How to Write Clearly: Rules and Exercises on English Composition by Abbott, Edwin Abbott

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HOW TO WRITE CLEARLY.

_RULES AND EXERCISES_

ON

ENGLISH COMPOSITION.

BY THE

REV. EDWIN A. ABBOTT, M.A.,

HEAD MASTER OF THE CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL.

[Illustration: QUI LEGIT REGIT]

THE AUTHOR'S COPYRIGHT EDITION.

BOSTON: ROBERTS BROTHERS. 1883.

UNIVERSITY PRESS: JOHN WILSON & SON. CAMBRIDGE.

PREFACE.

Almost every English boy can be taught to write clearly, so far at least as clearness depends upon the arrangement of words. Force, elegance, and variety of style are more difficult to teach, and far more difficult to learn; but clear writing can be reduced to rules. To teach the art of writing clearly is the main object of these Rules and Exercises.

Ambiguity may arise, not only from bad arrangement, but also from other causes--from the misuse of single words, and from confused thought. These causes are not removable by definite rules, and therefore, though not neglected, are not prominently considered in this book. My object rather is to point out some few continually recurring causes of ambiguity, and to suggest definite remedies in each case. Speeches in Parliament, newspaper narratives and articles, and, above all, resolutions at public meetings, furnish abundant instances of obscurity arising from the monotonous neglect of some dozen simple rules.

The art of writing forcibly is, of course, a valuable acquisition--almost as valuable as the art of writing clearly. But forcible expression is not, like clear expression, a mere question of mechanism and of the manipulation of words; it is a much higher power, and implies much more.

Writing clearly does not imply thinking clearly. A man may think and reason as obscurely as Dogberry himself, but he may (though it is not probable that he will) be able to write clearly for all that. Writing clearly--so far as arrangement of words is concerned--is a mere matter of adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and auxiliary verbs, placed and repeated according to definite rules.[1] Even obscure or illogical thought can be clearly expressed; indeed, the transparent medium of clear writing is not least beneficial when it reveals the illogical nature of the meaning beneath it.

On the other hand, if a man is to write forcibly, he must (to use a well-known illustration) describe Jerusalem as "sown with salt," not as "captured," and the Jews not as being "subdued" but as "almost exterminated" by Titus. But what does this imply? It implies knowledge, and very often a great deal of knowledge, and it implies also a vivid imagination. The writer must have eyes to see the vivid side of everything, as well as words to describe what he sees. Hence forcible writing, and of course tasteful writing also, is far less a matter of rules than is clear writing; and hence, though forcible writing is exemplified in the exercises, clear writing occupies most of the space devoted to the rules.

Boys who are studying Latin and Greek stand in especial need of help to enable them to write a long English sentence clearly. The periods of Thucydides and Cicero are not easily rendered into our idiom without some knowledge of the links that connect an English sentence.

There is scarcely any better training, rhetorical as well as logical, than the task of construing Thucydides into genuine English; but the flat, vague, long-winded Greek-English and Latin-English imposture that is often tolerated in our examinations and is allowed to pass current for genuine English, diminishes instead of increasing the power that our pupils should possess over their native language. By getting marks at school and college for construing good Greek and Latin into bad English, our pupils systematically unlearn what they may have been allowed to pick up from Milton and from Shakespeare.

I must acknowledge very large obligations to Professor Bain's treatise on "English Composition and Rhetoric," and also to his English Grammar. I have not always been able to agree with Professor Bain as to matters of taste; but I find it difficult to express my admiration for the systematic thoroughness and suggestiveness of his book on Composition. In particular, Professor Bain's rule on the use of "that" and "which" (see Rule 8) deserves to be better known.[2] The ambiguity produced by the confusion between these two forms of the Relative is not a mere fiction of pedants; it is practically serious. Take, for instance, the following sentence, which appeared lately in one of our ablest weekly periodicals: "There are a good many Radical members in the House _who_ cannot forgive the Prime Minister for being a Christian." Twenty years hence, who is to say whether the meaning is "_and they_, i.e. _all the Radical_ members in the House," or "there are a good many Radical members of the House _that_ cannot &c."? Professor Bain, apparently admitting no exceptions to his useful rule, amends many sentences in a manner that seems to me intolerably harsh. Therefore, while laying due stress on the utility of the rule, I have endeavoured to point out and explain the exceptions.

The rules are stated as briefly as possible, and are intended not so much for use by themselves as for reference while the pupil is working at the exercises. Consequently, there is no attempt to prove the rules by accumulations of examples. The few examples that are given, are given not to prove, but to illustrate the rules. The exercises are intended to be written out and revised, as exercises usually are; but they may also be used for _vivâ voce_ instruction. The books being shut, the pupils, with their written exercises before them, may be questioned as to the reasons for the several alterations they have made. Experienced teachers will not require any explanation of the arrangement or rather non-arrangement of the exercises. They have been purposely mixed together unclassified to prevent the pupil from relying upon anything but his own common sense and industry, to show him what is the fault in each case, and how it is to be amended. Besides references to the rules, notes are attached to each sentence, so that the exercises ought not to present any difficulty to a painstaking boy of twelve or thirteen, provided he has first been fairly trained in English grammar.

The "Continuous Extracts" present rather more difficulty, and are intended for boys somewhat older than those for whom the Exercises are intended. The attempt to modernize, and clarify, so to speak, the style of Burnet, Clarendon, and Bishop Butler,[3] may appear ambitious, and perhaps requires some explanation. My object has, of course, not been to _improve upon_ the style of these authors, but to show how their meaning might be expressed more clearly in modern English. The charm of the style is necessarily lost, but if the loss is recognized both by teacher and pupil, there is nothing, in my opinion, to counterbalance the obvious utility of such exercises. Professor Bain speaks to the same effect:[4] "For an English exercise, the matter should in some way or other be supplied, and the pupil disciplined in giving it expression. I know of no better method than to prescribe passages containing good matter, but in some respects imperfectly worded, to be amended according to the laws and the proprieties of style. Our older writers might be extensively, though not exclusively, drawn upon for this purpose."

To some of the friends whose help has been already acknowledged in "English Lessons for English People," I am indebted for further help in revising these pages. I desire to express especial obligations to the Rev. J. H. Lupton, late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and Second Master of St. Paul's School, for copious and valuable suggestions; also to several of my colleagues at the City of London School, among whom I must mention in particular the Rev. A. R. Vardy, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

* * * * *

Before electrotyping the Fourth and Revised Edition, I wish to say one word as to the manner in which this book has been used by my highest class, as a collection of Rules for reference in their construing lessons. In construing, from Thucydides especially, I have found Rules 5, 30, 34, 36, 37, and 40_a_, of great use. The rules about Metaphor and Climax have also been useful in correcting faults of taste in their Latin and Greek compositions. I have hopes that, used in this way, this little book may be of service to the highest as well as to the middle classes of our schools.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Punctuation is fully discussed in most English Grammars, and is therefore referred to in this book only so far as is necessary to point out the slovenly fault of trusting too much to punctuation, and too little to arrangement.

[2] Before meeting with Professor Bain's rule, I had shown that the difference between the Relatives is generally observed by Shakespeare. See "Shakespearian Grammar," paragraph 259.

[3] Sir Archibald Alison stands on a very different footing. The extracts from this author are intended to exhibit the dangers of verbosity and exaggeration.

[4] "English Composition and Rhetoric," p. vii.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

INDEX OF RULES 11-13

RULES 14-40

SHORT EXERCISES 41-63

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES--CLARENDON 64-70

" " BURNET 70-73

" " BUTLER 74-75

" " SIR ARCHIBALD ALISON 76-78

INDEX OF RULES.

I. CLEARNESS AND FORCE.

WORDS.

1. Use words in their proper sense.

2. Avoid exaggerations.

3. Avoid useless circumlocution and "fine writing."

4. Be careful in the use of "not ... and," "any," "but," "only," "not ... or," "that."

4 _a_. Be careful in the use of ambiguous words, _e.g._ "certain."

5. Be careful in the use of "he," "it," "they," "these," &c.

6. Report a speech in the First Person, where necessary to avoid ambiguity.

6 _a_. Use the Third Person where the exact words of the speaker are not intended to be given.

6 _b_. Omission of "that" in a speech in the Third Person.

7. When you use a Participle implying "when," "while," "though," or "that," show clearly by the context what is implied.

8. When using the Relative Pronoun, use "who" or "which," if the meaning is "and he" or "and it," "for he" or "for it." In other cases use "that," if euphony allows. Exceptions.

9. Do not use "and which" for "which."

10. Equivalents for the Relative: (_a_) Participle or Adjective; (_b_) Infinitive; (_c_) "Whereby," "whereto," &c.; (_d_) "If a man;" (_e_) "And he," "and this," &c.; (_f_) "what;" (_g_) omission of Relative.

10 _a'_. Repeat the Antecedent before the Relative, where the non-repetition causes any ambiguity. See 38.

11. Use particular for general terms. Avoid abstract Nouns.

11 _a_. Avoid Verbal Nouns where Verbs can be used.

12. Use particular persons instead of a class.

13. Use metaphor instead of literal statement.

14. Do not confuse metaphor.

14 _a_. Do not mix metaphor with literal statement.

14 _b_. Do not use poetic metaphor to illustrate a prosaic subject.

ORDER OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE.

15. Emphatic words must stand in emphatic positions; _i.e._, for the most part, at the beginning or the end of the sentence.

15 _a_. Unemphatic words must, as a rule, be kept from the end. Exceptions.

15 _b_. An interrogation sometimes gives emphasis.

16. The Subject, if unusually emphatic, should often be transferred from the beginning of the sentence.

17. The Object is sometimes placed before the Verb for emphasis.

18. Where several words are emphatic, make it clear which is the most emphatic. Emphasis can sometimes be given by adding an epithet, or an intensifying word.

19. Words should be as near as possible to the words with which they are grammatically connected.

20. Adverbs should be placed next to the words they are intended to qualify.

21. "Only"; the strict rule is that "only" should be placed before the word it affects.

22. When "not only" precedes "but also," see that each is followed by the same part of speech.

23. "At least," "always," and other adverbial adjuncts, sometimes produce ambiguity.

24. Nouns should be placed near the Nouns that they define.

25. Pronouns should follow the Nouns to which they refer, without the intervention of any other Noun.

26. Clauses that are grammatically connected should be kept as close together as possible. Avoid parentheses. But see 55.

27. In conditional sentences, the antecedent or "if-clauses" must be kept distinct from the consequent clauses.

28. Dependent clauses preceded by "that" should be kept distinct from those that are independent.

29. Where there are several infinitives, those that are dependent on the same word must be kept distinct from those that are not.

30. The principle of Suspense.

30 _a_. It is a violation of the principle of suspense to introduce unexpectedly at the end of a long sentence, some short and unemphatic clause beginning with (_a_) "not," (_b_) "which."

31. Suspense must not be excessive.

32. In a sentence with "if," "when," "though," &c., put the "if-clause," antecedent, or protasis, first.

33. Suspense is gained by placing a Participle or Adjective, that qualifies the Subject, before the Subject.

34. Suspensive Conjunctions, _e.g._ "either," "not only," "on the one hand," &c., add clearness.

35. Repeat the Subject, where its omission would cause obscurity or ambiguity.

36. Repeat a Preposition after an intervening Conjunction, especially if a Verb and an Object also intervene.

37. Repeat Conjunctions, Auxiliary Verbs, and Pronominal Adjectives.

37 _a_. Repeat Verbs after the Conjunctions "than," "as," &c.

38. Repeat the Subject, or some other emphatic word, or a summary of what has been said, if the sentence is so long that it is difficult to keep the thread of meaning unbroken.

39. Clearness is increased, when the beginning of the sentence prepares the way for the middle, and the middle for the end, the whole forming a kind of ascent. This ascent is called "climax."

40. When the thought is expected to ascend, but descends, feebleness, and sometimes confusion, is the result. The descent is called "bathos."

40 _a_. A new construction should not be introduced unexpectedly.

41. Antithesis adds force and often clearness.

42. Epigram.

43. Let each sentence have one, and only one, principal subject of thought. Avoid heterogeneous sentences.

44. The connection between different sentences must be kept up by Adverbs used as Conjunctions, or by means of some other connecting words at the beginning of the sentence.

45. The connection between two long sentences or paragraphs sometimes requires a short intervening sentence showing the transition of thought.

II. BREVITY.

46. Metaphor is briefer than literal statement.

47. General terms are briefer, though less forcible, than particular terms.

47 _a_. A phrase may sometimes be expressed by a word.

48. Participles may often be used as brief (though sometimes ambiguous) equivalents of phrases containing Conjunctions and Verbs.

49. Participles, Adjectives, Participial Adjectives, and Nouns may be used as equivalents for phrases containing the Relative.

50. A statement may sometimes be briefly implied instead of being expressed at length.

51. Conjunctions may be omitted. Adverbs, _e.g._ "very," "so." Exaggerated epithets, _e.g._ "incalculable," "unprecedented."

51 _a_. The imperative may be used for "if &c."

52. Apposition may be used, so as to convert two sentences into one.

53. Condensation may be effected by not repeating (1) the common Subject of several Verbs; (2) the common Object of several Verbs or Prepositions.

54. Tautology. Repeating what may be implied.

55. Parenthesis maybe used with advantage to brevity. See 26.

56. Brevity often clashes with clearness. Let clearness be the first consideration.

CLEARNESS AND FORCE.

_Numbers in brackets refer to the Rules._

WORDS.

*1. Use words in their proper sense.*

Write, not "His _apparent_ guilt justified his friends in disowning him," but "his _evident_ guilt." "Conscious" and "aware," "unnatural" and "supernatural," "transpire" and "occur," "circumstance" and "event," "reverse" and "converse," "eliminate" and "elicit," are often confused together.

This rule forbids the use of the same word in different senses. "It is in my _power_ to refuse your request, and since I have _power_ to do this, I may lawfully do it." Here the second "power" is used for "authority."

This rule also forbids the slovenly use of "nice," "awfully," "delicious," "glorious," &c. See (2).

*2. Avoid exaggerations.*

"The _boundless_ plains in the heart of the empire furnished _inexhaustible_ supplies of corn, that would have almost sufficed for twice the population."

Here "inexhaustible" is inconsistent with what follows. The words "unprecedented," "incalculable," "very," and "stupendous" are often used in the same loose way.

*3. Avoid useless circumlocution and "fine writing."*

"Her Majesty here _partook of lunch_." Write "_lunched_."

"Partook of" implies sharing, and is incorrect as well as lengthy.

So, do not use "apex" for "top," "species" for "kind," "individual" for "man," "assist" for "help," &c.

*4. Be careful how you use the following words: "not ... and," "any," "only," "not ... or," "that."*[5]

*And.* See below, "Or."

*Any.*--"I am not bound to receive _any_ messenger that you send." Does this mean _every_, or _a single_? Use "every" or "a single."

*Not.*--(1) "I do _not_ intend to help you, because you are my enemy &c." ought to mean (2), "I intend not to help you, and my reason for not helping you is, because you are my enemy." But it is often wrongly used to mean (3), "I intend to help you, not because you are my enemy (but because you are poor, blind, &c.)." In the latter case, _not_ ought to be separated from _intend_. By distinctly marking the limits to which the influence of _not_ extends, the ambiguity may be removed.

*Only* is often used ambiguously for _alone_. "The rest help me to revenge myself; you _only_ advise me to wait." This ought to mean, "you only _advise_, instead of _helping_;" but in similar sentences "you only" is often used for "you alone." But see 21.

*Or.*--When "or" is preceded by a negative, as "I do not want butter _or_ honey," "or" ought not, strictly speaking, to be used like "and," nor like "nor." The strict use of "not ... or" would be as follows:--

"You say you don't want both butter _and_ honey--you want butter _or_ honey; I, on the contrary, _do not want butter or honey_--I want them both."

Practically, however, this meaning is so rare, that "I don't want butter _or_ honey" is regularly used for "I want neither butter nor honey." But where there is the slightest danger of ambiguity, it is desirable to use _nor_.

The same ambiguity attends "not ... and." "I do not see Thomas _and_ John" is commonly used for "I see neither Thomas nor John;" but it might mean, "I do not see them both--I see only one of them."

*That.*--The different uses of "that" produce much ambiguity, _e.g._ "I am so much surprised by this statement _that_ I am desirous of resigning, _that_ I scarcely know what reply to make." Here it is impossible to tell, till one has read past "resigning," whether the first "that" depends upon "so" or "statement." Write: "The statement that I am desirous of resigning surprises me so much that I scarcely know &c."

*4 a. Be careful in the use of ambiguous words, e.g. "certain."*

"Certain" is often used for "some," as in "Independently of his earnings, he has a _certain_ property," where the meaning might be "unfailing."

Under this head may be mentioned the double use of words, such as "left" in the same form and sound, but different in meaning. Even where there is no obscurity, the juxtaposition of the same word twice used in two senses is inelegant, _e.g._ (Bain), "He turned to the _left_ and _left_ the room."

I have known the following slovenly sentence misunderstood: "Our object is that, with the aid of practice, we may sometime arrive at the point where we think eloquence in its most praiseworthy form _to lie_." "To lie" has been supposed to mean "to deceive."

*5. Be careful how you use "he," "it," "they," "these," &c.* (For "which" see 8.) The ambiguity arising from the use of _he_ applying to different persons is well known.

"He told his friend that if _he_ did not feel better in half an hour he thought _he_ had better return." See (6) for remedy.

Much ambiguity is also caused by excessive use of such phrases as _in this way_, _of this sort_, &c.

"God, foreseeing the disorders of human nature, has given us certain passions and affections which arise from, or whose objects are, these disorders. _Of this sort_ are fear, resentment, compassion."

Repeat the noun: "Among these passions and affections are fear &c."

Two distinct uses of _it_ may be noted. _It_, when referring to something that precedes, may be called "retrospective;" but when to something that follows, "prospective." In "Avoid indiscriminate charity: _it_ is a crime," "it" is retrospective.[6] In "_It_ is a crime to give indiscriminately," "it" is prospective.

The prospective "it," if productive of ambiguity, can often be omitted by using the infinitive as a subject: "To give indiscriminately is a crime."

*6. Report a speech in the First, not the Third Person, where necessary to avoid ambiguity.* Speeches in the third person afford a particular, though very common case, of the general ambiguity mentioned in (5). Instead of "He told his friend that if _he_ did not feel better &c.," write "He said to his friend, 'If, _I_ (or _you_) don't feel better &c.'"

*6 a. Sometimes, where the writer cannot know the exact words, or where the exact words are unimportant, or lengthy and uninteresting, the Third Person is preferable.* Thus, where Essex is asking Sir Robert Cecil that Francis Bacon may be appointed Attorney-General, the dialogue is (as it almost always is in Lord Macaulay's writings) in the First Person, _except where it becomes tedious and uninteresting so as to require condensation_, and then it drops into the Third Person:

"Sir Robert _had nothing to say but_ that he thought his own abilities equal to the place which he hoped to obtain, and that his father's long services deserved such a mark of gratitude from the Queen."

*6 b. Omission of "that" in a speech reported in the Third Person.*--Even when a speech is reported in the third person, "that" need not always be inserted before the dependent verb. Thus, instead of "He said that he took it ill that his promises were not believed," we may write, "'He took it ill,' he said, 'that &c.'" This gives a little more life, and sometimes more clearness also.

*7. When you use a Participle, as "walking," implying "when," "while," "though," "that," make it clear by the context what is implied.*

"Republics, in the first instance, are never desired for their own sakes. I do not think they will finally be desired at all, _unaccompanied_ by courtly graces and good breeding."

Here there is a little doubt whether the meaning is "_since_ they are, or, _if_ they are, unaccompanied."

*That or when.*--"Men _walking_ (_that_ walk, or _when_ they walk) on ice sometimes fall."

It is better to use "men walking" to mean "men _when_ they walk." If the relative is meant, use "men that walk," instead of the participle.

(1) "_While_ he was } _Walking_ on { (1) the road, } he fell." (2) "_Because_ he was } { (2) the ice, }

When the participle precedes the subject, it generally implies a cause: "_Seeing_ this, he retired." Otherwise it generally has its proper participial meaning, _e.g._ "He retired, _keeping_ his face towards us." If there is any ambiguity, write "_on_ seeing,"--"_at the same time_, or _while_, keeping."

(1) "_Though_ he was} {(1) he nevertheless stood } { his ground." (2) "_Since_ he was } _Struck_ with terror, {(2) he rapidly retreated." (3) "_If_ he is } {(3) he will soon retreat."

*8. When using the Relative Pronoun, use "who" and "which" where the meaning is "and he, it, &c.," "for he, it, &c." In other cases use "that," if euphony allows.*

"I heard this from the inspector, _who_ (and he) heard it from the guard _that_ travelled with the train."

"Fetch me (all) the books _that_ lie on the table, and also the pamphlets, _which_ (and these) you will find on the floor."

An adherence to this rule would remove much ambiguity. Thus: "There was a public-house next door, _which_ was a great nuisance," means "_and this_ (_i.e._ the fact of its being next door) was a great nuisance;" whereas _that_ would have meant "Next door was a public-house _that_ (_i.e._ the public-house) was a great nuisance." *"Who," "which," &c. introduce a new fact about the antecedent, whereas "that" introduces something without which the antecedent is incomplete or undefined.* Thus, in the first example above, "inspector" is complete in itself, and "who" introduces a new _fact_ about him; "guard" is incomplete, and requires "_that_ travelled with the train" to complete the meaning.

It is not, and cannot be, maintained that this rule, though observed in Elizabethan English, is observed by our best modern authors. (Probably a general impression that "that" cannot be used to refer to persons has assisted "who" in supplanting "that" as a relative.) But the convenience of the rule is so great that beginners in composition may with advantage adhere to the rule. The following are some of the cases where _who_ and _which_ are mostly used, contrary to the rule, instead of _that_.

*Exceptions:*--

(_a_) When the antecedent is defined, _e.g._ by a possessive case, modern English uses _who_ instead of _that_. It is rare, though it would be useful,[7] to say "His English friends _that_ had not seen him" for "the English friends, or those of his English friends, that had not seen him."

(_b_) _That_ sounds ill when separated from its verb and from its antecedents, and emphasized by isolation: "There are many persons _that_, though unscrupulous, are commonly good-tempered, and _that_, if not strongly incited by self-interest, are ready for the most part to think of the interest of their neighbours." Shakespeare frequently uses _who_ after _that_ when the relative is repeated. See "Shakespearian Grammar," par. 260.

(_c_) If the antecedent is qualified by _that_, the relative must not be _that_. Besides other considerations, the repetition is disagreeable. Addison ridicules such language as "_That_ remark _that_ I made yesterday is not _that_ _that_ I said _that_ I regretted _that_ I had made."

