The Library of Work and Play: Guide and Index by Boone, Cheshire Lowton

Transcriber's Note: This book is a summary and index to a series of books that can also be found in the Project Gutenberg collection. Details of these books can be found in the notes at the end of this volume.

THE LIBRARY OF WORK AND PLAY GUIDE AND INDEX

THE LIBRARY OF WORK AND PLAY

CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK By Edwin W. Foster

ELECTRICITY AND ITS EVERYDAY USES By John F. Woodhull, Ph.D.

GARDENING AND FARMING By Ellen Eddy Shaw

HOME DECORATION By Charles Franklin Warner, Sc.D.

HOUSEKEEPING By Elizabeth Hale Gilman

MECHANICS, INDOORS AND OUT By Fred T. Hodgson.

NEEDLECRAFT By Effie Archer Archer

OUTDOOR SPORTS, AND GAMES By Claude H. Miller, Ph.B.

OUTDOOR WORK By Mary Rogers Miller

WORKING IN METALS By Charles Conrad Sleffel.

[Illustration: Wireless Station and Workroom of George Riches, Montclair, N. J. George made most of the Apparatus at Home or in the School Shop]

_The Library of Work and Play_

GUIDE AND INDEX

BY CHESHIRE L. BOONE

[Illustration]

GARDEN CITY NEW YORK DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 1912

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN

COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, N. Y.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

I. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CRAFTS IN THE LIFE OF A PEOPLE 3

II. THE CULTIVATION OF TASTE AND DESIGN 16

III. THE REAL GIRL 28

IV. THAT BOY 47

V. A HOUSE AND LOT--ESPECIALLY THE LOT 67

VI. VACATIONS, ATHLETICS, SCOUTING, CAMPING, PHOTOGRAPHY 78

INDEX 85

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Wireless station and workroom of George Riches _Frontispiece_

FACING PAGE

An example of furniture such as boys like 4

Clay pots made for germination experiments 5

The work of children between ten and eleven years of age 5

Two examples of furniture grouping for the porch or outdoors 18

The numerous photographs suggest disorder and dust 19

An interesting curtain which might be duplicated by any girl 20

Since flowers are so beautiful in themselves, is it not worth while to arrange them with judgment? 21

A school garden in Jordan Harbour, Ontario, Can. 28

Domestic science class 29

The work of girls in the public schools 30

A children's garden gives fresh air and sunshine 31

All children love to play at being "grown up" 32

Girls must sometime learn of the conventions and customs of domestic arrangement 33

A boys' camp with Ernest Thompson Seton 48

The play idea very soon grows toward the representation of primitive though adult customs and actions 49

A typical boy's workroom and shop 50

The kind of shop which one may have at home 51

The kite fever is an annual disease 52

Pump and waterwheel 53

Boat made by Percy Wilson and Donald Mather 54

These are the forerunners of numerous other electrical constructions 55

A real derrick in miniature 56

Waterwheels and fan 57

A self-recording telegraph receiver 58

Wireless station and workroom of Donald Huxom 59

An electrical soldering iron and glue-pot 60

Waterwheel connected with model lathe 61

Excellent examples of high school work 62

A manual training shop 63

The machine shop 64

The study of aeroplane construction 65

A successful machine 64

Finished aeroplanes 65

The boy who does not love to camp is unique 68

This and other illustrations of homes, show such places as people make when they care about appearance 69

Even the most beautiful house must have a background 70

One should build a house as one builds a reputation 71

Trees, shrubbery and lawn form the frame of the picture 72

There was a time not long since, when people built houses according to style 73

A school garden 74

The Watchung School garden 75

There is a fascination about raising animals whether for sale or as pets 76

Two more illustrations which will suggest plans for the future 77

Every child, and especially the boy, needs active outdoor exercise 78

Organized play (woodcraft) under Ernest Thompson Seton 79

More woodcraft. Has the boy had a chance at this kind of experience? 80

Even the technical process of photography has been reduced to popular terms 81

In these days photography has become so simplified that every child can use a camera to advantage 81

THE LIBRARY OF WORK AND PLAY GUIDE AND INDEX

[Illustration]

CHAPTER I

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CRAFTS IN THE LIFE OF A PEOPLE

There was never a time in the history of the world when each race, each nation, each community unit, each family almost, did not possess its craftsmen and artists. In every instance, these so-called gifted members were by no means the least important citizens; their names appeared again and again in the stream of tradition as wonder workers and idols of the people. This is still true in the very midst of a materialistic age, when money and mechanics work hand in hand to produce the most in the least time for economic reasons, and when the individual worships "hand-made things." They may even be poorly made or bizarre, but "handwork" satisfies the untutored. Now it is quite possible for the machine to produce a bit of jewelry, textile, or woodwork--even carving--quite as pleasing as any made by hand alone, and it is being done every day. But the machine-made article must be produced in large quantities (duplicates) for profit, whereas the work of hand alone is unique. There lies the reason for reverence of "handwork." It is always individual and characteristic of the workman in style or technique and has no duplicate; it is aristocratic. Among the primitives, the pot, necklace, or utensil was wrought by infinite labor, and, being valuable because unique, was embellished with all the wealth of current symbolism. It was preserved with care and became more valuable to succeeding generations as a tangible record of race culture and ideals. And so down to the present time, the handiwork of the craftsman and skilled artisan has always stood as the one imperishable record of racial development. The degree of finish, the intricacy of design and nicety of construction are evidences of skill and fine tools, well-organized processes, familiarity with material and careful apprenticeship: the pattern, color, ornament, and symbolism point to culture, learning, and standards of taste and beauty. A crude domestic economy, rude utensils, coarse, garish costume and of simple construction, are characteristic of an undeveloped social order. In fact, all the arts of both construction and expression exhibit at a given period the degree of civilization; art products are true historical documents. Since then through their arts and crafts it is possible for one to know a people, does it not follow that one entrance to sympathy with the ideals and taste of the present time is through practice in the arts? Of course a considerable mass of information about them can be conveyed in words, especially to adults who have passed the formative period in life and have not the same _work_-incentive as have children. But even the adult never really secretes much real knowledge of the arts unless he has worked in them. He acquires rather a veneer or artistic polish which readily loses its lustre in even a moderately critical atmosphere: he learns artistry and the laws pertaining thereto as he would learn the length of the Brooklyn Bridge or the population of El Paso. He merely learns to talk about art. But children learn primarily and solely by _doing_, and the foundations of taste and culture need to be put down early that they may build upon them the best possible superstructure which time and opportunity permit.

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1909, by Cheshire L. Boone

An Example of Furniture such as Boys Like and which They Can Make Under Direction]

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1909, by Cheshire L. Boone

Clay Pots Made for Germination Experiments in Grade IV. of the Public School. The Boys of this Grade Built a Small Kiln in which these Pots were Fired]

[Illustration: The Work of Children between Ten and Eleven Years of Age]

The foregoing paragraphs will perhaps have opened the way for questions: "What kind of knowledge is of most worth? Why do children--practically all of them--try to make things, and what is their choice?" And when these queries have been answered so far as may be, do the answers possess immediate value?

At the outset it will be evident that no sort of knowledge will be of much avail until it is put in such form that the student can use it to advantage. Mere knowledge of any kind is inherently static--inert and often seemingly indigestible, like green fruit and raw meat. One too frequently meets college graduates, both men and women, equipped with so-called education, who are economic failures. These people are full of information, well up to date, but they seemingly cannot use it. Their assortment of knowledge is apparently in odd mental sizes which do not fit the machinery of practical thinking as applied to life: it is like gold on a desert isle. What the boy and girl need and desire is (1) a favorable introduction to the sources of information, and (2) the key to its use. They will have to be shown simple facts and truths, and have their mental relations and importance explained. By gradually introducing new knowledge as occasion offers, the field of study is sufficiently widened. Children profit little by books and tools alone: they crave encouragement and some direct constructive criticism. In such an atmosphere their endeavors become significant and profitable, and the accumulated learning will be applied to business or economic ideas which result in progressive thinking, which uses information as a _tool_, not an end in itself.

If then the arts of a people stand as monuments to its beliefs and ideals, an intimate understanding of some of the arts ought to be provided for in every scheme of education both at home and in school. The child is by nature interested in the attributes of things associated with his life and upbringing. He wants to know about them, how they are made, and learn their uses by means of experiment. The elements of science, mechanics and natural phenomena, business and household art, and finally play (which is often adult living in miniature)--these comprise a large portion of the subject matter which is of prime importance to children. It is just such material as this which bids fair to serve in the future as the basis for public school curricula, simply because of its strong appeal to youth and its potential worth in forming the adult.

The boy makes a kite, a telegraph outfit, or sled in order to give to his play a vestige of realism. He seeks to mold the physical world to personal desires, as men do. Incidentally he taps the general mass of scientific facts or data and extracts therefrom no small amount of very real, fruitful information. The result possesses marvelously suggestive and lasting qualities because it came through effort; because the boy wanted above all things to see his machine or toy _work_, _move_, or obey his guiding hand, he was willing to dig for the necessary understanding of the problem. His study brought about contact with numerous other lines of work which were not at the time, perhaps, germain to the subject, but were suggestive and opened various side lines of experiment to be considered later. Therein lies the lure of mechanics and craft work, gardening, outdoor projects, camping, etc.: the subject is never exhausted, the student can never "touch bottom." There is always an unexplored path to follow up. The intensity of interest in mechanical things and in nature is the one influence which can hold the boy in line. Turn him loose among mechanical things where nicety of fitting and accurate workmanship are essential and he appreciates construction immediately, because it is clear that _workmanship_ and _efficiency_ go hand in hand. It is very much the same with the girl: she may not enjoy the tedium of mere sewing, but when the sewing serves a personal end, when sewing is essential to her greatest needs, these conditions provide the only, inevitable, sure stimulus to ambition and effort.

The school of the past, and often that of the present, has sought to produce the adult by fertilizing the child with arithmetic, grammar, geography, and language. The process resulted in all kinds of crooked, stunted, oblique growth, the greatest assortment of "sports" (to use a horticultural term) the world has ever seen. It isn't intellectual food the child needs most (though some is very necessary); the real need is intensive cultivation. Within himself he possesses, like the young plant, great potential strength and virility, enough to produce a splendid being absolutely at one with his time and surroundings; he simply requires the chance to use the knowledge and opportunities which lie at hand. It is, then, the common subjects of every-day interest--science, business, nature and the like--which are the sources of knowledge which has greatest worth to children.[A] They are the valuable ones because they are of the type which first attracts and holds the child's attention; they are concrete. Through them one may learn language and expression, because one has something worth saying.

The second question, "Why do children like to make things and what is their choice?" in the light of what has been said practically answers itself. Children work primarily in response to that law of nature which urges the young to exercise their muscles, to become skilful and accurate in movement, for the sake of self-preservation and survival. It is another phase of the same law which makes one carry out in work, in concrete form, the ideas which come tumbling in from all conceivable sources. The child can only think and learn in terms of material things. Finally, the child's interests, the things he desires to make and do, are such as will minister to his individual or social needs, his play and imitation, and such as will satisfy his desire to produce articles of purpose. The need may be a temporary, minor one, but every child is stubborn on this one point, that everything he does must lead to utility of a sort; through such working with a purpose he in time rises to an appreciation of beauty and other abstract qualities.

Now this complex condition of child and school and society, in which there is seemingly so much waste--"lost motion"--has always existed; the facts are not new ones by any means. It is a condition where the child is always curious, inquisitive and ready to "hook a ride" on the march of business, science and learning, but the school sternly commands "learn these stated facts because they are fundamental" (philosophically), while society, represented by the parent, alternately abuses the school, which is collectively his own institution, or spoils the child by withholding the tools for learning easily. In the meantime the child, with the native adaptability and hardiness of true need, thrives in barren, untoward surroundings, and matures notwithstanding. In other words, the school and society have always tended toward misunderstanding--toward a lack of mutual interest. In this period of uncertainty, of educational groping, the child is found in his leisure hours pushing along the paths which connect most directly with life and action, shunning the beaten but roundabout highways of custom and conservatism.

The deductions are evident and clear-cut. If one accepts the foregoing statement of the case, and there is ample evidence in any community of size, it will be clear that certain definite opportunities should be opened to the boy or girl to make the most of native talent and enthusiasm. Encourage the young business adventurer or artisan to make the most of his chosen hobby (and to choose a hobby if he has not one already), to systematize it, develop it, make it financially profitable if that is the desire; but first, last and all the time to make it a study which is intensive enough to satisfy his or her productive ambitions. At this age (up to the high school period) the boy or girl may not have been able to decide upon a profession or business, but he is working toward decision, and he is the only one who can choose. Instead of trying to select an occupation for him, father and mother would do well to put the child at the mercy of his own resources for amusement, recreation and business, merely lending a hand now and then in their full development. It will preserve the freshness of youth beyond the ordinary time of its absorption by a blasé attitude toward the world, and lead toward a more healthy and critical kind of study than the haphazard lonesomeness, or the destructive gang spirit of the modern community.[B]

Perhaps it would not be amiss to indicate just how this unofficial study may be promoted, and to name the resources of the parent for the purpose. First of all, nine children out of ten will definitely choose a hobby or recreation or indicate some preference, as photography, animal pets, woodwork, electricity, drawing, sport, one or more of the domestic arts, collecting coins, stamps, etc.; there are as many tastes as children. The child may get his suggestion from the school or companions. Any legitimate taste should be actively encouraged and supplemented by books which really explain and by tools and materials with which to use the books. If it is a shop he wants, try to give him the use of some corner for the specific purpose so that the occupation may be dignified according to its juvenile worth. Second, endeavor to emphasize the economic and social significance of the work done and urge right along some definite aim. If a boy wants a shop, or pets, see that they are kept in condition, attended to, and if possible give some measure of tangible return on the outlay of money and energy. Third, connect the boy's or girl's chosen avocation with real living in every possible manner. Girls are rather fond of those decorative arts which contribute to artistic pleasure, and should they make experiments with stenciling, block-printing, and the like, have them use them also in embellishing their own rooms, the summer camp or club. Fourth, make the child feel that a given hobby is not to be satisfied for the mere asking. Put some limit on the money expenditure until it is clear that the interest is genuine and honest, and that the child is either producing results which are sincere, or acquiring real knowledge. Fifth and last, but perhaps most important of all, support the school in its effort to solve the problem of formal education, because the heavy burden rests there. It is quite essential that the home give the boy and girl every possible chance to develop along original and specific lines at their own pace, to experiment with the world's activities in miniature, and establish the probable trend of individual effort for the future. But this can only supplement and point the way for the formal training which the institution (school) gives. The school, being democratic and dependent upon the general public for existence, takes its cue therefrom, and creating ideals in consonance with public needs perfects the method of reaching them. When father and mother believe in a vigorous, efficient education, rooted deeply in the child's fundamental attitude toward the world and its affairs, then will the public approve and urge the proper kind of organized training. Even so, the school cannot really educate the child--he educates himself through the agents aforementioned--it simply organizes information and gives the pupil access to methods of using facts and ideas.

In closing this chapter there is one more word to be said concerning the main theme. The arts and crafts[C] of expression and construction fulfil that precise function in the child's preliminary training which they did in the early history of the race. They indicate just that degree of manual skill and constructive ability of which both the youthful individual and the young race are capable; they serve as indices and guides to the development of design, taste and constructive thinking. As the child matures he may elevate a given craft to an art or science, but the early familiarity, the simple processes, he should have, because they are essential to childhood. Hence, the large amount of handwork in the kindergarten and primary school; it is the necessary complement to academic work and balances the educational diet.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] For the elaboration of this question as it concerns girls see Chapter IV.

[B] Both boys and girls have clubs, societies and organizations, which are useless, enervating or merely harmless when they exist without purpose. If, on the other hand, the aggregate energy can be collected into profitable channels, these same gangs or societies are a real source of education and training. Any organization without consistent, sustained purpose is a waste of social energy. Baseball is worth while, but the merits of high school fraternities are doubtful.

[C] It will be evident that the term _crafts_ as here used is a more comprehensive term than when employed in connection with the arts and crafts furore of the past few years. Any kind of manual occupation may be a craft; if it involves a measure of art and science it may become more than a craft. But with children the craft stage, which is characteristic, includes many occupations which may not even be true crafts as the term is ordinarily used.

CHAPTER II

THE CULTIVATION OF TASTE AND DESIGN

It will be evident to the thinking man or woman that art or any phase of it is not to be taught successfully as a profession through books. The very most that one can expect from reading is a knowledge about art matters and acquaintance with the conventions and rules which obtain therein. But even this slight result may be the precursor of a fuller, more intimate familiarity with the principles of good taste and design.

One may be able to say "that is a beautiful room" or "a fine garden" or "a charming gown" and yet be unable to produce any such things. How is it possible then to _know_ if one cannot _do_? The answer is that, _potentially_, every individual who really sees and appreciates beauty can produce it through some form of artistic expression; the power to execute and the power of invention are merely undeveloped. And as for the artist or craftsman who can make beautiful things, but who cannot explain how he does it--he is unique, like the mathematical genius; he just sees the answer; it is a gift. Though there are born in every generation a few with the divine spark of genius, the mass of men and women has always learned by effort. In other words, it has been possible to _teach_ the subjects which were found necessary to culture and education; it is quite possible to present the ordinary phases of art to the lay mind in such a way, even through books, that one may have worthy ideals, and a healthy point of view. The present chapter will be devoted to showing how books such as these[D] for boys and girls can contribute to the development of taste.

Frankly, taste has much less to do with fine art than with the arrangement and choice of the ordinary externals of living. Of course fine art does in the last analysis pass judgment upon form, color and design in clothes, furnishings and architecture, but the common home variety of taste is derived directly from custom, comfort, and convention, not from art at all. Only in the later stages of refinement does the lay mind succumb to direct supervision by art. On the other hand, all conventions and ideals are the result or sum total of general experience, in which art has played its part, and has left some impress on the individual, giving rise to belief in a few principles so common as to be accepted by all. Principles of this kind are not always serviceable or effective, because they are not stated in precise language, and cannot therefore become standard. In truth, so far as design is concerned, there are very few absolute rules for guidance, and a book like "Home Decoration" cannot tell the child or parent how to make a beautiful, inspiring home. Its mission is to create the desire for fine surroundings, to suggest ways and means for studying design, especially those phases of decoration associated with the crafts, and above all such a book invites and helps to maintain a _receptive attitude_ of mind toward artistic matters. In the effort to produce work of merit, one becomes critical, and seeks reasons and precedents for judgment. This is the beginning of design study: and the fact that one has real interest in taste is indicative of the desire of the cultured mind for ideals. If a child is allowed to grow up in the "I know what I like" atmosphere, without reasonable contact with choice things, and without the necessity for selection based upon reason, there is small chance that such a child will ever acquire any sense of fitness or taste in material surroundings.

[Illustration: Two Examples of Furniture Grouping for the Porch or Outdoors. These Few Pieces Suggest Comfort, Cleanliness and Moderate Expense]

[Illustration: The Numerous Photographs in the Upper Illustration Suggest Disorder and Dust. They do not Decorate. Sometimes a lack of Small, Insignificant Objects like these is the Secret of Successful Decoration]

The aims of all practical books for boys and girls may be summarized about as follows:

(_a_) To absorb the overflow of youthful energy and turn it into profitable channels.

(_b_) To develop organized thinking and accomplishment, and eliminate wasted, aimless, non-productive action. This is the complement to the routine of formal training in academic subjects, which are in themselves, normally un-useful.

(_c_) To explore the field of accomplishment in order to select intelligently a future occupation.

(_d_) To develop and foster standards and ideals of efficiency, comfort, enjoyment, beauty and social worth. This last purpose includes taste and is the one of concern here.

The peculiar æsthetic standards which interest young people are of the most practical kind. They apply every day and to everybody. And they are fundamental. The illustrations given below will indicate the common-sense way in which design should be approached:

_Color._ The tones of the color scale have not yet been systematized so well as those of music, but each year students of design and artists move a little toward agreement. Now, suppose one wishes to use two or more tones in a room, how may harmonious effect be secured? The very word "harmony" means _agreement_, and suggests _similarity_, _likeness_, _relationship_. Therefore the tones one would use in the embellishment of a room should possess some common _quality_ for the harmonizing element. Each tone having that quality as characteristic is similar in that one respect to all other tones having the same quality. Hence they are related in a way. The relation may be made strong or weak by the manipulation of the bond which holds the tones together. For instance:

Red and green are not related at all. By mixing gray with each, red and green become related through gray. By mixing yellow, orange or blue, etc., with red and green, the relationship may be established in the same way.

Yellow and green have a common quality--_yellow_, and in so far tend toward harmony. But it may not be a pleasing one, and it will be necessary to bring them still closer together by introducing other bonds, as gray or a color. Yellow is very light and green is dark: they will work together better if brought nearer together in value.

[Illustration: An Interesting Curtain which might be Duplicated by almost any Girl--If She Wanted Curtains]

[Illustration: Since Flowers are so Beautiful in Themselves, is it not Worth While to Arrange Them with Judgment?]

It is by such simple means that all color combinations are brought into line and rendered satisfactory. No rule can be given for mixing or choosing the actual colors, but it is a safe rule to select those of a kind in some respect. The popular belief in low-toned (grayed) color schemes is a sound one, and the principle can be used very comfortably by the amateur decorator in furnishing a home. She can have any colors she wishes, and make them pleasing, if she will unite them by some harmonizing tone. Of course, all grays even are not rich and beautiful, but they are better than unadulterated color. Mr. Irwin in one of his breezy skits quotes the æsthete as saying: "Good taste should be like the policeman at parade; he should permit the assembled colors to make an orderly demonstration but not to start a riot." The moment the unskilled amateur tries to use white woodwork, red wallpaper, and gilt furniture in combination, he or she courts failure simply because the choice lacks the pervading tone which would modify the three. There are ways to secure harmony even under the most adverse conditions, but the technical details are not pertinent here.

Another characteristic which stands in the way of harmony is _emphasis_. The moment any one tone becomes greatly _different_ from its neighbors in value or otherwise, it stands out, attracts attention, just as in material objects, unusual, curious shapes and sizes invite notice, often beyond their just dues. Hence a brilliant yellow house, a bright green gown, large figured wallpaper, are over-emphatic. Clothes, which by their color and style are loud in their clamor for inspection, are out of key and bear the same relation to surroundings which foreign, exotic manners and customs bear to domestic conventions. And ordinarily one does not seek such prominence.

This question of taste is a vital one to children, and these books about "Needlecraft," "Home Decoration," "Outdoor Work," "Gardening," etc., are indirectly most useful because they put the child in a _position to choose_. The girl who sews and helps run the home is bound to cross the path of design a dozen times a day. She is faced with problems of arrangement, color and utility at every turn. Her own clothes, her room, the porch and garden, whatever she touches, are inert, lifeless things which await artistic treatment. It is when the child is faced with the problem of personal interest and pleasure that these elementary conceptions of design may be proposed.

_Form and Line._ Each year fashion decrees for both men and women certain "correct" styles. At slightly longer intervals the shops offer new models of furniture, hangings, jewelry, pottery, etc. Have these new things been devised to meet a change in public taste? Not at all; they are inventions to stimulate trade. Most of such productions are out of place, incongruous, in company with present possessions. One must have a pretty sound sense of fitness and selection in order to use them to advantage or to resist their lure. As single examples, many of the new things are beautiful in color and line, though they may have nothing whatever in common with what one already owns.

One chooses a given pattern in furniture first, because of its _utility_; second, because of its harmony in line and size with other furniture already owned; and third, because of its intrinsic beauty. It is much less difficult to furnish a house throughout than to refurnish an old room in consonance with others already complete. All the household things need not be of one kind, though the closer one clings to a clear-cut conception of harmony (relationship of some kind) the better the result. Hence clothes may either beautify or exaggerate personal physique, and the garden may attach itself to the house and grounds or stand in lonely, painful isolation. Down at bottom design aims to assemble elements and parts into proper groups, and in the common questions of home decorations and dress the student can usually work on just that simple basis. It is usually the incongruous, over-prominent, conspicuous, or isolated factor in decoration which causes trouble.

This fragmentary discussion will perhaps suggest some of the benefit which may come from the pursuit of crafts and occupations. The illustrations here given are in some detail because it is so easy to overlook design at home and in common things. Everything is so familiar there, one is so accustomed to the furniture, rugs and their arrangement, that it never comes to mind that the situation might be improved. It must be remembered that, when children begin to apply design to their own handicraft, their fundamental conceptions of beauty originate in the home. Either the children must lose faith in home taste, or, as they grow and learn, be allowed to bring their new-found knowledge back into the home and "try it on." This is where the craft does its real work. The true privilege conferred upon children by the possession of such books as these on various special occupations is a chance to obtain, first-hand, individual standards of perfection and beauty. Before this they have merely accepted the home as it stood, with no thought of what was choice or otherwise.

Since taste and design are merely implied, or indirectly included in the several volumes, save "Home Decoration," the latter should be used as a supplementary reference in connection with the others. As has already been said, it is not possible or advisable to systematically teach good taste. It will be better and more effective to just _include_ taste in the several activities the child undertakes. When the girl begins to make things for herself, help her to select materials which are appropriate in every way. Have her seek materials for the purpose. Have her _choose_ decoration and color rather than take the first handy suggestion or copy the plans of another. She would do well to experiment independently. The girl should create her own room down to the last detail, not make everything herself, but plan it, plan its arrangement, its color (tone) if possible, and make those small decorative articles like pillows, runners, curtains, etc. But before beginning such a comprehensive experiment in decoration have her look about a bit and note the conditions imposed. The light and exposure, size of the room, furniture which must be used, treatment of hangings--these are all stubborn factors, but they respond to gradual treatment. Then the room is hers in reality. The boy's attitude toward taste is totally different. He cares less than the girl for the charm of tone and arrangement; he is quite willing to despise the niceties of decoration. He must approach the question obliquely through interest in the efficiency of a given effort; he appreciates the utility phase of design most of all. The boy will come to see gradually that his pets and chickens should be decently housed, and that it is good business to do so. He should not be allowed to impose upon his own family or their neighbors a slovenly yard or garden. He will find that those tools work best which are sharp and clean and always in place. His final lesson in design grows out of association with his mates. When he begins to go to parties, to enter the social world in a small way, a new body of conventions in taste appear and he must be taught to appreciate them if he would be well liked. But the real training in design arises from manual work--the playthings, toys and utensils the boy makes for _use_. They need not be beautiful nor is there excuse for clumsiness in construction. One cannot expect even the mature child to take much interest in design in the abstract, but when he meets the subject on a common-sense basis, as a part of some personal problem, design--even taste in color and form--acquires definite standing in his esteem. It has earned the right. Hence a liberal contact with youthful amusements and occupations encourages both boy and girl to build ideals of working, and among these ideals taste is bound to appear in some guise--usually unbidden. The book on design or decoration is but a reference, an inspiration, a stimulant, never a text of instruction. The ability to choose, to secure appropriate, beautiful, accurate results, is largely a by-product of judicious reading combined with persistent effort. It remains for the parent to skim off this by-product as it appears and infuse a little of it into each problem the child presents for inspection.

FOOTNOTE:

[D] Library of Work and Play.

[Illustration]

CHAPTER III

THE REAL GIRL

_What Is the Ideal Home?_

[Illustration: A School Garden in Jordan Harbor, Ontario, Canada. Any Child Who has had this Experience, Who Has Produced or Helped Nature to Produce such Wonderful Things, will be Richer in Sympathy for Fine Things]

[Illustration: Domestic Science Class. These Girls not only Cook but Learn about Foods, Housekeeping, Entertaining, and Themselves Keep Open House at the School Occasionally]

Strange as it may seem, most of the plans for industrial training, the majority of school courses of study, and probably seventy-five per cent. of the books on the crafts and arts have been devised for the use of boys. Now there are hosts of girls in this world, probably as many girls as boys, and these girls are just as keen, intelligent, ambitious and curious about things and how to make them, as are boys. In very early childhood when both boys and girls have the same interests, similar books of amusement are used by both. But as girls develop the feminine point of view and need the stimulus of suggestion and aid in creative work, the literature for them seems meagre; they have somehow been passed by save for a manual now and then on cooking or sewing, left as a sop to their questioning and eagerness. This state of affairs is more than unfortunate, it is fundamentally wrong for two very good reasons. (1) The girl up to the age of twelve or thirteen has practically the same interests, pleasures and play instincts as the boy. She is perhaps not so keenly alive to the charm of mechanical things as the boy, but like all children regardless of sex, she seeks to be a producer. She is just as much absorbed in pets and growing things, in nature, in the current activities of her environment, and requires the same easy outlet for her play instincts as the boy. (2) The girl, when a woman grown, becomes the creator of the home, and too often enters upon her domestic career with a minimum of skill or taste in the great body of household arts, which in the aggregate, give us the material comforts and homely pleasures. Moreover, since she, as a girl, probably did not have the chance to satisfy her play desires and consequently never learned to _do things_ herself, she is at a loss to understand the never ceasing, tumultuous demands of her own children for the opportunity to experiment. To quote Gerald Lee in the "Lost Art of Reading," which is one of the real modern books: "The experience of being robbed of a story we are about to read, by the good friend who cannot help telling how it comes out, is an occasional experience in the lives of older people, but it sums up the main sensation of life in the career of a child. The whole existence of a boy may be said to be a daily--almost hourly--struggle to escape being told things ... it is doubtful if there has ever been a boy as yet worth mentioning, who did not wish we would stand a little more to one side--let him have it out with things. There has never been a live boy who would not throw a store-plaything away in two or three hours for a comparatively imperfect plaything he had made himself...."

When one goes deep enough--below the showy veneer of present-day living--one comes to agree with Mr. Lee. The normal child, especially the boy, is potentially a creator, a designer, discoverer, and we have committed the everlasting sin of showing him short cuts, smoothing away difficulties, saying "press here." No child can survive the treatment.

Father and mother have the very simple obligation to furnish the place, raw material (books, tools, etc.), and encouragement.

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1909, by Cheshire L. Boone

The Work of Girls in the Public Schools, Montclair, N. J. These Girls are only Eleven Years of Age]

[Illustration: A Children's Garden gives Fresh Air and Sunshine, and Best of All, Brings Nature very Near. To Be Really Happy One Must Make Nature's Acquaintance]

For these reasons, if for no other, the girl ought to have a permanent outlet for her native ingenuity and constructive skill in such crafts and occupations as are adapted to her strength, future responsibilities and possible interests. A home should comprise other elements than food and clothes, which are bare necessities; and though these may be expanded and multiplied, becoming in their preparation real art products, they alone are deficient in interest. Look over any well-ordered household, note the multiplicity of things it contains which are primarily woman's possessions, and collecting all one knows about them, the amount of real knowledge is surprisingly small. How much does the embryo housekeeper know about textiles, curtains, carpets, hangings, linens, brass, china, furniture? Where do all these charming things come from? Many of the hangings, table linen, embroidery, etc., are home products. They cannot be bought at all. The simple stenciled curtain which one likes so much draws attention by virtue of its personal quality. To have such things in any abundance the girl must create them, and this she is more than willing to do.

How may one explain the restful atmosphere of certain homes visited? How many housewives have intelligent insight concerning home management and administration; of simple domestic chemistry or sanitation? Yet these are vital elements in the domestic machine. One never mistakes a proper household, orderly, smooth running for the showy establishment--gay outside and sad inside. Even the most untutored child unconsciously responds to the healthy influence of selected material environment and conditions, when these are combined harmoniously. There are systematic ways of creating pleasant rooms, fine grounds, comfortable places for living, places imbued with the spirit of contentment. The people who produce such places are seldom the professional decorator, landscape architect, and hired housekeeper. It is the woman of the family, who, having practised some of the arts, or at least been their disciple, has learned to appreciate order and love beauty. Therewith comes an almost instinctive knowledge of how to use them to advantage. One can never really have beautiful baskets, pottery, sewing, gardens, until one has made them. One surely cannot appreciate the true worth of clean linen, a spotless house, and perfect routine anywhere so thoroughly as in one's own house. It naturally follows that the girl, like the boy, should be a producer, not a mere purchaser, of personal or domestic commodities. She may have unlimited means, but the place where she lives as a girl and the home she seeks to create in adult life will always be impersonal, detached, _hotel-like_, unless she personally builds it. She must know the structure, composition, and functions of inanimate things; this knowledge comes easiest and persists longer through use and experience.

[Illustration: All Children Love to Play at Being "Grown Up," even Beyond the Time of Childhood. These Girls will make Real Women, because They are Normal and Happy]

[Illustration: Girls must sometime Learn of the Conventions and Customs of Domestic Arrangement, and too often Their Only Opportunity Lies in such Classes as These]

There is a good bit of psychology behind the suggestions offered, and the reasoning is simple. All our ideas, our plans, and conceptions are just ideas and nothing more until they have been worked up into concrete form--put to test. There is nothing tangible about an _idea_. But living is real; hence all the details which comprise living are real too and mere thinking about them without action is futile. One must execute, arrange, and experiment with the raw materials of everyday use. The result is either pleasant or otherwise; if otherwise, the effort has somehow failed, and one should do it again and learn thereby; if pleasant, one is the richer and happier for a bit of success, and is warmed by the presence of mere accomplishment.

This last phrase reveals the nub of the whole question--accomplishment. Material surroundings and comforts of course go far to make one happy, and they are the evidence of success, but the ideal home is also composed of people each of whom is or should be a contributor to the work of the world. The ideal home contains no drones, and therefore no discontent. Now the girl cannot plunge headfirst into the maelstrom of domestic management. She must learn her strength and acquire confidence, and there are simple occupations for early years, occupations which train the muscles, sharpen the wits; occupations which through suggestion gradually lead to a wider and wider intellectual horizon, and which, by a cumulation of information and experience, mature both judgment and taste. These occupations form, as it were, some chapters in the unwritten grammar of culture and efficiency whereby the girl grows in self-reliance and maturity.

There are, for instance, a number of crafts which, in their delicacy of technique and the artistic worth of the finished product, are splendid occupations for girls, and some few of which every girl should know. The girl who cannot sew is an object for sympathy; it is the typical feminine craft for the reason heretofore named--that one cannot know how things should be unless one is familiar with the process involved. Gowns are manufactured of pieces of cloth cut in proper shape and sewn together in some, to the male, occult fashion, and this complex operation only explains itself even to a woman by going through the experience. One has always been accustomed to think that the accomplished mistress is also an expert needle-woman or skilled worker in textiles of some kind. Products of the needle and loom have always been her intimate, personal possessions, and the charm of old hangings, lace, needlecraft of all kinds, rests in the main on this personal quality. Without a doubt the most precious belongings of the young girl are her own room with its contents of decorations and furnishing, and the garments which emphasize her inherent feminine charm. It is not only a girl's right, but her duty, to maintain her place as the embodiment of all that is fresh, cleanly and attractive. To this end clothes and the various other products of the needle contribute not a little; a clean-cut, thorough experience in manufacturing things for herself is the best assurance of future taste, which will spread out and envelop everything she touches. It is much the same with clothes and furnishings as with other matters, what one makes is one's own, characteristic, appropriate, adequate, with the touch of enjoyment in it; the purchased article is devoid of sentiment, it is a makeshift and substitute.

Then by all means let the girl learn to sew, learn to do for herself, to study her own needs and desires, to find as she progresses, ways to master the details of woman's own craft, and it is hoped, lay up a store of just the sort of experience which will enable her to supervise the work of others in her behalf when the time comes. But sewing, valuable as it is in connection with the young girl's problems, is not the only craft at hand. In recent years craftworkers have revived a number of old methods of using or preparing textiles for decorative purposes, and some of these have proven increasingly worth while in the household. Stenciling, block-printing, dyeing, decorative darning, and even weaving itself, since they have been remodeled and brought out in simple form, offer opportunities to the wideawake girl. The results in each case may be very beautiful, and perhaps more in harmony with the individual taste and scheme of living of the particular girl than any materials she could buy, because they may be designed and executed for a specific place. Few people, least of all a child, work just to be busy; there is always a motive. With the girl it is a scarf, a belt, collar, curtain, or sofa pillow; is it not well worth while if she can make these for herself or her room, in her chosen design motif, (as rose, bird, tree, etc.) and color? It may be an ordinary design, peculiar color, but they satisfy a personal sentiment which, by the way, can be modified and improved as time goes on. One must needs allow children to begin with the bizarre, distorted, seemingly unreasonable, archaic desires they have and cross-fertilize these with better ones in the hope of producing a fine, wholesome, sturdy attitude of mind.

Among the minor crafts which may be a source of real pleasure and good taste, two are prominent: pottery and basketry. The technique, decorative possibilities, and functions of the finished products as elements in household economy and ornament place these crafts high in the list of those especially suitable for girls, though boys and adults do find them equally interesting. Pottery is so closely associated with flowers and growing things, with the decoration of fine rooms, with choice spots of color, and with those receptacles and utensils which belong to the household, that it makes a strong appeal to the feminine mind. Here is a craft which vies with textiles in age and beauty of design, and possesses even greater charm of manipulation because it is plastic. One can imagine no finer outlet for creative effort.

Lastly, there is the eternal, magnificent, womanly craft--home-making. When one stops to think that the home is the one imperishable, absolute social unit, the power which creates it must take rank with other vital forces of constructive economics. Mothers' clubs and women's organizations of divers kinds, or, rather, the individuals who comprise such societies, are continually drifting into the discussion of the worries, difficulties, and trials which attend the household. The instant household routine becomes awkward or inadequate it affects adversely each individual member of the family, and naturally the mistress who is responsible shoulders a burden. There are times when the maid leaves, or the cooking goes wrong, or the house is cold, or just a time when one gets started for the day badly. There are times when the innate perversity of humans and material things runs riot. One is led to believe that such untoward occasions, since they have been in the past, will in all likelihood continue to crop up to the end of time, though one cannot find any good reason why they should. There are homes unacquainted with any household rumble or squeak, where the domestic machinery is always in order, and flexible enough to care for sudden overloading, or absorb any reasonable shock. In many such places, devoid of servants and confined to a modest income, the mistress is ever an expert; the chances are that her daughters will be equally resourceful. Really, the only sure way to bring up an adequate number of fine, competent, resourceful wives and home-makers is to train them definitely for the profession. The girls must be made acquainted with every detail of the business which they will surely inherit. The people who would live in hotels and frankly abandon home-making themselves merely emphasize the charm of the household, because hotels have nothing in common with homes.

It seems rather strange that a business so old as housekeeping does not, and never has, applied to its development the laws of commercial enterprise. When the community or corporation state sees the need for workmen, foremen or directors, it tries to educate individuals for the purpose. The supply of competent men and women is not left to chance. Whereas, womankind trusts to a very fickle fortune, that every girl will somehow learn to steer the domestic craft and be conversant with methods of preserving family ideals. Contrast the far-sighted plans of business to fill its ranks with the casual training the average girl undergoes to fit her for the future. What is her chance of success? Is it reasonable to suppose that one who has never made a home, or even helped actively to run one made for her, can on demand "make good?" It is a lasting tribute to the inherent genius and indefatigable patience of the modern woman that she has achieved so much with a minimum of experience.

Hence, in order to properly equip one's children for a practically inevitable future, let the girls into the secret of domestic planning; let them know of costs and shopping, income and expenditure; of materials and uses; the care of possessions, repairs and cleaning; try to show them that the menu is not a haphazard combination of ingredients and foods, but a conscious selection of viands which will entice the appetite, furnish proper nutrition and accord with the season. By all means emphasize the fact that housekeeping, like any business, can be systematized so that the hundred and one activities may succeed one another in orderly procession through the weeks and months. Wash day and housecleaning should be absorbed into the domestic program, and never present their grisly features to the home-coming male, with sufficient trouble of his own.

Recent issues of the magazines have contained much discussion of the household tangle, and most of them have ended with the slogans "industrial education," "back to the kitchen," and such. Granted that girls need this training, and that schools in time will give it; granted that the social position of the servant is a source of discussion and friction; that the demands of modern living are exacting; and, finally, granting the insistent prominence of all the other economic disturbances, who is, in the last analysis, to blame? Would a business man think for one moment of handing over any department of his affairs to one not trained for the particular duties involved? Industry in every branch seeks men and women _fitted_ to take charge of even minor matters. And when trained assistants are scarce the obvious policy is to prepare other promising workers for such special places. On the other hand, mothers too often prepare their daughters for marriage, not for home-making, seemingly blind to the fact that marriage is an inert, barren, static condition, save in the stimulating atmosphere of a fine home. How can the servant question ever be settled by untutored girls who get no closer to the domestic question than fudge, welsh rarebit and salted peanuts? The _school can and does_ now, in all well-ordered communities, give a very satisfactory formal, technical training in domestic art and science.[E] There students learn to cook and sew; they learn a good deal about food values, dietetics and simple food chemistry, simple sanitation, etc. But the management of a real house, system and everyday routine, that fine sense of adjustment to the conditions as they exist--these essentials can only be learned in the home itself. The efforts of the school can largely supplement but never replace home guidance, experience and _responsibility_. Keeping house ought to be a science and art rather than a game of chance.

