-PAN, a pan in which to bake these. [Fr. _pâté_.]

PATULOUS, pat'[=u]-lus, _adj._ spreading.

PAUCITY, paw'sit-i, _n._ fewness: smallness of number or quantity. [Fr.,--L. _paucitas_--_paucus_, few.]

PAUL. Same as PAWL.

PAULDRON, pawl'dron, _n._ a separable shoulder-plate in medieval armour. [O. Fr. _espalleron_--_espalle_, the shoulder.]

PAULICIAN, paw-lish'an, _n._ a member of a Dualistic Eastern sect, founded about 660, professing peculiar reverence for _Paul_ and his writings.

PAULINE, paw'l[=i]n, _adj._ of or belonging to the Apostle _Paul_.--_ns._ PAUL'INISM, the teaching or theology of Paul; PAUL'INIST, a follower of Paul.

PAULO-POST-FUTURE, paw'l[=o]-p[=o]st-f[=u]'t[=u]r, _adj._ and _n._ the future perfect tense in grammar.

PAUNCH, pawnsh, or pänsh, _n._ the belly: the first and largest stomach of a ruminant.--_v.t._ to eviscerate.--_adj._ PAUNCH'Y, big-bellied. [O. Fr. _panche_ (Fr. _panse_)--L. _pantex_, _panticis_.]

PAUPER, paw'p[.e]r, _n._ a very poor or destitute person: one supported by charity or by some public provision:--_fem._ PAU'PERESS.--_n._ PAUPERIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PAU'PERISE, to reduce to pauperism.--_n._ PAU'PERISM, state of being a pauper. [L.]

PAUSE, pawz, _n._ a ceasing: a temporary stop: cessation caused by doubt: suspense: a mark for suspending the voice: (_mus._) a mark showing continuance of a note or rest.--_v.i._ to make a pause.--_adjs._ PAUS'AL; PAUSE'LESS.--_adv._ PAUSE'LESSLY.--_n._ PAUS'ER, one who pauses or deliberates.--_adv._ PAUS'INGLY, with pauses: by breaks: deliberately. [Fr.,--L. _pausa_--Gr. _pausis_, from _pauein_, to cause to cease.]

PAVAN, pav'an, _n._ (_Shak._) a slow dance, much practised in Spain: music for this dance.--Also PAV'EN, PAV'IN. [Fr.,--Sp. _pavana_, _pavon_--L. _pavo_, peacock; or It., for _Padovana_, pertaining to _Padua_.]

PAVE, p[=a]v, _v.t._ to lay down stone, &c., to form a level surface for walking on: to prepare, as a way or passage: to make easy and smooth in any way.--_ns._ P[=A]'VAGE, P[=A]'VIAGE, money paid towards paving streets.--_adj._ P[=A]VED--also P[=A]'VEN.--_ns._ PAVE'MENT, a paved road, floor, or side-walk, or that with which it is paved; P[=A]'VER, P[=A]'VIER, P[=A]'VIOR, P[=A]'VIOUR, one who lays pavements; P[=A]'VING, the act of laying pavement: pavement.--_adj._ employed or spent for paving.--PAVE THE WAY, to prepare the way for. [Fr. _paver_--L. _pav[=i]re_, to beat hard; cog. with Gr. _paiein_, to beat.]

PAVID, pav'id, _adj._ timid. [L. _pavidus_.]

PAVILION, pa-vil'yun, _n._ a tent: an ornamental building often turreted or domed: (_mil._) a tent raised on posts: a canopy or covering: the outer ear: a flag or ensign carried at the gaff of the mizzenmast.--_v.t._ to furnish with pavilions: to shelter, as with a tent.--_n._ PAVIL'ION-ROOF, a roof sloping equally on all sides. [Fr. _pavillon_--L. _papilio_, a butterfly, a tent.]

PAVISE, pav'is, _n._ a shield for the whole body. [Fr.,--Low L. _pavensis_, prob. from _Pavia_ in Italy.]

PAVON, pav'on, _n._ a small triangular flag attached to a lance. [L. _pavo_, a peacock.]

PAVONINE, pav'o-n[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to the peacock: resembling the tail of a peacock or made of its feathers: iridescent--also PAV[=O]'NIAN.--_n._ PAV[=O]NE' (_Spens._), the peacock. [L. _pavoninus_--_pavo_, _pavonis_, a peacock.]

PAW, paw, _n._ the foot of a beast of prey having claws: the hand, used in contempt.--_v.i._ to draw the forefoot along the ground like a horse.--_v.t._ to scrape with the forefoot: to handle with the paws: to handle roughly: to flatter.--_adj._ PAWED, having paws: broad-footed. [O. Fr. _poe_, _powe_, prob. Teut.; cf. Dut. _poot_, Ger. _pfote_. Perh. related to O. Fr. _pate_ (cf. _Patrol_). But perh. Celt., as W. _pawen_, a paw.]

PAWKY, pawk'i, _adj._ (_Scot._) sly, arch, shrewd.

PAWL, pawl, _n._ a short bar lying against a toothed wheel to prevent a windlass, &c., from running back: a catch or click.--_v.t._ to stop by means of a pawl. [W. _pawl_, a stake, conn. with L. _palus_, a stake.]

PAWN, pawn, _n._ something given as security for the repayment of money or the performance of a promise: state of being pledged.--_v.t._ to give in pledge.--_ns._ PAWN'BROKER, a broker who lends money on pawns or pledges; PAWN'BROKING, the business of a pawnbroker; PAWNEE', one who takes anything in pawn; PAWN'ER, one who gives a pawn or pledge as security for money borrowed; PAWN'SHOP, a shop of a pawnbroker; PAWN'TICKET, a ticket marked with the name of the article, the amount advanced, &c., delivered to the person who has pawned anything.--AT PAWN, pledged, laid away. [O. Fr. _pan_, prob. from L. _pannus_, a cloth.]

PAWN, pawn, _n._ a common piece in chess. [O. Fr. _paon_, a foot-soldier--Low L. _pedo_, _pedonis_, a foot-soldier--L. _pes_, _pedis_, the foot.]

PAWN, pawn, _n._ a gallery.

PAWNEE, paw'n[=e], _n._ one of a tribe of Indians in North America.--_adj._ belonging to this tribe.

PAX, paks, _n._ the kiss of peace (Rom. xvi. 16): a plaque or tablet used in giving the kiss of peace when the mass is celebrated by a high dignitary--a crucifix, a tablet with the image of Christ on the cross upon it, or a reliquary.--PAX VOBIS, PAX VOBISCUM, peace (be) with you. [L.]

PAXWAX, paks'waks, _n._ the strong tendon in the neck of animals. [Orig. _fax-wax_--A.S. _feax_, _fex_, hair, _weaxan_, to grow.]

PAY, p[=a], _v.t._ to satisfy or set at rest: to discharge, as a debt or a duty: to requite with what is deserved: to reward: to punish: to give, render.--_v.i._ to recompense: to be worth one's trouble: to be profitable:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ paid.--_n._ that which satisfies: money given for service: salary, wages.--_adj._ PAY'ABLE, that may be paid: that ought to be paid: due.--_ns._ PAY'-BILL, a statement of moneys to be paid, to workmen, soldiers, &c.; PAY'-CLERK, a clerk who pays wages; PAY'-DAY, a regular day for payment, as of wages; PAY'-DIRT, -GRAV'EL, gravel or sand containing enough gold to be worth working; PAYEE', one to whom money is paid; PAY'ER; PAY'-LIST, -ROLL, a list of persons entitled to pay, with the amounts due to each; PAY'MASTER, the master who pays: an officer in the army or navy whose duty it is to pay soldiers, &c.; PAY'MENT, the act of paying: the discharge of a debt by money or its equivalent in value: that which is paid: recompense: reward: punishment; PAY'-OFF'ICE, the place where payments are made; FULL'-PAY, the whole amount of wages, &c., without deductions; HALF'-PAY (see HALF).--PAY DOWN, to pay in cash on the spot; PAY FOR, to make amends for: to bear the expense of; PAY OFF, to discharge: to take revenge upon: to requite: (_naut._) to fall away to leeward; PAY OUT, to cause to run out, as rope; PAY ROUND, to turn the ship's head; PAY THE PIPER, to have all expenses to pay.--IN THE PAY OF, hired by. [Fr. _payer_--L. _pac[=a]re_, to appease; cf. _pax_, peace.]

PAY, p[=a], _v.t._ (_naut._, and in the proverb 'the devil to pay') to smear with tar, pitch, &c. [Perh. through O. Fr. _peier_ (Sp. _empegar_) from L. _pic[=a]re_, to pitch.]

PAYNE, p[=a]n, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to take pains, exert one's self.

PAYNIM, PAINIM, p[=a]'nim, _n._ a pagan: a heathen. [O. Fr. _paienisme_, paganism--L. _paganismus_--_paganus_, a pagan.]

PAYNISE, p[=a]'n[=i]z, _v.t._ to harden and preserve, as wood, by successive injections of solutions of calcium or barium sulphide followed by calcium sulphate. [_Payne_, inventor of the process.]

PAYSAGE, p[=a]'s[=a]j, _n._ a landscape.--_n._ PAY'S[=A]GIST, a landscape-painter. [Fr.]

PAYSE, p[=a]z, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to poise, to balance.

PEA, p[=e], _n._ a climbing annual herb of the bean family, whose seeds are nutritious:--_pl._ PEAS, a definite number; PEASE, a quantity not numbered.--_ns._ PEA'-R[=I]'FLE, a rifle throwing a very small bullet; PEAS'COD, PEASE'COD, the pod or pericarp of the pea; PEA'-SHOOT'ER, a small metal tube for blowing peas through; PEA'-STONE, pisolite.--EGYPTIAN PEA, the chick-pea; FRENCH PEA, the common garden pea: (_pl._) canned peas made up in France; SPLIT PEAS, peas stripped of their membraneous covering in a mill, used for making pea-soup, or ground into meal; SWEET PEA, a climbing annual with large and fragrant flowers. [M. E. _pese_, pl. _pesen_ and _peses_--A.S. _pisa_, pl. _pisan_--L. _pisum_, Gr. _pison_.]

PEA, p[=e], _n._ a pea-fowl. See PEACOCK.

PEACE, p[=e]s, _n._ a state of quiet: freedom from disturbance: freedom from war: friendliness: calm: rest: harmony: silence.--_interj._ silence: be silent: hist!--_adj._ PEACE'ABLE, disposed to peace: free from war or disturbance: quiet: tranquil.--_n._ PEACE'ABLENESS.--_adv._ PEACE'ABLY.--_n._ PEACE'-BREAK'ER, one who breaks or disturbs the peace of others.--_adj._ PEACE'FUL, full of peace: quiet: tranquil: calm: serene.--_adv._ PEACE'FULLY.--_n._ PEACE'FULNESS.--_adj._ PEACE'LESS, without peace.--_ns._ PEACE'LESSNESS; PEACE'MAKER, one who makes or produces peace; one who reconciles enemies; PEACE'-OFF'ERING, an offering bringing about peace: among the Jews, an offering to God, either in gratitude for past or petition for future mercies (see Lev. iii.; vii. 11-21): satisfaction to an offended person; PEACE'-OFF'ICER, an officer whose duty it is to preserve the peace: a police-officer.--_adj._ PEACE'-PART'ED (_Shak._), dismissed from the world in peace.--_n._ PEACE'-PAR'TY, a political party advocating the making or the preservation of peace; PEACE'-PIPE (see CALUMET).--PEACE ESTABLISHMENT, the reduced military strength maintained in time of peace; PEACE OF GOD, the ancient cessation from suits between terms, and on Sundays and holy days.--BREACH OF THE PEACE (see BREACH); HOLD ONE'S PEACE, to be silent; KEEP PEACE, abstain from breaking the peace of others; KISS OF PEACE (see KISS); LETTERS OF PEACE (see PACIFY); MAKE ONE'S PEACE WITH, to reconcile or to be reconciled with; QUEEN'S, or KING'S, PEACE, the public peace, for the maintenance of which the sovereign as head of the executive is responsible; SWEAR THE PEACE, to take oath before a magistrate that a certain person ought to be put under bond to keep the peace. [O. Fr. _pais_ (Fr. _paix_)--L. _pax_, _pacis_, peace.]

PEACH, p[=e]ch, _v.i._ to betray one's accomplice: to become informer.--_n._ PEACH'ER. [A corr. of _impeach_.]

PEACH, p[=e]ch, _n._ a tree with a delicious, juicy fruit: the fruit of this tree.--_ns._ PEACH'-BLOSS'OM, a canary-yellow colour: pink with a yellowish tinge: a collector's name for a moth, the _Thyatira batis_; PEACH'-BRAND'Y, a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the peach.--_adj._ PEACH'-COL'OURED, of the colour of a peach-blossom: pale red.--_ns._ PEACH'ERY, a hothouse in which peaches are grown; PEACH'-STONE, the hard nut enclosing the seed within the fruit of the peach; PEACH'-WA'TER, a flavouring extract used in cookery, prepared from the peach.--_adj._ PEACH'Y.--_n._ PEACH'-YELL'OWS, a disease that attacks peach-trees in the eastern United States. [O. Fr. _pesche_ (Fr. _pêche_, It. _persica_, _pesca_)--L. _Persicum_ (_malum_), the Persian (apple).]

PEACOCK, p[=e]'kok, _n._ a large gallinaceous bird of the pheasant kind, remarkable for the beauty of its plumage, esp. that of its tail:--_fem._ PEA'HEN.--_v.t._ to cause to strut like a peacock.--_v.i._ to strut about proudly.--_ns._ PEA'CHICK, the young of the pea-fowl; PEA'COCK-FISH, a variegated labroid fish; PEA'-FOWL, the peacock or peahen. [A.S. _pawe_--L. _pavo_--Gr. _ta[=o]s_--Pers. _t[=a]wus_; and _cock_ (q.v.).]


PEA-CRAB, p[=e]'-krab, _n._ a genus of small crustaceans, which live within the mantle-lobes of mussels, oysters, &c.

PEAG, p[=e]g, _n._ polished shell-beads used as money among the North American Indians.--Also PEAK (p[=e]k).

PEA-GREEN, p[=e]'-gr[=e]n, _adj._ a shade of green like the colour of green peas.

PEA-JACKET, p[=e]'-jak'et, _n._ a coarse thick jacket worn esp. by seamen.--Also PEA'-COAT. [Dut. _pij_ (pron. p[=i]), a coat of coarse thick cloth; _jacket_.]

PEAK, p[=e]k, _n._ a point: the pointed end of anything: the top of a mountain: (_naut._) the upper outer corner of a sail extended by a gaff or yard, also the extremity of the gaff.--_v.i._ to rise upward in a peak: to look thin or sickly.--_v.t._ (_naut._) to raise the point (of a gaff) more nearly perpendicular.--_adjs._ PEAKED, pointed: ending in a point: having a thin or sickly look; PEAK'ING, sickly, pining, sneaking; PEAK'ISH, having peaks: thin or sickly looking; PEAK'Y (_Tenn._), having or showing peaks. [M. E. _pec_--Ir. _peac_, a sharp thing. Cf. _Beak_, _Pike_.]

PEAL, p[=e]l, _n._ a loud sound: a number of loud sounds one after another: a set of bells tuned to each other: a chime or carillon: the changes rung upon a set of bells.--_v.i._ to resound like a bell: to utter or give forth loud or solemn sounds.--_v.t._ to cause to sound loudly: to assail with noise: to celebrate. [For _appeal_; O. Fr. _apel_--_apeler_--L. _appell[=a]re_, inten. of _appell[)e]re_, _ap-_ (_ad_), to, _pell[)e]re_, to drive.]

PEA-MAGGOT, p[=e]'-mag'ut, _n._ the caterpillar of a small moth which lays its eggs in pods of peas.

PEAN, p[=e]n, _n._ one of the heraldic furs, differing from ermine only in the tinctures, the ground being sable and the spots of gold. [O. Fr. _panne_, a fur. Cf. _Pane_.]


PEA-NUT, or _Ground-nut_. See GROUND.

PEAR, p[=a]r, _n._ a common fruit of a somewhat conical shape, and very juicy to the taste: the tree on which it grows, allied to the apple.--_adj._ PEAR'IFORM, PEAR'-SHAPED, shaped like a pear--that is, thick and rounded at one end, and tapering to the other.--_n._ PEAR'-TREE. [A.S. _pera_ or _peru_--L. _pirum_, a pear (whence also Fr. _poire_).]

PEAR, p[=e]'ar, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as PEER.

PEARL, p[.e]rl, _n._ a well-known shining gem, found in several kinds of shellfish, but most esp. in the mother-of-pearl oyster: anything round and clear: anything very precious: a jewel: a while speck or film on the eye: (_print._) a size of type immediately above diamond, equal to 5 points (about 15 lines to the inch).--_adj._ made of, or belonging to, pearls.--_v.t._ to set or adorn with pearls: to make into small round grains.--_v.i._ to take a rounded form: to become like pearls.--_adj._ PEARL[=A]'CEOUS, resembling pearls or mother-of-pearl: spotted with white.--_ns._ PEARL'-ASH, a purer carbonate of potash, obtained by calcining potashes, so called from its pearly-white colour; PEARL'-BAR'LEY, barley after the skin has been ground off (prob. for 'pilled barley,' Fr. _orge perlé_); PEARL'-BUTT'ON, a button made of mother-of-pearl; PEARL'-DIV'ER, one who dives for pearls.--_adj._ PEARLED, set with pearls: like pearls: having a border trimmed with narrow lace.--_ns._ PEARL'-EDGE, a thread edging, a border on some ribbons formed by projecting loops of the threads; PEARL'-EYE, cataract.--_adj._ PEARL'-EYED, having a white speck on the eye.--_ns._ PEARL'-FISH'ER, one who fishes for pearls; PEARL'-FISH'ERY, the occupation of fishing for pearls, or the place where it is carried on; PEARL'-FISH'ING; PEARL'-GRAY, a pale gray colour.--_adj._ of a pale gray colour, like the pearl.--_ns._ PEARL'INESS, state of being pearly; PEARL'-NAU'TILUS, the pearly nautilus; PEARL'-OYS'TER, the oyster which produces pearls; PEARL'-POW'DER, a cosmetic for improving the appearance of the skin; PEARL'-WHITE, a material made from fish-scales, used in making artificial pearls: a kind of cosmetic.--_adj._ PEARL'Y, like a pearl, nacreous: yielding pearls: dotted with pearls: clear, transparent: having a pure sweet tone. [Fr. _perle_, acc. to Diez, prob. either a corr. of L. _pirula_, a dim. of _pirum_, a pear, or of L. _pilula_, dim. of _pila_, a ball.]

PEARLING, p[.e]rl'ing, _n._ lace made of silk or other kind of thread.--Also PEARL'IN. [Ir. _peirlin_, fine linen.]

PEARLING, p[.e]rl'ing, _n._ the process of removing the outer coat of grain.

PEARMAIN, p[=a]r'm[=a]n, _n._ a name of several varieties of apple.

PEART, p[=e]rt, _adj._ lively: saucy: in good health and spirits.--_adv._ PEART'LY. [_Pert._]

PEASANT, pez'ant, _n._ a countryman: a rustic: one whose occupation is rural labour.--_adj._ of or relating to peasants, rustic, rural: rude.--_n._ PEAS'ANTRY, the body of peasants or tillers of the soil: rustics: labourers.--PEASANT PROPRIETOR, a peasant who owns and works his own farm; PEASANTS' WAR, a popular insurrection in Germany, in 1525, stamped out with horrible cruelty. [O. Fr. _paisant_ (Fr. _paysan_)--_pays_--L. _pagus_, a district.]

PEASE, p[=e]z, _n._ (_Spens._) a blow.

PEASE, p[=e]z, _indef. pl._ of PEA.--_ns._ PEASE'COD, PEAS'COD, the pericarp of the pea: a peacod; PEASE'-MEAL, PEASE'-PORR'IDGE, PEASE'-SOUP or PEA'-SOUP, meal, porridge, soup, made from pease.

PEASEWEEP, p[=e]z'w[=e]p, _n._ (_prov._) the pewit. [Imit.]

PEAT, p[=e]t, _n._ decayed vegetable matter like turf, cut out of boggy places, and when dried used for fuel.--_ns._ PEAT'-BOG, a district covered with peat: a place from which peat is dug--also PEAT'-BED, PEAT'-MOOR, PEAT'-MOSS; PEAT'-HAG, a ditch whence peat has been dug; PEAT'-REEK, the smoke of peat, supposed to add a delicate flavour to whisky; PEAT'-SPADE, a spade having a side wing at right angles for cutting peat in rectangular blocks.--_adj._ PEAT'Y, like peat: abounding in, or composed of, peat. [True form _beat_--M. E. _beten_, to mend a fire--A.S. _bétan_, to make better--_bót_, advantage.]

PEBA, p[=e]'ba, _n._ a South American armadillo.

PEBBLE, peb'l, _n._ a small roundish ball or stone: transparent and colourless rock-crystal used for glass in spectacles, a fine kind of glass: a large size of gunpowder.--_v.t._ to give (to leather) a rough appearance with small rounded prominences.--_adjs._ PEBB'LED, PEBB'LY, full of pebbles.--_ns._ PEBB'LE-POW'DER, gunpowder consisting of large cubical grains, and burning slowly--also _Cube-powder_ and _Prismatic-powder_; PEBB'LE-WARE, a kind of fine pottery made of various coloured clays mixed together; PEBB'LING, a way of graining leather with a ribbed or roughened appearance. [A.S. _papol_-(_-stán_), a pebble(-stone); akin to L. _papula_, a pustule.]

PEBRINE, peb'rin, _n._ a destructive disease of silkworms.--_adj._ PEB'RINOUS. [Fr.]

PECAN, p[=e]-kan', _n._ a North American tree whose wood is chiefly used for fuel, also the nut it yields.

PECCABLE, pek'a-bl, _adj._ liable to sin.--_ns._ PECCABIL'ITY; PECC'ANCY, sinfulness: transgression.--_adj._ PECC'ANT, sinning: transgressing: guilty: morbid: offensive: bad.--_adv._ PECC'ANTLY. [L. _peccabilis_--_pecc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to sin.]

PECCADILLO, pek-a-dil'lo, _n._ a little or trifling sin: a petty fault:--_pl._ PECCADIL'LOS, PECCADIL'LOES. [Sp. _pecadillo_, dim. of _pecado_--L. _peccatum_, a sin.]

PECCARY, pek'ar-i, _n._ a hog-like quadruped of South America.

PECCAVI, pe-k[=a]'v[=i], I have sinned. [L. 1st pers. sing. perf. indic. act. of _pecc[=a]re_, I sin.]

PECH, PEGH, peh, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to pant, to breathe hard. [Imit.]

PECHT, peht, _n._ a corruption of _Pict_.

PECK, pek, _n._ a measure of capacity for dry goods=2 gallons, or one-fourth of a bushel: a great amount. [M. E. _pekke_, prob. from _peck_, 'to pick up.']

PECK, pek, _v.t._ to strike with the beak: to pick up with the beak: to eat: to strike with anything pointed: to strike with repeated blows.--_ns._ PECK'ER, that which pecks: a woodpecker: (_slang_) spirit, as in 'to keep one's pecker up'=to keep up one's spirits; PECK'ING, the sport of throwing pebbles at birds.--_adj._ PECK'ISH, somewhat hungry. [_Pick._]

PECKSNIFF, pek'snif, _n._ one who talks large about virtue and benevolence, while at heart a selfish and unprincipled hypocrite.--_adj._ PECK'SNIFFIAN.--_n._ PECK'SNIFFIANISM. [From Mr _Pecksniff_ in Dickens's _Martin Chuzzlewit_.]

PECTEN, pek'ten, _n._ a genus of molluscs, one species of which is the scallop--so called from the valves having ribs radiating from the umbo to the margin like a comb: a membrane on the eyes of birds.--_adjs._ PECTIN[=A]'CEOUS, like the scallops; PEC'TINAL, of a comb: comb-like: having bones like the teeth of a comb; PEC'TIN[=A]TE, -D, having teeth like a comb: resembling the teeth of a comb.--_adv._ PEC'TIN[=A]TELY.--_n._ PECTIN[=A]'TION, the state of being pectinated--_adjs._ PECTIN[=E]'AL, having a comb-like crest; PEC'TINIBRANCHIATE, having comb-like gills; PEC'TINIFORM, comb-like. [L. _pecten_, a comb.]

PECTIC, pek'tik, _adj._ congealing, curdling.--_ns._ PEC'TIN, PEC'TINE, a soluble gelatinising substance obtained from pectose; PEC'T[=O]SE, a substance yielding pectin, contained in the fleshy pulp of unripe fruit. [Gr. _p[=e]ktikos_, congealing--_p[=e]gnynai_, to make solid.]

PECTORAL, pek't[=o]-ral, _adj._ relating to the breast or chest.--_n._ armour for the breast: an ornament worn on the breast, esp. the breastplate worn by the ancient Jewish high-priest, and the square of gold, embroidery, &c. formerly worn on the breast over the chasuble by bishops during mass: a pectoral cross: a pectoral fin: a medicine for the chest.--_adv._ PEC'TORALLY.--_n._ PECTORIL'OQUY, the sound of the patient's voice heard through the stethoscope when applied to the chest in certain morbid conditions of the lungs.--PECTORAL FINS, the anterior paired fins of fishes; PECTORAL THEOLOGY, a name sometimes applied to the theology of those Christians who make much of experience and emotion, as themselves guides to a knowledge of divine truth--in Neander's phrase, 'Pectus est quod facit theologum.' [Fr.,--L. _pectoralis_--_pectus_, _pectoris_, the breast.]

PECULATE, pek'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to take for one's own use money or property entrusted to one's care: to embezzle: to steal.--_ns._ PECUL[=A]'TION; PEC'UL[=A]TOR. [L. _pecul[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_pec[=u]lium_, private property, akin to _pecunia_, money.]

PECULIAR, p[=e]-k[=u]l'yar, _adj._ one's own: belonging to no other: appropriate: particular: odd, uncommon, strange.--_n._ (_obs._) private property: a parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the ordinary or bishop in whose diocese it is placed.--_v.t._ PECUL'IARISE, to set apart.--_n._ PECULIAR'ITY, quality of being peculiar or singular: that which is found in one and in no other: that which marks a person off from others: individuality.--_adv._ PECUL'IARLY.--_n._ PEC[=U]'LIUM, private property, esp. that given by a father to a son, &c.--PECULIAR PEOPLE, the people of Israel: a sect of faith-healers, founded in London in 1838, who reject medical aid in cases of disease, and rely on anointing with oil by the elders, and on prayer, with patient nursing. [Fr.,--L. _peculiaris_--_peculium_, private property.]

PECUNIARY, p[=e]-k[=u]'ni-ar-i, _adj._ relating to money: consisting of money.--_adv._ PEC[=U]'NIARILY.--_adj._ PEC[=U]'NIOUS, rich. [Fr.,--L. _pecuniarius_--_pecunia_, money--_pecu-_, which appears in L. _pecudes_ (pl.), cattle.]

PED, ped, _n._ (_Spens._) a basket, a hamper. [_Pad._]

PEDAGOGUE, ped'a-gog, _n._ a teacher: a pedant.--_v.t._ to teach.--_adjs._ PEDAGOG'IC, -AL, relating to teaching: belonging to, or possessed by, a teacher of children.--_ns._ PEDAGOG'ICS, PED'AGOGISM, PED'AGOGY, the science of teaching: instruction: discipline. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _paidag[=o]gos_--_pais_, _paidos_, a boy, _ag[=o]gos_, a leader--_agein_, to lead.]

PEDAL, ped'al, _adj._ pertaining to a foot.--_n._ any part of a machine transmitting power from the foot: in musical instruments, a lever moved by the foot.--_v.i._ to work a pedal.--_n._ P[=E]D[=A]'LE, a foot-cloth in front of an altar: a collection of canons of general councils in the Greek Church.--_adjs._ P[=E]D[=A]'LIAN, relating to the foot, or to a metrical foot; PED'[=A]TE, divided like a foot: (_bot._) having the side lobes of a divided leaf also divided into smaller parts, the midribs of which do not run to a common centre as in the palmate leaf.--_adv._ PED'[=A]TELY.--_adj._ PEDAT'IFID, divided in a pedate manner, but having the divisions connected at the base.--COMBINATION PEDAL, a metal pedal in organs controlling several stops at once. [L. _pedalis_--_pes_, _pedis_, the foot.]

PEDANT, ped'ant, _n._ one who makes a vain display of learning: a pretender to knowledge which he does not possess: (_Shak._) a pedagogue.--_adjs._ PEDANT'IC, -AL, displaying knowledge for the sake of showing.--_adv._ PEDANT'ICALLY, in a pedantic manner.--_ns._ PEDANT'ICISM, PED'ANTISM.--_v.i._ PED'ANTISE, to play the pedant.--_ns._ PEDANTOC'RACY, government by pedants; PED'ANTRY, acts, manners, or character of a pedant: vain display of learning: (_Swift_) the overrating of any kind of knowledge we pretend to. [Fr.,--It. _pedante_--L. _pædagogan_s, _-antis_, teaching--_pædagogus_, a pedagogue.]

PEDDLE, ped'l, _v.i._ to travel about with a basket or bundle of goods, esp. of smallwares, for sale: to trifle.--_v.t._ to retail in small quantities.--_ns._ PEDD'LER, PED'LAR, PED'LER, a hawker or travelling merchant; PEDD'LERY, PED'LARY, the trade or tricks of a peddler: wares sold by a peddler.--_adj._ PEDD'LING, unimportant.--_n._ the trade or tricks of a peddler. [_Peddar_, _pedder_, one who carries wares in a _ped_ or basket.]

PEDERASTY, ped'e-rast-i, _n._ unnatural commerce of males with males, esp. boys.--_n._ PED'ERAST, one addicted to this vice.--_adj._ PEDERAST'IC. [Gr., _pais_, _paidos_, a boy, _erast[=e]s_--_eraein_, to love.]

PEDERERO, ped-e-r[=e]'r[=o], _n._ an old gun for discharging stones, pieces of iron, &c., also for firing salutes.

PEDESIS, ped-[=e]'sis, _n._ the rapid oscillation of small particles in a liquid.

PEDESTAL, ped'es-tal, _n._ anything that serves as a foot or a support: the foot or base of a pillar, &c.: the fixed casting which holds the brasses, in which a shaft turns, called also _Axle-guard_ or _Pillow-block_.--_v.t._ to place on a pedestal. [Sp.,--It. _piedestallo_--L. _pes_, _pedis_, the foot, It. _stallo_, a place.]

PEDESTRIAN, p[=e]-des'tri-an, _adj._ going on foot: performed on foot: pertaining to common people: vulgar.--_n._ one journeying on foot: an expert walker, one who practises feats of walking or running.--_adj._ P[=E]DES'TRIAL, of or pertaining to the foot: pedestrian.--_adv._ P[=E]DES'TRIALLY.--_v.t._ P[=E]DES'TRIANISE, to traverse on foot.--_n._ P[=E]DES'TRIANISM, a going on foot: walking: the practice of a pedestrian. [L. _pedestris_--_pes_, _pedis_.]

PEDETENTOUS, ped-[=e]-ten'tus, _adj._ proceeding slowly.

PEDIATRICS, ped-i-at'riks, that branch of medical science which relates to children and their special diseases.--Also PED'IATRY. [Gr. _pais_, _paidos_, a child, _iatrikos_, relating to a physician.]

PEDICEL, ped'i-sel, _n._ the little footstalk by which a single leaf or flower is fixed on the twig or on the cluster of which it forms a part--also PED'ICLE.--_n._ PEDICELL[=A]'RIA, a minute structure on the skin of sea-urchins and star-fish, like a stalk with a three or two bladed snapping forceps at the summit.--_adjs._ PED'ICELLATE, PEDIC'[=U]LATE, provided with a pedicel.--_n._ PED'ICLE, a fetter for the foot. [Fr. _pédicelle_--L. _pediculus_, dim. of _pes_, _pedis_, the foot.]

PEDICULUS, p[=e]-dik'[=u]-lus, _n._ a genus of lice, or an individual of it.--_adjs._ P[=E]DIC'ULAR, P[=E]DIC'ULOUS, lousy.--_ns._ P[=E]DICUL[=A]'TION, P[=E]DICUL[=O]'SIS, lousiness.

PEDICURE, ped'i-k[=u]r, _n._ the treatment of corns, bunions, or the like: one who treats the feet.

PEDIFEROUS, p[=e]-dif'e-rus, _adj._ footed--also P[=E]DIG'EROUS.--_adj._ PED'IFORM, foot-shaped.

PEDIGREE, ped'i-gr[=e], _n._ a line of ancestors: a list, in order, of the ancestors from whom one has descended: lineage: genealogy.--_adj._ PED'IGREED, having a pedigree. [Skeat suggests Fr. _pied de grue_, crane's-foot, from its use in the drawing out of pedigrees.]

PEDIMANOUS, p[=e]-dim'a-nus, _adj._ having all four feet like hands--of the opossums and lemurs.--_n._ PED'IMANE.


PEDIMENT, ped'i-ment, _n._ (_archit._) a triangular or circular ornament which crowns the fronts of buildings, and serves as a finish to the tops of doors, windows, porticoes, &c.--_adjs._ PEDIMENT'AL; PED'IMENTED, furnished with a pediment: like a pediment. [L. _pedamentum_--_pes_, _pedis_, the foot.]

PEDIPALP, ped'i-palp, _n._ a maxillipalp or maxillary palpus.--_adj._ pertaining to the PEDIPAL'PI, an order of _Arachnida_.--_adj._ PEDIPAL'POUS.


PEDOBAPTISM, p[=e]-d[=o]-bap'tizm, _n._ infant baptism.--_n._ PEDOBAP'TIST, one who believes in infant baptism. [Gr. _pais_, _paidos_, a child, _baptism_.]

PEDOMETER, p[=e]-dom'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument, somewhat like a watch, by which the number of the steps of a pedestrian are registered, from which the distance he has walked is measured.--_adj._ PEDOMET'RIC. [L. _pes_, _pedis_, a foot, Gr. _metron_, a measure.]

PEDOMOTOR, ped-[=o]-m[=o]'tor, _n._ a means for applying the foot as a driving power.--_adj._ PEDOM[=O]'TIVE.

PEDOTROPHY, p[=e]-dot'r[=o]-fi, _n._ the rearing of children.--_adj._ PEDOTROPH'IC.--_n._ PEDOT'ROPHIST. [Gr. _pais_, _paidos_, a child, _trephein_, to nourish.]

PEDUM, p[=e]'dum, _n._ a shepherd's crook. [L.]

PEDUNCLE, p[=e]-dung'kl, _n._ the stalk by which a cluster of flowers or leaves is joined to a twig or branch--sometimes same as _pedicel_--also PEDUN'CULUS.--_adjs._ PEDUN'CULAR, PEDUN'CULATE, -D. [Fr. _pedoncule_--Low L. _pedunculus_--L. _pes_, _pedis_, the foot.]

PEECE, p[=e]s, _n._ (_Shak._) a fabric, a fortified place.

PEECED, p[=e]sd, _adj._ (_Spens._) imperfect.

PEEK, p[=e]k, _v.i._ to peep.--_n._ PEEK'ABOO, a children's game, from the cry made when hiding one's eyes.

PEEL, p[=e]l, _v.t._ to strip off the skin or bark: to bare.--_v.i._ to come off as the skin: to lose the skin: (_slang_) to undress.--_n._ the skin, rind, or bark: (_print._) a wooden pole with short cross-piece for carrying printed sheets to the poles on which they are to be dried: the wash or blade of an oar--not the loom: a mark ([Peel mark]) for cattle, for persons who cannot write, &c.--_adj._ PEELED, stripped of skin, rind, or bark: plundered.--_ns._ PEEL'ER, one who peels, a plunderer; PEEL'ING, the act of stripping: that which is stripped off: (_print._) the removing of the layers of a paper overlay, to get a lighter impression. [O. Fr. _peler_, to unskin--L. _pil[=a]re_, to deprive of hair--_pilus_, a hair; or _pellis_, a skin.]

PEEL, p[=e]l, _n._ a small Border fortress.--Also PEEL'-TOW'ER. [_Pile_.]

PEEL, p[=e]l, _n._ a baker's wooden shovel: a fire-shovel. [O. Fr. _pele_--L. _p[=a]la_, a spade.]

PEEL, p[=e]l, _v.t._ to plunder: to pillage. [_Pill_ (v.).]

PEELER, p[=e]l'[.e]r, _n._ a policeman, from Sir R. _Peel_, who established the Irish police (1812-18) and improved those in Britain (1828-30).--_n._ PEEL'ITE, a follower of Peel in the reform of the Corn-laws in 1846.

PEEN, p[=e]n, _n._ the end of a hammer-head, usually shaped for indenting.--_v.t._ to strike with such. [Ger. _pinne_.]

PEENGE, p[=e]nj, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to complain childishly.

PEEP, p[=e]p, _v.i._ to chirp, or cry as a chicken.--_n._ the cry of a young chicken. [Fr. _piper_--L. _pip[=a]re_.]

PEEP, p[=e]p, _v.i._ to look through a narrow opening: to look out from concealment: to look slyly or cautiously: to begin to appear.--_n._ a sly look: a beginning to appear, a glimpse: a narrow view, a slit.--_ns._ PEEP'ER, one that peeps: a prying person: a chicken just breaking the shell: (_slang_) the eye; PEEP'-HOLE, a hole through which one may look without being seen; PEEP'-O'-DAY, the first appearance of light in the morning; PEEP'-SHOW, a small show viewed through a small hole, usually fitted with a magnifying-glass; PEEP'-SIGHT, a plate on the breach with a small hole through which a gunner takes his sight.--PEEPING TOM, a prying fellow, esp. one who peeps in at windows; PEEP-O'-DAY BOYS, a band of Protestants in the north of Ireland, in the end of the 18th century--opposed to the Catholic _Defenders_. [Same as above, Fr. _piper_, to chirp like a bird, then to beguile, whence _peep_=to look out slyly.]

PEER, p[=e]r, _n._ an equal in rank, ability, character, &c.: an associate: a nobleman: a member of the House of Lords:--_fem._ PEER'ESS.--_n._ PEER'AGE, the rank or dignity of a peer: the body of peers: a book containing a description of the history, connections, &c. of the different peers.--_adj._ PEER'LESS, having no peer or equal: matchless.--_adv._ PEER'LESSLY.--_n._ PEER'LESSNESS.--HOUSE OF PEERS, the House of Lords; SPIRITUAL PEER, one of the bishops or archbishops qualified to sit as members of the House of Lords; TEMPORAL PEER, one of the members of the House of Lords, other than the bishops. [O. Fr. (Fr. _pair_),--L. _par_, _paris_, equal.]

PEER, p[=e]r, _v.i._ to look narrowly or closely: to peep: to appear:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ peered.--_adj._ PEER'Y, prying, sly. [M. E. _piren_--Low Ger. _piren_, orig. _pliren_, to draw the eyelids together.]

PEERIE, PEERY, p[=e]r'i, _n._ a top spun with a string.

PEEVERS, p[=e]v'ers, _n._ (_Scot._) the game of hop-scotch.

PEEVISH, p[=e]v'ish, _adj._ habitually fretful: easily annoyed: hard to please: showing ill-nature: childish.--_adv._ PEEV'ISHLY.--_n._ PEEV'ISHNESS. [Prob. imit. of the puling of fretful infants.]


PEG, peg, _n._ a wooden pin for fastening boards, or the soles of shoes: one of the pins on which the strings of a musical instrument are stretched: a reason or excuse for action: a drink of soda-water with brandy, &c.: a degree or step.--_v.t._ to fasten with a peg: to keep up the market price by buying or selling at a fixed price: to make points during the game of cribbage before the show of hands.--_v.i._ to work with unremitting effort:--_pr.p._ peg'ging; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pegged.--_ns._ PEG'-FICHED, an English game played with pegs or pointed sticks; PEG'-FLOAT, a machine for rasping away the ends of pegs inside shoes.--_adj._ PEGGED, fashioned of, or furnished with, pegs.--_ns._ PEG'GING, the act of fastening with a peg: pegs collectively: a thrashing: determined perseverance in work; PEG'-LEG, a wooden leg of the simplest form, or one who walks on such; PEG'-STRIP, a ribbon of wood cut to the width, &c., of a shoe-peg; PEG'-TANK'ARD, a drinking-vessel having each one's share marked off by a knob; PEG'-TOP, a child's plaything made to spin round by winding a string round it and then rapidly pulling it off: (_pl._) a kind of trousers, wide at the top and narrow at the ankles.--_adj._ shaped like a top.--PEG AWAY, to keep continually working.--TAKE DOWN A PEG, to take down, to humble. [Scand.; as in Dan. _pig_, a spike.]

PEGASUS, peg'a-sus, _n._ a winged horse which arose from the blood of the Gorgon Medusa, when she was slain by Perseus: a genus of small fishes with large, wing-like, pectoral fins: one of the constellations in the northern sky.--_adj._ PEGAS[=E]'AN.

PEGGY, peg'i, _n._ one of several small warblers, the whitethroat, &c. [_Peggy_, from _Peg_=_Meg_--_Margaret_.]

PEGMATITE, peg'ma-t[=i]t, _n._ coarsely crystallised granite.--_adj._ PEGMATIT'IC.

PEHLEVI, p[=a]'le-v[=e], _n._ an ancient West Iranian idiom during the period of the Sassanides, largely mixed with Semitic words, and poorer in inflections and terminations than Zend (235-640 A.D.): the characters used in writing this language.--_adj._ of or pertaining to, or written in, Pehlevi. [Pers.]

PEIGNOIR, p[=e]n-wär', _n._ a loose wrapper worn by women during their toilet. [Fr.]

PEINCT, p[=a]ngkt, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to paint.

PEINE, p[=a]n, _n._ a form of punishment by pressing to death--usually _Peine forte et dure_. [Fr.]

PEIRASTIC, p[=i]-ras'tik, _adj._ tentative.--_n._ PEIRAM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the resistances of road-surface to traction. [Gr. _peira_, a trial.]

PEISE, p[=a]z, _v.t._ (_Spens._, _Shak._) to poise, to weigh.--_n._ a weight. [_Poise_.]

PEJORATION, p[=e]-j[=o]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ a becoming worse: deterioration.--_v.i._ P[=E]'JOR[=A]TE.--_adj._ and _n._ P[=E]'JOR[=A]TIVE.--_n._ P[=E]JOR'ITY. [L. _pejor_, worse, comp. of _malus_, bad.]

PEKAN, pek'an, _n._ an American species of Marten--called also _Wood-shock_, _Fisher_, and _Black-fox_.

PEKOE, p[=e]'k[=o], _n._ a scented black tea. [Chinese.]

PELAGE, pel'[=a]j, _n._ the hair or wool of a mammal. [Fr.]

PELAGIAN, p[=e]-l[=a]'ji-an, _n._ one who holds the views of _Pelagius_, a British monk of the 4th century, who denied original sin.--_adj._ pertaining to Pelagius.--_n._ PEL[=A]'GIANISM, the doctrines of Pelagius.

PELAGIC, p[=e]-laj'ik, _adj._ inhabiting the deep sea, marine, oceanic. [Gr. _pelagos_, the sea.]

PELARGONIUM, pel-ar-g[=o]'ni-um, _n._ a vast genus of beautiful flowering plants of order _Geraniaceæ_.--_adj._ P[=E]LAR'GIC, stork-like. [Gr. _pelargos_, stork, the beaked capsules resembling a stork's beak.]

PELASGIC, p[=e]-las'jik, _adj._ pertaining to the _Pelasgians_ or _Pelasgi_, a race spread over Greece in prehistoric times, to whom are ascribed many enormous remains built of unhewn stones, without cement--the so-called PELASGIC ARCHITECTURE. Also PELAS'GIAN.


PELERINE, pel'[.e]r-in, _n._ a woman's tippet or cape with long ends coming down in front. [Fr., a tippet--_pèlerin_, a pilgrim--L. _peregrinus_, foreign.]

PELF, pelf, _n._ riches (in a bad sense): money. [O. Fr. _pelfre_, booty; allied to _pilfer_.]

PELICAN, pel'i-kan, _n._ a large water-fowl, having an enormous distensible gular pouch: an alembic with tubulated head from which two opposite and crooked beaks extend and enter again the body of the vessel--used for continuous distillation: a dentist's instrument: (_her._) a pelican above her nest, with wings indorsed, wounding her breast with her beak in order to feed her young with her blood. [Low L. _pelicanus_--Gr. _pelikan_--_pelekus_, an axe.]

PELIKE, pel'i-k[=e], _n._ a large vase like the hydria, double-handled. [Gr.]

PELISSE, pe-l[=e]s', _n._ a cloak of silk or other cloth, with sleeves, worn by ladies: a garment lined with fur, a dragoon's jacket with shaggy lining. [Fr.,--Low L. _pellicea (vestis)_--L. _pellis_, a skin.]

PELL, pel, _n._ a skin or hide: a roll of parchment. [O. Fr. _pel_ (Fr. _peau_)--L. _pellis_, a skin or hide.]

PELLAGRA, pe-l[=a]'gra, _n._ a loathsome skin disease supposed to be common in the rice-producing part of the north of Italy.--_n._ PELL[=A]'GRIN, one afflicted with pellagra.--_adj._ PELL[=A]'GROUS, like or afflicted with pellagra. [Gr. _pella_, skin, _agra_, seizure.]

PELLET, pel'et, _n._ a little ball, as of lint or wax: a small rounded boss: a small pill: a ball of shot.--_adj._ PELL'ETED, consisting of pellets: pelted, as with bullets. [O. Fr. _pelote_--L. _pila_, a ball.]

PELLICLE, pel'i-kl, _n._ a thin skin or film: the film or scum which gathers on liquors.--_adj._ PELLIC'ULAR.

PELLITORY, pel'i-tor-i, _n._ a genus of plants found most commonly on old walls and heaps of rubbish: the feverfew.--_n._ PELL'ITORY-OF-SPAIN, a plant which grows in Algeria, the root of which causes in the hands first a sensation of extreme cold, then one of a burning heat. [L. _parietaria_, the wall-plant--_parietarius_--_paries_, _parietis_, a wall.]

PELL-MELL, pel-mel', _adv._ in great confusion: promiscuously: in a disorderly manner--also written _Pêle-mêle_.--_n._ PELL-MELL' (same as PALL-MALL). [O. Fr. _pesle-mesle_ (Fr. _pêle-mêle_), _-mesle_ being from O. Fr. _mesler_ (Fr. _mêler_), to mix--Low L. _miscul[=a]re_--L. _misc[=e]re_; and _pesle_, a rhyming addition, perh. influenced by Fr. _pelle_, shovel.]

PELLUCID, pe-l[=u]'sid, _adj._ perfectly clear: letting light through: transparent.--_ns._ PELL[=U]CID'ITY, PELL[=U]'CIDNESS.--_adv._ PELL[=U]'CIDLY. [Fr.,--L. _pellucidus_--_per_, perfectly, _lucidus_, clear--_luc[=e]re_, to shine.]

PELMA, pel'ma, _n._ the sole of the foot.--_n._ PELMAT'OGRAM, the impression of the foot. [Gr.]

PELOPID, pel'[=o]-pid, _adj._ pertaining to _Pelops_.--_n._ one of his descendants.

PELOPONNESIAN, pel-[=o]-po-n[=e]'zi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to the _Peloponnesus_ or southern part of Greece.--_n._ an inhabitant or a native of the Peloponnesus.--PELOPONNESIAN WAR, a war between Athens and Sparta (431-404 B.C.). [Gr. _Pelops_, an ancient Greek hero, _n[=e]sos_, an island.]

PELORIA, p[=e]-l[=o]'ri-a, _n._ the appearance of regularity in flowers normally irregular--also PEL'ORISM.--_adjs._ P[=E]LOR'IATE, P[=E]LOR'IC. [Gr. _pel[=o]r_, a monster.]

PELT, pelt, _n._ a raw hide: the quarry or prey of a hawk all torn.--_ns._ PELT'MONGER, a dealer in skins; PELT'RY, the skins of animals with the fur on them: furs. [M. E. _pelt_, _peltry_--O. Fr. _pelleterie_--_pelletier_, a skinner--L. _pellis_, a skin.]

PELT, pelt, _v.t._ to strike with something thrown: to cast.--_v.i._ to fall heavily, as rain.--_n._ a blow from something thrown.--_ns._ PEL'TER, a shower of missiles, a sharp storm of rain, &c.: a storm of anger; PEL'TING, an assault with a pellet, or with anything thrown. [Cf. _Pellet_.]

PELTA, pel'ta, _n._ a light buckler.--_n._ PEL'TAST, a soldier armed with this.--_adjs._ PEL'T[=A]TE, -D, shield-shaped; PELTAT'IFID, PEL'TIFORM. [L.,--Gr. _pelt[=e]_.]

PELTING, pel'ting, _adj._ (_Shak._) paltry, contemptible.--_adv._ PELT'INGLY. [_Paltry_.]

PELVIS, pel'vis, _n._ the bony cavity at the lower end of the trunk, forming the lower part of the abdomen.--_adjs._ PEL'VIC, of or pertaining to the pelvis; PEL'VIFORM, openly cup-shaped.--_ns._ PELVIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the diameters of the pelvis; PELVIM'ETRY. [L. _pelvis_, a basin.]

PEMMICAN, PEMICAN, pem'i-kan, _n._ a North American Indian preparation, consisting of lean venison, dried, pounded, and pressed into cakes, now made of beef and used in Arctic expeditions, &c.

PEMPHIGUS, pem'fi-gus, _n._ an affection of the skin with pustules.--_adj._ PEM'PHIGOID. [Gr.]

PEN, pen, _v.t._ to shut up: to confine in a small enclosure:--_pr.p._ pen'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ penned or pent.--_n._ a small enclosure: a fold for animals: a coop. [A.S. _pennan_, to shut up, in comp. _on pennan_, to unpen. Prop. to fasten with a _pin_.]

PEN, pen, _n._ one of the large feathers of the wing of a bird: an instrument used for writing, formerly made of the feather of a bird, but now of steel, &c.: style of writing: a female swan--opp. to _Cob_.--_v.t._ to write, to commit to paper:--_pr.p._ pen'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ penned.--_adj._ PEN'-AND-INK', written, literary: executed with pen and ink, as a drawing.--_ns._ PEN'-CASE, a holder for a pen or pens; PEN'CRAFT, skill in penmanship: the art of composition; PEN'-DRIV'ER, a clerk; PEN'FUL, what one can write with one dip of ink; PEN'-HOLD'ER, a holder for pens or nibs; PEN'-W[=I]'PER, a piece of cloth, leather, &c. for wiping pens after use; PEN'-WOM'AN, a female writer. [O. Fr. _penne_--L. _penna_, a feather.]

PENAL, p[=e]'nal, _adj._ pertaining to, incurring, or constituting punishment: used for punishment.--_v.t._ P[=E]'NALISE, to lay under penalty.--_adv._ P[=E]'NALLY.--PENAL LAWS, laws prohibiting certain actions under penalties; PENAL SERVITUDE, hard labour in a prison as a punishment for crime--introduced in England in 1853 instead of transportation; PENAL STATUTE, a statute imposing a penalty or punishment for crime. [Fr.,--L. _poenalis_--_poena_, Gr. _poin[=e]_, punishment.]

PENALTY, pen'al-ti, _n._ punishment: suffering in person or property for wrong-doing or for breach of a law: a fine or loss which a person agrees to pay or bear in case of his non-fulfilment of some undertaking: a fine.--UNDER PENALTY OF, so as to suffer, or (after a negative) without suffering the punishment of.

PENANCE, pen'ans, _n._ repentance: external acts performed to manifest sorrow for sin, to seek to atone for the sin and to avert the punishment which, even after the guilt has been remitted, may still remain due to the offence--also the sacrament by which absolution is conveyed (involving contrition, confession, and satisfaction): any instrument of self-punishment.--_v.t._ to impose penance on: to punish. [O. Fr.; cf. _Penitence_.]

PENANG-LAWYER, pe-nang'-law'y[.e]r, _n._ a walking-stick made from the stem of a Penang palm. [Prob. a corr. of _Penang liyar_, the wild areca.]

PENANNULAR, p[=e]-nan'[=u]-lar, _adj._ shaped almost like a ring. [L. _pæna_, almost, _annularis_, annular.]

PENATES, p[=e]-n[=a]'t[=e]s, the household gods of ancient Rome who presided over and were worshipped by each family. [L., from root _pen-_ in L. _penitus_, within, _penetralia_, the inner part of anything.]

PENCE, pens, _n._ plural of _penny_ (q.v.).

PENCHANT, päng'shäng, _n._ inclination: decided taste: bias. [Fr., pr.p. of _pencher_, to incline, through a form _pendic[=a]re_, from L. _pend[=e]re_, to hang.]

PENCIL, pen'sil, _n._ a small hair brush for laying on colours: any pointed instrument for writing or drawing without ink: a collection of rays of light converging to a point: the art of painting or drawing.--_v.t._ to write, sketch, or mark with a pencil: to paint or draw:--_pr.p._ pen'cilling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pen'cilled.--_ns._ PEN'CIL-CASE, a holder for a pencil; PEN'CIL-COM'PASS, a compass having a pencil on one of its legs for use in drawing.--_adjs._ PEN'CILLED, written or marked with a pencil: having pencils of rays: radiated: (_bot._) marked with fine lines, as with a pencil; PEN'CILLIFORM, having the form of a pencil, as of rays.--_ns._ PEN'CILLING, the art of writing, sketching, or marking with a pencil: marks made with a pencil: fine lines on flowers or the feathers of birds: a sketch; PEN'CIL-SKETCH, a sketch made with a pencil. [O. Fr. _pincel_ (Fr. _pinceau_)--L. _penicillum_, a painter's brush, dim. of _penis_, a tail.]

PEND, pend, _n._ (_obs._) an enclosure: (_Scot._) a narrow close leading off a main street.

PEND, pend, _v.i._ to hang, as in a balance, to impend.--_adj._ PEND'ING, hanging: remaining undecided: not terminated.--_prep._ during.

PENDANT, pen'dant, _n._ anything hanging, esp. for ornament: an earring: a lamp hanging from the roof: an ornament of wood or of stone hanging downwards from a roof: a long narrow flag, at the head of the principal mast in a royal ship: something attached to another thing of the same kind, an appendix, a companion picture, poem, &c.--_ns._ PEN'DENCE, PEN'DENCY, a hanging in suspense: state of being undecided.--_adj._ PEN'DENT, hanging: projecting: supported above the ground or base: (_bot._) hanging downwards, as a flower or a leaf.--_n._ PENDEN'TIVE (_archit._), the triangular portion of a dome cut off between two supporting arches at right angles to each other.--_adv._ PEN'DENTLY.--_ns._ PEN'DICLE, an appendage: something attached to another, as a privilege, a small piece of ground for cultivation; PEN'D[=U]LET, a pendant. [Fr. _pendant_, pr.p. of _pendre_, to hang--L. _pendens_, _-entis_--_pr.p._ of _pend[=e]re_, to hang.]

PENDRAGON, pen-drag'on, _n._ a chief leader: an ancient British chief.--_n._ PENDRAG'ONSHIP. [W. _pen_, head, _dragon_, a chief.]

PENDULUM, pen'd[=u]-lum, _n._ any weight so hung from a fixed point as to swing freely: the swinging weight which regulates the movement of a clock: a lamp, &c., pendent from a ceiling: a guard-ring of a watch by which it is attached to a chain.--_adj._ PEN'DULAR, relating to a pendulum.--_v.i._ PEN'DULATE, to swing, vibrate.--_adjs._ PEN'DULENT, pendulous; PEN'DULINE, building a pendulous nest; PEN'DULOUS, hanging loosely: swinging freely, as the pensile nests of birds: (_bot._) hanging downwards, as a flower on a curved stalk.--_adv._ PEN'DULOUSLY.--_ns._ PEN'DULOUSNESS, PEN'DULOSITY.--PENDULUM WIRE, a kind of flat steel wire for clock pendulums.--COMPENSATION PENDULUM, a pendulum so constructed that its rod is not altered in length by changes of temperature; COMPOUND PENDULUM, every ordinary pendulum is _compound_, as differing from a SIMPLE PENDULUM, which is a material point suspended by an ideal line; INVARIABLE PENDULUM, a pendulum for carrying from station to station to be oscillated at each so as to fix the relative acceleration of gravity; LONG and SHORT PENDULUM, a pendulum for determining the absolute force of gravity by means of a bob suspended by a wire of varying length. [L., neut. of _pendulus_, hanging--_pend[=e]re_, to hang.]

PENEIAN, p[=e]-n[=e]'yan, _adj._ relating to the river _Peneus_ in the famous Vale of Tempe in Thessaly.

PENELOPISE, p[=e]-nel'o-p[=i]z, _v.i._ to act like _Penelope_, the wife of Ulysses, who undid at night the work she did by day, to gain time from her suitors.

PENETRATE, pen'[=e]-tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to thrust into the inside: to pierce into: to affect the mind or feelings: to enter and to fill: to understand: to find out.--_v.i._ to make way: to pass inwards.--_ns._ PENETRABIL'ITY, PEN'ETRABLENESS.--_adj._ PEN'ETRABLE, that may be penetrated or pierced by another body: capable of having impressions made upon the mind.--_adv._ PEN'ETRABLY, so as to be PENETR[=A]'LIA, the inmost parts of a building: secrets: mysteries.--_ns._ PEN'ETRANCE, PEN'ETRANCY, the quality of being penetrant.--_adjs._ PEN'ETRANT, subtle, penetrating; PEN'ETRATING, piercing or entering: sharp: subtle: acute: discerning.--_adv._ PEN'ETRATINGLY.--_n._ PENETR[=A]'TION, the act or power of penetrating or entering: acuteness: discernment: the space-penetrating power of a telescope.--_adj._ PEN'ETRATIVE, tending to penetrate: piercing: sagacious: affecting the mind.--_adv._ PEN'ETRATIVELY, in a penetrative manner.--_n._ PEN'ETRATIVENESS, the quality of being penetrative: penetrative power. [L. _penetr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_penes_, within.]

PEN-FISH, pen'-fish, _n._ a sparoid fish of genus _Calamus_.


PENGUIN, pen'gwin, _n._ an aquatic bird in the southern hemisphere, unable to fly, but very expert in diving--also PIN'GUIN.--_n._ PEN'GUINERY, a breeding-place of penguins. [Ety. dub.; a corr. of _pen-wing_, or from W. _pen_, head, _gwen_, white.]

PEN-GUN, pen'-gun, _n._ a pop-gun.

PENICIL, pen'i-sil, _n._ a brush of hairs: a pledget for wounds, &c.--_adjs._ PEN'ICILLATE, PENICIL'LIFORM.--_n._ PENICIL'LIUM, one of the blue-moulds.

PENINSULA, p[=e]-nin's[=u]-la, _n._ land so surrounded by water as to be almost an island.--_adj._ PENIN'SULAR, pertaining to a peninsula: in the form of a peninsula: inhabiting a peninsula.--_n._ PENINSULAR'ITY, state of being, or of inhabiting, a peninsula: narrow provincialism.--_v.t._ PENIN'SULATE, to form into a peninsula: to surround almost entirely with water.--PENINSULAR WAR, the war in Spain and Portugal, carried on by Great Britain against Napoleon's marshals (1804-1814).--THE PENINSULA, Spain and Portugal. [L.,--_pæne_, almost, _insula_, an island.]

PENIS, p[=e]'nis, _n._ the characteristic external male organ.--_adj._ P[=E]'NIAL. [L., a tail.]

PENISTONE, pen'i-st[=o]n, _n._ a coarse frieze.--PENISTONE FLAGS, a kind of sandstone for paving and building, brought from _Penistone_ in Yorkshire.

PENITENT, pen'i-tent, _adj._ suffering pain or sorrow for sin: contrite: repentant.--_n._ one who is sorry for sin: one who has confessed sin, and is undergoing penance.--_ns._ PEN'ITENCE, PEN'ITENCY, state of being penitent: sorrow for sin.--_adj._ PENITEN'TIAL, pertaining to, or expressive of, penitence.--_n._ a book of rules relating to penance.--_adv._ PENITEN'TIALLY.--_adj._ PENITEN'TIARY, relating to penance: penitential.--_n._ a penitent: an office at the court of Rome for examining and issuing secret bulls, dispensations, &c.: a book for guidance in imposing penances: a place for the performance of penance: a house of correction and punishment for offenders.--_adv._ PEN'ITENTLY.--PENITENTIAL GARMENT, a rough garment worn for penance; PENITENTIAL PSALMS, certain psalms suitable for being sung by penitents, as the 6th, 32d, 38th, 51st, 102d, 130th, 143d. [Fr.,--L. _poenitens_, _-entis_--_poenit[=e]re_, to cause to repent.]

PENKNIFE, pen'n[=i]f, _n._ a small knife, originally for making and mending quill pens.

PENMAN, pen'man, _n._ a man skilled in the use of the pen: an author:--_pl._ PEN'MEN.--_n._ PEN'MANSHIP, the use of the pen: art or manner of writing.

PENNA, pen'a, _n._ a feather, esp. one of the large feathers of the wings or tail.--_adj._ PENN[=A]'CEOUS. [L.]

PENNAL, pen'al, _n._ a freshman at a German university--so called from their pennales or pen-cases.--_n._ PENN'ALISM, a system of fagging once in vogue at German universities.

PEN-NAME, pen'-n[=a]m, _n._ a name, other than his real one, by which an author is known to the public: a nom de plume.

PENNANT, pen'ant, _n._ a flag many times as long as it is wide: a streamer: a long narrow piece of bunting at the mast-heads of war-ships.--Also PENN'ON. [_Pennant_ is formed from _pennon_, with excrescent _t_; _pennon_ is Fr. _pennon_--L. _penna_, a wing.]

PENNATE, -D, pen'[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ winged: (_bot._) same as PINNATE.--_adj._ PENNATIF'ID (see PINNATIFID).--_n._ PENNE (_Spens._), a feather.--_adj._ PENNED, having wings: winged: written with a pen.--_n._ PEN'NER, a case for holding pens: (_her._) a representation of such carried at the girdle.--_adjs._ PENNIF'EROUS, PENNIG'EROUS, feathered; PEN'NIFORM, like a feather in form. [L. _pennatus_--_penna_, wing.]

PENNILL, pen'il, _n._ a kind of Welsh verse, in which the singer has to change words and measure according to the variations of his accompanist on the harp. [W. 'a verse,' pl. _pennillion_.]

PENNON, pen'on, _n._ a flag, a medieval knight-bachelor's ensign: a long narrow flag: a pinion or wing.--_ns._ PENN'ONCELLE, a small flag like a pennon; PENN'ONCIER, a knight-bachelor.--_adj._ PENN'ONED, bearing a pennon. [Cf. _Pennant._]

PENNY, pen'i, _n._ a copper coin (bronze since 1860), originally silver=1/12 of a shilling, or four farthings: a small sum: money in general: (_N.T._) a silver coin=7½d.: pound, in _fourpenny_, _sixpenny_, _tenpenny nails_=four, six, ten _pound_ weight to the thousand:--_pl._ PENNIES (pen'iz), denoting the number of coins; PENCE (pens), the amount of pennies in value.--_adjs._ PENN'IED, possessed of a penny; PENN'ILESS, without a penny: without money: poor.--_ns._ PENN'ILESSNESS; PENN'Y-A-LIN'ER, one who writes for a public journal at so much a line: a writer for pay; PENN'Y-A-LIN'ERISM, hack-writing; PENN'Y-DOG, the tope or miller's dog, a kind of shark; PENN'Y-POST, a means of carrying a letter for a penny; PENN'Y-RENT, income; PENN'YWEIGHT, twenty-four grains of troy weight (the weight of a silver penny); PENN'Y-WIS'DOM, prudence in petty matters.--_adj._ PENN'Y-WISE, saving small sums at the risk of larger: niggardly on improper occasions.--_ns._ PENN'Y-WORTH, a penny's worth of anything: the amount that can be given for a penny: a good bargain--also PENN''ORTH (_coll._); P[=E]'TER'S-PENCE, the name given to an old tribute offered to the Roman Pontiff, now a voluntary contribution.--PENNY FEE (_Scot._), a small wage; PENNY GAFF (_slang_), a low-class theatre; PENNY MAIL (_Scot._), rent in money, not in kind: a small sum paid to the superior of land; PENNY WEDDING, a wedding ceremonial in Scotland, at which the invited guests made contributions in money to pay the general expenses.--A PRETTY PENNY, a considerable sum of money; TURN AN HONEST PENNY, to earn money honestly. [A.S. _penig_, oldest form _pending_, where _pend_=Eng. _pawn_, Ger. _pfand_, Dut. _pand_, a pledge, all which are from L. _pannus_, a rag, a piece of cloth.]

PENNYROYAL, pen'i-roi-al, _n._ a species of mint, much in use in domestic medicine, in the form of a warm infusion, to promote perspiration and as an emmenagogue. [Corr. from old form _pulial_, which is traced through O. Fr. to L. _puleium regium_, the plant pennyroyal--_pulex_, a flea.]

PENOLOGY, PÆNOLOGY, p[=e]-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the study of punishment in its relation to crime: the management of prisons.--_n._ PENOL'OGIST. [Gr. _poin[=e]_, punishment, _logia_, description.]

PENSÉE, pang-s[=a]', _n._ a thought. [Fr.]

PENSEROSO, pen-se-r[=o]'so, _adj._ melancholy: thoughtful:--_fem. Penser[=o]'sa._ [It.]

PENSILE, pen's[=i]l, _adj._ hanging: suspended.--_ns._ PEN'SILENESS, PENSIL'ITY. [Fr.,--L.,--_pend[=e]re_, hang.]

PENSION, pen'shun, _n._ a stated allowance to a person for past services performed by himself or by some relative: a payment made to a person retired from service on account of age or weakness: a boarding-school or boarding-house on the Continent (pron. pong-siong'): a sum paid to a clergyman in place of tithes.--_v.t._ to grant a pension to.--_adjs._ PEN'SIONABLE, entitled, or entitling, to a pension; PEN'SIONARY, receiving a pension: consisting of a pension.--_n._ one who receives a pension: the syndic or legal adviser of a Dutch town.--_ns._ PEN'SIONER, one who receives a pension: a dependent: one who pays out of his own income for his commons, chambers, &c. at Cambridge University=an Oxford _commoner_; PEN'SIONNAIRE.--GRAND PENSIONARY, the president of the States-general of Holland. [Fr.,--L. _pension-em_--_pend[)e]re_, _pensum_, to weigh, pay.]

PENSIVE, pen'siv, _adj._ thoughtful: reflecting: expressing thoughtfulness with sadness.--_adj._ PEN'SIVED (_Shak._), thought over.--_adv._ PEN'SIVELY.--_n._ PEN'SIVENESS, state of being pensive: gloomy thoughtfulness: melancholy. [Fr. _pensif_--L. _pens[=a]re_, to weigh--_pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PENSTOCK, pen'stok, _n._ a trough conveying water to a water-wheel.

PENSUM, pen'sum, _n._ an extra task given a scholar in punishment.

PENT, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of pen, to shut up.

PENTACAPSULAR, pen-ta-kap's[=u]-lar, _adj._ having five capsules.

PENTACHORD, pen'ta-kord, _n._ a musical instrument with five strings: a diatonic series of five tones.

PENTACLE, pent'a-kl, _n._ a figure formed by two equilateral triangles intersecting regularly so as to form a six-pointed star: properly a five-pointed object, the same as PENTAGRAM (q.v.), a defence against demons.--_adj._ PENTAC'ULAR. [O. Fr., but prob. not from Gr. _pente_, five, but O. Fr. _pente_, _pendre_, to hang. As applied to a magical figure prob. a corr. of _pentangle_, perh. _pentacol_--_pendre_, to hang, a, on, _col_, the neck.]

PENTACOCCOUS, pen-ta-kok'us, _adj._ (_bot._) having five grains or seeds.

PENTACROSTIC, pen-ta-kros'tik, _adj._ containing five acrostics of the same name.--_n._ a set of such verses.

PENTACT, pen'takt, _adj._ five-rayed.--Also PENTAC'TINAL.

PENTAD, pen'tad, _n._ the number five, a group of five things: a mean of temperature, &c., taken every five days.

PENTADACTYLOUS, pen-ta-dak'ti-lus, _adj._ having five digits--also PENTADAC'TYL.--_n._ PENTADAC'TYLISM.

PENTADELPHOUS, pen-ta-del'fus, _adj._ (_bot._) grouped together in five sets.

PENTAGLOT, pen'ta-glot, _adj._ of five tongues.--_n._ a work in five languages.


PENTAGON, pen'ta-gon, _n._ (_geom._) a plane figure having five angles and five sides: a fort with five bastions.--_adj._ PENTAG'ONAL.--_adv._ PENTAG'ONALLY. [Gr. _pentag[=o]non_--_pente_, five, _g[=o]nia_, angle.]


PENTAGRAM, pen'ta-gram, _n._ a five-pointed star: a magic figure so called.--This is the proper _pentacle_.--_adj._ PENTAGRAMMAT'IC. [Gr. _pente_, five, _gramma_, a letter.]