(_d_) _That_ cannot be preceded by a preposition, and hence throws the preposition to the end. "This is the rule _that_ I adhere _to_." This is perfectly good English, though sometimes unnecessarily avoided. But, with some prepositions, the construction is harsh and objectionable, _e.g._ "This is the mark _that_ I jumped _beyond_," "Such were the prejudices _that_ he rose _above_." The reason is that some of these disyllabic prepositions are used as adverbs, and, when separated from their nouns, give one the impression that they are used as adverbs.

(_e_) After pronominal adjectives used for personal pronouns, modern English prefers _who_. "There are many, others, several, those, _who_ can testify &c."

(_f_) After _that_ used as a conjunction there is sometimes a dislike to use _that_ as a relative. See (_c_).

*9. Do not use redundant "and" before "which."[8]*

"I gave him a very interesting book for a present, _and which_ cost me five shillings."

In short sentences the absurdity is evident, but in long sentences it is less evident, and very common.

"A petition was presented for rescinding that portion of the bye-laws which permits application of public money to support sectarian schools over which ratepayers have no control, this being a violation of the principle of civil and religious liberty, _and which_ the memorialists believe would provoke a determined and conscientious resistance."

Here _which_ ought grammatically to refer to "portion" or "schools." But it seems intended to refer to "violation." Omit "and," or repeat "a violation" before "which," or turn the sentence otherwise.

*10. Equivalents for Relative.*

*(_a_) Participle.*--"Men _thirsting_ (for 'men _that thirst_') for revenge are not indifferent to plunder." The objection to the participle is that here, as often, it creates a little ambiguity. The above sentence may mean, "men, _when_ they thirst," or "_though_ they thirst," as well as "men _that_ thirst." Often however there is no ambiguity: "I have documents _proving_ this conclusively."

*(_b_) Infinitive.*--Instead of "He was the first _that_ entered" you can write "_to_ enter;" for "He is not a man _who_ will act dishonestly," "_to_ act." This equivalent cannot often be used.

*(_c_) Whereby, wherein, &c.,* can sometimes be used for "by _which_," "in _which_," so as to avoid a harsh repetition of "_which_." "The means _whereby_ this may be effected." But this use is somewhat antiquated.

*(_d_) If.*--"The man _that_ does not care for music is to be pitied" can be written (though not so forcibly), "_If_ a man does not care for music, he is to be pitied." It is in long sentences that this equivalent will be found most useful.

*(_e_) And this.*--"He did his best, _which_ was all that could be expected," can be written, "_and this_ was all that, &c."

*(_f_) What.*--"Let me repeat _that which_[9] you ought to know, that _that which_ is worth doing is worth doing well." "Let me repeat, _what_ you ought to know, that _what_ is worth doing is worth doing well."

*(_g_) Omission of Relative.*--It is sometimes thought ungrammatical to omit the relative, as in "The man (that) you speak of." On the contrary, _that_ when an object (not when a subject) may be omitted, wherever the antecedent and the subject of the relative sentence are brought into juxtaposition by the omission.

*10 a'. Repeat the Antecedent in some new form, where there is any ambiguity.* This is particularly useful after a negative: "He said that he would not even hear me, _which_ I confess I had expected." Here the meaning may be, "I had expected that he would," or "that he would not, hear me." Write, "_a refusal_, or, _a favour_, that I confess I had expected." See (38).

*11. Use particular for general terms.*--This is a most important rule. Instead of "I have neither the necessaries of life nor the means of procuring them," write (if you can _with truth_), "I have not a crust of bread, nor a penny to buy one."

CAUTION.--There is a danger in this use. The meaning is vividly expressed but sometimes may be exaggerated or imperfect. _Crust of bread_ may be an exaggeration; on the other hand, if the speaker is destitute not only of bread, but also of shelter and clothing, then _crust of bread_ is an imperfect expression of the meaning.

In philosophy and science, where the language ought very often to be inclusive and brief, general and not particular terms must be used.

*11 a. Avoid Verbal Nouns where Verbs can be used instead.* The disadvantage of the use of Verbal Nouns is this, that, unless they are immediately preceded by prepositions, they are sometimes liable to be confounded with participles. The following is an instance of an excessive use of Verbal Nouns:

"The pretended confession of the secretary was only collusion to lay the jealousies of the king's _favouring_ popery, which still hung upon him, notwithstanding his _writing_ on the Revelation, and _affecting_ to enter on all occasions into controversy, _asserting_ in particular that the Pope was Antichrist."

Write "notwithstanding that he wrote and affected &c."

*12. Use a particular Person instead of a class.*

"What is the splendour of _the greatest monarch_ compared with the beauty of _a flower_?" "What is the splendour of Solomon compared with the beauty of a daisy?"

Under this head may come the forcible use of Noun for Adjective: "This fortress is _weakness_ itself."

An excess of this use is lengthy and pedantically bombastic, _e.g._, the following paraphrase for "in every British colony:"--"under Indian palm-groves, amid Australian gum-trees, in the shadow of African mimosas, and beneath Canadian pines."

*13. Use Metaphor instead of literal statement.*

"The ship _ploughs_ the sea" is clearer than "the ship _cleaves_ the sea," and shorter than "the ship _cleaves_ the sea _as a plough cleaves the land_."

Of course there are some subjects for which Metaphor should not be used. See (14 _a_) and (14 _b_).

*14. Do not confuse Metaphor.*

"In a moment the thunderbolt was upon them, _deluging_ their country with invaders."

The following is attributed to Sir Boyle Roche: "Mr. Speaker, I smell a rat, I see him brewing in the air; but, mark me, I shall yet nip him in the bud."

Some words, once metaphorical, have ceased to be so regarded. Hence many good writers say "_under_ these _circumstances_" instead of "_in_ these circumstances."

An excessive regard for disused metaphor savours of pedantry: disregard is inelegant. Write, not, "_unparalleled_ complications," but "_unprecedented_ complications;" and "_he threw light on_ obscurities," instead of "_he unravelled_ obscurities."

*14 a. Do not introduce literal statement immediately after Metaphor.*

"He was the father of Chemistry, and brother to the Earl of Cork."

"He was a very thunderbolt of war, And was lieutenant to the Earl of Mar."

*14 b. Do not use poetic metaphor to illustrate a prosaic subject.* Thus, we may say "a poet _soars_," or even, though rarely, "a nation _soars_ to greatness," but you could not say "Consols _soared to_ 94-1/2." Even commonplace subjects may be illustrated by metaphor: for it is a metaphor, and quite unobjectionable, to say "Consols _mounted_, or _jumped_ to 94-1/2." But commonplace subjects must be illustrated by metaphor that is commonplace.

ORDER OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE.

*15. Emphatic words must stand in emphatic positions; i.e. for the most part, at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.* This rule occasionally supersedes the common rules about position. Thus, the place for an adverb, as a rule, should be between the subject and verb: "He _quickly_ left the room;" but if _quickly_ is to be emphatic, it must come at the beginning or end, as in "I told him to leave the room slowly, but he left _quickly_."

Adjectives, in clauses beginning with "if" and "though," often come at the beginning for emphasis: "_Insolent_ though he was, he was silenced at last."

*15 a. Unemphatic words must, as a rule, be kept from the end of the sentence.* It is a common fault to break this rule by placing a short and unemphatic predicate at the end of a long sentence.

"To know some Latin, even if it be nothing but a few Latin roots, _is useful_." Write, "It is useful, &c."

So "the evidence proves how kind to his inferiors _he is_."

Often, where an adjective or auxiliary verb comes at the end, the addition of an emphatic adverb justifies the position, _e.g._ above, "is _very_ useful," "he has _invariably_ been."

A short "chippy" ending, even though emphatic, is to be avoided. It is abrupt and unrhythmical, _e.g._ "The soldier, transfixed with the spear, _writhed_." We want a _longer_ ending, "fell writhing to the ground," or, "writhed in the agonies of death." A "chippy" ending is common in bad construing from Virgil.

*Exceptions.*--Prepositions and pronouns attached to emphatic words need not be moved from the end; _e.g._ "He does no harm that I hear _of_." "Bear witness how I loved _him_."

*N.B. In all styles, especially in letter-writing, a final emphasis must not be so frequent as to become obtrusive and monotonous.*

*15 b. An interrogation sometimes gives emphasis.* "No one can doubt that the prisoner, had he been really guilty, would have shown some signs of remorse," is not so emphatic as "Who can doubt, Is it possible to doubt, &c.?"

Contrast "No one ever names Wentworth without thinking of &c." with "But Wentworth,--who ever names him without thinking of those harsh dark features, ennobled by their expression into more than the majesty of an antique Jupiter?"

*16. The subject, if unusually emphatic, should often be removed from the beginning of the sentence.* The beginning of the sentence is an emphatic position, though mostly not so emphatic as the end. Therefore the principal subject of a sentence, being emphatic, and being wanted early in the sentence to tell us what the sentence is about, comes as a rule, at or near the beginning: "_Thomas_ built this house."

Hence, since the beginning is the _usual_ place for the subject, if we want to emphasize "Thomas" _unusually_, we must remove "Thomas" from the beginning: "This house was built by _Thomas_," or "It was _Thomas_ that built this house."

Thus, the emphasis on "conqueror" is not quite so strong in "_A mere conqueror_ ought not to obtain from us the reverence that is due to the great benefactors of mankind," as in "We ought not to bestow the reverence that is due to the great benefactors of mankind, _upon a mere conqueror_." Considerable, but less emphasis and greater smoothness (19) will be obtained by writing the sentence thus: "We ought not to bestow upon a mere conqueror &c."

Where the same subject stands first in several consecutive sentences, it rises in emphasis, and need not be removed from the beginning, even though unusual emphasis be required:

"The captain was the life and soul of the expedition. _He_ first pointed out the possibility of advancing; _he_ warned them of the approaching scarcity of provisions; _he_ showed how they might replenish their exhausted stock &c."

*17. The object is sometimes placed before the verb for emphasis.* This is most common in antithesis. "_Jesus_ I know, and _Paul_ I know; but who are ye?" "_Some_ he imprisoned, _others_ he put to death."

Even where there is no antithesis the inversion is not uncommon:

"Military _courage_, the boast of the sottish German, of the frivolous and prating Frenchman, of the romantic and arrogant Spaniard, he neither possesses nor values."

This inversion sometimes creates ambiguity in poetry, _e.g._ "The son the father slew," and must be sparingly used in prose.

Sometimes the position of a word may be considered appropriate by some, and inappropriate by others, according to different interpretations of the sentence. Take as an example, "Early in the morning the nobles and gentlemen who attended on the king assembled in the great hall of the castle; and here they began to talk of what a dreadful storm it had been the night before. But Macbeth could scarcely understand what they said, for he was thinking of something worse." The last sentence has been amended by Professor Bain into "_What they said_, Macbeth could scarcely understand." But there appears to be an antithesis between the guiltless nobles who can think about the weather, and the guilty Macbeth who cannot. Hence, "what they said" ought not, and "Macbeth" ought, to be emphasized: and therefore "Macbeth" ought to be retained at the beginning of the sentence.

The same author alters, "The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him, but his invention remains yet unrivalled," into "Virgil has justly contested with him the praise of judgment, but no one has yet rivalled his invention"--an alteration which does not seem to emphasize sufficiently the antithesis between what had been 'contested,' on the one hand, and what remained as yet 'unrivalled' on the other.

More judiciously Professor Bain alters, "He that tells a lie is not sensible how great a task he undertakes; for he must be forced to invent twenty more to maintain one," into "for, to maintain one, he must invent twenty more," putting the emphatic words in their emphatic place, at the end.

*18. Where several words are emphatic, make it clear which is the most emphatic.* Thus, in "The state was made, under the pretence of serving it, in reality the prize of their contention to each of these opposite parties," it is unpleasantly doubtful whether the writer means (1) _state_ or (2) _parties_ to be emphatic.

If (1), "As for the _state_, these two parties, under the pretence of serving it, converted it into a prize for their contention." If (2), write, "Though served in profession, the state was in reality converted into a prize for their contention by these two _parties_." In (1) _parties_ is subordinated, in (2) _state_.

Sometimes the addition of some intensifying word serves to emphasize. Thus, instead of "To effect this they used all devices," we can write "To effect this they used _every conceivable device_." So, if we want to emphasize fidelity in "The business will task your skill and fidelity," we can write "Not only your skill _but also_ your fidelity." This, however, sometimes leads to exaggerations. See (2).

Sometimes antithesis gives emphasis, as in "You _do_ not know this, but you _shall_ know it." Where antithesis cannot be used, the emphasis must be expressed by turning the sentence, as "I _will make you_ know it," or by some addition, as "You shall _hereafter_ know it."

*19. Words should be as near as possible to the words with which they are grammatically connected.* See Paragraphs 20 to 29. For exceptions see 30.

*20. Adverbs should be placed next to the words they are intended to affect.* When unemphatic, adverbs come between the subject and the verb, or, if the tense is compound, between the parts of the compound tense: "He _quickly_ left the room;" "He has _quickly_ left the room;" but, when emphatic, after the verb: "He left, or has left, the room _quickly_."[10] When such a sentence as the latter is followed by a present participle, there arises ambiguity. "I told him to go slowly, but he left the room _quickly_, dropping the purse on the floor." Does _quickly_ here modify _left_ or _dropping_? The remedy[11] is, to give the adverb its unemphatic place, "He _quickly_ left the room, dropping &c.," or else to avoid the participle, thus: "He _quickly_ dropped the purse and left the room," or "He dropped the purse and _quickly_ left the room."

*21. "Only" requires careful use. The strict[12] rule is, that "only" should be placed before the word affected by it.*

The following is ambiguous:

"The heavens are not open to the faithful _only_ at intervals."

The best rule is to avoid placing "only" between two emphatic words, and to avoid using "only" where "alone" can be used instead.

In strictness perhaps the three following sentences:

(1) He _only_ beat three,

(2) He beat _only_ three,

(3) He beat three _only_, ought to be explained, severally, thus:

(1) He did no more than beat, did not kill, three.

(2) He beat no more than three.

(3) He beat three, and that was all he did. (Here _only_ modifies the whole of the sentence and depreciates the action.)

But the best authors sometimes transpose the word. "He _only_ lived" ought to mean "he did not die or make any great sacrifice;" but "He _only_ lived but till he was a man" (_Macbeth_, v. 8. 40) means "He lived _only_ till he was a man." Compare also, "Who _only_ hath immortality."

_Only_ at the beginning of a statement = _but_. "I don't like to importune you, _only_ I know you'll forgive me." Before an imperative it diminishes the favour asked: "_Only_ listen to me." This use of _only_ is mostly confined to letters.

Very often, _only_ at the beginning of a sentence is used for _alone_: "_Only_ ten came," "_Only_ Cæsar approved." _Alone_ is less ambiguous. The ambiguity of _only_ is illustrated by such a sentence as, "Don't hesitate to bring a few friends of yours to shoot on my estate at any time. _Only_ five (fifteen) came yesterday," which might mean, "I don't mind a _few_; _only_ don't bring so many as _fifteen_;" or else "Don't hesitate to bring a few _more_; no more than _five_ came yesterday." In conversation, ambiguity is prevented by emphasis; but in a letter, _only_ thus used might cause unfortunate mistakes. Write "Yesterday _only_ five came," if you mean "no more than five."

*22. When "not only" precedes "but also," see that each is followed by the same part of speech.*

"He _not only_ gave me advice _but also_ help" is wrong. Write "He gave me, _not only_ advice, _but also_ help." On the other hand, "He _not only_ gave me a grammar, _but also_ lent me a dictionary," is right. Take an instance. "He spoke _not only_ forcibly _but also_ tastefully (adverbs), and this too, _not only_ before a small audience, _but also_ in (prepositions) a large public meeting, and his speeches were _not only_ successful, _but also_ (adjective) worthy of success."

*23. "At least," "always," and other adverbial adjuncts, sometimes produce ambiguity.*

"I think you will find my Latin exercise, _at all events_, as good as my cousin's." Does this mean (1) "my Latin exercise, though not perhaps my other exercises;" or (2), "Though not very good, yet, at all events, as good as my cousin's"? Write for (1), "My Latin exercise, at all events, you will find &c." and for (2), "I think you will find my Latin exercise as good as my cousin's, at all events."

The remedy is to avoid placing "at all events" between two emphatic words.

As an example of the misplacing of an adverbial adjunct, take "From abroad he received most favourable reports, but in the City he heard that a panic had broken out on the Exchange, and that the funds were fast falling." This ought to mean that the "hearing," and not (as is intended) that the "breaking out of the panic," took place in the City.

In practice, an adverb is often used to qualify a remote word, where the latter is _more emphatic than any nearer word_. This is very common when the Adverbial Adjunct is placed in an emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence: "_On this very spot_ our guide declared that Claverhouse had fallen."

*24. Nouns should be placed near the nouns that they define.* In the very common sentence "The death is announced of Mr. John Smith, an author whose works &c.," the transposition is probably made from a feeling that, if we write "The death of Mr. John Smith is announced," we shall be obliged to begin a new sentence, "He was an author whose works &c." But the difficulty can be removed by writing "We regret to announce, or, we are informed of, the death of Mr. John Smith, an author, &c."

*25. Pronouns should follow the nouns to which they refer without the intervention of another noun.* Avoid, "John Smith, the son of Thomas Smith, _who_ gave me this book," unless _Thomas Smith_ is the antecedent of _who_. Avoid also "John supplied Thomas with money: _he_ (John) was very well off."

When, however, one of two preceding nouns is decidedly superior to the other in emphasis, the more emphatic may be presumed to be the noun referred to by the pronoun, even though the noun of inferior emphasis intervenes. Thus: "At this moment the colonel came up, and took the place of the wounded general. _He_ gave orders to halt." Here _he_ would naturally refer to _colonel_, though _general_ intervenes. A _conjunction_ will often show that a pronoun refers to the subject of the preceding sentence, and not to another intervening noun. "The sentinel at once took aim at the approaching soldier, and fired. He _then_ retreated to give the alarm."

It is better to adhere, in most cases, to Rule 25, which may be called (Bain) the Rule of Proximity. The Rule of Emphasis, of which an instance was given in the last paragraph, is sometimes misleading. A distinction might be drawn by punctuating thus:

"David the father of Solomon, who slew Goliath." "David, the father of Solomon who built the Temple." But the propriety of omitting a comma in each case is questionable, and it is better to write so as not to be at the mercy of commas.

*26. Clauses that are grammatically connected should be kept as close together as possible.* (But see 55.) The introduction of parentheses violating this rule often produced serious ambiguity. Thus, in the following: "The result of these observations appears to be in opposition to the view now generally received in this country, that in muscular effort the substance of the muscle itself undergoes disintegration." Here it is difficult to tell whether the theory of "disintegration" is (1) "the result," or, as the absence of a comma after "be" would indicate, (2) "in opposition to the result of these observations." If (1) is intended, add "and to prove" after "country;" if (2), insert "which is" after "country."

There is an excessive complication in the following:--"It cannot, at all events, if the consideration demanded by a subject of such importance from any one professing to be a philosopher, be given, be denied that &c."

Where a speaker feels that his hearers have forgotten the connection of the beginning of the sentence, he should repeat what he has said; _e.g._ after the long parenthesis in the last sentence he should recommence, "it cannot, I say, be denied." In writing, however, this licence must be sparingly used.

A short parenthesis, or modifying clause, will not interfere with clearness, especially if antithesis he used, so as to show the connection between the different parts of the sentence, _e.g._ "A modern newspaper statement, _though probably true_, would be laughed at if quoted in a book as testimony; but the letter of a court gossip is thought good historical evidence if written some centuries ago." Here, to place "though probably true" at the beginning of the sentence would not add clearness, and would impair the emphasis of the contrast between "a modern newspaper statement" and "the letter of a court gossip."

*27. In conditional sentences, the antecedent clauses must be kept distinct from the consequent clauses.*--There is ambiguity in "The lesson intended to be taught by these manoeuvres will be lost, if the plan of operations is laid down too definitely beforehand, and the affair degenerates into a mere review." Begin, in any case, with the antecedent, "If the plan," &c. Next write, according to the meaning: (1) "If the plan is laid down, and the affair degenerates &c., then the lesson will be lost;" or (2) " ... then the lesson ... will be lost, and the affair degenerates into a mere review."

*28. Dependent clauses preceded by "that" should be kept distinct from those that are independent.*

Take as an example:

(1) "He replied that he wished to help them, and intended to make preparations accordingly."

This ought not to be used (though it sometimes is, for shortness) to mean:

(2) "He replied ..., and he intended."

In (1), "intended," having no subject, must be supposed to be connected with the nearest preceding verb, in the same mood and tense, that has a subject, _i.e._ "wished." It follows that (1) is a condensation of:

(3) "He replied that he wished ..., and that he intended."

(2), though theoretically free from ambiguity, is practically ambiguous, owing to a loose habit of repeating the subject unnecessarily. It would be better to insert a conjunctional word or a full stop between the two statements. Thus:

(4) "He replied that he wished to help them, and _indeed_ he intended," &c., or "He replied, &c. He intended, &c."

Where there is any danger of ambiguity, use (3) or (4) in preference to (1) or (2).

*29. When there are several infinitives, those that are dependent on the same word must be kept distinct from those that are not.*

"He said that he wished _to_ take his friend with him _to_ visit the capital and _to_ study medicine." Here it is doubtful whether the meaning is--

"He said that he wished to take his friend with him,

(1) _and also_ to visit the capital and study medicine," or

(2) "that his friend might visit the capital _and might also_ study medicine," or

(3) "on a visit to the capital, _and that he also_ wished to study medicine."

From the three different versions it will be perceived that this ambiguity must be met (_a_) by using "that" for "to," which allows us to repeat an auxiliary verb [_e.g._ "might" in (2)], and (_b_) by inserting conjunctions. As to insertions of conjunctions, see (37).

"In order to," and "for the purpose of," can be used to distinguish (wherever there is any ambiguity) between an infinitive that _expresses a purpose_, and an infinitive that does not, _e.g._ "He told his servant to call upon his friend, _to_ (in order to) give him information about the trains, and not to leave him till he started."

*30. The principle of suspense.* Write your sentence in such a way that, until he has come to the full stop, the reader may feel the sentence to be incomplete. In other words, keep your reader in _suspense_. _Suspense_ is caused (1) by placing the "if-clause" first, and not last, in a conditional sentence; (2) by placing participles before the words they qualify; (3) by using suspensive conjunctions, _e.g._ _not only_, _either_, _partly_, _on the one hand_, _in the first place_, &c.

The following is an example of an _unsuspended_ sentence. The sense _draggles_, and it is difficult to keep up one's attention.

"Mr. Pym was looked upon as the man of greatest experience in parliaments, | where he had served very long, | and was always a man of business, | being an officer in the Exchequer, | and of a good reputation generally, | though known to be inclined to the Puritan party; yet not of those furious resolutions (_Mod. Eng._ so furiously resolved) against the Church as the other leading men were, | and wholly devoted to the Earl of Bedford,--who had nothing of that spirit."

The foregoing sentence might have ended at any one of the eight points marked above. When suspended it becomes:--

"Mr. Pym, owing to his long service in Parliament in the Exchequer, was esteemed above all others for his Parliamentary experience and for his knowledge of business. He had also a good reputation generally; for, though openly favouring the Puritan party, he was closely devoted to the Earl of Bedford, and, like the Earl, had none of the fanatical spirit manifested against the Church by the other leading men."

*30 a. It is a violation of the principle of Suspense to introduce unexpectedly, at the end of a long sentence, some short and unemphatic clause beginning with (a) " ... not" or (b) " ... which."*

(_a_) "This reform has already been highly beneficial to all classes of our countrymen, and will, I am persuaded, encourage among us industry, self-dependence, and frugality, _and not, as some say, wastefulness_."

Write "not, as some say, wastefulness, but industry, self-dependence, and frugality."

(_b_) "After a long and tedious journey, the last part of which was a little dangerous owing to the state of the roads, we arrived safely at York, _which is a fine old town_."

*Exception.*--When the short final clause is intended to be unexpectedly unemphatic, it comes in appropriately, with something of the sting of an epigram. See (42). Thus:

"The old miser said that he should have been delighted to give the poor fellow a shilling, but most unfortunately he had left his purse at home--_a habit of his_."

Suspense naturally throws increased emphasis on the words for which we are waiting, _i.e._ on the end of the sentence. It has been pointed out above that *a monotony of final emphasis is objectionable, especially in letter writing and conversation*.

*31. Suspense must not be excessive.* _Excess of suspense_ is a common fault in boys translating from Latin. "Themistocles, having secured the safety of Greece, the Persian fleet being now destroyed, when he had unsuccessfully attempted to persuade the Greeks to break down the bridge across the Hellespont, hearing that Xerxes was in full flight, and thinking that it might be profitable to secure the friendship of the king, wrote as follows to him." The more English idiom is: "When Themistocles had secured the safety of Greece by the destruction of the Persian fleet, he made an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the Greeks to break down the bridge across the Hellespont. Soon afterwards, hearing &c."

A long suspense that would be intolerable in prose is tolerable in the introduction to a poem. See the long interval at the beginning of _Paradise Lost_ between "Of man's first disobedience" and "Sing, heavenly Muse." Compare also the beginning of _Paradise Lost_, Book II.:

"_High on a throne of royal state, which far Outshone the wealth of Ormuz and of Ind, Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold-- Satan exalted sat._"

with the opening of Keats' _Hyperion_:

"_Deep in the shady sadness of a vale, Far sunken from the healthy breath of morn, Far from the fiery noon and eve's one star-- Sat grey-haired Saturn, quiet as a stone._"

*32. In a long conditional sentence put the "if-clause," antecedent, or protasis, first.*

Everyone will see the flatness of "Revenge thy father's most unnatural murder, if thou didst ever love him," as compared with the suspense that forces an expression of agony from Hamlet in--

"_Ghost._ If thou didst ever thy dear father love-- _Hamlet._ O, God! _Ghost._ Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder."

The effect is sometimes almost ludicrous when the consequent is long and complicated, and when it precedes the antecedent or "if-clause." "I should be delighted to introduce you to my friends, and to show you the objects of interest in our city, and the beautiful scenery in the neighbourhood, if you were here." Where the "if-clause" comes last, it ought to be very emphatic: "if you were _only_ here."

The introduction of a clause with "if" or "though" in the middle of a sentence may often cause ambiguity, especially when a great part of the sentence depends on "that:" "His enemies answered that, for the sake of preserving the public peace, they would keep quiet for the present, though he declared that cowardice was the motive of the delay, and that for this reason they would put off the trial to a more convenient season." See (27).

*33. Suspense[13] is gained by placing a Participle or Adjective that qualifies the Subject, before the Subject.*

"_Deserted_ by his friends, he was forced to have recourse to those that had been his enemies." Here, if we write, "He, deserted by his friends, was forced &c.," _he_ is unduly emphasized; and if we write, "He was forced to have recourse to his enemies, having been deserted by his friends," the effect is very flat.

Of course we might sometimes write "He was deserted and forced &c." But this cannot be done where the "desertion" is to be not stated but implied.

Often, when a participle qualifying the subject is introduced late in the sentence, it causes positive ambiguity: "With this small force the general determined to attack the foe, _flushed_ with recent victory and _rendered_ negligent by success."

An excessive use of the _suspensive participle_ is French and objectionable: _e.g._ "_Careless_ by nature, and too much _engaged_ with business to think of the morrow, _spoiled_ by a long-established liberty and a fabulous prosperity, _having_ for many generations forgotten the scourge of war, we allow ourselves to drift on without taking heed of the signs of the times." The remedy is to convert the participle into a verb depending on a conjunction: "Because we are by nature careless, &c.;" or to convert the participle into a verb co-ordinate with the principal verb, _e.g._ "_We are_ by nature careless, &c., and therefore we _allow_ ourselves, &c."

*34. Suspensive Conjunctions, e.g. "either," "not only," "on the one hand," add clearness.*--Take the following sentence:--"You must take this extremely perilous course, in which success is uncertain, and failure disgraceful, as well as ruinous, or else the liberty of your country is endangered." Here, the meaning is liable to be misunderstood, till the reader has gone half through the sentence. Write "_Either_ you must," &c., and the reader is, from the first, prepared for an alternative. Other suspensive conjunctions or phrases are _partly_, _for our part_; _in the first place_; _it is true_; _doubtless_; _of course_; _though_; _on the one hand_.

*35. Repeat the Subject when the omission would cause ambiguity or obscurity.*--The omission is particularly likely to cause obscurity after a Relative standing as Subject:--

"He professes to be helping the nation, which in reality is suffering from his flattery, and (he? or it?) will not permit anyone else to give it advice."

The Relative should be repeated when it is the Subject of several Verbs. "All the pleasing illusions _which_ made power gentle and obedience liberal, _which_ harmonized the different shades of life, and _which_, by a bland assimilation, incorporated into politics the sentiments that beautify and soften private society, are to be dissolved by this new conquering empire of light and reason."

*36. Repeat a Preposition after an intervening Conjunction, especially if a Verb and an Object also intervene.*

"He forgets the gratitude that he owes to those that helped all his companions when he was poor and uninfluential, and (_to_) John Smith in particular." Here, omit _to_, and the meaning may be "that helped all his companions, and John Smith in particular." The intervention of the verb and object, "helped" and "companions," causes this ambiguity.

*37. When there are several Verbs at some distance from a Conjunction on which they depend, repeat the Conjunction.*[14]

"When we look back upon the havoc that two hundred years have made in the ranks of our national authors--and, above all, (_when_) we refer their rapid disappearance to the quick succession of new competitors--we cannot help being dismayed at the prospect that lies before the writers of the present day."

Here omit "when," and we at once substitute a parenthetical statement for what is really a subordinate clause.

In reporting a speech or opinion, "that" must be continually repeated, to avoid the danger of confusing what the writer says with what others say.

"We might say that the Cæsars did not persecute the Christians; (_that_) they only punished men who were charged, rightly or wrongly, with burning Rome, and committing the foulest abominations in secret assemblies; and (_that_) the refusal to throw frankincense on the altar of Jupiter was not the crime, but only evidence of the crime." But see (6 _b_).

*37 a. Repeat Verbs after the conjunctions "than," "as," &c.*

"I think he likes me better _than_ you;" _i.e._ either "than you like me," or "he likes you."

"Cardinal Richelieu hated Buckingham as sincerely as _did_ the Spaniard Olivares." Omit "did," and you cause ambiguity.

*38. If the sentence is so long that it is difficult to keep the thread of meaning unbroken, repeat the subject, or some other emphatic word, or a summary of what has been said.*

"Gold and cotton, banks and railways, crowded ports, and populous cities--_these_ are not the elements that constitute a great nation."

This repetition (though useful and, when used in moderation, not unpleasant) is more common with speakers than with writers, and with slovenly speakers than with good speakers.

"The country is in such a condition, that if we delay longer some fair measure of reform, sufficient at least to satisfy the more moderate, and much more, if we refuse all reform whatsoever--I say, if _we adopt so unwise a policy, the country is in such a condition_ that we may precipitate a revolution."

Where the relative is either implied (in a participle) or repeated, the antecedent must often be repeated also. In the following sentence we have the Subject repeated not only in the final summary, but also as the antecedent:--

"But if there were, in any part of the world, a national church regarded as heretical by four-fifths of the nation committed to its care; a _church_ established and maintained by the sword; a _church_ producing twice as many riots as conversions; a _church_ which, though possessing great wealth and power, and though long backed by persecuting laws, had, in the course of many generations, been found unable to propagate its doctrines, and barely able to maintain its ground; a _church_ so odious that fraud and violence, when used against its clear rights of property, were generally regarded as fair play; a _church_ whose ministers were preaching to desolate walls, and with difficulty obtaining their lawful subsistence by the help of bayonets,--_such a church_, on our principles, could not, we must own, be defended."

*39. It is a help to clearness, when the first part of the sentence prepares the way for the middle and the middle for the end, in a kind of ascent. This ascent is called "climax."*

In the following there are two climaxes, each of which has three terms:--

"To gossip(a) is a fault(b); to _libel_(a'), a _crime_(b'); to slander(a''), a _sin_(b'')."

In the following, there are several climaxes, and note how they contribute to the clearness of a long sentence:--

"Man, working, has _contrived_(a) the Atlantic Cable, but I declare that it _astonishes_(b) me far more to think _that for his mere amusement_(c), that to _entertain a mere idle hour_(c'), he has _created_(a') 'Othello' and 'Lear,' and I am more than astonished, I am _awe-struck_(b'), at that inexplicable elasticity of his nature which enables him, instead of _turning away_(d) from _calamity and grief_(e), or instead of merely _defying_(d') them, actually to _make them the material of his amusement_(d''), and to draw from the _wildest agonies of the human spirit_(e') a pleasure which is not only _not cruel_(f), but is in the highest degree _pure and ennobling_(f')."

The neglect of climax produces an abruptness that interferes with the even flow of thought. Thus, if Pope, in his ironical address to mankind, had written--

"Go, wondrous creature, mount where science guides; Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides; Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule"--

the ascent would have been too rapid. The transition from earth to heaven, and from investigating to governing, is prepared by the intervening climax--

"Instruct the planets in what orbs to run; Correct old Time, and regulate the Sun; Go, soar with Plato to th' empyreal sphere, To the first good, first perfect, and first fair."

*40. When the thought is expected to ascend and yet descends, feebleness and sometimes confusion is the result. The descent is called "bathos."*

"What pen can describe the tears, the lamentations, the agonies, the _animated remonstrances_ of the unfortunate prisoners?"

"She was a woman of many accomplishments and virtues, graceful in her movements, winning in her address, a kind friend, a faithful and loving wife, a most affectionate mother, and she _played beautifully on the pianoforte_."

INTENTIONAL BATHOS has a humorous incongruity and abruptness that is sometimes forcible. For example, after the climax ending with the line--

"Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule,"

Pope adds--

"Then drop into thyself, and be a _fool_."

*40 a. A new construction should not be introduced without cause.*--A sudden and apparently unnecessary change of construction causes awkwardness and roughness at least, and sometimes breaks the flow of the sentence so seriously as to cause perplexity. Thus, write "virtuous and accomplished," or "of many virtues and accomplishments," not "of many virtues and accomplished;" "riding or walking" or "on foot or horseback," not "on foot or riding." In the same way, do not put adjectives and participles, active and passive forms of verbs, in too close juxtaposition. Avoid such sentences as the following:--

"He had good reason _to believe_ that the delay was not _an accident_ (accidental) but _premeditated_, and _for supposing_ (to suppose, or else, for believing, above) that the fort, though strong both _by art_ and _naturally_ (nature), would be forced by the _treachery of the_ governor and the _indolent_ (indolence of the) general to capitulate within a week."

"They accused him of being _bribed_ (receiving bribes from) by the king and _unwilling_ (neglecting) to take the city."

*41. Antithesis adds force, and often clearness.*--The meaning of _liberal_ in the following sentence is ascertained by the antithesis:--

"All the pleasing illusions which made _power_(a) _gentle_(b) and _obedience_(a') _liberal_(b') ... are now to be destroyed."

There is a kind of proportion. As _gentleness_ is to _power_, so _liberality_ (in the sense here used) is to _obedience_. Now _gentleness_ is the check on the excess of power; therefore _liberal_ here applies to that which checks the excess of obedience, _i.e._ checks servility. Hence _liberal_ here means "free."

The contrast also adds force. "They aimed at the _rule_(a), not at the _destruction_(a'), of their country. They were men of great _civil_(b) and great _military_(b') talents, and, if the _terror_(c), the _ornament_(c') of their age."

Excessive antithesis is unnatural and wearisome:--

"Who can persuade where _treason_(a) is above _reason_(a'), and _might_(b) ruleth _right_(b'), and it is had for _lawful_(c) whatsoever is _lustful_(c'), and _commotioners_(d) are better than _commissioners_(d'), and _common woe_(e) is named common _wealth_(e')?"

*42. Epigram.*--It has been seen that the neglect of climax results in lameness. Sometimes the suddenness of the descent produces amusement: and when the descent is intentional and very sudden, the effect is striking as well as amusing. Thus:--

(1) "You are not only not vicious, you are virtuous," is a _climax_.

(2) "You are not vicious, you are vice," is not _climax_, nor is it _bathos_: it is _epigram_.[15]

Epigram may be defined as a "short sentence expressing truth under an amusing appearance of incongruity." It is often antithetical.

"The Russian grandees came to { and diamonds," _climax_. court dropping pearls { and vermin," _epigram_.

"These two nations were divided { and the bitter remembrance by mutual fear { of recent losses," _climax_. { and mountains," _epigram_.

There is a sort of implied antithesis in:--

"He is full of information--(but flat also) like yesterday's _Times_."

"Verbosity is cured (not by a small, but) by a large vocabulary."

The name of epigram may sometimes be given to a mere antithesis; _e.g._ "An educated man should know something of everything, and everything of something."

*43. Let each sentence have one, and only one, principal subject of thought.*

"This great and good man died on the 17th of September, 1683, leaving behind him the memory of many noble actions, and a numerous family, of whom three were sons; one of them, George, the eldest, heir to his father's virtues, as well as to his principal estates in Cumberland, where most of his father's property was situate, and shortly afterwards elected member for the county, which had for several generations returned this family to serve in Parliament." Here we have (1) the "great and good man," (2) "George," (3) "the county," disputing which is to be considered the principal subject. Two, if not three sentences should have been made, instead of one. Carefully avoid a long sentence like this, treating of many different subjects on one level. It is called _heterogeneous_.

*44. The connection between different sentences must be kept up by Adverbs used as Conjunctions, or by means of some other connecting words at the beginning of each sentence.*--Leave out the conjunctions and other connecting words, and it will be seen that the following sentences lose much of their meaning:--

"Pitt was in the army for a few months in time of peace. His biographer (_accordingly_) insists on our confessing, that, if the young cornet had remained in the service, he would have been one of the ablest commanders that ever lived. (_But_) this is not all. Pitt (, _it seems_,) was not merely a great poet _in esse_ and a great general _in posse_, but a finished example of moral excellence.... (_The truth is, that_) there scarcely ever lived a person who had so little claim to this sort of praise as Pitt. He was (_undoubtedly_) a great man. (_But_) his was not a complete and well-proportioned greatness. The public life of Hampden or of Somers resembles a regular drama which can be criticised as a whole, and every scene of which is to be viewed in connection with the main action. The public life of Pitt (, _on the other hand_,) is," &c.

The following are some of the most common connecting adverbs, or connecting phrases: (1) expressing consequence, similarity, repetition, or resumption of a subject--_accordingly_, _therefore_, _then_, _naturally_, _so that_, _thus_, _in this way_, _again_, _once more_, _to resume_, _to continue_, _to sum up_, _in fact_, _upon this_; (2) expressing opposition--_nevertheless_, _in spite of this_, _yet_, _still_, _however_, _but_, _on the contrary_, _on the other hand_; (3) expressing suspension--_undoubtedly ... but_; _indeed ... yet_; _on the one hand ... on the other_; _partly ... partly_; _some ... others_.

Avoid a style like that of Bishop Burnet, which strings together a number of sentences with "and" or "so," or with no conjunction at all:

"Blake with the fleet happened to be at Malaga, before he made war upon Spain; _and_ some of his seamen went ashore, _and_ met the Host carried about; _and_ not only paid no respect to it, but laughed at those who did." Write "_When_ Blake &c."

*45. The connection between two long sentences sometimes requires a short intervening sentence, showing the transition of thought.*

"Without force or opposition, it (chivalry) subdued the fierceness of pride and power; it obliged sovereigns to submit to the soft collar[16] of social esteem, compelled stern authority to submit to elegance, and gave a dominating vanquisher of laws to be subdued by manners. But now (_all is to be changed_:) all the pleasing illusions which made power gentle and obedience liberal, which harmonized the different shades of life, and which, by a bland assimilation, incorporated into politics the sentiments that beautify and soften private society, are to be dissolved by this new conquering empire of light and reason." If the words italicized were omitted, the transition would be too abrupt: the conjunction _but_ alone would be insufficient.

FOOTNOTES:

[5] _For_, at the beginning of a sentence, sometimes causes temporary doubt, while the reader is finding out whether it is used as a conjunction or preposition.

[6] _It_ should refer (1) either to the Noun immediately preceding, or (2) to some Noun superior to all intervening Nouns in emphasis. See (25).

[7] So useful that, on mature consideration, I am disposed to adopt "that" here and in several of the following exceptional cases.

[8] Of course "and which" may be used where "which" precedes.

[9] "That which," where _that_ is an _object_, _e.g._ "then (set forth) _that which_ is worse," _St. John_ ii. 10, is rare in modern English.

[10] Sometimes the emphatic Adverb comes at the beginning, and causes the transposition of an Auxiliary Verb, "_Gladly_ do I consent."

[11] Of course punctuation will remove the ambiguity; but it is better to express oneself clearly, as far as possible, independently of punctuation.

[12] Professor Bain.

[13] See (30).

[14] The repetition of Auxiliary Verbs and Pronominal Adjectives is also conducive to clearness.

[15] Professor Bain says: "In the epigram the mind is roused by a conflict or contradiction between the form of the language and the meaning really conveyed."

[16] This metaphor is not recommended for imitation.

* * * * *

BREVITY.

*46. Metaphor is briefer than literal statement.* See (13).

"The cares and responsibilities of a sovereign often disturb his sleep," is not so brief as "Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown," where the effect of care on the mind is assimilated to the effect of a heavy crown pressing on the head.

*47. General terms are briefer, though less forcible, than particular terms.* Thus: "He devours _literature_, no matter of what kind," is shorter than, "Novels or sermons, poems or histories, no matter what, he devours them all."

*47 a. A phrase may be expressed by a word.*

"These impressions _can never be forgotten_, i.e. are _indelible_."

"The style of this book is _of such a nature that it cannot be understood_, i.e. _unintelligible_."

The words "of such a nature that" are often unnecessarily inserted. See the extract from Sir Archibald Alison.

*48. Participles can often be used as brief (though sometimes ambiguous) equivalents of phrases containing Conjunctions and Verbs.*

"Hearing (when he heard) this, he advanced." See (7) for more instances. So "phrases _containing_ conjunctions" means "phrases _that contain_ conjunctions." "_This done_, (for, _when this was done_) he retired."

Sometimes the participle "being" is omitted. "France at our doors, he sees no danger nigh," for "France being" or "though France is."

*49. Participles and participial adjectives may be used like Adjectives, as equivalents for phrases containing the Relative.*

"The never-_ceasing_ wind," "the _clamouring_ ocean," "the _drenching_ rain," are instances. The licence of inventing participial adjectives by adding _-ing_ to a noun, is almost restricted to poetry. You could not write "the _crannying_ wind" in prose.

*50. A statement may sometimes be briefly implied instead of being expressed at length.* Thus, instead of "The spirit of Christianity was humanizing, and therefore &c.," or "Christianity, since it was (or being) of a humanizing spirit, discouraged &c.," we can write more briefly and effectively, "Gladiatorial shows were first discouraged, and finally put down, by the _humanizing spirit of Christianity_." So instead of "The nature of youth is thoughtless and sanguine, and therefore &c.," we can write, "The danger of the voyage was depreciated and the beauty of the island exaggerated by _the thoughtless nature of youth_."

Sometimes a mere name or epithet implies a statement. "It was in vain that he offered the Swiss terms: war was deliberately preferred by the _hardy mountaineers_," _i.e._ "by the Swiss, _because they were mountaineers and hardy_." "The deed was applauded by all honest men, but the Government affected to treat it as murder, and set a price upon the head of (him whom they called) the _assassin." "The conqueror of Austerlitz_ might be expected to hold different language from _the prisoner of St. Helena_," _i.e._ "Napoleon when elated by the victory of Austerlitz," and "Napoleon when depressed by his imprisonment at St. Helena."

CAUTION.--Different names must not be used for the same person unless each of them derives an appropriateness from its context. Thus, if we are writing about Charles II., it would be in very bad taste to avoid repeating "he" by using such periphrases as the following: "The third of the Stewarts hated business," "the Merry Monarch died in the fifty-fourth year of his age," &c.

*51. Conjunctions may be omitted.* The omission gives a certain forcible abruptness, _e.g._ "You say this: I (on the other hand) deny it."

When sentences are short, as in Macaulay's writings, conjunctions may be advantageously omitted.

Where a contrast is intended, the conjunction _but_ usually prepares the way for the second of the two contrasted terms: "He is good _but_ dull." Where _and_ is used instead of _but_, the incongruity savours of epigram: "He always talks truthfully _and_ prosily." "He is always amusing _and_ false."

*51 a. The Imperative Mood may be used for "if."*

"_Strip_ (for, _if you strip_) Virtue of the awful authority she derives from the general reverence of mankind, and you rob her of half her majesty."

*52. Apposition may be used so as to convert two sentences into one.*

"We called at the house of a person to whom we had letters of introduction, _a musician_, and, what is more, a _good friend_ to all young students of music." This is as clear as, and briefer than, "He was a musician, &c."

*53. Condensation may be effected by not repeating (1) the common subject of several verbs, (2) the common object of several verbs or prepositions.*

(1) "He resided here for many years, and, after he had won the esteem of all the citizens, (_he_) died," &c. So, (2) "He came to, and was induced to reside in, this city," is shorter than "He came to this city, and was induced to reside in it."

Such condensation often causes obscurity, and, even where there is no obscurity, there is a certain harshness in pausing on light, unemphatic words, such as _to_, _in_, &c., as in the first example.

*54. Tautology.*--The fault of repeating the same word several times unnecessarily is called _tautology_, e.g.:

"This is a painful _circumstance_; it is a _circumstance_ that I much _regret_, and he also will much _regret_ the _circumstance_." But the fault is not to be avoided by using different words to mean the same thing, as, "This is a painful _event_; it is a _circumstance_ that I _much regret_, and he also will _greatly lament_ the _occurrence_." The true remedy is to arrange the words in such a manner that there may be no unnecessary repetition, thus: "This is a painful circumstance, a circumstance that causes me, and will cause him, deep regret."

The repetition of the same meaning in slightly different words is a worse fault than the repetition of the same word. See, for examples, the extract from Sir Archibald Alison, at the end of the book. Thus "_A burning thirst_ for conquests is a characteristic of this nation. It is an _ardent passion_ that &c." Other instances are--"The _universal_ opinion of _all_ men;" "His judgment is so _infallible_ that it is _never deceived_," &c.

*55. Parenthesis may be used with advantage to brevity.*

"We are all (and who would not be?) offended at the treatment we have received," is shorter and more forcible than the sentence would have been if the parenthesis had been appended in a separate sentence: "Who, indeed, would not be offended?"

Extreme care must, however, be taken that a parenthesis may not obscure the meaning of a long sentence.

*56. Caution: let clearness be the first consideration.* It is best, at all events for beginners, not to aim so much at being brief, or forcible, as at being perfectly clear. Horace says, "While I take pains to be brief, I fall into obscurity," and it may easily be seen that several of the rules for brevity interfere with the rules for clearness.

Forcible style springs from (1) vividness and (2) exactness of thought, and from a corresponding (1) vividness and (2) exactness in the use of words.

(1) When you are describing anything, endeavour to _see_ it and describe it as you see it. If you are writing about a man who was killed, _see_ the man before you, and ask, was he _executed_, _cut down_, _run through the body_, _butchered_, _shot_, or _hanged_? If you are writing about the capture of a city, was the city _stormed_, _surprised_, _surrendered_, _starved out_, or _demolished before surrender_? Was an army _repelled_, _defeated_, _routed_, _crushed_, or _annihilated_?

(2) Exactness in the use of words requires an exact knowledge of their meanings and differences. This is a study by itself, and cannot be discussed here.[17]

FOOTNOTES:

[17] See _English Lessons for English People_, pp. 1-53.

EXERCISES

_For an explanation of the manner in which these Exercises are intended to be used, see the Preface._

_A number in brackets by itself, or followed by a letter,_ e.g. _(43), (40 a), refers to the Rules._

_Letters_ by themselves _in brackets_, e.g. _(b), refer to the explanations or hints appended to each sentence._

_N.B..--(10 a) refers to the first section of Rule (10); (10 a') to the Rule following Rule (10)._

1. "Pleasure and excitement had more attractions for him _than_ (_a_) (36) (37 _a_) _his friend_, and the two companions became estranged (15 _a_) _gradually_."

(_a_) Write (1) "than for his friend," or (2) "than had his friend," "had more attractions than his friend."

2. "(_a_) He soon grew tired of solitude even in that beautiful scenery, (36) the pleasures of the retirement (8) _which_ he had once pined for, and (36) leisure which he could use to no good purpose, (_a_) (30) _being_ (15) _restless by nature_."

(_a_) This sentence naturally stops at "purpose." Also "being restless" seems (wrongly) to give the reason why "leisure" could not be employed. Begin "Restless by nature...."

3. "The opponents of the Government are naturally, and not (_a_) (40 _a_) _without justification_, elated at the failure of the bold attempt to return two supporters of the Government at the recent election, (_b_) (10 _a'_) _which_ is certainly to be regretted."

(_a_) "unjustifiably." (_b_) Write, for "which," either (1) "an attempt that &c.," or (2) "a failure that &c."

4. "Carelessness in the Admiralty departments has co-operated with Nature to weaken the moral power of a Government that particularly needs to be thought efficient in (_a_) (5) _this_ _respect_, (_b_) (29) _to_ counterbalance a general distrust of its excessive _desire_ (_c_) (47 _a_) _to please everybody_ in Foreign Affairs."

(_a_) Write "the Navy." (_b_) Instead of "to" write "in order to," so as to distinguish the different infinitives, (_c_) "obsequiousness."

5. "(_a_) He was sometimes supported by Austria, who, oddly enough, appears under Count Beust to have been more friendly to Italy _than_ (37 _a_) _France_, (30) _in this line of action_."

(_a_) Begin with "In this line of action." Why? (_b_) Write "than was France" or "than France was."

6. "There was something so startling in (_a_) (5) _this_ assertion, (_a_) (4) _that_ the discoveries of previous investigators were to be (_b_) (47 _a_) _treated as though they had never been made_, and (4) _that one who had not yet_ (47 _a_) _attained the age of manhood_ had superseded the grey-headed philosophers (8) _who_ had for centuries patiently sought after the truth, (4) _that_ (_a_) (5) _it_ naturally provoked derision."

(_a_) "This," "that," and "it," cause a little perplexity. Write "The startling assertion that the discoveries...." (_b_) "ignored." (_c_) "a mere youth," "a mere stripling."

7. "One of the recommendations (_on which very_ (_a_) (26) (47, _a_) _much depended_) of the Commission was that a council in each province should establish smaller councils, each to have the oversight of a small district, and (_b_) (37) report to a central council on the state of Education in (_c_) (5) it."

(_a_) Write "cardinal recommendations." Derive "cardinal." (_b_) Write, either (1) "and should report," or (2) "and to report." (_c_) Write "in its province," or "district."

8. "At this (_a_) (1) _period_ an (_b_) (11) _event_ (_c_) (1) _transpired_ that destroyed the last hopes of peace. The king fell from his horse and died two hours after the fall (_d_) (30), _which was occasioned by his horse's stumbling on a mole-hill, while he was on his return from reviewing his soldiers_."

(_a_) What is a "period"? (_b_) Express the particular kind of event ("accident"). (_c_) What is the meaning of "transpired"? (_d_) Transpose thus: "While the king was on his return ... his horse ...; the king fell and &c." The cause should precede the effect.

9. "He determined (_c_) on selling all his estates, and, as soon as this was done (40 _a_), _to_ (_c_) _quit_ the country, (_a_) (33) believing that his honour demanded this sacrifice and (40) (40 _a_) _in_ (_b_) _the_ hope of satisfying his creditors."

(_a_) Begin with "Believing that &c." (_b_) "hoping thereby to satisfy &c." (_c_) "to sell" or "on quitting.".

10. "He read patiently on, Leading Articles, Foreign Correspondence, Money Article and all; (_a_) (43) during which his father fell asleep, and he (_b_) went in search of his sister."

Point out the absurdity of "during which" applied to the last part of the sentence. (_a_) "Meanwhile." (_b_) Insert "then."

11. "The general was quite (_a_) (1) _conscious_ (40 _a_) _how_ treacherous were the intentions of _those who were_ (_b_) (49) _entertaining_ him, and (40 _a_) _of the_ dangers from which he had _escaped_ (15) _lately_."

(_a_) Distinguish between "conscious" and "aware." _(b_) "entertainers."

12. "If _certain_ (_a_) (11) _books_ had been published a hundred years ago, there can be no doubt that _certain recent_ (_b_) (11) _historians_ would have made great use of them. But it _would_ (_c_) (15 _b_) _not_, on that account, be judicious in a writer of our own times to publish an edition of the works of _one of these_ (_b_) (11) _historians_, in which large extracts from these books should be incorporated with the original text."

(_a_) "Mrs. Hutchinson's Memoirs." (_b_) "Mr. Hume." (_c_) Add at the end of the sentence, "Surely not."

13. "He made no attempt to get up a petition, (32) though he did not like the new representative quite so well _as_ (_a_) (37 _a_) _his colleagues_."

(_a_) "as did his colleagues" or "as he liked his colleagues."

14. "Though he was (_a_) (15) _obstinate_ and (15) _unprincipled_, yet he could not face an angered father (15 _a_) _in spite of his effrontery_."

(_a_) Begin with "Obstinate."

15. "He was known to his country neighbours (_a_) (15) _during more than forty years_ as a gentleman of cultivated mind, (40 _a_) _whose principles were high_, (40 _a_) _with polished address_, happy in his family, and (_b_) (40 _a_) _actively_ discharging local duties; and (40 _a_) _among_ political men, as an honest, industrious, and sensible member of Parliament, (40 a) _without_ (_c_) _eagerness_ to display his talents, (40 _a_) _who_ (10 _g_) _was_ stanch to his party, and attentive to the interests of _those whose_ (_d_) (47 _a_) _representative he was_."

(_a_) "During more &c.," is emphatic, and affects the latter as well as the former half of the sentence: hence it should stand first. (_b_) "in the discharge of." (_c_) "not eager." (_d_) Condense into one word.

16. "The poor think themselves no more disgraced by taking bribes at elections _than_ (_a_) (37 _a_) _the rich_ by offering them."

(_a_) Write (1) "Than the rich think themselves disgraced," or (2) "Than they think the rich disgraced."

17. "We are told that the Sultan Mahmoud, by his perpetual wars, (_a_) (41) and his tyranny, (_a_) (41) had filled his dominions with (_b_) (1) _misfortune and_ (_c_) (11) _calamity_, and _greatly_ (_d_) (11) _diminished_ the population of the Persian Empire. _This great Sultan had_ (_e_) (50) _a Vizier_. _We are not_ (_f_) (55) (15) _informed_ whether he was a humorist or an enthusiast, (_g_) _but he_ pretended (_h_) that he had learned from (_i_) (11) _some one_ how to understand the language of birds, so that _he_ (_j_) (5) knew what was said by any bird that opened its mouth. (_k_) (44) One evening he was with the Sultan, returning from hunting. They saw a couple of owls _which_ (10 _g_) _were_ sitting upon a tree (_l_) (8) _which_ grew near an old wall out of a heap of rubbish. The Sultan said (6) he should like to know what the two owls were saying to one another, _and asked the_ (_m_) _Vizier to_ listen to their discourse and give him an account of it. The Vizier, (_n_) (31) pretending to be very attentive to the owls, approached the tree. He (_o_) returned to the Sultan and said that (6) he had heard part of their conversation, but did not wish to tell him what it was. (_p_) (5) _He_, not (_q_) (31) being satisfied with this answer, forced him to repeat everything the owls had said (20) _exactly_. (_r_) (44) (5) (6) _He_ told (5) _him_ that the owls were arranging a treaty of marriage between their children, and that one of them, after agreeing to settle five hundred villages upon the female owl, had prayed (6) that God would grant a long life to Sultan Mahmoud, because as long as he reigned over them they would never want ruined villages. The story says (_s_) _that_ (_t_) (5) _he_ was touched with the fable, (30) and (_s_) _that_ he (_a_) (39) from that time forward _consulted_ (15) _the good of his people_, and that he rebuilt the towns and villages (_v_) _which_ had been destroyed."

(_a_) "abroad ... at home." (_b_) "ruin." (_c_) "desolation." (_d_) "half unpeopled." (_e_) "The Vizier of &c." (_f_) "We are not informed" is emphatic, and therefore should be inverted, "whether he was, &c., we are not informed." (_g_) "but he" will be omitted when "the Vizier" is made the subject of "pretended." (_h_) "Pretended" once meant "claimed," "professed." Write "professed." (_i_) "a certain dervish." (_j_) Introduce a new subject that you may substitute "Vizier" for "he," thus: "so that not a bird could open its mouth, but the Vizier knew &c." (_k_) "As he was, one evening, &c." (_l_) Note that the tree is represented as growing out of _ruins_. This is in accordance with the story of the mischief Mahmoud had done. (_m_) Omit this. (_n_) "Suspense" is out of place in a simple narrative like this; the sentence therefore ends with "owls." (_o_) "Upon his return." (_p_) "The Sultan" (_q_) "would not be satisfied." (_r_) "You must know then, &c." (_s_) Omit. (_t_) "so touched ... that." (_u_) end with "people." (_v_) Addison here uses "_which_" probably because of the preceding "that." We have to choose between sound and clearness. "Which" implies that _all_ the villages in the country had been destroyed, whereas the country had been only (see above) "_half_ unpeopled."

18. "Though this great king never permitted any pastime to interfere with the duties of state, which he considered to be _superior to_ (54) _all other claims and of paramount importance_, and (_a_) (37) kept himself so far under control that he allowed no one pursuit or amusement to run to any excess, yet he _took_ (54) _great pleasure in_ the chase, _of which he was_ (_b_) (2) _excessively_ (54) _fond_, and for the purposes of which he created several _large_ parks _of considerable_ (54) _magnitude_."

(_a_) Either repeat "though," or else strikeout the first "though" and begin a new sentence after "excess." (_b_) Point out the contradiction between "excessively" and what precedes.

19. "To inundate (_a_) (11) their land, to man their ships, to leave their country, with all its miracles of art and industry, its cities, its villas, and its (_b_) (11) pastures buried under the waves (_c_) (11); to bear to a distant climate their (_d_) (11) faith and their old (_e_) (11) liberties; to establish, with auspices _that_(10 _a) might perhaps be happier_, the new (_f_) (11) _constitution of their commonwealth_, in a (_g_) (11) foreign and strange (_h_) (11) land, in the Spice Islands of the Eastern Seas, (38) were the plans which they had the spirit to form."

(_a_) Introduce "dykes." (_b_) Introduce something _peculiar_ to the Dutch, _e.g._ "canals," "tulip gardens." (_c_) "of the German Ocean." (_d_) The Dutch were Calvinists. (_e_) The country was in old times "Batavia," so that "Batavian" would be a fit epithet to denote what the Dutch had inherited from their forefathers. (_f_) "Stadthaus," the German for "town-hall." (_g_) "other stars." (_h_) "strange vegetation."

20. "During twenty years of unexampled prosperity, _during_ (_a_) _which_ the wealth of the nation had shot (14 _a_) _up and extended its branches_ on every side, and the funds _had_ (14 _a_) _soared_ to a higher point than had been ever attained before, (_b_) (15) speculation had become general."

(_a_) Omit. (_b_) Begin a new sentence: "This, _or_ Prosperity, had increased the taste for speculation."

21. "At that time (_a_) (16) a mere narrow-minded pedant (for he deserves no better name) had been set up by the literary world as a great author, and as the supreme (_b_) critic, alone qualified to deliver decisions _which could never be_ (_b_) _reversed_ upon (15 _a_) _the literary productions of the day_."

(_a_) End with " ... one who was--for he deserves no better name--a mere narrow-minded pedant." (_b_) "Which could never be reversed" can be expressed in one word; or else "the supreme ... reversed" may be condensed into a personification: "a very Minos of contemporary criticism."

22. "With the intention of fulfilling his promise, and (40 _a_) _intending also_ to clear himself from the suspicion that attached to him, he determined to ascertain _how_ (40 _a_) _far this testimony_ was corroborated, and (_a_) (40 _a_) the motives of the prosecutor, (_b_) (43) who had begun the suit last Christmas."

(_a_) "what were." (_b_) Begin a new sentence, "The latter &c.," or "The suit had been begun &c."

23. "The Jewish nation, relying on the teaching of their prophets, looked forward to a time when its descendants should be as numerous as _the heavenly_ (11) _bodies_, and when the _products_ (_a_) (11) _of the earth_ should be _so increased as to create an abundant_ (54) _plenty_, when each man should rest beneath the shade of his own (_a_) (11) _trees_, and when the _instruments_ (11) _of war_ should be _converted to the_ (11) _uses of peace_."

(_a_) Mention some "products," "trees" of Palestine.

24. "He replied (32), when he was asked the reason for his sudden unpopularity, that he owed it to his refusal to annul the commercial treaty, (_a_) (8) _which_(10 _a'_) gave great displeasure to the poorer classes."

(_a_) Point out the ambiguity, and remove it by (8) or (10 _a'_).

25. "I saw my old schoolfellow again by mere accident when I was in London at the time of the first Exhibition, (19) _walking_ down Regent Street and looking in at the shops."

Point out and remove the ambiguity.

26. "He remained in the House while his speech was taken into consideration; _which_ (52) _was_ a common practice with him, because the debates amused his sated mind, and indeed _he used to say_ (_a_) (6 _b_) _that they_ were sometimes as good as a comedy. His Majesty had certainly never seen _a more_ (17) _sudden turn_ in any comedy of intrigue, either at his own play-house or the Duke's, than that which this memorable debate produced."

(_a_) "and were sometimes, he used to say, as good &c."

27. "The Commons would not approve the war (20) _expressly_; neither did they as yet condemn it (20) _expressly_; and (_a_) (18) the king might even have obtained a supply for continuing hostilities (19) from them, on condition _of_ (_b_) _redressing_ grievances _connected with the_ (_c_) _administration of affairs at home_, among which the Declaration of Indulgence was a very _important_ (_d_) (15_a_) one."

(_a_) Write "they were even ready to grant the king &c." (_b_) Use the verb with a subject, (_c_) Condense all this into one adjective, meaning "that which takes place at home." (_d_) End with a noun, "importance," or "foremost place."

28. "Next to thinking clearly, (_a_) (5) _it is_ useful to speak clearly, and whatever your position in life may hereafter be _it_ cannot be such (54) as not to be improved by _this_, (_b_) so that _it_ is worth while making almost any effort to acquire (_c_) _it_, if _it_ is not a natural gift: (_d_) _it_ being an undoubted (_d_) fact that the effort to acquire _it_ must be successful, to some extent at least, if (_d_) _it_ be moderately persevered in."

(_a_) "Next in utility ... comes speaking clearly--a power that must be of assistance to you &c." (_b_)" If, therefore, you cannot speak clearly by nature, you &c." (_c_) "this power." (_d_) Omit "fact;" "for undoubtedly, with moderate perseverance &c."

29. "_It_ (_a_) (38) _appears to me_ (15) _a greater victory than Agincourt, a grander triumph of wisdom and faith and courage than even the English constitution or_ (_b_) _liturgy_, to have beaten back, or even fought against and stemmed in ever so small a degree, those _basenesses that_ (_c_) (10_a_) _beset_ human nature, which are now held so invincible that the influences of them are assumed as the fundamental axioms of economic science."

(_a_) Begin with "To have beaten &c.," and end with "liturgy." (_b_) Repeat for clearness and emphasis, "the English." (_c_) "The besetting basenesses of &c."

30. "The (_a_) (2) _unprecedented_ impudence of our youthful representative reminds us forcibly of the _unblushing and_ (54) (40) _remarkable_ effrontery (_c_) (which (26) he almost succeeds in equalling) of the Member for St. Alban's, whom our (_b_) (1) _neophyte_ (_b_) (1) _alluded to_, in the last speech with which he favoured _those whom_ (47_a_) _he represents_, (19) as his pattern and example."

(_a_) Show that "unprecedented" is inconsistent with what follows. (_b_) What is the meaning of "neophyte," "alluded to"? (_c_) Begin a new sentence, "Our young adventurer &c.," and end with "and he almost succeeds in equalling his master."

31. "The (_a_) (1) _veracity_ of this story is questionable, and there is the more reason for doubting the (_a_) (1) _truth_ of the narrator, because in his remarks on the (1) _observation_ of the Sabbath he distinctly (_a_) (1) _alludes to_ a custom that can be shown never to have existed."

(_a_) Distinguish between "veracity" and "truth," "observation" and "observance." Show the inconsistency between "allude" and "distinctly."

32. "It (_a_) (5) is a most just distribution, (10 _a_) _which_ the late Mr. Tucker has dwelt upon _so_ (_b_) largely in his works, between pleasures in which we are passive, and pleasures in which we are active. And I believe every attentive observer of human life will _assent to_ (_c_) _this position_, that however (_d_) _grateful_ the sensations may occasionally be in which we are passive, it is not these, but the latter class of our pleasures, (8) _which_ constitutes satisfaction, (_e_) (38) _which_ supply that regular stream of moderate and miscellaneous enjoyments in (10 _c_) _which_ happiness, as distinguished from voluptuousness, consists."

(_a_) "There is great justice in &c." (b) Omit "so." (_c_) "admit." (_d_) Not often now used in this sense. (_e_) Repeat the antecedent, "I mean those (pleasures) &c."

33. "The prince seemed to have before him a _limitless_ (54) _prospect of unbounded_ prosperity, carefully (33) _trained_ for the (_a_) _tasks_ of the throne, and stimulated by the (_a_) _pattern_ of his father, (_b_) who (43) _breathed his_ (3) _last_ suddenly at the age of sixty-two, just after the conclusion of the war."

(_a_) Find more appropriate words. (_b_) Begin a new sentence.

34. "On his way, he visited a son of an old friend (_a_) (25) _who_ had asked _him_ to call upon _him_ on his journey northward. _He_ (_b_) (5) was overjoyed to see _him_, and (_c_) _he_ sent for one of _his_ most intelligent workmen and told (_d_) _him_ to consider _himself_ at (_e_) _his_ service, (30) as _he himself_ could not take (_f_) _him_ as _he_ (_g_) wished about the city."

(_a_) If you mean that the "son" had "asked him," write "An old friend's son who;" if you mean that the "friend" had "asked him," write "He had been asked by an old friend to call, on his journey northward, upon his son. Accordingly he visited him on his way." (_b_) Use, instead of _he_, some name meaning "one who entertains others." (_c_) Use participle, (_d_) "The man." (_e_) "the stranger's." (_f_) "his guest." (_g_) Write "could have wished" to make it clear that "he" means "the host."

35. "Tillotson died in this year. He was exceedingly beloved both by King William and by Queen Mary (43), who nominated Dr. Tennison, Bishop of Lincoln, to succeed him."

36. "(_a_) The entertainment was arranged with a magnificence that was (_b_) perfectly _stupendous_ and (_c_) _most unprecedented_, and which quite kept up his Lordship's _unrivalled_ reputation for _unparalleled_ hospitality, and, thanks to the _unequalled_ energy of Mr. Smith, who is _rapidly becoming one of the most effective_ toast-masters in the kingdom, the toasts were given with a spirit _quite unexampled_ on occasions of this nature; and indeed we were forcibly reminded in this respect of the _inimitable_ entertainment of three years ago (2)."