_Definite Suggestions_

In the "Library of Work and Play," to which the present book is the introductory volume, one will find a collection of books replete with suggestion. But these are not manuals, or courses to be followed from end to end, because children do not _profit most_ by such a plan. The child is like a pebble dropped into still water. It communicates its energy of momentum to the surrounding fluid and makes a circular ripple, which in turn makes another and wider ripple, until the energy is exhausted. In much the same way the child, landed in the midst of a more or less inert material world, acts upon it with energy, _which, however, is never exhausted_, producing the results which become more and more extended. He begins in the middle of a given subject and works in all possible directions, which gives one the clue to how to make the most of books like these.[F]

If the girl has not already indicated a decided preference for some recreation or play, place at hand the books which show the possibilities open to her. It would be well for one to go over them rather carefully first in order to know what they contain. Let the girl take her leisure in searching the chapters and illustrations for the suggestion which strikes a responsive chord. Ofttimes it will be quite in order to point to chapters which have a bearing on some personal need or desire. At any rate, the book or chapters which seem to be most significant at the time should be followed up. Read over with her such a volume as "Home Decoration" or "Housekeeping." Let her discuss the plans offered and try them out in her own home. Every girl wants and should have a dainty, inspiring, beautiful room of her own, and as she grows older she also wants the rest of the house to match, so that she can entertain her friends with pride and confidence. If one will take "Housekeeping," "Home Decoration," and "Needlecraft" as texts, and select from them first those suggestions which are _immediately apt_ in a particular home, the girl will shortly find herself looking at home problems from several different and very important angles. But it is desirable also that the study be taken up first in a very simple way, in order to tie it to real living and needs. New curtains, pillows for the porch or den, stenciled scarf, the decorations and menu for a small party, additional linen: these are some of the problems always coming up, which may be used as a beginning. And once the start is made the girl should have the chance to try other experiments along the same line. Read with her the chapter on menus and marketing, or housecleaning, and turn the house over to the daughter for a time to manage--absolutely. There is nothing in the world which children love more or which develops them more quickly than responsibility, and the mutual consideration of household affairs gives the girl real partnership in the domestic business. She may use the "Housekeeping" book as a kind of reference, to be sought when new problems in management fall to her share.

The question of home decoration is so vital that it deserves special statement. The text[G] deals with all those details of interior furnishing and embellishment which indicate taste. All of these are not equally important, nor do they interest all girls to the same extent, and in using the book one can profit most by the study of those topics which touch the individual or particular family. But everywhere there is the problem of furniture arrangement, wall decorations, color schemes, and the skilful use of flowers, pottery and textiles. Give the young people, and especially the girls, an insight into how the interior should be treated. Have them look up pertinent questions in the text and then try their 'prentice hands at creating a pleasant, restful, homelike house with the furnishings at hand plus whatever they can make or secure. Really, the book is as much a volume of suggestion for the mother, to which she can refer her daughter, as a text for the child. There is very keen interest in taste in recent years, among young people as well as parents, and the elements hitherto lacking have been (1) accessible information and (2) opportunity to "try it out." Offer that opportunity; a flat is just as fruitful a field for experiment as a house, perhaps more.

The active participation in outdoor life, nature-study propaganda and the multiplication of popular scientific (nature) literature has greatly opened another field to children--that of raising pets, gardening, etc. Here the boy or girl will readily make some choice at an early day, if there has been any contact with such things. If not, a volume of this kind[H] will be a real stimulant and inspiration, as it should be, not a lesson manual. Place the book in a child's hands, help him look over the conditions, available ground, cost, care, etc.; let him send for circulars and catalogues, or if possible visit some one interested in the same hobby and the experiment is under way with irresistible momentum. It is a godsend to any child to give him a simple, direct statement of what can be done; he furnishes the steam and imagination for future development, and father and mother comprise the balance wheel of the business. This volume and the one on "Outdoor Sports" contain a mass of information which touch the interests of practically all boys and girls at some time in their first sixteen years. When the child is old enough to launch out in any personal undertaking, old enough for even minor responsibilities, when he or she expresses the desire for possession and money, then give them books like these. Let them soak in and digest. Encourage only those requests which are convincing, but give them all the scope possible. Every child will eventually select the pastimes which are best for her though she may stumble in doing so; she will make fewer mistakes, and waste less time if she have access to books which will crystallize and guide her ambitions.

FOOTNOTES:

[E] As the High Schools of Springfield, Newton, and Brookline, Mass.; Cleveland, Ohio; Los Angeles, Cal., among others. And the elementary schools of practically every well-organized community.

[F] "Library of Work and Play."

[G] "Home Decoration."

[H] "Outdoor Life."

[Illustration]

CHAPTER IV

THAT BOY

"The prime spur to all industry (effort) was and is to own and use the finished product."--HALL.

One day the pedagogue, who was a learned man and addicted to study, shut himself up in his library, bent on devising a method for training boys into men. This master was well versed in the sciences so that he could follow the stars in their courses, make the metals and substances of the earth obey his will, and guide the plants in their growth from seed to blossom. Nor was this scholar lacking in sympathy for the arts, if they were not too fine, for his desires all led to systems and orderly arrangements of matter, and those subjects which would not succumb to analysis he looked upon coldly.

[Illustration: A Boy's Camp with Ernest Thompson Seton. There Was Never a Boy Who Did Not "Make-Believe," and Here the Play Spirit, under Stimulating Guidance, Becomes a Powerful Factor in Developing the Appreciation of Community Effort]

[Illustration: The Play Idea very soon Grows Toward the Representation of Primitive though Adult Customs and Actions, in which Several Join a Common Body or Company. Hence City Gangs which Merely Seek Romantic Expression]

Hence in this problem of education he made a careful survey of the history and development of learning from the beginning--seeking those ideals and standards of culture which had been approved for the _scholar_, because scholars have always been held in high esteem by those patrons who, being ignorant themselves, wanted scholarship nearby. It was found in the course of his delving that the sciences had originated and developed in about this order, mathematics, astronomy, geology, botany, biology, etc. The arts of expression had of course developed as a group, but chiefly through literature from the beginning. There seemed to be a good deal of recent interest in machines and engineering, and of course certain classes had always tilled the soil, because one must have food; but the study of these activities could not lead to culture, because culture had always had to do with thinking, not manual labor. Therefore it became clear to the master that up to the present time, since the end of all scholarly ambition had been a profession (law, medicine, theology, etc.), education must be a very simple matter. All one had to do was to prepare certain capsules of mathematics, grammar, Greek and Latin, and a few, very few, odd pellets of science, etc., and at stated intervals stimulate the boy's mental organism with the various toxins in rotation. Were these subjects not the very basis of culture, and what would be more logical than direct systematic presentation of the fundamental principles? If the patient did not respond nothing could be done but to use more medicine, more lessons; there could be but one line of treatment. With this question settled the good savant signified his readiness to instruct youth in such branches as were desirable for the educated man, and pupils came in numbers to obtain the precious learning, for the pedagogue was favorably known as a great scholar. But these pupils who came, like the master, happened to live in or about the year 1912, when the chief interests of the people were business, science, and engineering; when transportation and communication had become highly developed and systematized; when farming and agriculture were almost arts, the whole welfare of the nation rested on industry, and utility held high rank as an element in culture among the people who worked. Even when a boy of this period did not seek industrial honors and follow in the footsteps of his father, he must needs be interested as a citizen in so important a source of prosperity. Hence the children who set out to become pupils of the learned teacher were alive to the business and activities of their time and surroundings, and were more than willing to learn when the learning led to a useful end. But the scheme proposed by their mentor was such a queer scheme. Of course it was better to go to school than do nothing and one must study a few things, but how much more fascinating and worth while to talk about birds and animals, trolley cars, the railway, electricity, machines, and doing things with a purpose, than to discuss impossible stories written by people who evidently knew very, very little about young people, to learn unending pages of numbers and definitions and facts, which, since one had no use for them, were speedily forgotten to make room for better material?

[Illustration: A Typical Boy's Workroom and Shop. Pride of Personal Possession Develops rather Early and the Boy Should Have a Place of His Own]

[Illustration: The Kind of Shop which One May Have at Home]

Now these children were obedient and reverent toward learning and did the tasks assigned them by their master, but in their leisure hours they did a good bit of experimenting along other lines, and found several other studies which were not in the master's scheme much more to their taste. Animals and pets were not only nice, live, soft, downy, fuzzy things to play with, but they had such queer ways and were so useful that one could talk about them forever. And then if one raised numbers of them, often neighbors would desire to purchase, and behold, a business began whereby it was just possible one could make a profit now and then. Again, it was fine if one had even a few tools so that one could put together the toys and playthings _necessary_ to every-day amusement. Of course it was needful to measure and calculate and scheme about materials and costs, but all this scheming led to real purpose, while the questions proposed by the teacher were just questions after all and it couldn't make much difference whether one found the answer or not.

Now the usual thing happened. Because of their reverence for traditional learning and respect for its apostle the youths continued to attend upon the master and go through the ceremonial form of intellectual purification. But really their hearts were outside, wrapped up in the work of the world, where they had found just the tonics which were good for them.

In just so far as the school and home open ways which "enable the student to earn a livelihood and to make life worth living" do we see the passing of the old type school (suggested above) and ideal of training. Not only are there comparatively few in this world capable of receiving high polish through the so-called culture studies, but the definition of culture has changed; now _any activity is cultural which arouses one's best efforts_. Moreover, the boy of the present is on the lookout for a new type of instructor, one born of the new era of industrial success, a teacher who will unlock the mysteries of modern nature, science, engineering and business, and who will make it possible for the student to find his special abilities or bent at an early age. It is no argument at all to say that the boy is too young to know what is best for him, that the mature mind is the only safe guide. The adult teacher and parent becomes a true guide only when he uses as a basis for guidance those qualities and instincts of childhood which cannot be smothered or eradicated. The child, whether boy or girl, knows instinctively some of the kinds of information which do not agree with him, because they possess no significance at the time and he cannot assimilate and fatten on them. The child needs a new and more nutritious mental diet. Father and mother cannot be of great _direct_ assistance because, strange to say, they are not experts with _children_, they merely know _a child_ (their own) passably well, but they can provide a most effective, indirect, contributory stimulus through outside opportunities for healthy play and experiment which will supplement the formal instruction of the school. And children of all ages up to the time they go to college need some strong outside interest, or group of them, which will serve as a finder to determine the trade, profession, or business of the future man.

[Illustration: The Kite Fever is an Annual Disease. Common to practically the Whole Country. But it is a Disease which Flourishes only among Normal Children, chiefly Boys]

[Illustration: Pump and Waterwheel. A Type of Mechanical Problem which the Boy May Begin With, Both In and Out of School, because It Touches His Keenest Interest]

The children who enter the school, from whatever grade of society or given race, are all much alike--lively little animals that sleep, eat and talk continuously, and play, though play and expression are one and the same. They do what all animals do--keep on the move, acquire muscular skill and precision, and endeavor by every possible means to express their ideas and convey them to others. This expression takes on a constructive phase when children play at store, keeping house, fire engine, and make toys of paper and cardboard, and such amusement is the forerunner of that intense mechanical interest which overtakes boys about the age of ten or eleven.[I] Girls have an equally positive leaning which is characteristic and will be noted elsewhere. Watch any group of boys of average parentage and surroundings and make a list of the things they construct for themselves, for their own ends. In any such list extending over a period of several months will be found, according to locality, such things as wagons, sleds, whistles, kites, dog houses, pigeon roosts, chicken coops, boats, guns, etc., etc. The young artisan uses whatever raw material he can; he is chiefly concerned with the plan, and makes the best of conditions and materials. The things he makes are always for real use, a principle held in high esteem in all the arts. In making these toys the boy acquires some exceedingly valuable information and a physical skill and perfection which can only be secured at an early age. He learns about things, about raw material, about tools and utensils common to every household; he gets on speaking terms with the fundamental laws of mechanics and, more than one would imagine, develops a real ingenuity in molding material to his immediate needs. The construction of a bird house or kite is in itself simple enough, but the boy has to spend considerable effort in finding out how to do it, which is beneficial. Moreover, this constant struggle to get into tune with his physical environment and subdue it results in a considerable independence, confidence, and resourcefulness, which under moderately favorable conditions will produce a boy alert to the world in which he lives and full of the spirit of investigation--the critical attitude. Such a boy will not lean on others for either learning or pleasure.

[Illustration: Boat Made by Percy Wilson and Donald Mather, Montclair, N. J., Independent of Adult Assistance. The Method of Construction, which is Unique and Sound, was Devised by the Boys]

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1910, by Cheshire L. Boone

These are the Forerunners of Numerous Other Electrical Constructions, Many of Which are Produced Out of School, in the Home Workrooms and Shops]

Actually, however, the modern boy has not been encouraged along these lines, nor has he been taken very seriously in those activities which affect him most; hence his struggle toward any real efficiency. A prominent man once said:

"When I was fifteen years of age I could break wild horses to saddle or harness, and teach kicking cows to stand while they were being milked. I could fell trees and drop the tree in any direction desired. I knew the relative value of all native woods, appreciated the differences in soil, grains, fruits, and simple minerals. I could use the draw-shove, adze axe, broad axe, cross-cut saw, sickle and cradle. I could make a figure-four trap, an axe helve, a neck yoke, axe yoke, whiffletree, clevis, and could braid an eight-strand cattle whip. We used to mend our harness on rainy days and I could make a wax-end and thread it with a bristle, and use a brad-awl. I knew how to construct an ash-leach and to make soft-soap, apple butter, and pumpkin pies. I knew the process of weaving flax and wool, of making and burning brick. I knew on sight and had names for a score or more of birds, and had a good idea of the habits of squirrels, skunks, wolves, and the fishes that swam in the creeks. I knew how to cure hams, shoulders, and side-meat: to pickle beef and cover apples with straw and earth so that they would keep in safety through the most severe winter, and open up in the spring fresh and valuable. Of course my knowledge was not of a scientific order, and I could not have explained it to another, because I never knew I had it."

How many boys or girls of the present time possess anything like this sum of _useful knowledge_--useful for the conditions in which they live? There was a time when children had to learn in order to survive, and now that the necessity is removed and children are simply allowed to grow without purpose, the boy and girl inevitably lose one of the best elements in their training unless new opportunities are opened.

It is not difficult to see how the boy's interest in construction grows and expands; mere acquaintance with boys will furnish the data. At a comparatively early stage the youthful experiments are naturally sifted to a few specialties, which assume prominence either because of the boy's reading or the type of locality in which he lives. From time to time his interest may shift, investigating one subject after another, always seeking the unknown avocation. The process will probably lead in time to a more or less fitting selection of trade or profession. How else is the boy to find himself?

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1909, by Cheshire L. Boone

A Real Derrick in Miniature, Operated by Means of a Waterwheel (at the right). The Lifting, Turning and Handling of the Bucket are Controlled by Levers Attached to Spools (in the middle section). This Sort of Thing is Part of Regular School Work]

[Illustration: Waterwheels (lower illustrations) and Fan (upper illustration), made by Public School Pupils]

After he has passed through the preliminary stages of mere play and haphazard amusement the boy becomes conscious of the mysterious, unusual forces of electricity; they hold even adult attention and wonder, but the boy, being more impressionable and confident, immediately forages for information, reads enormously, and experiments. He takes in the whole subject with a vim and sureness that is _de facto_ evidence of its intrinsic worth for study purposes. And in a much shorter time than adults would require, he has mastered the fundamental laws and is eager to put this wonderful force to work, to make things move. He has the same attitude toward steam and gas engines, water motors, and studies them with the same intensity of purpose. Here are dynamic elements which appeal to the human appreciation of _power_ and which may be harnessed, subdued. The idea is comparable to the ancient reverence for fire, water and the storm. Since modern science has organized engineering and mechanical knowledge and simplified it, the student can have at his disposal just the books and periodicals needed to unlock this storeroom of mystery; these publications were written for the purpose. But there are several other openings for creative effort which appeal no less strongly, and among which both the boy and girl may choose, with complete confidence that there will be ample room for initiative, ingenuity, and utilitarian bias.

Every child loves to go camping, and in common with his elders reveals the close connection with primitive life in general through the pleasure derived from the simplicity of camp life. There in the woods, where conveniences are few, every device and construction counts the utmost, and its purpose is apparent. The whole spirit of such living is more in harmony with child nature and longings than the modern city home; it supplies the craving for physical freedom and places the boy or girl almost entirely on his own resources. What he obtains in the way of pleasure comes from his own efforts and is correspondingly precious. The boy especially finds in camp just as much chance for mechanical skill as elsewhere. Temporary furniture, utensils, cooking conveniences, the shelter, traps, etc., are suggestive. And lastly the unconventional, untrammeled outdoor life stands in that same relation to the boy as it did to the savage (because boyhood is a primitive stage); he puts forth his strongest endeavors to conquer the elements, the climate, the earth, and growing things; to provide himself with food and shelter--in other words, to survive as the savage sought to survive. The idea is truly epic. No wonder the child expands and develops under the simple responsibilities imposed, and absorbs woodcraft with such astonishing ease. The recent extraordinary growth of the summer camp among boys' schools, and the results suggested in the writings of Ernest Thompson Seton, are, with the unfolding of industrial education, two pointed examples of the shifting view of education in the home as well as school. Probably no outside agency will in time become so effective for good as the Boy Scouts, whose code is based on a very primitive framework suited to boys. During a recent visit to California, and while crossing the flat prairies of Kansas, the writer saw a company of scouts at work. It was borne in upon the observer that there was an organization which fitted every locality, every climate; it appealed to _boy_, not _creed_, _social order_, time, or _adult dogma_.

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1910, by Cheshire L. Boone

A Self-recording Telegraph Receiver. An Excellent Example of what the Juvenile Mechanical Mind will Attempt. The Number of Boys Interested in such Projects is Considerable]

[Illustration: Wireless Station and Workroom of Donald Huxom, Montclair, N. J. This, too, Indicates how Boys Square Themselves with Scientific Progress]

One should at least mention athletics in this connection, because of the excellent physical benefit in both activities. Athletics, however, contains an element which is all-important--team work. And no restraint is so much needed, nor so cheerfully heeded for that matter, by the restless boy and girl as a community of effort. The elimination of a purely selfish personal point of view is very difficult to bring about with the best of children, because they are wrapped up in their own affairs, and nothing serves to introduce them to the rights of others and the value of concerted action for a common good so well as sport. The kind does not matter. Any well-conducted, clean enjoyment of this kind develops that mental pliability and willingness to _take a part_ which is a fundamental of citizenship. Incidentally leaders arise, and the beginnings of organization dawn. It is a great day when the boy learns his first code of signals in the ball team!

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1910, by Cheshire L. Boone

An Electrical Soldering Iron and Glue-pot, made at Suggestion of Instructor for Use in School Shop]

[Illustration:

Copyright, 1909, by Cheshire L. Boone

Waterwheel Connected with Model Lathe]

There is one more side (at least) to the boy and girl business--_earning money_. It is nothing short of marvelous that this desire for personal income, however small, has not been taken seriously. Why do children want to earn money? For the best reason in the world, _independence_. Man's entire existence from the earliest age down to the twentieth century has been one long struggle toward it--toward survival. First he had to combat the elements and animals, then his fellows, for possession of food, lands, water, raw materials, and wives. When he found that possession of certain commodities added to his importance and therefore comfort and safety, and especially to his privilege, he sought wealth and its freedom. Now the boy and girl follow stages in development toward similar independence, and among the privileges most desired is that of money or possessions of value. If they earn it, the amount represents so much work and gives the coins a fixed worth which cannot be established in other fashion. Moreover, this desire for income (rather than money) is one characteristic of the child between the ages of thirteen and fifteen years. His power of reasoning and organization are developing rapidly, and it is the time when adult ideals and actions first look attractive. The time is ever ripe for launching the boy or girl into any avocation which holds their fancy, that they may forget their own oblique tendencies to laziness, stubbornness, wayward action, and selfishness; these are all characteristic of the stage. Sex changes too play no inconsiderable part, because the boy's companions are for a time all masculine. Business of some kind is just what he needs, and if that business is profitable, a powerful motive is supplied. Perhaps the keenest interest is that in nature, and most children at some time have desired pets--chickens, rabbits, pigeons, dogs, song birds. There is scarcely a town or city condition where some animal hobby cannot be pursued without disturbing others' peace of mind. But it should be looked into seriously as a business, a miniature counterpart of other like enterprises. The disposal of personal service and products to others brings the child in close contact with numbers of adults and adult standards and business connections. It fosters responsibility and places upon the child the burden of proof, to show that he is entitled to a place as a valuable member of society. And just here it may be well to say, even if the child does not need the money he earns, it will be the most precious he will ever own, because since it came through effort, it will be spent with due caution.

The vegetable and flower garden may be made to yield similar returns and such products are always salable. In addition, every house, every yard, every farm is in constant need of repairs, changes and care which the alert boy or girl can furnish. The development of such odd tasks into a business parallels the development of every large enterprise which began in a modest way. It fosters the best of personal and civic ideals, and tames the restless, self-conscious energy of youth into smooth and profitable channels through which to journey in peace to a sane maturity.

[Illustration: Excellent Examples of High School Work which is Really Profitable. These Machines will Work and Develop Power which can be Measured]

[Illustration: A Manual Training Shop]

Is it any wonder that education is so ineffective at times? In the light of present-day appreciation of physiology and psychology it is increasingly clear that education has furnished an impersonal, rather stilted system of stuffing along restricted lines for a warm-hearted, all-inquisitive, nature-loving human animal which automatically refuses to be nourished thereby, and forages elsewhere. Although the child's judgment can by no means be followed concerning what is best for him, his instincts and possible future will serve as a most excellent guide. His early training must take into account those interests which are most keen and lasting and use them as the framework for instruction, and all subsequent stages of training involve a distinct obligation to build upon this elementary foundation, with a view to social worth. Most children will have to earn a living (the girl usually helps by managing the home), and this necessity is preëminent. But whether rich or otherwise, the ideal of social worth remains for all. And the least the home can do is to nurse childhood's efforts and experiments in play and occupation which lead finally to mature judgment and conceptions.

_How to Use Books with Boys_

Boys probably obtain more help from books than girls do because they are more self-reliant, more assertive and impatient. And as has been indicated, more books have been written for boys, but the same general method of use is common to both. The boy too finds in the book of crafts, mechanics, science, or sport a stimulant and incentive. He reads it much as he would a story of adventure. No matter what his greatest enjoyments may be, the perusal of accounts of others' juvenile activities widens the productive horizon in a way not to be ignored, and for this reason "How to Do" books of all kinds are a serious element in the boy's life, at a time when he is less concerned with what to do than with how to produce something. But there is a danger in this catholicity of interest: it may become dilettantism. The boy may merely potter or fuss with one hobby after another, more because he cannot supply the need for more and more information, than because he does not care. Hence it is worth while from time to time to add more fuel to the flame of ambition in a given direction, to provide books and tools, a working place or shop, and open the way for progress in some stated direction.

[Illustration: The Machine Shop. Public School, Montclair, N. J.]

[Illustration: The Study of Aeroplane Construction, Public School 77, N. Y. City. This Toy is Full of Possibilities for the Live Boy]

[Illustration: A Successful Machine]

[Illustration: Finished Aeroplanes. Public School 77, N. Y. City]

Specifically, books like those on "Mechanics, Indoors and Out," "Electricity," and "Carpentry," and parts of "Outdoor Work" may be considered as of one type. When he receives the books the boy will spend days in absorbing their contents, maybe dreaming a bit over the possibilities in view, and finally, by a process which will always be unintelligible to the adult, will light upon a problem or group of them that meets his wishes, as the kite for instance; all he needs from then on is human sympathy with the, to him, important undertaking, and he will gallop through all phases of the kite construction and devices, aeroplanes, propellers, forms of motive power, probably bringing up short at the steam or gasoline engine, which opens another chapter. The really important item connected with the use of such books is to keep the young mechanic on one thing at a time. A bit of judicious questioning now and then, always aimed at a group of related problems upon which he may be engaged, will keep his mind working connectedly. His efforts will then be cumulative in effect. Visits to the aero park, the museums, to the shops and technical schools, and to the local power plants are other distinct aids which should be invoked to supplement and emphasize reading and experiment. In some of the cities model kite and aeroplane contests are held at regular intervals, and these put boys on their mettle to succeed. In fact the proper way to use books of this kind is to _let the boy use them_; let him begin in the middle of the book and work outward or at the end and go backward, but see that he has books which present the subject vividly, simply. Provide him with the essential tools and materials and a place to work. About the surest way to make a success with boys is to let them have a room or corner of their own where they can work to their hearts' content, where they can store their precious belongings, and where companions may come and talk over things. Really the book is inadequate alone. Unless one provide the opening for action, books but aggravate and excite the mind, mockingly spur the student on to "do." Hence with the book goes a tacit obligation to provide means and place, even the most modest, for putting the book to test.

There is yet another phase to this use of books, and it is one which the boy will usually meet, if the texts are adequate. It is this: whatever the young student does best will be the result of real desire, real personal enthusiasm. It is a fallacy to suppose that the boy interested in tools should always put up shelves, mend the door, or fix the fence. He will execute these tasks cheerfully, but they are not the subject of his dreams. On the other hand, if the desire be to earn money, to have a small business of his own, fences and shelves and plant stands may be the most interesting things in the world to him, because they are _means_, not _ends_. Hence the printed book is no teacher or trainer of children, no direct guide to future vocation, but is the very essence of inspiration, the foundation from which the young secures nourishment for day dreams and ambitions, out of which he patiently weaves the rich fabric of experience.

FOOTNOTE:

[I] This bias toward mechanics has already been noted by teachers and parents, but in recent years has assumed unusual significance because of the extraordinary development of industry. This, combined with the researches of modern psychology and pedagogy, has introduced a new, a powerful motive into teaching.

[Illustration]

CHAPTER V

A HOUSE AND LOT--ESPECIALLY THE LOT

The past decade has witnessed a movement, just now taking aggressive shape, which is unique--the interest in outdoors, nature study, farming, summer homes, sport, and what is termed the simple life. It is a movement filled with the greatest promise of any among the host now claiming attention, and bids fair to soothe the tired nerves and over-stimulated minds of a frantically industrial age. Busy men and women, particularly the men, who once thought their affairs would become hopelessly muddled if they were not at the desk each and every day, now indulge in sport, farming or gardening, and horticulture. They have become convinced of the benefits of fresh air and consequent health, and have a calmer, more serene outlook on life as a whole. It has become "quite proper" now to live in the "country," even though the country is represented by a lot 40 × 100, for one may have a garden which produces wonders even on such a lot. Indirectly, people get the desire to fix up their homesteads, to plant hedges and vines, to have window boxes and put on a kind of apologetic style which develops into conscious pride ultimately. One cannot play with such an avocation long without learning a bit more about nature in general, and without any conscious resolution drifts into keeping chickens or pets as a kind of pleasurable refuge from mundane things. All this activity is much more than a fad; it points to a recurrence of the primitive instinct to always bridge the ever-widening gaps between nature and the human, who is merely an extra-developed animal himself. Children always possess in a marked degree a love for outdoors, for animal life, for growing things, and fight hard during the early years to satisfy the desire. When they cannot achieve results at home, the surplus energy is worked off by harrowing the neighbors. Steam will do a great deal of work when under control, but if one allows steam to accumulate it must get off sooner or later, and children are under steam always.

[Illustration: The Boy Who does not Love to Camp is Unique. This Illustrates one of Ernest Thompson Seton's Camps where Boys Come in Contact with Nature at Her Best]

[Illustration: This and Other Illustrations of Homes in This Chapter, Show such Places as People Make when they Care about Appearances]

The adult, when he becomes a city dweller, takes his nature study in stiff two-weeks' doses, fishing or shooting, plus all the modern gastronomic tidbits he can carry, and accumulates a fine crop of scientific fables and sunburn. This is not real rest, not even the best acquaintance with nature; rather it is a sort of primitive spree, inherited in garbled form from tradition as a seasonal necessity. The truly fine side to the nature movement lies in its influence on everyday living through a sound regard for what nature can do at her best, and the resultant modification of taste in general. It is a questionable satisfaction to make a whirlwind campaign into nature's midst for a few short weeks, comfortably supported by the consciousness of urban conveniences in the end, when there is the possibility of bringing nature to our very doors, almost to the hearthstone. Nature is complacent and excellent company when offered a suitable welcome.

The ideal home is ideal throughout--outside as well as in. There is no vital difference between the kind of pride which demands clean linen and that which craves beautiful lawns (to be used however), beautiful flowers (also to be enjoyed), trees and porches for shade and rest. The kind of nature too which really rests and enthuses one is the kind which may be enjoyed for twelve months in the year; in other words, gardens, grounds, and trees which belong to the climate, to the locality, and, being hardy, commend themselves at all seasons.

[Illustration: Even the Most Beautiful House must have a Background to Soften the Conventional Lines and Areas of Construction]

[Illustration: One should Build a House as one Builds a Reputation, Gradually, Allowing Ideals and Execution to Expand and Develop Together. Then the House and Grounds will Appear at Their Best]

But nature is no designer. The landscape gardener and the amateur must, by their united efforts, bring an artistic plan to bear upon nature's offerings, using her trees and flowers and the contour of the ground, and create an environment which pleases. The result should not only be fine of itself, but should furnish a proper and rich background for the house which is the centre. There are in existence numerous periodicals devoted to country living, farming, gardening, animals, sports, and the special suburban problem, and also a very distinguished library dealing with similar types. These have a surprisingly wide circulation, probably because they are as a class guiding the public taste in such matters instead of following it. This literature has in a few short years uncovered a new public interest in matters allied to nature, notably in home architecture and surroundings, and there is distinct evidence at the present time of improvement in architectural style. Domestic buildings are more appropriate in material and design than ever before, and are such as seem to be in tune with the somewhat informal suburban or village surroundings. Formerly architectural style was imported from abroad, and with it came a certain few odd fragments of landscape gardening, full of patterns, floral arabesques and geometric arrangements, imitation Renaissance, urns and alert iron dogs to guard the dooryard. One can still find houses with ugly mansard roofs, stiff, forbidding doorways, and gloomy windows, the whole perched high on a hill, or at least elevated above the street, suggesting in every feature the barrenness of the artificial. It is art at its worst. The effort was further emphasized by the consistent designers through formal, wax-like landscape accessories, tender budding plants, cast-iron benches and garden ornaments, which must surely be blood kin to the modern steam radiator and art cook stove. There was nothing human about such a place: it always suggested the hereafter. But the new, healthy, public interests in outdoors, in a joyous life, have banished those artificial shells and substituted a type of dwelling which is planned for living. And the outside aspect of the house gives one the impression that it belongs to that particular spot, for those people for home purposes. Of course all houses are not so successful, but one finds a good many nowadays. It was bound to come, because when people began to study nature, to live closer to their flowers and animals, to want green lawns and pleasant hills, they soon sought a type of shelter which would nestle close to the ground and look hospitable and inviting. Architecture and gardening are more closely related than one would first imagine, and it is questionable whether one can deal successfully with one and ignore the other.

[Illustration: Trees, Shrubbery and Lawn form the Frame of the Picture, and a Bad Frame will Spoil the Finest Picture]

[Illustration: There was a Time Not Long Since, when People Built Houses According to Style. They Now Build for Pleasure and Comfort, Producing the Finest Style of All]

In previous chapters the discussion of children and their training has touched lightly upon certain points which may well be elaborated a bit here. Most of the child's waking hours would virtually be spent out of doors; no house is large enough. And it was urged that these intense outside activities would be excellent foci for most profitable study. No yard, however restricted, is too small to accommodate some hobby which will absorb the child's energy and aid in generating constructive skill and judgment. The matter of pocket money is also very important and becomes a powerful motive when properly used. But there is another and more mature point of view concerning the home as a whole, which should not be discarded. _Every child should learn to so respect and value his own personal property and affairs that he will respect those of others, neighbors for instance._ He will not do this unless his own efforts and experiments are taken seriously, or unless his home grounds and living are maintained at top condition, or unless he grows to appreciate a beautiful physical environment. The lawn, the garden, poultry house and stable ought to be in perfect trim all the time. It is better taste to have them so, and it is good business. One cannot succeed with raising pets or animals in unsanitary quarters, or inadequate shelter. It will not be difficult to develop proper ideas of taste and charm in the grounds about the house if one begins with the boy's and girl's own business and steers that to a decent working basis. Ragged grounds, unkempt lawns, weeds, littered porches and hopeless, tired-looking flowers--all persistent manifestations of neglect--leave on the youthful mind ineradicable impressions which undermine good taste.

Most boys and girls dislike any kind of work which is mere drudgery, and most children in these days shy at work for ends other than their own, because they have found that they can have privileges and amusements without responsibility or other return to their parents. The solution lies in the restoration to the boy of a feeling of personal responsibility and pride, restoring to him and his sister the rights of ownership to things and privileges earned, and make the children something other than social puppets. Make their youthful occupations count. Among those occupations one finds a number which are equally fascinating to both children and adults.

[Illustration:

Courtesy of Miss Annie Washburn

A School Garden. If Children Cannot Expand at Home, the Public School is Under Obligation to Satisfy the Need for Outdoor Occupation] [Illustration:

Courtesy of Prin. F. C. Clifton

A School Garden. Watchung School, Montclair, N. J.]

Probably no accessory to the home is more to be valued than the garden, especially the flower garden. It adds so much of color and variety to the whole scheme, and helps to bring the house into intimate relation with the grounds. The finest gardening has probably been due to feminine influence, and every girl can draw from practical experience with growing things a delicacy of taste and wealth of knowledge to apply to ends peculiarly her own. The latent intuitive feminine outlook often remains undeveloped in these days, and no craft will preserve and stimulate it more than gardening. There is a reaction just now against the formal flower beds of tender plants, a patch of exotic color dotting otherwise irreproachable lawns, though the florist would like to keep such arrangements in fashion, for he is seldom a true artist. But better standards of living, a fresher study of nature, a more personal, intimate architecture, have brought into them many of the old garden ideals where the garden belonged to the mistress of the house and showed it. The garden has a most significant history. It has always been a centre of family life, and among the Romans was in fact the element about which the household revolved. Here the family rested and visited, worked and played. The dwelling was built around it, with living rooms which opened on its walks and fountains, bringing the family together in the most intimate way. The early Dutch and English colonists brought to America a similar taste for this soothing adjunct to the home and early put into effect such garden plans as their limited resources permitted. And always it has been the women-folk of the community who have kept the garden alive with persistent belief in its harmonizing influence on the family. Not infrequently the children learned their first lessons in business, in ownership and in responsibility, there. Gardening is one of the oldest and simplest of crafts and may not be overlooked in seeking a pathway for youthful energy.

Perhaps the boy or girl would rather grow fruits or berries, vegetables, raise pigeons, keep bees--one and all are equally good. This is the essential fact: every boy and girl should come into direct and positive contact with some of the important natural phenomena and life. Growing things have to be cared for, they must have food, water and protection. One cannot play with them when one feels like it; they need attention every day. The obligation is a pleasant one, but nevertheless it is an obligation and gives a much needed lesson in a way that sticks.

Any occupation around the home, if it be one which ministers either to the pleasure, comfort or profit of individual members, is quite likely to knit that family into a more compact group. It keeps the children more at home. The interchange of service and advice which brings into relief the interdependence of the individuals stimulates this one of the important characteristics of domestic society. There has been an indication in recent years to lay upon the schools the entire training for manhood and womanhood. It is expected to teach manners and ethics, to give the proper kind of academic information, to formulate character, to even teach "nature." It is impossible to do this. The finest character, habits of study, executive ability, and the social attitude must be started and nursed to strength, if not to maturity, at home. Five hours each day under incomplete authority can accomplish little else than formal instruction. Even the beginnings of technical and scientific training have their roots deep in these childish hobbies which originate and flourish at home, where a deep obligation rests upon parents to make the most of this early time. It is a lead the school can follow, but never originate. The school represents the average educational ideal of a given community, and when schools are inefficient, languish and give indifferent service, it is an excellent index of the local culture standard. Therefore, when parents develop to their highest pitch the enthusiasms and abilities of childhood, when they foster family life and enrich it so that every member, particularly the younger ones, become active participants, and feel that they too have work to contribute to the general welfare, then and then only will the school by force of public sentiment revise its own standards.

[Illustration: There is a Fascination about Raising Animals whether for Sale or as Pets. To the Child this Occupation Acquires the Dignity of a Real Business]

[Illustration: Two More Illustrations which will Suggest Plans for the Future]

For reasons such as these every home should be a kind of unofficial training school, in which the courses are mostly elective. Some outdoor hobbies which the children will enjoy should be maintained, and, on however small a scale, the house and grounds should be planned with this in view. The city boy and girl will have somewhat limited choice, but even there one can enjoy several hobbies, even in a flat. One can at least grow things, for there are few corners, even in a city, so dark that some plants will not flourish.

[Illustration]

CHAPTER VI

VACATIONS, ATHLETICS, SCOUTING, CAMPING, PHOTOGRAPHY

[Illustration: Every Child, and especially the Boy, Needs Active Outdoor Exercise. This kind has much to recommend it]

[Illustration: Organized Play (Woodcraft) under Ernest Thompson Seton]

The boy of to-day is at a real disadvantage in his struggle for health and happiness. He is always a primitive at heart, surging in the direction of direct physical expression, showing almost on the surface the simplicity of savage instincts, to live close to the earth, be outdoors, perform feats of strength and skill, hunt, fish, camp and play at doing the essential acts of life. Through succeeding generations society has perfected a veneer of convention which glosses over the crudities of childish abandon, and as they (children) grow, the polish becomes thicker and more lasting, even so as to make the individual a "ready-to-wear" being. But at intervals, even in adults, one finds the periodic plunge into camp and field. That vacations do not always supply the benefit which doctors would, but cannot, is rather the fault of brevity than of the outings themselves. Boys can, as a rule, enjoy vacations without responsibilities, they can have ample scope for the close acquaintanceship with the simplicities of outdoor living. One of the first true signs of summer is the tents and crude shelters in backyards of our suburban villages. It is the nearest approach to a normal, sane existence the child can make. No proper child omits to play "Indian" or "hunter" in his early years, and no youth ever quite outgrows the keen pleasure of sleeping in the open, companioned by the sighing of the night. One recent experience of the writer, camping among the giant redwoods of California, where one could before going to sleep have a last look at the stars framed by the wondrous trees, and drift to unconsciousness to water music in the gorge way down below, was a time never to be forgotten. It is such experiences as these in the open which both keep and restore one's mental balance; they breed cheerfulness and optimism, develop friendships. And the boy is not so very particular about the place, provided there is water and woods, some companions, and things to do. He loves to swim and should learn. He wants to be of some account and have a part in the camp, learn how to make camp, protect things, prepare for weather, engineer the routine of camp life. Probably no institution outside formal educational institutions is likely to have more vital influence on boys of the future than the Boy Scouts, already mentioned, a marvelous scheme to organize this play spirit. It takes hold of the most primitive instincts in child life, develops them to the highest pitch of efficiency, and turns the enormous energy generated thereby into useful channels by the simplest of devices--service. But be it noted, service for which the need is perfectly plain. The boy gets the finest of physical training imaginable and readily cultivates moral virtues which have been the despair of teachers and parents.

[Illustration: More Woodcraft. Has the Boy had a Chance at this kind of Experience?]

[Illustration: Even the Technical Processes of Photography have been Reduced to Popular Terms]

[Illustration: In These Days Photography has become so Simplified that every Child can Use a Camera to Advantage]

In general, the vacation cannot be more profitably spent elsewhere than outdoors. If a boy cannot actually go into the woods, away from home and the restrictions which modern living must of necessity impose, then the next best thing is pastime or amusement which requires outdoors for a setting. There is much to be said for each and every one of the sports common at the present time, baseball, tennis, football, golf, boating, riding--they are all good--and every healthy child will take part in one or more. Now a book about sport can never teach a boy or girl how to become skilful; it cannot explain the mystery of the golf stroke or pitched curve, but it can and does awaken the spirit of trial and test. It suggests that there is possibly a right way to do things; to play even, if one would succeed. The book may tell of the necessity for team work and organization, for system and regular living, and observance of rules made by others. In other words, the book acts through suggestion, very seldom directly; and for the same reason that one gives children books on mechanics, sewing, pets and gardening, that they may learn of the dignity and worth of these occupations, so also does one recommend books of sport and games, which surely are the more valuable when taken in all seriousness. It is through their games, involving dependence upon the confidence in others, that children acquire the best traits of character.

Aside from the inherent return in physical well-being derived from amusement in the open air--one can use this kind of medicine twelve months in the year--such pastime possesses a second quality of no mean importance; it brings one, ofttimes unconsciously, into communication or hailing distance at least of that nature which is so charming. It is easy to see the beauties of birds and flowers and skies, in camp; and the dynamic loveliness of crisp fall weather, even in a great city, is evidenced out of doors by the animation of passersby. But one cannot read about the beauties of beneficent nature; one must enjoy them personally, and is led on to do so through those pastimes which take place in the open. Several of these have been mentioned, and there is one other: photography.

Photography has almost ceased to be a science; it is a habit. One goes to the store, invests in a comfortably small parcel and a book of instructions which says "press here," and that is about all. The fine succeeding details are minor matters. Whether one merely "presses the button" or goes the whole road and really makes the picture, photography has come to be a regular accessory to sport and enjoyment. No doubt it is evidence of human vanity, but it takes so mild a form and is the source of so much pleasure that the world needs it, to preserve the thousand and one scenes and incidents which comprise the background of life.

[Illustration]

INDEX

SYMBOLS USED

*--ILLUSTRATED

A--OUTDOOR WORK

B--MECHANICS, INDOORS AND OUT

C--CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK

D--HOME DECORATION

E--ELECTRICITY

G--GARDENING

H--HOUSEKEEPING

K--OUTDOOR SPORTS

M--WORKING IN METALS

N--NEEDLECRAFT

INDEX

PAGE

Accounts balancing, H 90-91, 99 charge accounts, H 98 check book method, H 97 credits, recording, H 96 dairy accounts, A 242 debit and credit, H 90 department method of keeping, H 92-94 housekeeping, H 87-100 How to keep household accounts, by C. W. Haskins, recommended, H 99 personal expense account, specimen, H 92 poultry raising, A 168, 172 _See also_ Allowances; Income

Acorns, care of seed for planting, A 48

Aeronautics. _See_ Aeroplanes; Balloons; Flying machines; Kites

Aeroplanes, B 158-185*, C 67-83* balance problem, B 169 biplane making toy model, C 68-74* principle of construction, B 173-175* Bleriot monoplane, B 171-173* engines, types used, B 173 construction principles in general, B 170-171 controlling direction of, B 168-169 gyroscope principle applied, B 169 making models, B 180-184*, C 67-83* management not difficult, B 177 Maxim's aero-curve, B 166-167* monoplane making a model, B 180-184, C 75-83* principle of construction, B 171-173*, 175-177 motive power for toy model, B 182-183, C 72, 81-83 planes aspect ratio, B 167, 170 shape of, B 164-168 propeller blades making for a model, B 182, C 70-72* position on machine, B 169-170 Santos Dumont monoplane, B 175-177* testing a model, B 183 triplane, B 180 Voisin biplane, B 173-175* why aeroplanes fly, B 163-168, 195-197 wind velocity table, B 198 wireless telegraph control a possibility, B 169 _See also_ Balloons; Flying machines; Kites

Ageratum, planting, G 84 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Agricultural clubs book about, A 519 organizing, A 452-454

Agricultural pests. _See_ Insect pests

Agriculture. _See_ Dairying; Domestic Animals; Drainage; Fertilizers and Manures; Flower gardening; Forestry; Fruit gardening; Irrigation; Soils; Trees; Vegetable gardening; Vegetables

Alaska sable, skunk skin, A 484

Alcohol as a cleaning agent, H 124, 135, 359

Airships. _See_ Aeroplanes; Balloons

Alarm clocks, electric, E 302

Alfred, King story of the burned cakes, H 16

Algae. _See_ Seaweed

Alligator wrench, making, M 276

Allowances how to manage, H 80

Alloys definition of, M 208

Almonds food value, H 255

Alternating currents. _See_ Electric currents

Althea (Rose of Sharon) characteristics, G 356

Aluminum extraction from clay, E 263 utensils advantages, H 202 care of, H 206

Ammeter, E 25-34* construction, E 25-29 how it measures electricity, E 29-30, 32-33 shunt, use of, E 32-33

Ampere, Andre Marie Ampere's rule, E 30-32

Amusements. _See_ Games; Sports

Andirons forging, M 363-370* how to use, H 225

Andrew, Saint story of the loaves and fishes, H 32

Anemometer making, C 162-165

Anemone Japanese, characteristics, G 333, 365 wood anemone, G 343

Angora goat, A 109-110 book about, A 517

Animals feeding motherless animals, A 268 tamed versus domesticated, K 177 training, A 248-270 fear versus kindness, A 256-257 wild animals, A 259-263 _See also_ Domestic animals; Pets; also names of animals, e. g., Birds, Newts, Toads, etc.

Annealing copper bowl, M 21 definition of, M 208 steel, M 307-309 tools for, M 11-12*

Annuals (Plants) blooming after frost, G 330 climbing, G 331 definition of, G 160 for cut flowers: table, G 329 for heavy soils: table, G 329 for rocky places: table, G 332 for sandy soils: table, G 328 for shady places: table, G 331 for sunny places: table, G 332 fragrant: table, G 330 self sowing, G 331 value of, G 316, 359 what to plant, G 322

Annunciators, Electric, E 68-71*

Antique furniture. _See_ Furniture

Ants development from the egg, A 393-395 garden pest, G 283 habits, K 147 household pests, H 361

Anvil metal workers' tool, M 10*

Apartment houses heating by electricity, E 125 how to have a play house in, H 8

Apiculture. _See_ Bees

Apple distance to plant trees, G 258 food value, H 255 saving seeds from cider making, A 50 surplus used for cider vinegar, A 413 wood for canes, A 59

Applique embroidery, N 198-202 honiton lace, N 237 leather, N 83, 85* overlaid work, N 200 underlaid, N 201

Apricots, dried food value, H 255

April birds, K 175 blooming plants, G 364

Aprons, making, N 26-30 bands and strings, N 28-30 gathering, N 26-28* sewing apron and work bag combined, N 31-33*

Aquarium care of sick fish, K 166 cost of ready-made boxes and globes, K 163 feeding fish, K 166 making a water-tight box, K 160-162 stocking a self-sustaining aquarium, K 164-166 what to keep in, K 161 _See also_ Gold fish

Arago, Francois Jean wave theory of light, E 345

Arbor vitæ characteristics, C 542

Arbors. _See_ Pergola

Arbutus gathering and conserving, A 93

Arc lamp. _See_ Electric lamp--Arc

Archery practice of, K 329-331

Architecture adapting the plan to the purpose, D 6, 13 American city versus country homes, D 365-367 bungalow, plan and elevation, C 465* dining-room plan, D 9 floor plan, D 8* hall plan, D 9 kitchen plan, D 10 Living-room plan, D 9 A model house, D 3-33 pantry plan, D 12 plan in relation to decorations and furnishings, D 12-13 principles of design, D 4-5, 13-16 wall areas, considering, D 12 _See also_ Building; Carpentry; Cottages; Foundations; Pergola

Archimedian screw, B 143-145*, 344*

Armatures ammeter armature, E 29 dynamo armature, E 9, 11-13

Arrowhead (Plant) characteristics, G 366

Art copyrighting works of art, B 426

Arthur, King The King's Kitchen: story, H 20

Artichoke indoor planting time, G 233

Arts and Crafts. _See_ Basket making; Bead work; Block printing; Brass work; Copper work; Embroidery; Lace making; Leather work; Metal work; Iron work; Silver work; Stenciling

Arum (Plant) characteristics, G 366

Ash characteristics, C 564 strength of wood, C 496

Ash tray copper work, M 85*

Ashes fertilizing value, A 433

Asparagus insect pests, G 287

Aspidistra indoor plant, G 196

Assisi, Saint Francis of, H 25

Association foot ball, K 331

Aster characteristics of New England aster, G 365 half hardy plant, G 317 sowing and blossoming time, G 161 starting, G 137

Athletics all around athletic championship, K 328-329 best college record, K 336 Olympic games, events, K 372 rowing record, K 383 training rules, K 11-12 value of, K 5-6

Atlantic cable laying, E 65-66

Atmospheric pressure. _See_ Barometer

Attic playhouse, H 5

Atwater, W. O. Principles of nutrition; quotation, H 251

Auger bit, C 194* screw principle, B 156

August blooming plants, G 365

Australian boomerang, B 232-234*

Automobiles gasolene consumed per mile, B 401 making frame for one and two cylinder motors, B 396-401* making toy automobile, C 62-66*

Aviation. _See_ Aeroplanes

Axe selecting, K 96-97

Azalea indoor plant, G 197

B

Babylon proposed irrigation works, B 247

Baby's breath (Plant) characteristics, G 329, 365

Bachelor's buttons. _See_ Cornflower

Backing enamel definition, M 208

Bacon cuts, H 270 food value, H 250, 253 for basting meat, H 357

Bacteria in soils, G 222

Baden-Powell, Sir Robert Organizer of the Boy scouts, K 20

Badminton (Game), K 332

Bags braiding, N 295-296* raffia hand bag, N 272-273* stenciled, N 81*

Bait fish bait, K 130-136 _See also_ Trapping

Baked beans food value, H 257

Baking cake, H 303 principles and process, H 283-284 thickness of food, H 276

Baking powder composition and use, H 301 how to retain strength of, E 267

Ball one old cat, K 375 _See also_ Base ball; Basket ball; Call ball; Cricket; Foot ball; Hand ball; Hand polo; Hat ball; Hockey; Japanese fan ball; LaCrosse; Polo; Push ball; Racquets; Roley Boley; Skittles; Squash; Tennis; Tether ball; Volley ball

Ball bearings principle of, B 28

Balloon vine characteristics, G 331

Balloons history, B 161-162 making paper balloons, B 369-373*

Balsam characteristics, G 332, C 539 gathering, A 65 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Baltimore belle, story of, N 74-76

Baltimore oriole as insect destroyer, A 457

Bananas food value, H 255

Band saws. _See_ Saws

Bandy (Game), K 332

Bantams breeding and care, A 217-218 game bantams, A 217

Bar, Horizontal making a pull up bar, C 270*

Bar pins silver metal work, M 171-174*

Barberry characteristics, G 355 picking, A 16-17 jelly, receipt, A 17, 18

Barometer complex, how to make, B 258-261* construction of, B 231-232* inventors of, B 256 purpose of, B 261 simple, how to make, B 256-257 theory of, B 256 water barometer, how to make, B 257-258*

Base ball, K 244-266*, 332-334 art of playing, K 262-263 balls, standard, K 262 base hit, K 333 bases, K 333 bats, K 262 batsmen left-handed, K 259 qualifications, K 260 training, K 250 batting, K 260 captain's duties, K 249-250 catcher, K 254-255 diamond, K 333 laying out, K 260-262* doubtful balls, providing for, K 258 "fan", K 266 first baseman, K 255 gate receipts, K 264 ground rules, K 265 home run, K 333 innings, K 334 choice of, by contesting team, K 264 manager's duties, K 249 methods, old and modern, K 247-248 national game of America, K 244 nine, K 245, 332 opponent's methods, learning, K 259 outfielder, K 257-259 pitcher and pitching, K 246*, 247*, 251-254 positions, K 245, 333 scores, K 264, 333-334 second baseman, K 256 shoes, K 264 short-stop, K 256 signals, K 248 team, how to organize, K 249 third base, K 257 training rules, K 250 two-bagger, K 334 umpire, K 245 uniforms, K 263 visiting teams, expenses, K 264 what makes a game, K 264

Basket ball rules, K 334

Basket making materials for, N 242-243 porcupine quills for, A 69 raffia work, N 250-252, 255-261* rattan basketry, N 243-248* reed flower baskets, G 61-64* sweet grass baskets, A 64

Bass bait for, K 135

Basse-taille definition, M 208

Basswood characteristics, C 560

Basting meat, H 283, 357

Basting stitches, N 6*

Bath tubs cleaning, H 155 sanitation, H 217

Bathroom care and cleaning, H 155-156

Baths electric shower baths in a summer camp, E 244-247 summer camp device, E 160-162

Bats usefulness of, K 149

Batteries, Electric. _See_ Electric batteries

Bayberry description of bush, A 19 dips, making, A 20-21 leaves for sachet, A 65

Baywood staining mahogany, C 489, D 230

Bead work, N 278-294* chains, N 279-285* curtains, N 292 cushion covers, N 290-293 daisy chains, N 279-282* loom, home-made, N 282-284* portieres, N 290-293 purse, N 285-290* stringing the beads, N 278

Beam action, C 496

Beams, wooden strength of materials, B 45

Bean bag rules of game, K 336

Beans bush beans, varieties, G 297 experiments in growing, G 119-122 food value, H 250, 254, 255 insect pests, G 288 planting seeds depth and distance, G 42 distance of drills apart, G 297 eye downward, G 117 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 pole beans ornamental value, G 296 varieties, G 297 seeds age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 33, 233 germination time, G 32 soil, G 119, 296 _See also_ Lima beans; String beans

Bearings anti-friction, B 326*

Beck-iron definition of, M 208

Bedbugs, H 363-364

Bedell, Frederick discovery that the same wire carries two currents, E 187

Bedroom atmosphere, H 158 care of morning work, H 146-155 night preparation, H 154 personal responsibility, H 53 furnishings for a girl's room, H 54 furniture, designs for, D 57-58* guest room, H 367 _See also_ Beds; Closets

Bedroom electric heater, E 126*

Bedroom slippers. _See_ Slippers

Beds bough beds, K 65* camping outfits, K 64-66* designs, D 60*, 373* doll's bed of pasteboard, and fittings, H 11-12 making fittings for a doll's bed, N 50-56* making up a bed, H 54, 149-155

Bed spread. _See_ Counterpane

Bee balm (Flower) habits and characteristics, G 333, 347

Bee-hive. _See_ Bees

Bee-keepers Association, value of, A 326

Bee stings prevention and cure, A 317-318

Beech nuts characteristics, A 37 gathering, A 38

Beef cuts and their uses, H 268-269 food value: table, H 252

Beef tea making, H 278

Bees, A 287-336 books about, A 518 brood chamber, description, A 302*, 303 what goes on in, A 304-307 buying, hints about, A 294-297 cost of colony, A 288 development from the egg, A 393-395 diseases and enemies, A 322, 325 egg-laying, A 305 feeding, spring and fall, A 321 hives arranging, A 292 drone and queen trap at entrance, A 316* entrance to, A 303 kinds, A 297, 300-304, 325 modern, A 301-304* observation hive, A 325, K 169 old-fashioned, A 300 opening how to open, and remove frames, A 315-318 reasons for, A 314 putting together, A 298 supers, A 302* ventilation, A 294 where to place, A 290-291 hiving, A 313-314 honey harvesting, A 316 making, A 322-323 plants which supply, A 322 supply for hives, A 319 uses of, A 326 honeycomb cells, A 315-316 how bees work, A 324-325 how to approach the hive, A 303 Italian, A 296 keeping how to begin, A 287-290 supplies for first year, A 296-298 life, length of, A 306 locating the hives, A 290-291 marketing the honey, A 326-327 nucleus, meaning, A 296 observation hives, A 325, K 169* products of the hives, A 322-325 profit in, A 299-300, 334-336 protecting from wind and sun, A 291-292 queen bee clipping wings, A 316 locating, A 316 rearing, A 331-333 testing, A 304 runaway swarms, securing, A 288 shipping, A 294 smoking, A 314-315 success with bees: stories, A 328-336 swarm catcher, home-made, A 310-313* swarming reasons for, A 304 time and process, A 307-309 to prevent, A 315 varieties, A 295 wax making, A 323 wintering, A 319-321* worker bees, development of, A 305-306

Beeswax for cleaning irons, H 317

Beetles development from the egg, A 393-395 extermination of pests, G 117, 285, 287, 292 mounting specimens, A 384*

Beets boiling, G 298 cooking preparation, H 293 food value, H 255 insect pests, G 288 planting seeds, G 298 depth and distance, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination time, G 32 soil preparation, G 298 transplanting, to avoid, G 122, 298

Begonias bedding plant, G 324 window box plant, G 193

Bell, Alexander Graham inventor of the telephone, E 274

Bellflower habits and characteristics, G 346

Bellicent mother of Gareth, H 21

Bellows blacksmith's, M 216* metal worker's, M 12*

Bells brass work, M 145-147* _See also_ Electric bells

Belt buckle copper work, M 88-90* designs for, M 195*

Belt pin copper work, D 350*

Belts knotted raffia, N 273-274 Irish crochet, N 335-337* tooled leather, designs and process, D 324-328*

Bench double seat for summer house, C 422-424* riverside, B 158 selection of wood for, C 409 stationary outdoor bench, C 408-409 _See also_ Settees

Bench hook making, C 139-142

Bench stop, C 139

Bench work. _See_ Carpentry; Whittling

Berries food value, H 255 picking, A 8-20 seasons, A 8 washing, H 295 _See also_ names of berries, e. g., Raspberry; Strawberry; Thimbleberry; etc.

Bessemer steel. _See_ Steel

Bethsaida Story of the loaves and fishes, H 32

Bezel setting, M 152-157*, 163*, 176

Bicycle sprocket wheel, B 327*

Biennials definition, G 160 what and how to plant, G 322

Binding edges and seams, N 51*

Biplane construction, B 173-175* making a toy model, C 68-74*

Birch aspen leaved, C 558 bark, removing, A 66-67 uses, A 67 black or sweet birch, C 557 blue or hornbeam, C 559 gray, C 558 kinds and characteristics, C 556-559 red, C 557 staining mahogany color, D 230 white, canoe, or paper birch, C 557 yellow, C 557

Birds April birds, K 175 attracting the birds, A 454-459* bath, making, C 219* books about, A 519 crows as pets, K 176 eggs and nests, collecting, A 460 enemies, A 460-461, K 174 flight, theory of, B 195-197 game preserve, creating, A 464-465 houses building, C 213-220*, K 174-175 location, C 213 suiting the birds, C 219 supports for, C 218 March birds, K 175 May birds, K 176 migration, K 175 nesting time, K 176 non-migrating, K 176 protecting fruit from, A 461 protection and care of, A 458-459 song birds, attracting, A 454-457 unlawful to cage, K 173 that stay all winter, K 175 traffic in skins, A 459-460 training, A 263-265 value as garden pest destroyers, G 280, A 455-457

Bit and brace. _See_ Carpentry and Woodwork--Tools

Bites of insects treatment of, H 364

Bittersweet, A 56

Black bass bait for, K 134

Blacksmithing, M 215-357 equipment, M 215 fuel, M 229 fullering, meaning, M 225 iron used, M 230-232 tools, M 222, 224-226*, 228, 229 _See also_ Forge; Forging; Horseshoeing; Iron work; Tempering; Steel; Welding

Blankets campers' outfit, K 66 making for doll-bed, N 54* washing woollens, H 324, 328

Bleeding heart characteristics, G 335, 365

Blood root habits and characteristics, G 343

Blindman's buff (Game), K 337

Block and tackle. _See_ Pulleys

Block printing on fabrics designs and process, D 99-106* laundering articles, D 107 materials used for, 107

Blood stains removing, H 360

Blotting pads leather, design and making, D 335-338* metal corners, making, M 122-124* making and carving hand blotter, C 125-127*

Blow pipe metal workers' tools, M 12*

Blowing engines diagonal catch and hand gear, B 315

Blue flag. _See_ Iris

Blue printing leaves and flowers, A 360-361

Bluebell characteristics, G 364

Blueberries burning over land, A 13, C 514 canning factories, A 12 picking, A 13 varieties, A 13 where found, A 11, C 514

Bluebird insect destroyer, A 456 migration, K 175

Bluets, G 341

Bluing clothes, H 18, 320

Boards. _See_ Lumber

Boat building, B 84-109* carvel ribbon built boat, B 89 centre line of shaft, B 90 decks, B 91 dimensions of the _Mocking Bird_, B 68* displacement, B 89 exhaust pipe fitting up, B 97-98 pet-cock, B 99 under water, B 98-99 expansion chamber, B 98 floor boards, B 91 keel block for, B 76 laying and setting up, B 85-87* keelson, B 86* knees, B 91 "knock down" system, B 66, 68 launching the boat, B 134, 136-138 laying off the profile, B 90 lettering the name, B 131-132 materials and dimensions, B 90-93* motor dimensions, B 95 installing, B 93-95* motor bed, fitting, B 91, 97 offsets, table of, B 92 patterns, buying, B 62 plan and section of the _Mocking Bird_, B 66-68* propeller shaft, installing, B 93 section of launch, B 89* sections, spacing of, B 91-92 sheathing, B 89* skeleton, fitting posts together, B 88* steering gear, B 346* stem, B 86*, 90 thwarts, B 91 unloading materials, B 84-85 varnishing the boat, B 112 _See also_ Screw propeller

Boat house building, B 36-64* covering the frame, B 40 doors and windows, B 37 foundation, B 36* frame, end and side, B 37-40* pier, constructing, B 19, 76 roof, B 40-42 slides or ways, B 44-45

Boats fishing boats, fitting and cost, K 140 _See also_ Boat building; Canoes and Canoeing; Launch; Screw Propeller

Bob sled, K 223*

Bob white migration, K 176 planting seed birds, A 464

Bo-bo and the roast pig, H 18

Bobolink migration, K 176

Bog plants, G 366

Bohnenberger's machine, B 334*

Boiling meats and fish, H 278 principle and process, H 277 seasoning, H 279 vegetables, H 279

Boiling point of liquids, H 277

Bolsters, H 152

Bolts forging, M 240-244*

Book case designs, D 53*, 151*, 177*, C 351* "knock down" design and construction, D 150-156* mission style, C 352 staining the wood, D 236, 237 with adjustable shelf, design and construction, C 350-353* with glazed doors, design and construction, D 176-180* _See also_ Book rack

Book cover limp leather design and making, D 342-345*

Book mark copper work, M 128*

Book rack copper work, M 121*, D 351* folding, designing and making, C 247-249* wall rack, designing and making, C 347-350*, D 156-161*

Book shelves. _See_ Book case; Book rack

Book supports copper work, M 121*, D 351*

Books care of, H 349

Boomerang, Australian making, B 232-234*

Boone, Daniel wilderness traveler, K 51

Bootees knitted, N 363-366*

Bordeaux mixture receipt, G 121, 294 uses, G 282, 288, 291

Boring. _See_ Drilling and Boring

Bossing up, M 208, 419

Botany collecting native plants in California, A 96-98 _See also_ Flower gardening; Flowers

Bottles killing bottle for insects, A 378-380*, K 151*, 154 washing, H 183

Boulder up (Game), K 345

Boulders moving on rollers, B 18-19* raising, B 15-17*

Bow and arrow, K 329

Bowling lawn bowling, K 366

Bowls. _See_ Brass work; Copper work; Metal work; Pottery

Box elder characteristics, C 548

Box furniture, C 475-478*

Box kite. _See_ Kites

Box making design to resemble books, C 397* dovetail joints, C 315-318* drawing instrument box, C 240* hinging a lid, C 239 knife and fork box, C 223-226* nail box, C 206-209* pencil box, making and carving, C 106-108* proportions, C 235 seat and chest combined, C 476* simple box, C 40* toilet boxes, C 315-318*, 235-241* _See also_ Copper work; Inlaying; Metal work; Wood carving

Boy Scouts of America, K 19-49* activities, K 43 ambulance badge, qualifications for, K 27 aviator badge, qualifications for, K 28 badges, K 27-36 bee-keeper's badge, qualifications for, K 28 blacksmith's badge, qualifications for, K 28 bugler's badge, qualifications for, K 28 campaigning, K 43 camps, routine and model programme, K 46-49 carpenter's badge, qualifications for, K 29 clerk's badge, qualifications for, K 29 cook's badge, qualifications for, K 29 cyclist's badge, qualifications for, K 29 dairyman's badge, qualifications for, K 30 electrician's badge, qualifications for, K 30 engineer's badge, qualifications for, K 30 farmer's badge, qualifications for, K 30 finances, K 41 fireman's badge, qualifications for, K 31 first aid to animals' badge, qualifications for, K 31 first-class tests, K 24-25 founder of society, K 20 gardener's badge, qualifications for, K 31 handy man's badge, qualifications for, K 31 headquarters, K 19 horseman's badge, qualifications for, K 32 interpreter's badge, qualifications for, K 32 laws, K 25-27 leather workers' badge, qualifications for, K 33 life saver's badge, qualifications for, K 38 marksman's badge, qualifications for, K 33 master-at-arms badge, qualifications for, K 33 membership requirements, K 22-25 missioner's badge, qualifications for, K 33 musician's badge, qualifications for, K 33 oath, K 22 official hand book, how to obtain, K 49 origin, K 20 pathfinder's badge, qualifications for, K 34 patrols, forming, K 27, 38-39 photographer's badge, qualifications for, K 35 pioneer's badge, qualifications for, K 35 piper's badge, qualifications for, K 35 plumber's badge, qualifications for, K 35 poultry farmer's badge, qualifications for, K 36 principles of good scouting, K 39 printer's badge, qualifications for, K 36 purpose, K 20 salute and secret sign, K 22 scout craft, K 21, 43 scout master, qualifications and duties, K 26, 42-43 second-class tests, K 23 sign posts for scout master, K 43-46 signaler's badge, qualifications for, K 36 seaman's badge, qualifications for, K 36 stalker's badge, qualifications for, K 37 starman's badge, qualifications for, K 37 surveyor's badge, qualifications for, K 38 swimmer's badge, qualifications for, K 38 tenderfoot, class requirements, K 22 troop, organization, K 26-27, 40-41

Boys' clubs. _See_ Clubs

Brace and bit. _See_ Carpentry and Woodwork--Tools

Bracelets silver work, M 174-177*

Bracket brass work, M 146-147* iron work, M 393-395* wood corner bracket, C 246* designs, C 242-244* making, C 245

Braiding coronation braid daisy pattern, N 109-111* what it is and how to sew it on, N 108-109* fastening the ends of the braid, N 107 flat braid, how to sew it on, N 108 rugs and mats, N 296 soutache braid, N 107 stamping the design, N 107 weaving four strands, N 295* how to begin, N 295-296* joining a new strand, N 296, 298*, 301 on frame, N 296-301* six strands, N 296*

Braising, H 280

Brass cleaning, H 135, M 140 coloring blue black, M 205 coloring green, C 379 composition and characteristics of, M 133 tarnish, to prevent, M 140

Brass work, M 133-147* bell and bracket, M 145-147* bracket, M 146-147* crumb tray and scraper, M 135-136* finger bowl, M 133-135* handles to vase, making, M 143 soldering a vase, M 144 tea caddy, M 136-140* vase, M 140-145* weighting a vase, M 143 _See also_ Copper work; Metal work

Brazilian point lace, N 238*

Brazing metals, M 310-315 preparation of parts and process, M 311-314 value, M 314

Bread baking, H 283 brown bread, food value, H 257 camp cooking, K 87-88 curled bread for camping, E 303 food value, H 250, 254, 300 freshening dry bread, H 354 ingredients, purpose of, H 298-299 kneading, H 299 mixing, H 299 raising, H 300 setting, H 299 unleavened, H 300 yeast for, H 296-297

Bread board making, C 222-223*

Breakfast food food value, H 254 left overs, H 355

Breeding purpose and standards, K 177 skill in breeding Dutch belted varieties, K 184 _See also_ Domestic animals; also names of animals, e. g., Horse; Poultry; Swine etc.

Bridges building a foot bridge, B 70-73*

Brier stitch. _See_ Feather-stitching

Broilers. _See_ Electric broilers; Poultry raising

Broiling process and utensils, H 275-276

Brooches silver work, M 171-174*

Brooders making, K 199

Brook trout bait, K 136 reclaiming a trout stream, A 271-273

Broth. _See_ Soups

Brother Juniper's cooking: story, H 25

Brown bread combinations for food values, H 257

Brushes paint brushes, H 342 stenciling brushes, N 79-80* _See also_ Commutators (Electricity)

Brussels sprouts soil and planting, G 299-300

Brussels stitch, N 229-231*

Buckeye tree characteristics, C 565

Buckles belt buckles, making, M 88-90*, 195* turn buckles, forging, M 324, 330-334*

Buckthorn for hedges, G 357

Buckwheat cakes and sausage, food value, H 258 food value, H 254

Budding plants, G 250-253

Buffet design, D 56*

Building base boards, C 475 batter boards, posts and sills setting, D 25 cheap finishings, C 475 chimneys, style of, C 472 construction boat house details, B 36-42* house details, D 25-32* cornice detail, D 29* flashing chimneys, C 472 interior finish details, D 31* joists, placing, B 39 model house, D 3-33 rollers for moving heavy weights, B 44 sills, setting, D 26-28* walls, finishing, C 472 woods and their uses, C 536 working drawings for, D 21-23 _See also_ Architecture; Bird houses; Boat building; Boat house; Carpentry; Columns; Doors; Floors; Foundations; House framing; Joints; Pergola; Poultry house; Summer house; Strength of materials; Windows; Wood

Buildings wrecking, B 12-13, 43

Bulbs (Metal) forging iron bulbs, M 385-388*

Bulbs (Plant), G 165-179 California bulbs, collecting and cultivating, A 94-99 bedding plants, G 171, 324 blue flowers, list, G 178 colors, list, G 177-179 drying and storing, G 176 easiest to grow, G 166 flat for, making, G 61* forcing varieties, G 171 insect pests, G 293 outdoor planting, soil preparations, G 170 planting, hints, G 171 planting in lawns, G 360, A 169, 434 potting for winter, soil and drainage, G 171 red flowers, list, G 179 resting time, G 173 to prevent plants from blossoming low down, G 175 transferring to light and heat, G 174, 175 water bulbs, G 168 care and development, G 175 when to buy, G 167 white flowers, list, G 177 winter care of, G 139 yellow flowers, list, G 178 _See also_ Canna; Chinese lilies; Crocus; Hyacinths; Narcissus; Tulips

Bulgarian drawn work, N 222-226*

Bull in the ring (Game), K 337

Bungalow plan and elevation, C 465*

Bunsen burner, M 11*

Burdock class and seed time, G 278 destroying, A 471 distribution of seed, G 273

Bureau drawers arrangement and care of contents, H 53-54 doll's playhouse in, H 9

Burgees, B 108

Bur-marigold (Beggarticks) class and seed time, G 278

Burned wood. _See_ Pyrography

Burns care of, H 364

Burroughs, John love for birds, A 263

Butcher knife. _See_ Knives

Butt joints, C 251*

Butter food value, H 250, 254 how to judge butter, H 271

Butterflies breeding, A 398-400 classifying a collection, A 386 collecting, A 381-384*, K 151-153 series to illustrate development, A 395-397 time for, A 388 development from the egg, A 393-395 killing bottle and how to use it, A 378-380, K 151*, 154 mounting a collection, A 381-386*, K 153* net for catching, K 151*

Butterfly weed habits and characteristics, G 348, 365

Buttermilk cleansing properties, H 356

Butternut tree characteristics, A 36, C 564

Buttonball tree characteristics, C 562, G 79

Buttonholes, N 58-62* cutting, N 62 loops, making, N 62* stitch, N 58* tailor-made, N 59* thread for, N 58, 62

Buttonholing blanket stitch, N 142* finishing edge, N 130, 133 Hedebo embroidery, N 202-206* honeycomb stitch, N 144* knotting thread, to avoid, N 131 Mount Mellick, N 143 padding, N 130-131 Roman cut-work, N 138-142* American stitch, N 139* European stitch, N 139-140* scalloping, N 132* cutting out, N 133 triangular buttonholing, N 143* _See also_ Wallachian embroidery

Buttons sewing on, N 4-6*

Buttonwood characteristics, C 562

Buying. _See_ Marketing

C

Cabbage bleaching heads, G 126 cooking preparations, H 293 family, G 299 food value, H 255 growing, G 123-128 harvesting, G 126 indoor planting, G 233 insect pests, G 125, 288 planting seed depth and distance to plant, G 42 early and late crops, G 124 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 savoy variety for poor soil, G 301 seed germination per cent., G 233 time required, G 32 soil requirements, G 19, 301 storing, G 127

Cabinet with drawers, making, C 209-212* with shelves and glass doors, making, D 176-179* _See also_ Filing cabinet; Medicine cabinet; Tool cabinet

Cabinet work. _See_ Carpentry and Woodwork

Cables, submarine laying the Atlantic cable, E 65-66 number in operation, E 66 rates, E 67

Cactus use of pitch, A 64

Cahill, Dr. inventor of Telharmonium, E 293-295

Cake baking, H 303 freshening dry cake, H 351 making, H 301-303 substituting lard for butter, H 355

Calcimine cleaning walls, H 122

Calendar back whittling, C 18*

Calendula sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Calf beef versus dairy feeding, A 121 diseases, A 120 fattening, A 121 feeding, A 119-122 raising, A 118-126 teaching to drink, A 119 training to lead, A 121, 258 watering, A 122

Calfskin for leather work, N 84

California bulbs collecting and growing, A 94-99

California poppies sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Calipers blacksmiths' tools, M 225

Call ball, K 338

Caloric theory of heat, E 342

Calves. _See_ Calf

Cambium, A 441

Camelot, H 20, 22

Cameras kinds and cost, K 303-304 lenses, K 307

Camp stool making, C 406-408*

Camphor for packing, H 347, 349

Camping beds, K 64-66* blankets, K 66 bough bed, K 65* Boy Scouts' camp, K 46-49 brush leanto, K 69* clothing, K 71-74 cooking, K 75-92* bread, K 87-88 coffee, K 87 fish, K 89, 90 frying, K 91 game, K 89, 90 Indian meal, K 88 johnny cake, K 88 left overs, K 89 meat, time, K 90 rice, K 90 rules, K 86-92 utensils, K 82-83 vegetables, K 89, 90 drainage problem, K 57 electric lights, installation and cost, E 162-169 fireplaces, building, K 78-79 fires for cooking, K 77-82* gypsy rig, K 79 hunter's fire, K 78-79 lighting in the rain, K 68 making, K 67-69 that will burn all night, K 68, 78* firewood, providing for, K 55-56 fitting up an old mill, E 160-161 food, care of, K 85-86 girl's work in, K 323-324 hints for comfort, K 71-74 locality, choosing, K 53-54 mosquitoes, protection from, K 70 outfit, K 58-74* ovens, K 80-82* principles of, K 50-54 selecting a leader, K 53 shower bath device, E 161* site, selecting, K 54-58 sleeping bag and head shelter, K 52* tents, K 58-60* pegs, securing, K 60 pitching, K 61-64* sod cloth, K 61 water supply device, K 54-55*

Canadian pine, C 536

Candleberry, A 18-19

Candles bayberry dips, A 20-21 shades, making from cardboard and paper, D 358*

Candlestick copper work, M 47-56* pottery, designing, D 313-315* spiral, iron work, M 388-391* wrought iron, making, M 380-383*

Candytuft annual, G 322 characteristics, G 330, 332 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Cane rush, K 338

Canes woods used for, A 59-60

Canna bedding plants, G 324 planting bulbs, G 139, 159 planting seeds, G 159

Canning and preserving elderberries, A 16

Canoe tilting (Game), K 339

Canoeing, K 240-243* accidents, avoiding, K 242 girl's sports, K 321 Indian model canoe, K 240* paddling, K 242-243 sailing canoes, K 241-243*

Canterbury bell biennial, G 322

Capstan, B 79, 347*

Car springs, B 264-265*

Carafe washing, H 183

Carbohydrates effect of boiling processes, H 277 food composition, H 248 in vegetables, H 250 proportion in diet, H 249, 252

Carbon bisulphide insecticide, G 283, 289

Carbon filaments. _See_ Electric lamps--Incandescent

Carbonic acid as leaf food, G 242-243

Carbureter, B 95*

Card, Leslie E. How I started with hens, A 168-172

Card case making and embroidering, N 183-186* tooled leather, design and making, D 338-340*

Card tray copper work, D 355-358*

Carpentry and Woodwork beveling, C 147* gage device for, C 260 bill of material, value in making, C 189*, 206 board feet, estimating, C 503 construction, C 250-257 curved rails, making, D 183 curves, cutting with gouge, C 258-260* cutting up old lumber, B 75-76 doweling, D 134 dressing down lumber, C 144-147, 186-190 estimating lumber, C 498-509 gaining-in shelves, D 153* glued-up work, joining, D 134-136* gluing joints, D 140-142*, 144-146 mitre joints, C 232-234* process, C 225 gouge work, C 258-265* grooves chiseling, C 207-208, 211 cutting, C 110-111* gouging, C 258-260* joint edge, meaning, C 186 joints. _See_ Joints in main alphabet mathematics of woodwork, C 498-509* mortise, cutting, D 154 nails holding power, B 46-47 sinking, C 208* outdoor carpentry, C 457-480* panels for desk, D 184-187* for door, C 354-355, 528-530 original purpose of, C 528-530* planing, C 146, D 133-134, 136 position for planing, C 178 surface planing and taking out wind, C 179 use of shooting board, C 106* rabbeting, C 210-211 sand papering, D 187 shop equipment, C 133-149* grindstone, C 181-184* lumber rack, C 150-154* nail box and cabinet, C 206-212* tool box, making, C 226-227* tool chest and cabinet, making, C 339-346 work bench, types, C 134-138* spokeshave work, examples, C 126*, 266*, 271* squaring up stock, C 144-147, 185-190* stock, selection and preparation, D 130-133* systematic plan in working, D 138-139 testing grain of the wood for strength, C 245 truing up, C 148-149, D 136-138* undercutting, C 263-264* warping, to prevent, D 135* working face of lumber, C 186 _See also_ Building; Doors; Floors; House framing; Joints; Lumber; Polishing; Rustic furniture; Stains and staining; Strength of materials; Whittling; Windows; Wood; Wood finishing

Carpentry and Woodwork--Problems box furniture, C 475-478* brackets, C 242-246* bread board, C 222* camp stool, C 406-408* chest and box seat combination, C 476* checkerboard, C 332-338* clock cases, C 276-290* coat hanger, C 266* couch hammock, C 478-480* drawers, making, C 206-210*, 359* drawing board, C 24*, 381 foot stools, C 291-300* mission style, C 374-375* handles for hatchet and hammer, C 271* hinges, setting, C 239 household utensils, C 221-226, 272-273* knife and fork box, C 223-226* ladle, C 272* linen chest, C 377-380* magazine rack, D 52*, 165-170* mechanical drawing outfit, C 381-398* medicine cabinet, C 354-360* mitre box, C 228-231* Morris chair, D 50*, 188-193 nail boxes, C 206-212* pen and ink trays, C 258-264* pin tray, C 264* rustic furniture, D 209-211* sugar scoop, C 272* toilet boxes, C 315-318*, 235-241* tool cases and chest, C 226-227*, 339-344 tool rack, C 341* towel rack, C 274* towel roller, C 267-269* umbrella stand, D 161-165 mission design, C 375* _See also_ Bird house; Book case; Book rack; Box making; Building; Chairs; Desk; Doors; Floors; House framing; Inlaying, wood; Joints; Mechanical drawing; Mission furniture; Pergola; Picture frames and framing; Plant stands; Poultry house; Settees; Stains and staining; Tables; Tabourette; Toy making; Whittling; Windows; Wood; Wood carving; Wood finishing

Carpentry and Woodwork--Tools auger bit, C 194* bench hook, C 139-142* bench stop, C 139 bit and brace "chuck", C 193 extension bit, C 195* ratchet attachment for corners, C 196 types, C 193-197* boring tools, C 193-198* braces, making, C 148 cases and cabinets, making, C 226-227*, 339-346* centre bit, C 193* chisels, socket and tang, C 207* clamps, devices for, C 201* coping saw, C 20* cutting tools, construction and action, C 169 dowel bit, C 194 draw knife, C 216* drill bits, C 196 drills, C 193-198* dulling edges on old lumber, B 75-76 files, kind and uses, C 204 Forstner bit, C 196* gimlet bit, C 194*, 196 gouge, C 258-260* hammers, C 203* hand screw, C 200-201* using, C 224-226* mallet, C 200* mitre box, C 228-231* nail set, C 208* oil stone, C 183* planes, C 176-184* pliers, C 199* quality, C 133 rack, C 341* rules, C 205 saw horse, making, C 143-149* saws, C 169-175* screw driver, C 199* screw driver bit, C 195 sharpening, C 179-184* shooting board how to make, C 189* how to use, C 106* spirit level, C 205* spokeshave, C 126 square, steel, C 205*, M 5* surface plate, D 136 template, C 264* vise, quick action, C 138* winding sticks, D 137*

Carpets cleaning, H 128 storing, H 348 _See also_ Rugs

Carriages cleaning, A 408

Carrier pigeons, K 180

Carrot planting seed quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination period, G 32, 233 soil for, G 301 thinning plants, G 301 varieties, G 301 wild carrot, G 273, 278

Carving shelf fungi, A 62 _See also_ Wood carving

Case hardening, M 308-310

Cast-iron brazing, M 312

Castors, Acme pin, D 193

Cat characteristics, K 170-173

Cat (Game), K 339

Cat-stitch embroidery stitch, N 102*

Cat-tail characteristics, G 366

Catalpa characteristics, G 367 ornamental value, G 353

Catbird insect destroyer, A 456 migration, K 175

Caterpillars collecting specimens, A 395 garden pests, G 282, 285, 287, 290

Cauliflower cooking, preparation for, H 293 growing, G 299 insect pests, G 289 seed, germination per cent., G 233 time to plant, G 234

Cavies care of pets, K 183-184 raising for pets, A 206 varieties, K 183

Cedar red characteristics, C 541 durability, C 494 white, characteristics, C 541

Cedar bird migration, K 175

Cedar chest making, C 377-380*

Ceiling as reflector, H 121 care of, H 121 decorations to correct defects of height, D 38

Celery blanching, G 132 fertilizer for, G 131 food value, H 255 insect pests, G 287, 290 planting plants, G 131-132 planting seeds, G 302 indoor planting time, G 233 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 germination period, G 32 soil for, G 131, 301 substitutes for, in salad, H 358 transplanting, G 302 trenches for, G 131

Cellar, H 208-213 care of, H 212 cleaning walls, H 210 materials for floor and wall, H 208, 210 must, preventing, H 212 racks for barrels and pans, H 213 rooms and equipment, H 210-211 ventilation, H 208 windows, H 208

Cells. _See_ Electric batteries

Cellular kites, making, C 91-92*

Cement cellar walls, H 208 coloring for pottery, D 208 columns, building, C 438-440 dams, B 246-247 engraver's receipt, M 205 floors, making, A 137 foundations boat house, B 36 house, C 459 pergola, C 426-433 lining pond, G 135-136 mixing for floors and walks, A 137, B 20, 32, C 432, G 135 Portland, origin and uses, B 246-248 retaining walls, riverside, B 238-245

Cement blocks making, B 242-245

Cement furniture, D 201-209* color for inlaid designs, D 208 decoration, D 207* finishing coat, D 206 scratch coat, making and laying, D 204 wire forms for, making, D 202-203

Cement walks floating operation, B 33 jointing, B 34 laying out, B 9-12 leveling, B 30* materials, B 19-20, 32 roots, danger from, B 15 sides, making, B 30* tampers for, B 31 trench digging and filling, B 14, 29-30, 32

Centigrade scale, B 262

Centre punch. _See_ Punch

Chafing dish, electric, E 113*

Chain-stitch crocheting, N 308* embroidery, N 99-100*

Chains welding iron chains, M 250-253* adding links, M 253 _See also_ Bead work; Necklace

Chairs box furniture making, C 406-408 dining-room, design, D 54* Duxbury design, D 59 hall chair, design, D 48* kitchen furniture, H 196 Morris chair designs, D 50*, 189* making, D 188-193* _See also_ Bench making; Settees

Chalk French chalk, H 332, 360 lime composition, G 216

Chamber work, H 146-159

Chamois gloves washing, H 331

Chamois skin for leather work, N 84

Champleve definition, M 208 enameling, M 202

Chanterelles, mushrooms, A 89

Character influence of occupations on, A 6

Charcoal how made, M 230 purifying qualities, H 242, 354

Charge accounts. _See_ Accounts

Chasing metals definition of, M 209

Chassis. _See_ Automobiles

Checkerboard designing and making, C 333-338* table, making, C 337* woods to use, C 332-333

Cheese food value, H 254

Chemical elements of food, H 248 of the human body, H 247

Cherry tree characteristics of the wild or black variety, C 561 seeds, care of, A 48 wood for canes, A 59

Chest making a box seat combination, C 476* making a linen chest, C 377-380* _See also_ Tool boxes and chests

Chesterton, G. R. keeping good health: quotation, H 244

Chestnut characteristics of tree, C 562 chinquapins, characteristics, A 32-33 cultivating, A 31 disease, A 30 durability of the wood, C 494 food value, H 255 grafting trees, A 31 Japanese, hardy variety, A 30 varieties, A 30 weevil, pest, A 33 wood finish antique, C 489 fuming, D 233

Chicken house. _See_ Poultry houses

Chickens. _See_ Poultry

Chickweed class and seed time, G 278

Chimney, house cold, meaning of, H 224 fire, extinguishing, H 234 "flashing", C 472 _See also_ Flues

China aster characteristics, G 329

Chinese lilies water bulbs, G 168, 175

Chinese windlass, B 81

Chinquapin characteristics, A 32-33 weevils, pest, A 33

Chip carving. _See_ Wood carving

Chisel cape chisel, making, M 299* cold chisel, hardening and tempering, M 293 making, M 298*, 325* what used for, M 225* hot chisel making, M 324* what used for, M 225* metal work tool, M 9* sharpening, C 179-184* silver work tool, making, M 157-158* socket and tang, how to use, C 207-208* stone chisel, forging, M 341-344* wood chisel, forging, M 337-338

Chlorinated soda ink stain remover, H 359

Chocolate food value, H 256

Christmas greens collecting and marketing, A 50-57

Christmas tree harvesting, A 53 oak trees transformed, A 51

Chrysanthemum back ground plants, G 321 characteristics, G 335 time of blooming, G 322

Chuck ribs, H 268

Cider wastefulness in making, A 50

Cigar box copper decorations, M 84*, 85

Cigar lighters, Electric, E 115*

Circle how to draw, C 28-30*

Citizenship training for, A 449-451

City water supply. _See_ Water works

City yard making and cost of a garden, G 23, 134-141

Clamps, C 201*

Clams cooking, H 291 food value, H 254 testing, H 291 washing, H 291

Clap boards for siding, C 445 removing, B 12

Clarkia characteristics, G 328, 332

Claw tool making, M 353*

Clay. _See_ Soils

Clay modeling. _See_ Pottery

Cleaning delicate colors and textures, H 332 restoring color taken out by an acid or alkali, H 361 stains and spots on fabrics, H 358-361 woodwork, H 123 _See also_ Brass; Carpets; Curtains; Embroidery; Flues; Furnace; Furniture; House cleaning; Matting; Pictures; Rugs; Shades; Tiles; Vegetables; Walls; Vacuum cleaners

Cleft grafting. _See_ Grafting

Clematis decorative value, G 359 Japanese, characteristics, G 365

Clippings making envelope file, N 187-189*

Clocks cases, making, C 276-290* clocks for cases, selecting, C 276 electric clocks alarm clocks, E 302 master clock, E 77-78 operation, E 75-78 program clocks, E 77 self winding, E 76 watchman's time detector, E 78* fastening the clock into the case, C 282* grandfather's clock, design and construction, C 284-290* hall clock, design and construction, D 193-198* wood finish, D 237 mantel clock, design and construction, C 282-284* mission style, design and construction, C 277-278* pendulum clock case, design and construction, C 281-282* pulley mechanism, B 310* wall clock, design and construction, C 279-281* _See also_ Watches

Cloisonne definition of, M 209 enameling, M 201

Closets, Clothes cleaning and care, H 53, 157 window in, D 12

Closets, Toilet cleaning bathroom toilet, H 155 sanitary equipment and care of outdoor closets, H 222

Closing the house, H 349-351

Clothes basket for laundry, H 315

Clothes-horse, H 318

Clothes line, care of, H 311

Clothes pins, care of, H 315

Clothes poles, H 315

Clothes press. _See_ Closets, Clothes

Clothing and dress art and fashions, D 122 being well dressed, D 122-125 business women's attire, D 127 camp outfit, K 71-74 care of importance, H 57 in bureau drawers, H 53-54 in closets, H 158 responsibility for, H 53 children's attire, D 127 color in, D 124 decorative principles, D 121 girl's equipment for outdoor sports, K 319-320 harmony and good lines, D 123 proportion of income assigned for, H 74, 76, 78 _See also_ Dressmaking; Sewing

Clouds cumulus, B 365 formation, B 356-357 hail clouds, B 366

Clubs agricultural, organizing, A 452-454 garden club, G 3-16 outdoor club, A 451-454 science club, E 339 sewing club, N 11 wireless club, E 331-332 _See also_ Boy Scouts of America

Coal bituminous, value of, M 229 estimating energy in, E 6 specific gravity, B 279 supply decreasing, E 6 _See also_ Fire making

Coasting, K 223 luge-ing, K 371

Coat hangers making, C 266*

Cocklebur class and seed time, G 278

Cockroaches, H 362

Cocoa food value, H 256

Cocoanuts food value, H 255

Cocoon. _See_ Silkworms

Codfish combinations for food value, H 257 food value, H 253

Codling moth woodpecker enemy of, K 168

Coffee camp cooking, K 87

Coffee mill mechanical principle of, B 307-308*

Coffee percolator, Electric, E 113*

Coffee pots care of, H 207

Coffee stains, H 359

Coffee tree, Kentucky characteristics, C 566

Cold chisel. _See_ Chisel

Coldframe changing to a hotbed, G 38 directions for making, G 48-50* drilling the rows, G 98 planning, G 19 soil and location, G 97 storage for endive, G 305 transplanting from, G 101-102

Coleus bedding plant, G 324

Collar metal work appliance, M 209

Collar, dress. _See_ Dressmaking; Irish Crochet

Collar slides silver work, M 170-171*

Collecting. _See_ Insects; Plants; Seaweed; Shells

College athletics best records made in intercollegiate contests, K 336

College education earning, A 3, 7

Color due to wave length, E 315 in dress, D 124 restoring to fabrics, H 361 _See also_ Floral decoration; House decoration

Colts. _See_ Horses

Columbine habits and characteristics, G 341, 364

Columns, concrete constructing and setting for pergola, C 434-440*

Combs silver work, M 194-196*

Commutation (Electricity) brushes, E 36 principle of, E 35-36

Compass use in drawing, C 28-30

Compost. _See_ Fertilizers and manures

Concrete. _See_ Cement

Cones. _See_ Pine

Conic sections describing, B 338*

Coniferous trees, C 535-542

Conservation of natural resources conserving nature's crops, A 92-94 _See also_ Forestry

Cook duties, H 109, 112

Cook book making from books and magazines, H 284

Cookery, H 274-308 camp cookery, K 75-92* definition, H 274 emergencies, H 354-357 freshening bread or cake, H 353 left overs, utilizing, H 355, K 89 mixtures, principles of, H 296-305 preparation of foods for, H 285-305 processes, H 275-285 purpose of, H 275 sequence of work in getting a meal, H 305-308 soda, uses of, H 356 substitutes for articles called for by receipts, H 354-355 sun as cook, H 274 time tables, H 309-310 warming over food, H 355 _See also_ Baking; Boiling; Braising; Bread; Broiling; Cake; Canning and preserving; Coffee; Corn; Desserts; Diet; Eggs; Electric cooking; Fireless cookers; Fish; Food; Frying; Game; Meat; Mushrooms; Oysters; Pastry; Poultry; Rice; Roasting; Shell fish; Soups; Stewing; Tea; Traveler's cooker; Vegetables

Coons. _See_ Raccoons

Copper work annealing, M 21 ash tray, M 85* belt buckle, M 88-90*, 195* belt pin, D 350* bill file, M 124-126* book mark, M 128* book rack, M 121*, D 351* bowls, M 19-25* chalice, M 60* loving cup, M 86 nut set, M 38* shaping, M 19* box for jewels, M 112-115* candlestick, M 47-56* drip pan, M 48* night candle holder, M 50-52* sconce, M 52-56* shaping, M 48* card tray, D 355-358* cedar chest, trimmings, M 115-117* chalice, M 60-63* cigar box decorations, M 84*, 85 coloring, D 357, M 202, 204, 205 corners, D 353* cutting heavy copper, M 34* desk set, M 117-129* draw filing, M 37 enameling on copper, D 354, 355 facets, how made, M 22 filing, M 36-38* hammering, M 21-23*, 29-30*, 39* handles candlestick, M 49 loving cup, M 87* making and riveting, M 76-77 making and soldering, M 78-79 hat pin, D 348-50*, M 64-67* soldering pin to head, M 68* hat pin holder, M 69-72* hinges, M 100-106*, 112-115* ink well holder, M 118-121* jars, M 56-60*, 82-85* jewel box, M 107-115* hinges, M 112-115* knobs on lids, M 83 lamp, Electric, M 92-96* lamp shade framework, M 96-98* setting glass, M 98-99* letter opener, D 347* letter rack, D 346-347* lids chalice, M 62-63* ink well holder, M 120* jewel box, M 111-112* rose jar, M 59 tobacco jar, M 83-84* loving cup, M 86-88* match safe, M 81-82* molds for, M 27-28 nut set, M 38-40* nut spoon, M 39-40* paper knife, D 347*, M 34-38*, 126* turned handle, M 127* patina, imitation, M 202 composition for, M 204 pen tray, M 118-119* polishing, M 25 rose jar, M 56-60* Russian coffee pot, M 63* sawing, M 35-36* sconce, M 52-56* serving tray, M 75-77* sheet copper, grades, M 14 smoking set, M 79-86* soldering handles, M 78-79 hat pin, M 68* spindle, M 124-126* spoon for nut set, M 39-40* teapot stand, D 351-353* tobacco jar, M 82-85* trays, M 26-33*, 75-77* ash tray, M 85* handles, making and riveting, M 76-77 pen tray, M 118* round, M 26-31* serving tray, M 75-77* smoking set, M 80-81* square, M 31-33* watch fob, D 353-355* _See also_ Brass work; Metal work; Silver work; Tools

Copyright application items, B 426 assigning rights, B 425 directions for securing, B 422-426 duplicate certificates, B 425 fees for recording, B 423 issue of work, not limited, B 425 invalid, when, B 423 labels, B 426 paintings, statues, etc., B 426 penalties for breaking laws, B 423, 424 projected work, B 425 renewals, B 425 term, B 424 trade marks, B 426 translation rights, B 424 volumes and variations, B 425

Coral how coral is formed, G 216

Coral bells characteristics, G 334

Coral fungi, A 86

Coreopsis annual, G 322 characteristics, G 329 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Corn contest in growing corn, G 142-150 cooking dried corn, A 428 cultivation of soil, G 144 drying, A 427-428 food value, H 255 husking for cooking, H 294 husks, uses of, A 63 insect pests, G 290 percentage of corn to cob, G 148 points for judging, G 147 planting seeds distance to plant, G 42, 144 depth to plant, G 35, 42, 144, 235 quantity to plant, G 36, 144 time to plant, G 234 planting varieties near together, G 145 pollination, how plants are fertilized, G 145 raising on a suburban lot, A 124 seed age for planting, G 34 book about, A 518 germination per cent., G 33, 233 selection, G 142-144, 228, A 410-412* soil required, G 19, 144 stalk pith, use of, A 63

Corn meal food value, H 254 cleansing property, H 332

Corned beef food value, H 252

Cornell University poultry course, A 173

Cornflower biennial, G 332 characteristics, G 330, 332 planting, G 159 self-sowing, G 316 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Corning, W. O. experiment with raising goats, A 116-118

Coronation braid how to braid, N 108-111*

Cosmos characteristics, G 332 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Cost of living division of income, H 69-86

Cottages building and furnishing a simple home, D 366-374* cost of materials, D 372

Cotyledon seed nourishment, G 230

Couch Cover weaving design, D 260-262

Couch hammock, C 478-480*

Couching embroidery stitches, N 124*

Counterpane making for doll-bed, N 55*

Counting-out rhymes, K 340

Country homes. _See_ Cottages

Country life making the country a better place to live in, A 449-512 _See also_ Camping; Gardening; Sports

Court, tennis, K 341

Cover for note book tooled leather, D 331-336

Cows milking, A 245-247 by electricity, E 54 profits in keeping cows, A 243-244 from one cow on a suburban lot, A 123-126 testing for milk supply, A 244 _See also_ Calf; Milk

Crab (Machine), B 79*

Crabapple, Wild butter or sauce, A 22 regions found, A 21

Crabs food value, H 254 cooking soft shell crabs, H 293 opening and cooking hard shells, H 292

Craigin, Belle S. Amateur's experience in poultry raising, A 166-168

Cranks (Machinery) crank motion, B 312* mechanism, B 319*

Cream. _See_ Milk and cream

Cream of tartar uses, H 301

Credit. _See_ Accounts

Creepers insect destroyers, A 456

Creosote wood preservative, C 494

Cricket, K 341-343

Crocheting, N 306-319* abbreviations for stitches, N 306 chain stitch, N 308* crazy stitch, N 326 cross stitch, N 318* doll's cap, N 320-321 doll's hug-me-tight, N 321-323* double crochet, N 308* edging stitch loop, N 311* narrow, N 313* tiny edging, N 311* fringe, N 317 hooks, N 306-307* insertion stitch cone, N 314* loop, N 312* tiny insertion, N 310* insertion with ribbon, N 315* jacket, N 323-324* shell stitch, N 329-332* patterns, N 320-332* position of hands, N 307* rainbow pattern, N 316-317* scarf, cross stitch, N 318* shawl, rainbow pattern, N 316-317* shells, N 310*, 329-332* single crochet stitch, N 308*, 324* slip stitch, N 308 slippers, N 324-329* crazy stitch, N 326* star stitch, N 326-329* star stitch, N 324*, 326* treble crochet, N 309* washing, N 332*

Crocus planting in lawns, A 169, 434 planting tables, G 177, 178

Crops succession crops, G 92 _See also_ Gardening

Croquet, K 343 golf-croquet, K 354 _See also_ Roque

Cross bow spring, B 266*

Cross stitch embroidery stitches, N 103-106*, 107*, 108* marking towels, N 156

Crosses drawing designs, C 25*, 27 Greek, inlay design, C 322

Crowbars making, M 352*

Crows as pets, K 176

Crucible cast steel. _See_ Steel

Crumb tray and scraper brass work, M 135-136*

Crystals, snow, B 367*

Cuckoo insect eater, A 456

Cucumber food value, H 255 how to peel, H 294 indoor planting time, G 233 insect pests, G 290 origin of, G 303 planting seed directions, G 303 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 thinning plants, G 303

Cucumber vine ornamental value, G 359

Cuff links metal work, M 192-194*

Cuffs. _See_ Dressmaking

Cumulus, B 365

Curling (Game), K 344

Curling iron, Electric, E 116*

Curtains dry cleaning, H 332 dusting, H 131 girl's room, furnishings, N 380-381 materials for stenciling, N 81 stencil design, N 75* stenciling, D 108-117* stretching, H 328 valance, D 116 washing, H 328-329 weaving, designs and materials, D 262-265 _See also_ Block printing

Curves drawing, B 339*

Cushions. _See_ Pillows

Cut worms, G 293 detecting and destroying, G 284 toads enemies of, K 168

Cyanide bottle for killing insects, A 379*, K 152

Cypress varieties and characteristics, C 540

D

Dado joints, C 236*, 255

Daffodil narcissus family, G 169 Van Sion variety, G 168 white and yellow, planting table, G 177, 178

Dairy cow. _See_ Cows

Dairy Products food value, H 254 _See also_ Butter; Milk

Dairying book about, A 517 keeping accounts, A 241-242 sanitary milk pail, A 246*

Daisy characteristics of the English daisy, G 334 class and seed time of ox-eyed and yellow, G 278 embroidery stitches, N 177-179*

Dampers in pipes and ovens, H 229 principle of stoves and ranges, H 227-230

Dams famous dams of concrete, B 246-247

Dandelion class and seed time, G 278 greens, A 63

Daphne characteristics, G 355

Darning Limerick darning, lace stitches, N 234 stockings, N 9-11*

Dates food value, H 255

Day and night cause of, B 213

Debit. _See_ Accounts

Decanter washing, H 183

Decoration and ornament woods suitable for, C 240 _See also_ Block printing; Carving; Embroidery; Enamel and enameling; Floral decoration; House decoration; Leather work; Metal work; Pottery; Pyrography; Stenciling; Wood carving

Decoration, interior. _See_ House decoration

Deer book about, A 518

Design. _See_ Architecture; Basket making; Bead work; Brass work; Copper work; Embroidery; Furniture; House decoration; Leather work; Metal work; Pottery; Silver work; Stenciling; Wood carving

Desk library desk design, D 47* design and construction, D 184-187* wood finish, D 237 mission style writing desk, design, C 375* writing desk, design, D 50*

Desk pad copper fittings, making, M 122-124* leather, design and making, D 335-338*

Desk sets copper, M 117-129* pen and ink trays, gouge work, C 258-264*

Dessert combinations for food value, H 259

Deutzia characteristics, G 256

Devil's snuff box, A 87

Dibber, G 47*

Dies (Metal work) making, M 206-208

Diet carbohydrates, H 248-252, 277 chemical properties, H 249 giving undue concern to, H 244-247 ideal, objection to, H 261 principles of, H 246-263 proteins, H 248-252, 277 _See also_ Food

Digestion. _See_ Diet

Digitalis made from foxglove, A 57

Dining-room, H 160-187 care of, H 51, 160-171 furniture arrangement, D 61 design, D 53-57* ideal, H 187 plan in the model house, D 9 work, setting and serving the table, H 160-171

Dirigible balloons, B 162

Dish washing cloths, care of, H 184 decanters and bottles, H 183 egg stains, removing, H 183 glasses, H 180 preparation of dishes, H 179 process, H 179-185 rinsing dishes, H 182 silver, H 181 steel knives, H 184 wiping and putting away, H 52, 182-184 without running water, H 178

Disinfectants use in plumbing, H 218

Ditch drains. _See_ Drainage

Dividers (Tools) forging, M 340-341* using in metal working, M 5*, 24*

Diving, K 238* girls as divers, K 320

Dixie's land (Game), K 345

Dock, yellow class and seed time, G 278

Dogs as friends, K 187 bathing, K 188 boarding dogs as a business, A 237-238 profits from, A 239 breeds, K 187-188 farm dogs, A 106 feeding, A 238, K 188 puppies, A 224 fleas, K 188, 189 house, working drawing of a toy house, C 42* housing, K 188 punishing, K 189 raising, A 223-226 story of success in, A 235-240 selecting a pet, K 187-188 training, A 249-252, K 189-192 for cattle herding, A 250, 251 for hunting, K 190-192 for retrieving, A 250 for running machinery, A 255-256

Dog's tooth violet characteristics, G 342

Dogwood characteristics, C 563, G 356

Doilies Irish crochet edge, N 335*

Doll's clothes cap crocheted, N 320-321* knitted, N 362* cape, knitted, N 360* hug-me-tight, crocheted, N 321-323* jacket, knitted, N 360-362 leggings, knitted, N 363* _See also_ Dressmaking; Sewing

Doll's furniture bed fittings, N 50-56* cigar box trunk, H 12 pasteboard box for bed, H 11, 12

Domestic Animals books about, A 517 raising, A 100-202 for pets, A 203-240 _See also_ Cat; Cow; Dog; Horse; Pigeon; Poultry; Sheep; Swine

Domestic Economy. _See_ Housekeeping

Door handles metal work, M 406, 407, 416*

Door hasp forging, M 338-340*

Door knockers escutcheon plate, M 410*, 412-414 iron metal work, M 410-415*

Door pulls metal work, M 415*

Doors batten door, C 448* electric door opener, E 55* frames, setting, C 469 hanging, C 474 inside trim, C 473* paneled, C 354-355, 528-530* saddles, C 474

Dough. _See_ Bread; Pastry

Dovetail joints, C 253*, 256*, 313-314*

Dowel bit, C 194

Dowel for weaving, N 297

Dowel joints, C 251*

Doweling, D 134

Dracenas window box plant, G 193

Drafting. _See_ Mechanical drawing

Dragon-flies habits, A 388

Drainage ditch building, G 123 grading and digging, G 114 pipe, depth laid, G 111 problem for garden plot, G 110-122 "sighting" for drop and bed level, G 112-114 sloping land, G 17 standing water, G 21 stones for trough, setting, G 116 tiles, laying, G 115 types of drains, G 22 wooden troughs, disadvantage of, G 115

Drainage, House. _See_ Plumbing; Refrigerator

Draught of open fires, H 224 principle of stoves and ranges, H 227-230

Draw knife, C 216*

Draw plate definition of, M 209

Drawer pulls metal work, M 417-419*

Drawing designing a corner for stencil work, D 111 designs for block printing, D 100-101* how to enlarge or reduce a drawing, C 390, B 339 outline drawing for stencil work, D 112 _See also_ Mechanical drawing

Drawing board making, C 24*, 381-383*

Drawing instruments making a box for, C 240* making a mechanical drawing outfit, C 381-398

Drawnwork, N 207-226* all-over, N 213-220* Bulgarian weaving patterns, N 222-226* butterfly pattern, N 220-222* convent work, N 213-216* daisy pattern, N 219* feather stitch, N 212* filling spaces, N 219 frames for, N 222 handkerchiefs, N 213-219* maltese cross, N 219 Mexican, N 211* sheaf stitch, N 211* soaping threads, N 213 twist stitch, N 212* _See also_ Fagotting; Hardanger embroidery; Hemstitching

Dress. _See_ Clothing and dress

Dresser. _See_ Bureau

Dressmaking bands, cutting, N 64 bias bands, cutting, N 65 box plaits, N 71 collars cutting, N 64 fastening to waist, N 70 cuffs cutting, N 64 sewing on sleeves, N 68 cutting from a pattern, N 63-67* frills, cutting, N 64 patterns allowing for seams, N 65 cutting doll's skirt from, N 42* cutting from, N 63-67 drawing and cutting, N 41* notches and perforations, N 66 pinning material on, N 66-67* plaiting skirt, N 71-72* seams, tailored, N 72 skirts bands, N 39*, 44 basting seams, N 42 cutting from a pattern, N 42, 63-64* hemming, N 36, 43 plackets and gussets, N 35-40*, 43 plaiting, N 71-72* putting on the bands, N 44 sleeves cutting, N 64 gathering, N 69* putting into waist, N 70* putting together, N 68* waists cutting, N 64 cutting from pattern, N 67* joining seams, N 69 _See also_ Sewing

Driftwood gathering, A 405

Drilling and boring tools draw boring, C 415* drills for copper and silver, M 9* forging and tempering rock drills, M 344-349* forging hand drills, M 347-349* kinds and their uses, C 193-198*

Driveways of ashes, G 77

Drowning method of rescue from, K 239

Dry cleaning delicate and light-colored articles, H 332

Duck on a rock (Game), K 345

Ducks book about, A 517 brooders, A 193 characteristics, A 192 feeding ducklings, A 192 how to select for cooking, H 271 marketing, A 191 raising, A 190-193 ducks versus chickens, A 191-192 story of a boy's animal cage, A 235 varieties, K 181 water not essential for raising, A 190-191 wood ducks, domesticating, A 462*

Duplicating machine, B 416

Dusting bedroom, H 53 floors, H 125 house cleaning process, H 145 little services, H 51 opening the house, H 352

Dutch collar Irish crochet, N 346-350*

Dutch oven, K 81

Dyeing colors, how to obtain, D 278-279 hints, D 277-278 lace, N 238

Dynamometer, B 324*

Dynamos, E 3-9 alternating current, E 21-24 batteries replaced by, E 249-250 construction of a simple dynamo, E 222-225* definition of, E 19 efficiency, E 5-6 field, E 9, 11-13 generating electricity, E 9-10 how a dynamo generates both direct and alternating currents, E 222 how used as a motor, E 45-48 installing, E 225 load, E 105 magneto, E 19-24* illustration of use, E 21-23 rate of vibration, E 22-23 use for ringing telephone bells, E 287-290* principle of a simple dynamo, E 11-13* producing tones with, E 293-295 series wound, E 34* shunt wound, E 34* transmitters not power producers, E 7 _See also_ Armatures

E

Earth attraction exerted by sun and moon, B 229-230 diameter, B 213 distance from sun and moon, B 229-230 elements, B 214 globular form proved, B 212-213* rotation, B 213, 214

Eddy kites making, C 86*

Edging. _See_ Crocheting; Irish crochet

Edison, Thomas A. discovery of carbon filaments, E 134 new storage battery, E 262-263

Eggplant cooking preparation, H 294 parasites on, G 304 planting seed, G 304 indoor planting time, G 233 time to plant, G 234 seed, germination per cent., G 233 soil for, G 304 transplanting, G 304

Eggs cooking, preparation for, H 288 ducks' eggs, A 192 fancy breed eggs, A 221 food value, H 254 gold fish eggs, A 229 Guinea fowl, value of, A 179 insect eggs, A 393 judging freshness of, H 271 marketing, A 158 pheasant eggs, packing, A 199 preserving for winter use, A 177-178 yolks in water, H 357 record for laying hens, A 157 selecting for sitting hens, A 148 separating yolks from whites, H 288 stains removing, H 183 _See also_ Poultry

Egyptian Pyramids, B 54-56

Elderberries canning, receipt, A 16 picking, A 15 steam pudding, receipt, A 16

Electric annunciators construction and operation, E 68-71*

Electric apparatus and appliances using electricity to aid the memory, E 301-304 _See also_ Armatures; Clocks; Dynamos; Telegraph; Telephone; Vacuum cleaners; and words beginning Electric

Electric armatures. _See_ Armatures

Electric batteries cells, positive and negative plates, E 256, 261 dry cells cost, E 166 increase of voltage by increased resistance, E 194-198 structure, E 250-251 use for lighting a summer camp, E 162-167* electrolytic cells, E 257-260 galvanic cells depolarizing agent, E 256 effect of heat on chemical action, E 254 electricity produced by chemical action, E 251 polarization of, E 256-257 replaced by dynamos, E 249-250 simple cell, chemical action, E 254-256 sparking apparatus for a gasolene engine, E 178-203* storage batteries, E 258-263 Edison battery, construction and care, E 262-263 lead, construction and care of, E 261-262 why they run down, E 192-194

Electric bells alternating current bells, E 288 equipment and installation in a house, E 296-299 operated by induced current, E 350-352 operated by wireless outfit, E 324* operation of electric bells and buzzers, E 72-75* transmitter in wireless telegraph, E 321

Electric buzzer operation, E 72-73* used in electric organ, E 278-279

Electric cars electric heaters, E 125 _See also_ Electric railroads

Electric central station, E 204-217*

Electric cigar lighter, E 115*

Electric circuit breakers, E 78*

Electric circuits open and closed, E 73

Electric clocks. _See_ Clocks

Electric conductors copper sulphate, E 259 copper versus iron, E 64 effect of impurities in water, E 64 salt solution, E 253, 265 water, E 200

Electric controllers arc lamp feed, E 84 automatic air control, E 53 principle of, E 49-53* elevator switches, E 83 principle of, E 17 _See also_ Electric rheostat

Electric cooking broilers, E 114* chafing dish, E 113* coffee percolator, E 113* fireless cooker, E 128-132*, 308 hot plate, E 110-113* oven, E 114, 305-308* toaster, E 115 traveler's cooker, E 113* with incandescent lamps, E 127*

Electric curling iron, E 116*

Electric currents alternating definition, E 31 for telephone bells, E 288 generation of, E 11 how produced, E 21-24 changing alternating to direct currents, E 238-239 chemical reaction produced by powerful currents, E 263-264 decomposition of water, E 264 different currents pass through the same wire, E 187 direct, definition of, E 31 induced current by interrupting the circuit, E 184 by moving the magnet, E 17-18 direction of, E 186 experiments, E 349-352 magnetic field about, E 353* primary and secondary, in spark coils, E 184-192* produced by chemical action, E 251-263 rectifiers, E 238-239 secondary, voltage, E 189-190 telephone, E 287

Electric engine principle of a toy engine, E 58*

Electric flash light, E 154-155*

Electric flasher, E 120-125*

Electric fuses, E 117* "blowing", E 146, 292

Electric gas lighter, E 118-120*

Electric generators. _See_ Dynamos

Electric heating apartments, E 125 applications, E 107-159 bedroom heater, E 126* cars, E 125 hot plates versus incandescent lamps, E 131 pad, E 117 principle of, E 97-106* _See also_ Electric cooking

Electric hot plate, E 110-113*

Electric incubator, E 114

Electric induction coil illustration, E 96

Electric insulators and insulation, E 14 glass knobs for telephone wires, E 290

Electric iron, E 243* principle and cost of using, E 107-110

Electric lamps, Arc arc lamp feed, E 84 carbons, adjustment, E 150-152* glass globes, economy of, E 150-152 mechanism, E 147-150 mercury vapor lamp, E 155-156* Moore light, E 156 search light, E 153* stereopticon, E 153*

Electric lamps, incandescent burglar's flash light, E 154-155* connecting lamps with the circuit, E 142* construction, E 142-143* cooking with, E 127* current required, E 30 filament carbon, E 134-135 life of, E 144-145 making of, E 142 testing, E 141 development of, E 132-135* metal, E 145-146 platinum wire, E 133 sizes, measuring, E 134 hylo, use and cost of, E 138* intensity, comparison of, E 137-141 Nernst lamps, E 157 numbers manufactured, E 134 operating by induced currents, E 349-352* operating by wireless outfit, E 327 resistance, E 29 of lamps in parallel, E 123* socket, E 143* tungsten lamp, E 141*, 144, 145

Electric light percentage of waste in producing, E 150 search light, E 153*

Electric light fixtures copper lamp, M 92-96* design, D 361-364*

Electric lighting cost, E 41, 139-141, 144 fitting up a summer camp, E 160-167 growth of demand for, E 134

Electric measurements units, E 37-42* ampere, E 30 kilowatt hour, E 41 volt, E 39 watt, E 39

Electric meters care when closing house, H 351 reading, H 239 _See also_ Ammeter; Voltmeter; Wattmeter

Electric milking machine, E 54

Electric motors, E 43-56 acting as dynamo, E 36 compared with dynamo, E 47-48* E. M. F. in motors, E 48 _See also_ Electric controller

Electric organs, E 55, 278-279*, 293-295 pipe organ, E 44-52

Electric oven, E 114 automatic control of temperature, E 306-308* brick, construction, E 305-308

Electric potential meaning of difference in potential, E 200-202

Electric power conversion of steam into electric energy, E 4 cost in large and small plants, E 204 production of, E 3-10

Electric power distribution cost, E 210 distances, power and cost, E 210-211 loss in transmission, E 210, 216 voltage in relation to distances, E 211

Electric power plants central stations, E 204-205* equipping an amateur plant, E 220-239 estimating the capacity, E 219 number and annual output in the United States, E 205 water power for, E 202-217

Electric pumps use of, E 51-54

Electric push buttons, E 74-75* for elevators, E 69-70* house bells, E 297-299

Electric railroads current controller, principle of, E 53 toy operated by wireless outfit, E 325-327* what moves the cars, E 16

Electric resistance impedance, E 285-286 laws for wires, E 120 of electric lamps, E 29 of lamps in parallel, E 123* ohmic resistance, E 285 principle of electric heating and lighting, E 100-106 resistance board, E 30 starting box, E 48, 81-83* telephone circuit, E 285-287 unit, ohm, E 91-93 variation of heat with resistance, E 291 wires, diameters and resistance, E 136

Electric rheostats, E 47-49* _See also_ Electric controller

Electric seal, A 491

Electric shock conditions necessary, E 170 electric waves, E 315 experiments with spark coil, E 176, 178-180, 180-183* how it feels, E 170-177

Electric shower bath constructing, E 244-247*

Electric soldering iron, E 116

Electric spark coil automobile spark coil, E 95* gasolene engine equipment, E 178-203* how voltage is raised by the spark coil, E 180-183 jump spark coils, E 184 make and break coils, E 183 primary and secondary, E 188-192 principle, E 180-187* telephone, E 279-281* vibrator, E 190 voltage, E 191 wireless telegraph, E 321-322* with two windings, E 187-191*

Electric spinner, E 57*

Electric switches, E 74-75* circuit breakers, E 78* double-pole, single throw, E 52*

Electric thermostat, E 124 for brick oven, E 306-308*

Electric toys engine, E 58* spinner, E 57* train operated by wireless, E 325-327

Electric transformer construction, E 212-216* illustration, E 96* magnetic circuit, E 214* relation of voltage to windings, E 215 step-up and step-down transformer, E 216

Electric washing machine construction and use, E 241-243*

Electric waves, E 309-323 changes in length, E 316 Hertzian waves, E 346

Electric welding, E 158-159

Electric wires diameters, E 135-137 glass knobs for insulating, E 290 ground wire for wireless telegraph, E 321 resistance laws of, E 120 tables, E 135-137

Electric wiring use of earth circuit, E 290-291

Electricity Ampere's rule, E 30-32 chemical transformer, E 256 doing chores with, E 241-243* E. M. F., meaning, E 203 electrical current compared with water current, E 176, 197-198, 201 every-day uses, list, E 219 galvanic, E 248 how electricity feels, E 170, 177 medical use, E 175 Ohm's law, E 92-93 _See also_ Induction (Electricity); Telegraph; Telephone; Wireless telegraph; also headings beginning Electric and Electro

Electrocution, E 175-176 of rats, E 271-273*

Electrolysis of solutions, E 257-261 of water, E 264-266

Electrolyte, E 256

Electrolytic actions in every-day life, E 266-270

Electrolytic cell, E 257-260

Electromagnet, E 11-24 applications of, E 54-96* arc lamp control, E 148 construction, E 15* discovery of, E 14, 17 lifting power, E 15-16, 79-81 magnetic intensity, E 16 principle of, E 14-15 strength compared to bar magnets, E 16 use in relay, E 322

Electrometallurgy separating iron from ore, E 79*

Electromotive force counter electromotive force in motors, E 48*

Electroplating, E 259-261

Elevators electric controllers, operation of, E 83 how annunciators are operated, E 68-71*

Elijah and the widow's cruse of oil, H 32

Ellipse, drawing, B 210-211*, C 19* string and pin method, C 112* trammel method, C 113*

Elm red or slippery elm, C 558 rock or cork elm, C 560 white or American, C 559

Embankments retaining wall for riverside, B 238-245 wall for lawn, G 74

Emblems bullion embroidery, N 155

Embossing iron, M 361

Embroidery, N 98-241* bars, twisted and woven, N 141* blanket stitch, N 142* bullion stitch, N 165-166* bullion work, N 154-156 butterfly pattern, drawnwork, N 220-222* buttonhole and satin stitch design, N 166* buttonholing, N 130-134*, 142-145* card case, N 183-186* cat stitch, N 102, 215* chain stitch, N 99-100* cleaning washing, H 329, N 136-137 without washing, N 379 collars, Hedebo embroidery, N 203* combination stitch, N 148-154* combinations of colors and stitches, D 118-119 compass design, N 167-168 couching stitch, N 124* cross stitch, N 103-106*, 107*, 108* daisies, N 167, 177-180* designs, planning, D 118 drawnwork, N 211-226* eyelet work, N 160-163* fagotting, N 145-146*, 229* feather-stitching, N 116-118* flower work, N 176-189* colors, N 176 shading, N 179-180 stems, N 180 French knots, N 164-165* Hardanger, N 190-197* Hedebo embroidery bars, N 204* circles, N 204-206* materials for, N 202 triangles, N 204* hemstitching, N 207-210*, 215* herring-bone stitch, N 101* honeycomb stitch, N 144* hoops, N 122-123 ismet stitch, N 125* Kensington stitch, N 178-179* lace, embroidering on, N 180 ladder stitch, N 158-159* lazy-daisy stitch, N 119-120* leaves, shading, N 179 letters, N 147-154* lingerie hats, N 171-174 long and short stitch, N 177* monograms, N 152-154* needles, N 121 outline stitch combination stitches, N 148-154* rough and smooth, N 101* padding, N 99, 130-131, 147-148, 156 picots, N 192*, 194* pin cushion top, N 193-196* pyramid stitch, Hardanger, N 195* ribbon work, N 181-189* card case, N 183-186* rococo, N 181-189* Roman cut work, N 138-142* satin stitch, N 147-149*, D 119 design, N 158* scalloping, N 132-133 drawing scallops, N 135 seeding, N 154* shadow embroidery, N 125-128* silks, when not to use, N 157 skeleton stitch, N 381 smocking, N 112-114* spider stitch, N 142 stamping patterns, N 128-129 star patterns, Hardanger, N 191* stem stitch, N 154 substitute for, N 379* suggestions for a girl's room, N 372-381 threading the needle, N 103 tools, N 121-123 Turkish stitch, N 125* Van Dyke stitch, N 151* Wallachian embroidery, N 134-137*

Emergencies, housekeeping, H 353-369

Enamel and enameling, M 197-211 backing, M 208 basse-taille, M 208 black spots, removing, M 201 champleve method, M 202, 208 characteristics of enamel, M 197 cloisonne, M 201, 209 finishing, M 201 firing process, M 199-201 muffle furnace for, M 199 on copper, D 354-355 on silver, D 355 placing enamel on metal, M 198 polishing, M 205 preparing enamel, M 197 tools, M 197 unsoldering, M 205 _See also_ Wood finishing

Enamel ware kitchen utensils, H 201

Endive blanching, G 305 planting and transplanting, G 305 seed, time to plant, G 234 winter culture, G 305

Engineering. _See_ Mechanics

Engines external and internal combustion, B 121-122, 128-130, 387 oscillating, B 333-334* parallel motion, mechanism, B 332-333* speed regulator, B 328* steam versus gas or oil, advantages, B 121 _See also_ Electric engines; Electric motors; Gasolene motors; Horse power; Steam engines; Turbines

English bind weed (Morning glory) class and seed time, G 278

Engraving cement, M 205 iron work, M 361

Ensigns, code, B 108, 109

Entomology. _See_ Insects

Envelope for clippings making, N 187-189*

Equestrian polo, K 377

Ermine, A 495

Escallops. _See_ Scallops

Escutcheon plates, M 410*, 412-414

Etching iron work, M 362

Ether (of space) chemical waves, effect of, E 336 development of the universal ether idea, E 339-348 kinds of ether waves, E 310-316 medium for transmitting wave motions, E 343 original meaning, E 344 wave theory, exponents of, E 344-346 waves sent forth by Halley's comet, E 333-338

Evergreens, C 535-542 for hedge, G 82 landscape gardening, G 354 southern smilax, A 54 _See also_ Pine

Exercise value of, K 10-13 walking, K 14-17

Exhibits, vegetables and flowers, G 201-208 flowers, arrangement, G 205 labeling, G 205 vegetables arrangement, G 202, 204 preparation of, G 202

Eyelet work designs for, N 163*, 164*, 167-168 edges of, N 169 lingerie hat, N 169* making eyelets, N 161-162* padded eyelets, N 162*

Eyes and hooks sewing on, N 24-25*

F

Face plate definition of, M 209

Fagots collecting, A 406

Fagotting lace stitches, N 229* Bermuda fagotting stitch, N 145-146*

Fahrenheit scale, B 261

Fancy work. _See_ Applique; Basket making; Bead work; Braiding; Crocheting; Embroidery; Hemstitching; Knitting; Lace making; Needle work; also names of articles, e. g., Pin case; Sewing apron, etc.

Faraday, Michael discovery of magneto-induction, E 14, 17 theory of ether phenomena, E 345

Farm machines dog power for running, A 255

Farmers' bulletins how to secure, A 513

Farming. _See_ Dairying; Domestic animals; Drainage; Fertilizers and manures; Flower gardening; Forestry; Fruit; Gardening; Irrigation; Soils; Trees; Vegetable gardening; Vegetables

Fashion. _See_ Clothing and dress

Fat (Game), K 346

Fats food composition and value, H 249, 250 frying fats, H 282 proportion in diet, H 249, 252

Feather race, K 347

Feather-stitching decorations in, N 119 double stitch, N 117* marking with, N 156 seaweed stitch, N 118* single stitch, N 116* threads, N 118*

Feathers goose, A 189-190 poultry, A 159

Feed rolls mechanism, B 316*

Fences. _See_ Hedges

Fermentation principle of, A 414

Fern dish making pottery, D 310-313*

Ferns care of, in house, G 197 gathering, A 55, 359 varieties to grow, G 198

Fertilization of plants, G 246-248

Fertilizers and manures amount required for poor soil, G 18 hen manure, A 143 leaf mold, making, A 421-424 preparing manure for hotbeds, G 108 sod for compost, G 262 source of nitrogen, G 223 wood ashes, A 433 for strawberries, G 94 _See also_ Humus; Lime; Nitrates; Phosphates; Potash

Field athletics. _See_ Track athletics

Field, Cyrus, W. and the Atlantic cable, E 65

Figs food value, H 255

Files and rasps, C 204 draw filing in copper work, M 37 metal work, M 9

Filing cabinet construction, C 358-359* drawer designs to represent books, C 397* for drawings, making, C 395-396

Filling. _See_ Wood finishing

Finance. _See_ Accounts; Allowances; Housekeeping; Income

Finger bowls brass work, M 133-135* use of, H 172

Finishing. _See_ Wood finishing

Fir. _See_ Balsam

Fire mystery of flame, H 226

Fire extinction burning grease, H 236 chimneys, H 234

Fire making camp fires, K 67-69 for cooking, K 77-82* coal fire, H 227-233 daily care, H 232 laying and lighting, H 231 furnace fires, H 233 lighting a fire with kerosene, H 231 open wood fires, H 223-227 _See also_ Ranges

Fire of coal: story, H 37

Fire screen for metal work, M 11*

Fire tools making, M 370-379* poker, forging, M 371* shovel, forging, M 372* stand for, making, M 377-379 tongs, making, M 374-377* riveting, M 376 _See also_ Andirons

Firearms shot guns versus rifles for boys, K 112 use of, K 110-124*

Fireless cookers electric, E 128-132*, 308

Fireplaces camp fireplaces, K 78-79 hearth, flue and draught, H 223-224 made of field rock, D 371* tiles, making, D 318-320 _See also_ Andirons; Fire tools

Fires damage from, C 513 danger from oily cloths, H 12 preventing forest fires, A 467-468

Fireworks operated by wireless outfit, E 327-328*

Firing pottery, D 299-301*

Fish boiling, H 290 whole, H 278 broiling, H 275-276 cleaning, H 289 to preserve heads and tails, H 290 food value, H 250, 253 combined with vegetables, H 259 frying, K 91 how to select for cooking, H 271 pan fish, meaning, K 130 protecting from natural enemies, A 273 taming, A 266 _See also_ Brook trout; Gold fish; Shell fish; Trout

Fish spears forging, M 240*

Fishing, K 125-143* bait, K 130-136* bait casting, K 137-138 boats, K 140 fly casting, K 130, 134-137* gaff, K 141 game fish, K 126 hooks, K 128-129* landing nets, K 141* line winder, whittling, C 15* lines, selection and care, K 128, 135 methods, K 129 qualifications of a successful fisherman, K 125 reels, K 127 rods, selecting, K 127 rules, K 142 still fishing, K 129, 139-140 tackle, K 126-129* time to fish, K 141 trolling, K 133*, 139*

Fixtures. _See_ Electric light fixtures

Flag (Plant) characteristics of dwarf flag, G 334

Flags yacht signal code, B 107-109

Flannels washing, H 324, 328

Flash light burglar's, E 154-155*

Flat irons. _See_ Electric iron

Fleece. _See_ Goats; Sheep

Flemish oak stain, D 231

Fletcher, Horace theory of food chewing, K 10

Fleur-de-lis. _See_ Iris

Flicker bird house for, C 219

Flies book about, A 519 breeding places, A 476-477 danger to health, A 475 development from the egg, A 393-395 exterminating, A 475-478

Floating heart characteristics, G 366

Floors building estimating lumber for octagon or hexagon, C 507-509 for model house, D 28 for summer house, C 417 laying floors, C 471 setting beams, C 470 carpets versus rugs for, H 125 cement floors for poultry house, A 137 color scheme in house decoration, D 16 cleaning appliances, H 142 dusting, H 125 finish for wood floor, H 192 kitchen floors and floor coverings, H 191 polishing, H 126 refinishing, H 127 waxed floors, polishing, H 126 _See also_ Carpets; Matting; Rugs; Strength of materials; Vacuum cleaner

Floral decoration backgrounds, D 89-90 color scheme, D 84-86 combinations, D 83 dining table, D 91-92 garden method, D 83 grouping, D 82 holders and vases, D 86-89* Japanese idea, D 81 principles of arrangement, D 93-94 wild flowers, decorative value, A 56

Flour cleansing qualities, H 332 food value, H 254

Flower basket weaving, G 61-64*

Flower embroidery. _See_ Embroidery

Flower gardening, G 315-335 annuals, G 328-331 blooming after frost, G 330 arrangement of plants, G 317 background plants, G 317, 320, 321 bedding plants, G 323 biennials, G 322 border plants, G 137, 321 climbing annuals: table, G 331 color scheme, G 315, 361 cut flowers: tables, G 329, 333 drills, making, G 156 establishing a nursery business in California, A 94-99 formal garden border, G 152 color scheme, G 154 diagram of, G 153 gradation of plants, G 151, 152 staking plots and paths, G 154, 155 straight lines in, G 357 fragrant flowers: tables, G 330, 333 girls' work, G 151-164 hardy and self-sowing plants, G 316-321 house plants, G 196-198, H 139 informal gardens, G 358 insect pests, G 199, 293 location of garden, G 361 perennials, G 333-335 potted plants, G 180-200 drainage, G 172, 183-185 pests, remedy, G 199 pots, cleaning, G 184 potting process, G 186-187 soil, G 171, 183-185 transplanting, G 181-182 watering, G 199 profit in selling flowers, G 373 selling seeds, G 371-372 selling young plants, G 370-371 rock garden, G 324-326 round beds, making, G 136-137 school grounds, G 82-84 screening unsightly places, G 362 selection of flowers for landscape effect, G 361 self-sowing annuals: table, G 331 shady places, annuals for: table, G 331 slipping plants, G 188-190 soil, annuals that suit heavy or sandy soils, G 328-329 succession in bloom by months, G 316, 364 time table, G 161 topping plants, G 199 _See also_ Bulbs; Gardening; Vines; Wild flower gardening; Window boxes; also names of special flowers, e. g., Chrysanthemum; Larkspur; Pansy

Flower missions, A 62

Flowers collections, labeling, K 156 preparation and mounting, K 155 cut flowers annuals for, G 329, 333 care of, H 160 honey or pollen producing, A 322 jardiniere for, making, G 66-68* pistils and stamens, G 246-247 propagating wild flowers, A 467 protecting wild flowers, A 465-467 supplying city children with wild flowers, A 61 water and bog plants, G 366 _See also_ Floral decoration; Flower gardening; Plants; Wild flower gardening; Window box; also names of special flowers, e. g., Lily

Flues cleaning, H 234 purpose of, H 224 _See also_ Chimney

Flux definition of, M 209 iron and steel, M 221 use of, in welding, M 247

Fly casting, K 134-137*

Flying theory of, B 195-197

Flying machines glider, B 179 heavier than air and lighter than air types, B 162-163 _See also_ Aeroplanes; Balloons

Fobs. _See_ Watch fobs

Foliage plants, G 324

Follow the leader (stump master), K 387

Food ash, meaning of, H 249 carbohydrates, H 248 combinations, H 257-261 condensed, harmful, H 261 fats, H 249 non-nourishing, value of, H 260 pre-digested, harmful, H 261 proportion of income to be used for food, H 74, 78 protein, H 248 refuse, meaning, H 248 values, H 247-257 experiments of United States Government, H 250 variety essential, H 249, 262 _See also_ Cookery; Diet; Fish; Fruit; Marketing; Meat; Vegetables; also names of special foods, e. g., Bread; Macaroni, etc.

Football, K 267-283*, 348-350 association or soccer, K 269, 331 captain, K 273 centre rush, qualifications, K 270, 272 dangers of the game, K 267 "down", K 275, 281, 349 drop kick, K 272, 349 ends, qualifications, K 270, 273 field goal, K 276, 349 full-back, qualifications, K 272, 273 goals, choosing, K 276 gridiron, K 273*, 274, 348 half-back, qualifications, K 271, 273 kicking off, K 276, 281 line-up diagram, K 268, 270* players, weight and size, K 270 playing the game, K 274-276, 348 positions of players, K 269, 349 punt, K 349 quarter-back, qualifications, K 270, 273 Rugby, K 269 rules, K 280-283 rushing the ball, K 275 "safety", K 282 scores, K 276, 281-282, 348 scrimmage, K 281 season, K 267 shoes, K 280* signals, K 277-279 tackles, qualifications, K 270, 273 team, organization, K 269-273 team work, K 273-274 touchdown, K 275, 349 training, K 283 uniform, K 279-280*, 350

Foot bridge. _See_ Bridge building

Foot pound, B 123

Foot stools designs and construction, C 291-300* mission style, design, C 374-375*

Forest fires damage from, C 513 preventing, A 466-468

Forestry book about, A 516 conservation, C 519 value of forests, C 514-516 waste timber problems, A 406 _See also_ Lumber and lumbering; Trees; Wood lots

Forge bellows, M 216* building fire in, M 217-218 construction, M 216 draught systems, M 227-229 explosion, danger of, M 229 portable forge, M 222-223* draught system, M 228 tuyere, M 216

Forget-me-not characteristics, G 365, 366

Forging bending, M 236 bending corner in iron, M 271-273* bolts, M 240-244* butcher knife, M 354-357* crow bar, M 352* dividers, pair of, M 340-341* door hasp, M 338-340* eccentric strap, M 334* fish-spear, M 240* fork, two pronged, M 239* garden hoe, M 335-337* gate hooks, M 236-238* grub hoe, M 328-330* hand drills, M 347-349* hand hammers, M 316-322* harness hooks, M 238* heating steel, M 290 hinge and butt, M 283-285* ice-shaver, M 327* nail puller or claw tool, M 353* nuts, M 244-246* oxidizing fire, M 233 pipe method, M 333 pitchfork, M 239* punching holes, M 245* reducing fire, M 233 rock drills, M 344-349* shackles, M 349-352* sockets for wire ropes, M 281-283* stake pin, M 233-235* staples, M 235-236* steel hook, M 266-271* stone chisels and picks, M 341-344* tongs, iron, M 287-288* turn buckles, M 330-334* upsetting bolts, M 241* definition, M 315 rings, M 249 wood chisel, M 337-338 wrenches of steel, M 273-281* _See also_ Blacksmithing; Iron work; Welding

Formal garden, G 151-155, 357

Forsythia selection principles, G 37

Foundations boat house, B 36 cellar, C 459 concrete box mold for, C 430, 458* bracing, C 460* leveling, C 460 pergola foundation, C 426-433 setting columns, C 435 setting wooden frame, C 435, 458 thickness of wall, C 459 depth for houses, C 458-459 house building, D 25-28* posts for small buildings, C 443 setting, D 26-28* setting and leveling, C 413-417*

Four o'clock sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Fowl. _See_ Poultry

Fox book about the silver fox, A 517

Foxglove biennial, G 322 characteristics, G 333, 334, 347, 365 digitalis made from, A 57 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Fragrant herbs and grasses, A 64

Frames. _See_ Picture frames

Framing. _See_ House framing; Picture frames

Francis of Assisi, Saint stories about, H 25

Franklin, Benjamin kite flying, B 186

Fraternity pillows, N 376

French chalk for dry cleaning, H 332, 360

French hem, N 21

French knots letter outlining, N 150 needle for, N 166 working, N 164*

French seal, A 501

Fresnel, Augustin Jean theory of light wave, E 345

Fringe knotting fringe, N 275-277* raffia, N 274

Frogs taming, A 266

Fruit food values, H 255 selection of, for food, H 271 washing, H 295 _See also_ names of fruits, e. g., Apple; Grape; Orange, etc.

Fruit trees budding, G 251-253 distance to plant, G 258 protecting fruit from birds, A 461 seeds versus grafting, G 257-258 _See also_ Grafting

Frying fats for, H 282 methods, H 281

Fuchsias bedding plants, G 324

Fuel blacksmith's fuels, M 229 refuse timber, A 406 _See also_ Coal

Fulcrum principle of, B 21-28*

Fullering. _See_ Blacksmithing

Fumed oak and chestnut, process, D 233

Fungi shelf fungi, A 62 _See also_ Mushrooms

Fur dry cleaning, H 332 packing, H 347 _See also_ Ermine; Mink; Mole; Muskrat; Rabbit; Sable; Seal; Skins; Skunk; Weasel

Furnace draughts and dampers, H 227-230 gas and oil for heating steel, M 290 house furnace, management and cleaning, H 233 muffle furnace for enameling, M 199

Furniture antique mahogany table refinished, D 241-243 re-finishing, D 238-243 bedroom, D 57-58* beds, designs, D 60*, 373* box furniture, making, C 476-478* care of furniture and fittings, H 121-145 castors, Acme pin, D 193 concrete furniture, making, D 201-209* covers for, H 348 decorative value, D 46 dining-room, D 53-57* enameling white, D 235 evolution of, C 291-292 hall furniture, D 47-50* kitchen furniture, H 193-199 living room, D 50-53* outdoor, C 408-416*, D 198-211* designing, principles of, D 200 painted, cleaning, H 134 polish, H 133, 162 renovating, D 238-239 rustic, D 209-211* woods for, A 410, K 101-102 selection for use and beauty, H 115-120 upholstered, cleaning, H 132, 332 _See also_ Book case; Book rack; Carpentry and Woodwork--Problems; Chairs; Desk; House decoration; Stains and staining; Tables; Tabourette; Wood; Wood carving; Wood finishing

Furrows. _See_ Gardening

Fusee, principle of, B 80*

Fuses. _See_ Electric fuses

G

Gaging lumber, C 186, 188

Gaillardia characteristics, G 332, 335 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Gained or housed joints, C 255*

Galileo, Galilei barometer invention, B 256

Galloway, Beverly T. back yard swimming pool, A 282-286

Galvani, Luigi production of electric currents by chemical action, E 248

Galvanic electricity, E 248

Galvanized iron, E 248 soldering, M 44

Galveston sea wall, B 247

Gambling in housekeeping expenditures, H 70

Game and game birds cooking in camp, K 89, 90 creating a private game preserve, A 464-465 domesticating wild game, A 461-464 protecting, A 463 wild rice food for, A 78 _See also_ Bantams; Guinea fowl; Pheasants

Games list of one hundred games, K 326-328 _See also_ Archery; Base ball; Camping; Canoeing; Coasting; Fishing; Football; Golf; Hockey; Hunting; Skating; Skiing; Swimming; Tennis; also names of games, e. g., Croquet; Marbles, etc.

Garbage can cleaning, H 110, 221 location, H 221 disposal of, H 220 in country, H 222

Garden club election of officers, G 14 exhibits, G 201-208 reports on garden plots secured, G 3-12 vote to aid Oldfield Centre school grounds, G 14 vote to disbar girls, G 16

Garden hockey, K 350

Garden paths materials and making, G 358

Garden pests. _See_ Insect pests

Gardening city back yard, G 23, 134-141 compost pile, G 262 drills, making, G 156 exhibits, G 201-208 furrows, making, G 264*, 266-267 hill, meaning of, G 116 hoeing, G 266 indoor experiments, G 28-40 money-making garden, G 368-376 selling garden fittings, G 372-373 plan, drawing, G 43-47* paper plan for garden plots, G 261 preparing new plot, G 261-263 pricking out plants, G 100 raking, G 266 rows, direction to plant, G 260 rubbish, removing from new site, G 263 site for a garden, choosing, G 259-261 sowing seeds, G 268 spading, G 263-265 success, principles of, G 270 succession crops, G 92 thinning seedlings, G 268 transplanting, G 101-102, 118, 268-270 trenching, G 263-265* work shop end of the garden, G 41-71* _See also_ Coldframe; Drainage; Fertilizers and manures; Flower gardening; Herbs; Hotbeds; Insect pests; Landscape gardening; Lawns; Plant food; Plants; School grounds; Seeds; Soils; Vegetable gardening; Vegetables; Vines; Weeds

Gardening--Tools and appliances bulb flat, making, G 61* dibber, G 47* flower basket, weaving, G 61-64* good versus poor tools, G 89-90 hoe, how to use, G 107 labels for plants, making, G 58* measurements on tool handles, G 156 plant jardiniere, G 66-68* pot rest, G 68-71* reel, making, G 51* sieve, making, G 59-61 spades, how to use, G 88 stake, making, G 50* sundial, making, G 64-66*

Gareth service in the king's kitchen, H 20

Garlic, wild class and seed time, G 278

Garret playhouse, H 5

Gas and oil engines compared with steam engines, B 121, E 179 construction and fuel supply, B 128-130 cylinder, what takes place in, E 178 water supply, quantity, B 130 _See also_ Gasolene motors

Gas furnace heating steel, M 290

Gas lighter, Electric, E 118-120*

Gas lighting average bill for careful families, H 76

Gas meters reading, H 238

Gas range baking bread in, H 283 cleaning, H 235 fire from fat, extinguishing, H 236 lighting, H 234

Gasolene composition, B 104 danger of explosion, B 104

Gasolene automobiles. _See_ Automobiles

Gasolene launch. _See_ Boat building; Launch

Gasolene motors action, B 388 automobile frames, construction, B 396-401* carbureter, B 95* description and dimensions, B 95* exhaust pipe, B 97-98, 103 expansion chamber, B 98 four-stroke cycle, B 388-391* installing in launch, B 93-95 motive power, how obtained, B 388 motor-cycle, principle, B 387-388 muffler, B 97-98 multiple cylinders, B 393 petcock, B 99 pipe joints, finishing, B 102 power, developing, B 105-107 single cylinder, B 391, 394* sparking, B 105-106 electric equipment for, E 178-203 stationary foundations, B 100-102 location, B 99 vibration, avoiding, B 100-102 stopping the engine, B 104 suction and overflow pipes, B 102 tank, setting, B 102 testing new engine, B 111 two-cylinder, B 392* two-stroke cycle, B 388 vertical, B 391 water jacket, B 110 water supply, B 103-104

Gate hooks forging, M 236-238*

Gearing. _See_ Mechanical movements

Geese book about, A 517 breeds, A 189, K 181 domesticating wild geese, A 463 fattening for market, A 189 feathers, plucking, A 189-190 feeding and caring for goslings, A 188 food value, H 253 how to select for cooking, H 271 raising, A 188-190 setting eggs, A 188

Genista indoor plant, G 197

Georgia pine. _See_ Pine

Geraniums bedding plant, G 323 slipping, G 188-190 wild geranium, G 342 window box plant, G 193

Germination of seeds. _See_ Seeds

Gifts playthings outgrown, H 10 spent in advance, offense of, H 70 the tenth of your income, H 81

Gilding lettering name on boat, B 131

Gimlet bit, C 194*, 196

Ginger root use of, A 58

Girders, wooden strength of materials, B 45

Girls' clubs. _See_ Clubs

Girls outdoor sports for, K 318-325

Girl's room color scheme, N 375, 378, 379 cretonne versus linen for furnishings, N 373 curtains, N 380-381 stenciling furnishings, N 377 wall decorations, N 377 window seat, N 374

Girl's secret, G 25-27

Glass cutting with a wheel cutter, D 196 for lamp shade, M 400 kitchen utensils, H 203 leaded glass, soldering, D 196-197* polishing, H 134 washing, H 180

Glider flying machine, B 179

Glove box. _See_ Boxes

Gloves cleaning chamois gloves, H 331

Glue preparing and using, C 225 _See also_ Carpentry

Gnomon making, B 209

Goat age, telling, A 111 Angora commercial value, A 114 fleece, A 109, 114 book about, A 517 common goat, advantages of, A 114-116 feeding, A 111-113 housing, A 109, 113 kid, care of, A 111 market value, A 117 milk, value, A 115 products, A 110 profit from, A 107-108 raising, A 107-118 experiment in New England, A 116-118 rate of increase, A 115 selecting for a herd, A 110 space needed, A 109, 114 value in reclaiming land, A 116-118 water supply, A 109

Goat skin for leather work, N 84*

Godetia characteristics, G 322, 329, 331

Gold fish age, A 227 book about, A 517 characteristics, A 226 color of young, A 231 diseases, A 232 eggs, care of, A 229 enemies, A 233 food, A 228, 231 habits, A 228 hospital, A 232 making an aquarium, K 160-162 raising for profit, A 228-233 rearing tank, A 228, 230 spawning pond, A 229 storage tank, A 231 training, A 227 winter tank, A 232

Golden bell characteristics, G 355

Golden glow characteristics, G 334, 365

Golden oak finish, D 230

Golden seal value, A 57

Golf, K 296-300*, 351-354 addressing, K 297* bogie score, K 300 caddy, K 352 clubs, K 299*, 352 course, K 296, 351 hole, K 297, 351 links, K 353 playing the game, K 352 putting, K 300 green, K 297, 352 scoring, K 298, 300 tee, K 297

Golf-croquet, K 354

Gong. _See_ Brass work--bell

Gophers destroying, A 493

Gouge blacksmith's tool, M 225 sharpening, C 179-184* woodworker's tool, C 258-260*

Governors (Machinery) gyroscope governor, B 335* steam engine, B 313-316*, 329

Grafting cleft grafting, G 257-258 improving stock, G 254-258 occupation for boys, A 409* scion and stock, G 254-256 season for, G 255 tongue grafting, G 256 wax making, G 256 whip grafting, G 256-257

Grain food value, H 250, 254 _See also_ Corn

Grandfather's clock making, C 284-290*

Granite for roadway, G 85

Grape food value, H 255 green grape jelly, receipt, A 15 wild grapes picking, A 14 jelly receipt, A 15

Grape juice book about, A 518 food value, A 417 making, A 418-421

Grass seed kind for rapid growth, G 76 preparing the soil, G 74-76 sowing, G 77

Grass stain removing, H 359

Grasses basketry uses, A 64

Grasshoppers distinguishing young from old, A 393 garden pests, G 282

Grates. _See_ Fireplaces

Gravel road beds, G 85 _See also_ Cement walks

Graver definition of, M 209

Gravitation definition, E 341 laws of, B 277-280 principle of, B 57-59

Gravity acceleration, meaning of, B 278 force, meaning of, B 277 specific gravity, meaning of, B 279-280

Grease spots removing, H 360

Greek cross, C 322

Greens (Cookery) dandelion greens, A 63

Greens, Christmas, A 50-57

Grinding machine edge runners or chasers for crushing, B 336*

Grindstones grinding tools with, C 181-184* principle of, B 28 types and uses, C 181*

Grosbeak, rose-breasted insect destroyer, A 457 migration, K 176

Grounds. _See_ School grounds

Grouse book about, A 519

Guests entertainment of, H 366-369

Guinea fowl book about, A 517 characteristics, A 179, 181-182 eggs, value, A 179 feeding, A 180 marketing, A 179, 181 raising, A 180-182

Guinea pigs as pets, K 183 making a house for, C 451-454* raising for pets, A 205 _See also_ Cavies

Gum. _See_ Spruce gum

Gum tree sweet gum, red gum, or liquid amber, C 562

Gun. _See_ Firearms; Rifles; Shotgun

Gussets. _See_ Sewing

Gymnastics outdoor life versus gymnastics, K 11 pull up bar, making, C 270*

Gyroscope applied to aeroplanes, B 169 Bohnenberger's machine, B 334* construction of, B 267-268* mechanism, B 334*

H

Hab-enihan (Game), K 354

Hacmatack, C 530

Hail formation, B 363-366

Haley over (Game), K 355

Halibut food value, H 253

Hall clock design and construction, D 193-198*

Hall furniture, D 47-50*

Halley's comet ether waves sent forth by, E 333-338

Halley's thermometer, B 261

Halved joints, C 253*

Ham. _See_ Pork

Hamburg steak, H 268

Hammer adze eye claw hammer, C 203* claw hammer, C 203* cross peen hammer, making, M 316-318* hand hammer, M 224* handles, making, C 271* hard wood peg for copper work, M 28 peen, M 254* planishing hammer, M 8* raising hammer, M 7* round peen hammer, making, M 318-322* set hammer, M 225*, 323* shaping hammer, M 7*

Hammocks making couch hammocks, C 478-480*

Hand ball, K 355

Hand polo, K 356

Hand tennis, K 356

Handkerchief drawnwork, N 213-219* hemstitching, N 207-209* rolling the edge, N 21*

Handkerchief box. _See_ Boxes

Handles wooden, making, C 271* _See also_ Copper work; Metal work

Hands removing stains, H 357

Hardanger embroidery, N 190-197* bars, weaving, N 192 block stitch, N 190-191* materials, N 190 picots, N 192*, 194* pin cushion tops, N 193-196* pyramid stitch, N 195* star pattern, N 191*

Hardening metals. _See_ Steel

Hardie blacksmith tool, M 226* making, M 322*

Hardy plants meaning, G 317

Hare "varying" hare, A 499-500

Hare and hounds, K 17

Harebell, Carpathian characteristics, G 334

Harrowing, G 124

Harvesting nature's crops, A 8-100

Haskins, Charles Waldo How to keep household accounts, recommended, H 99

Hat baby's buttoned hat, N 174-175 how to select a hat, D 125 lingerie hat, N 169*, 171-174 raffia hats, N 262-270 for doll, N 253-255

Hat ball, K 357

Hat pin copper work, D 348-350*, M 64-69

Hat pin holder copper work, M 69-71*

Hatchet handle making, C 271*

Haws (fruit) location and uses, A 24

Hawthorne, Nathaniel quotation, H 43

Hawthorne, English characteristics, G 366

Hayes, Ruth success with chickens, A 160-163

Hazel nut cultivating, A 33-34 for fence hedge, A 34 gathering time, A 35 pruning bushes, A 35

Health. _See_ Hygiene

Hearth meaning, H 224

Heat British thermal unit, E 100-101 calorie and caloric, meaning, E 342 generation, E 98-100 transmission by radiation, E 314 waves length, E 316 production and velocity, E 313-315 theory, E 343

Heating automatic control of temperature, E 306-308* regulation by electric flasher, E 120-125* _See also_ Electric heating; Fuel; Furnace; Steam radiators

Hedebo embroidery, N 202-206*

Hedges hazel bush, A 34 poplar versus evergreen, G 82 shrubs for, G 357

Helianthus background plant, G 320 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Helicoptere flying machine, B 163

Heliotrope bedding plant, G 324 characteristics of winter plant, G 333

Hellebore, white insecticide, G 117, 285

Hemlock characteristics, C 539

Hemming. _See_ Sewing

Hemp ropes. _See_ Ropes

Hemstitching double hemstitching, N 210* handkerchiefs, N 207-209* padded, N 215-216*

Hen coops. _See_ Poultry

Hen manure. _See_ Fertilizers and manures

Henry, Joseph first to make electro-magnets, E 14

Hens. _See_ Poultry

Hepatica blossoming time, G 339 habits and characteristics, G 339, 364

Herbarium, K 155

Herbs bee balm, G 347 for basket weaving and sachets, A 64 in colonial gardens, G 326 list of, G 327 soil for, G 326 uses, G 326

Hero engine, B 114*

Herring food value, H 253

Herring-bone embroidery stitch, N 101*

Hertz, Heinrich discovery of electric waves, E 346

Hertzian waves, E 346

Hewitt, Peter Cooper inventor of mercury vapor lamp, E 156

Hexagon problem in estimating lumber for hexagon floor, C 508

Hickory characteristics, A 39-40, C 564 food value of nuts, H 256 lumber value, A 39 varieties, A 40

Hide and seek, K 361

Hides. _See_ Skins

High kick, K 357

Hinges copper or brass, metal work, M 116* copper or silver, metal work, M 100-106* iron hinge and butt, making, M 283-285* ornamental, making, M 391-393* riveting, M 114* setting, C 239

Hives. _See_ Bees

Hockey forward, K 214 garden hockey, K 350 goal tender, K 214 ice hockey, K 212-215*, 358 lawn hockey, K 367 "puck", K 212 rink, K 215 rules, K 215 skates, cost, K 358* team, K 214, 358 uniform, K 213, 358 _See also_ Curling

Hoe forging a garden hoe, M 335-337* forging a grub hoe, M 328-330* how to use, G 107-266

Hog. _See_ Swine

Hogan, Clarence A. raising chickens, A 159

Hoisting machinery inclined plane, B 52-62, 64 lewis for lifting stones, B 347* lifting magnets, E 79-81* screws, B 139-147 tongs for lifting stones, B 348* _See also_ Capstan; Pulleys; Windlass

Holly care of trees, A 52 characteristics, C 560 wood, value, A 52 wreaths, making and marketing, A 52-53

Hollyhocks background plant, G 320 characteristics, G 334, 365 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Home decoration. _See_ House decoration

Homemaking art of, H 44 _See also_ Housekeeping

Homing pigeons, K 180

Honey cooking with, A 327 food value, H 254 marketing, A 326 plants which supply, A 322 wholesomeness, A 326 _See also_ Bees

Honeysuckle decorative value, G 359

Honiton applique, N 237

Hood knitted, N 366-368*

Hooke, Robert wave theory of light, E 343

Hooker, Ava a start with poultry, A 172-177

Hooks centrifugal check hooks, B 326* forging gate hooks, M 236-238* harness hooks, M 238* steel hook, M 266-271*

Hooks and eyes, sewing on, N 24-25*

Hoops, embroidery, N 122-123

Hop hornbeam, or iron wood characteristics, C 558

Hop vine value, G 360

Hopover (Game), K 358

Hopscotch, K 359

Hopper joints, C 251*

Horizontal bar making a pull up bar, C 270*

Horse book about, A 517 raising colts, A 101-103 training, A 252-255, 258

Horse chestnut, G 367

Horse power converting into kilowatts, B 125 estimating, B 122-125 estimating energy in coal, E 6

Horsemanship, K 225-232* bridle wise horse, K 227 care of the horse, K 230 girls as riders, K 321 jumping fences, K 231* mounting, K 226-227* packing a horse, K 230 saddles, selecting, K 225-226* selecting the horse, K 232 styles of riding, K 227-228

Horseshoeing, M 221-222* heels, M 222 making shoes, M 218-222* mule shoes and horse shoes, M 218 toe calk, M 221*

Hospitality. _See_ Guests

Hot water bottle electric heating pad, E 117

Hotbed coldframe changed to, G 38 directions for making, G 48-50* preparing for winter, G 108, 109 time to transfer plants, G 235

Ho-ti and the roast pig, H 18

House cleaning, H 337-352 appliances for, H 140, 147 order of work, H 143-145 principles, H 142 repairs and renovations, H 338, 339 small spaces, H 338 unobtrusive methods, H 128 weekly schedule, H 108 woodwork, H 123 _See also_ Ceilings; Cellar; Curtains; Floors; Flues; Furnace; Furniture; Garbage can; Kitchen; Lamps, oil; Laundry work; Matting; Painting; Paper-hanging; Pictures; Refrigerator; Rugs; Shades; Tiles; Vacuum cleaners; Walls; Windows

House decoration ceilings, D 36 correcting defects of height, D 38 color scheme, D 16-20 harmony, D 35-36 interior woodwork, D 20 southern and northern exposures, D 18-19 corrective for architectural defects, D 37-38 decorative fabrics, D 95-120 Dutch room, suggestion, N 379 experimenting, D 41-43 floors, color scheme, D 16, 20, 36 French room, suggestions, N 379 furniture arrangement, D 59-63 selection, D 46-59 modifying rules, D 43-45 overcrowding, D 62 principles, D 34-35 re-decorating old houses, D 37 relation to building plan, D 12-13 summer cottage suggestions, D 370 ten commandments, D 45-46 use and beauty of possessions, H 115-120 walls, D 36, 39-41 stenciling, N 76 window seats, N 374-375 _See also_ Copper work; Curtains; Cushions; Floral decoration; Furniture; Girl's room; Leather work; Metal work; Pictures; Portieres; Pottery; Stenciling; Weaving

House fly. _See_ Flies

House framing construction details, D 25-32* drawings and instructions, C 461-464* corner framing, C 462* corners, finishing poultry house, C 446* paper for siding, C 471 siding cheap houses, C 445 cottages and bungalows, C 464 putting on weather boards, C 471 tongue and groove boards for, C 475 small and cheap houses, C 444-445* studding for a boat house, B 37-38* summer house construction, C 413-417* window and door frames, setting, C 469

House plans. _See_ Architecture

Household pests, H 361-364

Housekeeper effacement of, H 383-384 health of, H 385 stories of inspiration, H 388-389 worries, H 384 _See also_ House cleaning; Housekeeping; Servants

Housekeeping accounts, keeping, H 87-100 adjustment of work, H 112 alleviations, H 333 as a profession, H 382-387 bedroom work, H 146-159 closing the house marking wrapped articles, H 351 meters, shutting off, H 351 packing, H 347-349 repairing household appliances, H 349 traps, care of, H 351 daily work, H 103 dignity of, H 387 dining-room and pantry work, H 51, 160-187 emergencies, H 353-369 expenses, division of income, H 74-80 home training for, H 46 inspiration, H 388-389 learning and helping, H 43-59 learning by observation, H 58 menus and marketing, H 244-273 My heritage, H 63-68 objections to, H 382 opening the house, unpacking, H 352 playhouse, H 3-40 possessions, use and beauty, H 115-120 rest provisions, H 113 schedules of work, H 101-113 school lessons helpful in, H 45 servants, H 370-381 upstairs work, H 146-159 _See also_ Cookery; Food; Furniture; House cleaning; House decoration; Insect pests; Ironing; Kitchen; Laundry; Marketing; Needle work; Plumbing; Receipts; Servants; Sewing

House plants. _See_ Plants

Huckleberries canning factories, A 12 picking, A 13 where and how they grow, A 11, C 514

Hudson seal, A 491

Hugo, Victor his description of Paris sewers mentioned, H 216

Humming birds taming, A 265

Humus soil composition, G 8, 9

Hunt the sheep, K 360

Hunting choosing companions, K 118 training dogs for, K 190-192 _See also_ Game and game birds; Shooting

Huygens, Christian wave theory of light, E 344

Hyacinth cone developer, G 175 indoor planting, G 166, 167 planting and blooming time, G 177, 178 varieties, G 167, 177, 178 water growing, G 169, 175

Hydrangea characteristics, G 356, 365

Hydro-electric stations in the United States, E 202-207

Hygiene how to keep well, K 3-5 outdoor life, K 6-9 rules of health, K 12 value of play, K 4, 10 _See also_ Athletics; Exercise; Walking

Hygrometer construction, B 231-232*

Hylo electric lamps, E 138*

Hyperbola describing, B 338

I

I spy, K 361

Ice home-made, A 435-437

Ice box. _See_ Refrigerator

Ice Hockey. _See_ Hockey

Ice-shaver forging, M 327*

Incandescent lamps. _See_ Electric lamps, Incandescent

Inclined plane principle of, B 52-62* rule for power, B 64

Income allowances, management of, H 80 gifts, provisions for, H 81 how to divide for family needs, H 72-85 increasing, ways to avoid, H 73 management of, H 70-86 savings from, H 82 uncertain, management of, H 71

Incubators, K 197-199 electric, E 114 temperature regulator, E 124*

Indian bracelet making, M 176-177*

Indian proverb about home making, H 44

Indian's plume (Bee balm), G 333, 347

Induction (Electricity) current induced by interrupting the circuit, E 184 by moving the magnet, E 17-18 direction of induced currents, E 186 experiments, E 349-352 human voice as interrupter, E 282-283 piano strings as interrupter, E 281 telephone induction coil, E 279-281* tuning fork as an interrupter, E 280 wireless spark coil, E 321-322*

Ink stains removing, H 359

Ink well holder copper work, M 117-121* gouge work, C 261-263*

Inky caps, mushrooms, A 90

Inlaying, metal, M 362

Inlaying, wood, C 319-331* borders, designs and making, C 324-328* buhlwork, C 329 building up designs, C 320-322*, 323*, 329* checkerboard, design and making, C 326-327* curved designs, C 328 gluing process, C 323 marquetry work, C 328 placing the design, C 324 thickness of veneer, C 319 woods suitable for, C 319

Inoculation of soil, G 119

Insect pests, G 280-295, K 167-168, H 361-364 ants, G 283 asparagus beetle, remedy, G 287 bean anthracnose, G 288 bed bugs, H 363-364 book about, A 519 cabbage worm, G 125, 288 caterpillars, G 282, 285, 287, 290 cauliflower lice and maggots, G 289 celery caterpillar, G 287, 290 chestnut weevil, A 33 chicken lice, A 148, 149 cockroaches, H 362 cut worms, G 284, 292, 293 destruction of, by birds and toads, A 455-457, G 280-281 detecting, G 283-284 eggplants, G 305 gnawing class, remedy, G 281-282 grasshoppers, G 282 hornworm, G 292 house plant pests, G 199 household pests, H 361-364 leaf-hopper, G 293 moths, prevention and extermination of, H 362 plant lice, G 284, 291, 293 potato bug, G 287, 292 red spider, G 293 rose slug, G 284, 293 slugs, G 117, 284, 285, 293 squash bug, G 287, 291, 292 striped beetle, G 117, 285, 287, 292 sucking class, G 282 tomato worm, G 286 water bugs, H 362 _See also_ Flies; Insecticides; Mosquitoes

Insecticides bordeaux mixture, G 121, 294 kerosene emulsion, G 130 Paris green, G 130

Insects adult stage, A 394 chrysalides, A 394, 396 development, A 393-395 distinguishing young from old, A 391-393 egg stage, A 393 habits, A 388-391 homes, A 397-399 injurious and helpful, K 167-168 larval stage, A 394 life of a butterfly, A 395-397 pupa stage, A 394 _See also_ Ants; Beetles; Butterflies; Dragon-flies; Grasshoppers; Moths; Silkworms; Spiders; Wasps

Insects--Collecting and preserving baiting moths, A 400-402, K 153-154 sugar receipt, A 401, K 153 books about, A 519 breeding cage, making, A 399-400* cases for preserving, A 385, 387*, 388, C 395-397 cornstalk pith for lining, A 63 classifying, A 386-389 egg shell, mounting, A 396 eggs of butterflies, A 395 filing cabinet, making, C 395-397 killing bottle, making and using a cyanide bottle, A 378-380*, 382, K 151-152* mounting, A 380-386*, K 152* net making, A 376-378* outfit, A 375, K 151 pinning butterflies and beetles, A 383-385* pins for mounting, A 380 spreading board, A 381* times and localities for collecting, A 388-389

Insertion. _See_ Crocheting

Instruments. _See_ Tools

Insulation. _See_ Electric insulators and insulation

Insurance. _See_ Life insurance

Intercollegiate Amateur Athletic Association of America best records, K 336 events contested for, K 360 rowing record, K 383

Interior decoration. _See_ House decoration

Invalid tray preparing, H 365-366

Inventions ancient and modern, B 271-277 _See also_ Aeroplanes; Matches; Typewriters; Wireless telegraph; and words beginning Electric

Iris blue flag, G 366 border plant, G 321 dwarf, characteristics, G 334, 364 English, planting and blooming time, G 178 German, characteristics, G 365 Japanese, characteristics, G 333 Spanish, planting and blooming time, G 178 varieties, G 321

Irish crochet, N 333-350* baby Irish pattern, N 344-346* belt, N 335-337* doily with edge, N 335* Dutch collar, N 346-350* edging, N 344-345* grapes, N 345 jabot, N 342-344* leaves, N 345 materials, N 333 motifs, joining, N 334 rose, N 339-340, 344 shamrock, N 341 tie rose, N 337-338* wheel pattern with rose and straps of shamrock N 338-342*

Irish stew; story, H 14

Iron galvanized incorrectly named, E 248 soldering, M 44 magnetic properties, E 13 oxidation, preventing, M 247 pig iron, M 230 stretching processes, M 315 wrought iron, M 230-232

Iron work bending corner, M 271-273* bracket, making, M 393-395* bulbs, making, M 385-388* candlestick, making, M 380-383* spiral, M 388-391* chains, welding, M 250-253* decorative forgings, suggestions, D 364 handles, M 384 hinge, making, M 391* hinge and butt, making, M 283-285* kettle stand, making, M 406-409* lamp holder for, M 408 lamp, making, M 396-405* holder, M 408 shade and holder, M 399-400 punching holes in, M 245* rings, welding, M 248-250*, 254* spirals, making, M 385 tongs, forging, M 285-288* twists, M 383 braided strand, M 384 umbrella stand, M 409 wrench, forging, M 273* _See also_ Andirons; Blacksmithing; Fire tools; Welding

Ironing bed linen, H 327 board for, H 315 clothes-horse for, H 318 electric irons for, E 107-110, 243* embroidery, H 329 iron, care and use, H 316 iron holders, H 317 iron-stand, H 318 lace, H 330 process, H 326-327 scorched places, H 335 starch sticking, to prevent, H 335 table linen, H 327 wax, cloths and paper, H 318

Ironwood characteristics, C 558

Irrigation book about, A 518 Chinese treadmill device, B 337* Persian wheel device, B 343*

J

Jabot Irish crochet, N 342-344*

Jack fagots, K 362

Jack-in-the-pulpit description of, G 344

Jacket. _See_ Crocheting

Jai-a-li (Pelota), K 376

Jam thimbleberry, A 11

Japan barberry hedge shrub, G 357

Japan quince hedge shrub, G 357

Japanese clematis characteristics, G 365

Japanese fan ball, K 362

Japanese hop characteristics, G 331

Japanese snow flower characteristics, G 356

Japanese snowball characteristics, G 356

Jardiniere. _See_ Plant stand

Jelly barberry jelly, A 17 green grape jelly, A 15

Jerusalem cherry tree, indoor plant, G 197

Jew fish catching, K 126

Jewel box copper work, M 107-115*

Jeweler's tools. _See_ Tools

Jewelry. _See_ Silver work

Joe Pye weed habits and characteristics, G 349 story of name, G 348

Johnny cake camp cooking, K 88

Joints butt, C 251* clamping mitre joints, D 144* dado, C 236*, 255* dovetail blind, C 256* box, C 314*, 256* half-blind, C 256* lap, C 253* single, C 313-314* single open, C 256* doweled, D 148*, C 251 gained or housed, C 255* gluing, D 140-141*, 144-146* mitre joints, C 232-234 halved, C 253* lap joint, D 147* hopper, C 251* joint edge, definition of, C 186 kinds and construction, D 140-141*, 143-148* lap, C 251, 253*, 256* lock, C 255* mitre, C 232-234*, D 143-146* lap, C 256* mortise and tenon, C 250*, D 147*, 154* blind, C 255* draw boring, C 415 end, C 256* relished, C 256* through, C 255* notched, C 255* rabbeted, C 255* rubbed joint, C 251* splice or scarf, C 257* stretcher, C 256* tongue and groove, C 257* trick, C 257*

Jonquil narcissus family, C 169 planting and blooming time, G 178

July blooming plants, G 365

June blooming plants, G 365

K

Kale planting and care, G 299 time to plant, G 234

Keel. _See_ Boat building

Kelvin, Lord and the Atlantic cable, E 66

Kennels. _See_ Dogs

Kensington stitch flower embroidery, N 178-179*

Kentucky coffee tree, C 566

Kerosene cleaning woodwork, H 124, 134 lighting fires with, H 231

Kerosene emulsion insecticide, G 284, 289 receipt, G 294, 295

Key rack carving design, C 123 whittling, C 12-14*

Key tag whittling, C 14*

Kick the stick (Game), K 363

Kiln lumber kiln method, C 524-525 portable pottery kiln, D 299-301*

Kilowatt converting into H. P. B., B 125 hour, E 41

Kindling wood cutting and collecting as a business, A 404-408

King Alfred. _See_ Alfred, King

Kingbird insect eater, A 456, 457 migration, K 176

King of the castle (Game), K 364

Kitchen chairs, H 196 cleaning weekly, H 110 clock, H 199 curtains, H 198 floors, H 191-193 furnishings, H 188-200 hooks, H 198 house plan, D 10 light fixtures, H 199 ornament, H 199 rugs, H 193 shelves, H 197 sink, H 194 size, H 188 tables, H 194 walls and woodwork, H 189 _See also_ Ranges