PENTAGYNIA, pent-a-jin'i-a, _n._ (_bot._) a Linnæan order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five pistils.--_n._ PENT'AGYN (_bot._), a plant having five styles.--_adjs._ PENTAGYN'IAN, PENTAG'YNOUS. [Gr. _pente_, five, _gyn[=e]_, a female.]

PENTAHEDRON, pen-ta-h[=e]'dron, _n._ (_geom._) a solid figure bounded by five plane faces.--_adj._ PENTAH[=E]'DRAL. [Gr. _pente_, five, _hedra_, base.]

PENTALPHA, pen-tal'fa, _n._ a five-pointed star: a pentacle. [Gr. _pente_, five, _alpha_.]

PENTAMERON, pen-tam'e-ron, _n._ a famous collection of fifty folk-tales (Naples 1637) written in the Neapolitan dialect by Giambattista Basile, supposed to be told during five days by ten old women, for the entertainment of a Moorish slave who has usurped the place of the rightful princess. [It. _pentamerone_.]

PENTAMEROUS, pen-tam'[.e]r-us, _adj._ (_bot._) consisting of or divided into five parts.--PENTAMERUS BEDS (_geol._), a name applied to the upper and lower Llandovery rocks, full of the brachiopods called _Pentamerus_. [Gr. _pente_, five, _meros_, part.]

PENTAMETER, pen-tam'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a verse of five measures or feet.--_adj._ having five feet.--ELEGIAC PENTAMETER, a verse of six dactylic feet, the third and sixth with the first member only; IAMBIC PENTAMETER, in English, heroic couplets and blank verse. [Gr. _pentametros_--_pente_, five, _metron_, a measure.]

PENTANDRIA, pen-tan'dri-a, _n._ (_bot._) a Linnæan order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five stamens.--_n._ PENTAN'DER, a plant of the class Pentandria.--_adjs._ PENTAN'DRIAN, PENTAN'DROUS. [Gr. _pente_, five, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man, a male.]

PENTANGULAR, pen-tang'g[=u]-lar, _adj._ having five angles.

PENTAPETALOUS, pen-ta-pet'a-lus, _adj._ having five petals.

PENTAPHYLLOUS, pen-ta-fil'us, _adj._ having five leaves. [Gr. _pente_, five, _phyllon_, a leaf.]

PENTAPODY, pen-tap'o-di, _n._ a measure of five feet.

PENTAPOLIS, pen-tap'o-lis, _n._ a group of five cities.--_adj._ PENTAPOL'ITAN, esp. of the ancient _Pentapolis_ of Cyrenaica in northern Africa. [Gr. _pente_, five, _polis_, a city.]

PENTARCHY, pen'tär-ki, _n._ government by five persons. [Gr. _pente_, five, _arch[=e]_, rule.]

PENTASEPALOUS, pen-ta-sep'a-lus, _adj._ having five sepals.

PENTASPERMOUS, pent-a-sp[.e]r'mus, _adj._ (_bot._) containing five seeds. [Gr. _pente_, five, _sperma_, seed.]

PENTASTICH, pen'ta-stik, _n._ a composition of five verses.--_adj._ PENTAS'TICHOUS, five-ranked.

PENTASTYLE, pen'ta-st[=i]l, _adj._ having five columns in front.--_n._ (_archit._) a building with a portico of five columns. [Gr. _pente_, five, _stylos_, a pillar.]

PENTASYLLABIC, pen-ta-si-lab'ik, _adj._ having five syllables.

PENTATEUCH, pen'ta-t[=u]k, _n._ a name used to denote the Jewish Thorah, the first five books of the Old Testament.--_adj._ PEN'TATEUCHAL. [Gr. _pente_, five, _teuchos_, a book--_teuchein_, to prepare.]

PENTATHLON, pen-tath'lon, _n._ a contest consisting of five exercises--wrestling, throwing the discus, spear-throwing, leaping, and running--also PENTATH'LUM.--_n._ PENTATH'L[=E]TE, one who contests in the pentathlon. [Gr. _pente_, five, _athlon_, a contest.]

PENTATONIC, pen-ta-ton'ik, _adj._ consisting of five tones.

PENTECONTER, pen't[=e]-kon-t[.e]r, _n._ an ancient Greek ship having fifty oars.

PENTECOST, pen't[=e]-kost, _n._ a Jewish festival held on the fiftieth day after the Passover, in commemoration of the giving of the law: the festival of Whitsuntide, held in remembrance of the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the assembled disciples at the feast of Pentecost.--_adj._ PENTECOST' offerings formerly made to the parish priest at Whitsuntide. [Gr. _pent[=e]kost[=e]_ (_h[=e]mera_), the fiftieth (day).]


PENTELIC, -AN, pen-tel'ik, -an, _adj._ describing a kind of marble found at Mount _Pentelicus_ near Athens.

PENTETERIC, pen-te-ter'ik, _adj._ occurring every five years. [Gr., _pente_, five, _etos_, a year.]

PENTHEMIMERAL, pen-th[=e]-mim'e-ral, _adj._ belonging to a metrical group of 2½ feet. [Gr. _pente_, five, _h[=e]mi_, half, _meros_, a part.]

PENTHOUSE, pent'hows, _n._ a shed projecting from or adjoining a main building: a protection from the weather over a door or a window: anything resembling a penthouse.--_v.t._ to provide with a penthouse, shelter by means of a shed sloping from a wall, or anything similar. [A corr. of _pentice_, which is from Fr. _appentis_--L. _appendicium_, an appendage.]

PENTICE, pen'tis, _n._ See PENTHOUSE.


PENTROOF, pent'r[=oo]f, _n._ a roof with a slope on one side only. [A hybrid word, from Fr. _pente_, a slope--_pendre_, to hang, and Eng. _roof_.]

PENTSTEMON, pent-st[=e]'mon, _n._ a genus of perennial herbs of the order _Scrophularineæ_, common in California. [Gr. _pente_, five, _st[=e]m[=o]n_, warp, stamen.]

PENTZIA, pent'si-a, _n._ a genus of South African shrubs, having yellow flowers in small heads, usually in corymbs.--The chief species is _Pentzia virgata_ or the 'sheep-fodder bush.' [Named after C. J. _Pentz_, a student under Thunberg.]

PENULT, p[=e]-nult', or p[=e]'nult, PENULT'IMA, _n._ the syllable last but one.--_adj._ PENULT'IM[=A]TE, last but one.--_n._ the penult: the last member but one of any series. [L. _penultima_--_pæne_, almost, _ultimus_, last.]

PENUMBRA, p[=e]-num'bra, _n._ a partial or lighter shadow round the perfect or darker shadow of an eclipse: the part of a picture where the light and shade blend into each other.--_adjs._ PENUM'BRAL, PENUM'BROUS. [L. _pæne_, almost, _umbra_, shade.]

PENURY, pen'[=u]-ri, _n._ want: absence of means or resources: great poverty.--_adj._ PEN[=U]'RIOUS, showing penury: not bountiful: too saving: sordid: miserly.--_adv._ PEN[=U]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ PEN[=U]'RIOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _penuria_; Gr. _peina_, hunger, _pen[=e]s_, poor.]

PEON, p[=e]'on, _n._ a day-labourer, esp. in South America, one working off a debt by bondage: in India, a foot-soldier, a messenger, a native policeman.--_ns._ P[=E]'ONAGE, P[=E]'ONISM, this kind of agricultural servitude. [Sp.,--Low L. _pedo_--L. _pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

PEONY, p[=e]'o-ni, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Ranunculaceæ_, with large showy flowers, carmine, in some white. [O. Fr. _pione_ (Fr. _pivoine_)--L. _pæonia_, healing--Gr. _Pai[=o]n_.]

PEOPLE, p[=e]'pl, _n._ persons generally: the men, women, and children of a country or a nation: the mass of persons as distinguished from the rulers, &c.: an indefinite number: inhabitants: the vulgar: the populace:--_pl._ PEOPLES (p[=e]'plz), races, tribes.--_v.t._ to stock with people or inhabitants.--PEOPLE'S PALACE, an institution for the amusement, recreation, and association of the working-classes, as that in the East End of London, inaugurated in 1887.--CHOSEN PEOPLE, the Israelites; GOOD PEOPLE, or FOLK, a popular euphemistic name for the fairies; PECULIAR PEOPLE (see PECULIAR); THE PEOPLE, the populace, the mass. [Fr. _peuple_--L. _populus_, prob. reduplicated from root of _plebs_, people.]

PEOTOMY, p[=e]-ot'[=o]-mi, _n._ the amputation of the penis. [Gr. _peos_, the penis, _temnein_, to cut.]

PEPERIN, pep'e-rin, _n._ a volcanic tufa found in the Alban Hills near Rome. [It. _peperino_--_pepe_, pepper--L. _piper_, pepper.]

PEPITA, pe-p[=e]'ta, _n._ a nugget of gold. [Sp.]

PEPLUM, pep'lum, _n._ an upper robe worn by women in ancient Greece.--Also PEP'LUS. [L.,--Gr. _peplos_.]

PEPO, p[=e]'p[=o], _n._ a fruit like that of the gourd. [Gr.]

PEPPER, pep'[.e]r, _n._ a pungent aromatic condiment consisting of the dried berries of the pepper-plant, entire or powdered: any plant of genus _Piper_: a plant of genus _Capsicum_, or one of its pods, whence _Cayenne pepper_.--_v.t._ to sprinkle with pepper: to hit or pelt with shot, &c.: to pelt thoroughly: to do for.--_adj._ PEPP'ER-AND-SALT', of a colour composed of a light ground dotted with fine spots of a dark colour, or of a dark ground with light spots.--_ns._ PEPP'ER-BOX, a box with a perforated top for sprinkling pepper on food; PEPP'ER-CAKE, a kind of spiced cake or gingerbread; PEPP'ER-CAST'ER, the vessel, on a cruet-stand, from which pepper is sprinkled; PEPP'ERCORN, the berry of the pepper plant: something of little value--PEPPERCORN RENT, a nominal rent; PEPP'ERER, one who sells pepper, a grocer; PEPP'ER-GIN'GERBREAD, hot-spiced gingerbread; PEPP'ER-GRASS, any plant of genus _Lepidium_; PEPP'ERINESS; PEPP'ERMINT, a species of mint, aromatic and pungent like pepper: a liquor distilled from the plant: a lozenge flavoured with peppermint--_Peppermint-drop_, a confection so flavoured; PEPP'ER-POT, a West Indian dish, of cassareep, together with flesh or dried fish and vegetables, esp. green okra and chillies: tripe shredded and stewed, with balls of dough and plenty of pepper; PEPP'ER-TREE, a shrub of the cashew family, native to South America, &c.--also PEPPER SHRUB and _Chili pepper_; PEPP'ERWORT, the dittander.--_adj._ PEPP'ERY, possessing the qualities of pepper: hot, choleric.--ÆTHIOPIAN PEPPER, the produce of _Xylopia Æthiopica_; BENIN PEPPER, of _Cubeba Clusii_; GUINEA PEPPER, or MALEGUETTA PEPPER, of _Amomum_; JAMAICA PEPPER, or PIMENTO, of species of Eugenia (_Myrtaceæ_); LONG PEPPER, the fruit of _Piper Longum_; WHITE PEPPER, the seed freed from the skin and fleshy part of the fruit by soaking in water and rubbing the dried fruit. [A.S. _pipor_--L. _piper_--Gr. _peperi_--Sans. _pippala_.]

PEPPER'S GHOST, pep'[.e]rs g[=o]st, _n._ a device for associating on the same stage living persons and phantoms to act together--the phantom produced by a large sheet of unsilvered glass on the stage, practically invisible to the spectators, reflecting to them, along with a visible actor or actors, the appearance of another actor on an understage, himself invisible. [John H. _Pepper_ (b. 1821), the improver and exhibitor of Henry Dircks' invention.]

PEPSIN, PEPSINE, pep'sin, _n._ one of the essential constituents of the gastric juice: the active agent in fermenting food in the stomach--a hydrolytic ferment.--_adj._ PEP'TIC, relating to or promoting digestion: having a good digestion.--_ns._ PEPTIC'ITY, eupepsia; PEP'TICS, digestion considered as a science: the digestive organs; PEP'TOGEN, a substance producing peptone, any preparation that facilitates digestion.--_adjs._ PEPTOGEN'IC, PEPTOG'ENOUS, PEPTON'IC.--_ns._ PEP'T[=O]NE, one of a class of albumenoids formed by the action of the chemical ferment pepsin and hydrochloric acid, the latter first converting into a syntonin or acid protein, the former converting this syntonin into peptone--they are soluble in water, are not coagulated by boiling, and pass readily through an animal membrane, being therefore easily absorbed; PEPTONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PEP'TONISE, to convert into peptones.--_n._ PEP'TONOID, a substance like peptone: one of certain food preparations. [Fr.,--Gr. _pepsis_, digestion--_peptein_, to digest.]

PEPYSIAN, pep'is-i-an, _adj._ pertaining to Samuel _Pepys_ (1633-1703), his inimitable diary, or the collection of prints, books, ballads, &c. he bequeathed to Magdalene College, Cambridge.

PER, p[.e]r, _prep._ through, by means of, according to.--PER ANNUM, year by year: for each year; PER CAPITA, by heads, implying equal rights to two or more persons; PER CENT., per hundred; PER CONTRA, on the contrary: as a set-off; PER DIEM, every day: day by day; PER MENSEM, monthly: by the month; PER SALTUM, at a single leap: all at once; PER SE, by himself, &c.: essentially.

PERACUTE, per-a-k[=u]t', _adj._ very sharp or violent.

PERADVENTURE, per-ad-vent'[=u]r, _adv._ by adventure: by chance: perhaps.--_n._ uncertainty: question.

PERAMBULATE, per-am'b[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to walk through or over: to pass through for the purpose of surveying: to survey the boundaries of.--_ns._ PERAMBUL[=A]'TION, act of perambulating: a survey or inspection by travelling through: the district within which a person has the right of inspection; PERAM'BUL[=A]TOR, one who perambulates: an instrument for measuring distances on roads: a light carriage for a child.--_adj._ PERAM'BUL[=A]TORY. [L. _perambul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _ambul[=a]re_, to walk.]

PERCALE, per-käl', _n._ a closely woven French cambric.--_n._ PER'CALINE, a glossy cotton cloth. [Fr.]

PERCASE, per-k[=a]s', _adv._ (_Bacon_) perchance, perhaps. [L. _per_, through, by, _casus_, a chance.]

PERCEABLE, p[.e]rs'a-bl, _adj._ (_Spens._)=_Pierceable_.

PERCEANT, p[.e]rs'ant, _adj._ piercing, penetrating.--_v.t._ PERC'EN (_Spens._), to pierce. [Fr. _perçant_, pr.p. of _percer_, to pierce.]

PERCEIVE, per-s[=e]v', _v.t._ to become aware of through the senses: to get knowledge of by the mind: to see: to understand: to discern.--_adj._ PERCEIV'ABLE (same as PERCEPTIBLE).--_adv._ PERCEIV'ABLY (same as PERCEPTIBLY).--_ns._ PERCEIV'ER; PERCEIV'ING (_Bacon_), perception. [O. Fr. _percever_--L. _percip[)e]re_, _perceptum_--_per_, perfectly, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

PERCENTAGE, per-sen't[=a]j, _n._ rate per hundred: an allowance of so much for every hundred.--_adj._ PERCEN'TILE. [Cf. _Cent._]

PERCEPT, p[.e]r'sept, _n._ that which is perceived by means of the senses.--_n._ PERCEPTIBIL'ITY, quality of being perceptible.--_adj._ PERCEP'TIBLE, that can be perceived: that may be known by the senses: discernible.--_adv._ PERCEP'TIBLY.--_n._ PERCEP'TION, act of perceiving: discernment: (_phil._) the faculty of perceiving: the evidence of external objects by our senses.--_adjs._ PERCEP'TIONAL; PERCEP'TIVE, having the power of perceiving or discerning.--_ns._ PERCEP'TIVENESS, the faculty or power of perceiving: readiness to perceive; PERCEPTIV'ITY, character or quality of being perceptive: power of perceiving.--_adj._ PERCEP'T[=U]AL, of the nature of perception.

PERCH, p[.e]rch, _n._ a genus of fresh-water fishes.--_adjs._ PERCH'-BACKED, shaped like a perch's back; PER'CIFORM, percoid; PER'CINE, perciform; PER'COID, like the perch: pertaining to the perch family. [Fr. _perche_--L. _perca_--Gr. _perk[=e]_, a perch, prob. conn. with _perknos_, spotted.]

PERCH, p[.e]rch, _n._ a rod on which birds roost: any high seat or position: a measure=5½ yards: a square measure=30¼ square yards: a pole joining the fore and hind gear of a spring carriage: a frame on which cloth is examined for flaws.--_v.i._ to sit or roost on a perch: to settle.--_v.t._ to place, as on a perch.--_ns._ PERCH'ER, a bird that perches on trees; PERCH'ING, the examination of cloth stretched on a frame for burs, knots, or holes--also called _Burling_.--_adj._ insessorial.--_ns._ PERCH'-PLATE, a plate or block above or below a carriage-reach, at the king-bolt; PERCH'-POLE, an acrobat's climbing-pole; PERCH'-STAY, one of the side-rods bracing the perch to the hind-axle. [Fr. _perche_--L. _pertica_, a rod.]

PERCHANCE, per-chans', _adv._ by chance: perhaps.

PERCHERON, per-she-rong', _n._ a horse of the Percheron breed, large strong draught-horses, usually dapple-gray--also _Norman_ and _Norman Percheron_.--_adj._ pertaining to the foregoing. [Fr.,--_Perche_, in southern Normandy.]

PERCHLORIC, per-kl[=o]'rik, _adj._ pertaining to an acid, a syrupy liquid obtained by decomposing potassium perchlorate by means of sulphuric acid.--_n._ PERCHL[=O]'RATE, a salt of perchloric acid.

PERCIPIENT, per-sip'i-ent, _adj._ perceiving: having the faculty of perception.--_n._ one who perceives or who has the power of perceiving.--_ns._ PERCIP'IENCE, PERCIP'IENCY.

PERCLOSE, per-kl[=o]z', _n._ an enclosed place: (_archit._) a railing separating a tomb or chapel from the rest of the church: (_her._) the lower half of a garter with the buckle.--Also PAR'ACLOSE, PARCLOSE'. [O. Fr.,--L. _præ_, in front, _claud[)e]re_, _clausum_, to shut.]

PERCOCT, per-kokt', _adj._ well-cooked. [L. _percoctus_, _percoqu[)e]re_, to cook thoroughly.]

PERCOID, per'koid. See PERCH (1).

PERCOLATE, p[.e]r'k[=o]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to strain through pores or small openings, as a liquid: to filter.--_v.i._ to pass or ooze through very small openings: to filter.--_n._ a filtered liquid.--_ns._ PERCOL[=A]'TION, act of filtering; PER'COLATOR, a filtering vessel. [L. _percol[=a]re_,_-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _col[=a]re_, to strain.]

PERCURRENT, per-kur'ent, _adj._ running through the whole length.--_adj._ PERCUR'SORY, running over slightly or in haste (same as _Cursory_). [L. _percurrens_, pr.p. of _percurr[)e]re_, _percursum_, to run through.]

PERCUSS, per-kus', _v.t._ to strike so as to shake: to tap for purposes of diagnosis.--_adj._ PERCUS'SANT (_her._), bent round and striking the side, as a lion's tail--also PERCUSSED'.

PERCUSSION, per-kush'un, _n._ the forcible striking of one body against another: collision, or the shock produced by it: impression of sound on the ear: (_med._) the tapping upon the body to find the condition of an internal organ by the sounds: in the jargon of palmistry, the outer side of the hand.--_adjs._ PERCUSS'IONAL, PERCUSS'IVE.--_ns._ PERCUSS'ION-BULL'ET, a bullet so formed as to explode on striking something: an explosive bullet; PERCUS'SION-CAP, a cap of copper partly filled with a substance which explodes when struck, formerly used for firing rifles, &c.; PERCUS'SION-FUSE, a fuse in a projectile set in action by concussion when the projectile strikes the object; PERCUS'SION-HAMM'ER, a small hammer for percussion in diagnosis; PERCUS'SION-LOCK, a kind of lock for a gun in which a hammer strikes upon a percussion-cap on the nipple, igniting the charge; PERCUS'SION-POW'DER, powder which explodes on being struck, called also _fulminating powder_.--_adv._ PERCUSS'IVELY.--_ns._ PERCUSS'OR; PERCUTEUR', an instrument for light percussion in neuralgia, &c.--_adj._ PERC[=U]'TIENT, striking or having power to strike.--_n._ that which strikes or has power to strike. [L. _percussion-em_--_percut[)e]re_, _percussum_--_per_, thoroughly, _quat[)e]re_, to shake.]

PERCUTANEOUS, per-k[=u]-t[=a]'n[=e]-us, _adj._ done or applied through or by means of the skin.--_adv._ PERCUT[=A]'NEOUSLY. [L. _per_, through, _cutis_, the skin.]

PERDENDO, per-den'd[=o], _adj._ (_mus._) dying away.--Also PERDEN'DOSI. [It.]

PERDIE, PERDY, p[.e]r'di, _adv._=PARDIEU.

PERDITION, per-dish'un, _n._ utter loss or ruin: the utter loss of happiness in a future state.--_n._ PER'DITA, a lost woman.--_adj._ PERDI'TIONABLE. [Fr.,--L. _perditio_--_perd[)e]re_, _perditum_--_per_, entirely, _d[)a]re_, to put.]

PERDU, PERDUE, per-d[=u]', _adj._ lost to view: concealed: being on a forlorn hope or on a desperate enterprise: reckless.--_n._ (_Shak._) one lying in concealment or ambush: one on a forlorn hope. [Fr., pa.p. of _perdre_, to lose--L. _perd[)e]re_, to destroy.]

PERDUELLION, per-d[=u]-el'i-on, _n._ treason. [L.]

PERDURABLE, per'd[=u]-ra-bl, _adj._ (_Shak._) very durable, long continued.--_ns._ PERDURABIL'ITY, PERD[=U]'RANCE, PERDUR[=A]'TION.--_adv._ PERD[=U]'RABLY (_Shak._), very durably: everlastingly.--_v.i._ PERDURE', to last for a very long time. [L. _perdur[=a]re_--_per_, through, _dur[=a]re_, to last.]

PEREGAL, per'e-gal, _adj._ fully equal.--_n._ equal.

PEREGRINATE, per'[=e]-gri-n[=a]t, _v.i._ to travel through the country: to travel about from place to place: to live in a foreign country.--_adj._ foreign.--_ns._ PEREGRIN[=A]'TION, act of peregrinating or travelling about; PER'EGRIN[=A]TOR, one who travels about.--_adj._ PER'EGRINE, foreign, not native: migratory, as a bird.--_n._ a foreigner resident in any country: a kind of falcon.--_n._ PEREGRIN'ITY, foreignness. [L. _peregrin[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_peregrinus_, foreign.]

PEREION, pe-r[=i]'on, _n._ the thorax in crustacea:--_pl._ PEREI'A.--_n._ PEREI'OPOD, one of the true thoracic limbs of a crustacean. [Gr. _perii[=o]n_, pr.p. of _periienai_, to go about.]

PERELLE, pe-rel', _n._ Same as PARELLA.

PEREMPTORY, per'emp-t[=o]-ri, _adj._ preventing debate: authoritative: dogmatical: final, determinate: fully resolved or determined: that must be done.--_adv._ PER'EMPTORILY.--_n._ PER'EMPTORINESS. [Fr.,--L. _peremptorius_--_perim[)e]re_, peremptum--_per_, entirely, _em[)e]re_, to take.]

PERENNIAL, pe-ren'i-al, _adj._ lasting through the year: perpetual: never failing: growing constantly: (_bot._) lasting more than two years: of insects, living more than one year.--_n._ a plant which lives more than two years.--_v.i._ PERENN'ATE, to live perennially.--_n._ PERENN[=A]'TION.--_adv._ PERENN'IALLY. [L. _perennis_--_per_, through, _annus_, a year.]

PERENNIBRANCHIATE, pe-ren-i-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ having perennial branchiæ or gills.--Also PERENN'IBRANCH.

PERFECT, p[.e]r'fekt, _adj._ done thoroughly or completely: completed: without blemish, fault, or error: having neither too much nor too little: entire, very great: in the highest degree: possessing every moral excellence: completely skilled or acquainted: (_gram._) expressing an act completed: (_bot._) having both stamens and pistils, hermaphrodite.--_v.t._ (or per-fekt') to make perfect: to finish: to teach fully, to make fully skilled in anything.--_ns._ PERFECT[=A]'TION (_rare_); PER'FECTER; PERFECT'I, a body of Catharists in the 12th and 13th centuries, of very strict lives; PERFECTIBIL'ITY, quality of being made perfect.--_adj._ PERFECT'IBLE, that may be made perfect.--_ns._ PERFEC'TION, state of being perfect: a perfect quality or acquirement: the highest state or degree; PERFEC'TIONISM (or PERFECTIBIL'ITY), the belief that man in a state of grace may attain to a relative perfection or a state of living without sin in this life; PERFEC'TIONIST, one who pretends to be perfect: one who thinks that moral perfection can be attained in this life: one of the Bible Communists or Free-lovers, a small American sect founded by J. H. Noyes (1811-86), which settled at Oneida in 1848, holding that the gospel if accepted secures freedom from sin.--_adj._ PERFECT'IVE, tending to make perfect.--_advs._ PERFECT'IVELY, PER'FECTLY, in a perfect manner: completely: exactly: without fault.--_n._ PER'FECTNESS, state or quality of being perfect: completeness: perfection: consummate excellence.--PERFECT INSECT, the imago or completely developed form of an insect; PERFECT METALS (see METAL); PERFECT NUMBER, a number equal to the sum of all its divisors, the number itself of course excepted, as 6 = 1 + 2 + 3, 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14. [Fr.,--L. _perfectus_, pa.p. of _perfic[)e]re_--_per_, thoroughly, _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

PERFERVID, per-fer'vid, _adj._ very fervid: very hot or eager.--_n._ PERFER'VIDNESS.--PERFERVIDUM INGENIUM, a very ardent disposition. [L. _perfervidus_, _præfervidus_--_præ_, before, _fervidus_, fervid.]

PERFICIENT, p[.e]r-fish'ent, _adj._ effectual.--_n._ one who does a lasting work, esp. who endows a charity.

PERFIDIOUS, per-fid'i-us, _adj._ faithless: unfaithful: basely violating trust: treacherous.--_adv._ PERFID'IOUSLY.--_ns._ PERFID'IOUSNESS, PER'FIDY, treachery. [L. _perfidiosus_--_perfidia_, faithlessness.]

PERFOLIATE, -D, per-f[=o]'li-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_bot._) having the stem as it were passing through the blade--of a leaf: having the leaf round the stem at the base: (_zool._) surrounded by a circle of hairs, &c., taxicorn. [L. _per_, through, _folium_, a leaf.]

PERFORATE, p[.e]r'f[=o]-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to bore through: to pierce: to make a hole through.--_adj._ PER'FORABLE, capable of being perforated.--_n._ PER'FORANS, the long flexor muscle of the toes, or the deep flexor muscle of the fingers.--_adjs._ PER'FORANT, perforating; PER'FORATE, -D (_bot._), pierced with holes: having transparent dots, as the leaves of certain flowers.--_n._ PERFOR[=A]'TION, act of boring through: a hole through or into anything.--_adj._ PER'FOR[=A]TIVE, having power to pierce.--_ns._ PER'FOR[=A]TOR, one who bores, or an instrument for boring; PER'FOR[=A]TUS, the short flexor of the toes, or the superficial flexor of the fingers. [L. _perfor[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _for[=a]re_, to bore.]

PERFORCE, per-f[=o]rs', _adv._ by force: of necessity.

PERFORM, per-form', _v.t._ to do thoroughly: to carry out: to achieve: to act, as on the stage.--_v.i._ to do: to act a part: to play, as on a musical instrument.--_adj._ PERFOR'MABLE, capable of being performed: practicable.--_ns._ PERFOR'MANCE, act of performing: a carrying out of something: something done, esp. of a public character: a piece of work: an exhibition in a theatre or a place of amusement: an act or action; PERFOR'MER, one who performs, esp. one who makes a public exhibition of his skill: an actor, an actress, &c.--_adj._ PERFOR'MING, doing: trained to perform tricks. [O. Fr. _parfournir_, _par_--L. _per_, through, _fournir_, to furnish.]

PERFUME, p[.e]r'f[=u]m, or p[.e]r-f[=u]m', _n._ sweet-smelling smoke: sweet scent: anything which yields a sweet odour.--_v.t._ (p[.e]r-f[=u]m') to fill with a pleasant odour: to scent.--_adj._ PERF[=U]'MATORY, yielding perfume.--_ns._ PER'FUME-FOUN'TAIN, a small appliance for throwing a jet or spray of perfume; PERF[=U]'MER, one who or that which perfumes: one who makes or sells perfumes; PERF[=U]'MERY, perfumes in general: the art of preparing perfumes; PER'FUME-SET, a set of articles for the toilet-table.--_adj._ PER'F[=U]MY. [Fr. _parfum_--L. _per_, through, _fumus_, smoke.]

PERFUNCTORY, per-fungk't[=o]-ri, _adj._ done merely as a duty to be passed over: performed carelessly or without interest: negligent: slight.--_adv._ PERFUNC'TORILY, in a careless, half-hearted manner: without zeal or interest.--_n._ PERFUNC'TORINESS, careless performance: half-heartedness. [L. _perfunctorius_--_perfunctus_, pa.p. of _perfungi_, to execute--_per_, thoroughly, _fungi_, to do.]

PERFUSE, per-f[=u]z', _v.t._ to pour through or over.--_n._ PERF[=U]'SION.--_adj._ PERF[=U]'SIVE, sprinkling, or tending to sprinkle. [L. _perfusus_, poured over--_per_, through, _fund[)e]re_, to pour.]

PERGAMENEOUS, per-ga-m[=e]'n[=e]-us, _adj._ thin and parchment-like in texture.--_adj._ PERGAMENT[=A]'CEOUS, parchment-like. [L. _pergamena_, parchment.]

PERGOLA, per'g[=o]-la, _n._ an arbour, a balcony.--Also PER'GULA. [It.,--L. _pergula_, a shed.]

PERGUNNAH, p[.e]r-gun'a, _n._ a sub-division of a zillah or district in India.--Also PARGAN'A. [Hind.]

PERHAPS, per-haps', _adv._ it may be: possibly.

PERI, p[=e]'ri, _n._ in Persian mythology, a female elf or fairy, represented as descended from the fallen angels. [Fr. _péri_--Pers. _par[=i]_, a fairy.]

PERIAGUA, per-i-ä'gwä, _n._ a canoe hollowed out of a single trunk, a dug-out: a vessel made by cutting a canoe in two lengthwise and inserting a large plank: a large keelless flat-bottomed boat for shoal-water navigation, decked at the ends only, propelled by rowing, or by sails on two masts capable of being struck.--Also PIROGUE'. [Sp. _piragua_.]

PERIAKTOS, per-i-ak'tos, _n._ in the ancient Greek theatre a tall prism-shaped frame or screen at the side entrances, each carrying three scenes changed by turning the frames. [Gr.]

PERIANTH, per'i-anth, _n._ the floral envelope where the calyx and corolla are not easily distinguished. [Gr. _peri_, around, _anthos_, a flower.]

PERIAPT, per'i-apt, _n._ (_Shak._) an amulet. [Gr. _periapton_, something hung round, _peri_, about, _aptos_--_aptein_, to fasten.]

PERIAXIAL, per-i-ak'si-al, _adj._ surrounding an axis.

PERIBLAST, per'i-blast, _n._ the protoplasm about the nucleus of a cell.--_adj._ PERIBLAST'IC. [Gr. _peri_, about, _blastos_, a germ.]

PERIBOLOS, pe-rib'o-los, _n._ a court enclosed by a wall, esp. one containing a temple or a church, the whole outer enclosure of sanctuary or refuge. [Gr. _peribolos_, encircling--_peri_, around, _ballein_, to throw.]

PERICARDIUM, per-i-kär'di-um, _n._ (_anat._) the bag or sac composed of two layers which surrounds the heart.--_adjs._ PERICAR'DIAC, PERICAR'DIAL, PERICAR'DIAN.--_n._ PERICARD[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the pericardium. [Late L.,--Gr. _perikardion_--_peri_, around, _kardia_, heart.]

PERICARP, per'i-kärp, _n._ (_bot._) the covering, shell, or rind of fruits: a seed-vessel.--_adj._ PERICARP'IAL. [Gr. _perikarpion_--_peri_, around, _karpos_, fruit.]

PERICENTRAL, per-i-sen'tral, _adj._ surrounding a central body.--_adj._ PERICEN'TRIC.

PERICHONDRIUM, per-i-kon'dri-um, _n._ the fibrous investment of cartilage. [Gr. _peri_, about, _chondros_, cartilage.]

PERICLASE, per'i-kl[=a]z, _n._ a rare mineral consisting of magnesia with a little iron protoxide. [Gr. _peri_, about, _klasis_, fracture.]

PERICLEAN, per-i-kl[=e]'an, _adj._ of _Pericles_ (died 429 B.C.) or the golden age of art and letters at Athens.

PERICOPE, p[=e]-rik'[=o]-p[=e], _n._ an extract, esp. the selections from the epistles and gospels for the Sundays of the year. [Gr. _peri_, around, _koptein_, to cut.]

PERICRANIUM, per-i-kr[=a]'ni-um, _n._ (_anat._) the membrane that surrounds the cranium.--_adj._ PERICR[=A]'NIAL.--_n._ PER'ICR[=A]NY (_obs._), the skull. [Late L.,--Gr. _perikranion_--_peri_, around, _kranion_, the skull.]

PERICULUM, p[=e]-rik'[=u]-lum, _n._ (_Scots law_) a risk:--_pl._ PERIC'ULA. [L.]

PERICYSTITIS, per-i-sis-t[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation around the bladder. [Gr. _peri_, around, _kystis_, the bladder.]

PERIDENTAL, per-i-den'tal, _adj._ surrounding the teeth.

PERIDERM, per'i-derm, _n._ the hard integument of some tubularian hydromedusans: (_bot._) the outer bark.--_adj._ PER'IDERMAL. [Gr. _peri_, about, _derma_, skin.]

PERIDESMIUM, per-i-des'mi-um, _n._ (_anat._) the areolar tissue round a ligament. [Gr. _peri_, around, _desmos_, a band.]

PERIDIUM, p[=e]-rid'i-um, _n._ the outer coat of a sporophore in angiocarpous fungi.--_adj._ PERID'IAL.--_n._ PERID[=I]'OLUM (_bot._), an inner peridium inside of which the hymenium is formed. [Gr. _p[=e]ridion_, dim. of _p[=e]ra_, a wallet.]

PERIDOTITE, per'i-d[=o]-t[=i]t, _n._ rock mainly composed of olivine.--_n._ PER'IDOT, chrysolite.--_adj._ PERIDOT'IC.

PERIDROME, per'i-dr[=o]m, _n._ the space between the inner cell or chamber and the surrounding pillars in an ancient temple. [Gr. _peridromos_, running round--_peri_, around, _dromos_, a race.]

PERIEGESIS, per-i-[=e]-j[=e]'sis, _n._ a progress or journey through. [Gr.]

PERIENTERON, per-i-en'te-ron, _n._ the primitive perivisceral cavity.--_adj._ PERIENTER'IC. [Gr. _peri_, about, _enteron_, an intestine.]

PERIFIBRUM, per-i-f[=i]'brum, _n._ the membraneous covering of the spicules and fibre of sponges.

PERIGANGLIONIC, per-i-gang-gli-on'ik, _adj._ surrounding a ganglion.

PERIGASTRIC, per-i-gas'trik, _adj._ surrounding the alimentary canal.

PERIGEE, per'i-j[=e], _n._ (_astron._) the point of the moon's orbit at which it is nearest the earth--opp. to _Apogee_.--_adjs._ PERIG[=E]'AL, PERIG[=E]'AN. [Gr. _peri_, near, _g[=e]_, the earth.]

PERIGENESIS, per-i-jen'e-sis, _n._ wave-generation, the dynamic theory of reproduction by a kind of wave-motion of plastidules.

PERIGLOTTIS, per-i-glot'is, _n._ the epidermis of the tongue.--_adj._ PERIGLOTT'IC.

PERIGONE, per'i-g[=o]n, _n._ (_bot._) the same as PERIANTH--also PERIG[=O]'NIUM.--_adj._ PERIG[=O]'NIAL. [Gr. _peri_, about, _gon[=e]_, seed.]

PERIGRAPH, per'i-graf, _n._ an inaccurate delineation of anything.--_adj._ PERIGRAPH'IC.

PERIGYNOUS, per-ij'i-nus, _adj._ (_bot._) denoting flowers which have the petals and stamens growing on the calyx, or around the pistil.--_n._ PERIGYN'IUM. [Gr. _peri_, about, _gyn[=e]_, a female.]

PERIHELION, per-i-h[=e]'li-on, _n._ the point of the orbit of a planet or a comet at which it is nearest to the sun--opp. to _Aphelion_.--Also PERIH[=E]'LIUM. [Gr. _peri_, near, _h[=e]lios_, the sun.]

PERIHEPATIC, per-i-h[=e]-pat'ik, _adj._ surrounding the liver.

PERIL, per'il, _n._ danger: a source of danger: exposure to danger.--_v.t._ to expose to danger:--_pr.p._ per'illing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ per'illed.--_adj._ PER'ILOUS, full of peril: dangerous.--_adv._ PER'ILOUSLY.--_n._ PER'ILOUSNESS. [Fr. _péril_--L. _periculum_.]

PERILYMPH, per'i-limf, _n._ the fluid which surrounds the membraneous labyrinth of the ear.

PERIMETER, p[=e]-rim'e-t[.e]r, _n._ (_geom._) the circuit or boundary of any plane figure, or the sum of all its sides: an instrument for measuring the area over which a person can see distinctly.--_adjs._ PERIMET'RIC, -AL, pertaining to the perimeter.--_n._ PERIM'ETRY, the act of making perimetrical measurements. [Gr. _perimetros_--_peri_, around, _metron_, measure.]

PERIMORPH, per'i-morf, _n._ a mineral enclosing another.--_adjs._ PERIMOR'PHIC, PERIMOR'PHOUS.

PERINEUM, PERINÆUM, per-i-n[=e]'um, _n._ the lower part of the body between the genital organs and the rectum.--_adj._ PERIN[=E]'AL. [L.,--Gr.]

PERIOD, p[=e]'ri-ud, _n._ the time in which anything is performed: (_astron._) the time occupied by one of the heavenly bodies in making its revolution: a stated interval of time, at the end of which certain events begin again to go through the same course as before: a series of events: a series of years: length of duration: the time at which anything ends: conclusion: (_gram._) a mark at the end of a sentence: (_rhet._) a complete sentence.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to put an end to.--_adjs._ PERIOD'IC, -AL, pertaining to a period: happening by revolution: occurring at regular intervals: pertaining to periodicals.--_ns._ PERIOD'ICAL, a magazine or other publication which appears in parts at regular periods; PERIOD'ICALIST, one who writes in a periodical.--_adv._ PERIOD'ICALLY.--_n._ PERIODIC'ITY, state of being periodic: tendency to happen over again at regular intervals of time.--PERIODICAL LITERATURE, literature published in magazines, &c.; PERIODIC FUNCTION, one whose operation being iterated a certain number of times restores the variable: a function having a period; PERIODIC INEQUALITY, a disturbance in the motion of a planet due to its position in its orbit relatively to another planet; PERIODIC LAW (_chem._), a relation of elements according to their atomic weights. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _periodos_--_peri_, around, _hodos_, a way.]

PERIOPHTHALMUS, per-i-of-thal'mus, _n._ a genus of acanthopterous fishes, allied to gobies, with protruding mobile eyes, pectoral fins that can be used as legs.

PERIORBITAL, per-i-or'bi-tal, _adj._ pertaining to the orbit of the eye.

PERIOSTEUM, per-i-os't[=e]-um, _n._ a tough fibrous membrane which forms the outer coating of bones.--_adjs._ PERIOS'T[=E]AL, PERIOS'T[=E]OUS; PERIOSTIT'IC.--_n._ PERIOST[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the periosteum. [Gr. _periosteon_--_peri_, around, _osteon_, a bone.]

PERIOTIC, per-i-[=o]'tik, _adj._ surrounding the inner ear.--_n._ a periotic bone. [Gr. _peri_, about, _ous_, _[=o]tos_, the ear.]

PERIPATETIC, -AL, per-i-pa-tet'ik, -al, _adj._ walking about: of or pertaining to the philosophy of Aristotle, who taught while walking up and down in the Lyceum at Athens.--_n._ PERIPATET'IC, an adherent of the philosophy of Aristotle: one accustomed or obliged to walk: (_pl._) instruction by lectures.--_n._ PERIPATET'ICISM, the philosophy of Aristotle. [Gr. _peripat[=e]tikos_--_peri_, about, _patein_, to walk.]

PERIPATUS, pe-rip'[=a]-tus, _n._ a genus of myriapods.

PERIPETIA, per-i-pe-t[=i]'a, _n._ the dénouement of a drama.

PERIPHERY, pe-rif'[.e]r-i, _n._ (_geom._) the circumference of a circle or of any closed figure: the outside of anything generally.--_adjs._ PERIPH'ERAL, PERIPHER'IC, -AL. [L.--Gr. _peri_, around, _pherein_, to carry.]

PERIPHRACTIC, per-i-frak'tik, _adj._ enclosed around. [Gr. _peri_, about, _phrassein_, to enclose.]

PERIPHRASE, per'i-fr[=a]z, _n._ a round-about way of speaking: the use of more words than are necessary to express an idea: (_rhet._) a figure employed to avoid a trite expression--also PERIPH'RASIS.--_v.t._ or _v.i._ to use circumlocution.--_adjs._ PERIPHRAS'TIC, -AL, containing or expressed by periphrasis or circumlocution.--_adv._ PERIPHRAS'TICALLY. [L.,--Gr. _periphrasis_--_peri_, about, _phrasis_, a speaking.]

PERIPLAST, per'i-plast, _n._ the intercellular substance of an organ or tissue of the body.--_adj._ PERIPLAST'IC.

PERIPLUS, per'i-plus, _n._ a circumnavigation. [Gr. _peri_, around, _ploos_, _plous_, a voyage.]

PERIPTERY, pe-rip't[.e]r-i, _n._ (_archit._) a building surrounded by a wing or row of columns.--_adjs._ PERIP'TERAL, having a periptery or range of columns all round, said of a temple, &c.; PERIP'TEROUS, feathered on all sides: peripteral. [Gr. _peripteros_--_peri_, about, _pteron_, a wing.]

PERIRHINAL, per-i-r[=i]'nal, _adj._ surrounding the nose.

PERISCII, pe-rish'i-[=i], the people within the polar circle, because their shadows, on some days in summer, move round in a complete circle, owing to the fact that on those days the sun does not set.--_adj._ PERIS'CIAN. [Gr. _periskios_, throwing a shadow all round; _peri_, around, _skia_, a shadow.]

PERISCOPE, per'i-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument like the altiscope, used in directing submarine boats.--_adj._ PERISCOP'IC. [Gr. _peri_, about, _skopein_, to see.]

PERISH, per'ish, _v.i._ to pass away completely: to waste away: to decay: to lose life: to be destroyed: to be ruined or lost.--_ns._ PERISHABIL'ITY, PER'ISHABLENESS, the quality of being liable to speedy decay or destruction.--_adj._ PER'ISHABLE, that may perish: subject to speedy decay.--_adv._ PER'ISHABLY.--_v.i._ PER'ISHEN (_Spens._), to perish. [O. Fr. _perir_, pr.p. _perissant_--L. _per[=i]re_, to perish--_per_, completely, _[=i]re_, to go.]

PERISPERM, per'i-sp[.e]rm, _n._ (_bot._) that which is round a seed, the albumen.--_adj._ PERISPER'MIC. [Gr. _peri_, around, _sperma_, seed.]

PERISPHERIC, -AL, per-i-sfer'ik, -al, _adj._ globular.

PERISPORE, per'i-sp[=o]r, _n._ the outer covering of a spore.

PERISSAD, pe-ris'ad, _n._ (_chem._) an atom whose valency is represented by an odd number--opp. to _Artiad_--also _adj._ [Gr. _perissos_, beyond the regular number.]

PERISSODACTYLA, pe-ris-[=o]-dak'ti-la, _n._ one of the two divisions of the great mammalian order Ungulata, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros, distinguished by the third digit of each limb being symmetrical in itself, by the presence of an odd number of digits on the hind-foot, &c.--opp. to _Artiodactyla_.--_adjs._ PERISSODAC'TYL, PERISSODAC'TYLATE, PERISSODACTYL'IC, PERISSODAC'TYLOUS. [Gr. _perissos_, beyond the regular number, _daktylos_, a finger.]

PERISSOLOGY, per-i-sol'[=o]-ji, _n._ verbiage.--_adj._ PERISSOLOG'ICAL, redundant in words.

PERISSOSYLLABIC, pe-ris-o-si-lab'ik, _adj._ having superfluous syllables.

PERISTALITH, pe-ris'ta-lith, _n._ a series of standing stones surrounding a barrow or burial-mound. [Gr. _peri_, around, _histanai_, to stand, _lithos_, a stone.]

PERISTALTIC, per-i-stalt'ik, _adj._ noting the involuntary muscular action of the alimentary canal, by which it forces its contents onwards.--_n._ PERISTAL'SIS. [Gr. _peristaltikos_--_peristellein_, to wrap round--_peri_, around, _stellein_, to place.]

PERISTEROPOD, p[=e]-ris'te-r[=o]-pod, _adj._ pigeon-toed--also _n._ [Gr. _peristera_, a pigeon, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

PERISTOME, per'i-st[=o]m, _n._ the mouth-parts of echinoderms, &c.: the fringe of hair-like appendages round the rim of the capsule of a moss.

PERISTYLE, per'i-st[=i]l, _n._ a range of columns round a building or round a square: a court, square, &c., with columns all round.--_adj._ PERISTY'LAR. [L. _peristylium_--Gr. _peristylon_, with pillars round the wall--_peri_, around, _stylos_, a column.]

PERITHORACIC, per-i-th[=o]-ras'ik, _adj._ around the thorax.

PERITOMOUS, pe-rit'[=o]-mus, _adj._ (_min._) cleaving in more directions than one parallel to the axis, the faces being all similar. [Gr. _peri_, round, _temnein_, to cut.]

PERITONEUM, PERITONÆUM, per-i-t[=o]-n[=e]'um, _n._ a serous membrane which encloses all the viscera lying in the abdominal and pelvic cavities.--_adjs._ PERITON[=E]'AL; PERITONIT'IC.--_n._ PERITON[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the peritoneum. [Gr. _peritoneion_--_peri_, around, _teinein_, to stretch.]

PERITYPHLITIS, per-i-tif-l[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of the cæcum, appendix, and connective tissue, or of the peritoneum covering cæcum and appendix. [Gr. _peri_, round, _typhlos_, blind (the cæcum being the 'blind gut').]

PERIVASCULAR, per-i-vas'k[=u]-lar, _adj._ surrounding a vascular structure.

PERIVISCERAL, per-i-vis'e-ral, _adj._ surrounding viscera.

PERIWIG, per'i-wig, _n._ a peruke or small wig, usually shortened to _Wig_: an artificial head of hair.--_v.t._ to dress with a periwig.--_adj._ PER'IWIG-P[=A]'TED, wearing a periwig. [Old Dut. _peruyk_--Fr. _perruque_.]

PERIWINKLE, per'i-wingk-l, _n._ a creeping evergreen plant, growing in woods. [M. E. _peruenke_, through A.S. _peruincæ_, from L. _pervinca_, _vinc[=i]re_, to bind.]

PERIWINKLE, per'i-wingk-l, _n._ a small univalve mollusc: a small shellfish, abundant between tide-marks on the rocks, boiled and eaten as food. [Corrupted by confusion with preceding from A.S. _pinewincla_--_wincle_, a whelk; prov. Eng. _pin-patch_.]

PERJURE, p[.e]r'j[=oo]r, _v.t._ to swear falsely (followed by a reciprocal pronoun): to cause to swear falsely.--_v.i._ to be false to one's oath.--_n._ (_Shak._) a perjured person.--_adj._ PER'JURED, having sworn falsely: being sworn falsely, as an oath.--_n._ PER'JURER.--_adjs._ PERJU'RIOUS, PER'JUROUS, guilty of perjury.--_n._ PER'JURY, false swearing: the breaking of an oath: (_law_) the crime committed by one who, when giving evidence on oath as a witness in a court of justice, gives evidence which he knows to be false. [Fr.,--L. _perjur[=a]re_--_per-_, _jur[=a]re_, to swear.]

PERK, p[.e]rk, _adj._ trim: spruce: jaunty: proud.--_v.t._ to make smart or trim.--_v.i._ to hold up the head with smartness: to toss or jerk the head.--_adj._ PERK'Y (_Tenn._), perk, trim. [W. _perc_, trim.]

PERK, p[.e]rk, _v.i._ (_prov._) to peer.--_adj._ PERK'ING, peering, inquisitive.

PERKIN, per'kin, _n._ weak perry.

PERLACEOUS=_Pearlaceous_. See PEARL.

PERLITE, p[.e]r'l[=i]t, _n._ the name given to some vitreous rocks, as obsidian, which seem as if made up of little pearly or enamel-like spheroids.--_adj._ PERLIT'IC.

PERLOUS, p[.e]rl'us, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as PERILOUS.

PERLUSTRATE, per-lus'tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to survey carefully.--_n._ PERLUSTR[=A]'TION. [L. _perlustr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

PERMANENT, p[.e]r'ma-nent, _adj._ lasting: durable: not subject to change: not to be removed: (_zool._) always present.--_ns._ PER'MANENCE, PER'MANENCY, state or quality of being permanent: continuance in the same state, position, &c.: unlikelihood of change: duration.--_adv._ PER'MANENTLY.--PERMANENT WAY, the finished road of a railway. [Fr.,--L. _perman[=e]re_--_per_, through, _man[=e]re_, to continue.]

PERMANGANATE, per-man'gan-[=a]t, _n._ a salt containing manganese.--_adj._ PERMANGAN'IC.

PERMEATE, p[.e]r'm[=e]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to pass through the pores of: to penetrate and fill the pores of.--_n._ PERM[=E]ABIL'ITY.--_adj._ PER'M[=E]ABLE, that may be permeated or passed through: allowing the passage of liquids.--_adv._ PER'M[=E]ABLY.--_n._ PERM[=E][=A]'TION, act of permeating, or state of being permeated.--_adj._ PERM[=E][=A]'TIVE. [L. _permeatus_--_per_, through, _me[=a]re_, to pass.]

PERMIAN, per'mi-an, _n._ a group of strata forming the uppermost division of the Palezoic series.

PERMISCIBLE, per-mis'i-bl, _adj._ capable of being mixed.

PERMIT, per-mit', _v.t._ to give leave to: to allow to be or to be done: to afford means: to give opportunity:--_pr.p._ permit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ permit'ted.--_n._ (per'mit) a written permission, esp. from a custom-house officer to remove goods.--_n._ PERMISSIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ PERMISS'IBLE, that may be permitted: allowable.--_adv._ PERMISS'IBLY.--_n._ PERMIS'SION, act of permitting: liberty granted: allowance.--_adj._ PERMISS'IVE, granting permission or liberty: allowing: granted: not hindered.--_adv._ PERMISS'IVELY, by permission, without prohibition.--_ns._ PERMIT'TANCE, permission; PERMITT[=EE]', one to whom permission is granted; PERMIT'TER, one who permits.--PERMISSIVE BILL, a measure embodying the principles of local option for the regulation of the liquor traffic; PERMISSIVE LAWS, laws that permit certain things without enforcing anything. [L. _permitt[)e]re_, _-missum_, to let pass through--_per_, through, _mitt[)e]re_, to send.]

PERMUTABLE, per-m[=u]'ta-bl, _adj._ that may be changed one for another.--_ns._ PERM[=U]'TABLENESS, PERMUTABIL'ITY.--_adv._ PERM[=U]'TABLY.--_ns._ PERM[=U]'TANT; PERMUT[=A]'TION, act of changing one thing for another: (_math._) the arrangement of things or letters in every possible order.--_v.t._ PERMUTE'. [L.,--_permut[=a]re_--_per_, through, _mut[=a]re_, to change.]

PERN, p[.e]rn, _n._ a honey-buzzard.--Also PER'NIS.

PERNICIOUS, per-nish'us, _adj._ killing utterly: hurtful: destructive: highly injurious.--_adv._ PERNI'CIOUSLY.--_n._ PERNI'CIOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _perniciosus_--_per_, completely, _nex_, _necis_, death by violence.]

PERNICKETY, per-nik'e-ti, _adj._ easily troubled about trifles: (_coll._) fastidious.--_n._ PERNICK'ETINESS.

PERNOCTATION, p[.e]r-nok-t[=a]'shun, _n._ act of passing the whole night, esp. in prayer or watching: a watch all night. [L. _per_, through, _nox_, _noctis_, night.]

PERONE, per'[=o]-n[=e], _n._ the fibula or small bone of the leg.--_adjs._ PER[=O]N[=E]'AL; PER[=O]N[=E][=O]TIB'IAL, pertaining to the perone and the tibia.--_n._ a muscle from the fibula to the tibia in some marsupials: an anomalous muscle in man, constant in apes, between the inner side of the head of the fibula and the tibia.--_n._ PERON[=E]'US, one of several fibular muscles. [Fr.,--Gr. _peron[=e]_, the tongue of a buckle.]

PEROPOD, p[=e]'r[=o]-pod, _adj._ having rudimentary hind limbs, as serpents--also _n._ [Gr. _p[=e]ros_, maimed, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

PERORATION, per-[=o]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ the conclusion of a speech, usually summing up the points and enforcing the argument.--_v.i._ PER'ORATE, to make a peroration: (_coll._) to make a speech. [Fr.,--L. _peroratio_--_peror[=a]re_, to bring a speech to an end--_per_, through, _or[=a]re_, to speak--_os_, _oris_, the mouth.]

PEROXIDE, per-ox'[=i]d, _n._ an oxide having a larger proportion of oxygen than any other oxide of the same series.--_n._ PEROXID[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ PEROX'IDISE.

PERPEND, per-pend', _v.t._ to weigh in the mind, to consider carefully. [L. _perpend[)e]re_--_per_, inten., _pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PERPEND, per'pend, _n._ in building, a bond-stone or bonder.--Also PER'PEND-STONE, PER'PENT-STONE. [O. Fr. _parpaigne_, Fr. _parpaing_.]

PERPENDICULAR, p[.e]r-pen-dik'[=u]-lar, _adj._ exactly upright: extending in a straight line toward the centre of the earth: (_geom._) at right angles to a given line or surface.--_n._ a perpendicular line or plane.--_n._ PERPENDICULAR'ITY, state of being perpendicular.--_adv._ PERPENDIC'ULARLY.--PERPENDICULAR STYLE, a style of Gothic architecture in England which succeeded the Decorated style, prevailing from the end of the 14th to the middle of the 16th century, contemporary with the Flamboyant style in France, marked by stiff and rectilinear lines, mostly vertical window-tracery, depressed or four-centre arch, fan-tracery vaulting, and panelled walls. [Fr.,--L. _perpendicularis_--_perpendiculum_, a plumb-line--_per_, through, _pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PERPETRATE, p[.e]r'p[=e]-tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to perform or commit (usually in a bad sense): to produce (as a poor pun).--_adj._ PER'PETRABLE.--_ns._ PERPETR[=A]'TION, act of committing a crime: the thing perpetrated: an evil action; PER'PETR[=A]TOR. [L. _perpetr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, thoroughly, _patr[=a]re_, to perform.]

PERPETUAL, per-pet'[=u]-al, _adj._ never ceasing: everlasting: not temporary.--_adv._ PERPET'UALLY.--PERPETUAL CURATE, a curate of a parish where there was neither rector nor vicar, the tithes being in the hands of a layman--abolished in 1868, every incumbent not a rector now being a vicar; PERPETUAL MOTION, motion of a machine arising from forces within itself, constantly kept up without any force from without; PERPETUAL SCREW, an endless screw. [Fr. _perpétuel_--L. _perpetuus_, continuous.]

PERPETUATE, per-pet'[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make perpetual: to cause to last for ever or for a very long time: to preserve from extinction or oblivion.--_adj._ PERPET'[=U]ABLE, capable of being perpetuated.--_n._ PERPET'UANCE, the act of making perpetual.--_adjs._ PERPET'U[=A]TE, -D, made perpetual: continued for an indefinite time.--_n._ PERPETU[=A]'TION, act of perpetuating or preserving from oblivion: preservation for ever, or for a very long time; PERPET[=U]'ITY, state of being perpetual: endless time: duration for an indefinite period: something lasting for ever: the sum paid for a perpetual annuity: the annuity itself.

PERPLEX, per-pleks', _v.t._ to make difficult to be understood: to embarrass: to puzzle: to tease with suspense or doubt.--_n._ (_obs._) a difficulty.--_adv._ PERPLEX'EDLY.--_n._ PERPLEX'EDNESS.--_adj._ PERPLEX'ING.--_adv._ PERPLEX'INGLY.--_n._ PERPLEX'ITY, state of being perplexed: confusion of mind arising from doubt, &c.: intricacy: embarrassment: doubt. [Fr.,--L. _perplexus_, entangled--_per_, completely, _plexus_, involved, pa.p. of _plect[)e]re_.]

PERQUISITE, p[.e]r'kwi-zit, _n._ an allowance granted over and above the settled wages: a fee allowed by law to an officer for a specific service.--_ns._ PERQUISI'TION, a strict search: diligent inquiry; PERQUIS'ITOR, the first purchaser of an estate. [L. _perquisitum_, from _perquir[)e]re_--_per_, thoroughly, _quær[)e]re_, to ask.]

PERRADIAL, p[.e]r-r[=a]'di-al, _adj._ fundamentally radial.--_n._ PERR[=A]'DIUS.

PERRIER, per'i-[.e]r, _n._ a machine for hurling stones.

PERRON, per'on, _n._ an external flight of steps giving access to the entrance-door of a building.


PERRY, per'i, _n._ an agreeable beverage made by fermenting the juice of pears. [Fr. _poiré_, from _poire_, a pear--L. _pirum_.]

PERSANT, p[.e]rs'ant, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as PERCEANT.

PERSCRUTATION, per-skr[=oo]-t[=a]'shun, _n._ a thorough search through: a minute inquiry. [L. _per_, through, _scrut[=a]ri_, to search carefully.]

PERSE, pers, _adj._ dark blue, bluish-gray.--_n._ a dark-blue colour, a cloth of such colour. [O. Fr. _pers_--L. _persicum_, a peach.]

PERSECUTE, p[.e]r'se-k[=u]t, _v.t._ to pursue so as to injure or annoy: to follow after persistently: to annoy or punish, esp. for religious or political opinions.--_ns._ PERSEC[=U]'TION, act or practice of persecuting: state of being persecuted: a time of general oppression on account of religious opinions; PER'SEC[=U]TOR:--_fem._ PER'SEC[=U]TRIX. [Fr.,--L. _persequi_, _persecutus_--_per_, thoroughly, _sequi_, to follow.]

PERSEUS, per's[=u]s, _n._ a fabled Greek hero, who slew the Gorgon Medusa, and rescued Andromeda from a sea-monster: a constellation in the northern sky. [Gr.]

PERSEVERE, p[.e]r-s[=e]-v[=e]r', _v.i._ to persist in anything: to pursue anything steadily: to be constant: not to give over.--_n._ PERSEV[=E]'RANCE, act or state of persevering: continued application to anything which one has begun: a going on till success is met with.--_adj._ PERSEV[=E]'RING.--_adv._ PERSEV[=E]'RINGLY.--PERSEVERANCE OF SAINTS, the Calvinistic doctrine that those who are effectually called by God cannot fall away so as to be finally lost. [Fr.,--L. _persever[=a]re_--_perseverus_, very strict--_per_, very, _severus_, strict.]

PERSIAN, p[.e]r'shi-an, _adj._ of, from, or relating to _Persia_, its inhabitants, or language.--_n._ a native of Persia: the language of Persia: (_archit._) male figures used instead of columns to support an entablature--also PER'SIC.--PERSIAN APPLE, the peach; PERSIAN BERRY, the fruit of several buckthorns; PERSIAN BLINDS (see PERSIENNE); PERSIAN WHEEL, a large wheel for raising water, fixed vertically with a number of buckets at its circumference.

PERSICOT, per'si-kot, _n._ a cordial flavoured with kernels of peaches and apricots. [Fr.,--L. _persicum_, a peach.]

PERSIENNE, per-si-en', _n._ an Eastern cambric or muslin with coloured printed pattern: (_pl._) Persian blinds, outside shutters of thin movable slats in a frame.

PERSIFLAGE, p[.e]r'si-fläzh, _n._ a frivolous way of talking or treating any subject: banter.--_adj._ PER'SIFLANT, bantering.--_v.i._ PER'SIFL[=A]TE (_Thackeray_).--_n._ PER'SIFLOUR (_Carlyle_). [Fr.,--_persifler_, to banter--L. _per_, through, Fr. _siffler_--L. _sibil[=a]re_, to whistle, to hiss.]

PERSIMMON, PERSIMON, per-sim'on, _n._ the American date-plum. [Amer. Ind.]

PERSIST, per-sist', _v.i._ to stand throughout to something begun: to continue in any course, esp. against opposition: to persevere.--_ns._ PERSIS'TENCE, PERSIS'TENCY, quality of being persistent: perseverance: obstinacy: duration, esp. of an effect after the exciting cause has been removed.--_adj._ PERSIS'TENT, persisting: pushing on, esp. against opposition: tenacious: fixed: (_bot._) remaining till or after the fruit is ripe, as a calyx.--_advs._ PERSIS'TENTLY; PERSIS'TINGLY.--_adj._ PERSIS'TIVE (_Shak._), persistent. [Fr.,--L. _persist[)e]re_--_per_, through, _sist[)e]re_, to cause to stand--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

PERSON, p[.e]r'sun, _n._ character represented, as on the stage: character: an individual, sometimes used slightingly: a living soul: a human being: the outward appearance, &c.: bodily form: one of the three hypostases or individualities in the triune God: (_gram._) a distinction in form, according as the subject of the verb is the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of.--_adj._ PER'SONABLE, having a well-formed body or person: of good appearance.--_n._ PER'SON[=A]GE, a person: character represented: an individual of eminence: external appearance.--_adj._ PER'SONAL, belonging to a person: having the nature or quality of a person: peculiar to a person or to his private concerns: pertaining to the external appearance: done in person: relating to one's own self: applied offensively to one's character: (_gram._) denoting the person.--_n._ PERSONALIS[=A]'TION, personification.--_v.t._ PER'SONALISE, to make personal.--_ns._ PER'SONALISM, the character of being personal; PER'SONALIST, one who writes personal notes; PERSONAL'ITY, that which distinguishes a person from a thing, or one person from another: individuality: a derogatory remark or reflection directly applied to a person--esp. in _pl._ PERSONAL'ITIES.--_adv._ PER'SONALLY, in a personal or direct manner: in person: individually.--_n._ PER'SONALTY (_law_), all the property which, when a man dies, goes to his executor or administrator, as distinguished from the realty, which goes to his heir-at-law.--_v.t._ PER'SON[=A]TE, to assume the likeness or character of: to represent: to counterfeit: to feign.--_adj._ (_bot._) mask-like, as in the corollary of the snapdragon: larval, cucullate.--_adj._ PER'SON[=A]TED, impersonated, feigned, assumed.--_ns._ PERSON[=A]'TION; PER'SON[=A]TOR.--_n._ PERSONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PER'SONISE, to personify.--_n._ PERSONNEL', the persons employed in any service, as distinguished from the materiel.--PERSONAL ESTATE, PROPERTY, movable goods or property, as distinguished from freehold or real property, esp. in land; PERSONAL EXCEPTION (_Scots law_), a ground of objection which applies to an individual and prevents him from doing something which, but for his conduct or situation, he might do; PERSONAL IDENTITY, the continued sameness of the individual person, through all changes both without and within, as testified by consciousness; PERSONAL RIGHTS, rights which belong to the person as a living, reasonable being; PERSONAL SECURITY, security or pledge given by a person, as distinguished from the delivery of some object of value as security; PERSONAL SERVICE, delivery of a message or an order into a person's hands, as distinguished from delivery in any other indirect way; PERSONAL TRANSACTION, something done by a person's own effort, not through the agency of another.--IN PERSON, by one's self, not by a representative. [Fr.,--L. _pers[=o]na_, a player's mask, perh. from _pers[)o]n[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _son[=a]re_, to sound.]

PERSONA, p[.e]r-s[=o]'na, _n._ a person.--PERSONA GRATA, a person who is acceptable to those to whom he is sent.--DRAMATIS PERSONÆ, the characters in a play or story. [L.]

PERSONIFY, per-son'i-f[=i], _v.t._ (_rhet._) to treat, look on, or describe as a person: to ascribe to any inanimate object the qualities of a person: to be the embodiment of:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ person'if[=i]ed.--_n._ PERSONIFIC[=A]'TION. [L. _persona_, a person, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

PERSPECTIVE, per-spek'tiv, _n._ a view or a vista: the art of drawing objects on a plane surface, so as to give the picture the same appearance to the eye as the objects themselves: just proportion in all the parts: a telescope or field-glass: a picture in perspective.--_adj._ pertaining or according to perspective.--_adv._ PERSPEC'TIVELY.--_ns._ PERSPEC'TOGRAPH, an instrument for indicating correctly the points and outlines of objects; PERSPECTOG'RAPHY, the science of perspective, or of delineating it.--PERSPECTIVE PLANE, the surface on which the picture of the objects to be represented in perspective is drawn.--IN PERSPECTIVE, according to the laws of perspective. [Fr.,--L. _perspic[)e]re_, _perspectum_--_per_, through, _spec[)e]re_, to look.]

PERSPICACIOUS, p[.e]r-spi-k[=a]'shus, _adj._ of clear or acute understanding: quick-sighted.--_adv._ PERSPIC[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ PERSPIC[=A]'CIOUSNESS; PERSPICAC'ITY, state of being acute in discerning: keenness of sight or of understanding; PERSPIC[=U]'ITY, state of being perspicacious: clearness in expressing ideas so as to make them easily understood by others: freedom from obscurity.--_adj._ PERSPIC'[=U]OUS, that can be seen through: clear to the mind: easily understood: not obscure in any way: evident.--_adv._ PERSPIC'[=U]OUSLY.--_n._ PERSPIC'[=U]OUSNESS. [L. _perspicax_, _perspicacis_--_perspic[)e]re_, to see through.]

PERSPIRE, per-sp[=i]r', _v.i._ and _v.t._ to emit or to be emitted, as moisture, through the pores of the skin: to sweat.--_n._ PERSPIRABIL'ITY.--_adj._ PERSP[=I]R'ABLE, capable of being perspired.--_v.i._ PER'SPIR[=A]TE (_rare_), to sweat.--_n._ PERSPIR[=A]'TION, act of perspiring: that which is perspired: moisture given out through the pores of the skin: sweat.--_adj._ PERSP[=I]R'ATORY, pertaining to or causing perspiration. [L. _perspir[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]

PERSTRINGE, p[.e]r-strinj', _v.t._ to criticise.

PERSUADE, per-sw[=a]d', _v.t._ to influence successfully by argument, advice, &c.: to bring to any particular opinion: to cause to believe: to convince.--_adj._ PERSUAD'ABLE.--_n._ PERSUAD'ER.--_adj._ PERSU[=A]'SIBLE, capable of being persuaded.--_ns._ PERSU[=A]'SIBLENESS, PERSUASIBIL'ITY; PERSU[=A]'SION, act of persuading: state of being persuaded: settled opinion: a creed: a party adhering to a creed: (_Spens._) an inducement.--_adjs._ PERSU[=A]'SIVE, PERSU[=A]'SORY, having the power to persuade: influencing the mind or passions.--_n._ that which persuades or wins over.--_adv._ PERSU[=A]'SIVELY.--_n._ PERSU[=A]'SIVENESS. [Fr.,--L. _persuad[=e]re_, _-suasum_--_per_, thoroughly, _suad[=e]re_, to advise.]

PERSUE, p[.e]rs'[=u], _n._ (_Spens._) a track.

PERSULPHATE, p[.e]r-sul'f[=a]t, _n._ that sulphate of a metal which contains the relatively greater quantity of acid.

PERT, p[.e]rt, _adj._ (_obs._) open: evident: plain. [O. Fr. _apert_--L. _aper[=i]re_, _apertum_, to open.]

PERT, p[.e]rt, _adj._ forward: saucy: impertinent: too free in speech: (_obs._) clever.--_n._ an impudent person.--_adv._ PERT'LY.--_n._ PERT'NESS. [_Perk_.]