(_a_) Omit most of the epithets, or soften them down. Point out the contradictions in the sentence as it stands. (_b_) Write "a remarkable magnificence that quite &c.," thus dispensing with the following "and." (_c_) Show that "most" is superfluous.

37. "If we compare Shakespeare with the other dramatic authors of the Elizabethan era, _his wonderful superiority to them in the_ (15) _knowledge of human nature_ is _what_ (15 _a_) _principally strikes us_."

38. "The prince found himself at once in sore perplexity how to provide himself with the commonest comforts or even necessaries of life, when he landed on this desolate coast, being (33) accustomed to luxury."

39. "This make-shift policy recommended itself to the succeeding _ministers_ (_a_) (50), _both because they were timid and because they were prejudiced_, and they were delighted to _excuse_ (_b_) (13) _themselves by quoting_ the example of one who (_c_) (34) had controlled the Liberals and humoured the Conservatives, (37) commended himself to the country at large by his unfailing good-humour, and (_d_) (44) (37) done nothing worthy of the name of statesman."

(_a_) "to the timidity and prejudices of &c." (_b_) "shelter themselves behind." (_c_) "while he had at once." (_d_) "had yet done."

40. "William Shakespeare was the sun among the lesser lights of English poetry, and a native of Stratford-on-Avon (14 _a_)."

41. "(15 _b_) I think, gentlemen, you must confess that any one of you would have done the same (32), if you had been tempted as I was then, placed starving and ragged among wasteful luxury and comfort, deliberately instigated to acts of dishonesty by those whom I had been taught from infancy to love, (_a_) praised when I stole, mocked or punished when I failed to (15 _a_) _do_ (_b_) _so_."

(_a_) Insert another infinitive beside "love." "Love" produces "obedience." (b) Repeat the verb instead of "do so."

42. "So far from being the first (54) _aggressor_, he _not_ (22) _only_ refused to prosecute his old friend when a favourable opportunity presented itself for revenging himself thus upon him, _but also_ his friend's adviser, John Smith. Smith (_a_) _at all_ (23) _events_ suspected, if he did not know of the coming danger, and had given no information of it."

(_a_) If "at all events" qualifies "Smith," the sentence must be altered. "Yet, however innocent his friend may have been, at all events Smith suspected...." If the words qualify "suspected," place them after "suspected."

43. "It is quite true that he paid 5_s._ per day to English navvies, _and even 6s._, (19) in preference to 2_s._ 6_d._ to French navvies."

44. "Having climbed to the _apex_ of the Righi to enjoy the spectacle of the sun-rise, I found myself so _incommoded_ by a number of _illiterate individuals_ who had _emerged_ from the hotel for a (_a_) (1) _similar_ purpose, that I determined to quit them _at the earliest practicable period_; and therefore, without stopping to _partake of breakfast_, I _wended my way_ back _with all possible celerity_." (3)

(_a_) "the same."

45. "You admit that miracles are _not natural_. Now whatever _is unnatural_ is wrong, and since, by your own admission, miracles are _unnatural_, it follows that miracles are wrong." (1)

46. "Who is the man that has dared to call into _civilized_ alliance the (_a_) (41) inhabitant of the woods, to delegate to the (_a_) Indian the defence of our disputed rights?

(_a_) Insert some antithetical or other epithets.

47. "A (_a_) _very_ (11) _small proportion_ indeed of those who have attempted to solve this problem (_b_) (19) have succeeded in obtaining even a plausible solution."

(_a_) State what proportion succeeded, or, if you like, what failed: "not one in a hundred." (_b_) Begin, "Of all those that &c."

48. "_To be suddenly_ (_a_) (47 _a_) _brought into contact_ with a system (8) _which_ forces one to submit to wholesale imposture, and _to being_ (40 _a_) _barbarously ill-treated_, naturally repels (_a_) (15 _a_) _one_."

(_a_) Write, either (1) "Collision ... causes a natural repulsion," or (2) "When brought into contact ... one is naturally repelled," or (if "ill-treatment" is emphatic), (3) "One is naturally repelled by collision with &c."

49. "We annex a letter recently addressed by Mr. ----'s direction to the Editor of the ----, in contradiction of statements, equally untrue, which appeared in that periodical, _and_ (_a_) (9) _which_ the editor has undertaken to insert in the next number.... I am sure that all must regret that statements _so_ (_b_) (51) _utterly_ erroneous should have (_c_) (23) _first_ appeared in a publication of such high character."

(_a_) What the writer intended to express was that the editor had undertaken to insert, not the "statements," but the "contradiction." (_b_) Omit either "so" or "utterly." (_c_) "appeared first," or, "for the first time."

50. "This is a book _which_ (10 _a_) _is_ short and amusing, _which_ (10 _a_) _can be easily_ (_a_) _understood, which_ (10 _a_) is admirably adapted for _the purpose for which it_ (_b_) _was_ (54) _written_; and (10 _e_) _which_ ought to be more popular than the last work _which_ (10 _a_) _was_ published by the same author."

(_a_) Express "which can be understood" in one adjective. (_b_) "Its purpose."

51. "When thousands are _left_ (19) without (40) _pity_ and without (40) _attention_ (19) _on_ a field of battle, amid (40) the insults of an enraged foe and (40) the trampling of horses, while the blood from their wounds, freezing as it flows, binds them to the earth, and (40) they are exposed to the piercing air, _it_ (15 _a_) _must be indeed a painful scene_."

The whole sentence must be remedied by (40).

52. "(_a_) The youth was naturally thoughtful, and disposed (19) besides by his early training--(31) which had been conducted with great care, the object of his parents being to _pave_ (14) _his way_ as far as possible over the _stormy_ (14) _sea of temptation_ and to _lead_ him into the _harbour_ of virtue--to a sincere (_b_) (1) _remorse_ (19) for the (_b_) (1) _crimes_ that he had committed in the sight of heaven, and also for his recent (_b_) (1) _sin_ in breaking the laws of his country."

(_a_) First state the reasons for his being "disposed." "The youth was naturally thoughtful; moreover, his early training had been conducted with great care by his parents, whose &c. .... He was therefore disposed &c." (_b_) What is the difference between "remorse" and "repentance," between "sin" and "crime"?

53. "(_a_) _One day_ (54) _early in the morning_, the general was approached by a messenger, (30) in the midst of the _entanglements and perplexities_ which had _unexpectedly surprised_ him, when the _perilous hour of_ (54) _danger_ was at hand, and (37), in spite of their promises, even the tribes that were _well disposed_ (54) _and friendly_, were threatening to _desert him, and_ (54) _leave him to face the enemy_ (_b_) (23) _alone_."

Condense the sentence by omitting some of the italicized words, _e.g._ (_a_) "Early one morning." (_b_) Though there is no real ambiguity (unless a wrong emphasis is placed on "enemy"), yet, in strictness, "alone" ought to qualify "enemy." Write therefore, "alone in the face of the enemy."

54. "_A man_ (_a_) (10 _d_) _who_ neglected the ordinary duties *of* life, and, immersed in study, devoted himself to grand plans for the benefit of mankind, (_b_) (44) _and_ refused to provide for the wants of those dependent on him, and suffered his aged relatives to become paupers because he would not help them, (_c_) would, in my opinion, (34) be a bad man, and not altogether (_d_) (40 _a_) without hypocrisy."

(_a_) "If a man." (_b_) "if he refused," or "while he refused." (_c_) "such a man" or "he." (_d_) "to some extent a hypocrite."

55. "I cannot believe in the guilt of (_a_) _one_ (_b_) (10 _e_) _who_, whatever may have been said to the contrary, can be shown, and has been shown by competent testimony proceeding from those who are said to have carefully examined the facts, _in spite_ (23) _of many obstacles_, to have resisted all attempts to (29) induce him to leave his situation, (_c_) (29) to consult his own interests and to (29) establish a business of his own."

(_a_) "his guilt;" (_b_) (1) "for, whatever &c.... it can be shown by &c.... that, in spite of &c., he resisted." Or (2) insert "in spite ... obstacles" between "have" and "carefully." (_c_) (1) "for the purpose of consulting ... and establishing." Or (2) write "and to consult his own interests by establishing &c."

56. "We must seek for the origin of our freedom, (_a_) (37) prosperity, and (_a_) (37) glory, in _that and only_ (_b_) _that_[18] portion of our annals, (30) though _it_ (_c_) _is_ sterile and obscure. The great English people was (_d_) _then_ formed; the notional (_e_) _disposition_ began (_d_) _then_ to exhibit those peculiarities which it has ever since (_e_) _possessed_; and our fathers (_d_) _then_ became emphatically islanders, (_f_) in their politics, (_a_) feelings, and (_a_) manners, _and_ (30 _a_) _not merely in their geographical position_."

(_a_) Repeat the Pronominal Adjective, (_b_) Express the emphatic "only that" by beginning the sentence thus: "It is in that portion of our annals &c." (_c_) Omit. (_d_) "It was then that &c." (_e_) Use words implying something more _marked_ than "disposition," and more _forcible_ than "possessed;" in the latter case, "retained." (_f_) Repeat "islanders."

57. "(_a_) He was _the universal_ (54) _favourite of_ (54) _all_ (8) _who knew him_, and cemented many friendships at this period, (_a_) (33) (moving in the highest circle of society, and, _as he_ (_b_) (50) _had a_ (4 _a_) _certain property, being independent_ of the profits of literature), and soon completely extinguished the breath of slander which at the outset of his career had threatened to sap the foundations of his reputation."

(_a_) Begin "Moving in &c." (_b_) "rendered independent of ... by &c." Show that Rule (14) is violated by the metaphors.

58. "The outward and material form of that city which, during the brief period _which_ (10 _a_) _is_ comprised in our present book, reached the highest pitch of military, artistic, and literary glory, _was of this_ (_a_) (15) _nature_. The progress of _the_ (_b_) (5) _first_ has been already traced."

(_a_) Begin the sentence with "Such was." (_b_) By "the first" is meant "military glory."

59. "The detachment not only failed to take the fort, (30) spite of their numbers and the weakness of the garrison, but also to capture the small force that was encamped outside the town, and was, after some sharp fighting, driven back with inconsiderable loss."

Point out the ambiguity. Remedy it by inserting either "which," or "the assailants."

60. "(_a_) (_b_) _Believing_ that these reforms can _only_ (_c_) (21) be effected as public opinion is prepared for them, and that (5) _this_ will be more or less advanced in different localities, the Bill of the Association, (_a_) (31) which has been for _a_ (3) _considerable period_ in draft, and will be introduced in the next Session of Parliament, provides for _placing_ (_d_) (3) _the control in regard to the points above-mentioned in the_ (3) _hands_ of the ratepayers of each locality; the power to be exercised through representative Licensing Boards to be periodically elected by them."

(_a_) Place the parenthesis first, as an independent sentence: "The Bill of the Association has been ... Parliament." (_b_) What noun is qualified by "believing?" Write "In the belief." (_c_) "effected only so far as they are in accordance with public opinion, which &c." (_d_) "it, or, the Bill provides that the ratepayers ... shall receive control ... and shall exercise this control."

61. "I think they are very (1) _nice_ persons, for they kept me amused for a _long_ (_a_) (11) _time together_ yesterday by their (1) _nice_ stories all about _what they_ (_b_) _have experienced_ in Japan, where they had been for (_a_) _ever so long_, and (_c_) (43) where they said that the natives ripped up _their_ (_d_) (5) stomachs."

(_a_) Mention some time. (_b_) "experiences" or "adventures." (_c_) "among other things, they told us &c." (_d_) "their own."

62. "To contend for advantageous monopolies, which are regarded with a dislike and a suspicion (_a_) _which daily_ (10 _a_) _increases_, (30) _however natural it may be to be annoyed at the loss of that which one has once possessed_, (15 _a_) is _useless_."

(_a_) A compound adjective can be used, including "daily."

63. "Upon entering the rustic place of entertainment to partake of some refreshment, my nerves were horrified by lighting on a number of boisterous individuals who were singing some species of harvest song, and simultaneously imbibing that cup which, if it cheers, also inebriates; and when, banished from their society by the fumes of the fragrant weed, I wended my way to the apartment which adjoined the one in which I had hoped to rest my weary limbs, I found an interesting assortment of the fairer sex, who were holding a separate confabulation apart from the revels of their rougher spouses."

Write "village inn," "next room," &c., for these absurd circumlocutions. See (3).

64. "When Burgoyne was born, in 1782, Napoleon and Wellington _were both boys_ (11)."

Napoleon studied at Brienne, Wellington at Eton. Mention this, and, in order to imply the _boyhood_, call Wellington "Arthur Wellesley."

65. "An honourable friend of mine, who is now, I believe, near me--(38) to whom I never can on any occasion refer without feelings of respect, and, on this subject, (36) feelings of the most grateful homage; (38) whose abilities upon this occasion, as upon some former ones, are not entrusted merely to the perishable eloquence of the (_a_) day, but will live to be the admiration of that (_a_) hour when all of us are mute and most of us forgotten: (_b_) (38) has told you that prudence _is_ (52) the first of virtues, _and_ (52) can never be used in the cause of vice."

(_a_) Though "of the day" is a recognized expression for "ephemeral" or "transitory," yet to use "day" for a short time, and "hour" for a longer, is objectionable. Write _moment_ for _day_. Else write _future_ for _hour_. (_b_) "--this gentleman has told &c."

66. "To see the British artisan and his wife on the Sabbath, neat and clean and cheerful, with their children by their sides, (_a_) (19) _disporting_ themselves under the open canopy of heaven, _is_ (15) _pleasant_."

(_a_) There is no reasonable ground for mistaking the sense here, as the context makes it clear; but since Lord Shaftesbury was questioned whether he meant _disporting_ to qualify "artisan and his wife" or "children," write "and, by their sides, their children disporting &c."

67. "Even if (_a_) _it were_ attended with extenuating circumstances, such conduct would deserve severe reprobation, (_b_) _and it_ is the more called for because _it_ would seem that (_c_) _it_ was the intention of _the author of the crime_, in perpetrating (_e_) _it_, to inflict all the misery that was possible, upon his victim." See (5).

(_a_) Omit "it were." (_b_) "which." (_c_) "to have been." (_d_) Express "author of the crime" in one word. (_e_) Use the noun.

68. "The (_a_) (1) _observance_ of the heavenly bodies must have been attended with great difficulties, (_b_) (30) before the telescope was (_a_) (1) _discovered_, and it is not to be wondered at if the investigations of astronomers were often unsatisfactory, and failed to produce complete (_a_) (1) _persuasion_, (30) (15, _a_) under these disadvantages."

(_a_) What is the difference between "observance" and "observation," "discover" and "invent," "persuasion" and "conviction"? (_b_) Begin "Before &c."

69. "He plunged into the sea once more, (30) not content with his previous exertions. After a long and dangerous struggle, he succeeded in reaching a poor woman that was crying piteously for help, and (_a_) (35) was at last hauled safely to shore."

(_a_) Point put and remedy the ambiguity by inserting "he" or by writing "who," according to the meaning.

70. "Sir John Burgoyne himself, face to face with Todleben, became (_a_) (1) _conscious_ of the difference between the fortifications of San Sebastian and of Sebastopol, (_b_) _which_ (10 _e_) was (_c_) (12) _very weak_ compared with Metz or Paris."

(_a_) What is the exact meaning of _conscious_? (_b_) Avoid the relative, by repeating the name, with a conjunction, (_c_) "weakness itself."

71. "Upon Richard's leaving the (_c_) stage, the Commonwealth was again set up; and the Parliament which Cromwell had (_a_) _broken_ was brought together; but the army and they fell into new disputes: so they were again (_a_) _broken_ by the army: and upon that the nation was like to fall into (_b_) (11) _great_ convulsions."

(_a_) Modern Eng., "broken up." (_b_) "violently convulsed." (_c_) It is a question whether this metaphor is in good taste. The meaning is that Richard "retired from public life." It might be asserted that Richard, the Commonwealth, the Parliament are regarded as so many puppets on a "stage." But this is extremely doubtful. Make _Parliament_ the principal subject: "When Richard retired ... and when the Commonwealth &c.... the Parliament was ... but, falling into a dispute with &c., it was...." See (18) and (43).

72. "What a revolution in the military profession! He began with (_a_) (11) _unnecessary formality_, and (_b_) (11) _inefficient weapons_, and ended with (_c_) (_b_) (11) _greatly improved fire-arms_."

(_a_) "pig-tail and pipe-clay." (_b_) "Six-pounders and flint-locks" are now inefficient compared with "twenty-four-pounders and breech-loaders." (_c_) Something is wanted antithetical to (_a_), perhaps "loose drill" or "open order."

73. "Children fear to go in the dark. Men fear death in the same way. The fear of children is increased by tales. So is the fear of death. The contemplation of death, as the 'wages of sin,' and passage to another world, is holy and religious. The fear of it, as a tribute due unto nature, is weak. In religious meditations on death there is sometimes mixture of vanity and of superstition."

Insert connecting adverbs or conjunctions. See (44).

74. "I have often heard him _reiterate_ (54) _repeatedly_ that he would never again, if a _safe_ (54) _and secure path_ was open to him, prefer the _perilous_ (54) _road of danger_, however _alluring_ (54) _and attractive_ the latter might be."

75. "I thought in my dream that when my friend asked me whether I did not observe anything curious in the conduct of the pigeons, I (_a_) (4 _a_) _remarked_ that if any one of the birds was so bold as to take an atom from a heap of grain in the midst of them, (31) (which (_b_) a detachment guarded, and which, being continually increased and never eaten, seemed useless), all the rest turned against him and pecked him to death for the (_c_) (50) _action_."

(_a_) Point out the ambiguity. (_b_) This should come earlier in the sentence, and not as a parenthesis. "I noticed a heap of grain in the midst of them, guarded by ... Being continually ..., to all appearance, useless: yet." (_c_) "theft."

76. "If this low view of the royal office becomes generally adopted, then sovereigns _who_ (8) have always hitherto commanded the respect of Englishmen will by degrees fall into disrespect."

Point out the ambiguity. Show how it might be removed (_a_) by punctuation, (_b_) by altering "who."

77. "I struck the man in self-defence. I explained this to the magistrate. He would not believe me. Witnesses were called to support my statements. He committed me to prison. He had the right to do this. It is a right that is rarely exercised in such circumstances. I remonstrated."

See (44). Insert conjunctions or connecting adverbs.

78. "He attained a very distinguished position by mere (15) perseverance and common sense, which (52) (10 _a_) qualities are perhaps mostly underrated, (30) though he was deficient in tact and not remarkable for general ability."

79. "_Vindictiveness, which_ (_a_) (50) _is a fault_, (_b_) _and_ which may be defined as _anger_ (10 _a_) _which is caused_ not by sin nor by crime but by personal injury, ought to be carefully distinguished from _resentment, which_ (_a_) (50) _is a virtue_, (_b_) _and_ which is _anger_ (49) _which is natural and_ (_c_) _right_ caused by an act (_d_) which is unjust, because it is unjust, (30 _a_) not because it is inconvenient."

(_a_) "The fault of vindictiveness;" "the virtue of resentment." (_b_) Omit _(c_) "Right" cannot be used as an adjective, but "righteous" can. (_d_) "an act of injustice."

80. "(_a_) He told his friend that (_a_) _his_ brother was surprised that (_a_) _he_ had given so small a contribution, for (_a_) _he_ was (_b_) (12) _a very rich man_, in spite of (_a_) _his_ recent losses and the bad state of trade, (19) (30) compared with himself."

(_a_) Use (6). (_b_) What Asian king was proverbial for wealth?

81. "(_a_) (15 _b_) It must be indeed wrong to (_a_) _crucify_ a Roman citizen if to (_b_) (32) _slay_ one is almost parricide, to (_b_) _scourge_ him is a monstrous crime, and to (_b_) _bind_ him is an outrage."

(_a_) "What must it be...?" (_b_) See (40).

82. "The _universal_ (54) _opinion of all the_ citizens was that the citadel _had been_ (15) _betrayed_, (30) having been captured in broad daylight by a very small number of the enemy, and those unprovided with scaling ladders, and admitted by a postern gate, (15 _a_) and much wearied by a long march."

In any case "betrayed" must come at the end of a sentence. The sentence may be converted into two sentences: "The citadel had been captured.... Naturally therefore ...;" or, "The opinion ... for it had been captured...." Else, if one sentence be used, write "As the citadel had been captured &c."

83. "This author surpassed all _those who were living_ (_a_) _at the same time with him_ in the _forcible_ (_b_) _manner in_ which he could _address_ (_c_) _an_ appeal to the popular sympathy, and in the ease with which he could _draw towards_ (_a_) _himself_ the hearts of his readers."

(_a_) Express in one word. (_b_) "force with." (_c_) Omit.

84. "This great statesman was indeed a pillar of commerce, and a star in the financial world. He guided or impelled the people from the quicksands of Protection and false political economy to the safe harbour of Free Trade; and (_a_) (14 _a_) saved the country several millions."

(_a_) It would be well to literalize the preceding metaphors. Else the literal statement must be changed into a metaphor.

85. "The ministers were most unwilling to meet the Houses, (_a_) (43) (51) _because_ even the boldest of them (though their counsels were _lawless_ (15) _and desperate_) had too much value for his (_b_) (11) _personal safety_ to think of resorting to the (_c_) (12) unlawful modes of extortion that had been familiar to the preceding age."

(_a_) Begin a new sentence with "Lawless and desperate though their counsels had been &c." (_b_) "neck." (_c_) Insert some of these unlawful modes, "benevolences, ship-money, and the other &c."

86. "_We will not_ (_a_) (15) _pretend to guess what_ our grandchildren may think of the character of Lord Byron, as exhibited _in_ (15 _a_) _his poetry_." No writer ever had the whole eloquence of scorn, misanthropy, _and_ (_a_) (15) _despair_ (15 _a_) _so completely at his command_. That _fountain_ (_b_) (12) _of bitterness_ was never dry."

(_a_) "We will not pretend to guess" and "despair" are intended by the author to be emphatic. (_b_) "Marah."

87. "The captain asked to be allowed fifty men, a supply of food, and one hundred and fifty breech-loaders. (44) The general replied coldly that he could not let his subordinate have (_a_) (4) _anything_ that he wanted. (44) The captain was forced to set out (34) with an insufficient force, spite of the superabundance of soldiers doing nothing in the camp (34), and with every obstacle put in his way by a general who from the first had resolved not even to give him ordinary assistance, (_b_) (10 _a'_) _which_ the captain had for some time anticipated."