Kitchen utensils, H 200-207 aluminum, advantages and care, H 202, 206 bread board, making, C 222-223* care of, H 205 materials, H 201 selection, H 203, 207 sugar scoop and ladle, making, C 272* _See also_ Soldering

Kites, B 185-200 aeroplane kite, making, C 84-87* American Malay launching, C 92 making, C 86* box kites launching, B 191, C 92 making, B 189-191* bridle, fastening, C 88*, 91* cellular, making, B 191-192*, C 91-92* Chinese, designs, C 96 coverings, importance of, C 94 detail drawings, C 91* Eddy kite, making, C 86* flying, C 88-90 principle of, B 185-189* groups, flying, B 192*, C 90 joining sticks, C 84-85, 87* lines, C 88 making, B 187-195, C 84-96* materials, C 85, 88, 94 photographing by means of, B 194 record flight, B 185-187 reels for, C 88 sails, C 85 shape, B 188 stability, principle of, C 94 tailless, C 84-95 tails, principle of, B 188 tandem, C 95* tetrahedral, making, C 92-94* war kites, making, B 193* wind velocity table, B 198

Knife. _See_ Knives

Knife box making, C 223-226*

Knife work. _See_ Whittling; Wood carving

Knights of the Round Table. _See_ Round Table

Knitting, N 351-371* baby hood, N 366-368* baby vest, N 368 basket stitch, N 358* bootees, N 363-366* doll's cap, N 362* doll's cape, N 360* doll's jacket, N 360-362* doll's leggings, N 363* German method, N 352* lace pine pattern, N 369-371 materials for, N 351 patterns, N 360-371* shawl finishing edge, N 357 long, N 356-358 wide, N 358, 359 stitches basket stitch, N 358* binding off, N 354-356 casting off, N 354-356 casting on, N 351* popcorn, N 356* purling, N 353* washing, N 332 widening the row, N 355

Knives butcher knife, forging, M 354-357* steel, washing, H 184 whittling, C 6*

Knot holes how made, A 442

Knots raffia knotting, N 271-275* silk, cotton, or linen, N 275-277 _See also_ Sewing

Knuckle of veal, H 270

Kodak, K 304

Kohlrabi planting and care, G 300

L

Labeling. _See_ Insects--Collections; Plants--Collections; Shells

Labels for plant markers, making, G 58*

Lace and lace making, N 227-241* basting braid, N 227, 228 Brussels stitch, single and double, N 229, 231* buttonholed bar, N 233* Connemara lace, N 235-237* dyeing lace, H 331, N 238 edge finishing, N 234 fan stitch, N 232* fagotting, N 229* foundation stitch, mesh or net, N 230 Honiton applique, N 237 braids for, N 236-238 Irish crochet lace, N 333-350* knitted lace, pine pattern, N 369-371 Limerick darning, N 234 maltese cross, design, N 233* over handing on, N 15* point lace, N 227 Brazilian, N 238-241* Renaissance, N 227 rolling and whip stitching on, N 22 spider stitch, N 231-232* Teneriffe or Brazilian point, N 238-241* twisted bar stitch, N 124*, 233 washing, H 330 whitening, H 331

Lacquer for brass, M 140

Lacrosse, K 364

Ladder stitch, N 158-159

Lady bug, value to farmers, K 168

Lakes tides, B 228

Lamb cuts and their uses, H 270 food value combinations, H 259 table, H 253 _See also_ Sheep

Lamp copper work, electric lamp, M 92-96* steel base, making, M 401-403* wrought iron making, M 396-405* shade holder, M 399

Lamp, oil care of, H 136 trimming wicks, H 137

Lamp shade copper work, M 96-99* glass for, M 400 _See also_ Candle shade

Land drainage. _See_ Drainage

Landscape gardening, G 351-367 formal gardens, G 357 flower gardens, G 360-362 garden furnishings, G 363 hedges, G 357 helping nature, G 363 lawns flowers, what and where to plant, G 360 treatment of, G 352 points to observe, G 362-363 principles of, G 351 purpose, G 357 screening unsightly places, G 362 shrubs grouping, G 354-355 selection principle, G 357 table of, G 355-356 summer house, location, G 363 trees, selection and grouping, G 353-354, 357 vines, G 359 water garden, G 362 wild flower garden, G 362 _See also_ Flower gardening; Gardening; Shrubs; Trees

Lantern metal work, M 405-406*

Lantern wheel, B 322*

Lap joints, C 251, 253*

Laplace, Pierre Simon Corpuscular theory of light, E 344

Larch characteristics, C 530

Larkspur background plant, G 320 characteristics, G 365 oriental, characteristics, G 333, 335 sowing and blossoming time, G 161, 320 varieties, G 319, 320

Larva. _See_ Insects

Last tag (Game), K 370

Lathe tools making, M 300-306*

Lattice work, D 209-211*

Launch launching the boat, B 134, 137-138 rules for running, B 74-75 _See also_ Boat building; Gasolene motors

Laundry work appliances, H 312-320 blankets, H 324, 328 bluing, H 18, 320 removing, H 334 boiling clothes, H 323 chamois gloves, H 331 clothes basket, H 315 clothes line, care of, H 314 clothes pins, care of, H 314 colored clothes, H 324 curtains, H 328-329 economizing, H 333 electric washing machinery, E 241-243* embroidery, H 329, N 136-137 emergencies, H 333-336 freezing weather, H 334 hanging out clothes, H 323, 325 knitting and crochet work, N 332 lace, H 330 muddy water, H 334 poles for, H 315 rinsing clothes, H 323 schedule for wash days, H 106 silk clothes, H 325 soaking clothes, H 322 soap, H 319 soiled clothes, care of, H 321 sorting clothes, H 318 sprinkling and folding clothes, H 325-327 starch, H 319 starching clothes, H 323 stormy days, H 333 stove, H 315 tubs, care of, H 313 wash board, H 313 wash boiler, care of, H 313 wash stick, H 314 washing process, H 321-322 white clothes, H 321 woolens, H 324 wringer, H 314 _See also_ Ironing

Lavender growing, G 327

Lavender stick making, A 424-427*

Lawn bowling, K 366

Lawn bowls, K 365

Lawn hockey, K 367

Lawn mower care of, A 432-433

Lawn skittles, K 368-370

Lawn tennis. _See_ Tennis

Lawns crocuses in, A 169, 434 embankment wall, making, G 73 flowers in, what and where to plant, G 360 grading, G 74 landscape gardening, G 352 mowing, A 432-433 rolling, G 75

Layering plants, G 250

Laying the table. _See_ Setting the table

Lazy tongs, B 313*

Lead bath to prevent steel oxidation, M 284, 291 soldering, M 44

Leaded glass cutting and soldering, D 196-197*

Leaf hopper, G 293

Leaf mold making, A 421-424

Leaks. _See_ Plumbing

Leap frog, K 347 Spanish fly, K 385

Leather work, D 321-345*, N 83-90* applique, N 83, 85* applying designs, N 87-90 articles made from, list, N 89 belt designs and tooling, D 324-328* book cover, D 342-345* card case, D 338-340* cover for note book, D 331-334* cutting, N 88, 89 dampening for tracing, N 88 decoration, principles of, D 322 designing, N 86 desk pad, D 336-338* knots, D 330* lining articles, D 339, 341 mat, design and tooling, D 328-330* paste, receipt for, N 88, 95, 96 pasting, N 85, 89 pen wiper, designs and tooling, D 330-331* planning a skin, N 84* polishing, N 96 purse, D 340-342* skins suitable for, D 322, N 83-85*, 92 stitching by hand, D 333-335* tinting, N 96 tooled leather, N 91-97* embossing with die N 93* paste, receipt for, N 95, 96 polishing, N 96 process, D 326-328*, N 92-94 relief work, D 329*, N 93-95* filling with paste, N 95 Russia calf for, N 92 tools, D 323-324*, N 91*, 96* tracing the design, N 87, 92

Leaves blue printing, A 361 giving off water, G 245 simple, compound and doubly compound, C 543*

Leek germination per cent., G 233

Left overs utilizing, H 355

Legumes value as plant food, G 223

Lemon lily characteristics, G 333

Lemon tree, ponderosa, G 196

Lemons food value, H 255 preserving in water, H 357 removing stains with, H 359

Letter copying devices, B 418

Letter opener copper work, D 347*

Letter rack carving, C 112-117* copper work, D 346-347* two compartments, making and carving, C 109-112*

Lettering. _See_ Gilding

Letters. _See_ Embroidery

Lettuce cabbage lettuce, G 306 cos lettuce, G 306 food value, H 255 going to seed, G 307 head lettuce, G 306 planting seed depth to plant, G 42, 235 distance to plant, G 42 how to sow the seed, G 95 indoor planting time, G 233 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 germination period, G 32 succession crops, G 307 transplanting, G 101

Lever arms, B 23* double, B 25-27 lazy tongs, B 313* principle of, B 21-28* rule for power, B 63

Library tables. _See_ Tables

Lice cauliflower pests, G 289 chicken lice, A 148 powder receipt, A 149, K 201 plant lice, G 284

Life insurance advantages and disadvantages for saving, H 83

Lifting machinery. _See_ Hoisting machinery

Light ancient theory of, E 342 color dependent upon wave length, E 315 electro-magnetic theory, E 346 emission theory, E 345 a form of vibration, E 343 theories held by eminent scientists, E 343-346 velocity, B 249-251, E 311 waves, E 310 length of, B 251, E 315

Lighting economizing bills, H 236 reading meters, H 238-240* _See also_ Electric lighting; Gas lighting

Lightning arrester, E 292* weather symbol, B 362 why lightning is seen before thunder is heard, B 249

Lilac characteristics, G 356

Lily red speciosum, planting and blooming time, G 179 white day lily, G 333

Lily-of-the-valley characteristics, G 365 false, G 345

Lima bean food value, H 255 planting, G 297

Lime disinfectant, H 212 protecting vines from insects, G 118 _See also_ Soil

Limerick darning, N 234

Limestone formation of, G 216 road material, G 85

Linden characteristics, C 560, G 367

Linen. _See_ Doilies; Ironing; Table linen

Linen chest making, C 377-380*

Lingerie hat eyelet work, N 169* making and trimming, N 171-174

Links. _See_ Chains; Cuff links

Linoleum care of, H 191

Liquids boiling point, H 277

Living expenses. _See_ Housekeeping

Living-room furniture, D 50-53* arrangement, D 61

Loam meaning of, G 220

Loaves and fishes: story, H 32

Lobster boiled, H 292 color, H 292 food value, H 254

Lock joints, C 255*

Lockjaw cause and prevention, B 248-249

Locks escutcheon plates, making, M 410-414* _See also_ Door hasp

Locomotives boilers, B 117 link motion valve gear, B 317

Locust durability of black locust wood, C 494 varieties and characteristics, C 565, G 367

Log cabin woods for making, K 101

Lombardy poplar, G 353, 367

Looms. _See_ Bead work; Weaving

Loops for buttonholes, N 62*

Lotus, American characteristics, G 366

Luge-ing (Game), K 371

Lumber and lumbering "boom", C 520 clear lumber, C 499 curls or eyes, how made, A 443 cutting logs, K 100 defects, detecting, C 524-530 drive, C 520 drying, C 495 estimating, problems in, C 504-509 kiln-dried, C 524, D 132-133 knot holes, how made, A 442 knots versus strength, C 497 length, standard, C 499 log jams, C 521 measuring, C 503 old method of sawing, C 136* plain sawed, D 131* quarter-sawed, D 131* railroad consumption, C 517 saw mills, C 522 seasoning, C 524-525, D 132 shakes, C 530 shearing, C 496 shrinkage, principle of, C 528-530 thickness, standard, C 498 volume of business in United States, C 517 warping, principle of, C 527* waste in cutting, C 512 waste in saw mills, C 522-523 winding lumber, C 531 _See also_ Forestry; Trees; Wood

Lumber rack making, C 152-154*

Luncheon: story, H 32

M

Macaroni food value, H 254

McCray, Arthur H. Profits of bee-keeping, A 333-336

Machine shop equipping to run by electric power, E 226, 229-231

Machinery. _See_ Capstan; Engines; Gas and oil engines; Gasolene motors; Locomotives; Mechanical movements; Motorcycles; Sewing machines; Steam engine; Tools; Typewriters; Water wheels; Wheels; Windmills

McIntyre, Flora How I earned two hundred dollars, A 331-333

Mackerel food value, H 253

Madeira embroidery. _See_ Eyelet work

Magazine cover tooled, N 94*

Magazine rack design, D 52* and construction, D 165-170* wood finish, D 237

Maggots garden pests, G 291

Magic lantern. _See_ Stereopticon

Magnesia cleaning properties, H 332

Magnet earth as a magnet, E 14 iron, E 13-14 poles, E 28* steel, how to retain magnetism, E 28 _See also_ Electro-magnet

Magnetic field, E 13 about electric currents, E 353* dynamo, E 9, 11-13 effect upon a magnet, E 353*

Magnetos. _See_ Dynamos

Mahogany imitation stain, C 489, D 230

Maids. _See_ Servants

Mallet carpenter's tool, C 200* metal worker's tool, M 8*

Maltese cross drawing, C 27* lace making pattern, N 233*

Mandrake. _See_ May apple

Mandrel, M 154*, 209

Manifolding devices, B 418, 421

Manures. _See_ Fertilizers

Maple box elder or ash-leaved maple, C 548 characteristics, C 544 moose wood, C 548 mountain, C 548 Norway maple, G 367 qualities of, G 78 red or swamp maple, C 547, G 367 seeds, value of, A 47 silver, white, or soft maple, C 546 sugar or rock maple, C 545, G 367 sycamore, C 547

Maple sugar and syrup boiling down, A 75 bonbons, A 77-78 books about, A 516 colors, changes in, A 75 food value, H 254 identifying trees, A 71 proportion of syrup to sugar, A 76 sap care when running, A 73 ingredients, A 75 states that have sugar trees, A 69 straining, A 76 sugar making, C 546 equipment and preparation, A 72 Indian methods, A 69 primitive and modern methods, A 70-71 tapping trees, A 72-74 testing when boiling, A 76 weather for making, A 74

Marathon race championship, K 371

Marble composition, G 216

Marbles first shot "fat", K 346 names of, K 373 playing, K 372 reals, K 373

March birds, K 175 blooming plants, G 364

Marconi, Guglielmo inventor of wireless telegraph, E 316, 346

Marguerites bedding plants, G 324

Marigold African, characteristics, G 332 characteristics, G 330 good blooming plant, G 323 marsh marigold, characteristics, G 366 planting seeds, G 158 pot marigold, characteristics, G 329, 331 sowing and blossoming time, G 161 varieties, G 157

Marine engines. _See_ Gasolene motors; Steam turbines

Marketing, H 264-273 principles of buying, H 265 quantities, consideration of, H 272 staples, buying of, H 272 _See also_ Names of articles, e. g., Fish; Meats; Vegetables; etc., also Beef; Shad, etc.

Markets in Venice, H 264

Marking bath towels, N 150*, 156 combination stitches, N 150-157* cross stitch, N 156 emblems, bullion, N 154-156 feather-stitching, N 156 French knots, N 150 ladder stitch, N 158-159 monograms, N 152-154 napkins, N 156, 157 outlining, N 150* papier-mache letters, N 156 table and bed linen, N 157

Marquetry work, C 328

Marsh rabbit, A 509

Martha, H 382-387

Martin migration, K 176

Masonry. _See_ Cement; Foundations; Retaining walls

Match safe copper work, M 81-82*

Match scratchers drawing and making, C 38*

Matches invention of, B 272

Mathematics woodwork mathematics, C 498-509

Mats corn husk for braiding, A 63 tooled leather, designs and process, D 328, 329* woven rattan, N 247*, 249 _See also_ Rugs

Matt tool definition of, M 210

Matting cleaning, H 131

Mattress making for doll-bed, N 50-52* corn husks for, A 63

Maxim's, aero-curves, B 166-167*

Maxwell, James Clark scientist, E 341

May birds, K 175 blooming plants, G 365

May apple, A 23, G 345

Mayonnaise remedy for curdled, H 356

Meadow lark migration, K 176

Meadow mushroom, A 89

Meals clearing the table, H 176 effect of mental attitude during, H 247 preparation advance, H 308 sequence of work, H 305-308 serving courses, H 170 dessert course, H 172 duties of waitress, H 169-172 finger bowls, H 172 who to serve first, H 172 without a maid, H 174-176

Measures. _See_ Weights and Measures

Meat boiling whole, H 278 braising, H 280 broiling, H 275-276 buying principles, H 266 camp cooking, K 90 cooking, preparation for, H 285 cuts of, H 268* food value, H 250 table, H 252 judging condition of, H 270 left overs, H 355 names of parts, H 267 roasting, H 282 stewing, H 280 _See_ also Beef; Fish; Lamb; Mutton; Pork; Poultry; Veal

Mechanical drawing, C 23-39* circles, C 28-30* crosses, C 24-27* curves, B 339 cylinder and cones, C 34* design for filing cabinet, C 395-396* for match scratcher, C 38* ellipse, B 210-211*, C 19*, 112-114* enlarging or reducing drawings, C 390, B 339 first lessons, C 24-30* triangle, hexagon and star, C 29*

Mechanical drawing--Instruments compass proportional compasses, B 339* how to use, C 28-30 cyclograph for describing circular arcs, B 339* drawing board how to use, C 23-25* making, C 381-383* drawing table, making, C 391-394* irregular or French curves, making, C 387 making an outfit, C 381-398 pantagraph making, C 388-391* how to use, B 325* section liners, C 387 T-square making, C 384-386* to prevent warping, C 394 use of, C 24 triangles, constructing, C 386-388* views and dimensions, C 32-34*

Mechanical movements anti-friction bearing, B 326* balance, principle of, B 25 balance spring, B 330-331* capstan, B 347* centrifugal check hooks, B 326* circular motion continuous, B 323* intermittent, B 321-324* variable, B 321* combination, B 327-328* compasses, B 339 compound, definition, B 306 crank motion, B 312 cyclographs for describing circular arcs, B 339* diagonal catch and hand gear, B 315, 316 disk-engine, B 334* driving feed rolls, B 316* endless bands, B 336* feed motion, B 337* fulcrum, principle of, B 21-28* Geneva stop, B 319* governor centrifugal, B 313* engine, B 329 water wheel, B 314* grinding or crushing, B 307-308*, 336* gyroscope, B 334-335* hyperbolas, B 338* irregular motion, B 319-321* lantern wheel, B 322* lewis, B 347* link-motion valve gear, B 317-318* number of, B 307 oscillating engines, B 333-334* pantagraph, B 325* parabolas, B 338* parallel motion, B 332-333* parallel ruler, mechanism, B 331-332* pendulums, B 329-330* perpetual motion definition, B 306 impossibility of, E 234-237 pulleys, B 309-310* ratchet wheel, B 322-324* rectilinear motion, B 312* releasing hook, B 326* rollers, principle of, B 28 rolling contact, B 318* rotary, B 312* rotary engines, B 340* intermittent, B 322* simple, definition, B 306 speed, changing, B 328* steering gear, B 346 stop and rotary motion, B 319* toe and lifter, B 329* tongs for lifting, B 348* tread mills, B 337* turbine, Jonval, B 341* water wheels, B 341-344* windmills, B 346* weight, lever and fulcrum, B 23-28* _See also_ Mechanics; Pumps

Mechanical powers. _See_ Inclined plane; Lever; Mechanics; Pulley; Screw; Wedge; Wheel and axle

Mechanical toys. _See_ Toys

Mechanics first mechanical power, B 21 problems in estimating mechanical power, B 82 progress of mechanical arts, B 271-277 six mechanical powers defined, B 63-64 _See also_ Aeroplanes; Electric power; Engines; Gasolene motors; Inclined planes; Kites; Lever; Mechanical drawing; Mechanical movements; Perpetual motion; Power; Pulley; Pumps; Screw; Water wheel; Wedge; Wheel and axle

Medicinal plants digitalis from foxglove, A 57 golden seal, A 57 pokeweed, A 58 weeds, G 272

Medicine cabinet making with paneled doors, C 354-357*

Melon origin, G 307 planting seed depth and distance, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 _See also_ Muskmelon; Watermelon

Mending and repairing. _See_ Patching; Soldering

Menus, H 244-263 combinations and varieties, H 259-260 selection for ease in cooking, H 308 variety, essential, H 262 _See also_ Diet; Food; Marketing

Mercury vapor lamps, E 155-156*

Metal work alloys, M 208 andirons, forging, M 363-370* belt buckle, designs, M 195* bending process, M 315 blotter pad, corners for, M 122-124* bossing up, M 208, 419 bowl making, M 13*, 16-22* Dutch bowls, M 77-79* finger bowls, M 133-135* brazing metals, M 310-315 chasing, M 209 coloring metals, D 357 blue black, M 205 heating process, M 203 oxidizing silver, M 204 patina, imitation, M 202 solution for, M 204 violet, M 203 corners for chest, M 116 for desk pad, M 122-124* decorative forgings, suggestions, D 364 metal work, M 410-419* definitions of terms, M 208-211 designing patterns, M 13-14* die making, M 206-208 door handles, making, M 406, 407, 416*, 417 door knockers, M 410-415* door pulls, M 415* drawer pulls designs, M 144* making, M 417-419* drawing process, M 315 embossing, M 30, 31 process, M 361 engraving process, M 361 escutcheon plate, M 412* etching, M 362 eye bolt, M 415, 418 facets, M 22* oval, M 39 flux, M 209 forming process, M 315 hammering, M 22*, 30, 39 handles cedar chest, M 116 crumb scraper, M 136* hinges cabinet, M 106* cedar chest, M 116 copper or silver, M 100-106* fine hinges, M 103* riveting to box, M 114* tube hinges, M 101-103* binding tubes in place, M 105* wings, making, M 104* impressing, M 361 inlaying, M 362 lanterns, M 405-406* letter openers, M 128* lids, M 59*, 62*, 120, 139 lock plates, M 105, 116 molds making, M 27-28* value of, M 31 pickling metals, M 210 planishing, M 210 processes other than smithing operations, M 361-363 repairing by brazing, M 314 repousse definition, M 210 design, M 30* ring and ring post for box, M 120 riveting, M 73-77* handles, M 88 iron tongs, M 288* process, M 73, 76* rivets, making, M 77 splitting iron or soft steel, M 362, 364-365* tools for, M 5-15*, 208-211 trimmings for cedar chest, M 115-117* for cigar box, M 115-117* tubing for hinges, making, M 101-103* twisting process, M 315 upsetting, definition, M 315 wire, reducing size of, M 101 _See also_ Annealing; Blacksmithing; Brass work; Candlestick; Copper work; Enamel and Enameling; Fire tools; Forging; Iron work; Silver work; Soldering; Steel; Tempering; Tools; Welding

Meteorology. _See_ Barometer; Hail; Lightning; Rain; Thermometer; Weather

Meter. _See_ Ammeter; Electric-meters; Gas-meters; Voltmeter; Wattmeter

Metric system, C 500-503

Mexican drawnwork, N 211*

Mice as pets, K 184 pests, H 361

Microbes tetanus, B 249

Mignonette annual, G 322 characteristics, G 330 choosing and planting, G 158 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Mildew removing stains, H 359

Milk boiling point, H 277 book about, A 517 food value, H 250, 254 goat's milk, value, A 115 marketing, A 247 removing ink and rust stains with, H 359 testing for butter fat, A 243 sanitary and unsanitary methods of milking, A 245-247

Milking machine, Electric, E 54

Milkweed (Prickly lettuce) class and seed time, G 278 distribution of seed, G 273

Mimeograph, B 416

Minerals collecting, K 156

Mining machinery centrifugal check hook, B 326*

Mink breeding season, A 483 skin stretching, A 507 value, A 484, 506 skinning, A 507* trapping, A 483-484

Minnows catching, K 132-133*

Mirrors. _See_ Glass

Mission furniture book case, making, C 352 clock case, making, C 277-278* foot rests, making, C 374, 375* library table, making, C 360-367* making, C 361-376 plant stands, making, C 372-373* tabourette, making, C 308-310* tea table, making, C 367-372* umbrella rack, making, C 375* writing desk, design, C 375*

Mission oak finish, D 231

Mississippi River proposed dam across, B 246

Mitchell, Frank success with chickens, A 163

Mitre box making and testing, C 228-231*

Mitred joints, C 232-234*, 256*, D 143-146*

Model house. _See_ Architecture

Modeling. _See_ Pottery

Molasses food value, H 254

Mole fur, A 491 habits, A 489 trapping, A 489-491

Mollusks preserving specimen, A 374

Money. _See_ Accounts; Allowances; Income

Mongolian pheasants, A 197

Monogram embroidering, N 152-154

Monoplane construction of, B 171-173* toy model, making, C 75-83*

Months lunar and calendar, B 214

Moon diameter, B 229 distance from earth, B 229 light, origin, B 214 orbit, B 216 phases, B 215* rotation, B 216 _See also_ Tides

Moon flower characteristics, G 331

Moon vine value, G 359

Moore, D. McFarland inventor of Moore light, E 156*

Moore electric lamp, E 156*

Mops kinds and uses, H 141

Morels mushrooms, A 86

Morning glory characteristics, G 331 sowing and blossoming time, G 161 value, G 359

Morris, William rule for household possessions, H 115

Morris chair construction, D 188-193* designs, D 50*, 189* history of designs, D 188 wood finish, D 237

Morrison, Arthur budget of housekeeping expenses, H 78

Morse, Samuel Finley Breese inventor of the telegraph, E 60

Mortise and tenon joints, C 250*, 255*, 256*, 415

Mosquitoes book about, A 519 breeding places, A 474 enemies of, A 475, K 168 eradicating, A 473-475 protection from, in camping, K 70

Moss pink characteristics, G 364

Moths baiting, A 400-402, K 153-154 collecting and mounting, K 151-153 collecting time, A 388 development from the egg, A 393-395 how they come out of the cocoon, A 347 pests, H 362 _See also_ Silkworm

Motion. _See_ Mechanical movements

Motor boat. _See_ Boat building; Gasolene motor; Launch

Motor cycles engines, B 387-391*

Motors. _See_ Aeroplanes; Automobiles; Dynamos; Electric motors; Engines; Gasolene motors; Locomotives; Steam engines; Vacuum cleaner; Water wheel

Molding. _See_ Metal work; Pottery

Molds concrete block molds, B 243 concrete furniture molds, D 202 die making, M 206-208 metal work, M 27-28, 31

Mount Mellick stitch, N 143

Mountain climbing healthfulness of, K 17

Mountains snow line, B 368

Mounting specimens. _See_ Insects; Plants; Seaweed

Mouse club membership, K 184

Movements. _See_ Mechanical movements

Moving toys. _See_ Toys

Muffins mixing ingredients, H 302

Mulberry leaves food for silkworms, A 337

Mullein, moth class and seed time, G 278 habits and characteristics, G 347

Mumblety peg, K 374

Mushrooms book about, A 516 chanterelles, identifying, A 89 cooking, A 84, 87 coprinus comatus, A 90 coral fungi cooking, A 87 identifying, A 86 edible varieties, A 83*, 85-92 food value, H 255 inky caps, identifying, A 90 meadow mushrooms, A 89 morels, identifying and gathering, A 86* oyster mushrooms, identifying, A 91 propagation, A 88 puff balls cooking, A 84 identifying, A 83-84, 87-89 varieties, A 88-89 shaggy manes, A 90 where to get information about, A 91

Music transmitted by telephone, E 295

Musical instruments. _See_ Organ; Piano; Pipe organ; Telharmonium

Musk characteristics, G 331

Muskmelon American, outdoor planting, G 308 English, how grown, G 307-308 food value, H 255 indoor planting time, G 233 seeds, germination per cent., G 233

Muskrat book about, A 519 food, A 509 fur, value, A 491 houses, A 503 river trapping, A 504 setting and baiting traps, A 504 skinning, A 507* skins, value, A 506 swamp trapping, A 503 trapping, A 492 season, A 504

Mustard, wild class and seed time, G 278

Mutton cuts and their uses, H 270 food value, table, H 253

My heritage, H 63-68

Myrtle characteristics, G 365

N

Nail puller making, M 353*

Nails boxes for, making, C 206-209* cabinet for, making, C 209-212* driving into plaster walls, C 246 holding power, B 46-47 sinking nails, C 208*

Napkin marking, N 157 _See also_ Table linen

Napkin rings silver or copper work, M 191-192*

Naphtha cleaning properties, H 332

Narcissus easy to grow, G 166 poets narcissus, planting and blooming time, G 177 varieties distinguished, G 169 water bulbs, G 168, 175

Nasturtium characteristics, G 323, 328, 329, 332 dwarf, characteristics, G 332 planting, G 83, 156

Natural resources conservation, A 92-94 by specimen collectors, A 362

Nature study keeping a diary, K 148-149 making a beginning, K 144-150 methods, K 150 mineral collections, K 156 practical side, K 167 water life, K 158-167 water telescope, K 159 _See also_ Insects; Plants; Shells; Silkworm

Necklace silver work, M 166-170*

Neckties. _See_ Ties

Needham, John Reclaiming a spring, A 280-282

Needlecase making, N 46-47*

Needlecraft. _See_ Basket making; Bead work; Braiding; Crocheting; Drawnwork; Dressmaking; Embroidery; Irish crochet; Knitting; Lace making; Leather work; Sewing

Nemophila characteristics, G 331

Nernst lamp, E 157

Nets butterfly net, K 151* collector's net for water specimen, K 158* making, for insect collecting, A 376-378

Newspapers cleaning lamps with, H 138 polishing glass with, H 134

Newton, Sir Isaac corpuscular theory of light, E 344 theory of tides, B 217-218

Newts taming, A 266

Nigger baby (Game), K 381

Nile River dam across, B 247

Nitrates plant food, G 10, 221, 223 for sandy soil, G 224

Norfolk Island pine, G 196

Norway pine. _See_ Pine--red

Notched joints, C 255*

Notched trophy stick, C 11*

Nut hatch insect destroyer, A 456

Nutrition. _See_ Diet; Food

Nuts beech nuts, A 37-39 book about, A 516 chinquapins, A 32 food value, H 255 grading for market, A 42 growing, A 43-46 from seeds, A 46 hazel nuts, A 33-35 hickory nuts, A 39 pecans, A 40-43 pine nuts, A 29 tree seeds, A 46 care of, A 48 use of, A 46 walnuts, A 35-37

Nuts (Iron) forging, M 244-246*

O

Oak antique, stain for, C 489 black jack or barren oak, characteristics, C 554 black or yellow, characteristics, C 554 chestnut oak, characteristics, C 552 durability of wood, C 494 Flemish oak stain, D 231 forest green oak finish, D 232 fuming, D 233-234 golden oak finish, D 229 gray oak stain, D 232 laurel oak, characteristics, C 555 live oak, characteristics, G 367 mission oak finish, D 231 mossy-cup or bur oak, characteristics, C 551 oak gall, K 147 pin oak, characteristics, C 553, G 367 post or iron oak, characteristics, C 552 quality of, G 79 quarter-sawed, C 551*, D 131-132 red, characteristics, C 552 scarlet, characteristics, C 553 stains, list of, C 482 swamp white oak, characteristics, C 552 weathered oak stain, D 233 white, characteristics, C 549-551 willow oak, characteristics, C 554

Oats depth to plant seeds, G 235

Obelisks moving, B 56-57

Occupations berry picking, A 8-13 best ways of earning money, A 3-6 birds, attracting, A 455-461 carriage cleaning, A 408 character building, A 6-7 choosing, A 6 cider vinegar, making, A 412-417 collecting Christmas greens, A 50-57 collecting insects, A 374-403 collecting plants, A 94-99, 349-374 collecting tree seeds, A 46-50 collecting useful plants, flowers, grasses, etc., A 57-69 collecting wood for rustic furniture, A 410 corn, drying, A 427-428 corn, selecting seed, A 410-412* fall work, list of, A 5 forest fires, preventing, A 467-468 game preserve, creating, A 464-467 grape juice making, A 417-421 harvesting nature's crops, A 8-99 keeping bees, A 287-336 kindling wood, gathering, A 404-408 lavender sticks, making, A 424 leaf mold, making, A 421-424 making brooks and springs useful, A 271-286 maple sugar making, A 69-78 mosquitoes and flies, exterminating, A 473-478 mushroom gathering, A 83-94 nuts, gathering and growing, A 29-45 odd jobs, A 404-448 orchard work, A 409* outdoor worker's library, A 516-519 raising animals for pets, A 203-240 raising domestic animals, A 100-202 silkworms, raising, A 337-348 snow shoveling, A 431-432 spring work, list of, A 6 summer work, list of, A 5 tennis court, making, A 428-431 training animals, A 241-270 trapping, A 478-512 weeds, killing, A 469-473 wild fruit, gathering, A 14-29 winter work, list of, A 5 year-round, list of, A 6 _See also_ Housekeeping

Ocean. _See_ Tides

Odd jobs, A 404-448

Oersted, Hans Christian discovery of magnetic action of currents, E 14 discoverer of magnetic field about an electric current, E 353

Ohm, George Simon Ohm's law, E 92-93

Oil cloth as a floor covering, H 191

Oil engines. _See_ Gas and oil engines

Oil furnace heating steel in, M 290

Oil lamp. _See_ Lamp, oil

Oil nut. _See_ Butternut

Oilstone sharpening tools, C 183*

Okra germination per cent., G 233

Olympic games events contested for, K 372

One old cat (Game), K 375

Onion food value, H 255 indoor planting time, G 233 insect pests, G 291 peeling, H 294 planting seed depth and distance to plant, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 planting sets and seed, G 309-310 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 germination period, G 32 soil for, G 23, 309

Open air life. _See_ Outdoor life

Opening the house. _See_ Housekeeping

Opossum bait for, A 509 skin, value, A 509

Orange food value, H 255

Orange root, G 348, 365

Orchard. _See_ Fruit trees

Organ electric, E 55, 278-279* pipe organ, E 44-52 telharmonium, E 293-295

Oriental rug washing, A 447

Oriole insect eater, A 457 migration, K 176

Ornithoptere flying machine, B 163

Osage orange hedge shrub, G 357

Osmium lamp metal filament, E 145

Oswego tea, G 333, 347

Outdoor furniture. _See_ Furniture

Outdoor games. _See_ Games

Outdoor life sleeping outdoors, A 6-9, 52* value of, K 6 _See also_ Camping

Outdoor sports. _See_ Sports

Outdoor work free printed matter, how to obtain, A 513-516 occupations suited to the four seasons, A 5 odd jobs, A 404-448 _See also_ Occupations

Outlining. _See_ Marking

Ovens camp ovens, K 80-82* clay, K 81 dampers for regulating, H 229 Dutch, K 81 electric, E 305-308 reflector, K 80, 81* temperature for baking and roasting, H 282, 283

Owl as a pet, K 184

Oxen trained oxen, value of, A 258-259

Oyster broiling, H 275-276 cleaning, H 291 food value, H 253 opening, H 290 testing, H 291

Oyster mushroom, A 91

P

Packing books, H 349 fixtures, H 348-349 furs and woolens, H 347 textile furnishings, H 348

Paint cleaning woodwork, H 122, 124, 134 removing stains, H 359 stenciling, N 81-82

Painting (Mechanical) brushes, H 342 mixing paints, H 342 preparing surface, H 341 summer house, C 424

Palms care of, G 198 varieties to grow, G 198

Panama canal cement used for, B 246

Pandanus window box plant, G 193

Pansy care of bed, G 318 characteristics, G 329, 331 picking flowers, G 319 planting seeds, G 318 to prevent running out, G 319 tufted, characteristics, G 334

Pantagraph, B 325* making, C 389*

Pantry arrangement, H 177 plan in model house, D 12 _See also_ Dish washing

Paper hanging applying paste, H 345 matching and cutting, H 344 putting on paper, H 345 quantity of paper required, H 343 removing old paper, H 344

Paper knife carving designs, C 122* copper work, D 347*, M 34-38*, 126-128* whittling, C 121-123*

Papier-mache letters for marking, N 156

Par (Game), K 347

Parabolas describing, B 338*

Parasites eggplant pests, G 305

Paris green insecticide, G 282, 285, 288, 290, 292 rule for mixing, G 130

Paris sewers described by Victor Hugo, H 216

Parsley, G 310 planting seed depth to plant, G 42, 235 distance to plant, G 42 in a box, G 164 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233

Parsnips food value, H 255 planting seed, G 310 time to plant, G 234 wild parsnips, class and seed time, G 278

Partridge migration, K 176

Pass it (Game), K 375

Passe partout, D 72-78* color scheme, D 73-74 materials and tools, D 75 process, D 75-78*

Paste receipt, H 346 for leather work, N 88, 95, 96

Pastry filling pies, H 304 juices, to prevent boiling over, H 305 mixing the dough, H 303, 304 soggy crust, preventing, H 304

Patching square patch, N 33-35*

Patents applying for, B 200-201, 205 Canadian, B 207 caveat, provisional protection, B 206 drawings and specifications, B 202-205 duration, B 205 fees for application, B 205, 206 in a foreign country, B 208 re-issuing, B 205 time required to procure, B 205 what granted for, B 206

Patterns. _See_ Embroidery; Dressmaking; Stenciling

Peach trees care of seeds for planting, A 48 distance to plant trees, G 258

Peacock care and feeding of young chicks, A 186 habits of the hen, A 186 Indian peacock, value, A 187 raising, A 185-188 acquiring information about, A 187

Peanuts food value, H 256

Pear distance to plant trees, G 258 food value, H 255

Peas food value, H 250, 255 insect pests, G 291 planting seed, G 311 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 33, 233 germination period, G 32

Peasants German embroidery work, N 196 Russian applique work, N 198

Pecan commercial value, A 42, 43 cultivating, A 40-41 gathering, A 41-42 grading, A 42-43 polishing for market, A 43

Peen of hammer. _See_ Hammer

Pelota (Game), K 376

Pelts. _See_ Skins

Pen rack design and making, C 117-119*

Pen tray gouge work, C 259*, 263*

Pen wiper tooled leather, D 329-330*

Pencil box making and carving, C 106-108*

Pencil sharpener drawing and making, C 38*

Pendulum compound bar, compensation pendulum, B 330* mercurial compensation pendulum, B 329*

Pennant yacht pennant, B 107

Peony annuals, G 316 arrangement in the garden, G 321 Chinese, characteristics, G 335, 365 depth to plant, G 321 European, characteristics, G 335 garden, characteristics, G 365 planting and blooming time, G 179

Pepper indoor planting time, G 233 planting and transplanting, G 311-312 planting seed depth and distance to plant, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 germination period, G 32 stuffing, varieties for, G 312 varieties, G 312

Pepper bush, sweet characteristics, G 356

Perennials definition of, G 160 for cut flowers: table, G 333 fragrant: table, G 333 low: table, G 334 medium height: table, G 335 tall: table, G 334 value of, G 316

Pergola designing and building, C 425-440*

Perpetual motion, B 306 impossibility of, E 234-237

Persimmons picking, A 23 region grown, A 22

Pests. _See_ Household pests; Insect pests; Mice; Rats

Pets book about, A 517 care of, K 170-192 housing, C 451-456*, K 186 ornamental land and water fowl, K 180-182 raising, A 203-240 story of a boy's animal cage, A 233-235 taming wild animals, K 186 trained, market value, A 248 _See also_ Bantams; Birds; Cats; Cavies; Crows; Dogs; Ducks; Gold Fish; Guinea pigs; Mice; Pigeons; Poultry; Rabbits; Raccoon; Shetland pony; Squirrels

Petunia characteristics, G 329 good bloomers, G 323 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Pheasant book about, A 517 breeds, A 197 coops and rearing ground, A 200-201 eggs, packing, A 199 feeding young chicks, A 200 localities in United States for raising, A 198 migration, K 176 protection from birds of prey, A 202 raising, A 196-202 care of mother, A 199 in England, A 199 serving in German fashion, A 197 varieties, K 181 _See also_ Guinea fowl

Phlox characteristics, G 330, 331, 332, 365 late, characteristics, G 335 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Phoebe bird insect destroyers, A 457 migration, K 175

Phosphates plant food, G 10, 221, 224

Photography, K 301-317 action of chemical waves, E 336 cameras, kinds and cost, K 303-304 dark room, K 309 developers and developing, K 313-315 exposure, K 312 fixing bath, K 314, 315 focusing, K 311-312 lens, importance of, K 307 negatives, preserving, K 316 plates versus films, K 308 printing papers, K 315 snap shots, taking, K 305-307 snap shots versus real photography, K 302 subjects, choosing, K 310

Piano, Electric, E 54

Pickerel weed characteristics, G 366

Pickles walnuts, A 37

Pickling metals definition, M 210

Picks (tools) forging stone picks, M 344*

Picnic tables and benches making, B 132-134

Picture frames and framing carbon photographs of a masterpiece, framing D 69-72 carving designs, C 101, 102, 130-132 colonial interiors in colors, framing, D 68 gluing mitred joints, D 144-146* joints kind required, D 147 mitred, D 143-144*, C 232-234* large photographic reproduction, framing, D 148 palette photograph frame, C 131 passe partout, D 72-78* rabbeting, C 232* selecting, D 67 shrinkage, D 146 silver work, M 185-186* staining, D 69, 71 stock, securing, D 142-143* whittling back for, C 131 whittling out of solid piece, C 19-22*

Pictures, D 64-80* cleaning, H 135 decorative value, D 64 grouping and hanging, D 66-67 hanging correctly, D 79* considering space values, D 64-65 height to hang, D 80 hooks and wires, D 78-80 Japanese way of hanging, D 65-66