PERTAIN, per-t[=a]n', _v.i._ to belong: to relate (with _to_).--_ns._ PER'TINENCE, PER'TINENCY, state of being pertinent or to the point: fitness for the matter on hand: suitableness: appositeness.--_adj._ PER'TINENT, pertaining or related to a subject: being to the point: fitted for the matter on hand: fitting or appropriate: suitable: apposite.--_adv._ PER'TINENTLY.--_n._ PER'TINENTNESS. [O. Fr. _partenir_--L. _pertin[=e]re_--_per_, thoroughly, _ten[=e]re_, to hold.]

PERTINACIOUS, p[.e]r-ti-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ thoroughly tenacious: holding obstinately to an opinion or a purpose: obstinate: unyielding.--_adv._ PERTIN[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ PERTIN[=A]'CIOUSNESS; PERTINAC'ITY, quality of being pertinacious or unyielding: obstinacy: resoluteness. [Fr.,--L. _pertinax_, _-acis_, holding fast--_per_, thoroughly, _tenax_, tenacious--_ten[=e]re_, to hold.]

PERTURB, per-turb', _v.t._ to disturb greatly: to agitate--also PER'TURBATE.--_adj._ PERTUR'BABLE, that can be agitated or confused.--_ns._ PERTUR'BANCE, PERTURB[=A]'TION, act of perturbing or state of being perturbed: disquiet of mind: irregular action, esp. (_astron._) the disturbance produced in the simple elliptic motion of one heavenly body about another by the action of a third body, or by the non-sphericity of the principal body; PERTUR'BANT, any disturbing thing.--_adjs._ PERTURB[=A]'TIONAL; PERTUR'BATIVE.--_n._ PERTUR'BATORY, the power of deflecting the divining-rod by magnetic influence.--_p.adj._ PERTURBED'.--_adv._ PERTURB'EDLY.--_ns._ PERTUR'BER, PERTURB[=A]'TOR:--_fem._ PER'TURB[=A]TRIX. [Fr.,--L. _perturb[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, thoroughly, _turb[=a]re_, to disturb--_turba_, a crowd.]

PERTUSION, p[.e]r-t[=u]'zhon, _n._ a hole made by a sharp instrument.--_adjs._ PERT[=U]'SATE, pierced at the apex; PERTUSE', -D, pierced with holes. [L. _pertund[)e]re_, _-tusum_--_per_, through, _tund[)e]re_, to strike.]

PERTUSSIS, per-tus'is, _n._ whooping-cough.--_adj._ PERTUSS'AL.

PERUKE, per-[=u]k', or per'[=u]k, _n._ an artificial cap of hair: a periwig--also PERRUQUE.--_adj._ PERUQU[=E]R'IAN, of or pertaining to the making of wigs.--_n._ PERRU'QUIER, a wigmaker. [Fr. _perruque_--It. _parrucca_ (Sp. _peluca_)--L. _pilus_, hair.]

PERUSE, per-[=u]z', or per-[=oo]z', _v.t._ to read attentively: to examine carefully or in detail.--_ns._ PERUSAL (per-[=u]z'al, or per-[=oo]z'al), the act of perusing: careful examination: study: reading; PERUS'ER. [Formed from L. _per_, thoroughly, _uti_, _usum_, to use.]

PERUVIAN, per-[=oo]'vi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Peru_ in South America.--_n._ a native of Peru.--PERUVIAN BALSAM, a fragrant bitterish liquid yielded by a South American tree, used for asthma and in making soaps; PERUVIAN BARK, cinchona (q.v.).

PERVADE, per-v[=a]d', _v.t._ to go through or penetrate: to spread all over.--_n._ PERV[=A]'SION.--_adj._ PERV[=A]'SIVE, tending or having power to pervade. [L. _pervad[)e]re_, _pervasum_--_per_, through, _vad[)e]re_, to go.]

PERVERSE, per-v[.e]rs', _adj._ turned aside: obstinate in the wrong: stubborn: vexatious.--_adv._ PERVERSE'LY.--_ns._ PERVERSE'NESS, PERVER'SITY, state or quality of being perverse: inclination to oppose: wickedness.--_adj._ PERVER'SIVE, tending to pervert. [L. _perversus_, turned the wrong way.]

PERVERT, per-v[.e]rt', _v.t._ to turn wrong or from the right course: to change from its true use: to corrupt: to turn from truth or virtue.--_v.i._ to go wrong or out of the right course.--_n._ (per'vert) one who has changed from a former position: an apostate.--_ns._ PERVER'SION, the act of perverting: a diverting from the true object: a turning from truth or propriety: misapplication; PERVERT'ER.--_adj._ PERVERT'IBLE, able to be perverted. [Fr. _pervertir_--L. _pervert[)e]re_--_per_, thoroughly, _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to turn.]


PERVICACIOUS, per-vi-k[=a]'shus, _adj._ very obstinate.--_ns._ PERVIC[=A]'CIOUSNESS, PERVICAC'ITY.

PERVIOUS, p[.e]r'vi-us, _adj._ permeable, penetrable: open, perforate.--_adv._ PER'VIOUSLY.--_n._ PER'VIOUSNESS. [L. _pervius_--_per_, through, _via_, a way.]

PESADE, pe-z[=a]d', _n._ the act or position of a saddle-horse in rearing. [Fr.]

PESETA, pe-s[=a]'ta, _n._ a silver coin of Spain worth 9½d. [Sp., dim. of _pesa_, weight.]

PESHITO, pe-sh[=e]'to, _n._ a translation of the Bible into Syriac, made in the second century.--Also PESHIT'TO. [Syriac, _p[)e]shittá_, the simple.]

PESHWA, pesh'wa, _n._ a chief or prince of the Mahrattas.--Also PEISH'WAH.

PESKY, pes'ki, _adj._ annoying.--_adv._ PES'KILY.

PESO, p[=a]'so, _n._ a Spanish dollar. [Sp.,--L. _pensum_, _pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PESSARY, pes'a-ri, _n._ an instrument worn in the vagina to remedy displacement of the womb. [Fr. _pessaire_--Low L. _pessarium_--Gr. _pessos_, a pebble.]

PESSIMISM, pes'i-mizm, _n._ the doctrine that on the whole the world is bad rather than good: a temper of mind that looks too much on the dark side of things: a depressing view of life.--_v.i._ PESS'IMISE.--_n._ PESS'IMIST, one who believes that everything is tending to the worst: one who looks too much on the dark side of things--opp. to _Optimist_.--_adjs._ PESSIMIS'TIC, -AL. [L. _pessimus_, worst.]

PEST, pest, _n._ a deadly disease: a plague: anything destructive: a troublesome person.--_n._ PEST'HOUSE, a hospital for persons afflicted with any contagious disease.--_adj._ PESTIF'EROUS, contagious: pestilent: annoying.--_adv._ PESTIF'EROUSLY.--_n._ PEST'ILENCE, any contagious deadly disease: anything that is hurtful to the morals.--_adjs._ PEST'ILENT, producing pestilence: hurtful to health and life: mischievous: corrupt: troublesome; PESTILEN'TIAL, of the nature of pestilence: producing pestilence: destructive.--_advs._ PESTILEN'TIALLY, PEST'ILENTLY. [Fr. _peste_--L. _pestis_, a contagious disease.]

PESTALOZZIAN, pes-ta-lot'si-an, _adj._ pertaining to graduated object-teaching as originated by Johann Heinrich _Pestalozzi_ (1745-1827).

PESTER, pes't[.e]r, _v.t._ to disturb, to annoy.--_n._ a bother.--_n._ PES'TERER, one who pesters.--_adv._ PES'TERINGLY.--_n._ PES'TERMENT, annoyance. [Short for _impester_, O. Fr. _empestrer_ (Fr. _empêtrer_), to entangle, from _in_, in, Low L. _pastorium_, a foot-shackle--L. _pastus_, pa.p. of _pasc[)e]re_, to feed.]

PESTLE, pes'l, or pest'l, _n._ an instrument for pounding anything in a mortar.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to pound with a pestle: to use a pestle. [O. Fr. _pestel_--L. _pistillum_, a pounder, _pins[)e]re_, _pistum_, to pound.]

PET, pet, _n._ any animal tame and fondled: a word of endearment often used to young children: a favourite child: a wilful young woman--also PEAT.--_adj._ indulged: cherished: favourite.--_v.t._ to treat as a pet: to fondle:--_pr.p._ pet'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pet'ted. [Celt., as Ir. _peat_, Gael. _peata_.]

PET, pet, _n._ a sudden fit of peevishness or slight passion: ill-humour.--_v.i._ to be peevish, to sulk. [From the above word.]


PETAL, pet'al, _n._ a flower-leaf: a corolla leaf.--_adjs._ PET'ALED, PET'ALIFORM, PET'ALOUS, having petals or flower-leaves; PET'ALINE, pertaining to or resembling a petal: attached to a petal.--_n._ PET'ALISM, a method of ostracism practised in ancient Syracuse, the name being written on an olive-leaf.--_adj._ PET'ALOID, having the form of a petal--also PETALOI'DEOUS. [Gr. _petalon_, a leaf.]

PETARD, p[=e]-tärd', _n._ a kind of mortar filled with gunpowder, fixed to gates, barriers, &c., to break them down by explosion--(_Shak._) PETAR': a paper bomb in pyrotechny.--_ns._ PETARDEER', PETARDIER'.--HOIST WITH ONE'S OWN PETARD (see HOIST). [O. Fr.--_péter_, to crack or explode--L. _ped[)e]re_, cog. with Gr. _perdein_, Eng. _fart_.]

PETARY, p[=e]'tar-i, _n._ a peat-bog.

PETASUS, pet'a-sus, _n._ a low broad-brimmed hat worn by heralds, &c., characteristic of Hermes. [Gr.]

PETAURIST, pe-taw'rist, _n._ a flying opossum, Australian squirrel, &c.--_adj._ PETAU'RINE. [Gr.]

PETCHARY, pech'a-ri, _n._ the gray king-bird.

PETECHIÆ, p[=e]-tek'i-[=e], purple spots on the skin.--_adj._ PETECH'IAL. [L. _petigo_, a scab.]

PETER, p[=e]'t[.e]r, _v.i._ in mining, to become exhausted (with _out_): (_fig._) to lose power or value.

PETER, p[=e]'t[.e]r, _v.i._ to call for trumps at whist, by throwing away a higher card of a suit while holding a smaller.--_n._ this signal for trumps.


PETERSHAM, p[=e]'t[.e]r-sham, _n._ a heavy greatcoat, also the rough-napped cloth, generally dark blue, of which it is made. [From Lord _Petersham_.]


PETIOLE, pet'i-[=o]l, _n._ the stalk which joins a leaf to the twig or branch: a footstalk--also PET[=I]'OLUS.--_adjs._ PET'IOLAR, -Y, pertaining to, or growing upon, a petiole; PET'IOL[=A]TE, -D, PET'IOLED, growing on a petiole.--_n._ PET'IOLULE, a little or partial petiole. [Fr.,--L. _petiolus_, a little foot--_pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

PETIT, pet'i, _adj._ small:--_fem._ PETITE (pe-t[=e]t').--_n._ PET'IT-MAÎ'TRE, a dandy, a coxcomb generally. [Fr.]

PETITION, p[=e]-tish'un, _n._ a request generally from an inferior to a superior: a written request presented to a court of law, or to a body of legislators: a prayer: a supplication.--_v.t._ to present a petition to: to ask as a favour: to supplicate.--_adj._ PETIT'IONARY, offering or containing a petition: supplicatory.--_ns._ PETIT'IONER, one who offers a petition or prayer; PETIT'IONING, the act of presenting a petition: entreaty: solicitation; PETIT'IONIST.--_adj._ PET'ITORY, petitioning.--PETITIO PRINCIPII, the fallacy of begging the question--a taking for granted in argument of that which has yet to be proved. [Fr.,--L. _petitio_--_pet[)e]re_, _petitum_, to ask.]

PETRARY, pe-tr[=a]'ri, _n._ an engine for hurling stones.


PETREAN, p[=e]-tr[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to rock. [L. _petræus_--Gr. _petraios_--_petra_, a rock.]

PETREL, pet'rel, _n._ a long-winged dusky sea-bird, rarely landing except to lay its eggs, esp. the STORMY PETREL, called by sailors 'Mother Carey's Chickens,' scarcely larger than a lark, the smallest web-footed bird known. [Fr.; from Matt. xiv. 29.]

PETRIFY, pet'ri-f[=i], _v.t._ to turn into stone: to make hard like a stone: to fix in amazement.--_v.i._ to become stone, or hard like stone:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pet'rified.--_n._ PETRES'CENCE.--_adjs._ PETRES'CENT, growing into or becoming stone; PETRIC'OLOUS, inhabiting rocks.--_n._ PETRIFAC'TION, the act of turning into stone: the state of being turned into stone: that which is made stone: a fossil.--_adjs._ PETRIFAC'TIVE, PETRIF'IC, changing animal or vegetable substances into stone; PET'RIF[=I]ABLE.--_ns._ PETROG'ENY, the science of the origin of rocks; PET'ROGLYPH, a rock-carving.--_adj._ PETROGLYPH'IC.--_ns._ PETROG'LYPHY, the art of writing on rocks or stones; PETROG'RAPHER, a student of petrography.--_adjs._ PETROGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PETROGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ PETROG'RAPHY, the study of rocks: petrology.--_adj._ PETROLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ PETROLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ PETROL'OGIST; PETROL'OGY, the science of the composition and classification of rocks.--_adjs._ PETR[=O]'SAL, of great hardness: petrous; P[=E]'TROUS, like stone: hard: rocky. [L. _petra_--Gr. _petra_, rock, L. _fac[)e]re_, _factum_, to make.]

PETRINE, p[=e]'trin, _adj._ pertaining to, or written by, the Apostle _Peter_.--_n._ P[=E]'TRINISM, the Tübingen theory of F. C. Baur (1792-1860) and his school, of a doctrinal trend in primitive Christianity towards Judaism, ascribed to Peter and his party in opposition to _Paulinism_. [L. _Petrinus_--_Petrus_, Peter.]

PETROLEUM, p[=e]-tr[=o]'l[=e]-um, _n._ a liquid inflammable substance issuing or pumped up from the earth in various parts of the world.--_ns._ PET'ROL, a spirit obtained from petroleum; PETROLEUR (p[=a]-tro-l[=a]r'), one of those Parisians who, with the help of petroleum, set fire to many of the public buildings of Paris in May 1871: an incendiary:--_fem._ PETROLEUSE'.--_adj._ PETROLIF'EROUS, yielding petroleum. [L. _petra_, rock, _oleum_, oil.]

PETRONEL, pet'ro-nel, _n._ a large horse-pistol: a small carbine. [O. Fr. _petrinal_, the breast--L. _pectus_.]

PETTED, pet'ed, _adj._ treated as a pet: indulged.--_adj._ PETT'ISH, given to take the pet: peevish: fretful.--_adv._ PETT'ISHLY.--_n._ PETT'ISHNESS.

PETTICHAPS, PETTY-CHAPS, pet'i-chaps, _n._ the garden warbler, the willow-warbler, chiff-chaff.

PETTICOAT, pet'i-k[=o]t, _n._ a loose under-skirt worn by females and little boys: (_coll._) a woman: a fisherman's loose canvas or oilcloth skirt: a bell-mouthed piece over the exhaust nozzles in the smoke-box of a locomotive, strengthening and equalising the draught through the boiler-tubes.--_adj._ feminine: female, as 'petticoat influence.'--_n._ PETT'ICOAT-AFFAIR', an affair in which a woman is PETT'ICOAT-BREECH'ES, a loose short breeches worn by men in the 17th century.--_adj._ PETT'ICOATED.--PETTICOAT GOVERNMENT, government by women, either at home or in the state. [_Petty_ + _coat_.]

PETTIFOGGER, pet'i-fog-[.e]r, _n._ a lawyer who practises only in paltry cases.--_v.i._ PETT'IFOG, to play the pettifogger.--_n._ PETT'IFOGGERY, mean tricks: quibbles.--_adj._ PETT'IFOGGING. [_Petty_, and obs. _fog_, to cheat (cf. Old Dut. _focker_).]

PETTITOES, pet'i-t[=o]z, the feet of a sucking pig: (_Shak._) human feet. [_Petty_ + _toe_.]

PETTLE, pet'l, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to indulge, pet.

PETTO, pet'o, _n._ the breast. [It.,--L. _pectus_, breast.]

PETTY, pet'i, _adj._ small: of less importance: lower in rank, power, &c.: inconsiderable, insignificant: contemptible.--_adv._ PETT'ILY.--_n._ PETT'INESS.--PETTY CASH, small sums of money received or paid; PETTY LARCENY (see LARCENY); PETTY OFFICER, a naval officer with rank corresponding to a non-commissioned officer in the army. [O. Fr. _petit._]

PETULANT, pet'[=u]-lant, _adj._ showing peevish impatience, irritation, or caprice: forward, impudent in manner.--_ns._ PET'ULANCE, PET'ULANCY, sauciness: peevishness or impatience.--_adv._ PET'ULANTLY. [L. _petulans, -antis_--obs. _petul[=a]re,_ dim. of _pet[)e]re,_ to fall upon.]

PETUNIA, p[=e]-t[=u]'ni-a, _n._ a Brazilian genus of ornamental plants of the nightshade family, with small undivided leaves and showy funnel-form flowers. [Amer. Ind. _petun,_ tobacco.]

PEW, p[=u], _n._ an enclosed seat in a church.--_ns._ PEW'-FELL'OW, companion; PEW'-HOLD'ER, one who rents a pew in a church; PEW'-[=O]'PENER, an attendant who opens pews in a church; PEW'-RENT, rent paid for the use of a pew in church. [O. Fr. _pui_, a raised place--L. _podium_, a front seat in the amphitheatre--Gr. _podion_, orig. a footstool--_pous_, _podos_, foot.]

PEWIT, p[=e]'wit, _n._ the lapwing, a bird with a black head and crest, common in moors.--Also P[=E]'WET, PEE'WIT. [Imit.; cf. Dut. _piewit_ or _kiewit_.]

PEWTER, p[=u]'t[.e]r, _n._ an alloy of four parts of tin and one of lead: sometimes tin with a little copper and antimony: a vessel made of pewter, esp. a beer-tankard: (_slang_) prize-money.--_adj._ made of pewter.--_ns._ PEW'TERER, one who works in pewter; PEW'TER-MILL, a lapidaries' polishing-wheel for amethyst, agate, &c.--_adj._ PEW'TERY, belonging to pewter. [O. Fr. _peutre_ (It. _peltro_), from a Teut. root, seen in Low Ger. _spialter_, Eng. spelter.]

PFENNIG, pfen'ig, _n._ a German copper coin, the hundredth part of a mark.--Also PFENN'ING.

PHACITIS, f[=a]-s[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of the crystalline lens of the eye.--_n._ PHACOCYST[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the capsule of the crystalline lens of the eye.--_adj._ PH[=A]'COID, lentil-shaped.--_n._ PH[=A]'COSCOPE. [Gr. _phakos_, a lentil.]

PHÆNOGAMOUS, PHENOGAMOUS, f[=e]-nog'a-mus, _adj._ having manifest flowers, phanerogamous.--_ns._ PHÆ'NOGAM, a phanerogamous plant; PHÆNOG[=A]'MIA=_Phanerogamia_.--_adj._ PHÆNOGAM'IC. [Gr. _phainein_, to show, _gamos_, marriage.]

PHAETON, f[=a]'e-ton, _n._ a kind of open pleasure-carriage on four wheels, drawn by one or two horses, from _Phaëthon_, son of Helios, the sun, whose chariot he attempted to drive: a tropic bird.--_adj._ PHAËTON'IC.

PHAGEDENA, PHAGEDÆNA, faj-e-d[=e]'na, _n._ a sloughing ulcer, hospital gangrene.--_adjs._ PHAGED[=E]'NIC, PHAGEDÆ'NIC. [Gr. _phagein_, to eat.]

PHAGOCYTE, fag'o-s[=i]t, _n._ a white or colourless blood-corpuscle--also called _leucocyte_--an active amoeboid cell, which engulfs both nutritive and harmful particles.--_adjs._ PHAGOCYT'IC, -AL.--_ns._ PHAG'OCYTISM, the nature or function of a phagocyte; PHAGOCYT[=O]'SIS, the destruction of microbes by phagocytes. [Gr. _phagein_, to eat, _kytos_, a vessel.]

PHALÆNA, f[=a]-l[=e]'na, _n._ the Linnæan genus including moths.--_adj._ PHAL[=E]'NOID. [Gr. _phalaina_, a moth.]

PHALANGE, f[=a]-lanj', _n._ a phalanx of a digit: any of the joints of an insect's tarsus: a bundle of stamens joined by their filaments: a socialistic community in Fourier's dream of an ideal arrangement of society, consisting of 1800 persons living in a _phalanstère_--generally in _pl._, the usual _sing_. being PH[=A]'LANX (q.v.).--_adjs._ PHALAN'GAL, PHALAN'G[=E]AL, PHALAN'GIAL, PHALAN'GIAN; PHALAN'GIFORM; PHALANST[=E]'RIAN.--_ns._ PHALANST[=E]'RIANISM, PHALAN'STERISM; PHAL'ANSTERY, the dwelling of the phalange in the ideal social system of Fourier (1772-1837), a vast structure in the midst of a square league of cultivated land.

PHALANGER, f[=a]-lan'jer, _n._ a genus of small arboreal Australasian marsupials. [Fr.,--L. _phalanx_.]

PHALANX, fal'angks, or f[=a]'-, _n._ a line of battle: a square battalion of heavy-armed infantry drawn up in ranks and files close and deep: any compact body of men: one of the small bones of the fingers and toes:--_pl._ PHALAN'GES, or PHAL'ANXES. [L.,--Gr. _phalangks_.]

PHALAROPE, fal'a-r[=o]p, _n._ a genus of wading birds, forming a sub-family of the snipes. [Gr. _phalaris_, a coot, _pous_, a foot.]

PHALLUS, fal'us, _n._ the symbol of generation which figures in the rites and ceremonies of most primitive peoples: (_biol_.) the organ of sex.--_adj._ PHALL'IC.--_ns._ PHALL'ICISM, PHALL'ISM, the phallic worship.--_adj._ PHALL'OID. [L.,--Gr. _phallos_.]

PHANARIOT, fa-nar'i-ot, _n._ one of the Greeks inhabiting the _Fanar_ quarter of Constantinople--in Turkish history mostly diplomatists, administrators, and bankers, also hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia.--_adj._ PHANAR'IOT.--Also FANAR'IOT.

PHANEROGAMOUS, fan-e-rog'a-mus, _adj._ having true flowers containing stamens and pistils--opp. to _Cryptogamous_--also PHANEROGAM'IC.--_n._ PHAN'EROGAM, a phanerogamic plant. [Gr. _phaneros_, visible, _gamos_, marriage.]

PHANTASM, fan'tazm, _n._ a vain, airy appearance: a fancied vision: an apparition or spectre--also PHANTAS'MA (_Shak._):--_pl._ PHAN'TASMS, PHANTAS'MATA.--_adjs._ PHANTAS'MAL; PHANTASM[=A]'LIAN (_rare_).--_n._ PHANTASMAL'ITY.--_adv._ PHANTAS'MALLY.--_adjs._ PHANTASMAT'IC, -AL; PHANTAS'MIC; PHANTASMOGENET'IC, begetting phantasms.--_adv._ PHANTASMOGENET'ICALLY.--_adj._ PHANTASMOLOG'ICAL, pertaining to phantasms as subjects of inquiry.--_n._ PHANTASMOL'OGY, the science of phantasms. [Gr. _phantasma_--_phantazein_, to make visible--_phainein_, to bring to light--_pha-ein_, to shine.]

PHANTASMAGORIA, fan-taz-ma-g[=o]'ri-a, _n._ a fantastic series of illusive images: a gathering of appearances or figures upon a flat surface by a magic-lantern.--_adjs._ PHANTASMAG[=O]'RIAL, pertaining to or resembling a phantasmagoria; PHANTASMAGOR'IC, -AL. [Gr. _phantasma_, an appearance, _agora_, an assembly--_ageirein_, to gather.]

PHANTASTIC, PHANTASY. See FANTASTIC, FANTASY.--_n._ PHANT[=A]'SIAST, one of those Docetæ who believed Christ's body to have been a mere phantom.

PHANTOM, fan'tom, _n._ a phantasm.--_adj._ illusive, spectral.--_adj._ PHANTOMAT'IC, relating to a phantom. [O. Fr. _fantosme_--Gr. _phantasma_.]

PHARAOH, f[=a]'r[=o], _n._ a title of the kings of ancient Egypt.--_adj._ PHARAON'IC. [Heb.,--Egyptian.]

PHARE, fär, _n._ a lighthouse.--Also PH[=A]'ROS. [_Pharos_.]

PHARISEE, far'i-s[=e], _n._ one of a religious school among the Jews, marked by their strict observance of the law and of religious ordinances: any one more careful of the outward forms than of the spirit of religion, a formalist.--_adjs._ PHARIS[=A]'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or like, the Pharisees: hypocritical.--_adv._ PHARIS[=A]'ICALLY.--_ns._ PHARIS[=A]'ICALNESS; PHAR'IS[=A]ISM, PHAR'ISEEISM, the practice and opinions of the Pharisees: strict observance of outward forms in religion without the spirit of it: hypocrisy. [Late L. _pharisæus_--Gr. _pharisaios_--Heb. _p[=a]r[=u]sh_, separated from, _parash_, to separate.]

PHARMACEUTIC, -AL, fär-ma-s[=u]'tik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to the knowledge or art of preparing medicines.--_adv._ PHARMACE[=U]'TICALLY.--_ns._ PHARMACE[=U]'TICS, the science of preparing medicines; PHARMACE[=U]'TIST, one who practises pharmacy.

PHARMACOPOEIA, fär-ma-k[=o]-p[=e]'ya, _n._ a book containing directions for the preparation of medicines: a collection of drugs.--_adj._ PHARMACOPOE'IAL. [Gr. _pharmakon_, a drug, _poiein_, to make.]

PHARMACY, fär'ma-si, _n._ a department of the medical art which consists in the collecting, preparing, preserving, and dispensing of medicines: the art of preparing and mixing medicines: a drug-store.--_ns._ PHAR'MACIST, a druggist, one skilled in pharmacy; PHARMACOGNOS'TICS, the sum of knowledge about drugs; PHARMACOG'RAPHY, a description of drugs; PHARMACOL'OGIST, one skilled in pharmacology; PHARMACOL'OGY, pharmacy; PHAR'MACON, a drug; PHARMACOP'OLIST, a dealer in drugs. [Fr. _pharmacie_--L.,--Gr. _pharmakon_, a drug.]


PHAROS, f[=a]'ros, _n._ a lighthouse or beacon, so named from the famous lighthouse on the island of _Pharos_ in the Bay of Alexandria.--_n._ PHAROL'OGY, the art or science of directing the course of ships by means of light-signals from the shore.

PHARYNX, far'ingks, _n._ the cleft or cavity forming the upper part of the gullet, and lying behind the nose, mouth, and larynx:--_pl._ PHAR'YNGES, PHAR'YNXES.--_adjs._ PHARYN'G[=E]AL; PHARYNGIT'IC, pertaining to pharyngitis.--_n._ PHARYNG[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx.--_adjs._ PHARYNGOGLOS'SAL, pertaining to the pharynx and the tongue; -LARYN'GEAL, to that and the larynx; -N[=A]'SAL, and the nose; -[=O]'RAL, and the mouth.--_ns._ PHARYNGOG'RAPHY, a description of the pharynx; PHARYNG'[=O]SCOPE, an instrument for inspecting the pharynx; PHARYNG'OSCOPY; PHARYNGOT'OMY, the operation of making an incision into the pharynx to remove a tumour. [Late L.,--Gr. _pharyngkx_, the pharynx.]

PHASE, f[=a]z, _n._ aspect, appearance, at any stage: an era: the form in which an object or a question presents itself to the mind: the appearance at a given time of the illuminated surface exhibited by a planet--also PH[=A]'SIS:--_pl._ PHAS'ES.--_adj._ PHASE'LESS, unchanging. [Gr. _phasis_--_phaein_, to shine.]

PHASMA, fas'mä, _n._ a genus of gressorial orthopterous insects--walking-stick insects, spectre-insects (_Phasma_), and leaf-insects.

PHEASANT, fez'ant, _n._ a gallinaceous bird abundant in Britain, and highly valued as food.--_n._ PHEAS'ANTRY, an enclosure for pheasants, where they may be bred and reared. [O. Fr. _faisan_--L. _Phasiana_ (_avis_)--Gr. _Phasianos_, of Phasis, in Colchis.]

PHEER, f[=e]r, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as FERE, a mate.

PHEESE, f[=e]z, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to beat, to drive off: to worry.--_v.i._ (_U.S._) to worry.--_n._ worry--better FEEZE.--_n._ PHEES'AR, one of the mad host's words (_Merry Wives_, I. iii. 10).

PHELLOPLASTICS, fel-[=o]-plas'tiks, _n._ modelling in cork.--_n._ PHELL'OGEN, cork-meristem.--_adj._ PHELLOGENET'IC. [Gr. _phellos_, cork, _plassein_, to form.]

PHENACETIN, f[=e]-nas'e-tin, _n._ a drug prepared from carbolic acid, good against fevers, insomnia, &c.

PHENAKISTOSCOPE, fen-a-kis't[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ an optical instrument which produces the appearances of objects in motion, as birds flying, &c.--_n._ PHEN'AKISM (_Bacon_), deceit. [Gr. _phenakistikos_--_phenakizein_--_phenax_, a cheat.]




PHENOL, f[=e]'nol. _n._ phenyl alcohol or carbolic acid. [_Fr._]

PHENOLOGY, PHÆNOLOGY, f[=e]-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the branch of biology treating of animal or plant life and development as affected by climate.--_adjs._ PHENOLOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ PHENOL'OGIST. [_Phenomenology_.]

PHENOMENON, f[=e]-nom'e-non, _n._ an appearance: the appearance which anything makes to our consciousness, as distinguished from what it is in itself: an observed result: a remarkable or unusual person, thing, or appearance:--_pl._ PHENOM'ENA.--_adj._ PHENOM'ENAL, pertaining to a phenomenon: of the nature of a phenomenon: so strange as to excite great wonder: out of the common.--_v.t._ PHENOM'ENALISE, to represent as a phenomenon.--_ns._ PHENOM'ENALISM, the philosophical doctrine that the phenomenal and the real are identical--that phenomena are the only realities--also _Externalism_; PHENOM'ENALIST, one who believes in phenomenalism; PHENOMENAL'ITY, the character of being phenomenal.--_adv._ PHENOM'ENALLY.--_v.t._ PHENOM'ENISE, to bring into the world of experience.--_ns._ PHENOM'ENISM, the doctrines of the phenomenists; PHENOM'ENIST, one who believes only what he observes, or phenomena, one who rejects necessary primary principles.--_adj._ PHENOMEN[=O]LOG'ICAL.--_n._ PHENOMENOL'OGY, a description of phenomena. [Gr. _phainomenon_--_phainein_, to show.]

PHENYL, f[=e]'nil, _n._ an organic radical found esp. in carbolic acid, benzole, and aniline.--_adjs._ PH[=E]'NIC, PHENYL'IC. [Fr. _phényle_.]

PHEON, f[=e]'on, _n._ (_her._) the barbed iron head of a dart: the broad arrow marking property of the Crown.

PHEW, f[=u], _interj._ an exclamation of disgust.

PHIAL, f[=i]'al, _n._ a small glass vessel or bottle. [L. _phiala_--Gr. _phial[=e]_, a vial.]

PHI BETA KAPPA, fi bet-a kap-a, the oldest of the American college Greek letter societies. [From the initial letters of its motto--_Philosophia biou kubern[=e]t[=e]s_, 'Philosophy is the guide of life.']

PHILADELPHIAN, fil-a-del'fi-an, _n._ one of a mystic sect emphasising 'brotherly love,' founded in London in 1652 under the influence of Boehme. [Gr. _philein_, to love, _adelphos_, a brother.]

PHILANDER, fi-lan'd[.e]r, _v.i._ to make love: to flirt or coquet.--_n._ a lover.--_n._ PHILAN'DERER. [Gr. _philandros_, loving men--_philos_, dear--_philein_, to love, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

PHILANTHROPY, fi-lan'thr[=o]-pi, _n._ love of mankind, esp. as shown in good deeds and services to others: goodwill towards all men.--_ns._ PHIL'ANTHROPE, PHILAN'THROPIST, one who tries to benefit mankind.--_adjs._ PHILANTHROP'IC, -AL, doing good to others, benevolent.--_adv._ PHILANTHROP'ICALLY. [L.,--Gr. _philanthr[=o]pia_--_philos_, loving, _anthr[=o]pos_, a man.]

PHILATELY, fi-lat'e-li, _n._ the study and collection of postage and revenue stamps and labels (also _Timbrophily_, _Timbrology_).--_adj._ PHILATEL'IC.--_n._ PHILAT'ELIST, one devoted to this pursuit. [Formed in 1865 from Gr. _philos_, loving, _atel[=e]s_, free of tax, 'prepaid'--_a-_, neg., _telos_, tax.]

PHILHARMONIC, fil-har-mon'ik, _adj._ loving music. [Gr. _philos_, loving, _harmonia_, harmony.]

PHILHELLENIC, fil-he-len'ik, _adj._ loving Greece.--_ns._ PHILHEL'LENE, PHILHEL'LENIST, a supporter of Greece, esp. in 1821-32; PHILHEL'LENISM, love of Greece. [Gr. _philos_, loving, _Hell[=e]n_, a Greek.]


PHILIPPIAN, fi-lip'i-an, _n._ a native of _Philippi_ in Macedonia--also _adj._

PHILIPPIC, fil-ip'ik, _n._ one of the three orations of Demosthenes against Philip of Macedon, or of Cicero against Marc Antony: any discourse full of invective.--_v.i._ PHIL'IPPISE, to utter such.

PHILISTINE, fil'is-tin, _n._ one of the ancient inhabitants of south-western Palestine, enemies of the Israelites--also PHILIS'TIAN, and PHILIS'TIM (_Milt._): a name applied by German students to shopkeepers and others not connected with the university: an uncultured person.--_n._ PHIL'ISTINISM.

PHILL-HORSE, fil'-hors, _n._=_Thill-horse_, a shaft-horse.

PHILOGYNY, fil-oj'i-ni, _n._ love of women.--_n._ PHILOG'YNIST. [Gr. _philos_, loving, _gyn[=e]_, a woman.]

PHILOLOGY, fi-lol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of language: the study of etymology, grammar, rhetoric, and literary criticism: (_orig._) the knowledge which enabled men to study and explain the classical languages of Greece and Rome.--_ns._ PHILOL'OGER, PHILOL[=O]'GIAN, PHILOL'OGIST, PHIL'OLOGUE, one versed in philology.--_adjs._ PHILOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHILOLOG'ICALLY.--COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY, study of languages by comparing their history, forms, and relationships with each other. [L.,--Gr. _philologia_--_philologos_, fond of words--_philos_, loving, _logos_, discourse.]

PHILOMATH, fil'[=o]-math, _n._ a lover of learning.--_adjs._ PHILOMATH'IC, -AL.--_n._ PHILOM'ATHY, love of learning. [Gr. _philomath[=e]s_, fond of learning--_philos_, loving, _e-math-on_, 2d aorist _manthanein_, to learn.]

PHILOMEL, fil'[=o]-mel, _n._ the nightingale.--Also PHILOM[=E]'LA. [Gr. _Philomela_, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens, changed into a nightingale or swallow.]

PHILOMUSICAL, fil-[=o]-m[=u]'zi-cal, _adj._ fond of music.

PHILOPENA, fil-[=o]-p[=e]'na, _n._ a game in which each of two persons eats a twin kernel of a nut, and one pays a forfeit to the other on certain conditions: the gift made as a forfeit, or the twin kernels shared. [Ger. _vielliebchen_--_viel_, much, _liebchen_, sweetheart.]

PHILOPOLEMIC, fil-[=o]-p[=o]-lem'ik, _adj._ fond of war or of debate.

PHILOPROGENITIVENESS, fil-[=o]-pr[=o]-jen'i-tiv-nes, _n._ (_phren._) the instinctive love of offspring. [Gr. _philos_, loving, L. _progenies_, progeny.]

PHILOSOPHER, fi-los'[=o]-f[.e]r, _n._ a lover of wisdom: one versed in or devoted to philosophy: a metaphysician: one who acts calmly and rationally in all the affairs and changes of life--also PHIL'OSOPHE:--_fem._ PHILOS'OPHESS.--_adjs._ PHILOSOPH'IC, -AL, pertaining or according to philosophy: skilled in or given to philosophy: becoming a philosopher: rational: calm.--_adv._ PHILOSOPH'ICALLY.--_v.i._ PHILOS'OPHISE, to reason like a philosopher: to form philosophical theories.--_ns._ PHILOS'OPHISER, a would-be philosopher; PHILOS'OPHISM, would-be philosophy; PHILOS'OPHIST.--_adjs._ PHILOSOPHIST'IC, -AL.--_n._ PHILOS'OPHY, the science of being as being: the knowledge of the causes and laws of all phenomena: the collection of general laws or principles belonging to any department of knowledge: reasoning: a particular philosophical system: calmness of temper.--PHILOSOPHER'S STONE, an imaginary stone or mineral compound, long sought after by alchemists as a means of transforming other metals into gold.--MORAL, and NATURAL, PHILOSOPHY (see MORAL, NATURAL). [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _philosophos_--_philos_, a lover, _sophos_, wise.]

PHILOTECHNIC, -AL, fil-[=o]-tek'nik, -al, _adj._ fond of the arts.

PHILOZOIC, fil-[=o]-z[=o]'ik, _adj._ fond of animals.

PHILTRE, PHILTER, fil't[.e]r, _n._ a charm or spell to excite love. [Fr. _philtre_--L. _philtrum_--Gr. _philtron_--_philos_, loving, _-tron_, denoting the agent.]

PHIMOSIS, f[=i]-m[=o]'sis, _n._ stenosis of the preputial orifice.

PHISNOMY, fis'no-mi, _n._ (_Shak._) the face--a corr. of _physiognomy_.

PHIZ, fiz, _n._ (_humorous_) the face.

PHLEBITIS, fl[=e]-b[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of a vein.--_ns._ PHLEB'OLITE, a calcareous concretion found in a vein; PHLEBOL'OGY, science of the veins; PHLEB'ORRHAGE, venous hemorrhage.--_adjs._ PHLEBOTOM'IC, -AL.--_v.t._ PHLEBOT'OMISE.--_ns._ PHLEBOT'OMIST; PHLEBOT'OMY, act of letting blood. [Gr. _phleps_, _phlebos_, a vein.]

PHLEGETHONTIC, fleg-e-thon'tik, _adj._ pertaining to or resembling the river _Phlegethon_, a mythological river of the infernal regions, whose waves rolled torrents of fire, flowing into the lake of Acheron. [Gr. _phlegethein_--_phlegein_, to burn.]

PHLEGM, flem, _n._ one of the four elements of which the ancients supposed the blood to be composed: the thick, slimy matter secreted in the throat, and discharged by coughing: sluggishness: indifference: calmness.--_adj._ PHLEGMAGOGIC (fleg-ma-goj'ik).--_ns._ PHLEG'MAGOGUE, a medicine expelling phlegm; PHLEGM[=A]'SIA, inflammation, esp. _Phlegmasia dolens_, puerperal tumid leg.--_adjs._ PHLEGMAT'IC, -AL, abounding in or generating phlegm: cold: sluggish: not easily excited.--_adv._ PHLEGMAT'ICALLY.--_n._ PHLEG'MON, inflammation in the connective tissue.--_adjs._ PHLEG'MONOID; PHLEGM'Y. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _phlegma_, _phlegmatos_--_phlegein_, to burn.]


PHLEUM, fl[=e]'um, _n._ a small genus of annual or perennial grasses--_timothy_, _cat's-tail grass_, _herd's grass_. [Gr. _phle[=o]s_.]

PHLOEUM, fl[=e]'um, _n._ the cellular portion of bark next the epidermis--also _Epiphloeum_ and Bast.--_n._ PHL[=O]'ËM, the bast or liber portion of a vascular bundle. [Gr. _phloios_, bark.]

PHLOGISTON, fl[=o]-jis'ton, _n._ an imaginary element, believed in till nearly the end of the 18th century as forming part of every combustible body, which by its disengagement caused burning, or fire in action.--_adj._ PHLOGIS'TIC (_chem._), containing or resembling phlogiston: inflaming: (_med._) inflammatory.--_v.t._ PHLOGIS'TICATE, to combine phlogiston with. [Gr.]

PHLOX, floks, _n._ a well-known garden plant, so called from its colour. [Gr.,--_phlegein_, to burn.]

PHLYCTÆNA, PHLYCTENA, flik-t[=e]'na, _n._ a small vesicle.--_adjs._ PHLYCT[=E]'NAR; PHLYCT[=E]'NOID; PHLYCT[=E]'NOUS.

PHOBANTHROPY, f[=o]-ban'thr[=o]-pi, _n._ a morbid dread of mankind.

PHOCINE, f[=o]'sin, _adj._ pertaining to the seal family.--_n._ PH[=O]'CA, a seal.--_adj._ PHOC[=A]'CEAN, relating to the genus _Phoca_.--_n._ a seal of this genus.--_n._ PHOCÆ'NA, a genus of delphinoid odontocete cetaceans--the true porpoises.--_adjs._ PH[=O]'CAL; PHOCÆ'NINE, like a porpoise. [L. _phoca_--Gr. _ph[=o]k[=e]_, a seal.]

PHOEBUS, f[=e]'bus, _n._ the sun-god: the sun:--_fem._ PHOEBE (f[=e]'b[=e]), the moon. [L.,--Gr. _phoibos_, bright, _phæin_, to shine.]

PHOENICIAN, PHENICIAN, f[=e]-nish'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Phoenicia_, on the coast of Syria, to its people, language, or arts.--_n._ an inhabitant of Phoenicia: the language, a Semitic dialect, akin to Hebrew.

PHOENIX, PHENIX, f[=e]'niks, _n._ a fabulous bird said to have existed for 500 years all alone in the wilderness, and, after burning itself on a funeral pile, to have risen from its own ashes--hence, the emblem of immortality: a paragon. [L.,--Gr. _phoinix_.]

PHOLAS, f[=o]'las, _n._ a genus of stone-bearing bivalves, a piddock:--_pl._ PH[=O]'LADES.--_n._ PH[=O]'LADITE, a fossil pholad. [Gr.]

PHONATE, f[=o]'n[=a]t, _v.t._ to utter vocal sounds.--_n._ PHON[=A]'TION, emission of vocal sounds.--_adj._ PH[=O]'NATORY, pertaining to phonation.--_n._ PHONAU'TOGRAPH, an instrument for registering the vibrations of a sounding body.--_adj._ PHONAUTOGRAPH'IC.--_adv._ PHONAUTOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ PHONOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the vibrations of a body.

PHONETIC, -AL, f[=o]-net'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to, or in accordance with, the sound of the voice: representing elementary sounds: vocal.--_adv._ PHONET'ICALLY.--_n._ PHONETIC'IAN, a student of phonetics.--_v.t._ PHONET'ICISE, to make phonetic.--_ns._ PHONET'ICISM, phonetic character or representation; PHONET'ICIST, one who advocates phonetic-spelling.--_n.sing._ PHONET'ICS, the science of sounds, esp. of the human voice.--_ns._ PHONET'IC-SPELL'ING, spelling according to sound: the spelling of words as they are pronounced; PHONETIS[=A]'TION, art of representing sound by phonetic signs.--_v.t._ PH[=O]'NETISE, to represent phonetically.--_ns._ PH[=O]'NETISM, sound, pronunciation; PH[=O]'NETIST, a student of phonetics.--_adj._ PHON'IC, pertaining to sound.--_n.sing_. PHON'ICS, acoustics.--_adj._ PHONOCAMP'TIC, reflecting or deflecting sound.--_n._ PH[=O]'NOLITE, clinkstone. [Gr. _ph[=o]netikos_--_ph[=o]n[=e]_, a sound.]

PHONOGRAPH, f[=o]'n[=o]-graf, _n._ a character or mark used to represent a sound (also PH[=O]'NOGRAM): an instrument by which spoken words or other sounds can be recorded, and afterwards given out again almost in the original tones.--_ns._ PHONOG'RAPHER, PHONOG'RAPHIST, one versed in phonography.--_adjs._ PHONOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHONOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_ns._ PHONOG'RAPHY, the art of representing each spoken sound by a distinct character: phonetic shorthand; PH[=O]'N[=O]SCOPE, an apparatus for recording music as played, or for testing musical strings: a microphone. [Gr. _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound, _graphein_, to write.]

PHONOLOGY, f[=o]-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the sounds of the voice, the manner in which these are combined in any language: phonetics.--_adj._ PHONOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ PHONOL'OGIST, one versed in phonology. [Gr. _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound, _logos_, discourse.]

PHONOTYPE, f[=o]'n[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a type or sign representing a sound.--_adjs._ PHONOTYP'IC, -AL, of or belonging to a phonotype, or to phonotypy.--_ns._ PH[=O]'NOTYPIST; PH[=O]'NOTYPY, the art of representing each of the elementary sounds by different types or distinct characters. [Gr. _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound, _typos_, type.]

PHORMINX, for'mingks, _n._ a kind of cithara. [Gr.]

PHORMIUM, for'mi-um, _n._ a genus of New Zealand plants of the lily family--New Zealand flax or flax-lily. [Gr. _phormion_, a plant.]

PHOSPHENE, fos'f[=e]n, _n._ a brilliant coloured spectrum seen when the finger is pressed into the internal corner of the eye. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, light, _phainein_, to shine.]

PHOSPHORUS, fos'f[=o]-rus, _n._ the morning-star: a yellowish substance, like wax, inflammable and giving out light in the dark.--_n._ PHOS'PHATE, a salt formed by the combination of phosphoric acid with a base.--_adj._ PHOSPHAT'IC, of the nature of, or containing, a phosphate.--_ns._ PHOS'PHIDE, a compound formed of phosphorus and some other element, as copper or iron; PHOS'PHITE, a salt of phosphorous acid; PHOS'PHOR, the morning-star: (_obs._) phosphorus.--_v.t._ PHOS'PHORATE, to combine or impregnate with phosphorus.--_n._ PHOS'PHOR-BRONZE, an alloy of copper, tin, and phosphorus.--_v.i._ PHOSPHORESCE', to shine in the dark like phosphorus.--_n._ PHOSPHORESC'ENCE.--_adjs._ PHOSPHORESC'ENT, shining in the dark like phosphorus; PHOSPHOR'IC, PHOS'PHOROUS, pertaining to or obtained from phosphorus.--_ns._ PHOS'PHORITE, a massive radiated variety of apatite; PHOS'PHURET, a compound of phosphorus with a metal.--_adj._ PHOS'PHURETTED, combined with phosphorus.--_n._ PHOS'SY-JAW, phosphorous poisoning.--PHOSPHATIC DIATHESIS (_med._), the condition in which there is a tendency in the urine to deposit white gravel. [L.,--Gr.,--_ph[=o]sphoros_, light-bearer--_ph[=o]s_, light, _phoros_, bearing, from _pherein_, to bear.]

PHOTO, f[=o]'t[=o], _n._ a colloquial abbreviation of _photograph_.

PHOTOCHEMISTRY, f[=o]-t[=o]-kem'is-tri, _n._ that branch of chemistry which treats of the chemical action of light.--_adj._ PHOTOCHEM'ICAL.--_n._ PHOTOCHEM'IST.

PHOTOCHROMY, f[=o]'t[=o]-kr[=o]-mi, _n._ the art of reproducing colours by photography.--_adj._ PHOTOCHROMAT'IC.--_n._ PHOTOCHR[=O]'MOTYPE, a photo-process picture printed in colours by any of the ordinary methods of typography in colours. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

PHOTO-ENGRAVING, f[=o]'t[=o]-en-gr[=a]'ving, _n._ a general term including all the various processes of mechanical engraving by the aid of photography.--The term PHOTOG'LYPHY is sometimes applied to photo-engraving by one process or other, often limited to photogravure.--_adj._ PHOTOGLYPH'IC.

PHOTOGENY, f[=o]-toj'e-ni, _n._ the art of taking pictures by the action of light on a chemically prepared ground.--_adjs._ PHOTOGEN'IC, PHOTOG'ENOUS.

PHOTOGRAPHY, f[=o]-tog'ra-fi, _n._ the art of producing pictures by the action of light on chemically prepared surfaces.--_n._ PH[=O]'TOGRAPH, a picture so produced.--_v.t._ to make a picture of by means of photography.--_ns._ PH[=O]TOG'RAPHER, PH[=O]TOG'RAPHIST.--_adj._ PH[=O]TOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PH[=O]TOGRAPH'ICALLY. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, light, _graphein_, to draw.]

PHOTOGRAVURE, f[=o]'t[=o]-gr[=a]-v[=u]r, _n._ a method of producing by means of photography and the action of acids on a sensitised surface a kind of mezzo-engraving on metal. [Fr.,--Gr. _ph[=o]s_, light, Fr. _gravure_, engraving.]

PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY, f[=o]-t[=o]-li-thog'ra-fi, _n._ a method by which a photograph in line can be developed with ink so as to be transferred to stone as a lithograph.--_n._ PHOTOLITH'OGRAPH, a print produced by photolithography.--_v.t._ to reproduce by this aid.--_n._ PHOTOLITHOG'RAPHER.--_adj._ PHOTOLITHOGRAPH'IC. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _lithos_, a stone, _graphein_, to write.]

PHOTOLOGY, f[=o]-tol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of light.--_adjs._ PHOTOLOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ PHOTOL'OGIST. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _logia_--_legein_, to say.]

PHOTOLYSIS, f[=o]-tol'i-sis, _n._ (_bot._) the movements of protoplasm under the influence of light. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _lysis_--_lyein_, to unloose.]

PHOTOMECHANICAL, f[=o]-t[=o]-m[=e]-kan'i-kal, _adj._ pertaining to the mechanical production of pictures by the aid of light, as in photo-engraving, &c.

PHOTOMETER, f[=o]-tom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the intensity of light, esp. for comparing the amount of light coming from different sources.--_adjs._ PHOTOMET'RIC, -AL.--_n._ PHOTOM'ETRY, the measurement of the intensity of light. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _m[=e]tron_, a measure.]

PHOTOMICROGRAPHY, f[=o]-t[=o]-m[=i]-krog'ra-fi, _n._ the enlargement of microscopic objects by means of the microscope, and the projection of the enlarged image on a sensitive film.--_ns._ PHOTOM[=I]'CROGRAPH; PHOTOMICROG'RAPHER.--_adj._ PHOTOMICROGRAPH'IC. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _mikros_, little, _graphein_, to write.]

PHOTOPHOBIA, f[=o]-t[=o]-f[=o]'bi-a, _n._ a dread of light.--_adj._ PHOTOPHOB'IC.

PHOTOPHONE, f[=o]'t[=o]-f[=o]n, _n._ an apparatus for transmitting articulate speech to a distance along a beam of light. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

PHOTO-PROCESS, f[=o]'t[=o]-pros'es, _n._ any process by which is produced, by the agency of photography, a matrix from which prints can be made in ink--photogravure, photolithography, and photozincography.

PHOTOPSIA, f[=o]-top'si-a, _n._ the condition of having the sensation of light without external cause.--Also PH[=O]'TOPSY.

PHOTO-RELIEF, f[=o]'t[=o]-re-l[=e]f', _n._ a process of producing plates by means of photography, from which impressions can be taken in an ordinary printing-press.

PHOTOSCULPTURE, f[=o]-t[=o]-skulp't[=u]r, _n._ the art of taking likenesses in the form of statuettes or medallions by the aid of photography.

PHOTOSPHERE, f[=o]'t[=o]-sf[=e]r, _n._ the luminous envelope round the sun's globe, which is the source of light. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _sphaira_, a sphere.]

PHOTOTHERAPY, f[=o]-t[=o]-ther'a-pi, _n._ the art of healing (of lupus, &c.) by means of light, electric or other, focussed on the diseased part. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _therapeuein_, to heal.]

PHOTOTYPE, f[=o]'t[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a type or plate of the same nature as an engraved plate, produced from a photograph.--_n._ PH[=O]'TOTYPY_._ [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _typos_, type.]

PHOTO-XYLOGRAPHY, f[=o]-t[=o]-z[=i]-log'ra-fi, _n._ wood-engraving after an impression has been taken on the wood-block by photography. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_ light, _xylon_, a log of wood, _graphein_, to write.]

PHOTOZINCOGRAPHY, f[=o]-t[=o]-zing-kog'ra-fi, _n._ the process of engraving on zinc by taking an impression by photography and etching with acids.--_n._ PHOTOZINC'OGRAPH, a picture so produced.

PHRASE, fr[=a]z, _n._ two or more words expressing a single idea by themselves, or showing the manner or style in which a person expresses himself: part of a sentence: a short pithy expression: phraseology: (_mus._) a short clause or portion of a sentence.--_v.t._ to express in words: to style.--_n._ PHRASE'-BOOK, a book containing or explaining phrases.--_adj._ PHRASE'LESS, incapable of being described.--_ns._ PHRASE'-MAN, PHRASE'-MONG'ER, a wordy speaker or writer; PHR[=A]'SEOGRAM, PHR[=A]'SEOGRAPH, a combination of shorthand characters to represent a phrase or sentence.--_adjs._ PHRASEOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to phraseology: consisting of phrases.--_adv._ PHRASEOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ PHRASEOL'OGIST, a maker or a collector of phrases; PHR[=A]SEOL'OGY, style or manner of expression or arrangement of phrases: peculiarities of diction: a collection of phrases in a language; PHR[=A]'SER, a mere maker or repeater of phrases.--_adj._ PHR[=A]'SICAL.--_n._ PHR[=A]'SING, the wording of a speech or passage: (_mus._) the grouping and accentuation of the sounds in a melody. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _phrasis_--_phrazein_, to speak.]

PHRATRY, fr[=a]'tri, _n._ a clan: a brotherhood--also PHR[=A]'TRIA.--_adj._ PHR[=A]'TRIC. [Gr. _phrat[=e]r_, a brother.]

PHREN, _fren_, _n._ the thinking principle, mind: the diaphragm:--_pl._ PHRENES.--_ns._ PHR[=E]NAL'GIA, psychalgia; PHREN[=E]'SIS, delirium, frenzy.--_adjs._ PHRENET'IC, -AL (also FRENET'IC, -AL), having a disordered mind: frenzied: mad; PHRENIAT'RIC, pertaining to the cure of mental diseases; PHREN'IC, belonging to the diaphragm.--_ns._ PHREN'ICS, mental philosophy; PHREN'ISM, thought force.--_adj._ PHRENIT'IC, affected with phrenitis.--_ns._ PHREN[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the brain; PHRENOG'RAPHY, descriptive psychology; PHRENOPATH'IA, mental disease.--_adj._ PHRENOPATH'IC.--_n._ PHRENOPL[=E]'GIA, sudden loss of mental power. [Gr. _phr[=e]n_, the mind.]

PHRENOLOGY, fr[=e]-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the theory that the various faculties and powers of the mind are connected with certain parts of the brain, and can be known by an examination of the outer surface of the skull: the science by which character can be read by examining the skull.--_adjs._ PHRENOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHRENOLOG'ICALLY.--_n._ PHRENOL'OGIST, one who believes or is versed in phrenology. [Gr. _phr[=e]n_, _phrenos_, mind, _logos_, science.]

PHRONESIS, fr[=o]'-n[=e]'sis, _n._ practical wisdom. [Gr.,--_phr[=e]n_, mind.]

PHRYGIAN, frij'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Phrygia_ in Asia Minor, or to the Phrygians.--_n._ a native of Phrygia: a Montanist.--PHRYGIAN CAP, a conical cap with the top turned forward.

PHTHALEIN, thal'e-in, _n._ one of a very important class of dye-yielding materials formed by the union of phenols with the anhydride of phthalic acid.--_adj._ PHTHAL'IC, pertaining to naphthalene.--_n._ PHTHAL'IN, a colourless crystalline compound obtained by reducing phthalein.

PHTHIRIASIS, thi-r[=i]'a-sis, _n._ the lousy disease--_morbus pediculosus._ [L.,--Gr.]

PHTHISIS, th[=i]'sis, _n._ consumption or wasting away of the lungs.--_adjs._ PHTHIS'IC, -AL (tiz'ik, -al), pertaining to or having phthisis.--_n._ PHTHISIOLOGY (tiz-i-ol'[=o]-ji), the sum of scientific knowledge about phthisis. [L.,--Gr. _phthiein_, to waste away.]

PHYCOLOGY, f[=i]-kol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the knowledge of algæ or sea-weeds.--_n._ PHYCOG'RAPHY, systematic description of algae.--_adj._ PHYCOLOG'IC.--_n._ PHYCOL'OGIST.


PHYLACTERY, fi-lak'te-ri, _n._ a charm or amulet: among the Jews, a slip of parchment inscribed with certain passages of Scripture, worn on the left arm or forehead: among the early Christians, a case in which relics were preserved.--_adjs._ PHYLACTER'IC, -AL. [L.,--Gr. _phylakt[=e]rion_, _phylakt[=e]r_, a guard--_phylassein_, to guard.]

PHYLARCH, f[=i]'lark, _n._ in ancient Greece, the chief of a tribe: in Athens, the commander of the cavalry of a tribe.--_ns._ PHY'LARCHY, the office of a phylarch; PHYLE (f[=i]'l[=e]), a tribe or clan in ancient Greece.--_adj._ PHYLET'IC, pertaining to a race or tribe: pertaining to a phylum of the animal kingdom.--_n._ PHYLUM (f[=i]'lum), any primary division or sub-kingdom of the animal or vegetable kingdom:--_pl._ PHY'LA.

PHYLLITE, fil'[=i]t, _n._ clay-slate or argillaceous schist.--_adj._ PHYLLIT'IC. [Gr.,--_phyllon_, a leaf.]

PHYLLIUM, fil'i-um, _n._ a genus of orthopterous insects of family _Phasmidæ_--leaf-insects or walking-leaves.

PHYLLODIUM, fi-l[=o]'di-um, _n._ a petiole which usurps the function of a leaf-blade.--_adj._ PHYLLODIN'EOUS.

PHYLLOID, fil'oid, _adj._ leaf-like--also PHYLLOI'DEOUS.--_ns._ PHYL'LOMANCY, divination by leaves; PHYLLOM[=A]'NIA, abnormal production of leaves; PHYL'LOME, foliage.--_adj._ PHYLLOM'IC.--_n._ PHYL'LOMORPHY, the reversion of floral organs, as sepals and bracts, to leaves--better PHYL'LODY.

PHYLLOPHAGOUS, fi-lof'a-gus, _adj._ feeding on leaves.--_n._ a member of the PHYLLOPH'AGA, a tribe of hymenopterous insects--the saw-flies: a group of lamellicorn beetles which are leaf-eaters--the chafers.

PHYLLOPHOROUS, fi-lof'[=o]-rus, _adj._ producing leaves: (_zool._) having leaf-like organs.

PHYLLOPOD, fil'[=o]-pod, _adj._ having foliaceous feet--also PHYLLOP'ODOUS.--_n._ a crustacean of the order _Phyllopoda_.--_adj._ PHYLLOPOD'IFORM.

PHYLLORHINE, fil'[=o]-rin, _adj._ having a nose-leaf.

PHYLLOSTOMATOUS, fil-[=o]-stom'a-tus, _adj._ leaf-nosed, as a bat.--_n._ PHYLL'OSTOME, a leaf-nosed bat.--_adj._ PHYLLOS'TOMINE, leaf-nosed.

PHYLLOTAXIS, fil-[=o]-tak'sis, _n._ the disposition of leaves on the stem.--Also PHYLL'OTAXY. [Gr. _phyllon_, a leaf, _taxis_, arrangement.]

PHYLLOXERA, fil-ok-s[=e]'ra, _n._ a genus of insects, belonging to a family nearly related to aphides and coccus insects, very destructive to vines. [Gr. _phyllon_, a leaf, _x[=e]ros_, dry.]

PHYLOGENY, f[=i]-loj'e-ni, _n._ a biological term applied to the evolution or genealogical history of a race or tribe--also PHYLOGEN'ESIS.--_adv._ PHYLOGENET'ICALLY.--_adjs._ PHYLOGEN'IC, PHYLOGENET'IC. [Gr. _phylon_, race, _genesis_, origin.]

PHYSALIA, f[=i]-s[=a]'li-a, _n._ a genus of large oceanic hydrozoans--_Portuguese man-of-war_. [Gr. _physallis_, a plant, bladder--_physa_, bellows.]

PHYSALITE, fis'a-l[=i]t, _n._ a coarse topaz.

PHYSETER, fi-s[=e]'t[.e]r, _n._ a sperm-whale.

PHYSIC, fiz'ik, _n._ the science of medicine: the art of healing: a medicine: (_orig._) natural philosophy, physics.--_v.t._ to give medicine to:--_pr.p._ phys'icking; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ phys'icked.--_ns._ PHYSICIAN (fi-zish'an), one skilled in the use of physic or the art of healing: one who prescribes remedies for diseases: a doctor.--_ns._ PHYSIC'IANCY, post or office of physician; PHYSIC'IANSHIP; PHYS'IC-NUT, _Barbadoes_ or _Purging nut_, the seeds of _Jatropha curcas_.--PHYSIC GARDEN, a botanical garden. [O. Fr.,--Gr. _physik[=e]_, natural--Gr. _physis_, nature.]

PHYSICAL, fiz'ik-al, _adj._ pertaining to nature or to natural objects: pertaining to material things: of or pertaining to natural philosophy: known to the senses: pertaining to the body.--_n._ PHYS'ICALIST, one who thinks that human thought and action are determined by the physical organisation.--_adv._ PHYS'ICALLY.--_ns._ PHYS'ICISM (-sizm), belief in the material or physical as opposed to the spiritual; PHYS'ICIST (-sist), a student of nature: one versed in physics: a natural philosopher: one who believes that life is merely a form of physical energy.--PHYSICAL ASTRONOMY, an account of the causes of the motions of the heavenly bodies; PHYSICAL EDUCATION, training of the bodily powers by exercise; PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, an examination of the bodily state of a person; PHYSICAL FORCE, force applied outwardly to the body, as distinguished from persuasion, &c.; PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, an account of the state of the earth in its natural condition--its mountain-chains, ocean-currents, distribution of plants and animals, conditions of climate, &c.; PHYSICAL TRUTH, the agreement of thought with what exists in nature; PHYSICAL WORLD, the world of matter. [Gr. _physikos_--_physis_, nature.]

PHYSICS, fiz'iks, used as _sing._ (_orig._) equivalent to PHYSICAL SCIENCE--i.e. the science of the order of nature: usually sig. (as distinguished from chemistry) the study of matter and the general properties of matter as affected by energy or force--also called _Natural philosophy_.--_ns._ PHYSICOLOG'IC, logic illustrated by physics; PHYS'ICO-THEOL'OGY, theology illustrated by natural philosophy. [L. _physica_--Gr. _physik[=e]_ (_the[=o]ria_, theory)--_physis_, nature.]

PHYSIOCRACY, fiz-i-ok'r[=a]-si, _n._ the economic doctrine of the physiocrats (François Quesnay, 1694-1744, and his followers), that society should be governed by a natural order inherent in itself, land and its products the only true source of wealth, direct taxation of land the only proper source of revenue.--_n._ PHYS'IOCRAT, one who maintains these opinions.--_adj._ PHYSIOCRAT'IC.--_n._ PHYSIOC'RATISM. [Gr. _physis_, nature, _kratein_, to rule.]

PHYSIOGENY, fiz-i-oj'e-ni, _n._ (_biol._) the genesis of function--also PHYSIOGEN'ESIS.--_adjs._ PHYSIOGENET'IC, PHYSIOGEN'IC.

PHYSIOGNOMY, fiz-i-og'n[=o]-mi, _n._ the art of judging the qualities of a character from the external appearance, especially from the countenance: expression of countenance: the face as an index of the mind: the general appearance of anything.--_adjs._ PHYSIOGNOM'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHYSIOGNOM'ICALLY.--_n.sing._ PHYSIOGNOM'ICS (same as PHYSIOGNOMY).--_n._ PHYSIOG'NOMIST. [For _physiognomony_--Gr. _physiogn[=o]monia_--_physis_, nature, _gn[=o]m[=o]n_, one who interprets--_gn[=o]nai_, to know.]

PHYSIOGRAPHY, fiz-i-og'ra-fi, _n._ an exposition of the principles that underlie physical geography, and including the elements of physical science: an introduction to the study of nature: physical geography.--_n._ PHYSIOG'RAPHER, one versed in physiography.--_adjs._ PHYSIOGRAPH'IC, -AL. [Gr. _physis_, nature, _graphein_, to describe.]

PHYSIOLATRY, fiz-i-ol'a-tri, _n._ nature-worship.

PHYSIOLOGY, fiz-i-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the nature and processes of life, of the vital phenomena of animals and plants and the functions of their parts--a branch of biology.--_adjs._ PHYSIOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHYSIOLOG'ICALLY.--_v.i._ PHYSIOL'OGISE.--_n._ PHYSIOL'OGIST. [Gr. _physis_, nature, _logos_, science.]

PHYSIOMEDICALISM, fiz-i-[=o]-med'i-kal-izm, _n._ the system of treating disease with only non-poisonous vegetable drugs.--_n._ PHYSIOMED'ICALIST.

PHYSIQUE, fiz-[=e]k', _n._ the physical structure or natural constitution of a person. [Fr.]

PHYSITHEISM, fiz'i-th[=e]-izm, _n._ the ascribing of physical form and attributes to deity.--_adj._ PHYSITHEIS'TIC. [Gr. _physis_, nature, _theos_, God.]

PHYSIURGIC, fiz-i-ur'jik, _adj._ produced by natural causes, without man's intervention.

PHYSNOMY, fiz'no-mi, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as PHYSIOGNOMY.

PHYSOCLISTOUS, f[=i]-s[=o]-klis'tus, _adj._ having no air-bladder, or having it closed, as a fish. [Gr. _physa_, bellows, _kleistos_--_kleiein_, to close.]

PHYSOGRADE, f[=i]'s[=o]-gr[=a]d, _adj._ moving by a vesicular float. [Gr. _physa_, bellows, L. _gradi_, to walk.]

PHYSOPOD, f[=i]'s[=o]-pod, _adj._ with suckers on the feet. [Gr. _physa_, bellows, _pous_, _podos_, the foot.]

PHYSOSTIGMINE, f[=i]-s[=o]-stig'min, _n._ a poisonous alkaloid, the active principle of the Calabar bean. [Gr. _physa_, bellows, _stigma_, stigma.]

PHYSOSTOMOUS, f[=i]-sos't[=o]-mus, _adj._ having mouth and air-bladder connected by an air-duct, as a fish. [Gr. _physa_, bellows, _stoma_, a mouth.]

PHYTOBRANCHIATE, f[=i]-t[=o]-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ having leafy gills. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _brangchia_, gills.]

PHYTOCHEMISTRY, f[=i]-t[=o]-kem'is-tri, _n._ the chemistry of plants--also PHY'TOCHIMY.--_adj._ PHYTOCHEM'ICAL.

PHYTOGENESIS, f[=i]-t[=o]-jen'e-sis, _n._ the theory of the generation of plants--also PHYTOG'ENY.--_adjs._ PHYTOGENET'IC, -AL. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _genesis_, birth.]

PHYTOGEOGRAPHY, f[=i]-t[=o]-je-og'ra-fi, _n._ the geographical distribution of plants.--_adjs._ PHYTOGEOGRAPH'IC, -AL.

PHYTOGLYPHY, f[=i]-tog'li-fi, _n._ the art of printing from nature, by taking impressions from plants, &c., on soft metal, from which an electrotype plate is taken.--_adj._ PHYTOGLYPH'IC. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _glyphein_, to engrave.]

PHYTOGRAPHY, f[=i]-tog'raf-i, _n._ the department of botany relating to the particular description of species of plants.--_n._ PHYTOG'RAPHER.--_adj._ PHYTOGRAPH'ICAL. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _graphein_, to write.]

PHYTOID, f[=i]'toid, _adj._ plant-like, esp. of animals and organs. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _eidos_, form.]

PHYTOLITHOLOGY, f[=i]-t[=o]-li-thol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of fossils plants.--_n._ PHYTOLITHOL'OGIST.

PHYTOLOGY, f[=i]-tol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of plants, botany.--_adj._ PHYTOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ PHYTOL'OGIST. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _logia_, discourse.]

PHYTONOMY, f[=i]-ton'[=o]-mi, _n._ the science of the origin and growth of plants: botany. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _nomos_, a law.]

PHYTOPATHOLOGY, f[=i]-t[=o]-p[=a]-thol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the diseases of plants.--_adj._ PHYTOPATHOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ PHYTOPATHOL'OGIST.