(_a_) Point out and remove the ambiguity. (_b_) Write, according to the meaning, " ... assistance that" or " ... a resolution that."

88. "I am a practical man, and disbelieve in everything (8) _which_ is not practical; theories (_a_) _which_ amuse philosophers and pedants have no attractions for me, (30) _for this reason_."

(_a_) What difference in the meaning would be caused by the use of "that" for the second "which"?

89. "Yet, when that discovery drew no other severity but the (11 _a_) _turning_ (_a_) _him out of office_, and _the_ (11 _a_) _passing a sentence_ (_b_) _condemning him to die for it_ (31) (which was presently pardoned, and he was after a short confinement restored to his liberty), all men _believed_ that the king knew of the letter, (_c_) (43) and that (6 _b_) the pretended confession of the secretary was only collusion to lay the jealousies of the king's (_d_) (11 _a_) _favouring_ popery, (_e_) (43) which still hung upon him, (30) notwithstanding his (_e_) _writing_ on the Revelation, and his (_e_) _affecting_ to enter on all occasions into controversy, (_e_) asserting in particular that the Pope was Antichrist."

(_a_) "expulsion from." (_b_) "a pretended sentence to death--a pretence that was soon manifested by his pardon and liberation." (_c_) Begin a new sentence: "'The secretary's pretended confession,' it was said, 'was &c.'" (_d_) "the suspicion that the king favoured Popery." (_e_) The juxtaposition of the two verbal nouns, "writing" and "affecting," with the participle "asserting," is harsh. Write, "For, notwithstanding that he affected controversy, and attacked the Pope as Antichrist in his treatise on the Book of Revelation, the king was still suspected."

90. "The opinion that the sun is fixed was once too (_a_) (1) _universal_ to be easily shaken, and a similar prejudice has often (_b_) _rendered_ the progress of new inventions (15 _a_) _very slow_, (19) arising from the numbers of the believers, and not (36) the reasonableness of the belief."

(_a_) Write "general." Show the absurdity of appending "too" to "universal." (_b_) What single word can be substituted for "rendered slow"?

91. "The rest of the generals were willing to surrender unconditionally, (30) _depressed by this unforeseen calamity_; (4) _only_ the young colonel, who retained his presence of mind, represented to them that they were increasing the difficulties of a position in itself very difficult (19) (15, _a_) _by their conduct_."

92. "To (_a_) (31) _an author who_ is, in his expression of any sentiment, wavering between _the_ (_b_) _demands of_ perspicuity and energy (of which _the_ (_c_) (40 _a_) _former of course_ requires the first care, lest (40 _a_) he should fail of both), and (37) doubting whether the (_d_) phrase _which_ (8) _has_ (_e_) _the_ most force and brevity will be (_f_) readily _taken_ (_g_) _in, it may_ (_h_) (3) _be recommended to use_ both (_d_) expressions; first, (_h_) _to expound_ the sense sufficiently to be clearly understood, and then (_i_) _to_ contract it into the most compendious and striking form."

(_a_) Write "When an author &c." (_b_) Can be omitted. (_c_) Assimilate the constructions: "Of which the former must, of course, be aimed at first, lest both be missed." (_d_) Use "expression" or else "phrase" in _both_ places. (_e_) Assimilate the construction to what follows; write "that is most forcible and brief." (_f_) Insert "also." (_g_) "understood." (_h_) "let him use ...; first let him expound." (_i_) Omit.

93. "When I say 'a great man,' I _not_ (22) _only_ mean a man intellectually great but also morally, (38) _who_ (8) has no preference for diplomacy (_a_) (23) _at all events which_ (10 _a_) _is_ mean, petty, and underhanded to secure ends _which_ (8) can be secured by an honest policy _equally_ (20) _well_, (38) _who_ (8) does not resemble Polonius, (_b_) who prefers to get at truth by untruthful tricks, and (_b_) who considers truth a carp _which_ (10 _g_) _is_ to be caught by the bait falsehood. We cannot call a petty intriguer great (_c_), (30) though we may be forced to call an unscrupulous _man by that_ (15 _a_) _name_."

(_a_) "at all events no preference." (_b_) Why is _who_ right here? If you like, you can write, "does not, like Polonius, prefer ... and consider." (_c_) End with "we cannot give the name to a petty intriguer."

94. "I regret that I have some (_a_) (3) _intelligence which_ (10 _a_) _is of a most_ (3) _painful nature_, and which I must tell you at once, though (_b_) _I should like to defer it_ on (_c_) (40 _a_) account of your ill-health, and _because_ (_c_) (40 _a_) _you have already had_ many troubles, and (40 _a_) _owing to_ the natural dislike _which_ (8) a friend must always feel to say _that_ (10 _f_) _which_ is unpleasant. Many old friends in this district have turned against you: I scarcely like to write the words: _only_ (21) I remain faithful to you, and I am sure you will believe that I am doing _that_ (10 _f_) _which_ is best for your interests."

(_a_) "news." (_b_) In a letter these words should remain is they are; but if a _period_ is desired, they must (30) come last, after "unpleasant." (_c_) Write "because of your ill-health ... and the troubles ... and because of...."

95. "The general at once sent back word that the enemy had suddenly appeared on the other side of the river, and [(35) or (37)] then (_a_) retreated. (_b_) _It_ was thought that (_b_) _it_ would have shown more (_c_) (1) _fortitude_ on his (3) _part_ if he had attacked the fortifications, (_d_) _which_ were not tenable for more than a week at all events. Such was the (54) _universal_ opinion, _at_ (23) _least, of_ (54) _all_ the soldiers."

(_a_) Point out the ambiguity. (_b_) "It was thought he would have shown &c." (_c_) Distinguish between "fortitude" and "bravery." (_d_) What would be the meaning if "that" were substituted for "which"? It will be perhaps better to substitute for "which," "since they."

96. "A notion has sprung up that the Premier, though he can legislate, cannot govern, and has attained an influence which renders it imperative, if this Ministry is to go on, that (_a_) _it_ should be dispersed."

(_a_) Who or what "has attained"? Write "and this notion has become so powerful that, unless it is dispersed...."

97. "Those who are _habitually silent_ (_a_) (3) _by disposition_ and morose are less liable to the fault of exaggerating than those who are _habitually_ (_a_) (3) _fond of talking_, and (40 _a_) _of_ (_a_) (3) _a pleasant disposition_."

(a) Each of these periphrases must be condensed into a single adjective.

98. "This author, (_a_) (31) though he is not (_b_) _altogether_ (_c_) _guiltless of_ (_b_) _occasional_ (_c_) _faults_ of exaggeration, which are to be found as plentifully in his latest works as in _those which he_ (_d_) _published when he was beginning his career as an author_, yet, _notwithstanding these_ (_e_) _defects_, surpassed all _those who were living_ _at the_ (_f_) _same time with him_ in the _clear_ (_g_) _manner in_ which he could, as it were, see into the feelings of the people at large, and in the power--_a power that indeed could not be_ (_f_) _resisted_--with which he _drew_ (_f_) _toward himself_ the sympathy of _those who_ (_f_) _perused his works_." See (54).

(_a_) Convert the parenthesis into a separate sentence. (_b_) One of these words is unnecessary. (_c_) One of these is unnecessary. (_d_) Condense: "his earliest." (_e_) Omit these words as unnecessary. (_f_) Express all this in one word. (_g_) "clearness with."

99. "_Among the North_ (_a_) (23) _American Indians_ I had indeed heard of the perpetration of similar atrocities; but it seemed intolerable that such things should occur in a civilized land: and I rushed from the room at once, leaving the wretch where he stood, with his tale half told, (30) _horror-stricken at his crime_."

(_a_) Make it evident whether the speaker once _lived_ among the North American Indians, or not, and show who is "horror-stricken."

100. "His (1) _bravery_ under this painful operation and the (1) _fortitude_ he had shown in heading the last charge in the recent action, (30) _though he was_ wounded at the time and had been unable to use his right arm, and was the only officer left in his regiment, out of twenty who were alive the day before, (19) inspired every one with admiration."

Begin, "Out of twenty officers &c.... Though wounded &c.... he had headed." "The bravery he had then shown and...."

101. "_Moral_ as well as (41) _other_ considerations must have weight when we are selecting an officer (_a_) _that_ (10 _b_) _will be placed in_ a position that will task his intelligence (_b_) (18) _and his fidelity_."

(_a_) The repetition of "that" is objectionable. Use "to fill." (_b_) "and" can be replaced by some other conjunction to suit what precedes.

102. "It happened that at this time there were a few Radicals in the House _who_ (8) could not forgive the Prime Minister for being a Christian."

Point out the difference of meaning, according as we read "who" or "that."

103. "_It cannot be doubted_ (15 _b_) _that_ the minds of a vast number of men would be left poor shrunken things, full of melancholy and indisposition, and unpleasing to themselves, if (32) there were taken out of men's minds vain opinions, false valuations, imaginations as one (_a_) would, and _the_ (15 _a_) _like_."

(_a_) The meaning (which cannot easily be more tersely expressed than in the original) is "castles in the air," "pleasant fancies."

104. "God never wrought a miracle to refute atheism, because His ordinary works refute it. (_a_) A little philosophy inclines man's mind to atheism: depth in philosophy brings men's minds back to religion. (44) While the mind of man looks upon second causes scattered, it may sometimes rest in them; (44) when it beholds the chain of them confederate and linked together, it must needs acknowledge a Providence. (44) That school which is most accused of atheism most clearly demonstrates the truth of religion."

(_a_) Insert a suspensive conjunction. See (34).

105. "The spirit of Liberty and the spirit of Nationality were once for all dead; (_a_) (5) _it_ might be for a time a pious duty, but it could not continue always _expedient or_ (_c_) (15) (18) _profitable to_ (_b_) (13) _mourn_ (_c_) (15 _a_) _for their loss_. Yet this is the (_b_) (13) _feeling_ of the age of Trajan."

(_a_) Omit. (_b_) "To sit weeping by their grave;" "attitude." (_c_) Notice that "expedient or profitable" are emphatic, as is shown by "yet" in the next sentence. Make it evident therefore, by their position, that these words are more emphatic than "to mourn &c."

106. "(_a_) _If we ask_ (15 _b_) what was the nature of the force by which this change was effected, (_a_) _we find it to have been_ (_b_) the force that had seemed almost dead for many generations--(38) of theology."

(_a_) Omit these words. (_b_) Begin a new sentence: "It was a force &c."

107. "I remember Longinus highly recommends a description of a storm by Homer, because (_a_) (5) (_c_) _he_ has not amused himself with little fancies upon the occasion, as authors of an inferior genius, whom he mentions, (_b_) (15 _a_) have done, (30) _but_ (_c_) _because_ he has gathered together those (_d_) (1) _events_ which are the most apt to terrify the imagination, and (35) really happen in the raging of a tempest."

(_a_) "The poet." (_b_) Omit "have done" and write "like some authors." (_c_) Suspend the sentence by writing "the poet ... instead of ... has." (_d_) What is the word for "that which happens _around_ one, or in connection with some central object?"

108. "To have passed (_a_) (3) _in a self-satisfied manner_ through twenty years of office, letting things take their own course; to have (_b_) _sailed_ with consummate sagacity, never against the tide of popular (_c_) _judgement_; to have left on record as the sole title to distinction among English ministers a peculiar art of (_d_) _sporting with_ the heavy, the awful responsibility of a nation's destiny with the jaunty grace of a juggler (11) (_e_) _playing with_ his golden ball; to have joked and intrigued, and bribed and (_f_) _deceived_, with the result of having done nothing (_g_), (_h_) _either_ for the poor, (_h_) _or_ for religion (for (_i_) which indeed he did worse than nothing), (_h_) _or_ for art and science, (_h_) _or_ for the honour or concord or even the financial prosperity of the nation, (38) is surely a miserable basis on which the reputation of a great (15) statesman _can be_ (_k_) (15 _a_) _founded_."

(_a_) "complacently." (_b_) "Sail" implies will and effort: use a word peculiar to a helpless ship, so as to contrast paradoxically with "sagacity." (_c_) Use a word implying less thought and deliberation. (_d_) _With_ is too often repeated; write "bearing" so as to introduce the illustration abruptly. (_e_) "tossing." (_f_) Use a word implying a particular kind of "deceit," not "lying," but the next thing to "lying." (_g_) Insert the word with a preceding and intensifying adverb, "absolutely nothing." (_h_) Instead of "either," "or," repeat "nothing." (_i_) The parenthesis breaks the rhythm. Write "nothing, or worse than nothing." (_k_) "to found."

109. "A glance at the clock will make you (1) _conscious_ that it is nearly three in the morning, and I therefore ask you, gentlemen, instead of wasting more time, to put this question to yourselves, 'Are we, or are we not, here, for the purpose of (1) _eliminating_ the truth?'"

110. "The speech of the Right Honourable member, so far from _unravelling_ (14) _the obscurities of this knotty question_, is eminently calculated to mislead his supporters (_a_) (8 _a_) _who_ have not made a special study of it. It may be (_b_) (23) _almost_ asserted of every statement (8) _which_ he has made that the very (1) _converse_ is the fact."

(_a_) The meaning appears to be, not "_all_ his supporters," but "_those of_ his supporters who:" the convenience of writing "his supporters _that_" is so great that I should be disposed to use "that." (_b_) "Every," not "asserted," requires the juxtaposition of "almost."

111. "The provisions of the treaty _which_ (8) require the consent of the Parliament of Canada await its assembling."

Point out the meaning conveyed by _which_, and by _that_.

112. "Mrs. Smith demonstrated (26), in opposition to the general dictum of the press, that (_a_) _there had been_ a reaction against woman's suffrage, that there had really been a gain of one vote in the House of Commons."

(_a_) Substitute "instead of," and erase the second "that."

113. "The practice of smoking hangs like a gigantic (14 _a_) cloud of evil over the country."

FOOTNOTES:

[18] That which treats of the thirteenth century.

CONTINUOUS EXERCISES.

CLEARNESS.

The following exercises consist of extracts from Burnet, Butler, and Clarendon, modernized and altered with a view to remove obscurity and ambiguity. The modernized version will necessarily be inferior to the original in unity of style, and in some other respects. The charm of the author's individuality, and the pleasant ring of the old-fashioned English, are lost. It is highly necessary that the student should recognize this, and should bear in mind that the sole object is to show how the meaning in each case might have been more _clearly_ expressed.

Occasionally expressions have been altered, not as being in themselves obscure or objectionable, but as indicating a habit of which beginners should beware. For example, in the extract from Burnet, _he_ is often altered, not because, in the particular context, the pronoun presents any obscurity, but because Burnet's habit of repeating _he_ is faulty.

These exercises can be used in two ways. The pupil may either have his book open and be questioned on the reasons for each alteration, or, after studying the two versions, he may have the original version dictated to him, and then he may reproduce the parallel version, or something like it, on paper.

LORD CLARENDON.

The principal faults in this style are, long heterogeneous sentences (43), use of phrases for words (47 _a_), ambiguous use of pronouns (5), excessive separation of words grammatically connected together (19).

ORIGINAL VERSION. PARALLEL VERSION.

(44) It will not be impertinent And now, in order to explain, as nor _unnatural to this_ (50) far as possible, how so prodigious _present discourse_, to set down an alteration could take place in in this place the present temper so short a time, and how the[19] and constitution of both Houses royal power could fall so low as of Parliament, and (34) of the to be unable to support itself, court itself, (30) that (5) _it_ its dignity, or its faithful may be the less wondered at, that servants, it will be of use to set so prodigious an alteration should down here, where it comes most be made in so short a time, and naturally, some account of the[20] (37) the crown fallen so low, that present temper and composition, it could neither support itself not only of both Houses of nor its own majesty, nor _those Parliament, but also of the court who would_ (47 _a_) _appear itself. faithful to it_.

* * * * * * * * * *

(Here follows a description of the House of Lords.)

In the House of Commons were many In the House of Commons persons of wisdom and gravity, who there were many men of wisdom (7) _being possessed_ of great and and judgment whose high plentiful fortunes, though they position and great wealth disposed were undevoted enough to the them, in spite of their indifference court, (19) had all imaginable to the court, to feel duty for the king, and affection a most loyal respect for the to the government _established_(47 king, and a great affection for _a_) _by law_ or ancient custom; the ancient constitutional (43) and without doubt, the _major government of the country. Indeed, part of that_ (54) _body_ it cannot be doubted that consisted of men who had no mind the majority had no intention to to break the peace of the kingdom, break the peace of the kingdom or to make any considerable or to make any considerable alteration in the government of alteration in Church or State. Church or State: (43) and Consequently, from the very therefore (18) _all_ inventions outset, it was necessary to resort were set on _foot from the_ (15) to every conceivable device _beginning_ to work upon (5) for the purpose of perverting _them_, and (11) corrupt (5) this honest majority into rebellion. _them_, (43) (45) by suggestions "of the dangers (8) _which_ With some, the appeal was threatened all that was precious addressed to their patriotism. to the subject (19) in their They were warned "of the liberty and their property, by dangers that threatened [all _overthrowing_ (47 _a_) _or that was precious in] the liberty overmastering_ the law, _and_ (47 and property of the subject, _a_) _subjecting_ it to _an if the laws were to be made arbitrary_ (47_a_) _power_, and by subservient to despotism, and countenancing Popery to the if Popery was to be encouraged subversion of the Protestant to the subversion of the Protestant religion," and then, by religion." infusing terrible apprehensions into some, and so working upon The fears of others were appealed their fears, (6 _b_) "of (11 _a_) to. "There was danger," so[21] it being called in question for was said, "that they might be somewhat they had done," by which called to account for something (5) _they_ would stand in need of they had done, and they would then (5) _their_ protection; and (43) stand in need of the help of those (45) raising the hopes of others, who were now giving them this "that, by _concurring_ (47 _a_) timely warning." In others, hopes _with_ (5) _them_ (5) _they_ were excited, and offices, should be sure to obtain offices honours, and preferments were held and honours and any kind of out as the reward of adhesion. preferment." Though there were too Too many were led away by one or many corrupted and misled by these other of these temptations, and several temptations, and (19) indeed some needed no other others (40 _a_) who needed no temptation than their innate other temptations than from the fierceness and barbarity and the fierceness and barbarity _of malice they had contracted against their_ (47 _a_) _own natures_, and the Church and the court. But the the malice they had contracted leaders of the conspiracy were not against the Church and against the many. The flock was large and court; (43) yet the number was not submissive, but the shepherds were great _of those in whom the very few. government of the rest_ (47 _a_) _was vested_, nor were there many who had the absolute authority (13) to lead, though there were a multitude (13) that was disposed to follow.

(44) (30) Mr. Pym was looked upon Of these, Mr. Pym was thought as the man of greatest experience superior to all the rest in in parliaments, _where he had_ parliamentary experience. To this (50) _served very long_, and _was advantage he added habits of always_ (50) _a man of business_, business acquired from his (7) being an officer in the continuous service in the Exchequer, (43) and of a good Exchequer. He had also a good reputation generally, (30) though reputation generally; for, though known to be inclined to the known to be inclined to the Puritan party; yet not of those Puritan party, yet he was not so furious resolutions against the fanatically set against the Church Church as the other leading men as the other leaders. In this were, and (44) wholly devoted to respect he resembled the Earl of the Earl of Bedford, who had Bedford, to whom he was nothing of that spirit. thoroughly devoted.

(Here follow descriptions of Hampden and Saint John.)

It was generally believed that These three persons, with the these three persons, with the three peers mentioned before, were other three lords mentioned united in the closest confidence, before, were of the most intimate and formed the mainspring of the and entire trust with each other, party. Such at least was the and made _the engine which_ (47 general belief. But it was clear _a_) _moved_ all the rest; (30) that they also admitted to their yet it was visible, that (15) unreserved confidence two others, _Nathaniel Fiennes, the second son (45) whom I will now of the Lord Say, and Sir Harry describe,--Nathaniel Fiennes, Vane, eldest son to the Secretary, second son of Lord Say, and Sir and Treasurer of the House_, were Harry Vane, eldest son of the received by them with full Secretary, and Treasurer of the confidence and without reserve. House.

The former, being a man of good Nathaniel Fiennes, a man of good parts of learning, and after some parts, was educated at New years spent in New College in College, Oxford, where[22] his Oxford, (43) of which his father family claimed and enjoyed some had been formerly fellow, (43) privileges in virtue of their that family pretending[23] and kindred to the founder, and enjoying many privileges there, as where[22] his father had formerly of kin to the founder, (43) (19) been a fellow. He afterwards spent had spent his time abroad in some time in Geneva and in the Geneva and amongst the cantons of cantons of Switzerland, where[22] Switzerland, (30) where he he increased that natural improved his disinclination to the antipathy to the Church which he Church, with which milk he had had imbibed almost with his been nursed. From his travels he mother's milk.[24] By a singular returned through Scotland (52) coincidence, he came home through (which[24] few travellers took in Scotland (not a very common route their way home) at the time when for returning travellers) just (5) _that_ rebellion was in bud: when the Scotch rebellion was in (30) (43) (44) and was very little bud. For some time he was scarcely known, except amongst (5) _that_ known beyond the narrow and people, _which conversed_ (47 _a_) exclusive circle of his sect, _wholly amongst themselves,_ until until at last he appeared in he was now (15) _found in Parliament. Then, indeed, it was Parliament_, (30) (43) (44) when quickly discovered that he was it was quickly discovered that, likely to fulfil even the fond as he was the darling of his hopes of his father and the high father, so (5) _he_ was like to promise of many years. make good whatsoever _he_ had for many years promised.

(5) _The other_, Sir H. Vane, was Fiennes' coadjutor, Sir H. Vane, a man of great natural parts[25] was a man of great natural (45) and of very profound ability.[25] Quick in understanding dissimulation, of a quick and impenetrable in dissembling, conception, and of very ready, he could also speak with sharp, and weighty expression. He promptness, point, and weight. His had an (50) unusual aspect, which, singular appearance, though it though it might naturally proceed might naturally proceed from his from his father and mother, parents, who were not noted for neither of which were beautiful their beauty, yet impressed men persons, yet (19) made men think with the belief that he had in him there was somewhat in him of something extraordinary, an extraordinary: and (52) his whole impression that was confirmed by life made good that imagination. the whole of his life. His Within a very short time after he behaviour at Oxford, where he returned from his studies in studied at Magdalen College, was Magdalen College in Oxford, where, not characterized, in spite of the (43) though he was under the care supervision of a very worthy of a very worthy tutor, he lived tutor, by a severe morality. Soon not with great exactness, (43) he after leaving Oxford he spent some spent some little time in France, little time in France, and more in and more in Geneva, and, (43) Geneva. After returning to after his return into England, England, he conceived an intense (38) contracted a full prejudice hatred not only against the and bitterness against the Church, government of the Church, which both against the form of the was disliked by many, but also government and the Liturgy, (43) against the Liturgy, which was which was generally in great held in great and general reverence, (15 _a_) _even with reverence. many of those who were not friends_ to (5) _the other_. In Incurring or seeming to incur, by his giddiness, which then much his giddiness, the displeasure of displeased, or seemed to his father, who at that time, displease, (30) (43) his father, beside strictly conforming to the who still appeared highly Church himself, was very bitter conformable, and exceedingly sharp against Nonconformists, the young against those who were not, Vane left his home for New (5) _he_ transported himself into England. New England, (43) a colony within few years before planted by a This colony had been planted a few mixture of all religions,[26] which years before by men of all sorts of disposed the professors to dislike religions, and their the government of the Church; who differences[26] disposed them to (30) (43) (44) were qualified by dislike the government of the the king's charter to choose their Church. Now, it happened that their own government and governors, privilege (accorded by the king's under the obligation, "that every charter) of choosing their own man should take the oaths of government and governors was allegiance and supremacy;" (30) subject to this obligation, "that (43) (5) _which_ all the first every man should take the oaths of planters did, when they received allegiance and supremacy." These their charter, before they oaths had been taken, not only by transported themselves from hence, all the original planters, on nor was there in many years after receiving their charter, before the least scruple amongst them of leaving England, but also for many complying with those obligations: years afterwards, without exciting so far men were, _in the infancy_ the slightest scruple. Indeed, (15) _of their schism_, from scruples against lawful oaths were refusing to take lawful oaths. unknown[27] in the infancy of the (45) He was no sooner landed English schism. But with the there, but his parts made him arrival of Vane all this was quickly taken notice of, (26) and changed. No sooner had he landed very probably his quality, being than his ability, and perhaps to the eldest son of a some extent his position, as eldest Privy-councillor, might give him son of a Privy-councillor, some advantage; _insomuch_ (51) recommended him to notice: and at _that_, when the next season came the next election he was chosen for the election of their Governor. magistrates, he was chosen their governor: (30) (45) (43) in which In his new post, his restless and place he had so ill fortune (26) unquiet imagination found (his working and unquiet fancy opportunity for creating and raising and infusing a thousand diffusing a thousand conscientious scruples of conscience, which (5) scruples that had not been brought _they_ had not brought over with over, or ever even heard of, by the them, nor heard of before) (19) colonists. His government proved a that he unsatisfied with failure: and, mutually them and they with him, dissatisfied, (45) governed and he retransported himself governor parted. Vane returned into England; (30) (43) (44) to England, but not till he had having sowed such seed of accomplished his mischievous task, dissension there, as grew up too not till he had sown the seeds of prosperously, and miserably those miserable dissensions which divided the poor colony into afterwards grew only too several factions, and divisions prosperously, till they split the and persecutions of each (15 _a_) wretched colony into distinct, _other_, (30) (43) which still hostile, and mutually persecuting continue _to the great_ (54) factions. His handiwork still _prejudice of that plantation_: remains, and it is owing to (15) insomuch as some of (5) _them_, _him_ that some of the colonists, upon the ground of their first on the pretext of liberty of expedition, liberty of conscience, conscience, the original cause of have withdrawn themselves from (5) their emigration, have withdrawn _their_ jurisdiction, and obtained themselves from the old colonial other charters from the king, by jurisdiction and have obtained which, (30) (43) in other forms of fresh charters from the king. government, they have enlarged These men have established new their plantations, within new forms of government, unduly limits adjacent to (5) (15 _a_) enlarged their boundaries, and set _the other_.their plantations, up rival settlements on the within new limits adjacent to (5) borders of the original colony. (15 _a_) _the other_.

FOOTNOTES:

[19] The original metaphor uses the crown as a prop, which seems a confusion. Though the metaphor is so common as scarcely to be regarded as a metaphor, it is better to avoid the appearance of confusion.

[20] We sometimes say, briefly but not perhaps idiomatically, "the _then_ sovereign," "the _then_ temper," &c.

[21] The personality of the tempters and organizers of the conspiracy is purposely kept in the background.

[22] The relative is retained in the first two cases, because it conveys the _reason why_ Fiennes was educated at New College; and in the third case, because the increased "antipathy" is regarded as the natural _consequence_ of the residence in Calvinistic Geneva.

[23] Claiming.

[24] An insinuation of sedition seems intended.

[25] This sentence is a preliminary summary of what follows.

[26] If "which" is used here according to Rule (8), the meaning is, (_a_) "and their differences;" if it is used for "that," the meaning will be, (_b_) "all religions that were of a nature to dispose &c." I believe (_a_) is the meaning; but I have found difference of opinion on the question.

[27] The following words appear to be emphatic, bringing out the difference between the _infancy_ and the development of schism.

BURNET.

The principal faults in Burnet's style are (_a_) the use of heterogeneous sentences (see 43); (_b_) the want of suspense (see 30); (_c_) the ambiguous use of pronouns (see 5); (_d_) the omission of connecting adverbs and conjunctions, and an excessive use of _and_ (see 44); and (_e_) an abruptness in passing from one topic to another (see 45). The correction of these faults necessarily lengthens the altered version.

ORIGINAL VERSION. PARALLEL VERSION.

And his maintaining the honour of He also gratified the English the nation in all foreign feeling of self-respect by countries gratified the (1) maintaining the honour of the _vanity which is very natural_ nation in all foreign countries. (50) _to Englishmen_; (30) (43) of So jealous was he on this point which he was _so_ (15) (17 _a_) that, though he was not a crowned _careful_ that, though he was not head, he yet secured for his a crowned head, yet his (40 _a_) ambassadors all the respect that ambassadors had all the respects had been paid to the ambassadors paid them which our (15) _kings'_ of our kings. The king, he said, ambassadors ever had: he said (6 received respect simply as the _b_) the dignity of the crown nation's representative head, was upon the account of the and, since the nation was the nation, _of which the king was_ same, the same respect should (50) _only the representative be paid to the[28] nation's head_; so, the nation being the ministers. same, he would have the same regards paid to (41) his ministers.

Another[29] instance of (5) _this_ The following instance of jealousy pleased _him_ much. Blake with the for the national honour pleased fleet _happened_ (50) _to be_ at him much. When Blake was at Malaga Malaga before he made war upon with his fleet, before his war Spain: (44) _and_ some of his with Spain, it happened that some seamen went ashore, _and_ met the of his sailors going ashore and Host carried about; (44) _and_ not meeting the procession of the only paid no respect to it, but Host, not only paid no respect to laughed at those who did; (43) it, but even laughed at those who (30) (51) so one of the priests did. Incited by one of the priests put the people upon resenting this to resent the indignity, the indignity; _and_ they fell upon people fell on the scoffers and (5) _them and_ beat them severely. beat them severely. On their When they returned to their ship return to the ship the seamen (5) _they_ complained of (5) complained of this ill-usage, _this_ usage; and upon that Blake whereupon Blake sent a messenger sent a trumpet to the viceroy to to the viceroy to demand the demand the priest who was the priest who was the instigator of chief (1) _instrument_ in that the outrage. The viceroy answered ill-usage. The viceroy answered that he could not touch him, as he _he_ had no authority over the had no authority over the priests. (15) _priests_, and so could not To this Blake replied, that he did dispose of him. Blake upon that not intend to inquire to whom the sent him word that _he_ would not authority belonged, but, if the inquire who had the (1) power to priest were not sent within three send the priest to him, but if hours, he would burn the town. The _he_ were not sent within three townspeople being in no condition hours, _he_ would burn their town; to resist, the priest was at once (43) and (5) _they_, being in no sent. On his arrival, he defended condition to resist _him_, sent himself, alleging the insolence of the priest to _him_, (43) (44) who the sailors. But the English (50) justified himself upon the Admiral replied that a complaint petulant behaviour of the seamen. should have been forwarded to him, and then he would have punished (44) Blake answered that, if (5) them severely, for none of his _he_ had sent a complaint to (5) sailors should be allowed to _him of_(5) _it_, (5) _he_ would affront the established religion have punished them severely, since of any place where they touched. (5) _he_ would not suffer _his_ "But," he added, "I take it ill men to affront the established that you should set on your religion of any place at which (5) countrymen to do my work; for I _he_ touched; but (5) (6) _he_ will have all the world know that took it ill, that _he_ set on the an Englishman is only to be Spaniards to do (5) _it_; for _he_ punished, by an Englishman." Then, would have all the world to know satisfied with having had the (50) that an Englishman was only to be offender at his mercy, Blake punished by an Englishman; (43) entertained him civilly and sent (44) and so he treated the priest him back. civilly, and sent him back (30), being satisfied that he had him at his mercy.

Cromwell was much delighted with Cromwell was much delighted with (5) _this_, (43) and read the Blake's conduct. Reading the letters in council with great letters in council with great satisfaction; _and_ said he (6) satisfaction, he said, "I hope I hoped he should make the name of shall make the name of an an Englishman as great as ever Englishman as much respected as that of a Roman (15 _a_) _had ever was the name of Roman." been_. (44) The States of Holland Among other countries the States were in such dread of (5) him that of Holland were in such dread of they took care to give him no sort Cromwell that they took care to of umbrage; (43) (44) _and_ when give him no sort of umbrage. at any time the king or his Accordingly, whenever the king or brothers came to see their sister his brothers came to see the the Princess Royal, (23) within a Princess Royal their sister, they day or two after, (5) _they_ used were always warned in a day or two to send a deputation to let _them_ by a deputation that Cromwell had know that Cromwell had required of required of the States to give the States that (5) _they_ should them no harbourage. give _them_ no harbour.

* * * * * * * * * *

Cromwell's favourite alliance was The free kingdom of Sweden was Sweden.[30] (44) Carolus Gustavus Cromwell's favourite ally; not and he lived in great conjunction only under Charles Gustavus, with of counsels. (44) Even Algernon whom he was on most confidential Sydney, (10 _a_) _who_ was not terms, but also under Christina. inclined to think or speak well of Both these sovereigns had just kings, commended _him_ (5) to me; notions of public liberty; at and said _he_ (5) had just least, Algernon Sydney, a man notions of public liberty; (44) certainly not prejudiced in favour (43) _and_ added, that Queen of royalty, assured me this was Christina seemed to have _them_ true of Gustavus. He also held the likewise. But (44) she was same opinion of Queen Christina; much changed from that, when but, if so, she was much changed I waited on her at Rome; for when I waited on her at Rome; for she complained of us as a factious she then complained of the factious nation, _that did not readily and unruly spirit of our nation. comply with the commands_ (47 _a_) _of our princes_. (44) All Italy All Italy, no less than trembled at the name of Cromwell, Holland,[31] trembled at the name and seemed under a (1) _panic_ as of Cromwell, and dreaded him till long as he lived; (43) his fleet he died. Nor durst the Turks scoured the Mediterranean; and the offend the great (50) Protector Turks durst not offend him; but whose fleet scoured the delivered up Hyde, who kept up the Mediterranean; and they even gave character of an ambassador from up Hyde, who, for keeping up in the king there (23) (43), and was Turkey the character of ambassador brought over and executed for (5) from the king, was brought to _it_. England and executed.

(44) (11 _a_) The _putting_ the In another instance of severity brother of the king of Portugal's towards foreigners--the execution ambassador to death for murder, of the brother of the Portuguese was (11 _a_) _carrying_ justice ambassador for murder--Cromwell very far; (43) since, though in carried justice very far. For, the strictness of the law of though in strictness the law of nations, it is only the nations exempts from foreign ambassador's own person that is jurisdiction the ambassador alone, exempted from (4) _any authority_ yet in practice the exemption has (47 _a_) _but his master's that extended to the whole of the sends him_, yet the practice has ambassador's suite. gone in favour of _all that the ambassador owned_ (47 _a_) _to Successful abroad, Cromwell was no belong to him_. (41) (44) Cromwell less successful at home in showed his good (11) selecting able and worthy men for _understanding_ in nothing more public duties, especially for the than in seeking[32] out capable courts of law. In nothing did he and worthy men for all employments, show more clearly his great but most particularly for the natural insight, and nothing courts of law, (43) (30 _a_) contributed more to his popularity. (10 _a_) which gave a general satisfaction.

FOOTNOTES:

[28] The meaning is "_his_, and therefore _the nation's_, ministers." There is a kind of antithesis between "the nation" and "the nation's ministers."

[29] No instance has yet been mentioned.

[30] The thought that is implied, and should be expressed, by the words, is this: "Cromwell's favourite ally was a free country."

[31] The remarks about Christina are a digression, and Burnet is now returning to the respect in which Cromwell was held by foreign nations.

[32] He not only sought, but sought successfully. That "find" is not necessarily implied by "seek out" seems proved by the use of the word in the Authorized Version, 2 Tim. ii. 17: "He _sought_ me _out_ very diligently, and _found_ me."

BISHOP BUTLER.

The principal faults in this style are (_a_) a vague use of pronouns (5), and sometimes (_b_) the use of a phrase, where a word would be enough (47 _a_).

ORIGINAL VERSION. PARALLEL VERSION.

Some persons, (15) _upon Some persons avowedly reject all pretence[33] of the sufficiency of revelation as[34]essentially the light of Nature_, avowedly incredible and necessarily reject all revelation as, _in its_ fictitious, on the ground that the (47 _a_) _very notion_, light of Nature is in itself incredible, _and what_ (47 _a_) sufficient. And assuredly, had the _must be fictitious_. And indeed light of Nature been sufficient in (32) it is certain that no such a sense as to render revelation would have been given, revelation needless or useless, no (32) had the light of Nature been revelation would ever have been sufficient in such a sense as to given. But let any man consider render (5) _one_ not[35] wanting, the spiritual darkness that once or useless. But no (15 _b_) man in (41) prevailed in the heathen seriousness and simplicity can world before revelation, and that possibly think _it_ (5) _so_, who (41) still prevails in those considers the state of religion in regions that have not yet received the heathen world before the light of revealed truth; above revelation, and _its_ (5) present all, let him mark not merely the state in those (11) _places_ (8) natural inattention and ignorance _which_ have borrowed no light of the masses, but also the from (5) it; particularly (19) the doubtful language held even by a doubtfulness of some of the (12) Socrates on even so vital a greatest men concerning _things of subject as[36] the immortality of the utmost_ (11) _importance_, as the soul; and then can he in well as the (15 _a_) _natural seriousness and sincerity maintain inattention and ignorance of that the light of Nature is mankind in general_. It is (34) sufficient? impossible to say (12) who would have been able to have reasoned It is of course impossible to deny out that whole system which we that some second[36] Aristotle call natural religion, (30) in its might have reasoned out, in its genuine simplicity, clear of genuine simplicity and without superstition; but there is a touch of superstition, the certainly no ground to affirm whole of that system which we that the generality could. call natural religion. But there (44) If they could, there is is certainly no ground for no sort of probability that affirming that this complicated they would. (44) Admitting there process would have been possible were, they would highly want a for ordinary men. Even if they had standing admonition to remind them had the power, there is no of (5) _it_, and inculcate it upon probability that they would have them. And further still, were (5) had the inclination; and, even if _they_ as much _disposed_ (47 _a_) we admit the probable inclination, _to attend to_ religion as the they would still need some better sort of men (15 _a_) _are_; standing admonition, whereby yet, even upon this supposition, natural religion might be there would be various occasions suggested and inculcated. Still for supernatural instruction and further, even if we suppose these assistance, _and the greatest ordinary men to be as attentive to advantages_ (50) _might be religion as men of a better sort, afforded_ (15 _a_) _by_ (5) yet even then there would be _them_. So that, to say revelation various occasions when is a thing superfluous, _what supernatural instruction and there_ (47 _a_) _was no need of_, assistance might be most and _what can be of_ (47 _a_) _no beneficially bestowed. service_, is, I think, to talk wildly and at random. Nor would it Therefore, to call revelation be more extravagant to affirm that superfluous, needless, and (40 _a_) _mankind_ is so entirely useless, is, in my opinion, to (40 _a_) _at ease_ in the present talk wildly and at random. A man state, and (40 _a_) _life so_ might as reasonably assert that we completely (40 _a_) _happy_, that are so entirely at ease and so (5) _it_ is a contradiction to completely happy in this present suppose (40 _a_) our condition life that our condition cannot capable of _being in any respect_ without contradiction be supposed (47 _a_) _better_.--(_Analogy of capable of being in any way Religion_, part ii. chap. 1.) improved.

FOOTNOTES:

[33] "To pretend" once meant "to put forward," "maintain."

[34] It has been suggested, however, that by "in its very notion incredible," is meant "inconceivable."

[35] "Wanting" is used for modern "wanted."

[36] This use of the particular for the general would be out of place in Butler's style, but it adds clearness.

BREVITY.

SIR ARCHIBALD ALISON.

The following extract exhibits examples of tautology and lengthiness. The "implied statement" (50) can often be used as a remedy, but, more often, the best remedy is omission.

ORIGINAL VERSION. PARALLEL VERSION.

The Russian empire is (50) _a Russia, with her vast strength and state of_ (54) _such_ vast boundless resources, is obviously strength and boundless destined to exercise on the course resources, _that_ it is of history a great and lasting obviously destined to make a influence. The slowness of her great and lasting impression on progress only renders her human affairs. Its (50) progress durability more probable. The has been slow, but (5) _it_[37] is Russian Empire has not, like the only on that account the more empires of Alexander the Great and likely to be durable. (5) _It_ has Napoleon, been raised to sudden not suddenly risen to greatness, greatness by the genius of like the empire of Alexander in individuals or the accidents of ancient (19) (31), or that of fortune, but has been slowly Napoleon in modern, times, from enlarged and firmly consolidated the force of individual genius, or by well-guided ambition and the accidents of (54) casual persevering energy,[38] during a fortune, but has slowly advanced, long succession of ages. and (40 _a_) been firmly consolidated (15) _during a succession of ages_, from the combined influence of ambition skilfully directed and energy (15 _a_) _perseveringly applied_.

* * * * * * * * * *

The extent and fertility of the The extent and fertility of her Russian territory are _such_ (54) territory furnish unparalleled _as to_ furnish facilities of facilities for the increase of her increase and elements of strength population and power. European _which no nation_ (47 _a_) _in the Russia, that is, Russia to the world enjoys_. European west of the Ural Mountains, Russia--that is, Russia to the contains one million two hundred westward of the Ural thousand square geographical Mountains--contains a hundred and miles, or ten times the surface of fifty thousand four hundred square Great Britain and Ireland. marine leagues, or about one million two hundred thousand square geographical miles, being ten times the surface of the British Islands, which contain, including Ireland, one hundred and twenty-two thousand. Great part, This vast territory is intersected no doubt, of this _immense_ (54, by no mountain ranges, no arid see below) _territory is covered_ deserts; and though much of it is with forests, or (40 _a_) _lies_ rendered almost unproductive of so far to the north as to be food either by the denseness of almost unproductive of food; but forests, or by the severity of the no ranges of mountains or arid northern winter, yet almost all, deserts intersect the _vast_ (54, except that part which touches see above) _extent_, and almost the Arctic snows, is capable of the whole, excepting that which yielding something for the use touches the Arctic snows, is of man. capable of yielding something for the use of man. The (3) (54) The steppes of the south present _boundless_ steppes of the south an inexhaustible pasturage to present (54) _inexhaustible_ those nomad tribes whose numerous fields of pasturage, and give and incomparable horsemen form the birth to those nomad tribes, in chief defence of the empire. whose numerous and incomparable horsemen the chief defence of the empire,[39] as of all Oriental states, (15 _a_) _is to be found_. The rich arable lands in the heart The rich arable lands in the _of the_ (54) _empire_ produce an interior produce grain enough to (2) _incalculable_ quantity of support four times the present grain, capable not only of population of the empire, and yet maintaining four times (5) _its_ leave a vast surplus to be present inhabitants, but affording transported by the Dnieper, the a vast surplus for exportation by Volga, and their tributaries, into the Dnieper, the Volga, and their the Euxine or other seas. tributary streams, (30) which _form so many_ (54) _natural outlets_ into the Euxine or other seas; (44) while the cold and Lastly, the cold bleak plains shivering plains which stretch stretching towards Archangel and towards Archangel and the shores towards the shores of the White of the White Sea are (48) covered Sea, and covered with immense with immense forests of fir and forests of oak and fir, furnish oak, furnishing at once (54)[40] materials for shipbuilding and _inexhaustible_ materials for supplies of fuel that will for shipbuilding and supplies of fuel. many generations supersede the (54) _These ample stores_ for many necessity of searching for coal. generations will supersede the necessity of searching in the (14 _a_) _bowels_ of the earth for _the purposes of_ (54) _warmth or manufacture_.

Formidable as the power of Russia Much as we may dread Russia for is from the vast extent of its the vastness of her territory and territory, and the great and of her rapidly increasing numbers, rapidly increasing number _of there is greater cause for fear its_ (54) _subjects_, (5) _it_ is in the military spirit and the still more (5) _so_ from the docility of her people. military spirit and docile disposition _by which they are_ (54)[41] _distinguished_. The prevailing (54) _passion_ of the A burning thirst for conquest is nation is the (54) _love of as prevalent a passion in Russia conquest_, and this (54) _ardent_ as democratic ambition in the free (54) _desire_, which (54) _burns states of Western Europe. This as_ (54) _fiercely_ in them as passion is the unseen spring[2] democratic ambition does in the which, while it retains the free states of Western Europe, is Russians in the strictest the unseen spring[42] which both discipline, unceasingly impels retains them _submissive_ (54) their united forces against all _under the standard of their adjoining states. chief_ and impels their accumulated forces in ceaseless The national energy, which is as violence over all the adjoining great as the national territory, states. The energies of the rarely wastes itself in disputes people, great as[43] the territory about domestic grievances. For all they inhabit, are rarely wasted in internal evils, how great soever, internal disputes. Domestic the Russians hope to find a grievances, how great soever, are compensation, and more than a (54) overlooked in the thirst for compensation, in the conquest of foreign aggrandizement. (15) In the world. the conquest of the world the people hope to find a compensation, and more than a compensation, (15 _a_) _for all the evils of their interior administration_.

FOOTNOTES:

[37] Apparently "it" means, not "progress," but the "Russian empire."

[38] Not "energy," but "a long succession of ages," needs to be emphasized.

[39] There is nothing in the context that requires the words, "as of all Oriental states."

[40] If they were really "inexhaustible," the "necessity of searching in the bowels of the earth" would be "superseded," not for "many," but for all generations.

