The Housekeeper's Valuable Present; Or, Lady's Closet Companion by Abbot, Robert, cook

generously made available by The Internet Archive)

THE HOUSEKEEPER’s VALUABLE PRESENT:

OR, Lady’s Closet Companion.

BEING A NEW AND COMPLETE ART OF PREPARING CONFECTS, ACCORDING TO MODERN PRACTICE.

Comprized under the following Parts; viz.

I. Different Methods and Degrees of boiling and clarifying Sugar.

II. Methods of preserving various Fruits in Syrups, &c.

III. Methods of making Marmalades, Jams, Pastes, &c.

IV. Methods of making Syrups, Custards, Jellies, Blanch-mange, Conserves, Syllabubs, &c.

V. Methods of preserving various Fruits in Brandy.

VI. Methods of making a Variety of Biscuits, rich Cakes, &c. &c.

VII. Methods of mixing, freezing, and working Ice Creams.

VIII. Methods of preparing Cordials and made Wines.

With a Variety of other useful and elegant Articles.

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BY ROBERT ABBOT, Late apprentice to Messrs. NEGRI & GUNTER, Confectioners, in Berkeley Square.

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PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR; And sold by C. COOKE, No. 17, Pater-noster Row; and all other Booksellers in Town and Country.

[Price 2s. sewed, or 2s. 6d. neatly bound.]

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PREFACE.

DURING the course of my apprenticeship with Messrs. NEGRI and GUNTER, in _Berkeley Square_, many housekeepers to noblemen and gentlemen, on special occasions, were frequently present, in order to observe our _peculiar method_ of preparing confects.

Since I left Messrs. NEGRI and GUNTER, I have had frequent applications from those persons, as well as others, for receipts and information respecting improvements and additions to this art. But being engaged in the service of several noblemen, and thereby deprived of the opportunity of attending to the numerous applications from respective housekeepers for _New Receipts_, I determined to form the following Treatise, that they might present it to their friends; and that it might supply the place of personal application, I have comprized in it every article that is necessary to render the reader a proficient in the art.

From the nature of my occupation, and the time necessary to acquire a due knowledge of it, I cannot be supposed qualified to write in a masterly stile; and am therefore inclined to hope the candid reader will be disposed to overlook any little errors that may be observed in this Treatise, considering it not as the production of a scholar, but the essay of a man, who has devoted the greater part of his life to the pursuit of the art under consideration.

I presume my having served an apprenticeship to men of such eminence in the line of Confectionary, and such respectability in their connections as Messrs. NEGRI & GUNTER, that it will be considered as a recommendation of the following sheets; and as all the Treatise I have seen contain only old and exploded Receipts, render it necessary that something new should appear on the subject; and as the receipts I have given are the result of my own practice and experience, I think it will add a sanction to the present undertaking.

Upon the whole, as I have not omitted any article that can be useful to housekeepers in particular, and families in general, I trust I have not arrogated to myself a right to which I have no claim, in prefixing to my work the title of

THE HOUSEKEEPER’S VALUABLE PRESENT.

_R. ABBOT._

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CONTENTS.

PART I.

Page.

To clarify sugar 13

To boil sugar to the degree called 14 smooth

To boil sugar to the degree called 15 pearled

To boil sugar to the degree called blown 15

To boil sugar to the degree called 16 feathered

To boil sugar to the degree called 16 crackled

To boil sugar to the degree called 16 carmelled

PART II.

To preserve oranges or lemons whole 17

To preserve cherries without stones 18

To preserve cherries with stones 19

To preserve white pea plums 19

To preserve yellow plums commonly called 20 yellow margates

To preserve damascenes 21

To preserve mogul, or large egg plums 21

To preserve whole strawberries 22

To preserve barberries in bunches 23

To preserve red currants in bunches 23

To preserve green gage plums 24

To preserve green orange plums 25

To preserve apricots 25

To preserve green apricots 26

To preserve green gooseberries 27

To preserve angelica 28

To preserve apricot, or peach chips 28

To preserve figs 29

To preserve dried cherries 30

To preserve peaches whole 30

To preserve pine apple chips 31

To preserve pine apples whole 31

To preserve medlars 32

To preserve pears 33

To preserve green leaves 33

To preserve green grapes 34

To preserve wine sour plums 35

To preserve green limes 35

PART III.

Rasberry jam 36

Apricot jam 37

Peach jam 37

Pine apple jam 38

Barberry jam 38

Currant jam 39

Quince marmalade 39

Quince paste 39

Orange marmalade 40

Strawberry jam 40

Orange paste 41

Pippin paste knots 41

Scotch marmalade 42

Orgeat paste 42

Almond paste 42

Marshmallow paste 43

Strasbourgh paste, or lozenges 44

Black currant paste 44

PART IV.

To make capillaire 45

To make orgeat syrup 45

To make lemon syrup 46

Currant syrup 46

Marshmallow syrup 47

To make rasberry vinegar 47

To make grape essence, or syrup 48

To make orange essence 48

Pine apple syrup, or essence 49

To make currant jelly 49

To candy eringo root 50

To candy orange, or lemon peel 50

Black currant jelly 51

To make a compote of pippins 52

Compote of oranges 52

To make clear cakes of the jelly of any 53 fruit

Calves-foot jelly 53

Clear orange jelly 54

Blanch-mange 54

Ge-mange 54

To make lemonade 55

To make orgeat for present use 55

To make orangeade 56

To make orange prawlins 56

Red burnt almonds 56

Cedraty essence 57

To make a conserve of hips 58

Conserve of roses 58

Conserve of orange flowers 59

Rock candy 59

To make gum paste 60

Mulberry syrup 60

PART V.

Cherries in brandy 61

Apricots in brandy 61

Peaches in brandy 62

Mogul plums in brandy 62

Green gages in brandy 63

Pears in brandy 63

PART VI.

Savoy biscuits 64

Spunge biscuits 65

Palace royal biscuits 65

Royal heart biscuits 65

Diet bread cakes 66

Naple biscuits 66

Orange heart biscuits 66

Queen cakes 67

Champaign biscuits 67

Fine rusks 68

French rusks 68

Yarmouth cakes 68

Tunbridge water cakes 69

Cedraty biscuits 69

Italian cakes 69

Common maccaroons 70

French maccaroons 70

Ratafia biscuits 70

Orange biscuits 71

Spanish rusks 71

Merenges 71

Ginger cakes 72

Ginger bread nuts 72

Filbert biscuits 73

Sweetmeat biscuits 73

Rock almond biscuits 73

Syringe biscuits 74

Italian maccaroons 74

Milfruit biscuits 74

Marchpane biscuits 75

Biscuit drops 75

To make a savoy cake 75

To make a spunge cake 76

To make a plum cake 76

To make a rice cake 76

To make an almond cake 77

To make a ratafia cake 77

To make anniseed cakes 77

Cinnamon drop biscuits 78

PART VII.

Freezing of ice 79

To prepare the cochineal for colouring 81 different sorts of ice

Ice creams, or rasberry ice 81

Strawberry jam 81

Apricot ice 82

Pine apple ice 82

Barberry ice 82

Biscuit ice 82

Pistachia ice 83

Fresh gooseberry ice 83

Chocolate ice 83

Fresh rasberry ice 84

Fresh strawberry ice 84

Royal cream 84

Lemon cream 85

Orange cream 85

Burnt cream 85

Plain ice 85

Coffee ice 86

Tea ice 86

Ratafia ice 86

Vernella ice 86

Orange ice 87

Lemon ice 87

Cedraty ice 87

Grape ice 87

Rasberry water 88

Currant water 88

Cherry ice 88

Punch ice 89

Pear ice 89

PART VIII.

To make raisin alder wine 90

Orange wine 91

Damascene wine 91

Gooseberry wine 92

Cowslip wine 92

Birch wine 93

Rasberry wine 94

Blackberry wine 94

Cherry wine 94

Currant wine 95

To make raisin wine 95

To make sage wine 96

To make clear wine 96

To make mead 96

To make white mead 97

To make milk punch 97

To make citron water 97

Ratafia cordial 98

Orange flower brandy 98

Surfeit water 99

Cinnamon water 99

Nutmeg water 100

Mint water 100

Lemon water 100

[Illustration]

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[Illustration]

THE

COMPLETE

CONFECTIONER.