PHYTOPHAGOUS, f[=i]-tof'a-gus, _adj._ feeding on plants--also PHYTOPHAG'IC.--_ns._ PHYTOPH'AGAN; PHYTOPH'AGY. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _phagein_, to eat.]

PHYTOSIS, f[=i]-t[=o]'sis, _n._ the presence of vegetable parasites, or the diseases caused by them.

PHYTOTOMY, f[=i]-tot'[=o]-mi, _n._ the dissection of plants.--_n._ PHYTOT'OMIST.--_adj._ PHYTOT'OMOUS. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _tomos_, a cutting--_temnein_, to cut.]

PHYTOZOA, f[=i]-t[=o]-z[=o]'a, plant-like animals: animals which more or less resemble plants in appearance and habits, such as sponges, sea-anemones, &c.:--_sing._ PHYTOZ[=O]'ON.--_adj._ and _n._ PHYTOZ[=O]'AN. [Gr. _phyton_, a plant, _z[=o]on_, an animal.]

PI, PIE, p[=i], _n._ a mass of types confusedly mixed.--_v.t._ to reduce to a mixed mass, or to a state of pi, as types. [Cf. _Pie_, a magpie, &c.]

PIA, p[=e]'a, _n._ a perennial Polynesian herb, whose fleshy tubers yield arrowroot.

PIACERE, pia-ch[=a]'re, _n._ (_mus._) _a piacere_, at pleasure.--_adj._ PIACEVOLE (pia-ch[=a]'v[=o]-le), pleasant, playful. [It.]

PIACULAR, p[=i]-ak'[=u]-lar, _adj._ serving to appease, expiatory: requiring expiation: atrociously bad.--_n._ PIACULAR'ITY. [L. _piaculum_, sacrifice--_pi[=a]re_, expiate--_pius_, pious.]

PIAFFE, pi-af', _v.i._ in horsemanship, to advance at a piaffer.--_n._ PIAF'FER, a gait in which the feet are lifted in the same succession as the trot, but more slowly.--Also _Spanish-walk_. [Fr. _piaffer_.]

PIA MATER, p[=i]'a m[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ the vascular membrane investing the brain: (_Shak._) the brain. [L.]

PIANOFORTE, pi-ä'no-f[=o]r't[=a], generally shortened to PIANO (pi-an'[=o]), _n._ a musical instrument furnished with wires struck by little hammers which are moved by keys, so as to produce both soft and strong sounds.--_ns._ PIANETTE', a small piano; PIANINO (p[=e]-a-n[=e]'n[=o]), an upright pianoforte; PIAN'ISM, the technique of the pianoforte: arrangement of music for the pianoforte.--_adv._ PIANIS'SIMO, very softly.--_n._ PIAN'IST, one who plays on the pianoforte, or one well skilled in it.--_adv._ PIÄN'O (_mus._), softly.--_ns._ PIAN'O-SCHOOL, a school where piano music is taught; PIAN'O-STOOL, a stool on which the player sits at the piano.--BOUDOIR, or CABINET, PIANO, an upright piano. [It., _piano_, soft--L. _planus_, plane, _forte_, strong--L. _fortis_, strong.]

PIARIST, p[=i]'ar-ist, _n._ one of a religious congregation for the education of the poor, founded in Rome in 1617 by Joseph Calasanza. [L. _pius_, pious.]

PIASSAVA, pi-as'a-va, _n._ a coarse stiff fibre used for rope-making in Brazil.--Also PIASS'ABA. [Port.]

PIASTRE, PIASTER, pi-as't[.e]r, _n._ a silver coin of varying value, used in Turkey and other countries: the Spanish dollar. [Fr.,--It. _piastra_.]

PIAZZA, pi-az'a, _n._ a place or square surrounded by buildings: a walk under a roof supported by pillars.--_adj._ PIAZZ'IAN. [It.,--L. _platea_, a place.]

PIBROCH, p[=e]'broh, _n._ a form of bagpipe music, generally of a warlike character, including marches, dirges, &c. [Gael. _piobaireachd_, pipe-music--_piobair_, a piper--piob, a _pipe_, _fear_, a man.]

PICA, p[=i]'ka, _n._ a size of type smaller than _English_ and larger than _Small pica_, equal to 12 points in the new system of sizes, about 6 lines to the inch, used by printers as a standard unit of measurement for thickness and length of leads, rules, borders, &c.--as 6-to-pica or 10-to-pica, according as 6 or 10 leads set together make a line of pica.--DOUBLE PICA, a size equal to 2 lines of small pica; DOUBLE SMALL PICA, a size of type giving about 3-1/3 lines to the inch; SMALL PICA, a size smaller than pica and larger than long-primer, about 11 points; TWO-LINE PICA, a size of about 3 lines to the inch, equal to 2 lines of pica, or to 24 points. [_Pie_ (2).]

PICA, p[=i]'ka, _n._ a magpie. [_Pie._]

PICADOR, pik-a-d[=o]r', _n._ a horseman armed with a lance, who commences a bull-fight by pricking the bull with his weapon. [Sp. _pica_, a pike.]

PICAMAR, pik'a-mär, _n._ the bitter principle of tar. [L. _pix_, pitch, _amarus_, bitter.]

PICARD, pik'ärd, _n._ a high shoe for men, introduced from France about 1720.

PICAROON, pik-a-r[=oo]n', _n._ one who lives by his wits: a cheat: a pirate.--_adj._ PICARESQUE'.--PICARESQUE NOVELS, the tales of Spanish rogue and vagabond life, much in vogue in the 17th century. [Sp. _picaron_--_pícaro_, a rogue.]

PICAYUNE, pik-a-y[=oo]n', _n._ a small coin worth 6¼ cents, current in United States before 1857, and known in different states by different names (_fourpence_, _fippence_, _fip_, _sixpence_, &c.).--_adj._ petty. [Carib.]

PICCADILLY, pik'a-dil-i, _n._ a standing-up collar with the points turned over, first worn about 1870: a high collar worn in the time of James I.: an edging of lace on a woman's broad collar (17th century).

PICCALILLI, pik'a-lil-i, _n._ a pickle of various vegetable substances with mustard and spices.

PICCANINNY, PICKANINNY, pik'a-nin-i, _n._ a little child: an African or negro child. [Perh. from Sp. _pequeño niño_='little child.']

PICCOLO, pik'[=o]-l[=o], _n._ a flute of small size, having the same compass as an ordinary flute, while the notes all sound an octave higher than their notation.--Also _Flauto piccolo_, _Octave flute_, _Ottavino_. [It.]

PICE, p[=i]s, _n.sing._ and _pl._ a money of account and a copper coin, ¼ anna. [Marathi _paisa_.]

PICEA, p[=i]'s[=e]-a, _n._ a genus of coniferous trees, including the spruce.

PICEOUS, pish'[=e]-us, _adj._ pitch-black.

PICIFORM, pis'i-form, _adj._ like to, or relating to, the woodpecker.

PICK, pik, _v.t._ to prick with a sharp-pointed instrument: to peck, as a bird: to pierce: to open with a pointed instrument, as a lock: to pluck or gather, as flowers, &c.: to separate or pull apart: to clean with the teeth: to gather: to choose: to select: to call: to seek, as a quarrel: to steal.--_v.i._ to do anything carefully: to eat by morsels.--_n._ any sharp-pointed instrument, esp. for loosening and breaking up hard soil, &c.: a picklock: foul matter collecting on printing-types, &c.: right or opportunity of first choice.--_n._ PICK'-CHEESE, the blue titmouse: the fruit of the mallow.--_adj._ PICKED (pikt), selected, hence the choicest or best: having spines or prickles, sharp-pointed.--_ns._ PICK'EDNESS; PICK'ER, one who picks or gathers up: one who removes defects from and finishes electrotype plates: a pilferer; PICK'ING, the act of picking, selecting, gathering, pilfering: that which is left to be picked: dabbing in stone-working: the final finishing of woven fabrics by removing burs, &c.: removing defects from electrotype plates; PICK'LOCK, an instrument for picking or opening locks; PICK'-ME-UP, a stimulating drink; PICK'POCKET, one who picks or steals from other people's pockets; PICK'-PURSE, one who steals the purse or from the purse of another.--_adj._ PICK'SOME, given to picking and choosing.--_n._ PICK'-THANK, an officious person who does what he is not desired to do in order to gain favour: a flatterer: a parasite.--_v.t._ to gain favour by unworthy means.--PICK A HOLE IN ONE'S COAT, to find fault with one; PICK A QUARREL, to find an occasion of quarrelling; PICK AT, to find fault with; PICK FAULT, to seek occasions of fault-finding; PICK OAKUM, to make oakum by untwisting old ropes; PICK OFF, to aim at and kill or wound, as with a rifle; PICK ONE'S WAY, to move carefully; PICK OUT, to make out: to mark with spots of colour, &c.; PICK TO PIECES, to tear asunder: to damage, as character; PICK UP, to improve gradually: to gain strength bit by bit: to take into a vehicle, or into one's company: to get as if by chance.--_adj._ gathered together by chance. [Celt., as Gael. _pioc_, to pick, W. _pigo_; cf. _Pike_.]

PICKABACK, pik'a-bak, _adv._ on the back like a pack.--Also PICK'BACK, PICK'APACK.

PICKAXE, pik'aks, _n._ a picking tool, with a point at one end of the head and a cutting blade at the other, used in digging. [M. E. _pikois_--O. Fr. _picois_, a mattock, _piquer_, to pierce, _pic_, a pick--Celt.]

PICKEER, pi-k[=e]r', _v.i._ (_obs._) to act as a skirmisher.--_n._ PICKEER'ER.

PICKEREL, pik'e-rel, _n._ an American pike: a wading bird, the dunlin. [_Pike_ + _er_ + _el_.]

PICKET, pik'et, _n._ a pointed stake used in fortification: a small outpost or guard stationed in front of an army: a number of men sent out by a trades-union to prevent others from working against the wishes or decisions of the union: a game at cards: a punishment inflicted by making a person stand on one foot on a pointed stake.--_v.i._ to fasten to a stake, as a horse: to post a vanguard: to place a picket at or near.--_ns._ PICK'ET-FENCE, a fence of pickets or pales; PICK'ET-GUARD, a guard kept in readiness in case of alarm. [Fr. _piquet_, dim. of _pic_, a pickaxe.]

PICKLE, pik'l, _n._ a liquid of salt and water in which flesh and vegetables are preserved: vinegar, &c., in which articles of food are preserved: anything pickled: a disagreeable position: (_coll._) a troublesome child.--_v.t._ to season or preserve with salt, vinegar, &c.--_ns._ PICK'LE-HERR'ING, a pickled herring: (_obs._) a merry-andrew; PICK'LE-WORM, the larva of a pyralid moth.--HAVE A ROD IN PICKLE, to have a punishment ready. [M. E. _pikil_, prob. _pick-le_; Dut. _pekel_; Ger. _pökel_.]

PICKLE, pik'l, _n._ (_Scot._) a small quantity.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to eat sparingly: to pilfer.

PICKWICKIAN, pik-wik'i-an, _adj._ relating to or resembling Mr _Pickwick_, the hero of Dickens's _Pickwick Papers_.--IN A PICKWICKIAN SENSE, in a merely hypothetical sense--a phrase by which the members of the Pickwick Club explained away unparliamentary language.

PICNIC, pik'nik, _n._ a short excursion into the country by a pleasure-party who take their own provisions with them: an entertainment in the open air, towards which each person contributes.--_v.i._ to go on a picnic:--_pr.p._ pic'nicking; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pic'nicked.--_n._ PIC'NICKER. [Prob. _pick_, to nibble, and _nick_, for _knack_, a trifle.]

PICOT, p[=e]-k[=o]', _n._ a loop in an ornamental edging, the front of a flounce, &c.--_adj._ PICOTTÉ. [Fr.]

PICOTEE, pik-[=o]-t[=e]', _n._ a florist's variety of carnation. [From the French botanist _Picot_, Baron de la Peyrouse, 1744-1818.]


PICQUÉ-WORK, p[=e]-k[=a]'-wurk, _n._ decoration by dots or slight depressions.--Also POUNCED-WORK.

PICRA, pik'ra, _n._ a cathartic powder of aloes and canella. [Gr. _pikros_, bitter.]

PICRIC, pik'rik, _adj._ carbazotic.--_n._ PIC'R[=A]TE, a salt of picric acid.--_adj._ PIC'R[=A]TED, mixed with a picrate as in a composition for a whistling rocket.--_ns._ PIC'R[=I]TE, one of the peridotites or olivine-rocks; PICROTOX'INE, a bitter poisonous principle in the seeds of _Cocculus indicus_.--PICRIC ACID, an acid used as a dye for wool, &c. [Gr. _pikros_, bitter.]

PICT, pikt, _n._ one of an ancient race for 5½ centuries (296-844 A.D.) inhabiting eastern Scotland, from the Forth to the Pentland Firth, most probably Celts, but more nearly allied to the Cymry than to the Gael.--_adj._ PIC'TISH.--PICTISH TOWERS, a name sometimes given to brochs (q.v.); PICTS' HOUSES, a name popularly given in many parts of Scotland to rude underground dwellings or earth-houses; PICTS' WORK, a name sometimes given to the Catrail, the remains of a large earthwork extending for about fifty miles through the counties of Selkirk and Roxburgh. [L. _picti_, pl. of pa.p. of _ping[)e]re_, _pictum_, to paint.]

PICTURE, pik't[=u]r, _n._ a painting: a likeness in colours: a drawing: painting: a resemblance: an image: a vivid verbal description.--_v.t._ to paint, to represent by painting: to form a likeness of in the mind: to describe vividly in words.--_n._ PIC'TOGRAPH, a picture or pictorial sign: a piece of picture-writing.--_adj._ PICTOGRAPH'IC.--_n._ PICTOG'RAPHY.--_adjs._ PICT[=O]'RIAL, PIC'T[=U]RAL, relating to pictures: illustrated by pictures: consisting of pictures.--_adv._ PICT[=O]'RIALLY.--_ns._ PIC'T[=U]RAL (_Spens._), a picture; PIC'TURE-BOOK, a book of pictures; PIC'TURE-FRAME, a frame surrounding a picture; PIC'TURE-GALL'ERY, a gallery, or large room, in which pictures are hung up for exhibition; PIC'TURE-ROD, a rod running round the upper part of the wall of a room, from which pictures are hung; PIC'TURE-WRIT'ING, the use of pictures to express ideas or relate events. [L. _pictura_--_ping[)e]re_, _pictum_, to paint.]

PICTURESQUE, pik-t[=u]-resk', _adj._ like a picture: such as would make a good or striking picture: expressing the pleasing beauty of a picture.--_adv._ PICTURESQUE'LY.--_n._ PICTURESQUE'NESS. [It. _pittoresco_--_pittura_, a picture--L. _pictura_.]

PICUL, PECUL, pik'ul, _n._ a Chinese weight of about 133-1/3 lb.

PICUS, p[=i]'kus, _n._ a Linnæan genus of woodpeckers.

PIDDLE, pid'l, _v.i._ to deal in trifles: to trifle: to eat with little relish: to make water.--_n._ PIDD'LER, a trifler.--_adj._ PIDD'LING, trifling, squeamish. [_Peddle._]

PIDDOCK, pid'ok, _n._ the pholas.

PIDGIN-ENGLISH, pij'in-ing'glish, _n._ a mixture of corrupted English with Chinese and other words, a sort of _lingua franca_ which grew up between Chinese on the sea-board and foreigners, as a medium of intercommunication in business transactions. [_Pidgin_, a Chinese corruption of _business_.]

PIE, p[=i], _n._ a magpie: (_print._) type mixed or unsorted (cf. _Pi_). [Fr.,--L. _pica_.]

PIE, p[=i], _n._ a book which ordered the manner of performing divine service: a service-book: an ordinal.--BY COCK AND PIE (_Shak._), a minced oath=By God and the service-book. [Fr.,--L. _pica_, lit. magpie, from its old black-letter type on white paper resembling the colours of the magpie.]

PIE, p[=i], _n._ the smallest Indian copper coin, equal to 1/3 of a pice, or 1/12 of an anna. [Marathi _p[=a]'[=i]_, a fourth.]

PIE, p[=i], _n._ a quantity of meat or fruit baked within a crust of prepared flour.--A FINGER IN THE PIE (see FINGER); HUMBLE-PIE (see HUMBLE); MINCE-PIE (see MINCE); PERIGORD PIE, a pie flavoured with truffles, abundant in _Perigord_ in France. [Perh. Ir. and Gael. _pighe_, pie.]

PIEBALD, PYEBALD, p[=i]'bawld, _adj._ of various colours: having spots and patches. [For _pie-balled_--_pie_, a magpie, W. _bal_, a streak on a horse's forehead.]

PIECE, p[=e]s, _n._ a part of anything: a single article: a definite quantity, as of cloth or paper: an amount of work to be done at one time: a separate performance: a literary or artistic composition: a gun: a coin: a man in chess or draughts: a person, generally a woman, in contempt.--_v.t._ to enlarge by adding a piece: to patch.--_v.i._ to unite by a joining of parts: to join.--_n.pl_. PIECE'-GOODS, cotton, linen, woollen, or silk fabrics sold retail in varying lengths.--_adj._ PIECE'LESS, not made of pieces: entire.--_adv._ PIECE'MEAL, in pieces or fragments: by pieces: little by little: bit by bit: gradually.--_adj._ made of pieces: single: separate.--_ns._ PIEC'ENER, a piecer; PIEC'ENING, or PIEC'ING, the act of mending, esp. the joining of the ends of yarn, thread, &c. so as to repair breaks; PIEC'ER, a boy or girl employed in a spinning-factory to join broken threads; PIECE'WORK, work done by the piece or quantity rather than by time.--PIÈCE DE RÉSISTANCE, principal piece: chief event or performance: chief dish at a dinner; PIECE OF EIGHT, the Spanish _peso duro_ ('hard dollar'), bearing the numeral 8, of the value of 8 reals (prob. the sign $ is derived from this); PIECE OUT, to put together bit by bit; PIECE UP, to patch up.--GIVE A PIECE OF ONE'S MIND, to give a rating frankly to any one's face; OF A PIECE, as if of the same piece, the same in nature, &c. [O. Fr. _piece_--Low L. _petium_, a piece of land--prob. L. _pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

PIED, p[=i]d, _adj._ variegated like a magpie: of various colours: spotted.--_n._ PIED'NESS.

PIELED, p[=e]ld, _adj._ (_Shak._) peeled, bare, bald.

PIEND, p[=e]nd, _n._ the sharp point or edge of a hammer: a salient angle.

PIEPOWDER, p[=i]'pow-d[.e]r, _n._ an ancient court held in fairs and markets to administer justice in a rough-and-ready way to all comers--also _Court of Dusty Foot_.--_adj._ PIE'POWDERED, with dusty feet. [O. Fr. _piepoudreux_, a hawker, _pied_--L. _pes_, a foot, _poudre_, powder.]

PIER, p[=e]r, _n._ the mass of stone-work between the openings in the wall of a building: an arch, bridge, &c.: a stone pillar on which the hinges of a gate are fixed: a mass of stone or wood-work projecting into the sea for landing purposes: a wharf.--_ns._ PIER'AGE, toll paid for using a pier; PIER'-GLASS, a mirror hung in the space between windows; PIER'-T[=A]'BLE, a table fitted for the space between two windows. [O. Fr. _pierre_, a stone--L. _petra_--Gr. _petra_, a rock.]

PIERCE, p[=e]rs, _v.t._ to thrust or make a hole through: to enter, or force a way into: to touch or move deeply: to dive into, as a secret.--_v.i._ to penetrate.--_adj._ PIERCE'ABLE, capable of being pierced.--_n._ PIERC'ER, one who, or that which, pierces: any sharp instrument used for piercing: a stiletto.--_adj._ PIERC'ING.--_adv._ PIERC'INGLY.--_n._ PIERC'INGNESS. [O. Fr. _percer_, prob. _pertuisier_--_pertuis_, a hole--L. _pertund[)e]re_, _pertusum_, to thrust through.]

PIERIAN, p[=i]-[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the Muses.--_n._ PIER'IDES, the nine Muses. [L. _Pierius_--Mt. _Pierus_, in Thessaly, the haunt of the Muses.]

PIERROT, pye-r[=o]', _n._ a buffoon with loose long-sleeved white robe: an 18th-century women's low-cut basque, with sleeves. [Fr.]

PIET, p[=i]'et, _n._ a pie or magpie. [_Pie._]

PIETÀ, p[=e]-[=a]-ta', _n._ a representation of the Virgin embracing the dead body of Jesus.

PIETRA-DURA, py[=a]'tra-d[=oo]'ra, _n._ Florentine mosaic-work, in which the inlaid materials are hard stones--jasper, agate, &c.

PIETY, p[=i]'e-ti, _n._ the quality of being pious: reverence for the Deity, and desire to do His will: love and duty towards parents, friends, or country: sense of duty: dutiful conduct.--_ns._ P[=I]'ETISM, the doctrine and practice of the pietists; P[=I]'ETIST, one marked by strong devotional feeling: a name first applied to a sect of German religious reformers of deep devotional feeling (end of 17th century).--_adjs._ PIETIST'IC, -AL. [Fr. _piété_--L. _pietas_.]

PIEZOMETER, p[=i]-e-zom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the compressibility of liquids. [Gr. _piezein_, to press, _metron_, a measure.]

PIFFERO, pif'e-r[=o], _n._ a form of oboe: an organ-stop.

PIG, pig, _n._ a swine of either gender: an oblong mass of unforged metal, as first extracted from the ore, so called because it is made to flow when melted in channels called _pigs_, branching from a main channel called the _sow_.--_v.i._ to bring forth pigs: to live together like pigs:--_pr.p._ pig'ging; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pigged.--_adjs._ PIG'-EYED, having small dull eyes with heavy lids; PIG'-FACED, looking like a pig.--_n._ PIG'GERY, a place where pigs are kept.--_adj._ PIG'GISH, belonging to or like pigs: greedy, said of persons.--_n._ PIG'GISHNESS.--_adj._ PIG'HEADED, having a large or ill-formed head: stupidly obstinate.--_ns._ PIG'HEADEDNESS; PIG'-[=I]'RON, iron in pigs or rough bars; PIG'-LEAD, lead in pigs; PIG'-NUT (same as EARTH-NUT); PIG'SCONCE, a pigheaded fellow: a blockhead; PIG'SKIN, the skin of a pig prepared as a strong leather: a saddle; PIG'-STY, a pen for keeping pigs; PIG'S'-WASH, swill; PIG'S'-WHIS'PER (_slang_), a low whisper: a very short space of time; PIG'-TAIL, the tail of a pig: the hair of the head tied behind in the form of a pig's tail: a roll of twisted tobacco. [A.S. _pecg_; Dut. _bigge_, _big_.]

PIG, pig, _n._ an earthen vessel. [_Piggin_.]

PIGEON, pij'un, _n._ a well-known bird, the dove: any bird of the dove family.--_adjs._ PIG'EON-BREAST'ED, having a physical deformity, due to rickets, in which the chest is flattened from side to side, and the sternum or breast-bone is thrown forward; PIG'EON-HEART'ED, timid: fearful.--_n._ PIG'EON-HOLE, a hole or niche in which pigeons lodge in a dovecot: a division of a case for papers, &c.--_v.t._ to put into a pigeon-hole: to lay aside and treat with neglect.--_n._ PIG'EON-HOUSE, a dovecot.--_adj._ PIG'EON-LIV'ERED, timid: cowardly.--_n._ PIG'EONRY, a place for keeping pigeons.--_adj._ PIG'EON-TOED, having feet like pigeons, peristeropod: having turned-in toes. [Fr.,--L. _pipio_, _-onis_--_pip[=i]re_, to chirp.]

PIGGIN, pig'in, _n._ a small wooden or earthen vessel. [Gael. _pigean_, dim. of _pigeadh_, or _pige_, a pot.]

PIGHT, p[=i]t, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to place, to fix.--_adj._ placed, fixed, determined. [_Pitch_, to place.]

PIGMEAN, pig-m[=e]'an, _adj._ like a pygmy: very small.

PIGMENT, pig'ment, _n._ paint: any substance used for colouring: that which gives colour to animal and vegetable tissues.--_adjs._ PIGMENT'AL, PIG'MENTARY.--_n._ PIG'MENT-CELL, a cell which secrets pigment. [L. _pigmentum_--_ping[)e]re_, to paint.]


PIGNORATION, pig-n[=o]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ act of giving in pledge: (_law_) a seizing and detaining of cattle straying and doing damage, till the damage be made good. [L. _pignus_, _-oris_, a pledge.]

PIKE, p[=i]k, _n._ a sharp point: a weapon with a long shaft and a sharp head like a spear, formerly used by foot-soldiers: a sharp-pointed hill or summit: a voracious fresh-water fish (so called from its pointed snout).--_adj._ PIKED, ending in a point.--_ns._ PIKE'-HEAD, the head of a pike or spear; PIKE'-KEEP'ER, the keeper of a turnpike; PIKE'LET, a tea-cake; PIKE'MAN, a man armed with a pike: a man in charge of a turnpike gate; PIKE'-PERCH, a common percoid fish; PIKE'STAFF, the staff or shaft of a pike: a staff with a pike at the end. [A.S. _píc_, _piic_, a pike; Dut. _piek_, Ger. _pike_, _pieke_; or Celt., as Gael. _pìc_, a pike, W. _pig_, a point.]

PIKE, p[=i]k, _v.i._ to go quickly.--_n._ a turnpike.--_n._ P[=I]'KER, a tramp.

PILA, p[=i]'la, _n._ in archæology and art, a mortar. [L.]

PILAR, p[=i]'lar, _adj._ hairy.--Also PIL'ARY.

PILASTER, pi-las't[.e]r, _n._ a square column, partly built into, partly projecting from a wall.--_adj._ PILAS'TERED, furnished with pilasters or inserted pillars. [Fr. _pilastre_--It. _pilastro_--L. _p[=i]la_, a pillar.]

PILAU, pi-law', _n._ a dish, in origin purely Mohammedan, consisting of meat or fowl, boiled along with rice and spices.--Also PILLAU', PILAW', PILAFF', PILOW'. [Pers. _pil[=a]w_, _pilaw_.]

PILCH, pilch, _n._ (_Shak._) a cloak or gown lined with furs: a flannel cloth or wrap for a child.--_n._ PILCH'ER, one who wears a pilch: a scabbard. [A.S. _pylce_--Low L. _pellicea_--L. _pellis_, skin.]

PILCHARD, pil'chärd, _n._ a sea-fish like the herring, but thicker and rounder, caught chiefly on the Cornish coast. [Prob. Celt., Ir. _pilseir_.]

PILE, p[=i]l, _n._ a roundish mass: a heap of separate objects: combustibles, esp. for burning dead bodies: a large building: a heap of shot or shell: (_elect._) a form of battery consisting of a number of dissimilar metal plates laid in pairs one above another, with an acid solution between them: (_slang_) a large amount of money: a fortune.--_v.t._ to lay in a pile or heap: to collect in a mass: to heap up: to fill above the brim.--_n._ P[=I]'LER, one who forms into a heap.--PILE ARMS, to place three muskets with fixed bayonets so that the butts remain firm, the muzzles close together pointing obliquely--also _Stack arms_. [Fr.,--L. _p[)i]la_, a ball.]

PILE, p[=i]l, _n._ a pillar: a large stake driven into the earth to support foundations: a pyramidal figure in a heraldic bearing.--_v.t._ to drive piles into.--_ns._ PILE'-DRIV'ER, PILE'-EN'GINE, an engine for driving down piles; PILE'-DWELL'ING, a dwelling built on piles, a lake-dwelling; PILE'WORK, work or foundations made of piles; PILE'-WORM, a worm found eating into the timber of piles and ships: the teredo. [A.S. _píl_--L. _p[=i]la_, a pillar.]

PILE, p[=i]l, _n._ hair, fur: the nap on cloth, esp. if regular and closely set.--_v.t._ to furnish with pile, to make shaggy.--_adj._ PILE'-WORN, worn threadbare. [O. Fr. _peil_, _poil_--L. _p[)i]lus_, a hair.]

PILES, p[=i]lz, hæmorrhoids. [L. _p[)i]la_, a ball.]

PILEUM, pil'[=e]-um, _n._ (_ornith._) the top of the head from the base of the bill to the nape--including the forehead or front, the vertex or corona, and the hindhead or occiput:--_pl._ PIL'[=E]A.

PILEUS, pil'[=e]-us, _n._ a Roman conical cap: (_bot._) the summit of the stipe bearing the hymenium in some fungi:--_pl._ PIL'EI (-[=i]).--_adjs._ PIL'[=E]ATE, -D, fitted with a cap: having the form of a cap or hat; PIL'[=E]IFORM.--_n._ PIL[=E]'OLUS, a little pileus:--_pl._ PIL[=E]'OLI. [L. _pileatus_--_pileus_, a cap of felt.]

PILE-WORT, p[=i]l'-wurt, _n._ a buttercup, the celandine.

PILFER, pil'f[.e]r, _v.i._ to steal small things.--_v.t._ to steal by petty theft.--_ns._ PIL'FERER; PIL'FERING, PIL'FERY, petty theft.--_adv._ PIL'FERINGLY. [_Pelf._]

PILGARLICK, pil-gar'lik, _n._ a low fellow--perh. because _pilled_ or made bald by a shameful disease.

PILGRIM, pil'grim, _n._ one who travels to a distance to visit a sacred place: a wanderer: a traveller: a silk screen formerly attached to the back of a woman's bonnet to protect the neck: (_slang_) a new-comer.--_adj._ of or pertaining to a pilgrim: like a pilgrim: consisting of pilgrims.--_ns._ PIL'GRIMAGE, the journey of a pilgrim: a journey to a shrine or other sacred place: the time taken for a pilgrimage: the journey of life, a lifetime; PIL'GRIM-BOTT'LE, a flat bottle holed at the neck for a cord.--PILGRIM FATHERS, the colonists who went to America in the ship _Mayflower_, and founded New England in 1620; PILGRIM'S SHELL, a cockle-shell used as a sign that one had visited the Holy Land; PILGRIM'S STAFF, a long staff which pilgrims carried as a sort of badge. [O. Fr. _pelegrin_ (Fr. _pèlerin_)--L. _peregrinus_, foreigner, stranger--_pereger_, a traveller--_per_, through, _ager_, land.]

PILIFORM, pil'i-form, _adj._ slender as a hair.--_adjs._ PILIF'EROUS, PILIG'EROUS, bearing hairs. [L. _pilus_, a hair, _forma_, form.]

PILING, p[=i]'ling, _n._ the act of piling up: the driving of piles: a series of piles placed in order: pilework.

PILKINS, pil'kinz, _n._ (_prov._) the naked oat, _Avena nuda_.--Also PILL'AS, PILL'CORN.

PILL, pil, _n._ a little ball of medicine: anything nauseous which must be accepted: (_slang_) a doctor: a disagreeable person.--_v.t._ (_slang_) to blackball.--_n._ PILL'-BOX, a box for holding pills: a kind of one-horse carriage. [Fr. _pilule_--L. _pilula_, dim. of _p[)i]la_, a ball.]

PILL, pil, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to strip, peel: to deprive of hair.--_n._ (_Spens._) skin. [_Peel._]

PILLAGE, pil'[=a]j, _n._ (_Shak._) act of plundering: plunder: spoil, esp. taken in war.--_v.t._ to plunder or spoil.--_v.t._ PILL, to rob or plunder.--_n._ PILL'AGER. [O. Fr.,--_piller_--L. _pil[=a]re_, to plunder.]

PILLAR, pil'ar, _n._ (_archit._) a detached support, differing from a column in that it is not necessarily cylindrical, or of classical proportions: one who, or anything that, sustains: something resembling a pillar in appearance.--_adj._ PILL'ARED, supported by a pillar: having the form of a pillar.--_ns._ PILL'AR-BOX, a short pillar in a street with receptacle for letters to be sent by post; PILL'ARIST, PILL'AR-SAINT, a person in the early church who crucified the flesh by living on the summit of pillars in the open air, a stylite.--FROM PILLAR TO POST, from one state of difficulty to another: hither and thither. [O. Fr. _piler_ (Fr. _pilier_)--Low L. _pilare_--L. _p[=i]la_, a pillar.]

PILLAU, pil-law', _n._ See PILAU.

PILLICOCK, pil'i-kok, _n._ (_Shak._) a term of endearment.

PILLION, pil'yun, _n._ a cushion for a woman behind a horseman: the cushion of a saddle. [Ir. _pilliun_, Gael. _pillean_, a pad, a pack-saddle--_peall_, a skin or mat, L. _pellis_, skin.]


PILLORY, pil'o-ri, _n._ a wooden frame, supported by an upright pillar or post, and having holes through which the head and hands of a criminal were put as a punishment, disused in England since 1837.--_vs.t._ PILL'ORY, PILL'ORISE, to punish in the pillory: to expose to ridicule:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pill'oried. [O. Fr. _pilori_; ety. dub.; Prov. _espitlori_--Low L. _speculatorium_, a lookout--L. _specularia_, a window, _speculum_, a mirror.]

PILLOW, pil'[=o], _n._ a cushion filled with feathers, &c., for resting the head on: any cushion: a block of metal for bearing the end of a shaft, or the end of a bowsprit: the socket of a pivot.--_v.t._ to lay or rest on for support.--_v.i._ to rest the head on a pillow.--_ns._ PILL'OW-BIER, -BEER, -CASE, -SLIP, a cover which can be drawn over a pillow; PILL'OW-CUP, a last cup before going to bed.--_adjs._ PILL'OWED, supported by, or provided with, a pillow; PILL'OWY, like a pillow: soft. [A.S. _pyle_--L. _pulv[=i]nus_.]

PILLWORM, pil'wurm, _n._ the millipede.

PILOCARPUS, p[=i]-l[=o]-kär'pus, _n._ a shrub about four or five feet high, slightly branched, the branches erect, a native of Brazil.--_n._ PILOCAR'PINE, an alkaloid isolated from pilocarpus, with sudorific properties. [Gr. _pilos_, a cap, _karpos_, fruit.]

PILOSE, p[=i]'l[=o]s, _adj._ hairy--also P[=I]'LOUS.--_n._ PILOS'ITY. [L. _pilosus_--_pilus_, hair.]

PILOT, p[=i]'lut, _n._ the steersman of a ship: one who conducts ships in and out of a harbour, along a dangerous coast, &c.: a guide.--_v.t._ to conduct as a pilot: to direct through dangerous places.--_ns._ P[=I]'LOTAGE, the skill of a pilot: the act of piloting: the fee or wages of pilots; P[=I]'LOT-BOAT, a boat used by pilots for meeting or leaving ships; P[=I]'LOT-CLOTH, a coarse, stout kind of cloth for overcoats; P[=I]'LOT-EN'GINE, a locomotive engine sent on before a train to clear its way, as a pilot; P[=I]'LOT-FISH, a fish of the mackerel family, so called from its having been supposed to guide sharks to their prey; P[=I]'LOT-FLAG, the flag hoisted at the fore by a vessel needing a pilot; P[=I]'LOT-HOUSE, an enclosed place on deck to shelter the steering-gear and the pilot--also _Wheel-house_; P[=I]'LOT-JACK'ET, a pea-jacket worn by seamen; P[=I]'LOT-WHALE, the caaing-whale (q.v.). [Fr. _pilote_--Dut. _piloot_, from _peilen_, to sound, _loot_ (Ger. _loth_, Eng. _lead_), a sounding-lead.]

PILULE, pil'[=u]l, _n._ a little pill--also PIL'ULA.--_adj._ PIL'ULAR, pertaining to pills.

PILUM, p[=i]'lum, _n._ the heavy javelin used by Roman foot-soldiers:--_pl._ P[=I]'LA. [L.]

PILUS, p[=i]'lus, _n._ one of the slender hairs on plants:--_pl._ P[=I]'LI. [L.]

PIMENTO, pi-men'to, _n._ allspice or Jamaica pepper: the tree producing it.--Also PIMEN'TA. [Port. _pimenta_--L. _pigmentum_, paint.]

PIMP, pimp, _n._ one who procures gratifications for the lust of others: a pander.--_v.i._ to pander.--_adjs._ PIMP'ING, petty: mean; PIMP'-LIKE. [Fr. _pimper_, a nasalised form of _piper_, to pipe, hence to cheat.]

PIMPERNEL, pim'p[.e]r-nel, _n._ a plant of the primrose family, with reddish flowers--also _Poor man's weather-glass_, _Red chickweed_.--_n._ PIMPINEL'LA, a genus of umbelliferous plants--_anise_, _pimpernel_, _breakstone_. [Fr. _pimprenelle_ (It. _pimpinella_), either a corr. of a L. form _bipennula_, double-winged, dim. of _bi-pennis_--_bis_, twice, _penna_, feather; or from a dim. of L. _pampinus_, a vine-leaf.]

PIMPLE, pim'pl, _n._ a pustule: a small swelling.--_adjs._ PIM'PLED, PIM'PLY, having pimples. [A.S. _pipel_, nasalised from L. _papula_, a pustule.]

PIN, pin, _n._ a piece of wood or of metal used for fastening things together: a peg or nail: a sharp-pointed piece of wire with a rounded head for fastening clothes: anything that holds parts together: a piece of wood set up on end to be knocked down by a bowl, as in skittles: a peg used in musical instruments for fastening the strings: anything of little value.--_v.t._ to fasten with a pin: to fasten: to enclose: to seize and hold fast:--_pr.p._ pin'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pinned.--_ns._ PIN'-BUTT'OCK (_Shak._), a sharp, pointed buttock; PIN'CASE, PIN'CUSHION, a case or cushion for holding pins; PIN'-FEATH'ER, a small or short feather.--_adj._ PIN'-FEATH'ERED.--_ns._ PIN'-HOLD, a place where a pin is fixed; PIN'-HOLE, a hole made by a pin: a very small opening; PIN'-MON'EY, money allowed to a wife by her husband for private expenses, originally to buy pins; PIN'NER, one who pins or fastens: a pin-maker: a pinafore: a head-dress with a lappet flying loose; PIN'-POINT, the point of a pin: a trifle; PIN'TAIL, a genus of ducks, one handsome species of which is a winter visitor to many parts of the British coast.--_adj._ PIN'TAILED, having a long, narrow tail.--_n._ PIN'-WHEEL, a contrate wheel in which the cogs are pins set into the disc: a form of firework constructed to revolve rapidly while burning.--_v.t._ PIN'WORK, to work flax-yarn on a wooden pin so as to make it more supple for ease in packing.--PIN-FIRE CARTRIDGE, a cartridge for breech-loading guns; PINS AND NEEDLES, a feeling as of pricking under the skin, formication.--IN MERRY PIN, in a merry humour; ON ONE'S PINS, on one's legs: in good condition. [M. E. _pinne_, like Ir. and Gael. _pinne_, and Ger. _pinn_, from L. _pinna_ or _penna_, a feather.]

PIN, pin, _n._ an induration of the membranes of the eye, cataract. [A.S. _pinn_--Low L. _pannus_.]

PIÑA-CLOTH, p[=e]'nya-kloth, _n._ a beautiful fabric made of the fibres of the leaves of the pine-apple plant.

PINAFORE, pin'a-f[=o]r, _n._ a loose covering of cotton or linen over a child's dress. [_Pin_ + _afore_.]

PINASTER, pi-nas't[.e]r, _n._ the cluster-pine.

PINCE-NEZ, pangs'-n[=a], _n._ a pair of eye-glasses with a spring for catching the nose. [Fr.]


PINCH, pinsh, _v.t._ to grip hard: to squeeze between two hard or firm substances: to squeeze the flesh so as to give pain: to nip: to distress: to gripe.--_v.i._ to act with force: to bear or press hard: to live sparingly.--_n._ a close compression with the fingers: what can be taken up between the finger and thumb: an iron bar used as a lever for lifting weights, rolling wheels, &c.: a gripe: distress: oppression.--_n._ PINCH'COMMONS, a niggard, a miser.--_adj._ PINCHED, having the appearance of being tightly squeezed: hard pressed by want or cold: narrowed in size.--_ns._ PINCH'ER, one who, or that which, pinches; PINCH'ERS, PIN'CERS, an instrument for gripping anything firmly, esp. for drawing out nails, &c.; PINCH'FIST, PINCH'GUT PINCH'PENNY, a niggard.--_adv._ PINCH'INGLY, in a pinching manner.--AT A PINCH, in a case of necessity; KNOW WHERE THE SHOE PINCHES, to know where the cause of trouble or difficulty is. [O. Fr. _pincer_; prob. Teut., cf. Dut. _pitsen_, to pinch.]

PINCHBECK, pinsh'bek, _n._ a yellow alloy of five parts of copper to one of zinc. [From Chris. PINCHBECK, an 18th-century London watchmaker.]

PINDARI, PINDAREE, pin'dar-[=e], _n._ one of a band of freebooters who, after the overthrow of the Mogul empire in India, grew (1804-17) to be a formidable power in the Central Provinces. [Hind.]

PINDARIC, pin-dar'ik, _adj._ after the manner of _Pindar_, one of the first of Greek lyric poets.--_n._ an ode in imitation of one of Pindar's: an ode of irregular metre.--_n._ PIN'DARISM, imitation of Pindar.

PINDER, pin'd[.e]r, _n._ one who impounds stray cattle.--Also PIN'NER. [A.S. _pyndan_, to shut up--_pund._ Cf. _Pen_, v., and _Pound_, to shut up.]

PINE, p[=i]n, _n._ a northern cone-bearing, evergreen, resinous tree, furnishing valuable timber.--_adj._ PIN'EAL.--_ns._ PIN'EAL-GLAND, a rounded body about the size of a pea, of a slightly yellowish colour, situated upon the anterior pair of corpora quadrigemina, and connected with the optic thalami by two strands of nerve fibres termed its peduncles; PINE'-APP'LE, a tropical plant, and its fruit, shaped like a pine-cone; PINE'-BARR'EN, a level sandy tract growing pines; PINE'-CH[=A]'FER, a beetle which eats pine-leaves.--_adjs._ PINE'-CLAD, PINE'-CROWNED, clad or crowned with pine-trees.--_ns._ PINE'-CONE, the cone or strobilus of a pine-tree; PINE'-FINCH, a small fringilline bird of North America; PINE'-HOUSE, a pinery; PINE'-NEED'LE, the circular leaf of the pine-tree; PINE'-OIL, an oil obtained from the resinous exudations of pine and fir trees; PIN'ERY, a place where pine-apples are raised: a pine forest; PIN[=E]'TUM, a plantation of pine-trees: a collection of pine-trees for ornamental purposes; PINE'-WOOD, a wood of pine-trees: pine timber; PINE'-WOOL, a fibrous substance prepared from the leaves of the pine, and used for flannels, hosiery, and blankets in hospitals.--_adjs._ P[=I]'NIC, pertaining to, or obtained from, the pine: noting an acid consisting of the portion of common resin soluble in cold alcohol; PINIC'OLINE, inhabiting pine-woods; P[=I]'NY, P[=I]'NEY, abounding in pine-trees.--PINE-TREE MONEY, silver money coined at Boston in the 17th century, and so called from the coins bearing the rude figure of a pine-tree on one side. [A.S. _pín_,--L. _p[=i]nus_ (for _pic-nus_),--_pix_, _picis_, pitch.]

PINE, p[=i]n, _v.i._ to waste away under pain or mental distress: to languish with longing.--_v.t._ to grieve for: to bewail.--_n._ wasting pain: weary suffering.--DONE TO PINE, starved to death. [A.S. _pínian_, to torment--L. _poena_, punishment.]

PINFOLD, pin'f[=o]ld, _n._ a pound or enclosure for cattle.--_v.t._ to impound. [For _pind-fold_=_pound-fold_.]

PING, ping, _n._ the whistling sound of a bullet.--_v.i._ to produce such a sound.--_n._ PING'-PONG, a kind of indoor lawn-tennis, played with battledores or small rackets over a net on a table. [From the sounds made by the strokes on the ball.]

PINGLE, ping'gl, _v.i._ (_prov._) to eat with feeble appetite: to dawdle.--_adj._ PING'LING, dawdling, feeble.

PINGUID, ping'gwid, _adj._ fat.--_n._ PING'UITUDE. [L. _pinguis_, fat.]

PINGUIN, pin'gwin, _n._ Same as PENGUIN.

PINION, pin'yun, _n._ a wing: the joint of a wing most remote from the body of the bird: a small wheel with 'leaves' or teeth working into others.--_v.t._ to confine the wings of: to cut off the pinion: to confine by binding the arms. [O. Fr. _pignon_--L. _pinna_ (=_penna_), wing. Cf. _Pen_, n.]

PINK, pingk, _n._ a boat with a narrow stern.--Also PINK'Y. [Dut.; Ger. _pinke_.]

PINK, pingk, _v.t._ to stab or pierce, esp. with a sword or rapier: to decorate by cutting small holes or scallops.--_n._ a stab: an eyelet.--_adj._ PINKED, pierced or worked with small holes.--_n._ PINK'ING-[=I]'RON, a tool for pinking or scalloping. [Either through A.S. _pyngan_, from L. _pung[)e]re_, to prick; or acc. to Skeat, a nasalised form of _pick_.]

PINK, pingk, _n._ a flower of any one of several plants of the genus _Dianthus_--carnation, &c.: a shade of light-red colour like that of the flower: a scarlet hunting-coat, also the person wearing such: the minnow, from the colour of its abdomen in summer: any type or example of excellence in its kind.--_adj._ of a pink colour.--_n._ PINK'INESS.--_adj._ PINK'ISH, somewhat pink.--_n._ PINK'-ROOT, the root of the Carolina or Indian pink, a common vermifuge.--PINK OF PERFECTION, the very highest state of perfection: an example of highest perfection.--DUTCH PINK, a yellow lake obtained from quercitron bark: (_slang_) blood. [Prob. a nasalised form of Celt. _pic_, a point--from the finely notched edges of the petals.]

PINK, pingk, _v.i._ to wink: to half-shut.--_n._ PINK'-EYE, a disease in horses in which the eye turns somewhat red.--_adj._ PINK'-EYED, having pink eyes like a rabbit: having small or half-shut eyes.--_adj._ PINK'Y, winking. [Dut. _pinken_, to wink.]

PINNA, pin'a, _n._ a single leaflet of a pinnate leaf: a wing, fin, or the like: the auricle of the ear:--_pl._ PINN'Æ.--_adjs._ PINN'ATE, -D, shaped like a feather: furnished with wings or fins.--_adv._ PINN'ATELY.--_adjs._ PINNAT'IFID, cut as a leaf, half-way down or more, with the divisions narrow or acute; PINNAT'ISECT (_bot._), pinnately divided; PINN'IFORM, like a feather or fin: pinnate; PINN'IGRADE, moving by fins--also _n._; PINN'IPED, PINNAT'IPED, fin-footed, as a bird; PINN'[=U]LATE, -D.--_n._ PINN'[=U]LE, one of the branchlets of a pinnate leaf: one of the lateral divisions of the finger-like stalks of an encrinite--also PINN'[=U]LA.--PINNATE LEAF, a compound leaf wherein a single petiole has several leaflets attached to each side of it. [L. _pinna_, a feather, dim. _pinnula_.]

PINNACE, pin'[=a]s, _n._ a small vessel with oars and sails: a boat with eight oars: a man-of-war's boat. [Fr. _pinasse_--It. _pinassa_--L. _pinus_, a pine.]


PINNACLE, pin'a-kl, _n._ a slender turret: a high point like a spire: the highest point of a mountain, &c.--_v.t._ to build with pinnacles: to place on a pinnacle. [Fr. _pinacle_--Low L. _pinna-culum_, double dim. from L. _pinna_, a feather.]

PINNER, pin'[.e]r. See PIN.

PINNET, pin'et, _n._ (_Scott_) a pinnacle.

PINNOCK, pin'ok, _n._ the hedge-sparrow.

PINNOED, pin'[=o]d, _adj._ (_Spens._) pinioned.

PINNY, PINNIE, pin'[=i], _n._ a pinafore. [_Pinafore._]

PINNYWINKLE, pin'i-wingk-l, _n._ an ancient form of torture for the fingers.--Also PINN'IEWINKLE, PIL'NIE-WINKS. [A corr. of _periwinkle_.]

PINT, p[=i]nt, _n._ a measure of capacity=½ quart or 4 gills: (_med._) 12 ounces.--_ns._ PINT'-POT, a pot for holding a pint, esp. a pewter pot for beer: a seller or drinker of beer; PINT'-STOUP, a vessel for holding a Scotch pint. [Fr. _pinte_--Sp. _pinta_, mark--L. _picta_, _ping[)e]re_, to paint.]

PINTADO, pin-tä'do, _adj._ painted, spotted.--_n._ the guinea-fowl: chintz, applied to all printed goods.


PINTLE, pin'tl, _n._ a little pin: a long iron bolt: the bolt or pin on which the rudder of a ship turns. [Dim. of _pin_.]

PINXIT, pingk'sit, _v.i._ and _v.t._ he or she painted--used in noting the painter of a picture, as Rubens _pinxit_. [L., 3d sing. perf. indic. of _ping[)e]re_, to paint.]

PIONED, p[=i]'[=o]-ned, _adj._ (_Shak._) overgrown with marsh-marigolds, that flower being still called _peony_ around Stratford.

PIONEER, p[=i]-[=o]-n[=e]r', _n._ one of a party of soldiers who clear the road before an army, sink mines, &c.: one who goes before to prepare the way for others.--_v.t._ to act as pioneer to.--_ns._ P[=I]'ONER (_Shak._), a pioneer; P[=I]'ONING (_Spens._), the work of pioneers: military works. [O. Fr. _peonier_ (Fr. _pionnier_)--pion, a foot-soldier--Low L. _pedo_, _pedonis_, a foot-soldier--L. _pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

PIOUS, p[=i]'us, _adj._ showing love, affection, or respect towards parents: having reverence and love for the DEITY: proceeding from religious feeling.--_adv._ P[=I]'OUSLY, in a pious manner.--_adj._ P[=I]'OUS-MIND'ED, of a pious disposition. [Fr. _pieux_--L. _pius_.]

PIP, pip, _n._ a disease of fowls--also called _Roup_. [Low L. _pipita_--L. _pipuita_, rheum.]

PIP, pip, _n._ the seed of fruit. [_Pippin_.]

PIP, pip, _n._ one of the spots on dice or playing-cards. [Corr. of prov. _pick_--Fr. _pique_, a spade, at cards.]

PIP, pip, _v.t._ (_slang_) to blackball.

PIP, pip, _v.i._ to chirp, as a young bird.

PIPE, p[=i]p, _n._ a musical wind instrument consisting of a long tube: any long tube: a tube of clay, &c., with a bowl at one end for smoking tobacco: a pipeful: the note of a bird: a cask containing two hogsheads.--_v.i._ to play upon a pipe: to whistle, to chirp: to make a shrill noise.--_v.t._ to play on a pipe: to call with a pipe, as on board ships: to give forth shrill notes: to supply with pipes, to convey by pipes.--_ns._ PIP'AGE, conveyance or distribution by pipes; PIPE'-CASE, a box softly lined to protect a pipe; PIPE'CLAY, a fine white plastic clay, very like kaolin, but containing a larger percentage of silica, used for making tobacco-pipes and fine earthenware.--_v.t._ to whiten with pipeclay: (_slang_) to blot out, as accounts.--_adj._ PIPED (p[=i]pt), tubulous or fistulous.--_ns._ PIPE'-FISH, a genus of fishes in the same order as the seahorse, having a long thin body covered with partially ossified plates, the head long, and the jaws elongated so as to form a tubular snout, hence the name; PIPE'-LAY'ER; PIPE'-LAY'ING, the laying down of pipes for gas, water, &c.; PIPE'-OFF'ICE, formerly an office in the Court of Exchequer in which the clerk of the pipe made out crown-land leases; PIP'ER; PIPE'-ROLL, a pipe-like roll, the earliest among the records of the Exchequer; PIPE'-ST[=A]'PLE, the stalk of a tobacco-pipe: a stalk of grass; PIPE'-STICK, the wooden tube used as the stem of some tobacco-pipes; PIPE'-TONGS, an implement for holding or turning metal pipes or pipe-fittings; PIPE'-TREE, the lilac; PIPE'-WINE (_Shak._), wine drawn from the cask, as distinguished from bottled wine; PIPE'-WRENCH, a wrench with one movable jaw, both so shaped as to bite together when placed on a pipe and rotated round it.--PIPE DOWN, to dismiss from muster, as a ship's company; PIPE OFF, to watch a house or person for purposes of theft; PIPE ONE'S EYE, to weep.--DRUNK AS A PIPER, very drunk; PAY THE PIPER, to bear the expense. [A.S. _pípe_; Dut. _pijp_, Ger. _pfeife_.]

PIPERACEOUS, pip-e-r[=a]'shi-us, _adj._ pertaining to the PIPER[=A]'CEÆ, the pepper family.--_adj._ PIPER'IC, produced from such plants.--_n._ PIP'ERINE, an alkaloid found in pepper. [L. _piper_, pepper.]

PIPETTE, pi-pet', _n._ a small tube for removing small portions of a fluid from one vessel to another. [Fr.]

PIPI, p[=e]'p[=e], _n._ the astringent pods of _Cæsalpinia pipai_, a Brazilian plant used in tanning.

PIPING, p[=i]'ping, _adj._ uttering a weak, shrill, piping sound, like the sick: sickly: feeble: boiling.--_n._ act of piping: sound of pipes: a system of pipes for any purpose: small cord used as trimming for dresses, &c.: a slip or cutting taken from a plant with a jointed stem.

PIPISTREL, PIPISTRELLE, pip-is-trel', _n._ a small reddish-brown bat. [Fr.]

PIPIT, pip'it, _n._ a genus of birds resembling larks in plumage and wagtails in habits, the most common British species being the titlark.

PIPKIN, pip'kin, _n._ a small earthen pot. [_Pipe_.]

PIPPIN, pip'in, _n._ a kind of apple. [O. Fr. _pepin_--L. _pepo_--Gr. _pep[=o]n_, a melon.]

PIPUL, pip'ul, _n._ the sacred fig-tree.--Also PIP'AL, PIPP'UL-TREE, PEEP'UL-TREE. [Hind.]

PIPY, p[=i]'pi, _adj._ like a pipe: tubular.

PIQUANT, p[=e]'kant, _adj._ stimulating to the taste: of a lively spark.--_n._ PIQ'UANCY.--_adv._ PIQ'UANTLY. [Fr. _piquant_, pr.p. of _piquer_, to prick.]

PIQUE, p[=e]k, _n._ an offence taken: a feeling of anger or vexation caused by wounded pride: spite: nicety: punctilio.--_v.t._ to wound the pride of: to offend: to pride or value (one's self):--_pr.p._ piq'uing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ piqued. [Fr. _pique_, a pike, pique; cf. _Pick_ and _Pike_.]

PIQUÉ, p[=e]-k[=a]', _n._ a heavy cotton fabric having a surface corded or with a raised lozenge pattern: a similar pattern produced by quilting with the needle.--_n._ PIQUÉ-WORK. [Fr.]


PIQUET, pi-ket', _n._ a game at cards.--_n._ PIQUE, in piquet, the scoring of 30 points in one hand before the other side scores at all. [_Picket_.]

PIRAGUA, pi-rä'gwä. Same as PERIAGUA.

PIRATE, p[=i]'r[=a]t, _n._ one who, without authority, attempts to capture ships at sea: a sea-robber: an armed vessel which, without legal right, plunders other vessels at sea: one who steals or infringes a copyright.--_v.t._ to rob at sea: to take without permission, as books or writings.--_n._ P[=I]'RACY, the crime of a pirate: robbery on the high seas: infringement of copyright.--_adjs._ PIRAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to a pirate: practising piracy.--_adv._ PIRAT'ICALLY. [Fr.,--L. _pirata_--Gr. _peirat[=e]s_--_peiraein_, to attempt.]

PIRIFORM, pir'i-form, _adj._ pear-shaped.

PIRN, pirn, _n._ anything that revolves or twists: a reel, bobbin, &c.: the amount of thread wound on a shuttle or reel.

PIRNIE, pir'ni, _n._ (_Scot._) a striped woollen nightcap.

PIROGUE, pi-r[=o]g'. See PERIAGUA.

PIROUETTE, pir-[=oo]-et', _n._ a wheeling about, esp. in dancing: the whirling round of a horse on the same ground.--_v.i._ to execute a pirouette. [Fr.]

PISCES, pis'[=e]z, _n._ the Fishes, the twelfth sign of the zodiac.--_ns._ PIS'CARY, right of fishing in another man's waters; PISCATOL'OGY, the scientific study of fishes; PISC[=A]'TOR, an angler:--_fem._ PISC[=A]'TRIX.--_adj._ PISCAT[=O]'RIAL, relating to fishes or fishing: fond of fishing--also PIS'CATORY.--_n._ PIS'CICAPTURE, the taking of fish.--_adjs._ PISCIC'OLOUS, parasitic upon fishes; PISCICUL'TURAL, pertaining to pisciculture.--_ns._ PIS'CICULTURE, the rearing of fish by artificial methods; PIS'CICULTURIST, a fish-culturist.--_adjs._ PIS'CIFORM, in shape like a fish: having the form of a fish; PIS'CINE, pertaining to fishes; PISCIV'OROUS, feeding on fishes. [L. _piscis_, a fish.]


PISCINA, pis-[=i]'na, _n._ a basin or tank, esp. one for holding fishes or for growing water-plants: a fish-pond: (_archit._) a basin or sink on the south side of the altar in old churches, into which is emptied water used in washing any of the sacred vessels.--_adj._ PIS'CINAL, belonging to a fish-pond. [L., a fish-pond, a cistern--_piscis_, a fish.]

PISÉ, p[=e]-z[=a]', _n._ stiff earth or clay rammed down to form walls or floors. [Fr.]

PISH, pish, _interj._ expressing contempt. [Imit.]

PISIFORM, p[=i]'si-form, _adj_. pea-shaped. [L. _pisum_, pea, _forma_, shape.]

PISMIRE, pis'm[=i]r, _n._ an ant or emmet. [_Piss_, from the strong smell of the ant-hill, A.S. _mire_, ant.]

PISOLITE, p[=i]'s[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a coarse oolite or concretionary limestone in large globules.--_adj._ PISOLIT'IC. [Gr. _pisos_, pea, _lithos_, stone.]

PISS, pis, _v.i._ to discharge urine or make water.--_ns._ PISS'-A-BED (_prov._), the dandelion; PISS'ASPHALT, PIS'OPHALT, a variety of bitumen; PISS'-POT, a chamber-pot. [Fr. _pisser_; imit.]

PISTACHIO, pis-t[=a]'shi-[=o], _n._ the almond-flavoured pistachio-nut, the fruit of the PIST[=A]'CHIA, a small genus of trees of the cashew family, native to western Asia. [It.,--L. _pistacium_--Gr. _pistakion_--Pers. _pist[=a]_.]

PISTAREEN, pis-ta-r[=e]n', _n._ in West Indies, the peseta.

PISTIL, pis'til, _n._ (_bot._) the female organ in the centre of a flower, consisting of three parts--_ovary_, _style_, and _stigma_.--_adjs._ PISTILL[=A]'CEOUS, PIS'TILLARY, growing on a pistil: pertaining to, or having the nature of, a pistil; PIS'TILL[=A]TE, having a pistil: having a pistil only; PISTILLIF'EROUS, bearing a pistil without stamens. [Fr.,--L. _pistillum_, a pestle.]

PISTOL, pis'tol, _n._ a small hand-gun, held in one hand when fired.--_v.t._ to shoot with a pistol.--_ns._ PISTOLEER', one armed with a pistol; PIS'TOLET, a little pistol; PIS'TOL-SHOT. [O. Fr. _pistole_--It. _pistola_, said to be from _Pistoja_ (orig. _Pistola_), a town in Italy.]

PISTOLE, pis't[=o]l, _n._ a Spanish gold coin=about 16 shillings. [Same as above.]

PISTON, pis'tun, _n._ a circular plate of metal, or other material, used in pumps, steam-engines, &c., fitting and moving up and down within a tube or hollow cylinder.--_n._ PIS'TON-ROD, the rod to which the piston is fixed, and which moves up and down with it. [Fr.,--It. _pistone_--_pesto_, to pound--L. _pins[)e]re_, _pistum_.]

PIT, pit, _n._ a hole in the earth: a place whence minerals are dug: the bottomless pit: the grave: the abode of evil spirits: a hole used as a trap for wild beasts: the hollow of the stomach, or that under the arm at the shoulder: the indentation left by smallpox: the ground-floor of a theatre: an enclosure in which cocks fight: the shaft of a mine.--_v.t._ to mark with little hollows: to lay in a pit: to set in competition:--_pr.p._ pit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pit'ted.--_ns._ PIT'-COAL, coal dug from a pit--not _charcoal_; PIT'-FRAME, the framework round a mine-shaft; PIT'-HEAD, the ground at the mouth of a pit, and the machinery, &c., on it; PIT'MAN, a man who works in a coal-pit or a saw-pit, esp. the man who works the pumping machinery in the shaft of a mine: (_mach._) a rod connecting a rotary with a reciprocating part.--_adj._ PIT'TED, marked with small pits.--_ns._ PIT'TING, the act of digging, or of placing in, a pit: a group of pit-marks: a corrosion of the inside of steam-boilers, &c.; PIT'-VILL'AGE, a group of miners' houses near a pit. [A.S. _pyt_, _pytt_--L. _puteus_, a well.]

PITAKA, pit'a-ka, _n._ a collection of Buddhist scriptures, as made in Tibet. [Sans., 'basket.']

PITAPAT, pit'a-pat, _adv._ with palpitation or quick beating.--_adj._ fluttering.--_n._ a light, quick step: a succession of light taps.--_v.i._ to step or tread quickly.

PITCH, pich, _n._ the solid black shining substance obtained by boiling down common tar.--_v.t._ to smear with pitch.--_adjs._ PITCH'-BLACK, PITCH'-DARK, dark as pitch: very dark.--_ns._ PITCH'-BLENDE, a black oxide of uranium; PITCH'-COAL, a kind of bituminous coal: jet; PITCH'INESS, state or quality of being pitchy; PITCH'-PINE, a kind of pine which yields pitch, and is much used in America as fuel; PITCH'-PLAS'TER, a plaster of Burgundy or white pitch; PITCH'-STONE, an old volcanic-like hardened pitch; PITCH'-TREE, the kauri pine, the Amboyna pine, or the Norway spruce.--_adj._ PITCH'Y, having the qualities of pitch: smeared with pitch: black like pitch: dark: dismal. [A.S. _pic_--L. _pix_, _pic-is_.]

PITCH, pich, _v.t._ to thrust or fix in the ground: to fix or set in array: to fix the rate or price: to fling or throw: (_mus._) to set the keynote of.--_v.i._ to settle, as something pitched: to come to rest from flight: to fall headlong: to fix the choice: to encamp: to rise and fall, as a ship.--_n._ a throw or cast from the hand: any point or degree of elevation or depression: degree: degree of slope: a descent: the height of a note in speaking or in music: (_mech._) distance between the centres of two teeth in a wheel or a saw, or between the threads of a screw measured parallel to the axis.--_ns._ PITCHED'-BATT'LE, a battle in which the contending parties have fixed positions: a battle previously arranged for on both sides; PITCH'ER; PITCH'-FAR'THING, chuck-farthing; PITCH'FORK, a fork for pitching hay, &c.: a tuning-fork.--_v.t._ to lift with a pitchfork: to throw suddenly into any position.--_ns._ PITCH'ING, the act of throwing: a facing of stone along a bank to protect against the action of water; PITCH'PIPE, a small pipe to pitch the voice or tune with.--PITCH AND PAY (_Shak._), pay down at once, pay ready-money; PITCH AND TOSS, a game in which coins are thrown at a mark, the person who throws nearest having the right of _tossing_ all the coins, and keeping those which come down head uppermost; PITCH IN, to begin briskly; PITCH INTO, to assault. [A form of _pick_.]

PITCHER, pich'[.e]r, _n._ a vessel for holding water, &c.--_n._ PITCH'ER-PLANT, a plant with leaves shaped like a pitcher or ascidium--_Nepenthes_, &c.--PITCHERS HAVE EARS, there may be listeners. [O. Fr. _picher_--Low L. _picarium_, a goblet--Gr. _b[=i]kos_, a wine-vessel, an Eastern word.]

PITEOUS, pit'e-us, _adj._ showing or feeling pity: fitted to excite pity: mournful: compassionate: paltry.--_adv._ PIT'EOUSLY.--_n._ PIT'EOUSNESS. [O. Fr. _pitos_, _piteus_. Cf. _Pity_.]

PITFALL, pit'fawl, _n._ a pit slightly covered, so that wild beasts may fall into it: any concealed danger.

PITH, pith, _n._ the marrow or soft substance in the centre of the stems of dicotyledonous plants: force or energy: importance: condensed substance: quintessence.--_n._ PITH'-BALL, a pellet of pith.--_adv._ PITH'ILY.--_n._ PITH'INESS.--_adj._ PITH'LESS, wanting pith, force, or energy.--_n._ PITH'-P[=A]'PER, a thin sheet cut from pith for paper: rice-paper.--_adj._ PITH'Y, full of pith: forcible: strong: energetic. [A.S. _pitha_; Dut. _pit_, marrow.]

PITHECUS, pi-th[=e]'kus, _n._ a name formerly used by zoologists for various groups of apes and monkeys.--_ns._ PITHECANTHR[=O]'PI, hypothetical ape-men; PITH[=E]'CIA, the genus of South American monkeys which includes the _Sakis_ and allied species.--_adj._ PITH[=E]'COID. [L.,--Gr. _pith[=e]kos_, an ape.]

PITHOS, pith'os, _n._ a large spheroid Greek earthenware vase. [Gr.]

PIT-MIRK, pit'-m[.e]rk, _adj._ (_Scot._) dark as pitch.

PITRI, pit'r[=e], the deceased ancestors of a man: in Hindu mythology, an order of divine beings inhabiting celestial regions of their own, and receiving into their society the spirits of those mortals for whom funeral rites have been duly performed. [Sans., 'father,' pl. _pitaras_.]

PITSAW, pit'saw, _n._ a large saw for cutting timber, worked by the _pit-sawyer_ in the pit below the log and the _top-sawyer_ on the log.

PITTACAL, pit'a-kal, _n._ a blue substance obtained from wood-tar oil and used in dyeing. [Gr. _pitta_, pitch, _kalos_, beautiful.]

PITTANCE, pit'ans, _n._ an allowance of food or drink: a dole: a very small portion or quantity. [Fr. _pitance_, an allowance of food in a monastery--Low L. _pietantea_--L. _pietas_, pity.]

PITUITARY, pit'[=u]-i-t[=a]-ri, _adj._ mucous--also PIT'[=U]ITAL, PIT'[=U]ITOUS.--_ns._ PIT[=U][=I]'TA, PIT'UITE, phlegm.--PITUITARY BODY, a rounded body of the size of a small bean, situated in the sella turcica in the sphenoid bone on the floor of the cavity of the skull. [L. _pituitarius_--_pituita_, mucus.]

PITY, pit'i, _n._ a strong feeling for or with the sufferings of others: sympathy with distress: a cause or source of pity or grief.--_v.t._ to feel pity with: to sympathise with:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pit'ied.--_adj._ PIT'IABLE, deserving pity: affecting: wretched.--_n._ PIT'IABLENESS.--_adv._ PIT'IABLY.--_n._ PIT'IER, one who pities.--_adj._ PIT'IFUL, feeling pity: compassionate: exciting pity: sad: despicable.--_adv._ PIT'IFULLY.--_n._ PIT'IFULNESS.--_adj._ PIT'ILESS, without pity: cruel.--_adv._ PIT'ILESSLY.--_n._ PIT'ILESSNESS.--_adv._ PIT'YINGLY, in a pitying manner.--IT PITIETH ME, YOU, THEM, &c. (_Pr. Bk._), it causeth pity in me, you, them, &c. [O. Fr. _pite_ (Fr. _pitié_, It. _pietà_)--L. _pietas_, _pietatis_--_pius_, pious.]

PITYRIASIS, pit-i-r[=i]'a-sis, _n._ the term given to certain of the squamous or scaly diseases of the skin, in which there is a continual throwing off of bran-like scales of epidermis.--_adj._ PIT'YROID, bran-like. [Gr. _pityron_, bran.]

PIÙ, p[=u], _adv._ more.--PIÙ ALLEGRO, quicker. [It.]

PIVOT, piv'ut, _n._ the pin on which anything turns: the officer or soldier at the flank upon whom a company wheels: that on which anything depends or turns.--_adj._ PIV'OTAL, of the nature of a pivot: acting as a pivot.--_n._ PIV'OT-BRIDGE, a form of swing-bridge moving on a vertical pivot.--_adj._ PIV'OTED, furnished with a pivot or pivots.--_ns._ PIV'OT-GEAR'ING, a system of gearing permitting the driving-shaft to be swivelled so as to set the machine in any direction with relation to the power; PIV'OT-GUN, a gun mounted on a pivot, so as to be able to turn in any direction; PIV'OTING, the pivot-work in machines; PIV'OT-MAN, the soldier or officer who acts as a pivot (see PIVOT). [Fr. dim. of It. _piva_, a pipe, a peg, a pin--Low L. _pipa_.]

