Carleton's Condensed Classical Dictionary by

CARLETON'S

CONDENSED

CLASSICAL DICTIONARY.

BEING

BRIEF BUT SUCCINCT INFORMATION

CONCERNING

THE PROMINENT NAMES

IN

CLASSICAL HISTORY AND MYTHOLOGY,

TOGETHER WITH

THE MOST CONSPICUOUS

INCIDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THEM.

_CAREFULLY PREPARED AND EDITED_

BY

GEORGE W. CARLETON,

AUTHOR OF

"OUR ARTIST IN CUBA, PERU, ALGIERS AND SPAIN."

"Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it."--_Boswell's Life of Johnson._

NEW YORK

Copyright, 1882, by

_G. W. Carleton & Co., Publishers_.

MADISON SQUARE.

MDCCCLXXXII.

CARLETON'S CONDENSED CLASSICAL DICTIONARY.

=Aby´dos.= A city of Asia opposite Sestos in Europe. It is famous for the loves of Hero and Leander, and for the bridge of boats which Xerxes built there across the Hellespont. Leander was in the habit of swimming across the Hellespont to see Hero, till at length, on a stormy night, he was drowned.

=Aby´dos.= A town of Egypt, where was the famous temple of Osiris.

=Acade´mi´a.= A place surrounded with trees, near Athens, belonging to Academus, from whom the name is derived. Here Plato opened his school of philosophy, and from this every place sacred to learning has ever since been called Academia.

=Acha´tes.= A friend of Æneas, whose fidelity was so exemplary that _Fidus Achates_ has become a proverb.

=Achelo´us.= The son of Oceanus and Terra, or Tethys, god of the river of the same name in Epirus. As one of the numerous suitors of Dejanira, he entered the lists against Hercules, and being inferior, changed himself into a serpent, and afterwards into an ox. Hercules broke off one of his horns and defeated him, after which, according to some, he was changed into a river.

=Ac´heron.= One of the rivers of hell; often used to signify hell itself.

=Achil´les=, the son of Peleus and Thetis, was the bravest of all the Greeks in the Trojan war. During his infancy, Thetis plunged him in the Styx, thus making every part of his body invulnerable except the heel by which she held him. To prevent him from going to the Trojan war, Thetis sent him privately to the court of Lycomedes, where he was disguised in a female dress. As Troy could not be taken without his aid, Ulysses went to the court of Lycomedes in the habit of a merchant, and exposed jewels and arms for sale. Achilles, choosing the arms, discovered his sex, and went to the war. Vulcan made him a strong suit of armor, which was proof against all weapons. He was deprived by Agamemnon of his favorite Briseis, and for this affront he would not appear on the field till the death of Patroclus impelled him to vengeance. He slew Hector, who had killed Patroclus, and tying his corpse to his war-car, dragged it three times round Troy. He is said to have been killed by Paris, who inflicted a mortal wound in his vulnerable heel with an arrow.

=A´cis.= A shepherd of Sicily, son of Faunus and the nymph Simæthis. Galatea passionately loved him, upon which his rival, Polyphemus, crushed him to death with a piece of broken rock. The gods changed Acis into a stream, which rises from Mount Etna.

=Actæ´on.= A famous huntsman, son of Aristæus and Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus. He saw Diana and her attendants bathing, for which he was changed into a stag and devoured by his own dogs.

=Ac´tium.= A town and promontory of Epirus, famous for the naval victory which Augustus obtained over Antony and Cleopatra, B. C. 31.

=A´des or Hades.= The God of hell amongst the Greeks; the same as the Pluto of the Latins. The word is often used for hell itself by the ancient poets.

=Adher´bal.= Son of Micipsa, and grandson of Masinissa, was besieged at Cirta, and put to death by Jugurtha, after vainly imploring the aid of Rome, B. C. 112.

=Adme´tus.= Son of Pheres and Clymene, king of Pheræ in Thessaly. Apollo, when banished from heaven, is said to have tended his flocks for nine years.

=Ado´nis=, son of Cinyras and Myrrha, was the favorite of Venus. He was fond of hunting, and was often cautioned not to hunt wild beasts. This advice he slighted, and at last was mortally wounded by a wild boar. Venus changed him into the flower anemone. Proserpine is said to have restored him to life, on condition that he should spend six months of the year with her, and the rest of the year with Venus. This implies the alternate return of summer and winter.

=Adras´tus=, son of Talaus and Lysimache, was king of Argos. Polynices, being banished from Thebes by his brother Eteocles, fled to Argos, where he married Argia, daughter of Adrastus. The king assisted his son-in-law, and marched against Thebes with an army. He was defeated with great slaughter, and fled to Athens, where Theseus gave him assistance, and was victorious. Adrastus died from grief, occasioned by the death of his son Ægialeus.

=Adria´nus.= A famous emperor of Rome. He is represented as an active, learned, warlike, and austere general. He came to Britain, where he built a wall between the modern towns of Carlisle and Newcastle-on-Tyne, to protect the Britons from the incursions of the Caledonians.

=Ædi´les.= Roman magistrates, who had the charge of all buildings, baths, and aqueducts, and examined weights and measures. The office of an Ædile was honorable, and the primary step to a more distinguished position in the State.

=Ægeus.= King of Athens, son of Pandion. Being desirous of having children, he went to consult the oracle, and on his return stopped at the court of Pittheus, king of Troezene, who gave him his daughter Æthra in marriage. He directed her, if she had a son, to send him to Athens as soon as he could lift a stone under which he had concealed his sword. Æthra became mother of Theseus, whom she sent to Athens with his father's sword, Ægeus being at that time living with Medea, the divorced wife of Jason. When Theseus came to Athens, Medea attempted to poison him, but he escaped; and upon showing Ægeus the sword, discovered himself to be his son. When Theseus returned from Crete, after the death of the Minotaur, he omitted to hoist up white sails, as a signal of success, and at sight of black sails, Ægeus, concluding that his son was dead, threw himself into the sea, which, as some suppose, has since been called the Ægean sea. Ægeus died B. C. 1235.

=Ægis.= The shield of Jupiter. He gave it to Pallas, who placed Medusa's head on it, which turned into stones all those who gazed at it.

=Ægy´ptus=, son of Belus, and brother to Danaus, gave his fifty sons in marriage to the fifty daughters of his brother. Danaus, who had established himself at Argos, and was jealous of his brother, obliged all his daughters to murder their husbands on the first night of their nuptials. This was done, Hypermnestra alone sparing her husband Lynceus. Ægyptus himself was killed by his niece Polyxena.

=Ælia´nus Clau´dius.= A Roman sophist of Præneste in the reign of Adrian. He taught rhetoric at Rome. He wrote treatises on animals in seventeen books, and on various other subjects in fourteen books. Ælian died at the age of sixty, A. D. 140.

=Æne´as.= A Trojan prince, son of Anchises and Venus. He married Creusa, the daughter of Priam, and they had a son named Ascanius. During the Trojan war Æneas behaved with great valor in defense of Troy. When the city was in flames he is said to have carried away his father Anchises on his shoulders, leading his son Ascanius by the hand, his wife following them. Subsequently he built a fleet of twenty ships, with which he set sail in quest of a settlement. He was driven on the coasts of Africa, and was kindly received by Dido, Queen of Carthage, who became enamored with him; but he left Carthage by the order of the gods. He has been praised for his piety and his submission to the will of the gods; the term "Pius" is generally appended to his name.

=Æne´is.= The Æneid, a grand poem by Virgil, the great merit of which is well known. The author has imitated the style of Homer, and is by some thought to equal him.

=Æolus=, the ruler of storms and winds, was the son of Hippotas. He reigned over Æolia. He was the inventor of sails, and a great astronomer, from which the poets have called him the god of wind.

=Æs´chines.= An Athenian orator who lived about 342 B.C.; and distinguished himself by his rivalship with Demosthenes.

=Æs´chylus=, a soldier and poet of Athens, son of Euphorion. He was in the Athenian army at the battles of Marathon, Salamis, and Platæa; but his most solid fame rests on his writings. He wrote ninety tragedies, forty of which were rewarded with a public prize. He was killed by the fall of a tortoise, dropped from the beak of an eagle on his head, B.C. 456.

=Æscula´pius=, son of Apollo and Coronis, or, as some say, of Apollo and Larissa, daughter of Phlegias, was the god of medicine. He married Epione, and they had two sons, famous for their skill in medicine, Machaon and Podalirus; of their four daughters, Hygeia, goddess of health, is the most celebrated.

=Æson=, son of Cretheus, was born at the same birth as Pelias. He succeeded his father in the kingdom of Iolchos, but was soon exiled by his brother. He married Alcimeda, by whom he had Jason, whose education he intrusted to Chiron. When Jason reached manhood he demanded his father's kingdom from his uncle, who gave him evasive answers, and persuaded him to go in quest of the Golden Fleece. On his return Jason found his father very infirm, and at his request Medea drew the blood from Æson's veins and refilled them with the juice of certain herbs, which restored the old man to the vigor of youth.

=Æso´pus.= A Phrygian philosopher who, originally a slave, procured his liberty by his genius. He dedicated his fables to his patron Croesus. The fables which we have now under his name doubtless are a collection of fables and apologues of wits before and after the age of Æsop, conjointly with his own.

=Agamem´non=, king of Mycenæ and Argos, was brother to Menelaus, and son of Plisthenes, the son of Atreus. He married Clytemnestra, and Menelaus Helen, both daughters of Tyndarus, king of Sparta. When Helen eloped with Paris, Agamemnon was elected commander-in-chief of the Grecian forces invading Troy.

=Agesila´us.= Of the family of the Proclidæ, son of Archidamus, king of Sparta, whom he succeeded. He made war against Artaxerxes, king of Persia, with success; but in the midst of his conquests he was called home to oppose the Athenians and Boetians. He passed over in thirty days that tract of country which had taken up a whole year of Xerxes' expedition. He defeated his enemies at Coronea, but sickness interfered with his conquests, and the Spartans were beaten in every engagement till he again appeared at their head. He died 362 years B.C.

=Agrip´pa, M. Vipsanius.= A celebrated Roman who obtained a victory over S. Pompey, and favored the cause of Augustus at the battles of Actium and Philippi, where he behaved with great valor. In his expeditions in Gaul and Germany he obtained several victories, but refused the honor of a triumph, and turned his attention to the embellishment of Rome and the raising of magnificent buildings, among them the Pantheon. Augustus gave him his daughter Julia in marriage. He died universally lamented at Rome, aged fifty-one, B.C. 12.

=Agrip´pa.= A son of Aristobulus, grandson of the great Herod. He was popular with the Jews, and it is said that while they were flattering him with the appellation of god he was struck with death, A.D. 43. His son of the same name was with Titus at the siege of Jerusalem, and died A.D. 94. It was before him that St. Paul pleaded. There were a number of others of the same name, but of less celebrity.

=A´jax=, son of Telamon and Periboea, or Eriboea, was one of the bravest of the Greeks in the Trojan war. After the death of Achilles, Ajax and Ulysses both claimed the arms of the dead hero, which were given to Ulysses. Some say that he was killed in battle by Paris, but others record that he was murdered by Ulysses.

=Alari´cus.= A famous king of the Goths, who plundered Rome in the reign of Honorius. He was greatly respected for his valor, and during his reign he kept the Roman empire in continual alarm. He died after a reign of twelve years, A.D. 410. He was buried in the bed of a river which had been turned from its course for the reception of his corpse, in order that it might be said that no one should tread on the earth where he reposed.

=Al´bion=, son of Neptune and Amphitrite, came into Britain, where he established a kingdom, and introduced astrology and the art of building ships. Great Britain is called "Albion" after him.

=Alcæ´us.= A celebrated lyric poet of Mitylene, in Lesbos, about 600 years before the Christian era. He fled from a battle, and the armor in which he left the field was hung up in the temple of Minerva as a monument of his disgrace. He was enamored of Sappho. Of his works only a few fragments remain.

=Alces´te= or =Alces´tis=, daughter of Pelias, married Admetus. She, with her sisters, put her father to death that he might be restored to youth and vigor by Medea, who had promised to effect this by her enchantments. She, however, refused to fulfill her promise, on which the sisters fled to Admetus, who married Alceste.

=Alcibi´ades.= An Athenian general, famous for his enterprise, versatile genius, and natural foibles. He was a disciple of Socrates, whose lessons and example checked for a while his vicious propensities. In the Peloponnesian war he encouraged the Athenians to undertake an expedition against Syracuse. He died in his forty-sixth year, B.C. 404.

=Alcme´na.= Daughter of Electrion, king of Argos. Her father promised her and his crown to Amphitryon if he would revenge the death of his sons, who had been killed by the Teleboans. In the absence of Amphitryon, Jupiter assumed his form and visited Alcmena, who, believing the god to be her lover, received him with joy. Amphitryon, on his return, ascertained from the prophet Tiresias the deception which had been practiced. After the death of Amphitryon Alcmena married Rhadamanthus. Hercules was the son of Jupiter and Alcmena.

=Alcy´one= or =Halcy´one=, daughter of Æolus, married Ceyx, who was drowned as he was going to consult the oracle. The gods apprised Alcyone in a dream of her husband's fate, and when she found his body washed ashore she threw herself into the sea, and she and her husband were changed into birds.

=Alec´to.= One of the Furies. She is represented with her head covered with serpents, and breathing vengeance, war, and pestilence.

=Alexan´der=, surnamed the Great, was son of Philip and Olympias. He was born B. C. 355, on the night on which the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus was burnt. This event, according to the magicians, was a prognostic of his future greatness, as well as the taming of Bucephalus, a horse which none of the king's attendants could manage. Philip, it is recorded, said, with tears in his eyes, that his son must seek another kingdom, as that of Macedonia would not be large enough for him. He built a town, which he called Alexandria, on the Nile. His conquests were extended to India, where he fought with Porus, a powerful king of the country, and after he had invaded Scythia, he retired to Babylon laden with spoils. His entry into the city was predicted by the magicians as to prove fatal to him. He died at Babylon in his thirty-second year, after a reign of twelve years and eight months of continual success, B. C. 323. There were a number of others of the same name, but of less celebrity.

=Althæ´a=, daughter of Thestius and Eurythemis, married OEneus, king of Calydon, by whom she had many children, amongst them being Meleager. When he was born the Parcæ put a log of wood on the fire, saying, as long as it was preserved the life of the child would be prolonged. The mother took the wood from the flames and preserved it, but when Meleager killed his two uncles, Althæa, to revenge them, threw the log in the fire, and when it was burnt Meleager expired. Althæa then killed herself.

=Amaryl´lis.= The name of a countrywoman in Virgil's Eclogues. Some commentators have supposed that the poet spoke of Rome under this fictitious name.

=Amaz´ones or Amazonides.= A nation of famous women who lived near the river Thermodon in Cappadocia. All their lives were employed in wars and manly exercises. They founded an extensive empire in Asia Minor along the shores of the Euxine.

=Ambra´cia.= A city of Epirus, the residence of King Pyrrhus. Augustus, after the battle of Actium, called it Nicopolis.

=Amphiara´us=, son of Oicleus and Hypermnestra, was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, and accompanied the Argonauts in their expedition. He was famous for his knowledge of futurity.

=Amphic´tyon=, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, reigned at Athens after Cranaus. Some say the deluge happened in his age.

=Amphic´tyon=, the son of Helenus, who first established the celebrated Council of the Amphictyons, composed of the wisest and most virtuous men of some cities of Greece.

=Amphi´on=, son of Jupiter and Antiope. He cultivated poetry, and made such progress in music that he is said to have been the inventor of it, and to have built the walls of Thebes by the sound of his lyre.

=Amphitri´te.= A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, who married Neptune. She is sometimes called Salatia. She was mother of Triton, a sea deity.

=Amphit´ryon.= A Theban prince, son of Alcæus and Hipponome. His sister Anaxo married Electryon, king of Mycenæ, whose sons were killed in battle by the Teleboans. Electryon gave his daughter Alcmena to Amphitryon for avenging the death of his sons.

=Anachar´sis=, a Scythian philosopher 592 years B. C., who, on account of his wisdom, temperance, and knowledge, has been called one of the seven wise men. He has rendered himself famous among the Ancients by his writings, his poems on war, the laws of the Scythians, etc.

=Anac´reon.= A famous lyric poet of Teos, in Ionia, favored by Polycrates and Hipparchus, son of Philostratus. He was of intemperate habits and fond of pleasure. Some of his odes are extant, and the elegance of his poetry has been the admiration of every age and country. He lived to the age of eighty-five, and after a life of voluptuousness was choked with a grape stone. He flourished B. C. 532.

=Anadyom´ene.= A famous painting by Apelles of Venus rising from the sea.

=Anaxag´oras.= A Clazomenian philosopher, who disregarded wealth and honors to indulge his fondness for meditation and philosophy. He applied himself to astronomy, and obtained a knowledge of eclipses. He used to say he preferred a grain of wisdom to heaps of gold. He was accused of impiety and condemned to die, but he ridiculed the sentence, which he said had already been pronounced on him by nature. He died at the age of seventy-two, B. C. 428.

=Anaxar´ete.= A girl of Salamis, who so arrogantly rejected the addresses of Iphis, a youth of ignoble birth, that he hanged himself at her door. She saw the spectacle without emotion, and was changed into stone.

=Anchi´ses.= A son of Capys and Themis. He was so beautiful that Venus came down from heaven on Mount Ida to enjoy his company. Æneas was the son of Anchises and Venus, and was intrusted to the care of Chiron the Centaur. When Troy was taken, Anchises had become so infirm that Æneas had to carry him through the flames upon his shoulders, and thus saved his life.

=Androm´ache.= Daughter of Eetion, king of Thebes. She married Hector, son of Priam, and was the mother of Astyanax. Her parting with Hector, who was going to battle, is described in the Iliad, and has been deemed one of the most beautiful passages in that great work. Pope's translation of the Iliad (book 6) describes with great pathos and beauty the parting of Hector from his wife and child.

=Androm´eda.= A daughter of Cepheus, king of Æthiopia, and Cassiope. She was promised in marriage to Phineus when Neptune drowned the kingdom and sent a sea monster to ravage the country, because Cassiope had boasted that she was fairer than Juno and the Nereides. The oracle of Jupiter Ammon was consulted, but nothing could stop the resentment of Neptune except the exposure of Andromeda to the sea monster. She was accordingly tied to a rock, but at the moment that the monster was about to devour her, Perseus, returning from the conquest of the Gorgons, saw her, and was captivated with her beauty. He changed the monster into a rock by showing Medusa's head, and released Andromeda and married her.

=Anthropoph´agi.= A people of Scythia who fed on human flesh. They lived near the country of the Messagetæ. Shakspeare makes Othello, in his speech to the Senate, allude to the Anthropophagi thus:--

"The cannibals that each other eat, The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads Do grow beneath their shoulders."

=Antig´one.= A daughter of OEdipus, king of Thebes. She buried by night her brother Polynices, against the orders of Creon, who ordered her to be buried alive. She, however, killed herself on hearing of the sentence. The death of Antigone is the subject of one of the finest tragedies of Sophocles. The play has been adapted for representation on the English stage, Miss Helen Faucit performing the heroine with exquisite pathos.

=Antig´onus.= One of Alexander's generals, who, on the division of the provinces after the king's death, received Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phrygia. Eventually his power became so great that Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus combined to destroy him. He gained many victories over them, but at last was killed in battle at the age of eighty, B.C. 301. There were others of the same name, but much less conspicuous.

=Antin´ous.= A youth of Bithynia of whom the emperor Adrian was so extremely fond that, at his death, he erected a temple to him, and wished it to be believed that he had been changed into a constellation.

=Anti´ochus=, surnamed _Soter_, was son of Seleucus and king of Syria. He made a treaty of alliance with Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. He wedded his step-mother Stratonice. He was succeeded by his son Antiochus II., who put an end to the war which had begun with Ptolemy, and married his daughter Berenice, but being already married to Laodice, she, in revenge, poisoned him. Antiochus, the third of that name, surnamed the Great, was king of Syria, and reigned thirty-six years. He was defeated by Ptolemy Philopater at Raphia. He conquered the greater part of Greece, and Hannibal incited him to enter on a crusade against Roma. He was killed 187 years before the Christian era. Antiochus Epiphanes, the fourth of the name, was king of Syria after his brother Seleucus. He behaved with cruelty to the Jews. He reigned eleven years, and died unregretted. There were many others of the same name of less note.

=Ant´iope=, daughter of Nycteus, king of Thebes, and Polyxo, was beloved by Jupiter. Amphion and Tethus were her offspring.

=Antip´ater=, son of Iolaus, was a soldier under King Philip, and raised to the rank of a general under Alexander the Great. When Alexander went to invade Asia, he left Antipater supreme governor of Macedonia. He has been suspected of giving poison to Alexander to advance himself in power.

=Antoni´nus=, surnamed _Pius_, was adopted by the Emperor Adrian, whom he succeeded. He was remarkable for all the virtues forming a perfect statesman, philosopher, and king. He treated his subjects with affability and humanity, and listened with patience to every complaint brought before him. He died in his seventy-fifth year, after a reign of twenty-three years, A.D. 160.

=Anto´nius Mar´cus.= Mark Antony, the triumvir, distinguished himself by his ambitious views. When Julius Cæsar was killed in the senate house, Antony delivered an oration over his body, the eloquence of which is recorded in Shakspeare's tragedy of Julius Cæsar. Antony had married Fulvia, whom he repudiated to marry Octavia, the sister of Augustus. He fought by the side of Augustus at the battle of Philippi, against the murderers of Julius Cæsar. Subsequently he became enamored with Cleopatra, the renowned queen of Egypt, and repudiated Octavia to marry her. He was utterly defeated at the battle of Actium, and stabbed himself. He died in the fifty-sixth year of his age, B.C. 30.

=Anto´nius, Ju´lius=, son of the famous triumvir Antony, by Fulvia, was consul with Paulus Fabius Maximus. He was surnamed Africanus, and put to death by order of Augustus, but some say he killed himself.

=Anto´nius M. Gni´pho.= A poet of Gaul who taught rhetoric at Rome. Cicero and other illustrious men frequented his school. There were a number of others of the same name, but of less repute.

=Apel´les.= A celebrated painter of Cos, or, as others say, of Ephesus, son of Pithius. He lived in the age of Alexander the Great, who forbade any one but Apelles to paint his portrait. He was so absorbed in his profession that he never allowed a day to pass without employing himself at his art: hence the proverb of _Nulla dies sine linea_. His most perfect picture was Venus Anadyomene, which was not quite finished when he died. He painted a picture in which a horse was a prominent feature, and so correctly was it delineated that a horse passing by it neighed, supposing it to be alive. He was ordered by Alexander to paint a portrait of one of his favorites--Campaspe. Apelles became enamored with her and married her. He only put his name to three of his pictures--a sleeping Venus, Venus Anadyomene, and an Alexander. The proverb, _Ne sutor ultra crepidam_, has been used in reference to him by some writers.

=Aphrodi´te.= The Grecian name for Venus, from the Greek word [Greek: aphros], _froth_, because Venus is said to have been born from the froth of the ocean.

=Apic´ius.= A famous gourmand in Rome. There were three of this name, all noted for their voracious appetites.

=A´pis.= One of the ancient kings of Peloponnesus, son of Phoroneus and Laodice. Some say that Apollo was his father, and that he was king of Argos, whilst others called him king of Sicyon, and fix the time of his reign above 200 years earlier. Varro and others have supposed that Apis went to Egypt with a colony of Greeks, and that he civilized the inhabitants and polished their manners, for which they made him a god after death, and paid divine honors to him under the name of Serapis.

=A´pis.= A god of the Egyptians, worshiped under the form of an ox. Some say that Isis and Osiris are the deities worshiped under this name, because they taught the Egyptians agriculture.

=Apol´lo.= Son of Jupiter and Latona; called also Phoebus. He was the god of the fine arts and the reputed originator of music, poetry, and eloquence. He had received from Jupiter the power of knowing futurity, and his oracles were in repute everywhere. As soon as he was born he destroyed with his arrows the serpent Python, which Juno had sent to persecute Latona; hence he was called Pythius. He was not the inventor of the lyre, as some have supposed, but it was given to him by Mercury, who received in return the famous Caduceus. He received the surnames of Phoebus, Delius, Cynthius, Pæan, Delphicus, etc. He is in sculpture generally represented as a handsome young man with a bow in his hand, from which an arrow has just been discharged.

=Appia´nus.= An historian of Alexandria, who flourished A.D. 123. His Universal History, which consisted of twenty-four books, was a history of all the nations conquered by the Romans.

=Ap´pius Clau´dius.= A decemvir who obtained his power by force and oppression. He grossly insulted Virginia, whom her father killed to save her from the power of the tyrant.

=Arca´dia.= A district of Peloponnesus, which has been much extolled by the poets. It was famous for its mountains. The inhabitants were for the most part shepherds, who lived upon acorns. They were skillful warriors and able musicians. Pan lived chiefly among them.

=Archil´ochus.= A poet of Paros, who wrote elegies, satires, odes, and epigrams. He lived B.C. 685.

=Archime´des.= A famous geometrician of Syracuse, who invented a machine of glass that represented the motion of the heavenly bodies. When Marcellus, the Roman consul, besieged Syracuse, Archimedes constructed machines which suddenly raised into the air the ships of the enemy, which then fell into the sea and were sunk. He also set fire to the ships with burning-glasses. When the enemy were in possession of the town, a soldier, not knowing who he was, killed him, B.C. 212.

=Arethu´sa=, a nymph of Elis, daughter of Oceanus, and one of Diana's attendants. As she returned one day from hunting she bathed in the Alpheus stream. The god of the river was enamored of her, and pursued her over the mountains, till Arethusa, ready to sink from fatigue, implored Diana to change her into a fountain, which the goddess did.

=Ar´go.= The name of the famous ship which carried Jason and his companions to Polchis, when they went to recover the Golden Fleece.

=Argonau´tæ.= The Argonauts, those ancient heroes who went with Jason in the Argo to Aolchis to recover the Golden Fleece, about seventy-nine years before the capture of Troy. The number of the Argonauts is not exactly known.

=Ar´gus.= A son of Arestor, whence he is sometimes called Arestorides. He had a hundred eyes, of which only two were asleep at one time. Juno set him to watch Io, whom Jupiter had changed into a heifer, but Mercury, by order of Jupiter, slew him, by lulling all his eyes to sleep with the notes of the lyre. Juno put the eyes of Argus in the tail of the peacock, a bird sacred to her.

=Ariad´ne=, daughter of Minos, second king of Crete, and Pasiphæ, fell in love with Theseus, who was shut up in the labyrinth to be devoured by the Minotaur. She gave Theseus a clue of thread by which he extricated himself from the windings of the labyrinth. After he had conquered the Minotaur he married her, but after a time forsook her. On this, according to some authorities, she hanged herself. According to other writers, after being abandoned by Theseus, Bacchus loved her, and gave her a crown of seven stars, which were made a constellation.

=Ari´on.= A famous lyric poet and musician, son of Cyclos of Methymna in Lesbos. He went into Italy with Periander, tyrant of Corinth, where he gained much wealth by his profession. Afterwards he wished to revisit the place of his nativity, and he embarked in a ship, the sailors of which resolved to kill him for the riches he had with him. Arion entreated them to listen to his music, and as soon as he had finished playing he threw himself into the sea. A number of dolphins had been attracted by the sweetness of his music, and it is said that one of them carried him safely on its back to Tænarus, whence he went to the court of Periander, who ordered all the sailors to be crucified.

=Aristæ´us.= Son of Apollo and Cyrene, famous for his fondness for hunting. He married Autonoe, the daughter of Cadmus, Actæon being their son. He was after death worshiped as a demigod.

=Aristar´chus.= A celebrated grammarian of Samos, disciple of Aristophanes. He lived the greatest part of his life at Alexandria. He wrote about 800 commentaries on different authors. He died in his seventy-second year, B.C. 157.

=Aristi´des.= A celebrated Athenian, son of Lysimachus, in the age of Themistocles, whose great temperance and virtue procured for him the name of the "Just." He was rival to Themistocles, by whose influence he was banished for ten years, B.C. 484. He was at the battle of Salamis, and was appointed to be chief commander with Pausanias against Mardonius, whom they defeated at Platæa.

=Aristip´pus=, the elder, a philosopher of Cyrene, a disciple of Socrates, and founder of the Cyrenaic sect.

=Aristogi´ton= and =Harmo´dis=. Two celebrated friends of Athens, who, by their joint efforts, delivered their country from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ, B.C. 510.

=Aristoph´anes.= A celebrated comic poet of Athens, son of Philip of Rhodes. He wrote fifty-four comedies, of which eleven have come down to us. He lived B.C. 434, and lashed the vices of the age with a masterly hand.

=Aristot´eles.= A famous philosopher, son of Nicomachus, born at Stagira. He went to Athens to hear Plato's lectures, where he soon signalized himself by his genius. He has been called by Plato the philosopher of truth, and Cicero complimented him for his eloquence, fecundity of thought, and universal knowledge. He died in his sixty-third year, B.C. 322. As he expired he is said to have exclaimed: _Causa causarum miserere mei_, which sentence has since become famous, and is by some attributed to Cicero. The term Stagirite has been applied to Aristotle from the name of his birthplace.

=Artaxerx´es= the First succeeded to the kingdom of Persia after Xerxes. He made war against the Bactrians, and reconquered Egypt, which had revolted. He was remarkable for his equity and moderation.

=Artaxerx´es= the Second. King of Persia, surnamed Mnemon. His brother Cyrus endeavored to make himself king in his place, and marched against his brother at the head of 100,000 Barbarians and 13,000 Greeks. He was opposed by Artaxerxes with a large army, and a bloody battle was fought at Cunaxa, in which Cyrus was killed and his forces routed.

=Ar´temis.= The Greek name of Diana. Her festivals, called Artemesia, were celebrated in several parts of Greece, particularly at Delphi.

=Asca´nius=, son of Æneas and Creusa, was saved from the flames of Troy by his father, whom he accompanied in his voyage to Italy. He was afterwards called Iulus.

=Aspa´sia.= Daughter of Axiochus, born at Miletus. She came to Athens, where she taught eloquence. Socrates was one of her scholars. She so captivated Pericles by her accomplishments that he made her his wife. The conduct of Pericles and Aspasia greatly corrupted the morals of the Athenians, and caused much dissipation in the State.

=Aspa´sia.= A daughter of Hermotimus of Phocæa, famous for her personal charms. She was priestess of the sun, and became mistress to Cyrus.

=Astar´te.= A powerful divinity of Syria, the same as the Venus of the Greeks. She had a famous temple at Hierapolis in Syria, which was attended by 300 priests.

=Astræ´a.= A daughter of Astræus, king of Arcadia, or, according to others, daughter of Titan and Aurora. Some make her daughter of Jupiter and Themis. She was called Justice, of which virtue she was the goddess.

=Asty´anax.= A son of Hector and Andromache. He was very young when the Greeks besieged Troy, and when the city was taken his mother saved him in her arms from the flames. According to Euripides he was killed by Menelaus.

=Atalan´ta.= Daughter of Schoeneus, king of Scyros. According to some she was the daughter of Jasus, or Jasius, and Clymene, but others say that Menalion was her father. She determined to live in celibacy, but her beauty gained her many admirers, and to free herself from their importunities she proposed to run a race with them. As she was almost invincible in running, her suitors, who entered the lists against her, were defeated, till Hippomenes, the son of Macareus, proposed himself as an admirer. Venus gave him three golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides, and with these concealed about him he entered the lists to race against Atalanta. As the race proceeded he dropped the apples, which she stopped to pick up, thus enabling Hippomenes to arrive first at the goal, and obtain her in marriage.

=A´te.= Daughter of Jupiter, and goddess of all evil. She raised such discord amongst the gods that Jupiter banished her from heaven, and sent her to dwell on earth, where she incited mankind to evil thoughts and actions.

=Athana´sius.= A bishop of Alexandria, celebrated for his determined opposition to Arius and his doctrines. He died A.D. 373, after filling the archiepiscopal chair for forty-seven years. The famous creed which is named after him is no longer supposed to have been written by him, and its authorship remains in doubt.

=At´las.= One of the Titans, son of Iapetus and Clymene. He married Pleione, daughter of Oceanus (or of Hesperis, according to some writers). He had seven daughters, who were called the Atlantides.