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PART I.

DIFFERENT METHODS AND DEGREES OF BOILING SUGAR.

_To clarify Sugar._

TAKE a pan proportioned in size to the quantity of sugar you intend to clarify: to thirty pounds of sugar, put two gallons of water: whisk the white of an egg in the water, and set the pan on the fire; when the sugar begins to boil, add half a pint of water, to prevent its boiling over, and also to raise the scum. Having skimmed the sugar till there remains only a small white scum, totally different from the other, which is foul and black, take it off, and strain it into the pan in which you intend to keep it for use.

N.B. A particular attention to these rules, respecting the clarifying of sugar, will greatly conduce to the effect of the directions, which will be laid down hereafter.

_To boil Sugar to the Degree called_ SMOOTH.

HAVING first clarified, put the quantity of sugar required into the preserving pan, and let it boil over the fire. You will ascertain its having boiled to the degree called _smooth_, by the following experiment: Dip your finger into the sugar; then put that finger and your thumb together. If in opening them you see a small thread drawn, which breaking immediately leaves a drop on the finger, you may conclude the sugar is boiled to the degree called _smooth_.

_To boil Sugar to the Degree called_ PEARLED.

THIS method of boiling sugar is thus ascertained: Take a little of the sugar when boiling, between your finger and thumb, and if on separation a string adheres to both, it is boiled to the degree called _pearled_.

_To boil Sugar to the Degree called_ BLOWN.

LET the sugar boil longer than on the former occasion, and make the following experiment: Dip the skimmer into the sugar; take it out immediately; and if on blowing strongly through the holes of the skimmer, little bladders appear, the sugar is boiled to the degree called _blown_.

_To boil Sugar to the Degree called_ FEATHERED.

THIS is a higher degree of boiling sugar than either of the former. It is proved thus: Having dipped the skimmer into the sugar, and shaken it over the pan, give it a sudden flirt behind you, when, if it flies from the skimmer in particles resembling feathers, it is boiled to this degree.

_To boil Sugar to the Degree called_ CRACKLED.

THIS degree is ascertained in the following manner: The sugar having boiled somewhat longer than on the former process; dip a skewer into it, and immediately after into cold water; if on drawing the sugar from the skewer it snaps like glass, it is boiled to the degree called _crackled_.

_To boil Sugar to the Degree called_ CARMELLED.

THIS degree is thus ascertained: Having boiled the sugar longer still, dip a skewer into it, and immediately after into cold water. If the sugar be boiled to the degree called _carmelled_, it will snap the very instant it touches the cold water, and must be taken off directly, to prevent burning and discolouration.

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PART II.

METHODS OF PRESERVING FRUITS &c.

_To preserve Oranges or Lemons whole._

HAVING selected the largest and best coloured oranges, carve them, cut a round hole in each, where the stalk grew; put them into a pan of cold water, set them over the fire, and boil them till they become so soft that you may thrust a straw through them, shifting the water twice during the time of this boiling; then take them out, put them into cold water, and let them remain till they become cold; after which scoop out the cores with a spoon, put them again into cold water, and let them there remain forty-eight hours, shifting the water during that space four times: drain them when taken out, put them into the preserving pan, cover them with clarified sugar, and then let them simmer over a fire for about two hours: proceed in this manner for seven or eight days; then drain them from the sugar, and having prepared a fresh quantity boiled to the degree called _pearled_, put in the oranges, and having boiled them for the space of an hour, set them by for use in an earthen pan, or put them into glasses, and cover them with clarified sugar.

_To preserve Cherries without Stones._

FOR a pound of cherries prepare a pound of sugar boiled to the degree called _blown_, into which put the cherries stoned, and having boiled them well, set them by till the next day. Having then strained the syrup, add some sugar and about three pints of currant juice to it, let it boil about half an hour, put in the cherries, boil all together, skim well, and afterwards set by for use.

_To preserve Cherries with Stones._

HAVING selected the finest morello fruit, and pricked each cherry with a needle; put them into a thin clarified sugar, and let them simmer an hour, or more, cautiously avoiding their coming to a boil. Proceed thus for two or three days; then strain the sugar from them, and having added more sugar with some currant juice, after a gentle boil and being well skimmed, set them by for use.

_To preserve White Pea Plums._

SELECT your plums before they are too ripe, slit each of them in the seam, scald them in clear water till they become tender, then put them into cold water, in which having remained a whole night, drain, put them into sugar boiled to the degree called _pearled_, and having simmered therein twice or thrice a day for two days, drain the syrup and boil it for an hour, adding to it about a quart of white currant juice. Then put in your plums, let all boil together, and when cold they will be fit for use.

_To preserve yellow Plums commonly called yellow Margates._

HAVING made choice of your plums just before they become ripe, and prepared as much sugar to the degree called _blown_, as will handsomely cover them, put them in, and giving them a gentle boil, set them by till next day and give them another boil. The day following drain them, and having boiled the syrup to the degree called _pearled_, put in the plums, and let all boil together, when they will be fit for drying, or putting into pots.

N.B. You may scald and take the skins off the plums before you preserve them.

_To preserve Damascenes._

HAVING pricked the intended quantity, put them into a preserving pan with as much sugar as will cover them; give them one good boil, take them off and let them stand a day; on the morrow, simmer them four or five times, and thus let them remain three or four days; then drain the syrup, and adding more sugar, boil it well, put in the damascenes, give all a good boil, skim well and set by for use.

_To preserve Mogul, or large Egg Plums._

HAVING pricked your plums, put them into cold water with three or four handfulls of salt in it, and there letting them remain four days, scald them in clear water till they become tender; put them into a thin sugar, and give them a gentle boil. This done, put them by, and the next day let them simmer, and so proceed for five or six days, till you perceive the syrup becomes thick, when it will be proper to drain and add more sugar; boil till it is ropy, then you may put in your plums; give them a gentle boil and set by for use.

N.B. You must keep the plums under the syrup in your preserving pan by putting a piece of board over them.

_To preserve whole Strawberries._

PREPARE as much sugar as will cover the intended quantity to the degree called _blown_, into which put the strawberries; gently boil and set them by; the next day drain them and boil the syrup till it becomes ropy or _pearled_, then put in the strawberries, give them a gentle boil, skim them well, and put them into pots.

N.B. Rasberries are preserved in the same manner; but it is recommended to put some jelly drawn from gooseberries, or white currants, into the syrup.

_To preserve Barberries in Bunches._

HAVING prepared a sufficient quantity of sugar to the degree called _blown_, put in the barberries tied in small bunches, let them boil well, then skim, and set them by for use.

_To preserve Red Currants in Bunches._

PREPARE as much sugar to the degree called _pearled_, as will cover them, into which put them, and give them a gentle boil: then next drain them, and adding a little more sugar, and some juice extracted from red currants, give the whole a good boil; skim them well, and they will be fit for use.

N.B. White currants are preserved in the same manner, adding only white currant juice to the syrup.

_To preserve Green Gage Plums._

FIRST prick your plums well with a needle, and having laid them in salt and water, for eight and forty hours, scald them in pump water till they become tender, after which put them in cold water, and there let them remain till they are cool; then drain and pack them in single layers in your preserving pan; and give them a gentle heat once a day, for three days; this done, drain them, add some more sugar boiled to the degree of what is called _pearled_; then put them in and give them a heat, but not so far as to boil: proceed in this manner for two or three days, till you perceive the syrup becomes thick, then drain them, strain the syrup, boil it to a good height, put in your plums, give the whole a gentle boil, set them by in pans, and they are ready for drying out or putting into jelly.

_To preserve Green Orange Plums._

THE manner is the same as that prescribed with respect to the green gages: but care must be taken to cover these plums with a paper every time they are heated, as an effectual means of keeping in the steam and preserving the green hue: the same method should be observed as to green fruit in general.