PIX, piks, _n._ Same as PYX.

PIXY, PIXIE, pik'si, _n._ a small Devonshire fairy.--_adj._ PIX'Y-LED, bewildered.--_ns._ PIX'Y-RING, a fairy-ring, a well-marked ring of a different kind of grass, common on meadows and heaths; PIX'Y-STOOL, a toadstool or mushroom. [_Puck_.]

PIZE, p[=i]z, _n._ a term used in execration, like _pox_.

PIZZICATO, pit-si-kä'to, _adj._ a phrase used in music for the violin or violoncello, to denote that here the strings are to be twitched with the fingers in the manner of a harp or guitar. [It.,--_pizzicare_, to twitch.]

PIZZLE, piz'l, _n._ the penis of an animal, as a bull. [Low Ger. _pesel_.]

PLACABLE, pl[=a]'ka-bl, or plak'a-bl, _adj._ that may be appeased: relenting: willing to forgive.--_ns._ PLACABIL'ITY, PL[=A]'CABLENESS.--_adv._ PL[=A]'CABLY.--_v.t._ PL[=A]'C[=A]TE, to conciliate.--_n._ PLAC[=A]'TION, propitiation.--_adj._ PL[=A]'CATORY, conciliatory. [L. _placabilis_--_plac[=a]re_, to appease, akin to _plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLACARD, plak'ärd, or pl[=a]-kärd', _n._ a written or printed paper stuck upon a wall as an advertisement, &c.: a public proclamation: the woodwork and frame of the door of a closet and the like.--_v.t._ PLACARD (pl[=a]-kärd', or plak'ärd), to publish or notify by placards. [Fr. _placard_, a bill stuck on a wall--_plaque_, plate, tablet; acc. to Diez, from Dut. _plak_, a piece of flat wood.]

PLACCATE, plak'[=a]t, _n._ See PLACKET.

PLACE, pl[=a]s, _n._ a broad way in a city: an open space used for a particular purpose: a particular locality: a town: room to dwell, sit, or stand in: the position held by anybody, employment, office, a situation: a mansion with its grounds: proper position or dignity, priority in such: stead: passage in a book: a topic, matter of discourse: in sporting contests, position among the first three.--_v.t._ to put in any place or condition: to find a home for: to settle: to lend: invest: to ascribe.--_n._ PLACE'-HUNT'ER, one who seeks eagerly official position or public office.--_adj._ PLACE'LESS, without place or office.--_ns._ PLACE'MAN, one who has a place or office under a government:--_pl._ PLACE'MEN; PLACE'MENT, placing or setting; PLACE'-MONG'ER, one who traffics in appointments to places; PLACE'-NAME, the name of a place or locality: a local name; PLAC'ER.--GIVE PLACE, to make room, to yield; HAVE PLACE, to have existence; IN PLACE, in position: opportune; OUT OF PLACE, inappropriate, unseasonable; TAKE PLACE, to come to pass: to take precedence of. [Fr.,--L. _platea_, a broad street--Gr. _plateia_, a street--_platys_, broad.]

PLACEBO, pl[=a]-s[=e]'bo, _n._ in the R.C. service of vespers for the dead the name of the first antiphon, which begins with the word: a medicine given to humour or gratify a patient rather than to exercise any curative effect. [L., 'I will please'--_plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLACENTA, pla-sen'ta, _n._ the structure which unites the unborn mammal to the womb of its mother and establishes a nutritive connection between them: (_bot._) the portion of the ovary which bears the ovules:--_pl._ PLACEN'TÆ.--_adj._ PLACEN' PLACENT[=A]'LIA, placental mammals.--_adjs._ PLACENT[=A]'LIAN; PLACEN'TARY, pertaining to, or having, a placenta.--_n._ a mammal having a placenta.--_adjs._ PLACEN'TATE, PLACENTIF'EROUS.--_ns._ PLACENT[=A]'TION, the mode in which the placenta is formed and attached to the womb; PLACENT[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the placenta. [L., a flat cake, akin to Gr. _plakous_, a flat cake, from _plax_, _plak-os_, anything flat.]

PLACER, plas'er, _n._ a place where the superficial detritus is washed for gold, &c.: hence any place holding treasures. [Sp.]

PLACET, pl[=a]'set, _n._ a vote of assent in a governing body: permission given, esp. by a sovereign, to publish and carry out an ecclesiastical order, as a papal bull or edict. [L., 'it pleases,' 3d sing. pres. indic. of _plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLACID, plas'id, _adj._ gentle: peaceful.--_ns._ PLACID'ITY, PLAC'IDNESS.--_adv._ PLAC'IDLY. [Fr.,--L. _placidus_--_plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLACITORY, plas'i-t[=o]-ri, _adj._ of or relating to pleas or pleading in courts of law.

PLACITUM, plas'i-tum, _n._ a public assembly in the Middle Ages, presided over by the sovereign, to consult on affairs of state: a resolution of such an assembly:--_pl._ PLAC'ITA. [L., from _plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLACK, plak, _n._ a small copper coin formerly current in Scotland, equal in value to the third part of an English penny.--_adj._ PLACK'LESS, penniless. [O. Fr. _plaque_, a plate.]

PLACKET, plak'et, _n._ (_Shak._) the slit in a petticoat: a petticoat--hence, a woman: a placcate or additional plate of steel on the lower half of the breast-plate, or back-plate: a leather jacket strengthened with strips of steel. [Fr. _plaquet_--_plaquer_, to clap on.]

PLACODERM, plak'o-d[.e]rm, _adj._ noting an order of fossil fishes having their skin covered with bony plates. [Gr. _plax_, _plakos_, anything flat, _derma_, skin.]

PLACOID, plak'oid, _adj._ plate-like.--PLACOID FISHES, an order of fishes having placoid scales, irregular plates of hard bone, not imbricated, but placed near together in the skin. [Gr. _plax_, _plakos_, anything flat and broad, _eidos_, form.]

PLACULA, plak'[=u]-la, _n._ a little plate or plaque.--_adjs._ PLAC'ULAR, PLAC'UL[=A]TE.

PLAFOND, pla-fond', _n._ the ceiling of a room, any soffit. [Fr.]

PLAGAL, pl[=a]'gal, _adj._ in Gregorian music, denoting a mode or melody in which the final is in the middle of the compass instead of at the bottom--opp. to _Authentic_. [Gr. _plagios_, sidewise--_plagos_, a side.]

PLAGIARISE, pl[=a]'ji-ar-[=i]z, _v.t._ to steal from the writings or ideas of another.--_ns._ PL[=A]'GIARISM, the act or practice of plagiarising; PL[=A]'GIARIST, one who plagiarises; PL[=A]'GIARY, one who steals the thoughts or writings of others and gives them out as his own: the crime of plagiarism.--_adj._ practising literary theft. [Fr. _plagiaire_--L. _plagiarius_, a kidnapper--_plaga_, a net.]

PLAGIOCLASE, pl[=a]'ji-[=o]-kl[=a]z, _n._ a group of triclinic feldspars whose cleavage planes are not at right angles to each other.--_adj._ PLAGIOCLAS'TIC. [Gr. _plagios_, oblique, _klasis_, a fracture.]

PLAGIODONT, pl[=a]'ji-[=o]-dont, _adj._ having the teeth oblique.

PLAGIOSTOME, pl[=a]'ji-[=o]-st[=o]m, _n._ a plagiostomous fish, one of the PLAGIOS'TOMI, a division of fishes, including sharks and rays.--_adjs._ PLAGIOSTOM'ATOUS, PLAGIOS'TOMOUS.

PLAGIOTROPISM, pl[=a]-ji-ot'r[=o]-pizm, _n._ a mode of turning of the organs of plants in the direction of gravitation or of the ray of light.--_adj._ PLAGIOTROP'IC.--_adv._ PLAGIOTROP'ICALLY. [Gr. _plagios_, oblique, _tropos_, a turning.]

PLAGIUM, pl[=a]'ji-um, _n._ the crime of kidnapping.

PLAGUE, pl[=a]g, _n._ any great natural evil: a deadly disease or pestilence: a very troublesome person or thing, esp. a malignant kind of contagious fever, prevailing epidemically, characterised by buboes, or swellings of the lymphatic glands, by carbuncles and petechiæ.--_v.t._ to infest with disease or trouble: to harass or annoy:--_pr.p._ pl[=a]g'uing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pl[=a]gued.--_ns._ PLAGUE'-MARK, -SPOT, a mark or spot of plague or foul disease: a place where disease is constantly present; PLAG'UER, one who plagues, vexes, or annoys; PLAGUE'-SORE.--_adv._ PLAG'UILY, vexatiously.--_adj._ PLAGUY (pl[=a]'gi), vexatious: (_Shak._) troublesome.--_adv._ vexatiously.--PLAGUE ON, may a curse rest on.--BE AT THE PLAGUE, to be at the trouble. [O. Fr. _plague_--L. _plaga_, a blow; Gr. _pl[=e]g[=e]_.]

PLAICE, pl[=a]s, _n._ a broad, flat fish, in the same genus as the flounder. [O. Fr. _plaïs_ (Fr. _plie_)--Low L. _platessa_, a flat fish--Gr. _platys_, flat.]

PLAID, plad, or pl[=a]d, _n._ a loose outer garment of woollen cloth, often of a tartan, or coloured striped pattern, a special dress of the Highlanders of Scotland.--_adj._ like a plaid in pattern or colours.--_adj._ PLAID'ED, wearing a plaid: made of plaid cloth.--_n._ PLAID'ING, a strong woollen twilled fabric. [Gael. _plaide_, a blanket, contr. of _peal-laid_, a sheepskin--_peall_, a skin, cog. with L. _pellis_, Eng. _fell_.]

PLAIN, pl[=a]n, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to complain: to lament.--_ns._ PLAIN'ANT, one who complains: a plaintiff; PLAIN'ING (_Shak._), complaint. [O. Fr. _pleigner_ (Fr. _plaindre_)--L. _plang[)e]re_, to lament.]

PLAIN, pl[=a]n, _adj._ without elevations, even, flat: level, smooth, without obstructions: free from difficulties, easy, simple: without ornament or beauty, homely: artless: sincere: evident, unmistakable: mere: not coloured, figured, or variegated: not highly seasoned, natural, not cooked or dressed: not trumps at cards.--_n._ an extent of level land: an open field.--_adv._ clearly: distinctly.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to make PLAIN'-CLOTHES, clothes worn by an officer when off duty or not in uniform.--_ns._ PLAIN'-COOK, one able to cook all ordinary dishes; PLAIN'-DEAL'ER, one who deals or speaks his mind plainly.--_adj._ PLAIN'-DEAL'ING, speaking or acting plainly, candid.--_n._ candid speaking or acting, sincerity.--_adj._ PLAIN'-HEART'ED, having a plain or honest heart: sincere.--_n._ PLAIN'-HEART'EDNESS.--_adv._ PLAIN'LY.--_ns._ PLAIN'NESS; PLAIN'-SONG, the music of a recitative-like character and sung in unison, used in the Christian Church of the West from the earliest times, and still in use in all R.C. churches: a simple air without variations: a plain unvarnished statement; PLAIN'-SPEAK'ING, straight-forwardness or bluntness of speech.--_adj._ PLAIN'-SPOK'EN, speaking with plain, rough PLAIN'STANES (_Scot._), flagstones, pavement.--_n._ PLAIN'WORK, plain needlework, as distinguished from embroidery.--PLAIN AS A PIKESTAFF, perfectly plain or clear. [Fr.,--L. _pl[=a]nus_, plain.]

PLAINT, pl[=a]nt, _n._ lamentation: complaint: a sad song: (_law_) the exhibiting of an action in writing by a complainant.--_adj._ PLAINT'FUL, complaining: expressing sorrow.--_n._ PLAINT'IFF (_Eng. law_), one who commences a suit against another--opp. to _Defendant_.--_adj._ PLAINT'IVE, complaining: expressing sorrow: sad.--_adv._ PLAINT'IVELY.--_n._ PLAINT'IVENESS.--_adj._ PLAINT'LESS, without complaint: unrepining. [O. Fr. _pleinte_ (Fr. _plainte_)--L. _planctus_--_plang[)e]re_, _planctum_, to lament.]

PLAISE, pl[=a]s, _n._ Same as PLAICE.

PLAISTER, pl[=a]s't[.e]r, _n._ an obsolete form of _plaster_.

PLAIT, pl[=a]t, _n._ a fold: a doubling over, as of cloth upon itself: a braid.--_v.t._ to fold: to double in narrow folds: to interweave.--_adj._ PLAIT'ED, folded over in narrow folds: braided: interwoven: intricate.--_ns._ PLAIT'ER, one who plaits or braids: a machine for making plaits, as in cloth; PLAIT'ING, the act of making plaits. [O. Fr. _pleit_, _ploit_ (Fr. _pli_)--L. _plic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to fold.]

PLAN, plan, _n._ a drawing of anything on a plane or flat surface: a drawing of a building as it stands on the ground: a scheme or project for accomplishing a purpose: a contrivance: a method or custom.--_v.t._ to make a sketch of on a flat surface: to form in design: to lay plans for:--_pr.p._ plan'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ planned.--_adj._ PLAN'LESS.--_ns._ PLAN'NER, one who forms a plan: a projector; WORK'ING-PLAN, a draft on a large scale given to workmen to work from.--PLAN OF CAMPAIGN, the method of conducting the struggle of the Irish tenants against the landlords, organised by the National League in 1886, its officers collecting what they considered a fair rent, and offering it to the landlord, and where he refused to accept it spending it on the support of the persons evicted. [Fr.,--L. _planus_, flat.]

PLANARIAN, pl[=a]-n[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ and _n._ a term practically coextensive with Turbellarian, applicable to the members of the lowest class of worm-like animals, living in fresh and salt water, and sometimes in damp earth.--_adjs._ PLANAR'IFORM, PLAN[=A]'RIOID. [L. _planarius_, flat.]

PLANCH, planch, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to cover with planks. [Fr. _planche_--L. _planea_.]

PLANCHET, plan'chet, _n._ a flat piece of metal ready to receive impression as a coin.

PLANCHETTE, plan-shet', _n._ a small heart-shaped or triangular piece of board resting on three props, two of which are castors and one a pencil-point, which, while a person's fingers are lightly resting on it, sometimes moves, as if of its own accord, and traces with the pencil marks and even words upon a piece of paper below it. [Fr. _planchette_, a small board.]

PLANE, pl[=a]n, _n._ (_geom._) a surface on which, if any two points be taken, the straight line joining them will lie entirely on the surface: (_astron._) a surface thought of as bounded by the line round which a heavenly body moves: any flat or level surface: any incline on which coal is lowered by the effect of gravity: any grade of life or of development.--_adj._ having the character of a plane: pertaining to, lying in, or forming a plane.--_v.t._ to make plane or smooth.--_adj._ PL[=A]'NARY, relating to a plane: flat.--_n._ PLANE'-T[=A]'BLE, a topographical instrument used in field-mapping, and having a sighting-telescope for observing objects, whose angles may be noted on a paper on the table of the instrument: an inclined table on which ore is dressed.--_v.t._ to survey with a plane-table.--_ns._ PLAN'IGRAPH, an instrument for reducing or enlarging drawings; PLANIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the area of a plane figure.--_adjs._ PLANIMET'RIC, -AL.--_n._ PLANIM'ETRY, the mensuration of plane surfaces.--_adj._ PLANIPET'ALOUS, having flat petals.--_ns._ PLAN'ISHER, a thin flat-ended tool used for smoothing tin-plate and brasswork: a workman who planishes, esp. one who prepares copper-plates for engravers; PLAN'ISPHERE, a sphere projected on a plane.--_adjs._ PLANISPHER'IC; PL[=A]NO-CON'CAVE, plane on one side and concave on the other; PL[=A]'NO-CON'ICAL, plane on one side and conical on the other; PL[=A]'NO-CON'VEX, plane on one side and convex on the other.--_n._ PLANOG'RAPHIST, a map-maker.--_adj._ PL[=A]'NO-HORIZON'TAL, having a plane horizontal surface or position.--_ns._ PLANOM'ETER, a plane surface used in machine-making as a gauge for plane surfaces; PLANOM'ETRY, the measurement of plane surfaces.--_adj._ PL[=A]'NO-SUB'ULATE, smooth and awl-shaped.--PLANE ANGLE, an angle contained by two straight lines in a plane; PLANE FIGURE, a figure all of whose points lie in one plane; PLANE GEOMETRY, the geometry of plane figures; PLANE SAILING, the calculation of a ship's place in its course, as if the earth were flat instead of spherical: easy work; PLANE TRIGONOMETRY, that branch of trigonometry which treats of triangles described on a plane.--INCLINED PLANE (see INCLINE); PERSPECTIVE PLANE (see PERSPECTIVE). [Fr.,--L. _planus_, plain.]

PLANE, pl[=a]n, _n._ a carpenter's tool for producing a level or smooth surface.--_v.t._ to make a surface (as of wood) level by means of a plane.--_ns._ PL[=A]'NER, a tool or machine for planing: a smooth wooden block used for levelling a form of type; PL[=A]N'ING-MACHINE', a machine for planing wood or metals.--_v.t._ PLAN'ISH, to make smooth: to polish. [Fr.,--Low L. _plan[=a]re_, to make level.]

PLANET, plan'et, _n._ one of the bodies in the solar system which revolve in elliptic orbits round the sun.--_n._ PLANET[=A]'RIUM, a machine showing the motions and orbits of the planets.--_adjs._ PLAN'ETARY, pertaining to the planets: consisting of, or produced by, planets: under the influence of a planet: erratic: revolving; PLANET'IC, -AL.--_n._ PLAN'ETOID, a celestial body having the form or nature of a planet: one of a number of very small planets, often called asteroids, moving round the sun between Mars and Jupiter.--_adjs._ PLANETOI'DAL; PLAN'ET-STRICK'EN, PLAN'ET-STRUCK (_astrol._), affected by the influence of the planets: blasted.--_n._ PLAN'ETULE, a little planet.--MINOR PLANETS, the numerous group of very small planets which is situated in the solar system between Mars and Jupiter. [Fr. _planète_--Gr. _plan[=e]t[=e]s_, wanderer--_plan[=a]n_, to make to wander.]

PLANE-TREE, pl[=a]n'-tr[=e], _n._ any one of the several trees constituting the genus _Platanus_, esp. the oriental or common plane-tree, with its variety the maple-leaved plane-tree, and the American plane-tree, usually called _sycamore_ or _buttonwood_ or _buttonball_: in Great Britain, the sycamore maple. [Fr. _plane_--L. _platanus_--Gr. _platanos_--_platys_, broad.]

PLANGENT, plan'jent, _adj._ resounding: noisy. [L. _plangens_, _-gentis_--_plang[)e]re_, to beat.]

PLANK, plangk, _n._ a long piece of timber, thicker than a board: one of the principles or aims of an associated party.--_v.t._ to cover with planks.--_n._ PLANK'ING, the act of laying planks: a series of planks: work made up of planks.--WALK THE PLANK, to be compelled to walk along a plank projecting over the ship's edge into the sea. [L. _planca_, a board; cf. _Plain_, even.]

PLANKTON, plangk'ton, _n._ pelagic animals collectively. [Gr., _planktos_, wandering.]

PLANODIA, pl[=a]-n[=o]'di-a, _n._ a false passage, such as may be made in using a catheter.

PLANT, plant, _n._ a something living and growing, fixed on the ground and drawing food therefrom by means of its root, and developing into a stem, leaves, and seed: a sprout: any vegetable production: the tools or material of any trade or business: (_slang_) a trick, dodge, hidden plunder.--_v.t._ to put into the ground for growth: to furnish with plants: to set in the mind, implant: to establish.--_v.i._ to set shoots in the ground.--_adj._ PLANT'ABLE.--_ns._ PLANT'AGE (_Shak._), plants in general, or the vegetable kingdom; PLANT[=A]'TION, a place planted: a wood or grove: (_U.S._) a large estate: a colony: act or process of introduction: (_Milt._) the act of planting; PLANT'ER, one who plants or introduces: the owner of a plantation; PLANT'-HOUSE, a garden structure designed for the protection and cultivation of the plants of warmer climates than our own; PLANT'ICLE, a young plant; PLANT'ING, the act of setting in the ground for growth: the art of forming plantations of trees: a plantation.--_adj._ PLANT'LESS, destitute of vegetation.--_ns._ PLANT'LET, a little plant; PLANT'-LOUSE, a small homopterous insect which infests plants; PLANT'ULE, the embryo of a plant. [A.S. _plante_ (Fr. _plante_)--L. _planta_, a shoot, a plant.]

PLANTAIN, plan't[=a]n, _n._ an important food-plant of tropical countries, so called from its broad leaf: a common roadside plant of several species, with broad leaves and seed-bearing spikes.--PLANTAIN EATER, one of a family of African, arboreal, vegetarian Pie-like birds. [Fr.,--L. _plantago_, _plantaginis_.]

PLANTIGRADE, plant'i-gr[=a]d, _adj._ that walks on the sole of the foot.--_n._ a plantigrade animal, as the bear.--_adj._ PLANT'AR, pertaining to the sole of the foot. [L. _planta_, the sole, _gradi_, to walk.]

PLANULA, plan'[=u]-la, _n._ the locomotory embryo of the coelenterates.--_adjs._ PLAN'ULAR; PLAN'ULIFORM; PLAN'ULOID.

PLANURIA, pl[=a]-n[=u]'ri-a, _n._ the discharge of urine through an abnormal passage, uroplania.--Also PLAN'URY.

PLAP, plap, _v.i._ to plash, fall with plashing sound. [Imit.]

PLAQUE, plak, _n._ a flat piece of metal or other material, used for ornament, as a brooch, &c., or for painting on, to form a wall-picture.--_n._ PLAQUETTE', a small plaque. [Fr.; cf. _Plack_.]

PLASH, plash, _v.t._ to bind and interweave the branches of.--_v.i._ to bend down a branch.--_n._ a small branch of a tree partly cut and bound to or twisted among other branches.--_n._ PLASH'ING, a mode of repairing a hedge by bending the branches and twisting them about each other. [O. Fr. _plassier_--L. _plexus_--_plect[)e]re_, to twist.]

PLASH, plash, _n._ a dash of water: a puddle: a shallow pool: a splashing sound: a sudden downpour: a flash.--_v.i._ to dabble in water: to splash.--_v.t._ to sprinkle with colouring matter, as a wall.--_adj._ PLASH'Y, full of puddles: watery. [Imit.]

PLASM, plazm, _n._ a mould or matrix: protoplasm--also PLAS'MA.--_adjs._ PLASMAT'IC, -AL, plastic, formative; PLAS'MIC, pertaining to plasma, protoplasmic.--_ns._ PLASM[=O]'DIUM, composite masses of primitive protozoa, in which numerous units are fused, or in rare cases simply combined in close contact; PLAS'MOGEN, true protoplasm; PLASMOG'ONY, the generation of an organism from plasma; PLASMOL'OGY, minute or microscopic anatomy, histology.--_v.t._ PLAS'MOLYSE.--_n._ PLASMOL'YSIS, the contraction of the protoplasm in active cells under the action of certain reagents.--_adj._ PLASMOLYT'IC.

PLASMA, plas'ma, _n._ a green variety of translucent quartz or silica.--_adj._ PLAS'MIC. [Gr.,--_plassein_, to form.]

PLASTER, plas't[.e]r, _n._ something that can be moulded into figures: a composition of lime, water, and sand for overlaying walls, &c.: (_med._) a medicinal agent consisting of an adhesive substance spread upon cloth or leather, so as to stick to the part of the body to which it is applied.--_adj._ made of plaster.--_v.t._ to cover with plaster: to cover with a plaster, as a wound: to besmear: (_fig._) to smooth over.--_ns._ PLAS'TERER, one who plasters, or one who works in plaster; PLAS'TERING, the art of covering the internal faces of walls, the partitions and ceiling of a building, with plaster: a covering of plaster: the plasterwork of a building; PLAS'TER-STONE, gypsum.--_adj._ PLAS'TERY, like plaster, containing plaster.--PLASTER CAST, a copy of an object got by pouring a mixture of plaster of Paris and water into a mould formed from the object; PLASTER OF PARIS, a kind of gypsum, originally found near _Paris_, used in building and in making casts of figures; POROUS PLASTER, a plaster for application to the body, full of small holes, which prevent it from wrinkling. [A.S. _plaster_--O. Fr. _emplastre_--L. _emplastrum_--Gr. _emplastron_.]

PLASTIC, plas'tik, _adj._ having power to give form to: capable of being moulded: of or pertaining to moulding.--_ns._ PLASTIC'ITY, state or quality of being plastic; PLASTIL[=I]'NA, a modelling clay which remains soft and plastic for a considerable time; PLASTOG'RAPHY, imitation of handwriting. [Gr. _plastikos_--_plassein_, to mould.]

PLASTRON, plas'tron, _n._ a breast-plate: a detachable part of a woman's dress hanging from the throat to the waist: a man's shirt-bosom: a fencer's wadded shield of leather worn on the breast: the ventral part of the shell of a chelonian or testudinate, the lower shell of a turtle or tortoise: the sternum with costal cartilages attached.--_adj._ PLAS'TRAL.

PLAT, plat, _v.t._ Same as PLAIT.

PLAT, plat, _n._ a piece of ground: a piece of ground ornamentally laid out: (_obs._) a plan, scheme.--_v.t._ to make a map or plan of.--_n._ PLAT'-BAND, a border of flowers in a garden: (_archit._) a slightly projecting square moulding, an architrave fascia, a list between flutings. [_Plot._]

PLATANE, plat'[=a]n, _n._ the plane-tree.--Also PLAT'AN. [L. _platanus_--Gr. _platanos_--_platys_, broad.]

PLATE, pl[=a]t, _n._ something flat: a thin piece of metal: wrought gold and silver: household utensils in gold and silver: a shallow dish nearly flat: an engraved piece of metal.--_v.t._ to overlay with a coating of plate or metal: to arm or defend with metal plates: to adorn with metal: to beat into thin plates.--_n._ PLATE'-ARM'OUR, armour of strong metal plates for protecting ships-of-war, &c.--_adj._ PL[=A]'TED, covered with plates of metal for strength, as ships: covered with a coating of a more precious metal: (_zool._) covered with hard scales.--_ns._ PLATE'-FLEET (_Milt._), vessels used for carrying precious metals; PLATE'FUL, as much as a plate will hold; PLATE'-GLASS, a fine kind of glass, cast in thick plates, used for mirrors and large shop-windows; PLATE'-LAY'ER, a workman whose occupation it is to lay the rails of a railway and fix them to the sleepers; PLATE'-MARK, a mark or stamp on gold or silver plate to indicate its purity and the place where it was made; PLATE'-POW'DER, a composition of rouge and prepared chalk used for cleaning gold and silver plate and plated articles; PLATE'-PRINT'ING, the process of printing from engraved plates; PL[=A]'TER, one who plates articles with a coating of gold or silver; PLATE'-RACK, a frame for holding plates, &c., when not in use; PLATE'-WARM'ER, an apparatus in which plates are warmed before the fire; PL[=A]'TING, the covering of an inferior metal with one of the precious metals: a thin coating of metal on another.--_adj._ PL[=A]'TY, like a plate.--HALF'-PLATE, in photography, a size of plate measuring 4¾ by 6½ in. (4¼ by 5½ in U.S.); QUAR'TER-PLATE, 3¼ by 4¼ in.; WHOLE'-PLATE, 6½ by 8½ in. [O. Fr. _plate_, fem. of _plat_, flat--Gr. _platys_, broad.]

PLATEAU, pla-t[=o]', _n._ a broad flat space on an elevated position: a tableland:--_pl._ PLATEAUS, PLATEAUX (pla-t[=o]z'). [Fr.,--O. Fr. _platel_, dim. of _plat_.]

PLATEN, plat'en, _n._ the flat part of a printing-press which comes down upon the form, and by which the impression is made.

PLATFORM, plat'form, _n._ a raised level surface: a part of a floor raised above the rest to form a standing-place for speakers, workmen, &c.: (_mil._) an elevated floor for cannon: a statement of principles to which a body of men declare their adhesion, and on which they act: (_Shak._) a scheme, plan.--_v.t._ (_Milt._) to sketch, plan: (_Mrs Browning_) to support as on a platform.--_ns._ PLAT'FORM-BRIDGE (_Amer._), a movable gangway between the platforms of two railway carriages; PLAT'FORM-CAR, a railway car open all round and without a roof; PLAT'FORM-CRANE, a crane used on a railway platform, or one mounted on a movable truck; PLAT'FORM-SCALE, a weighing-machine with a flat surface for holding the thing to be weighed.--THE PLATFORM, the function of public oratory. [Fr. _plate-forme_, 'flat form.']

PLATIASMUS, plat-i-as'mus, _n._ imperfect speech.

PLATINUM, plat'in-um, _n._ an important metal of a dim silvery appearance, between gold and silver in value, and very difficult to melt--older name PLAT'INA.--_adjs._ PLATIN'IC; PLATINIF'EROUS.--_v.t._ PLAT'INISE, to coat with platinum.--_ns._ PLAT'INOID, one of the metals with which platinum is always found associated--_palladium iridium_, &c.; PLAT'INOTYPE, a method of producing photographs by means of paper coated with a preparation of platinum: a picture so produced.--_adj._ PLAT'INOUS, containing or consisting of platinum. [Sp. _platina_--_plata_, plate.]

PLATITUDE, plat'i-t[=u]d, _n._ flatness: that which exhibits dullness of thought: an empty remark made as if it were important.--_n._ PLATITUDIN[=A]'RIAN, one who indulges in platitudes.--_adj._ PLATIT[=U]'DINOUS. [Fr.,--_plat_, flat.]

PLATONIC, -AL, pl[=a]-ton'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to _Plato_, the Greek philosopher (about 427-347 B.C.), or to his philosophical opinions.--_adv._ PL[=A]TON'ICALLY.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ PL[=A]'TONISE, to reason like Plato.--_ns._ PL[=A]'TONISM, the philosophical opinions of Plato; PL[=A]'TONIST, PL[=A]TON'IC, a follower of Plato.--PLATONIC LOVE, the love of soul for soul, a love into which sensual desire is supposed not to enter at all.

PLATOON, pla-t[=oo]n', _n._ a number of recruits assembled for exercise--originally a small body of soldiers in a hollow square, to strengthen the angles of a longer formation: a subdivision of a company. [Fr. _peloton_, a ball, a knot of men--_pelote_--L. _p[)i]la_, a ball.]

PLATTER, plat'[.e]r, _n._ a large flat plate or dish. [M. E. _plater_--O. Fr. _platel_--_plat_, a plate.]

PLATTING, plat'ing, _n._ the process of making interwoven work: such work itself.

PLATYCEPHALOUS, plat-i-sef'a-lus, _adj._ having the vault of the skull flattened.--Also PLATYCEPHAL'IC.

PLATYPUS, plat'i-poos, _n._ the duck-bill (q.v.). [Gr. _platys_, flat, _pous_, a foot.]

PLATYRHINE, plat'i-rin, _adj._ broad-nosed.--_n._ a platyrhine monkey.

PLAUDIT, plawd'it, _n._ a mark of applause: praise bestowed.--_adj._ PLAUD'ITORY, applauding.--_adj._ PLAUS'IVE, applauding, approving: (_Shak._) plausible. [Shortened from L. _plaudite_, praise ye, a call for applause, 2d pers. pl. imper. of _plaud[)e]re_, _plausum_, to praise.]

PLAUSIBLE, plawz'i-bl, _adj._ that may be applauded: seemingly worthy of approval or praise: superficially pleasing: apparently right: fair-spoken: popular.--_ns._ PLAUSIBIL'ITY, PLAUS'IBLENESS, an appearance of being right or worthy of approval: that which seems right and true at first sight.--_adv._ PLAUS'IBLY. [L. _plausibilis_--_plaud[)e]re_, to praise.]

PLAUSTRAL, plä'stral, _adj._ of or pertaining to a wagon. [L. _plaustrum_, a wagon.]

PLAY, pl[=a], _v.i._ to engage in some amusing exercise: to take part in a game, or a piece of diversion: to gamble: to sport: to trifle: to move irregularly or (_mech._) freely: to operate: to act in a theatre: to perform on a musical instrument: to practise a trick: to act a character: to act with repeated strokes.--_v.t._ to put in motion: to perform upon: to perform: to act a sportive part: to compete with.--_n._ amusement: any exercise for amusement: a contending for victory or for a prize: practice in a contest: gaming: action or use: manner of dealing, as fair-play: a dramatic composition: movement: room for action or motion: liberty of action.--_ns._ PLAY'-ACT'OR, one who acts a part in a play: an actor; PLAY'-ACT'ORISM, the manner or habits of a play-actor; PLAY'-BILL, a bill or advertisement of a play; PLAY'BOOK, a book of plays or dramas; PLAY'-CLUB, a wooden-headed golf-club used for driving the ball the longest distances; PLAY'-DAY, PLAY'-TIME, a day devoted to play: a holiday; PLAY'ER, one who plays: an actor of plays or dramas: a trifler: a musician: a professional at cricket; PLAY'FELLOW, PLAY'MATE, a fellow or mate in play or amusements.--_adj._ PLAY'FUL, given to play: sportive.--_adv._ PLAY'FULLY.--_ns._ PLAY'FULNESS; PLAY'-G[=O]'ER, one who habitually attends the theatre; PLAY'-G[=O]'ING; PLAY'-GROUND, a ground or place on which to play, esp. that connected with a school; PLAY'-HOUSE, a house where dramatic performances are represented: a theatre; PLAY'ING-CARD, one of a set of fifty-two cards used in playing games; PLAY'-MARE, the hobby-horse, one of the chief parts in the ancient morris-dance; PLAY'THING, anything for playing with: a toy; PLAY'WRIGHT, PLAY'-WRIT'ER, a writer of plays: one who adapts dramatic compositions for the stage.--PLAYED OUT, worked to the end: used up: tired; PLAY FAST AND LOOSE, to act in a tricky, inconstant way: to say one thing and do another; PLAY FINE, at billiards, to strike the object-ball near the edge--opp. to PLAY FULL, to strike it nearer the centre than the edge; PLAY OFF, to show or display; PLAY UP, to make a beginning of playing: to play more vigorously; PLAY UPON, to trifle with: to delude.--A PLAY UPON WORDS, a use of words so as to give them a double meaning; BRING INTO PLAY, to bring into exercise or use; COME INTO PLAY, to come into use; HOLD IN PLAY, to keep the attention of. [A.S. _plegan_, to play.]

PLEA, pl[=e], _n._ the defender's answer to the plaintiff's demand or charge: an excuse: an apology: an action in a court of law: urgent entreaty. [O. Fr. _plait_ (Fr. _plaid_)--Low L. _placitum_, a decision--L. _placet_, it pleases, _plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLEACH, pl[=e]ch, _v.t._ to intertwine the branches of, as a hedge: (_Shak._) to fold, as the arms. [O. Fr. _plesser_--L. _plec-t[)e]re_, plait; Gr. _plek-ein_, weave.]

PLEAD, pl[=e]d, _v.i._ to carry on a plea or lawsuit: to argue in support of a cause against another: to seek to persuade: to admit or deny a charge of guilt.--_v.t._ to discuss by arguments: to allege in pleading or defence: to offer in excuse:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plead'ed, or (less correctly and coll.) pled.--_adj._ PLEAD'ABLE, capable of being pleaded.--_n._ PLEAD'ER.--_adj._ PLEAD'ING, imploring.--_n._ act of pleading or of conducting any cause: (_pl._) the statements of the two parties in a lawsuit (_law_).--_adv._ PLEAD'INGLY.--PLEAD GUILTY, or NOT GUILTY, to admit, or deny, guilt.--SPECIAL PLEADING, unfair argument aiming rather at victory than at truth. [O. Fr. _plaider_; cf. _Plea_.]

PLEASE, pl[=e]z, _v.t._ to give pleasure to: to delight: to satisfy.--_v.i._ to like: to think fit: to choose: to give pleasure: used impers., followed by an object, originally dative, of the person=if it please you.--_n._ PLEAS'ANCE, merriment: a pleasure garden.--_adj._ PLEAS'ANT, pleasing: agreeable: cheerful: gay: facetious.--_adv._ PLEAS'ANTLY.--_ns._ PLEAS'ANTNESS; PLEAS'ANTRY, anything that promotes pleasure: merriment: lively or humorous talk: a trick:--_pl._ PLEAS'ANTRIES; PLEASE'MAN (_Shak._), an officious fellow, a pick-thank; PLEAS'ER, one who pleases or gratifies.--_adj._ PLEAS'ING, giving pleasure: agreeable: gratifying.--_n._ (_Shak._) pleasure given: (_B._) approbation.--_adv._ PLEAS'INGLY.--_n._ PLEAS'INGNESS, the quality of giving pleasure.--_adj._ PLEAS'URABLE, able to give pleasure: delightful: gratifying.--_n._ PLEAS'URABLENESS.--_adv._ PLEAS'URABLY.--_n._ PLEASURE (plezh'[=u]r), agreeable emotions: gratification of the senses or of the mind: what the will prefers: purpose: command: approbation.--_v.t._ (_arch._) to give pleasure to.--_ns._ PLEAS'URE-BOAT, a boat used for pleasure or amusement; PLEAS'URE-GROUND, ground laid out in an ornamental manner for pleasure; PLEAS'URE-HOUSE, a house to which one retires for recreation or pleasure.--_adj._ PLEAS'URELESS.--_ns._ PLEAS'URER, one who seeks pleasure; PLEAS'URE-TRIP, an excursion for pleasure.--AT PLEASURE, whenever and as one pleases. [O. Fr. _plaisir_ (Fr. _plaire_)--L. _plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLEAT, pl[=e]t, _v.t._ Same as PLAIT.

PLEBEIAN, pl[=e]-b[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to, or consisting of, the common people: popular: vulgar.--_n._ originally one of the common people of ancient Rome: one of the lower classes.--_v.t._ PLEBEI'ANISE.--_ns._ PLEBEI'ANISM, state of being a plebeian: the conduct or manners of plebeians: vulgarity; PLEBIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of making plebeian.--_v.t._ PLEB'IFY, to make plebeian: to vulgarise. [Fr. _plébéien_--L. _plebeius_--_plebs_, _plebis_, the common people.]

PLEBISCITE, pleb'i-s[=i]t, _n._ a decree of an entire nation, obtained by an appeal to universal suffrage, as in France under Napoleon III.: a method of obtaining an expression of opinion upon a certain point from the inhabitants of a district--also PLEBISC[=I]'TUM:--_pl._ PLEB'ISCITES, PLEBIS'CITA.--_adj._ PLEB'ISCITARY. [Fr.,--L. _plebiscitum_, decree of the people--_plebs_, the people, _scitum_, a decree--_sc[=i]re_, to know.]

PLEBS, plebz, _n._ the common people. [L.]

PLECTOGNATHI, plek-tog'n[=a]-th[=i], _n._ an order of bony fishes, including file-fishes, globe-fishes, coffer-fishes, sun-fishes.--_adjs._ PLECTOGNATH'IC, PLECTOG'NATHOUS. [Gr. _plectos_, plaited, _gnathos_, a jaw.]

PLECTRUM, plek'trum, _n._ the quill or other form of instrument by which the strings of the Greek lyre were struck.--Also PLEC'TRE, PLEC'TRON. [L.--Gr.,--_pl[=e]ssein_, to strike.]

PLED, pled, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _plead_.

PLEDGE, plej, _n._ something given as a security: one who becomes surety for another: a sentiment of goodwill or friendship expressed by drinking together.--_v.t._ to give as security: to engage for by promise: to invite to drink by partaking of the cup first: to drink to the health of.--_ns._ PLEDGEE', the person to whom a thing is pledged; PLEDG'ER.--PLEDGE CARD, a card given, as a remembrancer, to a person who has signed the total abstinence pledge; PLEDGE CUP, a cup for drinking pledges.--HOLD IN PLEDGE, to keep as security; PUT IN PLEDGE, to pawn; TAKE, or SIGN, THE PLEDGE, to give a written promise to abstain from intoxicating liquor. [O. Fr. _plege_ (Fr. _pleige_); prob. L. _præb[=e]re_, to afford.]

PLEDGET, plej'et, _n._ a wad of lint, cotton, &c., as for a wound or sore: an oakum string used in caulking.

PLEIAD, pl[=i]'ad, _n._ one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, after death changed into stars:--_pl._ PLEI'ADS, PLEI'ADES, (_astron._) a group of seven or more stars in the shoulder of the constellation Taurus.


PLEIOCHROISM, pl[=i]-ok'r[=o]-izm, _n._ the property in some crystals, such as some species of topaz, where three distinct colours may be observed on looking through them along three rectangular axes.--Also POL'YCHR[=O]ISM. [Gr. _plei[=o]n_, _ple[=o]n_, more, _chroa_, colour.]

PLEISTOCENE, pl[=i]s't[=o]-s[=e]n, _n._ (_geol._) the name given to the system comprising the older accumulations belonging to the Quaternary or Post-Tertiary division. [Gr. _pleistos_, most, _kainos_, recent.]

PLENARY, pl[=e]'n[=a]-ri, _adj._ full: entire: complete: (_law_) passing through all its stages--opp. to _Summary_: having full powers.--_adv._ PLEN'ARILY.--_ns._ PLEN'ARINESS; PL[=E]'NARTY, the state of a benefice when occupied; PL[=E]'NIST, one who believes all space to be filled with matter; PLEN'ITUDE, fullness: completeness: repletion; PL[=E]'NUM, space considered as in every part filled with matter.--PLENARY INSPIRATION, inspiration which excludes all mixture of error. [Low L. _plenarius_--L. _ple-nus_, full--_pl[=e]re_, to fill.]

PLENICORN, plen'i-korn, _adj._ solid-horned, as a ruminant.

PLENILUNAR, plen-i-l[=u]'nar, _adj._ pertaining to the full moon.

PLENIPOTENCE, pl[=e]-nip'o-tens, _n._ complete power--also PLENIP'OTENCY.--_adj._ PLENIP'OTENT, having full power. [L. _plenus_, full, _potens_, _-entis_, powerful.]

PLENIPOTENTIARY, plen-i-po-ten'shi-a-ri, _adj._ conferring or having full powers.--_n._ a person invested with full powers, esp. a special ambassador or envoy to some foreign court. [Low L. _plenipotentiarius_--L. _plenus_, full, _potens_, powerful.]

PLENISH, plen'ish, _v.t._ to furnish: to provide, as a house or farm, with necessary furniture, implements, stock, &c.--_n._ PLEN'ISHING (_Scot._), furniture. [Fr.,--L. _plenus_, full.]

PLENTY, plen'ti, _n._ a full supply: all that can be needed: abundance.--_adj._ being in abundance.--_adj._ PLEN'T[=E]OUS, fully sufficient: abundant: fruitful: well provided: rich: (_B._) giving plentifully.--_adv._ PLEN'T[=E]OUSLY.--_n._ PLEN'T[=E]OUSNESS.--_adj._ PLEN'TIFUL, copious: abundant: yielding abundance.--_adv._ PLEN'TIFULLY.--_n._ PLEN'TIFULNESS.--HORN OF PLENTY (see HORN). [O. Fr. _plente_--L. _plenus_, full.]

PLEONASM, pl[=e]'o-nazm, _n._ use of more words than are necessary: (_rhet._) a redundant expression.--_n._ PL[=E]'ONAST, one who is given to pleonasm.--_adjs._ PLEONAS'TIC, -AL, redundant: using too many words.--_adv._ PLEONAS'TICALLY. [Gr. _pleonasmos_--_plei[=o]n_, more.]

PLEROMA, pl[=e]-r[=o]'ma, _n._ fullness: abundance: in Gnosticism, divine being, including all æons which emanate from it. [Gr.,--_pl[=e]r[=e]s_, full.]

PLEROPHORY, pl[=e]-rof'[=o]-ri, _n._ full conviction.--Also PLEROPH[=O]'RIA.

PLESH, plesh, _n._ (_Spens._) a plash, a pool of water.

PLESIOMORPHISM, pl[=e]-si-[=o]-mor'fizm, _n._ the property of certain substances of crystallising in similar forms while unlike in chemical composition--also _Isogonism_.--_adjs._ PLESIOMOR'PHIC, PLESIOMOR'PHOUS.

PLESIOSAURUS, pl[=e]-zi-o-saw'rus, _n._ the type or leading genus of a family (_Plesiosauridæ_) of fossil sea-reptiles, which are characteristic of the Mesozoic systems. [Gr. _pl[=e]sios_, near, _sauros_, lizard.]

PLETHORA, pleth'o-ra, _n._ excessive fullness of blood: over-fullness in any way.--_adjs._ PLETHORE'TIC, PLETHOR'IC, -AL, afflicted with plethora: superabundant: turgid.--_adv._ PLETHOR'ICALLY. [Gr. _pl[=e]th[=o]r[=e]_, fullness--_pleos_, full.]

PLEUGH, pl[=u]h, _n._ (_Scot._) a plough.--_n._ PLEUGH'-PAID'LE (_Scot._), a small spade or 'paddle' for cleaning a plough.

PLEURA, pl[=oo]'ra, _n._ a delicate serous membrane which covers the lungs and lines the cavity of the chest:--_pl._ PLEU'RÆ.--_adj._ PLEU'RAL.--_ns._ PLEURAPOPH'YSIS, a lateral process of a vertebra, with the morphological character of a rib:--_pl._ PLEURAPOPH'YSES; PLEURENCH'YMA (_bot._), the woody tissue of plants; PLEU'RISY, inflammation of the pleura, the investing membrane of the lung; PLEU'RISY-ROOT, a plant common in the United States, of which the root has medicinal repute, the infusion being used as a diaphoretic and expectorant.--_adjs._ PLEURIT'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or affected with, pleurisy: causing pleurisy.--_ns._ PLEUR[=I]'TIS, pleurisy; PLEURODYN'IA, neuralgia of the chest-wall, which may simulate closely the pain of pleurisy; PLEU'RO-PNEUM[=O]'NIA, inflammation of the pleura and lungs, a contagious disease peculiar to cattle. [Gr., a rib.]

PLEURONECTIDÆ, pl[=oo]-ro-nek'ti-d[=e], a family of flat-fishes, the flounders. [Gr. _pleura_, the side, _n[=e]kt[=e]s_, a swimmer.]

PLEXIMETER, pleks-im'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a small plate of something hard and elastic, placed on the body, to receive the tap of the fingers or of the hammer in examination by percussion--also PLEXOM'ETER.--_adj._ PLEXIMET'RIC. [Gr. _pl[=e]xis_, a striking--_pl[=e]ssein_, to strike, _metron_, a measure.]

PLEXURE, pleks'[=u]r, _n._ the act or process of weaving together: that which is woven together.--_adj._ PLEX'IFORM, in the form of network: formed into a plexus.--_n._ PLEX'US, a number of things, as veins, nerves, &c., woven together: a network: (_anat._) an interlacing of nerves, vessels, or fibres. [L. _plexus_, a twining--_plect[)e]re_, _plexum_, to twine.]

PLIABLE, pl[=i]'a-bl, _adj._ easily bent or folded: supple: easily persuaded: yielding to influence.--_ns._ PLIABIL'ITY, PL[=I]'ABLENESS, quality of being pliable or flexible.--_adv._ PL[=I]'ABLY, in a pliable manner.--_ns._ PL[=I]'ANCY, PL[=I]'ANTNESS, the state of being pliant: readiness to be influenced.--_adj._ PL[=I]'ANT, bending easily: flexible: tractable: easily influenced.--_adv._ PL[=I]'ANTLY. [Fr. _pliable_--L. _plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

PLICA, pl[=i]'ka, _n._ in the phrase PLICA POLONICA, a disease of the scalp, in which the hairs become matted together by an adhesive and often fetid secretion, occurring in several countries, but esp. in Poland. [L. _plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

PLICATE, -D, pl[=i]'k[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ folded like a fan, as a leaf: plaited.--_adv._ PL[=I]'C[=A]TELY.--_ns._ PLIC[=A]'TION, PLIC'ATURE, act or process of folding: state of being folded: a fold. [L. _plicatus_--_plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

PLIERS, pl[=i]'[.e]rz, small pincers for bending.

PLIGHT, pl[=i]t, _n._ something exposed to risk: security: pledge: engagement: promise.--_v.t._ to pledge: to promise solemnly: to give as security.--_n._ PLIGHT'ER, one who, or that which, plights. [A.S. _pliht_, risk, danger--_plión_, to imperil; cog. with Dut. _pligt_, Ger. _pflicht_, an obligation.]

PLIGHT, pl[=i]t, _n._ condition: state (either good or bad). [O. Fr. _plite_--L. _plicitus_, _plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

PLIGHT, pl[=i]t, _v.t._ to plait, to braid, to weave.--_n._ (_Spens._) a plait, a fold. [L. _plect[)e]re_, freq. of _plicäre_, to fold.]

PLIM, plim, _v.i._ (_prov._) to swell. [_Plump_.]


PLINTH, plinth, _n._ (_archit._) the square at the bottom of the base of a column: the projecting band at the bottom of a wall. [L. _plinthus_, Gr. _plinthos_, a brick.]

PLIOCENE, pl[=i]'o-s[=e]n, _n._ (_geol._) the strata more recent than the Miocene or Second Tertiary. [Gr. _plei[=o]n_, more, _kainos_, recent.]

PLISKIE, plis'ki, _n._ (_Scot._) condition or plight: a mischievous trick.

PLOD, plod, _v.i._ to travel slowly and steadily: to study or work on steadily: to toil.--_v.t._ to get along by slow and heavy walking:--_pr.p._ plod'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plod'ded.--_n._ PLOD'DER, one who plods on: a dull, heavy, laborious man.--_adj._ PLOD'DING, laborious but slow.--_n._ slow movement: patient study.--_adv._ PLOD'DINGLY. [Orig. 'to wade through pools,' from Ir. _plod_, a pool.]

PLONGE, plonj, _n._ the descending part of the path of a bomb: the superior slope of a parapet.--Also PLON'GÉE.

PLONGE, plonj, _v.t._ to cleanse, as open sewers, by stirring with a pole when the tide is ebbing.

PLOP, plop, _v.i._ to plump into water. [Imit.]

PLOT, plot, _n._ a small piece of ground: a plan of a field, &c., drawn on paper: a patch or spot on clothes.--_v.t._ to make a plan of:--_pr.p._ plot'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plot'ted. [A.S. _plot._]

PLOT, plot, _n._ a complicated scheme, esp. for a mischievous purpose: a conspiracy: stratagem: the chain of incidents which are gradually unfolded in the story of a play, &c.--_v.i._ to scheme: to form a scheme of mischief: to conspire.--_v.t._ to devise:--_pr.p._ plot'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plot'ted.--_adj._ PLOT'FUL.--_adj._ PLOT'-PROOF, safe from any danger by plots.--_ns._ PLOT'TER, one who plots: a conspirator; PLOT'TING.--_adv._ PLOT'TINGLY. [Fr. _complot_, acc. to Diez, from L. _complicitum_, pa.p. of _complic[=a]re_, to fold.]

PLOT, plot, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to scald, steep in very hot water.--_n._ PLOT'TIE, a kind of mulled wine.

PLOTTER, plot'[.e]r, _v.i._ to plouter (q.v.).

PLOUGH, plow, _n._ an instrument for turning up the soil to prepare it for seed: tillage: a joiner's plane for making grooves.--_v.t._ to turn up with the plough: to make furrows or ridges in: to tear: to divide: to run through, as in sailing: (_university slang_) to reject in an examination.--_v.i._ to work with a plough.--_adj._ PLOUGH'ABLE, capable of being ploughed: arable.--_ns._ PLOUGH'BOY, a boy who drives or guides horses in ploughing; PLOUGH'ER; PLOUGH'GATE (_Scots law_), a quantity of land of the extent of 100 acres Scots; PLOUGH'ING; PLOUGH'-[=I]'RON, the coulter of a plough; PLOUGH'-LAND, land suitable for tillage: as much land as could be tilled with one plough, a hide of land; PLOUGH'MAN, a man who ploughs: a husbandman: a rustic:--_pl._ PLOUGH'MEN; PLOUGH'-MON'DAY, the Monday after Twelfth Day when, according to the old usage, the plough should be set to work again after the holidays; PLOUGH'-TAIL, the end of a plough where the handles are; PLOUGH'-TREE, a plough-handle; PLOUGH'WRIGHT, one who makes and mends ploughs.--PUT ONE'S HAND TO THE PLOUGH, to begin an undertaking.--SNOW PLOUGH, a strong triangular frame of wood for clearing snow off roads, railways, &c., drawn by horses or by a locomotive; STEAM PLOUGH, a plough driven by a stationary steam-engine; THE PLOUGH, the seven bright stars in the constellation of the Great Bear. [Ice. _plógr_; perh. Celt., Gael. _ploc_, a block.]

PLOUGHSHARE, plow'sh[=a]r, _n._ the part of a plough which shears or cuts the ground in the bottom of the furrow. [_Plough_, and A.S. _scear_, a share of a plough, a shearing--_sceran_, to cut.]

PLOUTER, plow't[.e]r, _v.i._ to paddle in water.--_n._ (_Scot._) a paddling or dabbling in water.

PLOVER, pluv'[.e]r, _n._ a well-known wading bird. [Fr. _pluvier_--L. _pluvia_, rain.]

PLOW, plow. Old spelling of _plough_.

PLOY, ploi, _n._ employment: (_Scot._) a frolic. [_Employ_.]

PLUCK, pluk, _v.t._ to pull off or away: to snatch: to strip, as a fowl of its feathers: (_slang_) to reject an examinee as inefficient.--_n._ a single act of plucking.--_n._ PLUCK'ER.--PLUCK OFF (_Shak._), to abate from the rank; PLUCK UP, to pull out by the roots: to summon up, as courage. [A.S. _pluccian_; akin to Dut. _plukken_, Ger. _pflücken_.]

PLUCK, pluk, _n._ the heart, liver, and lungs of an animal--hence heart, courage, spirit.--_adjs._ PLUCKED, PLUCK'Y, having pluck or spirit.--_adv._ PLUCK'ILY.--_n._ PLUCK'INESS.

PLUFFY, pluf'i, _adj._ puffy: blown out.--_n._ PLUFF (_Scot._), a puff of smoke or dust.--_v.t._ to throw out such.

PLUG, plug, _n._ a block or peg used to stop a hole: a bung: a stopper: a branch from a water-pipe to supply a hose: a flat cake of tobacco: any worn-out or useless article: (_slang_) a silk hat.--_v.t._ to stop with a plug: to drive plugs into:--_pr.p._ plug'ging; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plugged.--_ns._ PLUG'GER, one who, or that which, plugs, esp. a dentist's instrument for filling a hollow tooth; PLUG'GING, the act of stopping with a plug: the material of which a plug is made; PLUG'-UG'LY, a street ruffian.--FIRE PLUG, a contrivance by means of which a hose can be fixed to a water-main in case of fire. [Dut. _plug_, a bung, a peg (Sw. _plugg_, a peg, Ger. _pflock_); most prob. Celt., as in Ir., Gael., and W. _ploc_.]

PLUM, plum, _n._ a well-known stone fruit of various colours, of the natural order _Rosaceæ_: the tree producing it: the best part of all: a sum of £100,000, a handsome fortune.--_ns._ PLUM'-CAKE, a cake containing raisins, currants, &c.; PLUM'-DUFF, a flour-pudding boiled with raisins.--_adj._ PLUM'MY, full of plums: desirable.--_ns._ PLUM'-PORR'IDGE, an antiquated dish, of porridge with plums, raisins, &c.; PLUM'-PUDD'ING, a national English dish made of flour and suet, with raisins, currants, and various spices. [A.S. _plúme_--L. _prunum_--Gr. _prounon_.]

PLUMAGE, pl[=oo]m'[=a]j, _n._ the whole feathers of a bird. [Fr.,--_plume_, a feather.]

PLUMB, plum, _n._ a mass of lead or other material, hung on a string, to show the perpendicular position: the perpendicular direction or position.--_adj._ perpendicular.--_adv._ perpendicularly.--_v.t._ to adjust by a plumb-line: to make perpendicular: to sound the depth of, as water by a plumb-line.--_n._ PLUMB'-BOB, a conoid-shaped metal weight at the end of a plumb-line.--_adjs._ PLUM'B[=E]AN, PLUM'B[=E]OUS, consisting of, or resembling, lead: stupid; PLUMB'IC, pertaining to, or obtained from, lead; PLUMBIF'EROUS, producing lead.--_n._ PLUMB'ING, the art of casting and working in lead, &c.--_adj._ PLUMB'LESS, incapable of being sounded.--_ns._ PLUMB'-LINE, a line to which a mass of lead is attached to show the perpendicular: a plummet; PLUMB'-RULE, a narrow board with a plumb-line fastened to the top, used to determine a perpendicular. [Fr. _plomb_--L. _plumbum_, lead.]

PLUMBAGINEÆ, plum-ba-jin'[=e]-[=e], a natural order of oxogenous plants found on seashores and salt-marshes.

PLUMBAGO, plum-b[=a]'go, _n._ a mineral composed of carbon, iron, and other materials, used for pencils, &c., popularly called 'blacklead:' graphite: a genus of plants with blue or violet flowers.--_adj._ PLUMBAG'INOUS. [L. _plumbum_, lead.]

PLUMBER, plum'[.e]r, _n._ one who works in lead, esp. one who fits into buildings the tanks, pipes, and fittings for conveying water, gas, and sewage.--_ns._ PLUMB'ER-BLOCK, a metal frame or case for holding the end of a revolving shaft: a pillow-block; PLUMB'ERY, articles of lead: the business of a plumber: a place for plumbing.

PLUME, pl[=oo]m, _n._ a feather: a tuft of feathers: a feather worn as an ornament: a crest: a token of honour: a prize in a contest.--_v.t._ to dress the feathers of, as a bird: to adorn with plumes: to strip of feathers: to boast (used reflexively).--_ns._ PLUMASSIER (pl[=oo]-ma-s[=e]r'), one who prepares or deals in plumes; PLUME'-BIRD, a term sometimes given to the _Epimachidæ_ or long-tailed birds-of-Paradise.--_adjs._ PLUMED, adorned with feathers; PLUME'LESS.--_n._ PLUME'LET, a down-feather, a plumule: anything resembling a small plume.--_adj._ PLUME'-PLUCKED, stripped of plumes: (_Shak._) humbled.--_n._ PLUM'ERY, a display of plumes.--_adjs._ PLUMIG'EROUS, plumaged; PLU'MIPED, having feathered feet.--_n._ PLU'MIST, a feather-dresser.--_adjs._ PLU'MOSE, PLU'MOUS, feathery: plume-like; PLU'MY, covered or adorned with plumes. [O. Fr.,--L. _pluma_, a small soft feather.]


PLUMMET, plum'et, _n._ a weight of lead hung at a string, used for ascertaining the direction of the earth's attraction, and for sounding depths: a plumb-line. [O. Fr. _plomet_, dim. of _plom_, lead.]

PLUMP, plump, _adv._ falling straight downward (like lead): heavily: suddenly.--_adj._ downright: unqualified.--_v.i._ to fall or sink suddenly: to give all one's votes to one candidate where there are more than one to be elected.--_v.t._ to cause to fall suddenly.--_n._ (_Scot._) a sudden downfall of rain.--_n._ PLUMP'ER, a vote given to one candidate only when more than one are to be elected: one who so votes: (_slang_) a downright lie.--_adv._ PLUMP'LY, fully, without reserve. [_Plumb._]

PLUMP, plump, _adj._ fat and rounded: sleek: in good condition.--_v.i._ to grow fat or plump: to swell.--_v.t._ to make plump: to fatten.--_ns._ PLUMP'ER, a ball kept in the mouth to give the cheeks a rounded appearance; PLUMP'NESS.--_adj._ PLUMP'Y (_Shak._), plump, fat. [Teut.; Dut. _plomp_, lumpish, Ger. _plump_.]

PLUMP, plump, _n._ a cluster: a clump (of persons or things).

PLUMULARIA, pl[=oo]-m[=u]-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of hydrozoa, belonging to the division _hydroidea_.--_adj._ PLUMUL[=A]'RIAN. [L. _plumula_, a little feather.]

PLUMULE, pl[=oo]'m[=u]l, _n._ (_bot._) the first bud of a plant growing from seed, springing from between the cotyledons or seed leaves: a soft feather: a feathery scale on a butterfly's wing.--Also PLUM'ULA. [L. _plumula_, dim. of _pluma_, a feather.]

PLUNDER, plun'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to seize the goods of another by force: to pillage.--_n._ that which is seized by force: booty: (_U.S._) household goods.--_ns._ PLUN'DERAGE, the stealing of goods on board ship; PLUN'DERER.--_adj._ PLUN'DEROUS. [Ger. _plündern_, to pillage--_plunder_, trash, baggage; akin to Low Ger. _plunnen_, rags.]

PLUNGE, plunj, _v.t._ to cast suddenly into water or other fluid: to force suddenly (into): to immerse.--_v.i._ to sink suddenly into any fluid: to dive: to pitch suddenly forward and throw up the hind-legs, as a horse: to rush into any danger: (_slang_) to gamble recklessly.--_n._ act of plunging: act of rushing headlong, as a horse.--_n._ PLUNG'ER, one who plunges: a diver: a long solid cylinder used as a forcer in pumps: (_mil._) a cavalry-man: one who bets heavily.--_adj._ PLUNG'ING, rushing headlong: aimed from higher ground, as fire upon an enemy.--_n._ the putting or sinking under water, or other fluid: the act of a horse trying to throw its rider.--PLUNGE BATH, a bath large enough to allow the whole body under water. [O. Fr. _plonger_--L. _plumbum_, lead.]

PLUPERFECT, pl[=oo]'p[.e]r-fekt, _adj._ (_gram._) noting that an action happened before some other past action referred to. [A corr. of L. _plus-quam-perfectum_, (lit.) _more than_ or _before perfect_.]

PLURAL, pl[=oo]'ral, _adj._ containing or expressing more than one.--_n._ (_gram._) the form denoting more than one.--_n._ PLURALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PLU'RALISE, to make plural.--_v.i._ to hold two or more benefices simultaneously.--_ns._ PLU'RALISM, the state of being plural: the holding by one person of more than one office at once, esp. applied to ecclesiastical livings; PLU'RALIST, one who holds more than one office at one time; PLURAL'ITY, the state of being plural: a number consisting of more than one: the majority: the holding of more than one benefice at one time: the living held by a pluralist.--_adv._ PLU'RALLY. [Fr.,--L. _pluralis_--_plus_, _pluris_, more.]

PLURILITERAL, pl[=oo]-ri-lit'[.e]r-al, _adj._ containing more letters than three.

PLURILOCULAR, pl[=oo]-ri-lok'[=u]-lar, _adj._ multilocular.

PLURIPAROUS, pl[=oo]-rip'a-rus, _adj._ having several young at a birth.--_n._ PLURIP'ARA, one who has borne two or more children.

PLURIPRESENCE, pl[=oo]-ri-prez'ens, _n._ presence in more places than one. [L. _plus_, more, _præsentia_, presence.]

PLURISY, pl[=oo]r'i-si, _n._ (_Shak._) superabundance. [L. _plus_, _pluris_, more.]

PLUS, plus, _adj._ more: to be added: positive.--_n._ the sign (+) prefixed to positive quantities, and set between quantities or numbers to be added together: the sign of addition--opp. to _Minus_. [L. _plus_, more.]

PLUSH, plush, _n._ a variety of cloth woven like velvet, but differing from it in having a longer and more open pile.--_adj._ PLUSH'Y, of or resembling plush. [Fr. _peluche_, through Low L., from L. _pilus_, hair. See PILE, a hairy surface.]

PLUTOCRACY, pl[=oo]-tok'ra-si, _n._ government by the wealthy.--_n._ PLU'TOCRAT.--_adj._ PLUTOCRAT'IC.--_ns._ PLUTOL'OGIST; PLUTOL'OGY, the science of wealth: political economy. [Gr. _ploutokratia_--_ploutos_, wealth, _kratia_--_kratein_, to rule.]

PLUTONIAN, pl[=oo]-t[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ infernal: dark: (_geol._) formed by the agency of heat at a depth below the surface of the earth, as granite--also PLUTON'IC.--_ns._ PLU'TONISM; PLU'TONIST.--PLUTONIC ACTION, the action of volcanic fires under the surface; PLUTONIC ROCKS, rocks formed under the surface by the action of fire, as granite, porphyry, &c.; PLUTONIC THEORY, the theory that the present state of the earth's crust is the result of the action of fire--opp. to _Neptunian theory_. [L.,--Gr. _Plout[=o]nios_--_Plout[=o]n_, Pluto, the god of the nether world.]

PLUVIAL, pl[=oo]'vi-al, _adj._ pertaining to rain: rainy.--_ns._ PLU'VIOGRAPH, a self-recording rain-gauge; PLUVIOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the amount of rain that falls.--_adjs._ PLUVIOMET'RIC, -AL; PLU'VIOUS, rainy. [Fr.,--_pluvialis_--_pluvia_, rain.]

PLY, pl[=i], _v.t._ to work at steadily: to use diligently: to urge: to address with importunity.--_v.i._ to work steadily: to go in haste: to make regular passages, as a boat, between two ports: (_naut._) to make way against the wind:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plied.--_n._ a fold: bent: direction.--_n._ PLY'ER. [O. Fr. _plier_, to fold--L. _plic[=a]re_, to bend.]


PLYMOUTH BRETHREN, plim'uth breth'ren, a rigid religious sect, originating at _Plymouth_ about 1830, out of a reaction against High Church principles and against a dead formalism associated with unevangelical doctrine.--_n._ PLYM'OUTHISM.

PNEUMA, n[=u]'ma, _n._ breath: spirit, soul. [Gr.]

PNEUMATIC, -AL, n[=u]-mat'ik, -al, _adj._ relating to air: consisting of air: moved by air or wind.--_n._ (_coll._) a bicycle fitted with pneumatic tires.--_adv._ PNEUMAT'ICALLY.--_n.sing._ PNEUMAT'ICS, the science which treats of air and other elastic fluids or gases.--_adj._ PNEUMATOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ PNEUMATOL'OGIST, one versed in pneumatology; PNEUMATOL'OGY, the science of elastic fluids: pneumatics: the branch of philosophy which treats of spirits or mind: (_theol._) the doctrine of the Holy Spirit; PNEUMATOM'ETER, PNEUMOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the quantity of air inhaled into the lungs at a single inspiration.--_adj._ PNEUMOGAS'TRIC, pertaining to the lungs and the stomach.--_n._ PNEUM[=O]'NIA, inflammation of the tissues of the lungs--also PNEU'MON[=I]'TIS.--_adj._ PNEUMON'IC, pertaining to the lungs.--_n._ a medicine for lung diseases.--PNEUMATIC DESPATCH, a method of sending letters, telegrams, and small parcels through tubes by means of compressed air; PNEUMATIC RAILWAY, a railway along which the carriages are driven by compressed air; PNEUMATIC TROUGH, a trough of wood or iron, filled with water and used for collecting gases for experiment or examination; PNEUMATIC TIRE, a flexible air-inflated tube used as a tire on cycles, &c. [L.,--Gr. _pneumatikos_--_pneum-a_, _-atos_, wind, air--_pnein_, to blow, to breathe.]

PNYX, niks, _n._ in ancient Athens, the public place of meeting for deliberation on political affairs: the assembly. [Gr.,--_pyknos_, crowded.]

POACEÆ, p[=o]-[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], a division of the order _Gramineæ_, the grasses.--_n._ P[=O]'A, a genus of grasses. [Gr. _poa_, grass.]

POACH, p[=o]ch, _v.t._ to dress eggs by breaking them into boiling water. [Perh. Fr. _pocher_, to put in a pocket--_poche_, pouch.]

POACH, p[=o]ch, _v.i._ to intrude on another's preserves in order to steal game.--_v.t._ to steal game.--_ns._ POACH'ER, one who poaches or steals game: the widgeon, from its habit of stealing the prey of other ducks; POACH'ING. [O. Fr. _pocher_, orig. to pocket--_poche_, pouch.]

POACH, p[=o]ch, _v.t._ to stab: poke: to tread on, and make slushy.--_n._ POACH'INESS.--_adj._ POACH'Y, wet and soft. [O. Fr. _pocher_, to poke.]

POCHARD, p[=o]'chard, _n._ a genus of diving ducks which are marine during the greater part of the year. [_Poacher_, the widgeon.]

POCK, pok, _n._ a small elevation of the skin containing matter, as in smallpox.--_adjs._ POCKED, POCK'Y, infected with, or marked by, smallpox.--_ns._ POCK'MARK, POCK'PIT, the mark, pit, or scar left by a pock.--_adj._ POCK'PITTED. [A.S. _poc_, a pustule; Ger. _pocke_, Dut. _pok_. The correct pl. form was _pocks_, erroneously _pox_, and treated as singular.]