Piers foundation walls, B 19 filling space between, B 76

Pies. _See_ Pastry

Pig. _See_ Swine

Pig iron, M 230

Pig pen. _See_ Swine

Pig weed class and seed time, G 278

Pigeon holes. _See_ Filing cabinet

Pigeons breeds, A 208, K 178 prize winners, K 179 carrier pigeons, K 180 characteristics, A 207 common, care of, K 179 devotion of male, A 211 dove cote, A 208-209 care of, A 215 for fancy breeding, K 179 sanitary provisions, A 213 dragoons, K 178 fancy pigeons for pets, A 207-217 feeding, A 214, K 179 fly made of wire, A 212* market value, K 179 nest building, A 210 nest dishes, A 210, 211 nesting compartment, building, A 209-210 net for capturing, A 209* perches, making, A 210 pests, guarding against, A 209 pouter, K 178 roosts, making, A 210* rufflenecks (Jacobins), K 178 tumblers, characteristics, A 208, K 178 water bath, A 214 white fan tail, model, K 178 _See also_ Squabs

Pile driving machine releasing hook, B 326*

Pillow bead work, N 293 choosing cushion covers, D 97 cornhusks for filling cushions, A 63 fraternity pillow, N 376 lingerie pillow, N 375 making for doll-bed, N 52 _See also_ Block printing; Stenciling

Pillow case making for doll-bed, N 53* marking, N 157

Pillow shams fastening, H 152

Pin insect pins, A 380 metal work tool, M 210

Pin case making, N 56*

Pin cushion embroidered, N 193-196

Pin tray gouge work, C 264*

Pine cones, gathering and storing, A 49 Georgia pine, characteristics, C 535 long leaf, A 55 pitch pine, characteristics, C 536 red, characteristics, C 536 white characteristics, C 535 strength, C 496 white pine seeds gathering and curing, A 48-49 marketing, A 49 yellow, characteristics, C 536

Pine needles. _See_ Balsam

Pine nuts gathering, A 29

Pink characteristics, G 329 fringed, characteristics, G 333 moss pink, characteristics, G 364

Pioneer life "goin' plummin'", A 26-29

Pipe organ operating by electricity, E 44-52

Pipes. _See_ Plumbing; Soldering; Stove pipe; Waste pipes

Pistil seed making function, G 247

Pistons mechanism of, B 315-316*

Pitch block definition of, M 210

Pitch fork forging, M 239*

Pitcher plant characteristics, G 366

Plackets. _See_ Dressmaking

Plaited skirts. _See_ Dressmaking

Plane. _See_ Inclined plane

Planes and planing adjusting planes, C 177 block plane, C 176, 178 cap iron, adjustment and use, C 184* jack plane, C 178 operation of the plane, C 146, 178-179, D 133-134, 136 sharpening plane irons, C 179-184* smooth plane, C 177* use of shooting board, C 106* wooden and iron, C 176*

Planishing definition of, M 210

Plant breeding budding, G 251-254 improving seeds, G 246-248 layering, G 249-251 methods, G 249 mongrel varieties from close planting, G 105, 145 seed selection, G 225-233 slipping, G 188-190 topping, G 199, 250-251

Plant food, G 221-226 chemicals essential for, G 221 how plants feed, G 225 nitrogen, G 10, 221 for sandy soil, G 224 source of, G 223 phosphorus, G 10, 221, 224 potash, G 10, 221, 224 source and value of, G 10

Plant stands jardiniere of wood, G 68-71* mission style, making, C 372-373 stool making, G 53-55

Plantain rib-grass, class and seed time, G 278 seed production, G 274

Planting tables. _See_ Flower gardening; Seeds; Shrubs; Vegetable gardening

Plants action of chemical waves, E 336 books about, A 518 effect of light, G 242 essential parts, G 240 food manufactured and stored by, G 242-245 herbaceous plants, definition, G 317 honey or pollen plants, A 322 leaves food factory, G 242-245 functions, G 240 lice, destroying, G 284, 291, 293 life history, G 239-248 making wooden labels for, G 58* medicinal plants, A 57 root-system, G 240-241 stems, passage way, G 241 studying, A 349-369 transplanting, G 118, 268-270 from coldframe, G 101-102 useful to attract birds and protect trees, A 461 _See also_ Flower gardening; Flowers; Gardening; Insect pests; Plant breeding; Plant food; Salad plants; Seeds; Vegetable gardening; Vegetables; also names of plants

Plants--Collection and preservation, A 349-363 arranging specimens, A 352-353 blue printing, A 360-362 classifying specimens, A 356-359 drying specimens, A 353 labeling specimens, A 356, K 156 marketing collection, A 360 mounting specimens, A 353-356, K 155 outfit for, A 352 preserving in covers, A 356 reasons for collecting, A 349-350, 360 representing different stages of growth, A 359-360 rules of the game, A 362 seaweed, A 362-374

Play importance of, K 4-5

Playhouse, H 3-40 in flats and apartments, H 8 in garret, H 5 in a tree, H 3 make believe, H 8, 13

Playthings make believe, H 11-12 _See also_ Toys

Pleurisy root, G 348, 365

Pliers carpenter's tool, C 199* metal worker's tool, M 6*

Plug in the ring (Game), K 376

Plum care of seeds for planting, A 48 distance to plant trees, G 258 origin and distribution of wild plums, A 24 value of trees in chicken yards, K 204

Plumb-line home-made device, G 114

Plumbing, H 213-223 care of, in closed houses, H 348 importance of, H 219 leaks, peppermint test, B 254 location of pipes for housekeeper, H 216 principle of the U, H 216-218* taps, repairing, B 255 traps, construction and care, H 217-218 ventilation pipes, H 319 _See also_ Soldering; Waste pipes

Pocket book. _See_ Purse

Point lace. _See_ Lace making

Poison Ivy destroying, A 472-473

Poisoning. _See_ Lockjaw

Poker making fire tools, M 371*

Pokeweed roots and berries, A 58 shoots as food, A 58

Polish and polishing French polish, C 490 wax polish, C 490 _See also_ Brass work; Copper work; Enamel; Floors; Furniture; Glass; Metal work

Pollination of plants, G 247 corn growing, G 145

Polo equestrian, K 377 hand polo, K 356 water polo, K 392 wicket polo, K 393

Pompey's pillar, B 57

Pond making in a city back yard, G 134-136

Ponderosa indoor plant, G 196

Pony as a pet, A 203-205

Poplar Carolina, G 367 characteristics, C 563 for landscape gardening, G 353 quick growers, G 79

Popp-mallow characteristics, G 334

Poppy characteristics, G 328, 331 depth to plant seeds, G 235 Iceland, sowing and blossoming time, G 161 in England, G 271 Oriental, characteristics, G 335 planting, G 84, 158 plume, characteristics, G 334 self-sowing, G 316 transplanting, G 156

Porcupine quills how to procure, A 68 uses, A 69

Pork cuts and their uses, H 270 food value, H 253 combined with vegetables, H 259 used as chicken, H 358

Porterhouse steak, H 269

Portieres bead work, N 290-293 stenciling, N 81 weaving designs, D 260-261 _See also_ Block printing

Portland cement origin and uses, B 246-248

Portulaca blooming plants, G 323 characteristics, G 328

Posts preserving underground, C 402 _See also_ Foundations

Pot rest, G 68-71*

Pot roast, H 268

Potash plant food, G 10, 221, 224

Potato boiled or baked, H 280 food value, H 255 insect pests, G 287, 292 planting seed potatoes, G 129 cutting device, A 437-439* depth and distance to plant, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 profit from raising, G 130 spraying, G 130 soil for, G 129

Potato race, K 378

Pots and pans care of, H 198, 201 materials, H 201 soldering, M 43-45

Potted plants. _See_ Flower gardening

Pottery, D 280-320* bat and how made, D 286 "bisque," meaning, D 301 bowl decorating, D 294-299* designing and modeling, D 287-294* candlestick, designing, D 313-315* clay, selecting, D 284 coiling method, D 283, 291* concrete pottery, D 207-209* decoration applying the design, D 297-298 classes, D 295-297* color combinations, D 303-304 methods, D 294 modeling a decoration, D 298 under-glazing, D 298-299 designing, D 288-290* avoiding natural forms, D 290 testing profiles, D 290* development of, D 280-281 fern dish, D 310-313* firing, D 299-301 glazed pottery, D 306 glazes, matt and bright glaze mixes, D 303 glazing, D 301-307* grinding the glaze, D 302 "grog" making, D 316 handles, making, D 309* kiln, portable, D 300* materials and tools, D 284-287* template, D 292* modeling process, D 290-292* potter's wheel versus hand method, D 282-283 scientific principle of, D 281 scraping, D 293* "slip," meaning, D 294 testing work, D 292* tiles for tea plate and fireplace, D 315-320* tools, D 285-287 vases, designing and decorating, D 307-310*

Poultry, A 132-178, K 193-207 accounts, how to keep, A 153, 157, 168, 172 acquiring information, A 187 amateur's experience with, A 166-168 American breeds, K 195 Asiatic breed, K 195 Bantams, breeding and care, A 217-218 books about, A 517 Brahmas, K 195 breeding pure stock, A 156 purpose of, K 177 breeds, characteristics, A 220-222, K 194-195 broilers, raising, K 195 fattening for market, A 152-153 brooders, making, A 175, K 199 broody hens, curing, A 144 business methods in poultry raising, A 153-159 care and housing, A 133-143, K 193-207 city experiment with, A 159 cleanliness, A 142-143, 146 clipping wings, K 207 Cochins, K 195 cooking broiling, H 275-276 preparation for, H 285-288 coops, model, A 147-151* crested variety, care of, A 222 drawing poultry, H 287 dust bath for, A 141*, K 206 eggs best layers, K 195 cost of, for settings, K 196 effect of feeding on layers, A 171 keeping a record for idlers, A 157* of fancy fowls, A 221 quality affected by feed, A 146 selections for settings, A 148 testing layers, A 154-155* winter laying, K 205-206 exercise, provisions for, A 138, 146 expenses of one experiment, A 176 experiments, A 159-177 fancy breeds and their care, A 219-222, K 194-195 fattening broilers for market, A 152, 153 feathers, marketing, A 159 food value: table, H 253 fruit trees in the chicken yard, K 204 Hamburgs, characteristics, A 220 hatching average number from a setting, K 196 time required for eggs to hatch, A 148, K 198, 201 hen gate, A 158* Houdans, characteristics, A 220 incubators, A 175 average time for eggs to hatch, K 198, 199 operating, K 197-199 killing, H 286 Lakenvelders, characteristics, A 220 Langshans, K 195 Laying hens. _See_ Poultry, eggs Leghorns, K 195 eggs, A 221 in a prize contest, A 160-163 lice on small chicks, A 148, K 201 preventing, A 143 marketing, A 156-159 Mediterranean breeds, K 195 molting season, A 145 nests for sitting hens, A 147 non-sitters, K 195 ornamental land and water fowl as pets, K 180-182 cost of, K 181 Orpingtons, record price, K 194 plucking, H 286 Plymouth rocks, K 195 Polish varieties, A 220 prize contests, stories of, A 160-164 prize-winning Orpingtons, K 194 profit in, K 193 ranging versus housing, A 134 runs, cornfields for, A 176 selection of, for cooking, H 271 shows, purpose of, K 177 sitting hens coops for, A 147-148*, 150 feeding, A 144 nests for, A 147 raising, K 200-201 starting a business with eggs versus chickens, K 195-196 stories of success in raising, A 159-177 thoroughbreds versus mongrels, K 194 training for poultry raising, A 173 trap nests for testing layers, A 154-155* white Wyandotte, A 168-172, K 195 wild fowl, clipping wings, K 81 winter care, K 205-206 young chicks, care of, K 202-203, A 147-153 Yokahamas, A 220 _See also_ Ducks; Game and game birds; Geese; Guinea fowl; Peacock; Poultry feeding; Poultry houses; Turkey

Poultry feeding effect on quality of eggs, A 146 feeding six thousand hens in one half hour, A 164-166 growing feed, A 153 making hens lay, A 171 molting season, A 145 rack for feed pans, to prevent waste, A 145* regularity essential, A 146 self-feed grain box, A 139* self-feed grit box, A 136* sitting hens, A 144 trough for feed, making, C 450* winter feeding, K 206 young chicks, A 150-153, K 199

Poultry houses building a poultry house, A 132-143*, C 441-450*, K 204* cleaning provisions, A 140, K 204 construction principles, A 135, C 441-442 coops, A 147-150* corners, finishing, C 446* curtained shed, A 138 doors and windows, A 137*, C 448 dropping board, A 140, C 449 dust bath, A 141*, K 206 floors, cement, A 137 foundation, C 443-444 frame for window screen, C 449 framework of the house, C 444-445* for an eleven dollar house, A 133* furnishings, A 139-142*, K 204* heat, planning for, A 135 location, A 135, K 207 materials, A 136-137 nests, location, A 140-141, K 204 roofing paper, C 449 roosts, making, A 139, C 450, K 204 runs, A 141, 142, C 450, K 204 sanitary principles, A 142-143, 146 scratching shed, A 138, K 204, 205 siding for frame, C 445 sleeping room, K 204 working drawings, C 443, 447

Powell. _See_ Baden-Powell, Sir Robert

Power dynamometer for measuring, B 324* foot pound, B 123 problems in estimating, B 82 steam versus electricity, E 3-5 units of power, B 122-125 _See also_ Electric power; Gasolene motors; Mechanics; Steam; Water power

Precious stones bezel setting, M 152-157*, 163*, 176 cutting metal away for setting, M 157-159* prong setting, M 159-161* selecting for rings, M 152

Preserves storing in cellar, H 211 _See also_ Canning; Jam; Jelly

Press copying methods, B 418

Pressing skirts, N 73

Prime roasts, H 269

Printing block printing, D 98-106

Prisoner's base, K 378

Propeller. _See_ Aeroplanes; Screw propeller

Proteins effect of boiling, H 277 effect of cold water, H 278 food composition, H 248 foods containing, H 250 proportion in diet, H 249, 252

Proverbs Indian proverb about home making, H 44

Pruning hazel bushes, A 35 methods, A 439-443*

Puff balls, A 83-84, 87-89

Pulleys chain, B 322* dynamometer, B 324* endless chain, B 310 expanding, B 321* mechanical principle of, B 49-52* movable, theory of, B 50-51* multiple, B 51-52* rule for power, B 63, 310 snatch block, B 50* Spanish bartons, B 310* triangular eccentric, B 311* use of, B 43* White's pulley, B 310*

Pumpkin planting, G 312 depth and distance to plant, G 42 quantity of seed to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 with corn, G 117 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 striped beetle pests, G 117

Pumps action of, B 235-236 Archimedes screw, B 143-145*, 344 double acting, B 346* force pumps, B 236, 345 lift pumps, B 236, 345* plunger pump for vacuum cleaner, B 379-381* theory of, B 234-235 _See also_ Windmills

Punch (Tool) centre punch, making, M 297* metal work tool, M 7*

Pupa. _See_ Insects

Puppy. _See_ Dogs

Purdy, Carl collecting and growing California bulbs, A 94-99

Purling, N 353*

Purse bead work, N 285-290* tooled leather, making, D 340-342* _See also_ Card case

Purslane (Pursley) class and seed time, G 278

Push ball, K 379

Push button. _See_ Electric push button

Pyramids of Egypt how they were built, B 54-56

Pyrography outfit, C 330-331 woods suitable for, C 240, 330

Pyrometric cones, D 300*

Q

Quail. _See_ Bob white

Quaker ladies, G 341

Quarter sawed oak, C 551, D 131-132*

Queen Anne's lace, G 349

Quills, porcupine, A 68

Quoits, K 379

R

Rabbeted joints, C 255*

Rabbit bait, A 508 breeds, common and fancy, K 182, A 498 care of, K 185 characteristics, A 497 enemies, A 498 fur, value, A 501 house, construction, C 451-454*, K 182-183* hunting, A 500 raising for pets, A 206 snares, making, A 500 story of a boy's animal cage, A 234

Raccoon bait for, A 509 habits, A 268 skin, value, A 509 story of a boy's animal cage, A 234 taming, A 268-269

Racing feather race, K 347 marathon race, K 371 potato race, K 378 sack race, K 384 three legged race, K 390 tub race, K 390 water race, K 393

Racquets or Rackets (Game), K 380

Radiators steam as distributors of heat, E 314

Radish icicle, G 95 indoor planting time, G 233 insect pests, G 291 planting seed depth to plant, G 42, 236 distance to plant, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 quick development, G 313 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 germination period, G 32

Raffia work, N 250-277* basket making, N 243, 250-252 covers, N 252 handles, N 255-256 melon-shaped basket, N 257-259* belts, N 273-274 braiding raffia, N 262-263*, 268 doll's hammock, N 271 doll's hat, N 253-255* fringe, N 274 hats braiding, N 263-264* trimming, N 264, 268, 270 weaving on wire frames, N 264-268 jewel case, N 260-261* knotting raffia, N 271-275* materials for, N 250 napkin ring, N 252, 253* preparing the raffia, N 262, 268 shopping bag, knotted raffia, N 272-273* skip stitch, N 257 Solomon's knot, N 265 split stitch, N 257 three strand braid, N 268-270 whisk broom, N 275* winding stitch, N 257

Rafters. _See_ Roofs

Ragout, H 269

Ragweed class and seed time, G 278

Rain causes of, B 355-356 drops, formation, B 357-360 shape, B 360 fall effect on forestation, B 361 measuring, B 349-353* recording, B 362-363 gauge, making, B 350-353* importance of, B 354 period of rainfall, B 360 table for measures, B 353 weather symbol, B 362

Raisins food value, H 255

Raking, G 265

Ranges draughts and dampers, H 227-230 _See also_ Gas range

Raspberries food value, H 255 picking wild raspberries, A 9

Ratchet wheel mechanism, B 322-324*

Rats book about, A 519 electrocution device, E 271-273* trapping, A 496

Rattan work baskets, N 243-248* mats, N 247*, 249 whisk broom holder, N 249

Reamur thermometer scale, B 262

Receipts barberry jelly, A 17 canning elderberries, A 16 elderberry steamed pudding, A 16 green grape jelly, A 15 pickled walnuts, A 37 thimbleberry jam, A 11 wild crabapple butter, A 22 _See also_ Camping--Cooking; Cookery; Insecticides; Paste

Red line, or Red lion (Game), K 381

Red spider, G 293

Reed basket weaving, G 61-64*

Reel making a garden reel, G 51*

Refrigerator cleaning, H 109, 241 drainage, regulating, H 240 economy in ice supply, H 242 how to avoid odors, H 241 location, H 240 purifying, H 242

Remington typewriter, B 403-409*

Renaissance lace. _See_ Lace

Rent what proportion of income to use for, H 74, 77, 78

Repairing. _See_ Furniture; Soldering

Repousse definition of, M 210

Retaining walls batter, making, B 244-245 "closers", B 244 designing, B 240-241* foundation, B 238*, 245 Galveston sea wall, B 247 "header", B 244 pointing, B 246 "stretcher", B 244

Rheostat. _See_ Electric rheostat

Rhubarb food value, H 255

Ribbon embroidery. _See_ Embroidery

Rice camp cooking, K 90 food value, H 254 washing, H 295 wild rice characteristics, A 78-79 harvesting, A 79 uses of, A 78, 79

Richards, Ellen H. "Cost of living" quoted, H 74

Rifles aiming, K 122 care and cleaning, K 123 learning to use, K 120-123

Rings iron, welding, M 248-250*, 254* silver work, M 152-162* steel, making, M 265* _See also_ Precious stones

Rivers protecting river banks, B 237 tides, B 227, 229 _See also_ Retaining walls

Riveting handles, M 88 iron tongs, M 288* making rivets, M 77 metal, M 73-77* metal worker's tool, M 10* rivet set, M 73 silver letters on copper, M 188-190* stove pipe, M 74

Roads material for road-bed, G 85-86 repairing dirt roads, G 84-86

Roast pig, story, H 18

Roasting meats, H 282 open fire for, H 282 thickness of food, H 276

Robbers Irish stew and the robbers: story, H 15

Robin insect destroyers, A 457 migration, K 175

Rock how soil was formed from, G 213 _See also_ Boulders

Rock garden flowers to plant in, G 325 location, G 324 plants, G 340 soil requirements, G 325

Roentgen rays ether waves, E 316

Roley boley (Game), K 381

Roller ball-bearing principle, B 28 making wooden rollers, C 268* moving rocks on rollers, B 18

Roman cut work, N 138-142*

Roof construction for summer house, C 418-422* construction of frame, C 465-469* cornices, C 421 hip roof, construction, C 466* painting, B 42, C 422 rafters fitting, C 467* making curved rafters, C 418 roofing paper, C 419 saddle boards, C 421 shingling, B 40-42, C 419-422* estimating shingles, B 40 nails required, B 42 square of shingling or clap boarding, meaning, B 41

Rooms. _See_ Bedroom; Dining-room; Furniture; Girl's room; Guests; House decoration; Kitchen; Living-room; Pantry; Servants

Ropes carrying power of hemp, B 47 preservative for hemp, B 48 strength of wire rope, B 48

Roque, K 382

Rose Christmas, characteristics, G 333 insect pests and remedies, G 284, 293 Irish crochet, N 339-340, 344 moss, characteristics, G 332

Rose chafer, G 293

Rose jar copper work, M 56-60*

Rose slug, G 284

Rotascope. _See_ Gyroscope

Rotation of crops, G 149

Round steak, H 268

Round Table, Knights of how Gareth became a knight, H 20

Rowing intercollegiate record, K 383

Rubbed joints, C 251*

Rubber plant topping, G 199, 250

Rubbish disposal of, G 263

Rubicon (Game), K 383

Rugby football, K 348

Rugs bathroom, H 156 beating-rack, A 444-446* braiding, N 295-296* carpets versus rugs, A 443-444 cleaning, A 443-448, H 128 dry cleaning, H 332 kitchen, H 193 Oriental, washing, A 447 storing, H 348 washing, A 446-447 weaving, D 252-260*, N 297-305* color combinations, D 255 designs, D 252-253, 256-258*, N 302 materials, D 253, 258, N 301 preparing the woof, D 253-254 process, D 259-260, N 300-301 setting the loom, N 297-300 woof shuttle, D 254*

Rulers carpenter's rule, C 205 parallel, mechanism of, B 331*

Run, sheep, run (Game), K 360

Running hare and hound chases, A 17

Russia calf for tooled leather, N 92

Rustic furniture collecting wood for, A 410 suggestions for making, D 209-211*

Rye food value, H 254

S

Sable, Alaskan, A 484

Sachets herbs and grasses for, A 65

Sack racing, K 384

Sad iron. _See_ Electric iron

Saddles English, Mexican and army, K 225-226*

Safety valves for steam engines, B 116

Sage growing, G 327

Saint Francis of Assisi, H 25

Salad plant endive, G 305 lettuce, G 306

Salamander taming, A 266

Salary. _See_ Income

Salmon bait for, K 136* food value, H 253

Salt removing stains with, H 358

Salt cellar silver work, M 183-184*

Salt pork cuts, H 270

Salvia bedding plants, G 324

San Jose scale, K 167

Sand bag definition of, M 210

Sand papering. _See_ Whittling

Sandy soil. _See_ Soils

Sanitation. _See_ Garbage; Plumbing; Refrigerator; Sewerage

Santos Dumont's monoplane, B 167*, 175-177

Sap. _See_ Maple sugar

Sardine food value, H 253

Sashes. _See_ Doors; Windows

Satin stitch, N 147-149* combinations, N 148-154* design, N 158*

Sauce wild crabapple, A 22

Sausage buckwheat cakes combination, H 258 food value: table, H 253

Sauteing, H 281

Saving methods, H 83-85 necessity and value, H 82

Savoury herb, G 328

Saw horse making, C 143-149*

Saw mills, C 522

Saws band saw, C 522 brazing steel band saws, M 313 buck saw, C 172* compass saw, C 172* construction principles, C 171-172* coping saw, C 20* cross cut saws, principle and use, C 170* danger of the power saw, D 187 gang saw, C 522 hack saw, C 175* metal worker's tools, M 9* rating by points, C 173 rip saw, principle and use, C 169* sawing copper work, M 35-36* turning saw, C 173* using, position for, C 174*

Saxifrage habits and characteristics, G 340, 364

Scabiosa sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Scales mechanical principle, B 24-25*

Scalloping, N 132-133*, 135

Scallops cooking, H 292

Scarf crocheted, N 318*

Scarf pin silver work, M 162-165*

Scarfing, M 254-257, 258 wrench, M 275*

Scarlet runner beans, G 297

Scarlet sage, G 324

Scarlet tanagers insect destroyer, A 457

School grounds improving, G 72-87

Science value of study, E 338-340

Science club, E 339

Scilla, bell flowered planting and blooming time, G 177, 178

Scissors protecting points of, N 48 shears for metal work, M 5*

Sconce copper work, M 52-56*

Scorched stains removing, H 335

Scotland's burning, K 384

Scours remedy, A 120

Scouts. _See_ Boy Scouts of America

Scraper definition of, M 210

Screen. _See_ Fire screen

Screw Archimedian, B 143-145*, 344* case hardening screws, M 309-310 concealing in woodwork, method of, C 343* countersunk, meaning, C 190 driving, B 157 endless, B 142 finish, C 191 flat and round head, C 190-191* friction, provision for, B 142 mechanical principle, B 139-147* number designation, C 191 nut, principle of, B 140 power principle, B 140-147 principle applied to tools, B 156 removing, device for, B 157 rule for power, B 64 use of, C 190-192* wooden screw, strength of, B 156 worm gear, B 141* worm and wheel, B 145-147*

Screw drivers, C 195, 199-203*

Screw propeller aeroplane, B 169-170, C 70-72* blades area versus power, B 149-150 finding area, B 154 principle, B 147 features of, B 148 pitch, calculating, B 155* power calculating, B 150-155* principle of, B 149-150 speed, reckoning, B 148

Sea walls. _See_ Retaining walls

Seal electric, A 491 French, A 501 Hudson, A 491

Seams. _See_ Dressmaking

Search light, Electric, E 153*

Seasoning broiled meats and vegetables, H 276, 279

Seats. _See_ Benches; Chairs; Settees

Seaweed care of specimens before mounting, A 364 collector's outfit, A 363 mounting specimen, A 364-368* time and places for collecting, A 363 varieties, A 369

Seeds, G 227-238 age for planting purposes, G 34 cotyledon, G 230 depth to plant: table, G 35, 235 distribution of wild seeds, G 273 envelopes, making, G 56-58* germination aiding, G 236 experiments, G 31 per cent., G 232-233 table, G 32 method of improving, G 246-248 planting compacting soil, G 237-238 how to plant, G 99, 268 quantity to plant: table, G 36 time, indoor and outdoor, G 233-235 saving for sale or planting, G 371 selection germ developing power, G 231 impure seed, G 231 seed plants, G 227-228 size, G 228-233 selling, how to put up seed, G 371-372 soaking, G 138 testing for germinating value, G 33, 143 _See also_ Grass seed; Trees; Vegetables; also names of plants, e. g., Beans; Nasturtiums; Pansy; Peppers, etc.

Seesaw mechanical principle of, B 26

Selvage, N 15

September blooming plants, G 365

Servants, H 370-381 cook, duties, H 109, 112 days out, adjustment of work, H 111 duties four or five maids, H 105 one maid, H 104, 107 three maids, H 105, 108 two maids, H 104, 108, 112 hours, H 379 mistress and maid business relations, H 376-377 personal relations, H 371-375 personal liberty, lack of, H 372 proportion of income required for, H 76 room, H 378 servant question, H 370-381 meals, when served, H 105 waitress dress, H 173 duties, H 169-172

Serving table. _See_ Buffet; Setting the table

Serving the meal. _See_ Meals--Serving

Serving tray copper work, M 75-77*

Seton, Ernest Thompson Boy Scouts organizer, K 49

Settee box furniture, making, C 477* garden settle, making, D 200* hall settle, D 49* outdoor settee, making, C 410-411*

Setting the table dining table decorations, H 164 glasses, H 165 methods, H 167 serving table, use of, H 166 sideboard arrangements, H 166 silver, H 165 table linen, H 162-164

Settle. _See_ Settee

Sewer pipes. _See_ Plumbing

Sewerage system, importance of, H 214

Sewing apron making, N 26-30* back stitching, N 12* half back stitch, N 13* bands for aprons, N 30* skirts, N 39*, 44 basting stitches, N 7* binding, N 51* blanket making, N 54* buttonhole stitch, N 58* buttons, N 4-6 care of hands, N 19 counterpane for doll's bed, N 55* crow's foot stitch, N 55* darning, N 9-11* felling seams, N 68 French hem, N 21 gathering, N 26-30* stroking, N 27* gussets, N 35-40* helping mother, N 3 hemming French hem, N 21 gauge, notched card, N 17* rolling the edge, N 21* skirt, N 36, 43 straightening the edge, N 17 turning corners, N 20* turning the hem, N 17 hooks and eyes, N 24-25* knotting the thread, N 5 substitute for, N 14, 16 mattresses, N 53* needle case, N 46-47 needles, emery for, N 19 over-casting, N 15* over-handing, N 15-17* patching, N 33-35 pillow cases, N 53* plackets, N 35-40*, 43 plain sewing, N 3-11 position of sewer, N 19-20 rolling the edge, N 21* running and back stitch combination, N 14* running stitches, N 7* scissors, how to hold, N 12* seams felling, N 68 stitches for, N 12-17* sewing apron, N 31-33* sewing case, N 45-49* stitches, N 12-25* tape loops on towels and dresses, N 23* thimble, how to use, N 4* thread, length of, N 5 tucking, N 36 turning corners, N 20 whip stitch, N 21* work box, fittings, N 3 _See also_ Basket making, Bead work; Braiding; Dressmaking; Embroidery

Sewing machines boat-shaped shuttle type carriers and drivers, adjustment, B 303-304* looping the thread, B 302 setting needles, B 305* cleaning, B 281 oiling, B 281* puckering, to prevent, B 283-285 rotary hook type bobbin case, B 293-295* holder, adjusting, B 301* compared with boat-shaped shuttles, B 299-300 construction, B 285-293* feed, regulating, B 298 feed motion, B 337* hook guide and hook driver, B 289-292* hook ring, B 293 needle bars, setting, B 287-288 needles changing, B 292 setting, B 303-305* presser foot, B 297-299* repairing shuttles, B 300 stitch regulator, B 286*, 293 take up spring, replacing, B 295-297* tension, B 288-289 thread controllers, B 301-303* threading, B 286*, 298, 302 Wheeler and Wilson, B 299-300 shuttle action of different types, B 283-284* tension, adjusting, B 283-285 threads to use, B 282 types, B 280 vibrating shuttle, B 281-285* presser foot, adjustment, B 285 Wheeler and Wilson, B 299-300, 337

Shackles forging, M 349-352*

Shad food value, H 253

Shades cleaning window shades, H 131 _See also_ Candle shade; Lamp shade

Shadow embroidery stitches and materials, N 126-127*

Shagbarks, A 39

Shamrock pattern for Irish crochet, N 341

Sharks catching, K 126

Sharpening tools. _See_ Tools

Shawl crocheting rainbow shawl, N 316-317* knitting, N 356-359*

Shears protecting points of scissors, N 48 tools for metal work, M 5*

Sheep feeding, A 104-105 book about, A 517 lambs, care of, A 105 raising, A 103-107 shearing, A 106

Sheepskin for leather work, N 83

Sheets making for doll-bed, N 54* marking, N 157 _See also_ Beds; Ironing

Shell fish broiling oysters, H 275 food value, H 253 preparing for cooking, H 289-293

Shellac method of using, C 486, D 216-217 source and qualities, C 486

Shells book about, A 518 collecting, A 369-374 outfit, A 372 preserving and labeling specimens, A 374

Shelters. _See_ Summer house

Shelving. _See_ Book case

Shetland pony breeding for profit, A 205 characteristics, A 203-205

Shingling. _See_ Roof

Shinney, K 367

Shirley poppies, G 322

Shoe buttons how to sew on, N 6

Shoepac, K 209

Shoes base ball, K 264 foot ball, K 280* for winter sports, K 208-209

Shooting hints on how to shoot, K 115-118 rifle shooting, K 120-123 "wiping his eye", K 117

Shooting board how to make, C 189* how to use, C 106*

Shop. _See_ Carpentry and Woodwork; Work shop

Shot guns aiming, K 113, 117 barrel lengths, K 120 care and cleaning, K 123 choke-bore gun, K 119 double barrels, K 111* "drop" of a gun, K 113 for small game, K 112 learning to shoot, K 114-118 pattern, testing, K 118-119 selecting, K 112-113 styles for various purposes, K 119 unloading, K 115 _See also_ Rifles

Shovel blacksmith's shovel, M 226, 229* fire tools, making, M 372-373* home-made snow shovel, A 432

Shrubs characteristics: table, G 355-356 hazel bush, A 34 planting and transplanting, G 134 selection principles, G 37, 354, 355, 357

Sideboard arranging for service, H 166 design, D 55*

Siding. _See_ House framing

Sieve making a garden sieve, G 59-61

Signals and signaling marine flag code, B 107-109 weather signals, B 361-362

Silkworm culture, A 337-348 apparatus for rearing, A 339* book about, A 518 cocoons preparing for market, A 347 spinning, A 345-347* weight of, A 347 eggs hatching, A 340-341 laying, A 338-339 first age, A 343 food and feeding, A 337, 339-346 racks for, A 342* moth how it comes out of the cocoon, A 347 life of, A 338 molting periods, A 343-345 stages of growth, A 337 varieties of silk spinners, A 338

Silver cleaning and care, H 111, 185 setting the table, H 165 washing, H 183 _See also_ Silver work

Silver fox book about, A 517

Silver maple. _See_ Maple

Silver work bar pins, M 171-174* bezel setting, M 152-157*, 163*, 176 bracelets, M 174-177* Indian design, M 176-177* brooches, M 171-174* characteristics of silver for working, M 151 collar slide, M 170-171* comb, M 194-196* cuff links, M 192-194* enameling on, D 355 gems selecting, M 152 setting, M 152-161*, 163*, 165, 176 hinges. _See_ Metal work--hinges lettering silver on copper, M 187-190* links, making, M 167-169* mustard spoon, M 182* napkin ring, M 191-192* necklaces, M 166-170* oxidizing silver, M 204 pendants, M 169 picture frame, M 181, 185-186* pin, M 163-164* rings bezel setting, M 152-157* deep set stone, M 157-159* prong setting, M 159-161* twisted silver wire, M 161-162* riveting letters, M 188-190* salt cellar, M 183-184* salt spoon, M 183* scarf pin, M 162-165* setting the stone, M 165 spoons, M 178-184* sugar tongs bowl design, M 182* claw design, M 180-182* tools chisel, making, M 157* mandrel, M 154* watch fob, M 187-190* _See also_ Copper work; Metal work

Simmering definition, H 277

Sink location and care of kitchen sinks, H 193

Sirloin steak, H 269

Skate sailing, K 215-216*

Skating, K 210-216 club skate model, K 210* damming a brook or pond, A 280 fancy figures, K 210 hockey skates and playing, K 212-215* racing skates and skating, K 211 sprinting stroke, K 212 tennis court for skating pond, A 279-280

Skee. _See_ Skiing

Skiing, K 219-222*, 385 jumping, K 222 ski pole, K 222* skis, K 218-220*

Skins and hides curing, A 511 removing, A 510 tanning, A 511-512 solution, A 507

Skirts. _See_ Dressmaking

Skittles lawn skittles, K 368-370

Skunk nests and habits, A 485 pelts, value, A 484, 487 tame, A 270 trapping, A 484-486

Sled bobsled, K 223* toy, working drawing, C 40, 42*

Sledge blacksmith's tool, M 226

Sleep and sleeping advantages of outdoor sleeping, A 6-9 preparation for outdoor sleeping, A 9, 52*

Sleeves. _See_ Dressmaking

Slippers crocheting, N 324-329*

Slippery elm, C 559

Slugs exterminating, G 118 garden pests, G 285 rose slugs, G 284, 293

Small fruits. _See_ Berries

Smartweed class and seed time, G 278

Smilax, Southern, A 55

Smith Premier typewriter, B 409-411*

Smocking honeycomb pattern, N 112-114 stitch, N 114*

Smoking dangers of, K 13-14

Smoking set copper work, M 79-86*

Snake taming, A 266 venomous, K 149

Snake's head, G 349, 365

Snapdragon, G 277

Snares. _See_ Traps

Snarling iron definition of, M 210

Snow crystals, forms and colors, B 366-368* formation, B 366 line, B 368, 369 measuring snowfall, B 367 perpetual snow, B 368 shoveling, A 431-432 uses of, B 367 weight, B 367

Snow shoeing skis and skiing, K 217-222* snow shoes, K 216-217*

Snowballs Japanese, G 37

Snowdrop planting and blooming time, G 177

Soap for laundry, H 319

Soccer. _See_ Foot ball

Socket wrench. _See_ Wrench

Sockets making an open wire rope socket, M 281-283*

Soda combined with cream of tartar, H 301 some uses of, H 356 sour milk and, H 357

Sofa cushion. _See_ Pillow

Softening metal. _See_ Annealing

Soils acid, improving, G 30, 115, 222 adapting crops, G 17-23 clay absorption of water, G 218 characteristics, G 8 formation, G 214-215 improving, G 9, 104, 218-219, 224 lime for acid soil, G 30 elements, G 8 formation of, G 213 humus, G 8 improving poor soil, G 9, 103-105, 218-219, 224 impure air in, H 208 inoculation, purpose and method, G 119, 122 lime absorption of water, G 218 formation, G 215-216 humus for, G 225 improving, G 218 testing for, G 216 loam, meaning of, G 220 preparing for grass seed, G 74-76 physical and chemical needs, G 9 sand absorption of water and heat, G 217 characteristics, G 8 formation of, G 214 improving, G 9, 218 nitrogen needed, G 224 subsoil, G 220 testing, G 28-31 top-soil, G 220 _See also_ Drainage; Flower gardening; Plant food; also names of plants

Soldering brass vase, M 144 copper handles, M 78-79 electric iron for, E 116* hard soldering, materials and directions, M 41-42 heat and tools for, M 11-12* iron, making, M 45-46* metals, M 41-46* outfit, B 252, M 11-12* preparations, B 252 process, B 253 soft soldering materials and tools, M 43 process, M 40, 43-45 tinker's dam, B 253 unsoldering, M 205

Solomon's seal, false habits and characteristics, G 345

Song birds. _See_ Birds

Sorrel class and seed time, G 278

Sound production of, E 281 variation with speed, E 292 velocity, B 249-251, E 311 in dry air, water and metals, B 250 independent of pitch, E 316 vibrations of metal disks, E 294-295 waves, E 310 length, B 251, E 315

Soups beef stock, what to buy, H 268 boiling meat for stock, H 278 to keep from curdling, H 356

Soutache braid for braiding, N 107

Spading how to spade, G 88, 265

Spanish fly (Game), K 385

Sparrow bird enemy, K 174 book about, A 519 migration of song sparrow, K 175

Specific gravity meaning and application, B 279-280

Speed indicator mechanism and use, E 231*

Spice bush characteristics, G 355

Spiders food for young wasps, A 391 nature study, K 145

Spiked loosestrife characteristics, G 365

Spinach cleaning, H 294 food value, H 255 germination per cent. of seed, G 233 time to plant, G 234

Spindle copper work, M 124-126*

Spinning. _See_ Silkworm

Spirea characteristics, G 356 hedge shrub, G 357 Van Houtte's, a good variety, G 37, 38

Spirit level, C 205*

Splice or scarf joints, C 257*

Spoons mustard spoon, silver work, M 182* nut set spoon, copper work, M 39-40* salt spoon, silver work, M 183 tea spoon, silver work, M 178-180*

Sports girls' outdoor sports, K 318-325 winter sports, K 208-224* _See also_ Archery; Base ball; Camping; Canoeing; Coasting; Cricket; Curling; Fishing; Foot ball; Games; Golf; Horsemanship; Hunting; Racing; Rowing; Shooting; Skate sailing; Skating; Skiing; Swimming; Track athletics; Trapping; Walking

Spots. _See_ Cleaning

Spring beauty habits and characteristics, G 340 transplanting, G 340

Springs (Machinery) air spring, B 331* bearing springs, B 265-266 car springs, B 265* cross bow, making, B 266* draw spring, B 265* tempering steel, M 295 uses, B 264

Springs (Water) preparing for trout culture, A 273-274 reclaiming springs, A 274-277 story of how one spring was reclaimed, A 280-282

Sprocket wheel, B 327*

Spruce gum gathering, A 80-83 making, A 82 marketing, A 82 uses, A 81 white spruce, A 81

Spruce tree seed year, A 47 variety and characteristics, C 537-538

Squabs book about, A 517 care of, A 216 homers as breeders, A 194-195 killing and dressing, A 196 marketing and profit, A 195 raising, A 193-197 record keeping, A 216 where to get information about, A 194 _See also_ Pigeons

Square, steel carpenter's tool, C 205* metal worker's tool, M 5*

Squash food value, H 255 insect pests, G 287, 291, 292 planting seed, G 312 depth to plant, G 236 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233

Squash (Game), K 386

Squirrels as pets, K 184 bad habits of the red squirrel, A 267 bait for, A 508 flying squirrels as pets, K 185 taming, A 266-267

Stabbler, Sydney S. My experience with honey bees, A 328-331

Stains and staining alcohol stains, value of, D 227 applying stains, D 228-229 asphaltum, D 229 black walnut imitation, D 230 brown stain, C 223 chemical composition and use, C 483 preparing, C 488 Flemish oak, D 231 forest green oak, D 232 fumed oak and chestnut, process, D 233-234 golden oak finish, D 229 gray oak, D 232 mahogany imitation, D 230, 231, C 489 mission oak, D 231 natural colors versus imitation, C 482 object of staining, D 226 oil stain composition and use, C 483 merits of, C 487, D 227 perfect stain, D 227 preparation of surface, C 483 water stain advantages of, C 487, D 227 composition and use, C 483 weathered oak, D 233

Stake pin making, M 233-235*

Stand pipe principle of, H 215

Staples designing and making, M 235-236*

Star of Bethlehem planting and blooming time, G 177

Starch boiled starch, making, H 320 cold starch, making, H 319 protecting, H 319 starching clothes, H 323 sticking to irons, to prevent, H 335

Stars effect of aerial tides, E 229 telling points of the compass by, K 109 time required for light to travel from, E 312

Starting box (Electric), E 48 operation of, E 81-83*

Steam condensation, B 125 dry steam, B 125 expansion principle, B 127 generation of, B 115-116 heat units, B 126-127 wet steam, B 126

Steam engines Calipyle, B 114-115 cylinder and piston, B 117-118* disk engine, B 334* governors, B 313-316*, 329 gyroscope, B 335 heating principle, B 121 hero engine, B 114* history of, B 114-115, 272 horsepower, estimating, B 122-124 noise from exhaust, reason, B 113, 120 power generation and distribution, B 117-120 principle of, B 115-117 rotary, B 340* safety valve, B 116 slide valve, B 118-120* toe and lifter for valves, B 329* waste in power, E 6

Steam radiators as distributors of heat, E 314

Steam turbine, B 128

Steam whistles why steam is seen before whistles are heard, B 249

Steamboats development of, B 271 _See also_ Screw propeller; Steam turbine

Steel annealing, M 307-309 Bessemer steel manufacture and use of, M 267 brazing, M 313 carbon steel, M 289, 308 case hardening, M 308-310 crucible cast steel, making, M 297 cutting tool steel, M 299 grades, M 296 hardening forged fires for, M 290 lathe tools, M 301 solutions, M 291-292 hook, making, M 266-271* invention of, B 271 lanterns, making, M 405-406* manufacturing, M 267 oxidation, prevention of, M 291 sockets, forging, M 281-283* soft, M 264-288* weldless ring, making, M 265* working heat, M 264 stretching processes, M 315 tempering, M 292-296 color scheme, M 293-295 grade of steel required, M 296 lathe tools, M 301 side tool, M 304 testing for carbon, M 289 for hardness, M 292 tool making, M 322-326 tool steel, M 289 welding, M 296 wrenches, forging, M 273-283* wrought iron versus, M 266 _See also_ Knives; Tool making

Stenciling, N 73-82* brushes for, N 79-80* color schemes, D 114 corner designs for borders, D 111-112 cutting the stencil, D 113, N 76 designs, making, D 108-113* repeating unit, D 110* transferring, D 113 materials and tools, N 81, D 108 outline drawing, D 112 paints for mixing colors, N 81-82 testing, D 114-115 patterns, making from paper, N 76-79* pillows, N 77*, 378 pinning the stencil, D 114 process, D 115-116, N 79 repeating and joining units, D 110* reversing the pattern, N 80 stencil bands, size and purpose, D 109-110* use in home decoration, N 76, 377 washable, N 80 water colors for, N 81

Stereopticon lamp, E 154*

Stewing, H 280

Stickseed class and seed times, G 278

Still Pon no moving, K 337

Stings care of, H 364

Stitches. _See_ Crocheting; Embroidery; Knitting; Lace making; Sewing

Stock sowing and blossoming time, G 161 ten-weeks, characteristics, G 330

Stock breeding. _See_ Breeding

Stockings darning, N 9-11*

Stone wall for lawn, G 73

Stones. _See_ Boulders; Precious stones

Stools. _See_ Foot stools

Storage battery. _See_ Electric batteries

Store room in cellar, H 211

Stories Brother Juniper's cooking, H 25 Fire of coals, H 37 Irish stew, H 14 King Alfred and the cakes, H 16 King's kitchen, H 20 Loaves and fishes, H 32 The luncheon, H 32 Roast pig, H 18 Widow's cruse of oil, H 29

Storing. _See_ Packing

Stove pipe riveting, M 74

Stoves draughts and dampers, H 227-230 laundry, H 315 _See also_ Fire making; Gas range; Ovens

Strawberries care of first-year plants, G 92 experimenting with varieties, G 92-93 food value, H 255 growing, G 88-96 hill culture versus matted row, G 94 planting rules, G 93-94 soil and location, G 88 staking the bed, G 91* wood ashes for fertilizer, G 94

Street cars. _See_ Electric cars

Strength of materials nails, B 46-17 ropes, hemp and wire, B 47-48 timbers, estimating, B 45 woods, C 495-497*

String beans cooking preparations, H 295 food value, H 255 planting, G 297

Striped beetle remedy for, G 285

Stump master (Game), K 387

Submarine cables. _See_ Cables, Submarine

Suckers (Game), K 387

Sugar food value, H 254

Sugar bush. _See_ Maple sugar

Sugar-scoop making a wooden scoop, C 272*

Sugar-tongs silver work, M 180-183*

Sumach Christmas green, A 56

Summer cottage. _See_ Cottages

Summer house building, C 411-424* location, G 363 making a double seat for, C 421-424

Sun cooking processes, H 274 distance from earth, B 230 time required for light to travel from, E 312 _See also_ Tides

Sundial making, B 209-210*, G 64-66* setting up, G 160-162 sun time versus clock time, G 161

Sunflower double, characteristics, G 334 food for squirrels, G 20 late, characteristics, G 334, 365 planting seed, G 106 sowing and blossoming time, G 161

Swages blacksmith tools, M 225*

Swallows migration, K 176

Swans varieties, K 181

Swastika inlaying design on wood, C 322, 323*

Swedish drawn work. _See_ Hardanger embroidery

Sweeping carpets and rugs, H 129

Sweet alyssum characteristics, G 329, 330 planting seeds, G 157, 322

Sweet clover and sweet fern leaves for sachet, A 65

Sweet flag characteristics, G 366

Sweet grass basket making, A 64

Sweet lavender, G 327

Sweet pea characteristics, G 329, 330

Sweet potato food value, H 255

Sweet sultan characteristics, G 330

Sweet William biennial, G 322 characteristics, G 335, 365

Swimming accidents, K 239 artificial supports, K 239 breast stroke, K 235 dangers, avoiding, K 234 diving, K 238* dog stroke, K 234 fancy stroke, K 238 girls as swimmers, K 320 learning how, K 234-237 on the back, K 238 overhand or overarm strokes, K 237 pool, artificial cost, A 285 in back yard, A 282-286 keeping water fresh, A 286 pool, book about, A 518 pool, natural damming of stream, A 278-279 strokes, K 234-235, 237-238 value as exercise, K 234

Swine, A 126-132 book about, A 517 brood sow care of, A 130-131 selecting, A 129 cleanliness, A 129 fattening, A 131 feeding young pigs, A 131 pen, building, A 127 profit in raising, A 129

Sycamore characteristics, C 562

Sycamore maple. _See_ Maple

Symbols. _See_ Signals

Syrup. _See_ Molasses; Maple sugar and syrup

T

Table linen care of, H 163 ironing, H 327 marking, N 157

Table runner block printing, D 102-106 designs, D 99-101 materials, D 98 weaving, D 273-276

Tables checkerboard table, making, C 337* dining table design, D 54* drawing table, making, C 391-394 fastening table tops to prevent warping, D 135* kitchen, H 194 library table design, D 51* heavy, design and construction, D 174-176* light, design and construction, D 170-174* mission style, making, C 360-367* wood finish, D 237 picnic tables, making, B 132-134 polished, care of, H 161 round centre table design and construction, D 180-184* wood finish, D 237 tea table, mission style, making, C 367-372* _See also_ Setting the table

Tabourette, C 301-312*, G 53-55 circular top, making, C 302-304* estimating lumber for, C 506 hexagonal top, C 305-308* mission style, making, C 308-310* Moorish design, C 310-312* octagonal top, making, C 304* working drawings, C 303, 307*

Tag (Game), K 345 last tag, K 370 warning, K 391 wood tag, K 394

Tamarack. _See_ Larch

Tanager migration, K 176

Tanning skins, A 507, 510-512

Tantalum lamp metal filament, E 145

Tapes sewing on, N 23*

Tapestry weaving, N 303-304

Tapioca food value, H 254

Tarnish on brass preventing, M 140

Tarpon catching, K 126

Tea camp cooking, K 87

Tea caddy brass work, M 136-140*

Tea kettle iron work stand for, making, M 406-409*

Tea pot stand copper, D 351-353*

Tea pots care of, H 207

Tea spoons. _See_ Spoons

Tea stains, H 359

Teeter-tauter principle of, B 26

Telegraph invention and development, E 59-61 key, E 63* Morse code reading, E 63 poles, use of glass knobs, E 64 relay, E 67-68* signals, how produced, E 61-63* sounders, operation of, E 63 wires, insulation, E 64 _See also_ Cables; Submarine; Wireless telegraph

Telephone, E 274-295 automatic registering device, E 276 bells magnets for ringing, E 287-290 operation of, E 289 burning out of the coil, E 291 central battery system, E 276 current in telephone circuit, E 287 double metallic circuit, first used, E 275 electric spark coil, E 279-281 history of, E 274-276 lightning arrester, E 292* music transmitted by, E 295 pole, equipment, E 290 receiver as switch and circuit, E 290 construction and action, E 276-278* operating by induced current, E 351-352 principle of, E 93-95* vibrator, E 278-282 resistance in the circuit, E 285-287 simple telephone system, E 283-285* sounds, how produced, E 22, 277-282 transmitter, construction, E 282-284 vibrations of disks, E 295 volume of business in 1907, E 274 wires installation, E 290 use of ground wire, E 292

Telescope water telescope, K 159

Telharmonium, E 293-295

Temperature. _See_ Thermometers

Tempering hand hammers, M 317, 321 knives, M 356 lathe tools, M 301, 304 steel, M 292-296

Teneriffe lace, N 238*

Tennis, K 284-296* court tennis, K 341 girl's sports, K 322 hand tennis, K 356 "love", K 294 playing the game, K 293-296 racket how to hold, K 295* selecting, K 285 scoring, K 294 stroke, K 295 tether tennis, K 388

Tennis court accessories, making, C 406-422* back stop, making, C 403-405* dimensions and directions, C 399, K 286-287* drainage, K 288 grass versus clay, K 285, 287 laying out, C 399-402* making and caring for, A 428-431 marker, home made, A 430 marking, K 290-293* net, putting up, C 403 post for net, placing and preserving, C 402 surfacing and leveling, K 289

Tents "A" tent, K 60* brush lean-to, K 69* Indian tepee, K 63* lean-to, K 59, 69* trapper's tent, K 62* wall tent, K 58*

Tetanus cause of, B 248

Tether ball, K 388

Tether tennis, K 388

Thermometers centigrade scale, B 262 changing one scale into another, B 262-263 Fahrenheit scale, B 262 history and purpose, B 261 scales in use, B 261-263 theory of, B 261

Thermostat, Electric, E 124

Thimble how to use, N 4*

Thimbleberry description of, A 10 jam, receipt, A 11 picking, A 11

Thistle Canada, class and seed time, G 278 Russian, class and seed time, G 278

Thorn apple, A 23

Thrasher, brown insect destroyer, A 456 migration, K 175

Thrush migration, K 176

Thunder weather symbol for thunder storm, B 362 why thunder is heard last, B 249

Tides, B 212-236 aerial, B 228 cause of, B 217-220 ebb and flow, B 218 elevations, changes in, B 226-227 height, B 229 lakes, B 228 lunar, B 217-227 moon's distance from the meridian, effect of, B 225-227 neap tides, B 223 open seas, B 227 rivers and channels, B 227 Sir Isaac Newton's theory, B 217-218 solar, B 222-223, 225 spring tides, B 223-225 theory of, B 220-226* time, changes in, B 218-220

Tidiness meaning of, H 51

Ties Irish crochet, N 338-344*

Tile drains. _See_ Drainage

Tiles cleaning, H 136 decoration of, D 317 fireplace tiles, D 318-320 for kitchen floors, H 191 making, D 315-320* tea tiles, D 318* uses, D 315 _See also_ Drainage

Timber. _See_ Building; Lumber; Strength of materials; Trees; Wood

Time day and night, cause of, B 213 division of, B 214

Tin kitchen utensils, H 202 _See also_ Soldering

Tinker's dam, B 253

Tip cat drawing and making, C 35-37

Titmouse insect destroyer, A 456

Toad book about, A 517 enemy to cut worm, K 168 garden pest destroyer, G 280, A 265 taming, A 266

Toasters, Electric, E 115

Tobacco jar copper work, M 82-85*

Tobogganing, K 223

Toilet boxes. _See_ Box making

Toilet closets. _See_ Closets, toilet

Toilet fixtures care of, H 148, 155, 156

Tomato dwarf champion, G 314 food value, H 255 indoor planting time, G 233 insect pests, G 286, 292 peeling tomatoes, H 294 planting seed depth and distance to plant, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 removing ink stains with, H 359 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 233 germination period, G 32 staking the vines, G 119 starting and transplanting, G 118-119 vines, overgrowth of, G 313

Tommy Tiddler's Land (Game), K 345

Tongs blacksmith's tools, M 226*, 228 fire tools, making, M 374-377* iron tongs, making, M 285-288*

Tongue and groove joints, C 257*

Tongue grafting. _See_ Grafting

Tool boxes and chests, C 226-227*, 339-341* old-fashioned chest, C 341-344* suit case design, C 345-346*

Tool making, M 296-306* boring tool, M 304* cape chisel, M 299* centre punch, M 297* cold chisel, M 298*, 325 crowbars, M 352* cutting off tool, M 305* diamond point, M 301* dividers, M 340-341* drills, M 347-349* eccentric strap, M 334* fire screen, M 11* fire tools, M 370-379* hammers, M 7*, 316-324* hardening, M 289-292 hardie, M 322* hoe, M 328-330* hot chisel, M 324* lathe tools, M 300-306 nail puller or claw tool, M 353* pitch fork, M 239* rock drills, M 334-349* round nose, M 300 set hammer, M 323* shovel, M 372-374* side point, M 303 steel for, M 289 stone chisel, M 341-344* stone pick, M 344* tempering steel for, M 292-296 tongs, iron, M 286-288 wood chisel, M 337-338 wrenches, steel, M 273-281 _See also_ Forging; Steel; Welding

Tooled leather. _See_ Leather work

Tools anvil stake, M 10* beck iron, M 208 burners, M 11-12* calipers, M 255 chisels, M 9, 157*, 225* dividers, M 5* using, M 24* draw plate, M 100*, 102, 209 drills, M 9* enameling tools, M 197 face plate, M 209 files, M 9* fullers, M 224* gouges, M 225 graver, M 209 hack saw, C 175 hammer, M 7* hand hammer, M 224* peen, M 254* set hammer, M 225* hardie, M 226*, 274* jewelers' snips, M 5* leather work tools, D 323-324*, N 91*, 96* mallet, wooden, M 8* mandrel, M 209 matt tool, M 210 pin, M 210 pitch block, M 210 planishing hammer, using, M 22* pliers, M 6* pottery modeling tools, D 285-287 principle of the inclined plane applied to, B 59 punch, M 7*, 297* ring mandrel, M 154* riveting tool, M 10* sand bag, M 210 saw frame, M 9* scraper, M 210 screw principle, B 156 shaping tools, M 10* shears, M 5* shovel, M 226*, 229 sledge, M 225 snarling iron, M 210 soldering outfit, M 11-12* square, steel, M 5*, C 205* stake and riveting tool, M 11 swages, M 225* tracer, M 211 tongs, M 226*, 228 vise, M 6*, 21*, 22* wedge, principle of, B 59-61* wooden block, M 6*, 19* using, M 28* _See also_ Carpentry and Woodwork--Tools and appliances; Chisels; Drilling and boring tools; Gardening--Tools; Hammers; Tool boxes; Tool making; Wedge; Wrenches

Topping plants, G 199, 250-251

Tops plug in the ring, K 376

Towel rack making a wooden rack, C 274*

Towel roller making a wooden roller, C 267-269*

Towels marking, N 157

Toy making, C 40-49 aeroplanes, C 68-83* boat in a storm, C 52-56* designing moving toys, C 58-60* dog house, C 42* electric engine, E 58* electric spinner, E 57* electric train operated by wireless outfit, E 325-327* fencers, C 46-48* happy Jack windmill, C 159* Indian paddlers, C 44-46* moving toys, C 58-95 cautions, C 61 method of procedure, C 58-60* racing automobile, C 62-66* sawyers, C 50-52* turkey and executioner, C 56-57* wooden boxes, C 40* _See also_ Kites

Toys giving away, H 10 inventions and discoveries, H 11

Tracer metal worker's tool, M 211

Track athletics all round championship, K 328 best college record, K 336 intercollegiate contest events, K 360 Olympic games, events, K 372 one hundred yard dash, best record, K 329 scoring in all round championship, K 328

Trained animals. _See_ Animals

Transferring embroidery patterns, N 128-129 stencil designs, D 113

Transplanting. _See_ Vegetable gardening; also names of plants, e. g., Beets; Lettuce, etc.

Trapping, A 478-510 baiting traps, A 509 carrot bait, A 508* for muskrats, A 505 books about, A 519 box traps, A 479*, C 454* deadfall trap, A 486, 509, C 454* gophers, A 455* land animals, A 493 mink, A 483-484 moles, A 489-491 muskrats, A 491-493, 505 profit and recreation in, A 501 rabbits, A 497-501 rats, A 495-497 river trapping, A 504 rules of the game, A 479-483 skunks, A 484-488 snares, C 455* with carrot bait, A 508* steel jaw traps, setting, A 504 steel traps, cruelty of, A 502 stop-thief traps, A 505-506* traps, humane and inhuman, A 502 swamp trapping, A 503 water animals, A 502 weasel, A 494-495 woodchucks, A 488

Traps (Plumbing) construction and purpose, H 217, 218 defective, reason and remedy, H 218 location, H 217, 219

Trash disposal of, H 220

Trays gouge work, C 258-265* _See also_ Copper work

Tread-mill training dogs to run, A 255-256 mechanism, B 337*

Trees age, how to tell, C 525 broad leaved, C 532-533, 543-555 compound leaves, C 543* doubly compound, C 543* maple, C 544-548 oak, C 548-555 simple leaves, C 543* cambium layer, A 441 classification and characteristics, C 532-566 coniferous trees, names and characteristics, C 535-542 cutting down, art of, K 98-99* danger of roots to cement walks, B 15 growth process, C 525 heart wood versus sap wood, C 526 identifying, A 48, 71 planting directions, G 80-82 playhouse in a tree, H 3 products of, C 511 qualities of different varieties, K 101 rings, meaning, C 525 selecting and planting, G 78-82 seeds for propagation gathering, A 46-50 ripening and drying, A 48 treatment, where to get information, A 49 table describing, G 367 _See also_ Forestry; Fruit trees; Grafting; Landscape gardening; Lumber and lumbering; Nuts; Pruning; Wood; also names of trees, e. g., Maple; Oak; Pine, etc.

Trellises, D 209-211*

Trench. _See_ Cement walk; Drainage; Gardening

Trestle. _See_ Saw horse

Triangles (Tools) making, C 386-388*

Trick joints, C 257*

Trilliums habits and characteristics, G 344

Trimmings. _See_ Crocheting

Triplane, B 180

Trolling, K 139*

Trophy stick, notched, C 11*

Trout bait, K 134, 135 culture from eggs, A 273 feeding, A 272 reclaiming the trout stream, A 271-272

Trout lily, G 342

Truck garden. _See_ Vegetable gardening

Trumpet vine decorative value, G 359

T-square, C 24* making, C 384-386* to prevent warping, C 394

Tub racing, K 390

Tubs. _See_ Bathtubs; Laundry

Tucking, N 36*

Tulip cone developer, G 175 planting bulbs indoors, G 166 red, planting and blooming time, G 179 tree, characteristics, C 561 varieties, G 168 white, planting and blooming time, G 177 yellow, planting and blooming time, G 178

Tungsten lamp cost of, E 141*, 144 metal filaments, E 145

Turbines Fourneyron, B 342* Jonval, B 341* steam, B 128 water, B 145

Turkey book about, A 519 breeds, A 185 enemies, lice and wet, A 184 feeding young turkeys, A 183, 184 food value, H 253 habits of turkey hen, A 183 hatching, time required, A 183 laying and sitting habits, A 183 raising, A 182-185 selection of, for cooking, H 271

Turn spit dog, B 337

Turnip food value, H 255 planting seed depth and distance to plant, G 42 quantity to plant, G 36 time to plant, G 234 seed age for planting, G 34 germination per cent., G 33, 233 germination period, G 32 soil, G 314

Turnip-root cabbage planting, G 300

Turpentine moth exterminator, H 347 paint stain remover, H 359

Turtle head characteristics, G 365 where found, G 349

Turtles taming, A 266

Typewriter alignment, B 420 "blind" writer, B 406 carbon copying device, B 418 card indexing device, B 415 carriage, B 403, 404 interchangeable, B 415*, 416 mechanism of, B 421 disconnecting parts, B 413 double shift, B 406 duplicators, B 416-418 essential features, B 419-422 invention of, B 402 keyboard, B 403, 406, 412, 419 universal, B 412 kinds, B 402 line-spacing mechanism, B 405, 421 noiseless operation, B 422 Oliver, mechanical principle, B 412-413* paper feed, B 404 platen essentials, B 421 interchangeable, B 415 Remington description of parts and their uses, B 403-407* improvements, B 407-409 ribbon movement, B 422 ribbons, two and three colors, B 409, 411, 414 scales, B 406 semi-visible writers, B 407 single shift, B 406 Smith-Premier, B 409-411*, 414 spacing bar, B 405 tabulator, B 413-414 type cleaning, B 421 cleaning device, B 410 mechanism, B 403, 404, 409, 412, 420 visible writers, B 407 work done by, B 402

U

U-tube, theory of, H 215-216

Umbrella handles woods and roots for, A 59-61

Umbrella stand design and construction, D 161-165* iron work, M 409 mission design, C 375* wood finish, D 236

Unleavened bread nutriment, H 300

Upsetting. _See_ Forging

Upstairs work, H 146-159

Utensils. _See_ Kitchen utensils

V

Vacuum cleaner electric, E 243* home made, B 378-386* plunger pump, making, B 379-381* power driven, home made, B 381-386* principle of, E 53 using, B 386 water motor, B 381*

Valerian characteristics, G 333

Vane. _See_ Weather vane

Varnish and varnishing drying, time required, D 221-222 dull finish, D 224 flat finish, D 224 grades of varnish, C 486 method of using, B 112, C 486 number of coats needed, D 222 quality of varnish, recognizing, D 220 rubbing down process, D 223 "sag" and how corrected, D 220-221

Vase brass work, M 140-145* concrete garden vase, making, D 203-209* pottery, making, D 307-310* typical flower holders, D 87-89*

Veal as chicken, H 358 cuts and their uses, H 269 food value: table, H 253

Vegetable gardening, G 296-315 combinations for late planting, G 116 indoor and outdoor planting time, G 233-235 intermingling from close planting, G 105 money making garden, G 368-374 planting tables age for planting, G 34 depth and distance, G 42 germination per cent., G 233 germination time, G 32 quantity to plant, G 36 seeds, selling, G 371-372 selling young plants, G 370-371 transplanting, G 268-270 from the coldframe, G 101-102 strawberry boxes for, G 118 _See also_ Coldframe; Drainage; Fertilizers and manures; Gardening; Herbs; Hotbed; Insect pests; Plant food; Plants; Soils; also names of vegetables, e.g., Beans; Cabbage; Carrot, etc.

Vegetables boiling, H 279 burning, treatment, H 356 camp cooking, K 89, 90 cleaning, H 293 cooking, H 356 preparation for, H 293-295 with left overs, H 355 dandelion greens, A 63 exhibits, preparation for, G 202 food value, H 250, 255 husking, H 294 peeling, H 294 pokeweed roots, cooking, A 58 preparation for selling, G 369 scraping, H 294 seasoning, H 279 selection of, for cooking, H 271 shelling, H 294 soaking, H 295 stewing, H 280 _See also_ names of vegetables; e. g., Cauliflower; Parsnip; Pumpkin; etc.

Verbena characteristics, G 332 planting, G 84

Village improvement books about, A 518 what boys and girls can do, A 469-472

Vinegar cider vinegar book about, A 518 making, A 412-417 "mother," meaning, A 415

Vinegar cruet washing, H 183

Vines annuals, G 359 climbers, G 359 for covering fences and buildings, G 138 scarlet runner bean, G 297 training, G 139 use in landscape gardening, G 359

Violet California, characteristics, G 333 habits and characteristics, G 346, 364 insect pests, G 293 Russian, characteristics, G 333 tufted, characteristics, G 334 where to plant, G 346 wild varieties, G 346

Vireos insect destroyers, A 456 migration, K 176

Virginia creeper decorative value, G 359

Vise bench vise, M 6*, 21*, 22* quick action, C 138

Voisin's biplane, B 173-175*

Volley ball, K 390

Volta, Alessandro, E 90 perfected method for producing electricity by chemical action, E 248

Voltmeter for direct and alternating currents, E 93 measuring electric pressure, E 39-42 multipliers, E 92 principle and operation, E 84-93*

W

Waists. _See_ Dressmaking

Waiting on table. _See_ Meals--Serving

Waitress dress, H 173 duties, H 169-172

Wake robin, G 344

Walking healthfulness of, K 14-17

Walking stick carved by the engraver beetle, A 60 orange wood, A 59 roots for handles, A 60 shaping, A 61

Walks. _See_ Cement walk; Garden paths

Wall brackets. _See_ Brackets

Wall cabinet. _See_ Medicine cabinet

Wall flower characteristics, G 332

Wall paper. _See_ Walls

Wall rack. _See_ Book rack

Wallachian embroidery drawing scallops, N 135 meaning of, N 134 stitch, N 134*

Walls care of, H 122 cleaning appliances, H 142 cleaning wall paper, H 123 decoration of, D 36, 39-41, N 76 dry cleaning, H 332 how to drive nails into plaster walls, C 246 kitchen, H 189 paneled walls, cleaning, H 122 _See also_ Embankments; Paper hanging

Walnut black characteristics of tree, C 563 imitation stain, C 489, D 230 device for husking, A 36 drying and storing nuts, A 35 food value of nuts, H 256 receipt for pickled walnuts, A 36-37 white, characteristics of tree, C 564

Wandering Jew window box plants, G 193

Warbler insect destroyer, A 456

Wardrobe. _See_ Closets, Clothes

Warning (Game), K 391

Warp. _See_ Weaving

Wash board and wash boiler care of, H 313

Washing. _See_ Laundry work

Washing dishes. _See_ Dish washing

Washington (Game), K 392

Washington thorn, A 23

Washstands cleaning, H 148 used as playhouse, H 8

Wasps development from the egg, A 393-395 feeding grub, A 391 habits, A 390-391

Waste classification, H 220 disposal of in country, H 222 in cities, H 220-222

Waste pipes care of, H 156 construction principle, H 216-217 disinfection in cleaning, H 218 misuse of, H 220

Waste water disposal of, H 216 in country, H 222

Watch fob copper and enamel, D 353-355* silver or copper work, M 187-190*

Watches balance and spring, B 374 Geneva stop, B 319* magnetized, B 373-375 mechanism, B 80, 374 non-magnetic, B 375 regulators, B 330-331*, 374 testing for magnetism, B 375

Watchman's time detector, E 78*

Water boiling point, H 277 cold water as a preserver, H 357 substitute for milk, H 357

Water and bog plants table, G 366

Water bugs, H 362

Water bulbs. _See_ Bulbs

Water closets. _See_ Closets, Toilet

Water fowl, K 181

Water garden, G 362

Water glass egg preservative, A 177

Water life, K 158-167 collector's net, K 158* telescope for observing, K 159

Water lilies table, G 366

Water meter vibrating trough, B 343*

Water mint characteristics, G 366

Water motor. _See_ Water wheels

Water pipes. _See_ Plumbing; Waste pipes

Water polo, K 392

Water power estimating, E 220 from a continuous fall of water, B 341* reclaiming a spring, A 281-282 _See also_ Water supply; Water wheels

Water race, K 393

Water seal construction and purpose, H 217

Water supply importance of source, H 213 principle of the tower, H 215 spring water, A 276 summer camp devices, E 160-162 theory of U-tube in waterworks, H 214-215

Water tank. _See also_ Pumps; Water wheels; Wells electric warning for empty tank, E 302*

Water tax economizing bills, H 236

Water wheels ancient, B 344* Archimedian screw principle, B 344* barker or reaction, B 343* breast wheel, B 341* governors, B 314-315* overshot, B 341*, 342 undershot, B 341* vacuum cleaner motor, B 381 volate, B 342* _See also_ Turbines

Water works. _See_ Water supply

Watermelon food value, H 255 germination per cent., G 233 planting, G 308

Watt, James inventor, E 40

Watt unit of power, B 125 _See also_ Kilowatt

Wattmeter, E 35-42 illustration of motor principle, E 36 measuring watt hours, E 40-41 registering amount of electricity used, E 37-38

Wax bayberry dips, A 20-21 grafting, G 256 making beeswax, A 323 wood finish, C 490, D 225-226 _See also_ Floors

Wax beans, G 297

Wax myrtle, A 18-19

Waxwings insect destroyers, A 457

Weasel colors of fur, A 495 habits, A 494

Weather records, how made, B 362-363 symbols, B 361-362 _See also_ Barometer; Rain; Thermometer; Weather vane; Wind

Weather boarding. _See_ House framing

Weather vane making, C 154-168* Zeppelin airship weather vane, making, C 165*

Weathered oak finish, D 233

Weathering meaning, B 41

Weaving, D 244-279, N 296-305 bordered table scarf, D 273-276 color effects, N 304-305 curtains and draperies, D 262-265 dowel, N 297 dyeing, materials for, D 276-279 French as weavers, N 303 hand loom bridge, N 299 description of treadle loom, D 247-249* home-made, without treadle, N 296-297 primitive loom, D 245 setting, D 249-251, N 297-300 shuttle and bobbin, D 246* shuttle for woof cloth, D 254 simple cardboard loom, N 8 materials to use, N 301 pattern weaving, D 265-273 drawing in the pattern, D 267-270* hit-and-miss pattern, N 302 operation of the harnesses, D 270-272 pick, D 271* variations in patterns, D 272, 275 portieres and couch covers, D 260-262 process, D 249-252, N 300-301 beating up the woof, D 252, N 300 drawing in the warp, D 251, N 300 pairing threads, N 298 preparing the warp, D 249, N 297 warping the loom, D 250, N 298 rattan mats, N 247*, 249 rugs, D 252-260, N 297-303 harmonizing effects, N 304 tapestry designs, N 303 warp and woof, D 246, N 8-9* warping hook, D 251* _See also_ Braiding

Wedge cutting tool, C 169 principle of, B 59-61* rule for power, B 64

Weeds, G 271-280 annuals, destroying, G 275 biennials, destroying, G 276 book about, A 519 definition of, A 469 destroying and preventing, A 469-472, G 275-279 distribution of seeds, G 273 foreign, G 279 good points, G 272 medicinal, A 57-58, G 272 book about, A 516 perennials, destroying, G 276-277 propagation seeds, G 274 trailing branches, G 275 table of, G 278 test of acid soil, G 29

Weevils chestnut weevil, A 33

Weigela characteristics, G 356

Weight principle of lifting, B 23-28*

Weights and measures English versus metric system: tables, C 500, 502 tables, H 311 units of measurement, C 499, 502 _See also_ Electric measurements

Welding, M 247-263* built-up work, M 247 butt welds, M 257* definition of, M 247, 315 chains, M 250-253* cleft weld, M 258* corner plate, M 261* electric, E 158-159 flat welds, M 254-257* flat welds and T-welds, M 261-263* horse shoes, M 221 iron oxidation, preventing, M 247 iron ring, M 248-250*, 254* iron tongs, M 287-288* jump weld, M 259-261* kinds, M 254 lap weld, M 258* scarfing, M 254-256*, 258* a wrench, M 275* socket wrenches, M 277-281* T weld, M 262-263* temperature of fire, M 234-235 tool steel to wrought iron, M 352 turn buckles, M 330* upsetting, M 260*

Wells location and care, H 214 _See also_ Pumps

Western Union Telegraph Company equipment and amount of business, E 60

Whale oil soap spray for insects, G 289, 290

Wheat depth to plant seeds, G 235

Wheel and axle principle of, B 27, 78-82* rule for power, B 64

Wheel-barrow leverage principle, B 27 making, B 375-378*

Wheels mechanical movements, B 318-325* _See also_ Screw propeller; Turbines; Water wheels

Whip grafting. _See_ Grafting

Whisk broom raffia, N 275*

White pine. _See_ Pine

White rabbit. _See_ Rabbit

Whitewash preparing surface walls, H 340 preparing the lime, H 339-340 value for cellar walls, H 210

Whittling, C 6-22 beveling, C 122 calendar back, C 18* curves, cutting, C 15* cutting out process, C 12* drawing the design, C 12* first lessons in, C 9-12* fish line winder, C 15* key rack, C 12-14* key tags, C 14* knife kind to use, C 6* method of holding, C 8* paper knife, C 121-123* picture frames, C 19-22* propeller blades, C 70-72* sand papering edges, C 15 testing with the try square, C 9* tip cat, C 35-37* weather vane making, C 154-156* windmills, C 159-168* woods for, C 7 worsted winder, C 16* _See also_ Wood carving

Wicket polo, K 393

Wicks trimming, H 137

Widow's cruse of oil: story, H 29

Wild animals. _See_ Animals

Wild carrot class and seed time, G 278 seed distribution, G 273

Wild crabapple, A 21, 22

Wild flower gardening April, June and July blooms, G 338-339 decorative value of wild flowers, A 56 landscape gardening, G 362 late blooms, G 339 March blooms, G 338 May blooms, G 338 planning and care, G 336 soil, G 337, 338 succession of bloom, G 338-339 transplanting, G 337

Wild flowers. _See_ Flowers

Wild fowl. _See_ Game and game birds; Water fowl

Wild geranium characteristics, G 342

Wild grapes. _See_ Grapes

Wild nuts list of, A 29

Wild plums "goin' plummin'", A 26-29

Wild raspberries, A 10

Wild rice, A 78-79

Winch setting up, B 77-78* uses, B 78-81

Wind. _See_ Winds

Wind break trees for, G 79, 82

Wind flower, G 343

Wind root, G 348, 365

Windlass principle of, B 78-82*

Windmill Common windmill, B 346* happy Jack weather vane, C 159-162* horizontal weather vane, C 162-165* six-bladed weather vane, C 167-168 Zeppelin weather vane, C 165*

Window-box advantages over pots, G 190 construction and painting, G 191-192 crowding plants in, G 194 draining, G 163 how to fasten to window, G 195 selection of plants for sunny and shady windows, G 192-196

Window seat for girl's room, N 374

Windows batten blinds, C 475 cleaning, H 134 details of window frames, D 30* hanging, C 474 inside trim, C 473* location of cellar windows, H 208 setting frames, C 469

Winds measuring device, B 199-200* table of velocity, B 198 _See also_ Weather vane; Windmill

Winter sports, K 208-224* clothing and footwear, K 208-210*

Winterberries description of, A 57

Wire reducing size of, M 101 _See also_ Electric wires

Wire ropes. _See_ Rope

Wireless Club, E 331-332

Wireless Telegraph accidents prevented by, E 347, 355-357 aerials, E 331 amateur stations, E 347 antennæ, E 320* C. Q. D. message, meaning, E 356 coherer circuit, E 323* construction, E 316-321* discovery, E 346 electric bell as transmitter, E 321 operated by wireless, E 324* ether waves, E 316 fireworks, operated by, E 327-328* first company organized, E 346 first practical use, E 346 first public stations, E 347 ground wire, E 321 Hertzian waves, E 346 incandescent lamps operated by, E 327* law requiring use on steamers, E 347 Morse alphabet, E 330 operation of a simple type, E 320-321* relay, E 322-323 sending messages to ocean steamers, E 347 signal code, E 330 spark coil, construction, E 321-322* tapper, E 329-330* toy train operated by, E 325-327* trans-Atlantic messages first sent, E 346

Wistaria decorative value, G 359

Witch hazel characteristics, G 356

Wolf and sheep (Game), K 394

Women Heritage of, H 63-68 home making power, H 44

Wood best woods for special purposes, K 101 decay, cause of, C 492 durability, C 492-494 hard wood, C 532, K 101 beech, C 556 black jack or barren oak, C 554 black or sweet birch, C 557 black or yellow oak, C 554 bur oak (mossy cup), C 551 chestnut oak, C 552 cypress, C 540 elm, white or American, C 559 Georgia pine, C 535 holly, C 564 honey locust, C 565 hop hornbeam, ironwood, C 558 hornbeam, or blue birch, C 559 larch, C 539 laurel oak, C 555 locust, black and yellow, C 565 paper birch, C 558 pin oak, C 553 post or iron oak, C 552 red birch, C 557 red elm, slippery elm, C 559 red oak, C 553 red or swamp maple, C 547 red pine, C 536 rock, cork elm, C 560 silver, or white maple, C 546 sugar maple, C 545 swamp white oak, C 552 tamarack, C 539 white oak, C 550 willow oak, C 555 yellow birch, C 557 yellow pine, C 536 preservation, C 493-495 soft wood, C 532, K 101 Arbor vitæ, C 542 balsam, C 540 basswood, linden, C 560 black spruce, C 538 box elder, C 548 buckeye, C 565 fir, C 540 gray, or aspen-leaved birch, C 558 hemlock, C 539 moosewood, C 548 mountain maple, C 548 pitch pine, C 536 red cedar, C 541 red spruce, C 538 white cedar, C 542 white pine, C 535 white spruce, C 538 strength of, C 495-497* _See also_ Forestry; Kindling wood; Trees

Wood anemone habits and characteristics, G 343

Wood carving black and white design, C 127 blotter pads, designs, C 125-126 chip carving, C 98-108* curved cutting, C 104-108 designs elliptical, C 112-115 for borders, C 98-103* for centres, C 103-108* for corners, C 103* flat work, C 97-119* glove box design, C 128 holding the knife, C 100* key rack designs, C 123, 126 knives for carving, C 99* letter racks, designs, C 109-117 origin, C 98 paper knife, C 121-123* pencil box, C 106-108* penholder, C 117-119* picture frames, C 129-132* polishing, C 131 triangular cutting, C 98-99 veining, C 117* woods for, C 121

Wood finishing aging wood, C 489 antique finish, C 489 cleaning, the first step, D 213 colors, obtaining, C 488 dead flat surface, C 485 dull finish, D 224 enameling white, D 235 fillers, C 484 cost of surfacing, D 217 liquid, formula, D 216 importance of, D 213-215 paste, formula, D 218 applying, D 219 when to use liquids or paste, D 215 flat finish, D 224 polishing, C 489-491 process, C 484-487 re-finishing old furniture, D 238-243 mahogany table, D 241-243 rubbing down process, D 223 scraping, D 239 shellac, using, C 486, D 216-217 varnish, removing, D 240 wax finish, D 225-226, C 490 white enamel, D 235 white wood, D 230 woods that do and do not require fillers, C 484 _See also_ Stains and staining; Varnish and varnishing

Wood fire. _See_ Fires

Wood lot clearing for kindling wood, A 407

Wood screws strength of, B 156

Wood staining. _See_ Stains and staining

Wood tag, K 394

Woodchucks taming, A 269 trapping, A 488

Woodcraft, K 93-109* axemanship, K 96-97 getting lost, K 102-109 land marks, K 103 lost signals, K 108 _See also_ Trees

Woodpecker insect destroyer, A 457, K 168

Woodwork. _See_ Carpentry and Woodwork

Woof. _See_ Weaving

Wool combing machine roller motion, B 320*

Woolen clothes laundering, H 324 storing, H 347

Work. _See_ Housekeeping; Occupations

Work bag and sewing apron combined, N 31-33

Work bench. _See_ Carpentry

Work shop garden tool making, G 41-71* _See also_ Carpentry

Worms fish bait, K 130

Wren insect destroyer, A 456 migration, K 176

Wrench alligator wrench, making, M 276* flat wrought iron wrench, making, M 274-277* forging, M 273-274* hardie for, M 274* socket wrench, M 279-281* welding, M 277-279

Wringer for laundry work, H 314

Writing desk. _See_ Desk

Wrought iron making, M 230-232 steel versus, M 266

X

X-ray ether waves, E 316 physiological effect, E 336

Y

Yachts flag signals, B 107-109 _See also_ Launch

Yeast principle in bread making, H 296-298

Young, Sir Thomas ether wave theory of light, E 345

Z

Zeppelin's dirigible balloon, B 162

Zinnia characteristics, G 328 planting, G 159 selecting seeds, G 323

* * * * *

Transcriber's Notes:

Corrected obvious typos and inconsistencies, otherwise spelling has been left as printed. A small amount of inconsistent hyphenation left as printed.

p.64. dilletantism -> dilettantism.

p.111. bisulphid -> bisulphide.

The following corrections have been made after referrence to the relevant book.

p.101. 'wall rack, designing and making, C 347-350*, D 156-151*' corrected to 'wall rack, designing and making, C 347-350*, D 156-161*'.

p.137. Crum tray -> Crumb Tray.

p.142. 'experiments with spark coil, E 196, 198-201, 180-183*' changed to 'experiments with spark coil, E 176, 178-180, 180-183*'.

p.169. 'cooper or brass, metal work, M 116*' changed to 'copper or brass, metal work, M 116*'.

p.199. crum scraper -> crumb scraper.

p.229. Reamur is correctly spelt Reaumur but has been left as it was spelt in 'Mechanics'.

This book is a summary and index to the following books which can all be found in the Project Gutenberg collection. In the html version of this text, links are made to the other volumes, though for volumes G and K it has only been possible to a link to the correct chapter.

A--OUTDOOR WORK Project Gutenberg e-book 45154

B--MECHANICS, INDOORS AND OUT Project Gutenberg e-book 45083

C--CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK Project Gutenberg e-book 43574

D--HOME DECORATION Project Gutenberg e-book 44750

E--ELECTRICITY Project Gutenberg e-book 45331

G--GARDENING Project Gutenberg e-book 13537

H--HOUSEKEEPING Project Gutenberg e-book 44732

K--OUTDOOR SPORTS Project Gutenberg e-book 16316

M--WORKING IN METALS Project Gutenberg e-book 45004

N--NEEDLECRAFT Project Gutenberg e-book 44766