_To preserve Apricots._

HAVING taken the stones out, and cut your fruit in halves, scald them till they are tender, and put them into cold water: then drain, put them into a thin sugar, give them a gentle heat and set them by: the next day, drain the syrup from them, let it boil well and afterwards put in the fruit: let the whole simmer well together; and thus proceed from day to day, till the apricots are duly prepared, which may be known from the consistence of the syrup.

N.B. The Roman apricot is the best to preserve, and the orange apricot the best for jam.

_To preserve Green Apricots._

TAKE the fruit when you can thrust a pin through the stone: prick them, and scald them till they are tender; then having drained, and put them into a thin syrup, let them simmer for half an hour every day, for a week: this done, drain them, boil some sugar to the degree called _blown_, to which add the syrup, and boiling it well, put in the fruit; let all boil together and set by. The next day, drain it, boil the syrup higher, put in the fruit, and boil till you perceive the syrup hang like a thread from the skimmer: the fruit are then fit for drying, or putting in jelly.

N.B. Green almonds are preserved in the same manner; but they should be scalded in soft water to take the down off.

_To preserve Green Gooseberries._

LET the gooseberries be gathered before they are ripe, and scalded till they become yellow: then put them into cold water, and having remained twelve hours, put them into a very thin sugar, and heat them gently over the fire, till you perceive they begin to be green; after which drain the syrup from them, and boil it to the degree called _pearled_: put in your fruit, and having boiled all together, set by. Proceed in this manner for two, or three days, and the gooseberries will be fit for use.

_To preserve Angelica._

TAKE the angelica when young, split it into thin strips, and having scalded it till it becomes very tender, string it, put it into the preserving pan and cover it with sugar; in this state give it a gentle heat once a day, for four or five days, and when you perceive it become quite green, drain it and add some more sugar: having boiled it till it becomes ropy, put in your angelica and boil it up well; then put it by, and when it has lain in the syrup about five weeks, it will be fit to cand.

_To preserve Apricot, or Peach Chips._

PARE the rind of the fruit into chips of the size of a shilling: to every pound of chips, allow a pound and a half of sugar, in which boil the chips; and having set them by for two days, drain them from the syrup, and boil it to the degree called _blown_; then put in the chips, let them boil well, and having set them by for a week, drain and wash them in cold water, and put them in sieves into the store, first sifting some sugar on them, and dry them well.

_To preserve Figs._

HAVING pricked your figs through and through, put them into the preserving pan, cover them with sugar, give them a gentle boil, and set them by. The next day drain them, and having boiled the syrup, put in the figs and set them by for two days: then drain them, add more sugar to the syrup, and having boiled it to a high degree, put in the figs, and let the whole boil up well together; proceed in this manner every other day for a week, by which time the sugar will have penetrated into the fruit: then drain them, and boil the syrup till it ropes, or hangs in strings from the skimmer: put in the figs, boil well up, skim and set them by for use.

_To preserve dried Cherries._

STONE the Kentish cherries, and put as much sugar into the preserving pan, as will cover them: having boiled the sugar till it cracks, put in the cherries, give them a good boil, skim, and set them by in an earthen pan till next day: then drain, and put them on sieves in a hot stove, and turn them; they will take three days drying, and when dry, will keep two or three years.

_To preserve Peaches whole._

TAKE the Newington peaches before they are ripe, scald them till they are tender, put them into as much sugar as will cover them, give them a gentle boil, and set them by till the next day: then drain them from the syrup, which having boiled with an additional quantity of sugar to the degree called _blown_, put in the peaches, and after simmering set them by for a week; then drain the syrup from them, and boiling it higher than before, put in the peaches, and let all boil gently together for an hour, by which time, if you find the sugar has penetrated the fruit, you may skim and set them by for use.

_To preserve Pine Apple Chips._

HAVING taken off the outside of the pine apple; cut it cross-ways into thin slices, which put in layers into an earthen pan, sifting sugar over each layer, let all stand for about ten days, in which time, if melted, put it together into a preserving pan, and boil it up twice a day for three days, and set them by for drying.

_To preserve Pine Apples whole._

TAKE the pine apple just before it becomes ripe, let the top remain on it. Having perforated it with a penknife, scald it till it becomes so tender, that a straw may be thrust through it. Let it then remain in cold water two hours, and in that state be put into a jar, with sugar strewed over it, boiled to the degree called _smooth_, and covered close down: the next day drain the syrup and boil it up, and in this manner proceed every day, till the water is extracted from the pine. As the syrup by that means will be rendered thin, you will add more sugar and boil it up to a high degree, and set the pine by for a fortnight, when if you perceive the syrup is thick, you may depend upon it the pine is properly preserved, and therefore may take it out of that syrup and put it into a clarified syrup in a glass, in which it will keep good seven years, if unaffected by damp or wet.

_To preserve Medlars._

HAVING scalded the fruit till the skins are easily taken off; stone them at the head, cover them with sugar, give them a gentle boil, and let them stand for two days: then drain them, and boiling the syrup till it becomes ropy, put in the medlars, let all boil up gently, and set by for use.

_To preserve Pears._

Prick the pears through in six places, scald them till they are tender, cut the rind smoothly off, put them into cold water with some allum in it to keep them white, and having remained in that state three hours, shift them into a thin sugar, and give them a gentle heat every day for three or four days; then drain them; and having added some sugar to the syrup, and boiled it to the degree called _pearled_, put in the pears, and boil all up together: proceed in this manner, till the syrup becomes thick, then colour some of the pears red, and set them by.

_To preserve Green Leaves._

TAKE grape leaves, strawberry leaves, or any other leaves: let them remain four hours in cold spring water, then take them out and put them into some sugar, give them a gentle boil, take them off, and set them by for use.

N.B. They are convenient for putting under fruit in plates.

_To preserve Green Grapes._

HAVING selected the largest and best grapes before ripe, cut a small slit in each, and scald them; after remaining two days in the water they are scalded in, drain, put them into a thin sugar; give them a heat over a slow fire, and thus proceed for three days: then drain them, and adding to the syrup some sugar, boiled to the highest degree of what is called _blown_, put in the grapes, and let all boil up together; skim well, and set them by for use.

_To preserve Wine Sour Plums._

THESE plums are the best species for preserving, on account of their tartness, and should be treated in the same manner as damascenes, only they will require from their size a longer time in preparation.

_To preserve Green Limes._

HAVING scalded the limes till they are tender, and taken out the cores, put them into a thin sugar, and give them a gentle boil: then set them by and give them a gentle heat three times for three days, by which time they will become as green as grass: having boiled the syrup till it become ropy, put in the limes, boil up all together, and the fruit will be fit for use.

N.B. Green walnuts, or jerkins, may be treated in the same manner as limes; and quinces in halves and quarters, in the same manner as pears; as there are several species of plums, and pears, that will not preserve, we recommend the following experiments: put a few plums into a little clarified sugar, and give them a heat over a gentle fire: if they seem to melt in the sugar they will not preserve, if they remain firm they certainly will, provided you adhere to the rules laid down.

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PART III.

METHODS OF MAKING MARMALADES, JAMS, PASTES, &c.

_Rasberry Jam._

RUB your rasberries through a sieve to a pulp: then measure it with a pint ladle (which is exactly a pound) into your preserving pan: boil it well, and stir it all the time to keep it from burning: to a pound of pulp, allow three quarters of sugar; when it has boiled till it becomes tolerably stiff, put in the sugar sifted fine, and boil it up well for half an hour: then put it into pots.

_Apricot Jam._

BOIL your apricots to a pulp, then rub it through a sieve: to a pound of pulp, allow a pound of sugar and two ounces of bitter almonds pounded fine: dry the pulp well over the fire: then put in the sugar and almonds: boil all together for about an hour, and then it will be fit for use.

_Peach Jam._

PROCEED with this in the same manner as above, but allow one pound and a quarter of clarified sugar to a pound of pulp. Boil the sugar to the degree called _blown_, then put in the pulp, and boil it till it just drops off the skimmer.

N.B. You should be careful to keep stirring this, and all other jams, while they are boiling.