POCKET, pok'et, _n._ a little pouch or bag, esp. one attached to a dress or to a billiard table: any cavity in which anything can lie: in mining, an irregular cavity filled with veinstone and ore: money, as being carried in the pocket: a bag of wool, &c., containing about 168 lb.--_v.t._ to put in the pocket: to take stealthily: to conceal:--_pr.p._ pock'eting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pock'eted.--_ns._ POCK'ET-BOOK, a note-book: a book for holding papers or money carried in the pocket: a book for frequent perusal, to be carried in the pocket; POCK'ET-BOR'OUGH (see BOROUGH); POCK'ET-CLOTH, a pocket-handkerchief; POCK'ETFUL, as much as a pocket will hold; POCK'ET-GLASS, a small looking-glass for the pocket; POCK'ET-HAND'KERCHIEF, a handkerchief carried in the pocket; POCK'ET-HOLE, the opening into a pocket; POCK'ET-KNIFE, a knife with one or more blades folding into the handle for carrying in the pocket; POCK'ET-MON'EY, money carried for occasional expenses; POCK'ET-PICK'ING, act or practice of picking the pocket; POCK'ET-PIS'TOL, a pistol carried in the pocket: a small travelling flask for liquor.--POCKET AN INSULT, AFFRONT, &c., to submit to or put up with it; POCKET EDITION, a small portable edition of a standard book.--IN POCKET, in possession of money; OUT OF POCKET, to lose money by a transaction; PICK A PERSON'S POCKET, to steal from his pocket. [Fr. _pochette_, dim. of _poche_, pouch.]

POCKMANTY, pok-man'ti, _n._ (_Scot._) portmanteau.

POCOCURANTE, p[=o]-k[=o]-k[=oo]-ran'te, _n._ a careless or inattentive person.--_ns._ POCOCURANT'ISM, carelessness: inaccuracy; POCOCURANT'IST. [It. _poco_, little, _curare_, to care.]

POCULIFORM, pok'[=u]-li-form, _adj._ cup-shaped. [L. _poculum_, cup.]

POD, pod, _n._ the covering of the seed of plants, as the pea or bean: a shoal of fishes.--_v.i._ to fill, as a pod: to produce pods:--_pr.p._ pod'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pod'ded. [Allied to _pad_, anything stuffed.]

PODAGRA, p[=o]-dag'ra, _n._ gout in the feet.--_adjs._ POD'AGRAL, PODAG'RIC, -AL, POD'AGROUS, gouty.--_n._ PODAL'GIA, pain, esp. neuralgia, in the foot. [Gr. _pous_, _podos_, the foot, _agra_, a catching.]

PODARGUS, p[=o]-dar'gus, _n._ a genus of arboreal and nocturnal birds allied to the true Goatsuckers. [Gr. _pous_, the foot, _argos_, swift.]

PODESTA, p[=o]-des'tä, _n._ a chief magistrate in the medieval Italian republics: an inferior municipal judge. [It.,--L. _potestas_, power.]

PODGY, poj'i, _adj._ short and fat: thick.

PODIUM, p[=o]'di-um, _n._ a continuous pedestal, a stylobate: (_anat._) a foot: (_bot._) a support, as a foot-stalk.--__adj.__ P[=O]'DIAL.--_ns._ PODIS'MUS, spasm of the muscles of the foot; P[=O]'DITE, a limb of a crustacean when ambulatory.--__adj.__ PODIT'IC.

PODOCARPUS, pod-[=o]-kär'pus, _n._ a genus of tropical coniferous trees. [Gr. _pous_, _podos_, foot, _karpos_, fruit.]

PODOPHTHALMA, pod-of-thal'ma, a name often applied to a section of Crustacea. [Gr. _pous_, foot, _ophthalmos_, the eye.]

PODOPHYLLUM, pod-[=o]-fil'um, _n._ a genus of plants of the barberry family, the fruit edible, other parts actively cathartic.--_n._ PODOPHYLL'IN, the resin obtained by means of rectified spirit from its root.--__adj.__ PODOPHYLL'OUS, having compressed leaf-like locomotive organs. [Gr. _pous_, _podos_, foot, _phyllon_, leaf.]

PODURA, p[=o]-d[=u]'ra, _n._ a genus of apterous insects--_spring-tails_, _snow-fleas_. [Gr. _pous_, foot, _oura_, tail.]

POE, p[=o]'e, _n._ the parson-bird of New Zealand.

POEM, p[=o]'em, _n._ a composition in verse: a composition of high beauty of thought or language, although not in verse.--__adj.__ POEMAT'IC, relating to a poem. [Fr. _poème_--L. _poema_--Gr. _poi[=e]ma_, _poiein_, to make.]


POEPHAGOUS, p[=o]-ef'a-gus, _adj._ eating grass.

POESY, p[=o]'e-si, _n._ the art of composing poems: poetry: a poem: poetical compositions. [Fr. _poésie_--L. _poesis_--Gr. _poi[=e]sis_--_poiein_, to make.]

POET, p[=o]'et, _n._ the author of a poem: one skilled in making poetry: one with a strong imagination:--_fem._ P[=O]'ETESS.--_ns._ P[=O]'ETASTER, a petty poet: a writer of contemptible verses; P[=O]'ETASTRY.--_adjs._ POET'IC, -AL, pertaining or suitable to a poet or to poetry: expressed in poetry: marked by poetic language: imaginative.--_adv._ POET'ICALLY, in a poetic manner.--_n.sing._ POET'ICS, the branch of criticism which relates to poetry.--_n._ POET'ICULE, a petty poet.--_v.i._ P[=O]'ETISE, to write as a poet: to make verses.--_ns._ P[=O]'ET-LAU'REATE (see LAUREATE); P[=O]'ETRESS (_Spens._), a poetess; P[=O]'ETRY, the art of expressing in melodious words the thoughts which are the creations of feeling and imagination: utterance in song: metrical composition.--POETIC JUSTICE, ideal administration of reward and punishment; POETIC LICENSE, a departing from strict fact or rule by a poet for the sake of effect. [Fr. _poète_--L. _poeta_--Gr. _poi[=e]t[=e]s_--_poiein_, to make.]

POGGE, pog, _n._ the armed bullhead.

POH, p[=o], _interj._ exclamation of contempt.

POIGNANT, poin'ant, _adj._ stinging, pricking: sharp: penetrating: acutely painful: satirical: pungent.--_n._ POIGN'ANCY, state of being poignant.--_adv._ POIGN'ANTLY. [O. Fr. _poignant_, _poindre_--L. _pung[)e]re_, to sting.]

POIND, poind, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to seize.--_n._ POIND'ING (_Scots law_), the seizing and selling of a debtor's goods under process of law, or under the warrant of a heritable security. [_Pound._]

POINT, point, _n._ anything coming to a sharp end: the mark made by a sharp instrument: (_geom._) that which has position but not length, breadth, or thickness: a mark showing the divisions of a sentence: (_mus._) a dot at the right hand of a note to lengthen it by one-half: needle-point lace: a very small space: a moment of time: a small affair: a single thing: a single assertion: the precise thing to be considered: anything intended: exact place: degree: the unit of count in a game: (_print._) a unit of measurement for type-bodies: an advantage: that which stings, as the point of an epigram: an imaginary relish, in 'potatoes and point:' a lively turn of thought: that which awakens attention: a peculiarity, characteristic: (_cricket_) the fielder standing at the immediate right of the batsman, and slightly in advance: a signal given by a trumpet: (_pl._) chief or excellent features, as of a horse, &c.: the switch or movable rails which allow a train to pass from one line to another.--_v.t._ to give a point to: to sharpen: to aim: to direct one's attention: to punctuate, as a sentence: to fill the joints of with mortar, as a wall.--_v.i._ to direct the finger, the eye, or the mind towards an object: to show game by looking, as a dog.--_adj._ POINT'ED, having a sharp point: sharp: intended for some particular person: personal: keen: telling: (_archit._) having sharply-pointed arches, Gothic.--_adv._ POINT'EDLY.--_ns._ POINT'EDNESS; POINT'ER, that which points: a dog trained to point out game; POINT'ING, the act of sharpening: the marking of divisions in writing by points or marks: act of filling the crevices of a wall with mortar; POINT'ING-STOCK, a thing to be pointed at, a laughing-stock; POINT'-LACE, a fine kind of lace wrought with the needle.--_adj._ POINT'LESS, having no point: blunt: dull: wanting keenness or smartness; POINTS'MAN, a man who has charge of the points or switches on a railway; POINT'-SYS'TEM, a standard system of sizes for type-bodies, one point being .0138 inch.--POINT FOR POINT, exactly: all particulars; POINT OF ORDER, a question raised in a deliberative society as to whether proceedings are according to the rules; POINT OF VIEW, the position from which one looks at anything; POINT OUT (_B._), to assign; POINTS OF THE COMPASS, the points _north_, _south_, _east_, and _west_, along with the twenty-eight smaller divisions, marked on the card of the mariner's compass.--At all points, completely; AT, or ON, THE POINT OF, just about to; CARDINAL POINT (see CARDINAL); CARRY ONE'S POINT, to gain what one contends for in controversy; FROM POINT TO POINT, from one particular to another; GIVE POINTS TO, to give odds to: to give an advantageous hint on any subject; IN POINT, apposite; IN POINT OF, with regard to; MAKE A POINT OF, to attach special importance to; STAND UPON POINTS, to be over-scrupulous; Strain a point, to go beyond proper limits; TO THE POINT, appropriate. [O. Fr.,--L. _punctum_--_pung[)e]re_, to prick.]

POINT-BLANK, point'-blangk', _adj._ aimed directly at the mark: direct.--_adv._ directly.--POINT-BLANK SHOT, a shot fired in a horizontal line towards an object. [Fr. _point-blanc_, white point.]

POINT-DEVICE, POINT-DEVISE, point'-de-v[=i]s', _n._ (_orig._) a lace worked with devices: anything uncommonly nice and exact.--_adj._ (_arch._) scrupulously neat. [Fr. _point_, lace, _devisé_, with a device.]

POINTEL, poin'tel, _n._ a sharp instrument: any sharp-pointed thing. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _punctillum_, a little point.]

POISE, poiz, _v.t._ to balance: to make of equal weight: to examine.--_v.i._ to hang in suspense.--_n._ weight: state of balance: equilibrium: a weight which balances another: a regulating power: the weight used in steelyards.--_n._ POIS'ER, one who, or that which, poises. [O. Fr. _poiser_ (Fr. _peser_)--L. _pens[=a]re_, inten. of _pend[)e]re_, to hang.]

POISON, poi'zn, _n._ any substance which, introduced into the living organism, tends to destroy its life or impair its health: anything malignant or infectious: that which taints or destroys moral purity.--_v.t._ to infect or to kill with poison: to taint: to mar: to embitter: to corrupt.--_adj._ POI'SONABLE.--_ns._ POI'SONER; POI'SON-FANG, one of two large tubular teeth in the upper jaw of venomous serpents, through which poison passes from glands at their roots when the animal bites; POI'SON-GLAND, a gland which secretes poison; POI'SON-[=I]'VY, a shrub-vine of North America, causing a cutaneous eruption; POI'SON-NUT, the nux vomica.--_adj._ POI'SONOUS, having the quality of poison: destructive: impairing soundness or purity.--_adv._ POI'SONOUSLY.--_n._ POI'SONOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _potio_, a draught--_pot[=a]re_, to drink.]

POITREL, poi'trel, _n._ armour to protect the horse's breast. [O. Fr. _poitral_--L. _pectorale_, a breast-plate--_pectus_, the breast.]

POITRINE, poi'trin, _n._ the breast-plate of a knight.

POKAL, p[=o]'kal, _n._ an ornamental drinking-vessel.

POKE, p[=o]k, _n._ a bag: a pouch.--A PIG IN A POKE, a blind bargain, as of a pig bought without being seen. [Prob. Celt., as Ir. _poc_, a bag.]

POKE, p[=o]k, _v.t._ to thrust or push against with something pointed: to search for with a long instrument: to thrust at with the horns.--_v.i._ to grope or feel, as in the dark.--_n._ act of pushing or thrusting: a thrust: a bonnet having a projecting front worn earlier in the century--also POKE'-BONN'ET.--_ns._ P[=O]'KER, an iron rod for poking or stirring the fire; PO'KER-DRAW'ING, a design burnt into lime-tree or other wood with 'pokers,' which rather resembled plumbers' soldering irons.--_adj._ P[=O]'KERISH, like a poker: stiff.--_adv._ P[=O]'KERISHLY.--_adj._ P[=O]'KING, drudging, servile.--_n._ P[=O]'KING-STICK, a small stick or rod of steel formerly used for adjusting the plaits of ruffs.--_adj._ P[=O]'KY, stupid: dull: confined, with little room: poor, shabby.--POKE FUN AT, to ridicule, make fun of. [Ir. _poc_, a blow, Gael. _puc_, to push.]

POKER, p[=o]'k[.e]r, _n._ a bugbear.--_adj._ P[=O]'KERISH, causing terror: uncanny.--OLD POKER, the devil.

POKER, p[=o]'k[.e]r, _n._ a round game at cards, first played in America about 1835. [Ety. uncertain.]

POLABIAN, p[=o]-l[=a]'bi-an, _n._ one of an ancient Slavic race, belonging to the same group as the _Poles_, occupying the basin of the lower Elbe.

POLACCA, po-lak'a, _n._ a species of vessel used in the Mediterranean, with three masts and a jib-boom; the fore and main masts being of one piece, and the mizzen-mast with a top and topmast. [It., 'a Polish vessel.']

POLACK, p[=o]l'ak, _n._ (_Shak._) a Pole.--Also POL'ANDER.

POLAR, p[=o]'lar, _adj._ pertaining to, or situated near, either of the poles: pertaining to the magnetic poles: having a common meeting-point.--_n._ (_geom._) the line joining the points of contact, of tangents drawn to meet a curve from a point called the pole of the P[=O]LAR-CO-OR'DINATES, co-ordinates defining a point by means of a radius vector and the angle which it makes with a fixed line through the origin; P[=O]'LAR-FOR'CES, forces that act in pairs and in different directions, as in magnetism.--_n._ POLARIM'ETER, the polariscope.--_adj._ POLAR[=I]'SABLE, capable of polarisation.--_ns._ POLARIS[=A]'TION (_opt._), a particular modification of rays of light, by the action of certain media or surfaces, so that they cannot be reflected or refracted again in certain directions: state of having polarity; POLAR'ISCOPE, an instrument for polarising light, and analysing its properties.--_v.t._ P[=O]'LARISE, to give polarity to.--_ns._ P[=O]'LARISER, that which polarises or gives polarity to; POLAR'ITY, state of having two opposite poles: a condition in certain bodies according to which their properties arrange themselves so as to have opposite powers in opposite directions, as in a magnet with its two poles.--POLAR BEAR, a large white bear found in the Arctic regions; POLAR CIRCLE, a parallel of latitude encircling each of the poles at a distance of 23° 28' from the pole--the north polar being called the arctic, the south the antarctic, circle; POLAR LIGHTS, the aurora borealis or australis. [L. _polaris_--_polus_, a pole.]

POLDER, p[=o]l'd[.e]r, _n._ in the Netherlands, land below the level of the sea or nearest river, which, originally a morass or lake, has been drained and brought under cultivation: a morass. [Prob. cog. with _pool_.]

POLE, p[=o]l, _n._ that on which anything turns, as a pivot or axis: one of the ends of the axis of a sphere, esp. of the earth: (_physics_) one of the two points of a body in which the attractive or repulsive energy is concentrated, as in a magnet: (_geom._) a point from which a pencil of rays radiates (see POLAR).--_n._ POLE'-STAR, a star at or near the pole of the heavens: a guide or director.--POLES OF THE HEAVENS, the two points in the heavens opposite to the poles of the earth--called also _Celestial poles_. [Fr.,--L. _polus_--Gr. _polos_--_pelein_, to be in motion.]

POLE, p[=o]l, _n._ a pale or pile: a long piece of wood: an instrument for measuring: a measure of length, 5½ yards: in square measure, 30¼ yards.--_v.t._ to push or stir with a pole.--_v.i._ to use a pole.--__adj.__ POLE'-CLIPT (_Shak._), hedged in with poles.--UNDER BARE POLES, with all sails furled. [A.S. _pál_ (Ger. _pfahl_)--L. _palus_, a stake.]

POLE, p[=o]l, _n._ a native of _Poland_.


POLE-AXE, p[=o]l'-aks, _n._ a battle-axe consisting of an axe-head on a long handle: an axe used by sailors for cutting away rigging of ships. [Orig. _pollax_, from _poll_, the head, and _axe_.]

POLECAT, p[=o]l'kat, _n._ a kind of weasel, which emits a stink--called also the _Fitchet_ and _Foumart_. [M. E. _polcat_; prob. Fr. _poule_, hen, and _cat_.]

POLEMARCH, pol'e-mark, _n._ a title of several officials in ancient Greek states.

POLEMIC, -AL, po-lem'ik, -al, _adj._ given to disputing: controversial.--_n._ one who disputes: one who speaks or writes in opposition to another: a controversy.--_adv._ POLEM'ICALLY.--_n.sing._ POLEM'ICS, contest or controversy: (_theol._) the history of ecclesiastical controversy.--_n._ POL'EMOSCOPE, a perspective glass so constructed as to give views of objects not lying directly before the eye. [Gr. _polemos_, war.]

POLEMONIACEÆ, pol-e-m[=o]-ni-[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], a natural order of plants--the phlox family.

POLENTA, po-len'ta, _n._ an Italian dish, the chief ingredients of which are maize, meal, and salt. [It.,--L. _polenta_, peeled barley.]

POLEY, p[=o]'li, _adj._ without horns: polled. [Prov. Eng.]

POLIANTHES, pol-i-an'th[=e]z, _n._ a small genus of ornamental plants of the amaryllis family--the tuberose. [Gr. _polios_, white, _anthos_, a flower.]

POLICE, p[=o]-l[=e]s', _n._ the system of regulations of a city, town, or district for the preservation of order and enforcement of law: the internal government of a state: (short for POLICE'-FORCE) the civil officers employed to preserve order, &c.--_v.t._ to guard or maintain order in: to put in POLICE'-COMMISS'IONERS, a body of men appointed to regulate the appointments and duties of the police.--_ns._ POLICE'-INSPECT'OR, a superior officer of police who has charge of a department, next in rank to a superintendent; POLICE'-MAG'ISTRATE, one who presides in a police court; POLICE'MAN, a member of a police-force; POLICE'-OFF'ICE, -ST[=A]'TION, the headquarters of the police of a district, used also as a temporary place of confinement; POLICE'-OFF'ICER, -CON'STABLE, a policeman; POLICE'-RATE, a tax levied for the support of the police.--POLICE COURT, a court for trying small offences brought before it by the police. [Fr.,--L. _politia_--Gr. _politeia_, the condition of a state--_polit[=e]s_, a citizen--_polis_, a city.]

POLICY, pol'i-si, _n._ the art or manner of regulating or guiding conduct: the method and forms according to which the government and business of a country are carried on: a system of administration guided more by interest than by principle: dexterity of management: prudence: cunning: in Scotland, (esp. in _pl._) the pleasure-grounds around a mansion. [O. Fr. _policie_ (Fr. _police_)--L. _politia_--Gr. _politeia_.]

POLICY, pol'i-si, _n._ a warrant for money in the funds: a writing containing a contract of insurance: a kind of gambling by betting on the numbers to be drawn in a lottery.--_n._ POL'ICY-HOLD'ER, one who holds a policy or contract of insurance. [Fr. _police_, a policy--L. _polyptychum_, a register--Gr. _polyptychon_--_polys_, many, _ptyx_, _ptychos_, fold.]

POLING, p[=o]'ling, _n._ act of using a pole for any purpose.

POLISH, p[=o]'lish, _adj._ relating to _Poland_ or to its people.

POLISH, pol'ish, _v.t._ to make smooth and glossy by rubbing: to refine: to make elegant.--_v.i._ to become smooth and glossy.--_n._ a smooth, glossy surface: refinement of manners: anything used to produce a polish.--_adjs._ POL'ISHABLE; POL'ISHED, made smooth by rubbing: trained to act with great fineness and exactness: refined: polite.--_ns._ POL'ISHER, one who, or that which, polishes; POL'ISHING-PASTE, polishing material made in the form of paste; POL'ISHING-POW'DER, polishing material made in the form of powder, as whiting, diamond-dust, &c.; POL'ISHING-SLATE, a mineral used for polishing glass, marble, and metals, composed chiefly of silica, with a little alumina, lime, oxide of iron, and water; POL'ISHMENT. [O. Fr. _polir_, _polissant_--L. _pol[=i]re_, to make to shine.]

POLITE, p[=o]-l[=i]t', _adj._ polished: smooth: refined: well-bred: obliging.--_adv._ POLITE'LY.--_ns._ POLITE'NESS, state or quality of being polite: refinement of manners: good-breeding; POLITESSE', politeness. [L. _politus_, pa.p. of _pol[=i]re_.]

POLITIC, p[=o]l'i-tik, _adj._ pertaining to policy: well-devised: judicious in management: skilled in political affairs: prudent: discreet: cunning: (_Shak._) concerned with politics.--_adj._ POLIT'ICAL, pertaining to polity or government: pertaining to nations, or to parties in a nation who differ in their views of how it ought to be governed: derived from government.--_adv._ POLIT'ICALLY.--_ns._ POLIT'ICASTER (_Milt._), a petty politician; POLITIC'IAN, one versed in or devoted to politics: a man of artifice and cunning.--_adj._ (_Milt._) politic.--_adv._ POL'ITICLY.--_n.sing._ POL'ITICS, the art or science of government: the management of a political party: political affairs or opinions.--_adj._ POL'ITIQUE (_Bacon_), political, civil.--_n._ POL'ITY, the constitution of the government of a state or an institution: civil constitution: a body of people arranged under a system of government.--POLITICAL ECONOMY, the science which treats of the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth; POLITICAL SCIENCE, the science or study of government, as to its principles, aims, methods, &c.--BODY POLITIC, the whole body of a people, as constituting a state. [Fr. _politique_--Gr. _politikos_--_polit[=e]s_, a citizen.]

POLKA, p[=o]l'ka, _n._ a dance of Bohemian origin, invented in 1830, and introduced into England in 1843--also its tune: a knitted jacket worn by women.--_v.i._ POLK, to dance a polka. [Bohem. _pulka_, half, from the half-step prevalent in it; or from Slav. _polka_, a Polish woman.]

POLL, pol, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to exact from, to plunder.

POLL, pol, _n._ a familiar name, often of a parrot. [Contr. of _Polly_, a form of _Molly_=_Mary_.]

POLL, p[=o]l, _n._ the round part of the head, esp. the back of it: a register of heads or persons: the entry of the names of electors who vote for civil officers, such as members of Parliament: an election of civil officers: the place where the votes are taken.--_v.t._ to remove the top: to cut: to clip: to lop, as the branches of a tree: to enter one's name in a register: to bring to the poll as a voter: to give or to receive a vote.--_v.i._ to give a vote.--_ns._ POLL'ARCHY, government by the mob or masses; POLL'-BOOK, a register of voters; POLL'-CLERK, a clerk who assists at the polling of voters.--_adj._ POLLED, deprived of a poll: lopped: cropped, hence bald: having cast the horns, hence wanting horns.--_ns._ POLL'ER, one who polls; POLL'-MAN, one who takes the ordinary university degree, without honours; POLL'-TAX, a tax by the poll or head--i.e. on each person.--AT THE HEAD OF THE POLL, having the greatest number of votes at an election. [Old Dut. _polle_, _bol_, a ball, top--Ice. _kollr_, top, head.]

POLLACK, pol'ak, _n._ a common fish on British coasts, belonging to the cod, haddock, and whiting group.--Also POLL'OCK. [Celt., as in Gael. _pollag_, a whiting.]

POLLAN, pol'an, _n._ a fresh-water fish of the family _Salmonidæ_, a native of lakes in Ireland.

POLLARD, pol'ard, _n._ a tree having the whole crown cut off, leaving it to send out new branches from the top of the stem: an animal without horns: a coarse kind of bran from wheat.--_v.t._ to make a pollard of. [Cf. _Poll_, the head.]


POLLEN, pol'en, _n._ the fertilising powder contained in the anthers of flowers: the male or fecundating element in flowers.--_v.t._ to cover with pollen.--_adj._ POLLEN[=A]'RIOUS, consisting of pollen.--_v.t._ POLL'ENISE, to supply with pollen.--_n._ POLL'EN-TUBE, the tube by which the fecundating element is conveyed to the ovule.--_adj._ POLL'INAR, covered with a fine dust like pollen.--_v.t._ POLL'INATE, to convey pollen to the stigma of.--_n._ POLLIN[=A]'TION, the transferring or supplying of pollen to the stigma of a flower, esp. by aid of insects or other external agents.--_adj._ POLLINIF'EROUS, bearing pollen.--_n._ POLLIN'IUM, an agglutinated mass of pollen grains.--_adjs._ POLLINIV'OROUS, feeding upon pollen; POLL'INOSE, covered with a powdery substance like pollen. [L., fine flour.]

POLLENT, pol'ent, _adj._ powerful: strong. [L. _pollens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _poll[=e]re_, to be strong.]

POLLEX, pol'eks, _n._ the thumb or the great-toe:--_pl._ POLLICES (pol'i-s[=e]z).--_adj._ POLL'ICAL. [L., the thumb.]

POLLICITATION, po-lis-i-t[=a]'shun, _n._ a promise, a paper containing such: a promise without mutuality.

POLLIWIG, pol'i-wig, _n._ a tadpole.--Also POLL'YWIG.

POLLUSION, pol-l[=u]'shun, _n._ (_Shak._) for _allusion_.

POLLUTE, pol-l[=u]t', _v.t._ to soil: to defile: to make foul: to taint: to corrupt: to profane: to violate.--_adj._ defiled.--_adj._ POLLUT'ED.--_adv._ POLLUT'EDLY.--_ns._ POLLUT'EDNESS; POLLUT'ER; POLL[=U]'TION, act of polluting: state of being polluted: defilement. [L. _pollu[)e]re_, _pollutus_--_pol_, towards, _lu[)e]re_, to wash.]

POLLUX, pol'uks, _n._ (_myth._) the twin brother of Castor: a star in the constellation of the twins. [L.]

POLLY. See POLL (2).

POLO, p[=o]'lo, _n._ an equestrian game, which may be shortly described as hockey on horseback--of Oriental origin and high antiquity.

POLO, p[=o]'lo, _n._ a Spanish gipsy dance.

POLONAISE, p[=o]-l[=o]-n[=a]z', _n._ a light kind of gown looped up at the sides to show an ornamented petticoat: a short overcoat bordered with fur: a Polish national dance of slow movement in ¾ time, during which the dancers march or promenade: music for such a dance. [Fr., 'Polish.']

POLONY, po-l[=o]'ni, _n._ a dry sausage made of meat partly cooked. [Prob. a corr. of _Bologna sausage_.]

POLT, p[=o]lt, _n._ a blow.

POLTROON, pol-tr[=oo]n', _n._ an idle, lazy fellow: a coward: a dastard: one without spirit.--_adj._ base, vile, contemptible.--_n._ POLTROON'ERY, laziness: cowardice: want of spirit. [Fr. _poltron_--It. _poltro_ (for _polstro_), lazy--Ger. _polster_, a bolster.]

POLVERINE, pol'v[.e]r-in, _n._ the calcined ashes of a Levantine and Syrian plant, used in glass-making. [It. _polverino_--L. _pulvis_, _pulv[)e]ris_, dust.]

POLYACOUSTIC, pol-i-a-kowst'ik, _adj._ multiplying or magnifying sound.--_n._ an instrument for effecting this.

POLYACT, pol'i-akt, _adj._ having numerous rays.--Also POLYAC'TINAL.

POLYAD, pol'i-ad, _n._ (_chem._) an element whose valence is greater than two.

POLYADELPH, pol'i-a-delf, _n._ a plant having its stamens united in three or more bundles by the POLYADEL'PHIA, the 18th class in the Linnæan system.--_adjs._ POLYADEL'PHIAN, POLYADEL'PHOUS.

POLYANDRIA, pol-i-an'dri-a, _n._ a class of plants in the Linnæan system, having more than twenty stamens inserted on the receptacle.--_adjs._ POLYAN'DRIAN, POLYAN'DROUS.--_n._ POLYAN'DRY, the social usage of some races in certain stages of civilisation in which the woman normally forms a union with several husbands. [Gr. _polys_, many, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

POLYANTHUS, pol-i-an'thus, _n._ a kind of primrose much prized and cultivated by florists:--_pl._ POLYAN'THUSES.--_n._ POLYAN'THEA, a note-book for keeping choice quotations. [Gr. _polys_, many, _anthos_, a flower.]

POLYARCHY, pol'i-ar-ki, _n._ government by many persons of whatever class.--_n._ POL'YARCHIST. [Gr. _polys_, many, _archein_, to rule.]

POLYATOMIC, pol-i-a-tom'ik, _adj._ (_chem._) noting elements or radicals with an equivalency greater than two: with more than one atom in the molecule.

POLYAUTOGRAPHY, pol-i-aw-tog'ra-fi, _n._ the art of multiplying copies of one's own handwriting.

POLYBASIC, pol-i-b[=a]'sik, _adj._ (_chem._) capable of combining with more than two univalent bases.

POLYCARPIC, pol-i-kar'pik, _adj._ fruiting many times or year after year.

POLYCARPOUS, pol-i-kar'pus, _adj._ having the fruit composed of two or more distinct carpels.

POLYCHORD, pol'i-kord, _adj._ having many chords.

POLYCHRESTIC, pol-i-kres'tik, _adj._ admitting of use in various ways.--_n._ POL'YCHRESTY.

POLYCHROITE, pol-i-kr[=o]'[=i]t, _n._ safranine.

POLYCHROMATIC, pol-i-kr[=o]-mat'ik, _adj._ many-coloured--also POLYCHR[=O]'MIC.--_adj._ POL'YCHROME, having, or tinted with, several or many colours.--_n._ POL'YCHROMY, decoration or execution in many colours, esp. of statuary or buildings.

POLYCLADOUS, pol-i-kl[=a]'dus, _adj._ much-branched.--_n._ POL'YCL[=A]DY, the production of a number of branches where there is normally but one.

POLYCOTYLEDON, pol-i-kot-i-l[=e]'don, _n._ a plant whose embryo has more than two cotyledons or seed-lobes.--_adj._ POLYCOTYL[=E]'DONOUS.

POLYCRACY, p[=o]-lik'r[=a]-si, _n._ government by many rulers.

POLYCROTIC, pol-i-krot'ik, _adj._ having several beats--of pulses.

POLYDACTYL, pol-i-dak'til, _adj._ having many digits.--_n._ a polydactyl animal.--_n._ POLYDAC'TYLISM, the condition of having many digits.--_adj._ POLYDAC'TYLOUS.

POLYDIPSIA, pol-i-dip'si-a, _n._ excessive thirst. [Gr. _polys_, much, _dipsa_, thirst.]

POLYERGIC, pol-i-er'jik, _adj._ acting in many ways.

POLYFOIL, pol'i-foil, _n._ an opening or ornament consisting of several combined foliations, a combination of more than five foils.--Also _adj._

POLYGALACEÆ, pol-i-g[=a]-l[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], an order of polypetalous plants--the milkwort family.

POLYGAMY, p[=o]-lig'a-mi, _n._ the practice of having more than one wife at the same POLYG[=A]'MIA, the 23d class in the Linnæan system, embracing plants in which the stamens and pistils are separate in some flowers and associated in others.--_adj._ POLYG[=A]'MIAN.--_n._ POLYG'AMIST.--_adj._ POLYG'AMOUS, relating to polygamy: (_bot._) a term applied to plants which bear both unisexual and hermaphrodite flowers, either on the same or on different individual plants. [Gr.,--_polys_, many, _gamos_, marriage.]

POLYGASTRIC, pol-i-gas'trik, _adj._ having, or appearing to have, many stomachs, as an animalcule.--Also POLYGAS'TRIAN.

POLYGENESIS, pol-i-jen'e-sis, _n._ origin from many separate germs: the theory that organisms sprang from different cells.--_adjs._ POLYGENET'IC, POLYGEN'IC, POLYG'ENOUS.--_ns._ POLYG'ENISM; POLYG'ENIST; POLYG'ENY, the multiple genesis of man.

POLYGLOT, pol'i-glot, _adj._ having or containing many languages.--_n._ a collection of versions in different languages of the same work, esp. a Bible of this kind: one who understands many languages.--_adjs._ POLYGLOT'TIC, POLYGLOT'TOUS. [Gr. _polys_, many, _gl[=o]tta_, the tongue.]

POLYGON, pol'i-gon, _n._ a plane figure bound by a number of straight lines: a figure of many angles.--_adjs._ POLYG'ONAL, POLYG'ONOUS. [L.,--Gr. _polyg[=o]non_--_polys_, many, _g[=o]nia_, a corner.]

POLYGONUM, po-lig'o-num, _n._ a kind of plant with many joints, as the bistort, knotweed, & POLYGON[=A]'CEÆ, an order of apetalous plants, mostly herbs--the buckwheat family. [Gr. _polys_, many, _gonu_, a knee.]

POLYGRAM, pol'i-gram, _n._ a figure consisting of many lines.--_adj._ POLYGRAMMAT'IC.

POLYGRAPH, pol'i-graf, _n._ an instrument for multiplying copies of a writing: a collection of different books.--_adjs._ POLYGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ POLYG'RAPHY, voluminous writing: art of writing in various ciphers.

POLYGYNY, p[=o]-lij'i-ni, _n._ polygamy.--_n._ POL'YGYN, a plant of the order POLYGYN'IA (_pl._), the 12th order in the first 13 classes of the Linnæan artificial system of plants, embracing those having flowers with more than twelve styles.--_adjs._ POLYGYN'IAN, POLYGYN'IC, POLYG'YNOUS. [Gr. _polys_, many, _gyn[=e]_, woman.]

POLYHEDRON, pol-i-h[=e]'dron, _n._ a solid body with many bases or sides.--_adjs._ POLYH[=E]'DRAL, POLYH[=E]'DRICAL, POLYH[=E]'DROUS. [Gr. _polys_, many, _hedra_, a base.]

POLYHISTOR, pol-i-his'tor, _n._ a person of great and varied learning.

POLYHYMNIA, pol-i-him'ni-a, _n._ the muse of the sublime hymn. [Gr. _polys_, many, _hymnos_, a hymn.]

POLYMATHY, p[=o]-lim'a-thi, _n._ knowledge of many arts and sciences.--_n._ POL'YMATH, a person possessing this.--_adj._ POLYMATH'IC.--_n._ POLYM'ATHIST.

POLYMERISM, p[=o]-lim'[.e]r-ism, _n._ a particular form of isomerism, the property possessed by several compounds of having similar percentage composition but different molecular weights. [Gr. _polys_, many, _meros_, part.]

POLYMORPHOUS, pol-i-mor'fus, _adj._ having many forms: varying in appearance: taking on many changes--also POLYMOR'PHIC.--_ns._ POL'YMORPH, an organism showing polymorphism: a substance that crystallises in two or more systems; POLYMOR'PHISM, the property of being polymorphous. [Gr. _polys_, many, _morph[=e],_ form.]

POLYNESIAN, pol-i-n[=e]'zi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Polynesia_, the numerous groups of islands in the Pacific within or near the tropics.--_n._ a native of Polynesia. [Gr. _polys_, many, _n[=e]sos_, an island.]

POLYNOMIAL, pol-i-n[=o]'mi-al, _n._ an algebraic quantity of many names or terms--same as _multinomial_--also POL'YNOME.--_adj._ of many names or terms.--_n._ POLYN[=O]'MIALISM. [Gr. _polys_, many, L. _nomen_, a name.]

POLYONYMOUS, pol-i-on'i-mus, _adj_. having many names.--_n._ POL'YONYM, a name consisting of several terms.--_adjs._ POLYON'YMAL; POLYONYM'IC, of more than two terms.--_ns._ POLYON'YMIST; POLYON'YMY, multiplicity of names for the same object.

POLYOPIA, pol-i-[=o]'pi-a, _n._ multiple vision.--Also POL'YOPY.

POLYOPTRUM, pol-i-op'trum, _n._ a glass through which objects appear multiplied but diminished.--Also POLYOP'TRON.

POLYORAMA, pol-i-[=o]-ra'ma, _n._ an optical apparatus presenting many views.

POLYP, POLYPE, pol'ip, _n._ a name usually applied to an animal like the fresh-water hydra, having a tubular body, and a wreath of many tentacles round the mouth: something with many feet or roots: a pedunculated tumour attached to the surface of a mucous membrane--in the nose, &c.--also POL'YPUS:--_pl._ POLYPES (pol'ips), POLYPI (pol'i-p[=i]).--_ns._ POL'YPARY, the horny or chitonous outer covering of a colony of polyps; POL'YPIDE, an individual zoöid of a polyzoarium or compound polyzoan; POLYP'IDOM, an aggregate of polypites or polypides; POL'YPIER, one individual of a compound polyp: a polypidom, polypary, or polyp-stock.--_adj._ POL'YPOUS. [Gr. _polypous_--_polys_, many, _pous_, foot.]

POLYPETALOUS, pol-i-pet'al-us, _adj._ with many petals. [Gr. _polys_, many, _petalon_, a leaf.]

POLYPHAGOUS, p[=o]-lif'a-gus, _adj._ eating many different kinds of food.

POLYPHARMACY, pol-i-fär'ma-si _n._ the prescribing of too many medicines.

POLYPHLOESBOEAN, pol-i-fles-b[=e]'an, _adj._ loud-roaring. [Homer's frequent description of the sea, _polys_, much, _phloisbos_, noise.]

POLYPHONIC, pol-i-fon'ik, _adj._ capable of being read in more than one way: noting a musical composition of two or more parts, each with an independent melody of its own.--_ns._ POL'YPH[=O]NISM, POLYPH'ONY; POL'YPH[=O]NIST, a ventriloquist: a contrapuntist. [Gr. _polys_, many, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, a voice.]

POLYPHYLETIC, pol-i-f[=i]-let'ik, _adj._ pertaining to many tribes or families: pertaining to the theory that animals are derived from several sources.

POLYPHYLLOUS, pol-i-fil'us, _adj._ many-leafed.

POLYPLASTIC, pol-i-plas'tik, _adj._ having or assuming many forms.

POLYPODE, pol'i-p[=o]d, _n._ an animal with many feet. [Gr. _polypous_--_polys_, many, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

POLYPODIUM, pol-i-p[=o]'di-um, _n._ a genus of ferns with spore-cases on the back of the frond, distinct, ring-shaped, in roundish _sori_, destitute of _indusium_.--_n._ POL'YPODY, a fern of the genus _Polypodium_, having the seed-clusters round, and on each side of the midrib. [Gr. _polys_, many, _pous_, a foot.]

POLYPOROUS, p[=o]-lip'[=o]-rus, _adj._ having many pores.

POLYPORUS, p[=o]-lip'or-us, _n._ a large genus of pore-bearing fungus, which grows on trees, from which amadou is prepared. [Gr. _polys_, many, _poros_, a passage.]

POLYPTERUS, p[=o]-lip'te-rus, _n._ a genus of Ganoid fishes of one species, in the Nile and elsewhere. [Gr. _polys_, many, _pteron_, a wing.]

POLYRHIZOUS, pol-i-r[=i]'zus, _adj._ possessing numerous rootlets.--Also POLYRH[=I]'ZAL.

POLYSCOPE, pol'i-sk[=o]p, _n._ a multiplying lens: (_surg._) an instrument for throwing light into cavities of the body.

POLYSEPALOUS, pol-i-sep'a-lus, _adj._ having the sepals separate from each other.

POLYSPERM, pol'i-sperm, _n._ a tree whose fruit contains many seeds.--_adjs._ POLYSPER'MAL, POLYSPER'MOUS, containing many seeds.

POLYSPOROUS, pol-i-sp[=o]'rus, _adj._ producing many spores.

POLYSTIGMOUS, pol-i-stig'mus, _adj._ having many carpels.

POLYSTOME, pol'i-st[=o]m, _n._ an animal with many mouths.--_adj._ POLYSTOM'ATOUS.

POLYSTYLE, pol'i-st[=i]l, _adj._ having many columns.--_adj._ POLYSTY'LOUS.

POLYSYLLABLE, pol'i-sil-a-bl, _n._ a word of many or of more than three syllables.--_adjs._ POLYSYLLAB'IC, -AL.--_ns._ POLYSYLLAB'ICISM, POLYSYLL'ABISM.

POLYSYLLOGISM, pol-i-sil'[=o]-jizm, _n._ a combination of syllogisms.--_adj._ POLYSYLLOGIS'TIC.

POLYSYMMETRICAL, pol-i-si-met'ri-kal, _adj._ divisible into exactly similar halves by more than one plane.--_adv._ POLYSYMMET'RICALLY.--_n._ POLYSYM'METRY.

POLYSYNDETON, pol-i-sin'de-ton, _n._ (_rhet._) figurative repetition of connectives or conjunctions.

POLYSYNTHETIC, -AL, pol-i-sin-thet'ik, -al, _adj._ made up of many separate elements: formed by the combination of many simple words, as words in the native languages of America.--_n._ POLYSYN'THESIS.--_adv._ POLYSYNTHET'ICALLY.--_ns._ POLYSYNTHET'ICISM, POLYSYN'THETISM, the character of being polysynthetic.

POLYTECHNIC, -AL, pol-i-tek'nik, -al, _adj._ comprehending many arts.--_n._ an exhibition of objects illustrating many arts: an institution in which many arts are taught.--_ns._ POLYTECH'NICS, the science of the mechanical arts; POLYTECH'NIQUE, or POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL, an industrial school in which the technical sciences that rest in great part upon a mathematical basis, such as engineering, architecture, &c., are taught. [Gr. _polys_, many, _techn[=e]_, an art.]

POLYTHALAMOUS, pol-i-thal'a-mus, _adj._ having many cells or chambers.

POLYTHEISM, pol'i-th[=e]-izm, _n._ the doctrine of a plurality of gods.--_v.i._ POL'YTHEISE, to adhere to, or conform to, polytheism.--_n._ POL'YTHEIST, a believer in many gods.--_adjs._ POLYTHEIST'IC, -AL.--_adv._ POLYTHEIST'ICALLY. [Gr. _polys_, many, _theos_, a god.]

POLYTOCOUS, p[=o]-lit'[=o]-kus, _adj._ producing many or several at a birth.

POLYTRICHUM, p[=o]-lit'ri-kum, _n._ a genus of mosses, widely distributed in north temperate and arctic countries.--_adj._ POLYT'RICHOUS, very hairy, densely ciliate. [Gr. _polys_, many, _thrix_, _thrichos_, hair.]

POLYTYPE, pol'i-t[=i]p, _n._ a cast or fac-simile of an engraving, matter in type, &c., produced by pressing a wood-cut or other plate into semi-fluid metal.--_v.t._ to reproduce by polytypage--also _adj._--_n._ POL'YTYPAGE, stereotyping by the above method.

POLYZOA, pol-i-z[=o]'a, a class of animals forming a crust on stones, shells, &c. under water:--_sing._ POLYZ[=O]'AN, POLYZ[=O]'ON.--_adjs._ POL'YZOAN, POLYZO[=A]'RIAL.--_ns._ POLYZO[=A]'RIUM, a compound polyzoan; POLYZ[=O]'ARY, the polypary or polypidom of a polyzoan.--_adjs._ POLYZ[=O]'IC, filled with imaginary animals, zoolatrous; POLYZ[=O]'ÖID, consisting of many zoöids. [Gr. _polys_, many, _z[=o]on_, an animal.]

POLYZONAL, pol-i-z[=o]'nal, _adj._ composed of many zones or belts.

POMADE, po-m[=a]d', _n._ a preparation of fine inodorous fat, such as lard or suet, used instead of liquid oil for the hair--also POM[=A]'TUM.--_v.t._ to anoint with pomade. [Fr. _pommade_--It. _pomada_, _pommata_, lip-salve--L. _pomum_, an apple.]

POMANDER, p[=o]-man'd[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) a perfumed ball, or box containing perfumes, formerly supposed to ward off infection. [O. Fr. _pomme d'ambre_, apple of amber.]

POME, p[=o]m, _n._ an apple or a fruit like an apple: a small globe of silver or the like, filled with hot water, on which in cold weather the priest at mass warms his numbed hands.--_n._ POM'ACE, the substance of apples or similar fruit: POM[=A]'CEÆ, a suborder of _Rosaceæ_--the apple family--also POME'Æ.--_adj._ POM[=A]'CEOUS, relating to, consisting of, or resembling apples: like pomace.--_ns._ POME'-CIT'RON, a variety of apple; POM'EROY, the king-apple; POME'-WA'TER (_Shak._), a sweet, juicy apple; POMICUL'TURE, pomology.--_adjs._ POMIF'EROUS (_bot._), pome-bearing, applied to all plants producing the larger fruits, as distinguished from berry-bearing; POMOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ POMOL'OGIST; POMOL'OGY, the science of garden-fruits. [L. _pomum_, an apple.]

POMEGRANATE, pom'gran-[=a]t, _n._ a fruit much cultivated in warm countries, as large as a medium-sized orange, having a thick leathery rind filled with numerous seeds. [O. Fr. _pome grenate_--L. _pomum_, an apple, _granatum_, having many grains.]

POMERANIAN, pom-e-r[=a]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Pomerania_ in northern Prussia.--POMERANIAN, or SPITZ, DOG, a cross from the Eskimo dog, about the size of a spaniel, with a sharp-pointed face and an abundant white, creamy, or black coat.

POMFRET-CAKE, pom'fret-k[=a]k, _n._ a liquorice-cake. [_Pontefract_ in Yorkshire.]

POMMEL, pum'el, _n._ a knob or ball: the knob on a sword-hilt: the high part of a saddle-bow.--_v.t._ to beat as with a pommel, or with anything thick or heavy: to beat soundly: to bruise:--_pr.p._ pomm'elling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pomm'elled.--_adjs._ POMM'ELED, POMM'ELLED (_her._), having a rounded knob ending in a smaller one; POMM'ETTY, ending in a small knob, esp. of a cross--also POMM'ELÉ. [O. Fr. _pomel_ (Fr. _pommeau_)--L. _pomum_, an apple.]

POMONA, pom-[=o]'na, _n._ the goddess of fruit and garden produce. [L.--_pomum_, fruit, apple.]

POM-POM, pom-pom, _n._ the name given to a one-pounder quick-firing shell gun, from its sound.

POMP, pomp, _n._ a splendid procession: great show or display: ceremony: splendour: ostentation: grandeur.--_adv._ POMP[=O]'SO (_mus._), in a dignified style.--_adj._ POMP'OUS, displaying pomp or grandeur: grand: magnificent: dignified: boastful, self-important.--_adv._ POMP'OUSLY.--_ns._ POMP'OUSNESS, POMPOS'ITY. [Fr. _pompe_--L. _pompa_--Gr. _pomp[=e]_--_pempein_, to send.]

POMPADOUR, pom'pa-d[=oo]r, _n._ an 18th-century head-dress, a fashion of dressing women's hair by brushing it up from the forehead and rolling it over a cushion: a corsage with low square neck: a pattern for silk, with leaves and flowers pink, blue, and gold. [Marquise de _Pompadour_, 1721-64.]

POMPEIAN, pom-p[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Pompeii_, a city buried by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D., excavated since 1755.--_n._ POMPEI'AN-RED, a red colour like that on the walls of Pompeian houses.

POMPELMOOSE, pom'pel-m[=oo]s, _n._ the shaddock.--Also POM'PELMOUS, POM'PELO, PUM'ELO.

POMPHOLYX, pom'f[=o]-liks, _n._ a vesicular eruption chiefly on the palms and soles. [Gr.,--_pomphos_, a blister.]


POMPON, pom'pon, _n._ a tuft of feathers, &c., for a hat, the coloured woollen ball on the front of a shako. [Fr.]

PONCEAU, pon-s[=o]', _n._ a corn-poppy: corn-poppy colour.

PONCEAU, pon-s[=o]', _n._ a small bridge or culvert. [Fr.]

PONCHO, pon'ch[=o], _n._ a cloak worn by South American Indians, a blanket with a hole in the middle for the head: camlet or strong worsted.

POND, pond, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to ponder.

POND, pond, _n._ a pool of standing water.--_v.t._ to make into a pond.--_v.i._ to collect into a pond.--_ns._ PON'DAGE, the amount of water in a pond; POND'-LIL'Y, a plant of the aquatic genus _Nymphæa_; POND'-TUR'TLE, a terrapin, a mud turtle; POND'WEED, a common aquatic herb. [From A.S. _pyndan_, to shut in, thus a doublet of _pound_, an enclosure.]

PONDER, pon'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to weigh in the mind: to think over: to consider.--_v.i._ to think (with _on_ and _over_).--_ns._ PONDERABIL'ITY, PON'DERABLENESS.--_adjs._ PON'DERABLE, that may be weighed: having sensible weight; PON'DERAL, ascertained by weight.--_ns._ PON'DERANCE, PONDER[=A]'TION, weight; PON'DERER, one who ponders.--_adv._ PON'DERINGLY.--_ns._ PON'DERLING, a thing of little weight; PON'DERMENT, the act of pondering.--_adj._ PON'DEROUS, weighty: massive: forcible: important: clumsy or unwieldy by reason of weight.--_adv._ PON'DEROUSLY.--_ns._ PON'DEROUSNESS, PONDEROS'ITY, weight: heaviness: heavy matter. [L. _ponder[=a]re_--_pondus_, _pond[)e]ris_, a weight.]

PONE, p[=o]n, _n._ (_U.S._) bread made from Indian corn.

PONENT, p[=o]'nent, _adj._ (_Milt._) western.

PONEROLOGY, pon-[=e]-rol'[=o]-ji, _n._ (_theol._) the doctrine of wickedness. [Gr. _pon[=e]ros_, bad.]

PONGEE, pon-j[=e]', _n._ a soft kind of silk, woven in China from the cocoons of a wild silkworm. [Chin.]

PONGO, pong'g[=o], _n._ a large anthropoid ape of Borneo.

PONIARD, pon'yard, _n._ a small dagger for stabbing.--_v.t._ to stab with a poniard. [Fr. _poignard_--_poing_, fist (It. _pugno_)--L. _pugnus_.]

PONK, pongk, _n._ (_Spens._, _Shak._) a nocturnal spirit. [A false reading for _pouke_=_Puck_.]

PONS, ponz, _n._ (_anat._) a part connecting two parts.--_adjs._ PON'TIC, PON'TILE, relating to the pons of the brain.--PONS ASIN[=O]RUM, the asses' bridge, a name given to Euclid, i. 5. [L., a bridge.]

PONTAGE, pont'[=a]j, _n._ a toll paid on bridges: a tax for repairing bridges. [Low L. _pontagium_--L. _pons_, _pontis_, a bridge.]

PONTIC, pon'tik, _adj._ pertaining to the _Pontus_, Euxine, or Black Sea, or the regions round it.

PONTIFF, pon'tif, _n._ (_R.C._) a bishop, esp. the pope--originally an ancient Roman high-priest, the PON'TIFEX.--_adjs._ PONTIF'IC, -AL, of or belonging to a pontiff or to a bishop, esp. the pope: splendid: magnificent.--_n._ PONTIF'ICAL, an office-book of ecclesiastical ceremonies proper to a bishop.--_adv._ PONTIF' PONTIF'ICALS, the dress of a priest, bishop, or pope.--_n._ PONTIF'ICATE, the dignity of a pontiff or high-priest: the office and dignity or reign of a pope.--_v.i._ to perform the duties of a pontiff.--_n._ PON'TIFICE (_Milt._), bridge-work, a bridge.--PONTIFICAL MASS, mass celebrated by a bishop while wearing his full vestments. [Fr. _pontife_--L. _pontifex_, _pontificis_--_pon_s, _pont-is_, a bridge, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

PONTIL, pon'til, _n._ an iron rod used in glass-making for revolving the glass while soft.--Also PONTEE', PON'TY. [Fr.,--_point_, a point.]

PONTINAL, pon'ti-nal, _adj._ bridging.--_n._ a bone of the skull of some fishes.

PONTLEVIS, pont-lev'is, _n._ a drawbridge. [Fr.]

PONTOON, pon-t[=oo]n', _n._ a flat kind of boat used in forming a bridge for the passage of an army: a bridge of boats: a lighter or barge used for loading or unloading ships--also PON'TON.--_ns._ PONTONIER', PONTONNIER', one who has charge of a pontoon; PONTOON'-BRIDGE, a platform or roadway supported upon pontoons. [Fr. _ponton_--L. _pons_, a bridge.]

PONY, p[=o]'ni, _n._ a small horse--one less than 13 hands high: (_slang_) £25: a key or translation of the writings of an author: a small glass of beer.--_v.t._ to use a crib in translating.--_ns._ P[=O]'NY-CARR'IAGE, a small carriage drawn by one or more ponies; P[=O]'NY-EN'GINE, a small engine used for shunting wagons, &c.--JERUSALEM PONY, an ass. [Prob. Gael. _poniadh_.]

POOD, p[=oo]d, _n._ a Russian weight, 36 lb. avoirdupois.

POODLE, p[=oo]'dl, _n._ one of a breed of small curly-haired pet dogs, intelligent and affectionate. [Ger. _pudel_; Low Ger. _pudeln_, to waddle.]

POOH, p[=oo], _interj._ of disdain.--_v.t._ POOH'-POOH, to express contempt for: to sneer at. [Imit.]

POOL, p[=oo]l, _n._ a small body of water: a deep part of a stream of water.--_n._ POOL'ER, a stick for stirring a tan-vat. [A.S. _pól_ (Dut. _poel_, Ger. _pfuhl_)--Celt., as Ir. and Gael. _poll_, W. _pwll_.]

POOL, p[=oo]l, _n._ the receptacle for the stakes in certain games: the stakes themselves: a set of players at quadrille, &c.: a game played on a billiard-table with six pockets by two or more persons.--_v.t._ to put into a common fund for redistribution.--_v.i._ to form a pool. [Fr. _poule_, orig. a hen--L. _pullus_, a young animal.]

POON, p[=oo]n, _n._ name of a tree of India and Burma, very commonly used in the East Indies, particularly in shipbuilding, for planks and spars.--_n._ POON'-WOOD, the wood of the tree.

POONAC, p[=oo]'nak, _n._ the cake left after expressing oil from coco-nut pulp.

POOP, p[=oo]p, _n._ the hinder part of a ship: a deck above the ordinary deck in the after part of a ship.--_v.t._ to strike the stern, break in the stern of. [Fr. _poupe_--L. _puppis_, the poop.]

POOR, p[=oo]r, _adj._ having little or nothing: without means: needy: spiritless: depressed: (_B._) humble: contrite: wanting in appearance: lean: wanting in strength: weak: wanting in value: inferior: wanting in fertility: sterile: wanting in fitness, beauty, or dignity: trifling: paltry: dear (endearingly).--_ns._ POOR'HOUSE, a house established at the public expense for sheltering the poor: an almshouse; POOR'JOHN (_Shak._), a coarse kind of fish, the hake when POOR'-LAWS, laws providing for the support of the poor.--_adv._ POOR'LY.--_ns._ POOR'NESS; POOR'-RATE, a rate or tax for the support of the poor; POOR'-ROB'IN, an almanac; POOR'S'-BOX, a box for receiving contributions to the poor.--_adj._ POOR'-SPIR'ITED, cowardly: mean.--_ns._ POOR'-SPIR'ITEDNESS, cowardice; POOR'S'-ROLL (_Scots law_), the list of poor persons who are litigants, but unable to pay the expenses of litigation, and therefore are allowed to sue in _formâ pauperis_.--POOR MAN OF MUTTON (_Scot._), cold mutton broiled, esp. the shoulder; POOR MAN'S HERB, the hedge-hyssop; POOR WILL, a common American bird of the genus _Phalænoptilus_.--THE POOR, poor people collectively: those depending on public or private charity. [O. Fr. _poure_, _povre_ (Fr. _pauvre_)--L. _pauper_, poor.]

POORTITH, p[=oo]r'tith, _n._ (_Scot._) poverty.

POP, pop, _v.i._ to make a sharp, quick sound: to dart: to move quickly: to propose marriage.--_v.t._ to cause to make a sudden report: to thrust suddenly: to bring suddenly into notice: (_slang_) to pawn:--_pr.p._ pop'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ popped.--_n._ a sharp, quick sound or report: an effervescent beverage: (_slang_) a pistol.--_adv._ suddenly.--_adj._ coming without warning.--_v.t._ POP'-CORN, to parch maize till it bursts open.--_n._ corn so POP'-EYES, prominent eyes.--_ns._ POP'-GUN, a tube and rammer for shooting pellets, which makes a noise by the expansion of compressed air; POP'PER, anything that makes a popping sound; POP'-SHOP, a pawnshop; POP'-WEED, a name for the bladderwort.--POP OFF, to disappear all at once; POP THE QUESTION, to make an offer of marriage. [Imit.]

POPE, p[=o]p, _n._ the bishop of Rome, head of the R.C. Church: a priest of the Eastern Church: the autocratic head of any church or organisation.--_ns._ POPE'DOM, office, dignity, or jurisdiction of the pope; POPE'HOOD, POPE'SHIP, the condition of being pope; POPE'LING, a little pope; POP'ERY, the religion of which the pope is the head: Roman Catholicism; POPE'S'-EYE, the gland surrounded with fat in the middle of the thigh of an ox or a sheep; POPE'S'-HEAD, a long-handled brush; POPE'S'-NOSE, the fleshy part of a bird's tail.--_adj._ POP'ISH, relating to the pope or to popery: taught by popery.--_adv._ POP'ISHLY.--POPE JOAN, a game at cards in which the eight of diamonds is removed. [A.S. _pápa_--L. _papa_, a father.]

POPE, p[=o]p, _n._ a kind of perch. [Ety. obscure.]

POPINJAY, pop'in-j[=a], _n._ a parrot: a mark like a parrot, put on a pole to be shot at: a fop or coxcomb. [O. Fr. _papegai_--Low L. _papagallus_--Late Gr. _papagas_, a parrot; prob. Eastern.]

POPJOYING, pop'joi-ing, _n._ sport: amusement. [Perh. conn. with _popinjay_.]

POPLAR, pop'lar, _n._ a tree common in the northern hemisphere, of rapid growth, and having dioecious flowers arranged in catkins, both male and female flowers with an oblique cup-shaped perianth. [O. Fr. _poplier_--L. _p[=o]pulus_, poplar-tree.]

POPLIN, pop'lin, _n._ a kind of cloth consisting of a warp of silk and a weft of worsted, the latter, being thicker than the former, giving a corded appearance. [Fr. _popeline_. Ety. unknown.]

POPLITEAL, pop-li-t[=e]'al, _adj._ of or pertaining to the back of the knee.--Also POPLIT'IC. [L. _poples_, _poplitis_, the hock.]

POPPET, pop'et, _n._ a puppet: a piece of timber used to support a vessel while being launched: one of the heads of a lathe. [_Puppet._]

POPPLE, pop'l, _v.i._ to flow, to bob up and down.

POPPY, pop'i, _n._ a plant having large showy flowers, from one species of which opium is obtained.--_adj._ POPP'IED, covered or filled with poppies: listless, as the effects of opium.--_ns._ POPP'Y-HEAD, a carved ornament in wood, often finishing the end of a pew; POPP'Y-OIL, a fixed oil from the seeds of the opium-poppy. [A.S. _popig_--L. _papaver_, poppy.]

POPULACE, pop'[=u]-l[=a]s, _n._ the common people: those who are not distinguished by rank, education, office, &c. [Fr.,--It. _popolazzo_--L. _populus_, people.]

POPULAR, pop'[=u]-lar, _adj._ pertaining to the people: pleasing to, or prevailing among, the people: enjoying the favour of the people: easily understood: inferior: (_Shak._) vulgar.--_n._ POPULARIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ POP'ULARISE, to make popular or suitable to the people: to spread among the people.--_ns._ POP'ULARISER; POPULAR'ITY, POP'ULARNESS, quality or state of being popular or pleasing to the people: favour with the people: a desire to obtain favour with the people.--_adv._ POP'ULARLY.--_v.t._ POP'UL[=A]TE, to people: to furnish with inhabitants.--_v.i._ to increase in numbers.--_adj._ populous.--_n._ POPUL[=A]'TION, act of populating: the number of the inhabitants of any place.--_adj._ POP'ULOUS, full of people: numerously inhabited: (_Shak._) numerous.--_adv._ POP'ULOUSLY.--_n._ POP'ULOUSNESS. [Fr. _populaire_--L. _popularis_--_populus_, the people.]

PORAL, p[=o]'ral. See PORE.

PORBEAGLE, por-b[=e]'gl, _n._ a kind of tope or mackerel-shark. [Fr. _porc_, a hog + Eng. _beagle_.]

PORCATE, por'k[=a]t, _adj._ ridged.

PORCELAIN, pors'l[=a]n, _n._ a fine earthenware, white, thin, semi-transparent, first made in China: china-ware.--_adj._ of the nature of porcelain.--_adjs._ POR'CEL[=A]NOUS, PORCELL[=A]'NEOUS, POR'CELL[=A]NOUS.--_n._ POR'CELLANITE, a very hard, impure, jaspideous rock.--CAST, or FUSIBLE, PORCELAIN, a milky glass made of silica and cryolite with oxide of zinc; EGG-SHELL PORCELAIN, an extremely thin and translucent porcelain; FALSE PORCELAIN, a name given to the artificial or soft-paste porcelain; FRIT PORCELAIN, a name given to artificial soft-paste English porcelain, from its vitreous nature; TENDER PORCELAIN, a ware imitating hard-paste or natural porcelain. [O. Fr. _porcelaine_--It. _porcellana_, the Venus' shell--L. _porcella_, a young sow--_porcus_, a pig.]


PORCH, p[=o]rch, _n._ a building forming an enclosure or protection for a doorway: a portico at the entrance of churches and other buildings: the public porch on the agora of Athens where Zeno the Stoic taught: (_fig._) the Stoic philosophy. [O. Fr. _porche_ (It. _portico_)--L. _porticus_--_porta_, a gate.]

PORCINE, por's[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to or resembling swine: swinish. [L. _porcinus_--_porcus_, a swine.]

PORCUPINE, por'k[=u]-p[=i]n, _n._ one of the largest of rodent quadrupeds, covered with spines or quills. [O. Fr. _porc espin_--L. _porcus_, a pig, _spina_, a spine.]

PORE, p[=o]r, _n._ a minute passage in the skin for the perspiration: an opening between the molecules of a body.--_adjs._ P[=O]'RAL, of or pertaining to pores; P[=O]'RIFORM, in the form of a pore.--_ns._ P[=O]'RINESS, POROS'ITY, P[=O]'ROUSNESS, quality of being porous--opp. to _Density_.--_adjs._ P[=O]'ROSE, containing pores; P[=O]'ROUS, P[=O]'RY, having pores: that can be penetrated by fluid.--_adv._ P[=O]'ROUSLY. [Fr.,--L. _porus_--Gr. _poros_, a passage.]

PORE, p[=o]r, _v.i._ to look with steady attention on: to study closely.--_n._ P[=O]'RER. [_Peer_, to peep.]

PORGY, PORGIE, por'ji, _n._ a fish of the genus _Pagrus_.

PORIFERA, p[=o]-rif'e-ra, sponges:--_sing._ POR'IFER.--_adjs._ PORIF'ERAL, PORIF'EROUS. [L. _porus_, a pore, _ferre_, to bear.]

PORISM, por'ism, _n._ a proposition affirming the possibility of finding such conditions as will render a certain problem capable of innumerable solutions.--_adjs._ PORISMAT'IC, -AL; PORIS'TIC, -AL, reducing a determinate problem to an indeterminate. [Gr. _porizein_, to procure--_poros_, a way.]

PORK, p[=o]rk, _n._ the flesh of swine: (_Milt._) a stupid fellow.--_ns._ PORK'-BUTCH'ER, one who kills pigs; PORK'-CHOP, a slice from a pig's rib; PORK'ER, a young hog: a pig fed for pork; PORK'LING, a young pig; PORK'-PIE, a pie made of pastry and minced pork.--_adj._ PORK'Y, fat.--PORK-PIE HAT, a hat somewhat like a pie in shape worn by men and women about the middle of the 19th century. [Fr. _porc_--L. _porcus_, a hog.]

PORNOCRACY, p[=o]r-nok'r[=a]-si, _n._ the influence of courtezans--applied esp. to the dominant influence of certain profligate women over the Papal court in the earlier half of the 10th century.--_ns._ POR'NOGRAPH, an obscene picture or writing; PORNOG'RAPHER, a writer of such.--_adj._ PORNOGRAPH'IC.--_n._ PORNOG'RAPHY, the discussion of prostitution: obscene writing. [Gr. _porn[=e]_, a whore, _kratein_, to rule.]

POROSIS, p[=o]-r[=o]'sis, _n._ formation of callus, the knitting together of broken bones.

POROTYPE, p[=o]'r[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a copy of an engraved print made by placing it on chemically prepared paper and subjecting to the action of a gas. [Gr. _poros_, a pore, _typos_, an impression.]

PORPENTINE, por'pen-t[=i]n, _n._ (_Shak._) a porcupine.

PORPESS, PORPESSE, por'pes, _n._ Same as PORPOISE.

PORPHYRIO, por-fir'i-[=o], _n._ a genus of _Rallidæ_, the hyacinthine gallinules.

PORPHYROGENITUS, por-fir-[=o]-jen'i-tus, _n._ a title given to the Byzantine emperor, Constantine VII. (912-959), meaning 'born in the purple.'--_n._ PORPHYROGEN'ITISM, the Byzantine principle of the first son born after his father's accession succeeding to the throne. [Gr. _porphyra_, purple, _gennain_, to beget.]

PORPHYRY, por'fir-i, _n._ a very hard, variegated rock, of a purple and white colour, used in sculpture (_porfido rosso antico_): an igneous rock having a ground-mass enclosing crystals of feldspar or quartz.--_v.t._ POR'PHYRISE, to cause to resemble porphyry: to make of a spotted appearance.--_n._ POR'PHYRITE, one of the crystalline igneous rocks, which consists principally of plagioclase.--_adjs._ PORPHYRIT'IC, PORPHYR[=A]'CEOUS, resembling or consisting of porphyry.--_n._ POR'PHYROID, a crystalline and schistose rock containing porphyritic crystals of feldspar. [Through Fr. and L. from Gr. _porphyrites_--_porphyra_, purple.]

PORPOISE, por'pus, _n._ a genus of Cetecea in the family _Delphinidæ_, 4 to 8 feet long, gregarious, affording oil and leather--anciently POR'PESS. [O. Fr. _porpeis_--L. _porcus_, a hog, _piscis_, a fish.]

PORPORINO, por-p[=o]-r[=e]'n[=o], _n._ an old alloy of quicksilver, tin, and sulphur, used in place of gold. [It.]

PORRACEOUS, po-r[=a]'shus, _adj._ greenish like the leek. [L. _porrum_, a leek.]

PORRECTION, po-rek'shun, _n._ the action of delivering as by outstretched hands.--_adj._ PORRECT', extended forward. [L., _porrig[)e]re_, to stretch out.]

PORRIDGE, por'ij, _n._ a kind of pudding usually made by slowly stirring oatmeal amongst boiling water: a kind of broth, made by boiling vegetables in water. [Through O. Fr., from Low L. _porrata_--L. _porrum_, a leek. The affix _-idge_ (= _-age_) arose through confusion with _pottage_.]

PORRIGO, po-r[=i]'g[=o], _n._ a general name for various skin diseases.--_adj._ PORRIG'INOUS. [L.]

PORRINGER, por'in-j[.e]r, _n._ a small dish for porridge: (_Shak._) a head-dress shaped like such a dish.--Also PORR'ENGER. [From _porrige_=_porridge_, with inserted _n_ as in _passenger_.]

PORT, p[=o]rt, _n._ the larboard or left side of a ship.--_v.t._ to turn to the left, as the helm.--_v.i._ to turn to larboard or left. [Ety. dub.]

PORT, p[=o]rt, _n._ martial music on the bagpipes. [Gael.]

PORT, p[=o]rt, _n._ bearing: demeanour: carriage of the body.--_v.t._ to hold, as a musket, in a slanting direction upward across the body.--_ns._ PORTABIL'ITY, PORT'ABLENESS, the state of being portable.--_adj._ PORT'ABLE, that may be carried: not bulky or heavy.--_ns._ PORT'AGE, act of carrying: carriage: price of carriage: a space between two rivers, canals, &c., over which goods and boats have to be carried; PORT'ANCE (_Spens._), carriage, bearing.--_adjs._ POR'T[=A]TE (_her._), in a position as if being carried; POR'TATILE, portable; POR'TATIVE, easily carried.--_ns._ PORT'-CRAY'ON, a metallic handle for holding a crayon; PORTE'-BONHEUR', a charm carried for luck; PORTE'-COCHÈRE, a carriage entrance leading from the street into a building; PORTE'-MON'NAIE, a small clasped pocket-book for holding money; PORT'-FIRE, a slow-match or match-cord. [Fr.,--L. _port[=a]re_, to carry.]