[41] The words can be implied, and besides they are expressed in the following sentence.

[42] The metaphor is questionable; for a "spring," _qua_ "spring," does not retain at all; and besides, "a passion" ought not to "burn" in one line, and be a "spring" in the next.

[43] The meaning appears _not_ to be, "great as" (is), _i.e._ "though the territory is great."

THE END.

* * * * *

ENGLISH LESSONS

FOR

ENGLISH PEOPLE.

BY

THE REV. EDWIN A. ABBOTT, M.A.,

HEAD MASTER OF THE CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL;

AND

J. R. SEELEY, M.A.,

PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

"It is not so much a merit to know English as it is a shame not to know it; and I look upon this knowledge as essential for an Englishman, and not merely for a fine speaker."--ADAPTED FROM CICERO.

BOSTON: ROBERTS BROTHERS. 1883.

[Illustration: QUI LEGIT REGIT]

UNIVERSITY PRESS: JOHN WILSON & SON, CAMBRIDGE.

TO THE

REV. G. F. W. MORTIMER, D.D.,

_Prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral, late Head Master of the City of London School_.

DEAR DOCTOR MORTIMER,

We have other motives, beside the respect and gratitude which must be felt for you by all those of your old pupils who are capable of appreciating the work you did at the City of London School, for asking you to let us dedicate to you a little book which we have entitled "English Lessons for English People."

Looking back upon our school life, we both feel that among the many educational advantages which we enjoyed under your care, there was none more important than the study of the works of Shakspeare, to which we and our school-fellows were stimulated by the special prizes of the Beaufoy Endowment.

We owe you a debt of gratitude not always owed by pupils to their teachers. Many who have passed into a life of engrossing activity without having been taught at school to use rightly, or to appreciate the right use of, their native tongue, feeling themselves foreigners amid the language of their country, may turn with some point against their teachers the reproach of banished Bolingbroke:--

My tongue's use is to me no more Than an unstringed viol or a harp, Or like a cunning instrument cased up, Or, being open, put into his hands That knows no touch to tune the harmony; Within my mouth you have engaoled my tongue, Doubly portcullis'd with my teeth and lips, And dull, unfeeling, barren ignorance Is made my gaoler to attend on me. I am too old to fawn upon a nurse, Too far in years to be a pupil now.

It is our pleasant duty, on the contrary, to thank you for encouraging us to study the "cunning instrument" of our native tongue.

Our sense of the benefits which we derived from this study, and our recollection that the study was at that time optional, and did not affect more than a small number of the pupils, lead us to anticipate that when once the English language and literature become recognized, not as an optional but as a regular part of our educational course, the advantages will be so great as to constitute nothing short of a national benefit.

The present seems to be a critical moment for English instruction. The subject has excited much attention of late years; many schools have already taken it up; others are on the point of doing so; it forms an important part of most Government and other examinations. But there is a complaint from many teachers that they cannot teach English for want of text-books and manuals; and, as the study of English becomes year by year more general, this complaint makes itself more and more distinctly heard. To meet this want we have written the following pages. If we had had more time, we might perhaps have been tempted to aim at producing a more learned and exhaustive book on the subject; but, setting aside want of leisure, we feel that a practical text-book, and not a learned or exhaustive treatise, is what is wanted at the present crisis.

We feel sure that you will give a kindly welcome to our little book, as an attempt, however imperfect, to hand on the torch which you have handed to us; we beg you also to accept it as a token of our sincere gratitude for more than ordinary kindnesses, and to believe us

Your affectionate pupils,

J. R. SEELEY. EDWIN A. ABBOTT.

* * * * *

_Messrs. Roberts Brothers' Publications._

ENGLISH LESSONS FOR ENGLISH PEOPLE. By Rev. E. A. ABBOTT, M.A., and Prof. J. R. SEELEY, M.A. Part I.--Vocabulary. Part II--Diction. Part III.--Metre. Part IV.--Hints on Selection and Arrangement. Appendix. 16mo. Price $1.50.

_From the London Athenæum._

The object of this book is evidently a practical one. It is intended for ordinary use by a large circle of readers; and though designed principally for boys, may be read with advantage by many of more advanced years. One of the lessons which it professes to teach, "to use the right word in the right place," is one which no one should despise. The accomplishment is a rare one, and many of the hints here given are truly admirable.

_From the Southern Review._

The study of Language can never be exhausted. Every time it is looked at by a man of real ability and culture, some new phase starts into view. The origin of Language; its relations to the mind; its history; its laws; its development; its struggles; its triumphs; its devices; its puzzles; its ethics,--every thing about it is full of interest.

Here is a delightful book, by two men of recognized authority,--the head Master of London School, and the Professor of Modern History in the University of Cambridge, the notable author of "Ecce Homo." The book is so comprehensive in its scope that it seems almost miscellaneous. It treats of the vocabulary of the English Language; Diction as appropriate to this or that sort of composition; selection and arguments of topics; Metre, and an Appendix on Logic. All this in less than three hundred pages. Within this space so many subjects cannot be treated exhaustively; and no one is, unless we may except Metre, to which about eighty pages are devoted, and about which all seems to be said that is worth saying,--possibly more. But on each topic some of the best things are said in a very stimulating way. The student will desire to study more thoroughly the subject into which such pleasant openings are here given; and the best prepared teacher will be thankful for the number of striking illustrations gathered up to his hand.

The abundance and freshness of the quotations makes the volume very attractive reading, without reference to its didactic value.

_Sold by all booksellers. Mailed, postpaid, by the Publishers_,

ROBERTS BROTHERS, BOSTON.

PREFACE.

This book is not intended to supply the place of an English Grammar. It presupposes a knowledge of Grammar and of English idiom in its readers, and does not address itself to foreigners, but to those who, having already a familiar knowledge of English, need help to write it with taste and exactness. Some degree of knowledge is presumed in the reader; nevertheless we do not presume that he possesses so much as to render him incapable of profiting from _lessons_. Our object is, if possible, not merely to interest, but to _teach_; to write lessons, not essays,--lessons that may perhaps prove interesting to some who have passed beyond the routine of school life, but still lessons, in the strictest sense, adapted for school classes.

Aiming at practical utility, the book deals only with those difficulties which, in the course of teaching, we have found to be most common and most serious. For there are many difficulties, even when grammatical accuracy has been attained, in the way of English persons attempting to write and speak correctly. First, there is the cramping restriction of an insufficient vocabulary; not merely a loose and inexact apprehension of many words that are commonly used, and a consequent difficulty in using them accurately, but also a total ignorance of many other words, and an inability to use them at all; and these last are, as a rule, the very words which are absolutely necessary for the comprehension and expression of any thought that deals with something more than the most ordinary concrete notions. There is also a very common inability to appreciate the differences between words that are at all similar. Lastly, where the pupil has studied Latin, and trusts too much for his knowledge of English words to his knowledge of their Latin roots, there is the possibility of misderiving and misunderstanding a word, owing to ignorance of the changes of letters introduced in the process of derivation; and, on the other hand, there is the danger of misunderstanding and pedantically misusing words correctly derived, from an ignorance of the changes of meaning which a word almost always experiences in passing from one language to another. The result of all this non-understanding or slovenly half-understanding of words is a habit of slovenly reading and slovenly writing, which when once acquired is very hard to shake off.

Then, following on the difficulties attending the use of words, there are others attending the choice and arrangement of words. There is the danger of falling into "poetic prose," of thinking it necessary to write "steed" or "charger" instead of "horse," "ire" instead of "anger," and the like; and every teacher, who has had much experience in looking over examination papers, will admit that this is a danger to which beginners are very liable. Again, there is the temptation to shrink with a senseless fear from using a plain word twice in the same page, and often from using a plain word at all. This unmanly dread of simplicity, and of what is called "tautology," gives rise to a patchwork made up of scraps of poetic quotations, unmeaning periphrases, and would-be humorous circumlocutions,--a style of all styles perhaps the most objectionable and offensive, which may be known and avoided by the name of _Fine Writing_. Lastly, there is the danger of _obscurity_, a fault which cannot be avoided without extreme care, owing to the uninflected nature of our language.

All these difficulties and dangers are quite as real, and require as much attention, and are fit subjects for practical teaching in our schools, quite as much as many points which, at present, receive perhaps an excessive attention in some of our text-books. To use the right word in the right place is an accomplishment not less valuable than the knowledge of the truth (carefully recorded in most English Grammars, and often inflicted as a task upon younger pupils) that the plural of _cherub_ is _cherubim_, and the feminine of _bull_ is _cow_.

To smooth the reader's way through these difficulties is the object of the first three Parts of this book. Difficulties connected with Vocabulary are considered first. The student is introduced, almost at once, to _Synonyms_. He is taught how to _define_ a word, with and without the aid of its synonyms. He is shown how to _eliminate_ from a word whatever is not essential to its meaning. The processes of _Definition_ and _Elimination_ are carefully explained: a system or scheme is laid down which he can exactly follow; and examples are subjoined, worked out to illustrate the method which he is to pursue. A system is also given by which the reader may enlarge his vocabulary, and furnish himself easily and naturally with those general or abstract terms which are often misunderstood and misused, and still more often not understood and not used at all. Some information is also given to help the reader to connect words with their roots, and at the same time to caution him against supposing that, because he knows the roots of a word, he necessarily knows the meaning of the word itself. Exercises are interspersed throughout this Part which can be worked out with, or without, an English Etymological Dictionary,[44] as the nature of the case may require. The exercises have not been selected at random; many of them have been subjected to the practical test of experience, and have been used in class teaching.

The Second Part deals with Diction. It attempts to illustrate with some detail the distinction--often ignored by those who are beginning to write English, and sometimes by others also--between the Diction of Prose, and that of Poetry. It endeavors to dissipate that excessive and vulgar dread of tautology which, together with a fondness for misplaced pleasantry, gives rise to the vicious style described above. It gives some practical rules for writing a long sentence clearly and impressively; and it also examines the difference between slang, conversation, and written prose. Both for translating from foreign languages into English, and for writing original English composition, these rules have been used in teaching, and, we venture to think, with encouraging results.

A Chapter on Simile and Metaphor concludes the subject of Diction. We have found, in the course of teaching, that a great deal of confusion in speaking and writing, and still more in reading and attempting to understand the works of our classical English authors, arises from the inability to express the literal meaning conveyed in a Metaphor. The application of the principle of Proportion to the explanation of Metaphor has been found to dissipate much of this confusion. The youngest pupils readily learn how to "expand a Metaphor into its Simile;" and it is really astonishing to see how many difficulties that perplex young heads, and sometimes old ones too, vanish at once when the key of "expansion" is applied. More important still, perhaps, is the exactness of thought introduced by this method. The pupil knows that, if he cannot expand a metaphor, he does not understand it. All teachers will admit that to force a pupil to see that he does not understand any thing is a great stride of progress. It is difficult to exaggerate the value of a process which makes it impossible for a pupil to delude himself into the belief that he understands when he does not understand.

Metre is the subject of the Third Part. The object of this Part (as also, in a great measure, of the Chapter just mentioned belonging to the Second Part) is to enable the pupil to read English Poetry with intelligence, interest, and appreciation. To teach any one how to read a verse so as to mark the metre on the one hand, without on the other hand converting the metrical line into a monotonous doggerel, is not so easy a task as might be supposed. Many of the rules stated in this Part have been found of practical utility in teaching pupils to hit the mean. Rules and illustrations have therefore been given, and the different kinds of metre and varieties of the same metre have been explained at considerable length.

This Chapter may seem to some to enter rather too much into detail. We desire, however, to urge as an explanation, that in all probability the study of English metre will rapidly assume more importance in English schools. At present, very little is generally taught, and perhaps known, about this subject. In a recent elaborate edition of the works of Pope, the skill of that consummate master of the art of epigrammatic versification is impugned because in one of his lines he suffers _the_ to receive the metrical accent. When one of the commonest customs (for it is in no sense a license) of English poets--a custom sanctioned by Shakspeare, Dryden, Milton, Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley, and Tennyson--can be censured as a fault, and this in a leading edition of a leading poet of our literature, it must be evident that much still remains to be done in teaching English Metre. At present this Part may seem too detailed. Probably, some few years hence, when a knowledge of English Metre has become more widely diffused, it will seem not detailed enough.

The Fourth Part (like the Chapter on Metaphor) is concerned not more with English than with other languages. It treats of the different Styles of Composition, the appropriate subjects for each, and the arrangement of the subject-matter. We hope that this may be of some interest to the general reader, as well as of practical utility in the higher classes of schools. It seems desirable that before pupils begin to write essays, imaginary dialogues, speeches, and poems, they should receive some instruction as to the difference of arrangement in a poem, a speech, a conversation, and an essay.

An Appendix adds a few hints on some Errors in Reasoning. This addition may interfere with the symmetry of the book; but if it is found of use, the utility will be ample compensation. In reading literature, pupils are continually meeting instances of false reasoning, which, if passed over without comment, do harm, and, if commented upon, require some little basis of knowledge in the pupil to enable him to understand the explanation. Without entering into the details of formal Logic, we have found it possible to give pupils some few hints which have appeared to help them. The hints are so elementary, and so few, that they cannot possibly delude the youngest reader into imagining that they are any thing more than hints. They may induce him hereafter to study the subject thoroughly in a complete treatise, when he has leisure and opportunity; but, in any case, a boy will leave school all the better prepared for the work of life, whatever that work may be, if he knows the meaning of _induction_, and has been cautioned against the error, _post hoc, ergo propter hoc_. No lesson, so far as our experience in teaching goes, interests and stimulates pupils more than this; and our experience of debating societies, in the higher forms of schools, forces upon us the conviction that such lessons are not more interesting than necessary.

Questions on the different paragraphs have been added at the end of the book, for the purpose of enabling the student to test his knowledge of the contents, and also to serve as home lessons to be prepared by pupils in classes.[45]

A desire, expressed by some teachers of experience, that these lessons should be published as soon as possible, has rather accelerated the publication. Some misprints and other inaccuracies may possibly be found in the following pages, in consequence of the short time Which has been allowed us for correcting them. Our thanks are due to several friends who have kindly assisted us in this task, and who have also aided us with many valuable and practical suggestions. Among these we desire to mention Mr. Joseph Payne, whose labors on Norman French are well known; Mr. T.G. Philpotts, late Fellow of New College, Oxford, and one of the Assistant Masters of Rugby School; Mr. Edwin Abbott, Head Master of the Philological School; Mr. Howard Candler, Mathematical Master of Uppingham School; and the Rev. R. H. Quick, one of the Assistant Masters of Harrow School.

In conclusion, we repeat that we do not wish our book to be regarded as an exhaustive treatise, or as adapted for the use of foreigners. It is intended primarily for boys, but, in the present unsatisfactory state of English education, we entertain a hope that it may possibly be found not unfit for some who have passed the age of boyhood; and in this hope we have ventured to give it the title of _English Lessons for English People_.

FOOTNOTES:

[44] An Etymological Dictionary is necessary for pupils studying the First Part. Chambers's or Ogilvie's will answer the purpose.

[45] Some of the passages quoted to illustrate style are intended to be committed to memory and used as repetition-lessons.--See pp. 180, 181, 212, 237, 238, etc.

* * * * *

ON THE RIGHT USE OF BOOKS.

A LECTURE. By WILLIAM P. ATKINSON, Professor of English and History in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 16mo. Cloth. Price 50 cents.

"Full of good sense, sound taste, and quiet humor.... It is the easiest thing in the world to waste time over books, which are merely tools of knowledge like any other tools.... It is the function of a good book not only to fructify, but to inspire, not only to fill the memory with evanescent treasures, but to enrich the imagination with forms of beauty and goodness which leave a lasting impression on the character."--_N. Y. Tribune._

"Contains so many wise suggestions concerning methods in study and so excellent a summary of the nature and principles of a really liberal education that it well deserves publication for the benefit of the reading public. Though it makes only a slight volume, its quality in thought and style is so admirable that all who are interested in the subject of good education will give to it a prominent and honorable position among the many books upon education which have recently been published. For it takes only a brief reading to perceive that in this single lecture the results of wide experience in teaching and of long study of the true principles of education are generalized and presented in a few pages, each one of which contains so much that it might be easily expanded into an excellent chapter."--_The Library Table._

* * * * *

READING AS A FINE ART.

By ERNEST LEGOUVÉ, of the Académie Française. Translated from the Ninth Edition by ABBY LANGDON ALGER. 16mo. Cloth. 50 cents.

(_Dedication._)

TO THE SCHOLARS OF THE HIGH AND NORMAL SCHOOL.

For you this sketch was written: permit me to dedicate it to you, in fact, to intrust it to your care. Pupils to-day, to-morrow you will be teachers; to-morrow, generation after generation of youth will pass through your guardian hands. An idea received by you must of necessity reach thousands of minds. Help me, then, to spread abroad the work in which you have some share, and allow me to add to the great pleasure of having numbered you among my hearers the still greater happiness of calling you my assistants. E. LEGOUVÉ.

We commend this valuable little book to the attention of teachers and others interested in the instruction of the pupils of our public schools. It treats of the "First Steps in Reading," "Learning to Read," "Should we read as we talk," "The Use and Management of the Voice," "The Art of Breathing," "Pronunciation," "Stuttering," "Punctuation," "Readers and Speakers," "Reading as a Means of Criticism," "On Reading Poetry," &c., and makes a strong claim as to the value of reading aloud, as being the most wholesome of gymnastics, for to strengthen the voice is to strengthen the whole system and develop vocal power.

* * * * *

HOW TO PARSE.

AN ATTEMPT TO APPLY THE PRINCIPLES OF SCHOLARSHIP TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR. With Appendixes in Analysis, Spelling, and Punctuation. By EDWIN A. ABBOTT, M.A., Head Master of the City of London School. 16mo. Cloth. Price $1.00.

"We recommend this little book to the careful attention of teachers and others interested in instruction. In the hands of an able teacher, the book should help to relieve parsing from the reproach of being the bane of the school-room. The Etymological Glossary of Grammatical Terms will also supply a long-felt want." _N.Y. Nation._

"'How to Parse' is likely to prove to teachers a valuable, and to scholars an agreeable, substitute for most of the grammars in common use."--_Boston Daily Advertiser._

"The Rev. E.A. Abbott, whose books, 'English Lessons for English People,' and 'How to Write Clearly,' have been accepted as standard text-books on both sides of the ocean, has added another work to his list of sensible treatises on the use of English. It is called 'How to Parse,' and is best described by the further title, 'An Attempt to apply the Principles of Scholarship to English Grammar, with Appendices on Analysis, Spelling, and Punctuation.' The little book is so sensible and so simple that the greater number of its readers will perhaps forget to observe that it is profoundly philosophical also, but it is so in the best sense of the term."--_N. Y. Evening Post._

"Of all subjects of study, it may be safely admitted that grammar possesses as a rule the fewest attractions for the youthful mind. To prepare a work capable of imparting a thorough knowledge of this important part of education in an attractive and entertaining form, to many may appear extremely difficult, if not impossible; nevertheless, the task has been accomplished in a highly successful manner by Edwin A. Abbott, Head Master of the City of London School, in a neat little volume entitled 'How to Parse.' The author has succeeded admirably in combining with the exercises a vast amount of useful information, which impacts to the principles and rules of the main subject a degree of interest that renders the study as attractive as history or fiction. The value of the book is greatly increased by an excellent glossary of grammatical forms and a nicely arranged index. The work deserves the attention and consideration of teachers and pupils, and will doubtless prove a highly popular addition to the list of school-books."--_N.Y. Graphic._

* * * * *

_Messrs. Roberts Brothers' Publications._

GOETHE'S

HERMANN AND DOROTHEA.

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN

BY ELLEN FROTHINGHAM.

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.

_Thin 8vo, cloth, gilt, bevelled boards. Price $2.00._ _A cheaper edition, 16mo, cloth. Price $1.00._

"Miss Frothingham's translation is something to be glad of: it lends itself kindly to perusal, and it presents Goethe's charming poem in the metre of the original.... It is not a poem which could be profitably used in an argument for the enlargement of the sphere of woman: it teaches her subjection, indeed, from the lips of a beautiful girl, which are always so fatally convincing; but it has its charm, nevertheless, and will serve at least for an agreeable picture of an age when the ideal woman was a creature around which grew the beauty and comfort and security of home."--_Atlantic Monthly._

"The poem itself is bewitching. Of the same metre as Longfellow's 'Evangeline,' its sweet and measured cadences carry the reader onward with a real pleasure as he becomes more and more absorbed in this descriptive wooing song. It is a sweet volume to read aloud in a select circle of intelligent friends."--_Providence Press._

"Miss Frothingham has done a good service, and done it well, in translating this famous idyl, which has been justly called 'one of the most faultless poems of modern times.' Nothing can surpass the simplicity, tenderness, and grace of the original, and these have been well preserved in Miss Frothingham's version. Her success is worthy of the highest praise, and the mere English reader can scarcely fail to read the poem with the same delight with which it has always been read by those familiar with the German. Its charming pictures of domestic life, the strength and delicacy of its characterization, the purity of tone and ardent love of country which breathe through it, must always make it one of the most admired of Goethe's works."--_Boston Christian Register._

_Sold everywhere. Mailed, postpaid, by the Publishers_,

ROBERTS BROTHERS, BOSTON

* * * * *

DR. ABBOTT'S WORKS.

HOW TO PARSE. An Attempt to Apply the Principles of Scholarship to English Grammar. With Appendixes on Analysis, Spelling, and Punctuation. 16mo. Cloth. Price, $1.00.

HOW TO TELL THE PARTS OF SPEECH. An Introduction to English Grammar. American edition, revised and enlarged by Prof. JOHN G. R. McELROY, of the University of Pennsylvania. 16mo. Cloth. Price, 75 cents.

HOW TO WRITE CLEARLY. Rules and Exercises in English Composition. 16mo. Cloth. Price, 60 cents.

ENGLISH LESSONS FOR ENGLISH PEOPLE. Jointly by Dr. ABBOTT and Prof. J. R. SEELEY, M.A., of Cambridge University, Eng. 16mo. Cloth. Price, $1.50.

ROBERTS BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

_Boston_.

* * * * *

[Transcriber's Notes:

Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible, including obsolete and variant spellings and other inconsistencies.

The transcriber made the following changes to the text to correct obvious errors:

1. p. 90, "inpugned" --> "impugned" 2. p. 51, to qualify "enemy. --> to qualify "enemy."

Text set in bold print is indicated by asterisks, i.e., *Bold*.

It is common to have footnotes referenced multiple times in the text.

Advertisements for Dr. Abbott's other works published by Roberts Brothers have been moved from the front of the book to the end.

End of Transcriber's Notes]