=A´treus.= A son of Pelops and Hippodamia, was king of Mycenæ. His brother Chrysippus was illegitimate, and Hippodamia wished to get rid of him, and urged Atreus and another of her sons, Thyestes, to murder him, which, on their refusal, she did herself. Atreus retired to the court of Eurystheus, king of Argos, and succeeded to his throne.

=At´ticus, T. Pomponius.= A celebrated Roman knight, to whom Cicero wrote a number of letters, containing the general history of the age. He retired to Athens, where he endeared himself to the citizens, who erected statues to him in commemoration of his virtues. He died at the age of seventy-seven, B.C. 32.

=At´tila.= A celebrated king of the Huns, who invaded the Roman empire in the reign of Valentinian, with an army of half a million of men. He laid waste the provinces, and marched on Rome, but retreated on being paid a large sum of money. He called himself the "Scourge of God," and died A.D. 453, of an effusion of blood, on the night of his marriage.

=Angus´tus, Octavia´nus Cæ´sar=, emperor of Rome, was son of Octavius, a senator, and Accia, sister to Julius Cæsar. He was associated in the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and defeated the armies of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. Octavia, the sister of Augustus, married Antony after the death of his wife Fulvia. Octavia, however, was slighted for the charms of Cleopatra, which incensed Augustus, who took up arms to avenge the wrongs of his sister, and at the great battle of Actium (B.C. 31), the forces of Antony and Cleopatra suffered a disastrous defeat.

=Aurelia´nus=, emperor of Rome, was austere and cruel in the execution of the laws, and in his treatment of his soldiers. He was famous for his military character, and his expedition against Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, gained him great honors. It is said that in his various battles he killed 800 men with his own hand. He was assassinated near Byzantium, A.D. 275.

=Aure´lius, M. Antoni´nus=, surnamed "the philosopher," possessed all the virtues which should adorn the character of a prince. He raised to the imperial dignity his brother L. Verus, whose dissipation and voluptuousness were as conspicuous as the moderation of the philosopher. During their reign the Quadi, Parthians, and Marcomanni were defeated. Verus died of apoplexy, and Antoninus survived him eight years, dying in his sixty-first year, after a reign of nineteen years and ten days.

=Auro´ra.= A goddess, daughter of Hyperion and Thia or Thea. She is generally represented by the poets as sitting in a chariot and opening with her fingers the gates of the east, pouring dew on the earth, and making the flowers grow. The Greeks call her Eos.

=Bac´chus= was son of Jupiter and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus. He was the god of wine, and is generally represented crowned with vine leaves. He is said to have married Ariadne after she had been forsaken by Theseus.

=Belisa´rius.= A celebrated general who, in the reign of Justinian, emperor of Constantinople, renewed the victories which had rendered the first Romans so distinguished. He died, after a life of glory, suffering from royal ingratitude, 565 years before the Christian era.

=Beller´ophon=, son of Glaucus, king of Ephyre, and Eurymede; was at first called Hipponous. He was sent by Iobates, king of Lycia, to conquer the monster Chimæra. Minerva assisted him in the expedition, and by the aid of the winged horse Pegasus he conquered the monster and returned victorious. After sending him on other dangerous adventures, Iobates gave him his daughter in marriage, and made him successor to his throne.

=Bello´na=, goddess of war, was daughter of Phorcys and Ceto; called by the Greeks Enyo, and is often confounded with Minerva. She prepared the chariot of Mars when he was going to war, and appeared in battles armed with a whip to animate the combatants, and holding a torch.

=Be´lus=, one of the most ancient kings of Babylon, about 1800 years before the age of Semiramis, was made a god after death, and was worshiped by the Assyrians and Babylonians. He was supposed to be the son of the Osiris of the Egyptians. The temple of Belus was the most ancient and magnificent in the world, and was said to have been originally the tower of Babel.

=Bereni´ce.= A daughter of Philadelphus, who married Antiochus, king of Syria, after he had divorced his former wife Laodice.

=Bereni´ce.= The mother of Agrippa, whose name occurs in the history of the Jews as daughter-in-law of Herod the Great. A number of others of minor celebrity were known by the same name.

=Bi´on.= A philosopher of Scythia who rendered himself famous for his knowledge of poetry, music, and philosophy. Another of the same name was a Greek poet of Smyrna who wrote pastorals. He was a friend of Moschus, who says that he died by poison about 300 years B.C.

=Boadice´a.= A famous British queen who rebelled against the Romans and was defeated, on which she poisoned herself. Her cruel treatment by the Romans is the subject of an ode by Cowper.

=Bo´reas.= The name of the north wind blowing from the Hyperborean mountains. According to the poets, he was son of Astræus and Aurora. He was passionately fond of Hyacinthus.

=Bren´nus.= A general of the Galli Senones, who entered Italy, defeated the Romans, and marched into the city. The Romans fled into the Capitol, and left the city in possession of the enemy. The Gauls climbed the Tarpeian rock in the night, and would have taken the Capitol had not the Romans been awakened by the cackling of some geese, on which they roused themselves and repelled the enemy.

=Bri´a´reus.= A famous giant, son of Coelus and Terra. He had a hundred hands and fifty heads, and was called by men by the name of Ægeon.

=Bru´tus L. Junius.= Son of M. Junius and Tarquinia. When Lucretia killed herself, B.C. 509, in consequence of the brutality of Tarquin, Brutus snatched the dagger from the wound and swore upon the reeking blade immortal hatred to the royal family, and made the people swear they would submit no longer to the kingly authority. His sons conspired to restore the Tarquins, and were tried and condemned before their father, who himself attended their execution. Mr. John Howard Payne, the American dramatist, has written a tragedy, of which Brutus is the hero.

=Bru´tus, Mar´cus Ju´nius=, father of Cæsar's murderer, followed the party of Marius, and was conquered by Pompey, by whose orders he was put to death.

=Bru´tus, Mar´cus Ju´nius=, the destroyer of Cæsar, conspired with many of the most illustrious citizens of Rome, against Cæsar, and stabbed him in Pompey's Basilica. The tumult following the murder was great, but the conspirators fled to the Capitol, and by proclaiming freedom and liberty to the populace, for the time established tranquillity. Antony, however, soon obtained the popular ear, and the murderers were obliged to leave Rome. Brutus retired into Greece, where he gained many friends. He was soon pursued by Antony, who was accompanied by the young Octavius. The famous battle of Philippi followed, in which Brutus and his friend Cassius, who commanded the left wing of the army, were totally defeated. Brutus fell on his own sword, B.C. 42, and was honored with a magnificent funeral by Antony. Plutarch relates that Cæsar's ghost appeared to Brutus in his tent before the battle of Philippi, warning him of his approaching fall.

=Buceph´alus.= A horse of Alexander's, so frequently named by writers that the term has become proverbial. Alexander was the only person that could mount him, and he always knelt down for his master to bestride him.

=Ca´cus.= A famous robber, son of Vulcan and Medusa, represented as a three-headed monster vomiting flames. He resided in Italy, and the avenues of his cave were covered with human bones. When Hercules returned from the conquest of Geryon, Cacus stole some of his cows, which Hercules discovering, he strangled Cacus.

=Cad´mus=, son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and Telephassa, or Agriope, was ordered by his father to go in quest of his sister Europa, whom Jupiter had carried away. His search proving fruitless, he consulted the oracle of Apollo, and was told to build a city where he saw a heifer stop in the grass, and call the country around Boeotia. He found the heifer, as indicated by the oracle. Requiring water, he sent his companions to fetch some from a neighboring grove. The water was guarded by a dragon, who devoured those who were sent for it, and Cadmus, tired of waiting, went himself to the place. He attacked the dragon and killed it, sowing its teeth in the ground, on which a number of armed men rose out of the earth. Cadmus threw a stone amongst them, and they at once began fighting, and all were killed except five, who assisted him in building the city. Cadmus introduced the use of letters in Greece--the alphabet, as introduced by him, consisting of sixteen letters.

=Cadu´ceus.= A rod entwined at one end with two serpents. It was the attribute of Mercury, and was given to him by Apollo in exchange for the lyre.

=Cæ´sar.= A surname given to the Julian family in Rome. This name, after it had been dignified in the person of Julius Cæsar and his successors, was given to the apparent heir of the empire in the age of the Roman emperors. The first twelve emperors were distinguished by the name of Cæsar. They reigned in this order--Julius Cæsar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. Suetonius has written an exhaustive history of the Cæsars. C. Julius Cæsar, the first emperor of Rome, was son of L. Cæsar and Aurelia, the daughter of Cotta. He was descended, according to some accounts, from Julus, the son of Æneas. His eloquence procured him friends at Rome, and the generous manner in which he lived equally served to promote his interest. He was appointed for five years over the Gauls. Here he enlarged the boundaries of the Roman empire by conquest, and invaded Britain, which till then was unknown to the Romans. The corrupt state of the Roman senate, and the ambition of Cæsar and Pompey, caused a civil war. Neither of these celebrated Romans would endure a superior, and the smallest matters were grounds enough for unsheathing the sword. By the influence of Pompey a decree was passed to strip Cæsar of his power. Antony, as tribune, opposed this, and went to Cæsar's camp with the news. On this Cæsar crossed the Rubicon, which was the boundary of his province. The passage of the Rubicon was a declaration of war, and Cæsar entered Italy with his army. Upon this Pompey left Rome and retired to Dyrrachium, and Cæsar shortly afterwards entered Rome. He then went to Spain, where he conquered the partisans of Pompey, and on his return to Rome was declared dictator, and soon afterwards consul. The two hostile generals met in the plains of Pharsalia, and a great battle ensued B.C. 48. Pompey was defeated and fled to Egypt, where he was slain. At length Cæsar's glory came to an end. Enemies had sprung up around him, and a conspiracy, consisting of many influential Romans, was formed against him. Conspicuous among the conspirators was Brutus, his most intimate friend, who, with others, assassinated him in the senate house in the ides of March, B.C. 44, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. He wrote his Commentaries on the Gallic wars when the battles were fought. This work is admired for its elegance and purity of style. It was after his conquest over Pharnaces, king of Pontus, that he made use of the words, which have since become proverbial, _Veni, vidi, vici_, illustrative of the activity of his operations. Shakspeare's tragedy of Julius Cæsar, in the third act of which he is assassinated, uttering as his last words, "_Et tu, Brute!_ Then fall Cæsar"--is devoted to the conspiracy and its results, ending with defeat and death of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi.

=Calig´ula=, a Roman emperor, was son of Germanicus by Agrippina. He was proud, wanton, and cruel. He was pleased when disasters befell his subjects, and often expressed a wish that the Romans had but one head, that he might have the pleasure of striking it off. He had a favorite horse made consul, and adorned it with the most valuable trappings and ornaments. The tyrant was murdered A.D. 41, in his twenty-ninth year, after a reign of three years and ten months.

=Calli´ope.= One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, who presided over eloquence and heroic poetry.

=Cal´ydon.= A city of Ætolia, where OEneus, the father of Meleager, reigned. During the reign of OEneus Diana sent a wild boar to ravage the country on account of the neglect which had been shown of her divinity by the king. All the princes of the age assembled to hunt the Calydonian boar. Meleager killed the animal, and gave the head to Atalanta, of whom he was enamored.

=Calyp´so.= One of the Oceanides, or one of the daughters of Atlas, according to some writers. When Ulysses was shipwrecked on her coasts she received him with hospitality, and offered him immortality if he would remain with her as a husband, which he refused to do, and after seven years' delay he was permitted to depart from the island where Calypso reigned.

=Camby´ses=, king of Persia, was the son of Cyrus the Great. He conquered Egypt, and was so disgusted at the superstition of the Egyptians, that he killed their god Apis and plundered their temples.

=Camill´us, L. Fu´rius.= A celebrated Roman, called a second Romulus from the services he rendered his country. He was banished for distributing the spoils he had obtained at Veii. During his exile Rome was besieged by the Gauls under Brennus. The besieged Romans then elected him dictator, and he went to the relief of his country, which he delivered after it had been some time occupied by the enemy. He died B.C. 365.

=Cam´pus Mar´tius.= A large plain without the walls of Rome, where the Roman youth were instructed in athletic exercises and learnt to throw the discus, hurl the javelin, etc.

=Can´næ.= A village of Apuleia, where Hannibal defeated the Roman consuls Æmylius and Varro, B.C. 216.

=Capitoli´num.= A celebrated temple and citadel at Rome on the Tarpeian rock.

=Caracal´la=, son of the emperor Septimius Severus, was notorious for his cruelties. He killed his brother Geta in his mother's arms, and attempted to destroy the writings of Aristotle. After a life made odious by his vices he was assassinated, A.D. 217, in the forty-third year of his age.

=Carac´tacus.= A king of the Britons, who was conquered by the Romans and taken prisoner to Rome.

=Cartha´go.= Carthage, a celebrated city of Africa, the rival of Rome, and for a long period the capital of the country, and mistress of Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia. The time of its foundation is unknown, but it seems to be agreed on that it was built by Dido about 869 years before the Christian era, or, according to some writers, 72 or 73 years before the foundation of Rome. It had reached its highest glory in the days of Hamilcar and Hannibal.

=Cassan´der=, son of Antipater, made himself master of Macedonia after his father's death, where he reigned for eighteen years.

=Cassan´dra=, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, was passionately loved by Apollo, who promised to grant her whatever she might require, and she obtained from him the power of seeing into futurity. Some say she received the gift of prophecy, with her brother Helenus, by being placed when young one night in the temple of Apollo, where serpents were found wreathed round their bodies and licking their ears, which gave them a knowledge of futurity. She was allotted to Agamemnon in the division of the spoils of Troy, and was slain by Clytemnestra, Agamemnon's wife.

=Cas´sius C.= A celebrated Roman who became famous by being first quæstor to Crassus in his expedition against Parthia. He married Junia, the sister of Brutus, and joined Brutus in the conspiracy formed to assassinate Cæsar, after which he returned to Philippi with Brutus, and commanded one wing of the army in the famous battle fought there. On the defeat of his forces he ordered one of his freedmen to kill him, and he perished by the sword which had inflicted a wound on Cæsar. He was called by Brutus "the last of all the Romans."

=Casta´lius Fons=, or =Casta´lia=. A fountain of Parnassus sacred to the Muses.

=Castor= and =Pollux= were twin brothers, sons of Jupiter and Leda. Mercury carried them to Pallena, where they were educated. As soon as they arrived at manhood they embarked with Jason in quest of the Golden Fleece. In this expedition they evinced great courage. Pollux defeated and slew Amycus in the combat of the Cestus, and was afterwards considered to be the god and patron of boxing and wrestling. Castor distinguished himself in the management of horses.

=Catili´na, L. Ser´gius=, a celebrated Roman, descended from a noble family. When he had squandered his fortune he secretly meditated the ruin of his country, and conspired with many Romans as dissolute as himself to extirpate the senate, plunder the treasuries, and set Rome on fire. This plot, known as the Catiline conspiracy, was unsuccessful. The history of it is written by Sallust. Catiline was killed in battle B.C. 63.

=Ca´to, Mar´cus=, was great-grandson of the censor Cato. The early virtues that appeared in his childhood seemed to promise that he would become a great man. He was austere in his morals and a strict follower of the tenets of the Stoics. His fondness for candor was so great that his veracity became proverbial. In the Catilinian conspiracy he supported Cicero, and was the chief cause of the capital punishment which was inflicted on some of the conspirators. He stabbed himself after reading Plato's treatise on the immortality of the soul, B.C. 46, in the fifty-ninth year of his age.

=Catul´lus C.=, or =Q. Vale´rius=. A poet of Verona whose compositions are the offspring of a luxuriant imagination. He was acquainted with the most distinguished people of his age. He directed his satire against Cæsar, whose only revenge was to invite him to a sumptuous banquet.

=Cel´sus=, a physician in the age of Tiberius, who wrote eight books on medicine, besides treatises on agriculture, rhetoric, and military affairs.

=Centau´ri.= A people of Thessaly, half men and half horses. They were the offspring of Centaurus and Stilbia.

=Centum´viri.= The members of a court of justice at Rome. Though originally 105 in number, they were known as Centumvirs, and this name they retained when they were increased to 180.

=Cer´berus.= A dog of Pluto. According to Hesiod he had fifty heads, but according to other mythologists he had three only. He was placed at the entrance to the infernal regions to prevent the living from entering, and the inhabitants of the place from escaping.

=Ce´res=, the goddess of corn and harvests, was daughter of Saturn and Vesta. She was the mother of Proserpine, who was carried away by Pluto whilst she was gathering flowers.

=Chærone´a=, a city of Boeotia celebrated for a great battle fought there, in which the Athenians were defeated by the Boeotians, B.C. 447, and for the victory which Philip of Macedonia obtained there over the confederate armies of the Thebans and Athenians, B.C. 338. It was the birth-place of Plutarch.

=Cha´ron.= A god of the infernal regions, son of Nox and Erebus, who conducted the souls of the dead in a boat over the rivers Styx and Acheron.

=Che´ops.= A king of Egypt, after Rhampsinitus, famous for building pyramids.

=Chimæ´ra.= A celebrated monster which continually vomited flames. It was destroyed by Bellerophon.

=Chi´ron.= A centaur, half a man and half a horse, son of Philyra and Saturn. He was famous for his knowledge of music, medicine, and shooting, and taught mankind the use of plants and medicinal herbs.

=Chrysos´tom.= A bishop of Constantinople who died A.D. 407. He was a great disciplinarian, and by severely lashing the vices of his age he made many enemies.

=Cic´ero, M. T.=, born at Arpinum, was son of a Roman knight and lineally descended from the ancient kings of the Sabines. In youth he displayed many abilities, and was taught philosophy by Philo, and law by Mutius Scævola. He applied himself with great diligence to the study of oratory, and was distinguished above all the speakers of his time in the Roman forum. He signalized himself in opposing Catiline, whom he publicly accused of treason against the State, and whom he drove from the city. After a number of vicissitudes of fortune he was assassinated, B.C. 43, at the age of sixty-three.

=Cincinna´tus, L. Q.= A celebrated Roman, who was informed, as he plowed in the fields, that the senate had chosen him to be dictator. On this he left the plow and repaired to the field of battle, where his countrymen were opposed by the Volsci and Æqui. He conquered the enemy, and entered Rome in triumph.

=Cir´ce.= A daughter of Sol and Perseis, celebrated for her knowledge of magic and venomous herbs. She was carried by her father to an island called Æaea. Ulysses, on his return from the Trojan war, visited her coasts, and his companions were changed, by her potions, into swine. Ulysses, who was fortified against enchantments by an herb which he had received from Mercury, demanded of Circe the restoration of his companions to their former shape; she complied with his wishes, and eventually permitted him to depart from her island.

=Claudia´nus.= A celebrated poet, in the age of Honorius, who is considered by some writers to equal Virgil in the majestic character of his style.

=Clau´dius, T. Drusus Nero=, son of Drusus, became emperor of Rome after the death of Caligula. He went to Britain, and obtained a triumph for victories achieved by his generals. He suffered himself to be governed by favorites, whose avarice plundered the State and distracted the provinces. He was poisoned by Agrippina, who wished to raise her son Nero to the throne.

=Cleopa´tra=, queen of Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, was celebrated for her beauty. Antony became enamored of her and married her, ignoring his connection with Octavia, the sister of Augustus. He gave her the greatest part of the eastern provinces of the Roman empire. This caused a rupture between Augustus and Antony, and these two famous men met at Actium, when Cleopatra, by flying with sixty ships, ruined the battle for Antony, and he was defeated. Cleopatra destroyed herself by applying an asp to her breast.

=Cli´o.= The first of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over history.

=Cloaci´na.= A goddess at Rome who presided over the Cloacæ, which were large receptacles for the filth of the whole city.

=Clo´tho=, the youngest of the three Parcæ, who were daughters of Jupiter and Themis, was supposed to preside over the moment of birth. She held the distaff in her hand and spun the thread of life.

=Clytemnes´tra.= A daughter of Tyndarus, king of Sparta, and Leda, married Agamemnon, king of Argos, in whose absence in the Trojan war she misconducted herself with his cousin Ægysthus. On the return of Agamemnon Clytemnestra murdered him, as well as Cassandra, whom he had brought with him. After this Clytemnestra ascended the throne of Argos. In the meantime her son Orestes, after an absence of seven years, returned, resolved to avenge the death of his father Agamemnon. On an occasion when Ægysthus and Clytemnestra repaired to the Temple of Apollo, Orestes, with his friend Pylades, killed them.

=Clyt´ia= or =Clyt´ie=. A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, beloved by Apollo. She was changed into a sun-flower.

=Co´cles, P. Horatius.= A celebrated Roman who alone opposed the whole army of Porsenna at the head of a bridge whilst his companions were cutting off the communication with the other shore. When the bridge was destroyed, Cocles, though wounded by the darts of the enemy, leapt into the Tiber and swam across it, armed as he was. For his heroism a brazen statue was raised to him in the Temple of Vulcan.

=Co´drus.= The last king of Athens, son of Melanthus. When the Heraclidæ made war against Athens, the oracle said that the victory would be granted to that nation whose king was killed in battle. The Heraclidæ on hearing this gave orders to spare the life of Codrus, but the patriotic king disguised himself, and engaging with one of the enemy, was killed. The Athenians obtained the victory, and Codrus was regarded as the savior of his country.

=Coe´lus= or =Ura´nus=. An ancient deity supposed to be the father of Saturn, Oceanus, and Hyperion.

=Col´chis= or =Col´chos=. A country of Asia famous for the expedition of the Argonauts, and as being the birthplace of Medea.

=Collati´nus, L. Tarquinius.= A nephew of Tarquin the Proud. He married Lucretia. He, with Brutus, drove the Tarquins from Rome.

=Colos´sus.= A celebrated brazen image at Rhodes, which was considered to be one of the seven wonders of the world.

=Com´modus, L. Aure´lius Antoni´nus=, son of M. Antoninus, succeeded his father in the Roman empire. He was naturally cruel and fond of indulging his licentious propensities. Desirous of being likened to Hercules, he adorned his shoulders with a lion's skin, and carried a knotted club in his hand. He fought with the gladiators, and boasted of his skill in killing wild beasts in the amphitheatre. He was strangled by a wrestler in the thirty-first year of his age, A.D. 192.

=Co´mus.= The god of revelry, feasting, and nocturnal amusements. He is represented as a drunken young man with a torch in his hand.

=Concor´dia.= The goddess of peace and concord at Rome, to whom Camillus raised a temple in the Capitol.

=Confu´cius.= A Chinese philosopher, as much honored amongst his countrymen as if he had been a monarch. He died about 499 years B.C.

=Co´non.= A famous general of Athens, son of Timotheus. He was made governor of all the islands of the Athenians, and was defeated in a naval battle by Lysander. He defeated the Spartans near Cnidos, when Pisander, the enemy's admiral, was killed. He died in prison B.C. 393.

=Constan´tia.= A granddaughter of the great Constantine, married the Emperor Gratian.

=Constanti´nus=, surnamed the Great from the greatness of his exploits, was son of Constantius. It is said that as he was going to fight against Maxentius, one of his rivals, he saw a cross in the sky with the inscription, _In hoc vince_. From this he became a convert to Christianity, ever after adopting a cross for his standard. He founded a city where old Byzantium formerly stood, and called it Constantinopolis. There he kept his court, and made it the rival of Rome in population and magnificence. He died A.D. 337, after a reign of thirty-one years of the greatest glory.

=Constan´tius Chlo´rus=, son of Eutropius, and father of the great Constantine. He obtained victories in Britain and Germany. He became the colleague of Galerius on the abdication of Dioclesian, and died A.D. 306, bearing the reputation of being brave, humane, and benevolent.

=Con´sul.= A magistrate at Rome with real authority for the space of a year. There were two consuls, who were annually chosen in the Campus Martius. The first two were L. Jun. Brutus and L. Tarquinius Collatinus.

=Corin´na.= A celebrated woman of Thebes, whose father was Archelodorus. It is said that she obtained a poetical prize five times against the competitorship of Pindar.

=Coriola´nus.= The surname of C. Martius, from his victory over Corioli. After a number of military exploits, and many services to his country, he was refused the consulship. He was banished, and went to the Volsci, where he met with a gracious reception from Tullus Aufidius, whom he advised to make war against Rome, marching with the Volsci as general. His approach alarmed the Romans, who sent his mother and his wife to meet him and appease his resentment against his countrymen, which with difficulty they succeeded in doing.

=Corne´lia.= A daughter of Scipio Africanus, famous for her learning and virtues, and as being the mother of the Gracchi, Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. Her husband was T. Sempronius Gracchus.

=Cras´sus, M. Licin´ius.= A celebrated Roman, who by educating slaves and selling them, became very wealthy. He was made consul with Pompey, and was afterwards censor, and formed one of the first triumvirate, his associates in it being Pompey and Cæsar. In the hope of enlarging his possessions he left Rome, crossed the Euphrates, and hastened to make himself master of Parthia. He was met by Surena, the Parthian general, and in the battle which ensued 20,000 of the Romans were killed and 10,000 made prisoners. Crassus surrendered, and was put to death B.C. 53.

=Cre´on=, king of Corinth, was son of Sisyphus. He promised his daughter Glauce to Jason, who had repudiated Medea. To revenge herself on her rival, Medea sent her a present of a dress covered with poison. Glauce put it on, and was seized with sudden pain. Her body took fire, and she expired in the greatest agony. The house in which she was was also consumed, and Creon and his family shared Glauce's fate.

=Cre´on.= King of Thebes, whose territories were ravaged by the Sphinx. Creon offered his crown to any one who would explain the enigmas proposed by the Sphinx. OEdipus solved the riddles, and ascended the throne of Thebes.

=Croe´sus=, the fifth and last of the Mermnadæ, who reigned in Lydia, was the son of Alyattes, and was considered the richest man in the world. His court was an asylum for learning, and Æsop, the famous fable writer, with other learned men, lived under his patronage. "As rich as Croesus," has become a proverb.

=Cupi´do=, god of love, son of Jupiter and Venus, is represented as a winged infant, naked, armed with a bow and arrows. On gems and ornaments he is represented generally as amusing himself with some childish diversion. Cupid, like the rest of the gods, assumed different shapes, and we find him in the Æneid putting on, at the request of his mother, the form of Ascanius, and going to Dido's court, where he inspired the queen with love.

=Cur´tius, M.= A Roman who devoted himself to the service of his country, about 360 years B.C., by leaping on horseback, and fully armed, into a huge gap in the earth, at the command of the oracle.

=Cyb´ele.= A goddess, daughter of Coelus and Terra, and wife of Saturn. She was supposed to be the same as Ceres, Rhea, Ops, Vesta, etc. According to Diodorus, she was the daughter of a Lydian prince. On her birth she was exposed on a mountain, where she was tended and fed by wild beasts, receiving the name of Cybele from the mountain where her life had been preserved.

=Cyclo´pes.= A race of men of gigantic stature, supposed to be the sons of Coelus and Terra. They had only one eye, which was in the center of the forehead. According to Hesiod they were three in number, and named Arges, Brontes, and Steropes.

=Cy´rus.= A king of Persia, son of Cambyses and Mandane, daughter of Astyages, king of Media. Xenophon has written the life of Cyrus; and delineates him as a brave and virtuous prince, and often puts in his mouth many of the sayings of Socrates.

=Cy´rus= the younger was the son of Darius Nothus, and the brother of Artaxerxes, the latter succeeding to the throne at the death of Nothus. Cyrus was appointed to the command of Lydia and the sea-coasts, where he fomented rebellion and levied troops under various pretenses. At length he took the field with an army of 100,000 Barbarians and 13,000 Greeks under the command of Clearchus. Artaxerxes met him with 900,000 men near Cunaxa. The engagement ended fatally for Cyrus, who was killed 401 years B.C.

=Dæd´alus=, an Athenian, was the most ingenious artist of his age; he was the inventor of the wedge and many other mechanical instruments. He made a famous labyrinth for Minos, king of Crete, but incurred the displeasure of Minos, who ordered him to be confined in the labyrinth. Here he made himself wings with feathers and wax, and fitted them to his body, adopting the same course with his son Icarus, who was the companion of his confinement. They mounted into the air, but the heat of the sun melted the wax on the wings of Icarus, and he fell into the ocean, which after him has been called the Icarian Sea. The father alighted safely at Cumæ, where he built a temple to Apollo.

=Dan´ae=, daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, and Eurydice. Jupiter was enamored with her, and they had a son, with whom Danae was exposed in a boat on the sea by her father. The winds carried them to the island of Seriphus, where she was saved by some fishermen, and carried to Polydectes, king of the place, whose brother, named Dictys, educated the child, who was called Perseus, and kindly treated the mother.

=Dana´ides.= The fifty daughters of Danaus, king of Argos, who married the fifty sons of their uncle Ægyptus. Danaus had been told by the oracle that he would be killed by a son-in-law, and he made his daughters promise to slay their husbands immediately after marriage. All of them fulfilled their father's wishes except one, Hypermnestra, who spared her husband Lynceus.

=Daph´ne.= A daughter of the River Peneus, or of the Ladon, and the goddess Terra, of whom Apollo became enamored. Daphne fled to avoid the addresses of this god, and was changed into a laurel.

=Dar´danus.= A son of Jupiter, who killed his brother Jasius to obtain the kingdom of Etruria. He built the city of Dardania, and was reckoned to have been the founder of Troy.

=Dari´us.= A noble satrap of Persia, son of Hystaspes, who usurped the crown of Persia after the death of Cambyses. Darius was twenty-nine years old when he ascended the throne, and he soon distinguished himself by his military prowess. He besieged Babylon, which he took after a siege of twenty months. He died B.C. 485.

=Dari´us=, the second king of Persia of that name, ascended the throne of Persia soon after the murder of Xerxes. He carried on many wars with success, aided by his generals and his son Cyrus the younger. He died B.C. 404, after a reign of nineteen years.

=Dari´us.= The third king of Persia of that name. He soon had to take the field against Alexander, who invaded Persia. Darius met him with an enormous army, which, however, was more remarkable for the luxuries indulged in by its leaders than for military courage. A battle was fought near the Granicus, in which the Persians were easily defeated, and another conflict followed near Issus, equally fatal to the Persians. Darius escaped and assembled another powerful army. The last and decisive battle was fought at Arbela, Alexander being again victorious. When the fight was over Darius was found in his chariot covered with wounds and expiring, B.C. 331.

=Dejani´ra.= A daughter of OEneus, king of Ætolia. Her beauty procured her many admirers, and her father promised to give her in marriage to him who should excel in a competition of strength. Hercules obtained the prize, and married Dejanira.

=Del´phi.= A town of Phocis, at the south-west side of Mount Parnassus. It was famous for a temple of Apollo, and for an oracle celebrated in every age and country.

=Deme´trius.= A son of Antigonus and Stratonice, surnamed Poliorcetes, _destroyer of towns_. At the age of twenty-two he was sent by his father against Ptolemy, who had invaded Syria. He was defeated at Gaza, but soon afterwards obtained a victory. The greater part of his life was passed in warfare, his fortunes undergoing many changes. He was distinguished for his fondness of dissipation when in dissolute society, and for military skill and valor in the battle-field. He died B.C. 286.

=Deme´trius.= Surnamed _Soter_, king of Syria. His father gave him as a hostage to the Romans. After the death of his father, Seleucus Philopator, Antiochus Epiphanes usurped the throne of Syria, and was succeeded by his son Antiochus Eupator. Demetrius procured his liberty, and established himself on the throne, causing Eupator to be put to death.

=Deme´trius.= Son of Soter, whom he succeeded after he had driven from the throne a usurper, Alexander Bala. Demetrius gave himself up to luxury, and suffered his kingdom to be governed by his favorites, thus becoming odious to his subjects. He was at last killed by the governor of Tyre, where he had fled for protection.

=Deme´trius Phale´reus.= A disciple of Theophrastus, who gained such influence over the Athenians by his eloquence and the purity of his manners that he was elected decennial archon, B.C. 317. He embellished the city, and rendered himself popular by his munificence, but his enemies plotted against him, and he fled to the court of Ptolemy Lagus, where he was received with kindness. He put an end to his life by permitting an asp to bite him, B.C. 284. There were several others of the name of Demetrius of minor note.

=Democ´ritus.= A celebrated philosopher of Abdera, one of the disciples of Leucippus. He travelled over the greatest part of Europe, Asia, and Africa, in quest of knowledge, and returned home in the greatest poverty. He indulged in continual laughter at the follies of mankind for distracting themselves with care and anxiety in the short term of their lives. He told Darius, who was inconsolable for the loss of his wife, that he would raise her from the dead if he could find three persons who had gone through life without adversity, whose names he might engrave on the queen's monument. He taught his disciples that the soul died with the body. He died in his 109th year, B.C. 361. He has been termed "the laughing philosopher."

=Demos´thenes.= A celebrated Athenian, was son of a rich blacksmith and Cleobule. He became pupil of Plato, and applied himself to study the orations of Isocrates. At the age of seventeen he gave early proof of his eloquence and abilities in displaying them against his guardians, from whom he obtained restitution of the greater part of his estate. To correct the stammering of voice under which he labored he spoke with pebbles in his mouth. In the battle of Cheronæa he evinced cowardice, and saved his life by flight. He ended his life by taking poison, which he always carried in a quill, in the sixtieth year of his age, B.C. 322.

=Deuca´lion.= A son of Prometheus, who married Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus. He reigned over part of Thessaly, and in his age the earth was covered by a deluge of water, sent by Jupiter as a punishment for the impiety of mankind. Deucalion constructed a ship, and by this means saved himself and Pyrrha. The ship, after being tossed on the waves for nine days, rested on Mount Parnassus. The deluge of Deucalion is supposed to have occurred B.C. 1503.

=Dia´na.= The goddess of hunting. According to Cicero there were three of the name--viz.: a daughter of Jupiter and Proserpine, a daughter of Jupiter and Latona, and a daughter of Upis and Glauce. The second is the most celebrated, and all mention of Diana by ancient writers refers to her. To shun the society of men she devoted herself to hunting, and was always accompanied by a number of young women, who, like herself, abjured marriage. She is represented with a quiver, and attended by dogs. The most famous of her temples was that at Ephesus, which was one of the wonders of the world.

=Dicta´tor.= A magistrate at Rome, invested with regal authority.

=Di´do.= A daughter of Belus, king of Tyre, who married Sichæus or Sicharbus, her uncle, who was priest of Hercules. Pygmalion killed Sichæsus to obtain his immense riches, and Dido, disconsolate at the loss of her husband, set sail with a number of Tyrians in quest of a place in which to form a settlement. A storm drove her fleet on the African coast, and she bought of the inhabitants as much land as could be covered by a bull's hide cut into thongs. On this land she built a citadel called Byrsa, which was the nucleus of a great city. Her subjects wished her to marry again, but she refused, and erected a funeral pile, on which she ascended and stabbed herself to death.

=Diocletia´nus, Cai´us Valer´ius Jo´vius.= A celebrated Roman emperor, born of an obscure family in Dalmatia. He was first a common soldier, and by merit gradually rose to the position of a general, and at length he was invested with imperial power. He has been celebrated for his military virtues, and though he was naturally unpolished by education, yet he was the friend and patron of learning and genius. His cruelty, however, against the followers of Christianity, has been severely reprobated. After reigning twenty-one years in great prosperity, he abdicated, A.D. 304, and died nine years afterwards, aged sixty-eight.

=Diodo´rus, Sic´ulus.= Celebrated as the author of a history of Egypt, Persia, Syria, Media, Greece, Rome and Carthage. It was divided into forty books, of which only fifteen are extant, with a few fragments.

=Dio´genes.= A celebrated cynic philosopher of Sinope, banished from his country for coining false money. From Sinope he retired to Athens, where he became the disciple of Antisthenes, who was at the head of the Cynics. He dressed himself in the garment which distinguished the Cynics, and walked about the streets with a tub on his head, which served him as a house. His singularity, joined to his great contempt for riches, gained him reputation, and Alexander the Great visited the philosopher and asked him if there was anything in which he could oblige him. "Get out of my sunshine," was the reply of the Cynic. Such independence pleased the monarch, who, turning to his courtiers, said, "Were I not Alexander, I would wish to be Diogenes." He was once sold as a slave, and his magnanimity so pleased his master, that he made him the preceptor of his children and the guardian of his estates. He died, B.C. 324, in the ninety-sixth year of his age. The life of Diogenes does not bear strict examination: whilst boasting of his poverty, he was so arrogant that it has been observed that his virtues arose from pride and vanity, not from wisdom or sound philosophy.

=Dio´genes Laer´tius.= An Epicurean philosopher, born in Cilicia. He wrote the lives of the philosophers, in ten books. This work contains an accurate account of the ancient philosophers, and is replete with anecdotes respecting them. It is compiled, however, without any plan, method, or precision, though neatness and conciseness are observable in it.

=Diome´des=, a son of Tydeus and Deiphyle, was king of Ætolia, and one of the bravest of the Grecian chiefs in the Trojan war. He often engaged Hector and Æneas, and obtained much military glory.

=Diome´des.= A king of Thrace, son of Mars and Cyrene, who fed his horses with human flesh. Hercules destroyed Diomedes, and gave him to his own horses to be devoured.

=Di´on.= A Syracusan, son of Hipparina, famous for his power and abilities. He was related to Dionysius the First, who constantly advised with him, and at whose court he obtained great popularity. He was assassinated 354 years before the Christian era by one of his familiar friends. His death was greatly lamented by the Syracusans, who raised a monument to his memory. When Dionysius the Second ascended the throne he banished Dion, who collected some forces, and in three days made himself master of Syracuse.

=Di´on Cas´sius.= A native of Nicæa in Bithynia, who was raised to some of the greatest offices of state in the Roman empire. He is celebrated as the writer of a history of Rome which occupied him twelve years in composing.

=Dionys´ius= the Elder was son of Hermocrates. He signalized himself in the wars which the Syracusans carried on against Carthage, and made himself absolute at Syracuse. His tyranny rendered himself odious to his subjects. He made a subterraneous cave in a rock in the form of a human ear, which was called "the Ear of Dionysius." The sounds of this cave were all directed to one common tympanum, which had a communication with an adjoining room, where Dionysius spent part of his time in listening to what was said by those whom he had imprisoned. He died in the sixty-third year of his age, B.C. 368, after a reign of thirty-eight years.

=Dionys´ius= the Younger was son of Dionysius the First and Doris. He succeeded his father, and as soon as he ascended the throne he invited Plato to his court and studied under him for some time. Plato advised him to lay aside the supreme power, in which he was supported by Dion. This highly incensed Dionysius, who banished Dion, who collected forces in Greece, and in three days rendered himself master of Syracuse, and expelled the tyrant, B.C. 357. He, however, recovered Syracuse ten years afterward, but was soon compelled to retire again by the Corinthians under Timoleon.

=Dionys´ius= of Halicarnassus. A historian who left his country and came to reside in Rome that he might study all the authors who had written Roman history. He was occupied during twenty-four years on his work on Roman antiquities, which consisted of twenty books.

=Dir´ce.= A woman whom Lycus, king of Thebes, married after he had divorced Antiope. Amphion and Zethus, sons of Antiope, for cruelties she practiced on Antiope, tied Dirce to the tail of a wild bull, by which she was dragged over rocks and precipices till the gods pitied her and changed her into a fountain.

=Discor´dia.= A malevolent deity, daughter of Nox, and sister to Nemesis, the Parcæ, and Death. She was driven from heaven by Jupiter because she sowed dissensions amongst the gods. At the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis she threw an apple amongst the gods, inscribed with the words, _Detur pulchriori_, which was the primary cause of the ruin of Troy, and of infinite misfortunes to the Greeks.

=Dolabel´la, P. Corn.= A Roman who married the daughter of Cicero. During the civil wars he warmly espoused the cause of Julius Cæsar, whom he accompanied at the famous battles of Pharsalia and Munda.

=Domitia´nus, Ti´tus Fla´vius=, son of Vespasian and Flavia Domitilla, made himself emperer of Rome on the death of his brother Titus, whom, according to some accounts, he destroyed by poison. The beginning of his reign promised hopefully, but Domitian became cruel, and gave way to vicious indulgences. In the latter part of his reign he became suspicious and remorseful. He was assassinated A.D. 96, in the forty-fifth year of his age.

=Dra´co.= A celebrated lawgiver of Athens, who made a code of laws, B.C. 623, which, on account of their severity, were said to be written in letters of blood. Hence the term "Draconic," applied to any punishment of exceptional severity.

=Dru´sus.= A son of Tiberius and Vipsania, who became famous for his courage displayed in Illyricum and Pannonia.

=Dru´sus, M. Liv´ius.= A celebrated Roman, who renewed the proposals bearing on the Agrarian laws, which had proved fatal to the Gracchi.

=Dru´sus, Ne´ro Clau´dius.= A son of Tiberius Nero and Livia. He distinguished himself in the wars in Germany and Gaul, and was honored with a triumph. There were other Romans of the same name, but of smaller distinction.

=Dry´ades.= Nymphs that presided over the woods. Oblations of milk, oil, and honey were offered to them. Sometimes the votaries of the Dryads sacrificed a goat to them.

=Duum´viri.= Two patricians at Rome, first appointed by Tarquin to keep the Sibylline books, which were supposed to contain the fate of the Roman empire.

=Ech´o.= A daughter of the Air and Tellus, who was one of Juno's attendants. She was deprived of speech by Juno, but was allowed to reply to questions put to her.

=Ege´ria.= A nymph of Aricia in Italy, where Diana was particularly worshiped. Egeria was courted by Numa, and, according to Ovid, became his wife. Ovid says that she was disconsolate at the death of Numa, and that she wept so violently that Diana changed her into a fountain.

=Elec´tra.= A daughter of Agamemnon, king of Argos. She incited her brother Orestes to revenge his father's death by assassinating his mother Clytemnestra. Her adventures and misfortunes form the subject of one of the finest of the tragedies of Sophocles.

=Eleu´sinia.= A great festival observed by the Lacedæmonians, Cretans, and others, every fourth year, and by the people of Athens every fifth year, at Eleusis in Attica, where it was introduced by Eumolpus, B.C. 1356. It was the most celebrated of all the religious ceremonies of Greece. The term "Mysteries" is often applied to it. The expression "Eleusinian mysteries," as applied to anything that is inexplicable, has become proverbial.

=Elys´ium.= The Elysian Fields, a place in the infernal regions, where, according to the ancients, the souls of the virtuous existed after death.

=Emped´ocles.= A philosopher, poet, and historian of Agrigentum in Sicily, who lived 444 B.C. He was a Pythagorean, and warmly espoused the belief in the transmigration of souls.

=Endym´ion.= A shepherd, son of Æthlius and Calyce. He is said to have required of Jupiter that he might be always young. Diana saw him as he slept on Mount Latmus, and was so struck with his beauty that she came down from heaven every night to visit him.

=En´nius.= An ancient poet, born in Calabria. He obtained the privileges of a Roman citizen on account of his learning and genius.

=E´os.= The name of Aurora among the Greeks.

=Epaminon´das.= A famous Theban descended from the ancient kings of Boeotia. At the head of the Theban armies he defeated the Spartans at the celebrated battle of Leuctra about 370 B.C. He was killed in battle in the forty-eighth year of his age.

=Eph´esus.= A city of Ionia, famous for a temple of Diana, which was considered to be one of the seven wonders of the world.

=Epicte´tus.= A Stoic philosopher of Hieropolis, originally the slave of Epaphroditus, the freedman of Nero. He supported the doctrine of the immortality of the soul.

=Epicu´rus.= A celebrated philosopher, born in Attica of obscure parents. He distinguished himself at school by the brilliancy of his genius. He taught that the happiness of mankind consisted in pleasure, which arises from mental enjoyment, and the sweets of virtue. His death occurred 270 B.C., his age being seventy-two.

=Er´ato.= One of the Muses. She presided over lyric poetry, and is represented as crowned with roses and myrtle, and holding a lyre in her hand.

=Er´ebus=, A deity of the infernal regions, son of Chaos and Darkness. The poets often use the word to signify the infernal regions.

=Ete´ocles.= A king of Thebes, son of OEdipus and Jocasta. After his father's death it was agreed between him and his brother Polynices that they should reign a year each alternately. Eteocles first ascended the throne, but at the end of the year he refused to resign the crown. Thus treated, Polynices implored assistance from Adrastus, king of Argos, whose daughter he married, and who placed an army at his disposal. Eteocles marshalled his forces, and several skirmishes took place between the hostile hosts, when it was agreed on that the brothers should decide the contest by single combat. They fought with inveterate fury, and both were killed.

=Eucli´des.= A famous mathematician of Alexandria, who lived B.C. 300. He wrote fifteen books on the elements of mathematics. Euclid was so much respected that King Ptolemy became one of his pupils.

=Eu´menes.= A Greek officer in the army of Alexander. He was the most worthy of all Alexander's generals to succeed him after his death. He conquered Paphlagonia and Cappadocia, of which he obtained the government, till the power of Antigonus obliged him to retire. Eventually, after many vicissitudes of fortune, he was put to death in prison by order of Antigonus.

=Eumen´ides.= A name given to the Furies. They sprang from the drops of blood which flowed from a wound which Coelus received from Saturn. According to some writers they were daughters of the Earth, and sprung from the blood of Saturn. Others make them to be daughters of Acheron and Night, or Pluto and Proserpine. According to the generally received opinion they were three in number--Tisiphone, Megara, and Alecto, to which some add Nemesis.

=Euphor´bus.= A famous Trojan. He wounded Patroclus, whom Hector killed. He died by the hand of Menelaus.

=Euphra´tes.= A large river in Asia which flowed through the middle of the city of Babylon.

=Eurip´ides.= A celebrated tragic poet born at Salamis. He studied eloquence under Prodicus, ethics under Socrates, and philosophy under Anaxagoras. He often retired to a solitary cave, where he wrote his tragedies. It is said that he met his death by being attacked and torn in pieces by dogs, 407 years before the Christian era, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. He is accredited with the authorship of seventy-five tragedies, of which only nineteen are extant. One of his plays, "Ion," has become familiarized in name to general readers by the exquisite play thus called written by the late Judge Talfourd, and first acted at Covent Garden theater, May 26, 1836.

=Euro´pa.= A daughter of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and Telaphassa. Her beauty attracted Jupiter, and to become possessed of her he assumed the shape of a handsome bull, and mingled with the herds of Agenor while Europa was gathering flowers in the meadows. She caressed the animal, and mounted on his back. The god crossed the sea with her, and arrived in Crete, where he assumed his proper form, and declared his love. She became mother of Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthus.

=Euryd´ice.= The wife of the poet Orpheus. As she fled from Aristæus, who was enamored with her, she was bit by a serpent, and died of the wound. Orpheus was disconsolate at her loss, and descended to the infernal regions in search of her, and by the melody of his lyre he obtained from Pluto the restoration of Eurydice, provided he did not look behind him till he reached the earth; but his eagerness to see his wife caused him to violate the conditions, and he looked behind him, thus losing Eurydice forever.

=Euryd´ice.= Wife of Amyntas, king of Macedonia. Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip were their sons, and they had a daughter named Euryone. She conspired against Amyntas, but was prevented from killing him by Euryone.

=Eurys´thenes.= A son of Aristodemus, who lived in perpetual dissension with his twin brother Procles whilst they both sat on the Spartan throne. The descendants of Eurysthenes were called Eurysthenidæ, and those of Procles Proclidæ.

=Eurys´theus.= A king of Argos and Mycenæ, son of Sthenelus and Nicippe. Juno hastened his birth by two months that he might come into the world before Hercules, the son of Alcmena, as the younger of the two was doomed by Jupiter to be subservient to the other. This natural right was cruelly exercised by Eurystheus, who was jealous of the fame of Hercules, and who, to destroy him, imposed upon him the most dangerous enterprises, known as the Twelve Labors of Hercules, all of which were successfully accomplished.

=Euse´bius.= A bishop of Cæsarea, in favor with the Emperor Constantine. He was mixed up in the theological disputes of Arius and Athanasius, and distinguished himself by writing an ecclesiastical history and other works.

=Euter´pe.= One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over music.

=Entro´pius.= A Latin historian in the age of Julian. He wrote an epitome of the history of Rome from the age of Romulus to the reign of the emperor Valens.

=Fa´bii.= A noble and powerful family at Rome. They fought with the Veientes, and all of them were slain. One of the family, of tender age, remained in Rome, and from him descended the family which afterwards became so distinguished.

=Fa´bius, Max´imus Rullia´nus=, was the first of the Fabii who obtained the name of "Maximus." He was master of the horse, and his victory over the Samnites in that capacity nearly cost him his life. He was five times consul, twice dictator, and once censor.

=Fa´bius, Q. Max´imus.= A celebrated Roman who was raised to the highest offices of state. In his first consulship he obtained a victory over Liguria, and the battle of Thrasymenus caused his election to the dictatorship. In this office he opposed Hannibal, harassing him more by countermarches and ambuscades than by fighting in the open field. He died at the age of 100, after being consul five times. Others of the family were of minor distinction, though their names occur in Roman history.

=Fabric´ius, Cai´us.= A distinguished Roman, who in his first consulship obtained several victories over the Samnites and Lucanians. He had the most consummate knowledge of military matters, and was distinguished for the simplicity of his manners.

=Faler´nus.= A fertile mountain and plain of Campania, famous for its wine. Falernian wine was held in great esteem by the Romans, and it is often alluded to by the poets.

=Fau´ni.= Rural deities represented as having the legs, feet, and ears of goats, and the rest of the body human.

=Flac´cus.= A consul who marched against Sylla and was assassinated.

=Flamin´ius, T. Q.= A famous Roman who was trained in the art of war against Hannibal. He was sent in command of the Roman troops against Philip of Macedonia, and met with great success.

=Flo´ra.= The goddess of flowers and gardens among the Romans. She was the same as the Chloris of the Greeks.

=Fortu´na.= A powerful deity among the ancients, daughter of Oceanus, according to Homer, or one of the Parcæ according to Pindar. She was the goddess of Fortune, and bestowed riches or poverty on mankind.

=Ful´via.= An ambitious woman, wife of the tribune Clodius, afterwards of Curio, and lastly of Antony. Antony divorced her for Cleopatra. She attempted to avenge her wrongs by persuading Augustus to take up arms against Antony.

=Galatæ´a.= A sea nymph, daughter of Nereus and Doris. She was loved by Polyphemus, the Cyclops, whom she treated with disdain, while she was in love with Acis, a shepherd of Sicily.

=Gal´ba, Ser´vius Sulpi´cius.= A Roman who rose to the greatest offices of the state, and exercised his powers with equity till he was seated on the throne, when his virtues disappeared. He was assassinated in the seventy-third year of his age.

=Gallie´nus, Pub. Licin´ius.= A son of the emperor Valerian. He reigned conjointly with his father for seven years, and then became sole emperor, A.D. 260. In his youth he showed military ability in an expedition against the Germans and Sarmatæ, but when possessed of the purple he gave himself up to pleasure and vice. He was assassinated in his fiftieth year, A.D. 268.

=Gal´lus, Corne´lius.= A Roman knight famous for his poetical as well as his military talents. He was greatly attached to his slave Lycoris (or Cytheris), whose beauty he extolled in his poetry.

=Ganyme´des.= A beautiful youth of Phrygia. He was taken to heaven by Jupiter while tending flocks on Mount Ida, and he became the cupbearer of the gods in place of Hebe.

=Gel´lius Au´lus.= A Roman grammarian in the age of M. Antoninus. He wrote a work called "Noctes Atticæ," which he composed at Athens.

=German´icus Cæ´sar.= A son of Drusus and Antonia, the niece of Augustus. He was raised to the most important position in the state, and was employed in war in Germany, where his successes obtained him a triumph. He was secretly poisoned, A.D. 19, in the thirty-fourth year of his age. He has been commended not only for his military talents but for his learning and humanity.

=Ge´ryon.= A monster, represented by the poets as having three bodies and three heads. It was killed by Hercules.

=Gigan´tes.= The sons of Coelus and Terra, who, according to Hesiod, sprang from the blood of a wound inflicted on Coelus by his son Saturn. They are represented as huge giants, with strength in accordance with their size.

=Glau´cus.= A son of Hippolochus, the son of Bellerophon. He aided Priam in the Trojan war, and was noted for his folly in exchanging his golden armor with Diomedes for an iron one.

=Glau´cus.= A fisherman of Boeotia. He observed that the fishes which he caught and laid on the grass became invigorated and leaped into the sea. He tasted the grass, and suddenly felt a desire to live in the sea. He was made a sea deity by Oceanus and Tethys.

=Glau´cus.= A son of Minos the Second and Pasiphae, who was smothered in a cask of honey. The soothsayer Polyidus, on being commanded by Minos to find his son, discovered him, and by rubbing his body with a certain herb restored him to life.

=Gordia´nus, M. Anto´nius Africa´nus.= Son of Metius Marcellus. He applied himself to poetry, and composed a poem in thirty books. He was sent as proconsul to Africa, and subsequently, when he had attained his eightieth year, he was proclaimed emperor. He strangled himself at Carthage A.D. 236, and was deeply lamented by the army and the people.

=Gordia´nus, M. Anto´nius Africa´nus=, son of Gordianus, was made prefect of Rome, and afterwards consul, by Alexander Severus. He was elected emperor in conjunction with his father. He was killed in a battle fought with Maximinus in Mauritania.

=Gordia´nus M. Anto´nius Pius=, was grandson of the first Gordian. He was proclaimed emperor in the sixteenth year of his age. He married the daughter of Misetheus, who was distinguished by his virtues, and to whom Gordian intrusted many of the chief offices of the state. Gordian conquered Sapor, king of Persia, and took many cities from him. He was assassinated A.D. 244.

=Gor´dius.= A Phrygian who, from the position of a peasant, was raised to the throne consequent on a prediction of the oracle. The knot which tied the yoke to the draught-tree of his chariot was made so cunningly that the ends of the cord could not be seen, and a report arose that the empire of Asia was promised by the oracle to him who should untie the Gordian knot. Alexander cut the knot with his sword.

=Gor´gones= (the Gorgons). Three sisters, daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, whose names were Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa. They possessed the power of turning into stone those on whom they looked. Perseus attacked them and cut off Medusa's head, which he gave to Minerva, who placed it on her ægis, which turned into stone those who fixed their eyes on it.

=Grac´chus, T. Sempronius=, was twice consul and once censor. He married Cornelia, of the family of the Scipios, a woman of piety and learning. Their children, Tiberius and Caius, rendered themselves famous for their obstinate attachment to the interests of the populace, which at last proved fatal to them. The Gracchi stand out conspicuously in Roman annals. The history of Gaius Gracchus has been dramatized by James Sheridan Knowles. It was one of his earliest efforts in dramatic literature, and has long been obsolete as an acting play.

=Gymna´sium.= A place among the Greeks where all the public exercises were performed, and where not only dancers and wrestlers exhibited, but where poets and philosophers repeated their compositions.

=Ha´des=, see ADES.

=Halicarnas´sus.= A maritime city in Asia Minor, where a mausoleum, one of the seven wonders of the world, was erected. It is celebrated as being the birthplace of Herodotus, Dionysius, and Heraclitus.

=Hamadry´ades.= Nymphs who lived in the country and presided over trees.

=Hamil´car.= A famous Carthaginian, father of Hannibal. He was engaged in Sicily during the first Punic war. He used to say of his three sons that he kept three lions to devour the Roman power.

=Han´nibal.= A celebrated Carthaginian general, son of Hamilcar. While a child he took a solemn oath never to be at peace with Rome. His passage of the Alps with a great army was achieved by softening the rocks with fire and vinegar, so that even his armed elephants descended the mountains without difficulty. He defeated the Romans in the great battle of Cannæ, but was subsequently conquered by Scipio at Zama. He died by poison taken from a ring in which he kept it concealed. This occurred in his seventieth year, about 182 years B.C.

=Harmo´dius.= A friend of Aristogiton who assisted in delivering his country from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ.

=Harpy´læ.= The Harpies, winged monsters who had the face of a woman, the body of a vulture, and feet and fingers armed with claws. They were three in number--Aello, Ocypete, and Celeno. They were daughters of Neptune and Terra.

=Has´drubal.= A son of Hamilcar, and brother of Hannibal. He crossed the Alps and entered Italy, where he was defeated by the consuls, M. Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero. He was killed in the battle B.C. 207, and his head was sent to Hannibal. One of the finest passages in Professor Nichol's tragedy of Hannibal is the invocation over Hasdrubal's head at the close of the play.

=He´be.= A daughter of Jupiter and Juno. She was made cup-bearer to the gods, but was dismissed from the office by Jupiter, because she fell down in a clumsy posture as she was pouring out nectar at a festival, and Ganymedes succeeded her as cupbearer.

=Hec´ate.= A daughter of Persus and Asteria. She was called Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate or Proserpine in hell.

=Hec´tor=, son of King Priam and Hecuba, was the most valiant of all the Trojan chiefs who fought against the Greeks. He married Andromache, the daughter of Eetion, Astyanax being their son. Hector was made chief of the Trojan forces when Troy was besieged by the Greeks, and it is said that thirty-one of the most valiant Greek chiefs were killed by him, but when he met Achilles he fled. Achilles pursued him, and Hector was killed, and his body dragged in triumph at the chariot wheels of the conqueror.

=Hec´uba=, daughter of Dymas, a Phrygian prince, or, according to some, of Cisseus, a Thracian king, was the second wife of Priam, king of Troy. When her son Paris was born, she exposed him on Mount Ida, hoping he would perish, as the soothsayers had predicted that he would be the ruin of his country. In the Trojan war she saw most of her children perish. After enduring many misfortunes, she threw herself into the sea, and was drowned.

=Hel´ena.= One of the most beautiful women in the age in which she lived. Her beauty was so universally admired, even in her infancy, that Theseus, with his friend Pirithous, carried her away when she was ten years of age and concealed her with his mother, but she was recovered by Castor and Pollux, and restored to her native country. She married Menelaus, son of Atreus, but when Paris visited Menelaus he persuaded her to fly with him to Troy, B.C. 1198. On this, Menelaus sent ambassadors to the court of Priam to demand her restitution, but in vain, and the result was the Trojan war. When Troy was taken she returned to Menelaus, and after his death she retired to Rhodes, where she was strangled by order of Polyxo, who reigned there. Her beauty and misfortunes have been a theme for the poets in all ages.

=Hel´icon.= A mountain of Boeotia on the borders of Phocis. It was sacred to the Muses, who had a temple there. The fountain Hippocrene flowed from this mountain.

=Heliogab´alus, M. Aure´lius Antoni´nus.= A Roman emperor who had been priest to a divinity in Phoenicia. Under his sway Rome became the scene of cruelty and vice. He raised his horse to the honors of consulship, and indulged in a number of absurdities which rendered him odious to his subjects. His head was cut off by his soldiers A.D. 222.

=Hel´le.= A daughter of Athamas and Nephele. She fled from her father's house to avoid the oppression of her mother-in-law Ino. According to some accounts she was carried through the air on a golden ram, when, becoming giddy, she fell into the sea, which received from her the name Hellespont.

=Hellespon´tus.= A narrow strait between Europe and Asia, which received its name from Helle, who is said to have been drowned in it. It is celebrated as being the scene of the love and death of Leander.

=Heracli´tus.= A celebrated Greek philosopher of Ephesus, who lived about 500 years before the Christian era. He received the appellation of the Obscure Philosopher and the Mourner, from his custom of weeping at the follies and frailties of human life.

=Hercula´neum.= A town of Campania swallowed up by an earthquake, produced by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A.D. 79.

=Her´cules.= A celebrated hero who, after death, was ranked among the gods. According to the ancients there were many persons of the same name, but the son of Jupiter and Alcmena, generally called the Theban, is the most celebrated. The birth of Hercules was attended with many miraculous events. Before he was eight months old Juno sent two snakes to devour him, which he seized, and crushed them to death. He achieved a series of enterprises known as the "Twelve Labors of Hercules." These comprised the slaughter of the Nemæan lion, the destruction of the Lernæan hydra, the catching of a stag having golden horns and remarkable for his swiftness, the seizing alive a wild boar which committed great ravages, the cleansing of the stables of Augias, the killing of the carnivorous birds near Lake Stymphalis, the taking captive a prodigious wild bull, the obtaining the mares of Diomedes which fed on human flesh, the getting possession of the girdle of the queen of the Amazons, the destruction of the monster Geryon, the obtaining the apples from the garden of the Hesperides, and the bringing to the earth the three-headed dog Cerberus. Besides these labors he aided the gods in their wars with the giants, and performed numerous difficult feats. He was conducted by Mercury to Omphale, queen of Lydia, whom he married, and whom he permitted to dress in his armor while he was sitting to spin with her female servants. He delivered Dejanira from the Centaur Nessus, whom he killed. The Centaur, as he expired, gave Dejanira a mystic tunic, which, in a jealous paroxysm, she gave to Hercules to put on, which he had no sooner done than he was seized with a desperate distemper which was incurable. He erected a burning pile on Mount Ætna, on which he cast himself. Jupiter surrounded the burning pile with smoke, amidst which Hercules, after his mortal parts were consumed, was carried to heaven in a chariot drawn by four horses.

=Her´mes.= A name of Mercury among the Greeks.

=Hermin´ius.= A valiant Roman who defended the bridge with Cocles against the army of Porsenna.

=Hermi´one.= A daughter of Mars and Venus who married Cadmus. She was changed into a serpent, and placed in the Elysian Fields.

=Hermi´one.= A daughter of Menelaus and Helen. She was privately promised in marriage to Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, but her father, ignorant of the engagement, gave her hand to Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, whose services he had experienced in the Trojan war.

=Hermip´pus.= A freedman, disciple of Philo, in the reign of Adrian, by whom he was greatly esteemed. He wrote five books on dreams.

=Hermoc´rates.= A general of Syracuse, who was sent against the Athenians. His lenity towards the Athenian prisoners was regarded with suspicion. He was banished from Sicily, and was murdered on his attempt to return to his country.

=Hermodo´rus.= A philosopher of Ephesus who is said to have assisted, as interpreter, the Roman decemvirs, in the composition of the ten tables of laws which had been collected in Greece.

=He´ro.= A beautiful girl of Sestos, greatly beloved by Leander, a youth of Abydos. The lovers were greatly attached to each other, and often in the night Leander swam across the Hellespont to Hero in Sestos, till on one tempestuous night he was drowned, and Hero in despair threw herself into the sea and perished.

=Hero´des=, surnamed the Great, followed the fortunes of Brutus and Cassius, and afterwards those of Antony. He was made king of Judæa by the aid of Antony, and after the battle of Actium he was continued in power by submission to and flattery of Augustus. He rendered himself odious by his cruelty, and as he knew his death would be a cause for rejoicing, he ordered a number of the most illustrious of his subjects to be confined and murdered directly he expired, that there might appear to be grief and shedding of tears for his own death. Herod died in the seventieth year of his age, after a reign of 40 years.

=Herod´otus.= A celebrated historian of Halicarnassus. He ranks amongst historians as Homer does amongst the poets and Demosthenes amongst the orators. His great work is a history of the wars of the Persians against the Greeks, from the age of Cyrus to the battle of Mycale in the reign of Xerxes; besides which it gives an account of many celebrated nations. A life of Homer is attributed to his pen, though by some the authorship is doubted.

=Hesi´odus.= A celebrated poet, born at Ascra in Boeotia. He lived in the age of Homer, and obtained a poetical prize in competition with him, according to Varro and Plutarch. Quintilian, Philostratus, and others, maintain that Hesiod lived before the age of Homer. Hesiod, without possessing the sublimity of Homer, is admired for the elegance of his diction.

=Hesi´one.= A daughter of Laodemon, king of Troy. It was her fate to be exposed to a sea-monster, to whom the Trojans presented yearly a young girl to appease the resentment of Apollo and Neptune, whom Laodemon had offended. Hercules undertook to rescue her, and attacking the monster just as he was about to devour her, killed him with his club.

=Hesper´ides.= Three Nymphs, daughters of Hesperus. Apollodorus mentions four, Ægle, Erythia, Vesta and Arethusa. They were appointed to guard the golden apples which Juno gave to Jupiter on the day of their marriage. The place where the Hesperides lived was a celebrated garden, abounding with delicious fruit, and was guarded by a dragon which never slept. It was one of the labors of Hercules to procure some of the golden apples, which he succeeded in doing after slaying the dragon.

=Hieron´ymus.= A tyrant of Sicily, who succeeded to the throne when he was fifteen years old. He rendered himself odious by his cruelty and oppression.

=Hieron´ymus.= A Christian writer, commonly called St. Jerome. He was distinguished for his zeal against heretics. He wrote commentaries on the prophets, St. Matthew's Gospel, &c. He died A.D. 420, in his eightieth year.

=Hippar´chus.= A son of Pisistratus, who succeeded his father, as tyrant of Athens, with his brother Hippias. He patronized some of the learned men of his age, and distinguished himself for his love of literature.

=Hippoc´rates.= A celebrated physician of Cos. He delivered Athens from a dreadful pestilence in the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, for which he was rewarded with a golden crown. He died in his ninety-ninth year, B.C. 361.

=Hippocre´ne.= A fountain of Boeotia, near Mount Helicon, sacred to the Muses. It rose from the ground when struck by the feet of the horse Pegasus.

=Hippodami´a.= A daughter of OEnomaus, king of Pisa, who married Pelops, son of Tantalus. Her father would marry her only to some one who should conquer him in a chariot race. Her beauty was great, and many were competitors for her hand, though the conditions involved death in case of defeat in the race. After thirteen suitors had been defeated, Pelops entered the lists, and by bribing the charioteer of OEnomaus, obtained the victory and married Hippodamia.

=Hippol´yte.= A queen of the Amazons, given in marriage to Theseus by Hercules. Hippolytus was their son.

=Hippol´ytus.= Son of Theseus and Hippolyte. His step-mother Phædra fell in love with him. He fled to the sea-shore, where, his horses taking fright and rushing among the rocks, his chariot was broken in pieces, and he was killed. According to some accounts he was restored to life by Diana.

=Hippo´nax.= A Greek poet born at Ephesus, 540 years before the Christian era. He cultivated satirical poetry, which was marked by its beauty and vigor.

=Home´rus.= A celebrated Greek poet, the most ancient of all the profane writers. The age in which he lived is not known, though some suppose it to be about 168 years after the Trojan war. Uncertainty prevails, also, as to the place of his nativity, seven cities claiming to be thus honored. These are Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Rhodos, Argos, and Athenæ. In his two famous poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, he has displayed the most consummate knowledge of human nature, and rendered himself immortal by the sublimity and elegance of his poetry. In the Iliad be gives a narrative of the siege of Troy, and the Odyssey deals with the wanderings of Ulysses after the fall of the city.

=Hono´rius.= An emperor of the Western Empire of Rome, who succeeded his father, Theodosius the Great. He conquered his enemies by the ability of his generals, and suffered his people to be governed by ministers who took advantage of his indolence and indifference. He died A.D. 423.

=Hora´tii.= Three brave Romans, born at the same time, who fought against the three Curiatii about 667 years before Christ. At the beginning of the fight two of the Horatii were killed, and the surviving one pretended to fly, thus separating his antagonists as they pursued him, and then, attacking them singly, he slew them all.

=Hora´tius Q. Flac´cus.= A celebrated poet born at Venusia. His rising talents obtained the attention of Virgil and Varius, who recommended him to the care of Mæcenas and Augustus, the celebrated patrons of literature. Under this fostering patronage Horace gave himself up to indolence and pleasure. He was warm in his friendships, and if he at any time gave offense he was ready to make any concession to effect a reconciliation. In his satires and epistles he displays much wit and satirical humor. He died in his fifty-seventh year, B.C. 8.

=Hora´tius.= See =Cocles=.

=Horten´sius, Q.= A celebrated orator who began to distinguish himself in the Roman Forum when he was nineteen years old. Cicero speaks eulogistically of his oratorical powers, and of his retentive memory. Quintilian alludes to his orations in terms of high commendation.

=Hyacin´thus.= A son of Amyclas and Diomede, greatly beloved by Apollo and Zephyrus. He was accidentally killed by Apollo, who changed his blood into a flower which bore his name.

=Hy´bla.= A mountain in Sicily, famous for the odoriferous herbs which grew on it. It was famous for its honey.

=Hy´dra.= A celebrated monster which infested the neighborhood of Lake Lerna in Peloponnesus. It was one of the labors of Hercules to destroy the monster, which he effected with the aid of Iolas.

=Hyge´ia.= The goddess of health, daughter of Æsculapius. She was held in great veneration among the ancients.

=Hymenæ´us= or =Hy´men=, the god of marriage among the Greeks, was the son of Bacchus and Venus, or, according to some, of Apollo and one of the Muses.

=Hymet´tus.= A mountain of Attica, about two miles from Athens, famous for its bees and honey.

=Hyperi´on.= A son of Coelus and Terra, who married Thea. Aurora was their daughter. Hyperion is often used by the poets to signify the sun. Also in "Troilus and Cressida" and other of Shakspeare's plays, the same license is used.

=Hypermnes´tra.= One of the Danaides, who were the fifty daughters of Danaus. She was ordered by her father to murder her husband Lynceus on the night of their marriage, which she refused to do. Danaus wished to punish her for her disobedience, but afterwards forgave her, and left his kingdom at his death to Lynceus.

=Hypsip´yle.= A queen of Lemnos, daughter of Thoas. During her reign, Venus, whose altars had been slighted, punished the Lemnian women by causing their husbands' affections to be estranged from them. This enraged the women, and they put to death their male relations, except in the case of Hypsipyle, who spared her father Thoas.

=Ic´arus.= A son of Daedalus, who, with his father, took a winged flight from Crete to escape the anger of Minos. His flight was too high, and thus the sun melted the wax which cemented his wings, and he fell into the sea and was drowned.

=Idom´eneus= succeeded his father Deucalion on the throne of Crete, and accompanied the Greeks to the Trojan war, during which he rendered himself famous for his valor. On his voyage home, being caught in a great tempest, he vowed to Neptune that if he escaped he would make an offering to the god of the first living creature he saw on his arrival at the Cretan shore. He escaped the storm, and the first to meet him on his landing was his son. He performed his vow, and became so odious to his subjects that he had to leave his dominions.

=Igna´tius.= A bishop of Antioch, torn to pieces by lions in the amphitheater at Rome A.D. 107. His works consisted of letters to the Ephesians, Romans, etc. He zealously supported the doctrine of the divinity of Christ.

=I´lus=, fourth king of Troy, was son of Tros by Callirrhoe. He married Eurydice, the daughter of Adrastus. He embellished the city of Ilium, called also Troy from his father Tros.

=I´no.= A daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, who nursed Bacchus. She married Athamas, king of Thebes, after he had divorced Nephele.

=I´o=, a daughter of Inachus, was a priestess of Juno at Argos. Juno changed her into a beautiful heifer, and eventually restored her to her own form. She was greatly persecuted by Juno. She married Telegonus, king of Egypt, or Osiris, according to others, and treated her subjects with such kindness that after death she received divine honors, and was worshiped under the name of Isis.

=I´olas= or =Iola´us=. A son of Iphiclus, king of Thessaly, who assisted Hercules in conquering the Hydra; he burnt with a hot iron the place where the monster's heads had been cut off to prevent their re-growth.

=Iph´iclus.= A son of Amphitryon and Alcmena, twin brother of Hercules. As the children were cradled together, Juno, jealous of Hercules, sent two large serpents to destroy him. At the sight of the snakes Iphiclus showed great alarm, but Hercules seized them, one in each hand, and squeezed them to death.

=Iphic´rates.= A celebrated general of Athens, who, though son of a shoemaker, rose to the highest offices in the state. He made war against the Thracians, and assisted the Persian king against Egypt.

=Iphigeni´a.= A daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. When the Greeks, going to the Trojan war, were detained at Aulis by contrary winds, they were informed by a soothsayer that to appease the gods they must sacrifice Iphigenia to Diana. As the fatal knife was about to be plunged into her, Iphigenia suddenly disappeared, and a goat of great beauty was found in the place where she had stood ready for the sacrifice.

=Iph´itus.= A son of Eurytus, king of OEchalia. When his father had promised his daughter Iole to any one who could excel him or his sons in drawing the bow, Hercules accepted the challenge and was victorious. Eurytus, however, refused to fulfill the compact by giving his daughter to the conqueror. Afterwards some oxen were stolen from Eurytus, and Iphitus was sent in quest of them. In his search he met Hercules, who aided him in seeking the lost animals, but on recollecting the faithlessness of Eurytus he killed Iphitus.

=Irenæ´us.= A native of Greece, disciple of Polycarp, and bishop of Lyons. He wrote on different subjects, and suffered martyrdom A.D. 202.

=I´ris.= One of the Oceanides, messenger of the gods, and more particularly of Juno. Her office was to cut the thread which seemed to detain the soul of those who were expiring. She is the same as the rainbow.

=I´sis.= A celebrated deity of the Egyptians, daughter of Saturn and Rhea, according to Diodorus of Sicily. Some suppose her to be the same as Io, who was changed into a cow, and restored to her human form in Egypt, where she taught agriculture, and governed the people with mildness and equity, for which she received divine honors after her death.

=Isoc´rates.= A celebrated orator, son of a musical instrument maker at Athens. He opened a school of eloquence at Athens, where he was distinguished for the number, character, and fame of his pupils. He was intimate with Philip of Macedon, but the aspiring ambition of Philip displeased Isocrates, and the defeat of the Athenians at Chæronea had such an effect on him that he did not long survive it. He died, after being four days without taking any aliment, in his ninety-ninth year, about 338 years B.C. He was honored after death by the erection of a brazen statue to his memory by Timotheus, one of his pupils, and Aphareus, his adopted son. Milton, in one of his sonnets, speaks of him as "that old man eloquent" when alluding to his death as being caused by the news of the battle of Chæronea.

=I´tys.= A son of Tereus, king of Thrace, and Procne, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. He was killed by his mother when he was six years old, and served up to his father to be eaten by him. He was changed into a pheasant, his mother into a swallow, and his father into an owl.

=Ixi´on.= A king of Thessaly, son of Phlegias, or, according to Hyginus, of Leontes, or, according to Diodorus, of Antion and Perimela. Jupiter carried him to heaven and placed him at the table of the gods, where he became enamored with Juno, which so incensed Jupiter that he banished him from heaven, and ordered Mercury to tie him to a wheel in hell, which continually whirled round, keeping Ixion in perpetual torture.

=Ja´nus.= An ancient king who reigned in Italy. He was a native of Thessaly, and, according to some writers, a son of Apollo. He built a town which he called Janiculum. Some authors make him to have been son of Coelus and Hecate. He is represented with two faces, because he was acquainted with the past and future. His temple was always open in time of war, and was shut when peace existed.

=Jap´etus.= A son of Coelus or Titan and Terra, who married Asia, or, according to some writers, Clymene. The Greeks looked on him as the father of all mankind.

=Ja´son.= A celebrated hero, son of Æson and Alcimedes. His education was entrusted to the Centaur Chiron. The greatest feat recorded of him is his voyage in the Argo to Colchis to obtain the Golden Fleece, which, aided by Juno, he succeeded in doing. Medea, daughter of Ætes, king of Colchis, fell in love with Jason. She was a powerful magician, and on Jason having vowed eternal fidelity to her, she gave him charms to protect him from danger. After securing the Fleece, Jason set sail from the country with his wife Medea. After some years he became enamored with Glauce, daughter of Creon, king of Corinth, whom he married, having divorced Medea. This cruel act was revenged by Medea, who destroyed her children in the presence of their father. Jason is said to have been killed by a beam which fell on his head as he was reposing by the side of the ship which had borne him to Colchis.

=Jocas´ta.= A daughter of Menoeceus, who married Laius, king of Thebes, OEdipus being their son. She afterwards married OEdipus without knowing who he was, and on the discovery she hanged herself. By some mythologists she is called Epicasta.

=Jose´phus, Fla´vius.= A celebrated Jew, born in Jerusalem, who signalized himself in a siege conducted by Vespasian and Titus in a small town in Judæa. He was present at the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, and received all the sacred books which it contained from the conqueror's hands. He wrote a history of the wars of the Jews, in Syriac, and afterwards translated it into Greek. He also wrote a work, which he divided into twenty books, on Jewish antiquities. He died A.D. 93, in his fifty-sixth year.

=Jovia´nus, Fla´vius Clau´dius.= A native of Pannonia elected emperor of Rome by the soldiers after the death of Julian. He refused the purple at first, but on being assured that his subjects were favorably disposed towards Christianity he accepted the crown. He died about seven months after assuming the supreme power, being found in bed suffocated by the vapors of charcoal which had been lighted in his room, A.D. 364.

=Ju´ba.= A king of Numidia and Mauritania who favored the cause of Pompey against Julius Cæsar. He defeated Curio, whom Cæsar had sent to Africa, and after the battle of Pharsalia he joined his forces to those of Scipio. He was conquered in a battle at Thapsus, and killed himself. His kingdom became a Roman province, of which Sallust was the first governor.

=Ju´ba=, the second of that name, was led captive to Rome to give lustre to the triumph of Cæsar. He wrote a history of Rome, which was often commended and quoted by the ancients.

=Jugur´tha.= A distinguished Numidian who went with a body of troops to the assistance of Scipio, who was besieging Numantia. Jugurtha endeared himself to the Roman general by his bravery and activity. His uncle Micipsa appointed him successor to the throne, with his two sons Adherbal and Hiempsal, the latter of whom was slain by Jugurtha, and the former had to fly to Rome for safety. Cæcilius Metellus was sent against Jugurtha, who was betrayed and delivered into the hands of the Romans. He died in prison B.C. 106.

=Ju´lia.= A daughter of Julius Cæsar and Cornelia, famous for her virtues and personal charms. She was obliged by her father to divorce herself from her first husband to marry Pompey the Great, with the object of cementing the friendship between him and her father.

=Ju´lia.= Daughter of Augustus, remarkable for her beauty, genius, and vices. Her father give her in marriage to Marcellus, after whose death she united herself to Agrippa, and again becoming a widow she married Tiberius. Her conduct now became so unseemly that she was banished to a small island on the coast of Campania, where she was starved to death.

=Ju´lia.= A daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, born at Lesbos, A.D. 17. She married M. Vinucius, a senator, when she was sixteen years old. She was banished on suspicion of conspiracy by her brother Caligula. She was notorious for her licentious conduct, and was put to death when she was about twenty-four years of age.

=Ju´lia.= A celebrated woman born in Phoenicia. She applied herself to the study of philosophy, and was conspicuous for her mental as well as her personal charms. She came to Rome, where she married Septimius Severus, who was afterwards invested with the purple. She was also called Domna.

=Julia´nus.= A son of Julius Constantius, the brother of Constantine the Great, born in Constantinople. The massacre which attended the elevation of the sons of Constantine to the throne nearly proved fatal to Julian and his brother Gallus. The two brothers were privately educated and taught the doctrines of the Christian religion--which afterwards Julian disavowed, and in consequence of this the term "Apostate" is generally affixed to his name. He died, A.D. 363, in his thirty-second year. His last moments were spent in a conversation with a philosopher about the immortality of the soul. Julian's character has been admired by some writers, but generally he is censured for his apostasy.

=Ju´no.= A celebrated deity among the ancients, daughter of Saturn and Ops. Jupiter married her, and the nuptials were celebrated with the greatest solemnity in the presence of all the gods. By her marriage with Jupiter, Juno became the queen of all the gods, and mistress of heaven and earth. She presided over marriage, and patronized those of her sex who were distinguished for virtuous conduct. Paris gave her great offense by giving the golden apple, as an award to beauty, to Venus instead of herself.

=Ju´piter.= The chief of all the gods of the ancients. According to Varro there were three hundred persons of that name. To him of Crete, who passed for the son of Saturn and Ops, the actions of the rest have been attributed. Jupiter was educated in a cave on Mount Ida, in Crete, and fed with the milk of the goat Amalthæa. While he was very young he made war on the Titans, whom he conquered. The beginning of his reign in the supernal regions was interrupted by the rebellion of the giants, who were sons of the earth, and who were desirous of revenging the death of the Titans, but by the aid of Hercules, Jupiter overpowered them. Jupiter married Metis, Themis, Ceres, Euronyme, Mnemosyne, Latona, and Juno. His worship was universal: he was the Ammon of the Africans, the Belus of Babylon, and the Osiris of Egypt.

=Juvena´lis, D. Ju´nius.= A poet born at Axuinum in Italy. He came to Rome at an early age, where he applied himself to the writing of satires, some of which are extant. He died in the reign of Trajan, A.D. 128. His writings are distinguished by a lively style, but abound with ill humor.

=Labe´rius, J. Dec´imus.= A Roman knight famous for his skill in writing pantomimes. Cæsar made him appear on the stage in one of his plays, which he resented by throwing out aspersions on Cæsar during the performance, and by warning the audience against tyranny.

=Lach´esis.= One of the Parcæ, or Fates. She presided over futurity, and was represented as spinning the thread of life, or, according to some, as holding the spindle.

=Laer´tes.= A king of Ithaca who married Anticlea, daughter of Autolycus. Ulysses was their son, and succeeded him on the throne, Laertes retiring to the country, and devoting his time to gardening, in which employment he was found by Ulysses on his return from the Trojan war, after twenty years´ absence.

=La´gus.= A Macedonian of mean extraction, who married Arsinoe, daughter of Meleager. On the birth of a child it was exposed in the woods by Lagus, but an eagle preserved its life by feeding and sheltering it with her wings. The infant was afterwards known as King Ptolemy the First of Egypt.

=La´is.= A woman of immoral character, daughter of Timandra and Alcibiades. Diogenes, the Cynic, was one of her admirers, and gained her heart. She went to Thessaly, where the women, jealous of her charms, assassinated her.

=Laoc´oon.= A priest of Apollo who in the Trojan war was opposed to the admission of the wooden horse to the city. For this, as a punishment, two enormous serpents were sent to attack him, which they did whilst, accompanied by his two sons, he was offering a sacrifice to Neptune. The serpents coiled round him and his sons, and crushed them to death.

=Laom´edon.= Son of Ilus, and king of Troy. He married Strymo, called by some Placia or Leucippe. Podarces, afterwards known as Priam, was their son. Laomedon built the walls of Troy, in which he was assisted by Apollo and Neptune.

=Lap´ithus.= A son of Apollo and Stilbe. He married Orsinome, Phorbas and Periphas being their children, to whose numerous descendants was given the name Lapithæ, a number of whom attended the nuptials of Pirithous with Hippodamia, the daughter of Adrastus, king of Argos. The Centaurs also attended the festivity, and quarrelled with the Lapithæ, which resulted in blows and slaughter. Many of the Centaurs were slain, and they were at last obliged to retire.

=La´res.= Gods of inferior power at Rome, who presided over houses and families. They were two in number, sons of Mercury and Lara.

=Lati´nus.= A son of Faunus and Marica, king of the Aborigines in Italy, who from him were called Latini.

=Lato´na.= A daughter of Coeus, the Titan, and Phoebe. She was admired for her beauty by Jupiter. Juno made Latona the object of her vengeance, and sent the serpent Python to persecute her.

=Lean´der.= A youth of Abydos. He was passionately in love with Hero, a young girl of Sestos. He was in the habit of swimming across the Hellespont to visit her, in doing which, on a tempestuous night, he was drowned. Lord Byron performed the same feat in 1810, an exploit which he has celebrated in verse in his occasional pieces. He expresses surprise that, as the truth of Leander's story had been questioned, no one had hitherto tested its practicability.

=Le´da.= A daughter of king Thespius and Eurythemis, who married Tyndarus, king of Sparta. She is famous for her intrigue with Jupiter. She brought forth two eggs, from one of which sprang Pollux and Helena, and from the other Castor and Clytemnestra. She is said to have received the name of Nemesis after death.

=Lem´ures.= The manes of the dead. The ancients supposed that after death the departed souls wandered over the world and disturbed the peace of its inhabitants.

=Leon´idas.= A celebrated king of Lacedæmon who went to oppose Xerxes, king of Persia, who had invaded Greece with a vast army. A great battle was fought at Thermopylæ, the entire army of Leonidas consisting of 300 men who refused to abandon him. For a time this small army resisted the vast legions of Xerxes, till at length a traitor conducted a detachment of Persians by a secret path to the rear of Leonidas, when his soldiers were cut to pieces, one only of the 300 escaping.

=Lep´idus, M. Æmil´ius.= A celebrated Roman, one of the triumvirs with Augustus and Antony. He was of an illustrious family, and, like many of his contemporaries, remarkable for ambition. He was unable to maintain his position as triumvir, and, resigning power, he sank into obscurity.

=Le´the.= One of the rivers of hell, whose waters were imbibed by the souls of the dead which had been for a certain period confined in Tartarus. Those who drank of this river forgot what they had previously known. In this sense the word is constantly used by the poets.

=Leucip´pus.= A celebrated philosopher of Abdera, about 428 years before Christ. He was a disciple of Zeno. His life was written by Diogenes. There were several others of the same name.

=Leuc´tra.= A village in Boeotia, famous for the victory which Epaminondas, the Theban general, obtained over the superior force of Cleombrotus, king of Sparta, B.C. 371.

=Licin´ius, C.= A tribune of the people, celebrated for his intrigues and ability. He was a plebeian, and was the first of that class that was raised to the office of master of the horse to the dictator. There were a number of other Romans of the same name.

=Liv´ius, Ti´tus.= A native of Padua, a celebrated historian. He passed the chief part of his time at Naples and Rome, but more particularly at the court of Augustus, who liberally patronized him. The name of Livy is rendered immortal by his history of the Roman empire. The merit of this history is admitted by all, and the high rank which Livy holds amongst historians is undisputed.

=Liv´ius Androni´cus= was a dramatic poet who flourished at Rome about 240 years before the Christian era.

=Longi´nus, Dionys´ius Cas´sius.= A celebrated Greek philosopher of Athens. He was preceptor of the Greek language, and afterwards minister, to Zenobia, the famous queen of Palmyra.

=Luca´nus M. Annæ´us.= A native of Corduba in Spain. At an early age he went to Rome, where his rising talents recommended him to the emperor Nero. He unwisely entered into a poetical contest with Nero, in which he obtained an easy victory, which greatly offended the emperor. After this Lucan was exposed to much annoyance from Nero, and was induced to join in a conspiracy against him, on which he was condemned to death, the mode of which he had the liberty of choosing. He decided to have his veins opened in a warm bath, and died quoting some lines from his "Pharsalia." Of all his works none but the "Pharsalia" remains.

=Lucia´nus.= A celebrated writer of Samosata. His works are numerous, consisting chiefly of dialogues written with much force. He died A.D. 180, being, as some say, torn in pieces by dogs for his impiety.

=Lu´cifer.= The name of the planet Venus, or morning star. It is called Lucifer when appearing in the morning before the sun, but when it appears after its setting it is called Hesperus.

=Lucil´ius, C.= A Roman knight, who is regarded as the first satirical writer amongst the Romans. Of thirty satires which he wrote only a few verses remain. He died at Naples B.C. 103.

=Lucil´ius Luci´nus.= A famous Roman who fled with Brutus from the battle of Philippi. He was taken prisoner, but the conquerors spared his life.

=Luci´na.= Daughter of Jupiter and Juno. She was the goddess who presided over the birth of children.

=Lucre´tia.= A celebrated Roman lady, daughter of Lucretius and wife of Tarquinius Collatinus. A number of young noble Romans at Ardea, among whom were Collatinus and the sons of Tarquin the Proud, were discussing the virtues of their wives at home, and it was agreed to go to Rome to ascertain how their wives employed themselves in their husbands' absence in the camp. While the wives of the others were indulging in feasting and dissipation, Lucretia was found in her house employing herself with her servants in domestic duties. She was brutally treated by Sextus Tarquin, a relative of Collatinus, and stabbed herself. This was the signal for a rebellion, the result being the expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome.

=Lucre´tius, Ca´rus T.= A celebrated Roman poet and philosopher. The tenets of Epicurus were embraced by him, and were explained and elucidated in a poem which he wrote, _De rerum natura_. This poem is distinguished by genius and elegance, but the doctrines it inculcates have an atheistical tendency. Lucretius is said to have destroyed himself B.C. 54.

=Lucul´lus, Lu´cius Licin´ius.= A Roman noted for his fondness of luxury and for his military abilities. He was born about 115 years before the Christian era, and distinguished himself by his proficiency in eloquence and philosophy. He was soon advanced to the consulship, and intrusted with the management of the Mithridatic war, in which he displayed his military talents.

=Lycur´gus.= A celebrated lawgiver of Sparta, son of King Eunomus and brother to Polydectes. He succeeded his brother on the Spartan throne. In the laws which he enacted he maintained a just equilibrium between the throne and the people; he banished luxury and encouraged the useful arts, and adopted a number of measures having for their object the well-being of the people. Lycurgus has been compared with Solon, the celebrated legislator of Athens.

=Lyn´ceus=, son of Aphareus, was one of the hunters of the Calydonian boar, and one of the Argonauts. He was so sharp-sighted that he could see through the earth and distinguish objects at a great distance from him. There was another person of the same name who married Hypermnestra, daughter of Danaus.

=Lysan´der.= A celebrated general of Sparta in the last years of the Peloponnesian war. He drew Ephesus from the interest of Athens, and gained the friendship of Cyrus the Younger. He gave battle to the Athenian fleet, and destroyed it all except three ships. In this battle, which was fought 405 years before the Christian era, the Athenians lost a great number of men, and in consequence of it forfeited their influence over neighboring states. Lysander was killed in battle 394 years B.C.

=Lysim´achus.= A son of Agathocles, who was one of the generals of Alexander. After the death of that monarch Lysimachus made himself master of Thrace, where he built a town which he called Lysimachia.

=Lysip´pus.= A famous statuary of Sicyon. He applied himself to painting, but he was born to excel in sculpture. He lived about 325 years before the Christian era, in the age of Alexander the Great.

=Macro´bius.= A Latin writer, who died A.D. 415. He has rendered himself famous for a composition called _Saturnalia_, a miscellaneous collection of antiquarian and critical literature.

=Mæan´der.= A celebrated river of Asia Minor flowing into the Ægean Sea. It is famous amongst the poets for its windings, and from it the application of the word "meandering" to a winding stream has become proverbial.

=Ma´ecenas=, or =Meca´enas, C. Cilnius=, a celebrated Roman knight, has rendered himself immortal by his liberal patronage of learned men. To the interference of Maecenas Virgil was indebted for the restitution of his lands. Maecenas, according to the received opinion, wrote a history of animals and a journal of the life of Augustus. Virgil dedicated his Georgics to him, as did Horace his Odes.

=Ma´nes.= A name applied by the ancients to the soul when departed from the body.

=Man´lius, Mar´cus.= A celebrated Roman who, at an early age, distinguished himself for valor. When Rome was taken by the Gauls, he, with a body of his countrymen, fled to the Capitol, which he defended when it was surprised in the night by the enemy. This gained him the surname of _Capitolinus_, and the geese which had awakened him to action by their clamor were afterwards held sacred among the Romans.

=Mar´athon.= A village of Attica, celebrated for the victory which the Athenians and Platæans, under the command of Miltiades, gained over the Persian army, 490 B.C.

=Marcel´lus, Mar´cus Clau´dius.= A famous Roman general. He was the first Roman who obtained some advantage over Hannibal. He conquered Syracuse, with the spoils from which he adorned Rome. He was killed in battle in his fifth consulship.

=Marcel´lus.= A Roman who distinguished himself in the civil wars of Cæsar and Pompey by his firm attachment to the latter. He was banished by Cæsar, but was afterwards recalled at the request of the Senate. There were some other Romans of the same name, of minor repute.

=Mardo´nius.= A general in the army of Xerxes who was defeated in the battle of Platæa, where he was slain, B.C. 479.

=Ma´rius, C.= A celebrated Roman who signalized himself under Scipio at the siege of Numantia. He was appointed to finish the war against Jugurtha, who was defeated and betrayed into the hands of the Romans. After this new honors awaited Marius. He was elected consul, and was sent against the Teutones. The war was prolonged, and Marius was a third and fourth time invested with the consulship. At length two engagements were fought, and the Teutones were defeated, a vast number of them being left dead on the battlefields. After many vicissitudes Marius died, B.C. 86, directly after he had been honored with the consulship for the seventh time. There were a number of others of the same name, but of minor note.

=Mars=, the god of war, was the son of Jupiter and Juno, or of Juno alone, according to Ovid. The loves of Mars and Venus are greatly celebrated. On one occasion, while in each other's company, Vulcan spread a net round them, from which they could not escape without assistance. They were thus exposed to the ridicule of the gods till Neptune induced Vulcan to set them at liberty. During the Trojan war Mars interested himself on the side of the Trojans, and defended the favorites of Venus with great determination.

=Mar´syas.= A celebrated piper of Celæne in Phrygia. He challenged Apollo to a trial of skill in music, which challenge was accepted, the Muses being appointed umpires. The palm of victory was awarded to Apollo, who tied his antagonist to a tree and flayed him.

=Martia´lis, Mar´cus Vale´rius.= A native of Spain who came to Rome when he was about twenty years old, where he became noticeable by his poetical genius. Martial wrote fourteen books of epigrams, and died in the seventy-fifth year of his age.

=Masinis´sa.= A king of a small part of Africa, who at first assisted the Carthaginians in their wars against Rome, but who subsequently became an ally of the Romans. After his defeat of Syphax he married Sophonisba, the wife of Syphax, which gave offense to the Roman general, Scipio, on which Masinissa induced Sophonisba to end her life by poison. In the battle of Zama, Masinissa greatly contributed to the defeat of Hannibal. He died in his ninety-seventh year, 149 years before the Christian era.

=Mauso´lus.= A king of Caria. His wife Artemisia was very disconsolate at his death, and erected one of the grandest monuments of antiquity to perpetuate his memory. This famous building, which was deemed to be one of the seven wonders of the world, was called "Mausoleum," which name has been since applied to other grand sepulchral monuments.

=Maximi´nus, Ca´ius Ju´lius Ve´rus=, was the son of a peasant of Thrace. He entered the Roman armies, where he gradually rose till he was proclaimed emperor A.D. 235. He ruled with great cruelty, and was eventually killed by his own soldiers. He was of immense size and strength, and was able to break the hardest stones between his fingers.

=Mede´a.= A celebrated magician, daughter of Ætes, king of Colchis, and niece of Circe. When Jason came to Colchis in quest of the Golden Fleece, Medea fell in love with him, and they exchanged oaths of fidelity, and when he had overcome all the difficulties which he had to encounter, Medea embarked with him for Greece. She lived in Corinth with her husband Jason for ten years, with much conjugal happiness, when he became enamored with Glauce, daughter of Creon, king of Corinth. To avenge herself on Jason she caused the destruction of Glauce, and killed her two children in his presence.

=Medu´sa.= One of the three Gorgons, daughter of Phorcys and Ceto. She was the only one of the Gorgons subject to mortality. She was celebrated for her personal charms and the beauty of her hair, which Minerva changed into serpents. According to Apollodorus and others, the Gorgons were born with snakes on their heads instead of hair, and with yellow wings and brazen hands. Perseus rendered himself famous by his conquest of Medusa. He cut off her head and placed it on the ægis of Minerva. The head had the power of changing those who looked at it into stone.

=Melea´ger.= A celebrated hero of antiquity, who signalized himself in the Argonautic expedition, and especially by killing the Calydonian boar, a famous event in mythological history.

=Melpom´ene.= One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over tragedy. She is generally represented as a young woman wearing a buskin and holding a dagger in her hand.

=Mem´non.= A king of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus and Aurora. He came with ten thousand men to assist Priam in the Trojan war, where he behaved with great courage, and killed Antilochus, Nestor's son, on which Nestor challenged Memnon to fight, but he refused on account of the great age of the challenger; but he fought Achilles, who killed him. A statue was erected in his honor, which had the property of uttering a melodious sound every day at sunrise.

=Menan´der.= A celebrated comic poet of Athens, educated under Theophrastus. He was universally esteemed by the Greeks. He wrote 108 comedies, but of which only a few fragments remain.

=Menela´us.= A king of Sparta, brother to Agamemnon. He married Helen, the most beautiful woman of her time. Paris, having arrived in Sparta in the absence of Menelaus, persuaded her to elope with him, which was the cause of the Trojan war. In the tenth year of the war Helen, it is said, obtained the forgiveness of Menelaus, with whom she returned to Sparta, where, shortly after his return, he died.

=Mene´nius Agrippa.= A celebrated Roman who appeased the Roman populace in the infancy of the consular government by repeating to them the well-known fable of the belly and limbs. He lived B.C. 495.

=Menip´pus.= A Cynic philosopher of Phoenicia. He was originally a slave, and, obtaining his liberty, became notorious as a usurer. He wrote thirteen books of satires.

=Men´tor.= A faithful friend of Ulysses, and guide and instructor of his son Telemachus. The term Mentor has become proverbial as applied to any one who is an educator of youth.

=Mercu´rius.= A celebrated god of antiquity, called Hermes by the Greeks. He was the messenger of the gods, and conducted the souls of the dead into the infernal regions. He presided over orators, merchants, and was also the god of thieves. The invention of the lyre is ascribed to him. This he gave to Apollo, and received in exchange the Caduceus, which the god of poetry used to drive the flocks of King Admetus.

=Mer´ope.= One of the Atlantides. She married Sisyphus, son of Æolus, and was changed into a constellation.

=Me´rops.= A king of the island of Cos, who married Clymene, one of the Oceanides. He was changed into an eagle, and placed among the constellations.

=Messali´na, Vale´ria=, was notorious for her vices. She married the emperor Claudius, who, wearied with her misconduct, cited her to appear before him and reply to the accusations which were brought against her, on which she attempted to destroy herself, but failing to do so, was slain by one of the tribunes who had been sent to summon her.

=Metel´li.= The surname of the family of the Cæcilii at Rome, the most noted of whom are--a general who defeated the Achæans, took Thebes, and invaded Macedonia; Quintus Cæcilius, rendered famous by his successes against Jugurtha, the king of Numidia; Q. Cæcilius Celer, who distinguished himself against Catiline. He died fifty-seven years B.C., greatly lamented by Cicero, who was one of his warmest friends; L. Cæcilius, a tribune in the civil wars of Cæsar and Pompey, who favored the cause of Pompey; Q. Caæilius, a warlike general who conquered Crete and Macedonia; Metellus Cimber, one of the conspirators against Cæsar. He gave the signal to attack and murder the dictator.

=Micip´sa.= A king of Numidia, son of Masinissa, who, at his death, B.C. 119, left his kingdom between his sons Adherbal and Hiempsal, and his nephew Jugurtha.

=Mi´das.= A king of Phrygia, son of Gordius or Gorgias. According to some traditions, in the early part of his life he found a treasure, to which he owed his greatness and opulence. He showed hospitality to Silenus, in return for which Bacchus permitted him to choose whatever recompense he pleased. He demanded of the god that whatever he touched might be turned into gold. His wish was granted, but when the very food which he attempted to eat became gold in his mouth he prayed Bacchus to revoke the favor, and he was ordered to wash himself in the river Pactolus, the sands of which were turned into gold by the touch of Midas. Afterwards, in consequence of maintaining that Pan was superior to Apollo in singing and playing the flute, he had his ears changed into those of an ass by the god.

=Mi´lo.= A celebrated athlete of Crotona in Italy. He is said to have carried on his shoulders a bullock for a considerable distance, and to have killed it with a blow from his fist, and eaten it in one day. In his old age he attempted to pull up a tree by the roots, which, when half-cleft, reunited, and his hands remaining imprisoned in the tree, he was eaten by wild beasts about 500 years before the Christian era.

=Milti´ades=, son of Simon, was sent by the Athenians to take possession of the Chersonesus. On his arrival he seized some of the principal inhabitants of the country, made himself absolute in Chersonese, and married the daughter of Olorus, king of the Thracians. He was present at the celebrated battle of Marathon, where the command was ceded to him, owing to his superior abilities. He obtained the victory, but an olive crown, which he demanded from his fellow-citizens as a reward for his valor, was refused. Afterwards he was intrusted with a fleet of seventy ships, with which to punish some islands which had revolted to the Persians. At first he was successful, but afterwards fortune frowned on him. He was accused of treason and condemned to death, but his sentence was, owing to his great services, commuted. He died in prison of some wounds he had received, which became incurable.

=Miner´va=, the goddess of wisdom, war, and all the liberal arts, sprang, full-grown and armed, from the head of Jupiter, and was immediately admitted to the assembly of the gods, and became one of the most faithful counselors of her father. Her power in heaven was great: she could hurl the thunders of Jupiter, prolong the life of men, and bestow the gift of prophecy. She was known amongst the ancients by many names. She was called Athena, Pallas, Parthenos, Tritonia (because she was worshiped near the lake Tritonis) and Hippia (because she first taught mankind how to manage the horse), Sais (because she was worshipped at Sais), and some other names. She is usually represented with a helmet on her head with a large plume on it, in one hand holding a spear, and in the other a shield with the head of Medusa on it. Temples were erected for her worship in different places, one of the most renowned of which was the Parthenon at Athens. From this building a large collection of ancient sculpture was brought to the British Museum by Lord Elgin more than sixty years ago, which is known as the "Elgin Marbles."

=Mi´nos.= A king of Crete, son of Jupiter and Europa, who gave laws to his subjects, B.C. 1406, which remained in full force in the age of Plato.

=Mi´nos the Second= was a son of Lycastes, the son of Minos the first, and king of Crete. He married Pasiphae, the daughter of Sol and Perseis.

=Minotau´rus.= A celebrated monster, half a man and half a bull, for which a number of young Athenian men and maidens were yearly exacted to be devoured. The Minotaur was confined in a famous labyrinth, where at length it was slain by Theseus, who was guided out of the labyrinth by a clue of thread given to him by Ariadne, daughter of King Minos.

=Mithrida´tes First=, king of Pontus. He was tributary to the crown of Persia: his attempts to make himself independent of that fealty proved fruitless, being defeated in a battle which he had provoked, and having to sue for peace.

=Mithrida´tes=, surnamed "Eupator" and "The Great," succeeded to the throne of Pontus when eleven years of age. The beginning of his reign was marked by ambition and cruelty. At an early age he inured himself to hardships by devoting himself to manly exercises, and sleeping in the open air on the bare earth. He was constantly engaged in warfare against the Romans, and his contests with them are known as the Mithridatic wars. His hatred of the Romans was so great that, to destroy their power, he ordered all of them that were in his dominions to be massacred, and in one night 150,000, according to Plutarch, or 80,000, according to another authority, were slaughtered. This cruel act called for revenge, and great armies were sent against him. After varied fortunes Mithridates had to succumb to Pompey, and, worn out with misfortune, attempted to poison himself, but unsuccessfully, as the numerous antidotes to poison which in early life he had taken strengthened his constitution to resist the effect. He then ordered one of his soldiers to give him the fatal blow with a sword, which was done. He died about sixty-three years before the Christian era, in his seventy-second year. He is said to have been the most formidable opponent the Romans ever had, and Cicero estimates him as the greatest monarch that ever sat upon a throne. It is recorded of him that he conquered twenty-four nations, whose different languages he knew and spoke fluently. There were a number of persons of the same name, but of inferior note.

=Mnemos´yne.= A daughter of Coelus and Terra, mother of the nine Muses. Jupiter assumed the form of a shepherd in order to enjoy her company.

=Mo´mus=, the god of mirth amongst the ancients, according to Hesiod, was the son of Nox. He amused himself by satirizing the gods by turning into ridicule whatever they did.

=Mor´pheus.= A minister of the god Somnus, who imitated very naturally the gestures, words, and manners of mankind. He is sometimes called the god of sleep. He is generally represented as a sleeping child, of great corpulence, with wings.

=Mos´chus.= A Greek Bucolic poet in the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus. His eclogues are characterized by sweetness and elegance, and are said to be equal in merit to the productions of Theocritus.

=Mure´na.= A celebrated Roman who invaded the dominions of Mithridates, at first with success, but afterwards he met with defeat. He was honored with a triumph on his return to Rome.

=Mu´sæ.= The Muses, certain goddesses who presided over poetry, music, dancing, and all the liberal arts. They were daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, and were nine in number, Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polyhymnia, Calliope, and Urania.

=Myce´næ.= A town of Argolis, said to have been built by Perseus. It received its name from Mycene, a nymph of Laconia. It was taken and destroyed by the Argives.

=Nai´ades.= Inferior deities who presided over rivers, springs, wells, and fountains. The Naiads generally inhabited the country, and resorted to the woods and meadows near the stream over which they presided. They are represented as young and beautiful girls leaning on an urn, from which flows a stream of water. Ægle was the fairest of them, according to Virgil. The word Naiad has become Anglicized, and is in frequent use, especially by the poets.

=Narcis´sus=, a beautiful youth, son of Cephisus and the nymph Liriope, was born at Thespis in Boeotia. He saw his image reflected in a fountain and became in love with it, thinking it to be the nymph of the place. His fruitless attempts to reach this beautiful object so provoked him, that he killed himself. His blood was changed into a flower which still bears his name.

=Nemæ´a.= A town of Argolis, with a wood where Hercules in the sixteenth year of his age killed the celebrated Nemæan lion. It was the first of the labors of Hercules to destroy the monster, and when he found that his arrows and clubs were useless, against an animal whose skin was impenetrable, he seized it in his arms and strangled it.

=Nem´esis.= One of the infernal deities, daughter of Nox. She was the goddess of vengeance. She is made one of the Parcæ by some mythologists, and is represented with a helm and a wheel. The term is sometimes used to signify vengeance itself.

=Neoptol´emus.= A king of Epirus, son of Achilles and Deidamia, called also Pyrrhus. He greatly signalized himself during the siege of Troy, and he was the first who entered the wooden horse. He was inferior to none of the Grecian warriors in valor. Ulysses and Nestor alone were his superiors in eloquence and wisdom.

=Ne´pos, Corne´lius.= A celebrated historian in the reign of Augustus, and, like the rest of his literary contemporaries, he enjoyed the patronage and obtained the favor of the emperor. He was the intimate friend of Cicero and Atticus, and recommended himself to notice by delicacy of sentiment and a lively disposition. Of all his valuable works the only one extant is his lives of illustrious Greek and Roman generals.

=Neptu´nus.= One of the gods, son of Saturn and Ops, and brother to Jupiter and Pluto. He was devoured by his father as soon as he was born, and restored to life again by a potion given to Saturn, by Metis, the first wife of Jupiter. Neptune shared with his brothers the empire of Saturn, and received as his portion the kingdom of the sea. He did not think this equivalent to the empire of heaven and earth, which Jupiter had claimed, therefore he conspired to dethrone him. The conspiracy was discovered, and Jupiter condemned Neptune to build the walls of Troy. He married Amphitrite, who thus broke a vow she had made of perpetual celibacy.

=Nere´ides.= Nymphs of the sea, daughters of Nereus and Doris. According to most of the mythologists, they were fifty in number. They are represented as young and handsome girls, sitting on dolphins and armed with tridents.

=Ne´ro, Clau´dius Domit´ius Cæ´sar.= A celebrated Roman emperor, son of Caius Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus. His name is the synonym for cruelty and vice. In the night it was his wont to sally out from his palace to visit the meanest taverns and the different scenes of depravity that were to be found. He appeared on the stage, sometimes representing the meanest characters. He resolved to imitate the burning of Troy, and caused Rome to be set on fire in different places, the flames being unextinguished for nine days, and he enjoyed the terrible scene. During the conflagration he placed himself on the top of a tower and sang, accompanying himself on a lyre, of the destruction of Troy. Many conspiracies were formed against him, the most dangerous of which he was saved from by the confession of a slave. He killed himself A.D. 68, in the thirty-second year of his age, after a reign of thirteen years and eight months. Wretch that he was, it is said that he had some few to mourn for him, and Suetonius records that some unseen hand had placed flowers on his tomb.

=Ner´va, M. Cocce´ius.= A Roman emperor after the death of Domitian A.D. 96. He rendered himself popular by his mildness and generosity. In his civil character he set an example of good manners and sobriety. He made an oath that no senator should suffer death during his reign, which he carried out by pardoning two members of the Senate who had conspired against his life. He died in his seventy-second year, A.D. 98, and was succeeded by his son Trajan.

=Nes´sus.= A celebrated Centaur killed by Hercules for insulting Dejanira.

=Nes´tor.= A son of Neleus and Chloris, nephew to Pelias, and grandson to Neptune. He was present at the bloody battle between the Lapithæ and the Centaurs, which took place at the nuptials of Pirithous. As king of Pylos he led his soldiers to the Trojan war, where he distinguished himself among the Grecian chieftains by eloquence, wisdom, and prudence. Homer makes his character as the most perfect of all his heroes. After the Trojan war Nestor retired to Greece, where he lived during his declining years in peace and tranquillity. The manner and time of his death are unknown.

=Ni´nus.= A son of Belus. He built Nineveh and founded the Assyrian monarchy, of which he was the first sovereign, B.C. 2059. He married Semiramis, whose husband had destroyed himself through fear of Ninus. He reigned fifty-two years.

=Ni´obe.= A daughter of Tantalus, king of Lydia, and Euryanassa, or Dione. She married Amphion, and, according to Hesiod, they had ten sons and ten daughters. All the sons of Niobe expired by the darts of Apollo, and all the daughters, except Chloris, were destroyed by Diana. Niobe, overwhelmed with grief, was changed into a stone.

=Nito´cris.= A celebrated queen of Babylon, who built a bridge across the Euphrates in the middle of that city, and dug a number of reservoirs for the superfluous water of the river.

=Nom´ades.= A name given to people who had no fixed habitation, and who continually changed their place of residence in quest of fresh pastures for the cattle they tended. There were Nomades in Scythia, India, Arabia, etc. The word is in constant use as Anglicized--Nomad--meaning any one who leads a wandering and unsettled life.

=Nox.= One of the most ancient deities among the heathens, daughter of Chaos. She gave birth to the Day and the Light, and was mother of the Parcæ, Hesperides, Dreams, Death, etc.

=Nu´ma Pompil´ius.= A celebrated philosopher of Cures. He married Tatia, daughter of Tatius, king of the Sabines, and at her death he retired into the country to devote himself to literary pursuits. At the death of Romulus the Romans fixed on him to be their new king. Numa at first refused the offer of the crown, but at length was prevailed on to accept it. He endeavored to inculcate into the minds of his subjects a reverence for the deity, and he did all he could to heal their dissensions. He encouraged the report of his visits to the nymph Egeria, and made use of her name to give sanction to the laws which he had made. He dedicated a temple to Janus, which, during his whole reign, remained closed as a mark of peace and tranquillity at Rome. Numa died after a reign of forty-three years (B.C. 672), during which he had given encouragement to the useful arts, and had cultivated peace.

=Nym´phæ.= Certain female deities among the ancients. They were generally divided into two classes--nymphs of the land and nymphs of the sea. Of the former some presided over woods, and were called Dryades and Hamadryades. Of the sea nymphs some were called Oceanides, Nereides, Naiades, etc.

=Ocean´ides and Oceanit´ides.= Sea nymphs, daughters of Oceanus, from whom they received their name. According to Apollodorus they were 3000 in number, whilst Hesiod speaks of them as consisting of forty-one.

=Oce´anus.= A powerful deity of the sea, son of Coelus and Terra. He married Tethys, the Oceanides being their children.

=Octa´via.= A Roman lady, sister to the emperor Augustus, celebrated for her beauty and virtues. She married Claudius Marcellus, and, after his death, Antony, who for some time was attentive to her, but eventually deserted her for Cleopatra.

=Octavia´nus, or Octa´vius Cæ´sar.= A famous Roman who, after the battle of Actium, had bestowed on him by the senate the surname _Augustus_, as expressing his dignity and greatness.

=Odena´tus.= A celebrated prince of Palmyra. At an early period of his life he inured himself to bear fatigue by hunting wild beasts. He was a faithful ally of the Romans, and gave great offense to Sapor, king of Persia, in consequence. In the warfare which ensued he obtained advantage over the troops of Sapor, and took his wife prisoner, besides gaining great booty. He died by the hand of one of his relations whom he had offended. Zenobia succeeded him on the throne.

=OE´dipus.= A son of Laius, king of Thebes, and Jocasta. Laius was informed by the oracle, as soon as he married Jocasta, that he would perish by the hands of his son. On his birth OEdipus was given to a domestic, with orders to expose him to death on the mountains, where he was found by one of the shepherds of Polybus, king of Corinth. Periboea, the wife of Polybus, educated him as her own child, tending him with great care. In after life he met Laius in a narrow lane in a chariot, and being haughtily ordered to make way for Laius, a combat ensued in which Laius was slain. After this OEdipus was attracted to Thebes by the fame of the Sphinx, who devoured all those who attempted to explain without success the enigmas which she propounded. The enigma proposed by the Sphinx to OEdipus was:--What animal in the morning walks upon four feet, at noon upon two, and in the evening upon three? OEdipus solved the riddle by replying that the animal was man, who in childhood crawls on his hands and feet, on attaining manhood walks on two feet erect, and in the evening of life supports his tottering steps with a staff. The monster on hearing the correct solution of the riddle, dashed her head against a rock and perished.

=OE´neus.= A king of Calydon, son of Parthaon or Portheus and Euryte. He married Althæa, their children being Clymenus, Meleager, Gorge, and Dejanira. In a general sacrifice he made to the gods he slighted Diana, who, in revenge, sent a wild boar to waste his country. The animal was killed by Meleager in the celebrated Calydonian boar hunt. After this misfortunes overtook OEneus, and he exiled himself from Calydon, and died on his way to Argolis.

=OEnom´aus.= King of Pisa, in Elis, and father of Hippodamia. He was told by the oracle that he would perish by his son-in-law. Being skillful in driving a chariot, he announced that he would give his daughter in marriage only to some one who could defeat him in a race, death being the result of those who were defeated. After a number of aspirants had contended and failed, Pelops, son of Tantalus, entered the lists, and by bribing the charioteer of OEnomaus, who provided a chariot with a broken axle-tree, Pelops won the race, and married Hippodamia, becoming king of Pisa. OEnomaus was killed in the race.

=Olym´pia.= Celebrated games which received their name either from Olympia, where they were observed, or from Jupiter Olympius, to whom they were dedicated.

=Olym´pus.= A mountain in Macedonia and Thessaly. The ancients supposed that it touched the heavens, and thus they have made it the residence of the gods, and the place where Jupiter held his court. On the top of the mountain, according to the poets, eternal spring reigned.

=Om´phale.= A queen of Lydia, daughter of Jardanus. She married Tmolus, who at his death left her mistress of his kingdom. She had heard of the exploits of Hercules, and wished to see him. After he had slain Eurytus, Hercules was ordered to be sold as a slave, and was purchased by Omphale, who gave him his liberty. He became in love with Omphale, who reciprocated his passion. He is represented by the poets as being so infatuated with her that he sat spinning by her side surrounded by her women, whilst she garbed herself with his lion's skin, arming herself with his club.

=Oppia´nus.= A Greek poet of Cilicia. He wrote some poems celebrated for their sublimity and elegance. Caracalla gave him a piece of gold for every verse in one of his poems. Oppian died of the plague in the thirtieth year of his age.

=Ops.= A daughter of Coelus and Terra, the same as the Rhea of the Greeks, who married Saturn, and became mother of Jupiter. She was known amongst the ancients by the different names of Cybele, Bona Dea, Magna Mater, Thya, Tellus, and Proserpina.

=Ores´tes.= A son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. His father was slain by Clytemnestra and Ægisthus, but young Orestes was saved from his mother's dagger by his sister Electra, called by Homer Laodicea, and was conveyed to the house of Strophius, king of Phocis, who had married a sister of Agamemnon. He was indulgently treated by Strophius, who educated him with his son Pylades. The two young princes formed the most inviolable friendship. When Orestes had arrived at years of manhood he avenged his father's death by killing his mother Clytemnestra.

=Or´igen.= A Greek writer, celebrated for his learning and the sublimity of his genius. He suffered martyrdom in his sixty-ninth year. His works are numerous, consisting of commentaries on the Scriptures and various treatises.

=Or´pheus.= A son of OEger and the Muse Calliope. Some suppose him to be the son of Apollo. He received a lyre from Apollo, or, according to some, from Mercury, on which he played in such a masterly manner that the melodious sounds caused rivers to cease to flow, and savage beasts to forget their wildness. He married Eurydice, who died from the bite of a serpent. Orpheus felt her death acutely, and to recover her he visited the infernal regions. Pluto, the king of the infernal regions, was enraptured with the strains of music from the lyre of Orpheus, and, according to the poets, the wheel of Ixion stopped, the stone of Sisyphus stood still, Tantalus forgot his burning thirst, and even the Furies relented, so fascinating were the sounds extracted from the lyre. Pluto was moved by the sorrow of Orpheus, and consented to restore Eurydice to him, provided he forebore to look behind him till he had reached the extremity of his domain. Orpheus agreed to this, but forgot his promise, and turned round to look at Eurydice, who instantly vanished from his sight. After this he separated himself from the society of mankind, and the Thracian women, whom he had offended by his coldness, attacked him whilst they celebrated the orgies of Bacchus, and after they had torn his body to pieces they threw his head into the Hebrus.

=Osi´ris.= A great deity of the Egyptians, husband of Isis. The ancients differ in opinion concerning this celebrated god, but they all agree that as ruler of Egypt he took care to civilize his subjects, to improve their morals, to give them good and salutary laws, and to teach them agriculture.

=Ovid´ius, P. Na´so.= A celebrated Roman poet born at Sulmo. He was sent at an early age to Rome, and afterwards went to Athens in the sixteenth year of his age, where his progress in the study of eloquence was great. His natural inclination, however, was towards poetry, and to this he devoted his chief attention. His lively genius and fertile imagination soon gained him admirers; the learned became his friends; Virgil, Propertius, Horace, and Tibullus, honored him with their correspondence, and Augustus patronized him with unbounded liberality. These favors, however, were transitory, and he was banished to a place on the Euxine Sea by order of the emperor. The true cause of his banishment is not known. His friends ardently entreated the emperor to permit him to return, but in vain, and he died in the seventh or eighth year of his banishment, in the fifty-ninth year of his age, A.D. 17. A great portion of his works remains. These consist of the "Metamorphoses," "Fasti," "Epistolæ," etc. Whilst his works are occasionally disfigured by indelicacy, they are distinguished by great sweetness and elegance.

=Pacto´lus.= A celebrated river of Lydia. It was in this river that Midas washed himself when he turned into gold whatever he touched.

=Pæ´an.= A surname of Apollo, derived from the word _pæan_, a hymn which was sung in his honor for killing the serpent Python.

=Palæ´mon= or =Pale´mon=. A sea deity, son of Athamas and Ino. His original name was Melicerta. He assumed the name of Palæmon after being changed into a sea deity by Neptune.

=Palame´des.= A Grecian chief, son of Nauplius, king of Euboea, and Clymene. He was sent by the Greek princes, who were going to the Trojan war, to bring Ulysses to the camp, who, to withdraw himself from the expedition, had pretended to be insane. Palamedes soon penetrated the deception, and Ulysses was obliged to join in the war, but an inveterate enmity arose between the two, and by an unworthy artifice Ulysses procured the death of Palamedes. Palamedes is accredited with the invention of dice, backgammon, and other games.

=Palati´nus, Mons.= A celebrated hill, the largest of the seven hills on which Rome was built.

=Palinu´rus.= A skillful pilot of the ship of Æneas. He fell into the sea whilst asleep, and was exposed to the waves for three days, and on reaching the shore was murdered by the inhabitants of the place where he landed.

=Palla´dium.= A celebrated statue of Pallas. It represented the goddess as holding a spear in her right hand, and in her left a distaff and spindle. It fell down from heaven near the tent of Ilus as he was building the citadel of Ilium, whilst, according to others, it fell in Phrygia; another account says Dardanus received it as a present from his mother Electra; other accounts are given of its origin. It is generally agreed, however, that on the preservation of the statue the fate of Troy depended. This was known to the Greeks during the Trojan war, and they contrived to obtain possession of it. But some authors say that the true Palladium was not carried away by the Greeks, but only a statue which had been placed near it, and which bore some resemblance to it.

=Pal´las.= A name of Minerva. She is said to have received the name because she killed a noted giant bearing that name.

=Palmy´ra.= The capital of Palmyrene, a country on the eastern boundaries of Syria, now called Tadmor. It is famous as being the seat of government of the celebrated Queen Zenobia.

=Pan.= The god of shepherds, huntsmen, and the inhabitants of the country. He was in appearance a monster; he had two small horns on his head, and his legs, thighs, tail, and feet were like those of the goat.

=Pan´darus.= A son of Lycaon, who aided the Trojans in their war with the Greeks. He broke the truce which had been agreed on by the contending armies, and wounded Menelaus and Diomedes. He was at last killed by Diomedes.

=Pandi´on.= A king of Athens, father of Procne and Philomela. During his reign there was such an abundance of corn, wine, and oil in his realm, that it was supposed that Bacchus and Minerva had personally visited the country.

=Pando´ra.= A celebrated woman; the first mortal female that ever lived, according to Hesiod. She was made of clay by Vulcan, and having received life, all the gods made presents to her. Venus gave her beauty and the art of pleasing; the Graces gave her the power of captivating; Apollo taught her how to sing, and Mercury instructed her in eloquence. Jupiter gave her a beautiful box, which she was ordered to present to the man who married her. This was Epithemeus, brother of Prometheus, who opened the box, from which issued a multitude of evils, which became dispersed all over the world, and which from that fatal moment have never ceased to affect the human race. Hope alone remained at the bottom of the box.

=Pan´sa, C. Vib´ius.= A Roman consul, who, with Hirtius, pursued the assassins of Cæsar, and was killed in a battle near Mutina.

=Pan´theon.= A celebrated temple at Rome, built by Agrippa in the reign of Augustus, and dedicated to all the gods.

=Par´cæ.= The Fates, powerful goddesses who presided over the birth and life of mankind. They were three in number, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, daughters of Nox and Erebus, according to Hesiod, or, according to what he says in another place, of Jupiter and Themis.

=Par´is.= The son of Priam, king of Troy, and Hecuba; he was also called Alexander. He was destined before his birth to cause the ruin of his country, and before he was born his mother dreamt that he would be a torch which would set fire to her palace. The soothsayers predicted that he would be the cause of the destruction of Troy. In consequence of these foretold calamities Priam ordered a slave to destroy the child immediately after birth, but instead of acting thus the slave exposed the child on Mount Ida, where some shepherds found him and took care of him. Paris gave early proofs of courage, and his graceful countenance recommended him to OEnone, a nymph of Ida, whom he married. At the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the goddess of discord, who had not been invited, showed her displeasure by throwing into the assembly of the gods, who were at the nuptials, a golden apple, on which were the words: Let it be given to the fairest. The apple was claimed by Juno, Venus, and Minerva. Paris, who had been appointed to award it to the most beautiful of the three goddesses, gave it to Venus. Subsequently Paris visited Sparta, where he persuaded Helen, wife of Menelaus, the most beautiful woman of the age, to elope with him. This caused the Trojan war. Different accounts are given of the death of Paris. By some he is said to have been killed by one of the arrows of Philoctetes which had once belonged to Hercules.

=Parme´nio.= A celebrated general in the armies of Alexander the Great, by whom he was regarded with the greatest affection. The firm friendship which existed between the two generals was broken in a sudden fit of anger by Alexander, who ordered his friend to be put to death, B.C. 330.

=Parnas´sus.= A mountain of Phocis sacred to the Muses, and to Apollo and Bacchus. It was named thus after a son of Neptune who bore that designation.

=Parrha´sius.= A famous painter of Ephesus in the age of Zeuxis, about fifteen years before Christ. He contended, on one occasion, with Zeuxis for the palm in painting, and Zeuxis acknowledged that he was excelled by Parrhasius.

=Par´thenon.= A temple of Athens sacred to Minerva. It was destroyed by the Persians, and was rebuilt by Pericles.

=Pasiph´ae.= A daughter of the Sun and of Perseis, who married Minos, king of Crete. She became the mother of the Minotaur, which was killed by Theseus.

=Patro´clus.= One of the Grecian chiefs during the Trojan war. He contracted an intimate friendship with Achilles, and when the Greeks went to the Trojan war Patroclus accompanied them. He was the constant companion of Achilles, living in the same tent, and when his friend refused to appear in the field of battle, because of being offended with Agamemnon, Patroclus imitated his example. Nestor, however, prevailed on him again to take the field, and Achilles lent him his armor. Hector encountered him, and after a desperate fight slew him. The Greeks obtained his dead body, which was brought into the Grecian camp, where Achilles received it with great lamentation, and again taking the field, killed Hector, thus avenging the death of his friend.

=Pau´lus Æmil´ius.= A Roman celebrated for his military achievements, surnamed "Macedonicus" from his conquest of Macedonia. In early life he distinguished himself by his application and for his love for military discipline. In his first consulship he reduced the Ligurians to subjection, and subsequently obtained a great victory over the Macedonians, making himself master of the country. In the office of censor, which he filled, he behaved with great moderation, and at his death, about 168 years before the Christian era, the Romans mourned deeply for him.

=Pausa´nias.= A Spartan general who greatly signalized himself at the battle of Platæa against the Persians. He afterwards, at the head of the Spartan armies, extended his conquests in Asia, but the haughtiness of his behavior made him many enemies. He offered, on certain conditions, to betray Greece to the Persians, but his perfidy was discovered, on which he fled for safety to a temple of Minerva, where he was starved to death, B.C. 471.

=Peg´asus.= A winged horse sprung from the blood of Medusa. According to Ovid he fixed his abode on Mount Helicon, where, by striking the earth with his foot, he raised a fountain which has been called Hippocrene.

=Pe´leus.= A king of Thessaly, son of Æacus and Endeis, the daughter of Chiron. He married Thetis, one of the Nereids.

=Pe´lias.= Son of Neptune and Tyro. On his birth he was exposed in the woods, but his life was preserved by some shepherds. Subsequently Tyro was married to Cretheus, king of Iolchos. They had three children, of whom Æson was the eldest. Pelias visited his mother after the death of Cretheus, and usurped the authority which properly belonged to the children of the deceased monarch. Jason, the son of Æson, who had been educated by Chiron, on attaining manhood demanded the kingdom, the government of which Pelias had usurped. Jason was persuaded by Pelias to waive his claim for the present, and start on the Argonautic expedition. On his return, accompanied by the sorceress Medea, she undertook to restore Pelias to youth, explaining that it was necessary first to cut his body to pieces and place the limbs in a caldron of boiling water. This was done, when Medea refused to fulfill her promise, which she had solemnly made to the daughters of Pelias, who were four in number, and who had received the patronymic of the "Peliades."

=Pe´lion=, sometimes called Pelios. A celebrated mountain of Thessaly, the top of which is covered with pine-trees.

=Pelop´idas.= A celebrated general of Thebes, son of Hippoclus. It was owing to his valor and prudence, combined with the ability of Epaminondas, that the famous victory of Leuctra was won.

=Pe´lops.= A celebrated prince, son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia. He was killed by his father, and served up as a feast to the gods, who had visited Phrygia. He was restored to life, and married Hippodamia, having won her through defeating her father in a chariot race.

=Pena´tes.= Certain inferior deities among the Romans, who presided over the domestic affairs of families.

=Penel´ope.= A celebrated princess of Greece, daughter of Icarius, and wife of Ulysses, king of Ithaca. She became the mother of Telemachus, and was obliged to part, with great reluctance, from her husband, when the Greeks obliged him to go to the Trojan war. The strife between the hostile forces continued for ten years, and when Ulysses did not return home at the conclusion of the war her fears and anxieties became overwhelming. She was beset by a number of suitors, who told her that her husband would never return, and she ought to give herself to one of her admirers. She received their advances with coldness, but as she was devoid of power, and, as it were, almost a prisoner in their hands, she temporized with them. After twenty years' absence Ulysses returned, and at once delivered her from the persecutions of her suitors. Penelope is described by Homer as a model of female propriety, whilst some more modern writers dispute the correctness of this view. The accounts given by different authors respecting her, in fact, differ materially. By some she is said to have been the mother of Pan.

=Penthesile´a.= A queen of the Amazons, daughter of Mars. She came to assist Priam in the last years of the Trojan war, and was slain by Achilles.

=Per´gamus.= The citadel of the city of Troy. The word is often used to signify Troy. From it Xerxes reviewed his troops as he marched to invade Greece.

=Per´icles.= An Athenian of noble family, son of Xanthippus and Agariste. His naturally great mental powers were greatly improved by attending the lectures of Zeno and other philosophers. He became a commander, a statesman, and an orator, and gained the esteem of the people by his address and liberality. In his ministerial capacity, Pericles did not enrich himself. The prosperity and happiness of Athens was his primary object. He made war against the Lacedæmonians, and restored the temple of Delphi to the care of the Phocians, who had been improperly deprived of that honorable trust. The Peloponnesian war was fomented by his ambitious views. He at length lost his popularity, but only temporarily, and he was restored to all the honors of which he had been deprived. A pestilence which prevailed proved fatal to him in his seventieth year, about 429 years before Christ.

=Per´seus.= A son of Jupiter and Danae, the daughter of Acrisius. It had been predicted by the oracle that Acrisius was to perish by his daughter's offspring, so Perseus, soon after his birth, was, with his mother Danae, thrown into the sea. Both were saved and reached the island of Seriphos, where they were treated kindly by Polydectes, the king, who, however, soon became jealous of the genius of Perseus. Perseus had promised Polydectes to bring him the head of the Gorgon Medusa. To enable him to obtain this Pluto lent him a helmet which made the wearer invisible. Minerva gave him her buckler, and Mercury furnished him with wings. Thus equipped he found the Gorgons, and cut off Medusa's head, with which he fled through the air, and from the blood which dropped from it, sprang the horse Pegasus. During his flight Perseus discovered Andromeda chained to a rock to be devoured by a sea monster, which he destroyed, and married Andromeda. He now returned to Seriphos, where he turned into stone Polydectes by showing him Medusa's head. By an accident, in throwing a quoit he killed Acrisius, thus fulfilling the prediction of the oracle.

=Per´seus= or =Per´ses=. A son of Philip, king of Macedonia. He distinguished himself by his enmity to the Romans, and when he had made sufficient preparations he declared war against them. He, however, wanted courage and resolution, and though he at first obtained some advantages over the Roman armies, his timidity proved destructive to his cause. He was defeated at Pydna, and soon after was taken prisoner, and died in prison at Rome.

=Per´sius, Au´lus Flac´cus.= A Latin poet of Volaterræ. He was of a good family, and soon became intimate with the most illustrious Romans of his day. The early part of his life was spent in his native town, but at the age of sixteen he was removed to Rome, where he studied philosophy. He died in his thirtieth year, A.D. 62. The satires of Persius were read with pleasure and avidity by his contemporaries.

=Per´tinax, Pub´lius Hel´vius.= A Roman emperor after the death of Commodus. He was descended from an obscure family, and for some time was employed in drying wood and making charcoal. He entered on a military life and by his valor rose to offices of the highest trust, and was made consul. At the death of Commodus he was selected to succeed to the throne. His patriotism gained him the affection of the worthiest of his subjects, but there were some who plotted against him. He was killed by his soldiers, A.D. 193.

=Petro´nius Ar´biter.= A favorite of the emperor Nero, and one of the ministers and associates of his pleasures and vices. He was made proconsul of Bithynia, and afterwards was honored with the consulship. Eventually he became out of favor with Nero, and resolved to destroy himself, which he did by having his veins opened, A.D. 66. Petronius distinguished himself by his writings as well as by his voluptuousness. He is the author of many elegant compositions, which are, however, often characterized by impropriety of language.

=Phæ´dra.= A daughter of Minos and Pasiphæ, who married Theseus. She became the mother of Acamas and Demophoon. She brought an unjust accusation against Hippolytus (a son of Theseus before she married him), who was killed by the horses in his chariot taking fright, causing him to be thrown under the wheels and crushed to death. On hearing this Phædra acknowledged the falseness of the charge she had brought against Hippolytus, and hanged herself in despair.

=Phæ´drus.= A Thracian who became one of the freed men of the emperor Augustus. He translated the fables of Æsop into Iambic verse.

=Pha´ethon.= A son of the Sun, or of Phoebus and Clymene. According to Hesiod and Pausanias he was son of Cephalus and Aurora, or of Tithonus and Aurora, according to Apollodorus. He is, however, generally acknowledged to be son of Phoebus and Clymene. Phoebus allowed him to drive the chariot of the sun for one day. Phaethon, on receiving the reins, at once showed his incapacity; the horses became unmanageable, and heaven and earth were threatened with a conflagration, when Jupiter struck Phaethon with a thunderbolt, and hurled him into the river Po, where he perished.

=Phal´aris.= A tyrant of Agrigentum, who treated his subjects with great cruelty. Perillus made him a brazen bull, inside of which he proposed to place culprits, and by applying fire burn them to death. The first to be thus burnt in this manner was Perillus himself. The cruelties practiced by Phalaris were revenged by a revolt of his people, who put him to death by burning him in the bull.

=Pha´on.= A boatman of Mitylene, in Lesbos. He received a box of ointment from Venus, who had presented herself to him in the form of an old woman. When he had rubbed himself with the unguent he became beautiful, and Sappho, the celebrated poetess, became enamored with him. For a short time he devoted himself to her, but soon treated her with coldness, upon which she threw herself into the sea and was drowned.

=Pharnaba´zus.= A satrap of Persia who assisted the Lacedæmonians against the Athenians, and gained their esteem by his devotion to their cause.

=Pha´ros.= A small island in the bay of Alexandria, on which was built a tower which was considered one of the seven wonders of the world. It was erected in the reigns of Ptolemy Soter and Ptolemy Philadelphus, the architect being Sostratus, the son of Dexiphanes.

=Pharsa´lia.= A town of Thessaly, famous for the great battle fought there between Julius Cæsar and Pompey, in which the former obtained the victory.

=Phid´ias.= A celebrated sculptor of Athens, who died B.C. 432. He executed a statue of Minerva, which was placed in the Pantheon.

=Philip´pi.= A town of Macedonia, celebrated for two battles fought there, B.C. 42, between Augustus and Antony and the republican forces of Brutus and Cassius, in which the former were victorious.

=Philip´pus=, king of Macedonia, was son of Amyntas, king of Macedonia. He learnt the art of war from Epaminondas. He married Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus, king of the Molossi, and became father of Alexander the Great. Amongst the most important events of his reign was the battle of Chæronea, which he won from the Greeks. The character of Philip is that of a sagacious, prudent, but artful and intriguing, monarch. He was assassinated by Pausanias at the celebration of the nuptials of his daughter, in the forty-seventh year of his age and the twenty-fourth of his reign, about 336 years before the Christian era.

=Philip´pus.= The last king of Macedonia of that name was son of Demetrius. He aspired to become the friend of Hannibal. His intrigues were discovered by the Romans, who invaded his territories, and extorted peace from him on terms which were humiliating. He died in the forty-second year of his reign, 179 years before the Christian era.

=Phi´lo.= A Jewish writer of Alexandria, A.D. 40. His works related to the creation of the world, sacred history, and the laws and customs of the Jewish nation.

=Philocte´tes= was one of the Argonauts. He received from Hercules the arrows which had been dipped in the gall of the Hydra. The Greeks, in the tenth year of the Trojan war, were informed by the oracle that Troy could not be taken without these arrows. Philoctetes repaired to the Grecian camp, where he destroyed a number of the Trojans, among whom was Paris, with the arrows. The adventures of Philoctetes are the subject of one of the best tragedies of Sophocles.

=Philome´la.= A daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. Her sister Procne had married Tereus, king of Thrace, and being separated from Philomela spent her time in great melancholy. She persuaded her husband to go to Athens and bring her sister to Thrace. Tereus, on the journey, treated Philomela with great cruelty, and cut off her tongue, confining her in a lonely castle, and reporting to Procne that she was dead. Philomela, however, found means to inform Procne that she was living. In revenge for the cruelty of Tereus, Procne murdered his son and served him up as food at a banquet. On hearing this Tereus drew his sword to slay the sisters, when he was changed into a hoopoe, Philomela into a nightingale, and Procne into a swallow.

=Philopoe´men.= A celebrated general of the Achæans, born at Megalopolis. At an early age he distinguished himself in the field of battle, at the same time appearing fond of agriculture and a country life. He adopted Epaminondas as his model, and was not unsuccessful in imitating the prudence and other good qualities of the famous Theban. When Megalopolis was attacked by the Spartans, Philopoemen, then in his thirtieth year, gave the most decisive proofs of his valor. Raised to the rank of commander, he showed his ability to discharge that important trust, by killing with his own hand Mechanidas, the tyrant of Sparta, and defeating his army. Sparta having become, after its conquest, tributary to the Achæans, Philopoemen enjoyed the triumph of having subdued one of the most powerful states of Greece. He was at length made prisoner by the Messenians, and was treated by their general, Dinocrates, with great severity. He was poisoned in his seventieth year, about 183 years before the Christian era.

=Philos´tratus.= A famous Sophist, born at Lemnos, or, according to some, at Athens. He came to Rome, where he was patronized by Julia, the wife of the emperor Severus. She intrusted him with some papers referring to Apollonius, whose life he wrote. This biography is written with elegance, but contains many exaggerated descriptions and improbable stories.

=Phi´neus.= A son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, or, according to some, a son of Neptune, who became king of Thrace. He married Cleopatra (called by some Cleobula), the daughter of Boreas, their children being Plexippus and Pandion. After the death of Cleopatra, he married Idæa, the daughter of Dardanus, who, jealous of Cleopatra's children, accused them of an attempt on their father's life, and they were condemned by Phineus to have their eyes put out. This cruelty was punished by the gods, Phineus being made blind, and the Harpies were sent by Jupiter to keep him in continual alarm. He recovered his sight by means of the Argonauts, whom he received with great hospitality.

=Phleg´ethon.= A river in the infernal regions, between the banks of which flames of fire flowed instead of water.

=Phle´gon.= One of the emperor Adrian's freedmen. He wrote a historical account of Sicily, an account of the principal places in Rome, and treatises on different subjects. His style was inelegant, and he evinced a want of judgment in his writings.

=Pho´cion.= An Athenian celebrated for his public and private virtues. He was distinguished for his zeal for the general good, and for his military abilities. The fickleness of the Athenians, however, caused them to lose sight of his virtues, and being accused of treason, he was condemned to drink poison, which he took with the greatest heroism. His death occurred about 318 years before the Christian era.

=Phoe´nix=, son of Amyntor, king of Argos, and Cleobule or Hippodamia, was preceptor to Achilles. He accompanied his pupil to the Trojan war, and Achilles was ever grateful for the precepts he had received from him. After the fall of Troy he died in Thrace, and, according to Strabo, was buried near Trachinia, where his name was given to a river.

=Phry´ne.= A beautiful woman who lived at Athens about 328 years before the Christian era. She was beloved by Praxiteles, who painted her portrait. It is said that Apelles painted his Venus Anadyomene after he had seen Phryne on the sea-shore with disheveled hair. There was another woman of the same name, who was accused of impiety. When her judges were about to condemn her she unveiled her bosom, and her beauty so captivated them that they acquitted her.

=Phryx´us.= A son of Athamas, king of Thebes, and Nephele. On the plea of insanity, Nephele was repudiated by Athamas, who then married Ino, who persecuted Phryxus with inveterate hatred, because he was to succeed to the throne in preference to one of her own children. Being apprised that Ino had designs on his life, he started with his sister Helle to go to Ætes, king of Colchis. According to the poets they mounted on a ram, whose fleece was gold, which soared into the air, directing its course to Colchis. Helle became giddy, and falling into the sea (afterwards called the Hellespont), was drowned. Phryxus arrived at the court of Ætes, whose daughter Chalciope he married. Sometime afterwards he was killed by his father-in-law. The murder of Phryxus gave rise to the famous Argonautic expedition under Jason, the object being to recover the Golden Fleece, which Jason succeeded in obtaining.

=Phyl´lis.= A daughter of Sithon, or, according to other writers, of Lycurgus, king of Thrace. She received Demophoon, who landed on her coasts on his return from the Trojan war, and fell in love with him, and he reciprocated her affection; but afterwards proving faithless, Phyllis hanged herself, and according to an old tradition, was changed into an almond tree.

=Pi´cus.= King of Latium, son of Saturn, who married Venilia. As he was hunting he was met by Circe, who became enamored with him. She changed him into a woodpecker.

=Pier´ides.= A name given to the Muses, because they were born in Pieria, or, as some say, because they were supposed to be the daughters of Pierus, a king of Macedonia, who settled in Boeotia.

=Pin´darus.= A celebrated lyric poet of Thebes. When he was young it is said that a swarm of bees settled on his lips and left on them some honey, which was regarded as a prognostic of his future greatness. After his death great respect was shown to his memory, and a statue was erected in his honor in one of the most public places in Thebes. Pindar is said to have died at the age of eighty-six, B.C. 435. Of his works, the odes only are extant; they are admired for sublimity of sentiment and grandeur of expression.

=Piræ´us.= A celebrated harbor at Athens about three miles from the city. It was joined to the town by two walls, one built by Pericles, and the other by Themistocles.

=Pirith´ous.= Son of Ixion and Dia, the daughter of Deioneus. He was king of the Lapithæ, and wished to become acquainted with Theseus, king of Athens, of whose fame and exploits he had heard. They became cordial friends. Pirithous married Hippodamia, and invited the Centaurs to attend his nuptials, where, having become intoxicated, they behaved with great rudeness, on which they were attacked and overcome by Theseus, Pirithous, Hercules, and the rest of the Lapithæ. Many of the Centaurs were slain, and the rest saved their lives by flight.

=Pisan´der.= A commander in the Spartan fleet during the Peloponnesian war. He was greatly opposed to democracy at Athens. He was killed in a naval battle near Cnidus, B.C. 394.

=Pisis´tratus.= A celebrated Athenian who distinguished himself by valor in the field and by eloquence at home. He obtained a bodyguard of fifty men to defend his person, and having thus got a number of armed men on whom he could rely, he seized the citadel of Athens, and soon made himself absolute. After this a conspiracy was formed against him, and he was banished from the city. He soon, however, re-established himself in power, and married the daughter of Megacles, one of his greatest enemies, whom he afterwards repudiated. On this his popularity waned, and he fled from Athens, but after an absence of eleven years he returned, and was received by the people with acclamation. He died about 527 years before the Christian era.

=Pi´so.= A celebrated family at Rome, eleven of whom had obtained the consulship, and some of whom had been honored with triumphs for their victories. Of this family the most famous were--LUCIUS CALPURNIUS, who was tribune of the people about 149 years before Christ, and afterwards consul. He gained honor as an orator, a statesman, and a historian. CAIUS, another of the family, distinguished himself during his consulship by his firmness in resisting the tumults raised by the tribunes and the clamors of the people. CENIUS, who was consul under Augustus, rendered himself odious by his cruelty. He was accused of poisoning Germanicus, and, being shunned by his friends, destroyed himself. LUCIUS, a governor of Spain, who was assassinated by a peasant. LUCIUS, a governor of Rome for twenty years, during which time he discharged his duties with moderation and justice. CAIUS, who was at the head of a conspiracy against Nero. He committed suicide by venesection.

=Pit´tacus=, a native of Mitylene in Lesbos, was one of the seven wise men of Greece. He died in the eighty-second year of his age, about 570 years B.C., the latter part of his life being spent in retirement. Many of his maxims were inscribed on the walls of Apollo's temple at Delphi, to show how high an opinion his countrymen entertained of his abilities as a moralist and philosopher.

=Plau´cus L. Muna´tius.= A Roman conspicuous for his follies and extravagance. He had been consul, and had presided over a province, but he forgot his dignity, and became one of the most servile flatterers of Antony and Cleopatra.

=Platæ´a.= A town of Boeotia, near Mount Citheron, celebrated as the scene of a battle between Mardonius, the general of Xerxes, king of Persia, and Pausanias, who commanded the Athenians. The Persians were defeated with great slaughter.

=Pla´to.= A celebrated philosopher of Athens. He was educated carefully, his mind being cultivated by the study of poetry and geometry, whilst his body was invigorated by the practice of gymnastics. He began his literary career by writing poetry and tragedies. At the age of twenty he was introduced to Socrates, with whom he was for some time a pupil. After traveling in various countries, he retired to the neighborhood of Athens, where his lectures were attended by a crowd of learned, noble, and illustrious pupils. He died on his birthday in the eighty-first year of his age, about 348 years before the Christian era. His writings were so celebrated, and his opinions so highly regarded, that he was called the Divine.

=Plau´tus, M. Ac´cius.= A dramatic poet born in Umbria. He wrote twenty-five comedies, of which only nineteen are extant. He died about 184 years before the Christian era.

=Plei´ades.= A name given to seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. They were placed after death in the heavens, and formed a constellation.

=Plin´ius, C. Secun´dus=, called the Elder, was born at Verona, of a noble family. He distinguished himself in the field, and was appointed governor of Spain. When at Misenum in command of the Roman fleet, Pliny observed the appearance of a cloud of dust and ashes, which was the commencement of the famous eruption of Mount Vesuvius which overwhelmed Herculaneum and Pompeii. He sailed for the scene of the eruption, where he was suffocated by the vapors emitted. This occurred in the seventy-ninth year of the Christian era.

=Plin´ius, C. Cæcil´ius Secun´dus=, surnamed the Younger Pliny, was son of L. Cæcilius by the sister of Pliny the Elder. At the age of nineteen he distinguished himself at the bar. When Trajan was invested with the purple Pliny was created consul. He died in the fifty-second year of his age, A.D. 113. Pliny had much to do with the persecutions of the Christians in the early promulgation of the Christian religion. The Rev. James Copland, M. A., in an admirable little work entitled "Reasons why we Believe the Bible," gives a very interesting letter from Pliny to the emperor Trajan, asking instructions how to deal with the Christians when they were cited to appear before him.

=Plutar´chus=, the celebrated biographer, was born at Chæronea, his father being distinguished for his learning and virtues. After traveling in quest of knowledge, he retired to Rome, where he opened a school. Subsequently he removed to Chæronea, where he died at an advanced age about the 140th year of the Christian era. His most esteemed work is the Lives of Illustrious Men.

=Plu´to=, son of Saturn and Ops, inherited his father's kingdom with his brothers, Jupiter and Neptune. He received as his portion the kingdom of the infernal regions, of death, and funerals. He seized Proserpine as she was gathering flowers, and carrying her away on his chariot, she became his wife and queen of the infernal regions.

=Plu´tus=, the god of riches, was the son of Jason, or Jasius, and Ceres.

=Pol´lio, C. Asin´ius.= A Roman consul in the reign of Augustus, who distinguished himself equally by his eloquence and exploits in war. He wrote a history and some tragedies, and died in his eightieth year, A.D. 4.

=Pol´lux.= A son of Jupiter and Leda, brother to Castor.

=Polyb´ius.= A native of Megalopolis. He distinguished himself by his valor against the Romans in Macedonia, He wrote an universal history in Greek, and died about 124 years B.C.

=Polydec´tes.= A son of Magnes, king of Seriphos. He received with kindness Danae and her son Perseus, who had been exposed on the sea. Polydectes was turned into stone by being shown Medusa's head by Perseus.

=Polyhym´nia.= One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over singing and rhetoric.

=Polyni´ces.= A son of OEdipus, king of Thebes, and Jocasta. He inherited his father's throne with his brother Eteocles, and it was agreed that they should reign a year alternately. Eteocles first ascended the throne, but refused to resign the crown. Polynices upon this fled to Argos, where he married Argia, the daughter of Adrastus, the king of the country, and levied an army with which he marched on Thebes. The battle was decided by a combat between the brothers, who killed each other.

=Polyphe´mus.= A celebrated Cyclops, son of Neptune and Thoosa, the daughter of Phorcys. He is represented as a monster with one eye in the middle of his forehead. Ulysses was his captive, but escaped by putting a firebrand in the monster's eye.

=Pomo´na.= A nymph at Rome, who was supposed to preside over gardens and to be the goddess of fruit trees.

=Pompe´ii or Pompei´um.= A town of Campania. It was partly destroyed by an earthquake, A.D. 63, and sixteen years afterwards it was swallowed up by another earthquake. Herculaneum, in its vicinity, shared the same fate.

=Pompe´ius, Cnei´us=, surnamed Magnus from his exploits, was son of Pompeius Strabo and Lucilia. In the contentions which existed between Marius and Sylla, Pompey linked himself with the latter. Subsequently he united his interest with that of Cæsar and Crassus, thus forming the first triumvirate. A breach soon occurred, and at the great battle of Pharsalia, where the forces of Cæsar and Pompey met, the latter was totally defeated, and fled to Egypt, where he was assassinated in the fifty-eighth year of his age, B.C. 48. He left two sons, Cneius and Sextus, who at their father's death were masters of a powerful army, with which they opposed Cæsar, but were defeated at the battle of Munda, where Cneius was slain. Sextus escaped, and was put to death by Antony about thirty-five years before the Christian era.

=Por´cia.= A daughter of Cato of Utica, who married Bibulus, and after his death Brutus. She was distinguished for her prudence and courage. After her husband's death she killed herself by swallowing burning coals. She is said to have given herself a severe wound to show that she could bear pain.

=Porphyr´ius.= A Platonic philosopher of Tyre. He studied eloquence at Athens under Longinus, and afterwards retired to Rome. His most celebrated work was in reference to the Christian religion. Porphyry died A.D. 304, aged seventy-one years.

=Porsen´na or Por´sena.= A king of Etruria, who declared war against the Romans because they refused to restore Tarquin to the throne; He was prevented from entering the gates of Rome by the valor of P. Horatius Cocles, who at the head of a bridge kept back Porsenna's army, whilst the bridge was being cut down by the Romans to prevent the entry of their enemies into the city. Eventually Porsenna abandoned the cause of Tarquin.

=Praxit´eles.= A famous sculptor of Greece, who lived about 324 years before the Christian era. The most famous of his works was a Cupid, which he gave to Phyrne. He executed a statue of Phyrne, and also one of Venus.

=Pri´amus.= The last king of Troy was son of Laomedon, by Strymo, called Placia by some writers. He married Arisba, whom he divorced in order to marry Hecuba, by whom he had a number of children, the most celebrated of whom were Hector, Paris, Deiphobus, Helenus, Laodice, and Cassandra. After he had reigned some time, Priam was anxious to recover his sister Hesione, who had been carried into Greece by Hercules, and to achieve this, he manned a fleet, the command of which he gave to his son Paris, who, instead of obeying the paternal instructions, carried away Helen, the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. This caused the Trojan war, which lasted for ten years. At the end of the war Priam was slain by Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles.

=Pro´bus, M. Aure´lius.= A native of Pannonia. His father was a gardener, who became a military tribune. His son obtained the same office in the twenty-second year of his age, and distinguished himself so much by his probity and valor that he was invested with the imperial purple. He encouraged the arts, and by his victories added to the glory of his country. He was slain by his soldiers in the fiftieth year of his age, B.C. 282.

=Proco´pius=, born of a noble family in Cilicia, was related to the emperor Julian. He signalized himself under Julian, and afterwards retired to the Thracian Chersonesus, whence he made his appearance at Constantinople, and proclaimed himself master of the Eastern Empire. He was defeated in Phrygia, and beheaded A.D. 366. There was a famous Greek historian of the same name, who wrote the history of the reign of Justinian, and who was secretary to Belisarius.

=Prome´theus.= A son of Iapetus and Clymene, one of the Oceanides. He ridiculed the gods and deceived Jupiter himself, who, to punish him and the rest of mankind, took fire away from the earth; but Prometheus climbed the heavens by the assistance of Minerva, and stole fire from the chariot of the sun, which he brought down to the earth. This provoked Jupiter, and he ordered Prometheus to be chained to a rock, where a vulture was to feed on his liver, which was never exhausted. He was delivered from his torture by Hercules, who killed the vulture.

=Proper´tius, Sex´tus Aure´lius.= A Latin poet born in Umbria. He came to Rome, where his genius greatly recommended him to the great and powerful. His works consist of four books of elegies which are marked by much ability. He died about nineteen years B.C.

=Proser´pina=, a daughter of Ceres and Jupiter, called by the Greeks Persephone. As she was gathering flowers Pluto carried her off to the infernal regions, where he married her. Ceres, having learnt that her daughter had been carried away by Pluto, demanded of Jupiter that Pluto should be punished. As queen of hell, Proserpine presided over the death of mankind. She was known by the names of Hecate, Juno Inferna, Libitina, and several others.

=Protag´oras.= A Greek philosopher of Abdera in Thrace. He wrote a book in which he denied the existence of a Supreme Being, which book was publicly burnt at Athens, and its author was banished from the city.

=Pro´tesila´us.= A king of part of Thessaly, who married Laodamia, and shortly afterwards went to the Trojan war. He was the first of the Greeks who entered the Trojan domain, and on that account, in accordance with the prediction of the oracle, was killed by his countrymen.

=Pro´teus.= A sea deity, son of Oceanus and Tethys, or, according to some writers, of Neptune and Phenice. He had received the gift of prophecy from Neptune, but when consulted he often refused to give answers, and puzzled those who consulted him by assuming different shapes.

=Psy´che.= A nymph who married Cupid. Venus put her to death because of this, but Jupiter, at the request of Cupid, granted immortality to her.

=Ptolemæ´us= First, called Ptolemy, surnamed Lagus. A king of Egypt, son of Arsinoe and Lagus. He was educated in the court of the king of Macedonia, and when Alexander invaded Asia Ptolemy attended him. After Alexander's death Ptolemy obtained the government of Egypt, where he gained the esteem of the people by acts of kindness. He made himself master of Phoenicia and Syria, and rendered assistance to the people of Rhodes against their enemies, for which he received the name of _Soter_. He laid the foundation of a library, which became the most celebrated in the world. He died in his eighty-fourth year, about 284 years B.C. He was succeeded by his son, Ptolemy Philadelphus, who showed himself to be a worthy successor of his father. His palace was an asylum for learned men, and he greatly increased the library his father had founded. Ptolemy Third succeeded his father Philadelphus on the Egyptian throne. He conquered Syria and Cilicia, and returned home laden with spoils. He was, like his predecessors, a patron of learning and the arts. Ptolemy Fourth, called Philopater, succeeded to the throne, his reign being marked by acts of cruelty and oppression. He died in his thirty-seventh year, after a reign of seventeen years, 204 years B.C. Numerous members of this celebrated family in succession occupied the throne, not, however, approaching to the greatness of the founders of the family.

=Ptolemæ´us.= A celebrated geographer and astronomer in the reign of Adrian and Antoninus. He was a native of Alexandria, or, as some say, of Pelusium. In his system of the world, designated the Ptolemaic system, he places the earth in the center of the universe, which was generally received as correct till it was confuted by Copernicus.

=Pyr´rhus.= A famous king of Epirus, son of Æacides and Phthia. He is celebrated for his military talents; and not only his friends, but his enemies, have been warm in extolling him. He is said to have had no superior in the art of war. He wrote several books on encampments and the ways of training an army. He fought against the Romans with much valor, and they passed encomiums on his great military skill. He was killed in an attack on Argos, by a tile thrown on his head from a housetop.

=Pyr´rhus.= See NEOPTOLEMUS.

=Pythag´oras.= A celebrated philosopher born at Samos. He first made himself known in Greece at the Olympic games, where, when he was eighteen years old, he obtained the prize for wrestling. He also distinguished himself by his discoveries in geometry, astronomy, and mathematics. He was the first who supported the doctrine of metempsychosis, or transmigration of the soul into different bodies. He believed that the universe was created from a shapeless mass of passive matter by the hands of a powerful Being, who was the mover and soul of the world, and of whose substance the souls of mankind were a portion. The time and place of death of this great philosopher are unknown, but some suppose that he died at Metapontum about 497 years B.C.

=Py´thon.= A celebrated serpent sprung from the mud and stagnated waters which remained on the surface of the earth after the deluge of Deucalion. Apollo killed the monster.

=Quintilia´nus, Mar´cus Fa´bius=, a celebrated rhetorician, born in Spain. He opened a school of rhetoric at Rome, and was the first who obtained a salary from the State as a public teacher. He died A.D. 95.

=Quin´tus Cur´tius Ru´fus.= A Latin historian supposed to have lived in the reign of Vespasian. He wrote a history of the reign of Alexander the Great. This work is admired for the elegance of its diction.

=Regil´lus.= A small lake in Latium, famous as being the scene of a great Roman victory, which forms the subject of a fine poem by Lord Macaulay, called "The Battle of the Lake Regillus," included in his "Lays of Ancient Rome."

=Reg´ulus, M. Attil´ius.= A consul during the first Punic war. He reduced Brundusium, and in his second consulship he captured a great portion of the Carthaginian fleet. After further successes he was taken prisoner by the Carthaginians, who put him to death with refined tortures.

=Rhadaman´thus.= A son of Jupiter and Europa. He reigned in the Cyclades, where his rule was characterized by marked justice and impartiality.

=Rom´ulus.= According to tradition the founder of Rome. He was a son of Mars and Ilia, and was twin brother of Remus. The twins were thrown into the Tiber, but were saved and suckled by a she-wolf till they were found by Fautulus, a shepherd, who brought them up. Disputes arising between the brothers in reference to the building of the city, Romulus caused Remus to be slain.

=Ros´cius.= A celebrated Roman actor. He died about 60 years B.C.

=Ru´bicon.= A small river in Italy. By crossing it, and thus transgressing the boundaries of his province, Cæsar declared war against the senate and Pompey. "Passing the Rubicon" has become a proverbial expression, indicating an irrevocable step taken in any weighty matter.

=Sa´cra, Vi´a.= An important street in Rome, where a treaty of peace was made between Romulus and Tatius.

=Sal´amis.= An island of Attica celebrated for a battle fought there between the fleets of the Greeks and the Persians, in which the latter suffered defeat.

=Sallus´tius Cris´pus.= A celebrated Latin historian. He wrote a history of the Catalinian conspiracy, and died thirty-five years before the Christian era.

=Sanchoni´athon.= A Phoenician historian born at Berytus, or, as some say, at Tyre. He lived a few years before the Trojan war; and wrote on the antiquities of Phoenicia.

=Sa´por.= A king of Persia, who succeeded to the throne about the 238th year of the Christian era. He wished to increase his dominions by conquest, but was defeated by Odenatus, who defeated his army with great slaughter. He was assassinated A.D. 273.

=Sa´por.= The second king of Persia of that name. He fought against the Romans, and obtained several victories over them. Died A.D. 380.

=Sap´pho=, celebrated for her beauty and poetical talents, was born at Lesbos about 600 years before Christ. She became enamored with Phaon, a youth of Mitylene, but he not reciprocating her passion, she threw herself into the sea from the rock of Leucadia.

=Sardanapa´lus.= The last king of Assyria, celebrated for his luxury and indolence. His effeminacy induced his subjects to conspire against him with success, on which he set fire to his palace and perished in the flames, B.C. 820.

=Satur´nus.= The son of Coelus, or Uranus, by Terra. It was customary to offer human victims on his altars till this custom was abolished by Hercules. He is generally represented as an old man bent with age, and holding a scythe in his right hand.

=Sat´yri.= Demigods whose origin is unknown. They had the feet and legs of a goat, their body bearing the human form.

=Scævola, Mu´tius=, surnamed Cordus, was famous for his courage. He attempted to assassinate Porsenna, but was seized; and to show his fortitude when confronted with Porsenna, he thrust his hand into the fire, on which the king pardoned him.

=Scip´io.= The name of a celebrated family at Rome, the most conspicuous of which was Publius Cornelius, afterwards called Africanus. He was the son of Publius Scipio, and commanded an army against the Carthaginians. After obtaining some victories he encountered Hannibal at the famous battle of Zama, in which he obtained a decisive victory. He died about 184 years before Christ, in his forty-eighth year.

=Scip´io, Lu´cius Corne´lius=, surnamed Asiaticus, accompanied his brother Africanus in his expedition in Africa. He was made consul A.U.C. 562, and sent to attack Antiochus, king of Syria, whom he completely routed. He was accused of receiving bribes of Antiochus, and was condemned to pay large fines which reduced him to poverty.