PORT, p[=o]rt, _n._ a harbour: a haven or safe station for vessels: a place from which vessels start, and at which they finish their voyages.--_n._ PORT'-AD'MIRAL, the admiral commanding at a naval PORT'-CHARG'ES, payments which a ship has to pay while in harbour.--_n._ PORT'-WARD'EN, the officer in charge of a port: a harbour-master.--PORT OF CALL, a port where vessels can call for stores or repairs; PORT OF ENTRY, a port where merchandise is allowed by law to enter.--_Free port_, a port where no duty has to be paid on landing goods. [A.S. _port_--L. _portus_; akin to L. _porta_, a gate.]

PORT, p[=o]rt, _n._ a gate or entrance, esp. of a walled town: an opening in the side of a ship for light or air: an opening through which guns can be fired: the lid of a porthole: a passage in a machine for oil, steam, &c.--_n._ PORT'AGE (_Shak._), an opening. [Fr. _porte_--L. _porta_, gate.]

PORT, p[=o]rt, _n._ a dark-red wine from _Oporto_, Portugal.

PORTA, p[=o]r'ta, _n._ the part of an organ where its vessels and ducts enter, esp. the transverse fissure of the liver: the foramen of Monro.

PORTAL, p[=o]rt'al, _n._ a small gate: any entrance: (_archit._) the arch over a gate: the lesser of two gates.--PORTAL CIRCULATION, the capillary transmission of venous blood from one organ to another in its passage to the heart; PORTAL SYSTEM, the portal vein with its tributaries, &c.; PORTAL VEIN, the vein which conveys to the liver the venous blood from intestines, spleen, and stomach. [O. Fr. (Fr. _portail_)--Low L. _portale_--L. _porta_, a gate.]

PORTCULLIS, p[=o]rt-kul'is, _n._ a sliding door of cross timbers pointed with iron, hung over a gateway, so as to be let down in a moment to keep out an enemy: (_her._) a lattice: one of the pursuivants of the English College of Heralds: an Elizabethan coin bearing a portcullis on the reverse.--_v.t._ to obstruct, as with a portcullis. [O. Fr. _portecoulisse_--_porte_, a gate, _coulisse_, a groove--L. _col[=a]re_, to strain.]

PORTE, p[=o]rt, _n._ the Turkish government, so called from the 'High Gate,' or 'Sublime Porte,' the chief office of the Ottoman government.

PORTEND, por-tend', _v.t._ to indicate the future by signs: to betoken: presage.--_n._ POR'TENT, that which portends or foreshows: an evil omen.--_adj._ PORTENT'OUS, serving to portend: foreshadowing ill: wonderful, dreadful, prodigious.--_adv._ PORTENT'OUSLY. [L. _portend[)e]re_, _portentum_--_pro_, forth, _tend[)e]re_, to stretch.]

PORTER, p[=o]rt'[.e]r, _n._ a door-keeper or gate-keeper: one who waits at the door to receive messages:--_fem._ PORT'ERESS, PORT'RESS.--_n._ PORT'ERAGE, the office or duty of a porter.--PORTER'S LODGE, a house or an apartment near a gate for the use of the porter. [O. Fr. _portier_--Low L. _portarius_--L. _porta_, a gate.]

PORTER, p[=o]rt'[.e]r, _n._ one who carries burdens for hire: a dark-brown malt liquor, prob. because a favourite drink with London porters.--_ns._ PORT'ERAGE, carriage: charge made by a porter for carrying goods; PORT'ER-HOUSE, a restaurant; PORT'ERHOUSE-STEAK (_U.S._), a choice cut of beef-steak next to the sirloin.--_adv._ PORT'ERLY, like a porter: coarse. [O. Fr. _porteur_--L. _port[=a]re_, to carry.]

PORTFOLIO, p[=o]rt-f[=o]'li-[=o], _n._ a portable case for loose papers, drawings, &c.: a collection of such papers: the office of a minister of state. [Sp. _portafolio_--L. _port[=a]re_, to carry, _folium_, a leaf.]

PORTHOLE, p[=o]rt'h[=o]l, _n._ a hole or opening in a ship's side for light and air, or for pointing a gun through. [_Port_, a gate, and _hole_.]

PORTICO, p[=o]r'ti-k[=o], _n._ (_archit._) a range of columns in the front of a building: a colonnade: a porch before the entrance to a building: the Stoic philosophy:--_pl._ POR'TICOES, POR'TICOS.--_adj._ POR'TICOED, furnished with a portico. [It.,--L. _porticus_, a porch.]

PORTIÈRE, por-ty[=a]r', _n._ a curtain hung over the door or doorway of a room. [Fr.]

PORTIFORIUM, p[=o]r-ti-f[=o]'ri-um, _n._ a breviary:--_pl._ PORTIF[=O]'RIA.--Also PORT'FORY, PORT'OUS, PORT'UARY.

PORTIFY, p[=o]r'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ (_hum._) to give one's self undue importance. [_Port_, the wine of that name, _-fy_, from L. _fac[)e]re_, to make, from the saying, 'Claret would be port if it could.']

PORTION, p[=o]r'shun, _n._ a part: an allotment: fate: destiny: dividend: the part of an estate descending to an heir: a wife's fortune.--_v.t._ to divide into portions: to allot a share: to furnish with a portion.--_adj._ POR'TIONED, having a portion or endowment.--_ns._ POR'TIONER, one who portions or assigns shares: (_Scots law_) the occupier of a small feu or portion of land: one of two or more incumbents on a benefice at one time; POR'TIONIST, one who has an academical allowance: the incumbent of a benefice which has more than one rector or vicar.--_adj._ POR'TIONLESS, having no portion, dowry, or property.--MARRIAGE PORTION, a gift given by a parent or guardian to a bride on her marriage. [O. Fr.,--L. _portio_, _portionis_, akin to _pars_, a part.]


PORTLY, p[=o]rt'li, _adj._ having a dignified port or mien: corpulent: (_Shak._) swelling.--_n._ PORT'LINESS, state of being portly. [_Port_, bearing.]

PORTMAN, p[=o]rt'man, _n._ an inhabitant of a port-town, or one of the Cinque Ports.--_n._ PORT'-MOTE, a mote composed of such citizens.

PORTMANTEAU, port-man't[=o], _n._ a bag for carrying apparel, &c., on journeys: a hook on which to hang clothing.--Also PORTMAN'TUA (_obs._). [Fr.,--_porter_, to carry, _manteau_, a cloak.]

PORTOISE, p[=o]r'tiz, _n._ the gunwale of a boat.--Also PORT'LAST.

PORTRAIT, p[=o]r'tr[=a]t, _n._ the likeness of a person, esp. of his face: a vivid description in words.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to portray.--_ns._ POR'TRAITIST, a portrait-painter; POR'TRAITURE, a likeness: the drawing of portraits, or describing in words: a collection of pictures.--_v.t._ PORTRAY (p[=o]r-tr[=a]'), to paint or draw the likeness of: to describe in words: (_obs._) to adorn.--_ns._ PORTRAY'AL, the act of portraying; PORTRAY'ER.--COMPOSITE PORTRAITS, a method of indicating the facial characteristics of a family or group of persons, while at the same time suppressing the peculiarities of individual members. [O. Fr. _portrait_, _portraire_--L. _pro_, forth, _trah[)e]re_, to draw.]

PORTREEVE, p[=o]rt'r[=e]v, _n._ once the name of the principal magistrate in a port-town, esp. in London. [A.S. _portgeréfa_--_port_, a port, _geréfa_, a reeve.]

PORTUGUESE, p[=o]r't[=u]-g[=e]z, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Portugal_ or to its inhabitants.--_n._ the people, a single inhabitant, or the language of Portugal.--PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR, a species of _Physalia_.

PORTULACEÆ, p[=o]r-t[=u]-l[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], a natural order of exogenous plants, shrubby or herbaceous, generally succulent, mostly growing in dry places. [L. _portulaca_, purslane.]

PORZANA, p[=o]r-z[=a]'na, _n._ an old name of the small European water-rail or crake.

POS, poz, _adj._ (_slang_) an abbreviation of _positive_.

POSADA, p[=o]-sä'dä, _n._ an inn. [Sp.,--_posar_, to lodge.]

POSAUNE, p[=o]-zow'ne, _n._ the trombone. [Ger.]

POSE, p[=o]z, _n._ a position: an attitude, either natural or assumed.--_v.i._ to assume an attitude.--_v.t._ to put in a suitable attitude: to posit. [Fr.,--_poser_, to place--Low L. _pausare_, to cease--L. _pausa_, pause--Gr. _pausis_. Between Fr. _poser_ and L. _pon[)e]re_, _positum_, there has been confusion, which has influenced the derivatives of both words.]

POSE, p[=o]z, _v.t._ to puzzle: to perplex by questions: to bring to a stand.--_ns._ P[=O]'SER, one who, or that which, poses: a difficult question; P[=O]'SING.--_adv._ P[=O]'SINGLY. [M. E. _apposen_, a corr. of _oppose_, which in the schools meant to 'argue against.']

POSÉ, po-z[=a]', _adj._ (_her._) standing still.

POSITION, po-zish'un, _n._ place, situation: attitude: a place taken or to be taken by troops: state of affairs: the ground taken in argument or in a dispute: principle laid down: place in society: method of finding the value of an unknown quantity by assuming one or more values (_single_, when one is assumed; _double_, when two).--_v.t._ POSIT (poz'it), to place in right position or relation: to lay down as something true or granted.--_adj._ POSI'TIONAL.--STRATEGIC POSITION, a position taken up by troops to check the movements of an enemy. [Fr.,--L.--_pon[)e]re_, _positum_, to place.]

POSITIVE, poz'i-tiv, _adj._ definitely placed or laid down: clearly expressed: really existing: actual: not admitting of any doubt or qualification: decisive: settled by distinct appointment: arbitrarily prescribed, laid down--opp. to _Natural_: too confident in opinion: fully assured: certain: (_gram._) noting the simple form of an adjective--as _Positive degree_ of comparison: (_math._) greater than zero, to be added, as _Positive quantity_: (_phot._) having the lights and shades in the picture the same as in the original, instead of being reversed: (_electr._) having a relatively high potential--opp. to _Negative_ (q.v.).--_n._ that which is placed or laid down: that which may be affirmed: reality: a positive picture--opp. to _Negative_.--_adv._ POS'ITIVELY.--_ns._ POS'ITIVENESS, state or quality of being positive: certainty: confidence; POS'ITIVISM, actual or absolute knowledge; POS'ITIVIST, a believer in positivism.--POS'ITIVISM, POSITIVE PHILOSOPHY, the philosophical system originated by Comte (1798-1857)--its foundation the doctrine that man can have no knowledge of anything but phenomena, and that the knowledge of phenomena is relative, not absolute. [Fr.,--L. _positivus_, fixed by agreement--_pon[)e]re_, to place.]

POSNET, pos'net, _n._ a small basin. [O. Fr. _pocenet_.]

POSOLOGY, p[=o]-sol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of quantity.--_adjs._ POSOLOG'IC, -AL. [Gr. _posos_, how much, _logia_, discourse.]

POSSE, pos'[=e], _n._ power: possibility.--POSSE COMITATUS, the power of the county: the body of men entitled to be called out by the sheriff to aid in enforcing the law. [L. _posse_, to be able.]

POSSESS, poz-zes', _v.t._ to have or hold as an owner: to have the control of: to inform: to seize: to enter into and influence: to put (_one's self_) in possession (_of_): (_Spens._) to achieve: (_Shak._) put in possession of information, convince.--_adj._ POSSESSED', influenced by some evil spirit, demented.--_n._ POSSES'SION, act of possessing: the thing possessed: a country taken by conquest: property: state of being possessed, as by an evil spirit: madness.--_adjs._ POSSES'SIONARY, POSSES'SIVE, pertaining to or denoting possession.--_n._ POSSES'SIVE (_gram._), a pronoun denoting possession: the possessive case.--_adv._ POSSES'SIVELY.--_n._ POSSES'SOR, one who possesses: owner: proprietor: occupant.--_adj._ POSSES'SORY, relating to a possessor or possession: having possession.--GIVE POSSESSION, to put in another's power or occupancy; TAKE POSSESSION, to assume ownership; WRIT OF POSSESSION, a process directing a sheriff to put a person in possession of property recovered in ejectment. [Fr.,--L. _possid[=e]re_, _possessum_.]

POSSET, pos'et, _n._ a dietetic preparation, made by curdling milk with some acidulous liquor, such as wine, ale, or vinegar.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to curdle.--POSSET CUP, a large cup or covered bowl for posset. [Prob. Ir. _pusoid_, a posset; cf. W. _posel_.]

POSSIBLE, pos'i-bl, _adj._ that may be or happen: that may be done: not contrary to the nature of things.--_n._ POSSIBIL'ITY, state of being possible: that which is possible: a contingency.--_adv._ POSS'IBLY. [Fr.,--L. _possibilis_--_posse_, to be able.]

POSSUM, pos'um, _n._ Same as OPOSSUM.

POST, p[=o]st, _n._ a piece of timber fixed in the ground, generally as a support to something else: a pillar.--_v.t._ to fix on or to a post, or to any conspicuous position, in a public place: to expose to public reproach, to placard as having failed in an examination, &c.--_n._ POST'ER, one who posts bills: a large printed bill or placard for posting.--FROM PILLAR TO POST (see PILLAR). [A.S. _post_--L. _postis_, a doorpost--_pon[)e]re_, to place.]

POST, p[=o]st, _n._ a fixed place, as a military station: a fixed place or stage on a road: an office: one who travels by stages, esp. carrying letters, &c.: a public letter-carrier: an established system of conveying letters: (_Shak._) a post-horse: (_Shak._) haste: a size of writing-paper, double that of common note-paper (so called from the water-mark, a postman's horn).--_v.t._ to set or station: to put in the post-office: (_book-k._) to transfer from the journal to the ledger: to supply with necessary information, as to _post up_ (cf. _Well posted up_).--v.i to travel with post-horses, or with speed.--_adv._ with posthorses: with speed.--_ns._ POST'AGE, the act of going by post: journey: money paid for conveyance of letters, &c., by post or mail; POST'AGE-STAMP, an adhesive stamp for affixing to letters to show that the postal charge has been paid.--_adj._ POST'AL, of or pertaining to the mail-service.--_ns._ POST'-BAG, a mail-bag; POST'-BILL, a way-bill of the letters sent from a post-office; POST'BOY, a boy that rides posthorses, or who carries letters; POST'-CARD, a stamped card on which a message may be sent by post; POST'-CHAISE, POST'-CHAR'IOT, a chaise or carriage with four wheels let for hire for the conveyance of those who travel with posthorses.--_v.i._ POST'-CHAISE, to travel by post-chaise.--_ns._ POST'-DAY, the day on which the post or mail arrives or departs; POST'ER, one who travels by post: (_Shak._) a courier: one who travels expeditiously: a posthorse.--_adj._ POST'-FREE, delivered by the post without payment.--_n._ POSTHASTE', haste in travelling like that of a post.--_adj._ speedy: immediate.--_adv._ with haste or speed.--_ns._ POST'-HORN, a postman's horn: a horn blown by the driver of a mail-coach; POST'HORSE, a horse kept for posting; POST'HOUSE, a house where horses are kept for the use of parties posting: a post-office; POST'MAN, a post or courier: a letter-carrier; POST'MARK, the mark or stamp put upon a letter at a post-office showing the time and place of reception and delivery; POST'MASTER, the manager or superintendent of a post-office: one who supplies posthorses: at Merton College, Oxford, a scholar who is supported on the foundation; POST'MASTER-GEN'ERAL, the minister who is the chief officer of the post-office department; POST'-OFF'ICE, an office for receiving and transmitting letters by post: a department of the government which has charge of the reception and conveyance of letters.--_adj._ POST'-PAID, having the postage paid, as a letter.--_ns._ POST'-TIME, the time for the despatch or for the delivery of letters; POST'-TOWN, a town with a post-office.--POSTAL NOTE, a note for a fixed designated sum issued by a postmaster, payable at any office; POSTAL ORDER, an order issued by the postmaster authorising the holder to receive at some particular post-office payment of the sum marked on it. [Fr. _poste_--L. _pon[)e]re_, _positum_, to place.]

POST, p[=o]st, _adv._ and _prep._ after, behind--in compounds as _Post-abdominal_, _Post-anal_, _Post-axia_l, _Post-brachial_, _Post-canonical_, _Post-clavicle_, _Post-embryonic_, &c.--_adj._ POST'-CLASS'ICAL, after those Greek and Latin writers styled classical, but before the medieval.--_n._ POST'-COMMUN'ION, the part of the eucharistic office after the act of communion.--_adj._ succeeding communion.--_v.t._ POSTDATE', to date after the real time.--_n._ a date on a letter later than the real date on which it was written.--_adjs._ POST'-DIL[=U]'VIAL, POST'-DIL[=U]'VIAN, being or happening after the deluge.--_ns._ POST'-DIL[=U]'VIAN, one who has lived since the deluge; POST'-EN'TRY, an additional entry of merchandise at a custom-house.--_adjs._ POST'-EXIL'IC, POST'-EXIL'IAN, after the time of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews.--_ns._ POST'-EXIST'ENCE, future existence; POST'FIX, a letter, syllable, or word fixed to or put after another word, an affix.--_v.t._ POSTFIX', to add to the end of another word.--_adjs._ POST'-GL[=A]'CIAL, after the glacial epoch; POST'-GRAD'UATE, belonging to study pursued after graduation; POST'-MERID'IAN, coming after the sun has crossed the meridian: in the afternoon (written P.M.).--_n._ POST'-MILLEN[=A]'RIAN, one who believes in post-millennialism.--_adj._ POST'-MILLENN'IAL.--_n._ POST'-MILLENN'IALISM, the doctrine that the second coming of Christ will follow the millennium.--_adj._ POST'-MOR'TEM, after death.--_n._ a post-mortem examination.--_adjs._ POST'-N[=A]'TAL, after birth; POST'-N[=I]'CENE, after the first general council at _Nicæa_ in 325 A.D.--_n._ POST'-NOTE, a note issued by a bank, payable at some future time.--_adj._ POST'-NUP'TIAL, being or happening after marriage.--_ns._ POST'-[=O]'BIT, a bond or security given by heirs and others entitled to reversionary interests, whereby in consideration of a sum of money presently advanced, the debtor binds himself to pay a much larger sum after the death of some person, or of himself; POST'-POSI'TION, the state of being put back or out of the regular place: (_gram._) a word or particle placed after a word--opp. to a preposition, which is _placed before_.--_adjs._ POST'-POS'ITIVE; POST'-REMOTE', more remote in subsequent time or order; POST'-TER'TIARY, more recent than the Tertiary.--_n._ the most recent geological division. [L.]

POST-CAPTAIN, p[=o]st'-kap't[=a]n, _n._ a captain in the British navy, so called in contradistinction to a commander because his name was 'posted' in the seniority list.

POSTE RESTANTE, p[=o]st res-tant', _n._ a place in a post-office where letters are kept till called for. [Fr. _poste_, post-office, and pr.p. of _rester_, to remain.]

POSTERIOR, pos-t[=e]'ri-or, _adj._ coming after: later in time or in position: situated behind: hinder.--_n._ POSTERIOR'ITY, state of being posterior--opp. to _Priority_.--_adv._ POST[=E]' POST[=E]'RIORS, short for posterior parts: (_hum._) the latter part, buttock.--_n._ POSTER'ITY, those coming after: succeeding generations: descendants: a race. [L., comp. of _posterus_, coming after--_post_, after.]

POSTERN, p[=o]st'[.e]rn, _n._ a back door or gate: a small private door: (_fort._) a covered passage between the main ditch and the outworks of a fort, usually closed by a gate.--_adj._ back: private. [O. Fr. _posterne_, _posterle_--L. _posterula_, a dim. from _posterus_.]

POSTHUMOUS, post'[=u]-mus, _adj._ born after the father's death: published after the death of the author.--_adv._ POST'HUMOUSLY. [L. _posthumus_, postumus, superl. of _posterus_, coming after--_post_, after.]

POSTICHE, pos-t[=e]sh', _adj._ added after the work is finished. [Fr.]

POSTIL, pos'til, _n._ a note in the margin of the Bible, so called because written after the text or other words: a marginal note: (_R.C._) a homily read after the gospel.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to make such notes.--_n._ POSTIL'LA, a sermon or homily explanatory of the gospel in the mass: any sermon.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ POS'TILLATE, to write or deliver a postil.--_ns._ POSTILL[=A]'TION; POS'TILLER, one who comments: a preacher. [O. Fr. _postille_ (It. _postilla_)--Low L. _postilla_--L. _post illa_ (_verba_), after those (words).]

POSTILLION, p[=o]s-til'yun, _n._ a postboy: one who guides posthorses, or horses in any carriage, riding on one of them. [Fr. _postillon_.]

POSTLIMINY, post-lim'i-ni, _n._ the right by which persons or things taken in war by the enemy are restored to their former status upon their coming again under the power of the nation to which they belonged: the return of a prisoner, exile, &c. to his former status.--_adjs._ POSTLIM'INARY, POSTLIMIN'IARY. [L. _postliminium_.]

POSTPONE, p[=o]st-p[=o]n', _v.t._ to put off to a future time: to defer: to delay: to subordinate.--_n._ POSTPONE'MENT, act of putting off to an after-time: temporary delay--also POSTP[=O]'NENCE (_obs._). [L. _postpon[)e]re_, _-positum_--_post_, after, _pon[)e]re_, to put.]

POST-PRANDIAL, p[=o]st-pran'di-al, _adj._ after dinner. [L. _post_, after, _prandium_, a repast.]

POSTSCRIPT, p[=o]st'skript, _n._ a part added to a letter after the signature: an addition to a book after it is finished.--_adj._ POST'SCRIPTAL. [L., from _post_, after, _scriptum_, written, pa.p. of _scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

POSTULATE, pos't[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to assume without proof: to take for granted or without positive consent: (_eccles._) to ask legitimate authority to admit a nominee by dispensation, when a canonical impediment is supposed to exist.--_v.i._ to make demands.--_n._ a position assumed as self-evident: (_geom._) a self-evident problem: a petition: a condition for the accomplishment of anything.--_ns._ POS'TULANT, a candidate; POSTUL[=A]'TION, the act of postulating: solicitation.--_adjs._ POS'TUL[=A]TORY, supplicatory: assuming or assumed without proof as a postulate; POS'TURAL. [L. _postul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to demand--_posc[)e]re_, to ask urgently.]

POSTURE, pos't[=u]r, _n._ the placing or position of the body, esp. of the parts of it with reference to each other: attitude: state or condition: disposition of mind.--_v.t._ to place in a particular manner.--_v.i._ to assume an affected manner.--_ns._ POS'TURE-M[=A]'KER, POS'TURE-MAS'TER, one who teaches or practises artificial postures of the body: an acrobat; POS'TURER, POS'TURIST, an acrobat. [Fr.,--L. _positura_--_pon[)e]re_, _positum_, to place.]

POSY, p[=o]'zi, _n._ a verse of poetry, esp. a motto or an inscription on a ring: a motto sent with a bouquet: a bouquet. [_Poesy._]

POT, pot, _n._ a metallic vessel for various purposes, esp. for cooking: a drinking vessel: an earthen vessel for plants: the quantity in a pot: (_slang_) a large sum of money, a prize.--_v.t._ to preserve in pots: to put in pots: to cook in a pot: to plant in a pot: to drain, as sugar, in a perforated cask: to shoot an enemy.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to tipple:--_pr.p._ pot'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pot'ted.--_n._ POT'-ALE, refuse from a grain distillery.--_adj._ POT'-BELL'IED, having a prominent belly.--_ns._ POT'-BELL'Y, a protuberant belly; POT'-BOIL'ER, a work in art or literature produced merely to secure the necessaries of life; POT'-BOY, a boy in a public-house who carries pots of ale to customers; POT'-COMPAN'ION, a comrade in drinking; POT'-HANG'ER, a hook on which to hang a pot; POT'-HAT, a high-crowned felt hat, worn by men; POT'-HEAD, a stupid person; POT'HERB, any vegetable which is boiled and used as POT'-HOLES, holes in the beds of rapid streams, made by an eddying current of water, which gives the stones a gyratory motion.--_ns._ POT'-HOOK, a hook hung in a chimney for supporting a pot: a letter shaped like a pot-hook; POT'-HOUSE, an ale-house; POT'-HUNT'ER, one who hunts or fishes for profit; POT'-LID, the cover of a pot; POT'-LIQ'UOR, a thin broth in which meat has been boiled; POT'-LUCK, what may happen to be in the pot for a meal without special preparation; POT'-MAN, a pot-companion: a pot-boy; POT'-MET'AL, an alloy of copper and lead; POT'-SHOP, a small public-house; POT'-STICK, a stick for stirring what is being cooked in a pot; POT'STONE, a massive variety of talc-schist, composed of a finely felted aggregate of talc, mica, and chlorite.--_adj._ POT'-VAL'IANT, brave owing to drink.--POTTED MEATS, meats cooked, seasoned, and hermetically sealed in tins or jars.--GO TO POT, to go to ruin, originally said of old metal, to go into the melting-pot; KEEP THE POT BOILING, to procure the necessaries of life; TAKE POT-LUCK, to accept an invitation to a meal where no preparation for guests has been made. [M. E. _pot_, from the Celt., as Ir. _pota_, Gael. _poit_, W. _pot._]

POTABLE, p[=o]'ta-bl, _adj._ that may be drunk: liquid.--_n._ something drinkable.--_n._ P[=O]'TABLENESS. [Fr.,--L. _potabilis_--_p[=o]t[=a]re_, to drink.]

POTAMOLOGY, pot-a-mol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the scientific study of rivers.--_n._ POTAMOG'RAPHY.--_adj._ POTAMOLOG'ICAL.

POTASH, pot'ash, _n._ a powerful alkali, obtained from the ashes of plants--also POTASS'.--_n._ POT'ASH-WA'TER, a kind of aerated water, which, when of full medicinal strength, contains fifteen grains of the bicarbonate of potash in each bottle--usually much less is put in. [_Pot ashes._]

POTASSA, p[=o]-tas'a, _n._ [Latinised form of _potash_.]

POTASSIUM, p[=o]-tas'i-um, _n._ the metallic base of the alkali potash--it is of a bluish colour, and presents a strong metallic lustre. [_Potassa._]

POTATION, p[=o]-t[=a]'shun, _n._ act of drinking: a draught: the liquor drunk.--_n._ POT[=A]'TOR, a drinker.--_adj._ P[=O]'T[=A]TORY. [L. _potatio_--_p[=o]t[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to drink.]

POTATO, p[=o]-t[=a]'t[=o], _n._ one of the tubers of a plant almost universally cultivated for food in the temperate parts of the globe: the plant itself:--_pl._ POT[=A]'TOES.--_ns._ POT[=A]'TO-BEE'TLE, a North American beetle which commits fearful ravages among potatoes; POT[=A]'TO-BING (_Scot._), a heap of potatoes to be preserved; POT[=A]'TO-B[=O]'GLE (_Scot._), a scarecrow; POT[=A]'TO-DISEASE', -ROT, a destructive disease of the potato caused by a parasitic fungus; POT[=A]'TO-FING'ER (_Shak._), a fat finger, used in contempt; POT[=A]'TO-FLY, a dipterous insect of the same genus as the radish-fly, whose maggots are often abundant in bad potatoes in autumn.--SMALL POTATOES (_U.S._), anything petty or contemptible. [Sp. _patata_, _batata_, orig. Haytian.]

POTCH, poch, _v.i._ (_Shak._) to thrust, to push. [Fr. _pocher_; from root of _poke_.]

POTCHING-ENGINE, poch'ing-en'jin, _n._ in paper-making, a machine in which washed rags are bleached.

POTEEN, POTHEEN, po-t[=e]n', _n._ Irish whisky, esp. that illicitly distilled. [Ir. _poitim_, I drink.]

POTENT, p[=o]'tent, _adj._ strong: powerful in a physical or a moral sense: having great authority or influence.--_n._ a prince, potentate.--_ns._ P[=O]'TENCE, power: (_her._) a marking of the shape of [T shape]: in horology, the stud or counterbridge forming a step for the lower pivot of a verge (also P[=O]'TANCE); P[=O]'TENCY, power: authority: influence; P[=O]'TENTATE, one who possesses power: a prince.--_adj._ P[=O]TEN'TIAL, powerful, efficacious: existing in possibility, not in reality: (_gram._) expressing power, possibility, liberty, or obligation.--_n._ anything that may be possible: a possibility: the name for a function in the mathematical theory of attractions: the power of a charge or current of electricity to do work.--_n._ P[=O]TENTIAL'ITY.--_adv._ P[=O]TEN'TIALLY.--_n._ P[=O]TEN'TIARY, a person invested with power or influence.--_v.t._ P[=O]TEN'TIATE, to give power to.--_n._ P[=O]'TENTITE, a blasting substance.--_adv._ P[=O]'TENTLY.--_n._ P[=O]'TENTNESS.--POTENTIAL ENERGY, the power of doing work possessed by a body in virtue of the stresses which result from its position relatively to other bodies. [L. _potens_--_potis_, able, _esse_, to be.]

POTENTILLA, p[=o]-ten-til'ä, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Rosaceæ_, differing from _Fragaria_ (strawberry) in the fruit having a dry instead of a succulent receptacle--well-known varieties are _silver-weed_ and _wild strawberry_.

POTHER, poth'[.e]r, _n._ bustle: confusion.--_v.t._ to puzzle: to perplex: to tease.--_v.i._ to make a pother. [_Potter._]

POTICHE, p[=o]-t[=e]sh', _n._ a vase or jar of rounded form and short neck.--_n._ POTICHOM[=A]'NIA, the process of coating glass vessels on the inside with paper or linen decorations. [Fr.]

POTIN, p[=o]-tang', _n._ an old compound of copper, zinc, lead, and tin. [Fr.]

POTION, p[=o]'shun, _n._ a draught: a liquid medicine: a dose. [Fr.,--L. _potio_--_p[=o]t[=a]re_, to drink.]

POT-POURRI, p[=o]-p[=oo]-r[=e]', _n._ a ragout of meats, vegetables, &c.: a mixture of sweet-scented materials, chiefly dried flowers: medley of musical airs: a literary production composed of unconnected parts. [Fr. _pot_, pot, _pourrir_, to rot--L. _putr[=e]re_, to putrefy.]

POTSHERD, pot'sh[.e]rd, _n._ a piece of a broken pot--(_obs._) POT'-SHARD, POT'-SHARE. [_Pot_ and A.S. _sceard_, a shred--_sceran_, to divide.]

POTTAGE, pot'[=a]j, _n._ anything cooked in a pot: a thick soup of meat and vegetables: oatmeal porridge.--_n._ POT'TINGER, a pottage-maker. [Fr. _potage_--_pot_.]

POTTER, pot'[.e]r, _n._ one who makes earthenware.--_n._ POTT'ERY, earthenware vessels: a place where earthenware is manufactured: the business of a potter.--POTTER'S CLAY, clay used in the making of earthenware; POTTER'S FIELD, a burial-place for strangers (Matt. xxvii. 7); POTTER'S WHEEL, a horizontal wheel on which clay vessels are shaped.

POTTER, pot'[.e]r, _v.i._ to be fussily engaged about trifles: to loiter.--_n._ POTT'ERER. [Prov. _pote_, to push.]

POTTING, pot'ing, _n._ placing in a pot, as plants: preserving in a pot, as meats.

POTTLE, pot'l, _n._ a little pot: a measure of four pints: a small basket for fruit.--_adjs._ POTT'LE-BOD'IED, having a body shaped like a pottle; POTT'LE-DEEP, to the bottom of the tankard.--_n._ POTT'LE-POT (_Shak._), a drinking-vessel holding two quarts. [_Pot._]

POT-WALLER, pot'-wol'[.e]r, POT-WALLOPER, pot-wol'op-[.e]r, _n._ a pot-boiler: a voter in certain English boroughs where, before the Reform Bill of 1832, every one who boiled a pot--i.e. every male householder or lodger, was entitled to vote--also POT'-WALL'ONER.--_adj._ POT'-WALL'OPING. [Lit., 'pot-boiler,' the latter part of the word being from an Old Low Ger. _wallen_, to boil.]

POUCH, powch, _n._ a poke, pocket, or bag: the bag or sac of an animal.--_v.t._ to put into a pouch: to pocket, submit to.--_adj._ POUCHED, having a pouch.--POUCHED MOUSE, a genus of small, lean, long-tailed, agile rodents, with cheek-pouches; POUCHED RAT, a genus of plump, short-tailed rodents, with cheek-pouches which open externally. [O. Fr. _poche_; cf. _Poke_, a bag.]

POUCHONG, p[=oo]-shong', _n._ a superior black tea.

POUDRETTE, p[=oo]-dret', _n._ manure of dried night-soil, charcoal, &c. [Fr.]

POUFFE, p[=oo]f, _n._ in dressmaking, material gathered up into a kind of knot: a cushion stuffed so as to be very soft.--_n._ POUF, plaited gauze attached to a head-dress, as in 18th century. [Fr.]

POULAINE, p[=oo]-l[=a]n', _n._ a long, pointed shoe. [O. Fr.]

POULDRED, powl'drd, _adj._ (_Spens._) powdered.

POULP, POULPE, p[=oo]lp, _n._ the octopus. [Fr.--L. _polypus._]

POULT, p[=o]lt, _n._ a little hen or fowl: a chicken.--_ns._ POULT'ER (_Shak._), POULT'ERER, one who deals in fowls; POULT'-FOOT, a club-foot.--_adj._ POULT'-FOOT'ED (_arch._), club-footed.--_ns._ POULT'RY, domestic fowls; POULT'RY-YARD, a yard where poultry are confined and bred. [Fr. _poulet_, dim. of _poule_, fowl--L. _pullus_, the young of any animal.]

POULTICE, p[=o]l'tis, _n._ a soft composition of meal, bran, &c. applied to sores.--_v.t._ to put a poultice upon. [L. _pultes_, pl. of _puls_, _pultis_ (Gr. _poltos_), porridge.]

POUNCE, powns, _v.i._ to fall (_upon_) and seize with the claws: to dart suddenly (_upon_).--_v.t._ to ornament with small holes: to strike with the claws.--_n._ a hawk's claw: the paw of a lion or other animal.--_adj._ POUNCED, furnished with talons. [Orig. to _pierce_, to stamp holes in for ornament; through Romance forms, from L. _pung[)e]re_, _punctum_.]

POUNCE, powns, _n._ a fine powder for preparing a surface for writing on: coloured powder sprinkled over holes pricked in paper to form a pattern on paper underneath.--_v.t._ to sprinkle with pounce, as paper or a pattern.--_ns._ POUNCE'-BOX, POUN'CET-BOX, a box with a perforated lid for sprinkling pounce. [Fr. _ponce_, pumice--L. _pumex_, _pumicis_, pumice-stone.]

POUND, pownd, _n._ long the unit of weight in the western and central states of Europe, differing, however, in value in all of them--a weight of 16 oz. avoirdupois for general goods, the troy-pound of 12 oz. being for bullion (the troy lb. is defined as 5760 grains, of which the lb. avoirdupois contains 7000): the pound sterling, a money of account: a sovereign or 20s., also represented in Scotland by a note (the POUND SCOTS is 1/12th of the pound sterling, or 1s. 8d.--of its twenty shillings each is worth an English penny): (_Spens._) a balance.--_v.t._ (_slang_) to wager a pound on.--_ns._ POUND'AGE, a charge or tax made on each pound; POUND'AL, a name sometimes used for the absolute foot pound second unit of force, which will produce in one pound a velocity of one foot per second, after acting for one second; POUND'-CAKE, a sweet cake whose ingredients are measured by weight; POUND'ER, he who has, or that which weighs, many pounds--used only after a number, as a 12-pounder.--_adj._ POUND'-FOOL'ISH, neglecting the care of large sums in attending to little ones. [A.S. _pund_--L. _pondo_, by weight, _pondus_, a weight--_pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

POUND, pownd, _v.t._ to shut up or confine, as strayed animals.--_n._ an enclosure in which strayed animals are confined: a level part of a canal between two locks: a pound-net.--_ns._ POUND'AGE, a charge made for pounding stray cattle; POUND'-KEEP'ER; POUND'-NET, a kind of weir in fishing, forming a trap by an arrangement of nets (the _wings_, _leader_, and _pocket_, _bowl_, or _pound_). [A.S. _pund_, enclosure.]

POUND, pownd, _v.t._ to beat into fine pieces: to bruise: to bray with a pestle.--_v.i._ to walk with heavy steps.--_n._ POUND'ER. [M. E. _pounen_--A.S. _punian_, to beat; _-d_ excrescent.]

POUR, p[=o]r, _v.t._ to cause to flow or fall in streams or drops: to throw with force: to send forth in great quantity: to give vent to: to utter.--_v.i._ to flow: to issue forth: to rush.--_n._ POUR'ER. [Celt., as W. _bwrw_, to throw, Gael. _purr_, to push.]

POURBOIRE, p[=oo]r-bwor', _n._ drink-money: a bribe. [Fr. _pour_, for, _boire_, to drink.]

POURPARLER, p[=oo]r-pär'l[=a], _n._ a conference to arrange for some important transaction, as the formation of a treaty. [Fr. _pour_=L. _pro_, before, _parler_, to speak.]

POURPOINT, p[=oo]r'point, _n._ a close-fitting men's quilted garment worn in the 14th century.

POURTRAHED, p[=oo]r-tr[=a]d', _adj._ (_Spens._) portrayed or drawn.


POUSSE, pows, _n._ (_Spens._) pulse, pease. [_Pulse_ or _pease_.]

POUSSE-CAFÉ, p[=oo]s'-ka-f[=a]', _n._ a cordial served after coffee.

POUSSETTE, p[=oo]s-set', _v.t._ (_Tenn._) to waltz round each other, as two couples in a contra-dance. [Fr. _poussette_, _pouser_, to push.]

POUT, powt, _v.i._ to push out the lips, in contempt or displeasure: to look sulky: to push out or be prominent.--_n._ a fit of sulkiness or ill-humour.--_ns._ POUT'ER, one who pouts: a variety of pigeon, having its breast inflated; POUT'ING, childish sullenness.--_adv._ POUT'INGLY, in a pouting or sullen manner. [Ety. dub.; cf. prov. Fr. _pot_, _pout_, lip, Fr. _bouder_, to pout; W. _pwdu_, pout.]

POVERTY, pov'[.e]r-ti, _n._ the state of being poor: necessity: want: meanness: defect.--_adjs._ POV'ERTY-STRICK'EN, POV'ERTY-STRUCK, reduced to a state of poverty: in great suffering from poverty. [O. Fr. _poverte_ (Fr. _pauvreté_)--L. _paupertas_, _-tatis_--_pauper_, poor.]

POWAN, pow'an, _n._ (_Scot._) the pollan, vendace, or Coregonus.

POWDER, pow'd[.e]r, _n._ dust: any substance in fine particles: gunpowder, a mixture of charcoal, sulphur, and saltpetre: hair-powder.--_v.t._ to reduce to powder: to sprinkle with powder: to salt by sprinkling.--_v.i._ to crumble into powder: to use powder for the hair.--_n._ POW'DER-BOX, a box for toilet-powder, &c.--_adj._ POW'DERED, reduced to powder: sprinkled with powder: salted.--_ns._ POW'DER-FLASK, POW'DER-HORN, a flask or horn for carrying powder, fitted with a means of measuring the amount of each charge; POW'DERING-GOWN, a loose dressing-gown worn while the hair was being powdered; POW'DERING-TUB, a vessel in which meat is salted: a vessel in which venereal disease is treated by sweating; POW'DER-MAG'AZINE, a strongly built place where powder is stored; POW'DER-MILL, a mill in which gunpowder is made; POW'DER-MINE, an excavation filled with gunpowder for blasting rocks, &c.; POW'DER-MONK'EY, a boy formerly employed to carry powder to the gunners on board a ship-of-war; POW'DER-ROOM, the room in a ship where powder is kept.--_adj._ POW'DERY, resembling or sprinkled with powder: dusty: friable. [O. Fr. _poudre_--L. _pulvis_, _pulveris_, dust.]

POWER, pow'[.e]r, _n._ that in a person or a thing which enables them to act on other persons or things: strength: energy: faculty of the mind: any agency: moving force of anything: right to command: rule: authority: influence: ability: capacity of suffering: a ruler: a divinity: the result of the continued multiplication of a quantity by itself any given number of times: (_optics_) magnifying strength: (_obs._) a great many.--_adjs._ POW'ERED, having power; POW'ERFUL, having great power: mighty: intense: forcible: efficacious.--_adv._ POW'ERFULLY.--_ns._ POW'ERFULNESS; POW'ER-HOUSE, a house where mechanical power (esp. electric) is generated.--_adj._ POW'ERLESS, without power: weak: impotent.--_adv._ POW'ERLESSLY.--_ns._ POW'ERLESSNESS; POW'ER-LOOM, a loom worked by some mechanical power, as water, steam, &c.--POWER OF ATTORNEY (see ATTORNEY); POWER OF SALE, a clause in securities and wills empowering property referred to to be sold on certain conditions; POWERS, or GREAT POWERS (see GREAT).--ABSOLUTE POWER, power subject to no control by law; CIVIL POWER, power of governing a state; MECHANICAL POWERS (see MECHANICAL). [O. Fr. _poer_ (Fr. _pouvoir_)--Low L. _pot-[)e]re_, to be able.]

POWSOWDY, pow-sow'di, _n._ (_Scot._) any mixture of heterogeneous kinds of food.--Also POWSOW'DIE.

POWTER, pow't[.e]r, _n._ a pigeon, the pouter.

POWWOW, pow'wow, _n._ a Red Indian conjurer: a dance, feast, &c. before an expedition: any rowdy meeting.--_v.i._ to hold such a meeting: to deliberate: to perform conjurations.--Also PAW'WAW.

POX, poks, _n._ pustules: an eruptive disease. [Written for _pocks_, pl. of _pock_.]

POYNANT, poin'ant, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as POIGNANT.


PRACTICE, prak'tis, _n._ the habit of doing anything: frequent use: state of being used: regular exercise for instruction: performance: method: medical treatment: exercise of any profession: a rule or method in arithmetic.--_ns._ PRACTICABIL'ITY, PRAC'TICABLENESS, quality of being practicable.--_adj._ PRAC'TICABLE, that may be practised, used, or followed: passable, as a road.--_adv._ PRAC'TICABLY.--_adj._ PRAC'TICAL, that can be put in practice: useful: applying knowledge to some useful end: derived from practice.--_ns._ PRACTICAL'ITY; PRAC'TICAL-JOKE, a trick of an annoying kind played on any one; PRAC'TICAL-KNOWL'EDGE, knowledge which results in action.--_adv._ PRAC'TICALLY, in a practical way: actually: by actual trial.--_n._ PRAC'TICALNESS. [M. E. _praktike_--O. Fr. _practique_--Gr. _praktikos_, fit for doing--_prassein_, to do.]

PRACTICK, PRACTIC, prak'tik, _adj._ (_Spens._, _Shak._) skilful, hence treacherous, deceitful.

PRACTISE, prak'tis, _v.t._ to put into practice or to do habitually: to perform: to exercise, as a profession: to use or exercise: to teach by practice: to commit.--_v.i._ to have or to form a habit: to exercise any employment or profession: to try artifices.--_n._ PRAC'TISANT (_Shak._), an agent.--_adj._ PRAC'TISED, skilled through practice.--_n._ PRAC'TISER.--_adj._ PRAC'TISING, actively engaged in professional employment. [From _practice_.]

PRACTITIONER, prak-tish'un-[.e]r, _n._ one who practises or is engaged in the exercise of any profession, esp. medicine or law.--GENERAL PRACTITIONER, one who practises in all the branches of medicine and surgery. [Older form _practician_--O. Fr. _practicien_.]

PRACTIVE, prak'tiv, _adj._ directly tending towards action.

PRAD, prad, _n._ a horse in thieves' cant.

PRÆ-. See PRE-.

PRÆMUNIRE, PREMUNIRE, pr[=e]-m[=u]-n[=i]'re, _n._ the offence of disregard or contempt of the king and his government, especially the offence of introducing papal or other foreign authority into England: the writ founded on such an offence: the penalty incurred by the offence. [A corr. of L. _præmon[=e]re_, to cite.]

PRÆNOMEN, pr[=e]-n[=o]'men, _n._ the name prefixed to the family name in ancient Rome, as _Caius_ in Caius Julius Cæsar: the generic name in zoology put before the specific name.

PRÆTEXTA, pr[=e]-teks'ta, _n._ the outer garment, bordered with purple, worn at Rome by the higher magistrates and by free-born children till they assumed the _toga virilis_. [L., _prætex[)e]re_, to fringe.]

PRÆTOR, PRETOR, pr[=e]'tor, _n._ a magistrate of ancient Rome, next in rank to the consuls.--_adjs._ PRÆT[=O]'RIAL, PRET[=O]'RIAL, PRÆT[=O]'RIAN, PRET[=O]'RIAN, pertaining to a prætor or magistrate: authorised or exercised by the prætor: judicial.--_ns._ PRÆT[=O]'RIUM, PRET[=O]'RIUM, the official residence of the Roman prætor, proconsul, or governor in a province: the general's tent in a camp: the council of officers who attended the general and met in his tent; PRÆ'TORSHIP.--PRÆTORIAN BAND OF GUARD, the bodyguard of the Roman Emperor; PRÆTORIAN GATE, the gate of a Roman camp directly in front of the general's tent, and nearest to the enemy. [L. _prætor_, for _præitor_--_præ_, before, _[=i]re_, _itum_, to go.]

PRAGMATIC, -AL, prag-mat'ik, -al, _adj._ of or pertaining to public business: skilled in affairs: active: practical: interfering with the affairs of others: officious: meddlesome: self-important.--_n._ PRAGMAT'IC, a man of business, a busybody: a public decree.--_adv._ PRAGMAT'ICALLY.--_ns._ PRAGMAT'ICALNESS, PRAG'MATISM, activity: earnestness: meddlesomeness; PRAG'MATIST.--PRAGMATIC METHOD, a method of treating events with reference to their causes, conditions, and results--also called PRAG'MATISM; PRAGMATIC SANCTION, a special decree issued by a sovereign, such as that passed by the Emperor Charles VI. of Germany, securing the crown to Maria Theresa, and which led to the war so called in 1741. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _pragmatikos_--_pragma_--_pragmatos_, deed--_prassein_, to do.]

PRAIRIE, pr[=a]'ri, _n._ an extensive meadow or tract of land, level or rolling, without trees, and covered with tall coarse grass.--_adj._ PRAI'RIED.--_ns._ PRAI'RIE-DOG, a small gregarious North American marmot; PRAI'RIE-HAWK, the American sparrow-hawk; PRAI'RIE-HEN, a gallinaceous North American bird: the sharp-tailed grouse; PRAI'RIE-WAR'BLER, an American warbler, yellow with black spots; PRAI'RIE-WOLF, the coyote. [Fr.,--Low L. _prataria_, meadow-land--L. _pratum_, a meadow.]

PRAISE, pr[=a]z, _n._ the expression of the honour or value in which any person or thing is held: commendation on account of excellence or beauty: tribute of gratitude: a glorifying, as of God in worship: reason or ground of praise.--_v.t._ to express estimation of: to commend: to honour: to glorify, as in worship.--_n._ PRAIS'ER, one who praises.--_adv._ PRAISE'WORTHILY.--_n._ PRAISE'WORTHINESS.--_adj._ PRAISE'WORTHY, worthy of praise: commendable. [O. Fr. _preis_ (Fr. _prix_)--L. _pretium_, price.]

PRÂKRIT, prä'krit, _n._ the collective name of those languages or dialects which are immediately derived from, or stand in an immediate relation to, Sanskrit.--_adj._ PRÂKRIT'IC. [Sans. _pr[=a]krita_, the natural--_prakriti_, nature.]

PRAM, präm, _n._ a flat-bottomed Dutch lighter: a barge fitted as a floating battery. [Dut. _praam_.]

PRAM, pram, _n._ a vulgar abbrev. of _perambulator_.

PRANCE, prans, _v.i._ to strut about in a showy or warlike manner: to ride showily: to bound gaily, as a horse.--_adj._ PRANC'ING, riding showily: springing or bounding gaily.--_n._ the action of a horse in rearing, bounding, &c.--_adv._ PRANC'INGLY. [_Prank._]

PRANDIAL, pran'di-al, _adj._ relating to dinner. [L. _prandium_, breakfast.]

PRANK, prangk, _v.t._ to display or adorn showily: to put in right order.--_v.i._ to make great show.--_n._ a sportive action: a mischievous trick.--_n._ PRANK'ER.--_adv._ PRANK'INGLY.--_adjs._ PRANK'ISH, PRANK'SOME. [Closely akin to _prink_, a form of _prick_.]

PRASE, pr[=a]z, _n._ a leek-green quartz.--_adjs._ PRAS'INE, PRAS'INOUS, lightish-green.

PRATE, pr[=a]t, _v.i._ to talk idly: to tattle: to be loquacious.--_v.t._ to speak without meaning or purpose: to let out, as a secret.--_n._ trifling talk.--_n._ PR[=A]'TER, one who prates or talks idly.--_adj._ PR[=A]'TING, talking idly or unmeaningly.--_n._ idle talk.--_adv._ PR[=A]'TINGLY. [Low Ger. _pr[=a]ten_, Dan. _prate_, Dut. _praaten_.]

PRATIQUE, prat'[=e]k, _n._ converse, intercourse: a license or permission to hold intercourse, or to trade after quarantine. [Fr.]

PRATTLE, prat'l, _v.i._ to talk much and idly: to utter child's talk.--_v.t._ to talk about in a prattling way.--_n._ empty talk.--_ns._ PRATT'LEBOX, a prattler; PRATT'LEMENT, prattle; PRATT'LER, one who prattles: a child. [Freq. of _prate_.]

PRAVITY, prav'i-ti, _n._ wickedness.

PRAWN, prawn, _n._ a small edible crustacean like the shrimp. [L. _perna_, a mussel.]

PRAXIS, praks'is, _n._ practice: an example or a collection of examples for exercise: a specimen.--_n._ PRAX'INOSCOPE, an optical instrument showing a body as if in motion, by means of successive pictures and an arrangement of mirrors in a horizontally rotating box. [Gr. _praxein_, to do.]

PRAY, pr[=a], _v.i._ to ask earnestly: to entreat: to speak and make known one's desires to God.--_v.t._ to ask earnestly and reverently, as in worship: to supplicate: to get by praying:--_pr.p._ pr[=a]y'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pr[=a]yed.--_ns._ PRAY'ER, the act of praying: entreaty: the words used: solemn giving of thanks and praise to God, and a making known of our requests to Him: a form of prayer used in worship: a petition to a public body; PRAY'ER-BOOK, a book containing prayers or forms of devotion.--_adj._ PRAY'ERFUL, full of, or given to, prayer: praying much or often: devotional.--_adv._ PRAY'ERFULLY.--_n._ PRAY'ERFULNESS.--_adj._ PRAY'ERLESS, without or not using prayer.--_adv._ PRAY'ERLESSLY.--_ns._ PRAY'ERLESSNESS; PRAY'ER-MEET'ING, a shorter and simpler form of public religious service, in which laymen often take part; PRAY'ER-MONG'ER, one who prays mechanically; PRAY'ER-RUG, a small carpet on which a Moslem kneels at prayer; PRAY'ING, the act of making a prayer: a prayer made.--_adj._ given to prayer.--_ns._ PRAY'ING-MACHINE', -MILL, -WHEEL, a revolving apparatus used for prayer in Tibet and elsewhere. [O. Fr. _preier_ (Fr. _prier_)--L. _prec[=a]ri_--_prex_, _precis_, a prayer.]

PRE-, pr[=e], before, in compound words like _preanal_, _preauditory_, _preaxial_, _prebasal_, _prebrachial_, _precardiac_, _precentral_, _precerebral_, _precloacal_, _precordial_, _precoracoid_, _predentate_, _pre-esophageal_, &c.

PREACE, pr[=e]s, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as PREASE.

PREACH, pr[=e]ch, _v.i._ to pronounce a public discourse on sacred subjects: to discourse earnestly: to give advice in an offensive or obtrusive manner.--_v.t._ to publish in religious discourses: to deliver, as a sermon: to teach publicly.--_n._ (_coll._) a sermon.--_ns._ PREACH'ER, one who discourses publicly on religious matter: a minister or clergyman; PREACH'ERSHIP.--_v.i._ PREACH'IFY, to preach tediously: to weary with lengthy advice.--_ns._ PREACH'ING, the act of preaching: a public religious discourse: a sermon; PREACH'ING-CROSS, a cross in an open place at which monks, &c., PREACH'ING-FR[=I]'ARS, the Dominicans.--_n._ PREACH'MENT, a sermon, in contempt: a discourse affectedly solemn.--_adj._ PREACH'Y, given to tedious moralising.--PREACH DOWN, and UP, to decry, or the opposite. [Fr. _prêcher_ (It. _predicare_)--L. _prædic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to proclaim.]

PREACQUAINT, pr[=e]-ak-kw[=a]nt', _v.t._ to acquaint beforehand.--_n._ PREACQUAINT'ANCE, previous knowledge.

PRE-ADAMITE, pr[=e]-ad'a-m[=i]t, _n._ one who lived before _Adam_.--_adjs._ PREADAM'IC, -AL; PREADAMIT'IC, -AL.

PREADAPTATION, pr[=e]-ad-ap-t[=a]'shun, _n._ previous adjustment of means to some end.

PREADJUSTMENT, pr[=e]-ad-just'ment, _n._ previous arrangement.

PREADMISSION, pr[=e]-ad-mish'un, _n._ previous admission.

PREADMONISH, pr[=e]-ad-mon'ish, _v.t._ to admonish or caution beforehand.--_n._ PREADMONI'TION, previous warning.

PREADVERTISE, pr[=e]-ad-v[.e]r-t[=i]z', _v.t._ to announce beforehand.

PREAMBLE, pr[=e]-am'bl, _n._ preface: introduction, esp. that of an Act of Parliament, giving its reasons and purpose.--_adj._ PREAM'BULARY. [Fr. _préambule_--L. _præ,_ before, _ambul[=a]re_, to go.]

PREANNOUNCE, pr[=e]-an-nowns', _v.t._ to announce beforehand.

PREAPPOINT, pr[=e]-ap-point', _v.t._ to appoint beforehand.--_n._ PREAPPOINT'MENT, previous appointment.

PREARRANGE, pr[=e]-ar-r[=a]nj', _v.t._ to arrange beforehand.--_n._ PREARRANGE'MENT.

PREASE, pr[=e]s, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Spens._) to press, to crowd.--_n._ (_Spens._) a press, a crowd.

PREASSURANCE, pr[=e]-a-sh[=oo]r'ans, _n._ previous assurance.

PRE-AUDIENCE, pr[=e]-aw'di-ens, _n._ right to be heard before another: precedence at the bar among lawyers.

PREBEND, preb'end, _n._ the share of the revenues of a cathedral or collegiate church allowed to a clergyman who officiates in it at stated times.--_adj._ PREB'ENDAL, relating to a prebend.--_ns._ PREB'ENDARY, a resident clergyman who enjoys a prebend, a canon: the honorary holder of a disendowed prebendal stall; PREB'ENDARYSHIP. [L. _præbenda_, a payment from a public source--_præb[=e]re_, to allow.]

PRECARIOUS, pr[=e]-k[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ uncertain, because depending upon the will of another: held by a doubtful tenure: depending on chance: dangerous, risky.--_adv._ PREC[=A]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ PREC[=A]'RIOUSNESS. [L. _precarius_--_prec[=a]ri_, to pray.]

PRECATORY, prek'a-t[=o]-ri, _adj._ relating to prayer, supplicatory.--_adj._ PREC'ATIVE (_obs._), suppliant.

PRECAUTION, pr[=e]-kaw'shun, _n._ caution or care beforehand: a preventive measure: something done beforehand to ward off evil or secure good.--_v.t._ to warn or advise beforehand.--_adjs._ PRECAU'TIONAL, PRECAU'TIONARY, containing or proceeding from precaution: taking precaution. [Fr.,--L. _præ_, before, _cav[=e]re_, to be careful.]

PRECEDE, pre-s[=e]d', _v.t._ to go before in time, rank, or importance.--_v.i._ to be before in time, or place. [Fr. _précéder_--L. _præced[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _ced[)e]re_, go.]

PRECEDENCE, pr[=e]-s[=e]'dens, _n._ the act of going before in time: priority: the state of being before in rank: the place of honour: the foremost place in ceremony--also PREC[=E]'DENCY.--_adj._ PREC[=E]'DENT, going before in order of time: anterior.--_n._ PRECEDENT (pres'[=e]dent), a past action which may serve as an example or rule in the future: a parallel case in the past: an established habit or custom.--_adjs._ PREC'EDENTED, having a precedent: warranted by an example; PRECEDEN'TIAL, of the nature of a precedent.--_adv._ PREC[=E]'DENTLY.--_adj._ PREC[=E]'DING, going before in time, rank, &c.: antecedent: previous: former.--ORDER OF PRECEDENCE, the rules which fix the places of persons at a ceremony; PATENT OF PRECEDENCE, a royal grant giving to certain barristers right of superior rank; TAKE PRECEDENCE OF, to have a right to a more honourable place. [Fr.,--L. _præcedens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _præced[)e]re_, to go before.]

PRECENTOR, pre-sen'tor, _n._ he that leads in music: the leader of a choir in a cathedral, &c.: the leader of the psalmody in Scotch churches.--_n._ PRECEN'TORSHIP. [L. _præ_, before, _cantor_, a singer.]

PRECEPT, pr[=e]'sept, _n._ rule of action: a commandment: principle, or maxim: (_law_) the written warrant of a magistrate: a mandate.--_adj._ PRECEP'TIAL (_Shak._), consisting of precepts.--_n._ PRECEP'TION (_obs._), a precept.--_adj._ PRECEP'TIVE, containing or giving precepts: directing in moral conduct: didactic.--_n._ PRECEP'TOR, one who delivers precepts: a teacher: an instructor: the head of a school: the head of a preceptory of Knights Templars:--_fem._ PRECEP'TRESS.--_adjs._ PRECEPT[=O]'RIAL; PRECEP'TORY, giving precepts.--_n._ a religious house or college of the Knights Templars. [Fr.,--L. _præceptum_--_præcip[)e]re_, to take beforehand--_præ_, before, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

PRECES, pr[=e]'sez, the alternate responsive petitions, as the versicles and suffrages, between the clergyman and the congregation in liturgical worship. [L., pl. of _prex_, a prayer.]

PRECESSION, pr[=e]-sesh'un, _n._ the act of going before: a moving forward.--_adj._ PRECES'SIONAL.--PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES, a slow backward motion of the equinoctial points along the ecliptic, caused by the greater attraction of the sun and moon on the excess of matter at the equator, such that the times at which the sun crosses the equator come at shorter intervals than they would otherwise do.

PRECHRISTIAN, pr[=e]-krist'yan, _adj._ existing before the Christian era.

PRECINCT, pr[=e]'singkt, _n._ limit or boundary of a place: a district or division within certain boundaries: limit of jurisdiction or authority. [L. _præcinctus_, pa.p. of _præcing[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _cing[)e]re_, to gird.]

PRECIOUS, presh'us, _adj._ of great price or worth: costly: highly esteemed: worthless, contemptible (in irony): fastidious, overnice: (_coll._) considerable: (_B._) valuable because rare.--_adv._ (_coll._) extremely.--_n._ PRECIOS'ITY, fastidiousness, affected overrefinement.--_adv._ PREC'IOUSLY.--_ns._ PREC'IOUS-MET'AL, a metal of great value, as gold or silver; PREC'IOUSNESS; PREC'IOUS-STONE, a stone of value and beauty for ornamentation: a gem or jewel. [O. Fr. _precios_ (Fr. _précieux_)--L. _pretiosus_--_pretium_, price.]

PRECIPICE, pres'i-pis, _n._ a very steep place: any steep descent: a perpendicular bank or cliff.--_adj._ PRECIP'ITOUS, like a precipice: very steep: hasty: rash.--_adv._ PRECIP'ITOUSLY.--_n._ PRECIP'ITOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _præcipitium_--_præceps_, _præcipitis_, headlong--_præ_, before, _caput_, _capitis_, the head.]

PRECIPITATE, pr[=e]-sip'i-t[=a]t, _v.t._ to throw head-foremost: to urge with eagerness: to hurry rashly: to hasten: (_chem._) to cause to fall to the bottom, as a substance in solution or suspension.--_v.i._ to fall headlong: to make too great haste.--_adj._ falling, flowing, or rushing headlong: lacking deliberation: overhasty: (_med._) ending soon in death.--_n._ (_chem._) a part of a solution, falling or causing to fall to the bottom.--_n._ PRECIPITABIL'ITY.--_adj._ PRECIP'ITABLE (_chem._), that may be precipitated.--_ns._ PRECIP'ITANCE, PRECIP'ITANCY, quality of being precipitate: haste in resolving or executing a purpose.--_adj._ PRECIP'ITANT, falling headlong: rushing down with too great velocity: hasty: unexpectedly brought on.--_n._ anything that causes part of a solution to fall to the bottom.--_advs._ PRECIP'ITANTLY; PRECIP'IT[=A]TELY, in a precipitate manner: headlong: without due thought.--_n._ PRECIPIT[=A]'TION, act of precipitating: great hurry: rash haste: rapid movement: (_chem._) the process by which any substance is made to separate from another in solution, and fall to the bottom.--_adj._ PRECIP'IT[=A]TIVE.--_n._ PRECIPIT[=A]'TOR, one who, or that which, precipitates or causes precipitation.--PRECIPITATE OINTMENT is of two kinds, _red_ and _white_--the former containing red oxide of mercury, the latter ammoniated mercury. [L. _præcipit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_præceps_.]

PRÉCIS, pr[=a]-s[=e]', _n._ a precise or abridged statement: an abstract: summary. [Fr.]

PRECISE, pr[=e]-s[=i]s', _adj._ definite: exact: not vague: just of the right amount or measure: adhering too much to rule: excessively nice, punctilious, prim.--_adv._ PRECISE'LY.--_ns._ PRECISE'NESS; PRECI'SIAN, an over-precise person: a formalist: a puritan; PRECI'SIANISM; PRECI'SIANIST, PRECI'SIONIST, a precisian; PRECI'SION, quality of being precise: exactness: accuracy.--_v.t._ PRECI'SIONISE, to make precise.--_adj._ PREC[=I]'SIVE, cutting off: pertaining to precision. [Fr. _précis_--L. _præcisus_, pa.p. of _præcid[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _cæd[)e]re_, to cut.]

PRECLASSICAL, pr[=e]-klas'i-kal, _adj._ previous to the classical time or usage.

PRECLUDE, pr[=e]-klud', _v.t._ to shut out beforehand: to hinder by anticipation: to keep back: to prevent from taking place.--_n._ PRECL[=U]'SION, act of precluding or hindering: state of being precluded.--_adj._ PRECL[=U]'SIVE, tending to preclude: hindering beforehand.--_adv._ PRECL[=U]'SIVELY. [L. _præclud[)e]re_, _-clusum_--_præ_, before, _claud[)e]re_, to shut.]

PRECOCIOUS, pr[=e]-k[=o]'shus, _adj._ having the mind developed very early, or too early: premature: forward: (_bot._) appearing before the leaves.--_adv._ PREC[=O]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ PREC[=O]'CIOUSNESS, PRECOC'ITY, state or quality of being precocious: too early ripeness of the mind. [L. _præcox_, _præcocis_--_præ_, before, _coqu[)e]re_, to cook.]

PRECOGNITION, pr[=e]-kog-nish'un, _n._ cognition, knowledge, or examination beforehand: (_Scots law_) an examination of witnesses as to whether there is ground for prosecution.--_v.t._ PRECOGNOSCE (pr[=e]-kog-nos'), to examine witnesses beforehand: to take a precognition.

PRECOMPOSE, pr[=e]-kom-p[=o]z', _v.t._ to compose beforehand.

PRECONCEIVE, pr[=e]-kon-s[=e]v', _v.t._ to conceive or form a notion of before having actual knowledge.--_ns._ PRECONCEIT', a preconceived notion; PRECONCEP'TION, act of preconceiving: previous opinion formed without actual knowledge.

PRECONCERT, pr[=e]-kon-s[.e]rt', _v.t._ to settle beforehand.--_n._ PRECON'CERT, a previous arrangement.--_adv._ PRECONCERT'EDLY.--_n._ PRECONCERT'EDNESS.

PRECONDEMN, pr[=e]-kon-dem', _v.t._ to condemn beforehand.--_n._ PRECONDEMN[=A]'TION.

PRECONDITION, pr[=e]-kon-dish'un, _n._ a previous condition.

PRECONFORM, pr[=e]-kon-form', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to conform in anticipation.--_n._ PRECONFOR'MITY.

PRECONISE, pr[=e]'kon-[=i]z, _v.t._ to call upon or summon publicly: to confirm officially, of the pope.--_n._ PRECONIS[=A]'TION. [Fr.,--L. _præco_, a herald.]

PRECONSCIOUS, pr[=e]-kon'shus, _adj._ pertaining to a state prior to consciousness.

PRECONSENT, pr[=e]-kon-sent', _n._ a previous consent.

PRECONSIGN, pr[=e]-kon-s[=i]n', _v.t._ to consign beforehand.

PRECONSTITUTE, pr[=e]-kon'sti-t[=u]t, _v.t._ to constitute beforehand.

PRECONSUME, pr[=e]-kon-s[=u]m', _v.t._ to consume beforehand.

PRECONTEMPORANEOUS, pr[=e]-kon-tem-p[=o]-r[=a]'n[=e]-us, _adj._ prior to what is contemporaneous.

PRECONTRACT, pr[=e]-kon-trakt', _v.t._ to contract beforehand: to betroth previously.--_n._ PRECON'TRACT, a previous contract or betrothal.

PRECONTRIVE, pr[=e]-kon-tr[=i]v', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to contrive beforehand.

PRECORDIAL, PRÆCORDIAL, pr[=e]-kor'di-al, _adj._ situated in front of the heart.

PRECOURSE, pr[=e]-k[=o]rs', _v.t._ to announce beforehand.

PRECRITICAL, pr[=e]-krit'i-kal, _adj._ previous to the critical philosophy of Kant.

PRECULAR, prek'[=u]-lär, _n._ a beadsman.

PRECURRENT, pr[=e]-kur'ent, _adj._ running forward: antrorse--opp. to _Recurrent_.--_ns._ PRECURR'ER (_Shak._), a forerunner; PRECURSE' (_Shak._), a prognostication.--_adj._ PRECUR'SIVE, anticipatory.--_n._ PRECUR'SOR, a forerunner: one who, or that which, indicates the approach of an event.--_adj._ PRECUR'SORY, forerunning: indicating something to follow. [L.,--_præ_, before, _cursor_--_curr[)e]re_, to run.]

PREDACEOUS, pr[=e]-d[=a]'shus, _adj._ living by prey: predatory.--_adj._ PRED'ABLE, raptorial.--_n._ PRED[=A]'CEAN, a carnivorous animal.--_adj._ PR[=E]'DAL, pertaining to prey: plundering.--_n._ PRED[=A]'TION, the act of plundering.--_adv._ PRED'ATORILY, plunderingly.--_n._ PRED'ATORINESS, inclination to plunder.--_adj._ PRED'ATORY, plundering: characterised by plundering: living by plunder: ravenous. [L. _præda_, booty.]

PREDATE, pr[=e]-d[=a]t', _v.t._ to date before the true date: to date by anticipation: to be earlier than.

PREDECEASE, pr[=e]-d[=e]-s[=e]s', _n._ decease or death before some one or something else.--_v.t._ to die before.

PREDECESSOR, pr[=e]-d[=e]-ses'or, _n._ one who has been before another in any office.--_v.t._ PREDECESS' (_rare_), to precede.--_adj._ PREDECES'SIVE. [L. _præ_, before, _decessor_, a retiring officer, _deced[)e]re_, _decessum_, to withdraw--_de_, away, _ced[)e]re_.]

PREDECLARE, pr[=e]-d[=e]-kl[=a]r', _v.t._ to declare beforehand.

PREDEFINE, pr[=e]-d[=e]-f[=i]n', _v.t._ to define beforehand.--_n._ PREDEFINI'TION.

PREDELINEATION, pr[=e]-d[=e]-lin-[=e]-[=a]'shun, _n._ the old theory which supposed the whole body to be predelineated in little in the spermatozoon.

PREDELLA, pr[=e]-del'a, _n._ the gradino, the step or ledge sometimes seen at the back of an altar, also the frieze along the bottom of an altar-piece. [It.]

PREDESIGN, pr[=e]-d[=e]-z[=i]n', _v.t._ to design beforehand.--_v.t._ PREDES'IGNATE, to determine upon in advance.--_adj._ designated in advance: (_logic_) having the quantification of the predicate distinctly expressed (_Sir W. Hamilton_).--_n._ PREDESIGN[=A]'TION.--_adj._ PREDES'IGN[=A]TORY.