_Pine Apple Jam._

CUT your pine apple into slices: cover it with powder sugar, and let it stand a fortnight; then pounding it in a mortar till it is fine, pulp it through a sieve; to a pound of pulp, allow half a pound of clarified sugar, boil the sugar to the degree called _blown_, and finish it in the same manner as peach jam.

_Barberry Jam._

PUT your barberries into the oven till they become thoroughly hot, then pass them through a sieve. To a pound of pulp, allow a pound and a quarter of sugar sifted fine. Boil the pulp till one half is consumed, then put in the sugar, mix it well, and put it into pots.

_Currant Jam._

TAKE the currant pulp when you have strained the liquor from it for jelly. To a pound of pulp, allow a pound of sifted sugar. Boil the pulp well; then put in the sugar, and boil it all for about half an hour, and it will be fit for use.

N.B. The quicker your fire is for all red fruit, the better will be the colour.

_Quince Marmalade._

PARE your quinces and cover them: then boil them till tender, and pulp them through a sieve, with half the quantity of apples boiled in the same manner. To a pound of pulp, allow a pound and a quarter of clarified sugar: boil the sugar to the degree called _blown_, then put in the pulp, and boil it all for about half an hour, then put it into pots.

_Quince Paste._

THE pulp being prepared in the manner abovementioned; allow a pound of sugar and boil it till it cracks: then put in the pulp, and having boiled it for a quarter of an hour, put it in pots, into the stove, and in about three or four hours you may turn them out; cut them into quarters, and dry them.

N.B. You must keep your stove in a temperate heat.

_Orange Marmalade._

BOIL the seville orange-peel till it is tender, and take the white from it; lay it in water all night, to take the bitterness off, then pound and pulp it through a sieve. To a pound of pulp, allow a pound of the best moist sugar; boil the pulp till it is near one half consumed, then put in the sugar; boil it all together for half an hour, and put it into pots.

_Strawberry Jam._

THIS is made after the manner of the rasberry, except allowing to a pound of pulp, one pound of sugar. Be careful to boil it stiffer than any other jam.

_Orange Paste._

PULP your oranges with apple mixed with it. To a pound of pulp, allow a pound and a quarter of sugar: boil the sugar till it cracks; then put in the pulp, and boil it over a quick fire, stirring it all the time for about twenty minutes, then put it into tins made for the purpose, and dry them in the stove.

_Pippin Paste Knots._

BOIL your apples tender, and pulp them; to a pound of pulp, allowing a pound of sugar: boil it till it cracks, then put in the pulp, and boiling all together for ten minutes, run it on pewter plates, put it in the stove, and when dry, cut it into strips, make it up into knots, and dry them on sieves.

N.B. If you would colour them red, put in some prepared cochineal.

_Scotch Marmalade._

WHEN you make your orange marmalade, put a little by; then cut some orange-peel into fine strips, and giving them a boil in a little clarified sugar, mix them in the marmalade, and put them into pots.

_Orgeat Paste._

CALCINE a pound of Jordan almonds, and four ounces of bitter almonds, with water, and a little orange flower water: boil a pound and an half of clarified sugar to the degree called _blown_, then put in your almonds, boil all together for a quarter of an hour, and put it into pots.

_Almond Paste._

TO a pound of almonds calcined, allow two pounds of sugar sifted fine; pound the almonds with a little orange flower and rose water; put the paste into a preserving pan, dry it on the fire till it becomes stiff; put in the sugar and stir it till you perceive it will not stick to your finger; then put it on a marble, and roll it up in a lump for use.

_Marshmallow Paste._

TAKE a pound and a half of gum arabic, a pound of fine sugar, and six ounces of marshmallow root; pound the gum and sugar very fine, and put them into your preserving pan with half a pint of orange flower water and rose water mixed: then boil your marshmallow-root in a quart of water, drain the liquor, and put that to it: set it on a slow fire, and stir it till it becomes in some degree stiff, then put in the whites of twelve eggs, and stirring it till it becomes quite stiff, turn it out on a marble stone, and, when cold, cut it into square pieces, and put them in boxes.

_Strasbourgh Paste, or Lozenges._

BOIL a pound of clarified sugar, and two ounces of honey to a carmel height; then pour it on a marble stone, and before it becomes cold mark it in squares, and when cold break it in pieces, and keep it in boxes secure from damp.

_Black Currant Paste._

BOIL your black currants to a pulp. To a pound of pulp, allow half a pound of apple pulp: dry that on a slow fire, then put in a pound of sugar boiled to a crack, mix it well, then run it on pewter plates, put it in the stove, and when dry, cut it in small square pieces, and dry them.

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PART IV.

OF SYRUPS, JELLIES, CANDIES, &c.

_To make Capillaire._

TAKE twelve pints of clarified sugar; to which add one pint of good orange flower water, and the juice of eight good lemons; set it on a slow fire, and put in a pint of water with the whites of four eggs whisked: let it boil, and skim all the scum that rises, then strain it through a lawn sieve, or flannel bag, and put it into bottles.

_To make Orgeat Syrup._

CALCINE a pound of blanched Jordan almonds, and a few bitter ones, mixed with a little orange flower water; then put in two quarts of water, strain all through a fine lawn sieve, or cloth; put what is strained into seven pints of sugar, boiled to the degree called _cracked_. Let it simmer for ten minutes, skim it well, and when cold put it in bottles.

_To make Lemon Syrup._

BOIL six pints of sugar, to the degree called _blown_, add the juice of twenty good lemons and the rind of two; clarify in the same manner as the capillaire.

N.B. Orange syrup is made in the same manner, except in allowing to six oranges the juice of two lemons.

_Currant Syrup._

MASH your currants, and let them be all night over a sieve to drain; strain the liquor through a flannel bag; to a pint of liquor, put a pound and a half of sugar: boil the sugar to the degree called _blown_, then put the liquor in, and boil all till the scum is entirely off, and put it into bottles.

Damascene syrup is made in the same manner.

_Marshmallow Syrup._

TAKE one pound of marshmallow root, and put to it a gallon of water; reduce it on a slow fire to three pints, then strain it, and put it into a preserving pan, with seven pints of sugar, and three pints of clear water; clarify in the same manner as capillaire.

_To make Rasberry Vinegar._

EXTRACT a liquor from the rasberries, in the same manner as from currants: to a pint of liquor, add two pounds of clarified sugar, and a pint of the best white wine vinegar: boil all over a slow fire till the scum is taken off, and, when cold, put it in bottles.

_To make Grape Essence, or Syrup._

TO half a pound of good dry elder flowers, put three quarts of boiling water; let it stand close covered two hours; then strain it through a lawn sieve, and put to it the juice of twelve good lemons; boil ten pints of sugar to the degree called _blown_; put in the liquor, and boil till the scum is entirely off; then strain it through a lawn sieve, and put it into bottles.

_To make Orange Essence._

GRATE half a hundred of oranges, and put into your preserving pan, add ten pounds of sugar, and the juice of the oranges with the juice of twelve lemons. Boil all till it becomes tolerably thick, then put it in a stone jar for use.

N.B. You will find this exceedingly useful in making of ice in the summer time, when oranges are not to be had.

_Pine Apple Syrup, or Essence._

DRAIN the syrup from the chips, and clarify in the same manner as you would a pan of sugar; put in the juice of a few lemons.

_To make Currant Jelly._

YOUR currants being mashed on the fire, put them on a sieve all night to drain; then strain the liquor through a flannel bag: to a pint of liquor, allow three quarters of sugar; boil the sugar to the degree called _crackled_, then put in the liquor, and boil all till it jellies, which you may know by its hanging in flakes from the skimmer: be careful to skim it well.

N.B. If your jelly is for glasses, use half white currants and half red, and it will not look of too dark a colour.

Apple jelly, rasberry jelly, or jelly from any other fruit, may be made in a similar manner.

_To Candy Eringo Root._

TAKE the roots pared and boiled to a proper softness, and put them into some sugar boiled _smooth_; then simmer them three times a day for three days; let them lay a month in the syrup, and when you cand them, boil some sugar to the degree called _blown_, and put them into it; let them remain about five minutes, and grain the sugar by rubbing it up the sides of the pan, then take them out, and lay them on sieves in a gentle stove.

_To Cand Orange, or Lemon Peel._

BOIL your peel tender, and take out the inside pith; lay them in cold water for a whole night, to take the bitterness off; pack them one within the other, in your preserving pan, cover them with clarified sugar, and let them boil gently for two hours every day for a week, then take them out and pack them in a jar, or cask; put more sugar to the syrup, boil it to a good height, pour it over the peels, and let them remain full a month; then drain the syrup from them, three or four different times, and they will be fit to cand, which you may do as follows:

Take them out of the syrup, and wash them in warm water; dry them in the stove, and put them into as much sugar, boiled to the degree called _blown_, as will cover them: boil them in the sugar to the same degree; then grain the sugar, take the peels out immediately, put them on a wire sieve, and when cold, they are fit for use.

Candied citron, orange, and lemon chips, are prepared exactly in the same manner.

_Black Currant Jelly._

MASH your black currants on the fire and pulp them; to a pound of pulp, allow a pound of sugar; boil the sugar till it cracks, then put in the pulp, and boil all till it begins to jelly.

_To make a Comport of Pippins._

PARE your pippins neatly, then take the cores out right down the middle, after that, scald your pippins till tender, put then into clarified sugar with a few cloves, a little mace, and the rind of a lemon, with the juice of four: let them simmer very gently for two hours, and when cold; they are fit to serve up to table.

Pears are done in the same manner, and you may colour them, as you do preserved quinces.

_Comport of Oranges._

CARVE your oranges neatly, cut them into eight parts, scald them tender, put them into clarified sugar with the juice of three or four oranges, let them simmer gently for two hours, then add half a pint of mountain wine, and when cold serve them up to table.

_To make Clear Cakes of the Jelly of any Fruit._

TO half a pint of jelly, allow six ounces of sugar to a high degree of _blown_, then put in the jelly, and let it simmer but not boil; skim it well, put it into pots, and dry it in the same manner as quince paste.

_Calves-Foot Jelly._

TAKE two calves-feet ready cleaned, put to them six quarts of water; boil it on the fire till it is reduced to three, then strain, and put to it the juice of twelve lemons, the whites of eight eggs, a little cinnamon, a few corianders, and a little sugar; whisk all together, set it on the fire, and let it boil with half a pint of mountain in it, then strain it three times through a jelly bag, and put it in glasses.

_Clear Orange Jelly._

RASP the rind of your oranges, and squeezing six or eight oranges, and the juice of three lemons with four ounces of isinglass, whisk the whites of five eggs among it, and let it boil, then strain it through a lawn sieve, put it into moulds; allow to this quantity, six ounces of sugar.

_Blanch Mange._

POUND four ounces of almonds with a few bitter ones, and a little orange flower water, fine; mix them in a pint of cream, and half a pint of milk, put in six ounces of isinglass, and a quarter of a pound of sugar; boil all together till the isinglass is consumed, then strain, and put it into moulds.

_Ge Mange._

SQUEEZE the juice of six oranges, and rasp the rinds of two, put it into a pint and a half of cream, with a little sugar, add to that about four ounces of isinglass; boil it till it is dissolved, put in a little saffron as it is boiling, and set it by in moulds.

_To make Lemonade._

TO half a pint of clarified sugar, put the juice of five lemons, and rasp the rind of one, add to this a pint of spring water, then pass it through a lawn sieve, and set it by for use.

_To make Orgeat for present Use._

POUND four ounces of blanched almonds very fine, with a few bitter ones, and a little water, mix with that a quart of clear spring water, and a table spoonful of orange flower water: sweeten to your palate, and strain it through a lawn sieve for use.

_To make Orangeade._

TO half a pint of sugar, put the juice of five oranges and two lemons: rasp the rind of one orange, add a pint of clear water, and strain it off for use.

_To make Orange Prawlins._

QUARTER your oranges, take the white out of the rind; cut them into thin strips, put them into your preserving pan, with just sufficient sugar to cover the bottom of the pan: let them boil till you perceive the sugar becomes thick, then take them off and stir them till the sugar grains and sticks to them. Lift the loose sugar from them, and set them by for use.

N.B. Lemon prawlins and orange flowers are prepared exactly in the same manner.

_Red Burnt Almonds._

TAKE a pound of the best Jordan almonds, put them into a round bottom preserving pan, with a pint of clarified sugar, let it boil till the sugar comes to the degree called _blown_, and the almonds begin to crack: then take them off, and stir till they begin to cool; when the almonds clog to the sugar; lift the loose sugar from them, put in a pint of clarified sugar with the loose sugar, and boil it till it cracks; then put in the almonds, and stir them as before: sift them and part those that are coupled, boil a pint more of clarified sugar till it cracks, put in the almonds, and stir them till the sugar clings round them; then, put in a gill of cochineal, and shake them over the fire till they become dry: sift them, and put them in a gentle stove for two or three hours.

Brown burnt almonds are prepared in a similar manner.

_Cedraty Essence._

WEIGH a pound of cedraty essence, boil seven pints of clarified sugar to the degree called _blown_, then put in the essence, and the juice of twenty lemons: boil all together for about half an hour; skim it well, and when cold, put it into bottles.

_To make a Conserve of Hips._

TAKE two pounds of hips, stone them and lay them a whole night in spring water; then pound them to a mash, and put them into three pints of clarified sugar, boiled to the degree called _blown_: give all together a good boil, and set them by for use.

_Conserve of Roses._

TAKE a quarter of a pound of damask rose leaves, beat up a pound of coarse sifted sugar, with the whites of three eggs, put in the rose leaves, and mix them; then roll them up in small balls on paper, and set them in the stove to dry.

N.B. You may put in a little cochineal to colour it.

_Conserve of Orange Flowers._

BOIL a pint of sugar to a high degree, put in a quarter of a pound of orange flowers; boil it to the same degree again, then rub the sugar till it grains; pour it immediately on a marble stone, and when cold, break it into pieces.

_Rock Candy._

TAKE different shapes, cut out of gum paste, or you must candy pippin paste knots; let them be very dry, then put them in a square tin box in layers, with a wire between each layer; fill the tin up with sugar, boiled to a strong degree; set it in the hot stove; the next day, drain it, take them out and put them on sieves in the stove to dry.

N.B. In this manner you may candy violets, or any other flower; but be careful they are very dry, else they will not take the sugar.

_To make Gum Paste._

TAKE some gum tragant, and soak it in water, then squeeze it through a cloth, put it into the mortar, and pound it with fine sugar, sifted fine; then take it out, and mix it up with sugar till it becomes stiff.

_Mulberry Syrup._

SQUEEZE your mulberries: to a pint of fruit, put a pound of sugar; let it dissolve all night, then boil it up to a good height, with the juice of four lemons; skim it well, and put it in bottles for use.

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PART V.

FRUITS IN BRANDY.

_Cherries in Brandy._

PUT your cherries into jars, and to a quart of French brandy, allow half a pint of clarified sugar: mix your sugar and brandy, cover the cherries with it, let them stand a month, then fill the jars again, and cover them up for use.

N.B. The morello cherries are the most proper, and you may infuse rasberries, or mulberries, in the same manner.

_Apricots in Brandy._

TAKE a pan and half, fill it with pump water, put in a little clarified sugar; then put in your apricots, and scald them till tender; put them into cold water with a piece of allum in it; let them lay in that state for two hours till quite cold; put them in jars, and cover them with white French brandy: to two quarts of brandy, allow three pints of clarified sugar.

_Peaches in Brandy._

WIPE the down off your peaches, prick them with a small knife in three places, scald them in some water, with the juice of three or four lemons in it; then take them out, put them in jars, and cover them with white brandy: to two quarts of brandy, put three pints of clarified sugar.

_Mogul Plums in Brandy._

TAKE your mogul plums when they are half preserved, drain them dry, put them in jars and cover them with brandy. To a quart of brandy, allow half a pint of clarified sugar.

_Green Gages in Brandy._

These are prepared in the same manner as any green plum.

_Pears in Brandy._

SCALD your pears tender, with some lemon juice in the water: put them into cold water and pare the rind off; lay them in allum and water all night, to keep them white; then drain and put them into jars: to a quart of brandy, allow a pint of clarified sugar.

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PART VI.

METHODS OF MAKING BISCUITS AND CAKES.

It is here necessary to premise that particular care must be taken to keep the utensils entirely free from grease of any kind: and the flour and sugar quite dry, as in case of neglect you cannot make good biscuits.

_Savoy Biscuits._

TAKE one pound and a half of sugar, one pound and two ounces of flour, and twenty four eggs: separate the yolks from the whites, beat the yolks and sugar together with a spoon: whisk the whites up stiff, and mix with the yolks; whisk it all on a slow fire till warm, then take it off and whisk it till cold; mix in the flour, and drop them through a funnel made for the purpose.

N.B. They require a hot oven, and you should sift a little sugar over them, just before you put them in.

_Spunge Biscuits._

TAKE one pound of sugar, and three quarters of flour, and mix in the same manner as the savoy biscuits: these will not require so hot an oven as the former.

_Palace Royal Biscuits._

ARE made in the same manner as savoy biscuits, and are baked in small paper boxes.

_Royal Heart Biscuits._

TO a pound of almonds beat fine, put a pound and a half of sugar, half a pound of flour, sixteen whole eggs, and twelve yolks. Beat the sugar and almonds up well by degrees with the eggs; then put in the flour, and set it into moles, they will require a gentle oven.

_Diet Bread Cakes._

TAKE one pound of moist sugar, one pound and a quarter of flour, and seven eggs: let your sugar boil with better than half a pint of water; then whisk your eggs and sugar up well: take it off, and whisk it till it is cold, then mix in your flour, and put it into moles.

_Naple Biscuits._

ARE made in the same manner as diet bread, but add a little more flour.

_Orange Heart Biscuits._

TAKE one pound and a half of sugar, three quarters of a pound of flour, one pound and a half of yolks of eggs, eight preserved orange peels, and two ounces of almonds; pound your peels and almonds fine, then beat it up and proceed in the same manner as in making the royal heart biscuits.

_Queen Cakes._

TAKE one pound and a quarter of flour, one pound of sugar, and one pound of butter, a quarter of a pound of currants, and eight eggs: cream your butter, and beat it up with the eggs and sugar, then put in the flour and currants.

_Champaign Biscuits._

TAKE the whites of eight eggs with some flour, and half a pound of butter; beat the eggs and sugar together: melt the butter, and beat it up; then put in the flour and a few carraway seeds: fold a paper up in the form of a fan, and drop them in the ridges: they will require a hot oven.

_Fine Rusks._

MAKE a good diet bread paste, bake it in long tins; when cold, cut it in slices, and brown them in the oven: put a few carraway seeds in the paste.

_French Rusks._

TAKE three pounds of sugar, four pounds of flour, and two pounds of yolks of eggs: beat the sugar and yolks together, then mix in the flour, and roll it up in long rolls; bake it, and when cold, cut it into thin slices.

_Yarmouth Cakes._

TAKE one pound and a half of flour, one pound of sugar, and one pound of butter, six ounces of currants, and six eggs: beat the eggs and sugar together, melt the butter, and mix it and the flour up to stiff paste: part it half for plums, and half for seed; then roll it out, cut it into round shapes, and bake them in a gentle oven.

_Tunbridge Water Cakes._

TAKE one pound of flour, one pound of butter, three quarters of a pound of sugar, half a pint of cream, and four eggs: mix the eggs, sugar, and cream together, put in the butter melted, and beat it up well; then mix in the flour, and a few carraway seeds, roll the part out quite thin; cut it into round cakes, and bake them in a slow oven.

_Cedraty Biscuits._

TAKE one pound and three quarters of sugar, half a pound of yolks, and three quarters of a pound of butter: mix these together, then roll them up with as much flour as is necessary to stiffen it: make them into round rings, and bake them.

_Italian Cakes._

TAKE the whites of twelve eggs with some flour and sugar; whisk the eggs and sugar over the fire, till hot; then take it off, and whisk it till it is quite cold, and put in the flour: drop them in round cakes on paper, and bake them.

_Common Maccaroons._

TAKE one pound of almonds, one pound of sugar, and the whites of ten eggs, and a little rose water: pound your almonds with the whites, and rose water; then mix in the sugar, and lay them out on wafer paper.

_French Maccaroons._

TO a pound of almonds, allow two pounds of sugar mixed in the same way, and laid out in the same manner.

_Ratafia Biscuits._

TAKE half a pound of sweet almonds, and half a pound of bitter: pound them fine, mixed with whites of eggs, then add two pounds and a half of sugar; beat it up well with whites of eggs, then drop them on paper, and bake them in a slow oven.

_Orange Biscuits._

MIX one pound of almonds, with two pounds of sugar in the same manner as ratafia biscuits; but rasp the rind of eight China oranges among it, and drop them in small drops.

Lemon biscuits are made in the same manner.

_Spanish Rusks._

TAKE half a pound of yolks, half a pound of sugar, and half a pound of flour; two ounces of butter, two lemons rasped, and a glass of brandy: mix all together, then roll it up stiff, and make it in rings, and bake them.

_Merenges._

TAKE a pint of sugar, and the whites of six eggs; boil the sugar to the degree called _blown_, then grain it, and mix in the whites whisked stiff: lay them out in oval shapes, and brown them in the oven, put a piece of barberry jam in between, and put two halves together.

_Ginger Cakes._

TAKE one pound of butter, three pounds of flour, one pound of sugar; a pint of cream, and five eggs: beat the eggs, cream, and sugar together; melt the butter and put it in, then mix in the flour with a few carraway seeds, and six ounces of ginger; roll them thin, and bake them in a slow oven.

_Ginger-Bread Nuts._

TO five pounds of flour, put six pounds of treacle, one pound and a half of sugar, and a pound and a half of butter: rub the butter with the flour and sugar, then mix it up with the treacle; and put in six ounces of ginger, and four ounces of pimento, and drop them in drops. They will require a slow oven.

_Filbert Biscuits._

TAKE a pound of nut kernels; let them be exceeding dry, pound them fine, with the whites of eggs; mix in two pounds of sugar, beat the paste up with whites of eggs. Drop them out in small drops.

_Sweetmeat Biscuits._

TAKE a pound of sugar, a pound and a half of flour, the yolks of twenty eggs, with half a pound of almonds; pound the almonds fine with the yolks: mix in the sugar, and beat it up well, then mix in the flour, bake it in a square cake, afterwards ice it: cut it into shapes, and put orange peels on them.

_Rock Almond Biscuits._

CUT your almonds very fine: to a pound of which, allow four ounces of sugar, and the whites of six eggs; whisk the eggs stiff, then put in the sugar and almonds; set them in lumps on wafer paper, and bake them in a very slow oven.

_Syringe Biscuits._

TO a pound of almonds, allow four pounds of sugar: pound the almonds fine, mixed with whites of eggs; then put in the sugar, mix it into a stiff paste; then push it through your jumbal mould, and form it into different shapes.

_Italian Maccaroons._

TO a pound of almonds, allow two pounds and a quarter of sugar: mix it all in the same manner as ratafia biscuits. Drop it on wafer paper, and put some almonds cut small on the top of every drop.

_Milfruit Biscuits._

CUT some almonds small, and colour some of the pieces red; then cut some orange-peel small, and mix them together: dip them in icing, and lay them on wafer paper, in the shape of rock biscuits.

_Marchpane Biscuits._

BEAT a pound of almonds in a mortar, with a little rose water, and the whites of four eggs: mix in a pound of sugar, roll it out, and put two pieces together, with some rasberry jam between: ice it, and cut it into different shapes; bake them in a slow oven.

_Biscuit Drops._

TO a pound of sugar, allow a pound and a quarter of flour, and eight eggs: mix them in the same manner as spunge biscuits; drop them on wafer paper.

Common savoys are made in the same manner.

_To make a Savoy Cake._

TAKE the whites of six eggs, with some flour and sugar; beat the yolks and sugar together: mix it with the whites whisked stiff, then put in the flour, and bake it in a gentle oven.

_To make a Spunge Cake._

TAKE the whites of six eggs in sugar, and the weight of four eggs in flour; mix it up in the same manner as a savoy cake.

_To make a Plum Cake._

TO two pounds of flour, allow two pounds of sugar, two pounds of butter, and sixteen eggs: cream the butter, and beat it all up together; then mix in a pound of currants.

N.B. Seed Cake is made in the same manner.

_To make a Rice Cake._

TO a pound of sugar, allow a pound of flour, and half a pound of rice pounded fine, and ten eggs: mix it up exactly in the same manner as diet-bread.

_To make an Almond Cake._

TO half a pound of almonds, allow half a pound of sugar, and the yolks of sixteen eggs; beat it up well, then put in three whole eggs, and mix in six ounces of flour.

N.B. It will require a slack oven.

_To make a Ratafia Cake._

TO a pound of sugar, allow three quarters of a pound of flour, and four ounces of bitter almonds pounded fine: mix it up with fourteen eggs, in the same manner as a savoy cake.

_To make Anniseed Cakes._

TO half a pound of sugar, allow a pound of flour, three whites of eggs, and half a pound of butter: mix all these ingredients together with a little cream, then put in two ounces of anniseeds, roll it very thin, and cut it into round cakes.

_Cinnamon Drop Biscuits._

TO a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds, allow half a pound of sugar: pound the almonds fine with whites of eggs, put in a little cinnamon essence, or a little cinnamon pounded fine; then drop them on paper in small drops, and bake them in a slow oven.

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PART VII.

OF ICE CREAMS, AND THE PROPER METHODS OF MIXING, FREEZING, AND WORKING THEM.

_Freezing of Ice._

HAVE ready a freezing pot in ice and salt; put in your ice cream, cover the pot, keep turning it till the water comes round the pot; then open it and scrape it down: continue turning it, and scraping it down as it freezes, till it becomes quite hard and smooth.

If an ice cream is mixed too rich, put in a little more cream: if it is poor, put in some more jam. If a water ice is mixed too rich, it will require some more water: if it is too poor, put in some clarified sugar.

If an ice is poor, the first time you scrape it down, it will feel quite rough and hard: on the contrary, if an ice is too rich, it will not freeze at all.

All fruit ices that are put into the shapes of fruit, should have a paper round the moulds, just as you put them in the ice: let them lay in ice and salt for an hour. N.B. Before you turn your ices out, take care to make the water come up the sides of the tub, and in turning them out, put your moulds just into hot water, and then out again; then the ice cream will come out easily.

N.B. All ices that are in the shape of fruit, should be coloured according to the fruit they represent.

_To prepare the Cochineal for colouring different Sorts of Ice._

TO an ounce of cochineal pounded fine, allow a quart of clear river water: let it boil, then put in the cochineal with a table spoonful of pounded rock allum, and the same quantity of cream of tartar; if it seems to be a purple colour, add a little more cream of tartar, let it all boil for two minutes, then strain it into a bottle for use.

_Ice Creams, or Rasberry Ice._

TO six ounces of rasberry jam, allow three quarters of a pint of cream, mix it well; then pass it through a sieve, and colour it.

_Strawberry Jam,_

IS mixed the same way, allowing the juice of two lemons.

_Apricot Ice._

TO four ounces of apricot jam, allow three quarters of a pint of cream, and a few bitter almonds pounded, the juice of two lemons, and a tea spoonful of cochineal; pass it all through a sieve for use.

_Pine Apple Ice._

TO four ounces of pine apple jam, put a table spoonful of pine apple syrup, and three quarters of a pint of cream, and pass it through a sieve, with the juice of two lemons.

_Barberry Ice._

TO half a pound of barberry jam, put three quarters of a pint of cream: pass it through a hair sieve, and colour it.

_Biscuit Ice._

TO four yolks of eggs, allow three quarters of a pint of cream, three ounces of spunge biscuits, a little cinnamon, and four ounces of sugar: stir it all on the fire, till it begins to thicken, then pass it through a sieve.

_Pistachia Ice._

TO three yolks of eggs, allow three quarters of a pint of cream, two ounces of pistachia kernels pounded fine, and four ounces of sugar: boil your yolks and cream, put in your kernels pounded, then colour it green, and pass it through a sieve.

_Fresh Gooseberry Ice._

SCALD half a pint of gooseberries tender, and pass them through a hair sieve; mix in four ounces of sugar, and three quarters of a pint of cream.

_Chocolate Ice._

MELT three ounces of chocolate on the fire, then take three yolks of eggs, two ounces of sugar, and three quarters of a pint of cream; and boil it till it thickens, then put in the chocolate, and pass it through a sieve.

_Fresh Rasberry Ice._

TAKE half a pint of fresh rasberries, pass them through a sieve, with the juice of two lemons; mix in half a pint of cream, and four ounces of sugar; then colour it.

_Fresh Strawberry Ice,_

IS prepared in the same manner.

_Royal Cream._

TO four eggs, allow three quarters of a pint of cream, a little cinnamon, four ounces of sugar, and a few coriander seeds: boil it all till it begins to thicken, then pass it through a sieve.

_Lemon Cream._

TO five yolks of eggs, allow three quarters of a pint of cream, four ounces of sugar, and the rind of a lemon cut thin: boil it all till it thickens, then pass it, with the juice of four lemons, through a sieve.

_Orange Cream,_

IS prepared in a similar manner.

_Burnt Cream._

TAKE a little sugar and burn it on the fire in a dry stew pan; have ready a good royal cream, and mix in the burnt sugar.

N.B. This cream you may either freeze, or put it under a crocant.

_Plain Ice._

TAKE half a pint of the best cream you can get; whisk it in your freezing pot till stiff, then put in a little clarified sugar, and freeze it.

_Coffee Ice._

TO four whites of eggs, put three ounces of sugar, three quarters of a pint of cream, and an ounce of whole coffee; boil it all till it thickens, then pass it through a sieve for freezing.

_Tea Ice_,

Is prepared in the same manner.

_Ratafia Ice._

TO three eggs, allow four ounces of sugar, two ounces of ratafia biscuits, and three quarters of a pint of cream; boil it all till it thickens, then pass it for use.

_Vernella Ice._

TO four eggs, allow three ounces of sugar, and half a pint of cream, put in half an ounce of vernella; boil it till it thickens, then pass it.

N.B. ALL ice creams that are mixed over the fire, should be stirred, to prevent their sticking to the bottom of the pan.

WATER ICES, PINTS EACH.

_Orange Ice._

TO half a pint of clarified sugar, allow the juice of five oranges, and two lemons: rasp the rind of two oranges, mix it all with a quarter of a pint of water, and pass it through a lawn sieve.

_Lemon Ice._

TO half a pint of clarified sugar, allow the juice of six lemons, and the rind of one: mix it with a quarter of a pint of water, and pass it through a lawn sieve.

_Cedraty Ice._

TO a gill of cedraty essence, allow the juice of four lemons, a quarter of a pint of clarified sugar, and the same quantity of water, pass it through a lawn sieve.

_Grape Ice._

MAKE a good lemon ice; then mix in a gill of grape essence, and pass it through a lawn sieve.

_Rasberry Water._

TO three quarters of a pound of jam, allow a pint and a quarter of water, and the juice of two lemons; pass it through a hair sieve, and colour it.

_Currant Water._

TAKE a quart of fresh currants; rub them through a sieve, mix it with a quarter of a pint of clarified sugar, and the same quantity of water; then colour and strain it.

_Cherry Ice._

TAKE a pound of morello, or Kentish cherries; bruise them in the mortar, strain them through a hair sieve, and mix the juice with a quarter of a pint of water, and the same quantity of clarified sugar, pass it through a lawn sieve, and colour it.

All water ices may be made of the fresh fruit in a similar manner; but if you make a water ice of jam, you must allow double the quantity of fruit, to what you allow in making cream ices.

_Punch Ice._

MAKE a good lemon ice, and mix with it a gill of brandy, and half a gill of rum, or arrack.

This ice is only fit for glasses.

_Pear Ice._

TAKE four good mellow pears: rasp them, then mix it with the juice of four lemons, half a pint of clarified sugar, and a quarter of a pint of water; strain it through a sieve for use.

[Illustration]

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PART VIII.

CORDIALS, AND MADE WINES.

_To make Raisin Alder Wine._

TAKE four gallons of boiling water: to every gallon, add five pounds of Malaga raisins cut small; pour the water boiling hot upon them, and let it stand nine days, stirring it twice a day: boil your alder-berries, as you do currants for jelly, and strain it; then add to every gallon of liquor, one pint of alderberry juice, and stir it all together with half a pint of yeast; let it work well, and remain in the cask for two or three months; then bottle it off.

_Orange Wine._

TAKE six gallons of water, and twelve pounds of Lisbon sugar, the whites of six eggs well beaten; let all boil together, then put it into a large preserving pan, with the juice of half a hundred of oranges, twelve lemons, and the rinds of twelve oranges: give all a boil together, then put it into a barrel with ten quarts of Rhenish wine, and a pint and a half of good yeast; let it work well for a week, then stop it up for a month, and bottle it up.

_Damascene Wine._

TO every gallon of water; put two pounds and a half of sugar, which you must boil and skim well: to every gallon of this, put five pints of damascenes stoned; let it boil, then put it into a cask: work it three or four days, then stop it up for use.

_Gooseberry Wine._

TO every three pounds of ripe gooseberries, put a pint of spring water, bruise your fruit; put it into a tub, and pour the water on them; let them stand a whole day, then to every three pounds of fruit, put a pound of moist sugar: stir it till the sugar is dissolved, and let it stand twenty-four hours more; then skim the head clear off, and put the liquor into a cask; let it work three or four days before you stop it up: let it remain four months before you bottle it, and if it is not fine, let it stand in bottles till it is, and then rack it off into other bottles.

_Cowslip Wine._

TO six gallons of water, allow thirty pounds of Malaga raisins; boil the water, and measure it out of your copper on your raisins: cut small and put into a tub; let them work together twelve hours, at the end of that time strain off, and press the raisins hard, to extract the essence; then take a little good yeast, and mix it with some lemon syrup, put in two pecks of cowslips, and let your ingredients work together for three days, stirring them twice a day; then stop it up, and bottle off in three months.

_Birch Wine._

ALLOW to every gallon of birch water, two pounds of sugar; boil it half an hour, skim it well, let it stand a little; then pour it off the grounds, work it well with yeast, before you put it into your cask, and smoke the cask with brimstone.

I would recommend a small bag of slit raisins, to be put in the cask, and let it stand three or four months before you bottle it off.

_Rasberry Wine._

PUT three pounds of raisins of the sun stoned, into two gallons of hot water, add to these, six quarts of rasberries, and two pounds of loaf sugar: let all stand three days, then strain, put in a pound more sugar; mix in a little yeast, let it work well, then bottle it off with a lump of sugar in each bottle.

_Blackberry Wine._

PUT five gallons of boiling water, to half a bushel of blackberries; let them stand forty-eight hours, then add half a peck of sloes, and ten pounds of sugar; boil all the ingredients together for an hour, work it with yeast, and let it stand three months in the cask before you bottle it.

_Cherry Wine._

TAKE fifty pounds of black cherries, picked from the stalks, bruise them well, then take half a bushel of currants, and four quarts of rasberries, and squeeze them; to this quantity of juice, allow forty pounds of sugar: dissolve it in water, and put all together into a cask with eight gallons of water, and a quart of good yeast, let it work well; you may bottle it at three months end.

_Currant Wine._

TO three pounds of currants picked from the stalks, allow a pound of sugar, and a quart of water: boil, and put them into a cask with a good allowance of British spirits; let it work for two weeks before you stop it up, then let it remain three months before you bottle it off.

_To make Raisin Wine._

TO every gallon of water, put five pounds of Malaga, or Belvidere slit raisins; let them soak in the water for a fortnight, stirring them every day, then strain it through a sieve, and put it into a cask: to every gallon of liquor, allow a pint of French brandy; work it well, and let it remain stopped up close for four months, before you bottle it.

_To make Sage Wine._

BOIL twenty-six quarts of water, with twenty-five pounds of Malaga raisins cut small; then put it into a tub with two pecks of red sage, and half a pint of yeast; let all work well, then put it into a cask, let it remain a week before you stop it up, and two months before you bottle it up.

_To make Clear Wine._

TAKE half a pound of hartshorn, and dissolve it in cyder; and if it be for cyder, Rhenish wine, or any other liquor, this quantity is enough for a hogshead.

_To make Mead._

TO five quarts of honey, allow forty quarts of water, eighteen races of ginger, and one handful of rosemary; boil them together for three hours, and skim it perpetually: when it is cold, put your yeast to it, and it will be fit to bottle in eight or ten days.

_To make White Mead._

TAKE three gallons of water, and one quart of honey, and if it be not strong enough, add more honey; boil it for an hour, then put it into a tub with ginger, and spice, the whites of eight eggs to it, work it well with yeast, and when you perceive it is done working, bottle it off for use.

_To make Milk Punch._

TAKE two quarts of milk, a quart of good brandy, the juice of six lemons, and half a pound of sugar; mix them well, and strain it through a jelly bag, take a little lemon peel, and put into your bag; when it is strained bottle it up, and it will keep a considerable time.

_To make Citron Water._

TAKE a pound and a half of the best citron bruised, nine ounces of lemon peel, the same quantity of orange peel; nutmegs bruised, a quarter of a pound; strong proof spirits, three gallons; water two gallons; macerate, distil and dulcify with double refined sugar, two pounds.

_Ratafia Cordial._

TAKE three gallons of Molasses brandy, nutmegs three ounces and a half; bruise them, and infuse them in the brandy; adding ambergrease, three grains; bitter almonds, one pound and a half: mix the ambergrease with three pounds of fine Lisbon sugar, then infuse all for seven or eight days, and strain it off for use.

_Orange Flower Brandy._

TAKE a gallon of French brandy, two pounds of sugar, two quarts of water, and half a pound of orange flowers; make a syrup of your sugar and water, put in your orange flowers, and give all a gentle boil; then mix in the brandy, and put all into a stone bottle close corked up for use.

_Surfeit Water._

TAKE a peck of red corn poppies, put them in a large bottle, and put to it a quart of aqua vitæ, a nutmeg, and a race of ginger, sliced, a small stick of cinnamon, a blade of mace, three or four figs, four ounces of raisins of the sun, four ounces of anniseeds, caraways and cardemum, mixed with two ounces of Spanish liquorish; put all these ingredients into the bottle; then add two quarts of white brandy, and cork it up; shake it every day for a week; then let it stand for two months, by which time it will be fit to drink.

_Cinnamon Water._

TAKE cinnamon bruised, twelve ounces; proof spirits rectified three gallons; water one gallon and a half; macerate them twenty-four hours, then distil and draw off your spirits, and dulcify it with loaf sugar, two pounds and a half, and make it full proof.

_Nutmeg Water._

TAKE nutmegs bruised, twelve ounces; proof spirits three gallons, water one gallon and a half; infuse, distil, and dulcify with two pounds of sugar for use.

_Mint Water._

TAKE mint two handfuls, proof spirits two gallons and a half; distil and dulcify with sugar, one pound and a half for use.

_Lemon Water._

TAKE twelve large lemons, sliced thin, and put them into two pints of white wine, with a little cinnamon, and a handful of rose-leaves; the same quantity of burrage, and a drachm of yellow sanders: steep all this together twelve hours; mix in a pint and a half of water, two pounds of sugar, and two pints more wine, then distil it for use.

FINIS.

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● Transcriber’s Notes: ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was silently corrected. ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected. ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only when a predominant form was found in this book. ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_).