=Scip´io, P. Æmilia´nus.= Called Africanus the younger. He finished the war with Carthage, the total submission of which occurred B.C. 147. The captive city was set on fire, and Scipio was said to have wept bitterly over the melancholy scene. On his return to Rome he was appointed to conclude the war against Numantia, the fall of which soon occurred, and Scipio had Numantinus added to his name. He was found dead in his bed, and was presumed to have been strangled, B.C. 128.

=Sem´ele.= A daughter of Cadmus and Hermione, the daughter of Mars and Venus. She was the mother of Bacchus. After death she was made immortal under the name of Thyone.

=Semir´amis.= A celebrated queen of Assyria, who married the governor of Nineveh, and at his death she became the wife of King Ninus. She caused many improvements to be effected in her kingdom, as well as distinguishing herself as a warrior. She is supposed to have lived 1965 years before the Christian era.

=Sen´eca, L. Annæ´us=, at an early period of his life, was distinguished by his talents. He became preceptor to Nero, in which capacity he gained general approbation. The tyrant, however, determined to put him to death, and he chose to have his veins opened in a hot bath, but death not ensuing, he swallowed poison, and was eventually suffocated by the soldiers who were in attendance. This occurred in his fifty-third year, and in the sixty-fifth of the Christian era. His works, which were numerous, were chiefly on moral subjects.

=Sera´pis.= One of the Egyptian deities, supposed to be the same as Osiris. He had a magnificent temple at Memphis, another at Alexandria, and a third at Canopus.

=Sesos´tris.= A celebrated king of Egypt, who lived long prior to the Trojan war. He was ambitious of military fame, and achieved many conquests. On his return from his victories he employed himself in encouraging the fine arts. He destroyed himself after a reign of forty-four years.

=Seve´rus, Lu´cius Septim´ius.= A Roman emperor, born in Africa, noticeable for his ambition. He invaded Britain, and built a wall in the north as a check to the incursions of the Caledonians. He died at York in the 211th year of the Christian era.

=Sile´nus.= A demigod, who is represented generally as a fat old man riding on an ass, with flowers crowning his head.

=Sil´ius Ital´icus, C.= A Latin poet who retired from the bar to consecrate his time to study. He imitated Virgil, but with little success. His poetry, however, is commended for its purity.

=Simon´ides.= A celebrated poet of Cos, who lived B.C. 538 years. He wrote elegies, epigrams, and dramatic pieces, esteemed for their beauty.

=Sire´nes.= The Sirens. They lured to destruction those who listened to their songs. When Ulysses sailed past their island he stopped the ears of his companions with wax, and had himself tied to the mast of his ship. Thus he passed with safety, and the Sirens, disappointed of their prey, drowned themselves.

=Sis´yphus.= Son of Æolus and Enaretta. After death he was condemned, in the infernal regions, to roll a stone to the summit of a hill, which always rolled back, and rendered his punishment eternal.

=Soc´rates.= The most celebrated philosopher of antiquity, born near Athens, whose virtues rendered his name venerated. His independence of spirit created for him many enemies, and he was accused of making innovations in the religion of the Greeks. He was condemned to death by drinking hemlock, and expired a few moments after imbibing the poison, in his seventieth year, B.C. 400. His wife was Xanthippe, remarkable for her shrewish disposition, for which her name has become proverbial.

=So´lon=, one of the wise men of Greece, was born at Salamis, and educated at Athens. After traveling over Greece he returned, and was elected archon and sovereign legislator, in which capacity he effected numerous reforms in the state, binding the Athenians by a solemn oath to observe the laws he enacted for one hundred years. After this he visited Egypt, and on returning to Athens after ten years' absence, he found most of his regulations disregarded by his countrymen. On this he retired to Cyprus, where he died in his eightieth year, 558 years before the Christian era.

=Som´nus=, son of Nox and Erebus, was one of the infernal deities and presided over sleep.

=Soph´ocles.= A celebrated tragic poet of Athens. He was distinguished also as a statesman, and exercised the office of archon with credit and honor. He wrote for the stage, and obtained the poetical prize on twenty different occasions. He was the rival of Euripides for public applause, each having his admirers. He died at the age of ninety-one, 406 years before Christ.

=Sophonis´ba.= A daughter of Hasdrubal, the Carthaginian, celebrated for her beauty. She married Syphax, prince of Numidia, and when he was conquered by the Romans she became a captive to their ally, the Numidian general Masinissa, whom she married. This displeased the Romans, and Scipio ordered Masinissa to separate from Sophonisba, and she, urged to this by Masinissa, took poison, about 203 years before Christ.

=Soz´omen.= A historian who died 450 A.D. He wrote an important work on ecclesiastical history.

=Sphinx.= A monster, having the head and breasts of a woman, the body of a dog, the tail of a serpent, the wings of a bird, and the paws of a lion. The Sphinx was sent into the neighborhood of Thebes by Juno, where she propounded enigmas, devouring those who were unable to solve them. One of the riddles proposed was--What animal walked on four legs in the morning, two at noon, and three in the evening? OEdipus solved it, giving as the meaning--A man, who when an infant crawled on his hands and feet, walking erect in manhood, and in the evening of life supporting himself with a stick. On hearing the solution the Sphinx destroyed herself.

=Stagi´ra.= A town on the borders of Macedonia, where Aristotle was born; hence he is called the Stagirite.

=Sta´tius, P. Papin´us.= A poet, born at Naples in the reign of Domitian. He was the author of two epic poems, the Thebais, in twelve books, and the Achilleis, in two books.

=Sten´tor.= One of the Greeks who went to the Trojan war. He was noted for the loudness of his voice, and from him the term "stentorian" has become proverbial.

=Sto´ici.= A celebrated sect of philosophers founded by Zeno. They preferred virtue to all other things, and regarded everything opposed to it as an evil.

=Stra´bo.= A celebrated geographer, born at Amasia, on the borders of Cappadocia. He flourished in the age of Augustus. His work on geography consists of seventeen books, and is admired for its purity of diction.

=Styx.= A celebrated river of the infernal regions. The gods held it in such veneration that they always swore by it, the oath being inviolable.

=Sueto´nius, C. Tranquil´lus.= A Latin historian who became secretary to Adrian. His best known work is his Lives of the Cæsars.

=Sul´la.= See SYLLA.

=Syb´aris.= A town on the bay of Tarentum. Its inhabitants were distinguished by their love of ease and pleasure, hence the term "Sybarite."

=Syl´la= (or =Sulla=), =L. Corne´lius=. A celebrated Roman, of a noble family, who rendered himself conspicuous in military affairs; and became antagonistic to Marius. In the zenith of his power he was guilty of the greatest cruelty. His character is that of an ambitious, tyrannical, and resolute commander. He died about seventy years before Christ, aged sixty.

=Sy´phax.= A king of the Masæsyllii in Numidia, who married Sophonisba, the daughter of Hasdrubal. He joined the Carthaginians against the Romans, and was taken by Scipio as a prisoner to Rome, where he died in prison.

=Tac´itus, C. Corne´lius.= A celebrated Latin historian, born in the reign of Nero. Of all his works the "Annals" is the most extensive and complete. His style is marked by force, precision, and dignity, and his Latin is remarkable for being pure and classical.

=Tac´itus, M. Clau´dius.= A Roman, elected emperor by the Senate when he was seventy years of age. He displayed military vigor, and as a ruler was a pattern of economy and moderation. He died in the 276th year of the Christian era.

=Tan´talus.= A king of Lydia, father of Niobe and Pelops. He is represented by the poets as being, in the infernal regions, placed in a pool of water which flowed from him whenever he attempted to drink, thus causing him to suffer perpetual thirst; hence the origin of the term "tantalizing."

=Tarquin´ius Pris´cus=, the fifth king of Rome, was son of Demaratus, a native of Greece. He exhibited military talents in the victories he gained over the Sabines. During peace he devoted attention to the improvement of the capital. He was assassinated in his eightieth year, 578 years B.C.

=Tarquin´ius Super´bus.= He ascended the throne of Rome after Servius Tullius, whom he murdered, and married his daughter Tullia. His reign was characterized by tyranny, and eventually he was expelled from Rome, surviving his disgrace for fourteen years, and dying in his ninetieth year.

=Tar´tarus.= One of the regions of hell, where, according to Virgil, the souls of those who were exceptionally depraved were punished.

=Telem´achus.= Son of Penelope and Ulysses. At the end of the Trojan war he went in search of his father, whom, with the aid of Minerva, he found. Aided by Ulysses he delivered his mother from the suitors that beset her.

=Tem´pe.= A valley in Thessaly through which the river Peneus flows into the Ægean. It is described by the poets as one of the most delightful places in the world.

=Teren´tius Pub´lius= (=Terence=). A native of Africa, celebrated for the comedies he wrote. He was twenty-five years old when his first play was produced on the Roman stage. Terence is admired for the purity of his language and the elegance of his diction. He is supposed to have been drowned in a storm about 159 B.C.

=Te´reus.= A king of Thrace who married Procne, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. He aided Pandion in a war against Megara.

=Terpsich´ore.= One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over dancing.

=Tertullia´nus, J. Septim´ius Flor´ens.= A celebrated Christian writer of Carthage, who lived A.D. 196. He was originally a Pagan, but embraced Christianity, of which faith he became an able advocate.

=Tha´is.= A celebrated woman of Athens, who accompanied Alexander the Great in his Asiatic conquests.

=Tha´les.= One of the seven wise men of Greece, born at Miletus in Ionia. His discoveries in astronomy were great, and he was the first who calculated with accuracy a solar eclipse. He died about 548 years before the Christian era.

=Thali´a.= One of the Muses. She presided over festivals and comic poetry.

=Themis´tocles.= A celebrated general born at Athens. When Xerxes invaded Greece, Themistocles was intrusted with the care of the fleet, and at the famous battle of Salamis, fought B.C. 480, the Greeks, instigated to fight by Themistocles, obtained a complete victory over the formidable navy of Xerxes. He died in the sixty-fifth year of his age, having, as some writers affirm, poisoned himself by drinking bull's blood.

=Theoc´ritus.= A Greek poet who lived at Syracuse in Sicily, 282 B.C. He distinguished himself by his poetical compositions, of which some are extant.

=Theodo´sius, Fla´vius.= A Roman emperor surnamed _Magnus_ from the greatness of his exploits. The first years of his reign were marked by conquests over the Barbarians. In his private character Theodosius was an example of temperance. He died in his sixtieth year, A.D. 395, after a reign of sixteen years.

=Theodo´sius Second= became emperor of the Western Roman empire at an early age. His territories were invaded by the Persians, but on his appearance at the head of a large force they fled, losing a great number of their army in the Euphrates. Theodosius was a warm advocate of the Christian religion. He died, aged forty-nine, A.D. 450.

=Theophras´tus.= A native of Lesbos. Diogenes enumerates the titles of more than 200 treatises which he wrote. He died in his 107th year, B.C. 288.

=Thermop´ylæ.= A narrow Pass leading from Thessaly into Locris and Phocis, celebrated for a battle fought there, B.C. 480, between Xerxes and the Greeks, in which three hundred Spartans, commanded by Leonidas, resisted for three successive days an enormous Persian army.

=Thersi´tes.= A deformed Greek, in the Trojan war, who indulged in ridicule against Ulysses and others. Achilles killed him because he laughed at his grief for the death of Penthesilea. Shakspeare, who introduced Thersites in his play of "Troilus and Cressida," describes him as "a deformed and scurrilous Grecian."

=The´seus=, king of Athens and son of Ægeus by Æthra, was one of the most celebrated heroes of antiquity. He caught the bull of Marathon and sacrificed it to Minerva. After this he went to Crete amongst the seven youths sent yearly by the Athenians to be devoured by the Minotaur, and by the aid of Ariadne he slew the monster. He ascended his father's throne B.C. 1235. Pirithous, king of the Lapithæ, invaded his territories, but the two became firm friends. They descended into the infernal regions to carry off Proserpine, but their intentions were frustrated by Pluto. After remaining for some time in the infernal regions, Theseus returned to his kingdom to find the throne filled by an usurper, whom he vainly tried to eject. He retired to Scyros, where he was killed by a fall from a precipice.

=Thes´pis.= A Greek poet of Attica, supposed to be the inventor of tragedy, B.C. 536. He went from place to place upon a cart, on which he gave performances. Hence the term "Thespians" as applied to wandering actors.

=The´tis.= A sea deity, daughter of Nereus and Doris. She married Peleus, their son being Achilles, whom she plunged into the Styx, thus rendering him invulnerable in every part of his body except the heel by which she held him.

=This´be.= A beautiful girl of Babylon, beloved by Pyramus.

=Thrasybu´lus.= A famous general of Athens, who, with the help of a few associates, expelled the Thirty Tyrants, B.C. 401. He was sent with a powerful fleet to recover the Athenian power on the coast of Asia, and after gaining many advantages, was killed by the people of Aspendos.

=Thucid´ydes.= A celebrated Greek historian born at Athens. He wrote a history of the events connected with the Peloponnesian war. He died at Athens in his eightieth year, B.C. 391.

=Tibe´rius, Clau´dius Ne´ro.= A Roman emperor descended from the Claudii. In his early years he entertained the people with magnificent shows and gladiatorial exhibitions, which made him popular. At a later period of his life he retired to the island of Capreæ, where he indulged in vice and debauchery. He died aged seventy-eight, after a reign of twenty-two years.

=Tibul´lus, Au´lus Al´bius.= A Roman knight celebrated for his poetical compositions. His favorite occupation was writing love poems. Four books of elegies are all that remain of his compositions.

=Timo´leon.= A celebrated Corinthian, son of Timodemus and Demariste. When the Syracusans, oppressed with the tyranny of Dionysius the Younger, solicited aid from the Corinthians, Timoleon sailed for Syracuse with a small fleet. He was successful in the expedition, and Dionysius gave himself up as a prisoner. Timoleon died at Syracuse, amidst universal regret.

=Ti´mons.= A native of Athens, called the Misanthrope from his aversion to mankind. He is the hero of Shakspeare's play of "Timon of Athens" in which his churlish character is powerfully delineated.

=Timo´theus.= A famous musician in the time of Alexander the Great. Dryden names him in his well-known ode, "Alexander's Feast."

=Tire´sias.= A celebrated prophet of Thebes. Juno deprived him of sight, and, to recompense him for the loss, Jupiter bestowed on him the gift of prophecy.

=Tisiph´one.= One of the Furies, daughter of Nox and Acheron.

=Tita´nes.= The Titans. A name given to the gigantic sons of Coelus and Terra. The most conspicuous of them are Saturn, Hyperion, Oceanus, Iapetus, Cottus, and Briareus.

=Ti´tus Vespasia´nus.= Son of Vespasian and Flavia Domitilla, known by his valor, particularly at the siege of Jerusalem. He had been distinguished for profligacy, but on assuming the purple, he became a model of virtue. His death, which occasioned great lamentations, occurred A.D. 81, in the forty-first year of his age.

=Traja´nus, M. Ul´pius Crini´tus.= A Roman emperor born at Ithaca. His services to the empire recommended him to the notice of the emperor Nerva, who adopted him as his son, and invested him with the purple. The actions of Trajan were those of a benevolent prince. He died in Cilicia, in August A.D. 117, in his sixty-fourth year, and his ashes were taken to Rome and deposited under a stately column which he had erected.

=Tribu´ni Ple´bi.= Magistrates at Rome created in the year, U.C. 261. The office of Tribune to the people was one of the first steps which led to more honorable employments.

=Triptol´emus.= Son of Oceanus and Terra, or, according to some authorities, son of Celeus, king of Attica, and Neæra. He was in his youth cured of a severe illness by Ceres, with whom he became a great favorite. She taught him agriculture, and gave him her chariot drawn by dragons, in which he traveled over the earth, distributing corn to the inhabitants.

=Tri´ton.= A sea deity, son of Neptune and Amphitrite. He was very powerful, and could calm the sea and abate storms at his pleasure.

=Trium´viri.= Three magistrates appointed to govern the Roman state with absolute power.

=Tul´lus Hostil´ius= succeeded Numa as king of Rome. He was of a warlike disposition, and distinguished himself by his expedition against the people of Alba, whom he conquered.

=Typhoe´us=, or =Ty´phon=. A famous giant, son of Tartarus and Terra, who had a hundred heads. He made war against the gods, and was put to flight by the thunderbolts of Jupiter, who crushed him under Mount Ætna.

=Tyrtæ´us.= A Greek elegiac poet born in Attica. Of his compositions none are extant except a few fragments.

=Ulys´ses.= The famous king of Ithaca, son of Anticlea and Laertes (or, according to some, of Sisyphus). He married Penelope, daughter of Icarius, on which his father resigned to him the crown. He went to the Trojan war, where he was esteemed for his sagacity. On the conclusion of the war he embarked for Greece, but was exposed to numerous misfortunes on his journey. In his wanderings, he, with some of his companions, was seized by the Cyclops, Polyphemus, from whom he made his escape. Afterwards he was thrown on the island of Æea, where he was exposed to the wiles of the enchantress Circe. Eventually he was restored to his own country, after an absence of twenty years. The adventures of Ulysses on his return from the Trojan war form the subject of Homer's Odyssey.

=Ura´nia.= One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over astronomy.

=Valentinia´nus= the First. Son of Gratian, raised to the throne by his merit and valor. He obtained victories over the Barbarians in Gaul and in Africa, and punished the Quadi with severity. He broke a blood-vessel and died, A.D. 375. Immediately after his death, his son, Valentinian the Second, was proclaimed emperor. He was robbed of his throne by Maximus, but regained it by the aid of Theodosius, emperor of the East. He was strangled by one of his officers. He was remarkable for benevolence and clemency. The third Valentinian was made emperor in his youth, and on coming to maturer age he disgraced himself by violence and oppression. He was murdered A.D. 454.

=Valeria´nus, Pub´lius Licin´ius.= A celebrated Roman emperor, who, on ascending the throne, lost the virtues he had previously possessed. He made his son Gallienus his colleague in the empire. He made war against the Goths and Scythians. He was defeated in battle and made prisoner by Tapor, king of Persia, who put him to death by torture.

=Var´ro.= A Latin author, celebrated for his great learning. He wrote no less than five hundred volumes, but all his works are lost except a treatise De Re Rusticâ, and another De Linguâ Latinâ He died B.C. 28, in his eighty-eighth year.

=Ve´nus.= One of the most celebrated deities of the ancients; the goddess of beauty, and mother of love. She sprang from the foam of the sea, and was carried to heaven, where all the gods admired her beauty. Jupiter gave her in marriage to Vulcan, but she intrigued with some of the gods, and, notably, with Mars, their offspring being Hermione, Cupid, and Anteros. She became enamored of Adonis, which caused her to abandon Olympus. Her contest for the golden apple, which she gained against her opponents Juno and Minerva, is a prominent episode in mythology. She had numerous names applied to her, conspicuous amongst which may be named Anadyomene, under which cognomen she is distinguished by the picture, representing her as rising from the ocean, by Apelles. She was known under the Grecian name of Aphrodite.

=Vespasia´nus Ti´tus Fla´vius.= A Roman emperor of obscure descent. He began the siege of Jerusalem, which was continued by his son Titus. He died A.D. 79, in his seventieth year.

=Ves´ta.= A goddess, daughter of Rhea and Saturn. The Palladium, a celebrated statue of Pallas, was supposed to be preserved within her sanctuary, where a fire was kept continually burning.

=Vesta´les.= The Vestals, priestesses consecrated to the service of Vesta. They were required to be of good families and free from blemish and deformity. One of their chief duties was to see that the sacred fire of Vesta was not extinguished.

=Virgil´ius, Pub´lius Ma´ro=, called the prince of the Latin poets, was born at Andes, near Mantua, about seventy years before Christ. He went to Rome, where he formed an acquaintance with Mæcenas, and recommended himself to Augustus. His Bucolics were written in about three years, and subsequently he commenced the Georgics, which is considered one of the most perfect of all Latin compositions. The Æneid is supposed to have been undertaken at the request of Augustus. Virgil died in his fifty-first year B.C. 19.

=Virgin´ia.= Daughter of the centurion L. Virginius. She was slain by her father to save her from the violence of the decemvir, Appius Claudius.

=Virgin´ius.= A valiant Roman, father of Virginia. (See Virginia.) The story of Virginius and his ill-fated daughter is the subject of the well-known tragedy of "Virginius," one of the early productions of J. Sheridan Knowles. It is rarely performed in the present day.

=Vulca´nus.= The god who presided over fire, and who was the patron of those who worked in iron. According to Homer, he was the son of Jupiter and Juno, and was so deformed, that at his birth his mother threw him into the sea, where he remained nine years; but other writers differ from this opinion. He married Venus at the instigation of Jupiter. He is known by the name of Mulciber. The Cyclopes were his attendants, and with them he forged the thunderbolts of Jupiter.

=Xanthip´pe= or =Xantip´pe=. The wife of Socrates, remarkable for her ill-humor and fretful disposition. She was a constant torment to her husband, and on one occasion, after bitterly reviling him, she emptied a vessel of dirty water on him, on which the philosopher coolly remarked, "After thunder rain generally falls."

=Xenoc´rates.= An ancient philosopher born at Calcedonia, and educated in the school of Plato, whose friendship he gained. Died B.C. 314.

=Xen´ophon.= A celebrated Athenian, son of Gryllus, famous as a general, philosopher, and historian. He joined Cyrus the Younger in an expedition against Artaxerxes, king of Persia, and after the decisive battle of Cunaxa, in which Cyrus was defeated and killed, the skill and bravery of Xenophon became conspicuous. He had to direct an army of ten thousand Greeks, who were now more than six hundred leagues from home, and in a country surrounded by an active enemy. He rose superior to all difficulties till the celebrated "Retreat of the Ten Thousand" was effected; the Greeks returning home after a march of two hundred and fifteen days. Xenophon employed his pen in describing the expedition of Cyrus, in his work the "Anabasis." He also wrote the "Cyropædia," "Memorabilia," "Hellenica," etc. He died at Corinth in his ninetieth year, about 360 years before the Christian era.

=Xer´xes= succeeded his father Darius on the throne of Persia. He entered Greece with an immense army, which was checked at Thermopylæ by the valor of three hundred Spartans under king Leonidas, who, for three successive days, successfully opposed the enormous forces of Xerxes, and were at last slaughtered. From this period the fortunes of Xerxes waned. His fleet being defeated at Salamis, and mortified with ill-success, he hastened to Persia, where he gave himself up to debauchery, and was murdered in the twenty-first year of his reign, about 464 years before the Christian era.

=Za´ma.= A town of Numidia, celebrated as the scene of the victory of Scipio over Hannibal, B.C. 202.

=Ze´no=, a celebrated philosopher, the founder of the sect of Stoics, was born at Citium in Cyprus. He opened a school in Athens, and soon became noticed by the great and learned. His life was devoted to sobriety and moderation. He died at the age of ninety-eight, B.C. 264.

=Ze´no.= A philosopher of Elea or Velia, in Italy. He was the disciple, or, according to some, the adopted son of Parmenides. Being tortured to cause him to reveal his confederates in a plot he had engaged in, he bit off his tongue that he might not betray his friends.

=Zeno´bia.= A celebrated princess of Palmyra, the wife of Odenatus. After her husband's death, the Roman emperor Aurelian declared war against her. She took the field with seven hundred thousand men, and though at first successful, she was eventually conquered. Aurelian, when she became his prisoner, treated her with great humanity and consideration. She was admired for her literary talents as well as her military abilities.

=Zeux´is.= A celebrated painter born at Heraclea. He flourished 468 years before the Christian era. He painted some grapes so naturally that the birds came to peck them on the canvas; but he was disgusted with the picture, because the man painted as carrying the grapes was not natural enough to frighten the birds.

=Zo´ilus.= A sophist and grammarian of Amphipolis, B.C. 259. He became known by his severe criticisms on the works of Isocrates and Homer.

=Zoroas´ter.= A king of Bactria, supposed to have lived in the age of Ninus, king of Assyria, some time before the Trojan war. He rendered himself known by his deep researches in philosophy. He admitted no visible object of devotion except fire, which he considered the proper emblem of a Supreme Being. He was respected by his subjects and contemporaries for his abilities as a monarch, a lawgiver, and a philosopher, and though many of his doctrines may be deemed puerile, he had many disciples. The religion of the Parsees of the present day was founded by Zoroaster.

=Zos´imus.= A Greek historian who lived about the year 410 of the Christian era. He wrote a history of some of the Roman emperors, which is characterized by graceful diction, but he indulges in malevolent and vituperative attacks on the Christians in his History of Constantine.

A LIST

OF

COMMON ABBREVIATIONS

OF WORDS USED IN

WRITING AND PRINTING.

=A 1=, first class.

=a= or =aa= (Gr. _ana_), in _med._, of each the same quantity.

=A.B.=, Bachelor of Arts.

=A.D.= (L. _anno Domini_), in the year of our Lord.

=ad lib.=, or =ad libit.= (L. _ad libitum_), at pleasure.

=Æ.=, =Æt.= (L. _ætatis_), of age; aged.

=A.M.= (L. _artium magister_), Master of Arts.

=A.M.= (L. _ante meridiem_), before noon.

=A.M.= (L. _anno mundi_), in the year of the world.

=anon.=, anonymous.

=A.R.A.=, Associate of the Royal Academy.

=A.R.S.A.=, Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.

=A.R.S.S.= (L. _antiquariorum regiæ societatis socius_), Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries.

=AS.=, Anglo-Saxon.

=A.U.C.= (L. _anno urbis conditæ_, or _anno ab urbe conditâ_), in the year of, or from the building of the city, viz., Rome.

=B.A.=, Bachelor of Arts.

=Bart.= or =Bt.=, Baronet.

=B.C.=, before Christ.

=B.C.L.=, Bachelor of Civil Law.

=B.D.=, Bachelor of Divinity.

=B.LL.=, also =LL.B.=, Bachelor of Laws.

=B.Sc.=, Bachelor of Science.

=B.S.L.=, Botanical Society of London.

=C.= (L. _centum_), a hundred.

=Cantab.= (L. _Cantabrigiensis_), of Cambridge.

=Cantuar.=, Canterbury.

=cap.= (L. _caput_, the head), chapter; =cap.=, capital; =cap.=, a capital letter; =caps.=, capital letters.

=C.B.=, Companion of the Bath.

=C.E.=, Civil Engineer.

=cent.= (L. _centum_), a hundred.

=cf.= (L. _confer_), compare.

=chap.=, chapter.

=con.= (L. _contra_), against; in opposition.

=cos.=, cosine.

=cres.=, crescendo.

=crim. con.=, criminal conversation; adultery.

=ct.=, cent; also (L. _centum_), a hundred.

=curt.=, current--that is, in this period of time, as month, year, or century.

=cwt.= (_c._ for L. _centum_, a hundred; _wt._ for Eng. weight), a hundred-weight.

=D.C.= (It. _da capo_), in _music_, again; from the beginning.

=D.C.L.=, Doctor of Civil or Canon Law.

=D.D.= (L. _divinitatis doctor_), Doctor of Divinity.

=D.G.= (L. _Dei gratiâ_), by the grace of God; (L. _Deo gratias_), thanks to God.

=do.= or =Do.=, the same.

=doz.=, dozen.

=Dr.=, doctor; debtor.

=D.S.= (It. _dal segno_), from the sign.

=D.Sc.=, Doctor of Science.

=Dunelm.=, Durham.

=D.V.= (L. _Deo volente_), God willing.

=dwt.= (L. _denarius_, a silver coin, a penny; and first and last letters of Eng. _weight_), pennyweight.

=Ebor.= (L. _Ebor[)a]cum_), York.

=E.C.=, Established Church.

=Ed.=, editor.

=E.E.=, errors excepted.

=e.g.=, (L. _exempli gratiâ_, for the sake of example), for example; for instance.

=E.I.=, East Indies; East India.

=E.I.C.=, East India Company; =E.I.C.S.=, East India Company's Service.

=E. long.=, east longitude.

=E.N.E.=, east-north-east.

=E.S.E.=, east-south-east.

=Esq.= or =Esqr.=, Esquire.

=etc.= (L. _et cætera_), &c.; and others; and so forth.

=et seq.= (L. _et sequentia_), and the following.

=ex.=, example; exception; =ex=, "out of," as, a cargo _ex_ Maria.

=exch.=, exchequer; exchange.

=Exon.= (L. _Exonia_), Exeter.

=f.=, feminine; farthing or farthings; foot or feet.

=Fahr.=, Fahrenheit.

=far.=, farriery; farthing.

=F.A.S.=, Fellow of the Society of Arts.

=F.A.S.E.=, Fellow of the Antiquarian Society, Edinburgh.

=F.B.S.E.=, Fellow of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

=F.C.=, Free Church.

=fcp.=, foolscap.

=F.D.= (L. _fidei defensor_), Defender of the Faith.

=F.E.I.S.=, Fellow of the Educational Institute of Scotland.

=F.E.S.=, Fellow of the Entomological Society; Fellow of the Ethnological Society.

=F.G.S.=, Fellow of the Geological Society.

=F.H.S.=, Fellow of the Horticultural Society.

=Fl.=, Flemish; Florida; florin.

=F.L.S.=, Fellow of the Linnæan Society.

=F.M.=, field-marshal.

=fo.=, =fol.=, folio.

=F.P.=, fire-plug.

=F.P.S.=, Fellow of the Philological Society.

=Fr.=, France; French.

=F.R.A.S.=, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.

=F.R.C.P.=, Fellow of the Royal College of Preceptors, or of Physicians.

=F.R.C.P.E.=, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh.

=F.R.C.S.=, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.

=F.R.C.S.E.=, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh.

=F.R.C.S.I.=, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland.

=F.R.C.S.L.=, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, London.

=F.R.G.S.=, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

=F.R.S.=, Fellow of the Royal Society.

=F.R.S.E.=, Fellow of the Royal Society, Edinburgh.

=F.R.S.L.=, Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.

=F.S.A.=, Fellow of the Society of Arts, or of Antiquaries: =F.S.A., Scot.=, an F.S.A. of Scotland.

=ft.=, foot or feet.

=F.T.C.D.=, Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin.

=F.Z.A.=, Fellow of the Zoological Academy.

=G.A.=, General Assembly.

=G.C.B.=, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.

=G.P.O.=, General Post-office.

=gtt.= (L. _gutta_ or _guttæ_), a drop or drops.

=H.B.C.=, Hudson Bay Company.

=H.E.I.C.=, Honorable East India Company.

=H.G.=, Horse Guards.

=hhd.=, hogshead; hogsheads.

=H.I.H.=, His (or Her) Imperial Highness.

=H.M.S.=, Her (or His) Majesty's steamer, ship, or service.

=H.R.H.=, His (or Her) Royal Highness.

=H.S.S.= (L. _historiæ societatis socius_), Fellow of the Historical Society.

=ib.=, =ibid.= (L. _ibidem_), in the same place.

=id.= (L. _idem_), the same.

=i. e.= (L. _id est_), that is.

=I.H.S.= (L. _Iesus Hominum Salvator_), Jesus the Saviour of Men.

=incog.= (L. _incognito_), unknown.

=in lim.= (L. _in limine_), at the outset.

=in loc.= (L. _in loco_), in its place.

=inst.=, instant--that is, the present month.

=in trans.= (L. _in transitu_), on the passage.

=I.O.U.=, three letters being identical in sound with the three words "I owe you,"--written as a simple acknowledgment for money lent, followed by sum and signature.

=Ir.=, Ireland; Irish.

=i.q.= (L. _idem quod_), the same as.

=J.P.=, Justice of the Peace.

=K.C.B.=, Knight Commander of the Bath (Great Britain).

=K.G.=, Knight of the Garter (Great Britain).

=K.G.C.=, Knight of the Grand Cross (Great Britain).

=K.G.C.B.=, Knight of the Grand Cross of the Bath (Great Britain).

=Knt.=, knight.

=K.P.=, Knight of St. Patrick (Ireland).

=Kt.= or =Knt.=, knight.

=K.T.=, Knight of the Thistle (Scotland).

=K.S.E.=, Knight of the Star of the East.

=L.= or =lb.= (L. _libra_), a pound in weight.

=lat.=, latitude, N. or S.

=lb.=--see =L.=

=leg.= (It. _legato_), smoothly.

=L.G.=, Life Guards.

=lib.= (L. _liber_), a book.

=Linn.=, Linnæus; Linnæan.

=LL.B.=, (L. _legum_, of laws, and _baccalaureus_, bachelor), Bachelor of Laws, an academic title.

=LL.D.=, (L. _legum_, of laws, and _doctor_, doctor), Doctor of Laws, an academic title, higher than LL.B.

=long.=, longitude, E. or W.

=L.S.D.=, or =£ s. d.= (said to be from L. _libra_, a balance, a pound in weight; _solidus_, a coin of the value of 25 denarii, subsequently only a half of that value; and _denarius_, a silver coin worth about 8-1/2d. Eng.), pounds, shillings, pence--that is, in any written statement of money, L. is put over pounds, S. over shillings, and D. over pence; in _printing_, £ for L. is put before the sum, as £15, s. and d. in single letter, after, as 4s. 6d.

=M.= (L. _mille_), a thousand.

=M.A.= (L. _magister artium_), Master of Arts, an academic title.

=M.C.S.=, Madras Civil Service.

=M.D.=, (L. _medicinæ_, of medicine, _doctor_, doctor), Doctor of Medicine.

=M.E.=, Mining Engineer.

=Mdlle.= (F. _Mademoiselle_), Miss.

=Mme.= (F. _Madame_), Madam.

=Mons.= (F. _Monsieur_), Mr.; Sir.

=M.P.=, Member of Parliament.

=M.P.S.=, Member of the Philological Society; Member of the Pharmaceutical Society.

=M.R.A.S.=, Member of the Royal Asiatic Society; Member of the Royal Academy of Science.

=M.R.C.P.=, Member of the Royal College of Preceptors, or of Physicians.

=M.R.C.S.=, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.

=M.R.G.S.=, Member of the Royal Geographical Society.

=MS.=, manuscript; =MSS.=, manuscripts.

=Mus. B.=, Bachelor of Music; =Mus. D.=, Doctor of Music.

=N.B.=, North British; North Britain, that is Scotland; New Brunswick; (L. _nota_, note, _bene_, well), note well, or take notice.

=N.E.=, north-east; New England.

=N.N.E.=, north-north-east.

=N.N.W.=, north-north-west.

=non obst.= (L. _non_, not, _obstante_, standing over against, withstanding), notwithstanding.

=non pros.= (L. _non_, not, _prosequitur_, he follows after, he prosecutes), he does not prosecute--applied to a judgment entered against a plaintiff who does not appear.

=non seq.= (L. _non_, not, _sequitur_, it follows), it does not follow.

=N.P.=, notary public.

=N.S.=, new style; Nova Scotia.

=N.T.=, New Testament.

=N.W.=, north-west.

=ob.= (L. _obiit_), he died.

=obs.=, obsolete.

=O.S.=, old style.

=Oxon.= (L. _Oxonia_), Oxford.

=oz.=, ounce.

=p.=, page; =pp.=, pages.

=P.C.=, Privy Council or Councillor.

=P.D.= or =Ph.D.=, Doctor of Philosophy.

=per an.= (L. _per annum_), by the year.

=per cent.= (L. _per_, by; _centum_, a hundred,) by the hundred.

=pinx., pxt.= (L. _pinxit_), he or she painted it.

=P.M.=, postmaster; (L. _post meridiem_), afternoon.

=P.M.G.=, postmaster-general.

=P.O.=, post-office; =P.O.O.=, Post-Office Order.

=pp.=, pages.

=P.P.=, parish-priest.

=P.P.C.=, (F. _pour prendre congé_, to take leave), put on calling cards to intimate leave-taking.

=pr.= (L. _per_, by), by the.

=pres.=, also =preses=, _pr[)e]s´-[)e]s_; president.

=prof.=, professor.

=pro tem.= (L. _pro tempore_), for the time being.

=prox.= (L. _proximo_), next; of the next month.

=P.S.=, (L. _post scriptum_), postscript.

=p.t.=, post-town.

=pxt.= (L. _pinxit_), he or she painted it.

=Q.= or =Qu.=, question; query.

=Q.C.=, Queen's Counsel; Queen's College.

=q.e.= (L. _quod est_), which is.

=Q E.D.= (L. _quod erat demonstrandum_), which was to be demonstrated.

=Q.E.F.= (L. _quod erat faciendum_), which was to be done.

=Q.E.I.= (L. _quod erat inveniendum_), which was to be found out.

=q.l.= (L. _quantum libet_), as much as you please.

=Q.M.G.=, quartermaster-general.

=qr.=, quarter; quire: =qrs=., quarters.

=qt.=, quart: =qts.=, quarts.

=q.v.= (L. _quod vide_), which see.

=R.=, L. _rex_, king; _regina_, queen.

=R.=, L. _recipe_, take.

=R.A.=, Royal Academy, or Academician; Royal Artillery; Rear-Admiral; Right Ascension.

=R.C.=, Roman Catholic.

=Ref. Ch.=, Reformed Church.

=Reg. Prof.=, Regius Professor.

=R.I.P.= (L.), requiescat in pace.

=R.Rev.=, right reverend.

=R.S.A.=, Royal Society of Antiquaries; Royal Scottish Academy.

=R.S.S.= (L. _regiæ societatis socius_), Fellow of the Royal Society.

=Rt.=, Right.

=S.=, south.

=S.A.=, South America; South Africa; South Australia.

=Sarum=, Salisbury.

=S.A.S.= (L. _societatis antiquariorum socius_), Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.

=s. caps.=, small capital letters.

=sc.= or =sculp.= (L. _sculpsit_), he or she engraved it.

=s.= or =scil.= (L. _scilicet_), to wit; namely.

=scr.=, scruple.

=sculp.= or =sculpt.= (L. _sculpsit_), he or she engraved it.

=S.E.=, south-east.

=sec.=, secretary; second.

=Sep.= or =Sept.=, Septuagint; also LXX.

=seq.= (L. _sequentes_ or _sequentia_), the following; the next.

=S.G.=, solicitor-general.

=S.H.S.= (_societatis historiæ socius_), Fellow of the Historical Society.

=S.J.=, Society of Jesus.

=S.L.=, solicitor-at-law.

=Sol.-Gen.=, solicitor-general.

=S.P.C.K.=, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

=S.P.G.=, Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

=sq.=, square: =sq. ft.=, square feet: =sq. in.=, square inches: =sq. m.=, square miles: =sq. yds.=, square yards.

=S.R.I.= (L. _sacrum Romanum imperium_), the Holy Roman Empire.

=s.s.=, steamship.

=S.S.E.=, south-south-east.

=S.S.W.=, south-south-west.

=S.T.P.= (L. _sacræ theologia professor_), Professor of Theology.

=super.=, superfine.

=supp.=, supplement.

=S.W.=, south-west.

=syn.=, synonym; synonymous.

=T.O.=, turn over.

=tr.= or =trs=., transpose.

=U.C.=, Upper Canada; (L. _urbe condita_, the founding of the city), the year of Rome.

=univ.=, university.

=U.P.=, United Presbyterian.

=U.S.=, United States.

=v.g.= (L. _verbi gratiâ_), for example.

=vid.= (L. _vide_), see.

=viz.= (a corruption of L. _videlicet_), namely; to wit.

=vol.=, volume: =vols.=, volumes.

=V.P.=, vice-president.

=vul.=, vulgate.

=W.=, west; western.

=Winton=, Winchester.

=W. long.=, west longitude.

=W.M.S.=, Wesleyan Missionary Society.

=W.N.W.=, west-north-west.

=W.S.W.=, west-south-west.

=wt.=, weight.

=X.= or =Xt.=, Christ: =Xm.= or =Xmas.=, Christmas: =Xn.= or =Xtian.=, Christian.

=yd.=, yard: =yds.=, yards.

THE END.

* * * * *

1883.--1883.

G. W. CARLETON & CO.

NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS, RECENTLY ISSUED BY

G. W. CARLETON & CO., Publishers,

Madison Square, New York.

The Publishers, on receipt of price, send any book on this Catalogue by mail, _postage free_.

All handsomely bound in cloth, with gilt backs suitable for libraries.

=Mary J. Holmes' Works.=

Tempest and Sunshine $1 50 English Orphans 1 50 Homestead on the Hillside 1 50 'Lena Rivers 1 50 Meadow Brook 1 50 Dora Deane 1 50 Cousin Maude 1 50 Marian Grey 1 50 Edith Lyle 1 50 Daisy Thornton 1 50 Chateau D´Or (New) 1 50 Darkness and Daylight 1 50 Hugh Worthington 1 50 Cameron Pride 1 50 Rose Mather 1 50 Ethelyn's Mistake 1 50 Millbank 1 50 Edna Browning 1 50 West Lawn 1 50 Mildred 1 50 Forrest House 1 50 Madeline (New) 1 50

=Marion Harland's Works.=

Alone $1 50 Hidden Path 1 50 Moss Side 1 50 Nemesis 1 50 Miriam 1 50 At Last 1 50 Helen Gardner 1 50 True as Steel (New) 1 50 Sunnybank 1 50 Husbands and Homes 1 50 Ruby's Husband 1 50 Phemie's Temptation 1 50 The Empty Heart 1 50 Jessamine 1 50 From My Youth Up 1 50 My Little Love 1 50

=Charles Dickens--15 Vols.--"Carleton's Edition."=

Pickwick and Catalogue $1 50 Dombey and Son 1 50 Bleak House 1 50 Martin Chuzzlewit 1 50 Barnaby Rudge--Edwin Drood. 1 50 Child's. England--Miscellaneous 1 50 Christmas Books--Two Cities 1 50 David Copperfield 1 50 Nicholas Nickleby 1 50 Little Dorrit. 1 50 Our Mutual Friend 1 50 Curiosity Shop--Miscellaneous 1 50 Sketches by Boz--Hard Times 1 50 Great Expectations--Italy 1 50 Oliver Twist--Uncommercial 1 50 Sets of Dickens' Complete Works, in 15 vols.--[elegant half calf bindings] 50 00

=Augusta J. Evans' Novels.=

Beulah $1 75 Macaria 1 75 Ines 1 75 St. Elmo $2 00 Vashti 2 00 Infelice (New) 2 00

=May Agnes Fleming's Novels.=

Guy Earlscourt's Wife $1 50 A Wonderful Woman 1 50 A Terrible Secret 1 50 A Mad Marriage 1 50 Norine's Revenge 1 50 One Night's Mystery 1 50 Kate Danton 1 50 Silent and True 1 50 Heir of Charlton 1 50 Carried by Storm 1 50 Lost for a Woman 1 50 A Wife's Tragedy 1 50 A Changed Heart 1 50 Pride and Passion 1 50 Sharing Her Crime (New) 1 50

=Allan Pinkerton's Works.=

Expressmen and Detectives $1 50 Mollie Maguires and Detectives 1 50 Somnambulists and Detectives 1 50 Claude Melnotte and Detectives 1 50 Criminal Reminiscences, etc. 1 50 Rail-Road Forger, etc. 1 50 Bank Robbers and Detectives 1 50 Gypsies and Detectives 1 50 Spiritualists and Detectives 1 50 Model Town and Detectives 1 50 Strikers, Communists, etc. 1 50 Mississippi Outlaws, etc. 1 50 Bucholz and Detectives 1 50

=Bertha Clay's Novels.=

Thrown on the World $1 50 A Bitter Atonement 1 50 Love Works Wonders 1 50 Evelyn's Folly 1 50 Under a Shadow (New) 1 50 A Woman's Temptation 1 50 Repented at Leisure 1 50 Between Two Loves 1 50 Lady Damer's Secret 1 50 A Struggle for a Ring (New) 1 50

="New York Weekly" Series.=

Brownie's Triumph--Sheldon $1 50 The Forsaken Bride. do. 1 50 Earle Wayne's Nobility. do. 1 50 A New Book. do. 1 50 His Other Wife--Ashleigh 1 50 Curse of Everleigh--Pierce 1 50 Peerless Cathleen--Agnew 1 50 Faithful Margaret--Ashmore 1 50 Nick Whiffles--Robinson 1 50 Grinder Papers--Dallas 1 50 Lady Leonora--Conklin 1 50

=Miriam Coles Harris' Novels.=

Rutledge $1 50 Frank Warrington 1 50 Louie's Last Term, St. Mary's 1 50 A Perfect Adonis 1 50 Missy (New) 1 50 The Sutherlands 1 50 St. Philips 1 50 Round Hearts for Children 1 50 Richard Vandermarck 1 50 Happy-Go-Lucky 1 50

=A. S. Roe's Select Stories.=

True to the Last $1 50 The Star and the Cloud 1 50 How Could He Help it? 1 50 A Long Look Ahead 1 50 I've Been Thinking 1 50 To Love and to be Loved 1 50

=Julie P. Smith's Novels.=

Widow Goldsmith's Daughter $1 50 Chris and Otho 1 50 Ten Old Maids 1 50 His Young Wife 1 50 Lucy (New) 1 50 The Widower 1 50 The Married Belle 1 50 Courting and Farming 1 50 Kiss and be Friends 1 50

=Artemas Ward.=

Complete Comic Writings--With Biography, Portrait and 50 illustrations $1 50

=The Game of Whist.=

Pole on Whist--The English standard work. With the "Portland Rules" $ 75

=Victor Hugo's Great Novel.=

Les Miserables--Translated from the French. The only complete edition $1 50

=Mrs. Hill's Cook Book.=

Mrs. A. P. Hill's New Southern Cookery Book, and domestic receipts $2 00

=Carleton's Popular Quotations.=

Carleton's New Hand-Book--Familiar Quotations, with their authorship $1 50 Carleton's Classical Dictionary--Condensed Mythology for popular use 75

=Celia E. Gardner's Novels.=

Stolen Waters. (In verse) $1 50 Broken Dreams. do. 1 50 Compensation. do. 1 50 A Twisted Skein. do. 1 50 Tested 1 50 Rich Medway 1 50 A Woman's Wiles 1 50 Terrace Roses 1 50

="New York Weekly" Series.=

Thrown on the World. $1 50 A Bitter Atonement. 1 50 Love Works Wonders. 1 50 Evelyn's Folly. 1 50 Lady Damer's Secret. 1 50 A Woman's Temptation. 1 50 Repented at Leisure. 1 50 Between Two Loves. 1 50 Peerless Cathleen. 1 50 Brownie's Triumph. 1 50 The Forsaken Bride. 1 50 His Other Wife. 1 50 Nick Whiffles. 1 50 Lady Leonore. 1 50 The Grinder Papers. 1 50 Faithful Margaret. 1 50 Curse of Everleigh. 1 50

=Artemas Ward.=

Complete Comic Writings--With Biography, Portrait, and 50 illustrations. $1 50

=Charles Dickens.=

Dickens' Parlor Table Album of Illustrations--with descriptive text. $2 50

=M. M. Pomeroy= ("=Brick=").

Sense. A serious book. $1 50 Gold Dust.--Do. 1 50 Our Saturday Nights. 1 50 Nonsense. (A comic book). 1 50 Brick-dust.--Do. 1 50 Home Harmonies. 1 50

=Ernest Renan's French Works.=

The Life of Jesus. Translated. $1 75 Lives of the Apostles.--Do. 1 75 The Life of St. Paul. Translated. 1 75 The Bible in India--By Jacolliot. 2 00

=G. W. Carleton.=

Our Artist in Cuba, Peru, Spain, and Algiers--150 Caricatures of travel. $1 00

=Miscellaneous Publications.=

The Children's Fairy Geography--With hundreds of beautiful illustrations.

$2 50

Hawk-eyes--A comic book by "The Burlington Hawkeye Man." Illustrated.

1 50

Among the Thorns--A new novel by Mrs. Mary Lowe Dickinson.

1 50

Our Daughters--A talk with mothers, by Marion Harland, author of "Alone,"

50

Redbirds Christmas Story--An illustrated Juvenile. By Mary J. Holmes.

50

Carleton's Popular Readings--Edited by Mrs. Anna Randall Diehl.

1 50

The Culprit Fay--Joseph Rodman Drake's Poem. With 100 illustrations.

2 00

L'Assommoir--English Translation from Zola's famous French novel.

1 00

Parlor Amusements--Games, Tricks, and Home Amusements, by F. Bellew.

1 00

Love [L'Amour]--Translation from Michelet's famous French work.

1 50

Woman [La Femme].--Do.--Do.--Do.

1 50

Verdant Green--A racy English college Story. With 200 comic illustrations.

1 00

Solid for Mulhooly--The Sharpest Political Satire of the Day.

1 00

A Northern Governess at the Sunny South--By Professor J. H. Ingraham.

1 50

Laus Veneris, and other Poems--By Algernon Charles Swinburne.

1 50

Birds of a Feather Flock Together--By Edward A. Sothern, the actor.

1 00

Beatrice Cenci--from the Italian novel, with Guido's celebrated portrait.

1 50

Morning Glories--A charming collection of Children's stories. By Louisa Alcot.

1 00

Some Women of To-day--A novel by Mrs. Dr. Wm. H. White.

1 50

From New York to San Francisco--By Mrs. Frank Leslie. Illustrated.

1 50

Why Wife and I Quarreled--A Poem by author "Betsey and I are out."

1 00

West India Pickles--A yacht Cruise in the Tropics. By W. P. Talboys.

1 00

Threading My Way--The Autobiography of Robert Dale Owen.

1 50

Debatable Land between this World and Next--Robert Dale Owen.

2 00

Lights and Shadows of Spiritualism--By D. D. Home, the Medium.

2 00

Yachtman's Primer--Instructions for Amateur Sailors.

By Warren.

50

The Fall of Man--A Darwinian Satire, by author of "New Gospel of Peace."

50

The Chronicles of Gotham--A New York Satire.--Do.--Do.

25

Tales from the Operas--A collection of stories based upon the Opera plots.

1 00

Ladies and Gentlemen's Etiquette Book of the best Fashionable Society.

1 00

Self Culture in Conversation, Letter-Writing, and Oratory.

1 00

Love and Marriage--A book for young people.

By Frederick Saunders.

1 00

Under the Rose--A Capital book, by the author of "East Lynne,"

1 00

So Dear a Dream--A novel by Miss Grant, author of "The Sun Maid".

1 00

Give me thine Heart--A Capital new Love Story by Roe.

1 00

Meeting Her Fate--A charming novel by the author of "Aurora Floyd".

1 00

The New York Cook-Book--Book of Domestic Receipts. By Mrs. Astor.

1 00

=Miscellaneous Works.=

Dawn to Noon--By Violet Fane $1 50 Constance's Fate--Do. 1 50 French Love Songs--Translated 50 A Bad Boy's First Reader 10 Lion Jack--By P. T. Barnum 1 50 Jack in the Jungle--Do. 1 50 Cats, Cooks, Etc--By Edw. T. Ely 50 Drumming as a Fine Art 50 How to Win in Wall Street 50 The Life of Sarah Bernhardt 25 Arctic Travels--Isaac I. Hayes 1 50 College Tramps--Fred. A. Stokes 1 50 Gospels in Poetry--E. H. Kimball 1 50 Me--By Mrs. Spencer W. Coe 50 N.Y. to San Francisco--Leslie 1 50 Don Quixote--Illustrated $1 00 Arabian Nights--Do. 1 00 Robinson Crusoe--Do 1 00 Swiss Family Robinson--Illus. 1 00 Debatable Land--R. Dale Owen 2 00 Threading My Way.--Do. 1 50 Spiritualism--By D. D. Home 2 00 Fanny Fern Memorials 2 00 Orpheus C. Kerr--4 vols. in one 2 00 Northern Ballads--E. L. Anderson 1 00 Offenbach's Tour in America 1 50 Stories about Doctors--Jeffreson 1 50 Stories about Lawyers--Do. 1 50 Mrs. Spriggins.--By Widow Bedott 1 50 How to Make Money--Davies 1 50

=Miscellaneous Novels.=

Doctor Antonio--By Ruffini $1 50 Beatrice Cenci--From the Italian 1 50 Madame--By Frank Lee Benedict 1 50 A Late Remorse--Do. 1 50 Hammer and Anvil--Do. 1 50 Her Friend Laurence--Do. 1 50 Prairie Flower--Emerson Bennett 1 50 Among the Thorns--Dickinson 1 50 Women of To-day--Mrs. W.H. White 1 50 Braxton's Bar--R. M. Daggett 1 50 Miss Beck--Tilbury Holt 1 50 Sub Rosa--Chas. T. Murray 50 Hilda and I--E. Bedell Benjamin 1 50 A College Widow--C. H. Seymour 1 50 Old M'sieur's Secret--Translation 50 Petticoats and Slippers 50 Shiftless Folks--Fannie Smith 1 50 Peace Pelican.--Do. 1 50 Price of a Life--R. Forbes Sturgis 1 50 Hidden Power--T. H. Tibbles 1 50 Two Brides--Bernard O'Reilly 1 50 Sorry Her Lot--Miss Grant 1 00 Two of Us--Calista Halsey 75 Cupid on Crutches--A. B. Wood 75 Parson Thorne--E. M. Buckingham 1 50 Marston Hall--L. Ella Byrd 1 50 Ange--Florence Marryatt 1 00 Errors--Ruth Carter 1 50 Unmistakable Flirtation--Garner 75 Wild Oats--Florence Marryatt 1 50 Widow Cherry--B. L. Farjeon 25 Solomon Isaacs.--Do. 50 Edith Murray--Joanna Mathews 1 50 Doctor Mortimer--Fannie Bean 1 50 Outwitted at Last--S. A. Gardner 1 50 Vesta Vane--L. King, R. 1 50 Louise and I--C. R. Dodge 1 50 My Queen--By Sandette 1 50 Fallen among Thieves--Rayne 1 50 San Miniato--Mrs. Hamilton 1 00 All For Her--A Tale of New York 1 50 All for Him--Author "All for Her" 1 50 For Each Other.--Do. 1 50 The Baroness--Joaquin Miller 1 50 One Fair Woman.--Do. 1 50 Saint Leger--Richard B. Kimball $1 75 Was He Successful?--Do. 1 75 Undercurrents of Wall St.--Do. 1 75 Romance of Student Life.--Do. 1 75 To-day.--Do. 1 75 Life in San Domingo.--Do. 1 75 Henry Powers, Banker.--Do. 1 75 Led Astray--Octave Feuillet 1 50 She Loved Him Madly--Borys 1 50 Thick and Thin--Mery 1 50 So Fair yet False--Chavette 1 50 A Fatal Passion--C. Bernard 1 50 A Woman's Case--Bessie Turner 1 50 Marguerite's Journal--for Girls 1 50 Rose of Memphis--W. C. Falkner 1 50 Spell-Bound--Alexandre Dumas 75 Heart's Delight--Mrs. Alderdice 1 50 Another Man's Wife--Mrs. Hartt 1 50 Purple and Fine Linen--Fawcett 1 50 Pauline's Trial--L. D. Courtney 1 50 The Forgiving Kiss--M. Loth 1 75 Flirtation--A West Point novel 1 50 Loyal unto Death 1 50 That Awful Boy 50 That Bridget of Ours 50 Phemie Frost--Ann S. Stephens 1 50 Charette--An American novel 1 50 Fairfax--John Esten Cooke 1 50 Hilt to Hilt.--Do. 1 50 Out of the Foam.--Do. 1 50 Hammer and Rapier.--Do. 1 50 Warwick--By M. T. Walworth 1 75 Lulu.--Do. 1 75 Hotspur--Do. 1 75 Stormcliff.--Do. 1 75 Delaplaine.--Do. 1 75 Beverly.--Do. 1 75 Kenneth--Sallie A. Brock 1 75 Heart Hungry--Westmoreland 1 50 Clifford Troupe.--Do. 1 50 Silcott Mill--Maria D. Deslonde 1 50 John Maribel.--Do. 1 50 Conquered--By a New Author 1 50 Janet--An English novel 1 50 Tales from the Popular Operas 1 50

* * * * *

POPULAR NEW BOOKS.

_"NEW YORK WEEKLY" SERIES._

Messrs. Street & Smith, publishers of _The New York Weekly_, having been requested by their readers to issue their best and most popular Stories in Book Form, have consented, and have now made arrangements for such publications with the well-known New York House of

G. W. CARLETON & CO., Publishers.

The intention is to issue in Book Form such Novels, Stories, Humorous Writings, etc., as have run through the _The New York Weekly_, and have proved to be the most popular. Thus the millions of _New York Weekly_ readers, who have been particularly pleased and delighted with certain stories in the Paper, and who would like to have them in Book Form for preservation and re-reading, will have an opportunity to buy such works, and gradually form a beautiful

LIBRARY OF CHOICE BOOKS,

the very cream of the contributions to _The New York Weekly_.

_The volumes already published are as follows:_

=Thrown on the World.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =Peerless Cathleen.=--A Novel, by CORA AGNEW. =Faithful Margaret.=--A Novel, by ANNIE ASHMORE. =Nick Whiffles.=--A Novel, by DR. J. H. ROBINSON. =Lady Leonora.=--A Novel, by CARRIE CONKLIN. =Charity Grinder Papers.=--By MARY KYLE DALLAS. =A Bitter Atonement.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =Curse of Everleigh.=--By HELEN CORWIN PIERCE. =Love Works Wonders.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =Evelyn's Folly.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =Lady Damer's Secret.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =A Woman's Temptation.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =Brownie's Triumph.=--A Novel, by Mrs. GEORGIE SHELDON. =Repented at Leisure.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =Forsaken Bride.=--A Novel, by Mrs. GEORGIE SHELDON. =Between Two Loves.=--A Novel, by BERTHA M. CLAY. =His Other Wife.=--A Novel, by ROSE ASHLEIGH.

==>These books are handsomely printed, and elegantly bound in cloth, with gold back stamps, price, $1.50 each.

==>Sold by Booksellers everywhere--and sent by mail, _postage free_, on receipt of price. $1.50, by

=G. W. CARLETON & CO., Publishers, Madison Square, New York.=

* * * * *

MRS. MARY J. HOLMES' WORKS.

TEMPEST AND SUNSHINE. ENGLISH ORPHANS. HOMESTEAD ON HILLSIDE. 'LENA RIVERS. MEADOW BROOK. DORA DEANE. COUSIN MAUDE. MARIAN GREY. EDITH LYLE. DAISY THORNTON. (_New_). DARKNESS AND DAYLIGHT. HUGH WORTHINGTON. CAMERON PRIDE ROSE MATHER. ETHELYN'S MISTAKE. MILLBANK. EDNA BROWNING. WEST LAWN. MILDRED. FORREST HOUSE. (_New_).

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

"Mrs. Holmes' stories are universally read. Her admirers are numberless. She is in many respects without a rival in the world of fiction. Her characters are always life-like, and she makes them talk and act like human beings, subject to the same emotions, swayed by the same passions, and actuated by the same motives which are common among men and women of every day existence. Mrs. Holmes is very happy in portraying domestic life. Old and young peruse her stories with great delight, for she writes in a style that all can comprehend."--_New York Weekly._

=The North American Review=, vol. 81, page 557, says of Mrs. Mary J. Holmes' novel, "English Orphans":--"With this novel of Mrs. Holmes' we have been charmed, and so have a pretty numerous circle of discriminating readers to whom we have lent it. The characterization is exquisite, especially so far as concerns rural and village life, of which there are some pictures that deserve to be hung up in perpetual memory of types of humanity fast becoming extinct. The dialogues are generally brief, pointed, and appropriate. The plot seems simple, so easily and naturally is it developed and consummated. Moreover, the story thus gracefully constructed and written, inculcates without obtruding, not only pure Christian morality in general, but, with especial point and power, the dependence of true success on character, and of true respectability on merit."

"Mrs. Holmes' stories are all of a domestic character, and their interest, therefore, is not so intense as if they were more highly seasoned with sensationalism, but it is of a healthy and abiding character. Almost any new book which her publisher might choose to announce from her pen would get an immediate and general reading. The interest in her tales begins at once, and is maintained to the close. Her sentiments are so sound, her sympathies so warm and ready, and her knowledge of manners, character, and the varied incidents of ordinary life is so thorough, that she would find it difficult to write any other than an excellent tale if she were to try it."--_Boston Banner._

==>The volumes are all handsomely printed and bound in cloth, sold everywhere, and sent by mail, _postage free_, on receipt of price [$1.50 each], by

G. W. CARLETON & CO., Publishers,

_Madison Square, New York._

* * * * *

A VALUABLE NEW BOOK

_That should be on every Scholar's Table._

CARLETON'S HAND-BOOK

OF

POPULAR QUOTATIONS.

A book of _Ready Reference_ for such phrases, extracts and Familiar Quotations from popular authors, as are oftenest met with in general literature; together with their authorship and position in the original. Embracing, also, the best list of quotations from foreign languages ever published. Elegantly printed and bound. Price, $1.50.

If you want to _find_ any Familiar Quotation, appropriate to any particular Subject or Sentiment--this book will give it to you.

If you want to know who is the author, and _where_ any particular Familiar Quotation comes from--this book will tell you.

If you remember _part_ of a Familiar Quotation and want to know the whole of it, and know it _exactly_--this book will tell you.

If you want to know the exact meaning and correctness of any Latin, French or Familiar Quotation, in any _Foreign language_--this book will tell you.

If you simply want a delightful book to have lying upon your table, convenient to pick up and entertain you with charming and Familiar thoughts and Quotations of all authors--this is the book that will exactly suit you. *** There's none more fascinating in the English language.

*** The demand for this remarkable work is enormous. The publishers can hardly print them fast enough. They are for sale by every bookseller, and will be sent by mail, _postage free_, on receipt of, the price, $1.50, by

G. W. CARLETON & CO., Publishers,

_Madison Square, New York._

CHARLES DICKENS' WORKS.

A NEW EDITION.

Among the many editions of the works of this greatest of English Novelists, there has not been until _now_ one that entirely satisfies the public demand.--Without exception, they each have some strong distinctive objection,--either the form and dimensions of the volumes are unhandy--or, the type is small and indistinct--or, the illustrations are unsatisfactory--or, the binding is poor--or, the price is too high.

An entirely new edition is _now_, however, published by G. W. Carleton & Co., of New York, which, in every respect, completely satisfies the popular demand.--It is known as

"=Carleton's New Illustrated Edition.="

COMPLETE IN 15 VOLUMES.

The size and form is most convenient for holding,--the type is entirely new, and of a clear and open character that has received the approval of the reading community in other works.

The illustrations are by the original artists chosen by Charles Dickens himself--and the paper, printing, and binding are of an attractive and substantial character.

This beautiful new edition is complete in 15 volumes--at the extremely reasonable price of $1.50 per volume, as follows:--

1.--PICKWICK PAPERS AND CATALOGUE. 2.--OLIVER TWIST.--UNCOMMERCIAL TRAVELLER. 3.--DAVID COPPERFIELD. 4.--GREAT EXPECTATIONS.--ITALY AND AMERICA. 5.--DOMBEY AND SON. 6.--BARNABY RUDGE AND EDWIN DROOD. 7.--NICHOLAS NICKLEBY. 8.--CURIOSITY SHOP AND MISCELLANEOUS. 9.--BLEAK HOUSE. 10.--LITTLE DORRIT. 11.--MARTIN CHUZZLEWIT. 12.--OUR MUTUAL FRIEND. 13.--CHRISTMAS BOOKS.--TALE OF TWO CITIES. 14.--SKETCHES BY BOZ AND HARD TIMES. 15.--CHILD'S ENGLAND AND MISCELLANEOUS.

The first volume--Pickwick Papers--contains an alphabetical catalogue of all of Charles Dickens' writings, with their exact positions in the volumes.

This edition is sold by Booksellers, everywhere--and single specimen copies will be forwarded by mail, _postage free_, on receipt of price, $1.50, by

G. W. CARLETON & CO., Publishers, Madison Square, New York.

* * * * *

Typographical errors corrected by the etext transcriber:

Hercules was the son of Jupiter and Almena.=> Hercules was the son of Jupiter and Alcmena. {pg 11}

Pelops and and Hippodamia=> Pelops and Hippodamia {pg 25}

mathemathics=> mathematics {pg 57}

asissted=> assisted {pg 69}

briqing the charioteer=> bribing the charioteer {pg 106}

ane Minerva=> and Minerva {pg 112}