PREDESTINE, pr[=e]-des'tin, _v.t._ to destine or decree beforehand: to foreordain.--_adj._ PREDESTIN[=A]'RIAN, pertaining to predestination.--_n._ one who holds the doctrine of predestination.--_n._ PREDESTIN[=A]'RIANISM.--_v.t._ PREDES'TINATE, to determine beforehand: to preordain by an unchangeable purpose.--_adj._ fore-ordained: fated.--_n._ PREDESTIN[=A]'TION, act of predestinating: (_theol._) the doctrine that God has from all eternity unalterably fixed whatever is to happen, esp. the eternal happiness or misery of men.--_n._ PREDESTIN[=A]'TOR, one who predestinates or foreordains: a predestinarian.

PREDETERMINE, pr[=e]-d[=e]-t[.e]r'min, _v.t._ to determine or settle beforehand.--_adjs._ PREDETER'MINABLE, capable of being determined beforehand; PREDETER'MIN[=A]TE, determined beforehand.--_ns._ PREDETERMIN[=A]'TION, act of predetermining, or state of being predetermined; PREDETER'MINISM, determinism.

PREDEVOTE, pr[=e]-d[=e]-v[=o]t', _adj._ foreordained.

PREDIAL, pr[=e]'di-al, _adj._ consisting of land or farms: connected with land: growing from land. [Fr. _prédial_--L. _prædium_, an estate.]

PREDICABLE, pred'i-ka-bl, _adj._ that may be predicated or affirmed of something: attributable.--_n._ anything that can be predicated of another, or esp. of many others: one of the five attributes--genus, species, difference, property, and accident.--_n._ PREDICABIL'ITY, quality of being predicable.

PREDICAMENT, pr[=e]-dik'a-ment, _n._ (_logic_) one of the classes or categories which include all predicables: condition: an unfortunate or trying position.--_adj._ PREDICAMEN'TAL. [Low L. _predicamentum_, something predicated or asserted.]

PREDICANT, pred'i-kant, _adj._ predicating: preaching.--_n._ one who affirms anything: a preacher, esp. a preaching-friar.

PREDICATE, pred'i-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to affirm one thing of another: to assert: to base on certain grounds.--_n._ (_logic_ and _gram._) that which is stated of the subject.--_n._ PREDIC[=A]'TION, act of predicating: assertion: affirmation.--_adj._ PREDIC[=A]'TIVE, expressing predication or affirmation: affirming: asserting.--_adv._ PRED'IC[=A]TIVELY.--_adj._ PRED'IC[=A]TORY, affirmative. [L. _prædic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to proclaim.]

PREDICT, pr[=e]-dikt', _v.t._ to declare or tell beforehand: to prophesy.--_adj._ PREDIC'TABLE.--_n._ PREDIC'TION, act of predicting: that which is predicted or foretold: prophecy.--_adj._ PREDIC'TIVE, foretelling: prophetic.--_n._ PREDIC'TOR. [L. _prædictus_, pa.p. of _prædic[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _dic[)e]re_, to say.]

PREDIGEST, pr[=e]-di-jest', _v.t._ to digest artificially before introducing into the body.--_n._ PREDIGES'TION.

PREDILECTION, pr[=e]-di-lek'shun, _n._ a choosing beforehand: favourable prepossession of mind: partiality.--_v.t._ PREDILECT', to prefer. [L. _præ_, before, _dilectio_, _-onis_, choice--_dilig[)e]re_, _dilectum_, to love--_dis_, apart, _leg[)e]re_, to choose.]

PREDISCOVER, pr[=e]-dis-kuv'[.e]r, _v.t._ to discover beforehand.--_n._ PREDISCOV'ERY.

PREDISPOSE, pr[=e]-dis-p[=o]z', _v.t._ to dispose or incline beforehand: to render favourable.--_adj._ PREDISP[=O]'SING, inclining beforehand: making liable.--_n._ PREDISPOSI'TION, state of being predisposed or previously inclined: a state of body in which disease is easily excited.--_adj._ PREDISPOSI'TIONAL.

PREDOMINATE, pr[=e]-dom'in-[=a]t, _v.t._ to dominate or rule over.--_v.i._ to be dominant over: to surpass in strength or authority: to prevail.--_ns._ PREDOM'INANCE, PREDOM'INANCY, condition of being predominant: superior influence: superiority: ascendency.--_adj._ PREDOM'INANT, ruling: having superior power: ascendant.--_adv._ PREDOM'INANTLY.--_n._ PREDOMIN[=A]'TION, ascendency.--PREDOMINANT PARTNER, the partner who has a larger stake in any business than the others--applied by Lord Rosebery (1894) to England as a member of the United Kingdom.

PREDONE, pr[=e]-dun', _adj._ worn out, exhausted.

PREDOOM, pr[=e]-d[=oo]m', _v.t._ to doom in anticipation or beforehand.

PREDORSAL, pr[=e]-dor'sal, _adj._ situated before the dorsal region of the spine: cervical.

PREDY, pr[=e]'di, _adj._ (_naut._) cleared for action.

PREE, pr[=e], _v.t._ (_Scot._) to prove, esp. to taste.

PRE-ELECT, pr[=e]-e-lekt', _v.t._ to elect or choose beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]-ELEC'TION, choice or election made by previous decision.

PRE-EMINENCE, pr[=e]-em'i-nens, _n._ state of being pre-eminent: superiority in excellence: (_Shak._) prerogative.--_adj._ PR[=E]-EM'INENT, eminent above others: surpassing others in good or bad qualities: outstanding: extreme.--_adv._ PR[=E]-EM'INENTLY.

PRE-EMPLOY, pr[=e]-em-ploi', _v.t._ to employ beforehand.

PRE-EMPTION, pr[=e]-em'shun, _n._ act or right of purchasing before others.--_v.t._ PR[=E]-EMPT' (_U.S._), to secure, as land, by the right of pre-emption.--_adjs._ PR[=E]-EMPT'IBLE; PR[=E]-EMPT'IVE.--_n._ PR[=E]-EMPT'OR. [L. _præ_, before, _emptio_, a buying--_em[)e]re_, to buy.]

PREEN, pr[=e]n, _v.t._ to compose and arrange as birds do their feathers. [_Prune_ (v.).]

PREEN, pr[=e]n, _n._ (_Scot._) a pin.--_v.t._ to fasten. [A.S. _preón_, a pin.]

PRE-ENGAGE, pr[=e]-en-g[=a]j', _v.t._ to establish beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]-ENGAGE'MENT.

PRE-ESTABLISH, pr[=e]-es-tab'lish, _v.t._ to establish beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]-ESTAB'LISHMENT.--PRE-ESTABLISHED HARMONY (see HARMONY).

PREEVE, pr[=e]v, _n._ and _v.t._ obs. form of _proof_ and _prove_.

PRE-EXAMINATION, pr[=e]-egz-am-i-n[=a]'shun, _n._ previous examination.--_v.t._ PR[=E]-EXAM'INE.

PRE-EXILIC, pr[=e]-eg-zil'ik, _adj._ before the exile--of O.T. writings prior to the Jewish exile (_c._ 586-537 B.C.).

PRE-EXIST, pr[=e]-egz-ist', _v.i._ to exist beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]-EXIST'ENCE, the existence of the soul in a previous state, before the generation of the body with which it is united in this world.--_adj._ PR[=E]-EXIST'ENT, existent or existing beforehand.

PREFACE, pref'[=a]s, _n._ something usually of an explanatory kind, spoken before: the introduction to a book, &c.: the ascription of glory, &c., in the liturgy of consecration of the eucharist: a title or epithet.--_v.t._ to introduce with a preface.--_adj._ PREFAT[=O]'RIAL, serving as a preface or introduction.--_adv._ PREF'ATORILY.--_adj._ PREF'ATORY, pertaining to a preface: serving as an introduction: introductory. [Fr. _préface_--L. _præfatio_--_præ_, before, _f[=a]ri_, _fatus_, to speak.]

PREFECT, pr[=e]'fekt, _n._ one placed in authority over others: a commander: the administrative head of a modern French department.--_ns._ PR[=E]'FECTSHIP, his office or jurisdiction; PR[=E]'FECTURE, the office or district of a prefect: the house occupied by a prefect. [Fr. _préfet_--L. _præfectus_, pa.p. of _præfic[)e]re_--_præ_, over, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

PREFER, pr[=e]-f[.e]r', _v.t._ to esteem above another: to regard or hold in higher estimation: to choose or select before others: to promote: to exalt: to offer or present, as a request: to bring forward for consideration: to place in advance:--_pr.p._ prefer'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ preferred'.--_ns._ PREFERABIL'ITY, PREF'ERABLENESS.--_adj._ PREF'ERABLE, worthy to be preferred or chosen: more desirable or excellent: of better quality.--_adv._ PREF'ERABLY, by choice: in preference.--_n._ PREF'ERENCE, the act of preferring: estimation above another: the state of being preferred: that which is preferred: choice.--_adj._ PREFERENTIAL (pref-[.e]r-en'shal), having a preference.--_adv._ PREFEREN'TIALLY.--_ns._ PREFER'MENT, the act of preferring: the state of being preferred or advanced: advancement to a higher position: promotion: superior place, esp. in the church; PREFER'RER, one who prefers.--PREFERENCE SHARES, or STOCK, shares or stock on which the dividends must be paid before those on other kinds. [Fr. _préférer_--L. _præferre_--_præ_, before, _ferre_, to bear.]

PREFIGURE, pr[=e]-fig'[=u]r, _v.t._ to represent beforehand: to suggest by former types or figures.--_ns._ PREFIGUR[=A]'TION, PREFIG'UREMENT.--_adj._ PREFIG'UR[=A]TIVE, showing by previous figures, types, or similitudes.

PREFIX, pr[=e]-fiks', _v.t._ to put before, or at the beginning: to fix beforehand.--_ns._ PR[=E]'FIX, a letter, syllable, or word put before another word to affect its meaning; PREFIX'ION, act of prefixing.

PREFORM, pr[=e]-form', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to form beforehand: to determine the shape of beforehand.--_n._ PREFORM[=A]'TION.--_adj._ PREFOR'MATIVE.

PREFRONTAL, pr[=e]-fron'tal, _adj._ pertaining to the forepart of the forehead.--_n._ a bone of this region.

PREFULGENCY, pr[=e]-ful'jen-si, _n._ superior brightness.

PREGLACIAL, pr[=e]-gl[=a]'shal, _adj._ (_geol._) prior to the glacial or drift period.

PREGNABLE, preg'na-bl, _adj._ that may be taken by assault or force. [Fr. _prenable_--_prendre_, to take--L. _prehend[)e]re_.]

PREGNANT, preg'nant, _adj._ being with child or young: fruitful: abounding with results: full of meaning: implying more than is actually expressed: ready-witted: clever: ingenious: full of promise: free: evident: clear.--_n._ PREG'NANCY, state of being pregnant: fertility: unusual capacity.--_adv._ PREG'NANTLY. [O. Fr.--L. _prægnans_, _-antis_.]

PREHALLUX, pr[=e]-hal'uks, _n._ a cartilaginous spur on the inner side of the foot in some batrachians.

PREHENSILE, pr[=e]-hen'sil, _adj._ seizing: adapted for seizing or holding--also PREHEN'SORY.--_adj._ PREHEN'SIBLE, that may be seized.--_ns._ PREHEN'SION, act of seizing or taking hold; PREHEN'SOR, one who takes hold. [L. _pre-hend[)e]re_, _-hensum_, to seize.]

PREHISTORIC, pr[=e]-his-tor'ik, _adj._ relating to a time before that treated of in history.--_n._ PR[=E]HIS'TORY, history prior to record--the Ger. _Urgeschichte_.

PREHNITE, pren'[=i]t, _n._ a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime, usually of a pale-green colour. [Named after _Prehn_, the discoverer of the mineral.]

PREIGNAC, pr[=a]-nyak', _n._ an esteemed white wine of Bordeaux. [From _Preignac_ in the Gironde.]

PRE-INSTRUCT, pr[=e]-in-strukt', _v.t._ to instruct beforehand.

PRE-INTIMATION, pr[=e]-in-ti-m[=a]'shun, _n._ an intimation or suggestion made beforehand.

PREJINK, pr[=e]-jingk', _adj._ (_Scot._) tricked out with dress.--Also PERJINK'.

PREJUDGE, pr[=e]-juj', _v.t._ to judge or decide upon before hearing the whole case: to condemn unheard.--_n._ PREJUDG'MENT.--_adj._ PREJUDICAL (pre-j[=oo]'di-kal), pertaining to the determination of some undecided matter.--_v.t._ PREJUDIC[=A]TE (-j[=oo]d'-), to judge beforehand: to prejudge.--_v.i._ to decide without examination.--_n._ PREJUDIC[=A]'TION (-j[=oo]d-).--_adj._ PREJUDIC[=A]TIVE (-j[=oo]d'-), forming a judgment or opinion beforehand. [L. _præjudic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_præ_, before, _judic[=a]re_, to judge.]

PREJUDICE, prej'[=u]-dis, _n._ a judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without due examination: a prejudgment: unreasonable prepossession for or against anything: bias: injury or wrong of any kind: disadvantage: mischief.--_v.t._ to fill with prejudice: to cause a prejudice against: to prepossess: to bias the mind of: to injure or hurt.--_adj._ PREJUDI'CIAL, causing prejudice or injury: disadvantageous: injurious: mischievous: tending to obstruct.--_adv._ PREJUDI'CIALLY.--_n._ PREJUDI'CIALNESS. [O. Fr.,--L. _præjudicium_--_præ_, before, _judicium_, judgment.]

PREKNOWLEDGE, pr[=e]-nol'ej, _n._ prior knowledge.

PRELATE, prel'[=a]t, _n._ the holder of one of those higher dignities in the church to which, of their own right, is attached a proper jurisdiction, not derived by delegation from any superior official: a church dignitary.--_ns._ PREL'ACY, the office of a prelate: the order of bishops or the bishops collectively: church government by prelates: episcopacy; PREL'ATESHIP.--_adjs._ PRELAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to prelates or prelacy.--_adv._ PRELAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ PREL'ATISE, to make or to become prelatical.--_ns._ PREL'ATISM, PREL'ATURE, prelacy: the time during which a prelate exercises authority; PREL'ATIST, an upholder of prelacy. [Fr. _prélat_--L. _prelatus_--_præ_, before, _latus_, borne.]

PRELECT, pr[=e]-lekt', _v.i._ to read before or in presence of others: to read a discourse: to lecture.--_ns._ PRELEC'TION, a lecture or discourse read to others; PRELEC'TOR, one who prelects: a lecturer. [L. _præleg[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _leg[)e]re_, _lectum_, to read.]

PRELIBATION, pr[=e]-l[=i]-b[=a]'shun, _n._ a tasting beforehand, foretaste. [L. _prælibatio_--_præ_, before, _lib[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to taste.]

PRELIMINARY, pr[=e]-lim'in-ar-i, _adj._ introductory: preparatory: preceding or preparing for the main discourse or business.--_n._ that which precedes: introduction--used mostly in _pl._--_adv._ PRELIM'INARILY. [L. _præ_, before, _liminaris_, relating to a threshold--_limen_, _liminis_, a threshold.]

PRELINGUAL, pr[=e]-ling'gwal, _adj._ prior to language.

PRELUDE, pr[=e]-l[=u]d', or prel'[=u]d, _n._ the introductory movement of a musical work: a prefatory piece to an oratorio, &c.: an organ voluntary before a church service: a preface: a forerunner.--_v.t._ PRELUDE', to play before: to preface, as an introduction.--_v.i._ to perform a prelude: to serve as a prelude.--_adjs._ PREL[=U]'DIAL and PREL[=U]'DIOUS (_rare_); PREL[=U]'SIVE, of the nature of a prelude: introductory.--_advs._ PREL[=U]'SIVELY; PREL[=U]'SORILY.--_adj._ PREL[=U]'SORY, introductory. [Fr.,--Late L. _præludium_--L. _præ_, before, _lud[)e]re_, to play.]

PREMANDIBULAR, pr[=e]-man-dib'[=u]-lar, _adj._ in front of the lower jaw, as a bone of some reptiles.

PREMATURE, pr[=e]-ma-t[=u]r', _adj._ mature before the proper time: happening before the proper time: too soon believed: unauthenticated (as a report).--_adv._ PR[=E]MAT[=U]RE'LY.--_ns._ PREMAT[=U]R'ITY, PR[=E]MAT[=U]RE'NESS. [L. _præmaturus_--_præ_, before, _maturus_, ripe.]

PREMAXILLARY, pr[=e]-mak'si-l[=a]-ri, _adj._ in front of the maxilla.--_n._ such a bone.

PREMEDITATE, pr[=e]-med'i-t[=a]t, _v.t._ to meditate upon beforehand: to design previously.--_v.i._ to deliberate beforehand.--_adv._ PREMED'IT[=A]TEDLY.--_n._ PREMEDIT[=A]'TION.--_adj._ PREMED'IT[=A]TIVE. [L., _præmedit[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_præ_, before, _medit[=a]ri_, to meditate.]

PREMIER, pr[=e]'mi-[.e]r, _adj._ prime or first: chief: (_her._) most ancient.--_n._ the first or chief: the prime-minister.--_v.i._ to govern as premier.--_adj._ and _n._ PREMIÈRE (pre-my[=a]r'), first or leading actress, dancer, forewoman, &c.--_n._ PR[=E]'MIERSHIP. [Fr.,--L. _primarius_, of the first rank--_primus_, first.]

PREMILLENNIAL, pr[=e]-mi-len'i-al, _adj._ of or pertaining to the times before the millennium--also PREMILLEN[=A]'RIAN.--_n._ one who believes in the premillennial advent of Christ.--_ns._ PREMILLEN[=A]'RIANISM; PREMILLENN'IALISM.

PREMISE, PREMISS, prem'is, _n._ that which is premised or stated at the outset: a proposition previously stated or proved for after-reasoning: (_logic_) one of the two propositions in a syllogism from which the conclusion is drawn: the thing set forth in the beginning of a PREM'ISES, a building and its adjuncts.

PREMISE, pr[=e]-m[=i]z', _v.t._ to send or state before the rest: to make an introduction: to lay down propositions for subsequent reasonings. [Fr.,--L. (_sententia_) _præmissa_, (a sentence) put before--_præ_, before, _mitt[)e]re_, _missum_, to send.]

PREMIUM, pr[=e]'mi-um, _n._ a reward: a prize: a bounty: payment made for insurance: the difference in value above the original price or par of stock--opp. to _Discount_: anything offered as an incentive.--_adjs._ PR[=E]'MIAL, PR[=E]'MIANT.--_v.t._ PR[=E]'MIATE, to reward with a premium.--AT A PREMIUM, above par (see PAR). [L. _præmium_--_præ_, above, _em[)e]re_, to buy.]

PREMOLAR, pr[=e]-m[=o]'lar, _adj._ before a molar, in place or time, deciduous.--_n._ a milk-molar.

PREMONISH, pr[=e]-mon'ish, _v.t._ to admonish or warn beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]MONI'TION, a warning or sign (often a feeling) of what is going to happen.--_adjs._ PR[=E]MON'ITIVE, PR[=E]MON'ITORY, giving warning or notice beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]MON'ITOR, one who, or that which, gives warning beforehand.--_adv._ PR[=E]MON'ITORILY. [_Pre-_, before, _monish_, a corr. form through O. Fr., from L. _mon[=e]re_, to warn.]

PREMONSTRANT, pr[=e]-mon'strant, _n._ a member of an order of regular canons founded by St Norbert, in 1119, at a place in the forest of Coucy (near Laon in the dep. of Aisne), pointed out in a vision, and thence called Prémontré (L. _Pratum monstratum_=the meadow pointed out)--called also Norbertines, and in England, from their habit, White Canons.--Also PREMONSTRATEN'SIAN (_n._ and _adj._).

PREMORSE, pr[=e]-mors', _adj._ ending abruptly, as if bitten off. [L. _præmord[=e]re_, _præmorsum_, to bite in front.]

PREMOSAIC, pr[=e]-m[=o]-z[=a]'ik, _adj._ before the time of _Moses_.

PREMOTION, pr[=e]-m[=o]'shun, _n._ previous motion.

PRENASAL, pr[=e]-n[=a]'sal, _adj._ in front of the nasal passages.

PRENATAL, pr[=e]-n[=a]'tal, _adj._ previous to birth.

PRENOMINATE, pr[=e]-nom'in-[=a]t, _p.adj._ (_Shak._) forenamed.

PRENOTION, pr[=e]-n[=o]'shun, _n._ preconception.

PRENTICE, pren'tis, _n._ Short for _apprentice_.

PREOCCIPITAL, pr[=e]-ok-sip'i-tal, _adj._ situated before the occipital region or lobe.

PREOCCUPY, pr[=e]-ok'[=u]-p[=i], _v.t._ to occupy or take possession of beforehand: to fill beforehand or with prejudices.--_ns._ PR[=E]OC'CUPANCY, the act or the right of occupying beforehand; PR[=E]OC'CUPANT, a prior occupant.--_v.t._ PR[=E]OC'CUP[=A]TE (_Bacon_), to occupy before others.--_n._ PR[=E]OCCUP[=A]'TION.--_adj._ PR[=E]OC'CUPIED, already occupied: lost in thought, abstracted.

PREOPTION, pr[=e]-op'shun, _n._ the right of first choice.

PREORAL, pr[=e]-[=o]'ral, _adj._ situated in front of the mouth.--_adv._ PRE[=O]'RALLY.

PREORDAIN, pr[=e]-or-d[=a]n', _v.t._ to ordain, appoint, or determine beforehand.--_n._ PREORDIN[=A]'TION.

PREORDER, pr[=e]-or'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to arrange beforehand.--_n._ PREOR'DINANCE, a rule previously established.

PREPAID, pr[=e]-p[=a]d', _adj._ paid beforehand.

PREPARATION, prep-a-r[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of preparing: previous arrangement: the state of being prepared or ready: that which is prepared or made ready: (_anat._) a part of any animal body preserved as a specimen: the day before the Sabbath or other Jewish feast-day: devotional exercises introducing an office: (_mus._) the previous introduction, as an integral part of a chord, of a note continued into a succeeding dissonance.--_adj._ PR[=E]PAR'ATIVE, having the power of preparing or making ready: fitting for anything.--_n._ that which prepares the way: preparation.--_adv._ PR[=E]PAR'ATIVELY, by way of preparation.--_adj._ PR[=E]PAR'ATORY, preparing for something coming: previous: introductory. [Fr.,--L.]

PREPARE, pr[=e]-p[=a]r', _v.t._ to make ready beforehand: to fit for any purpose: to make ready for use: to adapt: to form: to set or appoint: to provide: to equip.--_v.i._ to get one's self ready: to put everything in proper order: to lead up to.--_n._ (_Shak._) preparation.--_adj._ PREPARED', made ready, fit, or suitable: ready.--_adv._ PREP[=A]'REDLY.--_ns._ PREP[=A]'REDNESS; PREP[=A]'RER. [Fr.,--L. _præpar[=a]re_--_præ_, before, _par[=a]re_, to make ready.]

PREPAY, pr[=e]-p[=a]', _v.t._ to pay before or in advance.--_n._ PREPAY'MENT.

PREPENSE, pr[=e]-pens', _adj._ premeditated: intentional, chiefly in the phrase 'malice prepense'=malice aforethought or intentional--(_obs._) PREPEN'SIVE.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to consider or deliberate beforehand.--_adv._ PREPENSE'LY, intentionally. [Fr.,--L. _præ_, before, _pens[=a]re_--_pend[)e]re_, _pensum_, to weigh.]

PREPOLLENCE, pr[=e]-pol'ens, _n._ prevalence--also PREPOLL'ENCY.--_adj._ PREPOLL'ENT.

PREPONDERATE, pr[=e]-pon'd[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to outweigh: to incline to one side: to exceed in power or influence.--_ns._ PREPON'DERANCE, PREPON'DERANCY, PREPONDER[=A]'TION, power or state of outweighing: excess of weight, number, or quantity: predominance.--_adj._ PREPON'DERANT, outweighing: superior in weight, power, or influence.--_advs._ PREPON'DERANTLY, PREPONDER[=A]'TINGLY. [L. _præ_, before, _ponder[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to weigh--_pondus_, a weight.]

PREPOSITION, prep-[=o]-zish'un, _n._ a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to some other word of the sentence.--_adj._ PREPOSI'TIONAL.--_adv._ PREPOSI'TIONALLY.--_adj._ PREPOSI'TIVE, put before: prefixed.--_n._ a word or particle put before another word--opp. to _Post-positive_.--_n._ PREPOS'ITOR, a school-monitor. [Fr.,--L. _præpositio_--_præ_, before, _pon[)e]re_, _positum_, to place.]

PREPOSSESS, pr[=e]-poz-zes', _v.t._ to possess beforehand: to fill beforehand, as the mind with some opinion: to bias or prejudice.--_adj._ PREPOSSESS'ING, tending to prepossess in one's favour: making a favourable impression.--_adv._ PREPOSSESS'INGLY.--_n._ PREPOSSES'SION, previous possession: impression formed beforehand, usually a favourable one.

PREPOSTEROUS, pr[=e]-pos't[.e]r-us, _adj._ contrary to nature or reason: wrong: absurd: foolish.--_adv._ PREPOS'TEROUSLY.--_n._ PREPOS'TEROUSNESS, unreasonableness. [L. _præposterus_--_præ_, before, _posterus_, after--_post_, after.]

PREPOTENT, pr[=e]-p[=o]'tent, _adj._ powerful in a very high degree: excelling others in influence or authority.--_ns._ PREP[=O]'TENCE, PREP[=O]'TENCY.--_adj._ PREPOTEN'TIAL.

PREPUCE, pr[=e]'p[=u]s, _n._ the loose skin of the penis covering the glans: the foreskin.--_adj._ PREP[=U]'TIAL. [L. _præputium_.]

PREPUNCTUAL, pr[=e]-pungk't[=u]-al, _adj._ excessively prompt.--_n._ PREPUNCTUAL'ITY.

PRERAPHAELITISM, pr[=e]-raf'[=a]-el-[=i]-tizm, _n._ a style of painting begun in 1847-49 by D. G. Rossetti, W. Holman Hunt, J. E. Millais, and others in imitation of the painters who lived before _Raphael_ (1483-1523), and characterised by a truthful, almost rigid, adherence to natural forms and effects--also PRERAPH'AELISM.--_adj._ PRERAPH'AELITE, pertaining to, or resembling, the style of art before the time of Raphael--also _n._--_adj._ PRERAPH'AELITISH.

PREREMOTE, pr[=e]-r[=e]-m[=o]t', _adj._ more remote in previous time or order.

PREREQUISITE, pr[=e]-rek'wi-zit, _n._ something previously necessary: something needed in order to gain an end.--_adj._ required as a condition of something else.

PREROGATIVE, pr[=e]-rog'a-tiv, _n._ a peculiar privilege shared by no other: a right arising out of one's rank, position, or nature.--_adj._ arising out of, or held by, prerogative.--_v.t._ to endow with a prerogative.--_adj._ PREROG'ATIVED (_Shak._), having a prerogative or exclusive privilege.--_adv._ PREROG'ATIVELY, by prerogative or exclusive privilege.--PREROGATIVE COURT, formerly a court having jurisdiction over testamentary matters.--ROYAL PREROGATIVE, the rights which a sovereign has by right of office, which are different in different countries. [Fr.,--L. _prærogativus_, that is asked before others for his opinion or vote--_præ_, before, _rog[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to ask.]

PRESAGE, pr[=e]s'[=a]j, _n._ something that gives warning of a future event: a foreboding: a presentiment.--_v.t._ PR[=E]SAGE', to forebode: to warn of something to come: to predict.--_v.i._ to have a presentiment of.--_adj._ PRESAGE'FUL.--_ns._ PRESAGE'MENT, the act of presaging: that which is presaged: prediction; PRESAG'ER. [Fr. _présage_--L. _præsagium_--_præsag[=i]re_--_præ_, before, _sag[=i]re_, to perceive quickly.]

PRESANCTIFY, pr[=e]-sangk'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to consecrate beforehand.

PRESARTORIAL, pr[=e]-sär-t[=o]'ri-al, _adj._ before the age of tailoring. [L. _sartor_--_sarc[=i]re_, to patch.]

PRESBYOPIA, pres-bi-[=o]'pi-a, _n._ long-sightedness, together with diminished power of distinguishing things near, common in old age--also PRES'BYOPY.--_n._ PRES'BYOPE, one so affected.--_adj._ PRESBYOP'IC.--_n._ PRES'BYTE, one affected with presbyopia. [Gr. _presbys_, old, _[=o]ps_, _[=o]pos_, the eye.]

PRESBYTER, prez'bi-t[.e]r, _n._ an elder, a priest: a minister or priest in rank between a bishop and a deacon: a member of a presbytery.--_adjs._ PRESBYT'ERAL, PRESBYT[=E]'RIAL, PRESBYT[=E]'RIAN, pertaining to, or consisting of, presbyters: pertaining to Presbytery or that form of church government in which all the clergy or presbyters are equal--opp. to _Episcopacy_.--_n._ PRESBYT'ER[=A]TE, the office of a presbyter: a presbytery.--_adv._ PRESBYT[=E]'RIALLY.--_ns._ PRESBYT[=E]'RIAN; PRESBYT[=E]'RIANISM, the form of church government by presbyters; PRES'BYTERSHIP; PRES'BYTERY, a church court ranking between the Kirk-session and the Synod, consisting of the ministers and one elder, a layman, from each church within a certain district: that part of the church reserved for the officiating priests: (_R.C._) a clergyman's house.--REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, a religious body in Scotland, called also _Cameronians_, who remained separate from the Church of Scotland and maintained the perpetual obligation of the Covenants--the greater part joined the Free Church in 1876; UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, a religious body formed by the union of the Secession and Relief Churches in 1847--itself uniting with the Free Church in 1900. [L.,--Gr. _presbyteros_, comp. of _presbys_, old.]

PRESCIENCE, pr[=e]'shi-ens, _n._ knowledge of events beforehand: foresight.--_adj._ PR[=E]'SCIENT, knowing things beforehand.--_adv._ PR[=E]'SCIENTLY. [L. _præsciens_, pr.p. of _præsc[=i]re_--_præ_, before, _sc[=i]re_, to know.]

PRESCIENTIFIC, pr[=e]-s[=i]-en-tif'ik, _adj._ before the scientific age, before knowledge was systematised.

PRESCIND, pr[=e]-sind', _v.t._ to abstract from other facts or ideas.--_v.i._ to withdraw the attention (_from_).--_adj._ PR[=E]SCIN'DENT.--_n._ PR[=E]SCIS'SION.

PRESCRIBE, pr[=e]-skr[=i]b', _v.t._ to lay down as a rule or direction: to give as an order: to appoint: (_med._) to give directions for, as a remedy: to render useless or invalid through lapse of time.--_v.i._ to lay down rules: to claim on account of long possession: to become of no force through time.--_ns._ PR[=E]SCRIB'ER; PR[=E]'SCRIPT, something prescribed: direction: model prescribed; PR[=E]SCRIPTIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ PR[=E]SCRIP'TIBLE, that may be prescribed.--_n._ PR[=E]SCRIP'TION, act of prescribing or directing: (_med._) a written direction for the preparation of a medicine: a recipe: (_law_) custom continued until it becomes a right or has the force of law.--_adj._ PR[=E]SCRIP'TIVE, consisting in, or acquired by, custom or long-continued use: customary.--PRESCRIPTIVE TITLE, a title established by right of prescription. [L. _præscrib[)e]re_, _-scriptum_--_præ_, before, _scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

PRESEE, pr[=e]-s[=e]', _v.t._ to foresee.

PRESENCE, prez'ens, _n._ state of being present--opp. of Absence: situation near or within sight, &c., companionship: approach face to face: nearness to the person of a superior: an assembly of great persons: mien: personal appearance: an apparition: calmness, readiness, as of mind: (_Shak._) a presence-chamber.--_ns._ PRES'ENCE-CHAM'BER, -ROOM, the chamber or room in which a great personage receives company.--_adj._ PRES'ENT, being in a certain place--opp. to _Absent_: now under view or consideration: being at this time: not past or future: ready at hand: attentive: not absent-minded: (_gram._) denoting time just now, or making a general statement.--_n._ present time or business: (_pl._) the writing of a letter, or a deed of any kind as actually shown at any time: any deed or writing.--_adj._ PR[=E]SEN'TIAL, having or implying actual presence.--_n._ PR[=E]SENTIAL'ITY.--_adv._ PR[=E]SEN'TIALLY.--_n._ PRES'ENTNESS, state of being present.--PRESENCE OF MIND, a state of mind which enables a person to speak or act with calmness and promptness in circumstances of great and sudden difficulties.--AT PRESENT, at the present time, now; REAL PRESENCE, a doctrine or belief that the body and blood of Christ are really and substantially present in the eucharist; THE PRESENT, the present time. [O. Fr.,--L. _præsentia_--_præsens_, _-sentis_--_præ_, before, _sens_, being.]

PRESENT, pr[=e]-zent', _v.t._ to set before, to introduce into the presence of: to exhibit to view: to offer as a gift: to put into the possession of another: to make a gift of: to appoint to a benefice: to lay before for consideration: to point, as a gun before firing.--_n._ PRES'ENT, that which is presented or given, a gift.--_adj._ PR[=E]SENT'ABLE, fit to be presented: capable of being presented to a church living.--_n._ PRESENT[=A]'TION, act of presenting: a setting forth, as of a truth: representation: the act or the right of presenting to a benefice: the appearance of a particular part of the fetus at the superior pelvic strait during labour.--_adj._ PRESENT'ATIVE, having the right of presentation: pertaining to immediate cognition.--_ns._ PRESENT[=EE]', one who is presented to a benefice; PR[=E]SENT'ER.--_adj._ PR[=E]SENT'IVE, presentative, non-symbolic (of words).--_n._ PR[=E]SENT'IVENESS.--_adv._ PRES'ENTLY, after a little, by-and-by, shortly: (_arch._) without delay, at once.--_n._ PRESENT'MENT, act of presenting: the thing presented or represented: (_law_) notice taken of an offence by a grand-jury from their own knowledge or observation: accusation presented to a court by a grand-jury.--PRESENT ARMS, to bring the gun or rifle to a perpendicular position in front of the body, as a token of respect to a superior officer. [Fr.,--L. _præsent[=a]re_--_præsens_.]

PRESENTIENT, pr[=e]-sen'shi-ent, _adj._ perceiving beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]SEN'SION.

PRESENTIMENT, pr[=e]-sen'ti-ment, _n._ a sentiment or feeling beforehand: previous opinion: an impression as of something unpleasant soon to happen. [O. Fr.,--L. _præsent[=i]re_.]

PRESENTOIR, prez-en-twor', _n._ a tray or salver: a Japanese lacquered stand for a bowl. [Fr.]

PRESERVE, pr[=e]-z[.e]rv', _v.t._ to keep safe from harm or injury: to defend: to keep in a sound state: to season for preservation: to make lasting: to keep up, as appearances.--_n._ that which is preserved, as fruit, &c.: that which preserves: a place for the protection of animals, as game: (_pl._) spectacles to protect the eyes from strong light, &c.--_n._ PR[=E]SERVABIL'ITY.--_adj._ PR[=E]SER'VABLE.--_n._ PR[=E]SERV[=A]'TION, act of preserving or keeping safe: state of being preserved: safety.--_adjs._ PR[=E]SER'VATIVE, PR[=E]SER'VATORY, tending to preserve: having the quality of preserving.--_n._ that which preserves: a preventive of injury or decay.--_n._ PR[=E]SERV'ER. [Fr. _préserver_--L. _præ_, beforehand, _serv[=a]re_, to preserve.]

PRESES, pr[=e]'s[=e]z, _n._ (_Scot._) a president or chairman.

PRESIDE, pr[=e]-z[=i]d', _v.i._ to direct or control, esp. at a meeting: to superintend.--_ns._ PRES'IDENCY, the office of a president, or his dignity, term of office, jurisdiction, or residence: a division of British India, as the _Presidency_ of Bengal; PRES'IDENT, one who presides over a meeting: a chairman: the chief officer of a college, institution, &c.: an officer elected from time to time, as chief ruler of a republic--also _adj._ (_Milt._).--_n.fem._ PRES'IDENTESS.--_adj._ PRESIDEN'TIAL, presiding over: pertaining to a president.--_n._ PRES'IDENTSHIP.--LORD PRESIDENT, the presiding judge of the Court of Session in Scotland; LORD PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL, a member of the House of Lords who presides over the privy council, with especial charge of education, sanitation, &c. [Fr. _présider_--L. _præsid[=e]re_--_præ_, before, _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

PRESIDIAL, pr[=e]-sid'i-al, _adj._ pertaining to a garrison.--_adj._ and _n._ PR[=E]SID'IARY.--_n._ PR[=E]SID'IO (_Sp. Amer._), a military post: a penitentiary.

PRESIGNIFY, pr[=e]-sig'ni-f[=i], _v.t._ to signify beforehand.--_n._ PR[=E]SIGNIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of showing beforehand.

PRESS, pres, _v.t._ to push on or against with a heavy weight or with great force: to squeeze out, as juice: to clasp or embrace: to bear heavily on: to distress: to urge strongly: to present to the mind with earnestness: to lay stress upon: to hurry on with great speed: to shape or smooth by the application of weight.--_v.i._ to exert pressure: to push with force: to crowd: to go forward with violence: to urge with vehemence and importunity: to exert a strong influence.--_n._ PRESS'ER.--_adj._ PRESS'ING, urgent: importunate: forcible.--_adv._ PRESS'INGLY.--_n._ PRES'SION. [Fr. _presser_--L. _press[=a]re_--_prem[)e]re_, _pressum_, to squeeze.]

PRESS, pres, _n._ an instrument for squeezing bodies: a printing-machine: the art or business of printing and publishing: act of urging forward: urgency: strong demand: a crowd: a closet for holding articles.--_ns._ PRESS'-BED, a bed enclosed in a cupboard, or folding up into it; PRESS'FAT (_B._), the vat of an olive or wine press for collecting the liquor; PRESS'MAN, one who works a printing-press: a journalist or reporter: a member of a pressgang; PRESS'MARK, a mark upon a book to show its place among others in a library; PRESS'-ROOM, a room where printing-presses are worked; PRESS'-WORK, the operation of taking impressions from type or plates by means of the printing-press.--PRESS OF SAIL, as much sail as can be carried.--BRAHMAH PRESS, a hydraulic press called after Mr _Brahmah_, its inventor; CYLINDER PRESS, a printing-press in which the types are laid on a cylinder which revolves, instead of on a flat surface; HYDRAULIC PRESS (see HYDRAULIC); LIBERTY OF THE PRESS, the right of publishing books, &c., without submitting them to a government authority for permission; THE PRESS, the literature of a country, esp. its newspapers.

PRESS, pres, _v.t._ to carry men off by violence to become soldiers or sailors.--_ns._ PRESS'GANG, a gang or body of sailors under an officer empowered to impress men into the navy; PRESS'-MON'EY (for _prest-money_), earnest-money. [Corr. from old form _prest_, from O. Fr. _prester_ (Fr. _prêter_), to lend--_præst[=a]re_, to offer--_præ_, before, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

PRESSIROSTER, pres-si-ros't[.e]r, _n._ one of a tribe of wading birds, the PRESSIROS'TRES, having a flattened beak.--_adj._ PRESSIROS'TRAL. [L. _pressus_, pa.p. of _prem[)e]re_, to press, _rostrum_, a beak.]

PRESSURE, presh'[=u]r, _n._ act of pressing or squeezing: the state of being pressed: impulse: constraining force or influence: that which presses or afflicts: difficulties: urgency: strong demand: (_physics_) the action of force on something resisting it.--CENTRE OF PRESSURE (see CENTRE). [O. Fr.,--L. _pressura_--_prem[)e]re_, to press.]

PREST, prest, _adj._ ready: neat: at hand.--_n._ ready-money: a loan.--_v.t._ to pay out: to lend. [L. _præsto_, ready.]

PRESTER JOHN, pres't[.e]r jon, _n._ the name applied by medieval credulity (12th-14th cent.) to the supposed Christian sovereign of a vast empire in Central Asia. [O. Fr. _prester_ (Fr. _prêtre_), priest.]

PRESTIDIGITATION, pres-ti-dij-i-t[=a]'shun, _n._ sleight of hand--also PRESTIG'I[=A]TION.--_adj._ PRESTIDIG'ITAL.--_ns._ PRESTIDIG'IT[=A]TOR, PRESTIG'I[=A]TOR, one who practises sleight of hand.

PRESTIGE, pres-t[=e]zh', or pres'tij, _n._ influence arising from past conduct or from reputation. [Fr.,--L. _præstigium_, delusion--_præstingu[)e]re_, to deceive.]

PRESTO, pres'to, _adv._ quick: at once: (_mus._) quickly, quicker than _allegro_:--_superl._ PRESTIS'SIMO. [It.,--L. _præsto_, ready.]

PRESTRICTION, pr[=e]-strik'shun, _n._ blindness. [L. _præstring[)e]re_, _præstrictum_, to draw tight.]

PRESTUDY, pr[=e]-stud'i, _v.t._ to study beforehand.

PRESULTOR, pr[=e]-sul'tor, _n._ a leader of a dance.

PRESUME, pr[=e]-z[=u]m', _v.t._ to take as true without examination or proof: to take for granted.--_v.i._ to venture beyond what one has ground for: to act forwardly or without proper right.--_adj._ PRES[=U]M'ABLE, that may be presumed or supposed to be true.--_adv._ PRES[=U]M'ABLY.--_adj._ PRES[=U]M'ING, venturing without permission: unreasonably bold.--_adv._ PRES[=U]M'INGLY.--_n._ PRESUMP'TION, act of presuming: supposition: strong probability: that which is taken for granted: confidence grounded on something not proved: conduct going beyond proper bounds: (_law_) an assuming of the truth of certain facts from the existence of others having some connection with them.--_adj._ PRESUMP'TIVE, presuming: grounded on probable evidence: (_law_) proving circumstantially.--_adv._ PRESUMP'TIVELY.--PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE, evidence for a fact derived from other facts having some connection with it: indirect evidence.--HEIR PRESUMPTIVE, the person, not son or daughter, at present next in succession to any living person. [Fr. _présumer_--L. _præsum[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _sum[)e]re_, to take--_sub_, under, _em[)e]re_, to buy.]

PRESUMPTUOUS, pr[=e]-zump't[=u]-us, _adj._ full of presumption: going beyond the bounds of right or duty: bold and confident: founded on presumption: wilful.--_adv._ PRESUMP'TUOUSLY.--_n._ PRESUMP'TUOUSNESS. [L. _præsumptuosus_.]

PRESUPPOSE, pr[=e]-sup-p[=o]z', _v.t._ to suppose before actual knowledge: to assume or take for granted.--_n._ PRESUPPOSI'TION.

PRESURMISE, pr[=e]-sur-m[=i]z', _n._ (_Shak._) a surmise previously formed.

PRETEND, pr[=e]-tend', _v.t._ to hold out as a cloak for something else: to lay claim to: to attempt, undertake: to offer as true something that is not so: to affect to feel: (_obs._) to offer, present.--_v.i._ to put in a claim: to make-believe.--_ns._ PRETENCE', something pretended: appearance or show to hide reality: false show or reason: pretext: assumption: claim; PRETEN'DANT, -ENT, a pretender.--_adjs_. PRETEN'DED, PRETEN'SED, ostensible, assumed.--_adv._ PRETEN'DEDLY.--_ns._ PRETEN'DER; PRETEN'DERSHIP.--_adv._ PRETEN'DINGLY.--_n._ PRETEN'SION, act of pretending: something pretended: false or fictitious appearance: claim either true or false.--_adj._ PRETEN'TIOUS, marked by or containing pretence: claiming more than is warranted: presumptuous: arrogant.--_adv._ PRETEN'TIOUSLY, in a pretentious manner.--_n._ PRETEN'TIOUSNESS, the quality of being pretentious. [Fr. _prétendre_--L. _prætend[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _tend[)e]re_, _tentum_, _tensum_, to stretch.]


PRETERCANINE, pr[=e]-t[.e]r-ka-n[=i]n', _adj._ more than canine.

PRETERHUMAN, pr[=e]-t[.e]r-h[=u]'man, _adj._ more than human.

PRETERIMPERFECT, pr[=e]-t[.e]r-im-p[.e]r'fekt, _adj._ implying that an event was happening at a certain past time.

PRETERITE, pret'[.e]r-it, _adj._ gone by: past: noting the past tense.--_n._ the past tense.--_ns._ PRET'ERIST, one who holds the prophecies of the Apocalypse already fulfilled; PRET'ERITENESS.--_adj._ PRETERI'TIAL (_biol._), once active but now latent.--_n._ PRETERI'TION, the act of passing over: the doctrine that God passes over the non-elect in electing to eternal life those predestinated to salvation.--_adj._ PRETER'ITIVE, expressing past times. [L. _præteritus_--_præter_, beyond, _[=i]re_, _[=i]tum_, to go.]

PRETERMIT, pr[=e]-t[.e]r-mit', _v.t._ to pass by: to omit: to leave undone:--_pr.p._ pr[=e]termit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pr[=e]termit'ted.--_n._ PRETERMIS'SION, the act of passing by: omission. [L. _præter_, past, _mitt[)e]re_, to send.]

PRETERNATURAL, pr[=e]-t[.e]r-nat'[=u]-ral, _adj._ beyond what is natural: out of the regular course of things: extraordinary.--_n._ PRETERNAT'URALISM, belief in the preternatural: preternatural existence.--_adv._ PRETERNAT'URALLY.--_n._ PRETERNAT'URALNESS.

PRETERNUPTIAL, pr[=e]-ter-nup'shal, _adj._ adulterous.

PRETERPERFECT, pr[=e]-t[.e]r-p[.e]r'fekt, _adj._ denoting the perfect tense.

PRETERPLUPERFECT, pr[=e]-t[.e]r-pl[=oo]'p[.e]r-fekt, _adj._ denoting the pluperfect tense.

PRETEXT, pr[=e]'tekst, or pr[=e]-tekst', _n._ an assumed motive or reason put forward to conceal the real one: a pretence. [L. _prætextum_--_prætex[)e]re_--_præ_, before, _tex[)e]re_, to weave.]

PRETHOUGHTFUL, pr[=e]-thawt'f[=oo]l, _adj._ forethoughtful, prudent.

PRETIBIAL, pr[=e]-tib'i-al, _adj._ situated upon the front of the lower part of the leg.

PRETOR, &c. See PRÆTOR, &c.

PRETTY, pret'i, _adj._ tasteful: pleasing to the eye: having attractive but not striking beauty: neat: beautiful without dignity: small: affected: moderately large, considerable: puny, weak (a term of endearment): (in contempt) fine: (_obs._) shrewd, cunning: (_obs._) strong, warlike.--_adv._ in some degree: moderately.--_v.t._ PRETT'IFY, to make pretty in an excessively ornamental way.--_adv._ PRETT'ILY, in a pretty manner: pleasingly: elegantly: neatly.--_n._ PRETT'INESS.--_adj._ PRETT'YISH, somewhat pretty.--_n._ PRETT'YPRETTY (_coll._), a knick-knack.--_adj._ PRETT'Y-SP[=O]'KEN, speaking or spoken prettily.--PRETTY MUCH, very nearly. [A.S. _prættig_, tricky--_prætt_, trickery; prob. Low L. _practicus_--Gr. _praktikos_--_prattein_, to do.]

PRETYPIFY, pr[=e]-tip'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to represent by a type what is to happen: to prefigure.

PRETZEL, pret'sel, _n._ a brittle biscuit, cracknel. [Ger.,--Old High Ger. _brizilla_, _prezitella_--Low L. _bracellus_, also _braciolum_, a kind of cake.]

PREVAIL, pr[=e]-v[=a]l', _v.i._ to be very powerful: to gain the victory: to have the upper hand: to have greater influence or effect: to overcome: to be in force: to succeed.--_v.t._ (_obs.)_ avail.--_adj._ PREVAIL'ING, having great power: controlling: bringing about results: very general or common.--_adv._ PREVAIL'INGLY.--_ns._ PREVAIL'MENT (_Shak._), prevalence; PREV'ALENCE, PREV'ALENCY, the state of being prevalent or wide-spread: superior strength or influence: preponderance: efficacy.--_adj._ PREV'ALENT, prevailing: having great power: victorious: wide-spread: most common.--_adv._ PREV'ALENTLY. [Fr. _prévaloir_--L. _præval[=e]re_--_præ_, before, _val[=e]re_, to be powerful.]

PREVARICATE, pr[=e]-var'i-k[=a]t, _v.i._ to shift about from side to side, to evade the truth: to quibble: (_obs._) to undertake a thing with the purpose of defeating or destroying it: (_law_) to betray a client by collusion with his opponent.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to pervert, transgress.--_ns._ PR[=E]VARIC[=A]'TION, the act of quibbling to evade the truth; PR[=E]VAR'IC[=A]TOR, one who prevaricates to evade the truth: a quibbler. [L. _prævaric[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_præ_, inten., _varicus_, straddling--_varus_, bent.]

PREVENANCY, prev'[=e]-nan-si, _n._ complaisance.

PREVENT, pr[=e]-vent', _v.t._ to hinder: to check: to render impossible: (_orig._) to go before: to be earlier than.--_v.t._ PR[=E]VENE' (rare), to precede.--_n._ PREV[=E]'NIENCE.--_adj._ PREV[=E]'NIENT (_Milt._), going before: preceding: preventive.--_n._ PREVENTABIL'ITY, the quality of being preventable.--_adj._ PREVEN'TABLE, that may be prevented or hindered.--_ns._ PREVEN'TER, one who, or that which, prevents or hinders: (_naut._) an additional rope or spar for strengthening the ordinary one; PREVEN'TION, act of preventing: anticipation or forethought: obstruction.--_adjs._ PREVEN'TIVE, PREVEN'TATIVE, tending to prevent or hinder: preservative.--_n._ that which prevents: a preservative.--_adv._ PREVEN'TIVELY.--_n._ PREVEN'TIVENESS.--PREVENTIVE SERVICE, the service rendered by the coastguard in preventing smuggling. [L. _præventus_, pa.p. of _præven[=i]re_--_præ_, before, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

PREVERTEBRAL, pr[=e]-v[.e]r'te-bral, _adj._ situated or developing before the vertebræ.

PREVIOUS, pr[=e]'vi-us, _adj._ going before in time: former.--_adv._ PR[=E]'VIOUSLY.--_n._ PR[=E]'VIOUSNESS, antecedence: priority in time.--PREVIOUS QUESTION, a motion made during a debate, 'that the main question be now put.' If the decision be 'yes,' the debate is ended and the question put and decided; if it be 'no,' the debate is adjourned in the British parliament, but continues in the American assembly. [L. _præevius_--_præ_, before, _via_, a way.]

PREVISE, pr[=e]-viz', _v.t._ to foresee: to forewarn.--_n._ PREVI'SION, foresight: foreknowledge. [L. _prævid[=e]re_, _prævisum_, to foresee--_præ_, before, _vid[=e]re_, to see.]

PREWARN, pr[=e]-wawrn', _v.t._ to warn beforehand.

PREX, preks, _n._ in U.S. college slang the president of a college.--Also PREX'Y.

PREY, pr[=a], _n._ that which is taken by robbery or force: booty: plunder: that which is or may be seized to be devoured: a victim: depredation: (_Shak._) the act of seizing.--_v.i._ to take plunder: to seize and devour: to waste or impair gradually: to weigh heavily (_on_ or _upon_), as the mind.--_adj._ PREY'FUL (_Shak._), having a disposition to prey on others.--BEAST OF PREY, one who devours other animals. [O. Fr. _praie_ (Fr. _proie_)--L. _præda_, booty.]

PRIAPUS, pr[=i]-[=a]'pus, _n._ an ancient deity personifying male generative power.--_adjs._ PRIAP'IC, PRIAP[=E]'AN.--_n._ PR[=I]'APISM.

PRICE, pr[=i]s, _n._ that at which anything is prized, valued, or bought: excellence: recompense.--_v.t._ to set value on: (_coll._) to ask the price of: (_Spens._) to pay the price of.--_ns._ PRICE'-CURR'ENT, -LIST, a list of the prices paid for any class of goods, &c.--_adjs._ PRICED, set at a value; PRICE'LESS, beyond price: invaluable: without value: worthless.--_n._ PRICE'LESSNESS.--PRICE OF MONEY, the rate of discount in lending or borrowing capital.--WITHOUT PRICE, priceless. [O. Fr. _pris_ (Fr. _prix_)--L. _pretium_, price.]

PRICK, prik, _n._ that which pricks or penetrates: a sharp point: the act or feeling of pricking: a puncture: a sting: remorse: (_Shak._) a thorn, prickle, skewer, point of time: (_Spens._) point, pitch.--_v.t._ to pierce with a prick: to erect any pointed thing: to fix by the point: to put on by puncturing: to mark or make by pricking: to incite: to deck out as with flowers or feathers: to pain.--_v.i._ to have a sensation of puncture: to stand erect: to ride with spurs:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pricked.--_adj._ PRICK'-EARED, having pointed ears.--_ns._ PRICK'ER, that which pricks: a sharp-pointed instrument: light-horseman: a priming wire; PRICK'ING; PRICKLE (prik'l), a little prick: a sharp point growing from the bark of a plant or from the skin of an animal.--_v.t._ to prick slightly.--_v.i._ (_Spens._) to be prickly.--_ns._ PRICK'LE-BACK, the stickle-back; PRICK'LINESS; PRICK'LING, the act of piercing with a sharp point: (_Shak._) the sensation of being pricked.--_adj._ prickly.--_adj._ PRICK'LY, full of prickles.--_ns._ PRICK'LY-HEAT, a severe form of the skin disease known as lichen, with itching and stinging sensations; PRICK'LY-PEAR, a class of plants with clusters of prickles and fruit like the pear; PRICK'-ME-DAIN'TY (_Scot._), an affected person.--_adj._ over-precise.--_ns._ PRICK'-SONG (_Shak._), a song set to music: music in parts; PRICK'-SPUR, a goad-spur; PRICK'-THE-GAR'TER (cf. _Fast-and-loose_); PRICK'-THE-LOUSE (_Scot._), a tailor. [A.S. _pricu_, a point; Ger. _prickeln_, Dut. _prikkel_, a prickle.]

PRICKET, prik'et, _n._ (_Shak._) a buck in his second year.

PRIDE, pr[=i]d, _n._ state or feeling of being proud: too great self-esteem: haughtiness: overbearing treatment of others: a proper sense of what is becoming to one's self: a feeling of pleasure on account of something worthily done: that of which men are proud: that which excites boasting: elevation, loftiness: beauty displayed, ornament, ostentation: high spirit, mettle: (_Shak._) lust.--_v.t._ to have or take pride: to value, as one's self, &c.--_adj._ PRIDE'FUL.--_adv._ PRIDE'FULLY.--_n._ PRIDE'FULNESS.--_adj._ PRIDE'LESS. [A.S. _prýte_--_prút_, proud.]

PRIDIAN, prid'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to yesterday. [L. _pridie_--_prius_, before, _dies_, day.]

PRIE-DIEU, pr[=e]-di[=u]', _n._ a praying-desk. [Fr.]

PRIEF, pr[=e]f, _n._ (_Spens._) proof, trial, experiment.

PRIER, PRYER, pr[=i]'er, _n._ one who pries.

PRIEST, pr[=e]st, _n._ one who offers sacrifices or officiates in sacred offices: a minister above a deacon and below a bishop: a clergyman:--_fem._ PRIEST'ESS.--_ns._ PRIEST'CRAFT, priestly policy: the schemes of priests to gain wealth or power; PRIEST'HOOD, the office or character of a priest: the priestly order.--_adjs._ PRIEST'-LIKE, PRIEST'LY, pertaining to or like a priest.--_n._ PRIEST'LINESS.--_adj._ PRIEST'-RID'DEN, controlled by priests.--HIGH PRIEST, a chief priest, esp. the chief ecclesiastical officer in the ancient Jewish church. [A.S. _preóst_ (O. Fr. _prestre_, Fr. _prêtre_)--L. _presbyter_, an elder.]

PRIEVE, pr[=e]v, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to prove.

PRIG, prig, _n._ a pert fellow who gives himself airs of superior wisdom.--_adj._ PRIG'GISH, conceited and affected.--_adv._ PRIG'GISHLY.--_ns._ PRIG'GISHNESS, PRIG'GISM. [From _prick_, to adorn.]

PRIG, prig, _n._ a thief.--_v.t._ (_slang_) to filch.--_v.i._ (_Scot._) to plead hard, haggle: to cheapen.--_ns._ PRIG'GER; PRIG'GERY.--_adj._ PRIG'GISH.--_n._ PRIG'GISM. [Prob. the same as _prick_, to spur.]

PRILL, pril, _n._ (_prov._) a very rich piece of ore.

PRILL, pril, _v.i._ (_prov._) to grow sour: to become tipsy.

PRIM, prim, _adj._ exact and precise in manner: affectedly nice.--_v.t._ to deck with great nicety: to form with affected preciseness:--_pr.p._ prim'ming; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ primmed.--_adv._ PRIM'LY.--_n._ PRIM'NESS. [O. Fr. _prim_, fem. _prime_--L. _primus_, _prima_, first.]

PRIMACY, pr[=i]'ma-si, _n._ state of being first in order of time, rank, &c.: the office or dignity of a primate or archbishop.

PRIMA-DONNA, pr[=e]'ma-don'a, _n._ the first or leading female singer in an opera. [It.,--L. _prima domina_.]

PRIMA FACIE, pr[=i]'ma f[=a]'shi-[=e], at first view or sight.--PRIMA FACIE CASE (_law_), a case established by sufficient evidence: a case consisting of evidence sufficient to go to a jury. [L. _prima_, abl. fem. of _primus_, first, _facie_, abl. of _facies_, a face.]

PRIMAGE, pr[=i]m'[=a]j, _n._ an allowance to the captain of a vessel by the shipper or consignee of goods for care in lading the same (_hat-money_): amount or percentage of water carried from a boiler in priming. [_Prime_, first.]

PRIMARY, pr[=i]'mar-i, _adj._ first: original: chief: primitive: elementary, preparatory.--_n._ that which is highest in rank or importance: a planet in relation to its satellite or satellites.--_adv._ PR[=I]'MARILY.--_ns._ PR[=I]'MARINESS, the state of being first in time, act, or intention; PR[=I]'MARY-AC'CENT, the accent immediately after a bar in PR[=I]'MARY-COL'OURS, the colours obtained by passing the sun's rays through a prism: the colours of the rainbow--red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet; PR[=I]'MARY-PLAN'ETS, planets revolving round the sun--not satellites; PR[=I]'MARY-QUILLS, the largest feathers of a bird's wing; PR[=I]'MARY-ROCKS, the rocks which seem to have been first formed and contain no animal remains, as granites, &c.

PRIMATE, pr[=i]'m[=a]t, _n._ the first or highest dignitary in a church: an archbishop.--_n._ PR[=I]'M[=A]TESHIP.--_adj._ PRIM[=A]'TIAL.

PRIME, pr[=i]m, _adj._ first in order of time, rank, or importance: chief: excellent: original: early: in early manhood: (_Shak._) eager, bold: (_math._) incapable of being separated into factors.--_n._ the beginning: the dawn: the spring: the best part: the height of perfection: full health and strength: a religious service during the first hour after sunrise: (_fencing_) the first guard against sword-thrusts, also the first and simplest thrust.--_adj._ PR[=I]'MAL, first: original: chief.--_n._ PRIMAL'ITY.--_adv._ PRIME'LY.--_ns._ PRIME'-MIN'ISTER, the chief minister of state; PRIME'-MOV'ER, the force which puts a machine in motion: a steam-engine or a water-wheel; PRIME'NESS; PRIME'-NUM'BER, a first number--i.e. one divisible only by itself or unity.--PRIME COST (see COST). [L. _pr[=i]mus_ (for _pro-i-mus_).]

PRIME, pr[=i]m, _v.t._ to put powder on the nipple of a firearm: to lay on the first coating of colour: to instruct or prepare beforehand.--_v.i._ to serve for the charge of a gun: in the steam-engine, to carry over hot water with the steam from the boiler into the cylinder.--_ns._ PR[=I]'MER; PR[=I]'MING; PR[=I]'MING-POW'DER, detonating powder: train of powder connecting a fuse with a charge. [_Prime_ (adj.).]

PRIMER, prim'[.e]r, or pr[=i]'mer, _n._ a first book: a work of elementary religious instruction: a first reading-book: an elementary introduction to any subject: a kind of type of two species, _long_-primer (10 point) and _great_-primer (18 point). [Orig. a small prayer-book.]

PRIMERO, pri-m[=a]'r[=o], _n._ an old game at cards. [Sp.]

PRIMEVAL, pr[=i]-m[=e]'val, _adj._ belonging to the first ages: original: primitive.--_adv._ PRIM[=E]'VALLY. [L. _primævus_--_primus_, first, _ævum_, an age.]

PRIMIGENIAL, pr[=i]-mi-j[=e]'ni-al, _adj._ first-born or made: primary: constituent--also PRIMOG[=E]'NIAL.--_adjs._ PRIMIG'ENOUS, PRIMIG[=E]'NIOUS, first formed; PRIMOGEN'ITAL (_obs._), PRIMOGEN'ITARY, PRIMOGEN'ITIVE, of or belonging to primogeniture.--_ns._ PRIMOGEN'ITOR, the first begetter or father: a forefather; PRIMOGEN'ITURE, state of being born first of the same parents: (_law_) the right of the eldest son to inherit his father's estates; PRIMOGEN'ITURESHIP. [Fr.,--L. _primo-genitus_, first-born--_primus_, first, _gign[)e]re_, _genitum_, to beget.]

PRIMITIÆ, pri-mish'i-[=e], first-fruits offered to the gods--also PRIMI'TIAS (_Spens._): the first year's revenue of a benefice. [L.,--_primus_, first.]

PRIMITIVE, prim'i-tiv, _adj._ belonging to the beginning, or to the first times: original: ancient: antiquated, old-fashioned: not derived: (_biol._) rudimentary, primary or first of its kind: (_geol._) of the earliest formation.--_n._ a primitive word, or one not derived from another: (_math._) a form from which another is PRIM'ITIVE-COL'OURS, the colours from which all others are supposed to be derived--viz. red, yellow, and blue; PRIM'ITIVE-FA'THERS, the Christian writers before the Council of Nice, 325 A.D.--_adv._ PRIM' PRIM'ITIVE-METH'ODISTS, a religious body founded in 1810, whose beliefs are the same as those of other Methodists, but whose working arrangements are nearly Presbyterian.--_n._ PRIM' PRIM'ITIVE-ROCKS (see PRIMARY-ROCKS). [Fr.,--L. _primitivus_, an extension of _primus_.]

PRIMO, pr[=e]'m[=o], _n._ (_mus._) the first or principal part.

PRIMORDIAL, pr[=i]-mor'di-al, _adj._ first in order: original: existing from the beginning: (_anat._) in a rudimentary state: (_bot._) first formed, as leaves or fruit.--_n._ first principle or element.--_ns._ PRIMOR'DIALISM; PRIMOR'DIUM. [L. _primus_, first, _ordo_, order.]

PRIMP, primp, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to dress in an affected manner.--_v.i._ to be affected. [_Prink._]

PRIMROSE, prim'r[=o]z, _n._ an early spring flower common in woods and meadows: a plant of the genus _Primula_: (_Spens._) the first or earliest flower, the first or choicest.--_adj._ resembling a primrose in colour: flowery, gay.--PRIMROSE LEAGUE, a political association for the spread of Conservative opinions--formed in 1883 in memory of Lord Beaconsfield, whose favourite flower is said to have been the _primrose_. [Fr. _prime rose_--as if L. _prima rosa_; really through O. Fr. _primerole_ and Low L. dim. forms from L. _primus_.]

PRIMSIE, prim'si, _adj._ (_Scot._) prim, demure.

PRIMULA, prim'[=u]-la, _n._ the genus of plants to which the primrose belongs. [L. _primus_, first.]

PRIMUM MOBILE, pr[=i]'mum mob'i-l[=e], in the Ptolemaic system the outermost of the ten revolving spheres of the universe, supposed to carry the others with it: any great source of motion. [L.]

PRIMUS, pr[=i]'mus, _n._ the bishop in the Scottish Episcopal Church who presides over the meetings of the other bishops, but without metropolitan authority.

PRIMY, pr[=i]'mi, _adj._ (_Shak._) blooming.

PRINCE, prins, _n._ one of the highest rank: a sovereign: son of a king or emperor: a title of nobility, as in Germany: the chief of any body of men:--_fem._ PRIN'CESS.--_v.i._ to play the prince (usually with _it_).--_ns._ PRINCE'-BISH'OP, a bishop who was also the civil ruler or prince of his diocese; PRINCE'-CON'SORT, the husband of a reigning queen; PRINCE'DOM, the estate, jurisdiction, sovereignty, or rank of a prince; PRINCE'HOOD, rank or quality of a prince; PRINCE'-IMP[=E]'RIAL, the eldest son of an emperor; PRINCE'KIN, PRINCE'LET, PRINCE'LING, a little or inferior prince.--_adj._ PRINCE'-LIKE, becoming a prince.--_n._ PRINCE'LINESS.--_adj._ PRINCE'LY, prince-like: becoming a prince: grand: august: regal.--_adv._ in a prince-like manner.--_adv._ PRIN'CESSLY, like a princess.--_n._ PRIN'CESS-ROY'AL, the eldest daughter of a sovereign.--_adj._ PRIN'CIFIED, ridiculously dignified.--_n._ MER'CHANT-PRINCE, a merchant who has gained great wealth.--PRINCE OF DARKNESS, PRINCE OF THIS WORLD, Satan; PRINCE OF PEACE, Christ: the Messiah; PRINCE OF WALES, the eldest son of the British sovereign; PRINCE RUPERT'S DROPS (see DROP); PRINCE'S FEATHER, a tall showy annual with spikes of rose-coloured flowers; PRINCE'S METAL, a gold-like alloy of 70 parts of copper and 25 of zinc. [Fr.,--L. _princeps_--_primus_, first, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

PRINCEPS, prin'seps, _n._ one who, or that which, is foremost, original, &c.: short for _editio princeps_, the first edition of a book. [L.]

PRINCESSE, prin-ses', _adj._ of a woman's garment, close-fitting, the skirt and waist in one, and undraped. [Fr.]

PRINCIPAL, prin'si-pal, _adj._ taking the first place: highest in rank, character, or importance: chief.--_n._ a principal person or thing: a head, as of a school or college: one who takes a leading part: money on which interest is paid: (_archit._) a main beam or timber: (_law_) the person who commits a crime, or one who aids and abets him in doing it: a person for whom another becomes surety, a person who, being _sui juris_, employs another to do an act which he is competent himself to do: (_mus._) an organ-stop: (_Shak._) the principal rafter.--_n._ PRINCIPAL'ITY, supreme power: the territory of a prince or the country which gives title to him: (_B._) a prince: (_obs._) a power: (_pl._) an order of angels, the seventh in the hierarchy of Dionysius.--_adv._ PRIN'CIPALLY.--_ns._ PRIN'CIPALNESS, the state of being principal or chief; PRIN'CIPALSHIP, position of a principal; PRIN'CIPATE, primary: a principality, esp. the office of the ancient Roman emperors. [L. _principalis_.]

PRINCIPIA, prin-sip'i-a, first principles: elements, used often as the contracted title of the 'Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica' of Newton.--_adj._ PRINCIP'IAL, elementary. [L., pl. of _principium_.]

PRINCIPLE, prin'si-pl, _n._ a fundamental truth on which others are founded or from which they spring: a law or doctrine from which others are derived: an original faculty of the mind: a settled rule of action: (_chem._) a constituent part: (_obs._) a beginning.--_v.t._ to establish in principles: to impress with a doctrine.--_adj._ PRIN'CIPLED, holding certain principles.--PRINCIPLE OF CONTRADICTION, the logical principle that a thing cannot both be and not be; PRINCIPLE OF EXCLUDED MIDDLE (_logic_), the principle that a thing must be either one thing or its contradictory; PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON (see REASON).--FIRST PRINCIPLE, a very general principle not deducible from others. [L. _principium_, beginning--_princeps_.]

PRINCOCK, prin'kok, _n._ (_Shak._) a conceited fellow: a coxcomb.--Also PRIN'COX.

PRINK, pringk, _v.t._ to adorn ostentatiously.--_n._ PRINK'ER. [Weakened from _prank_.]

PRINT, print, _v.t._ to press or impress: to mark by pressure: to impress letters on paper, &c.: to publish: (_phot._) to produce a positive picture from a negative.--_v.i._ to practise the art of printing: to publish a book.--_n._ a mark or character made by impression: the impression of types in general: a copy: a printed picture: an engraving: a newspaper: a printed cloth: calico stamped with figures: that which impresses its form on anything: